Unabridged Dictionary - Letter C

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   C. (

   1. C is the third letter of the English alphabet. It is from the Latin
   letter  C,  which  in old Latin represented the sounds of k, and g (in
   go); its original value being the latter. In Anglo-Saxon words, or Old
   English  before the Norman Conquest, it always has the sound of k. The
   Latin  C was the same letter as the Greek , g, and came from the Greek
   alphabet. The Greek got it from the Phoenicians. The English name of C
   is  from  the  Latin  name  ce, and was derived, probably, through the
   French.  Etymologically  C  is  related  to  g,  h, k, q, s (and other
   sibilant  sounds).  Examples  of  these relations are in L. acutus, E.
   acute,  ague;  E.  acrid, eagar; L. cornu, E. horn; E. cat, kitten; E.
   coy, quiet; L. circare, OF. cerchier, E. search.

     NOTE: See Guide to Pronunciation, \'c5\'c5 221-228.

   2.  (Mus.) (a) The keynote of the normal or "natural" scale, which has
   neither flats nor sharps in its signature; also, the third note of the
   relative  minor  scale of the same (b) C after the clef is the mark of
   common  time,  in  which  each measure is a semibreve (four fourths or
   crotchets);  for  alla  breve  time  it is written (c) The "C clef," a
   modification  of  the letter C, placed on any line of the staff, abows
   that line to be middle C.

   3. As a numeral, C stands for Latin centum or 100, CC for 200, etc.
   C spring, a spring in the form of the letter C.


   Ca*a"ba  (?),  n.  [Ar. ka'ban, let, a square building, fr. ka'b cube]
   The  small  and  nearly  cubical  stone  building,  toward  which  all
   Mohammedans must pray. [Written also kaaba.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Caaba is situated in Mecca, a city of Arabia, and
     contains  a  famous  black  stone  said  to  have been brought from
     heaven.  Before  the  time of Mohammed, the Caaba was an idolatrous
     temple,  but  it  has  since been the chief sanctuary and object of
     pilgrimage of the Mohammedan world.


   Caas (?), n. sing. & pl. Case. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Cab (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. cabriolet.]

   1.  A kind of close carriage with two or four wheels, usually a public
   vehicle. "A cab came clattering up." Thackeray.

     NOTE: &hand; A  ca b ma y ha ve tw o seats at right to the driver's
     seat, and a door behind; or one seat parallel to the driver's, with
     the entrance from the side or front.

   Hansom cab. See Hansom.

   2.  The  covered  part  of a locomotive, in which the engineer has his
   station. Knight.


   Cab  (?), n. [Heb. gab, fr. q\'bebab to hollow.] A Hebrew dry measure,
   containing a little over two (2.37) pints. W. H. Ward. 2 Kings vi. 25.


   Ca*bal"  (?),  n. [F. cabale cabal, cabala LL. cabala cabala, fr. Heb.
   qabb\'bel\'c7h reception, tradition, mysterious doctrine, fr. q\'bebal
   to take or receive, in Pi\'89l qibbel to abopt (a doctrine).]

   1. Tradition; occult doctrine. See Cabala [Obs.] Hakewill.

   2.  A  secret.  [Obs.] "The measuring of the temple, a cabal found out
   but lately." B. Jonson.

   3. A number of persons united in some close design, usually to promote
   their  private  views  and interests in church or state by intrigue; a
   secret association composed of a few designing persons; a junto.

     NOTE: It so  ha ppend, by a whimsical coincidence, that in 1671 the
     cabinet  consisted  of  five  persons, the initial letters of whose
     names  made  up  the  word  cabal; Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham,
     Ashley, and Lauderdale.


   4.  The  secret artifices or machinations of a few persons united in a
   close design; in intrigue.

     By cursed cabals of women. Dryden.

   Syn.  -  Junto;  intrigue;  plot;  combination;  conspiracy. -- Cabal,
   Combination, Faction. An association for some purpose considered to be
   bad  is  the idea common to these terms. A combination is an organized
   union  of  individuals  for mutual support, in urging their demands or
   resisting  the  claims  of others, and may be good or bad according to
   circumstances; as, a combiniation of workmen or of employers to effect
   or  to prevent a chang in prices. A cabal is a secret association of a
   few  individuals  who  seek  by cunning practices to obtain office and
   power.  A  faction is a larger body than a cabal, employed for selfish
   purposes  in agitating the community and working up an excitement with
   a   view  to  change  the  existing  order  of  things.  "Selfishness,
   insubordination, and laxity of morals give rise to combinations, which
   belong particularly to the lower orders of society. Restless, jealous,
   ambitious,  and  little minds are ever forming cabals. Factions belong
   especially  to  free governments, and are raised by busy and turbulent
   spirits for selfish porposes". Crabb.
   Ca*bal",  v.  i.  [int.  &  p.  p./pos>  Caballed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Caballing].  [Cf.  F.  cabaler.]  To unite in a small party to promote
   private views and interests by intrigue; to intrigue; to plot.
     Caballing still against it with the great. Dryden.
   Cab"a*la (?), n. [LL. See Cabal, n.]
   1.  A  kind  of  occult theosophy or traditional interpretation of the
   Scriptures  among  Jewish  rabbis  and certain medi\'91val Christians,
   which  treats of the nature of god and the mystery of human existence.
   It  assumed  that  every letter, word, number, and accent of Scripture
   contains  a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation
   for  ascertaining these occult meanings. The cabalists pretend even to
   foretell events by this means.
   2. Secret science in general; mystic art; mystery.
   Cab"a*lism (?), n. [Cf. F. cabalisme.]
   1. The secret science of the cabalists.
   2. A superstitious devotion to the mysteries of the religion which one
   professes. [R] Emerson.
   Cab"a*list (?), n. [Cf.F. cabaliste.] One versed in the cabala, or the
   mysteries of Jewish traditions. "Studious cabalists." Swift.
                           Cabalistic, Cabalistical
   Cab`a*lis"tic  (?),  Cab`a*lis"tic*al  (?)  a. Of or pertaining to the
   cabala; containing or conveying an occult meaning; mystic.
     The  Heptarchus  is  a  cabalistic of the first chapter of Genesis.
   Caba`a*lis"tic*al*ly, adv. In a cabalistic manner.
   Cab"a*lize  (?),  v. i. [Cf.F. cabaliser.] To use cabalistic language.
   [R] Dr. H. More.
   Ca*bal"ler (?), n. One who cabals.
     A close caballer and tongue-valiant lord. Dryden.

   Cab"al*line  (?), a. [L.caballinus, fr. caballus a nag. Cf. Cavalier.]
   Of  or  pertaining to a horse. -- n. Caballine aloes. Caballine aloes,
   an  inferior  and  impure  kind  of  aloes formerly used in veterinary
   practice;  --  called  also  horse  aloes.  --  Caballine  spring, the
   fountain  of  Hippocrene,  on  Mount  Helicon;  -- fabled to have been
   formed by a stroke from the foot of the winged horse Pegasus.


   Cab"a*ret  (?),  n. [F.] A tavern; a house where liquors are retailed.
   [Obs. as an English word.]


   Ca*bas"  (?),  n. [F.] A flat basket or frail for figs, etc.; Hence, a
   lady's  flat workbasket, reticule, or hand bag; -- often written caba.
   C. Bront\'82.


   Ca*bas"son  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  speciec of armadillo of the genus
   Xenurus  (X.  unicinctus  and X. hispidus); the tatouay. [Written also


   Cab"bage  (?), n. [OE. cabage, fr. F. cabus headed (of cabbages), chou
   cobus  headed  cabbage,  cabbage head; cf. It. capuccio a little head,
   cappuccio  cowl,  hood,  cabbage,  fr. capo head, L. caput, or fr. It.
   cappa cape. See Chiff, Cape.] (Bot.)

   1.  An  esculent  vegetable  of  many varieties, derived from the wild
   Brassica  oleracea of Europe. The common cabbage has a compact head of
   leaves. The cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, etc., are sometimes classed
   as cabbages.

   2.  The  terminal  bud of certain palm trees, used, like, cabbage, for
   food. See Cabbage tree, below.

   3. The cabbage palmetto. See below.
   Cabbage  aphis  (Zo\'94l.),  a  green  plant-louse (Aphis brassic\'91)
   which  lives  upon  the  leaves  of  the  cabbage.  --  Cabbage Beetle
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  small, striped flea-beetle (Phyllotreta vittata) which
   lives,  in  the  larval  state,  on  the roots, and when adult, on the
   leaves,  of cabbage and other cruciferous plants. -- Cabbage butterfly
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  white  butterfly  (Pieris  rap\'91  of both Europe and
   America, and the Allied P. oleracea, a native American species) which,
   in the larval state, devours the leaves of the cabbage and the turnip.
   See Cabbage worm, below. -- Cabbage Fly (Zo\'94l.), a small two-winged
   fly  (Anthomyia  brassic\'91),  which  feeds,  in the larval or maggot
   state,  on  the  roots  of the cabbage, often doing much damage to the
   crop.  --  Cabbage  head,  the  compact head formed by the leaves of a
   cabbage;  --  contemptuously  or  humorously, and colloquially, a very
   stupid and silly person; a numskull. -- Cabbage palmetto, a species of
   palm  tree  (Sabal Palmetto) found along the coast from North Carolina
   to   Florida.  --  Cabbage  rose  (Bot.),  a  species  of  rose  (Rosa
   centifolia)  having large and heavy blossoms. -- Cabbage tree, Cabbage
   palm, a name given to palms having a terminal bud called a cabbage, as
   the  Sabal Palmetto of the United States, and the Euterpe oleracea and
   Oreodoxa  oleracea of the West Indies. -- Cabbage worm (Zo\'94l.), the
   larva  of  several  species  of  moths  and  butterfies, which attacks
   cabbages.  The  most  common is usully the larva of a white butterfly.
   See  Cabbage Butterfly, above. The cabbage cutworms, which eat off the
   stalks  or  young plants during the night, are the larv\'91 of several
   species   of  moths,  of  the  genus  Agrotis.  See  Cutworm.  --  Sea
   cabbage.(Bot.)   (a)  Sea  kale  (b).  The  original  Plant  (Brassica
   oleracea), from which the cabbage, cauliflower, , broccoli, etc., have
   been  derived by cultivation. -- Thousand-headed cabbage. See Brussels


   Cab"bage,  v.  i.  To  form  a head like that the cabbage; as, to make
   lettuce cabbage. Johnson.


   Cab"bage,  v.  i.  [imp. & p.p Cabbaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cabbaging
   (.]  [F.cabasser,  fr.  OF.  cabas theft; cf. F. cabas basket, and OF.
   cabuser  to  cheat.]  To  purloin  or embezzle, as the pieces of cloth
   remaining after cutting out a garment; to pilfer.

     Your tailor . . . cabbages whole yards of cloth. Arbuthnot.


   Cab"bage,  n. Cloth or clippings cabbaged or purloined by one who cuts
   out garments.


   Cab"bler (?), n. One who works at cabbling.


   Cab"bling  (?),  n. (Metal) The process of breaking up the flat masses
   into  which  wrought  iron is first hammered, in order that the pieces
   may be reheated and wrought into bar iron.

                              Cabe\'87a, Cabesse

   Ca*be"\'87a, Ca*besse" (?), n. [Pg. cabe\'87a, F. cabesse.] The finest
   kind of silk received from India.


   Ca"ber  (?),  n.  [Gael]  A  pole  or  beam used in Scottish games for
   tossing as a trial of strength.


   Cab`e*zon" (?), n. [Sp., properly, big head. Cf. Cavesson.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A California fish (Hemilepidotus spinosus), allied to the sculpin.


   Cab"i*ai   (?),  n.  [Native  South  American  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The
   capybara. See Capybara.


   Cab"in (?), n. [OF. caban, fr. W. caban booth, cabin, dim. of cab cot,
   tent; or fr. F. cabane, cabine, LL. cabanna, perh. from the Celtic.]

   1. A cottage or small house; a hut. Swift.

     A hunting cabin in the west. E. Everett.

   2. A small room; an inclosed place.

     So long in secret cabin there he held Her captive. Spenser.

   3. A room in ship for officers or passengers.
   Cabin  boy, a boy whose duty is wait on the officers and passengers in
   the cabin of a ship.


   Cab"in  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cabined (-?nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Cabining.]
   To live in, or as in, a cabin; to lodge.

     I'll make you . . . cabin in a cave. Shak.


   Cab"in, v. t. To confine in, or as in, a cabin.

     I  am  cabined,  cribbed,  confined,  bound  in To saucy doubts and
     fears. Shak.


   Cab"i*net (?), n. [F., dim. of cabine or cabane. See Cabin, n.]

   1. A hut; a cottage; a small house. [Obs.]

     Hearken  a  while from thy green cabinet, The rural song of careful
     Colinet. Spenser.

   2. A small room, or retired apartment; a closet.

   3. A private room in which consultations are held.

     Philip  passed  some  hours  every  day  in  his  father's cabinet.

   4.  The advisory council of the chief executive officer of a nation; a
   cabinet council.

     NOTE: &hand; In England, the cabinet or cabinet council consists of
     those  privy coucilors who actually transact the immediate business
     of the government. Mozley & W. -- In the United States, the cabinet
     is  composed  of  the  heads  of  the  executive departments of the
     government,  namely,  the  Secretary  of State, of the Treasury, of
     War,  of  the  Navy,  of  the  Interior,  and  of  Agiculture,  the
     Postmaster-general ,and the Attorney-general.

   5.  (a) A set of drawers or a cupboard intended to contain articles of
   value.  Hence:  (b) A decorative piece of furniture, whether open like
   an \'82tag\'8are or closed with doors. See Etagere.

   6.  Any building or room set apart for the safe keeping and exhibition
   of works of art, etc.; also, the collection itself.
   Cabinet  council.  (a)  Same  as  Cabinet, n., 4 (of which body it was
   formerly  the  full  title).  (b) A meeting of the cabinet. -- Cabinet
   councilor,  a  member  of  a cabinet council. -- Cabinet photograph, a
   photograph  of  a  size smaller than an imperial, though larger than a
   carte  de  visite.  --  Cabinet  picture, a small and generally highly
   finished picture, suitable for a small room and for close inspection.


   Cab"i*net, a. Suitable for a cabinet; small.

     He  [Varnhagen  von  Ense]  is a walking cabinet edition of Goethe.
     For. Quar. Rev.


   Cab"i*net, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cabineted; p. pr. & vb. n. Cabineting.]
   To inclose [R.] Hewyt.


   Cab"i*net*mak`er  (?),  n. One whose occupation is to make cabinets or
   other  choice  articles  of household furniture, as tables, bedsteads,
   bureaus, etc.


   Cab"i*net*mak`ing,  n.  The  art  or  occupation  of  making the finer
   articles of household furniture.


   Cab"i*net*work`  (?),  n. The art or occupation of working upon wooden
   furniture requiring nice workmanship; also, such furniture.


   Cab`i*re"an (?),n.One of the Cabiri.


   Cab*bi"ri  (?),  n.  pl.  [  NL.,  fr. Gr. Ka`beiroi.] (Myth.) Certain
   deities  originally worshiped with mystical rites by the Pelasgians in
   Lemnos and Samothrace and afterwards throughout Greece; -- also called
   sons  of  Heph\'91stus  (or  Vulcan),  as  being masters of the art of
   working metals. [Written also Cabeiri.] Liddell & Scott.


   Ca*bir"i*an (?), a. Same as Cabiric.


   Ca*bir"ic  (?),  a. [Cf. F. Cabirique] Of or pertaining to the Cabiri,
   or to their mystical worship. [Written also Cabiritic.]


   Ca"ble  (?),  n.  [F.  C\'83ble,m  LL. capulum, caplum, a rope, fr. L.
   capere  to  take;  cf.  D.,  Dan.,  &  G.  rabel, from the French. See

   1.  A  large,  strong  rope  or chain, of considerable length, used to
   retain a vessel at anchor, and for other purposes. It is made of hemp,
   of steel wire, or of iron links.

   2.  A  rope  of  steel wire, or copper wire, usually covered with some
   protecting,  or  insulating  substance;  as, the cable of a suspension
   bridge; a telegraphic cable.

   3. (Arch) A molding, shaft of a column, or any other member of convex,
   rounded  section,  made  to  resemble  the  spiral twist of a rope; --
   called also cable molding.
   Bower cable, the cable belonging to the bower anchor. -- Cable road, a
   railway  on which the cars are moved by a continuously running endless
   rope  operated by a stationary motor. -- Cable's length, the length of
   a ship's cable. Cables in the merchant service vary in length from 100
   to 140 fathoms or more; but as a maritime measure, a cable's length is
   either  120  fathoms  (720  feet),  or about 100 fathoms (600 feet, an
   approximation  to  one  tenth  of a nautical mile). -- Cable tier. (a)
   That  part  of  a  vessel where the cables are stowed. (b) A coil of a
   cable.  --  Sheet  cable,  the cable belonging to the sheet anchor. --
   Stream cable, a hawser or rope, smaller than the bower cables, to moor
   a  ship  in  a  place sheltered from wind and heavy seas. -- Submarine
   cable.  See Telegraph. -- To pay out the cable, To veer out the cable,
   to  slacken it, that it may run out of the ship; to let more cable run
   out  of  the  hawse hole. -- To serve the cable, to bind it round with
   ropes,  canvas,  etc.,  to  prevent  its  being, worn or galled in the
   hawse, et. -- To slip the cable, to let go the end on board and let it
   all  run  out  and  go  overboard,  as when there is not time to weigh
   anchor. Hence, in sailor's use, to die.

   Page 200

   Page 200


   Ca"ble (?), v. t.

   1. To fasten with a cable.

   2. (Arch.) To ornament with cabling. See Cabling.


   Ca"ble,  v.  t.  &  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Cabled (-b'ld); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cabling (-bl\'ceng).] To telegraph by a submarine cable [Recent]


   Ca"bled (?), a.

   1. Fastened with, or attached to, a cable or rope. "The cabled stone."

   2. (Arch.) Adorned with cabling.


   Ca"ble*gram`  (?),  n.  [Cable, n. + Gr. A message sent by a submarine
   telegraphic cable.

     NOTE: [A recent hybrid, sometimes found in the newspapers.]


   Ca"ble*laid` (?), a.

   1. (Naut.) Composed of three three-stranded ropes, or hawsers, twisted
   together to form a cable.

   2.  Twisted  after the manner of a cable; as, a cable-laid gold chain.


   Ca"blet (?), n. [Dim. of cable; cf. F. c\'83blot.] A little cable less
   than ten inches in circumference.


   Ca"bling  (?), n. (Arch.) The decoration of a fluted shaft of a column
   or  of  a  pilaster  with reeds, or rounded moldings, which seem to be
   laid  in  the  hollows  of the fluting. These are limited in length to
   about one third of the height of the shaft.


   Cab"man (?), n.; pl. Cabmen (. The driver of a cab.


   Ca*bob" (?), n. [Hindi kab\'beb]

   1.  A  small  piece of mutton or other meat roasted on a skewer; -- so
   called in Turkey and Persia.

   2.  A  leg  of  mutton  roasted, stuffed with white herrings and sweet
   herbs. Wright.


   Ca*bob", v. t. To roast, as a cabob. Sir. T. Herbert.


   Ca*boched"  (?), a. [F. caboche head. Cf. lst Cabbage.] (Her.) Showing
   the full face, but nothing of the neck; -- said of the head of a beast
   in armorial bearing. [Written also caboshed.]


   Ca*boo"dle  (?),  n.  The  whole  collection;  the  entire quantity or
   number;  --  usually  in  the phrase the whole caboodle. [Slang, U.S.]


   Ca*boose"  (?), n. [Cf. D. kabuis, kombuis, Dan. kabys, Sw. kabysa, G.
   kabuse  a  little  room or hut. The First part of the word seems to be
   allied to W. cab cabin, booth. Cf. Cabin.] [Written also camboose.]

   1.  (Naut.)  A  house  on deck, where the cooking is done; -- commonly
   called the galley.

   2.  (Railroad)  A  car  used  on  freight  or  construction trains for
   brakemen, workmen, etc.; a tool car. [U. S.]


   Cab"o*tage  (?), n. [F. cabotage, fr. caboter to sail along the coast;
   cf. Sp. cabo cape.] (Naut.) Navigation along the coast; the details of
   coast pilotage.


   Ca*br\'82e"  (?),  n.  [French  Canadian.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The  pronghorn
   antelope. [Also written cabrit, cabret.]


   Ca*brer"ite (?), n. (Min.) An apple-green mineral, a hydrous arseniate
   of  nickel, cobalt, and magnesia; -- so named from the Sierra Cabrera,


   Ca*bril"la  (?),  n. [Sp., prawn.] (Zo\'94l) A name applied to various
   species  of  edible  fishes of the genus Serranus, and related genera,
   inhabiting  the  Meditarranean,  the  coast  of  California,  etc.  In
   California, some of them are also called rock bass and kelp salmon.


   Cab"ri*ole  (?),  n.  [F.  See  Cabriolet, and cf. Capriole.] (Man.) A
   curvet; a leap. See Capriole.

     The cabrioles which his charger exhibited. Sir W. Scott.


   Cab`ri*o*let"  (?),  n.[F.,  dim.  of cabriole a leap, caper, from It.
   capriola,  fr. dim. of L. caper he-goat, capra she-goat. This carriage
   is  so  called  from its skipping lightness. Cf. Cab, Caper a leap.] A
   one-horse carriage with two seats and a calash top.


   Ca*brit" (?), n. Same as Cabr\'82e.


   Cab"urn  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Cable,  n.] (Naut.) A small line made of spun
   yarn, to bind or worm cables, seize tackles, etc.

                            Cac\'91mia, Cach\'91mia

   Ca*c\'91"mi*a   (?),   Ca*ch\'91"mi*a   n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Med.)  A
   degenerated or poisoned condition of the blood.


   Ca*ca"ine  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  The essential principle of cacao; -- now
   called theobromine.


   Ca*ca*j\'eeo"  (?),  n.  [Pg.] (Zo\'94l) A South American short-tailed
   monkey   (Pithecia   (OR  Brachyurus)  melanocephala).  [Written  also


   Ca*ca"o (?), n. [Sp., fr. Mex. kakahuatl. Cf. Cocoa, Chocolate] (Bot.)
   A small evergreen tree (Theobroma Cacao) of South America and the West
   Indies.  Its  fruit contains an edible pulp, inclosing seeds about the
   size  of  an  almond,  from  which  cocoa,  chocolate,  and  broma are


   Cach"a*lot (?), n. [F. cachalot.] (Zo\'94l.) The sperm whale (Physeter
   macrocephalus).  It  has  in  the  top  of  its  head  a large cavity,
   containing an oily fluid, which, after death, concretes into a whitish
   crystalline substance called spermaceti. See Sperm whale.


   Cache  (?), n. [F., a hiding place, fr. cacher to conceal, to hide.] A
   hole  in  the  ground,  or hiding place, for concealing and preserving
   provisions which it is inconvenient to carry. Kane.

                            Cachectic, Cachectical

   Ca*chec"tic   (?),   Ca*chec"tic*al   (?),  a.  [L.  cachecticus,  Gr.
   cachectique.]  Having,  or  pertaining  to,  cachexia;  as,  cachectic
   remedies; cachectical blood. Arbuthnot.


   Cache`pot"  (k&adot;sh`p&osl;"),  n.  [F.,  fr. cacher to hide + pot a
   pot.]  An  ornamental  casing  for  a  flowerpot, of porcelain, metal,
   paper, etc.


   Cach"et  (?),  n.  [F.  fr.  cacher  to hide.] A seal, as of a letter.
   Lettre de cachet [F.], a sealed letter, especially a letter or missive
   emanating  from  the  sovereign;  --  much  used  in France before the
   Revolution as an arbitrary order of imprisonment.

                               Cachexia, Cachexy

   Ca*chex"i*a  (?),  Ca*chex"y  (?), n. [L. cachexia, Gr. A condition of
   ill  health  and  impairment of nutrition due to impoverishment of the
   blood,  esp.  when  caused  by a specific morbid process (as cancer or


   Cach`in*na"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  cachinnatio,  fr.  cachinnare to laugh
   aloud,  cf  Gr.  Loud  or  immoderate  laughter; -- often a symptom of
   hysterical or maniacal affections.

     Hideous  grimaces  . . . attended this unusual cachinnation. Sir W.


   Ca*chin"na*to*ry  (?), a. Consisting of, or accompanied by, immoderate

     Cachinnatory buzzes of approval. Carlyle.


   Ca*chi"ri  (?),  n. A fermented liquor made in Cayenne from the grated
   root of the manioc, and resembling perry. Dunglison.


   Cach"o*long (?), n, [F. cacholong, said to be from Cach, the name of a
   river in Bucharia + cholon, a Calmuck word for stone; or fr. a Calmuck
   word  meaning  "beautiful  stone"]  (Min.)  An  opaque  or  milk-white
   chalcedony, a variety of quartz; also, a similar variety of opal.


   Ca`chou"  (?),  n.  [F. See Cashoo.] A silvered aromatic pill, used to
   correct the odor of the breath.


   Ca*chu"cha  (?),  n.  [Sp.]  An  Andalusian  dance in three-four time,
   resembing the bolero. [Sometimes in English spelled cachuca (.]

     The orchestra plays the cachucha. Logfellow.


   Ca*chun"de  (?),  n.  [Sp.]  (Med.)  A  pastil  or troche, composed of
   various  aromatic and other ingredients, highly celebrated in India as
   an antidote, and as a stomachic and antispasmodic.


   Ca*cique" (?), n. [Sp.] See Cazique.


   Cack  (?), v. i. [OE. cakken, fr. L. cacare; akin to Gr. cac.] To ease
   the body by stool; to go to stool. Pope.


   Cack"er*el (?), n. [OF. caquerel cagarel (Cotgr.), from the root of E.
   cack.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The  mendole; a small worthless Mediterranean fish
   considered poisonous by the ancients. See Mendole.


   Cac"kle  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Cackled (-k'ld); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cackling  (?).]  [OE. cakelen; cf. LG. kakeln, D. kakelen, G. gackeln,
   gackern; all of imitative origin. Cf. Gagle, Cake to cackle.]

   1. To make a sharp, broken noise or cry, as a hen or goose does.

     When every goose is cackling. Shak.

   2.  To  laugh  with  a  broken  noise, like the cackling of a hen or a
   goose; to giggle. Arbuthnot.

   3. To talk in a silly manner; to prattle. Johnson.


   Cac"kle (?), n.

   1. The sharp broken noise made by a goose or by a hen that has laid an

     By her cackle saved the state. Dryden.

   2. Idle talk; silly prattle.

     There  is  a  buzz  and  cackle  all  around  regarding the sermon.


   Cac"kler (?), n.

   1. A fowl that cackles.

   2. One who prattles, or tells tales; a tattler.


   Cac"kling, n. The broken noise of a goose or a hen.

                             Cacochymia, Cacochymy

   Cac`o*chym"i*a  (?),  Cac"o*chym`y  (?),  n.  [NL. cacochymia, fr. Gr.
   cacochymie.]  (Med.) A vitiated state of the humors, or fluids, of the
   body, especially of the blood. Dunglison.

                           Cacochymic, Cacochymical

   Cac`o*chym"ic  (?),  Cac`o*chym"ic*al (?), a. Having the fluids of the
   body vitiated, especially the blood. Wiseman.


   Cac`o*de"mon (?), n. [Gr. cacod\'82mon.]

   1. An evil spirit; a devil or demon. Shak.

   2. (Med.) The nightmare. Dunaglison.


   Cac`o*dox"ic*al (?), a. Heretical.


   Cac"o*dox`y (?), n. [Gr. Erroneous doctrine; heresy; heterodoxy. [R.]

     Heterodoxy, or what Luther calls cacodoxy. R. Turnbull.


   Cac"o*dyl (?), n. [Gr. -yl.] (Chem.) Alkarsin; a colorless, poisonous,
   arsenical  liquid, As2(CH3)4, spontaneously inflammable and possessing
   an  intensely  disagreeable  odor.  It  is  the  type  of  a series of
   compounds  analogous  to  the  nitrogen  compounds  called hydrazines.
   [Written also cacodyle, and kakodyl.]


   Cac`o*dyl"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Of,  pertaining  to, or derived from,
   cacodyl. Cacodylic acid, a white, crystalline, deliquescent substance,
   (CH3)2AsO.OH,  obtained  by  the  oxidation of cacodyl, and having the
   properties of an exceedingly stable acid; -- also called alkargen. <--
   # error in original formula corrected! -->


   Cac`o*\'89"thes (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  A  bad  custom  or  habit;  an insatiable desire; as, caco\'89thes
   scribendi, "The itch for writing". Addison.

   2.  (Med.)  A  bad  quality  or disposition in a disease; an incurable


   Cac`o*gas"tric (?), a. [Gr. Troubled with bad digestion. [R.] Carlyle.


   Cac`o*graph`ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, cacography;
   badly written or spelled.


   Ca*cog`ra*phy  (?), n. [Gr. -graphy; cf. F. cacographie.] Incorrect or
   bad writing or spelling. Walpole.


   Ca`co*let"  (?),  n. [F.] A chair, litter, or other contrivance fitted
   to  the  back  or  pack  saddle  of  a  mule for carrying travelers in
   mountainous  districts,  or  for  the  transportation  of the sick and
   wounded of an army.


   Ca*col"o*gy  (?),  n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. cacologie.] Bad speaking; bad
   choice or use of words. Buchanan.

                        Cacomixle, Cacomixtle, Cacomixl

   Ca`co*mix"le  (?),  Ca`co*mix"tle  (?),  Ca"co*mix`l  (?), n. [Mexican
   name.] A North American carnivore (Bassaris astuta), about the size of
   a  cat,  related  to  the  raccoons.  It  inhabits  Mexico, Texas, and


   Ca*coon"  (?),  n.  One of the seeds or large beans of a tropical vine
   (Entada scandens) used for making purses, scent bottles, etc.

              Cacophonic, Cacophonical, Cacophonous, Cacophonious

   Cac`o*phon"ic   (?),   Cac`o*phon"ic*al   (?),   Ca*coph"o*nous   (?),
   Cac`o*pho"ni*ous (?), a. Harsh-sounding.


   Ca*coph"o*ny (?), n.; pl. Cacophonies (#). [Gr. Cacophonie.]

   1.  (Rhet.)  An  uncouth  or  disagreable sound of words, owing to the
   concurrence of harsh letters or syllables. "Cacophonies of all kinds."

   2. (Mus.) A combination of discordant sounds.

   3. (Med.) An unhealthy state of the voice.


   Cac"o*tech`ny (?), n. [Gr. A corruption or corrupt state of art. [R.]

                             Cacoxene, Cacoxenite

   Ca*cox"ene  (?), Ca*cox"e*nite (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) A hydrous phosphate
   of  iron  occurring in yellow radiated tufts. The phosphorus seriously
   injures it as an iron ore.


   Cac*ta"ceous  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Belonging  to,  or like, the family of
   plants of which the prickly pear is a common example.


   Cac"tus  (?), n. ; pl. E. Cactuses (#), Cacti (-t\'c6). [L., a kind of
   cactus,  Gr.  (Bot.) Any plant of the order Cactac\'91, as the prickly
   pear  and  the  night-blooming  cereus.  See Cereus. They usually have
   leafless  stems  and  branches, often beset with clustered thorns, and
   are  mostly  natives  of  the  warmer  parts  of  America. Cactus wren
   (Zo\'94l.),  an American wren of the genus Campylorhynchus, of several


   Ca*cu"mi*nal   (?),  a.  [L.  cacumen,  cacuminis,  the  top,  point.]
   (Philol.) Pertaining to the top of the palate; cerebral; -- applied to
   certain consonants; as, cacuminal (or cerebral) letters.


   Ca*cu"mi*nate  (?),  v.  i.  [L.  cacuminatus,  p. p. of cacuminare to
   point, fr. cacumen point.] To make sharp or pointed. [Obs.]


   Cad (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. cadet.]

   1.  A person who stands at the door of an omnibus to open and shut it,
   and  to  receive  fares;  an  idle  hanger-on  about  innyards. [Eng.]

   2.  A  lowbred,  presuming  person;  a  mean,  vulgar  fellow.  [Cant]


   Ca*das"tral  (?),  a.  [F.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  landed  property.
   Cadastral  survey, OR Cadastral map, a survey, map, or plan on a large
   scale  (Usually  of  the  linear measure of the ground, or twenty-five
   inches  to  the  mile or about an inch to the acre) so as to represent
   the  relative positions and dimensions of objects and estates exactly;
   --  distinguished  from  a  topographical  map,  which exaggerates the
   dimensions  of  houses  and  the breadth of roads and streams, for the
   sake of distinctness. Brande & C.
                              Cadastre, Cadaster
   Ca*das"tre,  Ca*das"ter  (?),  n.  [f.  cadastre.]  (Law.) An official
   statement  of the quantity and value of real estate for the purpose of
   apportioning the taxes payable on such property. 

   Page 201


   Ca*da"ver  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr  cadere  to  fall.] A dead human body; a


   Ca*dav"er*ic  (?),  a.  Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a corpse, or
   the  changes  produced  by  death; cadaverous; as, cadaveric rigidity.
   Dunglison.  Cadaveric alkaloid, an alkaloid generated by the processes
   of  decomposition in dead animal bodies, and thought by some to be the
   cause of the poisonous effects produced by the bodies. See Ptomaine.


   Ca*dav"er*ous (?), a. [L. cadaverosus.]

   1. Having the appearance or color of a dead human body; pale; ghastly;
   as, a cadaverous look.

   2.  Of or pertaining to, or having the qualities of, a dead body. "The
   scent cadaverous." -- Ca*dav"er*ous*ly, adv. -- Ca*dav"er*ous*ness, n.


   Cad"bait`  (?),  n.  [Prov.  E.  codbait, cadbote fly.] (Zo\'94l.) See

                                Caddice, Caddis

   Cad"dice,  Cad"dis  (?),  n.  [Prov.  E. caddy, cadew; cf. G. k\'94der
   bait.] (Zo\'94l.) The larva of a caddice fly. These larv\'91 generally
   live  in  cylindrical  cases, open at each end, and covered externally
   with  pieces  of  broken shells, gravel, bits of wood, etc. They are a
   favorite  bait with anglers. Called also caddice worm, or caddis worm.
   Caddice fly (Zo\'94l.), a species of trichopterous insect, whose larva
   is the caddice.


   Cad"dis,  n.  [OE.  caddas, Scot. caddis lint, caddes a kind of woolen
   cloth,  cf.  Gael.  cada, cadadh, a kind of cloth, cotton, fustian, W.
   cadas,  F.  cadis.]  A  kind  of  worsted  lace  or ribbon. "Caddises,
   cambrics, lawns." Shak.


   Cad"dish (?), a. Like a cad; lowbred and presuming.


   Cad"dow  (?),  n.  [OE. cadawe, prob. fr. ca chough + daw jackdaw; cf.
   Gael.  cadhag,  cathag.  Cf.  Chough,  Daw,  n.] (Zo\'94l.) A jackdaw.
   [Prov. Eng.]


   Cad"dy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Caddies  (#).  [Earlier spelt catty, fr. Malay
   kat\'c6  a  weight  of  1\'a7 pounds. Cf. Catty.] A small box, can, or
   chest to keep tea in.


   Cade  (?),  a.  [Cf. OE. cad, kod, lamb, also Cosset, Coddle.] Bred by
   hand; domesticated; petted.

     He brought his cade lamb with him. Sheldon.


   Cade,  v.  t.  To  bring up or nourish by hand, or with tenderness; to
   coddle; to tame. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Cade,  n.  [L. cadus jar, Gr. A barrel or cask, as of fish. "A cade of
   herrings." Shak.

     A cade of herrings is 500, of sprats 1,000. Jacob, Law Dict.


   Cade,  n.  [F.  &  Pr.;  LL.  cada.]  A  species of juniper (Juniperus
   Oxycedrus)  of  Mediterranean  countries. Oil of cade, a thick, black,
   tarry  liquid,  obtained by destructive distillation of the inner wood
   of the cade. It is used as a local application in skin diseases.


   Ca"dence  (?), n. [OE. cadence, cadens, LL. cadentia a falling, fr. L.
   cadere to fall; cf. F. cadence, It. cadenza. See Chance.]

   1. The act or state of declining or sinking. [Obs.]

     Now was the sun in western cadence low. Milton.

   2.  A  fall of the voice in reading or speaking, especially at the end
   of a sentence.

   3.  A rhythmical modulation of the voice or of any sound; as, music of
   bells in cadence sweet.

     Blustering winds, which all night long Had roused the sea, now with
     hoarse cadence lull Seafaring men o'erwatched. Milton.

     The  accents  .  .  .  were  in passion's tenderest cadence. Sir W.

   4. Rhythmical flow of language, in prose or verse.

     Golden cadence of poesy. Shak.

     If  in  any  composition much attention was paid to the flow of the
     rhythm, it was said (at least in the 14th and 15th centuries) to be
     "prosed in faire cadence." Dr. Guest.

   5. (Her.) See Cadency.

   6.  (Man.)  Harmony  and  proportion  in motions, as of a well-managed

   7. (Mil.) A uniform time and place in marching.

   8.  (Mus.)  (a)  The  close  or  fall  of a strain; the point of rest,
   commonly  reached  by  the  immediate  succession  of the tonic to the
   dominant  chord.  (b)  A  cadenza,  or  closing embellishment; a pause
   before the end of a strain, which the performer may fill with a flight
   of fancy.
   Imperfect cadence. (Mus.) See under Imperfect.


   Ca"dence, v. t. To regulate by musical measure.

     These parting numbers, cadenced by my grief. Philips.


   Ca"den*cy (?), n. Descent of related families; distinction between the
   members  of a family according to their ages. Marks of cadency (Her.),
   bearings  indicating  the  position  of the bearer as older or younger
   son,  or  as  a  descendant of an older or younger son. See Difference


   Ca*dene"  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  cad\'8ane.] A species of inferior carpet
   imported from the Levant. McElrath.


   Ca"dent  (?),  a.  [L.  cadens,  -entis,  p.  pr.  of cadere to fall.]
   Falling. [R.] "Cadent tears." Shak.


   Ca*den"za  (?),  n.  [It.]  (Mus.) A parenthetic flourish or flight of
   ornament  in  the  course  of  a piece, commonly just before the final


   Ca"der (?), n. See Cadre.


   Ca*det"  (?),  n.  [F. cadet a younger or the youngest son or brother,
   dim. fr. L. caput head; i. e., a smaller head of the family, after the
   first or eldest. See Chief, and cf. Cad.]

   1. The younger of two brothers; a younger brother or son; the youngest

     The cadet of an ancient and noble family. Wood.

   2.  (Mil.)  (a)  A  gentleman  who  carries  arms  in a regiment, as a
   volunteer,  with  a  view  of acquiring military skill and obtaining a
   commission. (b) A young man in training for military or naval service;
   esp.  a  pupil  in  a  military  or  naval  school,  as at West Point,
   Annapolis, or Woolwich.

     NOTE: &hand; Al l the undergraduates at Annapolis are Naval cadets.
     The  distinction  between  Cadet midshipmen and Cadet engineers was
     abolished by Act of Congress in 1882.


   Ca*det"ship  (?), n. The position, rank, or commission of a cadet; as,
   to get a cadetship.

                                Cadew, Cadeworm

   Ca*dew" (?), Cade"worm` (?), n. A caddice. See Caddice.


   Cadge  (?),  v.  t.  &  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Cadged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cadging.]  [Cf.  Scot. cache, caich, cadge, to toss, drive, OE. cachen
   to drive, catch, caggen to bind, or perh. E. cage. Cf. Cadger.]

   1. To carry, as a burden. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Halliwell.

   2. To hawk or peddle, as fish, poultry, etc. [Prov.]

   3.  To  intrude  or  live  on another meanly; to beg. [Prov. or Slang,
   Eng.] Wright.


   Cadge, n. [Cf. 2d Cadger.] (Hawking) A circular frame on which cadgers
   carry hawks for sale.


   Cadg"er (?), n. [From Cadge, v. t., cf. Codger.]

   1. A packman or itinerant huckster.

   2.  One  who  gets his living by trickery or begging. [Prov. or Slang]
   "The gentleman cadger." Dickens.


   Cadg"er,  n.  [OF.  cagier one who catches hawks. Cf. Cage.] (Hawking)
   One who carries hawks on a cadge.


   Cadg"y (?), a. Cheerful or mirthful, as after good eating or drinking;
   also, wanton. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]


   Ca"di  (?),  n.  [Turk.  See Alcalde.] An inferior magistrate or judge
   among the Mohammedans, usually the judge of a town or village.

                                 Cadie, Caddie

   Cad"ie,  Cad"die  (?),  n.  A Scotch errand boy, porter, or messenger.
   [Written also cady.]

     Every Scotchman, from the peer to the cadie. Macaulay.


   Ca`di*les"ker  (?),  n.  [Ar.  q\'be\'c8\'c6 judge + al'sker the army,
   Per.  leshker.]  A  chief  judge  in  the  Turkish  empire,  so  named
   originally because his jurisdiction extended to the cases of soldiers,
   who are now tried only by their own officers.


   Ca*dil"lac (?), n. [Prob. from Cadillac, a French town.] A large pear,
   shaped like a flattened top, used chiefly for cooking. Johnson. <-- 2.
   metaphor for the best -->


   Cad"is (?), n. [F.] A kind of coarse serge.


   Cad*me"an  (?),  a. [L. Cadmeus, Gr. Cadmus), which name perhaps means
   lit.  a  man  from the East; cf. Heb. qedem east.] Of or pertaining to
   Cadmus,  a  fabulous prince of Thebes, who was said to have introduced
   into  Greece  the  sixteen  simple  letters of the alphabet -- Cadmean
   letters.  Cadmean  victory, a victory that damages the victors as much
   as  the  vanquished;  probably  referring  to  the battle in which the
   soldiers  who  sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus slew each
   other\'3c-- Pyhrric victory? --\'3e.


   Cad"mi*a  (?),  n. [L. cadmia calamine, Gr. Calamine.] (Min.) An oxide
   of  zinc  which  collects  on  the  sides  of  furnaces  where zinc is
   sublimed. Formerly applied to the mineral calamine.


   Cad"mi*an (?), a. [R.] See Cadmean.


   Cad"mic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing,
   cadmium; as, cadmic sulphide.


   Cad"mi*um  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Cadmia.]  (Chem.) A comparatively rare
   element  related  to  zinc,  and  occurring in some zinc ores. It is a
   white  metal,  both  ductile  and  malleable. Symbol Cd. Atomic weight
   111.8.  It  was discovered by Stromeyer in 1817, who named it from its
   association  with  zinc  or  zinc  ore.  Cadmium yellow, a compound of
   cadmium and sulphur, of an intense yellow color, used as a pigment.


   Cad"rans  (?),  n. [Cf. F. cadran. Cf. Quadrant.] An instrument with a
   graduated  disk  by  means of which the angles of gems are measured in
   the process of cutting and polishing.


   Ca"dre  (?),  n.  [F.  cadre,  It. quadro square, from L. quadrum, fr.
   quatuor  four.] (Mil.) The framework or skeleton upon which a regiment
   is  to  be  formed;  the  officers  of  a  regiment forming the staff.
   [Written also cader.]


   Ca*du"ca*ry  (?),  a.  [See  Caducous.]  (Law)  Relating  to  escheat,
   forfeiture, or confiscation.


   Ca*du"ce*an (?), a. Of or belonging to Mercury's caduceus, or wand.


   Ca*du"ce*us  (?),  n.  [L. caduceum, caduceus; akin to Gr. (Myth.) The
   official  staff  or  wand  of  Hermes or Mercury, the messenger of the
   gods. It was originally said to be a herald's staff of olive wood, but
   was  afterwards  fabled  to have two serpents coiled about it, and two
   wings at the top.


   Ca*du`ci*bran"chi*ate (?), a. [L. caducus falling (fr. cadere to fall)
   + E. branchiate.] (Zo\'94l.) With temporary gills: -- applied to those
   Amphibia in which the gills do not remain in adult life.


   Ca*du"ci*ty (?), n. [LL. caducitas: cf. F. caducit\'82. See Caducous.]
   Tendency to fall; the feebleness of old age; senility. [R.]

     [A] jumble of youth and caducity. Chesterfield.


   Ca*du"cous  (?),  [L. caducus falling, inclined to fall, fr. cadere to
   fall.  See  Cadence.]  (Bot.  & Zo\'94l.) Dropping off or disappearing
   early, as the calyx of a poppy, or the gills of a tadpole.


   Ca*duke"  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  caduc. See Caducous.] Perishable; frail;
   transitory. [Obs.] Hickes.

     The caduke pleasures of his world. Bp. Fisher.


   Cad"y (?), n. See Cadie.


   C\'91"ca (?), n. pl. See C\'91cum.


   C\'91"cal (?), a. (Anat.)

   1. Of or pertaining to the c\'91cum, or blind gut.

   2.  Having  the  form of a c\'91cum, or bag with one opening; baglike;
   as, the c\'91cal extremity of a duct.


   C\'91"ci*as  (?),  n.  [L.  caecias,  Gr.  A  wind from the northeast.


   C\'91*cil"i*an  (?;  106),  n.  [L.  caecus  blind.  So named from the
   supposed  blindness  of  the  species,  the  eyes  being very minute.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  limbless amphibian belonging to the order C\'91cili\'91
   or Ophimorpha. See Ophiomorpha. [Written also c\'d2cilian.]


   C\'91"cum  (?),  n.;  pl. C\'91cums, L. C\'91ca (#). [L. caecus blind,
   invisible,  concealed.]  (Anat.)  (a) A cavity open at one end, as the
   blind  end  of  a  canal  or  duct.  (b)  The  blind part of the large
   intestine  beyond  the entrance of the small intestine; -- called also
   the blind gut.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e c\ '91cum is comparatively small in man, and ends
     in  a  slender  portion, the vermiform appendix; but in herbivorous
     mammals it is often as large as the rest of the large intestine. In
     fishes there are often numerous intestinal c\'91ca.


   C\'91`no*zo"ic (?), a. (Geol.) See Cenozoic.

                                  Caen stone

   Ca"en  stone"  (?), A cream-colored limestone for building, found near
   Caen, France.


   C\'91"sar  (?),  n.  [L.]  A  Roman emperor, as being the successor of
   Augustus  C\'91sar.  Hence,  a  kaiser,  or emperor of Germany, or any
   emperor or powerful ruler. See Kaiser, Kesar.

     Malborough anticipated the day when he would be servilely flattered
     and  courted  by C\'91sar on one side and by Louis the Great on the
     other. Macaulay.

                           C\'91sarean, C\'91sarian

   C\'91*sa"re*an, C\'91*sa"ri*an (?), a. [L. Caesareus, Caesarianus.] Of
   or  pertaining  to  C\'91sar  or  the C\'91sars; imperial. C\'91sarean
   section  (Surg.),  the  operation  of  taking a child from the womb by
   cutting  through  the  walls  of  the abdomen and uterus; -- so called
   because  Julius  C\'91sar  is  reported  to have been brought into the
   world by such an operation.


   C\'91"sar*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. C\'82sarisme.] A system of government in
   which  unrestricted power is exercised by a single person, to whom, as
   C\'91sar  or  emperor,  it  has  been  committed  by the popular will;
   imperialism; also, advocacy or support of such a system of government.

     NOTE: &hand; This word came into prominence in the time of Napoleon
     III.,  as  an  expression of the claims and political views of that
     emperor, and of the politicians of his court.


   C\'91"si*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  caesius bluish gray.] (Nat. Hist.) Of the
   color of lavender; pale blue with a slight mixture of gray. Lindley.


   C\'91"si*um (?), n. [NL., from L. caesius bluish gray.] (Chem.) A rare
   alkaline  metal  found  in  mineral  water;  -- so called from the two
   characteristic  blue  lines  in its spectrum. It was the first element
   discovered  by  spectrum  analysis, and is the most strongly basic and
   electro-positive substance known. Symbol Cs. Atomic weight 132.6.


   C\'91s"pi*tose` (?), a. Same as Cespitose.


   C\'91*su"ra  (?),  n.;  pl.  E.  C\'91suras  (,  L. C\'91sur\'91 ( [L.
   caesura  a  cutting off, a division, stop, fr. caedere, caesum, to cut
   off.  See  Concise.]  A  metrical  break  in a verse, occurring in the
   middle  of  a  foot and commonly near the middle of the verse; a sense
   pause  in  the  middle  of  a foot. Also, a long syllable on which the
   c\'91sural accent rests, or which is used as a foot.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e following line the c\'91sura is between study
     and of.

     The prop | er stud | y || of | mankind | is man.


     C\'91*su"ral (?), a. Of or pertaining to a c\'91sura.

   C\'91sural pause, a pause made at a c\'91sura.


   Ca`f\'82"  (?), n. [F. See Coffee.] A coffeehouse; a restaurant; also,
   a room in a hotel or restaurant where coffee and liquors are served.

                               Cafenet, Cafeneh

   Caf"e*net (?), Caf"e*neh (?), n. [Turk. qahveh kh\'beneh coffeehouse.]
   A  humble  inn  or  house of rest for travelers, where coffee is sold.


   Caf*fe"ic  (?),  a.  [See  Coffee.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained
   from,  coffee. Caffeic acid, an acid obtained from coffee tannin, as a
   yellow crystalline substance, C9H8O4.


   Caf*fe"ine  (?),  n. [Cf. F. caf\'82ine. See Coffee.] (Chem.) A white,
   bitter,   crystallizable   substance,  obtained  from  coffee.  It  is
   identical with the alkaloid theine from tea leaves, and with guaranine
   from guarana.


   Caf`fe*tan"nic  (?),  a. [Caffeic + tannic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   derived  from,  the  tannin  of coffee. Caffetannic acid, a variety of
   tannin obtained from coffee berries, regarded as a glucoside.


   Caf"fi*la (?), n. [Ar.] See Cafila.


   Caf"fre (?), n. See Kaffir.

                                Cafila, Cafileh

   Ca"fi*la  (?),  Ca"fi*leh  (?),  n.  [Ar.]  A  caravan of travelers; a
   military supply train or government caravan; a string of pack horses.


   Caf"tan  (?),  n.  [Turk.  qaft\'ben:  cf. F. cafetan.] A garment worn
   throughout the Levant, consisting of a long gown with sleeves reaching
   below the hands. It is generally fastened by a belt or sash.


   Caf"tan (?), v. t. To clothe with a caftan. [R.]

     The turbaned and caftaned damsel. Sir W. Scott.


   Cag (?), n. See Keg. [Obs.]


   Cage  (?),  n.  [F. cage, fr. L. cavea cavity, cage, fr. cavus hollow.
   Cf. Cave, n., Cajole, Gabion.]

   1. A box or inclosure, wholly or partly of openwork, in wood or metal,
   used for confining birds or other animals.

     In his cage, like parrot fine and gay. Cowper.

   Page 202

   2. A place of confinement for malefactors Shak.

     Stone walls do not a prison make, Nor iron bars a cage. Lovelace.

   3.  (Carp.)  An  outer framework of timber, inclosing something within
   it; as the cage of a staircase. Gwilt.

   4.  (Mach.) (a) A skeleton frame to limit the motion of a loose piece,
   as  a  ball  valve.  (b)  A wirework strainer, used in connection with
   pumps and pipes.

   5.  The  box,  bucket,  or  inclosed platform of a lift or elevator; a
   cagelike structure moving in a shaft.

   6. (Mining) The drum on which the rope is wound in a hoisting whim.

   7. (Baseball) The catcher's wire mask.


   Cage  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caging.] To
   confine  in,  or  as  in,  a  cage;  to shut up or confine. "Caged and
   starved to death." Cowper.


   Caged  (?),  a.  Confined in, or as in, a cage; like a cage or prison.
   "The caged cloister." Shak.


   Cage"ling  (?),  n.  [Cage  + -ling] A bird confined in a cage; esp. a
   young bird. [Poetic] Tennyson.


   Ca"git (?), n. (Zo\'94l) A king of parrot, of a beautiful green color,
   found in the Philippine Islands.


   Cag"mag  (?),  n.  A  tough  old goose; hence, coarse, bad food of any
   kind. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Ca"got  (?),  n.  [F.]  One  of  a  race inhabiting the valleys of the
   Pyrenees, who until 1793 were political and social outcasts (Christian
   Pariahs). They are supposed to be a remnant of the Visigoths.


   Ca`hier"  (?),  n. [F., fr. OF. cayer, fr. LL. quaternum. See Quire of
   paper. The sheets of manuscript were folded into parts.]

   1.  A  namber of sheets of paper put loosely together; esp. one of the
   successive portions of a work printed in numbers.

   2. A memorial of a body; a report of legislative proceedings, etc.


   Ca*hin"cic (?), a. Pertaining to, or derived from, cahinca, the native
   name  of  a  species  of Brazilian Chiococca, perhaps C. recemosa; as,
   cahincic acid.


   Ca*hoot"  (?),  n.  [Perhaps  fr.  f.  cohorte  a  a company or band.]
   Partnership; as to go in cahoot with a person. [Slang, southwestern U.
   S.] Bartlett.


   Cai`ma*cam"  (?),  n.  [Turk.] The governor of a sanjak or district in


   Cai"man (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Cayman.


   Cai`no*zo"ic (?), a. (Geol.) See Cenozic.


   Ca*\'8bque"  (?), n. [F., fr. Turk. q\'be\'c6q boat.] (Naut..) A light
   skiff  or  rowboat  used  on the Bosporus; also, a Levantine vessel of
   larger size.


   \'80a"i*ra"  (?).  [F.  \'87a ira, \'87a ira, les aristocrates \'85 la
   lanterne, it shall go on, it shall go on, [hang]the arictocrats to the
   lantern  (lamp-post).]  The  refrain  of  a  famous song of the French


   Caird  (?),  n. [Ir. ceard a tinker.] A traveling tinker; also a tramp
   or sturdy beggar. [Prov. Eng.]


   Cairn (?), n. [Gael. carn, gen. cairn, a heap: cf. Ir. & W. carn.]

   1. A rounded or conical heap of stones erected by early inhabitants of
   the British Isles, apparently as a sepulchral monument.

     Now here let us place the gray stone of her cairn. Campbell.

   2.  A  pile of stones heaped up as a landmark, or to arrest attention,
   as  in  surveying, or in leaving traces of an exploring party, etc. C.
   Kingsley. Kane.


   Cairn*gorm"stone`  (?).  [Gael.  carn  a cairn + gorm azure.] (Min.) A
   yellow or smoky brown variety of rock crystal, or crystallized quartz,
   found esp, in the mountain of Cairngorm, in Scotland.


   Cais"son (?), n. [F., fr. caisse, case, chest. See 1st Case.]

   1.  (Mil.) (a) A chest to hold ammunition. (b) A four-wheeled carriage
   for  conveying  ammunition,  consisting  of  two  parts,  a body and a
   limber.  In  light field batteries there is one caisson to each piece,
   having  two  ammunition  boxes  on  the  body,  and one on the limber.
   Farrow. (c) A chest filled with explosive materials, to be laid in the
   way of an enemy and exploded on his appoach.

   2.  (a)  A  water-tight  box,  of  timber or iron within which work is
   carried  on  in  building  foundations  or  structures below the water
   level.  (b)  A  hollow  floating box, usually of iron, which serves to
   close the entrances of docks and basins. (c) A structure, usually with
   an air chamber, placed beneath a vessel to lift or float it.

   3. (Arch.) A sunk panel of ceilings or soffits.
   Pneumatic  caisson  (Engin.), a caisson, closed at the top but open at
   the  bottom,  and resting upon the ground under water. The pressure of
   air forced into the caisson keeps the water out. Men and materials are
   admitted to the interior through an air lock. See Lock.


   Cai"tiff (?), a. [OE. caitif, cheitif, captive, miserable, OF. caitif,
   chaitif,  captive,  mean,  wretched,  F.  ch\'82tif,  fr.  L. captivus
   captive,  fr.  capere  to  take,  akin to E. heave. See Heave, and cf.

   1. Captive; wretched; unfortunate. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. Base; wicked and mean; cowardly; despicable.

     Arnold had sped his caitiff flight. W. Irving.


   Cai"tiff, n. A captive; a prisoner. [Obs.]

     Avarice doth tyrannize over her caitiff and slave. Holland.

   2. A wretched or unfortunate man. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   3.  A  mean,  despicable  person;  one  whose  character  meanness and
   wickedness meet.

     NOTE: The de ep-felt conviction of men that slavery breaks down the
     moral  character  .  .  . speaks out with . . . distinctness in the
     change  of meaning which caitiff has undergone signifying as it now
     does,  one  of  a  base, abject disposition, while there was a time
     when it had nothing of this in it.



   Caj"e*put (?), n. See Cajuput.


   Ca*jole"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Cajoled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cajoling.]  [F.  cajoler,  orig., to chatter like a bird in a cage, to
   sing;  hence,  to amuse with idle talk, to flatter, from the source of
   OF.  goale, jaiole, F. ge\'93le, dim. of cage a cage. See Cage, Jail.]
   To deceive with flattery or fair words; to wheedle.

     I  am  not  about  to  cajole or flatter you into a reception of my
     views. F. W. Robertson.

   Syn. -- To flatter; wheedle; delude; coax; entrap.


   Ca*jole"ment  (?), n. The act of cajoling; the state of being cajoled;
   cajolery. Coleridge.


   Ca*jol"er (?), n. A flatterer; a wheedler.


   Ca*jol"er*y  (?),  n.;  pl. Cajoleries (. A wheedling to delude; words
   used in cajoling; flattery. "Infamous cajoleries." Evelyn.


   Caj"u*put  (?), n. [Of Malayan origin; k\'beyu tree + p\'d4tih white.]
   (Med.)  A  highly  stimulating volatile infammable oil, distilled from
   the  leaves  of  an  East Indian tree (Melaleuca cajuputi, etc.) It is
   greenish in color and has a camphoraceous odor and pungent taste.


   Caj"u*put*ene`  (?),  n. (Chem.) A colorlees or greenish oil extracted
   from cajuput.


   Cake  (?), n. [OE. cake, kaak; akin to Dan. kage, Sw. & Icel. kaka, D.
   koek, G.kuchem, OHG. chuocho.]

   1.  A  small  mass  of  dough  baked;  especially,  a  thin  loaf from
   unleavened dough; as, an oatmeal cake; johnnycake.

   2. A sweetened composition of flour and other ingredients, leavened or
   unleavened, baked in a loaf or mass of any size or shape.

   3. A thin wafer-shaped mass of fried batter; a griddlecake or pancake;
   as buckwheat cakes.

   4.  A mass of matter concreted, congealed, or molded into a solid mass
   of  any  form,  esp.  into a form rather flat than high; as, a cake of
   soap; an ague cake.

     Cakes of rusting ice come rolling down the flood. Dryden.

   Cake  urchin  (Zo\'94l),  any species of flat sea urchins belonging to
   the  Clypeastroidea. -- Oil cake the refuse of flax seed, cotton seed,
   or  other  vegetable  substance  from  which  oil  has been expressed,
   compacted  into a solid mass, and used as food for cattle, for manure,
   or  for  other  purposes.  --  To have one's cake dough, to fail or be
   disappointed in what one has undertaken or expected. Shak.


   Cake, v. i. To form into a cake, or mass.


   Cake,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Caked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caking.] To
   concrete  or  consolidate  into  a  hard mass, as dough in an oven; to

     Clotted blood that caked within. Addison.


   Cake, v. i. To cackle as a goose. [Prov. Eng.]

                                  Caking coal

   Cak"ing coal` (?). See Coal.


   Cal (?), n. (Cornish Mines) Wolfram, an ore of tungsten. Simmonds.


   Cal"a*bar  (?),  n.  A  district  on the west coast of Africa. Calabar
   bean,  The  of  a  climbing legumious plant (Physostigma venenosum), a
   native  of  tropical  Africa.  It  is  highly poisonous. It is used to
   produce  contraction  of  the  pupil  of  the  eye;  also  in tetanus,
   neuralgia,  and  rheumatic diseases; -- called also ordeal bean, being
   used by the negroes in trials for witchcraft.


   Cal"a*bar*ine  (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid resembing physostigmine and
   occurring with it in the calabar bean.


   Cal"a*bash  (?),  n.  [Sp.  calabaza,  or  Pg.  calaba,  caba  (cf. F.
   Calebasse),  lit.,  a dry gourd, fr. Ar. qar', fem., a kind of gourd +
   aibas dry.]

   1. The common gourd (plant or fruit).

   2. The fruit of the calabash tree.

   3. A water dipper, bottle, backet, or other utensil, made from the dry
   shell of a calabash or gourd.
   Calabash tree. (Bot.), a tree of tropical America (Crescentia cujete),
   producing  a  large  gourdike  fruit, containing a purgative pulp. Its
   hard  shell, after the removal of the pulp, is used for cups, bottles,
   etc. The African calabash tree is the baobab.


   Cal`a*boose" (?), n. [A corruption of Sp. calabozo dungeon.] A prison;
   a jail. [Local, U. S.]


   Ca*lade"  (?),  n.  [F.]  A slope or declivity in a manege ground down
   which a horse is made to gallop, to give suppleness to his haunches.


   Ca*la"di*um  (?),  n. [NL.] A genus of aroideous plants, of which some
   species  are  cultivated  for  their  immense  leaves (which are often
   curiously  blotched with white and red), and others (in Polynesia) for


   Cal"a*ite  (?),  n.  [L.  cala\'8bs,  Gr.  cala\'8bte.] A mineral. See


   Cal`a*man"co  (?),  n.  [LL.  calamancus, calamacus; cf. camelaucum; a
   head  covering  made of camel's hair, NGr. calmande a woolen stuff.] A
   glossy  woolen  stuff,  plain,  striped,  or checked. "a gay calamanco
   waistcoat." Tatler.

                                Calamander wood

   Cal"a*man`der  wood  (?).  A  valuable  furniture  wood from India and
   Ceylon,  of  a  hazel-brown  color,  with  black stripes, very hard in
   texture.  It is a species of ebony, and is obtained from the Diospyros
   qusesita. Called also Coromandel wood.

                               Calamar, Calamary

   Cal"a*mar  (?),  Cal"a*ma*ry,  n.  [LL.  calamarium  inkstand,  fr. L.
   calamus  a  reed  pen:  cf.  F.  calmar,  calemar, pen case, calamar.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  cephalopod,  belonging  to the genus Loligo and related
   genera.  There  are  many  species.  They have a sack of inklike fluid
   which they discharge from the siphon tube, when pursued or alarmed, in
   order  to  confuse  their  enemies. Their shell is a thin horny plate,
   within  the  flesh  of  back,  shaped  very  much like a quill pen. In
   America they are called squids. See Squid.


   Cal"am*bac (?), n. [F. calambac, calambour, from Malay Kalambaq a king
   of fragrant wood.] (Bot.) A fragrant wood; agalloch.


   Cal"am*bour  (?),  n.  [See Calambac.] A species of agalloch, or aloes
   wood,  of  a  dusky or mottled color, of a light, friable texture, and
   less fragrant than calambac; -- used by cabinetmakers.


   Cal`a*mif"er*ous  (?), a. [L. calamus reed + ferous.] Producing reeds;


   Cal"a*mine  (?),  n.  [F.  calamine,  LL. calamina, fr. L. Cabmia. See
   Cadmia.] (min.) A mineral, the hydrous silicate of zinc.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me wa s formerly applied to both the carbonate
     and silicate of zinc each of which is valuabic as an ore; but it is
     now  usually  restricted  to  the  latter,  the former being called


   Cal"a*mint  (?),  n. [OE. calamint, calemente (cf. F. calament) fr. L.
   calamintha, Gr. Mint.] (Bot.) A genus of perennial plants (Calamintha)
   of the Mint family, esp. the C. Nepela and C. Acinos, which are called
   also basil thyme.


   Cal"a*mist  (?),  n. [L. calamus a reed.] One who plays upon a reed or
   pipe. [Obs.] Blount.


   Cal`a*mis"trate  (?), v. i. [L. calamistratus, curied with the curling
   iron,  fr.  calamistrum  curling iron, fr. calamus a reed.] To curl or
   friz, as the hair. [Obs.] Cotgrave.


   Cal`amis*tra"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  or process of curling the hair.
   [Obs.] burton.


   Cal`a*mis"trum  (?),  n.  [L.,  a curling iron.] (Zo\'94l.) A comblike
   structure  on  the  metatarsus  of  the  hind  legs of certain spiders
   (Ciniflonid\'91),  used  to curl certain fibers in the construction of
   their webs.


   Cal"a*mite  (?),  n. [L. calamus a reed: cf. F. calamite.] (Paleon.) A
   fossil  plant of the coal formation, having the general form of plants
   of  the  modern  Equiseta  (the Horsetail or Scouring Rush family) but
   sometimes  attaining  the height of trees, and having the stem more or
   less woody within. See Acrogen, and Asterophyllite.


   Ca*lam"i*tous (?), a. [L. Calamitosus; cf. F. calamiteux.]

   1. Suffering calamity; wretched; miserable. [Obs.]

     Ten thousands of calamitous persons. South.

   2.  Producing,  or attended with distress and misery; making wretched;
   wretched;  unhappy.  "This  sad  and  calamitous condition." South. "A
   calamitous prison" Milton. Syn. -- Miserable; deplorable; distressful;
   afflictive;  grievous;  baleful; disastrous; adverse; unhappy; severe;
   sad; unfortunate. -- Ca*lam"i*tous*ly, adv. -- Ca*lam"i*tous*ness, n.


   Ca*lam"i*ty  (?)  n.;  pl.  Calamities  (#).  [L.  calamitas,  akin to
   in-columis unharmed: cf. F. calamit\'82]

   1.  Any  great  misfortune or cause of misery; -- generally applied to
   events   or   disasters   which  produce  extensive  evil,  either  to
   communities or individuals.

     NOTE: The wo rd ca lamity wa s fi rst derived from calamus when the
     corn could not get out of the stalk.


     Strokes of calamity that scathe and scorch the soul. W. Irving.

   2. A state or time of distress or misfortune; misery.

     The deliberations of calamity are rarely wise. Burke.

     Where'er I came I brought calamity. Tennyson.

   Syn.   --  Disaster;  distress;  afflicition;  adversity;  misfortune;
   unhappiness;  infelicity;  mishap; mischance; misery; evil; extremity;
   exigency;   downfall.   --  Calamity,  Disaster,  Misfortune,  Mishap,
   Mischance.  Of  these  words, calamity is the strongest. It supposes a
   somewhat  continuous  state, produced not usually by the direct agency
   of  man, but by natural causes, such as fire, flood, tempest, disease,
   etc,  Disaster  denotes  literally ill-starred, and is some unforeseen
   and distressing event which comes suddenly upon us, as if from hostile
   planet. Misfortune is often due to no specific cause; it is simply the
   bad  fortune  of an individual; a link in the chain of events; an evil
   independent  of  his  own  conduct,  and not to be charged as a fault.
   Mischance  and  mishap  are misfortunes of a trivial nature, occurring
   usually  to  individuals. "A calamity is either public or private, but
   more  frequently  the  former;  a  disaster  is rather particular than
   private;  it  affects things rather than persons; journey, expedition,
   and  military movements are often attended with disasters; misfortunes
   are  usually  personal;  they  immediately affect the interests of the
   individual." Crabb.


   Cal"a*mus (?), n.; pl. Calami (#). [L., a reed. See Halm.]

   1.  (Bot.)  The  indian cane, a plant of the Palm family. It furnishes
   the common rattan. See Rattan, and Dragon's blood.

   2.  (Bot.)  A species of Acorus (A. calamus), commonly called calamus,
   or  sweet flag. The root has a pungent, aromatic taste, and is used in
   medicine  as  a  stomachic; the leaves have an aromatic odor, and were
   formerly used instead of rushes to strew on floors.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  horny  basal  portion of a feather; the barrel or


   Ca*lan"do  (?),  a. [It.] (Mus.) Gradually diminishing in rapidity and


   Ca*lash"  (?),  n.  [F.  cal\'8ache;  of  Slavonic  origin; cf. Bohem.
   kolesa, Russ. koliaska calash, koleso, kolo, wheel.]

   1.  A light carriage with low wheels, having a top or hood that can be
   raised  or  lowered, seats for inside, a separate seat for the driver,
   and often a movable front, so that it can be used as either an open or
   a close carriage.

     The  baroness  in  a  calash  capable  of  holding herself, her two
     children, and her servants. W. Irving.

   2.  In  Canada,  a two-wheeled, one-seated vehicle, with a calash top,
   and the driver's seat elevated in front.

   3. A hood or top of a carriage which can be thrown back at pleasure.

   4.  A  hood,  formerly worn by ladies, which could be drawn forward or
   thrown back like the top of a carriage.

   Page 203


   Ca`la*ve"rite  (,  n.  (Min.)  A  bronze-yellow  massive  mineral with
   metallic  luster;  a  telluride  of  gold; -- first found in Calaveras
   County California.


   Cal*ca"ne*al   (?),  a.  (Anal.)  Pertaining  to  the  calcaneum;  as,
   calcaneal arteries.


   Cal*ca"ne*um  (?)  n.; pl. E. -neums, L. -nea. [L. the heel, fr. calx,
   calcis,  the  heel.]  (Anal.)  One of the bones of the tarsus which in
   man, forms the great bone of the heel; -- called also fibulare.


   Cal"car  (?),  n.  [L. calcaria lime kiln, fr. calx, calcis, lime. See
   Calx.]  (Glass  manuf.) A kind of oven, or reverberatory furnace, used
   for the calcination of sand and potash, and converting them into frit.


   Cal"car,  n.;  L.  pl.  Calcaria (#). [L., a pur, as worn on the heel,
   also the spur of a cock, fr. calx, calcis, the heel.]

   1. (Bot.) A hollow tube or spur at the base of a petal or corolla.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  slender  bony process from the ankle joint of bats,
   which helps to support the posterior part of the web, in flight.

   3.  (Anat.)  (a) A spur, or spurlike prominence. (b) A curved ridge in
   the  floor  of  the  leteral  ventricle of the brain; the calcar avis,
   hippocampus minor, or ergot.

                             Calcarate, Calcarated

   Cal"ca*rate (?), Cal"ca*ra`ted (?), a. [LL. calcaratus, fr. L. calcar.
   See 2d Calcar.]

   1.  (Bot.)  Having a spur, as the flower of the toadflax and larkspur;
   spurred. Gray.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Armed with a spur.


   Cal*ca"re*o-ar`gil*la"ceous  (?),  a.  consisting  of,  or containing,
   calcareous and argillaceous earths.


   Cal*ca"re*o-bi*tu"mi*nous  (?),  a. Consisting of, or containing, lime
   and bitumen. Lyell.


   Cal*ca"re*o-si*li"ceous (?), a.Consisting of, or containing calcareous
   and siliceous earths.


   Cal*ca"re*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  calcarius pertaining to lime. See Calx.]
   Partaking of the nature ofcalcite or calcium carbonate; consisting of,
   or  containg,  calcium carbonate or carbonate of lime. Clcareous spar.
   See as Calcite.


   Cal*ca"re*ous*ness, n. Quality of being calcareous.


   Cal`ca*rif"er*ous   (?),   a.   [L.   calcarius  of  lime  +  ferous.]
   Lime-yielding; calciferous


   Cal"ca*rine  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Pertaining  to,  or situated near, the
   calcar of the brain.


   Cal`ca*vel"la  (?),  n.  A sweet wine from Portugal; -- so called from
   the   district   of   Carcavelhos.   [Written   also   Calcavellos  or


   Cal"ce*a"ted  (?),  a.  [L.  calceatus, p. p. of pelceare to ahoe, fr.
   catceus shoe, fr. calx, calcic, heel.] Fitted with, or wearing, shoes.


   Calced  (?),  a.  [See  Calceated.]  Wearing  shoes;  calceated; -- in
   distintion from discalced or barefooted; as the calced Carmelites.


   Cal"ce*don  (?), n. [See Chalcedony.] A foul vein, like chalcedony, in
   some precious stones.

                            Calcedonic, Calcedonian

   Cal`ce*don"ic (?), Cal`ce*do"ni*an, a. See Chalcedonic.


   Cal"ce*i*form` (?), a. [L. calceus shoe + -form.] (Bot.) Shaped like a
   plipper, as one petal of the lady's-slipper; calceolate.


   cal`ce*o*la"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  L. calceolarius shoemaker, fr.
   calceolus, a dim. of calceus shoe.] (Bot.) A genus of showy herbaceous
   or  shrubby  plant,  biought from South America; slipperwort. It has a
   yellow  or purple flower, often spotted or striped, the shape of which
   suggests its name.


   Cal"ce*o*late   (?),   a.   [See   Calceolaria.]  Slipper-ahaped.  See


   Cal"ces (?), n. pl. See Calx.


   Cal"cic  (?),  a.  [L.  calx,  calcis, lime: cf. F. calcique.] (Chem.)
   Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, calcium or lime.


   Cal*cif"er*ouse  (?),  a.  [L.  calx, calcis, lime + -ferous.] Bearing
   producing,  or  containing calcite, or carbonate of lime. Calciferouse
   epoch  (Geol.),  and  epoch  in  the  American  lower Silurian system,
   immediately  succeeding  the  Cambrian period. The name alludes to the
   peculiar  mixture  of calcareous and siliceous characteristics in many
   of the beds. See the Diagram under Grology.


   Cal*cif"ic   (?),  a.  Calciferous.  Specifically:  (Zo\'94l.)  of  or
   pertaining to hte portion of the which forms the eggshell in birds and
   reptiles. Huxley.


   Cal`ci*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  (Physiol.)  The  process of chenge into a
   stony  or  calcareous  substance  by  the  deposition of lime salt; --
   normally,  as  in  the  formation of bone and teeth; abnormally, as in
   calcareous degeneration of tissue.


   Cal"ci*fied (?), a. Consisting of, or containing, calcareous matter or
   lime salts; calcareous.


   Cal"ci*form  (?),  a.  [L. calx, calcis, lime + -form.] In the form of
   chalk or lime.


   Cal"ci*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Calcified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Calcifying.]  [L.  calx,  calcis,  lime  +  -fy.]  To  make  stony  or
   calcareous by the deposit or secretion of salts of lime.


   Cal"ci*fy,  v.  i.  To  become  changed  into  a  stony  or calcareous
   condition,  in  lime is a principal ingredient, as in the formation of


   Cal*cig"e*nous  (?),  a.  [L.  calx, calcis, lime + -genouse.] (Chem.)
   Tending  to form, or to become, a calx or earthlike substance on being
   oxidized or burnt; as magnesium, calcium. etc.


   Cal*cig"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  calx, calcis, lime + -gerouse.] Holding
   lime or other earthy salts; as, the calcigerous cells of the teeth.


   Cal"ci*mine  (?),  n. [L. calx, calcis, lime.] A white or colored wash
   for the ceiling or other plastering of a room, consisting of a mixture
   of  clear  glue,  Paris  white  or  zinc white, and water. [Also spelt


   Cal"ci*mine,  v.  t.  [imp.  &p.  p.  Calcimined  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Calcimining.] To wash or cover with calcimine; as, to calcimine walls.


   Cal"ci*mi`ner (?), n. One who calcimines.


   Cal*cin"a*ble (?), a. That may be calcined; as, a calcinable fossil.


   Cal"ci*nate (?), v. i. To calcine. [R.]


   Cal`ci*na"tion (?), n. [F. calcination.]

   1.  (Chem.)  The  act  or  process  of  disintegrating a substance, or
   rendering  it  friable by the action of heat, esp. by the expulsion of
   some  volatile  matter,  as  when  carbonic  and acid is expelled from
   carbonate  of  calcium  in  the  burning of limestone in order to make

   2.  The  act  or  process  of reducing a metal to an oxide or metallic
   calx; oxidation.


   Cal*cin"a*to*ry (?), n. A vessel used in calcination.


   Cal*cine"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Calciden (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Calcining.] [F. calciner, fr. L. calx, calcis, lime. See Calx.]

   1.  To  reduce  to  a  powder, or to a friable state, by the action of
   heat; to expel volatile matter from by means of heat, as carbonic acid
   from  limestone,  and thus (usually) to produce disintegration; as to,
   calcine bones.

   2.  To  oxidize,  as  a  metal  by  the action of heat; to reduce to a
   metallic calx.


   Cal*cine",  v. i. To be convereted into a powder or friable substance,
   or  into  a  calx,  by  the action of heat. "Calcining without fusion"


   Cal*cin"er (?), n. One who, or that which, calcines.


   Cal`ci*spon"gi*\'91  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. L. calx, calcis, lime +
   spongia  a  sponge.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of marine sponges, containing
   calcareous spicules. See Porifera.


   Cal"cite (?), n. [L. calx, calcis, lime.] (Min.) Calcium carbonate, or
   carbonate of lime. It is rhombohedral in its crystallization, and thus
   distinguished from aragonite. It includes common limestone, chalk, and
   marble. Called also calc-spar and calcareous spar.

     NOTE: &hand; Ar gentine is  a  pe arly lamellar variety; aphrite is
     foliated  or chalklike; dogtooth spar, a form in acute rhombohedral
     or  scalenohedral  crystals;  calc-sinter and calc-tufa are lose or
     porous  varieties  formed in caverns or wet grounds from calcareous
     deposits;  agaric  mineral  is  a  soft,  white  friable variety of
     similar origin; stalaclite and stalagmite are varieties formed from
     the  drillings  in  caverns. Iceland spar is a transparent variety,
     exhibiting  the  strong double refraction of the species, and hence
     is called doubly refracting spar.


   Cal"ci*trant (?), a. [L. calcitrans, p. pr. of calcitrare to kick, fr.
   calx, calcis , heel.] Kicking. Hence: Stubborn; refractory.


   Cal"ci*trate (?), v. i. & i. [L. calcitratus, p. p. of calcitrare. See
   Calcitrant.] To kick.


   Cal`ci*tra"tion (?), n. Act of kicking.


   Cal"ci*um (?), n. [NL., from L. calx, calcis, lime; cf F. calcium. See
   Calx.]  (Chem.)  An  elementary substance; a metal which combined with
   oxygen  forms  lime.  It  is  of  a  pale yellow color, tenacious, and
   malleable.  It  is  a  member of the alkaline earth group of elements.
   Atomic weight 40. Symbol Ca.

     NOTE: &hand; Ca lcium is  widely and abundantly disseminated, as in
     its  compounds  calcium carbonate or limestone, calcium sulphate or
     gypsum,  calcium  fluoride  or  fluor  spar,  calcium  phosphate or

   Calcium  light,  an  intense  light produced by the incandescence of a
   stick  or  ball  of  lime  in the flame of a combination of oxygen and
   hydrogen  gases,  or  of  oxygen and coal gas; -- called also Drummond


   Cal*civ"o*rous  (?), a. [L. calx lime + vorare to devour.] Eroding, or
   eating into, limestone.


   Cal*cog"ra*pher (?), n. One who practices calcography.

                         Calcographic, Calcographical

   Cal`co*graph"ic  (?),  Cal`co*graph"ic*al,  a.  Relating to, or in the
   style of, calcography.


   Cal*cog"ra*phy  (?),  n. [L. calx, calcis, lime, chalk + -graphy.] The
   art of drawing with chalk.


   Calc"-sin`ter  (?),  n.  [G. kalk (L. calx, calcis) lime + E. sinter.]
   See under Calcite.


   Calc"-spar` (?), n. [G. kalk (L. calx) lime E. spar.] Same as Calcite.


   Calc"-tu`fa  (?),  n.  [G.  kalk  (l. calx) lime + E. tufa.] See under


   Cal"cu*la*ble  (?),  a. [Cf. F. calculable.] That may be calculated or
   ascertained by calculation.


   Cal"cu*la*ry (?), a. [L. calculus a pebble, a calculus; cf calcularius
   pertaining to calculation.] (Med.) Of or pertaining to calculi.


   Cal"cu*la*ry,  n.  A congeries of little stony knots found in the pulp
   of the pear and other fruits.


   Cal"cu*late  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Calculater (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Calculating  (?).]  [L, calculatus, p. p. of calculate, fr. calculus a
   pebble,  a  stone  used  in  reckoning;  hence, a reckoning, fr. calx,
   calcis, a stone used in gaming, limestone. See Calx.]

   1. To ascertain or determine by mathematical processes, usually by the
   ordinary rules of arithmetic; to reckon up; to estimate; to compute.

     A calencar exacity calculated than any othe. North.

   2.   To   ascertain   or   predict  by  mathematical  or  astrological
   computations  the  time,  circumstances,  or  other  conditions of; to
   forecast or compute the character or consequences of; as, to calculate
   or cast one's nativity.

     A cunning man did calculate my birth. Shak.

   3.  To  adjust for purpose; to adapt by forethought or calculation; to
   fit  or prepare by the adaptation of means to an end; as, to calculate
   a system of laws for the government and protection of a free people.

     [Religion] is . . . calculated for our benefit. Abp. Tillotson.

   4.  To  plan;  to expect; to think. [Local, U. S.] Syn. -- To compute;
   reckon;  count;  estimate;  rate.  --  To  Calculate, Compute. Reckon,
   Count.  These  words  indicate the means by which we arrive at a given
   result  in  regard  to  quantity. We calculate with a view to obtain a
   certain point of knowledge; as, to calculate an eclipse. We compute by
   combining given numbers, in order to learn the grand result. We reckon
   and  count  in  carrying out the details of a computation. These words
   are  also  used  in  a  secondary  and figurative sense. "Calculate is
   rather  a conjection from what is, as to what may be; computation is a
   rational  estimate  of  what  has  been,  from what is; reckoning is a
   conclusive  conviction, a pleasing assurance that a thing will happen;
   counting  indicates an expectation. We calculate on a gain; we compute
   any loss sustained, or the amount of any mischief done; we reckon on a
   promised  pleasure;  we  count the hours and minutes until the time of
   enjoyment arrives" Crabb.


   Cal"cu*late   (?),   v.   i.   To  make  a  calculation;  to  forecast
   caonsequences; to estimate; to compute.

     The  strong  passions,  whether good or bad, never calculate. F. W.


   Cal"cu*la`ted (?), p. p. & a.

   1.  Worked  out  by  calculation;  as  calculated tables for computing
   interest;  ascertained  or conjectured as a result of calculation; as,
   the  calculated place of a planet; the calculated velocity of a cannon

   2. Adapted by calculation, contrivance. or forethought to accomplish a
   purpose; as, to use arts calculated to deceive the people.

   3.  Likely  to  produce  a  certain  effect,  whether intended or not;
   fitted; adapted; suited.

     The  only  danger that attends multiplicity of publication is, that
     some  of  them  may  be  calculated  to  injure rather than benefit
     society. Goldsmith.

     The  minister,  on  the  other  hand,  had  never  gone  through an
     experience  calculated  to  lead  him beyond the scope of generally
     received laws. Hawthorne.


   Cal"cu*la`ting (?), a.

   1.  Of  or pertaining to mathematical calculations; performing or able
   to perform mathematical calculations.

   2.  Given  to contrivance or forethought; forecasting; scheming; as, a
   cool calculating disposition.
   Calculating  machine,  a  machine  for  the  mechanical performance of
   mathematical operations, for the most part invented by Charles Babbage
   and  G. and E. Scheutz. It computes logarithmic and other mathematical
   tables  of  a  high  degree  of intricacy, imprinting the results on a
   leaden plate, from which a stereotype plate is then directly made.


   Cal"cu*la`ting,   n.   The  act  or  process  of  making  mathematical
   computations or of estimating results.


   Cal`cu*la"tion  (?),  n.  [OE. calculation, fr. L. calculatio; cf. OF.

   1.  The  act  or  process, or the result, of calculating; computation;
   reckoning, estimate. "The calculation of eclipses." Nichol.

     The mountain is not so his calculation makes it. Boyle.

   2. An expectation based on cirumstances.

     The  lazy  gossips  of  the port, Abborrent of a calculation crost,
     Began to chafe as at a personal wrong. Tennyson.


   Cal"cu*la*tive  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to calculation; involving

     Long habits of calculative dealings. Burke.


   Cal"cu*la*tor  (?),  n.  [L.: cf. F. calculateur.] One who computes or
   reckons:  one  who  estimates  or  considers  the  force and effect of
   causes, with a view to form a correct estimate of the effects.

     Ambition is no exact calculator. Burke.


   Cal"cu*la*to*ry  (?), a. [L. calculatorius.] Belonging to calculation.


   Cal"cule   (?),  n.  [F.  calcul,  fr.  L.  calculus.  See  Calculus.]
   Reckoning; computation. [Obs.] Howell.


   Cal"cule, v. i. To calculate [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Cal"cu*li (?), n. pl. See Calculus.


   Cal"cu*lous (?), a. [L. calculosus.]

   1.  Of  the  nature of a calculus; like stone; gritty; as, a calculous
   concretion. Sir T. Browne.

   2. Caused, or characterized, by the presence of a calculus or calculi;
   a,  a  calculous  disorder;  affected  with  gravel  or  stone;  as, a
   calculous person.


   Cal"cu*lus  (?),  n.; pl. Calculi (#) [L, calculus. See Calculate, and

   1.  (Med.)  Any  solid concretion, formed in any part of the body, but
   most  frequent  in  the  organs  that  act  as  reservoirs, and in the
   passages  connected  with  them; as, biliary calculi; urinary calculi,

   2.  (Math.)  A  method of computation; any process of reasoning by the
   use   of   symbols;   any  branch  of  mathematics  that  may  involve
   Barycentric  calculus,  a  method  of  treating geometry by defining a
   point  as  the  center  of  gravity  of  certain other points to which
   co\'89fficients  or  weights  are  ascribed. -- Calculus of functions,
   that branch of mathematics which treats of the forms of functions that
   shall satisfy given conditions. -- Calculus of operations, that branch
   of mathematical logic that treats of all operations that satisfy given
   conditions.  --  Calculus of probabilities, the science that treats of
   the  computation of the probabilities of events, or the application of
   numbers  to chance. -- Calculus of variations, a branch of mathematics
   in  which  the  laws  of dependence which bind the variable quantities
   together are themselves subject to change. -- Differential calculus, a
   method  of  investigating mathematical questions by using the ratio of
   certain   indefinitely  small  quantities  called  differentials.  The
   problems  are  primarily  of this form: to find how the change in some
   variable  quantity  alters  at  each  instant  the value of a quantity
   dependent upon it. -- Exponential calculus, that part of algebra which
   treats  of exponents. -- Imaginary calculus, a method of investigating
   the  relations  of  real  or  imaginary  quantities  by the use of the
   imaginary  symbols  and quantities of algebra. -- Integral calculus, a
   method which in the reverse of the differential, the primary object of
   which  is  to  learn  from  the  known ratio of the indefinitely small
   changes  of  two  or  more  magnitudes, the relation of the magnitudes
   themselves,  or,  in  other  words, from having the differential of an
   algebraic expression to find the expression itself.

   Page 204


   Cal"dron  (?),  n.  [OE.  caldron,  caudron,  caudroun,  OF.  caudron,
   chauderon,  F. chaudron, an aug. of F. chaudi\'8are, LL. caldaria, fr.
   L.  caldarius  suitable  for  warming,  fr. caldus, calidus, warm, fr.
   calere  to be warm; cf. Skr. \'87r\'be to boil. Cf. Chaldron, Calaric,
   Caudle.]  A large kettle or boiler of copper, brass, or iron. [Written
   also cauldron.] "Caldrons of boiling oil." Prescott.


   Ca*l\'8ache" (?), n. [F. cal\'8ache.] See Calash.


   Cal`e*do"ni*a  (?),  n.  The  ancient Latin name of Scotland; -- still
   used in poetry.


   Cal`e*do"ni*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Caledonia or Scotland;
   Scottish;  Scotch.  --  n.  A  native  or  inhabitant  of Caledonia or


   Ca*led"o*nite  (?),  n.  (Min.) A hydrous sulphate of copper and lead,
   found in some parts of Caledonia or Scotland.


   Cal`e*fa"cient  (?),  a.  [L. calefaciens p. pr. of calefacere to make
   warm; calere to be warm + facere to make.] Making warm; heating. [R.]


   Cal`e*fa"cient,  n.  A  substance  that excites warmth in the parts to
   which it is applied, as mustard.


   Cal`e*fac"tion (?), n. [L. calefactio: cf. F. cal\'82faction.]

   1.  The act of warming or heating; the production of heat in a body by
   the action of fire, or by communication of heat from other bodies.

   2. The state of being heated.


   Cal`e*fac"tive (?), a. See Calefactory. [R.]


   Cal`e*fac"tor  (?), n. A heater; one who, or that which, makes hot, as
   a stove, etc.


   Cal`e*fac"to*ry  (?),  a. [L. calefactorius.] Making hot; producing or
   communicating heat.


   Cal`e*fac"to*ry, n.

   1.  (Eccl.)  An apartment in a monastery, warmed and used as a sitting

   2. A hollow sphere of metal, filled with hot water, or a chafing dish,
   placed  on  the altar in cold weather for the priest to warm his hands


   Cal"e*fy  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Calefied (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Calefying.] [L. calere to be warm + -fy] To make warm or hot.


   Cal"e*fy, v. i. To grow hot or warm. Sir T. Browne.


   Cal"em*bour` (?), n. [F.] A pun.


   Cal"en*dar  (?),  n.  [OE.  kalender,  calender, fr. L. kalendarium an
   interest  or  account  book  (cf. F. calendrier, OF. calendier) fr. L.
   calendue, kalendae, calends. See Calends.]

   1.  An  orderly  arrangement  of  the division of time, adapted to the
   purposes  of  civil  life,  as years, months, weeks, and days; also, a
   register of the year with its divisions; an almanac.

   2.  (Eccl.)  A  tabular  statement  of  the  dates of feasts, offices,
   saints'  days,  etc.,  esp. of those which are liable to change yearly
   according to the varying date of Easter.

   3.  An  orderly  list  or enumeration of persons, things, or events; a
   schedule;  as,  a  calendar  of  state  papers;  a  calendar  of bills
   presented  in  a  legislative assemblly; a calendar of causes arranged
   for trial in court; a calendar of a college or an academy.

     NOTE: Shepherds of  pe ople had need know the calendars of tempests
     of state.

   Bacon.  Calendar clock, one that shows the days of the week and month.
   -- Calendar month. See under Month. -- French Republican calendar. See
   under   Vend\'82miaire.   --   Gregorian  calendar,  Julian  calendar,
   Perpetual calendar. See under Gregorian, Julian, and Perpetual.


   Cal"en*dar,  v.  t.  [Imp.  &  p.  p.  Calendared (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Calendaring.]   To   enter  or  write  in  a  calendar;  to  register.


   Cal`en*da"ri*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  calendar  or a


   Cal"en*da*ry (?), a. Calendarial. [Obs.]


   Cal"en*der  (?),  n.  [F.  calandre,  LL.  calendra,  corrupted fr. L.
   cylindrus a cylinder, Gr. Cylinider.]

   1.  A  machine,  used  for the purpose of giving cloth, paper, etc., a
   smooth,  even,  and glossy or glazed surface, by cold or hot pressure,
   or for watering them and giving them a wavy appearance. It consists of
   two  or more cylinders revolving nearly in contact, with the necessary
   apparatus for moving and regulating.

   2. One who pursues the business of calendering.

     My good friend the calender. Cawper.


   Cal"en*der  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Calendered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Calendering.]  [Cf.  F.  calandrer. See Calender, n.] To press between
   rollers  for  the  purpose  of  making  smooth and glossy, or wavy, as
   woolen and silk stuffs, linens, paper, etc. Ure.


   Cal"en*der,   n.   [Per.   qalender.]  One  of  a  sect  or  order  of
   fantastically dressed or painted dervishes.


   Cal`en*dog"ra*pher  (?),  n.  [Calendar  + -graph + er.] One who makes
   calendars. [R.]


   Cal"en*drer (?), n. A person who calenders cloth; a calender.

                            Calendric, Calendrical

   Ca*len"dric  (?),  Ca*len"dric*al  (?),  a.,  Of  or  pertaining  to a


   Cal"ends  (?),  n. pl. [OE. kalendes month, calends, AS. calend month,
   fr.  L.  calendae;  akin  to calare to call, proclaim, Gr. Claim.] The
   first  day  of each month in the ancient Roman calendar. [Written also
   kalends.]  The  Greek  calends,  a  time  that will never come, as the
   Greeks had no calends.


   Ca*len"du*la (?), n. [NL., fr. L. calendae calends.] (Bot.) A genus of
   composite  herbaceous  plants.  One species, Calendula officinalis, is
   the  common  marigold,  and  was supposed to blossom on the calends of
   every month, whence the name.


   Ca*len"du*lin  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  gummy  or  mucilaginous tasteless
   substance  obtained  from  the marigold or calendula, and analogous to


   Cal"en*ture  (?), n. [F. calenture, fr. Sp. calenture heat, fever, fr.
   calentar  to  heat, fr. p. pr. of L. calere to be warm.] (Med.) A name
   formerly  given  to various fevers occuring in tropics; esp. to a form
   of  furious  delirium  accompanied  by  fever,  among  sailors,  which
   sometimes  led  the  affected  person to imagine the sea to be a green
   field, and to throw himself into it.


   Cal"en*ture,  v.  i.  To  see  as in the delirium of one affected with
   calenture. [Poetic]

     Hath  fed  on  pageants  floating  through the air Or calentures in
     depths of limpid flood. Wordsworth.


   Ca*les"cence  (?),  n.  [L.  calescens,  p.pr. of calescere, incho. of
   calere to be warm.] Growing warmth; increasing heat.


   Calf  (?),  n.; pl. Calves (#). [OE. calf, kelf, AS. cealf; akin to D.
   kalf,  G.  kalb,  Icel. k\'belfr, Sw. kalf, Dan. kalv, Goth. kalb\'d3;
   cf. Skr. garbha fetus, young, Gr. grabh to seize, conceive, Ir. colpa,
   colpach, a calf. \'fb222.]

   1.  The young of the cow, or of the Bovine family of quadrupeds. Also,
   the  young  of  some  other  mammals,  as of the elephant, rhinoceros,
   hippopotamus, and whale.

   2.  Leather  made  of  the  skin  of  the  calf;  especially,  a fine,
   light-colored leather used in bookbinding; as, to bind books in calf.

   3.  An  awkward  or  silly boy or young man; any silly person; a dolt.

     Some silly, doting, brainless calf. Drayton.

   4. A small island near a larger; as, the Calf of Man.

   5.  A  small mass of ice set free from the submerged part of a glacier
   or berg, and rising to the surface. Kane.

   6.  [Cf.  Icel. k\'belfi.] The fleshy hinder part of the leg below the
   Calf's-foot  jelly, jelly made from the feet of calves. The gelatinous
   matter  of  the  feet  is  extracted  by boiling, and is flavored with
   sugar, essences, etc.


   Calf"skin`  (?), n. The hide or skin of a calf; or leather made of the


   Ca"li  (?),  n.  (Hindoo Myth.) The tenth avatar or incarnation of the
   god Vishnu. [Written also Kali.]

                               Caliber, Calibre

   Cal"i*ber, Cal"ibre (?), n. [F. calibre, perh. fr. L. qualibra of what
   pound, of what weight; hence, of what size, applied first to a ball or
   bullet; cf. also Ar. q\'belib model, mold. Cf. Calipers, Calivere.]

   1.  (Gunnery)  The diameter of the bore, as a cannon or other firearm,
   or  of  any  tube;  or  the  weight  or size of the projectile which a
   firearm will carry; as, an 8 inch gun, a 12-pounder, a 44 caliber.

     The caliber of empty tubes. Reid.

     A battery composed of three guns of small caliber. Prescott.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e caliber of firearms is expressed in various ways.
     Cannon are often designated by the weight of a solid spherical shot
     that  will  fit the bore; as, a 12-pounder; pieces of ordnance that
     project  shell  or  hollow  shot  are designated by the diameter of
     their bore; as, a 12 inch mortar or a 14 inch shell gun; small arms
     are  designated by hundredths of an inch expressed decimally; as, a
     rifle of .44 inch caliber.

   2.  The  diameter  of  round  or  cylindrical  body, as of a bullet or

   3. Fig.: Capacity or compass of mind. Burke.
   Caliber compasses. See Calipers. -- Caliber rule, a gunner's calipers,
   an  instrument having two scales arranged to determine a ball's weight
   from  its diameter, and conversely. -- A ship's caliber, the weight of
   her armament.


   Cal"i*brate  (?),  v.  i.  To  ascertain  the  caliber  of,  as  of  a
   thermometer  tube;  also,  more generally, to determine or rectify the
   graduation of, as of the various standards or graduated instruments.


   Cal`ibra"*tion  (?),  n. The process of estimating the caliber a tube,
   as  of  a  thermometer  tube,  in  order  to graduate it to a scale of
   degrees;  also, more generally, the determination of the true value of
   the spaces in any graduated instrument.


   Cal"ice (?), n. [See Calice.] See Chalice.


   Cal"i*cle  (?),  n. [L. caliculus a small cup, dim. of calicis, a cup.
   Cf  Calycle.]  (Zo\'94l.) (a) One of the small cuplike cavities, often
   with  elevated  borders,  covering the surface of most corals. Each is
   formed  by  a  polyp.  (b) One of the cuplike structures inclosing the
   zooids  of certain hydroids. See Campanularian. [Written also calycle.
   See Calycle.]


   Cal"i*co  (?), n.; pl. Calicoes (#). [So called because first imported
   from Calicut, in the East Indies: cf. F. calicot.]

   1.  Plain white cloth made from cotton, but which receives distinctive
   names  according  to  quality  and  use,  as, super calicoes, shirting
   calicoes, unbleached calicoes, etc. [Eng.]

     The importation of printed or stained colicoes appears to have been
     coeval  with  the  establishment  of  the  East India Company. Beck
     (Draper's Dict. ).

   2. Cotton cloth printed with a figured pattern.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e United States the term calico is applied only
     to the printed fabric.

   Calico   bass   (Zo\'94l.),   an  edible,  fresh-water  fish  (Pomoxys
   sparaides)  of  the rivers and lake of the Western United States (esp.
   of  the  Misissippi  valley.),  allied to the sunfishes, and so called
   from  its  variegated  colors;  -- called also calicoback, grass bass,
   strawberry  bass, barfish, and bitterhead. -- Calico printing, the art
   or process of impressing the figured patterns on calico.


   Cal"i*co (?), a. Made of, or having the apperance of, calico; -- often
   applied  to  an  animal,  as  a  horse or cat, on whose body are large
   patches  of a color strikingly different from its main color. [Colloq.
   U. S.]


   Cal"i*co*back`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  calico  bass.  (b)  An
   hemipterous  insect  (Murgantia histrionica) which injures the cabbage
   and  other  garden  plants;  --  called  also calico bug and harlequin
   cabbage bug.

                           Calicular, a. Caliculate

   Ca*lic"u*lar (?), a. Ca*lic"u*late (?), a. Relating to, or resembling,
   a cup; also improperly used for calycular, calyculate.


   Cal"id  (?),  a.  [L.  calidus,  fr.  calere to be hot.] Hot; burning;
   ardent. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Ca*lid"i*ty (?), n. Heat. [Obs.]


   Cal"i*duct (?), n. [See Caloriduct.] A pipe or duct used to convey hot
   air or steam.

     Subterranean caliducts have been introduced. Evelyn.

                              Calif, n., Califate

   Ca"lif  (?),  n.,  Cal"i*fate (?), n., etc. Same as Caliph, Caliphate,


   Cal`i*for"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to California. -- n. A native
   or inhabitant of California.


   Cal`i*ga"tion (?), n. [L. caligatio, fr. caligare to emit vapor, to be
   dark,  from  caligo  mist, darkness.] Dimness; cloudiness. [R.] Sir T.


   Ca*lig`i*nos"ity  (?),  n.  [L.  caliginosus  dark.  See  Caligation.]
   Darkness. [R.] G. Eliot.


   Ca*lig"i*nous  (?),  a.  [L. caliginosus; cf. F. caligineux.] Affected
   with darkness or dimness; dark; obscure. [R.] Blount.

     The caliginous regions of the air. Hallywell.

   -- Ca*lig"i*nous*ly, adv. -- Ca*lig"i*nous*ness, n.


   Ca*li"go (?), n. [L., darkness.] (Med.) Dimness or obscurity of sight,
   dependent upon a speck on the cornea; also, the speck itself.


   Cal`i*graph"ic (?), a. See Calligraphic.


   Ca*lig"ra*phy (?), n. See Caligraphy.


   Ca"lin  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. Malay kelany tin, or fr. Kala'a, a town in
   India,  fr.  which  it  came.]  An alloy of lead and tin, of which the
   Chinese make tea canisters.


   Cal`i*pash"   (?),  n.  [F.  carapace,  Sp.  carapacho.  Cf  Calarash,
   Carapace.]  A  part  of  a turtle which is next to the upper shell. It
   contains  a  fatty  and gelatinous substance of a dull greenish tinge,
   much esteemed as a delicacy in preparations of turtle.


   Cal"i*pee  (?), n. [See Calipash] A part of a turtle which is attached
   to  the lower shell. It contains a fatty and gelatinous substance of a
   light yellowish color, much esteemed as a delicacy. Thackeray.


   Cal"i*pers  (?),  n.  pl.  [Corrupted  from  caliber.]  An instrument,
   usually  resembling  a pair of dividers or compasses with curved legs,
   for  measuring  the diameter or thickness of bodies, as of work shaped
   in  a  lathe  or  planer,  timber,  masts,  shot, etc.; or the bore of
   firearms,  tubes,  etc.;  -- called also caliper compasses, or caliber
   compasses.  Caliper  square,  a  draughtsman's  or  mechanic's square,
   having  a graduated bar and adjustable jaw or jaws. Knight. -- Vernier
   calipers. See Vernier.


   Ca"liph (?), n. [OE. caliphe, califfe, F. calife (cf. Sp. califa), fr.
   Ar. khal\'c6fan successor, fr. khalafa to succed.] Successor or vicar;
   --  a  title  of  the  successors  of  Mohammed  both  as temporal and
   spiritual  rulers,  now  used by the sultans of Turkey, [Writting also


   Cal"i*phate  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  califat.]  The  office,  dignity,  or
   government of a caliph or of the caliphs.


   Ca*lip"pic   (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  Calippus,  an  Athenian
   astronomer.  Calippic  period, a period of seventy-six years, proposed
   by  Calippus,  as  an improvement on the Metonic cycle, since the 6940
   days  of  the  Metonic cycle exceeded 19 years by about a quarter of a
   day, and exceeded 235 lunations by something more.

                                 Calisaya bark

   Cal`i*sa"ya  bark  (?). A valuable kind of Peruvian bark obtained from
   the Cinchona Calisaya, and other closely related species.


   Cal`is*the"ne*um,  n.  [NL.]  A gymnasium; esp. one for light physical
   exercise by women and children.


   Cal`is*then"is (?), a. [Gr. Of or pertaining to calisthenics.


   Cal`is*then"ics  (?),  n.  The  science, art, or practice of healthful
   exercise  of the body and limbs, to promote strength and gracefulness;
   light gymnastics.


   Cal"i*ver  (?), n. [Corrupted fr. caliber.] An early form of hand gun,
   variety  of  the  arquebus;  originally a gun having a regular size of
   bore. [Obs.] Shak.


   Ca"lix (?), n. [L.] A cup. See Calyx.


   Calk  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. &p. p. Calked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calking.]
   [Either corrupted fr. F. calfater (cf. Pg. calafetar, Sp. calafetear),
   fr.  Ar.  qalafa  to  fill up crevices with the fibers of palm tree or
   moss;  or  fr.  OE. cauken to tred, through the French fr. L. calcare,
   fr. calx heel. Cf. Calk to copy, Inculcate.]

   1. To drive tarred oakum into the seams between the planks of (a ship,
   boat,  etc.), to prevent leaking. The calking is completed by smearing
   the seams with melted pitch.

   2.  To  make  an  indentation in the edge of a metal plate, as along a
   seam in a steam boiler or an iron ship, to force the edge of the upper
   plate hard against the lower and so fill the crevice.


   Calk (?), v. t. [E.calquer to trace, It. caicare to trace, to trample,
   fr.  L. calcare to trample, fr. calx heel. Cf. Calcarate.] To copy, as
   a drawing, by rubbing the back of it with red or black chalk, and then
   passing  a  blunt  style  or  needle  over the lines, so as to leave a
   tracing  on the paper or other thing against which it is laid or held.
   [Writting also calque]

   Page 205


   Calk (?), n. [Cf. AS calc shoe, hoof, L. calx, calcis, hel, c\'84lcar,

   1.  A  sharp-pointed piece or iron or steel projecting downward on the
   shoe  of  a  nore  or  an  ox, to prevent the animal from slipping; --
   called also calker, calkin.

   2.  An  instrument  with  sharp  points, worn on the sole of a shoe or
   boot, to prevent slipping.


   Calk (?), v. i.

   1.  To furnish with calks, to prevent slipping on ice; as, to calk the
   shoes of a horse or an ox.

   2.  To wound with a calk; as when a horse injures a leg or a foot with
   a calk on one of the other feet.


   Calk"er (?), n.

   1. One who calks.

   2. A calk on a shoe. See Calk, n., 1.


   Calk"in (?), n. A calk on a shoe. See Calk, n., 1.


   Calk"ing  (?),  n.  The  act  or  process of making seems tight, as in
   ships,  or  of  furnishing  with  calks,  as  a shoe, or copying, as a
   drawing.  Calking  iron,  a tool like a chisel, used in calking ships,
   tightening seams in ironwork, etc.

     Their left hand does the calking iron guide. Dryden.


   Call  (?), v. i. [imp.& p. p. Called (?); p. r. & vb. n. Calling] [OE.
   callen,  AS.  ceallin; akin to Icel & Sw. kalla, Dan. kalde, D. kallen
   to talk, prate, Gr. gar to praise. Cf. Garrulous.]

   1. To command or request to come or be present; to summon; as, to call
   a servant.

     Call hither Clifford; bid him come amain Shak.

   2.  To  summon to the discharge of a particular duty; to designate for
   an  office,  or  employment,  especially  of a religious character; --
   often  used  of  a  divine  summons; as, to be called to the ministry;
   sometimes,  to  invite;  as,  to call a minister to be the pastor of a

     Paul . . . called to be an apostle Rom. i. 1.

     The  Holy  Ghost  said,  Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work
     whereunto I have called them. Acts xiii. 2.

   3.  To  invite or command to meet; to convoke; -- often with together;
   as, the President called Congress together; to appoint and summon; as,
   to call a meeting of the Board of Aldermen.

     Now call we our high court of Parliament. Shak.

   4.  To  give  name to; to name; to address, or speak of, by a specifed

     If you would but call me Rosalind. Shak.

     And  God  called  the  light Day, and the darkness he called Night.
     Gen. i. 5.

   5.  To  regard or characterize as of a certain kind; to denominate; to

     What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common. Acts x. 15.

   6.  To  state,  or estimate, approximately or loosely; to characterize
   without  strict  regard to fact; as, they call the distance ten miles;
   he called it a full day's work.

     [The] army is called seven hundred thousand men. Brougham.

   7. To show or disclose the class, character, or nationality of. [Obs.]

     This speech calls him Spaniard. Beau. & Fl.

   8.  To  utter  in  a loud or distinct voice; -- often with off; as, to
   call,  or  call  off,  the  items of an account; to call the roll of a
   military company.

     No parish clerk who calls the psalm so clear. Gay.

   9. To invoke; to appeal to.

     I call God for a witness. 2 Cor. i. 23 [Rev. Ver. ]

   10. To rouse from sleep; to awaken.

     If  thou canst awake by four o' the clock. I prithee call me. Sleep
     hath seized me wholly. Shak.

   To  call  a  bond,  to give notice that the amount of the bond will be
   paid.  --  To call a party (Law), to cry aloud his name in open court,
   and  command  him  to  come  in  and  perform  some duty requiring his
   presence  at the time on pain of what may befall him. -- To call back,
   to  revoke  or retract; to recall; to summon back. -- To call down, to
   pray  for, as blessing or curses. -- To call forth, to bring or summon
   to action; as, to call forth all the faculties of the mind. -- To call
   in, (a) To collect; as, to call in debts or money; ar to withdraw from
   cirulation;  as,  to  call  in  uncurrent coin. (b) To summon to one's
   side; to invite to come together; as, to call in neighbors. -- To call
   (any  one) names, to apply contemptuous names (to any one). -- To call
   off, to summon away; to divert; as, to call off the attention; to call
   off  workmen  from  their employment. -- To call out. (a) To summon to
   fight;  to  challenge. (b) To summon into service; as, to call out the
   militia.  -- To call over, to recite separate particulars in order, as
   a  roll  of names. -- To call to account, to demand explanation of. --
   To  call  to  mind,  to  recollect; to revive in memory. -- To call to
   order,  to  request  to  come to order; as: (a) A public meeting, when
   opening  it  for  business. (b) A person, when he is transgressing the
   rules of debate. -- To call to the bar, to admit to practice in courts
   of  law.  -- To call up. (a) To bring into view or recollection; as to
   call  up  the  image  of  deceased friend. (b) To bring into action or
   discussion;  to  demand  the  consideration  of; as, to call up a bill
   before  a  legislative body. Syn. -- To name; denominate; invite; bid;
   summon;  convoke;  assemble;  collect; exhort; warn; proclaim; invoke;
   appeal  to;  designate.  To Call, Convoke, Summon. Call is the generic
   term;  as,  to  call  a  public  meeting. To convoke is to require the
   assembling  of  some organized body of men by an act of authority; as,
   the king convoked Parliament. To summon is to require attendance by an
   act more or less stringent anthority; as, to summon a witness.


   Call, v. i.

   1.  To  speak  in  loud  voice;  to  cry  out;  to address by name; --
   sometimes with to.

     You must call to the nurse. Shak.

     The angel of God called to Hagar. Gen. xxi. 17.

   2. To make a demand, requirement, or request.

     They called for rooms, and he showed them one. Bunyan.

   3.  To  make a brief visit; also, to stop at some place designated, as
   for orders.

     He ordered her to call at the house once a week. Temple.

   To  call  for  (a)  To  demand;  to  require;  as,  a  crime calls for
   punishment;  a  survey, grant, or deed calls for the metes and bounds,
   or  the  quantity  of  land,  etc., which it describes. (b) To give an
   order  for; to request. "Whenever the coach stopped, the sailor called
   for  more  ale."  Marryat.  -- To call on, To call upon, (a) To make a
   short  visit to; as, call on a friend. (b) To appeal to; to invite; to
   request  earnestly; as, to call upon a person to make a speech. (c) To
   solicit  payment,  or  make a demand, of a debt. (d) To invoke or play
   to;  to worship; as, to call upon God. -- To call out To call or utter
   loudly; to brawl.


   Call (?), n.

   1. The act of calling; -- usually with the voice, but often otherwise,
   as  by  signs, the sound of some instrument, or by writing; a summons;
   an  entreaty;  an  invitation;  as, a call for help; the bugle's call.
   "Call of the trumpet." Shak.

     I rose as at thy call, but found thee not. Milton.

   2. A signal, as on a drum, bugle, trumpet, or pipe, to summon soldiers
   or sailors to duty.

   3.  (Eccl.)  An  invitation to take charge of or serve a church as its

   4. A requirement or appeal arising from the circumstances of the case;
   a moral requirement or appeal.

     Dependence is a perpetual call upon hummanity. Addison.

     Running into danger without any call of duty. Macaulay.

   5. A divine vocation or summons.

     St.  Paul  himself  believed he did well, and that he had a call to
     it, when he persecuted the Christians. Locke.

   6. Vocation; employment.

     NOTE: [In this sense, calling is generally used.]

   7.  A  short  visit; as, to make a call on a neighbor; also, the daily
   coming of a tradesman to solicit orders.

     The baker's punctual call. Cowper.

   8. (Hunting) A note blown on the horn to encourage the hounds.

   9.  (Naut.)  A whistle or pipe, used by the boatswain and his mate, to
   summon the sailors to duty.

   10. (Fowling) The cry of a bird; also a noise or cry in imitation of a
   bird; or a pipe to call birds by imitating their note or cry.

   11.  (Amer.  Land  Law)  A  reference  to, or statement of, an object,
   course,  distance, or other matter of description in a survey or grant
   reguiring or calling for a carresponding object, etc., on the land.

   12.  The  privilege  to  demand  the  delivery of stock, grain, or any
   commodity,  at  a fixed, price, at or within a certain time agreed on.
   [Brokers' Cant]

   13. See Assessment, 4.
   At  call,  OR  On  call,  liable  to be demanded at any moment without
   previous  notice;  as money on deposit. -- Call bird, a bird taught to
   allure others into a snare. -- Call boy (a) A boy who calls the actors
   in  a  theater;  a  boy  who  transmits the orders of the captain of a
   vessel to the engineer, helmsman, etc. (b) A waiting boy who answers a
   cal,  or cames at the ringing of a bell; a bell boy. -- Call note, the
   note  naturally  used  by  the  male  bird  to  call the female. It is
   artifically applied by birdcatchers as a decoy. Latham. -- Call of the
   house  (Legislative  Bodies),  a calling over the names of members, to
   discover who is absent, or for other purposes; a calling of names with
   a  view to obtaining the ayes and noes from the persons named. -- Call
   to the bar, admission to practice in the courts.


   Cal"la (?), n. [Linn\'91us derived Calla fr. Gr. calla, calsa, name of
   an  unknown  plant,  and  Gr.  (Bot.)  A genus of plants, of the order

     NOTE: &hand; The common Calla of cultivation is Richardia Africana,
     belonging  to  another genus of the same order. Its large spathe is
     pure  white,  surrounding  a  fleshy  spike,  which is covered with
     minute apetalous flowers.


   Cal"lat (?), n. Same as Callet. [Obs.]

     A callat of boundless tongue. Shak.


   Calle  (?),  n.  [See  Caul.]  A kind of head covering; a caul. [Obs.]


   Call"er (?), n. One who calls.


   Cal"ler (?), a. [Scot.]

   1.  Cool;  refreshing;  fresh;  as,  a  caller  day;  the  caller air.

   2. Fresh; in good condition; as, caller berrings.


   Cal"let  (?),  n. [Cf. Ir. & Gael. caile a country woman, strumpet.] A
   trull or prostitute; a scold or gossip. [Obs.] [Written also callat.]


   Cal"let v. i. To rail or scold. [Obs.] Brathwait.


   Cal"lid  (?),  a. [L. callidus, fr. callere to be thick-skinned, to be
   hardened,   to   be  practiced,  fr.  callum,  callus,  callous  skin,
   callosity,  callousness.]  Characterized  by  cunning  or  shrewdness;
   crafty. [R.]


   Cal*lid"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  calliditas.]  Acuteness  of  discernment;
   cunningness; shrewdness. [R.]

     Her eagly-eyed callidity. C. Smart.


   Cal*lig"ra*pher (?), n. One skilled in calligraphy; a good penman.

                         Calligraphic, Calligraphical

   Cal`li*graph"ic (?), Cal`li*graph"ic*al (?), a., [Gr. calligraphique.]
   Of or pertaining to calligraphy.

     Excellence in the calligraphic act. T. Warton.


   Cal*lig"ra*phist (?), n. A calligrapher


   Cal*lig"ra*phy, n. [Gr. calligraphie.] Fair or elegant penmanship.


   Call"ing (?), n.

   1.  The act of one who calls; a crying aloud, esp. in order to summon,
   or to attact the attention of, some one.

   2. A summoning or convocation, as of Parliament.

     The frequent calling and meeting of Parlaiment. Macaulay.

   3.  A  divine summons or invitation; also, the state of being divinely

     Who hath . . . called us with an holy calling. 2 Tim. i. 9.

     Give diligence to make yior calling . . . sure. 2 Pet. i. 10.

   4.  A  naming,  or inviting; a reading over or reciting in order, or a
   call  of  names  with a view to obtaining an answer, as in legislative

   5. One's usual occupation, or employment; vocation; business; trade.

     The humble calling of ter female parent. Thackeray.

   6. The persons, collectively, engaged in any particular professions or

     To impose celibacy on wholy callings. Hammond.

   7. Title; appellation; name. [Obs.]

     I am more proud to be Sir Rowland's son His youngest son, and would
     not change that calling. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Occupation; employment; business; trade; profession; office;
   engagement; vocation.


   Cal*li"o*pe (?), n. [L. Calliope, Gr. kalli- (from kallos beautiful) +

   1.  (Class.  Myth.)  The  Muse that presides over eloquence and heroic
   poetry; mother of Orpheus, and chief of the nine Muses.

   2. (Astron.) One of the astreids. See Solar.

   3.  A musical instrument consisting of series of steam whistles, toned
   to  the  notes of the scale, and played by keys arranged like those of
   an organ. It is sometimes attached to steamboat boilers.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.) A beautuful species of humming bird (Stellula Calliope)
   of California and adjacent regions.


   Cal`li*op"sis  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pref. (Bot.) A popular name given
   to a few species of the genus Careopsis, especially to C. tinctoria of


   Cal`li*pash" (, n. See Calipash.


   Cal`li*pee" (, n. See Calipee.


   Cal`li*pers (, n. pl. See Calipers.


   Cal`li*sec"tion  (?),  n.  [L. callere to be insensible + E. section.]
   Painless vivisection; -- opposed to sentisection. B. G. Wilder.

                        Callisthenic, a., Callisthenics

   Cal`lis*then"ic,   a.,   Cal`lis*then"ics  (?),  n.  See  Calisthenic,


   Cal"li*thump`  (?), n. A somewhat riotous parade, accompanied with the
   blowing  of  tin horus, and other discordant noises; also, a burlesque
   serenade; a charivari. [U. S.]


   Cal`li*thump"i*an   (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  resembling,  a
   callithump. [U. S.]


   Cal*lo"san (?), a. (Anat.) Of the callosum.


   Cal"lose  (?),  a. [See Callous.] (Bot.) Furnished with protuberant or
   hardened spots.


   Cal*los"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Callosities  (#). [L. callasitas; cf. F.
   calost\'82.] A hard or thickened spot or protuberance; a hardening and
   thickening  of  the  skin  or  bark  of  a  part,  eps. as a result of
   continued pressure or friction.


   Cal*lo"sum  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  callosus callous, hard.] (Anat.) The
   great   band   commissural   fibers  which  unites  the  two  cerebral
   hemispheres. See corpus callosum, under Carpus.


   Cal"lot (?), n. A plant coif or skullcap. Same as Calotte. B. Jonson.


   Cal"lous  (?),  a.  [L.  callosus  callous  hard,  fr. callum, callus,
   callous skin: cf. F. calleux.]

   1.  Hardenes;  indurated.  "A  callous  hand."  Goldsmith.  "A callous
   ulcer." Dunglison.

   2.  Hardened  in  mind;  insensible;  unfeeling;  unsusceptible.  "The
   callous diplomatist." Macaulay.

     It  is  an immense blessing to be perfectly callous to ridicule. T.

   Syn.  --  Obdurate;  hard; hardened; indurated; insensible; unfeeling;
   unsusceptible. See Obdurate. -- Cal"lous*ly, adv. -- Cal"lous*ness, n.

     A callousness and numbness of soul. Bentley.


   Cal"low  (?),  a.  [OE. calewe, calu, bald, AS. calu; akin to D. kaal,
   OHG. chalo, G. Kuhl; cf. L. calvus.]

   1. Destitute of feathers; naked; unfledged.

     An in the leafy summit, spied a nest, Which, o'er the callow young,
     a sparrow pressed. Dryden.

   2. Immature; boyish; "green"; as, a callow youth.

     I perceive by this, thou art but a callow maid. Old Play [1675].


   Cal*low" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) [Named from its note.] A kind of duck. See
   Old squaw.


   Cal"lus (?), n. [L. See Callous.]

   1.  (Med.)  (a)  Same  as  Callosity.  (b  The  material  of repair in
   fractures  of  bone; a substance exuded at the site of fracture, which
   is  at  first  soft or cartilaginous in consistence, but is ultimately
   converted into true bone and unites the fragments into a single piece.

   2. (Hort.) The new formation over the end of a cutting, before it puts
   out rootlets.


   Calm (?), n. [OE. calme, F. calme, fr. It. or Sp. calma (cf. Pg. calma
   heat), prob. fr. LL. cauma heat, fr. Gr. Caustic] Freodom from motion,
   agitation, or disturbance; a cessation or abeence of that which causes
   motion  or  disturbance,  as of winds or waves; tranquility; stilness;
   quiet; serenity.

     The wind ceased, and there was a great calm. Mark. iv. 39.

     A  calm  before  a storm is commonly a peace of a man's own making.


   Calm,  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Calmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Calming.] [Cf.
   F. calmer. See Calm, n.]

   1. To make calm; to render still or quet, as elements; as, to calm the

     To calm the tempest raised by Eolus. Dryden.

   2. To deliver from agitation or excitement; to still or soothe, as the
   mind or passions.

     Passions which seem somewhat calmed. 

   Syn.  --  To still; quiet; appease; ally; pacigy; tranquilize; soothe;
   compose; assuage; check; restrain.


   Calm (?), a. [compar. Calmer (?); super. Calmest (?)]

   1.  Not  stormy;  without  motion, as of winds or waves; still; quiet;
   serene; undisturbed. "Calm was the day." Spenser.

     Now all is calm, and fresh, and still. Bryant.

   2.  Undisturbed  by  passion  or  emotion;  not  agitated  or excited;
   tranquil;  quiet  in  act or speech. "Calm and sinless peace." Milton.
   "With calm attention." Pope.

     Such  calm  old  age  as conscience pure And self-commanding hearts
     ensure. Keble.

   Syn.   --  Still;  quiet;  undisturbed;  tranquil;  peaceful;  serene;
   composed; unruffled; sedate; collected; placid.


   Calm"er (?), n. One who, or that which, makes calm.


   Calm"ly (?), adv. In a calm manner.

     The gentle stream which calmly flows. Denham.


   Calm"ness,   n.  The  state  of  quality  of  being  calm;  quietness;
   tranquillity; self-repose.

     The gentle calmness of the flood. Denham.

     Hes calmness was the repose of conscious power. E. Everett.

   Syn.   --  Quietness;  quietude;  stillness;  tranquillity;  serenity;
   repose; composure; sedateness; placidity.


   Cal"mucks  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Calmuck. A branch of the Mongolian race
   inbabiting parts of the Russian and Chinese empires; also (sing.), the
   language of the Calmucks. [Written also Kalmucks.]


   Calm"y  (?),  a.  [Fr.  Calm, n.] Tranquil; peaceful; calm. [Poet.] "A
   still and calmy day" Spenser.


   Cal"o*mel  (?),  n.  [Gr.  calom\'82las.]  (Chem.)  Mild  chloride  of
   mercury, Hg


   Cal`o*res"cence  (?),  n. [L. calor heat.] (Physics) The conversion of
   obscure  radiant  heat  info  kight; the transmutation of rays of heat
   into others of higher refrangibility. Tyndall.


   Ca*lor"ic  (?),  n.  [L.  calor heat; cf. F. calorique.] (Physics) The
   principle  of  heat,  or  the agent to which the phenomena of heat and
   combustion  were  formerly  ascribed;  --  not  now used in scientific
   nomenclature, but sometimes used as a general term for heat.

     Caloric expands all bodies. Henry.


   Ca*lor"ic,  a.  Of or pertaining to caloric. Caloric engine, a kind of
   engine operated air.


   Cal`o*ric"ity  (?),  n.  (Physiol.) A faculty in animals of developing
   and preserving the heat nesessary to life, that is, the animal heat.


   Ca*lor"i*duct  (?), n. [L. calor heat (fr. calere to warm) + E. duct.]
   A tube or duct for conducting heat; a caliduct.


   Cal"o*rie  (?), n. [F., fr. L. calor heat.] (Physics) The unit of heat
   according to the Frensc standard; the amount of heat requires to raise
   the  temperature  of  one  kilogram (sometimes, one gram) of water one
   degree centigrade, or from 0Foot pound.


   Ca*lor`i*fa"cient (?), a. (Physiol.) See Calorificient.


   Ca*lor"i*fere  (?), n. [F. calorif\'8are, fr. L. calor heat + ferre to
   bear.] An apparatus for conveying and distributing heat, especially by
   means of hot water circulating in tubes.


   Ca*lor`i*fi"ant (?), a. (Physiol.) See Calorificient.


   Cal`o*rif"ic (?), a. [L. calorificus; calor heat + facere to make; cf.
   F.  calorifique.]  Possessing  the quality of producing heat; heating.
   Calorific  rays,  the  invisible,  heating rays which emanate from the
   sum, and burning and heated bodies.


   Ca*lor`i*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. calorification.] Production of
   heat, esp. animal heat.


   Ca*lor`i*fi"clent  (?), a. (Physiol.) Having, or relating to the power
   of producing heat; -- applied to foods which, being rich in carbon, as
   the  fats,  are  supposed  to  give rise to heat in the animal body by


   Cal`o*rim"e*ter   (?),   n.   [L.   calor   heat   +  -meter;  cf.  F.

   1.  (Physiol.) An apparatus for measuring the amount of heat contained
   in  bodies  or  developed  by  some mechanical or chemical process, as
   friction, chemical combination, combustion, etc.

   2.   (Engineering)  An  apparatus  for  measuring  the  proportion  of
   unevaporated water contained in steam.


   Ca*lor`i*met"ric  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to process of using the

     Satisfactory calorimetric results. Nichol.


   Cal`o*rim"e*try  (?),  n.  (Physics)  Measurement of the quantities of
   heat in bodies.


   Ca*lor`i*mo"tor  (?),  n.  [L.  calor  heat  +  E. motor.] (Physics) A
   voltaic  battery,  having  a  large  surface  of  plate, and producing
   powerful heating effects.

                                Calotte, Callot

   Ca*lotte"  (?),  Cal"lot  (?),  n. [F. calotte, dim. of cale a sort of
   flat  cap.  Cf.  Caul.] A close cap without visor or brim. Especially:
   (a) Such a cap, worn by English serjeants at law. (b) Such a cap, worn
   by the French cavalry under their helmets. (c) Such a cap, worn by the
   clergy  of the Roman Catholic Church. To assume the calotte, to become
   a priest.


   Cal"o*type  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Photog.)  A method of taking photographic
   pictures,  on  paper  sensitized with iodide of silver; -- also called
   Talbotype, from the inventor, Mr. Fox. Talbot.


   Ca*loy"er  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  NGr.  A  monk  of  the Greek Church; a
   cenobite,  anchoret,  or recluse of the rule of St. Basil, especially,
   one on or near Mt. Athos.


   Calque, v. t. See 2d Calk, v. t.

                               Caltrop, Caltrap

   Cal"trop  (?),  Cal"trap (?), n. [OE. calketrappe, calletrappe, caltor
   (in  both senses), fr. AS. collr\'91ppe, calcetreppe, sort of thistle;
   cf.   F.   chaussetrape   star   thistle,   trap,   It.   calcatreppo,
   calcatreppolo,  star  thistle. Perh. from L. calx heel + the same word
   as E. trap. See 1st Trap.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  genus  of  herbaceous  plants  (Tribulus)  of the order
   Zygophylle\'91,  having  a hard several-celled fruit, armed with stout
   spines,  and  resembling the military instrument of the same name. The
   species grow in warm countries, and are often very annoying to cattle.

   2.  (Mil.)  An instrument with four iron points, so disposed that, any
   three of them being on the ground, the other projects upward. They are
   scattered  on  the  ground  where  an  enemy's cavalry are to pass, to
   impede their progress by endangering the horses' feet.


   Ca*lum"ba (?), n. [from kalumb, its native name in Mozambique.] (Med.)
   The  root  of  a  plant  (Jateorrhiza  Calumba,  and probably Cocculus
   palmatus),  indigenous  in  Mozambique.  It has an unpleasantly bitter
   taste,  and  is used as a tonic and antiseptic. [Written also colombo,
   columbo,  and  calombo.]  American  calumba, the Frasera Carolinensis,
   also  called  American  gentian. Its root has been used in medicine as
   bitter tonic in place of calumba.
   Ca*lum"bin  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A bitter principle extracted as a white
   crystalline  substance  from the calumba root. [Written also colombin,
   and columbin] 


   Cal"u*met  (?), n. [F. calumet, fr. L. calamus reed. See Halm, and cf.
   Shawm.] A kind of pipe, used by the North American Indians for smoking
   tobacco. The bowl is usually made of soft red stone, and the tube is a
   long reed often ornamented with feathers.

     Smoked  the  calumet,  the  Peace pipe, As a signal to the nations.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ca lumet is  used as a symbol of peace. To accept
     the  calumet  is to agree to terms of peace, and to refuse it is to
     reject  them.  The  calumet  of  peace  is  used  to seal or ratify
     contracts  and alliances, and as an evidence to strangers that they
     are welcome.


   Ca*lum"ni*ate  (?),  v.  i. [Imp. & p. p. Calumniated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   calumniating.]  [L. calumniatus, p. p. of calumniari. See Calumny, and
   cf.  Challenge, v. t.] To accuse falsely and maliciously of a crime or
   offense, or of something disreputable; to slander; to libel.

     Hatred  unto the truth did always falsely report and calumniate all
     godly men's doings. Strype.

   Syn.   --   To  asperse;  slander;  defame;  vilify;  traduce;  belie;
   bespatter; blacken; libel. See Asperse.


   Ca*lum"ni*ate, v. i. To propagate evil reports with a design to injure
   the  reputation  of  another;  to make purposely false charges of some
   offense or crime.


   Ca*lum`ni*a"tion  (?),  n.  False accusation of crime or offense, or a
   malicious and false representation of the words or actions of another,
   with a view to injure his good name.

     The calumniation of her principal counselors. Bacon.


   Ca*lum`ni*a"tor  (?),  n. [L.] One who calumniates. Syn. -- Slanderer;
   defamer; libeler; traducer.


   Ca*lum"ni*a*to*ry (?), a. Containing calumny; slanderous. Montagu.


   Ca*lum"ni*ous   (?),  a.  [L.  calumniosus.]  Containing  or  implying
   calumny;  false,  malicious,  and injurious to reputation; slanderous;
   as, calumnious reports.

     Virtue itself 'scapes not calumnious strokes. Shak.

   .   Slanderous;   defamatory;   scurrilous;  opprobrious;  derogatory;
   libelous; abusive. -- Ca*lum"ni*ous*ly, adv. -- Ca*lum"ni*ous*ness, n.


   Cal"um*ny  (?),  n.;  pl.  Calumnies  (#).  [L. calumnia, fr. calvi to
   devise  tricks,  deceive;  cf.  F.  calomnie. Cf. Challenge, n.] False
   accusation of a crime or offense, maliciously made or reported, to the
   injury  of  another; malicious misrepresentation; slander; detraction.
   "Infamouse calumnies." Motley.

     Be  thou  as  chaste as ice, as pure as snow, thou shalt not escape
     calumny. Shak.


   Cal*va"ri*a  (?),  n.  [L.  See  Calvary.]  (Anat.)  The  bones of the
   cranium; more especially, the bones of the domelike upper portion.


   Cal"va*ry  (?),  n.  [L.  calvaria  a  bare skull, fr. calva the scalp
   without hair. fr. calvus bald; cf. F. calvaire.]

   1.  The  place  where Christ was crucified, on a small hill outside of
   Jerusalem. Luke xxiii. 33.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e La tin ca lvaria is  a  tr anslation of the Greek

   Dr. W. Smith.

   2.  A  representation  of the crucifixion, consisting of three crosses
   with  the  figures  of Christ and the thieves, often as large as life,
   and  sometimes  surrounded  by  figures  of  other personages who were
   present at the crucifixion.

   3. (Her.) A cross, set upon three steps; -- more properly called cross


   Calve  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Calved 3; p. pr. & vb. n. Calving.]
   [AS. cealfian. See Calf.]

   1. To bring forth a calf. "Their cow calveth." Job xxi. 10.

   2. To bring forth young; to produce offspring.

     Canst thou mark when the hinds do calve? Job xxxix. 1.

     The grassy clods now calved. Molton.


   Cal"ver (?), v. i.

   1. To cut in slices and pickle, as salmon. [Obs.]

     For a change, leave calvered salmon and eat sprats. Massinger.

   2. To crimp; as, calvered salmon. Nares.


   Cal"ver,  v.  i.  To  bear,  or be susceptible of, being calvered; as,
   grayling's flesh will calver. Catton.


   Calves"*snout (?), n. (Bot.) Snapdragon.


   Cal"vin*ism  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. Calvinisme.] The theological tenets or
   doctrines of John Calvin (a French theologian and reformer of the 16th
   century) and his followers, or of the so-called calvinistic churches.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e di stinguishing doctrines of this system, usually
     termed  the  five  points  of  Calvinism, are original sin or total
     depravity,   election  or  predestination,  particular  redemption,
     effectual  calling, and the perseverance of the saints. It has been
     subject  to many variations and modifications in different churches
     and at various times.


   Cal"vin*ist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  Calviniste.]  A follower of Calvin; a
   believer in Calvinism.

                          Calvinistic, Calvinistical

   Cal`vin*is"tic  (?),  Cal`vin*is"tic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to
   Calvin,   or   Calvinism;  following  Calvin;  accepting  or  Teaching
   Calvinism. "Calvinistic training." Lowell.


   Cal"vin*ize (?), v. t. To convert to Calvinism.


   Calv"ish (?), a. Like a calf; stupid. Sheldon.


   Calx  (?),  n.;  pl.  E.  Calxes (#), L. Calces (#). [L. Calx, calcis.
   limestone;  cf.  Gr.  carraic rock Gael. carraig, W. careg, stone. Cf.

   1.  (Chem.) (a) Quicklime. [Obs.] (b) The substance which remains when
   a  metal or mineral has been subjected to calcination or combustion by
   heat, and which is, or may be, reduced to a fine powder.

     NOTE: &hand; Metallic calxes are now called oxides.

   2. Broken and refuse glass, returned to the post.

                         Calycifloral, callyciflorous

   Ca*lyc`i*flo"ral  (?),  cal*lyc`i*flo"rous  (?),  a. [L. calyx, -ycis,
   calyx  +  flos,  floris, flower.] (Bot.) Having the petals and stamens
   adnate to the calyx; -- applied to a subclass of dicotyledonous plants
   in the system of the French botanist Candolle.


   Ca*lyc"i*form  (?),  a.  [L.  calyx,  calycis,  calyx + -form.] (Bot.)
   Having the form or appearance of a calyx.

                              Calycinal, Calycine

   Ca*lyc"i*nal  (?),  Cal"y*cine  (?),  a. (Bot.) Pertaining to a calyx;
   having the nature of a calyx.


   Cal"y*cle (?), n. [L.calyculus small flower bud, calyx, dim. of calyx.
   See Calyx, and cf. Calicle.] (Bot.) A row of small bracts, at the base
   of the calyx, on the outside.


   Cal"y*cled (?), a. (Bot.) Calyculate.


   Cal`y*co*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of acalephs
   of  which  Lucernaria  is  the type. The body is cup-shaped with eight
   marginal  lobes bearing clavate tentacles. An aboral sucker serves for
   attachment.  The interior is divided into four large compartments. See


   Ca*lyc"u*lar  (?),  a. (Bot.) Pertaining to, or resembling, the bracts
   of a calycle.

                            Calyculate, Calyculated

   Ca*lyc"u*late  (?),  Ca*lyc"u*la`ted  (?),  a.  (Bot.) Having a set of
   bracts resembling a calyx.


   Ca*lym"e*ne   (?),   n.  [Gr.  (  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus  of  trilobites
   characteristic of the Silurian age.


   Cal"yon  (?),  n.  Flint or pebble stone, used in building walls, etc.


   Ca*lyp"so  (?),  n.  [The  Latinized Greek name of a beautiful nymph.]
   (Bot.)  A  small  and  beautiful  species  of  orchid, having a flower
   variegated  with  purple,  pink,  and yellow. It grows in cold and wet
   localities  in  the  northern  part  of the United States. The Calypso
   borealis is the only orchid which reaches 68 N.


   Ca*lyp"tra  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Bot.)  A  little hood or veil,
   resembling  an extinguisher in form and position, covering each of the
   small  flaskike capsules which contain the spores of mosses; also, any
   similar covering body.


   Ca*lyp"tri*form  (?),  a.  [Calyptra  +  -form.]  Having  the  form  a
   calyptra, or extinguisher.


   Ca"lyx  (?), n.; pl. E. Calyxes (#), L. Calyces (#). [L. calyx, -ycis,
   fr. Gr. Chalice Helmet.]

   1. (Bot.) The covering of a flower. See Flower.

     NOTE: &hand; The calyx is usually green and foliaceous, but becomes
     delicate  and  petaloid  in  such  flowers  as  the anemone and the
     four-o'clock. Each leaf of the calyx is called a sepal.

   2.  (Anat.)  A  cuplike  division  of  the pelvis of the kidney, which
   surrounds one or more of the renal papil\'91.


   Cal*zoons" (?), n. pl. [F. cale\'87ons (cf. It. calzoni breeches), fr.
   L. calceus shoe.] Drawers. [Obs.]


   Cam  (?), n. [Dan. kam comb, ridge; or cf. W. Gael., and Ir., cam bet.
   See 1st Come.]

   1.  (Med.)  (a)  A turning or sliding piece which, by the shape of its
   periphery  or  face,  or  a groove in its surface, imparts variable or
   intermittent motion to, or receives such motion from, a rod, lever, or
   block  brought  into  sliding or rolling contact with it. (b) A curved
   wedge,  movable about an axis, used for forcing or clamping two pieces
   together.  (c)  A  projecting part of a wheel or other moving piece so
   shaped  as  to  give  alternate  or  variable  motion to another piece
   against which its acts.

   Page 207

     NOTE: &hand; Cams are much used in machinery involving complicated,
     and  irregular  movements,  as  in the sewing machine, pin machine,

   2. A ridge or mound of earth. [Prow. Eng.] Wright.
   Cam  wheel  (Mach.),  a  wheel  with one or more projections (cams) or
   depressions  upon  its periphery or upon its face; one which is set or
   shaped  eccentrically,  so  that  its  revolutions  impart  a  varied,
   reciprocating, or intermittent motion.


   Cam (?), a. [See Kam.] Crooked. [Obs.]


   Ca*ma"ieu (?), n. [F.; of unknown origin. Cf. Cameo.]

   1. A cameo. [Obs.] Crabb.

   2. (Fine Arts) Painting in shades of one color; monochrome. Mollett.


   Ca*mail"  (?),  n.  [F. camail (cf. It. camaglio), fr. L. caput head +
   source of E. mail.]

   1.  (Ancient  Armor)  A  neck  guard  of  chain mall, hanging from the
   bascinet or other headpiece.

   2.  A  hood  of other material than mail; esp. (Eccl.), a hood worn in
   church services, -- the amice, or the like.


   Cam`a*ra*sau"rus  (?),  n.  [NL. fr. Gr. (Paleon.) A genus of gigantic
   American  Jurassic  dinosaurs,  having large cavities in the bodies of
   the dorsal vertebr\'91.


   Ca`ma*ril"la (?), n. [Sp., a small room.]

   1. The private audience chamber of a king.

   2.  A  company  of  secret and irresponsible advisers, as of a king; a
   cabal or clique.


   Cam"ass  (?),  n.  [American  Indian  name.]  (Bot.)  A  blue-flowered
   liliaceous  plant  (Camassia  esculenta)  of northwestern America, the
   bulbs  of  which  are collected for food by the Indians. [Written also
   camas, cammas, and quamash.]

     NOTE: &hand; The Eastern cammass is Camassia Fraseri.


   Cam"ber (?), n. [Of. cambre bent, curved; akin to F. cambrer to vault,
   to  bend,  fr.  L.  camerare to arch over, fr. camera vault, arch. See
   Chamber, and cf. Camerate.]

   1.  (Shipbuilding) An upward convexity of a deck or other surface; as,
   she has a high camber (said of a vessel having an unusual convexity of

   2. (Arch.) An upward concavity in the under side of a beam, girder, or
   lintel;  also,  a  slight  upward  concavity  in  a straight arch. See
   Camber  arch  (Arch.),  an  arch  whose  intrados,  though  apparently
   straight, has a slightly concave curve upward. -- Camber beam (Arch.),
   a beam whose under side has a concave curve upward.


   Cam"ber, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cambered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cambering.]
   To  cut  bend  to  an  upward  curve; to construct, as a deck, with an
   upward curve.


   Cam"ber, v. i. To curve upward.


   Cam"ber*keeled (?), a. (Naut.) Having the keel arched upwards, but not
   actually hogged; -- said of a ship.


   Cam"bi*al (?), a. [LL. cambialis, fr. cambiars. See Change.] Belonging
   to exchanges in commerce; of exchange. [R.]


   Cam"bist  (?),  n.  [F.  cambiste,  It.  cambista,  fr.  L. cambire to
   exchange.  See  Change.]  A banker; a money changer or broker; one who
   deals  in  bills  of  exchange,  or  who  is skilled in the science of


   Cam"bist*ry (?), n. The science of exchange, weight, measures, etc.


   Cam"bi*um  (?),  n. [LL. cambium exchange, fr. L. cambire to exchange.
   It was supposed that cambium was sap changing into wood.]

   1. (Bot.) A series of formative cells lying outside of the wood proper
   and  inside  of  the inner bark. The growth of new wood takes place in
   the cambium, which is very soft.

   2.  (Med.)  A fancied nutritive juice, formerly supposed to orgiginate
   in  the  blood,  to  repair  losses  of the system, and to promote its
   increase. Dunglison.


   Cam"blet (?), n. See Camlet.


   Cam*boge" (?), n. See Gamboge.


   Cam*boose" (?), n. (Naut.) See Caboose.


   Cam"bra*sine (?), n. A kind of linen cloth made in Egypt, and so named
   from its resemblance to cambric.


   Cam"brel (?), n. See Gambrel, n., 2. Wright.


   Cam"bri*a  (?),  n.  The  ancient  Latin  name of Wales. It is used by
   modern poets.


   Cam"bri*an (?), a.

   1. (Geog.) Of or pertaining to Cambria or Wales.

   2.  (Geol.) Of or pertaining to the lowest subdivision of the rocks of
   the  Silurian  or Molluscan age; -- sometimes described as inferior to
   the  Silurian.  It  is named from its development in Cambria or Wales.
   See the Diagram under Geology.


   Cam"bri*an, n.

   1. A native of Cambria or Wales.

   2. (Geol.) The Cambrian formation.


   Cam"bric  (?), n. [OE. camerike, fr. Cambrai (Flemish Kamerik), a city
   of France (formerly of Flanders), where it was first made.]

   1. A fine, thin, and white fabric made of flax or linen.

     He  hath  ribbons  of  all the colors i' the rainbow; . . . inkles,
     caddises, cambrics, lawns. Shak.

   2.  A  fabric  made,  in imitation of linen cambric, of fine, hardspun
   cotton,  often  with  figures of various colors; -- also called cotton
   cambric, and cambric muslin.


   Cam"bro*Brit"on (?), n. A Welshman.


   Came (?), imp. of Come.


   Came  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Scot. came, caim, comb, and OE. camet silver.] A
   slender  rod of cast lead, with or without grooves, used, in casements
   and  stained-glass  windows,  to  hold together the panes or pieces of


   Cam"el  (?),  n.  [Oe. camel, chamel, OF. camel, chamel, F. chameau L.
   camelus,  fr.  Gr.  g\'bem\'bel,  Ar.  jamal.  Cf.  As.  camel, fr. L.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large ruminant used in Asia and Africa for carrying
   burdens  and for riding. The camel is remarkable for its ability to go
   a long time without drinking. Its hoofs are small, and situated at the
   extremities  of  the  toes,  and the weight of the animal rests on the
   callous.  The  dromedary  (Camelus  dromedarius)  has one bunch on the
   back,  while  the  Bactrian  camel (C. Bactrianus) has two. The llama,
   alpaca,  and  vicu\'a4a,  of  South America, belong to a related genus

   2.  (Naut.)  A  watertight structure (as a large box or boxes) used to
   assist  a  vessel  in  passing  over  a  shoal or bar or in navigating
   shallow water. By admitting water, the camel or camels may be sunk and
   attached  beneath  or  at the sides of a vessel, and when the water is
   pumped out the vessel is lifted.
   Camel  bird  (Zo\'94l.),  the ostrich. -- Camel locust (Zo\'94l.), the
   mantis.  --  Camel's  thorn  (Bot.),  a  low, leguminous shrub (Alhagi
   maurorum)  of  the  Arabian  desert, from which exudes a sweetish gum,
   which is one of the substances called manna.
   Cam"el*backed` (?), a. Having a back like a camel; humpbacked. Fuller.

   Ca*me"le*on (?), n. See Chaceleon. [Obs.]


   Ca*mel"li*a  (?),  n. [NL.; -- named after Kamel, a Jesuit who is said
   to  have  brought  it from the East.] (Bot.) An Asiatic genus of small
   shrubs,  often with shining leaves and showy flowers. Camelia Japonica
   is  much cultivated for ornament, and C. Sassanqua and C. Oleifera are
   grown  in China for the oil which is pressed from their seeds. The tea
   plant is now referred to this genus under the name of Camellia Thea.


   Ca*mel"o*pard   (?),   n.   [LL.   camelopardus,   L.  camelopardalus,
   camelopardalis,  fr.  Gr. cam\'82lopard. The camelopard has a neck and
   head  like  a camel, and is spotted like a pard. See Camel, and Pard.]
   (Zo\'94l.) An African ruminant; the giraffe. See Giraffe.


   Came"lot (?), n. See Camelet. [Obs.]


   Cam"els*hair`  (?),  a.  Of camel's hair. Camel's-hair pencil, a small
   brush  used  by  painters  in  water  colors,  made of camel's hair or
   similar  materials.  --  Camel's-hair  shawl.  A name often given to a
   cashmere shawl. See Cashmere shawl under Cashmere.


   Cam"e*o  (?),  n.;  pl.  Cameos  (#). [It cammeo; akin to F. cam\'82e,
   cama\'8beu, Sp. camafeo, LL. camaeus, camahutus; of unknown origin.] A
   carving  in  relief,  esp.  one  on  a small scale used as a jewel for
   personal adornment, or like.

     NOTE: &hand; Mo st cameos are carved in a material which has layers
     of  different  colors,  such  stones  as the onyx and sardonyx, and
     various kinds of shells, being used.

   Cameo  conch  (Zo\'94l.), a large, marine, univalve shell, esp. Cassis
   cameo,  C. rua, and allied species, used for cutting cameos. See Quern


   Cam"e*ra (?), n.; pl. E. Cameras (#), L. Camerae (#). [L. vault, arch,
   LL., chamber. See Chamber.] A chamber, or instrument having a chamber.
   Specifically: The camera obscura when used in photography. See Camera,
   and  Camera  obscura.  Bellows camera. See under Bellows. -- In camera
   (Law),  in  a  judge's  chamber, that is, privately; as, a judge hears
   testimony which is not fit for the open court in camera. -- Panoramic,
   OR  Pantascopic,  camera,  a photographic camera in which the lens and
   sensitized  plate  revolve so as to expose adjacent parts of the plate
   successively  to the light, which reaches it through a narrow vertical
   slit; -- used in photographing broad landscapes. Abney.


   Came"rade (?), n. See Comrade, [Obs.]


   Cam`e*ra*lis"tic  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  finance and public


   Cam`e*ra*lis"tics  (?), n. [Cf. F. cam\'82ralistique, G. kameralistik,
   fr.  L.  camera vault, LL., chamber, treasury.] The science of finance
   or public revenue.

                                 Camera lucida

   Cam"e*ra lu"ci*da (?). [L. camera chamber + L. lucidus, lucida, lucid,
   light.]  (Opt.)  An instrument which by means of a prism of a peculiar
   form,  or  an  arrangement  of mirrors, causes an apparent image of an
   external  object  or  objects  to  appear as if projected upon a plane
   surface,  as of paper or canvas, so that the outlines may conveniently
   traced. It is generally used with the microscope.

                                Camera obscura

   Cam"e*ra  ob*scu"ra  (?).  [LL. camera chamber + L. obscurus, obscura,
   dark.] (Opt.)

   1.  An  apparatus in which the images of extermal objects, formed by a
   convex  lens or a concave mirror, are thrown on a paper or other white
   surface  placed  in  the focus of the lens or mirror within a darkened
   chamber, or box, so that the oulines may be traced.

   2.  (Photog.) An apparatus in which the image of an external object or
   objects  is,  by  means  of  lenses. thrown upon a sensitized plate or
   surface  placed  at  the back or an extensible darkened box or chamber
   variously modifled; -- commonly called simply the camera.


   Cam"er*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Camerated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Camerzting.] [L. cameratus, p. p. of camerare. See Camber.]

   1. To build in the form of a vault; to arch over.

   2. To divide into chambers.


   Cam`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. cameratio.] A vaulting or arching over. [R.]


   Ca`mer*lin"go  (?),  n.  [It.] The papal chamberlain; the cardinal who
   presides  over  the  pope's household. He has at times possessed great
   power. [Written also camerlengo and camarlengo.]


   Cam`e*ro"ni*an  (?),  n.  A  follower  of  the Rev. Richard Cameron, a
   Scotch Covenanter of the time of Charies II.

     \'b5  Cameron and others refused to accept the "indulgence" offered
     the   Presbyterian  clergy,  insisted  on  the  Solemn  league  and
     Covenant,  and  in  1680  declared  Charles II deposed for tyranny,
     breach of faith, etc. Cameron was killed at the battle of Airdmoss,
     but his followers became a denomination (afterwards called Reformed
     Presbyterians)  who refused to recognize laws or institutions which
     they  believed contrary to the kingdom of Christ, but who now avail
     themselves of political rights.


     Cam"is  (?),  n. [See Chemise.] A light, loose dress or robe. [Also
     written camus.] [Obs.]

     All in a camis light of purple silk. Spenser.

                              Camisade, Camisado

     Cam`i*sade"  (?),  Cam`i*sa"do (?), n. [F. camisade a night attack;
     cf.  It.  camiciata.  See Camis.] [Obs.] (Mil.) (a) A shirt worn by
     soldiers  over  their uniform, in order to be able to recognize one
     another  in  a  night attack. (b) An attack by surprise by soldiers
     wearing the camisado.

     Give them a camisado in night season. Holinshed.


     Cam"i*sard (?), n. [F.] One of the French Protestant insurgents who
     rebelled  against  Louis  XIV, after the revocation of the edict of
     Nates;  --  so  called from the peasant's smock (camise) which they


     Cam"i*sa`ted (?), a. Dressed with a shirt over the other garments.


     Cam"i*sole (?), n. [F. See chemise.]

     1. A short dressing jacket for women.

     2. A kind of straitjacket.


     Cam"let  (?),  n. [F. camelot (akin to Sp. camelote, chamelote, It.
     cambellbito,   ciambellotto,  LL.  camelotum,  camelinum,  fr.  Ar.
     khamlat  camlet,  fr. kaml pile, plush. The word was early confused
     with  camel,  camel's  hair  also  being  used  in  making  it. Cf.
     Calamanco]  A  woven  fabric  originally  made of camel's hair, now
     chiefly  of goat's hair and silk, or of wool and cotton. [Sometimes
     written camelot and camblet.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th ey ha ve been made plain and twilled, of sigle warp
     and weft, of double warp, and sometimes with double weft also, with
     thicker yarn.

     Beck (Draper's Dict. )


     Cam"let*ed,  a.  Wavy  or  undulating  like  camlet; veined. Sir T.


     Cam"mas (?), n. (Bot.) See Camass.


     Cam"mock  (?),  n.  [AS.  cammoc.] (Bot.) A plant having long hard,
     crooked  roots, the Ononis spinosa; -- called also rest-harrow. The
     Scandix Pecten-Veneris is also called cammock.

                              Camomile, Chamomile

     Cam"o*mile,  Cham"o*mile  (?),  n.[LL. camonilla, corrupted fr. Gr.
     Humble,  and  Melon.]  (Bot.)  A  genus  of herbs (Anthemis) of the
     Composite  family.  The  common  camomile, A. nobilis, is used as a
     popular  remedy.  Its  flowers  have  a  strong  and fragrant and a
     bitter,  aromatic  taste.  They are tonic, febrifugal, and in large
     doses emetic, and the volatile oil is carminative.


     Ca*mon"flet  (?),  n. [F.] (Mil.) A small mine, sometimes formed in
     the  wall  or  side of an enemy's gallery, to blow in the earth and
     cut off the retreat of the miners. Farrow.

                                Camous, Camoys

     Ca"mous   (?),  Ca"moys  (?),  a.  [F.  camus  (equiv.  to  camard)
     flat-nosed,  fr.  Celtic  Cam croked + suff. -us; akin to L. camur,
     camurus,  croked.]  Flat;  depressed;  crooked; -- said only of the
     nose. [Obs.]


     Ca"moused, (, a. [From Camouse] Depressed; flattened. [Obs.]

     Though my nose be cammoused. B. Jonson


     Ca"mous*ly, adv. Awry. [Obs.] Skelton.


     Camp  (?), n. [F. camp, It. campo, fr. L. campus plant, fleld; akin
     to Gr. Campaing, Champ, n.]

     1.  The  ground or spot on which tents, huts, etc., are erected for
     shelter, as for an army or for lumbermen, etc. Shzk.

     2.  A  collection  of  tents,  huts,  etc.,  for  shelter, commonly
     arranged in an orderly manner.

     Forming a camp in the neighborhood of Boston. W. Irving.

     3. A single hut or shelter; as, a hunter's camp.

     4.  The  company  or  body  of persons encamped, as of soldiers, of
     surveyors, of lumbermen, etc.

     The camp broke up with the confusion of a flight. Macaulay.

     5. (Agric.) A mound of earth in which potatoes and other vegetables
     are  stored for protection against frost; -- called also burrow and
     pie. [Prov. Eng.]

     6.  [Cf.  OE. & AS. camp contest, battle. See champion.] An ancient
     game of football, played in some parts of England. Halliwell.

   Camp  bedstead,  a  light  bedstead that can be folded up onto a small
   space for easy transportation. -- camp ceiling (Arch.), a kind ceiling
   often  used in attics or garrets, in which the side walls are inclined
   inward  at  the  top,  following the slope of the rafters, to meet the
   plane  surface of the upper ceiling. -- Camp chair, a light chair that
   can  be folded up compactly for easy transportation; the seat and back
   are  often  made  of strips or pieces of carpet. -- Camp fever, typhus
   fever. -- Camp follower, a civilian accompanying an army, as a sutler,
   servant,  etc.  --  Camp  meeting,  a religious gathering for open-air
   preaching, held in some retired spot, chiefty by Methodists. It usualy
   last  for  several  days,  during  which those present lodge in tents,
   temporary  houses, or cottages. -- Camp stool, the same as camp chair,
   except  that  the  stool has no back. -- Flying camp (Mil.), a camp or
   body  of  troops  formed  for  rapid motion from one place to another.
   Farrow.  --  To pitch (a) camp, to set up the tents or huts of a camp.
   -- To strike camp, to take down the tents or huts of a camp.


   Camp  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Camped (?); p. pr. & vb n. Camping.] To
   afford rest or lodging for, as an army or travelers.

     Had  our  great palace the capacity To camp this host, we all would
     sup together. Shak.

   Page 208



   Camp, v. i.

   1. To pitch or prepare a camp; to encamp; to lodge in a camp; -- often
   with out.

     They camped out at night, under the stars. W. Irving.

   2.  [See  Camp,  n.,  6]  To  play  the game called camp. [Prov. Eng.]


   Cam*pa"gna (?), n. [It. See Campaing.] An open level tract of country;
   especially  "Campagna  di  Roma." The extensive undulating plain which
   surrounds Rome.

     NOTE: &hand; It s le ngth is  co mmonly st ated to  be about ninety
     miles, and its breadth from twenty-seven to forty miles. The ground
     is  almost  entirely  volcanic,  and  vapors  which  arise from the
     district produce malaria.


   Cam`pa`gnol"  (?),  n.  [F.  , fr. campagne field.] (Zo\'94l.) A mouse
   (Arvicala  agrestis), called also meadow mouse, which often does great
   damage in fields and gardens, by feeding on roots and seeds.


   Cam*paign"  (?),  n.  [F.  campagne, It. campagna, fr. L. Campania the
   level  country  about  Naples,  fr.  campus  field.  See Camp, and cf.
   Champaign, Champagne.]

   1.  An  open  field;  a  large, open plain without considerable hills.
   SeeChampaign. Grath.

   2. (Mil.) A connected series of military operations forming a distinct
   stage  in  a  war;  the  time  during  which  an army keeps the field.

   3.  Political  operations  preceding an election; a canvass. [Cant, U.

   4. (Metal.) The period during which a blast furnace is continuously in


   Cam*paign" (?), v. i. To serve in a campaign.


   Cam*paign"er  (?),  n.  One  who  has  served  in  an  army in several
   campaigns; an old soldier; a veteran.


   Cam*pa"na (?), n. [LL. campana bell. Cf. Campanle.]

   1. (Eccl.) A church bell.

   2. (Bot.) The pasque flower. Drayton.

   3. (Doric Arch.) Same as Gutta.


   Cam*paned"  (?),  a.  (Her.)  Furnished with, or bearing, campanes, or


   Cam`pa*ne"ro  (?),  n.  [Sp.,  a  bellman.] (Zo\'94l.) The bellbird of
   South America. See Bellbird.


   Cam*panes" (?), n. pl. [See Campana.] (Her.) Bells. [R.]


   Cam*pa"ni*a (?), n. [See Campaig.] Open country. Sir W. Temple.


   Cam*pan"i*form   (?),   a.   [LL.   campana   bell  +  -form:  cf.  F.
   companiforme.] Bell-shaped.


   Cam`pa*ni"le (?), n. [It. campanile bell tower, steeple, fr. It. & LL.
   campana  bell.]  (Arch.)  A bell tower, esp. one built separate from a

     Many   of  the  campaniles  od  Italy  are  lofty  and  magnificent
     atructures. Swift.


   Cam`pa*nil"i*form (?), a. [See Campaniform.] Bell-shaped; campanulate;


   Cam`pa*nol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in campanology; a bell ringer.


   Cam`pa*nol"o*gy (?), n. [LL. campana bell _ -logy.] The art of ringing
   bells, or a treatise on the art.


   Cam*pan"u*la  (?),  n.  [LL.  campanula a little bell; dim. of campana
   bell.]  (Bot.)  A  large  genus of plants bearing bell-shaped flowers,
   often of great beauty; -- also called bellflower.


   Cam*pan`u*la"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of pertaining to, or resembling, the
   family of plants (Camponulace\'91) of which Campanula is the type, and
   which  includes  the  Canterbury  bell,  the harebell, and the Venus's


   Cam*pan`u*la"ri*an (?), n. [L. campanula a bell.] (Zo\'94l.) A hydroid
   of  the  family ampanularid\'91, characterized by having the polyps or
   zooids inclosed in bell-shaped calicles or hydrothec\'91.


   Cam*pan"u*late (?), a. (Bot.) Bell-shaped.


   Camp"bell*ite  (?), n. [From Alexander Campbell, of Virginia.] (Eccl.)
   A member of the denomination called Christians or Disciples of Christ.
   They  themselves  repudiate  the  term  Campbellite as a nickname. See
   Christian, 3.

                                Campeachy Wood

   Cam*peach"y  Wood`  (?).  [From  the  bay  of  Campeachy,  in Mexico.]


   Camp"er (?), n. One who lodges temporarily in a hut or camp.

                            Campestral, Campestrian

   Cam*pes"tral  (?),  Cam*pes"tri*an  (?),  a. [L. campester, fr. campus
   field.]  Relating  to an open fields; drowing in a field; growing in a
   field, or open ground.


   Camp"tight`  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Camp,  n., 6.] (O. Eng. Law.) A duel; the
   decision of a case by a duel.


   Cam"phene  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  One  of  a  series of substances C10H16,
   resembling camphor, regarded as modified terpenes.


   Cam*phine"  (?),  n. [From Camphor.] Rectified oil of turpentine, used
   for burning in lamps, and as a common solvent in varnishes.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  al so ap plied to  a  mi xture of  this
     substance  with  three  times its volume of alcohol and sometimes a
     little ether, used as an illuminant.


   Cam"phire (?), n. An old spelling of Camphor.


   Cam"pho*gen  (?), n. [Camphor + -gen: -- formerly so called as derived
   from camphor: cf. F. camphog\'8ane.] (Chem.) See Cymene.


   Cam"phol (?), n. [Camphol + -ol.] (Chem.) See Borneol.


   Cam"phor  (?),  n.  [OE.  camfere,  F.  camphre  (cf. It. camfara, Sp.
   camfara,  alcanfor, LL. camfora, camphara, NGr. k\'bef\'d4r, prob. fr.
   Skr. karp\'d4ra.]

   1.  A  tough,  white,  aromatic resin, or gum, obtained from different
   species  of  the  Laurus  family,  esp.  from Cinnamomum camphara (the
   Laurus  camphara  of  Linn\'91us.).  Camphor, C10H16O, is volatile and
   fragrant,  and  is  used in medicine as a diaphoretic, a stimulant, or

   2.   A   gum   resembing   ordinary  camphor,  obtained  from  a  tree
   (Dryobalanops  camphora) growing in Sumatra and Borneo; -- called also
   Malay camphor, camphor of Borneo, or borneol. See Borneol.

     NOTE: &hand; The name camphor is also applied to a number of bodies
     of  similar  appearance  and properties, as cedar camphor, obtained
     from the red or pencil cedar (Juniperus Virginiana), and peppermint
     camphor, or menthol, obtained from the oil of peppermint.

   Camphor   oil  (Chem.),  name  variously  given  to  certain  oil-like
   products,  obtained especially from the camphor tree. -- Camphor tree,
   a large evergreen tree (Cinnamomum Camphora) with lax, smooth branches
   and shining triple-nerved lanceolate leaves, probably native in China,
   but  now  cultivated in most warm countries. Camphor is collected by a
   process of steaming the chips of the wood and subliming the product.


   Cam"phor (?), v. t. To impregnate or wash with camphor; to camphorate.
   [R.] Tatler.


   Cam`pho*ra"ceous (?), a. Of the nature of camphor; containing camphor.


   Cam"phor*ate (?), v. t. To impregnate or treat with camphor.


   Cam"phor*ate  (?), n. [Cf. F. camphorate.] (Chem.) A salt of camphoric

                            Camphorate, Camporated

   Cam"phor*ate  (?),  Cam"por*a`ted  (?),Combined  or  impregnated  with
   camphor.   Camphorated   oil,  an  oleaginous  preparation  containing
   camphor, much used as an embrocation.


   Cam*phor"ic  (?),  a. [Cf. F. camphorique.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to,
   or  derived  from,  camphor.  Camphoric  acid,  a white crystallizable
   substance, C10H16O4, obtained from the oxidation of camphor.

     NOTE: &hand; Ot her ac id of  camphor are campholic acid, C10H18O2,
     and camphoronic acid, C9H12O5, white crystallizable substances.


   Cam*phret"ic  (?),  a.  [rom  Camphor.] Pertaining to, or derived from
   camphor. [R.]


   Camp"ing (?), n.

   1. Lodging in a camp.

   2. [See Camp, n., 6] A game of football. [Prov. Eng.]


   Cam"pi*on  (?),  n. [Prob. fr. L. campus field.] (Bot.) A plant of the
   Pink  family  (Cucubalus  bacciferus),  bearing  berries  regarded  as
   poisonous.  Bladder  campion,  a  plant  of the Pink family (Cucubalus
   Behen  or Silene inflata), having a much inflated calyx. See Behen. --
   Rose  campion,  a  garden  plant  (Lychnis  coronaria)  with  handsome
   crimsome crimson flowers.


   Cam"pus  (?),  n. [L., a field.] The principal grounds of a college or
   school,  between  the  buildings or within the main inclosure; as, the
   college campus.


   Cam`py*lo*sper"mous   (?),   a.   [Gr.  (Bot.)  Having  seeds  grooved
   lengthwise on the inner face, as in sweet cicely.


   Cam`py*lot"ro*pous  (?), a. [Gr. (Bot.) Having the ovules and seeds so
   curved,  or bent down upon themselves, that the ends of the embryo are
   brought close together.


   Cam"us (?), n. See Camis. [Obs.]


   Cam"wood (?), n. See Barwood.


   Can  (?), an obs. form of began, imp. & p. p. of Begin, sometimes used
   in old poetry.

     NOTE: [See Gan.]

     With gentle words he can faile gree. Spenser.


   Can,  n.  [OE. & AS. canne; akin to D. Kan, G. Kanne, OHG. channa, Sw.
   Kanna, Dan. kande.]

   1. A drinking cup; a vessel for holding liquids. [Shak. ]

     Fill the cup and fill can, Have a rouse before the morn. Tennyson.

   2.  A  vessel  or  case  of  tinned iron or of sheet metal, of various
   forms,  but  usually cylindrical; as, a can of tomatoes; an oil can; a
   milk can.

     NOTE: &hand; A  ca n ma y be  a  cy linder op en at the top, as for
     receiving  the  sliver  from a carding machine, or with a removable
     cover  or stopper, as for holding tea, spices, milk, oysters, etc.,
     or  with  handle  and  spout,  as  for holding oil, or hermetically
     sealed,  in  canning meats, fruits, etc. The name is also sometimes
     given to the small glass or earthenware jar used in canning.


   Can  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Canned (?); p. pr. &vb. n. Canning.] To
   preserve  by  putting  in  sealed  cans  [U.  S.] "Canned meats" W. D.
   Howells.  Canned goods, a general name for fruit, vegetables, meat, or
   fish, preserved in hermetically sealed cans.


   Can (?), v. t. & i.

     NOTE: [The transitive use is obsolete.]

   [imp.  Could  (#).]  [OE.  cunnen,  cannen (1st sing. pres. I can), to
   know,  know  how, be able, AS. cunnan, 1st sing. pres. ic cann or can,
   pl.  cunnon, 1st sing. imp. c\'d4\'ebe (for cun\'ebe); p. p. c\'d4\'eb
   (for  cun\'eb);  akin  to  OS.  Kunnan,  D.  Kunnen,  OHG. chunnan, G.
   k\'94nnen,  Icel. kunna, Goth. Kunnan, and E. ken to know. The present
   tense  I  can  (AS. ic cann) was originally a preterit, meaning I have
   known  or  Learned, and hence I know, know how. \'fb45. See Ken, Know;
   cf. Con, Cunning, Uncouth.]

   1. To know; to understand. [Obs.]

     I can rimes of Rodin Hood. Piers Plowman.

     I can no Latin, quod she. Piers Plowman.

     Let the priest in surplice white, That defunctive music can. Shak.

   2. To be able to do; to have power or influence. [Obs.]

     The will of Him who all things can. Milton.

     For what, alas, can these my single arms? Shak.

     M\'91c\'91nas and Agrippa, who can most with C\'91sar. Beau. & Fl.

   3.  To be able; -- followed by an infinitive without to; as, I can go,
   but  do  not  wish to. Syn. -- Can but, Can not but. It is an error to
   use the former of these phrases where the sens requires the latter. If
   we say, "I can but perish if I go," "But" means only, and denotes that
   this is all or the worst that can happen. When the apostle Peter said.
   "We  can not but speak of the things which we have seen and heard." he
   referred  to a moral constraint or necessety which rested upon him and
   his  associates;  and  the  meaning  was,  We cannot help speaking, We
   cannot  refrain  from  speaking.  This  idea  of  a moral necessity or
   constraint  is  of  frequent  occurrence, and is also expressed in the
   phrase, "I can not help it." Thus we say. "I can not but hope," "I can
   not but believe," "I can not but think," "I can not but remark," etc.,
   in cases in which it would be an error to use the phrase can but.

     Yet  he  could  not  but  acknowledge  to  himself  that  there was
     something   calculated  to  impress  awe,  .  .  .  in  the  sudden
     appearances and vanishings . . . of the masque De Quincey.

     Tom  felt  that  this  was  a  rebuff  for  him,  and could not but
     understand it as a left-handed hit at his employer. Dickens.


   Ca"naan*ite (?), n.

   1. A descendant of Canaan, the son of Ham, and grandson of Noah.

   2.  A Native or inbabitant of the land of Canaan, esp. a member of any
   of  the  tribes  who inhabited Canaan at the time of the exodus of the
   Israelites from Egypt.


   Ca"naan*ite,  n.  [From  an Aramaic word signifying "zeal."] A zealot.
   "Simon the Canaanite." Matt. x. 4.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wa s th e "S imon called Zelotes" (Luke vi. 15),
     i.e., Simon the zealot.



   Ca"naan*i`tish (?), a. Of or pertaining to Canaan or the Canaanites.


   Ca*\'a4a"da  (?),  n. [Sp.] A small ca\'a4on; a narrow valley or glen;
   also, but less frequently, an open valley. [Local, Western U. S.]


   Can"a*da  (?), n. A British province in North America, giving its name
   to  various  plants  and  animals. Canada balsam. See under Balsam. --
   Canada  goose.  (Zo\'94l.) See Whisky Jack. -- Canada lynx. (Zo\'94l.)
   See  Lynx. -- Canada porcupine (Zo\'94l.) See Porcupine, and Urson. --
   Canada  rice  (Bot.)  See  under Rick. -- Canada robin (Zo\'94l.), the
   cedar bird.


   Ca*na"di*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Canada. -- n. A native or
   inhabitant  of  Canada.  Canadian period (Geol.), A subdivision of the
   American  Lower Silurian system embracing the calciferous, Quebec, and
   Chazy  epochs.  This  period  immediately  follows  the  primordial or
   Cambrian  period,  and is by many geologists regarded as the beginning
   of the Silurian age, See the Diagram, under Geology.


   Ca*naille"  (?), n. [F. canaille (cf. It. canaglia), prop. and orig. a
   pack of dogs, fr. L. Canis dog.]

   1. The lowest class of people; the rabble; the vulgar.

   2. Shorts or inferior flour. [Canadian]


   Can"a*kin  (?), n. [Dim. of can.] A little can or cup. "And let me the
   canakin clink." Shak.


   Ca*nal"  (?), n. [F. canal, from L. canalis canal, channel; prob. from
   a  root  signifying  "to  cut";  cf.  D.  kanaal,  fr. the French. Cf.
   Channel, Kennel gutter.]

   1.   An   artificial  channel  filled  with  water  and  designed  for
   navigation, or for irrigating land, etc.

   2.  (Anat.) A tube or duct; as, the alimentary canal; the semicircular
   canals of the ear.
   Canal  boat,  a  boat  for use on a canal; esp. one of peculiar shape,
   carrying  freight,  and  drawn by horses walking on the towpath beside
   the canal. Canal lock. See Lock.

                                  Canal coal

   Can"al coal` (?). See Cannel coal.

                          Canaliculate, Canaliculated

   Can`a*lic"u*late  (?),  Can`a*lic"u*la`ted  (?),  a. [L. canaliculatus
   channeled,  fr.  canaliculus,  dim.  of  canalis. See Canal.] Having a
   channel or groove, as in the leafstalks of most palms.


   Can`a*lic"u*lus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Canaliculi (#). [L.] (Anat.) A minute


   Ca*nal`i*za"tion  (?), n. Construction of, or furnishing with, a canal
   or canals. [R.]


   Ca*nard"  (?),  n.  [F.,  properly,  a duck.] An extravagant or absurd
   report  or  story;  a fabricated sensational report or statement; esp.
   one set afloat in the newspapers to hoax the public.


   Can`a*rese" (?), a. Pertaining to Canara, a district of British India.


   Ca*na"ry  (?),  a.  [F.  Canarie,  L. Canaria insula one of the Canary
   islands, said to be so called from its large dogs, fr. canis dog.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to the Canary Islands; as, canary wine; canary

   2. Of a pale yellowish color; as, Canary stone.
   Canary  grass,  a  grass  of  the  genus  Phalaris  (P.  Canariensis),
   producing  the  seed  used  as  food for canary birds. -- Canary stone
   (Min.),  a  yellow species of carnelian, named from its resemblance in
   color to the plumage of the canary bird. -- Canary wood, the beautiful
   wood of the trees Persea Indica and P. Canariensis, natives of Madeira
   and  the Canary Islands. -- Canary vine. See Canary bird flower, under
   Canary bird.


   Ca*na"ry, n.; pl. Canaries (#).

   1. Wine made in the Canary Islands; sack. "A cup of canary." Shak.

   2. A canary bird.

   3. A pale yellow color, like that of a canary bird.

   4. A quick and lively dance. [Obs.]

     Make you dance canary With sprightly fire and motion. Shak.


   Ca*na"ry  (?),  v.  i. To perform the canary dance; to move nimbly; to
   caper. [Obs.]

     But  to  jig  of a tune at the tongue's end, canary to it with your
     feet. Shak.

                                  Canary bird

   Ca*na"ry  bird`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  singing bird of the Finch
   family  (Serinus  Canarius),  a  native  of the Canary Islands. It was
   brought  to  Europe  in the 16th century, and made a household pet. It
   generally  has  a yellowish body with the wings and tail greenish, but
   in  its wild state it is more frequently of gray or brown color. It is
   sometimes called canary finch.<-- and canary. -->

   Page 209

   Canary  bird flower (Bot.), a climbing plant (Trop\'91olum peregrinum)
   with  canary-colored  flowers  of peculiar form; -- called also canary


   Ca*nas"ter  (?),  n. [Sp. canasta, canastro, basket, fr. L. canistrum.
   See  Canister.]  A  kind  of  tobacco  for  smoking, made of the dried
   leaves,  coarsely  broken; -- so called from the rush baskets in which
   it is packed in South America. McElrath.

                                   Can buoy

   Can" buoy` (?). See under Buoy, n.


   Can"can  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  rollicking  French  dance,  accompanied by
   indecorous or extravagant postures and gestures.


   Can"cel (?), v. i. [Imp. & p. p. Canceled OR Cancelled (; p. pr. & vb.
   n. Canceling OR Cancelling.] [L. cancellare to make like a lattice, to
   strike  or  cross  out  (cf. Fr. canceller, OF. canceler) fr. cancelli
   lattice, crossbars, dim. of cancer lattice; cf. Gr. Chancel.]

   1.  To  inclose  or  surround, as with a railing, or with latticework.

     A  little obscure place canceled in with iron work is the pillar or
     stump at which . . . our Savior was scourged. Evelyn.

   2.  To  shut  out,  as with a railing or with latticework; to exclude.
   [Obs.] "Canceled from heaven." Milton.

   3.  To  cross  and  deface, as the lines of a writing, or as a word or
   figure; to mark out by a cross line; to blot out or obliterate.

     A deed may be avoided by delivering it up to be cancelled; that is,
     to have lines drawn over it in the form of latticework or cancelli;
     the  phrase is now used figuratively for any manner of obliterating
     or defacing it. Blackstone.

   4. To annul or destroy; to revoke or recall.

     The indentures were canceled. Thackeray.

     He  was  unwilling  to  cancel  the interest created through former
     secret  services,  by  being  refractory  on  this occasion. Sir W.

   5. (Print.) To suppress or omit; to strike out, as matter in type.
   Canceled  figures  (Print), figures cast with a line across the face.,
   as  for  use  in arithmetics. Syn. -- To blot out; Obliterate; deface;
   erase;  efface;  expunge;  annul;  abolish;  revoke; abrogate; repeal;
   destroy; do away; set aside. See Abolish.


   Can"cel, n. [See Cancel, v. i., and cf. Chancel.]

   1. An inclosure; a boundary; a limit. [Obs.]

     A  prison is but a retirement, and opportunity of serious thoughts,
     to  a  person  whose spirit . . . desires no enlargement beyond the
     cancels of the body. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  (Print)  (a) The suppression on striking out of matter in type, or
   of a printed page or pages. (b) The part thus suppressed.


   Can`cel*ier"  (?),  v. i. [F. chanceler, OF. canseler, to waver, orig.
   to cross the legs so as not to fall; from the same word as E. cancel.]
   (Falconry) To turn in flight; -- said of a hawk. [Obs.] Nares.

     He  makes  his  stoop;  but wanting breath, is forced To cancelier.

                             Cancelier, Canceleer

   Can`cel*ier"  (?),  Can"cel*eer  (?), n. (Falconry) The turn of a hawk
   upon  the  wing  to  recover  herself,  when she misses her aim in the
   stoop. [Obs.]

     The  fierce  and  eager  hawks, down thrilling from the skies, Make
     sundry canceliers are they the fowl can reach. Drayton.


   Can`cel*la"re*an (?), a. Cancellarean. [R.]


   Can"cel*late (?), a. [L. cancellatus, p. p. of cancellare, See Cancel,
   v. t.]

   1.  (Bot.)  Consisting  of  a  network  of veins, without intermediate
   parenchyma, as the leaves of certain plant; latticelike.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having the surface coveres with raised lines, crossing
   at right angles.


   Can"cel*la`ted (?), a.

   1. Crossbarres; marked with cross lines. Grew.

   2. (Anat.) Open or spongy, as some porous bones.


   Can`cel*la"tion (?), n. [L. cancellatio: cf. F. cancellation.]

   1.  The  act, process, or result of canceling; as, the cansellation of
   certain words in a contract, or of the contract itself.

   2.  (Math.)  The operation of striking out common factora, in both the
   dividend and divisor.


   Can*cel"li (?), n. pl. [L., a lattice. See Cancel, v. t.]

   1. An interwoven or latticed wall or inclosure; latticework, rails, or
   crossbars,  as  around  the  bar  of  a  court of justice, between the
   chancel and the have of a church, or in a window.

   2.  (Anat.)  The  interlacing  osseous plates constituting the elastic
   porous  tissue  of certain parts of the bones, esp. in their articular


   Can"cel*lous  (?),  a. [Cf. L. cancellosus covered with bars.] (Anat.)
   Having a spongy or porous stracture; made up of cancelli; cancellated;
   as, the cancellous texture of parts of many bones.


   Can"cer (?), n. [L. cancer, cancri, crab, ulcer, a sign of the zodiac;
   akin  to  Gr.  karka crab, and prob. Skr. karkara hard, the crab being
   named from its hard shell. Cf. Canner, Chancre.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of decapod Crustacea, including some of the most
   common  shore  crabs  of  Europe  and North America, as the rock crab,
   Jonah crab, etc. See Crab.

   2.  (Astron.)  (a)  The  fourth of the twelve signs of the zodiac. The
   first  point  is  the  northern  limit  of the sun's course in summer;
   hence,  the  sign  of  the summer solstice. See Tropic. (b) A northern
   constellation between Gemini and Leo.

   3. (Med.) Formerly, any malignant growth, esp. one attended with great
   pain  and ulceration, with cachexia and progressive emaciation. It was
   so  called,  perhaps, from the great veins which surround it, compared
   by  the ancients to the claws of a crab. The term it now restricted to
   such  a  growth  made  up  of aggregations of epithelial cells, either
   without support or embedded in the meshes of a trabecular framework.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo ur ki nds of cancers are recognized: (1) Epithelial
     cancer,  or Epithelioma, in which there is no trabecular framework.
     See Epithelioma. (2) Scirrhous cancer, or Hard cancer, in which the
     framework  predominates,  and  the tumor is of hard consistence and
     slow  growth.  (3) Encephaloid, Medullary, or Soft cancer, in which
     the  cellular  element  predominates,  and the tumor is soft, grows
     rapidy,  and  often  ulcerates.  (4)  Colloid  cancer, in which the
     cancerous  structure  becomes  gelatinous. The last three varieties
     are also called carcinoma.

   Cancer  cells,  cells once believed to be peculiar to cancers, but now
   know  to  be epithelial cells differing in no respect from those found
   elsewhere  in  the  body,  and  distinguished  only  by peculiarity of
   location  and grouping. -- Cancer root (Bot.), the name of several low
   plants,  mostly parasitic on roots, as the beech drops, the squawroot,
   etc. -- Tropic of Cancer. See Tropic.


   Can"cer*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Cancerated.] [LL. canceratus
   eaten  by  a  cancer.  See  Cancer.]  To grow into a canser; to become
   cancerous. Boyle.


   Can`cer*a"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  or  state of becoming cancerous or
   growing into a cancer.


   Can"cer*ite  (?),  n. [Cf. F. canc\'82reux.] Like a cancer; having the
   qualities  or  virulence of a cancer; affected with cancer. "Cancerous
   vices." G. Eliot. -- Can"cer*ous*ly, adv. -- Can"cer*ous*ness, n.


   Can"cri*form (?), a. [Cancer + -form; cf. F. cancriforme.]

   1. Having the form of, or resembling, a crab; crab-shaped.

   2. Like a cancer; cancerous.


   Can"crine  (?),  a.  [From  Cancer.]  Having  the qualities of a crab;


   Can"cri*nite (?), n. [Named after Count Cancrin, a minister of finance
   in  Russia.]  (Min.)  A  mineral occurring in hexagonal crystals, also
   massive,  generally  of  a  yellow  color, containing silica, alumina,
   lime, soda, and carbon dioxide.


   Can"croid (?), a. [Cancer + oid.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) Resembling a crab; pertaining to the Cancroidea, one of
   the families of crabs, including the genus Cancer.

   2. Like a cancer; as, a cancroid tumor.


   Cand (?), n. Fluor spar. See Kand.


   Can`de*la"brum  (?)  n.;  pl.  L. Candelabra (#), E. Candelabrums (#).
   [L., fr. candela candle. See candle.]

   1.  (Antiq.)  (a)  A  lamp  stand of any sort. (b) A highly ornamented
   stand  of  marble  or  other  ponderous material, usually having three
   feet, -- frequently a votive offering to a temple.

   2. A large candlestick, having several branches.


   Can`dent  (?),  a.  [L.  candens, p. pr. of cand\'89re to glitter. See
   Candid.]  Heated  to whiteness; glowing with heat. "A candent vessel."


   Can"de*ros  (?),  n.  An East Indian resin, of a pellucid white color,
   from which small ornaments and toys are sometimes made.


   Can*des"cence (?), n. See Inclandescence.


   Can"di*cant (?), a. [L. candicans, p. pr. of candicare to be whitish.]
   Growing white. [Obs.] <-- #sic. glowing white? -->


   Can*did  (?), a. [F. candide (cf. It. candido), L. candidus white, fr.
   cand\'89re to be of a glowing white; akin to accend, incend, to set on
   fire, Skr. chand to shane. Cf. Candle, Incense.]

   1. White. [Obs.]

     The box receives all black; but poured from thence, The stones came
     candid forth, the hue of innocence. Dryden.

   2.  Free  from  undue  bias;  disposed to think and judge according to
   truth  and  justice,  or  without partiality or prejudice; fair; just;
   impartial;  as,  a  candid opinion. "Candid and dispassionate men." W.

   3.  Open;  frank; ingenuous; outspoken. Syn. -- Fair; open; ingenuous;
   impartial; just; frank; artless; unbiased; equitable. -- Candid, Fair,
   Open, Frank, Ingenuous. A man is fair when he puts things on a just or
   equitable  footing;  he  is  candid  when be looks impartially on both
   sides  of  a  subject,  doing  justice  especially  to the motives and
   conduct  of  an  opponent;  he  is open and frank when he declares his
   sentiments  without  reserve; he is ingenuous when he does this from a
   noble  regard  for  truth. Fair dealing; candid investigation; an open
   temper; a frank disposition; an ingenuous answer or declaration.


   Can"di*da*cy  (?),  n.  The  position of a candidate; state of being a
   candidate; candidateship.


   Can"di*date  (?), n. [L. Candidatus, n. (because candidates for office
   in  Rome  were  clothed  in  a  white toga.) fr. candidatus clothed in
   white,  fr. candiduslittering, white: cf. F. candidat.] One who offers
   himself,  or  is  put  forward  by  others, as a suitable person or an
   aspirant  or  contestant  for  an  office,  privilege, or honor; as, a
   candidate  for  the office of governor; a candidate for holy orders; a
   candidate for scholastic honors.


   Can"di*date*ship, n. Candidacy.


   Can"di*da`ting  (?),  n.  The  taking  of the position of a candidate;
   specifically,  the preaching of a clergyman with a view to settlement.
   [Cant, U. S.]


   Can"di*da*ture (?), n. Candidacy.


   Can"did*ly (?), adv. In a candid manner.


   Can"did*ness, n. The quality of being candid.


   Can"died (?), a. [From 1st Candy.]

   1.  Preserved  in or with sugar; incrusted with a candylike substance;
   as, candied fruits.

   2.  (a)  Converted wholly or partially into sugar or candy; as candied
   sirup.  (b)  Conted or more or less with sugar; as, candidied raisins.
   (c) Figuratively; Honeyed; sweet; flattering.

     Let the candied tongue lick absurd pomp. Shak.

   3. Covered or incrusted with that which resembles sugar or candy.

     Will  the  cold  brook,  Candiedwith  ice, caudle thy morning tast?


   Can"di*fy  (?), v. t. OR v. i. [L. candificare; cand\'89re to be white
   + -facere to make.] To make or become white, or candied. [R.]


   Can"di*ot  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  candiote.]  Of or pertaining to Candia;


   Can"dite (?), n. (Min.) A variety of spinel, of a dark color, found at
   Candy, in Ceylon.


   Can"dle  (?),  n.  [OE.  candel,  candel, AS, candel, fr. L. candela a
   (white)  light  made of wax or tallow, fr. cand\'89re to be white. See
   Candid, and cf. Chandler, Cannel, Kindle.]

   1.  A  slender, cylindrical body of tallow, containing a wick composed
   of loosely twisted linen of cotton threads, and used to furnish light.

     How  far that little candle throws his beams! So shines a good deed
     in a naughty world. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Ca ndles ar e us ually ma de by repeatedly dipping the
     wicks  in the melted tallow, etc. ("dipped candles"), or by casting
     or running in a mold.

   2. That which gives light; a luminary.

     By these blessed candles of the night. Shak.

   Candle nut, the fruit of a euphorbiaceous shrub (Aleurites triloba), a
   native  of some of the Pacific islands; -- socalled because, when dry,
   it  will  burn  with  a  bright flame, and is used by the natives as a
   candle. The oil has many uses. -- Candle power (Photom.), illuminating
   power, as of a lamp, or gas flame, reckoned in terms of the light of a
   standard  candle.  Electric candle, A modification of the electric arc
   lamp,  in  which  the carbon rods, instead of being placed end to end,
   are  arranged  side  by  side,  and  at  a  distance  suitable for the
   formation  of the arc at the tip; -- called also, from the name of the
   inventor,  Jablockoff  candle. -- Excommunication by inch of candle, a
   form  of  excommunication  in  which  the  offender is allowed time to
   repent  only  while a candle burns. -- Not worth the candle, not worth
   the  cost  or  trouble.  --  Rush candle, a candle made of the pith of
   certain  rushes,  peeled  except on one side, and dipped in grease. --
   Sale by inch of candle, an auction in which persons are allowed to bid
   only  till  a  small  piece  of  candle  burns out. -- Standard candle
   (Photom.),  a  special  form  of  candle  employed  as  a  standard in
   photometric   measurements;   usually,   a  candle  of  spermaceti  so
   constructed  as  to  burn at the rate of 120 grains, or 7.8 grams, per
   hour. -- To curse by bell, book and candle. See under Bell.

                               Candleberry tree

   Can"dle*ber`ry  tree  (?).  (Bot.)  A  shrub  (the Myrica cerifera, or
   wax-bearing myrtle), common in North America, the little nuts of which
   are  covered  with  a greenish white wax, which was formerly, used for
   hardening   candles;  --  also  called  bayberry  tree,  bayberry,  or


   Can"dle*bomb` (#), n.

   1.  A  small  glass bubble, filled with water, which, if placed in the
   flame of a candle, bursts by expansion of steam.

   2.  A  pasteboard  shell  used  in  signaling.  It  is  filled  with a
   composition which makes a brilliant light when it explodes. Farrow.

                                  Candle coal

   Can"dle coal` (#). See Cannel coal.


   Can"dle*fish`  (#),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A  marine fish (Thaleichthys
   Pacificus),  allied to the smelt, found on the north Pacific coast; --
   called  also  eulachon. It is so oily that, when dried, it may be used
   as a candle, by drawing a wick through it. (b) The beshow.


   Can"dle*hold`er  (#), n. One who, or that which, holds a candle; also,
   one who assists another, but is otherwise not of importance. Shak.


   Can"dle*light`, n. The light of a candle.

     Never went by candlelight to bed. Dryden.


   Can"dle*mas  (#),  n.  [AS.  candelm\'91sse,  candel candle _ m\'91sse
   mass.] The second day of February, on which is celebrated the feast of
   the  Purification of the Virgin Mary; -- so called because the candles
   for the altar or other sacred uses are blessed on that day.


   Can"dle*stick`  (?),  n.  [AS.  candel-sticca;  candel candle + sticca
   stick.] An instrument or utensil for supporting a candle.


   Can"dle*wast`er  (?), n. One who consumes candles by being up late for
   study or dissipation.

     A bookworm, a candlewaster. B. Jonson.


   Can"dock  (?) n. [Prob. fr. can + dock (the plant). Cf. G. kannenkraut
   horsetail,  lit.  "canweed."]  (Bot.)  A  plant  or weed that grows in
   rivers;  a species of of Equisetum; also, the yellow frog lily (Nuphar


   Can"dor  (?),  n.  [Written also candour.] [L. candor, fr. cand\'89re;
   cf. F. candeur. See candid.]

   1.  Whiteness;  brightness;  (as applied to moral conditions) usullied
   purity; innocence. [Obs.]

     Nor yor unquestioned integrity Shall e'er be sullied with one taint
     or spot That may take from your innocence and candor. Massinger.

   2.  A  disposition  to  treat  subjects  with  fairness;  freedom from
   prejudice or disguise; frankness; sincerity.

     Attribute  superior sagacity and candor to those who held that side
     of the question. Whewell.


   Can"droy  (?), n. A machine for spreading out cotton cloths to prepare
   them for printing.


   Can"dy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Candied (?); p. pr & vb. n. Candying.]
   [F.  candir (cf. It. candire, Sp. az\'a3car cande or candi), fr. Ar. &
   Pers.  qand,  fr.  Skr. Kha\'c9\'c8da piece, sugar in pieces or lumps,
   fr. kha\'c9\'c8, kha\'c8 to break.]

   1. To conserve or boil in sugar; as, to candy fruits; to candy ginger.

   2.  To  make  sugar  crystals of or in; to form into a mass resembling
   candy; as, to candy sirup.

   3.  To  incrust with sugar or with candy, or with that which resembles
   sugar or candy.

     Those frosts that winter brings Which candy every green. Drayson.

   Page 210


   Can"dy (?), v. i.

   1. To have sugar crystals form in or on; as, fruits preserved in sugar
   candy after a time.

   2. To be formed into candy; to solidify in a candylike form or mass.


   Can"dy n. [F. candi. See Candy, v. t.] A more or less solid article of
   confectionery  made  by  boiling  sugar  or  molasses  to  the desired
   consistency,  and  than  crystallizing,  molding,  or  working  in the
   required  shape.  It  is  often  flavored  or  colored,  and sometimes
   contains fruit, nuts, etc.


   Candy,  n. [Mahratta kha\'c9\'c8\'c6, Tamil ka\'c9\'c8i.] A weight, at
   Madras 500 pounds, at Bombay 560 pounds.


   Can"dy*tuft`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  An  annual  plant of the genus Iberis,
   cultivated  in  gardens.  The  name  was  originally  given  to the I.
   umbellata, first, discovered in the island of Candia.


   Cane  (?),  n. [OE. cane, canne, OF. cane, F. canne, L. canna, fr. Gr.
   q\'beneh reed. Cf. Canister, canon, 1st Cannon.]

   1.  (Bot.)  (a)  A  name  given  to several peculiar palms, species of
   Calamus  and  D\'91manorops,  having very long, smooth flexible stems,
   commonly called rattans. (b) Any plant with long, hard, elastic stems,
   as reeds and bamboos of many kinds; also, the sugar cane. (c) Stems of
   other plants are sometimes called canes; as, the canes of a raspberry.

     Like light canes, that first rise big and brave. B. Jonson.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e So uthern Un ited St ates gr eat ca ne is the
     Arundinaria macrosperma, and small cane is. A. tecta.

   2.  A  walking stick; a staff; -- so called because originally made of
   one the species of cane.

     Stir the fire with your master's cane. Swift.

   3. A lance or dart made of cane. [R.]

     Judgelike thou sitt'st, to praise or to arraign The flying skirmish
     of the darted cane. Dryden.

   4. A local European measure of length. See Canna.
   Cane  borer  (Zo\'94.),  A  beetle  (Oberea  bimaculata) which, in the
   larval  state,  bores into pith and destroy the canes or stalks of the
   raspberry,  blackberry,  etc.  -- Cane mill, a mill for grinding sugar
   canes, for the manufacture of sugar. -- Cane trash, the crushed stalks
   and other refuse of sugar cane, used for fuel, etc.


   Cane (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caning.]

   1. To beat with a cane. Macaulay.

   2. To make or furnish with cane or rattan; as, to cane chairs.


   Cane"brake (?), n. A thicket of canes. Ellicott.


   Caned (?), a. [Cf. L. canus white.] Filled with white flakes; mothery;
   -- said vinegar when containing mother. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Ca*nel"la   (?),  n.  [LL.  (OE.  canel,  canelle,  cinnamon,  fr.  F.
   cannelle),  Dim.  of  L.  canna  a reed. Canella is so called from the
   shape  of  the  rolls  of  prepared bark. See Cane.] (Bot.) A genus of
   trees of the order Canellace\'91, growing in the West Indies.

     NOTE: &hand; The principal species is Canella alba, and its bark is
     a  spice  and  drug  exported  under the names of wild cinnamon and
     whitewood bark.


   Ca*nes"cent  (?), a. [L. canescens, p. pr. of canescere, v. inchoative
   of canere to be white.] Growing white, or assuming a color approaching
   to white.

                                   Can hook

   Can" hook` (?). A device consisting of a short rope with flat hooks at
   each end, for hoisting casks or barrels by the ends of the staves.


   Can*nic"u*la  (?), n. [L. canicula, lit., a little dog, a dim of canis
   dog; cf. F. canicule.] (Astron.) The Dog Star; Sirius.


   Ca*nic"u*lar  (?), a. [L. canicularis; cf. F. caniculaire.] Pertaining
   to,  or  measured,  by the rising of the Dog Star. Canicular days, the
   dog days, See Dog days. -- Canicular year, the Egyptian year, computed
   from one heliacal rising of the Dog Star to another.


   Can"i*cule (?), n. Canicula. Addison.


   Ca*ni"nal (?), a. See Canine, a.


   Ca*nine" (?), a. [L. caninus, fr. canis dog: cf. F. canin. See Hound.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  family Canid\'91, or dogs and wolves;
   having the nature or qualities of a dog; like that or those of a dog.

   2.  (Anat.)  Of  or  pertaining  to the pointed tooth on each side the
   Canine  appetite,  a  morbidly  voracious appetite; bulimia. -- Canine
   letter, the letter r. See R. -- Canine madness, hydrophobia. -- Canine
   toth,  a  toth  situated  between  the  incisor and bicuspid teeth, so
   called  because  well developen in dogs; usually, the third tooth from
   the  front on each side of each jaw; an eyetooth, or the corresponding
   tooth in the lower jaw.


   Ca*nine", n. (Anat.) A canine tooth.


   Ca"nis  (?),  n.;  pl.  Canes  3.  [L.,  a dog.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   carnivorous  mammals,  of the family Canid\'91, including the dogs and
   wolves. Canis major [L., larger dog], a constellation to the southeast
   of  Orion,  containing  Sirius  or  the  Dog Star. -- Canis minor [L.,
   smaller  dog],  a  constellation  to  the  east  of  Orion, containing
   Procyon, a star of the first magnitude.


   Can"is*ter  (?),  n.  [L.  canistrum  a  basket  woven  from reeds Gr.
   canistre. See Cane, and Canaster.]

   1. A small basket of rushes, or wilow twigs, etc.

   2. A small box or case for holding tea, coffee, etc.

   3. (Mil.) A kind of case shot for cannon, in which a number of lead or
   iron balls in layers are inclosed in a case fitting the gun; -- called
   also canister shot,


   Can"ker  (?),  n.  [OE. canker, cancre, AS. cancer (akin to D. kanker,
   OHG  chanchar.),  fr. L. cancer a cancer; or if a native word, cf. Gr.
   cancre, F. chancere, fr. L. cancer. See cancer, and cf. Chancre.]

   1.  A  corroding or sloughing ulcer; esp. a spreading gangrenous ulcer
   or  collection  of  ulcers in or about the mouth; -- called also water
   canker, canker of the mouth, and noma.

   2. Anything which corrodes, corrupts, or destroy.

     The cankers of envy and faction. Temple.

   3.  (Hort.)  A  disease incident to trees, causing the bark to rot and
   fall off.

   4.  (Far.) An obstinate and often incurable disease of a horse's foot,
   characterized  by  separation of the horny portion and the development
   of fungoid growths; -- usually resulting from neglected thrush.

   5. A kind of wild, worthless rose; the dog-rose.

     To  put down Richard, that sweet lovely rose. And plant this thorm,
     this canker, Bolingbroke. Shak.

   Black canker. See under Black.


   Can"ker  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Cankered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To affect as a canker; to eat away; to corrode; to consune.

     No lapse of moons can canker Love. Tennyson.

   2. To infect or pollute; to corrupt. Addison.

     A tithe purloined canker the whole estate. Herbert.


   Can"ker, v. i.

   1. To waste away, grow rusty, or be oxidized, as a mineral. [Obs.]

     Silvering will sully and canker more than gliding. Bacom.

   2.  To  be or become diseased, or as if diseased, with canker; to grow
   corrupt; to become venomous.

     Deceit and cankered malice. Dryden.

     As with age his body uglier grows, So his mind cankers. Shak.


   Can"ker-bit` (?), a. Eaten out by canker, or as by canker. [Obs.]

                                 Canker bloom

   Can"ker bloom` (?). The bloom or blossom of the wild rose or dog-rose.

                                Canker blossom

   Can"ker  blos`som  (?).  That which blasts a blossom as a canker does.

     O me! you juggler! you canker blossom! You thief of Love! Shak.


   Can"kered (?), a.

   1. Affected with canker; as, a cankered mouth.

   2.  Affected  mentally  or  morally  as  with canker; sore, envenomed;
   malignant; fretful; ill-natured. "A cankered grandam's will." Shak.


   Can"kered*ly, adv. Fretfully; spitefully.

                                  Canker fly

   Can"ker fly` (?). A fly that preys on fruit.


   Can"ker*ous  (?),  a.  Affecting  like a canker. "Canrerous shackles."

     Misdeem it not a cankerous change. Wordsworth.

                                  Canker rash

   Can"ker  rash"  (?).  (Med.)  A form of scarlet fever characterized by
   ulcerated or putrid sore throat.


   Can"ker*worm` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The larva of two species of geometrid
   moths which are very injurious to fruit and shade trees by eating, and
   often  entirely  destroying,  the  foliage. Other similar larv\'91 are
   also called cankerworms.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e au tumnal species (Anisopteryx pometaria) becomes
     adult  late  in  autumn  (after  frosts)  and in winter. The spring
     species  (A. vernata) remains in the ground through the winter, and
     matures  in  early  spring.  Both  have  winged  males and wingless
     females.  The  larv\'91  are  similar in appearance and habits, and
     beling  to  the  family  of  measuring  worms  or  spanworms. These
     larv\'91  hatch  from  the  eggs when the leaves being to expand in


   Can"ker*y (?), a.

   1. Like a canker; full of canker.

   2. Surly; sore; malignant.


   Can"na (?), n. [It.] A measure of length in Italy, varying from six to
   seven feet. See Cane, 4.


   Can"na  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  reed. See Cane.] (Bot.) A genus of tropical
   plants,  with  large  leaves  and often with showy flowers. The Indian
   shot. (C. Indica) is found in gardens of the northern United States.


   Can"na*bene  (?), n. [From Cannabis.] (Chem.) A colorless oil obtained
   from hemp dy distillation, and possessing its intoxicating properties.


   Can"na*bin  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  pisonous  resin  extracted from hemp
   (Cannabis  sativa,  variety  Indica). The narcotic effects of hasheesh
   are due to this resin.


   Can"na*bine (?), a. [L. cannabinus.] Pertaining to hemp; hempen. [R.]


   Can"na*bis  (?), n. [L., hemp. See Canvas.] (Bot.) A genus of a single
   species  belonging  to the order Uricace\'91; hemp. Cannabis Indica (,
   the  Indian hemp, a powerful narcotic, now considered a variety of the
   common hemp.

                                  Cannel coal

   Can"nel coal` (?). [Corrupt. fr. ndle coal.] A kind of mineral coal of
   a  black color, sufficiently hard and solid to be cut and polished. It
   burns  readily,  with  a  clear, yellow flame, and on this account has
   been used as a substitute for candles.


   Can"ner*y  (?),  n. A place where the business of canning fruit, meat,
   etc., is carried on. [U. S.]


   Can"ni*bal  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. cannibale. Columbus, in a letter to the
   Spanish  monarchs  written  in Oct., 1498, mentions that the people of
   Hayti  lived  in  great  fear  of  the  Caribales  (equivalent  to  E.
   Caribbees.),  the  inhabitants  of the smaller Antilles; which form of
   the name was afterward changed into NL. Canibales, in order to express
   more  forcibly  their character by a word intelligible through a Latin
   root  "propter  rabiem caninam anthropophagorum gentis." The Caribbees
   call   themselves,   in   their   own  language.  Calinago,  Carinago,
   Calliponam,  and,  abbreviated, Calina, signifying a brave, from which
   Columbus  formed  his Caribales.] A human being that eats human flesh;
   hence, any that devours its own kind. Darwin.


   Can"ni*bal  (?),  a.  Relating  to cannibals or cannibalism. "Cannibal
   terror." Burke.


   Can"ni*bal*ism  (?),  n. [Cf. F. cannibalisme.] The act or practice of
   eating  human  flesh  by mankind. Hence; Murderous cruelty; barbarity.


   Can"ni*bal*ly,  adv.  In  the  manner  of  cannibal.  "An  he had been
   cannibally given." Shak.


   Can"ni*kin (?), n. [Can + -kin.] A small can or drinking vessel.


   Can"ni*ly, adv. In a canny manner. [N. of Eng. & Scot.]


   Can"ni*ness, n. Caution; crafty management. [N. of Eng. & Scot.]


   Can"non  (?), n.; pl.Cannons (#), collectively Cannon. [F. cannon, fr.
   L. canna reed, pipe, tube. See Cane.]

   1.  A  great  gun;  a  piece  of  ordnance or artillery; a firearm for
   discharging heavy shot with great force.

     NOTE: &hand; Cannons are made of various materials, as iron, brass,
     bronze,  and steel, and of various sizes and shapes with respect to
     the  special  service  for which they are intended, as intended, as
     siege,  seacoast,  naval,  field,  or  mountain,  guns. They always
     aproach  more  or  less nearly to a cylindrical from, being usually
     thicker  toward  the  breech than at the muzzle. Formerly they were
     cast  hollow,  afterwards they were cast, solid, and bored out. The
     cannon  now  most  in  use  for the armament of war vessels and for
     seacoast  defense  consists  of a forged steel tube reinforced with
     massive  steel  rings  shrunk  upon  it.  Howitzers and mortars are
     sometimes called cannon. See Gun.

   2. (Mech.) A hollow cylindrical piece carried by a revolving shaft, on
   which it may, however, revolve independently.

   3. (Printing.) A kind of type. See Canon.
   Cannon  ball, strictly, a round solid missile of stone or iron made to
   be  fired  from  a  cannon,  but now often applied to a missile of any
   shape,  whether  solid  or  hollow,  made  for  cannon.  Elongated and
   cylindrical  missiles  are sometimes called bolts; hollow ones charged
   with explosives are properly called shells. -- Cannon bullet, a cannon
   ball.  [Obs.]  --  Cannon  cracker,  a  fire cracker of large size. --
   Cannon  lock,  a device for firing a cannon by a percussion primer. --
   Cannon  metal.  See  Gun  Metal.  --  Cannon pinion, the pinion on the
   minute  hand  arbor  of  a  watch  or clock, which drives the hand but
   permits  it  to  be moved in setting. -- Cannon proof, impenetrable by
   cannon  balls.  --  Cannon shot. (a) A cannon ball. (b) The range of a


   Can"non, n. & v. (Billiards) See Carom. [Eng.]


   Can"non*ade" (?), n. [F. Canonnade; cf. It. cannanata.]

   1.  The  act of discharging cannon and throwing ball, shell, etc., for
   the purpose of destroying an army, or battering a town, ship, or fort;
   -- usually, an attack of some continuance.

     A  furious cannonade was kept up from the whole circle of batteries
     on the devoted towm. Prescott.

   2. Fig.; A loud noise like a cannonade; a booming.

     Blue Walden rolls its cannonade. Ewerson.


   Can`non*ade",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Cannonade;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Cannonading.]  To  attack  with heavy artillery; to batter with cannon


   Can`non*ade",  v.  i. To discharge cannon; as, the army cannonaded all

                                  Cannon bone

   Can"non bone (?). (Anat.) See Canon Bone.


   Can"noned (, a. Furnished with cannon. [Poetic] "Gilbralter's cannoned
   steep." M. Arnold.

                             Cannoneer, Cannonier

   Can`non*eer",  Can`non*ier" (?), n. [F. canonnier.] A man who manages,
   or fires, cannon.


   Can`non*er"ing, n. The use of cannon. Burke.


   Can"non*ry (?), n. Cannon, collectively; artillery.

     The  ringing of bells and roaring of cannonry proclaimed his course
     through the country. W. Irving.


   Can"not  (?).  [Can  to  be able _ -not.] Am, is, or are, not able; --
   written either as one word or two.


   Can"nu*la  (?),  n.  [L. cannula a small tube of dim. of canna a reed,
   tube.]  (Surg.) A small tube of metal, wood, or India rubber, used for
   various  purposes,  esp.  for  injecting  or withdrawing fluids. It is
   usually associated with a trocar. [Written also canula.]


   Can"nu*lar  (?),  a. Having the form of a tube; tubular. [Written also


   Can"nu*la`ted (?), a. Hollow; affording a passage through its interior
   length  for  wire,  thread,  etc.;  as,  a cannulated (suture) needle.
   [Written also canulated.]

                                 Canny, Cannei

   Can"ny, Can"nei (?), a. [Cf. Icel. kenn skilled, learned, or E. canny.
   Cf. Kenn.] [North of Eng. & Scot.]

   1. Artful; cunning; shrewd; wary.

   2. Skillful; knowing; capable. Sir W. Scott.

   3. Cautious; prudent; safe.. Ramsay.

   4. Having pleasing of useful qualities; gentle. Burns.

   5. Reputed to have magical powers. Sir W. Scott.
   No canny, not safe, not fortunate; unpropitious. [Scot.]


   Ca*noe" (?), n.; pl. Canoes (#). [Sp. canoa, fr. Caribbean can\'a0oa.]

   1.  A boat used by rude nations, formed of trunk of a tree, excavated,
   by  cutting  of  burning,  into a suitable shape. It is propelled by a
   paddle or paddles, or sometimes by sail, and has no rudder.

     Others devised the boat of one tree, called the canoe. Raleigh.

   2. A boat made of bark or skins, used by savages.

     A  birch  canoe,  with  paddles,  rising,  falling,  on  the water.

   3.  A light pleasure boat, especially designed for use by one who goes
   alone  upon  long  excursions, including portage. It it propelled by a
   paddle, or by a small sail attached to a temporary mast.

   Page 211


   Ca*noe"  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Canoed (?) p. pr. & vb. n. Canoeing
   (.] To manage a canoe, or voyage in a canoe.


   Ca*noe"ing n. The act or art of using a canoe.


   Ca*noe"ist (?), n. A canoeman.


   Ca*noe"man,  n.;  pl.  Canoemen  (#).  One  who  uses a canoe; one who
   travels in a canoe.

     Cabins  and  clearing  greeted  the  eye  of  the passing canoeman.


   Can"on  (#),  n. [OE. canon, canoun, AS. canon rule (cf. F. canon, LL.
   canon,  and,  for sense 7, F. chanoine, LL. canonicus), fr. L. canon a
   measuring line, rule, model, fr. Gr. Cane, and cf. Canonical.]

   1. A law or rule.

     Or   that   the   Everlasting  had  not  fixed  His  canon  'gainst
     self-slaughter. Shak.

   2.  (Eccl.)  A  law,  or  rule of doctrine or discipline, enacted by a
   council  and  confirmed  by  the  pope  or  the sovereign; a decision,
   regulation, code, or constitution made by ecclesiastical authority.

     Various  canons  which  were  made  in  councils held in the second
     centry. Hock.

   3. The collection of books received as genuine Holy Scriptures, called
   the  sacred  canon, or general rule of moral and religious duty, given
   by  inspiration; the Bible; also, any one of the canonical Scriptures.
   See Canonical books, under Canonical, a.

   4. In monasteries, a book containing the rules of a religious order.

   5.  A  catalogue  of  saints  sckowledged  and  canonized in the Roman
   Catholic Church.

   6.  A  member of a cathedral chapter; a person who possesses a prebend
   in a cathedral or collegiate church.

   7.  (Mus.)  A  musical  composition in which the voice begin one after
   another, at regular intervals, succesively taking up the same subject.
   It  either  winds  up  with  a  coda  (tailpiece),  or,  as each voice
   finishes,  commences anew, thus forming a perpetual fugue or round. It
   is the strictest form of imitation. See Imitation.

   8.  (Print.)  The  largest  size of type having a specific name; -- so
   called from having been used for printing the canons of the church.

   9. The part of a bell by which it is suspended; -- called also ear and

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Bell.]


   10. (Billiards) See Carom.
   Apostolical  canons.  See  under  Apostolical.  -- Augustinian canons,
   Black  canons.  See  under  Augustinian.  --  Canon  capitular,  Canon
   residentiary,  a resident member of a cathedral chapter (during a part
   or  the  whole  of the year). -- Canon law. See under Law. -- Canon of
   the  Mass  (R.  C. Ch.), that part of the mass, following the Sanctus,
   which never changes. -- Honorary canon, a canon who neither lived in a
   monastery, nor kept the canonical hours. -- Minor canon (Ch. of Eng.),
   one  who  has  been  admitted to a chapter, but has not yet received a
   prebend.  --  Regular canon (R. C. Ch.), one who lived in a conventual
   community  and  follower  the  rule  of  St. Austin; a Black canon. --
   Secular  canon  (R.  C. Ch.), one who did not live in a monastery, but
   kept the hours.


   Ca*\'a4on"  (?),  n.  [Sp., a tube or hollow, fr. ca\'a4a reed, fr. L.
   canna.  See  Cane.]  A  deep gorge, ravine, or gulch, between high and
   steep banks, worn by water courses. [Mexico & Western U. S.]

                                   Canon bit

   Can"on  bit`  (?). [F. canon, fr. L. canon a rule.] That part of a bit
   which is put in a horse's mouth.

                                  Canon bone

   Can"on  bone` (?). [F. canon, fr. L. canon a rule. See canon.] (Anat.)
   The  shank bone, or great bone above the fetlock, in the fore and hind
   legs  of  the  horse  and  allied animals, corresponding to the middle
   metacarpal or metatarsal bone of most mammals. See Horse.


   Can"on*ess (?), n. [Cf. LL. canonissa.] A woman who holds a canonry in
   a  conventual chapter. Regular canoness, one bound by the poverty, and
   observing  a  strict rule of life. -- Secular canoness, one allowed to
   hold  private  property,  and  bound  only  by  vows  of  chastity and
   obedience so long as she chose to remain in the chapter.

                              Canonic, Cannonical

   Ca*non"ic  (?),  Can*non"ic*al (?), a [L. cannonicus, LL. canonicalis,
   fr.  L.  canon:  cf.  F.  canonique. See canon.] Of or pertaining to a
   canon;  established by, or according to a , canon or canons. "The oath
   of   canonical  obedience."  Hallam.  Canonical  books,  OR  Canonical
   Scriptures, those books which are declared by the canons of the church
   to  be  of  divine  inspiration; -- called collectively the canon. The
   Roman   Catolic   Church   holds  as  canonical  several  books  which
   Protestants   reject   as   apocryphal.   --  Canonical  epistles,  an
   appellation given to the epistles called also general or catholic. See
   Catholic  epistles,  under  Canholic.  --  Canonical form (Math.), the
   simples  or  most  symmetrical form to which all functions of the same
   class  can  be reduced without lose of generality. -- Canonical hours,
   certain  stated  times  of  the day, fixed by ecclesiastical laws, and
   appropriated  to  the  offices  of  prayer and devotion; also, certain
   portions  of  the  Breviary, to be used at stated hours of the day. In
   England,  this name is also given to the hours from 8 a. m. to 3 p. m.
   (formerly 8 a. m. to 12 m.) before and after which marriage can not be
   legally  performed in any parish church. -- Canonical letters, letters
   of several kinds, formerly given by a dishop to traveling clergymam or
   laymen,  to show that they were entitled to receive the cammunion, and
   to  distinguish  them  from heretics. -- Canonical life, the method or
   rule  of  living  prescribed  by  the  ancient  cleargy  who  lived in
   community;  a  course  of living prescribed for the clergy, less rigid
   that  the monastic, and more restrained that the secular. -- Canonical
   obedience,  submission  to  the  canons  of  a  canons  of  a  church,
   especially  the  submission  of the inferior cleargy to their bishops,
   and  of  other  religious  orders  to  their  supriors.  --  Canonical
   punishments,  such  as  the  church  may  inflict, as excommunication,
   degradation, penance, etc. -- Canonical sins (Anc. Church.), those for
   which  capital  punishment  or puplic penance decreed by the canon was
   inflicted, as idolatry, murder, adultery, heresy.


   Ca*non"ic*al*ly  (?),  adv.  In  a  canonical manner; according to the


   Ca*non"ic*al*ness,  n. The quality of being canonical; canonicity. Bp.


   Ca*non"ic*als  (?), n. pl. The dress prescribed by canon to be worn by
   a  clergyman  when oficiating. Sometimes, any distinctive professional
   dress.  Full  canonicals,  the  complete  costume  of  an  officiating
   clergyman or ecclesiastic.


   Ca*non"i*cate  (?),  n. [LL. canonucatus canonical: cf. F. canonicat.]
   The office of a canon; a canonry.


   Can`on*ic"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. canonicit\'82.] The state or quality of
   being canonical; agreement with the canon.


   Can"on*ist,  n.  [Cf.  F.  canoniste.]  A  professor of canon law; one
   skilled in the knowledge and practice of ecclesiastical law. South.


   Can`on*is"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a canonist. "This canonistic
   exposition." Milton.


   Can`on*i*za"tion (?), n. [F. canonisation.]

   1.  (R.  C. Ch.) The final process or decree (following beatifacation)
   by  which  the  name  of  a deceased person is placed in the catalogue
   (canon)   of   saints   and  commended  to  perpetual  veneration  and

     Canonization  of  saints was not known to the Christian church titl
     toward the middle of the tenth century. Hoock.

   2. The state of being canonized or sainted.


   Can"on*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Canonized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Canonizing.]  [F.  canoniser  or  LL.  canonizare,  fr. L. canon.. See

   1.  (Eccl.)  To  declare  (a  deceased  person) a saint; to put in the
   catalogue of saints; as, Thomas a Becket was canonized.

   2. To glorify; to exalt to the highest honor.

     Fame in time to come canonize us. Shak.

   2. To rate as inspired; to include in the canon.[R.]


   Can"on*ry  (?),  n.  pl.  Canonries  (.  A  benefice  or  prebend in a
   cathedral or collegiate church; a right to a place in chapter and to a
   portion of its revenues; the dignity or emoluments of a canon.


   Can"on*ship (?), a. Of pertaining to Canopus in egypt; as, the Canopic
   vases, used in embalming.


   Ca*no"pus  (?),  n. [L. Canopus, fr. Gr. (Astron.) A star of the first
   magnitude in the southern constellation Argo.


   Can"o*py (?), n.; pl. Canopies (#). [Oe. canopie, F. canop\'82sofa, Of
   canop\'82e,   canopeu,  canopieu,  canopy,  vail,  pavilion  (cf.  It.
   canep\'8acanopy, sofa), LL. canopeum a bed with mosquito curtains, fr.
   Gr. Cone, and Optic.]

   1. A covering fixed over a bed, dais, or the like, or carried on poles
   over  an  exalted personage or a sacred object, etc. chiefly as a mark
   of honor. "Golden canoniec and beds of state." Dryden.

   2.  (Arch.)  (a) An ornamental projection, over a door, window, niche,
   etc.  (b) Also, a roofike covering, supported on pilars over an altar,
   a statue, a fountain, etc.


   Can"o*py, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Canopes (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Canopying.]
   To  cover  with,  or  as  with,  a canopy. "A bank with ivy canopied."


   Ca*no"rous  (?), a. [L. canorus, from nor melody, fr. canere to sing.]
   Melodious; musical. "Birds that are most canorous." Sir T. Browne.

     A long, lound, and canorous peal of laughter. De Quincey.


   Ca*no"rous*ness, n. The quality of being musical.

     He chooses his language for its rich canorousness. Lowell.


   Can"stick` (?), n. Candlestick. [Obs.] Shak.


   Cant  (?),  n.  [OF., edge, angle, prof. from L. canthus the iron ring
   round  a  carriage  wheel,  a  wheel,  Gr. cant the stake or tire of a
   wheel. Cf. Canthus, Canton, Cantle.]

   1. A corner; angle; niche. [Obs.]

     The  first  and principal person in the temple was Irene, or Peace;
     she was placed aloft in a cant. B. Jonson.

   2. An outer or external angle.

   3.  An  inclination  from  a  horizontal  or vertical line; a slope or
   bevel; a titl. Totten.

   4.  A sudden thrust, push, kick, or other impulse, producing a bias or
   change  of  direction;  also,  the bias or turn so give; as, to give a
   ball a cant.

   5.  (Coopering)  A segment forming a side piece in the head of a cask.

   6. (Mech.) A segment of he rim of a wooden cogwheel. Knight.

   7.  (Naut.) A piece of wood laid upon athe deck of a vessel to support
   the bulkneads.
   Cant  frames,  Cant timbers (Naut.), timber at the two ends of a ship,
   rising obliquely from the keel.


   Cant, v. t. [imp & p. p. Canted; p. pr. & vb. N. Canting.]

   1. To incline; to set at an angle; to titl over; to tip upon the edge;
   as, to cant a cask; to cant a ship.

   2.  To  give  a  sudden  turn or new direction to; as, to cant round a
   stick of timber; to cant a football.

   3. To cut off an angle from, as from a square piece of timber, or from
   the head of a bolt.


   Cant,  n.  [Prob. from OF. cant, F. chant, singing, in allusion to the
   singing  or  whining tine of voice used by beggars, fr. L. cantus. See

   1. An affected, singsong mode of speaking.

   2.  The  idioms  and  peculiarities  of  speech in any sect, class, or
   occupation. Goldsmith.

     The cant of any profession. Dryden.

   3.   The   use  of  religious  phraseology  without  understanding  or
   sincerity; empty, solemn speech, implying what is not felt; hypocrisy.

     They shall hear no cant fromF. W. Robertson

   4.  Vulgar  jargon;  slang;  the  secret  language  spoker by gipsies,
   thieves. tramps, or beggars.


   Cant (?), a. Of the nature of cant; affected; vulgar.

     To introduce and multiply cant words in the most ruinous corruption
     in any language. Swift.


   Cant, v. i.

   1. To speak in a whining voice, or an affected, sinsong tone.

   2.   To  make  whining  pretensions  to  goodness;  to  talk  with  an
   affectation  of  religion,  philanthropy, etc.; to practice hypocrisy;
   as, a canting fanatic.

     The rankest rogue that ever canted. Beau. & Fl.

   3. To use pretentious language, barbarous jargon, or technical termes;
   to talk with an affectation of learning.

     The  doctor  here,  When he discqurseth of dissection, Of vena cava
     and  of vena porta, The meser\'91um and the mesentericum, What does
     he else but cant. B. Jonson

     That uncouth affected garb of speech, or canting hanguage, if I may
     so call it. Bp. Sanderson.


   Cant, n. [Prob. from OF. cant, equiv. to L. quantum; cf. F. encan, fr.
   L.  in  quantum,  i.e.  "for how much?"] A all for bidders at a public
   sale; an auction. "To sell their leases by cant." Swift.


   Cant,  v.  t. to sell by auction, or bid a price at a sale by auction.
   [Archaic] Swift.


   Can't (?). A colloquial contraction for can not.


   Can"tab  (?),  n.  [Abbreviated  from  Cantabrigian.]  A Cantabrigian.
   [Colloq.] Sir W. Scott.


   Can*ta"bi*le  (?),  a.  [It., cantare to sing.] (Mus.) In a melodious,
   flowing  style; in a singing style, as opposed to bravura, recitativo,
   or parlando.


   Can*ta"bi*le,   n.  (Mus.)  A  piece  or  pessage,  whether  vocal  or
   instrumental,  pecuilarly  adapted  to  singing;  --  sometimes called


   Can*ta"bri*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Cantabria on the Bay of
   Biscay in Spain.


   Can`ta*brig"i*an  (?),  n.  A  native or resident of Cambridge; esp. a
   student or graduate of the university of Cambridge, England.


   Can"ta*lev`er  (?),  n.  [Can an extermal angle + lever a supported of
   the roof timber of a house.] [Written also cantaliver and cantilever.]

   1. (Arch.) A bracket to support a balcony, a cornice, or the like.

   2.  (Engin.)  A  projecting  beam, truss, or bridge unsupported at the
   outer end; one which overhangs.
   Cantalever  bridge,  a bridge in which the principle of the cantalever
   is  applied.  It is usually a trussed bridge, composed of two portions
   reaching  out  from  opposite  banks, and supported near the middle of
   their   own   length  on  piers  which  they  overhang,  thus  forming
   cantalevers which meet over the space to be spanned or sustain a third
   portion, to complete the connection.


   Can"ta*loupe  (?), n. [F. cantaloup, It. cantalupo, so called from the
   caste  of  Cantalupo, in the Marca d'Ancona, in Italy, where they were
   first  grown  in  Europe,  from  seed  said to have been imported from
   Armenia.]  A  muskmelon  of  several  varieties, having when mature, a
   yellowish  skin,  and  flesh  of a reddish orange color. [Written also


   Can*tan"ker*ous   (?),  a.  Perverse;  contentious;  ugly;  malicious.
   [Colloq.] -- Can*tan"ker*ous*ly, adv. -- Can*tan"ker*ous*ness, n.

     The cantankerous old maiden aunt. Theckeray.

                               Cantar, Cantarro

   Can"tar (?), Can*tar"ro (?), n. [It. cantaro (in sense 1), Sp. cantaro
   (in sense 2).]

   1.  A  weight  used in southern Europe and East for heavy articles. It
   varies  in different localities; thus, at Rome it is nearly 75 pounds,
   in Sardinia nearly 94 pounds, in Cairo it is 95 pounds, in Syria about
   503 pounds.

   2.  A  liquid  measure  in  Spain, ranging from two and a half to four
   gallons. Simmonds.


   Can*ta"ta  (?), n. [It., fr. cantare to sing, fr. L. cantare intens of
   canere  to  sing.]  (Mus.)  A poem set to music; a musical composition
   comprising  choruses,  solos, interludes, etc., arranged in a somewhat
   dramatic  manner;  originally,  a  composition  for  a  single  noise,
   consisting of both recitative and melody.


   Can*ta"tion (?), n. [L. cantatio.] A singing. [Obs.] Blount.


   Cant"a*to*ry   (?),  a.  Caontaining  cant  or  affectation;  whining;
   singing. [R.]


   Can`ta*tri"ce (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) A female professional singer.


   Cant"ed (?), a. [From 2d Cant.]

   1. Having angles; as, a six canted bolt head; a canted window.
   Canted column (Arch.), a column polygonal in plan.

   2. Inclined at an angle to something else; tipped; sloping.


   Can*teen"  (?),  n.  [F.  cantine  bottle case, canteen (cf. Sp. & It.
   cantina  cellar, bottle case), either contr. fr. It. canovettina, dim.
   of  canova  cellar,  or,  more likely, fr. OF. cant. corner, It. & Sp.
   canto. See 1st Cant.] (Mil.)

   1.  A  vessel  used  by  soldiers for carrying water, liquor, or other
   drink. [Written also cantine..]

     NOTE: &hand; In the English service the canteen is made of wood and
     holds three pints; in the United States it is usually a tin flask.

   2.  The sulter's shop in a garrison; also, a chest containing culinary
   and other vessels for officers.


   Can"tel (?), n. See Cantle.


   Can"ter (?), n. [An abbreviation of Caner bury. See Canterbury gallop,
   under Canterbury.]

   1. A moderate and easy gallop adapted to pleasure riding.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ca nter is a thoroughly artificial pace, at first
     extremely tiring to the horse, and generally only to be produced in
     him  by the restraint of a powerful bit, which compels him to throw
     a  great part of his weight on his haunches . . . There is so great
     a  variety  in  the mode adopted by different horses for performing
     the  canter, that no single description will suffice, nor indeed is
     it easy . . . to define any one of them.

   J. H. Walsh.

   Page 212

   2. A rapid or easy passing over.

     A rapid canter in the Times over all the topics. Sir J. Stephen.


   Can"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Cantered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cantering.] To move in a canter.


   Can"ter,  v.  t.  To  cause, as a horse, to go at a canter; to ride (a
   horse) at a canter.


   Cant"er, n.

   1. One who cants or whines; a beggar.

   2.  One  who  makes hypocritical pretensions to goodness; one who uses
   canting language.

     The day when he was a canter and a rebel. Macaulay.


   Can"ter*bur*y (?), n.

   1. A city in England, giving its name various articles. It is the seat
   of the Archbishop of Canterbury (primate of all England), and contains
   the  shrine  of Thomas \'85 Becket, to which pilgrimages were formerly

   2. A stand with divisions in it for holding music, loose papers, etc.
   Canterbury  ball  (Bot.),  a species of Campanula of several varietes,
   cultivated for its handsome bell-shaped flowers. -- Canterbury gallop,
   a  gentle gallop such as was used by pilgrims riding, to Canterbury; a
   canter.  -- Canterbury table, one of the tales which Chaucer puts into
   the  mouths of certain pilgrims to Canterbury. Hence, any tale told by
   travelers pass away the time.


   Can*thar"*i*dal  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to cantharides or made of
   cantharides; as, cantharidal plaster.


   Can*thar"i*des (?), n. pl. See cantharis.


   Can*thar"i*din  (?),  n. (Chem.) The active principe of the cantharis,
   or  Spanish  fly,  a  volatile,  acrid, bitter solid, crystallizing in
   four-sided prisms.


   Can"tha*ris  (?), n.; pl. Cantharides (#). [L., a kind of beetle, esp.
   the  Spanish  fly,  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  beetle  (Lytta,  OR Cantharis,
   vesicatoria),  having  an  elongated  cylindrical  body of a brilliant
   green  color,  and a nauseous odor; the blister fly or blister beetle,
   of  the  apothecary; -- also called Spanish fly. Many other species of
   Lytta,  used  for  the  same  purpose, take the same name. See Blister
   beetle, under Blister. The plural form in usually applied to the dried
   insects used in medicine.

                                   Cant hook

   Cant"  hook`  (?).  A  wooden lever with a movable iron hook. hear the
   end;  --  used  for  canting  or turning over heavy logs, etc. [U. S.]


   Can"tho*plas`ty  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Surg.) The operation of forming a new
   canthus, when one has been destroyed by injury or disease.


   Can"thus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Canthi (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The corner
   where the upper and under eyelids meet on each side of the eye.


   Can"ti*cle  (?),  n.; pl. Canticles (#). [L. canticulum a little song,
   dim.  of  canticum  song, fr. cantus a singing, fr. coner to sing. See

   1. A song; esp. a little song or hymn. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2.  pl.  The Song of Songs or Song of Solomon, one of the books of the
   Old Testament.

   3. A canto or division of a poem [Obs.] Spenser.

   4.  A psalm, hymn, or passage from the Bible, arranged for chanting in
   church service.


   Can"ti*coy  (?),  n.  [Of American Indian origin.] A social gathering;
   usually, one for dancing.


   Can"tile (?), v. i. Same as Cantle, v. t.


   Can`ti*le"na (?), n. [It. & L.] (Mus.) See Cantabile.


   Can"ti*lev`er (?), n. Same as Cantalever.


   Can"til*late  (?),  v. i. [L. cantillatus, p. p. of cantillare to sing
   low,  dim.  of cantare. See Cantata.] To chant; to recite with musical
   tones. M. Stuart.


   Can`til*la"tion (?), n. A chanting; recitation or reading with musical


   Can*tine" (?), n. See Canteen.


   Cant"ing  (?), a. Speaking in a whining tone of voice; using technical
   or  religious terms affectedly; affectedly pious; as, a canting rogue;
   a canting tone. - Cant"ing*ly, adv. -- Cant"ing*ness, n. Canting arms,
   Canting heraldry (Her.), bearings in the nature of a rebus alluding to
   the  name  of the bearer. Thus, the Castletons bear three castles, and
   Pope Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspeare) bore a broken spear.
   Cant"ing, n. The use of cant; hypocrisy. 


   Can`ti*niere"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  cantine a sutler's shop, canteen.]
   (Mil) A woman who carries a canteen for soldiers; a vivandi\'8are.


   Can"tion  (?),  n. [L. cantio, from canere to sing.] A song or verses.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Can"tle (?), n. [OF. cantel, chantel, corner, side, piece, F. chanteau
   a  piece  cut  from a larger piece, dim. of OF. cant edge, corner. See
   1st Cant.]

   1.  A corner or edge of anything; a piece; a fragment; a part. "In one
   cantle of his law." Milton.

     Cuts  me from the best of all my land A huge half moon, a monstrous
     cantle out. Shak.

   2.  The  upwardly  projecting  rear  part  of  saddle, opposite to the
   pommel. [Written also cante.]


   Can"tle, v. t. To cut in pieces; to cut out from. [Obs.] [Written also


   Cant"let  (?),  n.  [Dim.  of  cantle.] A piece; a fragment; a corner.


   Can"to  (?),  n.;  pl.  Cantos (#). [It. canto, fr. L. cantus singing,
   song. See Chant.]

   1. One of the chief divisions of a long poem; a book.

   2.  (Mus.)  The highest vocal part; the air or melody in choral music;
   anciently the tenor, now the soprano.
   Canto  fermo  (  [It.]  (Mus.),  the  plain  ecclesiastical  chant  in
   cathedral service; the plain song.


   Can"ton (?), n. A song or canto [Obs.]

     Write loyal cantons of contemned love. Shak.


   Can"ton, n. [F. canton, augm. of OF. cant edge, corner. See 1st Cant.]

   1. A small portion; a division; a compartment.

     That little canton of land called the "English pale" Davies.

     There is another piece of Holbein's, . . . in which, in six several
     cantons, the several parts of our Savior's passion are represented.
     Bp. Burnet.

   2. A small community or clan.

   3.   A   small  territorial  district;  esp.  one  of  the  twenty-two
   independent states which form the Swiss federal republic; in France, a
   subdivision of an arrondissement. See Arrondissement.

   4.  (Her.)  A  division  of  a  shield occupying one third part of the
   chief, usually on the dexter side, formed by a perpendicular line from
   the top of the shield, meeting a horizontal line from the side.

     The king gave us the arms of England to be borne in a canton in our
     arms. Evelyn.


   Can"ton,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Cantoned ; p. pr. & vb. n. Cantoning.]
   [Cf. F.cantonner.]

   1.  To  divide into small parts or districts; to mark off or separate,
   as a distinct portion or division.

     They  canton  out  themselves  a  little Goshen in the intellectual
     world. Locke.

   2.  (Mil.)  To  allot  separate  quarters to, as to different parts or
   divisions of an army or body of troops.


   Can"ton*al  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to a canton or cantons; of the
   nature of a canton.

                                 Canton crape

   Can"ton  crape"  (?). A soft, white or colored silk fabric, of a gauzy
   texture  and  wavy appearance, used for ladies' scarfs, shawls, bonnet
   trimmings, etc.; -- called also Oriental crape. De Colange.


   Can"toned (?), a.

   1.  (Her.)  Having  a charge in each of the four corners; -- said of a
   cross on a shield, and also of the shield itself.

   2.  (Arch.) Having the angles marked by, or decorated with, projecting
   moldings or small columns; as, a cantoned pier or pilaster.

                                Canton flannel

   Can"ton flan"nel (?). See Cotton flannel.


   Can"ton*ize (?), v. i. To divide into cantons or small districts.


   Can"ton*ment (?), n. [Cf. F. cantonnement.] A town or village, or part
   of  a  town  or  village,  assigned  to a body of troops for quarters;
   temporary shelter or place of rest for an army; quarters.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en troops are sheltered in huts or quartered in the
     houses of the people during any suspension of hostilities, they are
     said  to  be  in cantonment, or to be cantoned. In India, permanent
     military stations, or military towns, are termed cantonments.


   Can*toon" (?), n. A cotton stuff showing a fine cord on one side and a
   satiny surface on the other.


   Can"tor  (?), n. [L., a singer, fr. caner to sing.] A singer; esp. the
   leader of a church choir; a precentor.

     The cantor of the church intones the Te Deum. Milman.


   Can"tor*al  (?),  a.  Of or belonging to a cantor. Cantoral staff, the
   official  staff  or baton of a cantor or precentor, with which time is
   marked for the singers.


   Can*to"ris  (?),  a.  [L., lit., of the cantor, gen. of cantor.] Of or
   pertaining  to  a cantor; as, the cantoris side of a choir; a cantoris
   stall. Shipley.

                               Cantrap, Cantrip

   Can"trap  (?),  Can"trip  (?), n. [Cf. Icel. gandar, ODan. & OSw. gan,
   witchcraft,  and  E.  trap a snare, tramp.] A charm; an incantation; a
   shell; a trick; adroit mischief. [Written also cantraip.] [Scot.]

                               Cantred, Cantref

   Can"tred  (?),  Can"tref, n. [W. cantref; cant hundred + tref dwelling
   place,  village.]  A  district  comprising  a  hundred villages, as in
   Wales. [Written also kantry.]


   Can"ty  (?),  a. Cheerful; sprightly; lively; merry. "The canty dame."
   Wordsworth [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

     Contented with little, and canty with mair. Burns.


   Ca*nuck" (?), n.

   1. A Canadian. [Slang]

   2. A small or medium-sized hardy horse, common in Canada. [Colloq.]

                      Canula, n., Canular, a., Canulated

   Can"u*la (?), n., Can"u*lar (?), a., Can"u*la`ted (?), a. See Cannula,
   Cannular, and Cannulated.


   Can"vas  (?),  n.  [OE.  canvas,  canevas,  F. canevas, LL. canabacius
   hempen cloth, canvas, L. cannabis hemp, fr. G. Hemp.]

   1.  A  strong  cloth made of hemp, flax, or cotton; -- used for tents,
   sails, etc.

     By glimmering lanes and walls of canvas led. Tennyson.

   2.  (a)  A coarse cloth so woven as to form regular meshes for working
   with  the  needle,  as  in  tapestry,  or worsted work. (b) A piece of
   strong  cloth  of  which  the  surface  has  been  prepared to receive
   painting, commonly painting in oil.

     History  .  .  .  does  not  bring  out clearly upon the canvas the
     details which were familiar. J. H. Newman.

   3.  Something for which canvas is used: (a) A sail, or a collection of
   sails.  (b)  A  tent,  or  a collection of tents. (c) A painting, or a
   picture on canvas.

     To suit his canvas to the roughness of the see. Goldsmith.

     Light, rich as that which glows on the canvas of Claude. Macaulay.

   4. A rough draft or model of a song, air, or other literary or musical
   composition;  esp.  one to show a poet the measure of the verses he is
   to make. Grabb.


   Can"vas,  a.  Made  of, pertaining to, or resembling, canvas or coarse
   cloth; as, a canvas tent.


   Can"vas*back`   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   A  Species  of  duck  (Aythya
   vallisneria),  esteemed  for  the delicacy of its flesh. It visits the
   United  States  in  autumn;  particularly Chesapeake Bay and adjoining
   waters; -- so named from the markings of the plumage on its back.


   Can"vass  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. canvassed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Canvassing.]  [OF.  Canabasser to examine curiously, to search or sift
   out; properly, to sift through canvas. See Canvas, n.]

   1.  To  sift;  to strain; to examine thoroughly; to scrutinize; as, to
   canvass  the  votes  cast  at  an election; to canvass a district with
   reference to its probable vote.

     I  have  made careful search on all hands, and canvassed the matter
     with all possible diligence. Woodward.

   2. To examine by discussion; to debate.

     An opinion that we are likely soon to canvass. Sir W. Hamilton.

   3.  To  go trough, with personal solicitation or public addresses; as,
   to canvass a district for votes; to canvass a city for subscriptions.


   Can"vass,  v.  i.  To  search thoroughly; to engage in solicitation by
   traversing  a district; as, to canvass for subscriptions or for votes;
   to  canvass  for  a  book,  a publisher, or in behalf of a charity; --
   commonly followed by for.


   Can"vass, n.

   1. Close inspection; careful review for verification; as, a canvass of
   votes. Bacon.

   2. Examination in the way of discussion or debate.

   3.  Search;  exploration;  solicitation;  systematic  effort to obtain
   votes, subscribers, etc.

     No previous canvass was made for me. Burke.


   Can"vass*er (?), n. One who canvasses.


   Can"y  (?),  a.  [From  Cane.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  cane or canes;
   abounding with canes. Milton.


   Can"yon (?), n. The English form of the Spanish word Ca\'a4on.


   Can*zo"ne (?), n. [It., a song, fr. L. cantio, fr. canere to sing. Cf.
   Chanson,  Chant.]  (Mus.) (a) A song or air for one or more voices, of
   Proven\'87al  origin,  resembling,  though not strictly, the madrigal.
   (b) An instrumental piece in the madrigal style.


   Can`zo*net"  (?), n. [It. canzonetta, dim. of canzone.] (Mus.) A short
   song, in one or more parts.


   Caout"chin  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  An  inflammable, volatile, oily, liquid
   hydrocarbon, obtained by the destructive distillation of caoutchouc.


   Caout"chouc  (?),  n. [F. caoutchouc, from the South American name.] A
   tenacious,  elastic,  gummy  substance  obtained from the milky sap of
   several plants of tropical South America (esp. the euphorbiaceous tree
   Siphonia  elastica  or  Hevea  caoutchouc),  Asia,  and  Africa. Being
   impermeable  to liquids and gases, and not readly affected by exposure
   to  air,  acids, and alkalies, it is used, especially when vulcanized,
   for  many  purposes in the arts and in manufactures. Also called India
   rubber (because it was first brought from India, and was formerly used
   chiefly  for erasing pencil marks) and gum elastic. See Vulcanization.
   Mineral caoutchouc. See under Mineral.


   Caout"chou*cin (?), n. See Caoutchin.


   Cap  (?), n. [OE. cappe, AS. c\'91ppe, cap, cape, hood, fr. LL, cappa,
   capa;  perhaps  of  Iberian origin, as Isidorus of Seville mentions it
   first:   "Capa,   quia   quasi   totum  capiat  hominem;  it.  capitis
   ornamentum." See 3d Cape, and cf. 1st Cope.]

   1.  A  covering  for  the  head; esp. (a) One usually with a visor but
   without  a  brim, for men and boys; (b) One of lace, muslin, etc., for
   women,  or  infants;  (c) One used as the mark or ensign of some rank,
   office, or dignity, as that of a cardinal.

   2. The top, or uppermost part; the chief.

     Thou art the cap of all the fools alive. Shak.

   3. A respectful uncovering of the head.

     He that will give a cap and make a leg in thanks. Fuller.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) The whole top of the head of a bird from the base of the
   bill to the nape of the neck.

   5.  Anything  resembling  a  cap  in  form,  position, or use; as: (a)
   (Arch.)  The  uppermost  of  any  assemblage  of parts; as, the cap of
   column,  door, etc.; a capital, coping, cornice, lintel, or plate. (b)
   Something  covering  the  top  or  end  of  a  thing for protection or
   ornament.  (c) (Naut.) A collar of iron or wood used in joining spars,
   as  the  mast  and the topmast, the bowsprit and the jib boom; also, a
   covering  of tarred canvas at the end of a rope. (d) A percussion cap.
   See  under  Percussion.  (e)  (Mech.) The removable cover of a journal
   box. (f) (Geom.) A portion of a spherical or other convex surface.

   6. A large size of writing paper; as, flat cap; foolscap; legal cap.
   Cap  of  a  cannon,  a  piece  of  lead laid over the vent to keep the
   priming  dry;  --  now  called an apron. -- Cap in hand, obsequiously;
   submissively.  --  Cap  of liberty. See Liberty cap, under Liberty. --
   Cap of maintenance, a cap of state carried before the kings of England
   at  the  coronation.  It  is  also  carried  before the mayors of some
   cities. -- Cap money, money collected in a cap for the huntsman at the
   death  of the fox. -- Cap paper. (a) A kind of writing paper including
   flat cap, foolsap, and legal cap. (b) A coarse wrapping paper used for
   making  caps to hold commodities. Cap rock (Mining), The layer of rock
   next  overlying  ore,  generally of barren vein material. -- Flat cap,
   cap See Foolscap. -- Forage cap, the cloth undress head covering of an
   officer  of soldier. -- Legal cap, a kind of folio writing paper, made
   for  the  use of lawyers, in long narrow sheets which have the fold at
   the  top or "narrow edge." -- To set one's cap, to make a fool of one.
   (Obs.)  Chaucer. -- To set one's cap for, to try to win the favor of a
   man with a view to marriage. [Colloq.]


   Cap (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capped (; p. pr. & vb. n. Capping.]

   1.  To  cover  with  a cap, or as with a cap; to provide with a cap or
   cover; to cover the top or end of; to place a cap upon the proper part
   of; as, to cap a post; to cap a gun.

     The  bones  next  the  joint are capped with a smooth cartilaginous
     substance. Derham.

   2. To deprive of cap. [Obs.] Spenser.

   3.   To  complete;  to  crown;  to  bring  to  the  highest  point  or
   consummation; as, to cap the climax of absurdity.

   4. To salute by removing the cap. [Slang. Eng.]

     Tom  .  .  .  capped  the  proctor  with  the  profoundest of bows.

   5.  To  match;  to mate in contest; to furnish a complement to; as, to
   cap text; to cap proverbs. Shak.

     Now  I have him under girdle I'll cap verses with him to the end of
     the chapter. Dryden.

     NOTE: &hand; In  ca pping ve rses, wh en one quotes a verse another
     must  cap  it  by quoting one beginning with the last letter of the
     first  letter, or with the first letter of the last word, or ending
     with a rhyming word, or by applying any other arbitrary rule may be
     agreed upon.


   Cap, v. i. To uncover the head respectfully. Shak.


   Ca`pa*bil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Capabilities (#).

   1.   The   quality  of  being  capable;  capacity;  capableness;  esp.
   intellectual power or ability.

     A capability to take a thousand views of a subject. H. Taylor.

   2. Capacity of being used or improved.


   Ca"pa*ble  (?),  a. [F. capable, LL. capabilis capacious, capable, fr.
   L. caper to take, contain. See Heave.]

   1.   Possessing  ability,  qualification,  or  susceptibility;  having
   capacity;  of  sufficient  size  or  strength;  as,  a room capable of
   holding a large number; a castle capable of resisting a long assault.

     Concious of jou and capable of pain. Prior.

   2.  Possessing adequate power; qualified; able; fully competent; as, a
   capable   instructor;   a  capable  judge;  a  mind  capable  of  nice

     More capable to discourse of battles than to give them. Motley.

   3.  Possessing  legal power or capacity; as, a man capable of making a
   contract, or a will.

   4. Capacious; large; comprehensive. [Obs.] Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Ca pable is  us ually fo llowed by of, sometimes by an

   Syn.  --  Able;  competent;  qualified;  fitted; efficient; effective;


   Ca"pa*ble*ness,  n. The quality or state of being capable; capability;
   adequateness; competency.


   Ca*pac"i*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Capacified (?).] [L. capax,
   -acis, capacious + -fy.] To quality. [R.]

     The benefice he is capacified and designed for. Barrow.


   Ca*pa"cious (?), a. [L. capaz, -acis, fr. capere to take. See Heave.]

   1.  Having  capacity;  able  to  contain much; large; roomy; spacious;
   extended; broad; as, a capacious vessel, room, bay, or harbor.

     In the capacious recesses of his mind. Bancroft.

   2.  Able  or  qualified to make large views of things, as in obtaining
   knowledge  or  forming  designs;  comprehensive; liberal. "A capacious
   mind." Watts.


   Ca*pa"cios*ly, adv. In a capacious manner or degree; comprehensively.


   Ca*pa"cious*ness, n. The quality of being capacious, as of a vessel, a
   reservoir a bay, the mind, etc.


   Ca*pac"i*tate  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Capacitated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Capacitating.] To render capable; to enable; to qualify.

     By  thih  instruction we may be capaciated to observe those errors.


   Ca*pac"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Capacities  (#) [L. capacitus, fr. capax,
   capacis; fr. F. capacit\'82. See Capacious.]

   1.  The  power  of  receiving  or containing; extent of room or space;
   passive power; -- used in reference to physical things.

     Had  our  great palace the capacity To camp this host, we all would
     sup together. Shak.

     The capacity of the exhausted cylinder. Boyle.

   2.  The  power  of  receiving  and holding ideas, knowledge, etc.; the
   comprehensiveness  of  the  mind; the receptive faculty; capability of
   undestanding or feeling.

     Capacity  is  now  properly  limited  to  these  [the  mere passive
     operations  of  the  mind];  its  primary  signification,  which is
     literally  room  for,  as  well  as  its  employment,  favars this;
     although  it can not be dented that there are examples of its usage
     in an active sense. Sir W. Hamilton.

   3.  Ability; power pertaining to, or resulting from, the possession of
   strength, wealth, or talent; possibility of being or of doing.

     The capacity of blessing the people. Alex. Hamilton.

     A cause with such capacities endued. Blackmore.

   4.   Outward   condition  or  circumstances;  occupation;  profession;
   character;  position;  as,  to  work  in  the capacity of a mason or a

   5.   (Law)  Legal  or  noral  qualification,  as  of  age,  residence,
   character,  etc.,  necessary  for  certain  purposes,  as  for holding
   office, for marrying, for making contracts, will, etc.; legal power or
   right; competency.
   Capacity  for  heat, the power of absorbing heat. Substances differ in
   the  amount  of  heat  requisite  to  raise  them  a  given  number of
   thermometric  degrees,  and  this  difference  is  the  measure of, or
   depends  upon,  whzt  is  called their capacity for heat. See Specific
   heat, under Heat. Syn. -- Ability; faculty; talent; capability; skill;
   efficiency; cleverness. See Ability.
   Cap`*a*pe" (?), adv. See Cap-a-pie. Shak. 


   Cap`*a*pie"  (?), adv. [OF. (cap-a-pie, from head to foot, now de pied
   en  cap  from  foot  to  head; L. per foot + caput head.] From head to
   foot; at all points. "He was armed cap-a-pie." Prescott.


   Ca*par"i*son  (?),  n.  [F.  capara,  fr.  Sp. caparazon a cover for a
   saddle,  coach,  etc.; capa cloak, cover (fr. LL. capa, cf. LL. caparo
   also fr. capa) + the term. azon. See Cap.]

   1.  An  ornamental  covering  or  housing  for a horse; the harness or
   trappings of a horse, taken collectively, esp. when decorative.

     Their horses clothed with rich caparison. Drylen.

   2. Gay or rich clothing.

     My heart groans beneath the gay caparison. Smollett.


   Ca*par"i*son,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Caparisoned (?) p. pr. & vb. n.
   Caparisoning.] [Cf. F capara\'87onner.]

   1.  To  cover  with  housings,  as a horse; to harness or fit out with
   decorative trappings, as a horse.

     The steeds, caparisoned with purple, stand. Dryden.

   2. To aborn with rich dress; to dress.

     I am caparisoned like a man. Shak.


   Ca*par"ro  (?),  n.  [Native  Indian  name.]  (Zo\'94l.) A large South
   American monkey (Lagothrix Humboldtii), with prehensile tail.


   Cap"case`  (?),  n.  A  small  traveling  case or bandbox; formerly, a

     A capcase for your linen and your plate. Beau. & Fl.


   Cape (?), n. [F. cap, fr. It. capo head, cape, fr. L. caput heat, end,
   point.  See  Chief.]  A  piece  or point of land, extending beyind the
   adjacent coast into the sea or a lake; a promonotory; a headland. Cape
   buffalo  (Zo\'94l.)  a  large  and  powerful  buffalo  of South Africa
   (Bubalus  Caffer).  It  is said to be the most dangerous wild beast of
   Africa.  See Buffalo, 2. -- Cape jasmine, Cape jassamine. See Jasmine.
   --  Cape  pigeon (Zo\'94l.), a petrel (Daptium Capense) common off the
   Cape  of  Good  Hope.  It is about the size of a pigeon. -- Cape wine,
   wine  made  in South Africa [Eng.] -- The Cape, the Cape of Good Hope,
   in  the  general  sense  of southern extremity of Africa. Also used of
   Cape Horn, and, in New England, of Cape Cod.


   Cape,  v.  i. (Naut.) To head or point; to keep a course; as, the ship
   capes southwest by south.


   Cape,  n.  [OE. Cape, fr. F. cape; cf. LL. cappa. See Cap, and cf. 1st
   Cope,  Chape.] A sleeveless garment or part of a garment, hanging from
   the  neck  over  the back, arms, and shoulders, but not reaching below
   the hips. See Cloak.


   Cape, v. i. [See Gape.] To gape. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                 Capel, Caple

   Ca"pel (?), Ca"ple (?), n. [Icel. kapall; cf. L. caballus.] A horse; a
   nag. [Obs.] Chaucer. Holland.


   Ca"pel  (?),  n.  (Mining)  A  composite  stone  (quartz,  schorl, and
   hornlende) in the walls of tin and copper lodes.


   Cap"e*lan (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Capelin.


   Cape"lin  (?),  n. [Cf. F. capelan, caplan.] (Zo\'94l.) A small marine
   fish  (Mallotus villosus) of the family Salmonid\'91, very abundant on
   the coasts of Greenland, Iceland, Newfoundland, and Alaska. It is used
   as a bait for the cod. [Written also capelan and caplin.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th is fi sh, wh ich is  like a smelt, is called by the
     Spaniards anchova, and by the Portuguese capelina.

   Fisheries of U. S. (1884).


   Cap"pe*line`  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  LL.  capella. See Chapel.] (Med.) A
   hood-shaped  bandage  for  the  head, the shoulder, or the stump of an
   amputated limb.


   Ca*pel"la (?), n. [L., a little goet, dim. of caper a goat.] (Asrton.)
   A brilliant star in the constellation Auriga.


   Cap"el*lane  (?),  n.  [See  Chaplain.]  The  curate  of  a  chapel; a
   chaplain. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Ca*pel"le  (?),  n.  [G.]  (Mus.)  The  private orchestra or band of a
   prince or of a church.


   Cap"el*let (?), n. [F. capelet.] (Far.) A swelling, like a wen, on the
   point  of  the  elbow  (or  the  heel  of the hock) of a horse, caused
   probably by bruises in lying dowm.


   Ca*pell"meis`ter  (?),  n.  [G., fr. capelle chapel, private band of a
   prince  +  meister  a  master.] The musical director in royal or ducal
   chapel; a choirmaster. [Written also kepellmeister.]


   Ca"per  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Capered p. pr. & vb. n. capering.]
   [From  older  capreoll  to  caper,  cf.  F.  se  cabrer to prance; all
   ultimately  fr.  L. caper, capra, goat. See Capriole.] To leap or jump
   about  in  a  sprightly  manner; to cut capers; to skip; to spring; to
   prance; to dance.

     He capers, he dances, he has eyes of youth. Shak.


   Ca"per, n. A frolicsome leap or spring; a skip; a jump, as in mirth or
   dancing;  a  prank.  To  cut  a  caper,  to frolic; to make a sportive
   spring; to play a prank. Shak.


   Ca"per, n. [D. kaper.] A vessel formerly used by the Dutch, privateer.


   Ca"per, n. [F. c\'83pre, fr. L. capparis, Gr. al-kabar.]

   1.  The  pungent grayish green flower bud of the European and Oriental
   caper (Capparis spinosa), much used for pickles.

   2.  (Bot.)  A  plant of the genus Capparis; -- called also caper bush,
   caper tree.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Ca pparis sp inosa is  a low prickly shrub of the
     Mediterranean coasts, with trailing branches and brilliant flowers;
     -- cultivated in the south of Europe for its buds. The C. sodada is
     an  almost leafless spiny shrub of central Africa (Soudan), Arabia,
     and southern India, with edible berries.

   Bean  caper. See Bran caper, in the Vocabulary. -- Caper sauce, a kind
   of sauce or catchup made of capers.


   Ca"per*ber`ry (?), n.

   1.  The  small  olive-shaped berry of the European and Oriental caper,
   said to be used in pickles and as a condiment.

   2.  The  currantlike  fruit of the African and Arabian caper (Capparis

                            Caper bush, Caper tree

   Ca"per bush` (?), Ca"per tree` (?).See Capper, a plant, 2.

                          Capercailzie, or Capercally

   Ca"per*cail`zie  (?),  or  Ca"per*cal`ly  (?),  n. [Gael, capulcoile.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  species  of grouse (Tetrao uragallus) of large size and
   fine  flavor,  found  in  northern Europe and formerly in Scotland; --
   called   also   cock   of   the  woods.  [Written  also  capercaillie,


   Ca"per*claw`  (?),  v.  t.  To  treat with cruel playfulness, as a cat
   treats a mouse; to abuse. [Obs.] Birch.


   Ca"per*er (?), n. One who capers, leaps, and skips about, or dances.

     The nimble capperer on the cord. Dryden.


   Cap"ful  (?),  n.; pl. Capfuls (. As much as will fill a cap. A capful
   of wind (Naut.), a light puff of wind.


   Ca"pi*as  (?),  n.  [L.  thou  mayst  take.]  (Low)  A writ or process
   commanding  the  officer  to  take the body of the person named in it,
   that is, to arrest him; -- also called writ of capias.

     NOTE: &hand; On e pr incipal ki nd of  ca pias is  a  writ by which
     actions  at  law  are  frequently  commenced;  another is a writ of
     execution  issued  after  judgment  to satisfy damages recovered; a
     capias  in  criminal law is the process to take a person charged on
     an indictment, when he is not in custody. Burrill. Wharton.


   Ca`pi*ba"ra (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Capybara.


   Cap`il*la"ceous  (?),  a.  [L.  capillaceus hairy, fr. capillus hair.]
   Having long filaments; resembling a hair; slender. See Capillary.


   Cap`il*laire"  (?), n. [F. capillaire maiden-hair; sirop de capillaire
   capillaire; fr. L. herba capillaris the maidenhair.]

   1.  A  sirup  prepared from the maiden-hair, formerly supposed to have
   medicinal properties.

   2. Any simple sirup flavored with orange flowers.


   Ca*pil"la*ment  (?),  n.  [L. capillamentum, fr. capillus hair: cf. F.

   1. (Bot.) A filament. [R.]

   2. (Anat.) Any villous or hairy covering; a fine fiber or filament, as
   of the nerves.


   Cap"il*la*ri*ness (?), n. The quality of being capillary.


   Cap`il*lar"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. capillarit\'82.]

   1. The quality or condition of being capillary.

   2.  (Physics)  The  peculiar  action by which the surface of a liquid,
   where  it  is  in  contact  with  a solid (as in a capillary tube), is
   elevated or depressed; capillary attraction.

     NOTE: &hand; Capillarity depends upon the relative attaction of the
     modecules  of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid,
     and   is   especially  observable  in  capillary  tubes,  where  it
     determines  the  ascent or descent of the liquid above or below the
     level  of  the  liquid  which  the  tube  is  dipped;  -- hence the
     name\'3c--  it  is especially important in certain plants, to allow
     flow of water from the roots --\'3e.


   Cap"il*la*ry   (?),   a.   [L.  capillaris,  fr.  capillus  hair.  Cf.

   1.  Resembling a hair; fine; minute; very slender; having minute tubes
   or  interspaces;  having very small bore; as, the capillary vessels of
   animals and plants.

   2. Pertaining to capillary tubes or vessels; as, capillary action.
   Capillary  attraction, Capillary repulsion, the apparent attraction or
   repulsion  between  a  soild  and  liquid  caused  bycapillarity.  See
   Capillarity,  and Attraction. -- Capillarity tubes. See the Note under


   Cap"il*la*ry, n.; pl., Capillaries (.

   1. A tube or vessel, extremely fine or minute.

   2.  (Anat.)  A  minute,  thin-walled  vessel;  particularly one of the
   smallest  blood  vessels  connecting arteries and veins, but used also
   for the smallest lymphatic and biliary vessels.


   Cap`il*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  capillatie the hair.] A capillary blood
   vessel. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Ca*pil"la*ture  (?),  n. [L. capillatura.] A bush of hair; frizzing of
   the hair. Clarke.


   Ca*pil"li*form  (?),  a.  [L.  capillus hair + -form.] In the shape or
   form of, a hair, or of hairs.


   Cap"il*lose` (?), a. [L. capillosus.] Having much hair; hairy. [R.]


   Ca*pis"trate  (?),  a.  [L.  capistratus, p. p. of capistrare halter.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Hooded; cowled.


   Cap"i*tal (?), a. [F. capital, L. capitalis capital (in senses 1 & 2),
   fr. caput head. See Chief, and cf. Capital, n.]

   1. Of or pertaining to the head. [Obs.]

     Needs  must  the  Serpent now his capital bruise Expect with mortal
     pain. Milton.

   2.  Having  reference  to, or involving, the forfeiture of the head or
   life;  affecting  life;  punishable  with  death;  as, capital trials;
   capital punishment.

     Many crimes that are capital among us. Swift.

     To put to death a capital offender. Milton.

   3. First in importance; chief; principal.

     A capital article in religion Atterbury.

     Whatever is capital and essential in Christianity. I. Taylor.

   4.  Chief,  in  a  political  sense,  as being the seat of the general
   government  of a state or nation; as, Washington and Paris are capital

   5.  Of  first  rate  quality; excellent; as, a capital speech or song.

   Page 214

   Capital  letter  [F,  lettre  capitale] (Print.), a leading or heading
   letter, used at the beginning of a sentence and as the first letter of
   certain  words,  distinguished,  for  the most part, both by different
   form  and larger size, from the small (lower-case) letters, which form
   the  greater part of common print or writing. -- Small capital letters
   have  the  form  of  capital  letters  and  height  of the body of the
   lower-case  letters.  --  Capital  stock,  money,  property,  or stock
   invested  in  any  business,  or  the enterprise of any corporation or
   institution. Abbott. Syn. -- Chief; leading; controlling; prominent.


   Cap"i*tal  (?), n. [Cf. L. capitellum and Capitulum, a small head, the
   head,  top,  or capital of a column, dim. of caput head; F. chapiteau,
   OF. capitel. See Chief, and cf. Cattle, Chattel, Chapiter, Chapter.]

   1. (Arch.) The head or uppermost member of a column, pilaster, etc. It
   consists  generally  of  three  parts,  abacus,  bell  (or  vase), and
   necking. See these terms, and Column.

   2. [Cf. F. capilate, fem., sc. ville.] (Geog.) The seat of government;
   the  chief  city  or  town  in  a  country;  a metropolis. "A busy and
   splendid capital" Macauly.

   3.  [Cf.  F.  capital.]  Money,  property, or stock employed in trade,
   manufactures,  etc.;  the  sum invested or lent, as distinguished from
   the income or interest. See Capital stock, under Capital, a.

   4.  (Polit.  Econ.) That portion of the produce of industry, which may
   be  directly  employed  either to support human beings or to assist in
   production. M'Culloch.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en wealth is used to assist production it is called
     capital.  The  capital  of  a  civilized  community  includes fixed
     capital  (i.e. buildings, machines, and roads used in the course of
     production and exchange) amd circulating capital (i.e., food, fuel,
     money, etc., spent in the course of production and exchange).

   T. Raleing.

   5. Anything which can be used to increase one's power or influence.

     He  tried  to  make capital out of his rival's discomfiture. London

   6.  (Fort.)  An  imaginary  line dividing a bastion, ravelin, or other
   work, into two equal parts.

   7. A chapter, or section, of a book. [Obs.]

     Holy St. Bernard hath said in the 59th capital. Sir W. Scott.

   8. (Print.) See Capital letter, under Capital, a.
   Active  capital.  See under Active, -- Small capital (Print.), a small
   capital  letter. See under Capital, a. -- To live on one's capital, to
   consume  one's  capital  without producing or accumulating anything to
   replace it.


   Cap"i*tal*ist,  n.  [Cf. F. capitaliste.] One who has capital; one who
   has  money  for  investment, or money invested; esp. a person of large
   property, which is employed in business.

     The expenditure of the capitalist. Burke.


   Cap"i*tal*i*za`tion (?), n. The act or process of capitalizing.


   Cap"i*tal*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capitalized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Capitalizing.]

   1. To convert into capital, or to use as capital.

   2.  To  compute,  appraise,  or  assess the capital value of (a patent
   right, an annuity, etc.)

   3. To print in capital letters, or with an initial capital.


   Cap*i*tal*ly, adv.

   1.  In  a  way  involving  the  forfeiture of the head or life; as, to
   punish capitally.

   2. In a capital manner; excellently. [Colloq.]


   Cap"i*tal*ness, n. The quality of being capital; preeminence. [R.]

                            Capitan Pasha or Pacha

   Ca`pi*tan` Pa*sha` or Pa*cha` (?). [See capitan.] The chief admiral of
   the Turkish fleet.


   Cap"i*tate (?), a [L. capitatus fr. caput head.]

   1. Headlike in form; also, having the distal end enlarged and rounded,
   as the stigmas of certain flowers.

   2. (Bot.) Having the flowers gathered into a head.


   Cap`i*ta"tim (?), a. [NL.] Of so much per head; as, a capitatim tax; a
   capitatim grant.


   Cap`i*ta"tion (?), n. [L. capitatio a poll tax, fr. caput head; cf. F.

   1. A numbering of heads or individuals. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

   2.  A  tax  upon each head or person, without reference to property; a
   poll tax.


   Cap"i*te (?), n. [L., abl. of caput head.] See under Tenant.


   Cap`i*tel"late  (?),  a.  [L.  capitellum, dim. of caput head.] (Bot.)
   Having  a  very  small  knoblike termination, or collected into minute


   Cap`i*ti*bran`chi*a"ta  (?), n. pl. [NL., from L. caput, capitis, head
   +  -branchiae  gills.]  (Zo\'94l.) A division of annelids in which the
   gills arise from or near the head. See Tubicola.


   Cap"i*tol  (?),  [L.  capitolium, fr. caput head: cf. F. capitole. See

   1.  The temple of Jupiter, at Rome, on the Mona Capitolinus, where the
   Senate met.

     Comes C\'91sar to the Capitol to-morrow? Shak.

   2.  The  edifice  at Washington occupied by the Congress of the United
   States; also, the building in which the legislature of State holds its
   sessions; a statehouse.

                            Capitolian, Capitoline

   Cap`i*to"li*an  (?),  Cap"i*to*line  (?),  a.  [L. capitolinus: cf. F.
   capitolin.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  Capitol in Rome. "Capitolian
   Jove." Macaulay. Capitoline games (Antiq.), annual games instituted at
   Rome  by  Camillus,  in honor of Jupter Capitolinus, on account of the
   preservation  of  the  Capitol  from  the  Gauls; when reinstituted by
   Domitian, arter a period of neglect, they were held every fifth year.


   Ca*pit"u*la (?), n. pl. See Capitulum.


   Ca*pit"u*lar (?), n. [LL. capitulare, capitularium, fr. L. capitulum a
   small head, a chapter, dim. of capit head, chapter.]

   1. An act passed in a chapter.

   2. A member of a chapter.

     The chapter itself, and all its members or capitulars. Ayliffe.

   3. The head or prominent part.


   Ca*pit"u*lar (?), a.

   1. (Eccl.) Of or pertaining to a chapter; capitulary.

     From the pope to the member of the capitular body. Milman.

   2. (Bot.) Growing in, or pertaining to, a capitulum.

   3.  (Anat.)  Pertaining to a capitulum; as, the capitular process of a
   vetebra, the process which articulates with the capitulum of a rib.


   Ca*pit"u*lar*ly  (?),  adv. In the manner or form of an ecclesiastical
   chapter. Sterne.


   Ca*pit"u*la*ry (?), n.; pl. Capitularies (#). [See Capitular.]

   1. A capitular.

   2.  The body of laws or statutes of a chapter, or of an ecclesiastical

   3. A collection of laws or statutes, civil and ecclesiastical, esp. of
   the Frankish kings, in chapters or sections.

     Several of Charlemagne's capitularies. Hallam.


   Ca*pit"u*la*ry  (?),  a.  Relating  to  the  chapter  of  a cathedral;
   capitular. "Capitulary acts." Warton.


   Ca*pit"u*late  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Capitulated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Capitulating.]  [LL.  capitulatus,  p. p. of capitulare to capitulate:
   cf. F. capituler. See Capitular, n.]

   1.  To  settle  or  draw  up the heads or terms of an agreement, as in
   chapters or articles; to agree. [Obs.]

     There  capitulates with the king . . . to take to wife his daughter
     Mary. Heylin.

     There  is  no  reason  why the reducing of any agreement to certain
     heads or capitula should not be called to capitulate. Trench.

   2.  To surrender on terms agreed upon (usually, drawn up under several
   heads); as, an army or a garrison capitulates.

     The Irish, after holding out a week, capitulated. Macaulay.


   Ca*pit"u*late,  v.  t.  To  surrender  or  transfer,  as  an army or a
   fortress, on certain conditions. [R.]


   Ca*pit`u*la"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. capitulation, LL. capitulatio.]

   1. A reducing to heads or articles; a formal agreement.

     With  special  capitulation  that  neither the Scots nor the French
     shall refortify. Bp. Burnet.

   2. The act of capitulating or surrendering to an emeny upon stipulated

   3. The instrument containing the terms of an agreement or surrender.


   Ca*pit"u*la`tor (?), n. [LL.] One who capitulates.


   Cap"i*tule  (?),  n.  [L.  capitulum  small head, chapter.] A summary.


   Ca*pit"u*lum (?), n.; pl. Capitula (. [L., a small head.]

   1. A thick head of flowers on a very short axis, as a clover top, or a
   dandelion;  a  composite flower. A capitulum may be either globular or
   flat. Gray.

   2.  (Anat.)  A  knobike protuberance of any part, esp. at the end of a
   bone or cartilage.

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Artiodactyla.]


   Ca*pi"vi  (?),  n. [Cf. Copaiba.] A balsam of the Spanish West Indies.
   See Copaiba.


   Ca"ple (?), n. See Capel.


   Cap"lin (?), n. See Capelin.

                                Caplin, Capling

   Cap"lin  (?), Cap"ling (?), n. The cap or coupling of a flail, through
   which the thongs pass which connect the handle and swingel. Wright.


   Cap"no*man`cy  (?),  n. [Gr. mancy: cf. F. capnomancie.] Divination by
   means of the ascent or motion of smoke.


   Cap"no*mor  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Chem.)  A  limpid,  colorless  oil with a
   peculiar odor, obtained from beech tar. Watts.


   Ca*poc"  (?),  n. [Malay k\'bepoq.] A sort of cotton so short and fine
   thet  it  can not be spun, used in the East Indies to line palanquins,
   to make mattresses, etc.


   Ca*poch" (?), n.; pl. Capoches (#). [Cf. Sp. capucho, It. cappucio, F.
   Capuce,  capuchon,  LL.  caputium,  fr.  capa cloak. See Cap.] A hood;
   especialy, the hood attached to the gown of a monk.


   Ca*poch",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Capoched (?).] To cover with, or as
   with, a hood; hence, to hoodwink or blind. Hudibras.


   Ca"pon  (?), n. [OE. capon, chapoun, AS. cap (cf. F. chapon), L. capo,
   fr.  Gr.  skopiti  to casrate. CF. Comma.] A castrated cock, esp. when
   fattened;  a  male  chicken gelded to improve his flesh for the table.

     The merry thought of a capon. W. Irving.


   Ca"pon, v. t. To castrate; to make a capon of.


   Ca"pon*et (?), n. A young capon. [R.] Chapman.


   Cap`o*niere"  (?),  n.  [F.  caponni\'8are, fr. Sp. caponera, orig., a
   cage  for  fattening  capons,  hence,  a  place  of  refuge;  cf.  It.
   capponiera. See Capon.] (Fort.) A work made across or in the ditch, to
   protect it from the enemy, or to serve as a covered passageway.


   Ca"pon*ize (?), v. t. To castrate, as a fowl.


   Ca*pot"  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  winning  of  all the tricks at the game of
   piquet. It counts for forty points. Hoyle.


   Ca*pot", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Capotted.] To win all the tricks from, in
   playing at piquet.


   Ca*pote"  (?),  n.  [Sp.  capote  (cf. F. capote.), fr. LL. capa cape,
   cloak. See Cap.] A long cloak or overcoat, especially one with a hood.


   Ca*pouch" (?), n. & v. t. Same as Capoch.


   Cap"pa*dine  (?),  n.  A floss or waste obtained from the cocoon after
   the silk has been reeled off, used for shag.


   Cap"pa`per (?), See cap, n., also Paper, n.


   Cap"peak`  (?),  n.  The  front  piece  of a cap; -- now more commonly
   called visor.


   Cap*pel"la (?), n. See A cappella.


   Cap"per (?), n.

   1. One whose business is to make or sell caps.

   2. A by-bidder; a decoy for gamblers [Slang, U. S.]<--shill?-->.

   3. An instrument for applying a percussion cap to a gun or cartridge.

                                 Capping plane

   Cap"ping  plane`  (?).  (Join.)  A  plane  used  for working the upper
   surface of staircase rails.


   Ca"pra  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  she goat.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of ruminants,
   including the common goat.


   Cap"rate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of capric acid.


   Cap"re*o*late (?), a. [L. capreolus wild goat, tendril, fr.caper goat:
   cf. F. capr\'82ol\'82.] (Bot.) Having a tendril or tendrils.


   Cap"re*o*line  (?),  a.  [L.  capreolus  wild  goat,  fr. caper goat.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the roebuck.


   Cap"ric  (?),  a.  [L. caper goat.] (Chem.) Of or pertaining to capric
   acid  or  its  derivatives.  Capric  acid,  C9H9.CO2H,  Caprylic acid,
   C7H15.CO2H, AND Caproic acid, C5H11.CO2H, are fatty acids occurring in
   small  quantities in butter, cocoanut oil, etc., united with glycerin;
   they are colorless oils, or white crystalline solids, of an unpleasant
   odor like that of goats or sweat.


   Ca*ric"cio (?), n. [It. See Caprice.]

   1.  (Mus.)  A piece in a free form, with frequent digressions from the
   theme; a fantasia; -- often called caprice.

   2. A caprice; a freak; a fancy. Shak.


   Ca*pri*cio"so (?), a. [It.] (Mus) In a free, fantastic style.


   Ca*price"  (?),  n. [F. caprice, It. capriccio, caprice (perh. orig. a
   fantastical  goat  leap), fr. L. caper, capra, goat. Cf Capriole, Cab,
   Caper, v. i.]

   1.  An  abrupt  change in feeling, opinion, or action, proceeding from
   some  whim  or  fancy;  a  freak; a notion. "Caprices of appetite." W.

   2. (Mus.) See Capriccio. Syn. -- Freak; whim; crotchet; fancy; vagary;
   humor; whimsey; fickleness.


   Ca*pri"cious (?), a. [Cf. F. capricleux, It. capriccioso.] Governed or
   characterized by caprice; apt to change suddenly; freakish; whimsical;
   changeable. "Capricious poet." Shak. "Capricious humor." Hugh Miller.

     A capricious partiality to the Romish practices. Hallam.

   Syn.  --  Freakish;  whimsical;  fanciful;  fickle; crotchety; fitful;
   wayward;  changeable;  unsteady;  uncertain; inconstant; arbitrary. --
   Ca*pri"cious*ly, adv. -- Ca*pri"cious*ness, n.


   Cap"ri*corn  (?),  n. [L. capricornus; caper goat + cornu horn: cf. F.

   1.  (Astron.)  The  tenth sign of zodiac, into which the sun enters at
   the winter solstice, about December 21. See Tropic.

     The sun was entered into Capricorn. Dryden.

   2.   (Astron.)   A  southern  constellation,  represented  on  ancient
   monuments by the figure of a goat, or a figure with its fore part like
   a fish.
   Capricorn  beetle (Zo\'94l.), any beetle of the family Carambucid\'91;
   one  of  the  long-horned  beetles. The larv\'91 usually bore into the
   wood  or  bark  of  trees  and  shurbs  and are often destructive. See
   Girdler, Pruner.


   Cap"rid  (?),  a. [L. caper, capra, goat.] (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining
   to  the  tribe  of ruminants of which the goat, or genus Capra, is the


   Cap"ri*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n. [L. caprificatio, fr. caprificare to ripen
   figs by caprification, fr. caprificus the wild fig; caper goat + ficus
   fig.]  The practice of hanging, upon the cultivated fig tree, branches
   of the wild fig infested with minute hymenopterous insects.

     NOTE: &hand; It   is  su pposed th at th e li ttle in sects in sure
     fertilization by carrying the pollen from the male flowers near the
     opening  of the fig down to the female flowers, and also accelerate
     ripening the fruit by puncturing it. The practice has existed since
     ancient times, but its benefit has been disputed.


   Cap"ri*fole  (?),  n.  [L.  caper goat + folium leaf.] The woodbine or
   honeysuckle. Spenser.


   Cap"ri*fo`li*a`ceous  (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining to, or resembling, the
   Honeysuckle family of plants (Caprifoliac\'91.


   Cap"ri*form  (?),  a.  [L.  caper  goat + -form.] Having the form of a


   Ca*prig"e*nous  (?),  a.  [L.  caprigenus;  caper  goat  +  gegnere to
   produce.] Of the goat kind.


   Cap"rine  (?),  a.  [L.  caprinus.]  Of  or  pertaining to a goat; as,
   caprine gambols.


   Cap"ri*ole  (?), n. [F. capriole, cabriole, It. capriola, fr. L. caper
   goat. Cf. Caper, v. i. Cabriole, Caprice, Cheveril.]

   1.  (Man.)  A  leap  that  a horse makes with all fours, upwards only,
   without  advancing,  but  with a kick or jerk of the hind legs when at
   the height of the leap.

   2.  A  leap or caper, as in dancing. "With lofty turns and caprioles."
   Sir J. Davies.


   Cap"ri*ole, v. i. To perform a capriole. Carlyle.


   Cap"ri*ped  (?),  a.  [L.  capripers;  caper  goat + pes pedis, foot.]
   Having feet like those of a goat.

   Page 215


   Cap"ro*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of caproic acid.


   Ca*pro"ic (?), a. (Chem.) See under Capric.


   Cap"ry*late (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of caprylic acid.


   Ca*pryl"ic (?), a. (Chem.) See under Capric.


   Cap*sa"i*cin  (?), n. [From Capsicum.] (Chem.) A colorless crystalline
   substance extracted from the Capsicum annuum, and giving off vapors of
   intense acridity.


   Cap"sheaf`  (?),  n.  The  top  sheaf  of a stack of grain: (fig.) the
   crowning or finishing part of a thing.


   Cap"si*cin (?), n. [From Capsicum.] (Chem.) A red liquid or soft resin
   extracted from various species of capsicum.


   Cap"si*cine  (?),  n.  [From  Capsicum.]  (Chem.)  A valatile alkaloid
   extracted from Capsicum annuum or from capsicin.


   Cap"si*cum  (?),  n. [NL., fr. L. capsa box, chest.] (Bot.) A genus of
   plants  of  many species, producing capsules or dry berries of various
   forms,  which  have  an  exceedingly  pungent,  biting taste, and when
   ground form the red of Cayenne pepper of commerce.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e mo st im portant species are Capsicum baccatum or
     birs  pepper.  C,  annuum  or  chili  pepper,  C. frutesens or spur
     pepper,  and  C.  annuum  or Guinea pepeer, which includes the bell
     pepper  and  other common garden varieties. The fruit is much used,
     both  in  its  green and ripe state, in pickles and in cookery. See
     Cayenne pepper.


   Cap*size"  (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Capsized (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Capsizing.]  [Cf.  Sp.  cabecear  to nod, pitch, capuzar, chapuzar, to
   sink  (a  vessel)  by  the  head; both fr. L. caput head.] To upset or
   overturn, as a vessel or other body.

     But what if carrying sail capsize the boat? Byron.


   Cap"size` (?), n. An upset or overturn.


   Cap"*square  (?),  n.  (Gun.) A metal covering plate which passes over
   the trunnions of a cannon, and holds it in place.


   Cap"stan  (?),  n. [F. cabestan, fr. Sp. cabestrante, cabrestante, fr.
   cabestrar  to bind with a halter, fr. cabestrohalter, fr. L. capistrum
   halter,  fr.  capere  to hold (see Capacious); or perh. the Spanish is
   fr.  L. caper goat + stans, p. pr. of stare to stand; cf. F. ch\'8avre
   she-goat,  also  a  machine  for  raising  heavy  weights.] A vertical
   cleated  drum  or  cylinder,  revolving  on  an  upright  spindle, and
   surmounted  by  a drumhead with sockets for bars or levers. It is much
   used,  especially on shipboard, for moving or raising heavy weights or
   exerting  great power by traction upon a rope or cable, passing around
   the  drum.  It is operated either by steam power or by a number of men
   walking  around  the capstan, each pushing on the end of a lever fixed
   in  its  socket.  [Sometimes  spelt Capstern, but improperly.] Capstan
   bar,  one of the long bars or levers by which the capstan is worked; a
   handspike..  --  To  pawl  the capstan, to drop the pawls so that they
   will  catch  in  the notches of the pawl ring, and prevent the capstan
   from  turning  back. -- To rig the capstan, to prepare the for use, by
   putting the bars in the sockets. -- To surge the capstan, to slack the
   tension of the rope or cable wound around it.


   Cap"stone`  (?),  n. (Paleon.) A fossil echinus of the genus Cannulus;
   -- so called from its supposed resemblance to a cap.

                              Capsular, Capsulary

   Cap"su*lar  (?),  Cap"su*la*ry  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  capsulaire.] Of or
   pertaining  to  a  capsule; having the nature of a capsula; hollow and
   fibrous.  Capsular  ligament  (Anat.),  a  ligamentous  bag or capsule
   surrounding many movable joints in the skeleton.

                             Capsulate, Capsulated

   Cap"su*late (?), Cap"su*la`ted (?), a. Inclosed in a capsule, or as in
   a chest or box.


   Cap"sule  (?),  n. [L. capsula a little box or chest, fr. capsa chest,
   case, fr. capere to take, contain: cf. F. capsule.]

   1.  (Bot.)  a  dry  fruit  or pod which is made up of several parts or
   carpels,  and  opens  to  discharge  the seeds, as, the capsule of the
   poppy, the flax, the lily, etc.

   2.  (Chem.) (a) A small saucer of clay for roasting or melting samples
   of  ores,  etc.;  a scorifier. (b) a small, shallow, evaporating dish,
   usually of porcelain.

   3.  (Med.)  A  small  cylindrical  or spherical gelatinous envelope in
   which nauseous or acrid doses are inclosed to be swallowed.

   4. (Anat.) A membranous sac containing fluid, or investing an organ or
   joint;  as,  the  capsule  of the lens of the eye. Also, a capsulelike

   5. A metallic seal or cover for closing a bottle,

   6. A small cup or shell, as of metal, for a percussion cap, cartridge,
   Atrabiliary  capsule.  See  under Atrabiliary. -- Glisson's capsule, a
   membranous  envelope, entering the liver along with the portal vessels
   and  insheathing  the  latter  in  their  course through the organ. --
   Suprarenal capsule, an organ of unknown function, above or in front of
   each kidney.


   Cap"tain  (?),  n.  [OE. capitain, captain, OF. capitain, F. capitaine
   (cf.  Sp.  capitan,  It.  capitano), LL. capitaneus, capitanus, fr. L.
   caput the head. See under Chief, and cf. Chieftain.]

   1. A head, or chief officer; as: (a) The military officer who commands
   a  company, troop, or battery, or who has the rank entitling him to do
   so  though  he may be employed on other service. (b) An officer in the
   United  States navy, next above a commander and below a commodore, and
   ranking  with  a  colonel  in  the  ermy.  (c) By courtesy, an officer
   actually commanding a vessel, although not having the rank of captain.
   (d)  The master or commanding officer of a merchant vessel. (e) One in
   charge  of  a  portion  of  a  ship's company; as, a captain of a top,
   captain  of  a  gun,  etc. (f) The foreman of a body of workmen. (g) A
   person having authority over others acting in concert; as, the captain
   of a boat's crew; the captain of a football team.

     A trainband captain eke was he. Cowper.

     The  Rhodian captain, relying on . . . the lightness of his vessel,
     passed, in open day, through all the guards. Arbuthnot.

   2. A military leader; a warrior.

     Foremost captain of his time. Tennyson.

   Captain  general.  (a) The commander in chief of an army or armies, or
   of  the  militia.  (b)  The Spanish governor of Cuba and its dependent
   islands.  -- Captain lieutenant, a lieutenant with the rank and duties
   of  captain but with a lieutenant's pay, -- as in the first company of
   an English regiment.


   Cap"tain (?), v. t. To act as captain of; to lead. [R.]

     Men  who  captained  or accompanied the exodus from existing forms.


     Cap"tain, a. Chief; superior. [R.]

     captain jewes in the carcanet. Shak.


     Cap"tain*cy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Captaincies  (.  The  rank,  post,  or
     commission of a captain. Washington. Captaincy general

   ,  the  office, power, teritory, or jurisdiction of a captain general;
   as, the captaincy general of La Habana (Cuba and its islands).
   Cap"tain*ry  (?),  n. [Cf. F. capitainerie.] Power, or command, over a
   certain district; chieftainship. [Obs.] 


   Cap"tain*ship, n.

   1.  The  condition,  rank,  post,  or  authority of a captain or chief
   commander. "To take the captainship." Shak.

   2. Military skill; as, to show good captainship.


   Cap*ta`tion  (?),  n.  [L.  captatio,  fr. captare to catch, intens of
   caper  to take: cf. F. captation.] A courting of favor or applause, by
   flattery or address; a captivating quality; an attraction. [Obs.]

     Without any of those dresses, or popular captations, which some men
     use in their speeches. Eikon Basilike.


   Cap"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  captio, fr. caper to take. In senses 3 and 4,
   perhaps confounded in meaning with L. caput a head. See Capacious.]

   1. A caviling; a sophism. [Obs.]

     This doctrine is for caption and contradiction. Bacon.

   2.  The  act of taking or arresting a person by judicial process. [R.]

   3. (Law) That part of a legal instrument, as a commission, indictment,
   etc., which shows where, when, and by what authority, it taken, found,
   or executed. Bouvier. Wharton.

   4. The heading of a chapter, section, or page. [U. S.]


   Cap"tious (?), a. [F. captieux, L. captiosus. See Caption.]

   1.  Art  to catch at faults; disposed to find fault or to cavil; eager
   to object; difficult to please.

     A captius and suspicious. Stillingfleet.

     I  am  sensible I have not disposed my materials to adbide the test
     of a captious controversy. Bwike.

   2. Fitted to harass, perplex, or insnare; insidious; troublesome.

     Captious restraints on navigation. Bancroft.

   Syn.  --  Caviling, carping, fault-finding; censorious; hypercritical;
   peevish,   fretful;  perverse;  troublesome.  --  Captious,  caviling,
   Carping.  A  captious  person  is one who has a fault-finding habit or
   manner,  or  is  disposed  to  catch  at  faults,  errors,  etc., with
   quarrelsome  intent; a caviling person is disposed to raise objections
   on   frivolous   grounds;   carping  implies  that  one  is  given  to
   ill-natured,  persistent, or unreasonable fault-finding, or picking up
   of the words or actions of others.

     Caviling  is  the  carping of argument, carping the caviling of ill
     temper. C. J. Smith.


   Cap"tious*ly, adv. In a captious manner.


   Cap"tious*ness, n. Captious disposition or manner.


   Cap"ti*vate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Captivated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Captivating.]  [L.  captivatus,  p.  p.  of  captivare to capture, fr.
   captivus captive. See Captive.]

   1. To take prisoner; to capture; to subdue. [Obs.]

     Their woes whom fortune captivates. Shak.

   2.  To acquire ascendancy over by reason of some art or attraction; to
   fascinate;  to  charm;  as,  Cleopatra  captivated  Antony; the orator
   captivated all hearts.

     Small landscapes of captivating loveliness. W. Irving.

   Syn.  --  To  enslave;  subdue;  overpower;  charm;  enchant; bewitch;
   facinate; capture; lead captive.


   Cap"ti*vate  (?), p. a. [L. captivatus.] Taken prisoner; made captive;
   insnared; charmed.

     Women have been captivate ere now. Shak.


   Cap"ti*va`ting (?), a. Having power to captivate or cham; fascinating;
   as, captivating smiles. -- Cap"tiva`ting*ly, adv.


   Cap"ti*va`tion (?), n. [L. capticatio.] The act of captivating. [R.]

     The captivation of our understanding. Bp. Hall.


   Cap"tive  (?), n. [L. captivus, fr. capere to take: cf. F. captif. See

   1.  A prisoner taken by force or stratagem, esp., by an enemy, in war;
   one kept in bondage or in the power of another.

     Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains. Milton.

   2.  One charmed or subdued by beaty, excellence, or affection; one who
   is captivated.


   Cap"tive, a.

   1.   Made   prisoner,  especially  in  war;  held  in  bondage  or  in

     A poor, miserable, captive thrall. Milton.

   2. Subdued by love; charmed; captivated.

     Even  in so short a space, my wonan's heart Grossly grew captive to
     his honey words. Shak.

   3. Of or pertaining to bondage or confinement; serving to confine; as,
   captive chains; captive hours.


   Cap"tive  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Captived (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Captiving.] To take prisoner; to capture.

     Their inhabitans slaughtered and captived. Burke.


   Cap*tiv"i*ty (?), n. [L. captivitas: cf. F. captivit\'82.]

   1. The state of being a captive or a prisoner.

     More  celebrated  in  his  captivity that in his greatest triumphs.

   2.  A  state  of  being  under  control;  subjection  of  the  will or
   affections; bondage.

     Sink in the soft captivity together. Addison.

   Syn.  --  Imprisonment;  confinement;  bondage; subjection; servitude;
   slavery; thralldom; serfdom.


   Cap"tor  (?),  n.  [L., a cather (of animals), fr. caper to take.] One
   who captures any person or thing, as a prisoner or a prize.


   Cap"ture  (?),  n. [L. capture, fr. caper to take: cf. F. capture. See
   Caitiff, and cf. aptive.]

   1.  The  act of seizing by force, or getting possession of by superior
   power  or  by  stratagem;  as, the capture of an enemy, a vessel, or a

     Even with regard to captures made at sea. Bluckstone.

   2.  The  securing of an object of strife or desire, as by the power of
   some attraction.

   3.  The  thing  taken by force, surprise, or stratagem; a prize; prey.
   Syn. -- Seizure; apprehension; arrest; detention.


   Cap"ture,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Captured  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Capturing.]  To  seize  or  take  possession of by force, surprise, or
   stratagem; to overcome and hold; to secure by effort.

     Her heart is like some fortress that has been captured. W. Ivring.


   Ca*puc"cio  (?),  n.  [It.  cappucio.  See  Capoch.] A capoch or hood.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Ca*puched"  (?),  a.  [See  Capoch.]  Cover  with, or as with, a hood.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Cap`u*chin"  (?),  n.  [F.  capucin  a  monk who wears a cowl, fr. It.
   cappuccio hood. See Capoch.]

   1. (Eccl.) A Franciscan monk of the austere branch established in 1526
   by Matteo di Baschi, distinguished by wearing the long pointed cowl or
   capoch of St. Francis.

     A bare-footed and long-bearded capuchin. Sir W. Scott.

   2. A garment for women, consisting of a cloak and hood, resembling, or
   supposed to resemble, that of capuchin monks.

   3.   (Zo\'94l.)   (a)  A  long-tailed  South  American  monkey  (Cabus
   capucinus),  having  the forehead naked and wrinkled, with the hair on
   the  crown  reflexed and resembling a monk's cowl, the rest being of a
   grayish white; -- called also capucine monkey, weeper, sajou, sapajou,
   and  sai.  (b)  Other  species of Cabus, as C. fatuellus (the brown or
   horned  capucine.),  C. albifrons (the cararara), and C. apella. (c) A
   variety  of  the domestic pigeon having a hoodlike tuft of feathers on
   the head and sides of the neck.
   Capuchin  nun,  one  of an austere order of Franciscan nuns which came
   under  Capuchin  rule  in 1538. The order had recently been founded by
   Maria Longa.


   Cap"u*cine (?), n. See Capuchin, 3.


   Cap"u*let (?), n. (Far.) Same as Capellet.


   Cap"u*lin (?), n. [Sp. capuli.] The Mexican chery (Prunus Capollin).


   Ca"put, n.; pl. Capita (#). [L., the head.]

   1. (Anat.) The head; also, a knoblike protuberance or capitulum.

   2. The top or superior part of a thing.

   3.  (Eng.)  The  council or ruling body of the University of Cambridge
   prior to the constitution of 1856.

     Your caputs and heads of colleges. Lamb.

   Caput  mortuum  (.  [L.,  dead  head.]  (Old Chem.) The residuum after
   distillation or sublimation; hence, worthless residue.


   Ca`py*ba"ra  (?), n. [Sp. capibara, fr. the native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   large  South  American  rodent (Hydroch\'91rus capybara) Living on the
   margins  of  lakes  and rivers. It is the largest extant rodent, being
   about  three feet long, and half that in height. It somewhat resembles
   the  Guinea  pig,  to  which  it is related; -- called also cabiai and
   water hog.

   Page 216


   Car  (?),  n.  [OF. car, char, F. cahr, fr. L. carrus, Wagon: a Celtic
   word; cf. W. car, Armor. karr, Ir. & Gael. carr. cf. Chariot.]

   1. A small vehicle moved on wheels; usually, one having but two wheels
   and drawn by one horse; a cart.

   2. A vehicle adapted to the rails of a railroad. [U. S.]

     NOTE: &hand; In  En gland a  ra ilroad pa ssenger ca r is  called a
     railway  carriage;  a  freight  car a goods wagon; a platform car a
     goods truck; a baggage car a van. But styles of car introduced into
     England  from  America  are called cars; as, tram car. Pullman car.
     See Train.

   3.  A chariot of war or of triumph; a vehicle of splendor, dignity, or
   solemnity. [Poetic].

     The gilded car of day. Milton.

     The towering car, the sable steeds. Tennyson.

   4.  (Astron.) The stars also called Charles's Wain, the Great Bear, or
   the Dipper.

     The Pleiads, Hyads, and the Northern Car. Dryden.

   5. The cage of a lift or elevator.

   6.  The  basket,  box,  or  cage  suspended  from  a ballon to contain
   passengers, ballast, etc.

   7. A floating perforated box for living fish. [U. S.]
   Car coupling, or Car coupler, a shackle or other device for connecting
   the  cars  in  a railway train. [U. S.] -- Dummy car (Railroad), a car
   containing   its  own  steam  power  or  locomotive.  --  Freight  car
   (Railrood),  a  car  for  the  transportation  of merchandise or other
   goods.  [U. S.] -- Hand car (Railroad), a small car propelled by hand,
   used  by  railroad laborers, etc. [U. S.] -- Horse car, or Street car,
   an  ommibus  car, draw by horses or other power upon rails laid in the
   streets.  [U.  S.] -- Mcol>Palace car, Drawing-room car, Sleeping car,
   Parior  caretc.  ,  (Railroad), cars especially designed and furnished
   for the comfort of travelers.


   Car"a*bid  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of, pertaining to, or resembling, the
   genus  Carbus  or  family Carabid\'91. -- n. One of the Carabid\'91, a
   family of active insectivorous beetles.


   Car"a*bine (?), n. (Mil.) A carbine.


   Car`a*bi*neer" (?), n. A carbineer.


   Car"a*boid (?), a. [Carabus + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like, or pertaining to
   the genus Carabus.


   Car"a*bus  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of ground beetles,
   including numerous species. They devour many injurious insects.


   Car"ac (?), n. See Carack.


   Car"a*cal  (?),  n.  [F.  caracal, fr. Turk garahgootag; garah black +
   goofag  ear.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  lynx  (Felis, or Lynx, caracal.) It is a
   native  of  Africa and Asia. Its ears are black externally, and tipped
   with long black hairs.


   Ca"`ra*ca"ra  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  south  American bird of several
   species  and  genera, resembling both the eagles and the vultures. The
   caracaras act as scavengers, and are also called carrion buzzards.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e bl ack ca racara is Ibycter ater; the chimango is
     Milvago chimango; the Brazilian is Polyborus Braziliensis.


   Car"ack (?), n. [F. caraque (cf. Sp. & Pg. carraca, It. caracca.), LL.
   carraca,  fr.  L.  carrus  wagon;  or  perh.  fr.  Ar.  qorq\'d4r (pl.
   qar\'beqir)  a  carack.] (Naut.) A kind of large ship formerly used by
   the  Spaniards  and  Portuguese  in  the  East India trade; a galleon.
   [Spelt also carrack.]

     The bigger whale like some huge carrack law. Waller.


   Car"a*cole  (?),  n.  [F.  caracole,  caracol,  fr. Sp. caracol snail,
   winding staircase, a wheeling about.]

   1.  (Man.)  A half turn which a horseman makes, either to the right or
   the left.

   2. (Arch.) A staircase in a spiral form.
   En caracole ( [F.], spiral; -- said of a staircase.


   Car"a*cole  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Caracoled  (?).]  [Cf.  F.
   caracoler.] (Man.) To move in a caracole, or in caracoles; to wheel.

     Prince John caracoled within the lists. Sir W. Scott.


   Car"a*col`y  (?), n. An alloy of gold, silver, and copper, of which an
   inferior quality of jewerly is made.

                              Caracore, Caracora

   Car"a*core  (?),  Car"a*co`ra (?), n. [Malay kurakura.] A light vessel
   or  proa  used  by the people of Borneo, etc., and by the Dutch in the
   East Indies.


   Ca*rafe" (?), n. [F.] A glass water bottle for the table or toilet; --
   called also croft.

                             Carageen OR Caragheen

   Car"a*geen` OR Car"a*gheen` (?), n. See Carrageen.


   Ca`ram*bo"la  (?), n. (Bot.) An East Indian tree (Averrhoa Carambola),
   and its acid, juicy fruit; called also Coromandel gooseberry.


   Car"a*mel  (?),  n.  [F. caramel (cf. Sp. caramelo), LL. canna mellis,
   cannamella,  canamella,  calamellus  mellitus,  sugar  cane,  from  or
   confused with L. canna reed + mel, mellis, honey. See Cane.]

   1.  (Chem.) Burnt sugar; a brown or black porous substance obtained by
   heating  sugar.  It  is  soluble  in  water,  and is used for coloring
   spirits, gravies, etc.

   2.  A  kind  of  confectionery,  usually  a  small  cube  or square of
   tenacious paste, or candy, of varying composition and flavor.


   Ca*ran"goid  (?),  a.  [Caranx  +  -oid.]  (Zo\'94l.) Belonging to the
   Carangid\'91,  a  family  of  fishes  allied  to  the  mackerels,  and
   including the caranx, American bluefish, and the pilot fish.


   Ca"ranx  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of fishes, common on the Atlantic
   coast, including the yellow or goldon mackerel.


   Car"a*pace  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Zo\'94l.) The thick shell or sheild which
   cover  the  back  of  the  tortoise,  or  turtle,  the crab, and other
   crustaceous animals.


   Ca`ra*pa"to  (?), n. [Pg. carrapato.] (Zo\'94l.) A south American tick
   of the genus Amblyamma. There are several species, very troublesome to
   man and beast.


   Car"a*pax (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Carapace.


   Car"at  (?),  n.  [F.  carat  (cf. It. carato, OPg. quirate, Pg. & Sp.
   quilate),  Ar.  q  bean or pea shell, a weight of four grins, a carat,
   fr. Gr. Horn.]

   1. The weight by which precious stones and pearls are weighed.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e carat equals three and one fifth grains Troy, and
     is  divided  into  four  grains,  sometimes  called  carat  grains.
     Diamonds  and  other  precious  stones  are estimated by carats and
     fractions of carats, and pearls, usually, by carat grains.


   2.   A   twenty-fourth   part;  --  a  term  used  in  estimating  the
   proportionate fineness of gold.

     NOTE: &hand; A  ma ss of  me tal is said to be so many carats fine,
     according  to  the  number  of twenty-fourths of pure gold which it
     contains;  as,  22 carats fine (goldsmith's standard) = 22 parts of
     gold, 1 of copper, and 1 of silver.


   Car"a*van (?), n. [F. caravane (cf. Sp. caravana), fr. Per. karmw\'ben
   a caravan (in sense 1). Cf. Van a wagon.]

   1.  A  company  of  travelers,  pilgrims,  or merchants, organized and
   equipped  for  a long journey, or marching or traveling together, esp.
   through  deserts  and countries infested by robbers or hostile tribes,
   as in Asia or Africa.

   2.  A  large,  covered wagon, or a train of such wagons, for conveying
   wild  beasts,  etc.,  for  exhibition;  an  itinerant show, as of wild

   3.  A covered vehicle for carrying passengers or for moving furniture,
   etc.; -- sometimes shorted into van.


   Car`a*van*eer"  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. caravanier.] The leader or driver of
   the camels in caravan.


   Car`a*van"sa*ry  (?),  n.;  pl. Caravansaries (#) [F. caravans\'82rai,
   fr.   Per.  karw\'bensar\'be\'8b;  karw\'ben  caravan  +  -sar\'be\'8b
   palace,  large house, inn.] A kind of inn, in the East, where caravans
   rest  at night, being a large, rude, unfurnished building, surrounding
   a court. [Written also caravanserai and caravansera.]


   Car"a*vel (?), n. [F. caravelle (cf. It. caravella, Sp. carabela), fr.
   Sp.  caraba a kind of vessel, fr. L. carabus a kind of light boat, fr.
   Gr.  [written  also  caravel  and  caravelle.] (Naut.) A name given to
   several  kinds  of  vessels. (a) The caravel of the 16th century was a
   small  vessel  with  broad  bows,  high,  narrow poop, four masts, and
   lateen  sails.  Columbus commanded three caravels on his great voyage.
   (b) A Portuguese vessel of 100 or 150 tons burden. (c) A small fishing
   boat used on the French coast. (d) A Turkish man-of-war.


   Car"a*way   (?),   n.   [F.  carvi  (cf.  Sp.  carvi  and  al-caravea,
   al-carahueya, Pg. al-caravia) fr. Ar. karaw\'c6\'befr. Gr. caraum.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  biennial plant of the Parsley family (Carum Carui). The
   seeds have an aromatic smell, and a warm, pungent taste. They are used
   in cookery and confectionery, and also in medicine as a carminative.

   2. A cake or sweetmeat containing caraway seeds.

     Caraways, or biscuits, or some other [comfits]. Cogan.


   Car*bam"ic  (?), a. [Carbon + amido.] (Chem.) Pertaining to an acid so
   called.  Carbamic  acid (Chem.), an amido acid, NH2.CO2H, not existing
   in  the  free state, but occurring as a salt of ammonium in commercial
   ammonium carbonate; -- called also amido formic acid.


   Car*bam"ide (?), n. [Carbonyl + amide.] (Chem.) The technical name for


   Car*bam"ine  (?),  n.  (Chem.) An isocyanide of a hydrocarbon radical.
   The  carbamines  are  liquids,  usually  colorless, and of unendurable


   Car"ba*nil  (?),  n.  [Carbonyl  +  aniline.] (Chem.) A mobile liquid,
   CO.N.C6H5, of pungent odor. It is the phenyl salt of isocyanic acid.


   Car"ba*zol  (?), n. [Carbon + azo + -ol.] (Chem.) A white crystallized
   substance, C12H8NH, derived from aniline and other amines.


   Car*baz"o*tate  (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of carbazotic or picric acid; a


   Car`ba*zot"ic  (?),  a. [Carbon + azole.] Containing, or derived from,
   carbon  and  nitrogen. Carbazotic acid (Chem.), picric acid. See under


   Car"bide  (?), n. [Carbon + -ide.] (Chem.) A binary compound of carbon
   with some other element or radical, in which the carbon plays the part
   of a negative; -- formerly termed carburet.


   Car"bi*mide  (?),  n.  [Carbon + imide] (Chem.) The technical name for
   isocyanic acid. See under Isocyanic.


   Car"bine  (?),  n.  [F.  carbine,  OF.  calabrin  carabineer  (cf. Ot.
   calabrina  a  policeman),  fr. OF & Pr. calabre, OF. cable, chable, an
   engine of war used in besieging, fr. LL. chadabula, cabulus, a kind of
   projectile  machine, fr. Gr. Parable.] (Mil.) A short, light musket or
   rifle, esp. one used by mounted soldiers or cavalry.


   Car`bi*neer"  (?),  n.  [F. carabinier.] (Mil.) A soldier armed with a


   Car"bi*nol  (?),  n.  [Carbin  (Kolbe's  name for the radical) + -ol.]
   (Chem.)  Methyl  alcohol, CH3OH; -- also, by extension, any one in the
   homologous series of paraffine alcohols of which methyl alcohol is the


   Car`bo*hy"drate  (?), n. [Carbon + hydrate.] (Physiol. Chem.) One of a
   group  of  compounds  including  the sugars, starches, and gums, which
   contain  six  (or  some  multiple  of six) carbon atoms, united with a
   variable  number of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, but with the two latter
   always in proportion as to form water; as dextrose, C6H12O6.


   Car`bo*hy"dride (?), n. [Carbon + hydrogen.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon.


   Car*bol"ic (?), a. [L. carbo coal + oleum oil.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
   or  designating,  an acid derived from coal tar and other sources; as,
   carbolic acid (called also phenic acid, and phenol). See Phenol.


   Car"bo*lize  (?),  v.  t. (Med.) To apply carbonic acid to; to wash or
   treat with carbolic acid.


   Car"bon  (?),  n.  [F. carbone, fr. L. carbo coal; cf, Skr. (Chem.) An
   elementary  substance, not metallic in its nature, which is present in
   all   organic   compounds.  Atomic  weight  11.97.  Symbol  C.  it  is
   combustible,  and forms the base of lampblack and charcoal, and enters
   largely  into  mineral  coals.  In  its  pure  crystallized  state  it
   constitutes  the diamond, the hardest of known substances, occuring in
   monometric  crystals like the octahedron, etc. Another modification is
   graphite,  or  blacklead,  and  in  this  it  is  soft,  and occurs in
   hexagonal  prisms  or  tables. When united with oxygen it forms carbon
   dioxide,  commonly  called carbonic acid, or carbonic oxide, according
   to  the proportions of the oxygen; when united with hydrogen, it forms
   various  compounds called hydrocarbons. Compare Diamond, and Graphite.
   Carbon   compounds,  Compounds  of  carbon  (Chem.),  those  compounds
   consisting largely of carbon, commonly produced by animals and plants,
   and  hence  called  organic  compounds,  though their synthesis may be
   effected in many cases in the laboratory.
     The  formation of the compounds of carbon is not dependent upon the
     life process. I. Remsen
   -Carbon  dioxide,  Carbon  monoxide.  (Chem.)  See  under Carbonic. --
   Carbon  light  (Elec.), an extremely brilliant electric light produced
   by   passing  a  galvanic  current  through  two  carbon  points  kept
   constantly  with  their  apexes  neary  in  contact.  --  Carbon point
   (Elec.),  a  small  cylinder  or  bit  of  gas carbon moved forward by
   clockwork  so  that,  as it is burned away by the electric current, it
   shall contantly maintain its proper relation to the opposing point. --
   Carbon  tissue,  paper  coated  with gelatine and pigment, used in the
   autotype  process  of  photography.  Abney.  --  Gas carbon, a compact
   variety  of  carbon obtained as an incrustation on the interior of gas
   retorts,  and  used  for the manufacture of the carbon rods of pencils
   for the voltaic, arc, and for the plates of voltaic batteries, etc.


   Car"bo*na`ceous  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to, containing, or composed of,

                             Carbonade, Carbonado

   Car"bo*nade   (?),  Car`bo*na"do  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  carbonnade,  It.
   carbonata,  Sp. carbonada, from L. carbo coal.] (Cookery) Flesh, fowl,
   etc., cut across, seasoned, and broiled on coals; a chop. [Obs.]

                             Carbonado, Carbonade

   Car`bo*na"do  (?),  Car"bo*nade  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carbonadoed
   (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carbonadoing.]

   1.  To  cut  (meat) across for frying or broiling; to cut or slice and
   broil. [Obs.]

     A short-legged hen daintily carbonadoed. Bean. & Fl.

   2. To cut or hack, as in fighting. [Obs.]

     I'll so carbonado your shanks. Shak.


   Car`bo*na"do (?), n.; pl. Carbonadoes (#). [Pg., carbonated.] (Min.) A
   black  variety  of  diamond,  found  in  Brazil,  and used for diamond
   drills. It occurs in irregular or rounded fragments, rarely distinctly
   crystallized, with a texture varying from compact to porous.


   Car`bo*na"rism  (?),  n. The principles, practices, or organization of
   the Carbonari.


   Car`bo*na"ro  (?),  n.; pl. Carbonari (#). [It., a coal man.] A member
   of  a  secret  political  association in Italy, organized in the early
   part  of  the  nineteenth  centry  for  the  purpose  of  changing the
   government into a republic.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e or igin of  th e Ca rbonari is uncertain, but the
     society  is  said  to  have  first met, in 1808, among the charcoal
     burners of the mountains, whose phraseology they adopted.


   Car`bon*a*ta"tion   (?),  n.  [From  Carbonate.]  (Sugar  Making)  The
   saturation of defecated beet juice with carbonic acid gas. Knight.


   Car"bon*ate  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. carbonate.] (Chem.) A salt or carbonic
   acid, as in limestone, some forms of lead ore, etc.


   Car"bon*a`ted (?), a. Combined or impregnated with carbonic acid.


   Car"bone (?), v. t. [See Carbonado.] To broil. [Obs.] "We had a calf's
   head carboned". Pepys.


   Car*bon"ic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  carbonique.  See  Carbon.] (Chem.) Of,
   pertaining  to, or obtained from, carbon; as, carbonic oxide. Carbonic
   acid  (Chem.), an acid H2CO3, not existing separately, which, combined
   with  positive or basic atoms or radicals, forms carbonates. On common
   language  the  term  is very generally applied to a compound of carbon
   and  oxygen,  CO2,  more  correctly  called  carbon  dioxide.  It is a
   colorless,  heavy,  irrespirable  gas,  extinguishing  flame, and when
   breathed  destroys  life. It can be reduced to a liquid and solid form
   by  intense  pressure.  It is produced in the fermentation of liquors,
   and  by  the  combustion  and  decomposition of organic substances, or
   other  substances  containing carbon. It is formed in the explosion of
   fire damp in mines, and is hance called after damp; it is also know as
   choke  damp, and mephilic air. Water will absorb its own volume of it,
   and  more  than  this  under  pressure,  and in this state becomes the
   common  soda  water  of the shops, and the carbonated water of natural
   springs. Combined with lime it constitutes limestone, or common marble
   and chalk. Plants imbibe it for their nutrition and growth, the carbon
   being  retained and the oxygen given out. -- Carbonic oxide (Chem.), a
   colorless  gas,  CO,  of  a  light  odor, called more correctly carbon
   monoxide.  It  is  almost  the only definitely known compound in which
   carbon  seems  to  be  divalent.  It  is  a  product of the incomplete
   combustion  of carbon, and is an abundant constituent of water gas. It
   is  fatal  to  animal  life, extinguishes combustion, and burns with a
   pale blue flame, forming carbon dioxide.
   Page 217
   Car"bon*ide (?), n. A carbide. [R.]
   Car`bon*if"er*ous  (?), a. [Carbon + -ferous.] Producing or containing
   carbon  or  coal.  Carboniferous  age  (Geol.),  the  age  immediately
   following  the  Devonian,  or  Age of fishes, and characterized by the
   vegatation  which  formed  the  coal  beds.  This  age  embraces three
   periods, the Subcarboniferous, the Carboniferous, and Permian. See Age
   of  acrogens,  under  Acrogen. -- Carboniferous formation (Geol.), the
   series   of  rocks  (including  sandstones,  shales,  limestones,  and
   conglomerates,  with  beds  of  coal)  which make up the strata of the
   Carboniferous age OR period. See the Diagram under Geology.
   Car`bon*i*za"tion  (?),  n. [Cf. F. carbonisation.] The act or process
   of carbonizing.
   Car"bon*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carbonized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Carbonizing.] [Cf. F. carboniser.]
   1.  To  cover  (an  animal  or  vegatable substance) into a residue of
   carbon by the action of fire or some corrosive agent; to char.
   2.  To  impregnate  or  combine  with  carbon,  as  in making steel by
   Car`bon*om"e*ter   (?),  n.  [Carbon  +  -meter.]  An  instrument  for
   detecting and measuring the amount of carbon which is present, or more
   esp.  the  amount  of carbon dioxide, by its action on limewater or by
   other means.
   Car"bon*yl  (?),  n. [Carbon + -yl.] (Chem.) The radical (CO)\'b7\'b7,
   occuring,  always  combined,  in many compounds, as the aldehydes, the
   ketones, urea, carbonyl chloride, etc. 

     NOTE: &hand; Th ough de noted by  a  formula identical with that of
     carbon  monoxide,  it is chemically distinct, as carbon seems to be
     divalent in carbon monoxide, but tetravalent in carbonyl compounds.

   Carbonyl  chloride (Chem.), a colorless gas, COCl2, of offensive odor,
   and  easily  condensable  to  liquid.  It  is formed from chlorine and
   carbon  monoxide,  under  the  influence  of light, and hence has been
   called phosgene gas; -- called also carbon oxychloride.


   Car`bo*sty"ril  (?),  n.  [Carbon  +  styrene.]  A  white  crystalline
   substance,  C9H6N.OH, of acid properties derived from one of the amido
   cinnamic acids.


   Car*box"ide (?), n. [Carbon + oxide.] (Chem.) A compound of carbon and
   oxygen,  as  carbonyl,  with  some  element  or radical; as, potassium
   carboxide.   Potassium  carboxide,  a  grayish  explosive  crystalline
   compound,  C6O6K,  obtained  by  passing  carbon  monoxide over heated


   Car*box"yl  (?),  n.  [Carbon  +  oxygen  +  -yl.] (Chem.) The complex
   radical,   CO.OH,   regarded   as  the  essential  and  characteristic
   constituent  which  all  oxygen  acids  of  carbon (as formic, acetic,
   benzoic acids, etc.) have in common; -- called also oxatyl.


   Car"boy (?), n. [Cf. Ir. & Gael carb basket; or Pers qur\'bebah a sort
   of  bottle.]  A large, globular glass bottle, esp. one of green glass,
   inclosed  in basket work or in a box, for protection; -- used commonly
   for carrying corrosive liquids; as sulphuric acid, etc.


   Car"bun*cle  (?),  n.  [L. carbunculus a little coal, a bright kind of
   precious stone, a kind of tumor, dim. of carbo coal: cf. F. carboncle.
   See Carbon.]

   1.  (Min.)  A  beautiful  gem  of  a deep red color (with a mixture of
   scarlet)  called by the Greeks anthrax; found in the East Indies. When
   held  up to the sun, it loses its deep tinge, and becomes of the color
   of  burning coal. The name belongs for the most part to ruby sapphire,
   though it has been also given to red spinel and garnet.

   2.  (Med.) A very painful acute local inflammation of the subcutaneous
   tissue, esp. of the trunk or back of the neck, characterized by brawny
   hardness  of  the  affected  parts,  sloughing  of the skin and deeper
   tissues,  and marked constitutional depression. It differs from a boil
   in size, tendency to spread, and the absence of a central core, and is
   frequently fatal. It is also called anthrax.

   3.  (Her.)  A  charge  or  bearing  supposed to represent the precious
   stone. It has eight scepters or staves radiating from a common center.
   Called also escarbuncle.


   Car"bun*cled (?), a.

   1. Set with carbuncles.

     He  has  deserves  it [armor], were it carbuncled Like holy Phabus'
     car. Shak.

   2.  Affected  with  a  carbuncle or carbuncles; marked with red sores;
   pimpled and blotched. "A carbuncled face." Brome.


   Car*bun"cu*lar   (?),  a.  Belonging  to  a  carbuncle;  resembling  a
   carbuncle; red; inflamed.


   Car*bun`cu*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  carbunculatio.] The blasting of the
   young buds of trees or plants, by excessive heat or caold. Harris.


   Car"bu*ret  (?),  n.  [From  Carbon.]  (Chem.)  A carbide. See Carbide


   Car"bu*ret, v. t. [imp & p. p. Carbureted or Carburetted (p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Carbureting  or  Carburetting.]  To  combine or to impregnate with
   carbon,  as  by  passing  through  or  over  a  liquid hydrocarbon; to
   carbonize or carburize.

     By carbureting the gas you may use poorer coal. Knight.


   Car"bu*ret`ant   (?),   n.   Any  volatile  liquid  used  in  charging
   illuminating gases.


   Car"bu*ret`ed (?), a.

   1.  (Chem.)  Combined  with  carbon  in  the  manner  of a carburet or

   2.  Saturated  or  impregnated with some volatile carbon compound; as,
   water  gas  is carbureted to increase its illuminating power. [Written
   also carburetted.]
   Carbureted  hydrogen  gas,  any  one  of  several gaseous compounds of
   carbon  and  hydrogen, some of with make up illuminating gas. -- Light
   carbureted hydrogen, marsh gas, CH4; fire damp<--; methane-->.


   Car"bu*ret`or  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  An  apparatus  in  which  coal  gas,
   hydrogen,  or air is passed through or over a volatile hydrocarbon, in
   order   to  confer  or  increase  illuminating  power.  [Written  also


   Car"bu*ri*za`tion  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  The  act,  process, or result of


   Car"bu*rize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carburized (?); p. pr. & vb. N.
   Carburizing.]  (Chem.) To combine wtih carbon or a carbon compound; --
   said  esp. of a process for conferring a higher degree of illuminating
   power  on  combustible gases by mingling them with a vapor of valatile


   Car"ca*jou (?), n. [Probably a Canadian French corruption of an Indian
   name  of  the  wolverene.] (Zo\'94l.) The wolverence; -- also applied,
   but  erroneously,  to  the  Canada lynx, and sometimes to the American
   badger. See Wolverene.


   Car"ca*net  (?),  n. [Dim. fr. F. carcan the iron collar or chain of a
   criminal, a chain of preciousstones, LL. carcannum, fr. Armor. kerchen
   bosom,  neck,  kechen  collar, fr. kelch circle; or Icel. kverk troat,
   OHG,  querca  throat.]  A  jeweled  chain,  necklace, or collar. [Also
   written carkenet and carcant.] Shak.


   Car"case (?), n. See Carcass.


   Car"cass  (?),  n.;  pl.  Carcasses  (#).  [Written also carcase.] [F.
   carcasse,  fr.  It.  carcassa,  fr.  L. caro flesh + capsa chest, box,
   case. Cf. Carnal, Case a sheath.]

   1.  A  dead  body, whether of man or beast; a corpse; now commonly the
   dead body of a beast.

     He turned to see the carcass of the lion. Judges xiv. 8.

     This kept thousands in the town whose carcasses went into the great
     pits by cartloads. De Foe.

   2.  The living body; -- now commonly used in contempt or ridicule. "To
   pamper his own carcass." South.

     Lovely  her face; was ne'er so fair a creature. For earthly carcass
     had a heavenly feature. Oldham.

   3.  The  abandoned  and decaying remains of some bulky and once comely
   thing,  as a ship; the skeleton, or the uncovered or unfinished frame,
   of a thing.

     A rotten carcass of a boat. Shak.

   4.  (Mil.)  A  hollow  case  or shell, filled with combustibles, to be
   thrown from a mortar or howitzer, to set fire to buldings, ships, etc.

     A discharge of carcasses and bombshells. W. Iving.


   Car`ca*vel"hos (?), n. A sweet wine. See Calcavella.


   Car"ce*lage  (?),  n.  [LL.  carcelladium,  carceragium, fr. L. carcer
   prison.] Prison fees. [Obs.]

                                  Carcel lamp

   Car"cel  lamp`  (?).  [Named  after  Carcel,  the  inventor.] A French
   mechanical  lamp,  for lighthouses, in which a superbundance of oil is
   pumped to the wick tube by clockwork.


   Car"cer*al  (?),  a.  [L.  carceralis, fr. carcer prison.] Belonging a
   prison. [R.] Foxe.


   Car`ci*no*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to carcinology.


   Car`ci*nol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -logy.]  (Zo\'94l.) The depertment of
   zo\'94logy  which  treats of the Crustacea (lobsters, crabs, etc.); --
   called also malacostracology and crustaceology.


   Car`ci*no"ma  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr. -oma.] (Med.) A cancer. By some
   medical writers, the term is applied to an indolent tumor. See Cancer.


   Car`ci*nom"a*tous (?), a. Of or pertaining to carcinoma.


   Car`ci*no"sys  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. The affection of the system with


   Card (?), n. [F. carte, fr. L. charta paper, Gr. Chart.]

   1.  A  piece  of  pasteboard,  or  thick  paper, blank or prepared for
   various  uses;  as,  a  playing  card;  a  visiting  card;  a  card of
   invitation; pl. a game played with cards.

     Our first cards were to Carabas House. Thackeray.

   2.  A  published  note,  containing  a  brief  statement, explanation,
   request,  expression  of thanks, or the like; as, to put a card in the
   newspapers.  Also,  a  printed programme, and (fig.), an attraction or
   inducement; as, this will be a good card for the last day of the fair.

   3.  A paper on which the points of the compass are marked; the dial or
   face of the mariner's compass.

     All the quartere that they know I' the shipman's card. Shak.

   4.  (Weaving)  A  perforated  pasteboard or sheet-metal plate for warp
   threads,  making  part  of  the  Jacquard  apparatus  of  a  loom. See

   5. An indicator card. See under Indicator.
   Business card, a card on which is printed an advertisement or business
   address.  --  Card  basket (a) A basket to hold visiting cards left by
   callers.  (b)  A  basket  made  of  cardboard.  -- Card catalogue. See
   Catalogue.  --  Card  rack, a rack or frame for holding and displaying
   business  or  visiting  card. -- Card table, a table for use inplaying
   cards,  esp.  one  having  a  leaf  which folds over. -- On the cards,
   likely  to  happen; foretold and expected but not yet brought to pass;
   --  a  phrase  of fortune tellers that has come into common use; also,
   according  to  the  programme.  -- Playing card, cards used in playing
   games;  specifically,  the  cards  cards  used playing which and other
   games of chance, and having each pack divided onto four kinds or suits
   called  hearts,  diamonds,  clubs,  and spades. The full or whist pack
   contains  fifty-two cards. -- To have the cards in one's own hands, to
   have   the  winning  cards;  to  have  the  means  of  success  in  an
   undertaking.  --  To  play one's cards well, to make no errors; to act
   shrewdly.  --  To  play  snow  one's  cards, to expose one's plants to
   rivals or foes. -- To speak by the card, to speak from information and
   definitely, not by guess as in telling a ship's bearing by the compass
   card.  --  Visiting card, a small card bearing the name, and sometimes
   the address, of the person presenting it.


   Card, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Carded; p. pr. & vb. n. Carding.] To play at
   cards; to game. Johnson.


   Card,  n.  [F.  carde  teasel,  the  head  of a thistle, card, from L.
   carduus, cardus, thistle, fr. carere to card.]

   1. An instrument for disentangling and arranging the fibers of cotton,
   wool,  flax,  etc.; or for cleaning and smoothing the hair of animals;
   --  usually  consisting  of  bent  wire teeth set closely in rows in a
   thick piece of leather fastened to a back.

   2.  A  roll  or  sliver of fiber (as of wool) delivered from a carding
   Card  clothing,  strips  of  wire-toothed  card  used for covering the
   cylinders of carding machines.


   Card (?), v. t.

   1.  To  comb with a card; to cleanse or disentangle by carding; as, to
   card wool; to card a horse.

     These card the short comb the longer flakes. Dyer.

   2. To clean or clear, as if by using a card. [Obs.]

     This book [must] be carded and purged. T. Shelton.

   3. To mix or mingle, as with an inferior or weaker article. [Obs.]

     You card your beer, if you guests being to be drunk. -- half small,
     half strong. Greene.

     NOTE: &hand; In  the manufacture of wool, cotton, etc., the process
     of  carding  disentangles  and collects together all the fibers, of
     whatever length, and thus differs from combing, in which the longer
     fibers  only are collected, while the short straple is combed away.
     See Combing.


   Car"da*mine  (?),  n. [L. cardamina, Gr. cardamine.] (Bot.) A genus of
   cruciferous  plants, containing the lady's-smock, cuckooflower, bitter
   cress, meadow cress, etc.


   Car"da*mom (?), n. [L. cardamonun, Gr.

   1. The aromatic fruit, or capsule with its seeds, of several plants of
   the  Ginger  family growing in the East Indies and elsewhere, and much
   used as a condiment, and in medicine.

   2.  (Bot.)  A plant which prduces cardamoms, esp. Elettaria Cardamomum
   and several of Amommum.


   Card"board  (?),  n.  A stiff compact pasteboard of various qualities,
   for making cards, etc., often having a polished surface.


   Card"case` (?), n. A case for visiting cards.


   Car"de*cu  (?),  n.  [Corrupt, from F. quart d'\'82cu.] A quarter of a
   crown. [Obs.]

     The bunch of them were not worth a cardecu. Sir W. Scott.


   Card"er (?), n. One who, or that which cards wool flax, etc. Shak.


   Car"di*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) (a) The heart. (b) The anterior
   or cardiac orifice of the stomach, where the esophagus enters it.


   Car"di*ac (?), a. [L. cardiacus, Gr. , fr. cardiaque.]

   1.  (Anat.)  Pertaining  to,  resembling,  or  hear the heart; as, the
   cardiac arteries; the cardiac, or left, end of the stomach.

   2.  (Med.)  Exciting  action  in  the heart, through the medium of the
   stomach; cordial; stimulant.
   Cardiac  passion  (Med.)  cardialgia;  heartburn. [Archaic] -- Cardiac
   wheel. (Mach.) See Heart wheel.


   Car"di*ac  n. (Med.) A medicine which excites action in the stomach; a


   Car*di"a*cal (?), a. Cardiac.


   Car"di*a*cle (?), n. A pain about the heart. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Car"di*a*graph (?), n. See Cardiograph.

                             Cardialgla, Cardialgy

   Car`di*al"gl*a  (?),  Car"di*al`gy  (?),  n.  [NL. cardialgia, fr. Gr.
   cardialgie.] (Med.) A burning or gnawing pain, or feeling of distress,
   referred  to  the  region  of  the  heart,  accompanied  with  cardisc
   palpitation; heartburn. It is usually a symptom of indigestion.

                                Cardigan jacket

   Car"di*gan  jack`et (#). [From the Earl of Cardigan, who was famous in
   the  Crimean  campaign of 1854-55.] A warm jacket of knit worsted with
   or without sleeves.


   Car"di*nal  (?), a. [L. cardinalis, fr. cardo the hing of a door, that
   on  which  a  thing turns or depends: cf. F. cardinal.] Of fundamental
   importance; pre\'89minet; superior; chief; principal.

     The cardinal intersections of the zodiac. Sir T. Browne.

     Impudence is now a cardinal virtue. Drayton.

     But cardinal sins, and hollow hearts, I fear ye. Shak.

   Cardinal  numbers,  the  numbers one, two, three, etc., in distinction
   from  first, second, third, etc., which are called ordinal numbers. --
   Cardinal  points (a) (Geol.) The four principal points of the compass,
   or  intersections  of  the  horizon  with  the  meridian and the prime
   vertical circle, north, south east, and west. (b) (Astrol.) The rising
   and  setting  of  the  sun,  the  zenith  and nadir. -- Cardinal signs
   (Astron.)  Aries,  Lidra,  Cancer,  and  Capricorn.  -- Cardinal teeth
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  central  teeth  of  bivalve  shell.  See Bivalve. --
   Cardinal  veins  (Anat.),  the  veins in vertebrate embryos, which run
   each  side  of the vertebral column and returm the blood to the heart.
   They  remain  through  life  in  some  fishes.  --  Cardinal  virtues,
   pre\'89minent   virtues;   among   the  ancients,  prudence,  justice,
   temperance,  and  fortitude.  -- Cardinal winds, winds which blow from
   the cardinal points due north, south, east, or west.


   Car"di*nal, n. [F. carinal, It. cardinale, LL. cardimalis (ecclesi\'91
   Roman\'91).  See  Cardinal, a.] 1. (R.C.Ch.) One of the ecclesiastical
   prince who constitute the pope's council, or the sacred college.

     The   clerics  of  the  supreme  Chair  are  called  Cardinals,  as
     undoubtedly  adhering  more nearly to the hinge by which all things
     are moved. Pope Leo IX.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ca rdinals ar e ap pointed by the pope. Since the
     time  of  Sixtus  V., their number can never exceed seventy (six of
     episcopal rank, fifty priests, fourteen deacons), and the number of
     cardinal  priests  and deacons is seldom full. When the papel chair
     is  vacant a pope is elected by the college of cardinals from among
     themselves. The cardinals take procedence of all dignitaries except
     the  pope.  The  principal  parts of a cardinal's costume are a red
     cassock,  a  rochet,  a  short  purple mantle, and a red hat with a
     small  crown  and  broad, brim, with cards and tessels of a special
     pattern hanging from it.

   2. A woman's short cloak with a hood.

     Where's your cardinal! Make haste. Lloyd.

   3. Mulled red wine. Hotten.

   Page 218

   Cardinal  bird, OR Cardinal grosbeak (Zo\'94l.), an American song bird
   (Cardinalis   cardinalis,   or   C.   Virginianus),   of   the  family
   Fringillid\'91,  or  finches  having a bright red plumage, and a high,
   pointed  crest  on  its  head.  The  males have loud and musical notes
   resembling  those  of  a  fife.  Other related species are also called
   cardinal  birds.  --  Cardinal  flower  (Bot.),  an  herbaceous  plant
   (Lobelia  cardinalis) bearing brilliant red flowers of much beauty. --
   Cardinal  red,  color  like that of a cardinal's cassock, hat, etc.; a
   bright red, darket than scarlet, and between scarlet and crimson.


   Car"di*nal*ate  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  cardinalat, LL. cardinalatus.] The
   office, rank, or dignity of a cardinal.


   Car"di*nal*ize  (?),  v.  t.  To  exalt  to  the office of a cardinal.


   Car"di*nal*ship, n. The condition, dignity, of office of a cardinal


   Card"ing (?), a.

   1.  The  act  or  process  of  preparing  staple  for  spinning, etc.,
   bycarding it. See the Note under Card, v. t.

   2. A roll of wool or other fiber as it comes from the carding machine.
   Carding  engine,  Carding machine, a machine for carding cotton, wool,
   or  other  fiber, by subjecting it to the action of cylinders, or drum
   covered  with wire-toothed cards, revoling nearly in contact with each
   other,  at  different  rates  of speed, or in opposite directions, The
   staple issues in soft sheets, or in slender rolls called sivers.
   Car"di*o*graph  (?), n. [Gr. -graph.] (Med.) An instrument which, when
   placed  in  contact  with  the  chest,  will  register graphically the
   comparative duration and intensity of the heart's movements. 


   Car`di*o*graph"ic  (?), a. (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to, or produced
   by, a cardiograph.


   Car"di*oid  (?),  n. [Gr. ( (Math.) An algebraic curve, so called from
   its resemblance to a heart.


   Car`di*o*in*hib"i*to*ry  (?),  a. (Physiol.) Checking or arresting the
   heart's action.


   Car`di*ol"*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr. -ology.] The science which treats of the
   heart and its functions.


   Car`di*om"e*try (?), n. [Gr. -metry.] (Med.) Measurement of the heart,
   as by percussion or auscultation.


   Car`di*o*sphyg"mo*graph  (?),  n.  A  combination  of  cardiograph and


   Car*di"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  -itis:  cf.  F. cardile.] (Med)
   Inflammation  of  the  fleshy  or muscular substance of the heart. See
   Endocardris and Pericarditis. Dunglison.


   Car"do  (?),  n.;  pl. Cardies (#).) [L., a hinge.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) The
   basal  joint  of  the  maxilla  in insects. (b) The hinge of a bivalve


   Car"dol  (?), n. [NL. Anacardium generic name of the cashew + L. oleum
   oil.]  (Chem.)  A  yellow  oil liquid, extracted from the shell of the
   cashew nut.


   Car*doon"  (?), n. [F. cardon. The same word as F. cardon thistle, fr.
   L.  carduus, cardus, LL. cardo. See 3d Card.] (Bot.) A large herbaceos
   plant  (Cynara  Cardunculus)  related  to  the  artichoke;  -- used in
   cookery and as a sald.


   Care  (?),  n.  [AS.  caru,  cearu; akin to OS. kara sorrow Goth. kara
   lament, and to Gr. . Not akin to cure. Cf. Chary.]

   1.  A  burdensome  sense  of responsibility; trouble caused by onerous
   duties; anxiety; concern; solicitude.

     Care  keeps his wath in every old man's eye, And where care lodges,
     sleep will never lie. Shak.

   2.  Charge,  oversight,  or  management,  implying  responsibility for
   safety and prosperity.

     The care of all the churches. 2 Car. xi. 28

     Him thy care must be to find. Milton.

     Perlexed with a thousand cares. Shak.

   3.  Attention or heed; caution; regard; heedfulness; watchfulness; as,
   take care; have a care.

     I thank thee for thy care and honest pains. Shak.

   4. The object of watchful attention or anxiety.

     Right sorrowfully mourning her bereaved cares. Spenser.

   Syn.  --  Anxiety;  solicitude;  concern; caution; regard; management;
   direction;  oversight.  --  Care,  Anxiety, Solicitude, Concern. These
   words express mental pain in different degress. Care belongs primarily
   to  the  intellect,  and  becomes  painful  from overburdened thought.
   Anxiety  denotes  a  state of distressing uneasiness fron the dread of
   evil.  Solicitude  expresses  the same feeling in a diminished dagree.
   Concern  is  opposed  to indifference, and implies exercise of anxious
   thought  more  or  less  intense.  We  are  careful  about  the means,
   solicitous  and  anxious  about the end; we are solicitous to obtain a
   good, axious to avoid an evil.


   Care,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Cared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caring.] [AS.
   cearian. See Care, n.] To be anxious or solictous; to be concerned; to
   have  regard  or  interest;  --  sometimes followed by an objective of

     I would not care a pin, if the other three were in. Shak.

     Master, carest thou not that we perish? Mark. iv. 38.

   To  care  for.  (a) To have under watchful attention; to take care of.
   (b) To have regard or affection for; to like or love.

     He cared not for the affection of the house. Tennyson.


   Ca*reen"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Careened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Careening.] [OF. cariner, F. car\'82ner, fr. OF. car\'8ane, the bottom
   of  a  ship, keel, fr. L. carina.] (Naut.) To cause (a vessel) to lean
   over  so  that  she  floats on one side, leaving the other side out of
   water  and  accessible for repairs below the water line; to case to be
   off the keel.


   Ca*reen"  (, v. i. To incline to one side, or lie over, as a ship when
   sailing on a wind; to be off the keel.


   Ca*reen"age  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  car\'82nage.]  (Naut.) (a) Expense of
   careening ships. (b) A place for careening.


   Ca*reer"  (?),  n. [F. carri\'8are race course, high road, street, fr.
   L. carrus wagon. See Car.]

   1. A race course: the ground run over.

     To go back again the same career. Sir P. Sidney.

   2. A running; full speed; a rapid course.

     When a horse is running in his full career. Wilkins.

   3.  General  course  of  action or conduct in life, or in a particular
   part  or  calling  in  life,  or  in some special undertaking; usually
   applied  to  course  or  conduct  which  is  of a pubic character; as,
   Washington's career as a soldier.

     An impartial view of his whole career. Macaulay.

   4. (Falconary) The fight of a hawk.


   Ca*reer",  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Careered 3; p. pr. & vb. n. Careering]
   To move or run rapidly.

     areering gayly over the curling waves. W. Irving.


   Care"ful (?), a. [AS. cearful.]

   1. Full of care; anxious; solicitous [Archaic]

     Be careful [Rev. Ver. "anxious"] for nothing. Phil. iv. 6.

     The careful plowman doubting stands. Milton.

   2.  Filling  with care or colicitube; exposing to concern, anxiety, or
   trouble; painful.

     The careful cold beinneth for to creep. Spenser.

     By Him that raised me to this careful height. Shak.

   3.  Taking  care; gicing good heed; watchful; cautious; provident; not
   indifferent heedless, or reckless; -- often follower byof, for, or the
   infinitive; as, careful of money; careful to do right.

     Thou hast been careful for us with all this care. 2. Kings iv, 13.

     What could a careful father more have done? Dryden.

   Syn.   --   Anxious;   solicitous;  provident;  thoughtful;  cautious;
   circumspect; heedful; watchful; vigilant.


   Care"ful*ly, adv. In a careful manner.


   Care"ful*ness, n. Quality or state of being careful.


   Care"less (?), a. [AS. cearle\'a0s.]

   1. Free from care or anxiety. hence, cheerful; light-hearted. Spenser.

     Sleep she as sound as careless infancy. Shak.

   2.  Having  no  care;  not  taking ordinary or proper care; negligent;
   unconcerned; heedless; inattentive; unmindful; regardless.

     My brother was too careless of his charge. Shak.

     He grew careless of himself. Steele.

   3.  Without thought or purpose; without due care; without attention to
   rule  or  system;  unstudied; inconsiderate; spontaneouse; rash; as, a
   careless throw; a careless expression.

     He framed the careless rhyme. Beatie.

   4. Not receiving care; uncared for. [R.]

     Their many wounds and careless hatms. Spemser.

   Syn.  --  Negligent;  heedless;  thoughtless; unthinking; inattentive;
   incautious; remiss; forgetful; regardless; inconsiderate; listless.


   Care"less*ly, adv. In a careless manner.


   Care"less*ness,   n.   The   quality   or  state  of  being  careless;
   heedlessness; negligenece; inattention.


   Ca*rene"   (?),   n.   [LL.  carena,  corrupted  fr.  quarentena.  See
   Quarantine.] (Ecol.) A fast of forty days on bread and water. [Obs.]


   Ca*ress"  (?),  n. [F. caresse, It. carezza, LL. caritia dearness, fr.
   L.  carus  dear.  See  Charity.]  An  act  of  endearment;  any act or
   expression of affection; an embracing, or touching, with tenderness.

     Wooed her with his soft caresses. Langfellow.

     He  exerted himself to win by indulgence and caresses the hearts of
     all who were under his command. Macaulay.


   Ca*ress",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Caressed  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Caressing.]  [F.  caresser, fr. It. carezzare, fr. carezza caress. See
   Caress., n.] To treat with tokens of fondness, affection, or kindness;
   to touch or speak to in a loving or endearing manner; to fondle.

     The lady caresses the rough bloodhoun. Sir W. Scott.

   Syn.  --  To foundle; embrace; pet; coddle; court; flatter. -- Caress,
   Fondle.  "We  caress  by words or actions; we fondle by actions only."


   Ca*ress"ing*ly, ad. In caressing manner.


   Ca"ret (?), n. [L. caret there is wanting, fr. carere to want.] A mark
   [^]  used  by  writers and proof readers to indicate that something is
   interlined  above,  or  inserted  in  the margin, which belongs in the
   place marked by the caret.


   Ca`ret"  (?),  n. [F., a species of tortoise.] (Zo\'94l.) The hawkbill
   turtle. See Hawkbill.


   Care"*tuned (?), a. Weary; mournful. Shak.


   Care"worn`  (?),  a.  Worn or burdened with care; as, careworn look or


   Ca"rex  (?),  n. [L., sedge.] (Bot.) A numerous and widely distributed
   genus  of  perennial  herbaceous plants of the order Cypreace\'91; the


   Carf (?), pret. of Carve. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Car"ga*son  (?),  n. [F. cargaison, Sp. cargazon, LL. cargare to load.
   See rgo.] A cargo. [Obs.]


   Car"go (?), n.; pl. Cargoes (#). [Sp. cargo, carga, burden, load, from
   cargar  to  load, from cargar to load, charge, See Charge.] The lading
   or  freight  of  a  ship  or  other vessel; the goods, merchandise, or
   whatever is conveyed in a vessel or boat; load; freight.

     Cargoes of food or clothing. E. Everett.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm ca rgo, in law, is usually applied to goods
     only, and not to live animals or persons.



   Car"goose`  (?),  n. [Perh. fr. Gael. & Ir. cir, cior (pronounced kir,
   kior),  crest,  comb  +  E. goose. Cf. Crebe.] (Zo\'94l.) A species of
   grebe (Podiceps crisratus); the crested grebe.


   \'80a"ri*a"ma  (?),  n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A large, long-legged
   South  American  bird (Dicholophus cristatus) which preys upon snakes,
   etc. See Seriema.


   Car"ib  (?),  n.; pl. Caries. [See Cannibal.] (Ethol.) A native of the
   Caribbee  islands  or  the coaste of the Caribbean sea; esp., one of a
   tribe  of  Indians  inhabiting a region of South America, north of the
   Amazon, and formerly most of the West India islands.

                              Caribbean, Caribbee

   Car`ib*be"an  (?),  Car`ib*bee (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Caribs,
   to their islands (the eastern and southern West Indies), or to the sea
   (called  the  Caribbean  sa)  lying  between those islands and Central


   Car"ib*bee, n. A Carib.


   Ca*ri"be  (?),  n. [Sp. a cannibal.] (Zo\'94l). A south American fresh
   water  fish of the genus Serrasalmo of many species, remakable for its
   voracity.  When  numerous  they  attack man or beast, often with fatal


   Car"i*bou (?), n. [Canadian French.] (Zo\'94l.) The American reindeer,
   especially  the  common or woodland species (Rangifer Caribou). Barren
   Ground  caribou.  See  under  Barren.  -- Woodland caribou, the common
   reindeer (Rangifer Caribou) of the northern forests of America.


   Car"i*ca*ture  (?),  n.  [It.  caricatura,  fr.  caricare  to  charge,
   overload, exaggerate. See Charge, v. t.]

   1.  An  exaggeration,  or  distortion  by  exaggeration,  of  parts or
   characteristics, as in a picture.

   2. A picture or other figure or description in which the peculiarities
   of  a  person  or  thing are so exaggerated as to appear ridiculous; a
   burlesque; a parody. [Formerly written caricatura.]

     The  truest likeness of the prince of French literature will be the
     one that has most of the look of a caricature. I. Taylor.

     A grotesque caricature of virtue. Macaulay.


   Car"i*ca*ture,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Caricatured (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Caricaturing.]  To  make  or  draw  a caricature of; to represent with
   ridiculous exaggeration; to burlesque.

     He  could  draw  an  ill  face,  or  caricature  a good one, with a
     masterly hand. Lord Lyttelton.


   Car"i*ca*tu`rist (?), n. One who caricatures.


   Car"i*cous  (?),  a.  [L. carica a kind of dry fig.] Of the shape of a
   fig; as, a caricous tumor. Graig.


   Ca"ri*es  (?),  n.[L., decay.] (Med.) Ulceration of bone; a process in
   which   bone   disintegrates   and   is  carried  away  piecemeal,  as
   distinguished from necrosis, in which it dies in masses.


   Car"il*lon   (?),  n.  [F.  carillon  a  chime  of  bells,  originally
   consisting  of  four  bells,  as  if  fr.. (assumed) L. quadrilio, fr.
   quatuer four.]

   1.  (Mus.) A chime of bells diatonically tuned, played by clockwork or
   by finger keys.

   2. A tune adapted to be played by musical bells.


   Ca*ri"na (?), n. [L., keel.]

   1. (Bot.) A keel. (a) That part of a papilionaceous flower, consisting
   of   two  petals,  commonly  united,  which  incloses  the  organs  of
   fructification.  (b)  A longitudinal ridge or projection like the keel
   of a boat.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The keel of the breastbone of birds.


   Car`i*na"ri*a (?), n. [NL., fr. L. carina keel.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   oceanic  heteropod  Mollusca,  having  a  thin,  glassy, bonnet-shaped
   shell, which covers only the nucleus and gills.


   Car`i*na"t\'91  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  Fem.  pl.  fr. L. carinatus. See
   Carinate.]  A  grand  division of birds, including all existing flying
   birds; -- So called from the carina or keel on the breastbone.

                              Carinate, Carinated

   Car"i*nate  (?),  Car"i*na`ted (?) a. [L. carinatus, fr. carina keel.]
   Shaped like the keel or prow of a ship; having a carina or keel; as, a
   carinate calyx or leaf; a carinate sternum (of a bird).


   Car"i*ole  (?),  n.  [F.  carriole,  dim.  fr. L. carrus. See Car, and
   Carryall.]  (a) A small, light, open one-horse carriage. (b) A covered
   cart. (c) A kind of calash. See Carryall.


   Car"i*op"sis (?), n. See Caryopsis.


   Ca`ri*os"i*ty (?), n. (Med.) Caries.


   Ca"ri*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  cariosus,  fr.  caries dacay.] Affected with
   caries; decaying; as, a carious tooth.


   Cark (?), n. [OE. cark, fr. a dialectic form of F. charge; cf. W. carc
   anxiety,  care, Arm karg charge, burden. See Charge, and cf. Cargo.] A
   noxious or corroding care; solicitude; worry. [Archaic.]

     His heavy head, devoid of careful cark. Spenser.

     Fling cark and care aside. Motherwell.

     Ereedom  from  the  cares  of  money and the cark of fashion. R. D.

   Page 219


   Cark  (?),  v.  i.  To be careful, anxious, solicitous, or troubles in
   mind; to worry or grieve. [R.] Beau. & fl.


   Cark, v. t. To vex; to worry; to make by anxious care or worry. [R.]

     Nor can a man, independently . . . of God's blessing, care and cark
     himself one penny richer. South.


   Car"ka*net (?), n. A carcanet. Southey.


   Cark"ing  (?),  a.  Distressing;  worrying; perplexing; corroding; as,
   carking cares.


   Carl  (?),  n.  [Icel,  karl  a  male,  a man; akin to AS. ceorl, OHG.
   charal, G. kerl fellow. See Churl.] [Written also carle.]

   1. A rude, rustic man; a churl.

     The miller was a stout carl. Chaucer.

   2. Large stalks of hemp which bear the seed; -- called also carl hemp.

   3. pl. A kind of food. See citation, below.

     Caring  or carl are gray steeped in water and fried the next day in
     butter  or  fat. They are eaten on the second Sunday before Easter,
     formerly called Carl Sunday. Robinson's Whitby Glossary (1875).


   Car"lin  (?),  n.  [Dim., fr. carl male.] An old woman. [Scot. & Prov.

                               Carline, Caroline

   Car"line  (?),  Car"o*line  (?),  n. [F. carin; cf. It. carlino; -- so
   called from Carlo (Charles) VI. of Naples.] A silver coin once current
   in some parts of Italy, worth about seven cents. Simmonds.

                               Carline, Carling

   Car"line  (?),  Car"ling  (?)  n.  [Cf.  F.  carlingur, Sp. Pg., & It.
   carlinga.]  (Naut.)  A short timber running lengthwise of a ship, from
   one  transverse  desk  beam to another; also, one of the cross timbers
   that strengthen a hath; -- usually in pl.

                                Carline thistle

   Car"line  this`tle (?). [F. carline, It., Sp., & Pg., carline, Said to
   be  so  called  from the Emperor Charlemagne, whose army is reputed to
   have  used  it  as a remedy for pestilence.] (Bot.) A prickly plant of
   the genus Carlina (C. vulgaris), found in Europe and Asia.


   Car"lings  (?),  n.  pl.  Same as Carl, 3. Carling Sunday, a Sunday in
   Lent  when  carls are eaten. In some parts of England, Passion Sunday.
   See Carl, 4.


   Car"list  (?),  n. A parisan of Charles X. Of France, or of Dod Carlos
   of Spain.


   Car"lock (?), n. [F. carlock, fr. Russ. Karl\'a3k'.] A sort of Russian
   isinglass,  made  from  the  air  bladder of the sturgeon, and used in
   clarifying wine.


   Car"lot (?), n. [From Carl.] A churl; a boor; a peasant or countryman.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Car`lo*vin"gi*an  (?), a. [F. Carlovingen.] Pertaining to, founded by,
   of descended from, Charlemagne; as, the Carlovingian race of kings.


   Car`ma`gnole" (?), n. [F.]

   1.  A  popular  or  Red  Rebublican song and dance, of the time of the
   first French Revolution.

     They danced and yelled the carmagnole. Compton Reade.

   2. A bombastic report from the French armies.


   Car"man  (?),  n.; pl. Carmen ( A man whose employment is to drive, or
   to convey goods in, a car or car.

                              Carmelite, Carmelin

   Car"mel*ite  (?),  Car"mel*in  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to the order of


   Car"mel*ite (?), n.

   1.  (Eccl.  Hist.) A friar of a mendicant order (the Order of Our Lady
   of Mount Carmel) established on Mount Carmel, in Syria, in the twelfth
   century; a White Friar.

   2. A nun of the Order of Our lady of Mount Carmel.


   Car"mi*na`ted  (?),  a.  Of,  relating to, or mixed with, carmine; as,
   carminated lake. Tomlinson.


   Car*min"ative  (?),  a.  [NL. carminativus (carminare to card hence to
   cleanse,  fr.  carmen a card for freeing wool or flax from the coarser
   parts,  and from extraneous matter: cf. F. carminatif.] Expelling wind
   from  the  body;  warning;  antispasmodic.  "Carmenative  hot  seeds."


   Car*min"a*tive, n. A substance, esp. an aromatic, which tends to expel
   wind  from  the  alimentary  canal,  or  to relieve colic, griping, or


   Car"mine  (?),  n.  [F.  carmin (cf. Sp. carmin, It. carminio), contr.
   from LL. carmesinus purple color. See Crimson.]

   1. A rich red or crimson color with a shade of purple.

   2.  A  beautiful  pigment,  or  a  lake,  of this color, prepared from
   cochineal, and used in miniature painting.

   3. (Chem.) The essential coloring principle of cochineal, extracted as
   a  purple-red  amorphous  mass.  It  is a glucoside and possesses acid
   properties; -- hence called also carminic acid.
   Carmine  red  (Chem.),  a  coloring  matter obtained from carmine as a
   purple-red substance, and probably allied to the phthale\'8bns.


   Car*min"ic  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to, or derived from, carmine.
   Carminic acid. Same as Carmine, 3.


   Car"mot  (?), n. (Alchemy) The matter of which the philosopher's stone
   was believed to be composed.


   Car"nage (?), n. [F. carnage, LL. carnaticum tribute of animals, flesh
   of animals, fr. L. caro, carnis, flesh. See Carnal.]

   1. Flesh of slain animals or men.

     A miltitude of dogs came to feast on the carnage. Macaulay.

   2.  Great  destruction  of  life,  as in battle; bloodshed; slaughter;
   massacre; murder; havoc.

     The more fearful carnage of the Bloody Circuit. Macaulay.


   Car"nal  (?),  a.  [L.  carnalis, fr. caro, carnis, flesh; akin to Gr.
   kravya; cf. F. charnel, Of. also carnel. Cf. Charnel.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the body or is appetites; animal; fleshly;
   sensual;  given  to  sensual  indulgence; lustful; human or worldly as
   opposed to spiritual.

     For ye are yet carnal. 1 Car. iii. 3.

     Not sunk in carnal pleasure. Milton

     rnal desires after miracles. Trench.

   2. Flesh-devouring; cruel; ravenous; bloody. [Obs.]

     This carnal cur Preys on the issue of his mother's body. Shak.

   Carnal  knowledge,  sexual  intercourse;  --  used  especially  of  an
   unlawful act on the part of the man.


   Car"nal*ism  (?), n. The state of being carnal; carnality; sensualism.


   Car"nal*ist (?), n. A sensualist. Burton.


   Car*nal"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  carnalitas.]  The  state of being carnal;
   fleshly lust, or the indulgence of lust; grossness of mind.

     Because of the carnality of their hearts. Tillotson.


   Car"nal*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carnalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Carnalizing.] To make carnal; to debase to carnality.

     A sensual and carnalized spirit. John Scott.


   Car"nal*lite  (?),  n.  [G.  carnallit,  fr. Von Carnall, a Prussian.]
   (Min.)  A hydrous chloride of potassium and magnesium, sometimes found
   associated with deposits of rock salt.


   Car"nal*ly (?), adv. According to the flesh, to the world, or to human
   nature; in a manner to gratify animal appetites and lusts; sensually.

     For to be carnally minded is death; but to be spiritually minded is
     life and peace. Rom. viii. 6.


   Car"nal-mind`ed (?), a. Worldly-minded.


   Car"nal-mind"ed*ness, n. Grossness of mind.


   Car"na*ry  (?), n. [L. carnarium, fr. caro, carnis, flesh.] A vault or
   crypt  in  connection  with  a  church, used as a repository for human
   bones disintered from their original burial places; a charnel house.


   Car*nas"si*al  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. carnassier carnivorous, and L. caro,
   carnis,  flesh.]  (Anat.)  Adapted to eating flesh. -- n. A carnassial
   tooth; especially, the last premolar in many carnivores.


   Car"nate  (?), a. [L. carnatus fleshy.] Invested with, or embodied in,


   Car*na"tion  (?),  n.  [F. carnation the flesh tints in a painting, It
   carnagione,  fr.  L. carnatio fleshiness, fr. caro, carnis, flesh. See

   1. The natural color of flesh; rosy pink.

     Her complexion of the delicate carnation. Ld. Lytton.

   2.  pl.  (Paint.)  Those parts of a picture in which the human body or
   any part of it is represented in full color; the flesh tints.

     The flesh tints in painting are termed carnations. Fairholt.

   3. (Bot.) A species of Dianthus (D. Caryophyllus) or pink, having very
   beautiful  flowers  of  various colors, esp. white and usually a rich,
   spicy scent.


   Car*na"tioned (?), a. Having a flesh color.


   Car*nau"ba (?), n. (Bot.) The Brazilian wax palm. See Wax palm.


   Car*nel"ian  (?),  n. [For carnelian; influenced by L. carneus fleshy,
   of  flesh,  because  of  its flesh red color. See Cornellan.] (Min.) A
   variety  of  chalcedony,  of  a clear, deep red, flesh red, or reddish
   white  color.  It  is  moderately  hard, capable of a good polish, and
   often used for seals.


   Car"ne*ous  (?), a. [L. carneus, from caro, carnis, flesh.] Consisting
   of, or like, flesh; carnous; fleshy. "Carneous fibers." Ray.


   Car"ney (?), n. [Cf. L. carneus flesh.] (Far.) A disease of horses, on
   which the mouth is so furred that the afflicted animal can not eat.


   Car"ni*fex  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. caro, carnis, flesh + facere to make.]
   (Antiq.)  The  public executioner at Rome, who executed persons of the
   lowest rank; hence, an executioner or hangman.


   Car`ni*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n. [Cf. F. carnification.] The act or process
   of turning to flesh, or to a substance resembling flesh.


   Car"ni*fy (?), v. i. [LL. carnificare, fr. L.o, carnis, flesh + facere
   to  make:  cf. F. carnifier.] To form flesh; to become like flesh. Sir
   M. Hale.


   Car"nin  (?), n. [L. caro, canis , flesh.] (Chem.) A white crystalline
   nitrogenous  substance,  found  in  extract  of  meat,  and related to


   Car"ni*val (?), n. [It. carnevale, prob. for older carnelevale, prop.,
   the  putting away of meat; fr. L. caro, carnis, flesh _ levare to take
   away, lift up, fr. levis light.]

   1.  A festival celebrated with merriment and revelry in Roman Gatholic
   countries during the week before Lent, esp. at Rome and Naples, during
   a few days (three to ten) before Lent, ending with Shrove Tuesday.

     The carnival at Venice is everywhere talked of. Addison.

   2.   Any  merrymaking,  feasting,  or  masquerading,  especially  when
   overstepping  the  bounds  of  decorum;  a  time  of  riotous  excess.

     He  saw  the  lean  dogs  beneath the wall Hold o'er the dead their
     carnival Byron.


   Car*niv"o*ra  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  neut.  pl. from L. carnivorus. See
   Carnivorous.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  order  of Mammallia including the lion,
   tiger,  wolf  bear,  seal, etc. They are adapted by their structure to
   feed upon flesh, though some of them, as the bears, also eat vegetable
   food.  The  teeth are large and sharp, suitable for cutting flesh, and
   the jaws powerful.


   Car*niv`o*rac"i*ty   (?),   n.   Greediness  of  appetite  for  flesh.
   [Sportive.] Pope.


   Car`ni*vore  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  carnivore.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the


   Car*niv"o*rous (?), a. [L. carnivorus; caro, carnis, flesh + varare to
   devour.]  Eating  or  feeding  on  flesh.  The term is applied: (a) to
   animals  which naturally seek flesh for food, as the tiger, dog, etc.;
   (b)  to  plants  which  are  supposed  to  absorb  animal food; (c) to
   substances which destroy animal tissue, as caustics.

                               Carnose, Carnous

   Car*nose (?), Car"*nous (?), a. [L. carnosus, fr. caro, carnis, flesh:
   cf. OF. carneux, F. charneux.]

   1. Of a pertaining to flesh; fleshy.

     A distinct carnose muscle. Ray.

   2.  (Bot.)  Of  a  fleshy consistence; -- applied to succulent leaves,
   stems, etc.


   Car*nos"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. carnosit\'82.]

   1.  (Med.)  A  fleshy excrescence; esp. a small excrescence or fungous
   growth. Wiseman.

   2. Fleshy substance or quality; fleshy covering.

     [Consciences] overgrown with so hard a carnosity. Spelman.

     The olives, indeed be very small there, and bigger than capers; yet
     commended they are for their carnosity. Holland.


   Car"ob  (?),  n. [Cf. F. caroube fruit of the carob tree, Sp. garrobo,
   al-garrobo,  carob  tree,  fr.  Ar.  kharr\'d4b,  Per. Kharn\'d4b. Cf.

   1.  (Bot.)  An  evergreen leguminous tree (Ceratania Siliqua) found in
   the  countries  bordering  the Mediterranean; the St. John's bread; --
   called also carob tree.

   2.  One  of  the long, sweet, succulent, pods of the carob tree, which
   are  used  as  food  for animals and sometimes eaten by man; -- called
   also St. John's bread, carob bean, and algaroba bean.


   Ca*roche"  (?),  n.  [OF.  carrache,  F.  carrose  from  It. carrocio,
   carrozza,  fr. carro, L. carus. See Car.] A kind of pleasure carriage;
   a coach. [Obs.]

     To mount two-wheeled caroches. Butler.


   Ca*roched" (?), a. Placed in a caroche. [Obs.]

     Beggary rides caroched. Massenger.


   Car"oigne (?), n. [See Carrion.] Dead body; carrion. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Car"ol  (?),  n.  [OF.  carole  a  kind  of  dance  wherein many dance
   together,  fr. caroler to dance; perh. from Celtic; cf. Armor. koroll,
   n.,  korolla,  korolli, v., Ir. car music, turn, circular motion, also
   L. choraula a flute player, charus a dance, chorus, choir.]

   1. A round dance. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. A song of joy, exultation, or mirth; a lay.

     The costly feast, the carol, and the dance. Dryden

     It was the carol of a bird. Byron.

   3. A song of praise of devotion; as, a Christmas or Easter carol.

     Heard a carol, mournful, holy. Tennyson.

     In the darkness sing your carol of high praise. Keble.

   4. Joyful music, as of a song.

     I heard the bells on Christmans Day Their old, familiar carol play.


   Car"ol (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caroled (?), or Carolled; p. pr. & vb.
   n. Caroling, or Carolling.]

   1. To praise or celebrate in song.

     The Shepherds at their festivals Carol her goodness. Milton.

   2. To sing, especially with joyful notes.

     Hovering awans . . . carol sounds harmonious. Prior.


   Car"ol, v. i. To sing; esp. to sing joyfully; to warble.

     And carol of love's high praise. Spenser.

     The gray linnets carol from the hill. Beattie.

                                 Carol, Carrol

   Car"ol,  Car"rol,  n. [OF. carole a sort of circular space, or carol.]
   (Arch.)  A  small  closet  or  inclosure built against a window on the
   inner side, to sit in for study. The word was used as late as the 16th

     A bay window may thus be called a carol. Parker.


   Car"o*lin  (?), n. [L. Carolus Charles.] A former gold coin of Germany
   worth  nearly  five  dollars; also, a gold coin of Sweden worth nearly
   five dollars.

                                 Carolina pink

   Car`o*li"na pink` (?). (Bot.) See Pinkboot.


   Car"o*line (?), n. A coin. See Carline.


   Car"ol*ing (?), n. A song of joy or devotion; a singing, as of carols.

     Such heavenly notes and carolings. Spenser.


   Car`o*lin"i*an  (?),  n.  A  native  or  inhabitant  of north or South


   Car`o*lit"ic  (?),  a.  (Arch.)  Adorned  with  sculptured  leaves and


   Car"o*lus (?), n.; pl. E. Caroluses (#), L. Caroli (#). [L., Charles.]
   An English gold coin of the value of twenty or twenty-three shillings.
   It was first struck in the reign of Charles I.

     Told down the crowns and Caroluses. Macawlay.


   Car"om   (?),   n.  [Prob.  corrupted  fr.  F.  carumboler  to  carom,
   carambolage a carom, carambole the red ball in billiards.] (Billiards)
   A shot in which the ball struck with the cue comes in contact with two
   or  more  balls  on the table; a hitting of two or more balls with the
   player's ball. In England it is called cannon.


   Car"om, v. i. (Billiards) To make a carom.


   Car"o*mel (?), n. See Caramel.


   Car`o*teel"  (?),  n.  (Com.) A tierce or cask for dried fruits, etc.,
   usually about 700 lbs. Simmonds.


   Ca*rot"ic (?), a. [Gr. Carotid.]

   1. Of or pertaining to stupor; as, a carotic state.

   2. (Anat.) Carotid; as, the carotic arteries.


   Ca*rot"id  (?), n. [Gr. carotide. The early Greeks believed that these
   arteries  in  some way caused drowsiness.] (Anat.) One of the two main
   arteries of the neck, by which blood is conveyed from the aorta to the

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Aorta.]

                              Carotid, Carotidal

   Ca*rot"id  (?),  Ca*rot"id*al  (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or near,
   the carotids or one of them; as, the carotid gland.


   Ca*ro"tin  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A red crystallizable tasteless substance,
   extracted from the carrot.


   Ca*rous"al  (?),  n.  [See Carouse, but also cf. F. carrousel tilt.] A
   jovial feast or festival; a drunken revel; a carouse.

     The swains were preparing for a carousal. Sterne.

   Syn. -- Banquet; revel; orgie; carouse. See Feast.

   Page 220


   Ca*rouse"  (?),  n.  [F.  carrousse,  earlier  carous,  fr.  G. garaus
   finishing  stroke,  the  emptying of the cup in drinking a health; gar
   entirely + aus out. See Yare, and Out.]

   1.  A large draught of liguor. [Obs.] "A full carouse of sack." Sir J.

     Drink carouses to the next day's fate. Shak.

   2. A drinking match; a carousal.

     The early feast and late carouse. Pope.


   Ca*rouse"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Caroused (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Carousing.]  To  drink  deeply  or  freely in compliment; to take in a
   carousal; to engage in drunken revels.

     He had been aboard, carousing to his mates. Shak.


   Ca*rouse"  v.  t.  To drink up; to drain; to drink freely or jovially.

     Guests carouse the sparkling tears of the rich grape. Denham.

     Egypt's  wanton  queen,  Carousing gems, herself dissolved in love.


   Ca*rous"er (?), n. One who carouses; a reveler.


   Ca*rous"ing, a. That carouses; relating to a carouse.


   Ca*rous"ing*ly, adv. In the manner of a carouser.


   Carp  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Carped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carping.]
   [OE. carpen to say, speak; from Scand. (cf. Icel. karpa to boast), but
   influenced later by L. carpere to pluck, calumniate.]

   1. To talk; to speak; to prattle. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. To find fault; to cavil; to censure words or actions without reason
   or ill-naturedly; -- usually followed by at.

     Carping and caviling at faults of manner. Blackw. Mag.

     And at my actions carp or catch. Herbert.


   Carp, v. t.

   1. To say; to tell. [Obs.]

   2. To find fault with; to censure. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Carp,  n.; pl. Carp, formerly Carps. [Cf. Icel. karfi, Dan. karpe, Sw.
   karp,  OHG.  charpho,  G.  karpfen, F. carpe, LL. carpa.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   fresh-water herbivorous fish (Cyprinus carpio.). Several other species
   of Cyprinus, Catla, and Carassius are called carp. See Cruclan carp.

     NOTE: &hand; The carp was originally from Asia, whence it was early
     introduced   into   Europe,  where  it  is  extensively  reared  in
     artificial  ponds.  Within  a few years it has been introduced into
     America,  and  widely  distributed by the government. Domestication
     has  produced  several  varieties,  as  the  leather carp, which is
     nearly or quite destitute of scales, and the mirror carp, which has
     only a few large scales. Intermediate varieties occur.

   Carp  louse  (Zo\'94l.),  a  small  crustacean,  of the genus Argulus,
   parasitic  on  carp  and allied fishes. See Branchiura. -- Carp mullet
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  fish  (Moxostoma  carpio)  of the Ohio River and Great
   Lakes,  allied to the suckers. -- Carp sucker (Zo\'94l.), a name given
   to several species of fresh-water fishes of the genus Carpiodes in the
   United States; -- called also quillback.


   Car"pal (?), a. [From Carpus.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the carpus,
   or  wrist.  --  n.  One  of  the  bones or cartilages of the carpus; a
   carpale.  Carpal  angle (Zo\'94l.), the angle at the last joint of the
   folded wing of a bird.


   Car*pa"le (?), n.; pl. Carpalia (#). [NL., fr. E. carpus.] (Anat.) One
   of  the  bones  or  cartilages  of  the carpus; esp. one of the series
   articulating with the metacarpals.


   Car*pa"thi*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to a range of mountains in
   Austro-Hungary,   called  the  Carpathians,  which  partially  inclose
   Hungary on the north, east, and south.

                               Carpel, Carpellum

   Car"pel  (?),  Car*pel"lum  (?),  n.  [NL. carpellum, fr. Gr. (Bot.) A
   simple  pistil  or  single-celled  ovary or seed vessel, or one of the
   parts  of  a  compound  pistil,  ovary,  or seed vessel. See Illust of


   Car"pel*la"ry  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Belonging  to, forming, or containing


   Car"pen*ter (?), n. [OF. carpentier, F. charpentier, LL. carpentarius,
   fr. L. carpentum wagon, carriage.] An artificer who works in timber; a
   framer  and  builder of houses, ships, etc. Syn. -- Carpenter, Joiner.
   The  carpenter frames and puts together roofs, partitions, floors, and
   other  structural  parts  of  a  building. The joiner Supplies stairs,
   doors  shutters, mantelpieces, cupboards, and other parts necessary to
   finishing the building. In America the two trades are commonly united.
   Carpenter  ant (Zo\'94l.), any species of ant which gnaws galleries in
   the  wood  of  trees  and  constructs  its nests therein. They usually
   select  dead  or  somewhat  decayed  wood.  The  common large American
   species is Formica Pennsylvanica. -- Carpenter bee (Zo\'94l.), a large
   hymenopterous  insect  of  the genus Xylocopa; -- so called because it
   constructs  its  nest  by  gnawing long galleries in sound timber. The
   common American species is Xylocopa Virginica.


   Car"pen*ter*ing,  n. The occupation or work of a carpenter; the act of
   workingin timber; carpentry.


   Car"pen*try  (?),  n.  [F.  charpenterie,  OF.  also  carpenterie. See

   1.  The  art  of  cutting,  framing,  and  joining  timber,  as in the
   construction of buildings.

   2.  An  assemblage  of  pieces  of  timber  connected  by being framed
   together,  as  the  pieces  of  a  roof,  floor,  etc.; work done by a


   Carp"er (?), n. One who carps; a caviler. Shak.


   Car"pet  (?),  n.  [OF. carpite rug, soft of cloth, F. carpette coarse
   packing  cloth,  rug  (cf.  It.  carpita  rug,  blanket), LL. carpeta,
   carpita,  woolly  cloths, fr. L. carpere to pluck, to card (wool); cf.
   Gr. Harvest.]

   1.  A  heavy  woven  or  felted  fabric,  usually of wool, but also of
   cotton,  hemp,  straw, etc.; esp. a floor covering made in breadths to
   be sewed together and nailed to the floor, as distinguished from a rug
   or mat; originally, also, a wrought cover for tables.

     Tables   and  beds  covered  with  copes  instead  of  carpets  and
     coverlets. T. Fuller.

   2.  A  smooth  soft  covering  resembling or suggesting a carpet. "The
   grassy carpet of this plain." Shak.
   Carpet  beetle  or  Carpet  bug  (Zo\'94l.), a small beetle (Anthrenus
   scrophulari\'91),  which,  in  the  larval state, does great damage to
   carpets  and other woolen goods; -- also called buffalo bug. -- Carpet
   knight.  (a) A knight who enjoys ease and security, or luxury, and has
   not  known  the hardships of the field; a hero of the drawing room; an
   effeminate  person.  Shak.  (b) One made a knight, for some other than
   military  distinction or service. -- Carpet moth (Zo\'94l.), the larva
   of  an insect which feeds on carpets and other woolen goods. There are
   several  kinds.  Some  are  the  larv\'91  of  species of Tinea (as T.
   tapetzella);  others  of  beetles,  esp.  Anthrenus.  --  Carpet snake
   (Zo\'94l.),  an Australian snake. See Diamond snake, under Diamond. --
   Carpet  sweeper, an apparatus or device for sweeping carpets. -- To be
   on  the  carpet,  to  be  under  consideration;  to  be the subject of
   deliberation; to be in sight; -- an expression derived from the use of
   carpets as table cover. -- Brussels carpet. See under Brussels.


   Car"pet,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carpeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Carpeting.] To
   cover  with,  or as with, a carpet; to spread with carpets; to furnish
   with a carpet or carpets.

     Carpeted temples in fashionable squares. E. Everett.


   Car"pet*bag`  (?),  n.  A  portable  bag  for  travelers; -- so called
   because originally made of carpet.


   Car"pet*bag"ger  (?),  n.  An  adventurer; -- a term of contempt for a
   Northern  man  seeking  private  gain  or political advancement in the
   southern  part of the United States after the Civil War (1865)<-- used
   now  for  any politician moving to a new location to take advantage of
   more favorable chances for election-->. [U. S.]


   Car"pet*ing, n. 1. The act of covering with carpets.

   2. Cloth or materials for carpets; carpets, in general.

     The floor was covered with rich carpeting. Prescott.


   Car"pet*less, a. Without a carpet.


   Car"pet*mon`ger (?), n.

   1. One who deals in carpets; a buyer and seller of carpets.

   2. One fond of pleasure; a gallant. Shak.


   Car"pet*way`  (?),  n.  (Agric.) A border of greensward left round the
   margin of a plowed field. Ray.


   Car*phol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -logy:  cf. F. carphologie.] (Med.) See


   Carp"ing  (?), a. Fault-finding; censorious caviling. See Captious. --
   Carp"ing*ly, adv.


   Car`pin*te"ro  (?),  n. [Sp., a carpenter, a woodpecker.] A california
   woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus), noted for its habit of inserting
   acorns  in  holes which it drills in trees. The acorns become infested
   by  insect  larv\'91, which, when grown, are extracted for food by the


   Car`po*gen"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -gen.]  (Bot.)  Productive of fruit, or
   causing fruit to be developed.


   Car"po*lite (?), n. [Gr. -lite, cf. F. carpolithe.] A general term for
   a fossil fruit, nut, or seed.


   Car`po*log"i*cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to carpology.


   Car*pol"o*gist  (?),  n.  One  who  describes  fruits;  one  versed in


   Car*pol"o*gy  (?), n. [Gr. -logy.] That branch of botany which relates
   to the structure of seeds and fruit.


   Car*poph"a*gous (?), a. [Gr. Living on fruits; fruit-consuming.


   Car"po*phore  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Bot.)  A  slender  prolongation  of the
   receptacle  as  an  axis  between the carpels, as in Geranium and many
   umbelliferous plants.


   Car"po*phyll  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Bot.) A leaf converted into a fruit or a
   constituent portion of a fruit; a carpel.

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Gymnospermous.]


   Car"po*phyte (?), n. [Gr. (Bot.) A flowerless plant which forms a true
   fruit  as  the  result  of  fertilization,  as  the  red seaweeds, the
   Ascomycetes, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e di vision of  al ge an d fu ngi into four classes
     called  Carpophytes,  O\'94phytes,  Protophytes, and Zygophytes (or
     Carpospore\'91,  O\'94spore\'91, Protophyta, and Zygospore\'91) was
     proposed by Sachs about 1875.


   Car"po*spore  (?),  n.  [Gr. -spore.] (Bot.) A kind of spore formed in
   the conceptacles of red alg\'91. -- Car`po*spor"ic (, a.


   Car"pus  (?),  n.; pl. Carpi (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The wrist; the
   bones or cartilages between the forearm, or antibrachium, and the hand
   or  forefoot;  in man, consisting of eight short bones disposed in two


   Car"rack (?), n. See Carack.

                             Carrageen, Carrigeen

   Car"ra*geen`  (?),  Car"ri*geen` (?), n. A small, purplish, branching,
   cartilaginous seaweed (Chondrus crispus), which, when bleached, is the
   Irish moss of commerce. [Also written carragheen, carageen.]


   Car*ran"cha  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The Brazilian kite
   (Polyborus Brasiliensis); -- so called in imitation of its notes.


   Car"ra*way (?), n. See Caraway.


   Car"rel (?), n. See Quarrel, an arrow.


   Car"rel, n. (Arch.) Same as 4th Carol.


   Car"ri*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being carried.


   Car"riage  (?),  n. [OF. cariage luggage, carriage, chariage carriage,
   cart,  baggage,  F.  charriage,  cartage,  wagoning,  fr.  OF. carier,
   charier, F. charrier, to cart. See Carry.]

   1. That which is carried; burden; baggage. [Obs.]

     David  left his carriage in the hand of the keeper of the carriage.
     1. Sam. xvii. 22.

     And  after  those  days  we  took  up  our carriages and went up to
     Jerusalem. Acts. xxi. 15.

   2. The act of carrying, transporting, or conveying.

     Nine days employed in carriage. Chapman.

   3. The price or expense of carrying.

   4.  That  which  carries  of  conveys,  as:  (a) A wheeled vehicle for
   persons,  esp.  one  designed  for elegance and comfort. (b) A wheeled
   vehicle  carrying  a  fixed burden, as a gun carriage. (c) A part of a
   machine  which  moves and carries of supports some other moving object
   or  part.  (d)  A  frame  or  cage  in  which  something is carried or
   supported; as, a bell carriage.

   5.  The  manner of carrying one's self; behavior; bearing; deportment;
   personal manners.

     His gallant carriage all the rest did grace. Stirling.

   6. The act or manner of conducting measures or projects; management.

     The passage and whole carriage of this action. Shak.

   Carriage horse, a horse kept for drawing a carriage. -- Carriage porch
   (Arch.),  a  canopy  or  roofed  pavilion covering the driveway at the
   entrance  to  any  building. It is intended as a shelter for those who
   alight  from  vehicles at the door; -- sometimes erroneously called in
   the United States porte-coch\'8are.
   Car"riage*a*ble (?), a. Passable by carriages; that can be conveyed in
   carriages. [R.] Ruskin. 


   Car"ri*boo (?), n. See Caribou.


   Car"rick (?), n. (Naut.) A carack. See Carack. Carrick bend (Naut.), a
   kind  of  knot,  used  for bending together hawsers or other ropes. --
   Carrick bitts (Naut.), the bitts which support the windlass. Totten.


   Car"ri*er (?), n. [From Carry.]

   1. One who, or that which, carries or conveys; a messenger.

     The air which is but . . . a carrier of the sounds. Bacon.

   2.  One  who is employed, or makes it his business, to carry goods for
   others for hire; a porter; a teamster.

     The  roads are crowded with carriers, laden with rich manufactures.

   3.  (Mach.)  That  which  drives  or  carries;  as:  (a) A piece which
   communicates  to  an object in a lathe the motion of the face plate; a
   lathe  dog. (b) A spool holder or bobbin holder in a braiding machine.
   (c)  A movable piece in magazine guns which transfers the cartridge to
   a position from which it can be thrust into the barrel.
   Carrier  pigeon  (Zo\'94l.),  a variety of the domestic pigeon used to
   convey  letters  from a distant point to to its home. -- Carrier shell
   (Zo\'94l.), a univalve shell of the genus Phorus; -- so called because
   it  fastens bits of stones and broken shells to its own shell, to such
   an  extent as almost to conceal it. -- Common carrier (Law.) See under
   Common, a.


   Car"ri*on  (?),  n.  [OE.  caroyne,  OF.  caroigne,  F.  charogne, LL.
   caronia, fr. L. caro flesh Cf. Crone, Crony.]

   1.  The  dead  and  putrefying  body  or  flesh of an animal; flesh so
   corrupted as to be unfit for food.

     They did eat the dead carrions. Spenser.

   2.  A  contemptible or worthless person; -- a term of reproach. [Obs.]
   "Old feeble carrions." Shak.


   Car"ri*on,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  dead and putrefying carcasses;
   feeding on carrion.

     A prey for carrion kites. Shak.

   Carrion  beetle  (Zo\'94l.),  any beetle that feeds habitually on dead
   animals;  --  also  called sexton beetle and burying beetle. There are
   many  kinds,  belonging  mostly  to the family Silphid\'91. -- Carrion
   buzzard  (Zo\'94l.),  a  South  American  bird  of several species and
   genera  (as Ibycter, Milvago, and Polyborus), which act as scavengers.
   See  Caracara.  --  Carrion  crow,  the  common  European crow (Corvus
   corone) which feeds on carrion, insects, fruits, and seeds.


   Car"rol (?), n. (Arch.) See 4th Carol.


   Car"rom (?), n. (Billiards) See Carom.


   Car`ron*ade  (?),  n.  [From  Carron,  in  Scotland where it was first
   made.]  (Med.)  A  kind  of short cannon, formerly in use, designed to
   throw  a large projectile with small velocity, used for the purpose of
   breaking or smashing in, rather than piercing, the object aimed at, as
   the  side  of  a  ship.  It  has no trunnions, but is supported on its
   carriage by a bolt passing through a loop on its under side.

   Page 221

                                  Carron oil

   Car"ron  oil  (?).  A lotion of linseed oil and lime water, used as an
   application  to  burns  and  scalds;  -- first used at the Carron iron
   works in Scotland.


   Car"rot (?), n. [F. carotte, fr. L. carota; cf. Gr.

   1.  (Bot.)  An  umbelliferous  biennial plant (Daucus Carota), of many

   2.  The  esculent  root  of cultivated varieties of the plant, usually
   spindle-shaped, and of a reddish yellow color.


   Car"rot*y,  a. Like a carrot in color or in taste; -- an epithet given
   to reddish yellow hair, etc.


   Car"row  (?),  n.  [Ir  & Gael. carach cunning.] A strolling gamester.
   [Ireland] Spenser.


   Car"ry  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Carried  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Carrying.]  [OF.  carier,  charier, F. carrier, to cart, from OF. car,
   char, F. car, car. See Car.]

   1.  To convey or transport in any manner from one place to another; to
   bear; -- often with away or off.

     When he dieth he small carry nothing away. Ps. xiix. 17.

     Devout men carried Stephen to his burial. Acts viii, 2.

     Another carried the intelligence to Russell. Macaulay.

     The sound will be carried, at the least, twenty miles. Bacon.

   2.  To  have or hold as a burden, while moving from place to place; to
   have  upon  or  about  one's person; to bear; as, to carry a wound; to
   carry an unborn child.

     If the ideas . . . were carried along with us in our minds. Locke.

   3.  To  move;  to  convey  by  force; to impel; to conduct; to lead or

     Go, carry Sir John Falstaff to the Fleet. Shak.

     He carried away all his cattle. Gen. xxxi. 18.

     Passion and revenge will carry them too far. Locke.

   4.  To  transfer  from  one  place  (as a country, book, or column) to
   another;  as,  to  carry  the  war  from Greece into Asia; to carry an
   account to the ledger; to carry a number in adding figures.

   5.  To convey by extension or continuance; to extend; as, to carry the
   chimney through the roof; to carry a road ten miles farther.

   6.  To  bear  or  uphold successfully through conflict, as a leader or
   principle;  hence,  to  succeed  in,  as  in  a contest; to bring to a
   successful  issue; to win; as, to carry an election. "The greater part
   carries it." Shak.

     The carrying of our main point. Addison.

   7. To get possession of by force; to capture.

     The town would have been carried in the end. Bacon.

   8.  To  contain;  to  comprise;  to  bear  the  aspect of ; to show or
   exhibit; to imply.

     He thought it carried something of argument in it. Watts.

     It carries too great an imputation of ignorance. Lacke.

   9.  To bear (one's self); to behave, to conduct or demean; -- with the
   refexive pronouns.

     He  carried  himself  so  insolently  in  the house, and out of the
     house, to all persons, that he became odious. Clarendon.

   10.  To  bear  the  charges or burden of holding or having, as stocks,
   merchandise,  etc.,  from  one  time  to  another;  as,  a merchant is
   carrying  a  large  stock; a farm carries a mortgage; a broker carries
   stock for a customer; to carry a life insurance.
   Carry arms (Mil. Drill), a command of the Manual of Arms directing the
   soldier  to  hold  his  piece  in  the  right hand, the barrel resting
   against the hollow of the shoulder in a nearly perpendicular position.
   In  this  position  the soldier is said to stand, and the musket to be
   held, at carry. -- To carry all before one, to overcome all obstacles;
   to  have  uninterrupted success. -- To carry arms (a) To bear weapons.
   (b) To serve as a soldier. -- To carry away. (a) (Naut.) to break off;
   to  lose;  as, to carry away a fore-topmast. (b) To take possession of
   the  mind;  to  charm;  to  delude;  as, to be carried by music, or by
   temptation.  --  To  carry coals, to bear indignities tamely, a phrase
   used  by  early  dramatists,  perhaps  from  the  mean  nature  of the
   occupation.  Halliwell. -- To carry coals to Newcastle, to take things
   to a place where they already abound; to lose one's labor. -- To carry
   off (a) To remove to a distance. (b) To bear away as from the power or
   grasp  of  others. (c) To remove from life; as, the plague carried off
   thousands.  --  To  carry on (a) To carry farther; to advance, or help
   forward;  to  continue;  as,  to  carry  on  a  design. (b) To manage,
   conduct, or prosecute; as, to carry on husbandry or trade. -- To carry
   out. (a) To bear from within. (b) To put into execution; to bring to a
   successful  issue.  (c) To sustain to the end; to continue to the end.
   --  To  carry  through.  (a)  To  convey  through the midst of. (b) To
   support  to  the  end;  to  sustain,  or  keep  from falling, or being
   subdued.  "Grace  will  carry  us  .  .  .  through all difficulties."
   Hammond.  (c)  To complete; to bring to a succesful issue; to succeed.
   --  To carry up, to convey or extend in an upward course or direction;
   to  build. -- To carry weight. (a) To be handicapped; to have an extra
   burden,  as  when  one  rides  or runs. "He carries weight, he rides a
   race" Cowper. (b) To have influence.
   Car"ry, v. i. 

   1. To act as a bearer; to convey anything; as, to fetch and carry.

   2.  To  have  propulsive power; to propel; as, a gun or mortar carries

   3.  To  hold the head; -- said of a horse; as, to carry well i. e., to
   hold the head high, with arching neck.

   4. (Hunting) To have earth or frost stick to the feet when running, as
   a hare. Johnson.
   To carry on, to behave in a wild, rude, or romping manner. [Colloq.]


   Car"ry  (?), n.; pl. Carries (#). A tract of land, over which boats or
   goods  are  carried  between two bodies of navigable water; a carrying
   place; a portage. [U.S.]


   Car"ry*all` (?), n. [Corrupted fr. cariole.] A light covered carriage,
   having  four  wheels and seats for four or more persons, usually drawn
   by one horse.


   Car"ry*ing,  n.  The act or business of transporting from one place to
   another.  Carrying  place,  a carry; a portage. -- Carrying trade, the
   business  of  transporting  goods,  etc., from one place or country to
   another by water or land; freighting.

     We are rivals with them in . . . the carrying trade. Jay.


   Car"ryk (?), n. A carack. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Car"ry*tale` (?), n. A talebearer. [R.] Shak.


   Carse  (?),  n.  [Of Celtic origin; cf. W. cars bog, fen. carsen reed,
   Armor.  kars,  korsen,  bog  plant,  reed.] Low, fertile land; a river
   valley. [Scot.] Jomieson.


   Cart  (?),  n.  [AS. cr\'91t; cf. W. cart, Ir. & Gael. cairt, or Icel.
   kartr. Cf. Car.]

   1. A common name for various kinds of vehicles, as a Scythian dwelling
   on wheels, or a chariot. "Ph\'d2bus' cart." Shak.

   2.  A  two-wheeled  vehicle for the ordinary purposes of husbandry, or
   for transporting bulky and heavy articles.

     Packing all his goods in one poor cart. Dryden.

   3. A light business wagon used by bakers, grocerymen, butchers, atc.

   4. An open two-wheeled pleasure carriage.
   Cart  horse,  a  horse  which  draws  a cart; a horse bred or used for
   drawing  heavy  loads. -- Cart load, OR Cartload, as much as will fill
   or  load  a cart. In excavating and carting sand, gravel, earth, etc.,
   one  third  of  a  cubic yard of the material before it is loosened is
   estimated  to be a cart load. -- Cart rope, a stout rope for fastening
   a  load on a cart; any strong rope. -- To put (OR get OR set) the cart
   before the horse, to invert the order of related facts or ideas, as by
   putting an effect for a cause.


   Cart, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carted; p. pr. & vb. n. Carting.]

   1. To carry or convey in a cart.

   2. To expose in a cart by way of punishment.

     She chuckled when a bawd was carted. Prior.


   Cart,  v.  i.  To carry burdens in a cart; to follow the business of a


   Cart"age (?), n.

   1. The act of carrying in a cart.

   2. The price paid for carting.


   Cart"bote`  (?),  n.  [Cart  +  bote.] (Old Eng. Law.) Wood to which a
   tenant   is   entitled  for  making  and  repairing  carts  and  other
   instruments of husbandry.


   Carte (?), n. [F. See 1st Card.]

   1. Bill of fare.

   2. Short for Carte de visite.

                                 Carte. Quarte

   Carte.  Quarte  (?),  n.  [F.  quarte,  prop.,  a  fourth. Cf. Quart.]
   (Fencing)  A position in thrusting or parrying, with the inside of the
   hand  turned upward and the point of the weapon toward the adversary's
   right breast.

                                 Carte blanche

   Carte`  blanche"  (?).  [F.,  fr.  OF.  carte paper + -blanc, blanche,
   white.  See 1st Card.] A blank paper, with a person's signature, etc.,
   at the bottom, given to another person, with permission to superscribe
   what  conditions  he  pleases.  Hence:  Unconditional terms; unlimited

                                Carte de visite

   Carte" de vi*site` (?), pl. Cartes de visite (. [F.]

   1. A visiting card.

   2.  A  photographic picture of the size formerly in use for a visiting


   Car*tel"  (?),  n.  [F., fr. LL. cartellus a little paper, dim. fr. L.
   charta. See 1st Card.]

   1.  (Mil.)  An  agreement  between  belligerents  for  the exchange of
   prisoners. Wilhelm.

   2.  A  letter  of defiance or challenge; a challenge to single combat.

     He is cowed at the very idea of a cartel., Sir W. Scott.

   <--  3.  a  formal  or informal arrangement (sometimes unlawful) among
   independent commercial enterprises organized for the purpose of common
   gain,  as  by  limiting  competition  or  fixing prices --> Cartel, or
   Cartel  ship,  a  ship  employed  in  the exchange of prisoners, or in
   carrying  propositions to an enemy; a ship beating a flag of truce and
   privileged from capture.


   Car"tel (?), v. t. To defy or challenge. [Obs.]

     You shall cartel him. B. Jonson.


   Cart"er (?), n.

   1. A charioteer. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. A man who drives a cart; a teamster.

   3.   (Zo\'94l.)   (a)  Any  species  of  Phalangium;  --  also  called
   harvestman. (b) A British fish; the whiff.


   Car*te"sian (?), a. [From Renatus Cartesius, Latinized from of Ren\'82
   Descartes:  cf.  F.  cart\'82sien.]  Of  or  pertaining  to the French
   philosopher Ren\'82 Descartes, or his philosophy.

     The Cartesion argument for reality of matter. Sir W. Hamilton.

   Cartesian  co\'94rdinates  (Geom),  distance  of a point from lines or
   planes;  --  used  in  a  system of representing geometric quantities,
   invented  by  Descartes.  --  Cartesian  devil,  a  small hollow glass
   figure,  used in connection with a jar of water having an elastic top,
   to  illustrate  the  effect  of the compression or expansion of air in
   changing  the specific gravity of bodies. -- Cartesion oval (Geom.), a
   curve such that, for any point of the curve mr + m\'b7r\'b7 = c, where
   r  and  r\'b7  are the distances of the point from the two foci and m,
   m\'b7 and c are constant; -- used by Descartes.
   Car*te"sian, n. An adherent of Descartes.
   Car*te"sian*ism, n. The philosophy of Descartes.
   Car`tha*gin"i*an,  a.  Of  a pertaining to ancient Carthage, a city of
   northern Africa. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Carthage.
   Car"tha*min  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A red coloring matter obtained from the
   safflower, or Carthamus tinctorius.
   Car*thu"sian  (?), n. [LL. Cartusianus, Cartusiensis, from the town of
   Chartreuse, in France.] (Eccl. Hist.) A member of an exceeding austere
   religious  order, founded at Chartreuse in France by St. Bruno, in the
   year 1086.
   Car*thu"sian, a. Pertaining to the Carthusian.
   Car"ti*lage  (?),  n.  [L.  cartilago;  cf.  F.  cartilage.] (Anat.) A
   translucent, elastic tissue; gristle.
     NOTE: &hand; C artilage c ontains n o v essels, a nd c onsists of a
     homogeneous,  intercellular  matrix,  in  which  there are numerous
     minute  cavities,  or  capsules, containing protoplasmic cells, the
     cartilage corpuscul. See Illust under Duplication.
   Articular  cartilage,  cartilage  that  lines the joints. -- Cartilage
   bone  (Anat.),  any  bone  formed by the ossification of cartilage. --
   Costal cartilage, cartilage joining a rib with he sternum. See Illust.
   of Thorax.
   Car`ti*la*gin"e*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  cartilageneus.] See Cartilaginous.


   Car"ti*la*gin`i*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [L. cartilago, -laginis, cartilage
   + facere to make.] The act or process of forming cartilage. Wright.


   Car`ti*lag"i*nous (?), a. [L. cartilaginosus: cf. F. cartilagineux.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  cartilage;  gristly;  firm  and tough like

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Having the skeleton in the state of cartilage, the bones
   containing  little or no calcareous matter; said of certain fishes, as
   the sturgeon and the sharks.


   Cart"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Cartmen  (. One who drives or uses a cart; a
   teamster; a carter.


   Car*tog"ra*pher (?), n. One who make charts or maps.

                         Cartographic, Cartographical

   Car`to*graph"ic  (?),  Car`to*graph"ic*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to


   Car`to*graph"ic*al*ly, adv. By cartography.


   Car*tog"ra*phy  (?),  n. [Cf. F. cartographie. See Card, and -graphy.]
   The act business of forming chart's or maps.


   Car"to*man`cy  (?), n. [Cf. F. cartomancie. See Card, and -mancy.] The
   act of telling fortunes with cards.


   Car"ton  (?), n. [F. See Cartoon.] Pasteboard for paper boxes; also, a
   pasteboard  box.  Carton  pierre  (,  a  species  of  papier-mach\'82,
   imitating stone or bronze sculpture. Knight.
   Car*toon"  (?),  n. [F. carton (cf. It. cartons pasteboard, cartoon.);
   fr. L. charta. See 1st card.] 

   1.  A  design or study drawn of the full size, to serve as a model for
   transferring or copying; -- used in the making of mosaics, tapestries,
   fresco pantings and the like; as, the cartoons of Raphael.

   2.  A  large  pictorial  sketch,  as  in a journal or magazine; esp. a
   pictorial caricature; as , the cartoons of "Puck."


   Car"toon"ist, n. One skilled in drawing cartoons.


   Car*touch"  (?),  n.; pl. Cartouches (#) [F. cartouche, It. cartuccia,
   cartoccio,  cornet,  cartouch,  fr. L. charta paper. See 1st Card, and
   cf. Cartridge.]

   1.  (Mil.)  (a)  A roll or case of paper, etc., holding a charge for a
   firearm;  a  cartridge.  (b) A cartridge box. (c) A wooden case filled
   with  balls,  to  be  shot  from  a  cannon.  (d)  A  gunner's bag for
   ammunition. (e) A military pass for a soldier on furlough.

   2.  (Arch.) (a) A cantalever, console, corbel, or modillion, which has
   the  form  of  a  scroll  of  paper. (b) A tablet for ornament, or for
   receiving  an inscription, formed like a sheet of paper with the edges
   rolled up; hence, any tablet of ornamental form.

   3.  (Egyptian  Antiq.)  An  oval  figure  on monuments, and in papyri,
   containing the name of a sovereign.


   Car"tridge  (?),  n.  [Formerlly cartrage, corrupted fr. F. cartouche.
   See  Cartouch.]  (Mil.) A complete charge for a firearm, contained in,
   or  held  together by, a case, capsule, or shell of metal, pasteboard,
   or   other   material.   Ball  cartridge,  a  cartridge  containing  a
   projectile.  --  Blank  cartrige, a cartridge without a projectile, --
   Center-fire  cartridge, a cartridge in which the fulminate occupies an
   axial  position  usually  in  the  center  of the base of the capsule,
   instead  of being contained in its rim. In the Prussian needle gun the
   fulminate is applied to the middle of the base of the bullet. Rim-fire
   cartridge,  a  cartridge  in which the fulminate is contained in a rim
   surrounding its base. -- Cartridge bag, a bag of woolen cloth, to hold
   a  charge  for  a  cannon. -- Cartridge belt, a belt having pocket for
   cartridges.  -- Cartridge box, a case, usually of leather, attached to
   a  belt  or  strap,  for holding cartridges. -- Cartridge paper. (a) A
   thick  stout  paper for inclosing cartridges. (b) A rough tinted paper
   used for covering walls, and also for making drawings upon.


   Car"tu*la*ry (?), n.; pl. Cartularies. [LL. cartularium, chartularium,
   fr. L. charta paper: cf. F. cartulaire. See 1st Card.]

   1. A register, or record, as of a monastery or church.

   2. An ecclesiastical officer who had charge of records or other public


   Cart"way` (?), n. A way or road for carts.


   Cart"wright`  (?), n. [Cart + wright.] An artificer who makes carts; a
   cart maker.


   Car"u*cage  (?),  n. [LL. carrucagium (OF. charuage.), fr. LL. carruca
   plow, fr. L. carruca coach.]

   1. (Old Eng. Law.) A tax on every plow or plowland.

   2. The act of plowing. [R.]


   Car"u*cate   (?),  n.  [LL.  carucata,  carrucata.  See  Carucage.]  A
   plowland; as much land as one team can plow in a year and a day; -- by
   some said to be about 100 acres. Burrill.

                              Caruncle, Caruncula

   Car"un*cle  (?),  Ca*run"cu*la (?), n. [L. caruncula a little piece of
   flesh, dim. of caro flesh.]

   1.  (Anat.)  A  small fleshy prominence or excrescence; especially the
   small,  reddish  body, the caruncula lacrymalis, in the inner angle of
   the eye.

   2. (Bot.) An excrescence or appendage surrounding or near the hilum of
   a seed.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.) A naked, flesh appendage, on the head of a bird, as the
   wattles of a turkey, etc.

                            Caruncular, Carunculous

   Ca*run"cu*lar  (?), Ca*run"cu*lous (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or like,
   a caruncle; furnished with caruncles.

                           Carunculate, Carunculated

   Ca*run"cu*late  (?),  Ca*run"cu*la`ted  (?),  a.  Having a caruncle or
   caruncles; caruncular.

   Page 222


   Ca"rus  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) Coma with complete insensibility;
   deep lethargy.


   Car"va*crol  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  thick  oily liquid, C10H13.OH, of a
   strong  taste  and  disagreeable  odor,  obtained  from oil of caraway
   (Carum carui).


   Carve  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Carved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Carving.]
   [AS.  ceorfan to cut, carve; akin to D. kerven, G. kerben, Dan. karve,
   Sw. karfva, and to Gr. -graphy. Cf. Graphic.]

   1. To cut. [Obs.]

     Or they will carven the shepherd's throat. Spenser.

   2.  To  cut,  as  wood,  stone,  or  other material, in an artistic or
   decorative manner; to sculpture; to engrave.

     Carved with figures strange and sweet. Coleridge.

   3.  To  make  or shape by cutting, sculpturing, or engraving; to form;
   as, to carve a name on a tree.

     An angel carved in stone. Tennyson.

     We carved not a line, and we raised not a stone. C. Wolfe.

   4. To cut into small pieces or slices, as meat at table; to divide for
   distribution or apportionment; to apportion. "To carve a capon." <-- =
   carve up --> Shak.

   5. To cut: to hew; to mark as if by cutting.

     My good blade carved the casques of men. Tennyson.

     A million wrinkles carved his skin. Tennyson.

   6. To take or make, as by cutting; to provide.

     Who could easily have carved themselves their own food. South.

   7. To lay out; to contrive; to design; to plan.

     Lie ten nights awake carving the fashion of a new doublet. Shak.

   To  carve  out, to make or get by cutting, or as if by cutting; to cut
   out.  "[Macbeth]  with  his  brandished  steel  .  .  . carved out his
   passage." Shak.
     Fortunes were carved out of the property of the crown. Macaulay.

   Carve, v. i.

   1.  To  exercise  the trade of a sculptor or carver; to engrave or cut

   2. To cut up meat; as, to carve for all the guests.


   Carve, n. A carucate. [Obs.] Burrill.


   Car"vel (?), n. [Contr. fr. caravel.]

   1. Same as Caravel.

   2. A species of jellyfish; sea blubber. Sir T. Herbert.


   Car"vel*built  (?),  a. (Shipbuilding) Having the planks meet flush at
   the seams, instead of lapping as in a clinker-built vessel.


   Car"ven  (?),  a.  Wrought by carving; ornamented by carvings; carved.

     A carven bowl well wrought of beechen tree. Bp. Hall.

     The carven cedarn doors. Tennyson.

     A screen of carven ivory. Mrs. Browning.


   Car"vene  (?),  n.  [F.  carvi  caraway.]  An  oily substance, C10H16,
   extracted from oil caraway.


   Carv"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who  carves;  one who shapes or fashions by carving, or as by
   carving;   esp.   one   who  carves  decorative  forms,  architectural
   adornments, etc. "The carver's chisel." Dodsley.

     The carver of his fortunes. Sharp (Richardson's Dict. )

   2. One who carves or divides meat at table.

   3. A large knife for carving.


   Carv"ing, n.

   1. The act or art of one who carves.

   2.  A  piece of decorative work cut in stone, wood, or other material.
   "Carving in wood." Sir W. Temple.

   3.  The whole body of decorative sculpture of any kind or epoch, or in
   any material; as, the Italian carving of the 15th century.


   Car"vist  (?),  n.  [A  corruption  of carry fist.] (Falconary) A hawk
   which  is of proper age and training to be carried on the hand; a hawk
   in its first year. Booth.


   Car"vol  (?), n. (Chem.) One of a species of aromatic oils, resembling

                                   Car wheel

   Car" wheel` (?), A flanged wheel of a railway car or truck.

                              Caryatic, Caryatid

   Car`y*at"ic (?), Car`y*at"id (?), a. Of or pertaining to a caryatid.


   Car`y*at"id  (?),  n.;  pl.  Caryatids (#) [See Caryatides.] (Arch.) A
   draped  female  figure  supporting  an  entablature, in the place of a
   column or pilaster.


   Car`y*at"i*des (?), n. pl. [L., fr. Gr. (Arch) Caryatids.

     NOTE: &hand; Co rresponding ma le fi gures we re ca lled At lantes,
     Telamones, and Persians.


   Car`y*o*phyl*la"ceous  (?), a. [Gr. (Bot.) (a) Having corollas of five
   petals  with long claws inclosed in a tubular, calyx, as the pink. (b)
   Belonging  to  the  family of which the pink and the carnation are the


   Car`y*oph"yl*lin  (?), n. (Chem.) A tasteless and odorless crystalline
   substance, extracted from cloves, polymeric with common camphor.


   Car`y*oph"yl*lous (?), a. Caryophyllaceous.


   Car`y*op"sis  (?),  n.;  pl.  Caryopses  (#).  [NL.,  fr. gr. (Bot.) A
   one-celled,  dry,  indehiscent fruit, with a thin membranous pericarp,
   adhering  closely to the seed, so that fruit and seed are incorporated
   in one body, forming a single grain, as of wheat, barley, etc.


   Ca"sal (?), a. (Gram.) Of or pertaining to case; as, a casal ending.


   Cas"ca*bel  (?), n. [Sp. cascabel a little bell, also (fr. the shape),
   a  knob  at the breech end of a cannon.] The projection in rear of the
   breech  of  a  cannon, usually a knob or breeching loop connected with
   the  gun by a neck. In old writers it included all in rear of the base

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Cannon.]


   Cas*cade"  (?), n. [F. cascade, fr. It. cascata, fr. cascare to ball.]
   A  fall of water over a precipice, as in a river or brook; a waterfall
   less than a cataract.

     The silver brook . . . pours the white cascade. Longjellow.

     Now murm'ring soft, now roaring in cascade. Cawper.


   Cas*cade", v. i.

   1. To fall in a cascade. Lowell.

   2. To vomit. [Slang] Smollett.


   Cas*cal"ho  (?),  n.  [Pg.,  a  chip  of  stone, gravel.] A deposit of
   pebbles,  gravel, and ferruginous sand, in which the Brazilian diamond
   is usually found.

                                Cascara sagrada

   Cas"ca*ra  sa*gra"da  (?). [Sp.] Holy bark; the bark of the California
   buckthorn (Rhamnus Purshianus), used as a mild cathartic or laxative.


   Cas`ca*ril"la  (?),  n.[Sp.,  small  thin bark, Peruvian bark, dim. of
   c\'a0scara  bark.]  (Bot.)  A euphorbiaceous West Indian shrub (Croton
   Eleutheria);  also,  its aromatic bark. Cascarilla bark (OR Cascarila)
   (Med.),  the  bark of Croton Eleutheria. It has an aromatic odor and a
   warm,  spicy,  bitter  taste, and when burnt emits a musky odor. It is
   used  as a gentle tonic, and sometimes, for the sake of its fragrance,
   mixed  with  smoking  tobacco, when it is said to occasion vertigo and


   Cas`ca*ril"lin   (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  white,  crystallizable,  bitter
   substance extracted from oil of cascarilla.


   Case  (?),  n.  [OF.  casse,  F.  caisse (cf. It. cassa), fr. L. capsa
   chest,  box,  case, fr. caper to take, hold See Capacious, and cf. 4th
   Chase, Cash, Enchase, 3d Sash.]

   1.  A  box,  sheath, or covering; as, a case for holding goods; a case
   for  spectacles;  the  case  of  a  watch;  the  case  (capsule)  of a
   cartridge; a case (cover) for a book.

   2. A box and its contents; the quantity contained in a box; as, a case
   of goods; a case of instruments.

   3.  (Print.)  A  shallow tray divided into compartments or "boxes" for
   holding type.

     NOTE: &hand; Ca ses fo r ty pe are usually arranged in sets of two,
     called  respectively  the  upper and the lower case. The upper case
     contains   capitals,  small  capitals,  accented;  the  lower  case
     contains   the   small  letters,  figures,  marks  of  punctuation,
     quadrats, and spaces.

   4. An inclosing frame; a casing; as, a door case; a window case.

   5.  (Mining)  A  small  fissure  which  admits  water to the workings.


   Case, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Casing.]

   1. To cover or protect with, or as with, a case; to inclose.

     The  man  who,  cased in steel, had passed whole days and nights in
     the saddle. Prescott.

   2. To strip the skin from; as, to case a box. [Obs.]


   Case,  n.  [F.  cas,  fr. L. casus, fr. cadere to fall, to happen. Cf.

   1. Chance; accident; hap; opportunity. [Obs.]

     By aventure, or sort, or cas. Chaucer.

   2.  That  which  befalls,  comes, or happens; an event; an instance; a
   circumstance,  or  all  the circumstamces; condition; state of things;
   affair;  as,  a  strange  case;  a  case of injustice; the case of the
   Indian tribes.

     In any case thou shalt deliver him the pledge. Deut. xxiv. 13.

     If the case of the man be so with his wife. Matt. xix. 10.

     And  when  a  lady's  in  the  case. You know all other things give
     place. Gay.

     You think this madness but a common case. Pope.

     I am in case to justle a constable, Shak.

   3.  (Med.  & Surg.) A patient under treatment; an instance of sickness
   or  injury;  as, ten cases of fever; also, the history of a disease or

     A proper remedy in hypochondriacal cases. Arbuthnot.

   4.  (Law)  The  matters  of  fact or conditions involved in a suit, as
   distinguished  from  the  questions of law; a suit or action at law; a

     Let  us consider the reason of the case, for nothing is law that is
     not reason. Sir John Powell.

     Not one case in the reports of our courts. Steele.

   5. (Gram.) One of the forms, or the inflections or changes of form, of
   a  noun,  pronoun,  or adjective, which indicate its relation to other
   words,  and  in  the aggregate constitute its declension; the relation
   which a noun or pronoun sustains to some other word.

     Case  is  properly a falling off from the nominative or first state
     of  word;  the name for which, however, is now, by extension of its
     signification, applied also to the nominative. J. W. Gibbs.

     NOTE: &hand; Ca ses ot her th an th e nominative are oblique cases.
     Case   endings   are   terminations  by  which  certain  cases  are
     distinguished. In old English, as in Latin, nouns had several cases
     distinguished  by  case endings, but in modern English only that of
     the possessive case is retained.

   Action  on  the  case  (Law), according to the old classification (now
   obsolete),  was  an action for redress of wrongs or injuries to person
   or  property not specially provided against by law, in which the whole
   cause of complaint was set out in the writ; -- called also trespass on
   the  case,  or  simply  case. -- All a case, a matter of indifference.
   [Obs.] "It is all a case to me." L'Estrange. -- Case at bar. See under
   Bar, n. -- Case divinity, casuistry. -- Case lawyer, one versed in the
   reports of cases rather than in the science of the law. -- Case stated
   or  agreed  on  (Law),  a  statement in writing of facts agreed on and
   submitted  to  the court for a decision of the legal points arising on
   them.  --  A hard case, an abandoned or incorrigible person. [Colloq.]
   --  In  any  case, whatever may be the state of affairs; anyhow. -- In
   case,   OR  In  case  that,  if;  supposing  that;  in  the  event  or
   contingency; if it should happen that. "In case we are surprised, keep
   by  me."  W.  Irving.  --  In good case, in good condition, health, or
   state  of  body.  --  To  put  a  case,  to  suppose a hypothetical or
   illustrative case. Syn. -- Situation, condition, state; circumstances;
   plight;   predicament;   occurrence;   contingency;  accident;  event;
   conjuncture; cause; action; suit.


   Case,  v.  i.  To  propose hypothetical cases. [Obs.] "Casing upon the
   matter." L'Estrange.


   Ca`se*a"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  cas\'82ation.  See Casein.] (Med.) A
   degeneration of animal tissue into a cheesy or curdy mass.


   Case"-bay`  (?),  n.  (Arch.)  (a) The space between two principals or
   girders.  (b)  One  of  the joists framed between a pair of girders in
   naked flooring.


   Case"hard`en (?), v. t.

   1.  To  subject  to  a process which converts the surface of iron into

   2. To render insensible to good influences.


   Case"hard`ened (?), a.

   1. Having the surface hardened, as iron tools.

   2.  Hardened  against,  or insusceptible to, good influences; rendered
   callous by persistence in wrongdoing or resistance of good influences;
   -- said of persons.


   Case"hard`en*ing,  n.  The act or process of converting the surface of
   iron into steel. Ure.

     NOTE: &hand; Ca sehardening is now commonly effected by cementation
     with  charcoal  or other carbonizing material, the depth and degree
     of hardening (carbonization) depending on the time during which the
     iron is exposed to the heat. See Cementation.


   Ca"se*ic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. cas\'82ique, fr. L. caseus cheese.] OF or
   pertaining to cheese; as, caseic acid.


   Ca"se*in  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  cas\'82ine,  fr.  L.  caseur cheese. Cf.
   Cheese.]  (Physiol.  Chem.)  A  proteid  substance present in both the
   animal  and  the vegetable kingdom. In the animal kindom it is chiefly
   found  in milk, and constitutes the main part of the curd separated by
   rennet;  in  the vegetable kingdom it is found more or less abundantly
   in  the  seeds  of  leguminous plants. Its reactions resemble those of
   alkali  albumin.  [Written also caseine.] <-- no pos in original. = n.

                                  Case knife

   Case" knife` (?).

   1. A knife carried in a sheath or case. Addison.

   2.  A  large  table  knife; -- so called from being formerly kept in a


   Case"mate  (?),  n.  [F.  casemate, fr. It. casamatta, prob. from casa
   house  + matto, f. matta, mad, weak, feeble, dim. from the same source
   as E. -mate in checkmate.]

   1.  (Fort.)  A  bombproof chamber, usually of masonry, in which cannon
   may be placed, to be fired through embrasures; or one capable of being
   used as a magazine, or for quartering troops.

   2. (Arch.) A hollow molding, chiefly in cornices.


   Case"ma`ted  (?),  a.  Furnished  with, protected by, or built like, a
   casemate. Campbell.


   Case"ment  (?), n. [Shortened fr. encasement. See Incase 1st Case, and
   cf.  Incasement.]  (Arch.)  A window sash opening on hinges affixed to
   the  upright side of the frame into which it is fitted. (Poetically) A

     A casement of the great chamber window. Shak.


   Case"ment*ed, a. Having a casement or casements.


   Ca"se*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  caseus.  Cf.  Casein.] Of, pertaining to, or
   resembling,  cheese;  having  the qualities of cheese; cheesy. Caseous
   degeneration,  a morbid process, in scrofulous or consumptive persons,
   in  which  the  products  of  inflammation are converted into a cheesy
   substance which is neither absorbed nor organized.


   Ca"sern  (?),  n.  [F.  caserne.]  A  lodging for soldiers in garrison
   towns, usually near the rampart; barracks. Bescherelle.

                                   Case shot

   Case" shot` (?). (Mil.) A collection of small projectiles, inclosed in
   a case or canister.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e United States a case shot is a thin spherical
     or  oblong  cast-iron  shell containing musket balls and a bursting
     charge,  with  a time fuse; -- called in Europe shrapnel. In Europe
     the  term  case  shot  is  applied  to what in the United States is
     called canister.



   Ca"se*um (?), n. [L. caseus cheese.] Same as Casein.


   Case"worm`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A worm or grub that makes for itself a
   case. See Caddice.


   Cash  (?), n. [F. caisse case, box, cash box, cash. See Case a box.] A
   place  where  money  is kept, or where it is deposited and paid out; a
   money box. [Obs.]

     This  bank  is  properly a general cash, where every man lodges his
     money. Sir W. Temple.

     \'9c20,000 are known to be in her cash. Sir R. Winwood.

   2.  (Com.)  (a)  Ready  money;  especially,  coin  or specie; but also
   applied  to bank notes, drafts, bonds, or any paper easily convertible
   into  money.  (b) Immediate or prompt payment in current funds; as, to
   sell goods for cash; to make a reduction in price for cash.
   Cash  account  (Bookkeeping), an account of money received, disbursed,
   and  on  hand.  --  Cash  boy, in large retail stores, a messenger who
   carries  the  money  received  by  the  salesman  from  customers to a
   cashier,  and  returns the proper change. [Colloq.] -- Cash credit, an
   account  with a bank by which a person or house, having given security
   for  repayment,  draws  at  pleasure upon the bank to the extent of an
   amount  agreed  upon;  -- called also bank credit and cash account. --
   Cash  sales, sales made for ready, money, in distinction from those on
   which  credit  is  given;  stocks  sold, to be delivered on the day of
   transaction.  <--  cash  on  the nail. A cash payment made immediately
   upon  receiving  the thing purchased. --> Syn. -- Money; coin; specie;
   currency; capital.


   Cash, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Casing.] To pay,
   or  to receive, cash for; to exchange for money; as, cash a note or an


   Cash, v. t. [See Cashier.] To disband. [Obs.] Garges.


   Cash, n.sing & pl. A Chinese coin.

     NOTE: &hand; The cash (Chinese tsien) is the only current coin made
     by  the  chinese  government.  It is a thin circular disk of a very
     base  alloy  of  copper, with a square hole in the center. 1,000 to
     1,400 cash are equivalent to a dollar.

   Page 223


   Cash"book  (?), n. (Bookkeeping) A book in which is kept a register of
   money received or paid out.


   Ca*shew" (?), n. [F. acajou, for cajou, prob. from Malay k\'beyu tree;
   cf.  Pg. acaju, cf. Acajou.] (Bot.) A tree (Anacardium occidentale) of
   the same family which the sumac. It is native in tropical America, but
   is   now   naturalized   in  all  tropical  countries.  Its  fruit,  a
   kidney-shaped  nut,  grows  at the extremity of an edible, pear-shaped
   hypocarp,   about   three   inches   long.   Casbew  nut,  the  large,
   kidney-shaped  fruit  of the cashew, which is edible after the caustic
   oil has been expelled from the shell by roasting the nut.


   Cash*ier"  (?),  n.  [F.  caissier, fr. caisse. See Cash.] One who has
   charge  of  money;  a  cash  keeper; the officer who has charge of the
   payments  and  receipts  (moneys,  checks,  notes),  of  a  bank  or a
   mercantile company.


   Cash*ier",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Cahiered  (?);  p.  pr.  &vb. n.
   Cashiering.]  [Earlier  cash,  fr. F. casser to break, annul, cashier,
   fr.  L.  cassare, equiv. to cassum reddere, to annul; cf. G. cassiren.
   Cf. Quash to annul, Cass.]

   1.  To dismiss or discard; to discharge; to dismiss with ignominy from
   military service or from an office or place of frust.

     They have cashiered several of their followers. Addison.

     He  had  insolence  to cashier the captain of the lord lieutenant's
     own body guard. Macaulay.

   2. To put away or reject; to disregard. [R.]

     Connections formed for interest, and endeared

     By selfish views, [are] censured and cashiered. Cowper.

     They  absolutely  cashier  the  literal express sense of the words.


     Cash*ier"er  (?), n. One who rejects, discards, or dismisses; as, a
     cashierer of monarchs. [R.] Burke.


     Cash"mere (?), n.

     1.  A  rich  stuff  for  shawls,  acaris,  etc., originally made in
     Cashmere  from the soft wool found beneath the hair of the goats of
     Cashmere,  Thibet,  and  the  Himalayas.  Some  cashmere,  of  fine
     quality, is richly embroidered for sale to Europeans.

     2. A dress fabric made of fine wool, or of fine wool and cotton, in
     imitation of the original cashmere.

   Cashmere  shawl,  a  rich  and costly shawl made of cashmere; -- other
   called camel's-hair shawl.
   Cash`me*rette"  (?),  n.  A  kind of dress goods, made with a soft and
   glossy surface like cashmere. 


   Ca*shoo"  (?),  n.  [F. cachou, NL. catechu, Cochin-Chin. cay cau from
   the tree called mimosa, or areca catechu. Cf. Catechu.] See Catechu.


   Cas"ing (?), n.

   1.  The  act  or  process of inclosing in, or covering with, a case or
   thin substance, as plaster, boards, etc.

   2.  An outside covering, for protection or ornament, or to precent the
   radiation of heat.

   3.  An  inclosing frame; esp. the framework around a door or a window.
   See Case, n., 4.


   Ca"sings  (?),  n. pl. Dried dung of cattle used as fuel. [Prov. Eng.]


   Ca*si"no  (?),  n.;  pl.  E. Casinos (#), It. Casini (#). [It. casino,
   dim. of casa house, fr. L. casa cottage. Cf. Cassing.]

   1. A small country house.

   2.  A  building  or  room used for meetings, or public amusements, for
   dancing, gaming, etc.

   3. A game at cards. See Cassino.


   Cask  (?),  n. [Sp. casco potsherd, skull, helmet, prob. fr. cascar to
   break, fr. L. Quassure to break. Cf. Casque, Cass.]

   1. Same as Casque. [Obs.]

   2.  A barrel-shaped vessel made of staves headings, and hoops, usually
   fitted  together  so  as  to hold liquids. It may be larger or smaller
   than a barrel.

   3. The quantity contained in a cask.

   4. A casket; a small box for jewels. [Obs.] Shak.


   Cask, v. t. To put into a cask.


   Cas"ket  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  casquet,  dim.  of casque belmet, fr. Sp.

   1.  A  small  chest  or  box,  esp.  of  rich  material  or ornamental
   character, as for jewels, etc.

     The little casket bring me hither. Shak.

   2. A kind of burial case. [U. S.]

   3.  Anything  containing  or  intended  to  contain  something  highly
   esteemed; as: (a) The body. (Shak). (b) The tomb. (Milton). (c) A book
   of selections. [poetic]

     They found him dead . . . an empty casket. Shak.


   Cas"ket, n. (Naut.) A gasket. See Gasket.


   Cas"ket, v. t. To put into, or preserve in, a casket. [Poetic] "I have
   casketed my treasure." Shak.


   Casque  (?),  n.  [F.  casque,  fr.  Sp.  casco  See Cask.] A piece of
   defensive  or  ornamental armor (with or without a vizor) for the head
   and neck; a helmet.

     His casque overshadowed with brilliant plumes. Prescott.


   Cass  (?), v. t. [F. casser, LL. cassare, fr. L. cassus empty, hollow,
   and perhaps influenced by L. quassare to shake, shatter, v. intens. of
   quatere  to shake. Cf. Cashier, v. t., Quash, Cask.] To render useless
   or void; to annul; to reject; to send away. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleing.


   Cas"sa*da (?), n. See Cassava.


   Cas"sa*reep  (?),  n.  A  condiment  made  from  the sap of the bitter
   cassava  (Manihot  utilissima)  deprived  of  its poisonous qualities,
   concentrated by boiling, and flavored with aromatics. See Pepper pot.


   Cas"sate  (?),  v.  t.  [LL.  cassare.  See  Cass.]  To render void or
   useless; to vacate or annul. [Obs.]


   Cas*sa"tion (?), n. [F. cassation. See Cass.] The act of annulling.

     A general cassation of their constitutions. Motley.

   Court  of  cassation, the highest court of appeal in France, which has
   power  to  quash  (Casser)  or  reverse  the decisions of the inferior
   Cas"sa*va (?), n. [F. cassave, Sp. cazabe, fr. kasabi, in the language
   of Hayti.] 

   1.  (Bot.)  A  shrubby euphorbiaceous plant of the genus Manihot, with
   fleshy rootstocks yielding an edible starch; -- called also manioc.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e tw o species, bitter and sweet, from which
     the  cassava  of  commerce is prepared in the West Indies, tropical
     America,  and  Africa.  The bitter (Manihot utilissima) is the more
     important;  this has a poisonous sap, but by grating, pressing, and
     baking  the root the poisonous qualities are removed. The sweet (M.
     Aipi) is used as a table vegetable.

   2.  A  nutritious  starch  obtained from the rootstocks of the cassava
   plant, used as food and in making tapioca.

                                  Casse Paper

   Cas"se  Pa"per  (?). [F. papier cass\'82. See Cass.] Broken paper; the
   outside quires of a ream.


   Cas"se*role (#) n. [F. a saucepan, dim. from casse a basin.]

   1. (Chem.) A small round dish with a handle, usually of porcelain.

   2. (Cookery) A mold (in the shape of a hollow vessel or incasement) of
   boiled rice, mashed potato or paste, baked, and afterwards filled with
   vegetables or meat.


   Cas"sia (?), n. [L. cassia and casia, Gr. qets\'c6\'beh, fr. q\'betsa'
   to cut off, to peel off.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  genus of leguminous plants (herbs, shrubs, or trees) of
   many  species,  most  of which have purgative qualities. The leaves of
   several species furnish the senna used in medicine.

   2.  The  bark  of several species of Cinnamommum grown in China, etc.;
   Chinese  cinnamon.  It  is  imported  as  cassia, but commonly sold as
   cinnamon,  from  which it differs more or less in strength and flavor,
   and the amount of outer bark attached.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e me dicinal "cassia" (Cassia pulp) is the laxative
     pulp   of  the  pods  of  a  leguminous  tree  (Cassia  fistula  or
     Pudding-pipe  tree),  native  in the East Indies but naturalized in
     various tropical countries.

   Cassia bark, the bark of Cinnamomum Cassia, etc. The coarser kinds are
   called  Cassia lignea, and are often used to adulterate true cinnamon.
   --  Cassia  buds, the dried flower buds of several species of cinnamon
   (Cinnamomum  cassia,  atc..). -- Cassia oil, oil extracted from cassia
   bark and cassia buds; -- called also oil of cinnamon.


   Cas"si*can  (?),  n.  [NL. cassicus helmeted, fr. L. cassis a belmet.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  An  American  bird  of  the  genus Cassicus, allied to the
   starlings  and  orioles, remarkable for its skillfully constructed and
   suspended  nest;  the crested oriole. The name is also sometimes given
   to the piping crow, an Australian bird.


   Cas*sid"e*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  Cassis helmet.] (Bot.) Helmet-shaped; --
   applied  to a corolla having a broad, helmet-shaped upper petal, as in


   Cas"si*do*ny   (?),  n.  [Cf.  LL.  cassidonium,  F.  Cassidoine.  See
   Chalcedony.]  (Bot.)  (a) The French lavender (Lawandula Stachas). (b)
   The goldilocks (Chrysocoma linosyris) and perhaps other plants related
   to the genus Gnaphalium or cudweed.


   Cas"si*mere  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. casimir, prob. of the same origin as E.
   cashmere.  Cf.  Kerseymere.]  A  thin, twilled, woolen cloth, used for
   men's garments. [Written also kerseymere.]


   Cas`si*nette"  (?), n. [Cf. Sp. casinete, G. cassinet.] A cloth with a
   cotton wart, and a woof of very fine wool, or wool and silk.

                                Cassinian ovals

   Cas*sin"i*an o"vals (?). (Math.) See under Oval.


   Cas*si"no  (?),  n.  [It.  casino  a  small house, a gaming house. See
   asing.]  A  game  at cards, played by two or more persons, usually for
   twenty-one  points.  Great  cassino,  the  ten  of diamonds. -- Little
   cassino,  the  two  of spades. <-- 2. a gaming house, often containing
   slot machines, roulette tables, craps tables and/or card games. -->


   Cas"si*o*ber`ry (?), n. [NL. cassine, from the language of the Florida
   Indians.] The fruit of the Viburnum obovatum, a shrub which grows from
   Virginia to Florida.


   Cas`si*o*pe"ia  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Astron.) A constellation of the
   northern  hemisphere,  situated  between  Capheus  and  Perseus; -- so
   called  in honor of the wife of Cepheus, a fabuolous king of Ethiopia.
   Cassiopeia's  Chair,  a  group  of  six stars, in Cassiopeia, somewhat
   resembling a chair.


   Cas*sit"er*ite  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Min.) Native tin dioxide; tin stone; a
   mineral  occurring  in tetragonal crystals of reddish brown color, and
   brilliant  adamantine luster; also massive, sometimes in compact forms
   with  concentric fibrous structure resembling wood (wood tin), also in
   rolled  fragments  or  pebbly  (Stream tin). It is the chief source of
   metallic tin. See Black tin, under Black.


   Cas"sius  (?),  n.  [From  the  name  of the discoverer, A. Cassius, a
   German  physician  of  the  17th  centry.]  A brownish purple pigment,
   obtained  by the action of some compounds of tin upon certain salts of
   gold.  It is used in painting and staining porcelain and glass to give
   a beautiful purple color. Commonly called Purple of Cassius.


   Cas"sock  (?),  n.  [F.  casaque,  fr.  It. casacca, perh. fr. L. casa
   cottage, in It., house; or of Slavic origin.]

   1.  A long outer garment formerly worn by men and women, as well as by
   soldiers as part of their uniform.

   2.  (Eccl.)  A garment resembling a long frock coat worn by the clergy
   of  certain  churches  when  officiating, and by others as the usually
   outer garment.


   Cas"socked (?), a. Clothed with a cassock.


   Cas`so*lette"  (?),  n. [F.] a box, or vase with a perforated cover to
   emit perfumes.


   Cas`son*ade"  (?), n. [F., fr. casson, for caisson a large chest. This
   sugar  comes  from  Brazil  in  large  chests.]  Raw  sugar; sugar not
   refined. Mc Elrath.


   Cas"so*wa*ry   (?),  n.;  pl.  Cassowaries  (#).  [Malay  kasu\'beri.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  bird,  of the genus Casuarius, found in the east
   Indies.  It is smaller and stouter than the ostrich. Its head is armed
   with  a  kind  of  helmet  of  horny  substance,  consisting of plates
   overlapping  each  other,  and  it has a group of long sharp spines on
   each  wing  which  are used as defensive organs. It is a shy bird, and
   runs with great rapidity. Other species inhabit New Guinea, Australia,

                            Cassumunar, Cassumuniar

   Cas`su*mu"nar  (?),  Cas`su*mu"ni*ar (?), n. [Hind.] (Med.) A pungent,
   bitter, aromatic, gingerlike root, obtained from the East Indies.


   Cast  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Cast; p. pr. & vb. n. Casting.] [Cf.
   Dan.  kastw, Icel. & Sw. kasta; perh. akin to L. gerer to bear, carry.
   E. Jest.]

   1. To send or drive by force; to throw; to fling; to hurl; to impel.

     Uzziash prepared . . . slings to cast stones. 2 Chron. xxvi. 14

     Cast thy garment about thee, and follow me. Acts. xii. 8

     We must be cast upon a certain island. Acts. xxvii. 26.

   2. To direct or turn, as the eyes.

     How earnestly he cast his eyes upon me! Shak.

   3. To drop; to deposit; as, to cast a ballot.

   4. To throw down, as in wrestling. Shak.

   5. To throw up, as a mound, or rampart.

     Thine enemies shall cast a trench [bank] about thee. Luke xix. 48.

   6. To throw off; to eject; to shed; to lose.

     His filth within being cast. Shak.

     Neither shall your vine cast her fruit. Mal. iii. 11

     The  creatures  that  cast  the skin are the snake, the viper, etc.

   7. To bring forth prematurely; to slink.

     Thy she-goats have not cast their young. Gen. xxi. 38.

   8. To throw out or emit; to exhale. [Obs.]

     This . . . casts a sulphureous smell. Woodward.

   9.  To cause to fall; to shed; to reflect; to throw; as, to cast a ray
   upon a screen; to cast light upon a subject.

   10. To impose; to bestow; to rest.

     The government I cast upon my brother. Shak.

     Cast thy burden upon the Lord. Ps. iv. 22.

   11. To dismiss; to discard; to cashier. [Obs.]

     The state can not with safety casthim.

     12.  To  compute; to reckon; to calculate; as, to cast a horoscope.
     "Let it be cast and paid." Shak.

     You cast the event of war my noble lord. Shak.

     13. To contrive; to plan. [Archaic]

     The  cloister  .  .  .  had, I doubt not, been cast for [an orange-
     house]. Sir W. Temple.

     14.  To  defeat in a lawsuit; to decide against; to convict; as, to
     be cast in damages.

     She was cast to be hanged. Jeffrey.

     Were   the  case  referred  to  any  competent  judge,  they  would
     inevitably be cast. Dr. H. More.

     15.  To turn (the balance or scale); to overbalance; hence, to make
     preponderate; to decide; as, a casting voice.

     How much interest casts the balance in cases dubious! South.

     16.  To  form  into  a particular shape, by pouring liquid metal or
     other  material  into  a  mold;  to  fashion; to found; as, to cast
     bells, stoves, bullets.

     17. (Print.) To stereotype or electrotype.

     18.  To  fix,  distribute,  or  allot, as the parts of a play among
     actors; also to assign (an actor) for a part.

     Our parts in the other world will be new cast. Addison.

   To  cast  anchor  (Naut.)  Se under Anchor. -- To cast a horoscope, to
   calculate  it.  --  To  cast a horse, sheep, or other animal, to throw
   with  the  feet  upwards,  in  such  a manner as to prevent its rising
   again. -- To cast a shoe, to throw off or lose a shoe, said of a horse
   or ox. -- To cast aside, to throw or push aside; to neglect; to reject
   as  useless  or  inconvenient.  -- To cast away. (a) To throw away; to
   lavish;  to  waste.  "Cast away a life" Addison. (b) To reject; to let
   perish. "Cast away his people." Rom. xi. 1. "Cast one away." Shak. (c)
   To  wreck.  "Cast  away  and sunk." Shak. -- To cast by, to reject; to
   dismiss  or discard; to throw away. -- To cast down, to throw down; to
   destroy; to deject or depress, as the mind. "Why art thou cast down. O
   my  soul?"  Ps.  xiii. 5. -- To cast forth, to throw out, or eject, as
   from  an inclosed place; to emit; to send out. -- To cast in one's lot
   with,  to share the fortunes of. -- To cast in one's teeth, to upbraid
   or  abuse one for; to twin. -- To cast lots. See under Lot. -- To cast
   off.  (a)  To  discard  or  reject; to drive away; to put off; to free
   one's  self from. (b) (Hunting) To leave behind, as dogs; also, to set
   loose,  or  free,  as dogs. Crabb. (c) (Naut.) To untie, throw off, or
   let go, as a rope. -- To cast off copy, (Print.), to estimate how much
   printed matter a given amount of copy will make, or how large the page
   must be in order that the copy may make a given number of pages. -- To
   cast  one's self on OR upon to yield or submit one's self unreservedly
   to.  as  to  the  mercy  of  another. -- To cast out, to throy out; to
   eject,  as from a house; to cast forth; to expel; to utter. -- To cast
   the  lead  (Naut.), to sound by dropping the lead to the botton. -- To
   cast  the  water  (Med.),  to  examine the urine for signs of disease.
   [Obs.].  --  To cast up. (a) To throw up; to raise. (b) To compute; to
   reckon, as the cost. (c) To vomit. (d) To twit with; to throw in one's


   Cast (?), v. i.

   1. To throw, as a line in angling, esp, with a fly hook.

   2.  (Naut.)  To  turn  the  head  of  a vessel around from the wind in
   getting under weigh.

     Weigh anchor, cast to starboard. Totten.

   3.  To  consider; to turn or revolve in the mind; to plan; as, to cast
   about for reasons.

     She  . . . cast in her mind what manner of salution this should be.
     Luke. i. 29.

   4. To calculate; to compute. [R.]

     Who would cast and balance at a desk. Tennyson.

   5. To receive form or shape in a mold.

     It will not run thin, so as to cast and mold. Woodward.

   6. To warp; to become twisted out of shape.

     Stuff  is said to cast or warp when . . . it alters its flatness or
     straightness. Moxon.

   7. To vomit.

     These verses . . . make me ready to cast. B. Jonson.


   Cast, 3d pres. of Cast, for Casteth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Cast, n. [Cf. Icel., Dan., & Sw. kast.]

   1. The act of casting or throwing; a throw.

   2. The thing thrown.

     A cast of dreadful dust. Dryden.

   3. The distance to which a thing is or can be thrown. "About a stone's
   cast." Luke xxii. 41.

   4. A throw of dice; hence, a chance or venture.

     An  even  cast  whether the army should march this way or that way.

     I  have set my life upon a cast, And I will stand the hazard of the
     die. Shak.

     5.  That  which is throw out or off, shed, or ejected; as, the skin
     of  an insect, the refuse from a hawk's stomach, the excrement of a

     6. The act of casting in a mold.

     And why such daily cast of brazen cannon. Shak.

     7.  An  impression  or mold, taken from a thing or person; amold; a

     8.  That which is formed in a mild; esp. a reproduction or copy, as
     of a work of art, in bronze or plaster, etc.; a casting.

     9.  Form;  appearence;  mien;  air;  style;  as, a pecullar cast of
     countenance. "A neat cast of verse." Pope.

     An heroic poem, but in another cast and figure. Prior.

     And  thus  the  native  hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er with the
     pale cast of thought. Shak.

     10. A tendency to any color; a tinge; a shade.

     Gray with a cast of green. Woodward.

     11.  A  chance, opportunity, privilege, or advantage; specifically,
     an opportunity of riding; a lift. [Scotch]

     We  bargained  with the driver to give us a cast to the next stage.

     If we had the cast o' a cart to bring it. Sir W. Scott.

     12. The assignment of parts in a play to the actors.

     13.  (Falconary) A flight or a couple or set of hawks let go at one
     time from the hand. Grabb.

     As when a cast of falcons make their flight. Spenser.

     14. A stoke, touch, or trick. [Obs.]

     This  was a cast of Wood's politics; for his information was wholly
     false. Swift.

     15.  A  motion  or  turn,  as  of the eye; direction; look; glance;

     The cast of the eye is a gesture of aversion. Bacon.

     And let you see with one cast of an eye. Addison.

     This freakish, elvish cast came into the child's eye. Hawthorne.

     16. A tube or funnel for conveying metal into a mold.

     17.  Four;  that is, as many as are thrown into a vessel at once in
     counting herrings, etc; a warp.

     18. Contrivance; plot, design. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   A  cast  of  the  eye,  a  slight  squint or strabismus. -- Renal cast
   (Med.), microscopic bodies found in the urine of persons affected with
   disease of the kidneys; -- so called because they are formed of matter
   deposited  in,  and preserving the outline of, the renal tubes. -- The
   last  cast,  the last throw of the dice or last effort, on which every
   thing is ventured; the last chance.


   Cas*ta"li*an  (?),  a.  [L. Castalius] Of or pertaining to Castalia, a
   mythical fountain of inspiration on Mt. Parnassus sacred to the Muses.


   Cas*ta"ne*a  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  chestnut,  fr.  Gr.  (Bot.) A genus of
   nut-bearing trees or shrubs including the chestnut and chinquapin.


   Cas"ta*net (?), n. See Castanets.


   Cas"ta*nets,  n.  pl.  [F.  castagnettes,  Sp.  casta\'a4etas,  fr. L.
   castanea (Sp. casta\'a4a) a chestnut. So named from the resemblance to
   two chestnuts, or because chestnuts were first used for castanets. See
   Chestnut.]  Two  small,  concave  shells of ivory or hard wood, shaped
   like  spoons,  fastened  to  the  thumb,  and beaten together with the
   middle  finger; -- used by the Spaniards and Moors as an accompaniment
   to their dance and guitars.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e si ngular, ca stanet, is used of one of the pair,
     or, sometimes, of the pair forming the instrument.

     The  dancer,  holding  a castanet in each hand, rattles then to the
     motion of his feet. Moore (Encyc. of Music).


   Cast"a*way (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, is cast away or shipwrecked.

   2. One who is ruined; one who has made moral shipwreck; a reprobate.

     Lest  .  .  .  when I have preached to others, I myself should be a
     castaway. 1 Cor. ix. 27.


   Cas"a*way, a. Of no value; rejected; useless.


   Caste  (?),  n.  [Pg. casta race, lineage, fr. L. castus pure, chaste:
   cf. F. caste, of same origin.]

   1.  One  of  the hereditary classes into which the Hindoos are divided
   according to the laws of Brahmanism.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e me mbers of  th e same caste are theoretically of
     equal  rank,  and same profession or occupation, and may not eat or
     intermarry  with  those  not  of  their own caste. The original are
     four,  viz.,  the Brahmans, or sacerdotal order; the Kshatriyas, or
     soldiers  and rulers; the Vaisyas, or husbandmen and merchants; and
     the Sudras, or laborers and mechanics. Men of no caste are Pariahs,
     outcasts.  Numerous mixed classes, or castes, have sprung up in the
     progress of time.

   2.  A  separate  and  fixed  order  or class of persons in society who
   chiefly hold intercourse among themselves.

     The tinkers then formed an hereditary caste. Macaulay.

   To  lose  caste,  to  be  degraded  from  the  caste  to which one has
   belonged; to lose social position or consideration.


   Cas"tel*lan  (?),  n.  [OF. castelain, F. ch\'83telain, L. castellanus
   pertaining  to  a castle, an occupant of a caste, LL., a governor of a
   castle,  fr.  L.  catellum  castle, citadel, dim. of castrum fortifled
   place.  See  Castle,  and  cf.  Chatelaine.]  A goveror or warden of a


   Cas"tel*la*ny  (?),  n.;  pl. Castellanies (#). [LL. castellania.] The
   lordship of a castle; the extent of land and jurisdiction appertaining
   to a castle.


   Cas"tel*la`ted (?), a. [LL. castellatus, fr. castellare. See Castle.]

   1.  Inclosed within a building; as, a fountain or cistern castellated.
   [Obs.] Johnson.

   2. Furnished with turrets and battlements, like a castle; built in the
   style of a castle.


   Cas`tel*la"tion  (?),  n.  [LL.  castellation,  fr. castellare, fr. L.
   castellum. See Castle.] The act of making into a castle.


   Cast"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who casts; as, caster of stones, etc. ; a caster of cannon; a
   caster of accounts.

   2. A vial, cruet, or other small vessel, used to contain condiments at
   the table; as, a set of casters.

   3. A stand to hold a set of cruets.

   4.  A  small  wheel  on  a swivel, on which furniture is supported and


   Cas"ti*gate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Castigated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Castigating.]  [L.  castigatus, p. p. of castigare to correct, punish;
   castus  pure,  chaste  +  agere  to  move,  drive.  See Caste, and cf.

   1.  To  punish  by stripes; to chastise by blows; to chasten; also, to
   chastise verbally; to reprove; to criticise severely.

   2. To emend; to correct. [Obs.]


   Cas`ti*ga"tion (?), n. [L. catigatio.]

   1. Corrective punishment; chastisement; reproof; pungent criticism.

     The keenest castigation of her slanderers. W. Irving.

   2. Emendation; correction. [Obs.]


   Cas`ti*ga"tor (?), n. [L.] One who castigates or corrects.


   Cas`ti*ga*to*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  castigatorius.]  Punitive  in order to
   amendment; corrective.


   Cas"ti*ga*to*ry,  n. An instrument formerly used to punish and correct
   arrant   scolds;  --  called  also  a  ducking  stool,  or  trebucket.

                                 Castile soap

   Cas"tile  soap"  (?). [From Castile, or Castilia, a province in Spain,
   from which it originally came.] A kind of fine, hard, white or mottled
   soap,  made with olive and soda; also, a soap made in imitation of the
   above-described soap.


   Cas*til"ian  (?),  n.  [Sp.  castellano,  from  Castila, NL. Castilia,
   Castella. Castile, which received its name from the castles erected on
   the frontiers as a barrier against the Moors.]

   1. An inhabitant or native of Castile, in Spain.

   2. The Spanish language as spoken in Castile.


   Cas*til"lan, a. Of or pertaining to Castile, in Spain.


   Cast"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of one who casts or throws, as in fishing.

   2.  The  act  or  process of making cast or impressions, or of shaping
   metal  or  plaster in a mold; the act or the process of pouring molten
   metal into a mold.

   3. That which is cast in a mold; esp. the mass of metal so cast; as, a
   casting in iron; bronze casting.

   4. The warping of a board. Brande & C.

   5.  The  act  of  casting  off,  or  that  which is cast off, as skin,
   feathers, excrement, etc.
   Casting  of  draperies,  the  proper  distribution  of  the  folds  of
   garments,  in  painting  and sculpture. -- Casting line (Fishing), the
   leader;  also, sometimes applied to the long reel line. Casting net, a
   net which is cast and drawn, in distinction from a net that is set and
   left. -- Casting voice, Casting vote, the decisive vote of a presiding
   officer,  when the votes of the assembly or house are equally divided.
   "When there was an equal vote, the governor had the casting voice." B.
   Trumbull.  --  Casting  weight,  a  weight  that  turns a balance when
   exactly poised.

                                   Cast iron

   Cast"  i`ron  (?).  Highly  carbonized iron, the direct product of the
   blast  furnace;  --  used for making castings, and for conversion into
   wrought  iron  and  steel. It can not be welded or forged, is brittle,
   and   sometimes  very  hard.  Besides  carbon,  it  contains  sulphur,
   phosphorus, silica, etc.


   Cast"-i`ron, a. Made of cast iron. Hence, Fig.: like cast iron; hardy;


   Cas"tle  (?),  n.  [AS.  castel,  fr.  L. castellum, dim. of castrum a
   fortified place, castle.]

   1.  A  fortified residence, especially that of a prince or nobleman; a

     The  house  of every one is to him castle and fortress, as well for
     his defense againts injury and violence, as for his repose. Coke.

     Our castle's strength Will laugh a siege to scorn. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Or iginally the medi\'91val castle was a single strong
     tower  or  keep,  with a palisaded inclosure around it and inferior
     buidings,  such  as stables and the like, and surrounded by a moat;
     then  such  a  keep  or  donjon,  with  courtyards  or  baileys and
     accessory  buildings  of  greater  elaboration  a  great hall and a
     chapel,  all  surrounded  by  defensive  walls  and  a moat, with a
     drawbridge,   etc.  Afterwards  the  name  was  retained  by  large
     dwellings  that  had  formerly  been  fortresses, or by those which
     replaced ancient fortresses.

   <-- Illustration of "Castle at Pierrefonds, France": -->

   CAPTION: A Do njon or  Ke ep, an  ir regular bu ilding co ntaining the
   dwelling  of  the  lord and his family; B C Large round towers ferming
   part of the donjon and of the exterior; D Square tower, separating the
   two  inner courts and forming part of the donjon; E Chapel, whose apse
   forms  a  half-round tower, F, on the exterior walls; G H Round towers
   on  the  exterior  walls;  K  Postern  gate, reached from outside by a
   removable fight of steps or inclined plane for hoisting in stores, and
   leading  to  a  court,  L  (see small digagram) whose pavement is on a
   level  with the sill of the postern, but below the level of the larger
   court, with which it communicates by a separately fortified gateway; M
   Turret,  containing  spiral  stairway  to all the stories of the great
   tower, B, and serving also as a station for signal fire, banner, etc.;
   N Turret with stairway for tower, C; O Echauguettes; P P P Battlemants
   consisting  of  merlons  and  crenels  alternately,  the merlons being
   pierced  by  loopholes;  Q  Q  Machicolations  (those  at Q defend the
   postern  K);  R  Outwork  defending  the  approach,  which  is  a road
   ascending the hill and passing under all four faces of the castle; S S
   Wall  of the outer bailey. The road of approach enters the bailey at T
   and  passes thence into the castle by the main entrance gateway (which
   is  in the wall between, and defended by the towers, C H) and over two
   drawbridges and through fortified passages to the inner court.

   <-- end of illustration caption. -->

   2. Any strong, imposing, and stately mansion.

   3. A small tower, as on a ship, or an elephant's back.

   4.  A  piece, made to represent a castle, used in the game of chess; a
   Castle  in  the  air,  a  visionary project; a baseless scheme; an air
   castle;  --  sometimes  called  a  castle  in  Spain (F. Ch\'83teau en
   Espagne).  Syn.  --  Fortress; fortification; citadel; stronghold. See
   Cas"tle  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Castled (. p. pr. & vb. n. Castling
   (?).]  (Chess) To move the castle to the square next to king, and then
   the  king  around  the  castle  to  the square next beyond it, for the
   purpose of covering the king.
   Cas"tle*build`er  (?),  n.  Fig.: one who builds castles in the air or
   forms visionary schemes. -- Cas"tle*build`ing, n.
   Cas"tled  (?), a. Having a castle or castles; supporting a castle; as,
   a castled height or crag. 

   2. Fortified; turreted; as, castled walls.


   Cas"tle-guard` (?), n.

   1. The guard or defense of a castle.

   2.  (O.  Eng.  Law) A tax or imposition an a dwelling within a certain
   distance of a castle, for the purpose of maintaining watch and ward in
   it; castle-ward.

   3.  A feudal tenure, obliging the tenant to perform service within the
   realm, without limitation of time.


   Cas"tle*ry (?), n. [Cf. OF. castelerie. See Castle.] The government of
   a castle. Blount.


   Cas"tlet (?), n. A small castle. Leland.


   Cas"tle*ward` (?), n. Same as Castleguard.


   Cast"ling  (?), n. That which is cast or brought forth prematurely; an
   abortion. Sir T. Browne.


   Cas"tling  (?), n. (Chess) A compound move of the king and castle. See
   Castle, v. i./def>


   Cast"-off` (?), a. Cast or laid aside; as, cast-off clothes.


   Cas"tor (?), n. [L. castor the beaver, Gr.

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of rodents, including the beaver. See Beaver.

   2. Castoreum. See Castoreum.

   3. A hat, esp. one made of beaver fur; a beaver.

     I  have  always been known for the jaunty manner in which I wear my
     castor. Sir W. Scott.

   4. A heavy quality of broadcloth for overcoats.


   Cast"or (?), n. See Caster, a small wheel.


   Cas"tor  (?),  n.  [L.]  (Astron.)  the northernmost of the two bright
   stars in the constellation Gemini, the other being Pollux.

                               Castor, Castorite

   Cas"tor,  Cas"tor*ite  (?), n. [The minerals castor and pollux were so
   named  because  found  together  on the island of Elba. See Castor and
   Pollux.] (Min.) A variety of the mineral called petalite, from Elba.

                               Castor and Pollux

   Cas"tor  and Pol"lux (?). [Castor and Pollux were twin sons of Jupiter
   and Leda.] (Naut.) See Saint Elmo's fire, under Saint.

                                  Castor bean

   Cas"tor  bean"  (?).  (Bot.)  The bean or seed of the castor-oil plant
   (Ricinus communis, or Palma Christi.)


   Cas*to"re*um  (?),  n. [L. See Castor.] A peculiar bitter orange-brown
   substance,  with  strong,  penetrating odor, found in two sacs between
   the  anus  and  external  genitals  of  the beaver; castor; -- used in
   medicine as an antispasmodic, and by perfumers.

   Page 225


   Cas"to*rin  (?),  n.  [From  1st  Castor.] (Chem.) A white crystalline
   substance obtained from castoreum.

                                  Castor oil

   Cas"tor oil (?). A mild cathartic oil, expressed or extracted from the
   seeds of the Ricinus communis, or Palma Christi. When fresh the oil is
   inodorus and insipid. Castor-oil plant. Same as Palma Christi.


   Cas`tra*me*ta"tion (?), n. [F. castram\'82tation, fr. L. castra camp +
   metari  to  measure  off,  fr.  meta  limit.] (Mil.) The art or act of
   encamping; the making or laying out of a camp.


   Cas"trate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Castrated;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Castrating.]  [L.  castrarus,  p;  p. of castrare to castrate, asin to
   Skr. \'87astra knife.]

   1. To deprive of the testicles; to emasculate; to geld; to alter.

   2.  To  cut  or  take  out;  esp.  to  remove  anything  erroneous, or
   objectionable from, as the obscene parts of a writing; to expurgate.

     My  .  .  .  correspondent  . . . has sent me the following letter,
     which I have castrated in some places. Spectator.


   Cas*tra"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  castratio; cf. F. castration.] The act of


   Cas*tra"to  (?),  n. [L., properly p. p. of castrare. See Castrate.] A
   male  person  castrated  for  the  purpose  of improving his voice for
   singing; an artificial, or male, soprano. Swift.


   Cas"trel  (?), n. [Cf. F. cr\'82cerelle, cristel, OF. crecel, cercele.
   Cf. Kestrel.] (Zo\'94l.) See Kestrel.


   Cas*tren"sial (?), a. [L. castrensis, fr. castra camp.] Belonging to a
   camp. Sir T. Browne.


   Cas*tren"sian (?), a. Castrensial. [R.]

                                  Cast steel

   Cast" steel" (?). See Cast steel, under Steel.


   Cas"u*al  (?),  a.  [OE. casuel, F. casuel, fr. L. casualis, fr. casus
   fall, accident, fr. cadere to fall. See Case.]

   1.  Happening  or  coming  to  pass  without design, and without being
   foreseen or expected; accidental; fortuitous; coming by chance.

     Casual breaks, in the general system. W. Irving.

   2.  Coming  without  regularity;  occasional;  incidental;  as, casual

     A constant habit, rather than a casual gesture. Hawthorne.

   Syn.  --  Accidental;  fortutious; incidental; occasional; contingent;
   unforeseen. See Accidental.


   Cas"u*al,  n. One who receives relief for a night in a parish to which
   he does not belong; a vagrant.


   Cas"u*al*ism  (?),  n.  The  doctrine  that  all  things  exist or are
   controlled by chance.


   Cas"u*al*ist, n. One who believes in casualism.


   Cas"u*al*ly,  adv.  Without  design;  accidentally;  fortuitously;  by
   chance; occasionally.


   Cas"u*al*ness, n. The quality of being casual.


   Cas"u*al*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Casualties  (#).  [F.  casualit\'82,  LL.

   1.  That  which  comes  without  design  or  without  being  foreseen;

     Losses that befall them by mere casualty. Sir W. Raleigh.

   2.  Any  injury  of  the  body  from  accident; hence, death, or other
   misfortune, occasioned by an accident; as, an unhappy casualty.

   3.  pl.  (Mil.  &  Naval)  Numerical  loss  caused  by  death, wounds,
   discharge, or desertion.
   Casualty  ward,  A  ward  in  a  hospital  devoted to the treatment of
   injuries   received   by  accident.  Syn.  --  Accident;  contingency;
   fortuity; misfortune.


   Cas`u*a*ri"na  (?), n. [NL., supposed to be named from the resemblance
   of  the  twigs  to  the  feathers  of  the  cassowary,  of  the  genus
   Casuarius.]  (Bot.)  A genus of leafles trees or shrubs, with drooping
   branchlets of a rushlike appearance, mostly natives of Australia. Some
   of  them  are  large,  producing  hard  and  heavy timber of excellent
   quality, called beefwood from its color.


   Cas"u*ist  (?), n. [L. casus fall, case; cf. F. casuiste. See Casual.]
   One who is skilled in, or given to, casuistry.

     The  judment  of any casuist or learned divine concerning the state
     of a man's soul, is not sufficient to give him confidence. South.


   Cas"u*ist, v. i. To play the casuist. Milton.

                            Casuistic, Casuistieal

   Cas`u*is"tic (?), Cas`u*is"tie*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to casuists
   or casuistry.


   Cas"u*ist*ry (?), a.

   1.  The  science  or  doctrine of dealing with cases of conscience, of
   resolving  questions  of right or wrong in conduct, or determining the
   lawfulness  or  unlawfulness  of  what  a  man  may  do  by  rules and
   principles  drawn from the Scriptures, from the laws of society or the
   church,  or from equity and natural reason; the application of general
   moral rules to particular cases.

     The  consideration  of  these  nice  and  puzzling  question in the
     science  of ethics has given rise, in modern times, to a particular
     department of it, distinguished by the title of casuistry. Stewart.

     Casuistry  in  the science of cases (i.e., oblique deflections from
     the general rule). De Quincey.

   2. Sophistical, equivocal, or false reasoning or teaching in regard to
   duties, obligations, and morals.


   Ca"sus   (?),  n.  [L.]  An  event;  an  occurrence;  an  occasion;  a
   combination  of  circumstances;  a  case;  an act of God. See the Note
   under  Accident.  Casus belli, an event or combination of events which
   is  a cause war, or may be alleged as a justification of war. -- Casus
   fortuitus,  an  accident  against  which  due  prudence could not have
   provided.  See  Act  of  God,  under Act. -- Casus omissus, a case not
   provided for by the statute.


   Cat (?), n. [AS. cat; akin to D. & Dan. kat, Sw. kett, Icel. k\'94ttr,
   G. katze, kater, Ir. Cat, W. cath, Armor. kaz, LL. catus, Bisc. catua,
   NGr cot, Turk. kedi, Ar. qitt; of unknown origin. CF. Ketten.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  animal  of various species of the genera Felis and
   Lynx.  The  domestic  cat  is  Felis  domestica. The European wild cat
   (Felis  catus)  is  much  larger  than the domestic cat. In the United
   States  the  name  wild  cat is commonly applied to the bay lynx (Lynx
   rufus) See Wild cat, and Tiger cat.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e do mestic ca t includes many varieties named from
     their place of origin or from some peculiarity; as, the Angora cat;
     the Maltese cat; the Manx cat.

     NOTE: The wo rd ca t is  also used to designate other animals, from
     some  fancied  resemblance;  as,  civet  cat,  fisher cat, catbird,
     catfish shark, sea cat.

   2.  (Naut.)  (a)  A  strong  vessel  with  a  narrow stern, projecting
   quarters, and deep waist. It is employed in the coal and timber trade.
   (b)  A  strong  tackle  used  to draw an anchor up to the cathead of a
   ship. Totten.

   3.  A  double  tripod (for holding a plate, etc.), having six feet, of
   which three rest on the ground, in whatever position in is placed.

   4. An old game; (a) The game of tipcat and the implement with which it
   is  played.  See  Tipcat. (c) A game of ball, called, according to the
   number of batters, one old cat, two old cat, etc.

   5. A cat o' nine tails. See below.
   Angora  cat,  blind  cat,  See  under  Angora, Blind. -- Black cat the
   fisher.  See  under  Black.  --  Cat  and  dog,  like  a  cat and dog;
   quarrelsome;  inharmonius. "I am sure we have lived a cat and dog life
   of  it."  Coleridge. -- Cat block (Naut.), a heavy iron-strapped block
   with  a large hook, part of the tackle used in drawing an anchor up to
   the  cathead.  --  Cat  hook  (Naut.), a strong hook attached to a cat
   block. -- Cat nap, a very short sleep. [Colloq.] -- Cat o' nine tails,
   an  instrument of punishment consisting of nine pieces of knotted line
   or  cord  fastened  to a handle; -- formerly used to flog offenders on
   the  bare back. -- Cat's cradle, game played, esp. by children, with a
   string  looped  on  the  fingers  so, as to resemble small cradle. The
   string  is transferred from the fingers of one to those of another, at
   each  transfer with a change of form. See Cratch, Cratch cradle. -- To
   let the cat out of the bag, to tell a secret, carelessly or willfully.
   [Colloq.] -- Bush cat, the serval. See Serval.


   Cat  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. tted; p. pr. & vb. n. Catting.] (Naut.)
   To bring to the cathead; as, to cat an anchor. See Anchor. Totten.


   Cat"a  (?).  [Gr.  kata`.]  The  Latin  and  English  form  of a Greek
   preposition,  used  as  a  prefix  to  signify  down, downward, under,
   against,  contrary or opposed to, wholly, completely; as in cataclysm,
   catarrh.  It  sometimes drops the final vowel, as in catoptric; and is
   sometimes changed to cath, as in cathartic, catholic.


   Cat`a*bap"tist (?), n. [Pref. cata + aptist. See Baptist.] (Eccl.) One
   who opposes baptism, especially of infants. [Obs.] Featley.


   Cat`a*ba"sion  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. A vault under altar of a Greek


   Cat`a*bi*ot"ic (?), a. Aee under Force.


   Cat`a*caus"tic  (?), a. [Pref. cata + caustic.] (Physics) Relating to,
   or having the properties of, a caustic curve formed by reflection. See
   Caustic, a. Nichol.


   Cat`a*caus"tic,  n.  (Physics) A caustic curve formed by reflection of
   light. Nichol.


   Cat`a*chre"sis  (?), n. [L. fr. Gr. (Rhel.) A figure by which one word
   is  wrongly  put  for  another, or by which a word is wrested from its
   true  signification;  as,  "To  take arms against a sea of troubles. "
   Shak. "Her voice was but the shadow of a sound." Young.

                         Catachrestic, Catachrestical

   Cat`a*chres"tic  (?),  Cat"a*chres"tic*al  (?), a. Belonging to, or in
   the  manner of, a catachresis; wrested from its natural sense or form;
   forced; far-fatched. -- Cat`a*chres"tic*al*ly, adv.

     [A] catachrestical and improper way of speaking. Jer. Taylor.


   Cat"a*clysm (?), n. [L. cataclysmos, Gr. cataclysme.]

   1. An extensive overflow or sweeping flood of water; a deluge.

   2.  (Geol.)  Any  violent  catastrophe, involving sudden and extensive
   changes of the earth's surface.

                           Cataclysmal, Cataclysmic

   Cat`a*clys"mal  (?),  Cat"a*clys"mic  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to a


   Cat`a*clys"mist  (?),  n.  One  who  believes  that the most important
   geological phenomena have been produced by cataclysms.


   Cat"a*comb  (?),  n. [It. catacomba, fr. L. catacumba perh. from Gr. A
   cave,  grotto,  or  subterraneous  place  of large extent used for the
   burial of the dead; -- commonly in the plural.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e terms is supposed to have been applied originally
     to  the  tombs  under the church of St. Sebastain in Rome. The most
     celebrated  catacombs  are  those  near  Rome,  on  the Appian Way,
     supposed  to  have  been  the  place or refuge and interment of the
     early  Chrictians; those of Egypt, extending for a wide distance in
     the  vicinity  of  Cairo;  and  those  of Paris, in abandoned stone
     quarries, excavated under a large portion of the city.


   Cat`a*cous"tic (?), n. [Pref. cata _ acoustics: cf. F. caraconstique.]
   (Physics)  That  part of acoustics which treats of reflected sounds or
   echoes See Acoustics. Hutton.

                         Catadioptric, Catadioptrical

   Cat`a*di*op"tric  (?),  Cat`a*di*op"tric*al  (?),  a.  [Pref.  cata  +
   dioptric:  cf.  F.  catadioptrique.] (Physics) Pertaining to, produced
   by,  or  involving, both the reflection and refraction of light; as, a
   catadioptric light. Hutton.


   Cat`a*di*op"trics  (?),  n.  The  science which treats of catadioptric
   phenomena, or of the used of catadioptric instruments.


   Cat"a*drome (?), n. [Gr.

   1. A race course.

   2. (Mach.) A machine for raising or lowering heavy weights.


   Ca*tad"ro*mous (?), a. [Gr.

   1.  (Bot.)  Having  the  lowest inferior segment of a pinna nearer the
   rachis than the lowest superior one; -- said of a mode of branching in
   ferns, and opposed to anadromous.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Living in fresh water, and going to the sea to spawn; --
   opposed to anadromous, and of the eel.


   Cat`a*fal"co (?), n. [It.] See Catafalque.


   Cat"a*falque`  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  It.  catafalco,  scaffold, funeral
   canopy;  of  uncertain  origin; cf. Sp. catafalso, cadahalso, cadalso,
   Pr.  casafalc,  OF.  chafaut.  Cf.  Scaffold.]  A  temporary structure
   sometimes  used in the funeral solemnities of eminent persons, for the
   public  exhibition of the remains, or their conveyance to the place of


   Cat`*ag*mat"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. catagmatique.] (Med.) Having the quality
   of consolidating broken bones.


   Ca*ta"ian  (?),  n.  A  native  of  Cathay  or  China; a foreigner; --
   formerly a term of reproach. Shak.


   Cat"a*lan  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to Catalonia. -- n. A native or
   inbabitant  of  Catalonia;  also,  the  language of Catalonia. Catalan
   furnace,  Catalan  forge  (Metal.),  a  kind  of furnace for producing
   wrought iron directly from the ore. It was formerly much used, esp. in
   Catalonia,  and  is  still used in some parts of the United States and


   Cat`a*lec"tic (?), a. [L. catalecticus, Gr.

   1.  (Pros.)  Wanting  a  syllable  at  the  end,  or terminating in an
   imperfect foot; as, a catalectic verse.

   2. (Photog. & Chem.) Incomplete; partial; not affecting the whole of a
   substance. Abney.

                             Catalepsy, Catalepsis

   Cat"a*lep`sy  (?),  Cat`a*lep"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.  catalepsis, fr. Gr.
   (Med.)  A  sudden  suspension  of sensation and volition, the body and
   limbs preserving the position that may be given them, while the action
   of the heart and lungs continues.


   Cat`a*lep"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr. Pertaining to, or resembling, catalepsy;
   affected with catalepsy; as, a cataleptic fit.


   Cat`al*lac"ta  (?),  n.; pl. [NL., fr. Gr. Catallactics.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   division  of  Protozoa, of which Magosph\'91ra is the type. They exist
   both in a myxopod state, with branched pseudopodia, and in the form of
   ciliated bodies united in free, spherical colonies.


   Cat`al*lac"tics  (?)  n.  [Gr.  The  science of exchanges, a branch of
   political economy.


   Cat"a*log (?), n. & v. Catalogue.


   Cat"a*lo*gize  (?),  v.  t.  To insert in a catalogue; to register; to
   catalogue. [R.] Coles.


   Cat"a*logue  (?), n. [F., fr. catalogus, fr. Gr. A list or enumeration
   of  names,  or  articles  arranged methodically, often in alphabetical
   order;  as,  a catalogue of the students of a college, or of books, or
   of  the  stars.  Card catalogue, a catalogue, as of books, having each
   item  entered  on  a separate card, and the cards arranged in cases by
   subjects,  or authors, or alphabetically. -- Catalogue raisonn\'82 (?)
   [F.], a catalogue of books, etc., classed according to their subjects.
   Syn. -- List; roll; index; schedule; enumeration; inventory. See List.


   Cat"a*logue,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Catalogued (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cataloguing  (?).]  To  make  a  list  or  catalogue;  to  insert in a


   Cat"a*log`uer  (?),  n. A maker of catalogues; esp. one skilled in the
   making of catalogues.


   Ca*tal"pa (?), n. [From the language of the Indians of Carolina, where
   Catesby  discovered  this  tree  in  the year 1726.] (Bot.) A genus of
   American and East Indian trees, of which the best know species are the
   Catalpa  bignonioides,  a  large, ornamental North American tree, with
   spotted  white flowers and long cylindrical pods, and the C. speciosa,
   of the Mississipi valley; -- called also Indian bean.


   Ca*tal"y*sis (?), n.; pl. Catalyse. (#) [ML., fr. Gr.

   1. Dissolution; degeneration; decay. [R.]

     Sad catalysis and declension of piety. Evelyn.

   2.  (Chem.)  (a) A process by which reaction occurs in the presence of
   certain  agents  which were formerly believed to exert an influence by
   mere contact. It is now believed that such reactions are attended with
   the  formation  of  an  intermediate compound or compounds, so that by
   alternate  composition  and  decomposition the agent is apparenty left
   unchanged;  as, the catalysis of making ether from alcohol by means of
   sulphuric  acid;  or  catalysis  in the action of soluble ferments (as
   diastase, or ptyalin) on starch. (b) The catalytic force.


   Cat`a*ly"tic   (?),  a.  Relating  to,  or  causing,  catalysis.  "The
   catalytic power is ill understood." Ure. Catalytic force, that form of
   chemical energy formerly supposed to determine catalysis.


   Cat`a*lyt"ic,  n.  (Chem.) An agent employed in catalysis, as platinum
   black, aluminium chloride, etc.


   Cat`a*ma*ran", n. [The native East Indian name.]

   1.  A  kind of raft or float, consisting of two or more logs or pieces
   of  wood  lashed  together, and moved by paddles or sail; -- used as a
   surf  boat  and  for other purposes on the coasts of the East and West
   Indies  and  South America. Modified forms are much used in the lumber
   regions of North America, and at life-saving stations.

   2. Any vessel with twin hulls, whether propelled by sails or by steam;
   esp.,  one  of  a class of double-hulled pleasure boats remarkable for

   3. A kind of fire raft or torpedo bat.

     The  incendiary  rafts  prepared by Sir Sidney Smith for destroying
     the  French  flotilla  at  Boulogne,  1804, were called catamarans.

   4. A quarrelsome woman; a scold. [Colloq.]


   Cat`a*me"nia  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) The monthly courses of
   women; menstrual discharges; menses.


   Cat`a*me"ni*al  (?), a. [Gr. Pertaining to the catamenia, or menstrual


   Cat"a*mite  (?),  n. [L. Catamitus, an old form of Ganymedes Ganymede,
   Gr. A boy kept for unnatural purposes.


   Cat"a*mount  (?),  n. [Cat + mount; cf. Sp. gato mentes mountain cat.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  The  cougar.  Applied  also,  in  some parts of the United
   States, to the lynx.


   Cat"a*nad`ro*mous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) Ascending and descending
   fresh streams from and to the sea, as the salmon; anadromous. [R.]


   Cat"a*pasm  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Med.) A compound medicinal powder, used by
   the  ancients  to  sprinkle  on  ulcers,  to absorb perspiration, etc.


   Cat`a*pel"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a catapult.


   Cat`a*pet"al*ous  (?),  a.  [Pref. cata + petalous.] (Bot.) Having the
   petals  held together by stamens, which grow to their bases, as in the


   Cat`a*phon"ic (?), a. Of or relating to cataphonics; catacoustic.


   Cat`a*phon"ics  (?),  n.  [Pref.  cata + phonic: cf. F. cataphonique.]
   (Physics)  That  branch of acoustics which treats of reflested sounds;


   Cat"a*phract (?), n. [L. cataphractes, Gr.

   1. (Mil. Antiq.) Defensive armor used for the whole body and often for
   the  horse,  also, esp. the linked mail or scale armor of some eastern

   2. A horseman covered with a cataphract.

     Archers and slingers, cataphracts, and spears. Milton.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) The armor or plate covering some fishes.


   Cat"a*phract`ed (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Covered with a cataphract, or armor
   of  plates,  scales,  etc.; or with that which corresponds to this, as
   horny or bony plates, hard, callous skin, etc.


   Cat`a*phrac"tic   (?),   a.   Of,  pertaining  to,  or  resembling,  a


   Cat`a*phys"ic*al,  a.  [Pref. cata + physical.] Unnatural; contrary to
   nature. [R.]

     Some  artists  .  .  .  have  given  to  Sir Walter Scott a pile of
     forehead which is unpleassing and cataphysical. De Quincey.


   Cat"a*plasm  (?),  n.  [L.  cataplasma,  Gr.  (Med.)  A soft and moist
   substance  applied  externally  to  some part of the body; a poultice.


   Cat"a*puce (?), n. [F.] (Bot.) Spurge. [Obs.]


   Cat"a*pult (?), n. [L. catapulta, Gr.

   1.  (Mil.  Antiq.)  An  engine somewhat resembling a massive crossbow,
   used  by  the  ancient  Greeks and Romans for throwing stones, arrows,
   spears, etc.

   2. A forked stick with elasti band for throwing small stones, etc.


   Cat"a*ract (?), n. [L. cataracta, catarracles, a waterfall, Gr.

   1. A great fall of water over a precipice; a large waterfall.

   2.  (Surg.)  An  opacity  of  the crystalline lens, or of its capsule,
   which  prevents  the  passage  of  the  rays  of  light and impairs or
   destroys the sight.

   3.  (Mach.)  A  kind  of  hydraulic brake for regulating the action of
   pumping engines and other machines; -- sometimes called dashpot.


   Cat`a*rac"tous  (?),  a.  Of  the  nature  of  a  cataract in the eye;
   affected with cataract.


   Ca*tarrh"  (?),  n. [L. catarrhus, Gr. Stream.] (Med.) An inflammatory
   affection  of  any  mucous  membrane,  in  which there are congestion,
   swelling,  and  an  altertion  in  the  quantity  and quality of mucus
   secreted; as catarrh of the stomach; catarrh of the bladder.

     NOTE: &hand; In  America, the term catarrh is applied especially to
     a  chronic  inflammation of, and hypersecretion fron, the membranes
     of  the  nose  or  air passages; in England, to an acute influenza,
     resulting  a  cold, and attended with cough, thirst, lassitude, and
     watery eyes; also, to the cold itself.


   Ca*tarrh"al (?), a. Pertaining to, produced by, or attending, catarrh;
   of the nature of catarrh.


   Cat"ar*rhine (?), n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Catarrhina, a division
   of Quadrumana, including the Old World monkeys and apes which have the
   nostrils close together and turned downward. See Monkey.


   Ca*tarrh"ous (?), a. Catarrhal. [R.]


   Cat`a*stal"tic   (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Med.)  Checking  evacutions  through
   astringent or styptic qualities.


   Ca*tas"ta*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Rhet.)  That part of a speech, usually the exordium, in which the
   orator sets forth the subject matter to be discussed.

   2.  (Med.) The state, or condition of anything; constitution; habit of


   Ca*tas"ter*ism  (?), n. [Gr. A placing among the stars; a catalogue of

     The catasterisms of Eratosthenes. Whewell.


   Ca*tas"tro*phe (?), n. [L. catastropha, Gr.

   1. An event producing a subversion of the order or system of things; a
   final  event,  usually  of  a  calamitous or disastrous nature; hence,
   sudden calamity; great misfortune.

     The strange catastrophe of affairs now at London. Bp. Buret.

     The  most  horrible and portentous catastrophe that nature ever yet
     saw. Woodward.

   2.  The final event in a romance or a dramatic piece; a denouement, as
   a death in a tragedy, or a marriage in a comedy.

   3.  (Geol.) A violent and widely extended change in the surface of the
   earth,  as, an elevation or subsidence of some part of it, effected by
   internal causes. Whewell.


   Cat`a*stroph"ic (?), a. Of a pertaining to a catastrophe. B. Powell.


   Ca*tas"tro*phism  (?),  n.  (Geol.)  The  doctrine that the geological
   changes  in the earth's crust have been caused by the sudden action of
   violent physical causes; -- opposed to the doctrine of uniformism.


   Ca*tas"tro*phist   (?),  n.  (Geol.)  One  who  holds  the  theory  or


   Ca*taw"ba (?), n.

   1. A well known light red variety of American grape.

   2. A light-colored, sprightly American wine from the Catawba grape.


   Ca*taw"bas  (?), n. pl.; sing. Catawba. (Ethnol.) An appalachian tribe
   of  Indians  which  originally  inhabited the regions near the Catawba
   river and the head waters of the Santee.


   Cat"bird   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   An   American  bird  (Galeoscoptes
   Carolinensis),  allied  to  the  mocking  bird, and like it capable of
   imitating  the  notes  of  other  birds,  but less perfectly. Its note
   resembles at times the mewing of a cat.


   Cat"boat`  (?), n. (Naut.) A small sailboat, with a single mast placed
   as  far  forward  as  possible, carring a sail extended by a graff and
   long boom. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Cat"call`  (?),  n.  A sound like the cry of a cat, such as is made in
   playhouses  to  express  dissatisfaction  with  a  play; also, a small
   shrill instrument for making such a noise.

     Upon  the rising of the curtain. I was very much surprised with the
     great consort of catcalls which was exhibited. Addison.


   Catch  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caught (?) OR Catched (; p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Catching.  Catched  is  rarely  used.]  [OE. cacchen, OF. cachier,
   dialectic  form  of  chacier  to  hunt, F. chasser, fr. (assumend) LL.
   captiare,  for  L.  capture,  V. intens. of capere to take, catch. See
   Capacious, and cf. Chase, Case a box.]

   1.  To  lay  hold  on;  to  seize,  especially with the hand; to grasp
   (anything) in motion, with the effect of holding; as, to catch a ball.

   2.  To  seize  after  pursuing; to arrest; as, to catch a thief. "They
   pursued . . . and caught him." Judg. i. 6.

   3. To take captive, as in a snare or net, or on a hook; as, to catch a
   bird or fish.

   4.  Hence:  To insnare; to entangle. "To catch him in his words". Mark
   xii. 13.

   5.  To seize with the senses or the mind; to apprehend; as, to catch a
   melody. "Fiery thoughts . . . whereof I catch the issue." Tennyson.

   6.  To  communicate  to;  to  fasten  upon;  as,  the  fire caught the
   adjoining building.

   7. To engage and attach; to please; to charm.

     The soothing arts that catch the fair. Dryden.

   8. To get possession of; to attain.

     Torment myself to catch the English throne. Shak.

   9. To take or receive; esp. to take by sympathy, contagion, infection,
   or  exposure;  as,  to  catch  the spirit of an occasion; to catch the
   measles or smallpox; to catch cold; the house caught fire.

   10.  To  come  upon unexpectedly or by surprise; to find; as, to catch
   one in the act of stealing.

   11. To reach in time; to come up with; as, to catch a train.
   To  catch fire, to become inflamed or ignited. -- to catch it to get a
   scolding or beating; to suffer punishment. [Colloq.] -- To catch one's
   eye,  to  interrupt captiously while speaking. [Colloq.] "You catch me
   up  so  very  short."  Dickens.  -- To catch up, to snatch; to take up


   Catch (?), v. i.

   1. To attain possession. [Obs.]

     Have is have, however men do catch. Shak.

   2. To be held or impeded by entanglement or a light obstruction; as, a
   kite catches in a tree; a door catches so as not to open.

   3. To take hold; as, the bolt does not catch.

   4. To spread by, or as by, infecting; to communicate.

     Does the sedition catch from man to man? Addison.

   To  catch  at,  to  attempt to seize; to be egger to get or use. "[To]
   catch  at  all  opportunities of subverting the state." Addison. -- To
   catch up with, to come up with; to overtake.


   Catch, n.

   1. Act of seizing; a grasp. Sir P. Sidney.

   2.  That  by which anything is caught or temporarily fastened; as, the
   catch of a gate.

   3.  The  posture of seizing; a state of preparation to lay hold of, or
   of  watching  he  opportunity  to  seize;  as,  to  lie  on the catch.
   [Archaic] Addison.

     The  common  and  the  canon  law  .  .  .  lie  at catch, and wait
     advantages one againt another. T. Fuller.

   4.  That which is caught or taken; profit; gain; especially, the whole
   quantity caught or taken at one time; as, a good catch of fish.

     Hector  shall  have  a  great  catch if he knock out either of your
     brains. Shak.

   5.  Something  desirable  to  be  caught,  esp.  a  husband or wife in
   matrimony. [Colloq.] Marryat.

   6. pl. Passing opportunities seized; snatches.

     It has been writ by catches with many intervals. Locke.

   7. A slight remembrance; a trace.

     We retain a catch of those pretty stories. Glanvill.

   8.  (Mus.)  A  humorous  canon or round, so contrived that the singers
   catch up each other's words.


   Catch"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being caught. [R.]


   Catch"-ba`sin  (?),  n. A cistern or vault at the point where a street
   gutter discharges into a sewer, to oatch bulky matters which would not
   pass readly throught the sewer. Knight.


   Catch"drain` (?), n. A dich or drain along the side of a hill to catch
   the  surface  water; also, a ditch at the side of a canal to catch the
   surplus water.


   Catch"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, catches.

   2.  (Baseball)  The  player who stands behind the batsman to catch the


   Catch"fly  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  plant with the joints of the stem, and
   sometimes  other parts, covered with a viscid secretion to which small
   insects adhere. The species of Silene are examples of the catchfly.


   Catch"ing a.

   1. Infections; contagious.

   2. Captavating; alluring.


   Catch"ing,  n.  The  act of seizing or taking hold of Catching bargain
   (Law),  a  bargain made with an heir expectant for the purchase of his
   expectancy at an inadequate price. Bouvier.


   Catch"-mead`ow  (?),  n.  meadow  irrigated  by water from a spring or
   rivulet on the side of hill.


   Catch"ment  (?),  n.  A surface of ground on which water may be caught
   and collected into a reservoir.


   Catch"pen*ny (?), a. Made or contrived for getting small sums of money
   from the ignorant or unwary; as, a catchpenny book; a catchpenny show.
   -- n. Some worthless catchpenny thing.


   Catch"poll` (?), n. [OF. chacepol, chacipol.] A bailiff's assistant.

                                Catchup, Catsup

   Catch"up (?), Cat"sup (?), n. [Probably of East Indian origin, because
   it  was  originally a kind of East Indian pickles.] A table sauce made
   from mushrooms, tomatoes, walnuts, etc. [Written also ketchup.]


   Catch"wa`ter  (?),  n.  A  ditch  or  drain  for  catching  water. See


   Catch"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) See Cleavers.


   Catch"weight`  (?),  adv. (Horseracing) Without any additional weight;
   without being handicapped; as, to ride catchweight.


   Catch"word` (?), n.

   1.  Among  theatrical  performers,  the  last  word  of  the preceding
   speaker, which reminds one that he is to speak next; cue.

   2.  (Print.)  The  first  word  of any page of a book after the first,
   inserted at the right hand bottom corner of the preceding page for the
   assistance of the reader. It is seldom used in modern printing.

   3.  A  word  or  phrase  caught  up  and  repeated for effect; as, the
   catchword of a political party, etc.


   Catch"work`  (?),  n.  A  work  or artificial watercourse for throwing
   water on lands that lie on the slopes of hills; a catchdrain.


   Cate (?), n. Food. [Obs.] See Cates.

                           Catechetic, Catechetical

   Cat`e*chet"ic  (?), Cat`e*chet"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Catechise.] Relating
   to or consisting in, asking questions and receiving answers, according
   to the ancient manner of teaching.

     Socrates introduced a catechetical method of arguing. Addison.


   Cat`e*chet"ic*al*ly,  adv.  In  a catechetical manner; by question and


   Cat`e*chet"ics  (?),  n.  The  science  or  practice of instructing by
   questions and answers.


   Cat"e*chin  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  One of the tannic acids, extracted from
   catechu  as  a  white,  crystaline substance; -- called also catechuic
   acid, and catechuin.


   Cat`e*chi*sa"tion (?), n. [LL. catechizatio.] The act of catechising.


   Cat"e*chise  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Catechised (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Catechising.] [L. catechizare, Gr.

   1.  To  instruct by asking questions, receiving answeres, and offering
   explanations and corrections, -- esp. in regard to points of religious

   2.  To  question  or  interrogate;  to examine or try by questions; --
   sometimes  with  a view to reproof, by eliciting from a person answers
   which condemn his own conduct. Swift.

   Page 227


   Cat"e*chi`ser (?), n. One who catechises.


   Cat"e*chism (?), n. [L. catechismus, fr. Gr. See Catechise.]

   1. A form of instruction by means of questions answers.

   2.  A book containing a summary of principles, especially of religious
   doctrine, reduced to the form of questions and answers.

     The Jews, even till this day, have their catechisms. Hooker.

   The Larger Catechism, The Shorter Catechism. See Westminster Assembly,
   under Assembly.


   Cat`e*chis"mal  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to a catechism, having the
   form of questions and answers; catechical.


   Cat"e*chist  (?),  n.  [L.  catechista,  fr. Gr.] One who instructs by
   question and answer, especially in religions matters.

                          Catechistic, Catechistical

   Cat`e*chis"tic  (?),  Cat`e*chis"tic*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to a
   catechist or to a catechism. Dr. H. More.


   Cat"e*chize, v. t. See Catechise.


   Cat"e*chu  (?),  n.  [See  Cashoo.]  (Chem.)  A dry, brown, astringent
   extract,  obtained  by  decoction  and  evaporation  from  the  Acacia
   catechu,  and  several  other  plants  growing in India. It contains a
   large portion of tannin or tannic acid, and is used in medicine and in
   the  arts.  It  is  also  known  by  the  names terra japonica, cutch,
   gambier, etc. Ure. Dunglison.


   Cat`e*chu"ic  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to catechu or its derivatives.
   See catechin.


   Cat"e*chu`men  (?),  n.  [L. catechunenus, Gr. Catechise.] (Eccl.) One
   who   is   receiving  rudimentary  instruction  in  the  doctrines  of
   Christianity;  a  neophyte;  in  the  primitive church, one officially
   recognized  as a Christian, and admitted to instruction preliminary to
   admission to full membership in the church.


   Cat`e*chu"men*ate  (?),  n.  The state or condition of a catechumen or
   the time during which one is a catechumen.


   Cat`e*chu*men"i*cal  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to catechumens; as,
   catechumenical instructions.


   Cat`e*chu"men*ist, n. A catechumen. Bp. Morton.


   Cat`e*gor`e*mat"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. Category.] (Logic.) Capable of being
   employed by itself as a term; -- said of a word.


   Cat`e*gor"ic*al (?), a.

   1. Of or pertaining to a category.

   2.   Not   hypothetical   or  relative;  admitting  no  conditions  or
   exceptions;   declarative;   absolute;   positive;   express;   as,  a
   categorical proposition, or answer.

     The  scriptures  by  a  multitude  of  categorical and intelligible
     decisions  .  .  . distinguish between the things seen and temporal
     and those that are unseen and eternal. I. Taylor.


     Cat`e*gor"ic*al*ly,    adv.    Absolutely;   directly;   expressly;
     positively; as, to affirm categorically.


     Cat`e*gor"ic*al*ness,   n.   The   quality  of  being  categorical,
     positive, or absolute. A. Marvell.


     Cat"e*go*rist  (?),  n.  One who inserts in a category or list; one
     who classifies. Emerson.


     Cat"e*go*rize (?), v. t. To insert in a category or list; to class;
     to catalogue.


     Cat"e*go*ry (?), n.; pl. Categories (#) [L. categoria, Gr.

     1.  (Logic.)  One  of  the  highest classes to which the objects of
     knowledge  or  thought  can  be  reduced,  and by which they can be
     arranged  in  a system; an ultimate or undecomposable conception; a

     The  categories  or  predicaments  --  the former a Greek word, the
     latter  its  literal  translation  in  the  Latin  language -- were
     intended  by  Aristotle  and his followers as an enumeration of all
     things  capable  of being named; an enumeration by the summa genera
     i.e.,  the  most  extensive  classes  into  which  things  could be
     distributed. J. S. Mill.

     2.  Class;  also, state, condition, or predicament; as, we are both
     in the same category.

     There  is  in  modern  literature a whole class of writers standing
     within the same category. De Quincey.


     Cat"el (?), n. [See Chattel.] Property; -- often used by Chaucer in
     contrast with rent, or income.

     "For loss of catel may recovered be, But loss of tyme shendeth us,"
     quod he. Chaucer.


     Cat`e*lec"trode  (?),  n.  [Pref.  cata  + elecrode.] (Physics) The
     negative electrode or pole of a voltaic battery. Faraday.


     Cat`e*lec`tro*ton"ic    (?),   a.   (Physics)   Relating   to,   or
     characterized by, catelectrotonus.


     Cat`e*lec*trot"o*nus  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. Electro-) + (Physics)
     The condition of increased irritability of a nerve in the region of
     the  cathode  or negative electrode, on the passage of a current of
     electricity through it.


     Ca*te"na  (?), n.; pl. Catene (#). [L., a chain.] A chain or series
     of things connected with each other.

     I  have  .  .  .  in no case sought to construct those caten\'91 of
     games,  which  it  seems  now  the  fashion of commentators to link
     together. C. J. Ellicott.

                             Catenary, Catenarian

     Cat"e*na*ry  (?), Cat`e*na"ri*an (?), a. [L. catenarius, fr. catena
     a  chain.  See  Chain.]  Relating  to  a chain; like a chain; as, a
     catenary curve.


     Cat"e*na*ry,  n.;  pl.  Catenaries (. (Geol.) The curve formed by a
     rope  or  chain of uniform density and perfect flexibility, hanging
     freely  between  two points of suspension, not in the same vertical


     Cat"e*nate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Catenated; p. pr. & vb. n.
     Catenating.]  [L.  catenatus,  p. p. of catenare, fr. catena chain.
     See  Chain.] To connect, in a series of links or ties; to chain. E.


     Cat`e*na"tion  (?), n. [L. catenatio.] Connection of links or union
     of  parts,  as  in  a  chain;  a  regular  or connected series. See
     Concatenation. Sir T. Browne.


     Ca*ten"u*late (?), a. [L. catenuia, dim. of catena chain.]

     1. Consisting of little links or chains.

     2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Chainlike;  --  said  both  or  color  marks and of
     indentations when arranged like the links of a chain, as on shells,


     Ca"ter  (?),  n.  [OE.  catour  purchaser, caterer, OF. acator, fr.
     acater,  F.  acheter,  to  buy, provide, fr. LL. accaptare; L. ad +
     captare  to strive, to seize, intens, of capere to take, seize. Cf.
     Acater,  Capacious.]  A  provider;  a  purveyor;  a caterer. [Obs.]


     Ca"ter, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Catered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Catering.]
     [From Cater, n.]

     1. To provide food; to buy, procure, or prepare provisions.

     [He] providently caters for the sparrow. Shak.

     2. By extension: To supply what is needed or desired, at theatrical
     or musical entertainments; -- followed by for or to.


     Ca"ter, n. [F. quatre four.] The four of cards or dice.


     Ca"ter, v. t. To cut diagonally. [Obs.] Halliwell.


     Cat"e*ran (?), n. [Gael. ceatharnach. Cf. Kern Irish foot soldier.]
     A  Highland  robber:  a  kind  of irregular soldier. [Scot.] Sir W.


     Ca"ter-cor"nered  (?),  a. [Cf. Cater to cut diagonally.] Diagonal.


     Ca"ter-cous`in (?), n. A remote relation. See Quater-cousin. Shak.


     Ca"ter*er (?), n. One who caters.

     The  little  fowls  in  the  air  have  God  for Their provider and
     caterer. Shelton.


     Ca"ter*ess, n. A woman who caters. Milton.


     Cat"er*pil`lar   (?),   n.   [OE.   catyrpel,   corrupted  fr.  OF.
     chatepelouse, or cate pelue, fr. chate, F. chatte, she-cat, fem. of
     chat,  L.  catus + L. pilosus hairy, or F. pelu hairy, fr. L. pilus
     hair. See Cat, and Pile hair.]

     1.  (Zo\'94l.) The larval state of a butterfly or any lepidopterous
     insect;  sometimes,  but  less  commonly, the larval state of other
     insects, as the sawflies, which are also called false caterpillars.
     The  true  caterpillars  have three pairs of true legs, and several
     pairs of abdominal fleshy legs (prolegs) armed with hooks. Some are
     hairy,  others  naked.  They  usually  feed  on  leaves, fruit, and
     succulent  vegetables,  being  often very destructive, Many of them
     are  popularly called worms, as the cutworm, cankerworm, army worm,
     cotton worm, silkworm.

     2.  (Bot.)  A  plant  of the genus Scorpiurus, with pods resembling

   Caterpillar catcher, OR Caterpillar eater (Zo\'94l.), a bird belonging
   to  the  family  of  Shrikes, which feeds on caterpillars. The name is
   also  given  to several other birds. -- Caterpillar hunter (Zo\'94l.),
   any  species of beetles of the genus Callosoma and other allied genera
   of the family Carabid\'91 which feed habitually upon caterpillars.


   Cat"er*waul  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caterwauled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Caterwauling.]  [Cat + waul, wawl, to cry as a cat.] To cry as cats in
   rutting time; to make a harsh, offensive noise. Coleridge.


   Cat"er*waul, n. A caterwauling.


   Cat"er*waul`ing,  n.  The  cry of cats; a harsh, disagreeable noise or
   cry like the cry of cats. Shak.


   Ca"ter*y  (?),  n.  [See  Cater,  n.]  The  place where provisions are
   deposited. [Obs.]


   Cates  (?),  n.  pl. [Cf. Acates, and see Cater, n.] Provisions; food;
   viands; especially, luxurious food; delicacies; dainties. Shak.

     Cates for which Apicius could not pay. Shurchill.

     Choicest cates and the fiagon's best spilth. R. Browning.


   Cat"-eyed`  (?),  a. Having eyes like a cat; hence, able to see in the


   Cat"fall`  (?),  n.  (Naut.) A rope used in hoisting the anchor to the
   cathead. Totten.


   Cat"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  name given in the United States to
   various  species  of  siluroid  fishes;  as,  the  yellow cat (Amiurus
   natalis);  the bind cat (Gronias nigrilabrus); the mud cat (Pilodictic
   oilwaris),  the stone cat (Noturus flavus); the sea cat (Arius felis),
   etc.  This  name  is  also  sometimes  applied  to  the wolf fish. See


   Cat"gut` (?), n. [Cat + gut.]

   1. A cord of great toughness made from the intestines of animals, esp.
   of sheep, used for strings of musical instruments, etc.

   2. A sort of linen or canvas, with wide interstices.

                                Catharine wheel

   Cath"a*rine wheel` (?). See catherine wheel.


   Cath"a*rist  (?),  n.  [LL.  catharista,  fr.  Gr.  One  aiming  at or
   pretending  to  a  greater  purity  of  like than others about him; --
   applied to persons of various sects. See Albigenses.


   Cat"-harp`in (?), n. See Cat-harping.


   Cat"-harp`ing n. (Naut.) One of the short ropes or iron cramps used to
   brace  in the shrouds toward the masts so a to give freer sweep to the


   Ca*thar"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. Cathartic.] (Med.) A natural or
   artificial purgation of any passage, as of the mouth, bowels, etc.

                             Cathartic, Catharical

   Ca*thar"tic (?), Ca*thar"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. chaste.]

   1.  (Med.)  Cleansing  the  bowels;  promoting  evacuations  by stool;

   2.  Of or pertaining to the purgative principle of senna, as cathartic


   Ca*thar"tic,   n.   [Gr.   (Med.)  A  medicine  that  promotes  alvine
   discharges; a purge; a purgative of moderate activity.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ca thartics ar e mo re en ergetic an d certain in
     action  that  the  laxatives, which simply increase the tendency to
     alvine evacuation; and less powerful and irritaint that the drastic
     purges, which cause profuse, repeated, and watery evacuations.

   -- Ca*thar"tic*al*ly, adv. -- Ca*thar"tic*al*ness, n.


   ca*thar"tin  (?), n. (Chem.) The bitter, purgative principle of senna.
   It  is  a glucoside with the properties of a weak acid; -- called also
   cathartic acid, and cathartina.


   Ca*thay"  (?), n. China; -- an old name for the Celestial Empire, said
   have  been  introduced  by  Marco  Polo  and to be a corruption of the
   Tartar name for North China (Khitai, the country of the Khitans.)

     Better fifty years of Europe than a cycle of Cathay. Tennyson.


   Cat"head`  (?),  n.  (Naut.) A projecting piece of timber or iron near
   the bow of vessel, to which the anchor is hoisted and secured.


   Cath"e*dra  (?),  n. [L., fr. Gr. Chair.] The official chair or throne
   of a bishop, or of any person in high authority. Ex cathedra [L., from
   the chair], in the exercise of one's office; with authority.

     The  Vatican Council declares that the Pope, is infallible "when he
     speaks ex cathedra." Addis & Arnold's Cath. Dict.


   Ca*the"dral   (?),   n.   [LL.  cathedralis  (sc.  ecclesia):  cf.  F.
   cath\'82drale.  See  Cathedra.]  The principal church in a diocese, so
   called  because  in it the bishop has his official chair (Cathedra) or


   Ca*the"dral, a. [LL. cathedralis: cf. F. cath\'82dral.]

   1. Pertaining to the head church of a diocese; as, a cathedral church;
   cathedral service.

   2.  Emanating  from  the  chair  of  office,  as  of a pope or bishop;
   official; authoritative.

     Now,  what  solemnity  can  be more required for the pope to make a
     cathedral determination of an article! Jer. Taylor.

   3. Resembling the aisles of a cathedral; as, cathedral walks. Pope.


   Cath`e*dral"ic (?), a. Cathedral. [R.]


   Cath`e*dra"ted  (?),  a.  [From  Cathedra.]  Relating  to the chair or
   office of a teacher. [Obs.]


   Cath`e*ret"ic  (?),  n. [Gr. (Med.) A mild kind caustic used to reduce
   warts and other excrescences. Dunglison.

                                Catherine wheel

   Cath"er*ine  wheel`  (?). [So called from St. Catherine of Alexandria,
   who is represented with a wheel, in allusion to her martyrdom.]

   1.  (Geoth.Arth.)  Same  as  Rose window and Wheel window. Called also
   Catherine-wheel window.

   2.  (Pyrotechny) A revolving piece of fireworks resembling in form the
   window of the same name. [Written also Catharine wheel.]


   Cath"e*ter (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Med.) The name of various instruments
   for  passing along mucous canals, esp. applied to a tubular instrument
   to  be introduced into the bladder through the urethra to draw off the
   urine.   Eustachian  catheter.  See  under  Eustachian.  --  Prostatic
   catheter, one adapted for passing an enlarged prostate.

                         Catheterism, Catheterization

   Cath"e*ter*ism  (?), Cath`e*ter*i*za"tion (?), n. (Med.) The operation
   of introducing a catheter.


   Cath"e*ter*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Catheterized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Catheterizing.] (Med.) To operate on with a catheter. Dunglison.


   Cath`e*tom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [From  Gr.  -meter.] An instrument for the
   accurate  measurement  of  small  differences  of  height; esp. of the
   differences  in  the  height  of  the upper surfaces of two columns of
   mercury  or  other fluid, or of the same column at different times. It
   consists  of  a  telescopic leveling apparatus (d), which slides up or
   down a perpendicular metallic standard very finely graduated (bb). The
   telescope  is  raised  or  depressed  in order to sight the objects or
   surfaces, and the differences in vertical height are thus shown on the
   graduated standard. [Written also kathetometer.]


   Cath"e*tus  (?),  n.; pl. catheti (#). [L., fr. Gr. Catheter.] (Geom.)
   One line or radius falling perpendicularly on another; as, the catheti
   of  a  right-angled  triangle, that is, the two sides that include the
   right angle. Barlow.


   Cath"ode (?), n. [Gr. (Physics) The part of a voltaic battery by which
   the electric current leaves substances through which it passes, or the
   surface  at  which the electric current passes out of the electrolyte;
   the  negative pole; -- opposed to anode. Faraday. Cathode ray (Phys.),
   a  kind  of  ray  generated  at  the  cathode in a vacuum tube, by the
   electrical discharge<-- X-ray -->.


   Ca*thod"ic  (?),  a.  (Physiol.) A term applied to the centrifugal, or
   efferent course of the nervous infuence. Marshall Hall.


   Cat"-hole`  (?),  n.  (Naut.) One of two small holes astern, above the
   gunroom ports, through which hawsers may be passed.

   Page 228


   Cath"o*lic (?), a. [L. catholicus, Gr. solid: cf. F. catholique.]

   1. Universal or general; as, the catholic faith.

     Men  of  other  countries [came] to bear their part in so great and
     catholic a war. Southey.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is ep ithet, wh ich is  ap plicable to  th e wh ole
     Christian  church,  or  its faith, is claimed by Roman Catholics to
     belong  especially  to  their  church,  and  in popular usage is so

   2.  Not  narrow-minded,  partial,  or  bigoted;  liberal; as, catholic

   3.  Of  or  pertaining  to,  or affecting the Roman Catholics; as, the
   Catholic emancipation act.
   Catholic  epistles,  the espistles of the apostles which are addressed
   to  all  the  faithful, and not to a particular church; being those of
   James, Peter, Jude, and John.


   Cath"o*lic, n.

   1. A person who accepts the creeds which are received in common by all
   parts of the orthodox Christian church.

   2. An adherent of the Roman Catholic church; a Roman Catholic.
   Old  Catholic,  the  name  assumed  in  1870  by  members of the Roman
   Catholic  church,  who  denied the ecumenical character of the Vatican
   Council,   and   Rejected   its  decrees,  esp.  that  concerning  the
   infallibility of the pope, as contrary to the ancient Catholic faith.


   Ca*thol"i*cal (?), a. Catholic. [Obs.]


   Ca*thol"i*cism (?), n. [Cf. F. catholicisme.]

   1.  The  state or quality of being catholic or universal; catholicity.
   Jer. Taylor.

   2. Liberality of sentiment; breadth of view.

   3.  The  faith  of  the  whole orthodox Christian church, or adherence

   4.  The  doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence


   Cath`o*lic"i*ty (?), n.

   1. The state or quality of being catholic; universality.

   2. Liberality of sentiments; catholicism.

   3. Adherence or conformity to the system of doctrine held by all parts
   of the orthodox Christian church; the doctrine so held; orthodoxy.

   4.  Adherence to the doctrines of the church of Rome, or the doctrines


   Ca*thol"i*cize  (?), v. t. & i. To make or to become catholic or Roman


   Cath"o*lic*ly  (?), adv. In a catholic manner; generally; universally.
   Sir L. Cary.


   Cath"o*lic*ness,  n.  The  quality  of  being  catholic; universality;


   Ca*thol"i*con  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Catholic.]  (Med.)  A  remedy  for  all
   diseases; a panacea.


   Ca*thol"i*cos  (?),  n. [NL. See Catholic.] (Eccl.) The spiritual head
   of  the  Armenian  church, who resides at Etchmiadzin, Russia, and has
   ecclesiastical  jurisdiction  over,  and consecrates the holy oil for,
   the  Armenians of Russia, Turkey, and Persia, including the Patriarchs
   of Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Sis.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Pa triarch of Constantinople is the civil head of
     the Armenians in Turkey.


   Cat`i*li*na"ri*an  (?),  a. [L. Catilinarius.] Pertaining to Catiline,
   the Roman conspirator; resembling Catiline's conspiracy.


   Cat"i*on (?), n. [Gr. p. pr. of (Chem.) An electro-positive substance,
   which  in  electro-decomposition is evolved at the cathode; -- opposed
   to anion. Faraday.


   Cat"kin  (?),  n.  [Cat  +  -kin.]  (Bot.)  An  ament;  a  species  of
   inflorescence,  consisting  of  a  slender  axis  with  many unisexual
   apetalous  flowers  along  its sides, as in the willow and poplar, and
   (as  to  the staminate flowers) in the chestnut, oak, hickory, etc. --
   so called from its resemblance to a cat's tail. See Illust. of Ament.


   Cat"like` (?), a. Like a cat; stealthily; noiselessly.


   Cat"ling (?), n. [Cat + -ing.]

   1. A little cat; a kitten. "Cat nor catling." Drummond.

   2. Catgut; a catgut string. [R.] Shak.

   3.  (Surg.)  A  double-edged, sharp-pointed dismembering knife. [Spelt
   also catlin.] Crobb.


   Cat"lin*ite  (?), n. [From George Catlin, an American traveler.] A red
   clay  from  the  Upper  Missouri region, used by the Indians for their

                                Catnip, Catmint

   Cat"nip`  (?), Cat"mint` (?), n. (Bot.) A well-know plant of the genus
   Nepeta  (N.  Cataria),  somewhat like mint, having a string scent, and
   sometimes  used  in  medicine.  It  is  so  called because cats have a
   peculiar fondness for it.


   Cat`o-ca*thar"tic (?), n. [Gr. Cathartic.] (Med.) A remedy that purges
   by alvine discharges.


   Ca*to"ni*an (?), a. [L. Catonionus.] Of, pertaining to, or resembling,
   the stern old Roman, Cato the Censor; severe; inflexible.

                               Cat o' nine tails

   Cat" o' nine" tails`. See under Cat.

                              Catopter, Catoptron

   Ca*top"ter (?), Ca*top"tron (?), n. [Gr. A reflecting optical glass or
   instrument; a mirror. [Obs.]

                            Catoptric, Catoptrical

   Ca*top"tric   (?),  Ca*top"tric*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Catopter.]  Of  or
   pertaining  to  catoptrics; produced by reflection. Catoptric light, a
   light  in  which  the  rays are concentrated by reflectors into a beam
   visible at a distance.


   Ca*top"trics  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. catoptrique. See Catropric.] (Physics)
   That  part  of  optics  which explants the properties and phenomena of
   reflected light, and particularly that which is reflected from mirrors
   or polished bodies; \'c3- formerly caled anacamptics.


   Ca*top"tro*man`cy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -mancy.  See  Catopter.] (Antiq.) A
   species  of  divination,  which was perforned by letting down a mirror
   into  water,  for  a  sick  person  to  look at his face in it. If his
   countenance  appeared  distorted  and  ghastly, it was an ill omen; if
   fresh and healthy, it was favorable.


   Ca*top"ron (?), n. [Obs.] See Catopter.


   Cat`pipe" (?), n. See Catcall.


   Cat"-rigged` (?), a. Rigged like a catboat.


   Cat"-salt`  (?),  n.  A sort of salt, finely granulated, formed out of
   the bittern or leach brine.


   Cat's"-eye`  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A  variety  of  quartz  or  chalcedony,
   exhibiting  opalescent reflections from within, like the eye of a cat.
   The  mane  is  given  to  other  gems affording like effects, esp. the


   Cat's`-foot (?), n. (Bot.) A plant (Nepeta Glechoma) of the same genus
   with catnip; ground ivy.


   Cat"-sil`ver (?), n. Mica. [Archaic]

                                Catskill period

   Cats"kill  pe`ri*od  (?).  (Geol.)  The  closing  subdivision  of  the
   Devonian  age  in America. The rocks of this period are well developed
   in  the  Catskill  mountains,  and  extend  south  and  west under the
   Carboniferous formation. See the Diagram under Geology.


   Cat"so (?), n.; pl. Catsos (#). [It. cazzo.] A base fellow; a rogue; a
   cheat. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Cat's"-paw` (?), n.

   1. (Naut.) (a) A light transitory air which ruffles the surface of the
   water  during a calm, or the ripples made by such a puff of air. (b) A
   particular  hitch  or turn in the bight of a rope, into which a tackle
   may be hooked.

   2.  A  dupe;  a tool; one who, or that which, is used by another as an
   instrument to a accomplish his purposes.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th is se nse th e te rm refers to the fable of the
     monkey  using  the  cat's paw to draw the roasting chestnuts out of
     the fire.


   Cat's"-tail (?), n. See Timothy, Cat-tail, Cirrus.


   Cat"stick` (?), n. A stick or club employed in the game of ball called
   cat or tipcat. Massinger.


   Cat"stitch  (?),  v.  t. (Needlework) To fold and sew down the edge of
   with a coarse zigzag stitch.


   Cat"sup (?), n. Same as Catchup, and Ketchup.


   Cat"-tail (?), n. (Bot.) A tall rush or flag (Typha latifolia) growing
   in  marshes, with long, glat leaves, and having its flowers in a close
   cylindrical  spike  at  the top of the stem. The leaves are frequently
   used for seating chairs, making mats, etc. See Catkin.

     NOTE: &hand; The lesser cat-tail is Typha angustifolia.


   Cat"tish (?), a. Catlike; feline Drummond.


   Cat"tle  (?),  n.  pl. [OE. calet, chatel, goods, property, OF. catel,
   chatel,  LL.  captale,  capitale, goods, property, esp. cattle, fr. L.
   capitals  relating  to  the  head, chief; because in early ages beasts
   constituted  the  chief part of a man's property. See Capital, and cf.
   Chattel.]  Quadrupeds of the Bovine family; sometimes, also, including
   all  domestic  quadrupeds,  as sheep, goats, horses, mules, asses, and
   swine. Belted cattle, Black cattle. See under Belted, Black. -- Cattle
   guard, a trench under a railroad track and alongside a crossing (as of
   a  public highway). It is intended to prevent cattle from getting upon
   the  track. -- cattle louse (Zo\'94l.), any species of louse infecting
   cattle.  There  are  several species. The H\'91matatopinus eurysternus
   and  H.  vituli  are  common  species  which  suck blood; Trichodectes
   scalaris  eats the hair. -- Cattle plague, the rinderpest; called also
   Russian  cattle  plague. -- Cattle range, OR Cattle run, an open space
   through  which  cattle  may  run or range. [U. S.] Bartlett. -- Cattle
   show,   an   exhibition  of  domestic  animals  with  prizes  for  the
   encouragement  of  stock  breeding;  --  usually  accompanied with the
   exhibition   of  other  agricultural  and  domestic  products  and  of


   Cat"ty  (?),  n.  [Malay kat\'c6. See Caddy.] An East Indian Weight of
   1\'a7 pounds.


   Cau*ca"sian (?), a.

   1.  Of or pertaining to the Caucasus, a mountainous region between the
   Black and Caspian seas.

   2.  Of or pertaining to the white races of mankind, of whom the people
   about Mount Caucasus were formerly taken as the type.


   Cau*ca"sian, n.

   1.  A  native  or  inhabitant  of  the  Caucasus, esp. a Circassian or

   2. A member of any of the white races of mankind.


   Cau"cus  (?),  n.  [Etymology  uncertain. Mr. J. H. Trumbull finds the
   origin  of  caucus  in  the N. A. Indian word cawcawwassough or ca\'a3
   cau-as'u  one  who urges or pushes on, a promoter. See citation for an
   early  use  of  the  word caucus.] A meeting, especially a preliminary
   meeting,  of  persons belonging to a party, to nominate candidates for
   public  office,  or to select delegates to a nominating convention, or
   to  confer  regarding  measures  of  party policy; a political primary

     This  day  learned that the caucus club meets, at certain times, in
     the  garret of Tom Dawes, the adjutant of the Boston regiment. John
     Adams's Diary [Feb. , 1763].


   Cau"cus, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caucused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caucusing.]
   To hold, or meet in, a caucus or caucuses.


   Cau"dad  (?),  adv.  [L.  cauda  tail  + ad to.] (Zo\'94l.) Backwards;
   toward the tail or posterior part.

                                  Cauda galli

   Cau"da  gal*li,  (.  [L.,  tail  of  a cock.] (Paleon.) A plume-shaped
   fossil, supposed to be a seaweed, characteristic of the lower Devonian
   rocks;  as,  the cauda galli grit. Gauda galli epoch (Geol.), an epoch
   at  the begining of the Devonian age in eastern America, so named from
   the  characteristic  gritty sandstone marked with impressions of cauda
   galli. See the Diagram under Geology.


   Cau"dal  (?),  a.  [L.  Cauda  tail. Cf. Coward.] Of the nature of, or
   pertaining to, a tail; having a tail-like appendage.

     The male widow-bird, remarkable for his caudal plumes. Darwin.

   Caudal fin (Zo\'94l.), the terminal fin (or "tail") of a fish.


   Cau*da"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  L.  cauda  tail.] (Zo\'94l.) See

                               Caudate, Caudated

   Cau"date  (?),  Cau"da*ted  (?).  a.  [L. cauda tail.] Having a taill;
   having a termination like a tail.


   Cau"dex (?), n.; pl. L. Caudices (#), E. Caudexes (#). [L.] (Bot.) The
   sterm  of  a  tree.,  esp. a sterm without a branch, as of a palm or a
   tree fern; also, the pernnial rootstock of an herbaceous plant.

                              Caudicle, Caudicula

   Cau"di*cle   (?),  Cau*dic"u*la  (?),  n.  [Dim.  of  L.  cauda  tail,
   appendage.]  (Bot.) A slender, elastic process, to which the masses of
   pollen in orchidaceous plants are attached.


   Cau"dle  (?),  n. [OF. caudel, F. chaudeau, dim. of LL calidum a sweet
   drink, fr. L. caidus warm. See Caldron.] A kind of warm drink for sick
   persons, being a mixture of wine with eggs, bread, sugar, and spices.


   Cau"dle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Caudled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caudling

   1. To make into caudle.

   2. Too serve as a caudle to; to refresh. [R.] Shak.


   Cauf (?), n. [Perh. akin to Celtic caff, cav, cau, L. cavus hollow, or
   to  L.  caphinus,  Gr.  A  chest  with holes for keeping fish alive in
   water. Philips.


   Cau"fle, n. A gung of slaves. Same as Coffle.


   Caught (?), imp. & p. p. f Catch.

                               Cauk, n., Cauker

   Cauk (?), n., Cauk"er (?), n. See Cawk, Calker.


   Caul  (?),  n.  [OE.  calle, kelle, prob. fr. F. cale; cf. Ir. calla a

   1.  A  covering  of  network for the head, worn by women; also, a net.

   2.  (Anat.) The fold of membrane loaded with fat, which covers more or
   less of the intestines in mammals; the great omentum See Omentum.

     The caul serves for warming of the lower belly. Ray.

   3.  A  part  of the amnion, one of the membranes enveloping the fetus,
   which sometimes is round the head of a child at its birth.

     It  is  deemed  lucky  to be with a caul or membrane over the face.
     This caul is esteemed an infallible preservative against drowning .
     .  .  According  to  Chysostom, the midwives frequently sold it for
     magic uses. Grose.

     I  was  born  with  a  caul,  which was advertised for sale, in the
     newspapers, at the low price of fifteen guineas. Dickens.


   Cau*les"cent  (?),  a.  [L.  caulis  stalk,  stem: cf. F. caulescent.]
   (Bot.) Having a leafy stem.


   Cau"li*cle (?), n. (Bot.) A short caulis or stem, esp. the rudimentary
   stem seen in the embryo of seed; -- otherwise called a radicle.


   Cau*lic"u*lus  (?),  n.; pl. Cauliculi (#) [L. caulculus little stalk,
   dim.  of  caulis.] (Arch.) In the Corinthian capital, one of the eight
   stalks rising out of the lower leafage and terminating in leaves which
   seem  to  suport  the  volutes. See Illust. of Corinthian order, under


   Cau"li*flow`er  (?), n. [F. choufleur, modified by E. Cole. L. caulis,
   and by E. flower; F. chou cabbage is fr. L. caulis stalk, cabbage, and
   fleur flower is fr. L. flos flower. See Cole, and Flower.]

   1.  (Bot.) An annual variety of Brassica oleracea, or cabbage of which
   the cluster of young flower stalks and buds is eaten as a vegetable.

   2. The edible head or "curd" of a caulifower plant.


   Cau"li*form  (?),  a. [L. caulis + -form.] (Bot.) Having the form of a


   Cau"line  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Growing  immediately  on  a  caulis; of or
   pertaining to a caulis.


   Cau"lis (?), n.; L. pl. Caules (#). [L., a stem.] (Bot.) An herbaceous
   or woody stem which bears leaves, and may bear flowers.


   Caulk (?), v. t. & n. See Calk.


   Cau`lo*car"pous  (?),  a.  [Gr. (Bot.) Having stems which bear flowers
   and fruit year after year, as most trees and shrubs.


   Cau"ma  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr.  (Med.) Great heat, as of the body in


   Cau"po*nize  (?), v. i. [L. cauponari, fr. caupo huckster, innkeeper.]
   To sell wine or victuals. [Obs.] Warburfon.


   Caus"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being caused.


   Caus"al  (?),  a.  [L.  causalis.  See  Cause.] Relating to a cause or
   causes;  inplying or containing a cause or causes; expressing a cause;

     Causal propositions are where two propositions are joined by causal
     words. Watts.


   Caus"al, n. A causal word or form of speech.

     Anglo-Saxon  drencan  to  drench,  causal of Anglo-Saxon drincan to
     drink. Skeat.


   Cau*sal"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Causalities (.

   1. The agency of a cause; the action or power of a cause, in producing
   its effect.

     The causality of the divine mind. Whewell.

   2. (Phren.) The faculty of tracing effects to their causes. G. Combe.


   Caus"al*ly  (?),  adv.  According to the order or series of causes; by
   tracing effects to causes.


   Caus"al*ly (?), n. (Mining.) The lighter, earthy parts of ore, carried
   off washing.


   Cau*sa"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of causing; also the act or agency by
   which an effect is produced.

     The kind of causation by which vision is produced. Whewell.

   Law of universal causation, the theoretical or asserted law that every
   event  or  phenomenon results from, or is the sequel of, some previous
   event or phenomenon, which being present, the other is certain to take


   Cau*sa"tion*ist,   n.  One  who  believes  in  the  law  of  universal


   Caus"a*tive  (?),  a.  [L. causativus pertaining to a lawsuit (causa),
   but in the English sense from E. cause.]

   1. Effective, as a cause or agent; causing.

     Causative in nature of a number of effects. Bacon.

   2.  Expressing  a  cause  or  reason;  causal;  as,  the ablative is a
   causative case. <-- p. 229 -->


   Caus"a*tive (?), n. A word which expresses or suggests a cause.


   Caus"a*tive*ly, adv. In a causative manner.


   Cau*sa"tor (?), n. [See Cause.] One who causes. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Cause (?), n. [F. cause, fr. L. causa. Cf. Cause, v., Kickshaw.]

   1.  That  which produces or effects a result; that from which anything
   proceeds, and without which it would not exist.

     Cause  is  substance exerting its power into act, to make one thing
     begin to be. Locke.

   2.  That  which is the occasion of an action or state; ground; reason;
   motive; as, cause for rejoicing.

   3. Sake; interest; advantage. [Obs.]

     I did it not for his cause. 2 Cor. vii. 12.

   4. (Law) A suit or action in court; any legal process by which a party
   endeavors  to obtain his claim, or what he regards as his right; case;
   ground of action.

   5.  Any  subject  of discussion or debate; matter; question; affair in

     What counsel give you in this weighty cause! Shak.

   6. The side of a question, which is espoused, advocated, and upheld by
   a person or party; a principle which is advocated; that which a person
   or party seeks to attain.

     God befriend us, as our cause is just. Shak.

     The part they take against me is from zeal to the cause. Burke.

   Efficient  cause, the agent or force that produces a change or redult.
   --  Final  cause,  the  end,  design, or object, for which anything is
   done.  --  Formal  cause,  the elements of a conception which make the
   conception or the thing conceived to be what it is; or the idea viewed
   as  a  formative  principle  and  co\'94perating  with  the matter. --
   Material  cause,  that  of which anything is made. -- Proximate cause.
   See  under  Proximate.  --  To make common cause with, to join with in
   purposes  and  aims.  Macaulay.  Syn.  --  Origin; source; mainspring;
   motive; reason; incitement; inducement; purpose; object; suit; action.


   Cause,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Caused (?); p. pr. & v. n. Causing.] [F.
   causer,  fr.  cause,  fr. L. causa. See Cause, n., and cf. Acouse.] To
   effect as an agent; to produce; to be the occasion of; to bring about;
   to   bring  into  existence;  to  make;  --  usually  followed  by  an
   infinitive, sometimes by that with a finite verb.

     I will cause it to rain upon the earth forty days. Gen. vii. 4.

     Cause  that  it  be read also in the church of the Laodiceans. Col.
     iv. 16.

   Syn.  --  To  create;  produce;  beget;  effect;  occasion; originate;
   induce; bring about.


   Cause,  v.  i.  To  assign  or  show  cause; to give a reason; to make
   excuse. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Cause, conj. Abbreviation of Because. B. Jonson.


   Cause"ful (?), n. Having a cause. [Obs.]


   Cause"less, a. 1. Self-originating; uncreated.

   2. Without just or sufficient reason; groundless.

     My fears are causeless and ungrounded. Denham.


   Cause"less, adv. Without cause or reason.


   Cause"less*ness, n. The state of being causeless.


   Caus"er (?), n. One who or that which causes.


   Cau`seuse"  (?),  n.  [F., fr. causer to talk.] A kind of sofa for two
   person. A t\'88te-a-t\'88te.

                               Causeway, Causey

   Cause"way  (?),  Cau"sey  (?), n. [OE. cauci, cauchie, OF. cauchie, F.
   chauss\'82e,  from  LL.  (via)  calciata,  fr calciare to make a road,
   either fr. L. calx lime, hence, to pave with limestone (cf. E. chalk),
   or from L. calceus shoe, from calx heel, hence, to shoe, pave, or wear
   by  treading.]  A  way  or  road  rasid above the natural level of the
   ground, serving as a dry passage over wet or marshy ground.

     But that broad causeway will direct your way. Dryden.

     The other way Satan went down The causey to Hell-gate. Milton.

                             Causewayed, Causeyed

   Cause"wayed  (?),  Cau"seyed  (?). a. Having a raised way (causeway or
   causey); paved. Sir W. Scott. C. Bront\'82.


   Cau*sid"i*cal  (?), a. [L. causidicakis; causa a cause in law + dicare
   to  say.] Pertaining to an advocate, or to the maintenance and defense
   of suits.

                              Caustic, Caustical

   Caus"tic (?), Caus"tic*al (?), a. [L. caustucs, Ge. Calm, Ink.]

   1.  Capable  of  destroying the texture of anything or eating away its
   substance by chemical action; burning; corrosive; searing.

   2. Severe; satirical; sharp; as, a caustic remark.
   Caustic  curve  (Optics), a curve to which the ray of light, reflected
   or  refracted  by  another  curve,  are  tangents,  the  reflecting or
   refracting curve and the luminous point being in one plane. -- Caustic
   lime.  See  under  Lime.  -- Caustic potash, Caustic soda (Chem.), the
   solid  hydroxides  potash,  KOH,  and  soda, NaOH, or solutions of the
   same.  -- Caustic silver, nitrate of silver, lunar caustic. -- Caustic
   surface  (Optics),  a  surface to which rays reflected or refracted by
   another  surface  are tangents. Caustic curves and surfaces are called
   catacaustic  when  formed by reflection, and diacaustic when formed by
   refraction. Syn. -- Stinging; cutting; pungent; searching.
   Cau"stic, n. [L. causticum (sc. medicamentum). See Caustic, a.]
   1.  Any  substance  or means which, applied to animal or other organic
   tissue,  burns,  corrodes,  or  destroys  it  by  chemical  action; an
   2. (Optics) A caustic curve or caustic surface.

   Caus"tic*al*ly, adv. In a caustic manner.


   Caus*tic"i*ly (?), n.

   1.  The quality of being caustic; corrosiveness; as, the causticity of

   2.  Severity  of  language;  sarcasm; as, the causticity of a reply or


   Caus"tic*ness (?), n. The quality of being caustic; causticity.


   Cau"tel  (?), n. [F. caut\'8ale, L. cautela, fr. cavere to be on one's
   guard, to take care.]

   1. Caution; prudence; wariness. [Obs.] Fulke.

   2. Craft; deceit; falseness. [Obs.] Shak.


   Cau"te*lous (?), a. [F. cauteleux, LL. cautelosus. See Cautel.]

   1. Caution; prudent; wary. [Obs.] "Cautelous, though young." Drayton.

   2.  Crafty;  deceitful; false. [Obs.] Shak. -- Cau"te*lous*ly, adv. --
   Cau"te*lous*ness, n. [Obs.]


   Cau"ter  (?),  n.  [F.  caut\'8are,  L.  cauterium,  fr.  Gr. Caustic,
   Cautery.] A hot iron for searing or cauterizing. Minsheu.


   Cau"ter*ant (?), n. A cauterizing substance.


   Cau"ter*ism  (?),  n.  The  use  or application of a caustic; cautery.


   Cau`ter*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. caut\'8arisation.] (Med.) The act of
   searing  some  morbid part by the application of a cautery or caustic;
   also, the effect of such application.


   Cau"ter*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cauterized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cauterizing.] [L. cauterizare, Gr. caut\'82rised.. See cauter.]

   1. To burn or sear with a cautery or caustic. Dunglison.

   2. To sear, as the conscience. Jer. Taylor.


   Cau"ter*y (?), n.; pl. Cauteries (#). [L. cauterium, Gr. Cauter.]

   1.  (Med.)  A burning or searing, as of morbid flesh, with a hot iron,
   or  by  application  of  a caustic that will burn, corrode, or destroy
   animal tissue.

   2. The iron of other agent in cauterizing.
   Actual  cautery, a substance or agent (as a hot iron) which cauterizes
   or  sears  by  actual  heat;  or the burning so effected. -- Potential
   cautery,  a  substance  which cauterizes by chemical action; as, lunar
   caustic; also, the cauterizing produced by such substance.
   Cau"tion  (?),  n.  [F. caution a security, L. cautio, fr. cavere (For
   scavere)  to  be  on  one's  guard,  to take care (orig.) to be on the
   watch, see; akin to E. show.] 

   1.  A  careful  attention  to the probable effects of an act, in order
   that  failure  or  harm  may be avoided; prudence in regard to danger;
   provident care; wariness.

   2. Security; guaranty; bail. [R.]

     The  Parliament  would yet give his majesty sufficient caution that
     the war should be prosecuted. Clarendon.

   3.  Precept  or  warning  against  evil  of  any  kind; exhortation to
   wariness; advice; injunction.

     In way of caution I must tell you. Shak.

   Caution money, money deposited by way of security or guaranty, as by a
   student at an English university. Syn. -- Care; forethought; forecast;
   heed;  prudence;  watchfulness;  vigilance;  circumspection;  anxiety;
   providence; counsel; advice; warning; admonition.


   Cau"tion  v.  t.  [imp  &  p.  p.  Cautioned  (?);  p.  pr.  &  vb. n.
   Cautioning.]  To give notice of danger to; to warn; to exhort [one] to
   take heed.

     You cautioned me against their charms. Swift.


   Cau"tion*a*ry (?), a.

   1.  Conveying  a  caution,  or warning to avoid danger; as, cautionary

   2. Given as a pledge or as security.

     He hated Barnevelt, for his getting the cautionary towns out of his
     hands. Bp. Burnet.

   3. Wary; cautious. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Cau"tion*er (?), n.

   1. One who cautions or advises.

   2. (Scots Law) A surety or sponsor.


   Cau"tion*ry (?), n. (Scots Law) Suretyship.


   Cau"tious  (?),  a. [Cf. L. cautus, fr. caver. See Caution.] Attentive
   to  examine  probable  effects and consequences of acts with a view to
   avoid  danger or misfortune; prudent; circumspect; wary; watchful; as,
   a cautious general.

     Cautious feeling for another's pain. Byron.

     Be swift to hear; but cautious of your tongue. Watts.

   Syn.  --  Wary;  watchful;  vigilant;  prudent; circumspect; discreet;
   heedful;  thoughtful; scrupulous; anxious; careful. -- Cautious, Wary,
   Circumspect.  A  man is cautious who realizes the constant possibility
   of  danger;  one  may  be  wary, and yet bold and active; a man who is
   circumspect habitually examines things on every side in order to weigh
   and  deliberate.  It  is  necessary to be cautious at all times; to be
   wary in cases of extraordinary danger; to be circumspect in matters of
   peculiar delicacy and difficulty.


   Cau"tious*ly, adv. In a cautious manner.


   Cau"tious*ness, n. The quality of being cautious.


   Cav"al*cade`  (?),  n. [F. cavalcade, fr. It. cavalcata, fr. cavalcare
   to  go  on horseback, fr. LL. caballicare, fr. L. caballus an inferior
   horse, Gr. Cavalier, Cavalry.] A procession of persons on horseback; a
   formal, pompous march of horsemen by way of parade.

     He brought back war-worn cavalcade to the city. Prescott.

                              Cavalero, Cavaliero

   Cav`a*le"ro,  Cav`a*lie"ro  (?),  n.  [Sp. caballero. See Cavalier.] A
   cavalier; a gallant; a libertine. Shak.


   Cav`a*lier"  (?), n. [F. cavalier, It. cavaliere, LL. caballarius, fr.
   L. caballus. See Cavalcade, and cf. Cavallier, Caballine.]

   1. A military man serving on horseback; a knight.

   2. A gay, sprightly, military man; hence, a gallant.

   3. One of the court party in the time of king Charles L. as contrasted
   with a Roundhead or an adherent of Parliament. Clarendon.

   4.  (Fort.)  A work of more that ordinary heigh, rising from the level
   ground of a bastion, etc., and overlooking surrounding parts.


   Cav`a*lier", a. Gay; easy; offhand; frank.

     The  plodding,  persevering  scupulous accuracy of the one, and the
     easy,  cavalier,  verbal  fluency  of  the  other,  from a complete
     contrast. Hazlitt.

     2. High-spirited. [Obs.] "The people are naturally not valiant, and
     not much cavalier." Suckling.

     3. Supercilious; haughty; disdainful; curt; brusque.

     4.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  party  of  King Charles I. "An old
     Cavalier family." Beaconsfleld.


     Cav`a*lier"ish (?), a. Somewhat like a cavalier.


     Cav`a*lier"ism  (?),  n.  The  practice or principles of cavaliers.
     Sir. W. Scott.


     Cav`a*lier"ly,  adv.  In  a  supercilious,  disdainful,  or haughty
     manner; arroganty. Junius.


     Cav`a*lier"ness, n. A disdanful manner.


     Ca*val"ly  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Pg. cavalla a kind of fish; Sp. caballa;
     prob.  fr.  Pg. cavallo horse, Sp. caballa.] (Zo\'94l.) A carangoid
     fish  of  the  Atlantic coast (Caranx hippos): -- called also horse

     NOTE: [See Illust. under Carangoid.]


     Cav"al*ry  (?), n. [F. cavalerie, fr. It. cavalleria. See Cavalier,
     and  cf. chivalry.] (Mil.) That part of military force which serves
     on horseback.

     NOTE: &hand; He avy ca valry and light cavalry are so distinguished
     by  the character of their armament, and by the size of the men and


     Cav"al*ry*man (?), n.; pl. Cavalrymen (. One of a body of cavalry.


     Ca`va*ti"na  (?),  n.  [It.] (Mus.) Originally, a melody of simpler
     form  than the aria; a song without a second part and a da capo; --
     a term now variously and vaguely used.


     Cave  (?),  n.  [F. cave, L. cavus hollow, whence cavea cavity. Cf.

     1.  A  hollow  place  in the earth, either natural or artificial; a
     subterraneous cavity; a cavern; a den.

     2.  Any  hollow  place,  or part; a cavity. [Obs.] "The cave of the
     ear." Bacon.

   Cave  bear  (Zo\'94l.),  a  very  large fossil bear (Ursus spel\'91us)
   similar  to  the grizzly bear, but large; common in European caves. --
   Cave dweller, a savage of prehistoric times whose dwelling place was a
   cave.  Tylor. -- Cave hyena (Zo\'94l.), a fossil hyena found abundanty
   in  British  caves,  now  usually  regarded  as a large variety of the
   living  African  spotted hyena. -- Cave lion (Zo\'94l.), a fossil lion
   found  in  the  caves of Europe, believed to be a large variety of the
   African lion. -- Bone cave. See under Bone.


   Cave,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Caved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caving.] [Cf. F.
   caver. See Cave, n.] To make hollow; to scoop out. [Obs.]

     The mouldred earth cav'd the banke. Spenser.


   Cave, v. i.

   1. To dwell in a cave. [Obs.] Shak.

   2.  [See  To  cave  in,  below.] To fall in or down; as, the sand bank
   caved.  Hence  (Slang),  to  retreat  from a position; to give way; to
   yield in a disputed matter.
   To  cave  in.  [Flem. inkalven.] (a) To fall in and leave a hollow, as
   earth  on  the side of a well or pit. (b) To submit; to yield. [Slang]
   H. Kingsley.
   Ca"ve*at (?), n. [L. caved let him beware, pres. subj. of cavere to be
   on one's guard to, beware.] 

   1.  (Law) A notice given by an interested party to some officer not to
   do  a certain act until the party is heard in opposition; as, a caveat
   entered in a probate court to stop the proving of a will or the taking
   out of letters of administration, etc. Bouvier.

   2. (U. S. Patent Laws) A description of some invention, designed to be
   patented,  lodged  in  the  patent  office  before the patent right is
   applied  for, and operating as a bar to the issue of letters patent to
   any other person, respecting the same invention.

     NOTE: &hand; A  ca veat is  operative for one year only, but may be

   3. Intimation of caution; warning; protest.

     We  think  it  right  to  enter  our  caveat  against a conclusion.

   Caveat  emptor  [L.]  (Law),  let the purchaser beware, i. e., let him
   examine the article he is buying, and act on his own judgment.


   Ca"ve*a`ting  (?), n. (Fencing) Shifting the sword from one side of an
   adversary's sword to the other.


   Ca"ve*a`tor (?), n. One who enters a caveat.


   Cav"en*dish (?), n. Leaf tobacco softened, sweetened, and pressed into
   plugs  or  cakes.  Cut  cavendish,  the plugs cut into long shreds for


   Cav"ern  (?),  n.  [L.  caverna,  fr. cavus hollow: cf. F. caverne.] A
   large, deep, hollow place in the earth; a large cave.


   Cav"erned (?), a.

   1. Containing caverns.

     The wolves yelled on the caverned hill. Byron.

   2. Living in a cavern. "Caverned hermit." Pope.


   Cav"ern*ous (?), a. [L. cavernosus: cf. F. caverneux.]

   1. Full of caverns; resembling a cavern or large cavity; hollow.

   2. Filled with small cavities or cells.

   3. Having a sound caused by a cavity.
   Cavernous body, a body of erectile tissue with large interspaces which
   may be distended with blood, as in the penis or clitoris. -- Cavernous
   respiration,  a  peculiar  respiratory  sound andible on auscultation,
   when  the  bronchial  tubes  communicate  with  morbid cavities in the


   Ca*ver"nu*lous  (?), a.[L. cavernula, dim. of caverna cavern.] Full of
   little cavities; as, cavernulous metal. Black.

                               Cavesson, Cavezon

   Cav"es*son  (?),  Cav"e*zon  (?),  n.  [F.  cave\'87on,  augm. fr. LL.
   capitium  a  head  covering  hood,  fr.  L. caput head. Cf. Caberzon.]
   (Man.)  A  kind  of  noseband  used  in  breaking and training horses.
   [Written also caveson, causson.] White.


   Ca*vet"to  (?), n. [It. cavetto, fr. cavo hollow, L. cavus.] (Arch.) A
   concave  molding;  --  used  chiefly  in  classical  architecture. See
   Illust. of Calumn.

                                Caviare, Caviar

   Ca*viare" (?), Cav"i*ar (?), n. [F. caviar, fr. It. caviale, fr. Turk.
   Hav\'c6\'ber.]  The roes of the sturgeon, prepared and salted; -- used
   as a relish, esp. in Russia.

     NOTE: &hand; Ca viare wa s co nsidered a  de licacy, by  so me, in 
     Shakespeare's time, but was not relished by most. Hence Hamlet says
     of  a  certain  play. "'T was caviare to the general," i. e., above
     the taste of the common people.

   Page 230


   Cav"i*corn  (?),  a. [L. cavus hollow + cornu horn.] (Zo\'94l.) Having
   hollow horns.


   Cav`i*cor"ni*a  (?),  n.;  pl.  [NL.]  (Zo\'94l.) A group of ruminants
   whose horns are hollow, and planted on a bony process of the front, as
   the ox.


   Cav"il (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Caviled OR Cavilled (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Caviling OR Cavilling.] [L. cavillari to practice jesting, to censure,
   fr.  cavilla  bantering  jests, sophistry: cf. OF. caviller.] To raise
   captious and frivolous objections; to find fault without good reason.

     You  do  not  well  in  obstinacy  To  cavil  in the course of this
     contract. Shak.


   Cav"il, v. t. To cavil at. [Obs.] Milton.


   Cav"il, n. A captious or frivolous objection.

     All the cavils of prejudice and unbelief. Shak.

                               Cavil OR Caviler

   Cav"il OR Cav"il*er (?), n. One who cavils.

     Cavilers at the style of the Scriptures. Boyle.


   Cav"il*ing,  a.  Disposed to cavil; finding fault without good reason.
   See Captious.

     His depreciatory and caviling criticism. Lewis.


   Cav"il*ing*ly, adb. In a caviling manner.


   Cav`il*la"tion  (?),  n.[F.  cavillation, L. cavillatio.] Frivolous or
   sophistical objection. [Obs.] Hooker.

                             Cavilous OR Cavillous

   Cav"il*ous  OR  Cav"il*lous  (?), a. [L. cavillosus.] Characterized by
   caviling,  or disposed to cavil; quibbing. [R.] -- Cav"il*ous*ly, adv.
   [R.] -- Cav"il*ous*ness, n. [R.]


   Cav"in  (?),  n.  [F. See Cave.] (Mil.) A hollow way, adapted to cover
   troops, and facilitate their aproach to a place. Farrow.


   Cav"i*ta*ry  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Containing  a  body cavity; as, the
   cavitary or nematoid worms.


   Cav"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Cavities  (#).  [L.  cavus  hollow:  cf.  F.

   1. Hollowness. [Obs.]

     The cavity or hollowness of the place. Goodwin.

   2. A hollow place; a hollow; as, the abdominal cavity.

     An instrument with a small cavity, like a small spoon. Arbuthot.

     Abnormal  spaces or excavations are frequently formed in the lungs,
     which are designated cavities or vomic\'91. Quain.

   Body cavity, the c\'d2lum. See under Body.


   Ca"vo-re*lie"vo (?), n. Cavo-rilievo.


   Ca"vo-ri*lie"vo  (?),  n.  [It.]  (Sculp.) Hollow relief; sculpture in
   relief  within  a  sinking  made  for  the  purpose,  so no part of it
   projects beyond the plain surface around.


   Ca*vort"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Cavorted;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Cavorting.] To prance ostentatiously; -- said of a horse or his rider.
   [Local slang U. S.]


   Ca"vy  (?), n.; pl. Cavies (. [NL. cavia, fr. Brazilian cabiai: cf. F.
   cabiai.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  rodent of the genera cavia and Dolichotis, as
   the  guinea  pig  (Cavia cabaya). Cavies are natives of South America.
   Water cavy (Zo\'94l.), The capybara.


   Caw  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Cawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cawing.]
   [Imitative. \'fb22 Cf. Chough.] To cry like a crow, rook, or raven.

     Rising and cawing at the gun's report. Shak.


   Caw, n. The cry made by the crow, rook, or raven.


   Cawk  (?), n. [Prov. E. cauk limestone. A doublet of chalk.] (Min.) An
   opaque, compact variety of barite, or heavy spar. [Also written cauk.]


   Cawk"er (?), n. See Calker.


   Cawk"y, a. Of or pertaining to cawk; like cawk.


   Cax"on (?), n. A kind of wig. [Obs.] Lamb.


   Cax"ton  (?),  n.  (Bibliog.)  Any book printed by William Caxton, the
   first English printer. Hansard.


   Cay (?), n. See Key, a ledge.


   Cay*enne  (?),  n.  [From Cayenne, a town and island in French Guiana,
   South  America.]  Cayenne pepper. Cayenne pepper. (a) (Bot.) A species
   of  capsicum  (C.  frutescens) with small and intensely pungent fruit.
   (b)  A  very  pungent  spice made by drying and grinding the fruits or
   seeds  of several species of the genus Capsicum, esp. C. annuum and C.
   Frutescens;  --  Called  also  red  pepper.  It  is  used chiefly as a


   Cay"man  (?),  n.  [From  the  language  of  Guiana:  cf. Sp. caiman.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  The  south  America  alligator.  See Alligator. [Sometimes
   written caiman.]


   Ca*yu"gas  (?),  n.  pl.;  sing  Cayuga.  (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians
   formerly  inbabiting western New-York, forming part of the confederacy
   called the Five Nations.


   Cay*use" (?), n. An Indian pony. [Northw. U. S.]

                                Cazique, Cazic

   Ca*zique",  Cazic" (?), n. [Sp. Cacique, fr. the language of Hayti.] A
   chief or petty king among some tribes of Indians in America.


   Cease  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ceased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ceasing.]
   [OE. cessen, cesen, F. cesser, fr. L. cessare, v. intemsive fr. cedere
   to withdraw. See Cede , and cf. Cessation.]

   1.  To  come to an end; to stop; to leave off or give over; to desist;
   as, the noise ceased "To cease from strife." Prov. xx. 3.

   2. To be wanting; to fail; to pass away.

     The poor shall never cease out of the land. Deut. xv. 11.

   Syn.  --  To  intermit;  desist;  stop;  abstain;  quit;  discontinue;
   refrain; leave off; pause; end.


   Cease, v. t. To put a stop to; to bring to an end.

     But he, her fears to cease Sent down the meek-eyed peace. Milton.

     Cease, then, this impious rage. Milton


   Cease, n. Extinction. [Obs.] Shak.


   Cease"less, a. Without pause or end; incessant.


   Cease"less, adv. Without intermission or end.


   Cec`i*do*my"i*a  (?),  n.  [Nl.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of small
   dipterous  files,  including  several  very  injurious species, as the
   Hessian fly. See Hessian fly.


   Ce"ci*ty (?), n. [L. caecitas, fr. caecus blind: cf. F. c\'82cit\'82.]
   Blindness. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Ce*cu"tien*cy  (?),  n.  [L. caecutire to be blind, fr. caecus blind.]
   Partial blindness, or a tendency to blindness. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Ce"dar  (?),  n.  [AS.  ceder,  fr.  L. cedrus, Gr. (Bot.) The name of
   several evergreen trees. The wood is remarkable for its durability and
   fragrant odor.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ce dar of Lebanon is the Cedrus Libani; the white
     cedar   (Cupressus   thyoides)   is   now   called  Cham\'d2cyparis
     sph\'91roidea;  American  red  cedar  is  the Juniperus Virginiana;
     Spanish  cedar,  the  West Indian Cedrela odorata. Many other trees
     with odoriferous wood are locally called cedar.

   Cedar  bird  (Zo\'94l.), a species of chatterer (Ampelis cedrarum), so
   named  from  its  frequenting cedar trees; -- called also cherry bird,
   Canada robin, and American waxwing.


   Ce"dar, a. Of or pertaining to cedar.


   Ce"dared (?), a. Covered, or furnished with, cedars.


   Ce"darn (?), a. Of or pertaining to the cedar or its wood. [R.]


   Cede  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Ceded; p. pr. & vb. n. Ceding.] [L.
   cedere  to  withdraw, yield; akin to cadere to fall, and to E. chance;
   cf. F. c\'82der.] To yield or surrender; to give up; to resign; as, to
   cede a fortress, a province, or country, to another nation, by treaty.

     The  people  must  cede  to  the  government  some of their natural
     rights. Jay.


   Ce*dil"la  (?),  n. [Sp. cedilla, cf. F. c\'82dille; dim. of zeta, the
   Gr.  name  of  the  letter z, because this letter was formerly written
   after  the  c,  to  give  it  the sound of s.] A mark placed under the
   letter  c [thus, \'87], to show that it is to be sounded like s, as in


   Ce"drat  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. c\'82drat. See Cedar.] (Bot.) Properly the
   citron,  a  variety of Citrus medica, with large fruits, not acid, and
   having a high perfume.


   Ce"drene  (?),  n. (Chem.) A rich aromatic oil, C15H24, extracted from
   oil of red cedar, and regarded as a polymeric terpene; also any one of
   a  class  of  similar  substances,  as  the  essential oils of cloves,
   cubebs,  juniper,  etc., of which cedrene proper is the type. [Written
   also cedren.]


   Ce"drine  (?),  a. [L. cedrinus, Gr. Cedar.] Of or pertaining to cedar
   or the cedar tree.


   Ce"dri*ret (?), n. Same as C\'d2rulignone.


   Ce"dry (?), a. Of the nature of cedar. [R.]


   Ced"ule (?), n. [F. c\'82dule, fr. L. shedula. See Shedule.] A scroll;
   a writing; a schedule. [Obs.]


   Ced"u*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  caeduus, fr. caedere to cut down.] Fit to be
   felled. [Obs.] Eyelyn.


   Ceil  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Ceiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ceiling.]
   [From an older noun, fr. F. ciel heaven, canopy, fr. L. carlum heaven,
   vault, arch, covering; cf. Gr.

   1.  To overlay or cover the inner side of the roof of; to furnish with
   a ceiling; as, to ceil a room.

     The greater house he ceiled with fir tree. 2 Chron. iii. 5

   2.  To  line  or finish a surface, as of a wall, with plaster, stucco,
   thin boards, or the like.


   Ceil"ing, n. [See Cell, v. t.]

   1. (Arch.) (a) The inside lining of a room overhead; the under side of
   the  floor  above;  the  upper  surface opposite to the floor. (b) The
   lining  or  finishing of any wall or other surface, with plaster, thin
   boards, etc.; also, the work when done.

   2. (Naut.) The inner planking of a vessel.
   Camp  ceiling.  See  under Camp. -- Ceiling boards, Thin narrow boards
   used to ceil with.


   Ceint (?), n. [See Cincture.] A girdle. [Obs.]


   Cel"a*don (?), n. [F.] A pale sea-green color; also, porcelain or fine
   pottery of this tint.


   Cal"an*dine  (?),  n. [OE. celidoine, OF. celidoine, F. ch\'82lidoine,
   fr.  L.  chelidonia  (sc.  herba),  fr.  chelidonius pertaining to the
   swallow,  Gr.  hirundo a swallow.] (Bot.) A perennial herbaceous plant
   (Chelidonium  majus)  of  the poppy family, with yellow flowers. It is
   used  as  a  medicine  in jandice, etc., and its acrid saffron-colored
   juice  is  used  to  cure  warts  and the itch; -- called also greater
   celandine  and swallowwort. Lasser celandine, the pilewort (Ranunculus


   Cel"a*ture (?), n. [L. caelatura, fr. caelare to engrave in relief.]

   1. The act or art of engraving or embossing.

   2. That which is engraved. [Obs.] Hakewill.


   Cel"e*brant   (?),   n.  [L.  celebrans,  p.  pr.  of  celebrare.  See
   Celebrate.]  One  who  performs  a  public  religious rite; -- applied
   particularly to an officiating priest in the Roman Catholic Church, as
   distinguished from his assistants.


   Cel"e*brate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Celebrated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Celebrating.]  [L.  celebratus,  p.  p.  of  celebrare to frequent, to
   celebrate, fr. celeber famous.]

   1.  To extol or honor in a solemn manner; as, to celebrate the name of
   the Most High.

   2.  To  honor by solemn rites, by ceremonies of joy and respect, or by
   refraining  from  ordinary  business; to observe duly; to keep; as, to
   celebrate a birthday.

     Fron even unto shall ye celebrate your Sabbath. Lev. xxiii. 32.

   3.  To  perforn  or  participate in, as a sacrament or solemn rite; to
   solemnize;  to  perform  with  appropriate  rites;  as, to celebrate a
   marriage. Syn. -- To commemorate; distinguish; honor. -- To Celebrate,
   Commemorate.  We  commemorate  events  which  we  desire  to  keep  in
   remembrance,  when  we  recall  them by some special observace; as, to
   commemorate the death of our Savior. We celebrate by demonstrations of
   joy  or  solemnity  or by appropriate ceremonies; as, to celebrate the
   birthday of our Independence.

     We are called upon to commemorate a revolution as surprising in its
     manner as happy in its consequences. Atterbury.

     Earth,  water, air, and fire, with feeling glee, Exult to celebrate
     thy festival. Thomson.


   Cel"e*bra`ted (?), a. Having celebrity; distinguished; renowned.

     Celebrated for the politeness of his manners. Macaulay.

   Syn.  --  Distinguished;  famous; noted; famed; renowned; illustrious.
   See Distinguished.


   Cel`e*bra"tion  (?),  n. [L. celebratio.] The act, process, or time of

     His memory deserving a particular celebration. Clarendok.

     Celebration of Mass is equivalent to offering Mass Cath. Dict.

     To hasten the celebration of their marriage. Sir P. Sidney.


   Cel"e*bra`tor (?), n. [L.] One who celebrates; a praiser. Boyle.


   Ce*le"bri*ous (?), a. Famous. [Obs.] Speed.


   Ce*leb"ri*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Celebriries  (#). [L. celebritas: cf. F.

   1. Celebration; solemnization. [Obs.]

     The celebrity of the marriage. Bacon.

   2.  The  state or condition of being celebrated; fame; renown; as, the
   celebrity of Washington.

     An event of great celebrity in the history of astronomy. Whewell.

   3. A person of distinction or renown; -- usually in the plural; as, he
   is one of the celebrities of the place.


   Ce*le"ri*ac (?), n. (Bot.) Turnip-rooted celery, a from of celery with
   a large globular root, which is used for food.


   Ce*ler"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L. celeritas, from celer swiftm speedy: sf. F.
   c\'82l\'82rit\'82.] Rapidity of motion; quickness; swiftness.

     Time,  with  all  its  celerity,  moves  slowly  to him whose whole
     employment is to watch its flight. Johnson.


   Cel"er*y  (?),  n. [F. c\'82leri, cf. Prov. It. seleno, seler; fr. Gr.
   celery.  Cf.  Parsley.]  (Bot.)  A  plant of the Parsley family (Apium
   graveolens), of which the blanched leafstalks are used as a salad.


   Ce*les"tial  (?),  a. [OF. celestial, celestied, fr. L. caelestic, fr.
   caelum heaved. See Cell.]

   1. Belonging to the a\'89rial regions, or visible heavens. "The twelve
   celestial signs." Shak.

   2.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  spiritual  heaven;  heavenly; divine.
   "Celestial spirits." "Celestial light," Milton.
   Celestial  city,  heaven; the heavenly Jerusalem. Bunyan. -- Celestial
   empire,  China;  --  so  called  from  the  Chinese  words, tien chan,
   Heavenly  Dynasty,  as  being  the  kingdom  ruled over by the dynasty
   appoined by heaven. S. W. Williams.
   Ce*les"tial, n. 

   1. An inhabitant of heaven. Pope.

   2. A native of China.


   Ce*les"tial*ize (?), v. t. To make celestial. [R.]


   Ce*les"tial*ly, adv. In a celestial manner.


   Ce*les"ti*fy  (?),  v. t. [L. caelestis heavenly + -fly.] To make like
   heaven. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

                             Celestine, Celestite

   Cel"es*tine  (?),  Cel"es*tite (?),, n. [LL. caelestinus bine.] (Min.)
   Native  strontium  sulphate,  a  mineral  so named from its occasional
   delicate  blue  color. It occurs crystallized, also in compact massive
   and fibrous forms.

                            Celestine, Celestinian

   Cel"es*tine  (?),  Cel`es*tin"i*an (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A monk of the
   austere  branch of the Franciscan Order founded by Celestine V. in the
   13th centry.


   Ce"li*ac (?), a. (Anat.) See C\'d2llac.


   Ce*lib"a*cy  (?),  n. [See Celibate, n.] The state of being unmarried;
   single  life,  esp. that of a bachelor, or of one bound by vows not to
   marry. "The celibacy of the clergy." Hallom.


   Cel"i*bate (?), n. [L. aelibatus, fr. caelebs unmarried, single.]

   1. Celibate state; celibacy. [Obs.]

     He  .  .  .  preferreth holy celibate before the estate of marrige.
     Jer. Taylor.

   2.  One who is unmarried, esp. a bachelor, or one bound by vows not to


   Cel"i*bate, a. Unmarried; single; as, a celibate state.


   Ce*lib"a*tist (?), n. One who lives unmarried. [R.]


   Cel`i*dog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -graphy: cf. F. c\'82lidographie.] A
   description of apparent spots on the disk of the sun, or on planets.


   Cell  (?), n. [OF. celle, fr. L. cella; akin to celare to hide, and E.
   hell, helm, conceal. Cf. Hall.]

   1.  A very small and close apartment, as in a prison or in a monastery
   or convent; the hut of a hermit.

     The heroic confessor in his cell. Macaulay.

   2.  A small religious house attached to a monastery or convent. "Cells
   or dependent priories." Milman.

   3. Any small cavity, or hollow place.

   4.  (Arch.) (a) The space between the ribs of a vaulted roof. (b) Same
   as Cella.

   5.  (Elec.)  A  jar of vessel, or a division of a compound vessel, for
   holding the exciting fluid of a battery.

   6.  (Biol.)  One  of  the  minute  elementary structures, of which the
   greater  part  of the various tissues and organs of animals and plants
   are composed.

     NOTE: &hand; Al l ce lls have their origin in the primary cell from
     which  the  organism  was  developed.  In  the  lowest  animal  and
     vegetable   forms,   one   single  cell  constitutes  the  complete
     individual, such being called unicelluter orgamisms. A typical cell
     is  composed  of  a  semifluid  mass  of  protoplasm,  more or less
     granular,  generally  containing  in  its center a nucleus which in
     turn  frequently  contains  one  or  more nucleoli, the whole being
     surrounded  by a thin membrane, the cell wall. In some cells, as in
     those  of  blood,  in  the  am\'d2ba,  and in embryonic cells (both
     vegetable  and animal), there is no restricting cell wall, while in
     some  of  the unicelluliar organisms the nucleus is wholly wanting.
     See Illust. of Bipolar.

   Air cell. See Air cell. -- Cell development (called also cell genesis,
   cell  formation,  and  cytogenesis), the multiplication, of cells by a
   process of reproduction under the following common forms; segmentation
   or   fission,  gemmation  or  budding,  karyokinesis,  and  endogenous
   multiplication.  See  Segmentation,  Gemmation,  etc.  -- Cell theory.
   (Biol.) See Cellular theory, under Cellular.
   Cell  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Celled (?).] To place or inclosed in a
   cell. "Celled under ground." [R.] Warner.
   Cel"la  (?),  n. [L.] (Arch.) The part inclosed within the walls of an
   ancient temple, as distinguished from the open porticoes.
   Cel"lar  (?), n. [OE. celer, OF. celier, F. celier, fr. L. cellarium a
   receptacle for food, pantry, fr. cella storeroom. See Cell.] A room or
   rooms  under  a building, and usually below the surface of the ground,
   where provisions and other stores are kept.
   Cel"lar*age (?), n.
   1. The space or storerooms of a cellar; a cellar. Sir W. Scott.
     You hear this fellow in the cellarage. Shak.
   2. Chare for storage in a cellar.
   Cel"lar*er  (?),  n. [LL. cellararius, equiv. to L. cellarius steward:
   cf.  F.  cell\'82rier.  See  Cellar.] (Eccl.) A steward or butler of a
   monastery  or chapter; one who has charge of procuring and keeping the


   Cel`lar*et"  (?),  n.  [Dim  of  cellar.] A receptacle, as in a dining
   room, for a few bottles of wine or liquor, made in the form of a chest
   or  coffer,  or  a  deep drawer in a sideboard, and usually lined with


   Cel"lar*ist (?), n. Same as Cellarer.


   Celled (?), a. Containing a cell or cells.


   Cel"le*pore  (?), n. [L. cella cell + porus, Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   delicate  branching  corals, made up of minute cells, belonging to the


   Cel*lif"er*ous (?), a. [Cell + -ferous.] Bearing or producing cells.


   Cel"lo  (?),  n.;  pl.  E.  Cellos  (,  It. Celli (. A contraction for


   Cel"lu*lar  (?),  a. [L. cellula a little cell: cf. F. cellulaire. See
   Cellule.]  Consisting  of, or containing, cells; of or pertaining to a
   cell  or  cells.  Cellular  plants,  Cellular cryptogams (Bot.), those
   flowerless  plants  which  have  no ducts or fiber in their tissue, as
   mosses,  fungi,  lichens,  and  alg\'91.  --  Cellular theory, OR Cell
   theory  (Biol.), a theory, according to which the essential element of
   every  tissue, either vegetable or animal, is a cell; the whole series
   of  cells having been formed from the development of the germ cell and
   by  differentiation  converted  into tissues and organs which, both in
   plants  ans  animals,  are  to be considered as a mass of minute cells
   communicating  with  each  other.  -- Cellular tissue. (a) (Anat.) See
   conjunctive  tissue  under  Conjunctive.  (b)  (Bot.)  Tissue composed
   entirely  of  parenchyma,  and  having  no  woody  fiber or ducts. <--
   cellular   telephone,  a  portable  radio-telephone  transmitting  and
   receiving  the  radio-telephonic  signals  from  one  of  a  group  of
   transmitter-receiver  stations  so arranged that they provide adequate
   signal  contact  for such telephones over a certain geographical area.
   The  area  within  which  one  transmitter  may  service such portable
   telephones is called its "cell. -->


   Cel"lu*la`ted (?), a. Cellular. Caldwell.


   Cel"lule  (?), n. [L. cellula a small apartment, dim. of cella: cf. F.
   cellule. See Cell.] A small cell.


   Cel`lu*lif"er*ous (?), a. [L. cellula + -ferous.] Bearing or producing
   little cells.


   Cel`lu*li"tis  (?), n. [NL., fr. L. cellula + -itis.] An inflammantion
   of  the  cellular  or  areolar  tissue, esp. of that lying immediately
   beneath the skin.


   Cel"lu*loid`   (?),  n.  [Cellulose  +  -oid.]  A  substance  composed
   essentially  of gun cotton and camphor, and when pure resembling ivory
   in texture and color, but variously colored to imitate coral, tortoise
   shell, amber, malachite, etc. It is used in the manufacture of jewelry
   and  many  small  articles,  as combs, brushes, collars, and cuffs; --
   originaly called xylonite.


   Cel"lu*lose` (?), a. Consisting of, or containing, cells.


   Cel"lu*lose`, n. (Chem.) The substance which constitutes the essential
   part of the solid framework of plants, of ordinary wood, linen, paper,
   etc.  It  is  also found to a slight extent in certain animals, as the
   tunicates. It is a carbohydrate, (C6H10O5)n, isomeric with starch, and
   is  convertible  into  starches  and  sugars by the action of heat and
   acids. When pure, it is a white amorphous mass. See Starch, Granulose,

     Unsized,  well  bleached  linen  paper  is  merely  pure cellulose.

   Starch  cellulose,  the  delicate  framework  which  remains  when the
   soluble  part  (granulose)  of  starch is removed by saliva or pepsin.


   Ce*lot"o*my  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Med.) The act or operation of cutting, to
   relieve  the  structure  in  strangulated  hernia. [Frequently written


   Cel"si*ture  (?),  n.  [L. celstudo, from celsus high: cf. celsitude.]
   Height; altitude. [Obs.]


   Cel"si*us  (?),  n.  The  Celsius thermometer or scale, so called from
   Anders  Celsius, a Swedish astronomer, who invented it. It is the same
   as the centigrade thermometer or scale.


   Celt  (?),  n. [L. Celtae, Gr. Celtiad one that dwells in a covert, an
   inhabitant  of  the  wood,  a  Celt, fr. celt covert, shelter, celu to
   hide.]  One  of  an  ancient  race of people, who formerly inhabited a
   great part of Central and Western Europe, and whose descendants at the
   present  day occupy Ireland, Wales, the Highlands of Scotland, and the
   northern  shores  of  France.  [Written  also  Kelt.  The letter C was
   pronounced hard in Celtic languages.]


   Celt,  n. [LL. celts a chisel.] (Arch\'91ol.) A weapon or implement of
   stone  or  metal, found in the tumuli, or barrows, of the early Celtic


   Celt`i*be"ri*an  (?), a. [L. Celtiber, Celtibericus.] Of or pertaining
   to  the ancient Celtiberia (a district in Spain lying between the Ebro
   and  the  Tagus)  or its inhabitants the Celtiberi (Celts of the river
   Iberus). -- n. An inhabitant of Celtiberia.


   Celt"ic  (?),  a.  [L.  Celticus,  Gr.  Celt.] Of or pertaining to the
   Celts;  as,  Celtic  people, tribes, literature, tongue. [Written also


   Celt"ic, n. The language of the Celts.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e re mains of  the old Celtic language are found in
     the  Gaelic,  the  Erse  or  Irish  the Manx, and the Welsh and its
     cognate dialects Cornish and Bas Breton.


   Celt"i*cism  (?),  n.  A  custom  of  the  Celts, or an idiom of their
   language. Warton.


   Celt"i*cize` (?), v. t. To render Celtic; to assimilate to the Celts.


   Cem"ba*lo (?), n. [It. See Cymbal.] An old mname for the harpsichord.


   Ce*ment"  (?),  n.  [OF. cement, ciment, F. ciment, fr. L. caementum a
   rough,  unhewn stone, pieces or chips of marble, from which mortar was
   made,  contr.  fr.  caedimentum,  fr.  caedere  to  cut, prob. akin to
   scindere to cleave, and to E. shed, v. t.]

   1.  Any  substance  used  for  making  bodies adhere to each other, as
   mortar, glue, etc.

   2.  A  kind  of  calcined limestone, or a calcined mixture of clay and
   lime, for making mortar which will harden under water.

   3. The powder used in cementation. See Cementation, n.., 2.

   4.  Bond of union; that which unites firmly, as persons in friendship,
   or men in society. "The cement of our love."

   5.  (Anat.)  The layer of bone investing the root and neck of a tooth;
   -- called also cementum.
   Hydraulic cement. See under Hydraulic.


   Ce*ment"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Cemented;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Cementing.] [Cf. F. cimenter. See Cement, n.]

   1. To unite or cause to adhere by means of a cement. Bp. Burnet.

   2. To unite firmly or closely. Shak.

   3. To overlay or coat with cement; as, to cement a cellar bottom.


   Ce*ment",  v.  i.  To  become cemented or firmly united; to cohere. S.


   Ce*ment"al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to cement, as of a tooth; as,
   cemental tubes. R. Owen.


   Cem`en*ta"tion (?), n.

   1. The act or process of cementing.

   2.  (Chem.)  A process which consists in surrounding a solid body with
   the  powder of other substances, and heating the whole to a degree not
   sufficient  to cause fusion, the physical properties of the body being
   changed  by  chemical combination with powder; thus iron becomes steel
   by  cementation  with  charcoal,  and green glass becomes porcelain by
   cementation with sand.


   Ce*ment"a*to*ry  (?),  a. Having the quality of cementating or uniting


   Ce*ment"er (?), n. A person or thing that cements.


   Cem`en*ti"tious  (?), a. [L. caementitius pertaining to quarry stones.
   See Cement, n. ] Of the nature of cement. [R.] Forsyth.


   Cem`e*te"ri*al  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to a cemetery. "Cemeterial
   cells." [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Cem"e*ter*y  (?), n.; pl. Cemeteries (. [L. cemeterium, Gr. A place or
   ground  set  apart  for  the  burial  of  the  dead;  a  graveyard;  a
   churchyard; a necropolis.


   Ce*nan"thy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Bot.)  The  absence or suppression of the
   essential organs (stamens and pistil) in a flower.


   Ce*na"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  cenatio.]  Meal-taking;  dining or supping.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Cen"a*to*ry (?), a. [L. cenatorius, fr. cenare to dine, sup, fr. cena,
   coena, dinner, supper.] Of or pertaining to dinner or supper. [R.]

     The  Romans washed, were anointed, and wore a cenatory garment. Sir
     T. Browne.


   Cen"o*bite  (?),  n.  [L.  coenobita,  fr.  Gr. c\'82nobite.] One of a
   religious  order, dwelling in a convent, or a community, in opposition
   to an anchoret, or hermit, who lives in solitude. Gibbon.

                            Cenobitic, Cenobitical

   Cen`o*bit"ic  (?),  Cen`o*bit"ic*al (?) a. [Cf. F. c\'82nobitique.] Of
   or pertaining to a cenobite.


   Cen"o*bi*tism  (?),  n.  The  state of being a cenobite; the belief or
   practice of a cenobite. Milman.


   Ce*nog"a*my  (?),  n.  [Gr.  The  state  of  a  communty which permits
   promiseuous  sexual  intercourse  among  its  members,  as  in certain
   societies practicing communism.


   Cen"o*taph  (?),  n.  [Gr.  c\'82notaphe.] An empty tomb or a monument
   erected in honor of a person who is buried elsewhere. Dryden.

     A cenotaph in Westminster Abbey. Macaulay.


   Cen"o*taph`y (?), n. A cenotaph. [R.]

     Lord Cobham honored him with a cenotaphy. Macaulay.


   Ce`no*zo"ic (?), a. [Gr. (Geol.) Belonging to the most recent division
   of geological time, including the tertiary, or Age of mammals, and the
   Quaternary,  or  Age  of  man.  [Written  also c\'91nozoic, cainozoic,
   kainozoic.] See Geology.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd is used by many authors as synonymous with
     Tertiary, the Quaternary Age not being included.


   Cense (?), n. [OF. cense, F. cens, L. census. See Census.]

   1. A census; -- also, a public rate or tax. [Obs.] Howell. Bacon.

   2. Condition; rank. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Cense,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Censed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Censing.]
   [Abbrev.  from  incense.]  To perfume with odors from burning gums and

     The Salii sing and cense his altars round. Dryden.


   Cense, v. i. To burn or scatter incense.


   Cen"ser  (?),  n.  [For incenser, fr. OF. encensier, F. encensoir, fr.
   LL.  incensarium,  incensorium,  fr. L. incensum incense. See Incense,
   and  cf.  Incensory.] A vessel for perfumes; esp. one in which incense
   is burned.

     NOTE: &hand; The ecclesiastical censer is usually cup-shaped, has a
     cover  pierced with holes, and is hung by chains. The censer bearer
     swings it to quicken the combustion.

     Her  thoughts are like the fume of frankincense Which from a golden
     censer forth doth rise. Spenser.


   Cen"sor (?), n. [L. censor, fr. censere to value, tax.]

   1.  (Antiq.) One of two magistrates of Rome who took a register of the
   number  and property of citizens, and who also exercised the office of
   inspector of morals and conduct.

   2.  One  who  is  empowered  to  examine  manuscripts  before they are
   committed  to  the  press,  and  to  forbid  their publication if they
   contain anything obnoxious; -- an official in some European countries.

   3. One given to fault-finding; a censurer.

     Nor can the most circumspect attention, or steady rectitude, escape
     blame from censors who have no inclination to approve. Rambler.

   4. A critic; a reviewer.

     Received with caution by the censors of the press. W. Irving.


   Cen*so"ri*al (?), a.

   1.  Belonging  to  a  censor,  or  to the correction of public morals.

   2. Full of censure; censorious.

     The censorial declamation of Juvenal. T. Warton.


   Cen*so"ri*an (?), a. Censorial. [R.] Bacon.


   Cen*so"ri*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  censorius  pertaining to the censor. See

   1.  Addicted  to  censure;  apt  to blame or condemn; severe in making
   remarks on others, or on their writings or manners.

     A  dogmatical  spirit  inclines  a  man  to  be  consorious  of his
     neighbors. Watts.

   2.  Implying  or  expressing  censure; as, censorious remarks. Syn. --
   Fault-finding;  carping;  caviling;  captious;  severe;  condemnatory;
   hypercritical. -- Cen*so"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- Cen*so"ri*ous*ness, n.


   Cen"sor*ship (?), n. The office or power of a censor; as, to stand for
   a censorship. Holland.

     The press was not indeed at that moment under a general censorship.


   Cen"su*al  (?),  a.  [L.  censualis,  fr.  census.]  Relating  to,  or
   containing, a census.

     He caused the whole realm to be described in a censual roll. Sir R.


   Cen"sur*a*ble  (?),  a.  Deserving  of  censure;  blamable;  culpable;
   reprehensible;  as,  a  censurable  person,  or censurable conduct. --
   Cen"sur*a*bleness, n. -- Cen"sur*a*bly, adv.


   Cen"sure (?), n. [L. censura fr. censere: cf. F. censure. Cf. Censor.]

   1. Judgment either favorable or unfavorable; opinion. [Obs.]

     Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment. Shak.

   2.  The  act of blaming or finding fault with and condemning as wrong;
   reprehension; blame.

     Both the censure and the praise were merited. Macaulay.

   3.  Judicial  or  ecclesiastical  sentence  or reprimand; condemnatory

     Excommunication or other censure of the church. Bp. Burnet.

   Syn.   --  Blame;  reproof;  condemnation;  reprobation;  disapproval;
   disapprobation;  reprehension;  animadversion;  reprimand; reflection;
   dispraise; abuse.


   Cen"sure,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Censured  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Censuring.] [Cf. F. ensurer.]

   1.  To form or express a judgment in regard to; to estimate; to judge.
   [Obs.]  "Should  I  say  more, you might well censure me a flatterer."
   Beau. & Fl.

   2.  To  find  fault  with  and  condemn as wrong; to blame; to express
   disapprobation of.

     I may be censured that nature thus gives way to loyalty. Shak.

   3.  To  condemn or reprimand by a judicial or ecclesiastical sentence.
   Shak.   Syn.   --  To  blame;  reprove;  rebuke;  condemn;  reprehend;


   Cen"sure, v. i. To judge. [Obs.] Shak.


   Cen"sur*er (?), n. One who censures. Sha.


   Cen"sus (?), n. [L. census, fr. censere. See Censor.]

   1.  (Bot.  Antiq.)  A  numbering of the people, and valuation of their
   estate,  for the purpose of imposing taxes, etc.; -- usually made once
   in five years.

   2.  An official registration of the number of the people, the value of
   their estates, and other general statistics of a country.

     NOTE: &hand; A  general census of the United States was first taken
     in  1790,  and  one  has  been  taken at the end of every ten years


   Cent (?), n. [F. cent hundred, L. centum. See Hundred.]

   1.  A  hundred;  as,  ten  per  cent, the proportion of ten parts in a

   2. A United States coin, the hundredth part of a dollar, formerly made
   of copper, now of copper, tin, and zinc.

   3.  An  old  game  at  cards, supposed to be like piquet; -- so called
   because 100 points won the game. Nares.


   Cent"age (?), n. Rate by the hundred; percentage.


   Cen"tal  (?), n. [L. centum a hundred.] A weight of one hundred pounds
   avoirdupois;   --  called  in  many  parts  of  the  United  States  a


   Cen"tal, n. Relating to a hundred. Cental system, the method of buying
   and selling by the cental, or hundredweight.


   Cen"tare`  (?), n. [F. centiare; centi- (L. centum) + -are.] A measure
   of  area,  the  hundredth part of an are; one square meter, or about 1
   square yards.


   Cen"taur (?), n. [L. centaurus, Gr.

   1.  (Class.  Myth.) A fabulous being, represented as half man and half

   2. (Astron.) A constellation in the southern heavens between Hydra and
   the Southern Cross.


   Cen`tau*re"a  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Centaury.]  (Bot.) A large genus of
   composite plants, related to the thistles and including the cornflower
   or bluebottle (Centaurea Cyanus) and the star thistle (C. Calcitrapa).


   Cen"tau*ry  (?),  n.  [L.  centaureum  and  centauria,  Gr.  (Bot.)  A
   gentianaceous plant not fully identified. The name is usually given to
   the  Eryther\'91a  Centaurium and the Chlora perfoliata of Europe, but
   is  also  extended  to  the  whole  genus  Sabbatia,  and  even to the
   unrelated Centaurea.


   Cen`te*na"ri*an  (?),  a.  Of  or relating to a hundred years. -- n. A
   person a hundred years old.


   Cen"te*na*ry (?), a. [L. centenarius, fr. centum a hundred.]

   1. Relating to, or consisting of, a hundred.

   2.  Occurring  once  in  every  hundred  years; centennial. "Centenary
   solemnities." Fuller.


   Cen"te*na*ry, n.; pl. Centenaries (.

   1.  The aggregate of a hundred single things; specifically, a century.
   "Every centenary of years." Hakewill.

   2.  A commemoration or celebration of an event which occurred a hudred
   years before.


   Cen*ten"ni*al (?), a. [L. centum a hundred + annus year.]

   1. Relating to, or associated with, the commemoration of an event that
   happened a hundred years before; as, a centennial ode.

   2.  Happening  once  in  a  hundred  years;  as, centennial jubilee; a
   centennial celebration.

   3. Lasting or aged a hundred years.

     Thet opened through long lines Of sacred ilex and centennial pines.


   Cen*ten"ni*al,  n. The celebration of the hundredth anniversary of any
   event; a centenary. [U. S.]


   Cen*ten"ni*al*ly, adv. Once in a hundred years.


   Cen"ter  (?),  n. [F. centre, fr. L. centrum, fr. round which a circle
   is described, fr.

   1.  A point equally distant from the extremities of a line, figure, or
   body,  or  from all parts of the circumference of a circle; the middle
   point or place.

   2. The middle or central portion of anything.

   3. A principal or important point of concentration; the nucleus around
   which  things  are  gathered  or  to  which  they  tend;  an object of
   attention, action, or force; as, a center of attaction.

   4. The earth. [Obs.] Shak.

   5.  Those members of a legislative assembly (as in France) who support
   the  existing  government.  They  sit in the middle of the legislative
   chamber,  opposite the presiding officer, between the conservatives or
   monarchists,  who sit on the right of the speaker, and the radicals or
   advanced  republicans who occupy the seats on his left, See Right, and

   6.  (Arch.)  A temporary structure upon which the materials of a vault
   or   arch   are   supported   in   position   util  the  work  becomes

   7.  (Mech.)  (a)  One of the two conical steel pins, in a lathe, etc.,
   upon  which  the  work  is  held,  and  about which it revolves. (b) A
   conical  recess,  or indentation, in the end of a shaft or other work,
   to  receive the point of a center, on which the work can turn, as in a

     NOTE: &hand; In a lathe the

   live center is in the spindle of the head stock; the dead center is on
   the  tail  stock. Planer centers are stocks carrying centers, when the
   object to be planed must be turned on its axis. Center of an army, the
   body  or  troops ossupying the place in the line between the wings. --
   Center  of a curve OR surface (Geom.) (a) A point such that every line
   drawn  through  the  point  and  terminated by the curve or surface is
   bisected  at  the  point.  (b)  The  fixed point of reference in polar
   co\'94rdinates.  See Co\'94rdinates. -- Center of curvature of a curve
   (Geom.), the center of that circle which has at any given point of the
   curve  closer  contact  with  the  curve  than  has  any  other circle
   whatever.  See  Circle.  --  Center of a fleet, the division or column
   between the van and rear, or between the weather division and the lee.
   -- Center of gravity (Mech.), that point of a body about which all its
   parts  can  be balanced, or which being supported, the whole body will
   remain  at  rest,  though acted upon by gravity. -- Center of gyration
   (Mech.),  that  point in a rotating body at which the whole mass might
   be concentrated (theoretically) without altering the resistance of the
   intertia  of the body to angular acceleration or retardaton. -- Center
   of  inertia  (Mech.),  the  center  of  gravity of a body or system of
   bodies.  --  Center  of motion, the point which remains at rest, while
   all the other parts of a body move round it. -- Center of oscillation,
   the  point  at  which,  if  the  whole matter of a suspended body were
   collected,  the  time of oscillation would be the same as it is in the
   actual form and state of the body. -- Center of percussion, that point
   in a body moving about a fixed axis at which it may strike an obstacle
   without  communicating  a  shock  to  the  axis. -- Center of pressure
   (Hydros.),  that point in a surface pressed by a fluid, at which, if a
   force equal to the whole pressure and in the same line be applied in a
   contrary  direction,  it will balance or counteract the whole pressure
   of the fluid.

                                Center, Centre

   Cen"ter,  Cen"tre  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Centered or Centred (; p. pr. &
   vb. n. Centering or Centring.]

   1. To be placed in a center; to be central.

   2.  To  be  collected  to  a point; to be concentrated; to rest on, or
   gather about, as a center.

     Where there is no visible truth wherein to center, error is as wide
     as men's fancies. Dr. H. More.

     Our hopes must center in ourselves alone. Dryden.

                                Center, Centre

   Cen"ter , Cen"tre (?), v. t.

   1. To place or fix in the center or on a central point. Milton.

   2. To collect to a point; to concentrate.

     Thy joys are centered all in me alome. Prior.

   3.  (Mech.)  To  form  a  recess or indentation for the reception of a

                             Centerbit, Centrebit

   Cen"ter*bit`,  Cen"tre*bit`, n. An instrument turning on a center, for
   boring holes. See Bit, n., 3.

                           Centerboard, Centreboard

   Cen"ter*board`,  Cen"tre*board,  (?),  n. (Naut.) A movable or sliding
   keel  formed  of  a  broad board or slab of wood or metal which may be
   raised  into  a  water-tight case amidships, when in shallow water, or
   may  be lowered to increase the area of lateral resistance and prevent
   leeway  when  the vessel is beating to windward. It is used in vessels
   of all sizes along the coast of the United States

                             Centerfire cartridge

   Cen"ter*fire` car"tridge. See under Cartridge.


   Cen"ter*ing,   n.  (Arch.)  Same  as  Center,  n.,  6.  [Written  also

                           Centerpiece, Centrepiece

   Cen"ter*piece`, Cen"tre*piece` (?), n. An ornament to be placed in the
   center, as of a table, ceiling, atc.; a central article or figure.


   Cen*tes"i*mal  (?),  a.  [L.  centesimus  the  hundredth, fr. centum a
   hundred: cf. F. cent\'82simal.] Hundredth. -- n. A hundredth part.

     The neglect of a few centesimals. Arbuthnot.


   Cen*tes`i*ma"tion  (?), n. [L. centesimore to take out or select every
   hudredth,  fr.  centesimus  hundredth.]  (Mil.)  The infliction of the
   death penalty upon one person in every hundred, as in cases of mutiny.
   <-- "centesm" out of order in original -- some error. = centesim?-->


   Cen"tesm (?), n. [L. centesima.] Hundredth.


   Cen*tes"i*mo  (?), n.; pl. -mi (#). [It. & Sp.] A copper coin of Italy
   and Spain equivalent to a centime.


   Cen"ti*are` (?), n. [F. See Centare.] See centare.


   Cen`ti*cip"i*tous  (?),  a. [L. centiceps, -cipitis; centum a hunder +
   caput head.] Hundred-headed.


   Cen*tif"i*dous  (?),  a.  [L.  centifidus; centum + findere to split.]
   Divided into a hundred parts.


   Cen`ti*fo"li*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  centifolius;  centum  + folium leaf.]
   Having a hundred leaves.


   Cen"ti*grade  (?),  a.  [L.  centum  a hundred + gradus degree: cf. F.
   centigrade.] Consisting of a hundred degrees; graduated into a hundred
   divisions   or   equal  parts.  Spesifically:  of  or  pertaining  the
   centigrade   thermometer;   as,  10\'f8  centigrade  (or  10\'f8  C.).
   Centigrade  thermometer,  a  thermometer  having  the zero or 0 at the
   point indicating the freezing state of water, and the distance between
   that  and the point indicating the boiling state of water divided into
   one  hundred  degrees. It is called also the Celsius thermometer, from
   Anders Celsius, the originator of this scale.

                            Centigram, Centigramme

   Cen"ti*gram  (?),  Cen"ti*gramme  (?),  n. [F. centigramme; centi- (L.
   centum)  +  gramme.  See Gram.] The hundredth part of a gram; a weight
   equal to .15432 of a grain. See Gram.

                            Centiliter, Centilitre

   Cen"ti*li`ter, Cen"ti*li`tre (?), n. [F. centilitre; centi (L. centum)
   +  litre.  See  Liter.]  The  hundredth  part of a liter; a measure of
   volume  or capacity equal to a little more than six tenths (0.6102) of
   a cubic inch, or one third (0.338) of a fluid ounce.


   Cen*til"o*quy  (?),  n.  [L.  centum hundred + logui to speak.] A work
   divided into a hundred parts. [R.] Burton.


   Cen`time"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  L.  centesimus.  See  Centesimal.] (F.
   Coinage) The hundredth part of a franc; a small French copper coin and
   money of account.

                            Centimeter, Centimetre

   Cen"ti*me`ter,  Cen"ti*me`tre  (?),  n.  [F. centim\'8atre; centi- (L.
   centum)  +  m\'8atre.  See  Meter.]  The  hundredth part of a meter; a
   measure  of  length  equal  to rather more than thirty-nine hundredths
   (0.3937) of an inch. See Meter.


   Cen"ti*nel (?), n. Sentinel. [Obs.] Sackville.


   Cen*tin"o*dy  (?),  n.  [L.  centum  a  hundred  +  nodus knot: cf. F.
   centinode.]  (Bot.)  A  weed  with  a sterm of many joints (Illecebrum
   verticillatum); also, the Polygonum aviculare or knotgrass.


   Cen"ti*ped (?), n. [L. centipeda; centum a hundred + pes, pedis, foot:
   cf.  F. centip\'8ade.] (Zo\'94l.) A species of the Myriapoda; esp. the
   large,  flattened,  venomous  kinds  of  the order Chilopoda, found in
   tropical  climates.  they are many-jointed, and have a great number of
   feet. [Written also centipede (


   Cen"ti*stere   (?),   n.  [F.  centist\'8are;  centi-  (l.  centum)  +
   st\'8are.] The hundredth part of a stere, equal to .353 cubic feet.


   Cent"ner  (?), n. [Cf. G. centner a hundred-weight, fr. L. centenarius
   of a hundred, fr. centum a hundred.]

   1.  (Metal. & Assaying) A weight divisible first into a hundred parts,
   and then into smaller parts.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e metallurgists use a weight divided into a hundred
     equal  parts,  each  one  pound; the whole they call a centner: the
     pound  is  divided  into thirty-two parts, or half ounces; the half
     ounce  into two quarters; and each of these into two drams. But the
     assayers use different weights. With them a centner is one dram, to
     which the other parts are proportioned.

   2.   The  commercial  hundredweight  in  several  of  the  continental
   countries, varying in different places from 100 to about 112 pounds.


   Cen"to  (?), n.; pl. Centos (#). [L. cento a garment of several pieces
   sewed together, patchwork, a poem made up of various verses of another
   poem.]  A  literary or a musical composition formed by selections from
   different authors disposed in a new order.


   Cen"to*nism (?), n. The composition of a cento; the act or practice of
   composing a cento or centos.


   Cen"tral  (?),  a.  [L.  centralis,  fr.  centrum: cf. F. central. See
   Center.]  Relating  to  the  center; situated in or near the center or
   middle;  containing the center; of or pertaining to the parts near the
   center\'3c--  original  had  "or  of.." --\'3e; equidistant or equally
   accessible  from certain points. Central force (Math.), a force acting
   upon  a body towards or away from a fixed or movable center. -- Center
   sun  (Astron.),  a  name  given  to  a  hypothetical  body about which
   M\'84dler supposed the solar system together with all the stars in the
   Milky  Way,  to be revolving. A point near Alcyone in the Pleiades was
   supposed to possess characteristics of the position of such a body.

                               Central, Centrale

   Cen"tral  (?),  Cen*tra"le  (?),  n. [NL. centrale, fr. L. centralis.]
   (Anat.)  The central, or one of the central, bones of the carpus or or
   tarsus. In the tarsus of man it is represented by the navicular.


   Cen"tral*ism (?), n.

   1. The state or condition of being central; the combination of several
   parts into one whole; centralization.

   2. The system by which power is centralized, as in a government.


   Cen*tral"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Centralities (. The state of being central;
   tendency towards a center.

     Meantime  there is a great centrality, a centripetence equal to the
     centrifugence. R. W. Emerson.


   Cen`tral*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. centralisation.] The act or process
   of centralizing, or the state of being centralized; the act or process
   of  combining  or  reducing  several  parts  into  a  whole;  as,  the
   centralization  of power in the general government; the centralization
   of commerce in a city.


   Cen"tral*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Centralized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Centralizing.]  [Cf.  F.  centraliser.]  To  draw or bring to a center
   point;  to gather into or about a center; to bring into one system, or
   under one control.

     [To] centralize the power of government. Bancroft.


   Cen"tral*ly, adv. In a central manner or situation.


   Cen"tre (?), n. & v. See Center.

                              Centric, Centrical

   Cen"tric  (?),  Cen"tric*al  (?),  a.  Placed in the center or middle;

     At York or some other centrical place. Sir W. Scott.

   -- Cen"tric*al*ly, adv. -- Cen"tric*al*ness, n.


   Cen*tric"i*ty   (?),  n.  The  state  or  quality  of  being  centric;


   Cen*trif"u*gal (?), a. [L. centrum center + fugere to flee.]

   1. Tending, or causing, to recede from the center.

   2. (Bot.) (a) Expanding first at the summit, and later at the base, as
   a  flower  cluster.  (b) Having the radicle turned toward the sides of
   the fruit, as some embryos.
   Centrifugal force (Mech.), a force whose direction is from a center.

     NOTE: &hand; When a body moves in a circle with uniform velocity, a
     force  must act on the body to keep it in the circle without change
     of  velocity.  The direction of this force is towards the center of
     the  circle.  If  this force is applied by means of a string to the
     body, the string will be in a state of tension. To a person holding
     the  other  end  of  the  string,  this  tension  will appear to be
     directed toward the body as if the body had a tendency to move away
     from  the  center  of the circle which it is describing. Hence this
     latter  force  is  often  called centrifugal force. The force which
     really  acts  on  the body being directed towards the center of the
     circle  is  called centripetal force, and in some popular treatises
     the  centripetal  and  centrifugal forces are described as opposing
     and balancing each other. But they are merely the different aspects
     of the same stress.

   Clerk   Maxwell.  Centrifugal  impression  (Physiol.),  an  impression
   (motor)  sent  from  a nerve center outwards to a muscle or muscles by
   which  motion  is  produced.  --  Centrifugal  machine,  A machine for
   expelling  water  or  other  fluids  from  moist  substances,  or  for
   separating  liquids  of  different  densities by centrifugal action; a
   whirling table. -- Centrifugal pump, a machine in which water or other
   fluid  is  lifted and discharged through a pipe by the energy imparted
   by  a  wheel  or blades revolving in a fixed case. Some of the largest
   and most powerful pumps are of this kind.


   Cen*trif"u*gal, n. A centrifugal machine.


   Cen*trif"u*gence (?), n. The property or quality of being centrifugal.
   R. W. Emerson.


   Cen"tring (?), n. See Centring.


   Cen*trip"e*tal (?), a. [L. centrum center + peter to more toward.]

   1. Tending, or causing, to approach the center.

   2.  (Bot.)  (a)  Expanding first at the base of the inflorescence, and
   proceeding  in order towards the summit. (b) Having the radicle turned
   toward the axis of the fruit, as some embryos.

   3.  Progressing  by  changes  from  the exterior of a thing toward its
   center; as, the centripetal calcification of a bone. R. Owen.
   Centripetal  force  (Mech.),  a  force  whose  direction  is towards a
   center,  as in case of a planet revolving round the sun, the center of
   the  system,  See Centrifugal force, under Centrifugal. -- Centripetal
   impression  (Physiol.),  an  impression  (sensory)  transmitted  by an
   afferent  nerve  from the exterior of the body inwards, to the central
   Cen*trip"e*tence (?), n. Centripetency. 


   Cen*trip"e*ten*cy (?), n. Tendency toward the center.


   Cen*tris"coid (?), a. [NL. Centriscus (r. Gr. -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Allied
   to,  or resembling, the genus Centriscus, of which the bellows fish is
   an example.


   Cen`tro*bar"ic (?), a. [Gr. ( Relating to the center of gravity, or to
   the  process  of  finding  it.  Centrobaric  method (Math.), a process
   invented for the purpose of measuring the area or the volume generated
   by  the  rotation  of  a line or surface about a fixed axis, depending
   upon  the  principle  that  every figure formed by the revolution of a
   line  or surface about such an axis has for measure the product of the
   line or surface by the length of the path of its center of gravity; --
   sometimes  called  theorem  of  Pappus,  also, incorrectly, Guldinus's
   properties. See Barycentric calculus, under Calculus. <-- p. 233 -->


   Cen"trode  (?), n. (Kinematics) In two figures having relative motion,
   one of the two curves which are the loci of the instantaneous center.


   Cen"troid (?), n. [L. centrum + -oid.] The center of mass, inertia, or
   gravity of a body or system of bodies.


   Cen`tro*lec"i*thal (?), a. [Gr. (Biol.) Having the food yolk placed at
   the  center of the ovum, segmentation being either regular or unequal.


   Cen`tro*lin"e*ad  (?),  n.  An  instrument for drawing lines through a
   point, or lines converging to a center.


   Cen`tro*lin"e*al  (?),  a.  [L. centrum + linea line.] Converging to a
   center; -- applied to lines drawn so as to meet in a point or center.


   Cen"tro*some`  (?), n. [Gr. (Biol.) A peculiar rounded body lying near
   the  nucleus of a cell. It is regarded as the dynamic element by means
   of which the machinery of cell division is organized.


   Cen`tro*stal"tic  (?), a. [Gr. (Physiol.) A term applied to the action
   of nerve force in the spinal center. Marshall Hall.


   Cen"trum  (?),  n.;  pl. E. Centrums (#), L. Centra (#). [L., center.]
   (Anat.) The body, or axis, of a vertebra. See Vertebra.


   Cen"try (?), n. See Sentry. [Obs.] Gray.


   Cen*tum"vir (?), n.; pl. Centumviri (#). [L., fr. centum hundred + Vir
   man.]  (Rom.  Hist.) One of a court of about one hundred judges chosen
   to  try  civil suits. Under the empire the court was increased to 180,
   and met usually in four sections.


   Cen*tum"vi*ral  (?),  a.  [L.  centumvitalis.] Of or pertaining to the
   centumviri, or to a centumvir.


   Cen*tum"vi*rate  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  centumvirat.]  The  office  of  a
   centumvir, or of the centumviri.


   Cen"tu*ple  (?),  a.  [L.  centuplex; centum + plicare to fold; cf. F.
   centuple.] Hundredfold.


   Cen"tu*ple, v. t. To increase a hundredfold.


   Cen*tu"pli*cate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Centuplicated; p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Centuplicating.]  [L.  centuplicare.  See  Centuple, a.] To make a
   hundredfold; to repeat a hundred times. [R.] Howell.


   Cen*tu"ri*al  (?), a. [L. See Century.] Of or pertaining to a century;
   as, a centurial sermon. [R.]


   Cen*tu"ri*ate  (?),  a. [L. centuriatus, p. p. of centuriare to divide
   (men)  into  centuries.]  Pertaining to, or divided into, centuries or
   hundreds. [R.] Holland.


   Cen*tu"ri*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [See  century.]  To divide into hundreds.

                            Centuriator, Centurist

   Cen*tu"ri*a`tor  (?),  Cen"tu*rist  (?),  n. [Cf. F. centuriateur.] An
   historian  who  distinguishes time by centuries, esp. one of those who
   wrote the "Magdeburg Centuries." See under Century. [R.]


   Cen*tu"ri*on (?), n. [L. centurio, fr. centuria; cf. F. centurion. See
   Century.]  (Rom.  Hist.)  A  military  officer  who  commanded a minor
   division of the Roman army; a captain of a century.

     A centurion of the hand called the Italian band. Acts x. 1.


   Cen"tu*ry  (?), n.; pl. Centuries (#). [L. centuria (in senses 1 & 3),
   fr. centum a hundred: cf. F. centurie. See Cent.]

   1.  A  hundred;  as,  a  century of sonnets; an aggregate of a hundred
   things. [Archaic.]

     And on it said a century of prayers. Shak.

   2.  A  period  of  a hundred years; as, this event took place over two
   centuries ago.

     NOTE: &hand; Century, in the reckoning of time, although often used
     in  a general way of any series of hundred consecutive years (as, a
     century  of  temperance  work), usually signifies a division of the
     Christian  era,  consisting of a period of one hundred years ending
     with  the  hundredth  year  from  which  it is named; as, the first
     century   (a.  d.  1-100  inclusive);  the  seventh  century  (a.d.
     601-700);  the  eighteenth  century (a.d. 1701-1800). With words or
     phrases  connecting  it  with some other system of chronology it is
     used  of  similar  division of those eras; as, the first century of
     Rome (A.U.C. 1-100).

   3.  (Rom.  Antiq.) (a) A division of the Roman people formed according
   to  their  property, for the purpose of voting for civil officers. (b)
   One of sixty companies into which a legion of the army was divided. It
   was Commanded by a centurion.
   Century plant (Bot.), the Agave Americana, formerly supposed to flower
   but  once in a century; -- hence the name. See Agave. -- The Magdeburg
   Centuries,  an ecclesiastical history of the first thirteen centuries,
   arranged  in  thirteen  volumes,  compiled  in  the  16th  century  by
   Protestant scholars at Magdeburg.


   Ce*pev"o*rous  (?),  a. [L. cepa an onion + varare to devour.] Feeding
   upon onions. [R.] Sterling.


   Ceph"a*lad (?), adv. [Gr. ad toward.] (Zo\'94l.) Forwards; towards the
   head or anterior extremity of the body; opposed to caudad.

                            Cephalalgia, Cephalalgy

   Ceph`a*lal"gi*a  (?),  Ceph"a*lal`gy  (?),  n.  [L.  cephalalgia,  Gr.
   c\'82phalalgie.] (Med.) Pain in the head; headache.


   Ceph`a*lal"gic  (?),  a. [L. cephalalgicus, Gr. (Med.) Relating to, or
   affected with, headache. -- n. A remedy for the headache.


   Ceph`a*lan"thi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) Same as Anthodium.


   Ceph`a*las"pis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Paleon.) A genus of fossil
   ganoid  fishes  found  in the old red sandstone or Devonian formation.
   The  head  is  large,  and  protected  by a broad shield-shaped helmet
   prolonged behind into two lateral points.


   Ceph`a*la"ta  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A large division of
   Mollusca,  including all except the bivalves; -- so called because the
   head is distinctly developed. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Ceph"a*late (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Having a head.


   Ce*phal"ic  (?),  a. [L. cephalicus, Gr. c\'82phalique.] (Anat.) Of or
   pertaining  to  the  head. See the Note under Anterior. Cephalic index
   (Anat.),  the ratio of the breadth of the cranium to the length, which
   is  taken  as  the  standard,  and equal to 100; the breadth index. --
   Cephalic  vein,  a  large vein running from the back of the head alond
   the  arm;  --  so  named  because  the  ancients  used  to open it for
   disorders of the head. Dunglison.


   Ce*pha"lic, n. A medicine for headache, or other disorder in the head.


   Ceph`a*li"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. -itis.] (Med.) Same as Phrenitis.


   Ceph`a*li*za"tion  (?),  n.  Domination  of the head in animal life as
   expressed  in the physical structure; localization of important organs
   or parts in or near the head, in animal development. Dana.


   Ceph"a*lo  (?).  [Gr. A combining form denoting the head, of the head,
   connected with the head; as, cephalosome, cephalopod.


   Ceph`a*lo*cer"cal  (?),  a. [Cephalo- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Relating to the
   long axis of the body.


   Ceph"a*loid (?), a. [Cephalo- + -oid.] Shaped like the head. Craing.


   Ceph`a*lol"o*gy  (?),  n. [Cephalo- + -logy.] The science which treats
   of the head.


   Ceph"a*lo*mere  (?),  n.  [Cephalo-  +  -mere.]  (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   somites (arthromeres) which make up the head of arthropods. Packard.


   Ceph`a*lom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Cephalo-  + -meter.] (Med.) An instrument
   measuring the dimensions of the head of a fetus during delivery.


   Ceph"a*lon (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The head.


   Ceph`a*loph"o*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The cephalata.

                            Cephalopod, Cephalopode

   Ceph"a*lo*pod  (?),  Ceph"a*lo*pode  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of the


   Ceph"`a*lop"o*da   (?),   n.   pl.   [NL.,   gr.  Gr.  -poda:  cf.  F.
   c\'82phalopode.] (Zo\'94l.) The highest class of Mollusca.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ey ha ve, ar ound the front of the head, a group of
     elongated   muscular   arms,   which  are  usually  furnished  with
     prehensile  suckers  or  hooks,  The head is highly developed, with
     large,   well   organized   eyes  and  ears,  and  usually  with  a
     cartilaginous  brain  case.  The higher forms, as the cuttlefishes,
     squids,  and  octopi,  swim rapidly by ejecting a jet of water from
     the  tubular  siphon beneath the head. They have a pair of powerful
     horny  jaws shaped like a parrot's beak, and a bag of inklike fluid
     which  they  can  eject from the siphon, thus clouding the water in
     order  to  escape  from  their  enemies.  They are divided into two
     orders,  the  Dibranchiata,  having  two  gills  and  eight  or ten
     sucker-bearing  arms,  and the Tetrabranchiata, with four gills and
     numerous  arms  without  suckers. The latter are all extinct except
     the Nautilus. See Octopus, Squid, Nautilus.

                          Cephalopodic, Cephalopodous

   Ceph`a*lo*pod"ic  (?),  Ceph`a*lop"o*dous (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Belonging
   to, or resembling, the cephalopods.


   Ceph`a*lop"te*ra  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of the generic
   names  of  the  gigantic ray (Manta birostris), known as devilfish and
   sea  devil. It is common on the coasts of South Carolina, Florida, and
   farther  south.  Some  of  them grow to enormous size, becoming twenty
   feet of more across the body, and weighing more than a ton.


   Ceph"a*lo*some  (?),  n.  [Cephalo-  +  -some  body.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The
   anterior region or head of insects and other arthropods. Packard.


   Ceph"a*lo*style  (?),  n.  [Cephalo- + Gr. (Anat.) The anterior end of
   the notochord and its bony sheath in the base of cartilaginous crania.


   Ceph`a*lo*tho"rax (?), n. [Cephalo- + thorax.] (Zo\'94l.) The anterior
   portion  of  any one of the Arachnida and higher Crustacea, consisting
   of the united head and thorax.


   Ceph"a*lo*tome  (?),  n.  [Cephalo-  +  Gr.  (Med.)  An instrument for
   cutting into the fetal head, to facilitate delivery.


   Ceph`a*lot"o*my (?), n.

   1. Dissection or opening of the head.

   2.  (Med.)  Craniotomy;  --  usually applied to bisection of the fetal
   head with a saw.


   Ceph"a*lo*tribe (?), n. [Cephalo- + Gr. to rub, grind.] An obstetrical
   instrument for performing cephalotripsy.


   Ceph"a*lo*trip`sy  (?),  n.  [See  Cephalotribe.]  (Med.)  The  act or
   operation  of  crushing  the  head  of a fetus in the womb in order to
   effect delivery.


   Ceph`a*lot"ro*cha  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A kind of annelid
   larva with a circle of cilia around the head.


   Ceph"a*lous  (?), a. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Having a head; -- applied chiefly
   to the Cephalata, a division of mollusks.


   Ce"pheus (?), n. (Astron.) A northern constellation near the pole. Its
   head,  which  is  in  the Milky Way, is marked by a triangle formed by
   three stars of the fourth magnitude. See Cassiopeia.


   Ce*ra"ceous (?), a. [L. cera wax.] Having the texture and color of new
   wax; like wax; waxy.


   Ce*ra"go (?), n. [L. cera wax.] Beebread.


   Ce*ram"ic (?), a. [Gr. Keramic.] Of or pertaining to pottery; relating
   to  the  art  of  making  earthenware;  as,  ceramic products; ceramic
   ornaments for ceilings.


   Ce*ram"ics (?), n. [See Ceramic.]

   1. The art of making things of baked clay; as pottery, tiles, etc.

   2.  pl. Work formed of clay in whole or in part, and baked; as, vases,
   urns, etc. Knight.


   Ce*rar"gy*rite  (?),  n. [Gr. (Min.) Native silver chloride, a mineral
   of  a white to pale yellow or gray color, darkening on exposure to the
   light.  It may be cut by a knife, like lead or horn (hence called horn


   Cer"a*sin  (?),  n. (Chem.) A white amorphous substance, the insoluble
   part of cherry gum; -- called also meta-arabinic acid.

   2.  (Chem.)  A  gummy mucilaginous substance; -- called also bassorin,
   tragacanthin, etc.


   Ce*ras"i*nous (?), a.

   1. Pertaining to, or containing, cerasin.

   2. Of a cherry color.


   Ce*ras"tes  (?),  n. [L., a horned serpent, fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus
   of  poisonous  African serpents, with a horny scale over each eye; the
   horned viper.


   Ce"rate (?), n. [L. ceratum, ceratm, fr. cera wax.] (Med.) An unctuous
   preparation  for  external  application, of a consistence intermediate
   between  that  of  an ointment and a plaster, so that it can be spread
   upon  cloth without the use of heat, but does not melt when applied to
   the skin.

     NOTE: &hand; Cerate consists essentially of wax (for which resin or
     spermaceti  is  sometimes  substituted)  mixed  with oil, lard, and
     various  medicinal  ingredients. The cerate (formerly called simple
     cerate)  of  the  United States Pharmacopoeia is a mixture of three
     parts of white wax and seven parts of lard.


   Ce"ra*ted  (?),  p.  a.  [L. ceratus, p. p. of cerare to wax, fr. cera
   wax.] Covered with wax.


   Cer"a*tine (?), a. [Gr. (Lagic.) Sophistical.


   Cer`a*to*bran"chi*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  n.  pl.,  gills.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  group  of  nudibranchiate  Mollusca  having on the back
   papilliform or branched organs serving as gills.


   Cer`a*to*bran"chi*al  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Pertaining  to  the  bone, or
   cartilage,  below  the  epibranchial  in  a  branchial  arch.  -- n. A
   ceratobranchial bone, or cartilage.


   Ce*rat"o*dus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A genus of ganoid
   fishes,  of  the  order Dipnoi, first known as Mesozoic fossil fishes;
   but  recently  two  living  species have been discovered in Australian
   rivers.  They  have  lungs  so  well developed that they can leave the
   water  and  breathe  in  air.  In Australia they are called salmon and
   baramunda. See Dipnoi, and Archipterygium.


   Cer`a*to*hy"al  (?), a. [Gr. (Anat.) Pertaining to the bone, or carts,
   large,  below  the epihyal in the hyoid arch. -- n. A ceratohyal bone,
   or  cartilage,  which,  in  man,  forms  one of the small horns of the


   Cer`a*to*sau"rus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Paleon.)  A  carnivorous
   American  Jurassic  dinosaur  allied to the European Megalosaurus. The
   animal  was  nearly  twenty feet in length, and the skull bears a bony
   horn core on the united nasal bones. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Cer`a*to*spon"gi*\'91 (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   sponges  in  which  the skeleton consists of horny fibers. It includes
   all the commercial sponges.


   Ce*rau"nics  (?),  n. [Gr. That branch of physics which treats of heat
   and electricity. R. Park.


   Ce*rau"no*scope  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -scope.]  An  instrument or apparatus
   employed in the ancient mysteries to imitate thunder and lightning. T.

   Page 234


   Cer*be"re*an  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to, or resembling, Cerberus.
   [Written also Cerberian.]

     With wide Cerberean mouth. Milton.


   Cer"be*rus (?), n. [L. Cerberus (in sense 1), gr.

   1.  (Class.  Myth.)  A  monster,  in the shape, of a three-headed dog,
   guarding  the  entrance into the infernal regions, Hence: Any vigilant
   custodian or guardian, esp. if surly.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of East Indian serpents, allied to the pythons;
   the bokadam.


   Cer"cal (?), a. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the tail.


   Cer*ca"ri*a  (?),  n.;  pl.  Cercarle  (  [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The
   larval  form  of  a trematode worm having the shape of a tadpole, with
   its body terminated by a tail-like appendage.


   Cer*ca"ri*an  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of,  like,  or  pertaining to, the
   Cercari\'91. -- n. One of the Cercari\'91.


   Cer"co*pod   (?),  n.  [Gr.  -pod.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the  jointed
   antenniform  appendage  of  the  posterior somites of cartain insects.


   Cer"cus (?), n.; pl. Cerci (. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) See Cercopod.


   Cere  (?),  n.  [L.  cera wax: cf. F. cire.] (Zo\'94l.) The soft naked
   sheath  at  the  base  of the beak of birds of prey, parrots, and some
   other birds. See Beak.


   Cere,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Cered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cering.] [L.
   cerare,  fr.  cera  wax: cf. F. cirer.] To wax; to cover or close with
   wax. Wiseman.


   Ce"re*al   (?),  a.  [L.  Cerealis  pert.  to  Ceres,  and  hence,  to
   agriculture.  See  Ceres.]  Of  or pertaining to the grasses which are
   cultivated for their edible seeds (as wheat, maize, rice, etc.), or to
   their seeds or grain.


   Ce"re*al  n.  Any  grass cultivated for its edible grain, or the grain
   itself; -- usually in the plural.


   Ce`re*a"li*a (?), n. pl. [L. See Cereal.]

   1. (Antiq.) Public festivals in honor of Ceres.

   2. The cereals. Crabb.


   Ce"re*a*lin (?), n. (Chem.) A nitrogenous substance closely resembling
   diastase,  obtained  from bran, and possessing the power of converting
   starch into dextrin, sugar, and lactic acid. Watts.


   Cer"e*bel, n. The cerebellum. Derham.

                            Cerebellar, Cerebellous

   Cer`e*bel"lar  (?),  Cer`e*bel"lous  (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the


   Cer`e*bel"lum (?), n.; pl. E. Cerebellums (, L. Cerebella (. [L., dim.
   of  cerebrum brain.] (Anat.) The large lobe of the hind brain in front
   of  and  above  the  medulla;  the  little brain. It controls combined
   muscular action. See Brain.


   Cer"e*bral (?), a. [L. cerebrum brain; akin to Gr. c\'82r\'82bral. See
   Cheer.]  (Anat.)  Of or pertaining to the cerebrum. Cerebral apoplexy.
   See under Apoplexy.


   Cer"e*bral,  n.  [A  false translation of the Skr. m\'d4rdhanya, lit.,
   head-sounds.]  One of a class of lingual consonants in the East Indian
   languages. See Lingual, n.

     NOTE: &hand; Pr of. W. D. Whitney calls these letters linguals, and
     this is their usual designation in the United States.


   Cer"e*bral*ism (?), n. (Philos.) The doctrine or theory that psychical
   phenomena are functions or products of the brain only.


   Cer"e*bral*ist, n. One who accepts cerebralism.


   Cer"e*brate  (?), v. i. (Physiol.) To exhibit mental activity; to have
   the brain in action.


   Cer`e*bra"tion  (?),  n.  Action  of  the  brain, whether conscious or


   Cer"e*bric  (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining  to, or derived from, the brain.
   Cerebric  acid  (Physiol.  Chem.),  a name formerly sometimes given to


   Cer`e*bric"i*ty (?), n. Brain power. [R.]


   Ce*reb"ri*form  (?),  a. [Cerebrum + -form.] Like the brain in form or


   Cer`e*brif"u*gal  (?),  a.  [Cerebrum + L. fugere to flee.] (Physiol.)
   Applied  to  those  nerve fibers which go from the brain to the spinal
   cord,  and  so  transfer  cerebral  impulses (centrifugal impressions)


   Cer"e*brin    (?),    n.   [From   Cerebrum.]   (Physiol.   Chem.)   A
   nonphosphorized,  nitrogenous substance, obtained from brain and nerve
   tissue  by extraction with boiling alcohol. It is uncertain whether it
   exists  as  such in nerve tissue, or is a product of the decomposition
   of some more complex substance.


   Cer`e*brip"e*tal  (?),  a.  [Cerebrum + L. petere to seek.] (Physiol.)
   Applied  to  those  nerve  fibers which go from the spinal cord to the
   brain  and  so  transfer sensations (centripetal impressions) from the
   exterior inwards.


   Cer`e*bri"tis   (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  E.  cerebrum  +  -itis.]  (Med.)
   Inflammation of the cerebrum.


   Cer"e*broid  (?),  a.  [Cerebrum + -oid.] Resembling, or analogous to,
   the cerebrum or brain.


   Cer`e*brol"o*gy  (?),  n. [Cerebrum + -logy.] The science which treats
   of the cerebrum or brain.


   Cer`e*brop"a*thy  (?),  n.  [Cerebrum  +  Gr. (Med.) A hypochondriacal
   condition  verging upon insanity, occurring in those whose brains have
   been unduly taxed; -- called also brain fag.


   Cer`e*bros"co*py  (?),  n.  [Cerebrum + -scopy.] (Med.) Examination of
   the  brain  for  the  diagnosis of diseas; esp., the act or process of
   diagnosticating  the  condition  of  the  brain  by examination of the
   interior of the eye (as with an ophthalmoscope). Buck.


   Cer`e*brose"  (?),  n.  [From  Cerebrum.] (Physiol. Chem.) A sugarlike
   body obtained by the decomposition of the nitrogenous non-phosphorized
   principles of the brain.


   Cer`e*bro-spi"nal   (?),   a.  [Cerebrum  +  spinal.]  (Anat.)  Of  or
   pertaining  to  the central nervous system consisting of the brain and
   spinal  cord. Cerebro-spinal fluid (Physiol.), a serous fluid secreted
   by the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. -- Cerebro-spinal
   meningitis,  Cerebro-spinal  fever  (Med.),  a dangerous epidemic, and
   endemic,   febrile  disease,  characterized  by  inflammation  of  the
   membranes  of  the  brain  and  spinal  cord,  giving  rise  to severe
   headaches, tenderness of the back of the neck, paralysis of the ocular
   muscles,  etc. It is sometimes marked by a cutaneous eruption, when it
   is often called spotted fever. It is not contagious.
   Cer"e*brum  (?),  n.;  pl.  E. Cerebrums (#), L. Cerebra (#). [L., the
   brain.]  (Anat.)  The anterior, and in man the larger, division of the
   brain; the seat of the reasoning faculties and the will. See Brain. 


   Cere"cloth`  (?),  n.  [L.  cera wax + E. cloth.] A cloth smeared with
   melted wax, or with some gummy or glutinous matter.

     Linen, besmeared with gums, in manner of cerecloth. Bacon.


   Cere"ment (?), n. [L. cera wax: cf. F. cirement.] (a) A cerecloth used
   for  the  special purpose of enveloping a dead body when embalmed. (b)
   Any shroud or wrapping for the dead.


   Cer`e*mo"ni*al  (?),  a.  [L. caerimonialis: cf. F. c\'82rimonial. See

   1.  Relating  to  ceremony, or external rite; ritual; according to the
   forms of established rites.

     Ceremonial observances and outward show. Hallam.

   2. Observant of forms; ceremonious.

     NOTE: [In this sense ceremonious is now preferred.]


     He moves in the dull ceremonial track. Druden.


   Cer`e*mo"ni*al, n.

   1.  A  system of rules and ceremonies, enjoined by law, or established
   by  custom, in religious worship, social intercourse, or the courts of
   princes; outward form.

     The gorgeous ceremonial of the Burgundian court. Prescott.

   2.  The order for rites and forms in the Roman Catholic church, or the
   book   containing  the  rules  presribed  to  be  observed  on  solemn


   Cer`e*mo"ni*al*ism  (?),  n. Adherence to external rites; fondness for


   Cer`e*mo"ni*al*ly,  adv.  According  to  rites  and  ceremonies; as, a
   person ceremonially unclean.


   Cer`e*mo"ni*al*ness, n. Quality of being ceremonial.


   Cer`e*mo"ni*ous (?), a. [Cf. F. c\'82r\'82monieux, L. Caerimoniosus.]

   1. Consisting of outward forms and rites; ceremonial.

     NOTE: [In this sense ceremonial is now preferred.]

     The ceremonious part of His worship. South.

   2.  According  to  prescribed or customary rules and forms; devoted to
   forms  and  ceremonies; formally respectful; punctilious. "Ceremonious
   phrases." Addison.

     Too ceremonious and traditional. Shak.

   Syn. -- Formal; precise; exact. See Formal.


   Cer`e*mo"ni*ous*ly, adv. In a ceremonious way.


   Cer`e*mo"ni*ous*ness,   n.   The   quality,   or  practice,  of  being


   Cer"e*mo*ny  (?),  n.;  pl.  Ceremonies  (#).  [F. c\'82r\'82monie, L.
   caerimonia;  perh.  akin to E. create and from a root signifying to do
   or make.]

   1.  Ar  act  or  series  of  acts,  often  of  a symbolical character,
   prescribed  by  law, custom, or authority, in the conduct of important
   matters, as in the performance of religious duties, the transaction of
   affairs  of  state,  and  the  celebration  of notable events; as, the
   ceremony   of   crowning  a  sovereign;  the  ceremonies  observed  in
   consecrating a church; marriage and baptismal ceremonies.

     According  to  all  the  rites  of  it,  and  according  to all the
     ceremonies thereof shall ye keep it [the Passover]. Numb. ix. 3

     Bring  her  up  the  high altar, that she may The sacred ceremonies
     there partake. Spenser.

     [The  heralds]  with awful ceremony And trumpet's sound, throughout
     the host proclaim A solemn council. Milton.

   2.  Behavior  regulated  by  strict  etiquette;  a  formal  method  of
   performing acts of civility; forms of civility prescribed by custom or

     Ceremony  was  but  devised at first To set a gloss on . . . hollow
     welcomes . . . But where there is true friendship there needs none.

     Al ceremonies are in themselves very silly things; but yet a man of
     the world should know them. Chesterfield.

   3. A ceremonial symbols; an emblem, as a crown, scepter, garland, etc.

     Disrobe  the images, If you find them decked with ceremonies. . . .
     Let no images Be hung with C\'91sar's trophies. Shak.

   4. A sign or prodigy; a portent. [Obs.]

     C\'91sar,  I  never  stood  on ceremonies, Yet, now they fright me.

   Master  of  ceremonies,  an  officer  who  determines  the forms to be
   observed,  or  superintends their observance, on a public occasion. --
   Not  to  stand  on  ceremony,  not  to be ceremonious; to be familiar,
   outspoken, or bold.


   Ce"re*ous  (?),  a. [L. cereus, fr. cera was.] Waxen; like wax. [Obs.]


   Ce"res (?), n. [L., Ceres, also corn, grain, akin to E. create.]

   1.  (Class. Myth.) The daughter of Saturn and Ops or Rhea, the goddess
   of corn and tillage.

   2. (Actron.) The first discovered asteroid.


   Cer"e*sin  (?),  n.  [L.  cera  wax.]  (Chem.)  A  white  wax, made by
   bleaching  and  purifying  ozocerite,  and  used  as  a substitute for


   Ce"re*us  (?),  n.  [L., a wax candle, fr. cera wax. So named from the
   resemblance  of  one  species  to the columnar shape of a wax candle.]
   (Bot.)  A  genus  of  plants of the Cactus family. They are natives of
   America, from California to Chili.

     NOTE: &hand; Although several species flower in the night, the name
     Night-blooming   cereus   is   specially   applied  to  the  Cereus
     grandiflorus,  which  is  cultivated  for its beautiful, shortlived
     flowers.  The  Cereus  giganteus, whose columnar trunk is sometimes
     sixty  feet  in height, is a striking feature of the scenery of New
     Mexico, Texas, etc.\'3c--saguaro?= Carnegiea gigantea--\'3e


   Cer"i*al (?), a. Same as Cerial. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ce*rif"er*ous (?), a. [L. ra wax + -ferous.] Producing wax.


   Ce"rin (?), n. [L. cera wax + -in: cf. L. cerinus wax-colored.]

   1.  (Chem.)  A waxy substance extracted by alcohol or ether from cork;
   sometimes  applied  also to the portion of beeswax which is soluble in
   alcohol. Watts.

   2. (Min.) A variety of the mineral allanite.


   Ce*rin"thi*an,  n.  (Eccl. Hist.) One of an ancient religious sect, so
   called  fron Cerinthus, a Jew, who attempted to unite the doctrines of
   Christ with the opinions of the Jews and Gnostics. Hook.


   Cer"iph  (?),  n.  (Type  Founding) One of the fine lines of a letter,
   esp.  one  of the fine cross strokes at the top and bottom of letters.
   [Spelt also seriph.] Savage.


   Ce*rise"  (?),  a. [F., a cherry. See Cherry.] Cherry-colored; a light
   bright red; \'c3- applied to textile fabrics, especially silk.


   Ce"rite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) A gastropod shell belonging to the
   family Cerithi\'8bd\'91; -- so called from its hornlike form.


   Ce"rite,  n.  [From  Cherium.]  (Min.)  A  mineral  of  a  brownish of
   cherry-red color, commonly massive. It is a hydrous silicate of cerium
   and allied metals.


   Ce"ri*um  (?), n. [Named dy Berzelius in 1803 from the asteroid Ceres,
   then  just  discovered  (1801).]  (Chem.)  A  rare  metallic  element,
   occurring  in the minerals cerite, allanite, monazite, etc. Symbol Ce.
   Atomic  weight  141.5.  It  resembles iron in color and luster, but is
   soft, and both malleable and ductile. It tarnishes readily in the air.


   Cer"nu*ous (?), a. [L. cernuus with the face turned toward the earth.]
   (Bot.)  Inclining or nodding downward; pendulous; drooping; -- said of
   a bud, flower, fruit, or the capsule of a moss.


   Ce"ro (?), n. [Corrupt. fr. Sp. sierra saw, sawfish, cero.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A  large  and  valuable  fish  of  the  Mackerel  family, of the genus
   Scomberomorus.  Two  species  are  found  in  the West Indies and less
   commonly  on  the  Atlantic  coast of the United States, -- the common
   cero  (Scomberomorus  caballa),  called also kingfish, and spotted, or
   king, cero (S. regalis).


   Ce"ro*graph  (?),  n.  [Gr.  khros  wax  +  -graph.] A writing on wax.

                          Cerographic, Cerographical

   Ce`ro*graph"ic  (?),  Ce`ro*graph"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to


   Ce*rog"ra*phist (?), n. One who practices cerography.


   Ce*rog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. -graphy.]

   1. The art of making characters or designs in, or with, wax.

   2. A method of making stereotype plates from inscribed sheets of wax.


   Cer"o*lite  (?),  n. [Gr. \'b5 wax + -lite.] (Min.) A hydrous silicate
   of  magnesium,  allied to serpentine, occurring in waxlike masses of a
   yellow or greenish color.


   Ce*ro"ma (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1. The unguent (a composition of oil and wax) with which wrestles were
   anointed among the ancient Romans.

   2.  (Anc.  Arch.) That part of the baths and gymnasia in which bathers
   and wrestlers anointed themselves.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) The cere of birds.


   Cer"o*man`cy  (?),  n. [Gr. -mancy.] Divination by dropping melted wax
   in water.


   Ce*roon"  (?),  n. [See Seroon.] A bale or package. covered with hide,
   or with wood bound with hide; as, a ceroon of indigo, cochineal, etc.


   Ce`ro*plas"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Fine arts) (a) Relating to the art of
   modeling in wax. (b) Modeled in wax; as, a ceroplastic figure.

                           Ceroplastics, Ceroplasty

   Ce`ro*plas"tics (?), Ce`ro*plas"ty (?), n. [Gr. c\'82roplastique.] The
   art of modeling in wax.


   Cer"o*sin  (?),  n.  [L.  cera wax.] (Chem.) A waxy substance obtained
   from  the  bark of the sugar cane, and crystallizing in delicate white


   Ce"rote (?), n. [Obs.] See Cerate.


   Cer"o*tene  (?), n. [L. cerotum a pomade. See Cerate.] (Chem.) A white
   waxy  solid  obtained  from  Chinese  wax,  and by the distillation of

   Page 235


   Ce*rot"ic  (?),  a.  [See Cerotene.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived
   from, beeswax or Chinese wax; as, cerotic acid or alcohol.


   Cer"o*tin   (?),  n.  [See  Cerotene.]  (Chem.)  A  white  crystalline
   substance,  C27H55.OH,  obtained  from Chinese wax, and regarded as an
   alcohol of the marsh gas series; -- called also cerotic alcohol, ceryl


   Cer"ri*al (?), a. [L. cerreus, fr. cerrus a kind of oak.] (Bot.) Of or
   pertaining to the cerris.

     Chaplets green of cerrial oak. Dryden.


   Cer"ris  (?), n. [L. cerrus.] (Bot.) A species of oak (Quercus cerris)
   native  in  the  Orient and southern Europe; -- called also bitter oak
   and Turkey oak.


   Cer"tain  (?),  a.  [F.  certain,  fr.  (assumed) LL. certanus, fr. L.
   certus determined, fixed, certain, orig. p. p. of cernere to perceive,
   decide, determine; akin to Gr. concern, critic, crime, riddle a sieve,
   rinse, v.]

   1. Assured in mind; having no doubts; free from suspicions concerning.

     To make her certain of the sad event. Dryden.

     I myself am certain of you. Wyclif.

   2. Determined; resolved; -- used with an infinitive.

     However,  I  with  thee  have fixed my lot, Certain to undergo like
     doom. Milton.

   3. Not to be doubted or denied; established as a fact.

     The dream is certain, and the interpretation thereof sure. Dan. ii.

   4. Actually existing; sure to happen; inevitable.

     Virtue  that  directs our ways Through certain dangers to uncertain
     praise. Dryden.

     Death, as the Psalmist saith, is certain to all. Shak.

   5. Unfailing; infallible.

     I  have  often wished that I knew as certain a remedy for any other
     distemper. Mead.

   6. Fixed or stated; regular; determinate.

     The people go out and gather a certain rate every day. Ex. xvi. 4.

   7.  Not specifically named; indeterminate; indefinite; one or some; --
   sometimes used independenty as a noun, and meaning certain persons.

     It came to pass when he was in a certain city. Luke. v. 12.

     About  everything  he  wrote  there was a certain natural grace und
     decorum. Macaulay.

   For  certain,  assuredly.  --  Of a certain, certainly. Syn. -- Bound;
   sure; true; undeniable; unquestionable; undoubted; plain; indubitable;
   indisputable;   incontrovertible;   unhesitating;  undoubting;  fixed;


   Cer"tain, n.

   1. Certainty. [Obs.] Gower.

   2. A certain number or quantity. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Cer"tain, adv. Certainly. [Obs.] Milton.


   Cer"tain*ly, adv. Without doubt or question; unquestionably.


   Cer"tain*ness, n. Certainty.


   Cer"tain*ty (?), n.; pl. Certainties (#). [OF. certainet\'82.]

   1. The quality, state, or condition, of being certain.

     The  certainty of punishment is the truest security against crimes.
     Fisher Ames.

     2. A fact or truth unquestionable established.

     Certainties are uninteresting and sating. Landor.

     3. (Law) Clearness; freedom from ambiguity; lucidity.

   Of a certainty, certainly.


   Cer"tes  (?),  adv.  [F.  certes,  for \'85 certes, fr. L. certus. See
   Certain.] Certainly; in truth; verily. [Archaic]

     Certes  it  great  pity was to see Him his nobility so foul deface.


   Cer*tif"i*cate  (?),  n.  [F.  certificat,  fr.  LL. certificatus made
   certain, p. p. of certificare. See tify.]

   1.  A  written  testimony to the truth of any fact; as, certificate of
   good behavior.

   2. A written declaration legally authenticated.
   Trial  by  certificate,  a  trial  which  the  testimony of the person
   certifying  is  the only proper criterion of the point in dispute; as,
   when  the  issue  is  whether a person was absent in the army, this is
   tried  by  the certificate of the proper officer in writing, under his
   seal. Blackstone.


   Cer*tif"i*cate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Certificated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Certificating.] [See Certify.]

   1. To verify or vouch for by certificate.

   2.  To furnish with a certificate; as, to certificate the captain of a
   vessel; a certificated teacher.


   Cer`ti*fi*ca"tion  (?), n.[L. certificatio: cf. F. certification.] The
   act of certifying.


   Cer"ti*fi`er (?), n. One who certifies or assures.


   Cer"ti*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Certified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Certifying.]  [F.  certifier,  LL.  certificare;  L.  certus certain +
   facere to make. See Certain, and cf. Certificate, v. t.]

   1. To give cetain information to; to assure; to make certain.

     We  certify the king, that . . . thou shalt have no portion on this
     side the river. Ezra iv. 16.

   2.  To  give  certain  information  of; to make certain, as a fact; to
   verify. Hammond.

     The  industry  of science at once certifies and greatly extends our
     knowledge of the vastness of the creation. I. Taylor.

   3.  To  testify  to  in  writing; to make a declaration concerning, in
   writing, under hand, or hand and seal.

     The  judges shall certify their opinion to the chancellor, and upon
     such certificate the decree is usually founded. Blackstone.

   Certified  check,  A bank check, the validity of which is certified by
   the bank on which it is drawn.


   Cer`ti*o*ra"ri  (?), n. [So named from the emphatic word certiorari in
   the Latin form of the writ, which read certiorar volumus we wish to be
   certified.] (Law) A writ issuing out of chancery, or a superior court,
   to  call  up  the records of a inferior court, or remove a cause there
   depending,  in  order  that  the  party  may have more sure and speedy
   justice,  or  that  errors  and  irreguarities may be corrected. It is
   obtained  upon  complaint of a party that he has not received justice,
   or can not have an impartial trial in the inferior court.

     NOTE: &hand; A  ce rtiorari is  th e co rrect process to remove the
     proceedings  of  a  court  in  which  cases  are  tried in a manner
     different  from  the  course  of  the  common  law,  as  of  county
     commissioners.  It is also used as an auxiliary process in order to
     obtain a full return to some other process.



   Cer"ti*tude  (?),  n. [LL. certitudo, fr. L. certus: cf. F. certitude.
   See Certain.] Freedom from doubt; assurance; certainty. J. H. Newman.


   Cer"ule  (?),  a.  [L. caerulus, eguiv. to caeruleus.] Blue; cerulean.
   [Obs.] Dyer.


   Ce*ru"le*an (?), a. [L. caeruleus.] Sky-colored; blue; azure. Cowper.

     Blue, blue, as if that sky let fall

     A flower from its cerulean wall. Bryant.


     Ce*ru"le*ous (?), a. Cerulean. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


     Cer`u*lif"ic  (?),  a.  [L.arulus  dark  blue  +  facere  to make.]
     Producing a blue or sky color. [R.]


     Ce*ru"men  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. L. cera wax.] (Physiol.) The yellow,
     waxlike secretion from the glands of the external ear; the earwax.


     Ce*ru"mi*nous  (?),  a.  (Physiol.)  Pertaining  to,  or secreting,
     cerumen; as, the ceruminous glands.


     Ce"ruse (?), n. [F. c\'82ruse, L. cerussa.]

     1. White lead, used as a pigment. See White lead, under White.

     2. A cosmetic containing white lead.

     To distinguish ceruse from natural bloom. Macaulay.

     3. (Min.) The native carbonate of lead.


     Ce"rused  (?),  a.  Washed  with  a  preparation of white lead; as,
     cerused face. Beau. & Fl.

                              Cerusite, Cerussite

     Ce"ru*site (?), Ce"rus*site (?), n. (Min.) Native lead carbonate; a
     mineral  occurring  in  colorless,  white, or yellowish transparent
     crystals, with an adamantine, also massive and compact.


     Cer"van*tite (?), n. [Named from Cervantes a town in Spain.] (Min.)
     See under Antimony.


     Cer"ve*lat   (?),  n.  [F.]  (Mus.)  An  ancient  wind  instrument,
     resembling the bassoon in tone.


     Cer"vi*cal,  a.  [L. cervix, -icis, neck: cf. F. cervical.] (Anat.)
     Of or pertaining to the neck; as, the cervical vertebr\'91.


     Cer"vi*cide  (?), n. [L. cervus deer + caedere to kill.] The act of
     killing deer; deer-slaying. [R.]


     Cer"vine  (?),  a.  [L.  cervinus, fr. cervus deer: cf. F. cervin.]
     (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  deer,  or  to  the  family


     Cer"vix (?), n.; pl. E. Cervixes (#), L. Cervices (#). [L.] (Anat.)
     The  neck;  also, the necklike portion of any part, as of the womb.
     See Illust. of Bird.


     Cer"vus  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  deer.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of ruminants,
     including the red deer and other allied species.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rmerly al l sp ecies of  de er were included in the
     genus Cervus.


     Ce"ryl  (?),  n.  [L.  cera  wax  + -yl.] (Chem.) A radical, C27H55
     supposed  to  exist in several compounds obtained from Chinese wax,
     beeswax, etc.

                              Cesarean, Cesarian

     Ce*sa"re*an (?), Ce*sa"ri*an, a. Same as C\'91sarean, C\'91sarian.


     Ce"sar*ism (?), n. See C\'91sarism.


     Ces"pi*tine  (?),  n.  [L.  caespes,  caespitis,  a  turf.]  An oil
     obtained by distillation of peat, and containing various members of
     the pyridine series.


     Ces"pi*ti`tious  (?),  a. [L. caespiticius, fr. caespes turf.] Same
     as Cespitious. [R.] Gough.


     Ces"pi*tose`  (?),  a.  [L. caespes turf.] (Bot.) Having the form a
     piece  of  turf,  i. e., many stems from one rootstock or from many
     entangled rootstocks or roots. [Written also c\'91spitose.]


     Ces"pi*tous  (?), a. [See Cespitose.] Pertaining to, consisting, of
     resembling, turf; turfy.

     A  cespitous  or  turfy  plant  has  many stems from the same root,
     usually forming a close, thick carpet of matting. Martyn.


     Cess (?), n. [For sess, conts. from Assess.]

     1. A rate or tax. [Obs. or Prof. Eng. & Scot.] Spenser.

     2. Bound; measure. [Obs.]

     The poor jade is wrung in the withers out of all cess. Shak.


     Cess,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cessed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cessing.] To
     rate; to tax; to assess. Spenser.


     Cess,  v.  i.  [F. cesser. See Cease.] To cease; to neglect. [Obs.]


     Ces"sant  (?)  a.  [L.  cessans,  p.  pr.  of  cessare. See Cease.]
     Inactive; dormant [Obs.] W. Montagu.


     Ces*sa"tion  (?),  n.  [F. cessation, L. cessatio, fr. cessare. See
     Cease.]   A  ceasing  of  discontinuance,  as  of  action,  whether
     termporary or final; a stop; as, a cessation of the war.

     The temporary cessation of the papal iniquities. Motley.

     The day was yearly observed for a festival by cessation from labor.
     Sir J. Hayward.

     Cessation of arms

   (Mil.), an armistice, or truce, agreed to by the commanders of armies,
   to  give time for a capitulation, or for other purposes. Syn. -- Stop;
   rest;  stay;  pause;  discontinuance; intermission; interval; respite;
   interruption; recess; remission.


   Ces*sa"vit  (?), n. [L., he has ceased.] [O. Eng. Law] A writ given by
   statute  to  recover lands when the tenant has for two years failed to
   perform the conditions of his tenure.


   Ces"ser  (?),  n.  [From  Cess,  v. i.] (Law) a neglect of a tenant to
   perform services, or make payment, for two years.


   Ces"si*ble  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  cessible.  See  Cession.]  Giving way;
   yielding. [Obs.] -- Ces`si*bil"i*ty (#), n. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.


   Ces"sion  (?),  n. [L. cessio, fr. cedere to give way: cf. F. Cession.
   See Cede.]

   1. A yielding to physical force. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2. Concession; compliance. [Obs.]

   3.  A  yielding,  or  surrender,  as of property or rights, to another
   person; the act of ceding.

     A cession of the island of New Orleans. Bancroft.

   4.  (Eccl.  Law)  The  giving  up  or vacating a benefice by accepting
   another without a proper dispensation.

   5.  (Civil  Law)  The voluntary surrender of a person's effects to his
   creditors to avoid imprisonment.


   Ces"sion*a*ry  (?), a. [LL. cessionarius, from cessionare to cede, fr.
   L.  cessio:  cf. F. cessionnaire. See Cession.] Having surrendered the
   effects; as, a cessionary bankrupt. Martin.


   Cess"ment  (?),  n.  [From  Cess,  v. t.] An assessment or tax. [Obs.]


   Ces"sor (?), n. [From Cess, v. i. Cf. Cesser.] (Law) One who neglects,
   for two years, to perform the service by which he holds lands, so that
   he incurs the danger of the writ of cessavit. See Cessavit. Cowell.


   Ces"sor, n. [From Cess, v. t.] An assessor. [Obs.]


   Cess`pipe"  (?),  n. A pipe for carrying off waste water, etc., from a
   sink or cesspool. Knight.


   Cess"pool`  (?),  n.  [See  Sesspol.]  A cistern in the course, or the
   termination, of a drain, to collect sedimentary or superfluous matter;
   a privy vault; any receptace of filth. [Written also sesspool.]


   Cest  (?),  n. [L. cestus: cf. OF. ceste.] A woman's girdle; a cestus.
   [R.] Collins.


   Ces"tode  (?),  a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Cestoidea. -- n.
   One of the Cestoidea.


   Ces"toid,  a.  (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Cestoidea. -- n. One
   of the Cestoidea.


   Ces*toid"e*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., gr. Gr. -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) A class of
   parasitic  worms  (Platelminthes)  of which the tapeworms are the most
   common  examples.  The  body  is flattened, and usually but not always
   long,  and  composed of numerous joints or segments, each of which may
   contain  a  complete  set of male and female reproductive organs. They
   have   neither  mouth  nor  intestine.  See  Tapeworm.  [Written  also


   Ces*told"e*an (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Cestoidea.


   Ces*tra"ci*ont   (?),   n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  shark  of  the  genus
   Cestracion, and of related genera. The posterior teeth form a pavement
   of  bony  plates  for  crushing  shellfish.  Most  of  the species are
   extinct.  The Port Jackson shark and a similar one found in California
   are living examples.


   Ces*tra"ci*ont, a. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to, or characteristic of, the
   genus Cestracion.


   Ces"tus (?), n. [L. cestus girdle, Gr.

   1.  (Antiq.) A girdle; particularly that of Aphrodite (or Venus) which
   gave the wearer the power of exciting love.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus  of  Ctenophora.  The typical species (Cestus
   Veneris)  is  remarkable  for its brilliant iridescent colors, and its
   long, girdlelike form.


   Ces"tus,  n.  [L.  caestus,  and  cestus.] (Antiq.) A covering for the
   hands  of boxers, made of leather bands, and often loaded with lead or

                               Cestuy or Cestui

   Ces"tuy or Ces"tui (?), pron. [Norm. F.] (Law) He; the one. Cestuy que
   trust  (  [norm.  F.],  a  person who has the equitable and beneficial
   interest  in  property,  the  legal  interest  in which is vested in a
   trustee.  Wharton.  -- Cestuy que use ( [Norm. F.], a person for whose
   use land, etc., is granted to another.


   Ce*su"ra (?), n. See C\'91sura.


   Ce*su"ral (?), a. See C\'91sural.


   Ce*ta"ce*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., from L. cetus whale, Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An
   order  of  marine mammals, including the whales. Like ordinary mammals
   they  breathe  by  means  of lungs, and bring forth living young which
   they  suckle for some time. The anterior limbs are changed to paddles;
   the  tail  flukes  are horizontal. There are two living suborders: (a)
   The  Mysticete  or whalebone whales, having no true teeth after birth,
   but  with  a  series of plates of whalebone [see Baleen.] hanging down
   from the upper jaw on each side, thus making a strainer, through which
   they  receive  the  small  animals  upon  which  they  feed.  (b)  The
   Denticete,  including  the dolphins and sperm whale, which have teeth.
   Another  suborder (Zeuglodontia) is extinct. The Sirenia were formerly
   included in the Cetacea, but are now made a separate order.


   Ce*ta"cean (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Cetacea.


   Ce*ta"ceous (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Cetacea.


   Ce"te   (?),   n.   [L.,  pl.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the  Cetacea,  or
   collectively, the Cetacea.


   Ce"tene  (?),  n.  [See Cete.] (Chem.) An oily hydrocarbon, C16H32, of
   the ethylene series, obtained from spermaceti.


   Cet"e*rach  (?),  n.  [F.  c\'82t\'82rac,  fr.  Ar. shetrak.] (Bot.) A
   species of fern with fronds (Asplenium Ceterach).


   Cet"e*wale  (?),  n.  [OF.  citoal, F. zedoaire. See Zedoary.] Same as
   Zedoary. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ce"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a whale.


   Ce"tin  (?),  n.  [L.  cetus  whale.] (Chem.) A white, waxy substance,
   forming the essential part of spermaceti.

   Page 236


   Ce`to*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to cetology.


   Ce*tol"o*gist (?), a. One versed in cetology.


   Ce*tol"o*gy  (?), n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. c\'82tologie.] The description
   or natural history of cetaceous animals.


   Ce*trar"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or derived from, the lichen, Iceland
   moss (Cetaria Islandica). Cetraric acid. See Cetrarin.


   Cet"ra*rin  (?),  n.  [From Cetraria Islandica, the scientific name of
   Iceland  moss.]  (Chem.)  A white substance extracted from the lichen,
   Iceland moss (Cetraria Islandica). It consists of several ingredients,
   among which is cetraric acid, a white, crystalline, bitter substance.


   Ce"tyl (?), n. [Gr. -yl.] (Chem.) A radical, C16H33, not yet isolated,
   but  supposed  to  exist  in a series of compounds homologous with the
   ethyl compounds, and derived from spermaceti.


   Ce*tyl"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  derived  from,
   spermaceti. Cetylic alcohol (Chem.), a white, waxy, crystalline solid,
   obtained from spermaceti, and regarded as homologous with ordinary, or
   ethyl, alcohol; ethal; -- called also cetyl alcohol.


   Cey"lan*ite  (?),  n. [F., fr. Ceylan Ceylon.] (Min.) A dingy blue, or
   grayish  black,  variety  of  spinel.  It  is  also  called pleonaste.
   [Written also ceylonite.]


   Cey`lon*ese"  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Ceylon. -- n. sing. & pl. A
   native or natives of Ceylon.


   C.G.S.  An  abbreviation for Centimeter, Gram, Second. -- applied to a
   system  of  units  much  empoyed  in  physical science, based upon the
   centimeter  as  the  unit of length, the gram as the unit of weight or
   mass, and the second as the unit of time.


   Chab  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  red-bellied  wood  pecker (Melanerpes

                              Chabasite, Cabazite

   Chab"a*site  (?), Cab"a*zite (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) A mineral occuring in
   glassy  rhombohedral  crystals, varying, in color from white to yellow
   or  red.  It  is  essentially  a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime.
   Called also chabasie.


   Cha*blis"  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  white  wine made near Chablis, a town in
   France. <-- 2. a white wine resembling Chablis[1], but made elsewhere,
   as in California. -->

                                Chabouk, Chabuk

   Cha*bouk",  Cha*buk" (?), n. [Hind. ch\'bebuk horsewhip.] A long whip,
   such as is used in the East in the infliction of punishment. Balfour.


   Chace (?), n. See 3d Chase, n., 3.


   Chace, v. t. To pursue. See Chase v. t.


   Cha`cha*la"ca  (?),  n.  [Native name, prob. given in imitation of its
   cry.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The  texan  guan  (Ortalis  vetula).  [written also


   Chak  (?),  v.  i. To toss up the head frequently, as a horse to avoid
   the restraint of the bridle.


   Chac"ma  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  A  large species of African baboon
   (Cynocephalus porcarius); -- called also ursine baboon.

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Baboon.]


   Cha*conne"  (?), n. [F., fr. Sp. chacona.] (Mus.) An old Spanish dance
   in moderate three-four measure, like the Passacaglia, which is slower.
   Both are used by classical composers as themes for variations.


   Chad (?), n. See Shad. [Obs.]


   Ch\'91*te"tes  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of fossil
   corals, common in the lower Silurian limestones.


   Ch\'91*tif"er*ous (?), a. [Gr. -ferous.] (Zo\'94l.) Bearing set\'91.


   Ch\'91"to*dont  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) A marine fish of the family
   Ch\'91todontid\'91.  The  ch\'91todonts have broad, compressed bodies,
   and usually bright colors.


   Ch\'91to*dont,  a. Of or pertaining to the Ch\'91todonts or the family


   Ch\'91"tog*nath   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Of  or  pertaining  to  the


   Ch\'91*tog"na*tha  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l) An order of
   free-swimming  marine  worms,  of which the genus Sagitta is the type.
   They have groups of curved spines on each side of the head.


   Ch\'91"to*pod (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the Ch\'91topoda. -- n.
   One of the Ch\'91topoda.


   Ch\'91*top"o*da  (?),  n. pl. [NL., from Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) A very
   extensive  order of Annelida, characterized by the presence of lateral
   set\'91,  or  spines, on most or all of the segments. They are divided
   into two principal groups: Oligoch\'91ta, including the earthworms and
   allied forms, and Polych\'91ta, including most of the marine species.


   Ch\'91"to*tax`y (?), n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The arrangement of bristles on
   an insect.


   Chafe  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Chafed (?); p pr. & vb. n. Chafing.]
   [OE.  chaufen  to  warm,  OF. chaufer, F. chauffer, fr. L. calefacere,
   calfacere,  to  make  warm;  calere  to  be warm + facere to make. See

   1.  To  ecxite  heat  in by friction; to rub in order to stimulate and
   make warm.

     To rub her temples, and to chafe her skin. Spenser.

   2. To excite passion or anger in; to fret; to irritate.

     Her intercession chafed him. Shak.

   3. To fret and wear by rubbing; as, to chafe a cable.

     Two  slips  of  parchment  which  she sewed round it to prevent its
     being chafed. Sir W. Scott.

   Syn. -- To rub; fret; gall; vex; excite; inflame.


   Chafe,  v.  i.  To  rub; to come together so as to wear by rubbing; to
   wear by friction.

     Made its great boughs chafe together. Longfellow.

     The troubled Tiber chafing with her shores. Shak.

   2. To be worn by rubbing; as, a cable chafes.

   3.  To  have  a  feeling  of  vexation;  to  be  vexed; to fret; to be
   irritated. Spenser.

     He will chafe at the doctor's marrying my daughter. Shak.


   Chafe, n.

   1. Heat excited by friction.

   2. Injury or wear caused by friction.

   3. Vexation; irritation of mind; rage.

     The cardinal in a chafe sent for him to Whitehall. Camden.


   Chaf"er (?), n.

   1. One who chafes.

   2. A vessel for heating water; -- hence, a dish or pan.

     A chafer of water to cool the ends of the irons. Baker.


   Chaf"er,  n.  [AS. ceafor; akin to D. kever, G k\'89fer.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   kind  of  beetle;  the  cockchafer.  The name is also applied to other
   species; as, the rose chafer.


   Chaf"er*y  (?),  n. [See Chafe, v. t.] (Iron Works) An open furnace or
   forge, in which blooms are heated before being wrought into bars.

                             Chafewax, OR Chaffwax

   Chafe"wax`  (?),  OR Chaff"wax` (?), n. (Eng. Law) Formerly a chancery
   officer who fitted wax for sealing writs and other documents.


   Chafe"weed`  (?),  n. (Bot.) The cudweed (Gnaphalium), used to prevent
   or cure chafing.


   Chaff (?), n. [AC. ceaf; akin to D. kaf, G. kaff.]

   1.  The  glumes or husks of grains and grasses separated from the seed
   by threshing and winnowing, etc.

     So take the corn and leave the chaff behind. Dryden.

     Old birds are not caught with caff. Old Proverb.

   2.  Anything  of  a  comparatively  light and worthless character; the
   refuse part of anything.

     The chaff and ruin of the times. Shak.

   3. Straw or hay cut up fine for the food of cattle.

     By  adding  chaff to his corn, the horse must take more time to eat
     it. In this way chaff is very useful. Ywatt.

   4. Light jesting talk; banter; raillery.

   5.  (Bot.)  The scales or bracts on the receptacle, which subtend each
   flower in the heads of many Composit\'91, as the sunflower. Gray.
   Chaff  cutter, a machine for cutting, up straw, etc., into "chaff" for
   the use of cattle.


   Chaff,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chaffed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chaffing.] To
   use light, idle lagnguage by way of fun or ridicule; to banter.


   Chaff,  v.  t.  To make fun of; to turn into ridicule by addressing in
   ironical or bantering language; to quiz.

     Morgan saw that his master was chaffing him. Thackeray.

     A  dozen  honest  fellows  .  .  .  chaffed  each other about their
     sweethearts. C. Kingsley.


   Chaff"er, n. One who chaffs.


   Chaf"fer  (?),  n.  [OE.  chaffare,  cheapfare; AS. ce\'a0p a bargain,
   price  +  faru  a  journey;  hence,  originally, a going to barain, to
   market.   See   Cheap,  and  Fare.]  Bargaining;  merchandise.  [Obs.]


   Chaf"fer,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Chaffered  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Chaffering.]  [OE.  chaffaren,  fr.  chaffare,  chapfare, cheapfare, a
   bargaining. See Chaffer, n.]

   1.  To  treat  or  dispute  about a purchase; to bargain; to haggle or
   higgle; to negotiate.

     To chaffer for preferments with his gold. Dryden.

   2. To talk much and idly; to chatter. Trench.


   Chaf"fer, v. t.

   1. To buy or sell; to trade in.

     He chaffered chairs in which churchmen were set. Spenser.

   2. To exchange; to bandy, as words. Spenser.


   Chaf"fer*er (?), n. One who chaffers; a bargainer.


   Chaf"fern  (?),  n.  [See  Chafe,  v.  t.] A vessel for heating water.
   [Obs.] Johnson.


   Chaf"fer*y, n. Traffic; bargaining. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Chaf"finch  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Chiff-chaff.]  (Zo\'94l.) A bird of Europe
   (Fringilla  c\'d2lebs),  having  a  variety  of  very sweet songs, and
   highly valued as a cage bird; -- called also copper finch.


   Chaff"ing  (?),  n. The use of light, frivolous language by way of fun
   or ridicule; raillery; banter.


   Chaff"less, a. Without chaff.


   Chaff"y (?), a.

   1. Abounding in, or resembling, chaff.

     Chaffy grain beneath the thresher's flail. Coleridge.

   2. Light or worthless as chaff.

     Slight and chaffy opinion. Glanvill.

   3.  (Bot.)  (a)  Resembling  chaff;  composed of light dry scales. (b)
   Bearing  or  covered  with dry scales, as the under surface of certain
   ferns, or the disk of some composite flowers.


   Chaf"ing  (?), n. [See Chafe, v. t.] The act of rubbing, or wearing by
   friction;  making  by  rubbing.  Chafing  dish,  a  dish or vessel for
   cooking  on the table, or for keeping food warm, either by coals, by a
   lamp,  or  by  hot  water; a portable grate for coals. -- Chafing gear
   (Naut.),  any material used to protect sails, rigging, or the like, at
   points where they are exposed to friction.


   Cha*green" (?), n. See Shagreen.


   Cha*grin"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  chagrin shagreen, a particular kind of
   rough  and grained leather; also a rough fishskin used for graters and
   files;  hence  (Fig.),  a  gnawing,  corroding  grief.  See Shagreen.]
   Vexation; mortification.

     I  must  own  that I felt rather vexation and chagrin than hope and
     satisfaction. Richard Porson.

     Hear me, and touch Belinda with chagrin. Pope.

   Syn.  --  Vexation;  mortification; peevishness; fretfulness; disgust;
   disquiet.  Chagrin,  Vexation, Mortification. These words agree in the
   general  sense of pain produced by untoward circumstances. Vexation is
   a  feeling  of  disquietude  or  irritating  uneasiness  from numerous
   causes,  such  as  losses,  disappointments,  etc.  Mortification is a
   stronger  word, and denotes that keen sense of pain which results fron
   wounded  pride  or  humiliating  occurrences. Chagrin is literally the
   cutting  pain  produced  by  the  friction of Shagreen leather; in its
   figurative  sense, it varies in meaning, denoting in its lower degrees
   simply  a  state of vexation, and its higher degrees the keenest sense
   of  mortification.  "Vexation arises chiefly fron our wishes and views
   being  crossed:  mortification,  from  our self-importance being hurt;
   chagrin, from a mixture of the two." Crabb.


   Cha*grin",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Chagrined  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chargrining.]  [Cf.  F. chagriner See Chagrin, n.] To excite ill-humor
   in; to vex; to mortify; as, he was not a little chagrined.


   Cha*grin", v. i. To be vexed or annoyed. Fielding.


   Cha*grin", a. Chagrined. Dryden.


   Chain (?), n. [F. cha\'8cne, fr. L. catena. Cf. Catenate.]

   1.  A series of links or rings, usually of metal, connected, or fitted
   into  one  another,  used  for  various  purposes,  as  of support, of
   restraint, of ornament, of the exertion and transmission of mechanical
   power, etc.

     [They] put a chain of gold about his neck. Dan. v. 29.

   2.  That  which confines, fetters, or secures, as a chain; a bond; as,
   the chains of habit.

     Driven down To chains of darkness and the undying worm. Milton.

   3. A series of things linked together; or a series of things connected
   and  following  each  other in succession; as, a chain of mountains; a
   chain of events or ideas.

   4.  (Surv.)  An  instrument  which  consists  of  links and is used in
   measuring land.

     NOTE: &hand; On e commonly in use is Gunter's chain, which consists
     of  one  hundred links, each link being seven inches and ninety-two
     one  hundredths  in  length; making up the total length of rods, or
     sixty-six,  feet;  hence,  a measure of that length; hence, also, a
     unit for land measure equal to four rods square, or one tenth of an

   5.  pl.  (Naut.) Iron links bolted to the side of a vessel to bold the
   dead-eyes connected with the shrouds; also, the channels.

   6. (Weaving) The warp threads of a web. Knight.
   Chain  belt  (Mach.), a belt made of a chain; -- used for transmitting
   power.  --  Chain  boat,  a boat fitted up for recovering lost cables,
   anchors,  etc.  -- Chain bolt (a) (Naut.) The bolt at the lower end of
   the  chain  plate,  which  fastens it to the vessel's side. (b) A bolt
   with  a  chain attached for drawing it out of position. -- Chain bond.
   See Chain timber. -- Chain bridge, a bridge supported by chain cables;
   a  suspension  bridge.  -- Chain cable, a cable made of iron links. --
   Chain  coral (Zo\'94l.), a fossil coral of the genus Halysites, common
   in  the  middle  and  upper Silurian rocks. The tubular corallites are
   united  side by side in groups, looking in an end view like links of a
   chain.  When  perfect,  the  calicles  show  twelve  septa.  --  Chain
   coupling.  (a) A shackle for uniting lengths of chain, or connecting a
   chain  with  an object. (b) (Railroad) Supplementary coupling together
   of  cars  with  a  chain.  --  Chain  gang, a gang of convicts chained
   together.  --  Chain  hook  (Naut.),  a hook, used for dragging cables
   about  the  deck. -- Chain mail, flexible, defensive armor of hammered
   metal  links  wrought  into  the  form  of a garment. -- Chain molding
   (Arch.), a form of molding in imitation of a chain, used in the Normal
   style.  --  Chain  pier,  a  pier  suspended  by  chain. -- Chain pipe
   (Naut.),  an  opening  in the deck, lined with iron, through which the
   cable   is   passed   into  the  lockers  or  tiers.  --  Chain  plate
   (Shipbuilding),  one  of the iron plates or bands, on a vessel's side,
   to  which  the standing rigging is fastened. -- Chain pulley, a pulley
   with  depressions  in  the periphery of its wheel, or projections from
   it,  made  to  fit  the  links  of a chain. -- Chain pumps. See in the
   Vocabulary.  --  Chain  rule (Arith.), a theorem for solving numerical
   problems  by  composition of ratios, or compound proportion, by which,
   when  several  ratios  of  equality  are given, the consequent of each
   being the same as the antecedent of the next, the relation between the
   first  antecedent and the last consequent is discovered. -- Chain shot
   (Mil.),  two  cannon  balls  united  by a shot chain, formerly used in
   naval  warfare  on  account  of  their  destructive effect on a ship's
   rigging.  --  Chain  stitch.  See  in the Vocabulary. -- Chain timber.
   (Arch.)  See  Bond timber, under Bond. -- Chain wales. (Naut.) Same as
   Channels. -- Chain wheel. See in the Vocabulary. -- Closed chain, Open
   chain  (Chem.),  terms  applied to the chemical structure of compounds
   whose  rational  formul\'91  are written respectively in the form of a
   closed  ring  (see  Benzene  nucleus,  under  Benzene),  or in an open
   extended  form.  -- Endless chain, a chain whose ends have been united
   by a link.


   Chain,  v.  t.  [imp.  p.  p.  Chained  (ch\'bend);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.

   1.  To  fasten,  bind,  or  connect  with  a  chain; to fasten or bind
   securely, as with a chain; as, to chain a bulldog.

     Chained behind the hostile car. Prior.

   2. To keep in slavery; to enslave.

     And  which  more  blest?  who  chained his country, say Or he whose
     virtue sighed to lose a day? Pope.

   3. To unite closely and strongly.

     And in this vow do chain my soul to thine. Shak.

   4. (Surveying) To measure with the chain.

   5. To protect by drawing a chain across, as a harbor.

   Page 237


   Chain"less  (?),  a. Having no chain; not restrained or fettered. "The
   chainless mind." Byron.


   Chain"let (?), n. A small chain. Sir W. Scott.

                                  Chain pump

   Chain"  pump` (?). A pump consisting of an endless chain, running over
   a  drum  or wheel by which it is moved, and dipping below the water to
   be  raised.  The  chain  has at intervals disks or lifts which fit the
   tube  through  which  the ascending part passes and carry the water to
   the point of discharge.

                                 Chain stitch

   Chain" stitch` (?).

   1.  An  ornamental  stitch  like  the  links  of  a  chain; -- used in
   crocheting, sewing, and embroidery.

   2.  (Machine  Sewing)  A  stitch in which the looping of the thread or
   threads  forms a chain on the under side of the work; the loop stitch,
   as distinguished from the lock stitch. See Stitch.

                                  Chain wheel

   Chain" wheel` (?).

   1. A chain pulley, or sprocket wheel.

   2.  An inversion of the chain pump, by which it becomes a motor driven
   by water.


   Chain"work` (?), n. Work looped or linked after the manner of a chain;
   chain stitch work.


   Chair  (?),  n.  [OE.  chaiere, chaere, OF. chaiere, chaere, F. chaire
   pulpit,  fr.  L.  cathedra chair, armchair, a teacher's or professor's
   chair, Gr. sit. See Sit, and cf. Cathedral, chaise.]

   1. A movable single seat with a back.

   2.  An  official  seat,  as of a chief magistrate or a judge, but esp.
   that of a professor; hence, the office itself.

     The chair of a philosophical school. Whewell.

     A chair of philology. M. Arnold.

   3.  The  presiding  officer of an assembly; a chairman; as, to address
   the chair.

   4.  A  vehicle  for  one  person;  either a sedan borne upon poles, or
   two-wheeled carriage, drawn by one horse; a gig. Shak.

     Think  what  an  equipage thou hast in air, And view with scorn two
     pages and a chair. Pope.

   5.  An iron blok used on railways to support the rails and secure them
   to the sleepers.
   Chair days, days of repose and age. -- To put into the chair, to elect
   as  president,  or  as chairman of a meeting. Macaulay. -- To take the
   chair,  to  assume  the  position  of  president,  or of chairman of a


   Chair, v. t. [imp. & p. pr. Chaired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chairing.]

   1. To place in a chair.

   2. To carry publicly in a chair in triumph. [Eng.]


   Chair"man (?), n.; pl. Chairmen (.

   1.  The  presiding  officer  of a committee, or of a public or private
   meeting, or of any organized body.

   2. One whose business it is to cary a chair or sedan.

     Breaks watchmen's heads and chairmen's glasses. Prior.


   Chair"man*ship,  n. The office of a chairman of a meeting or organized


   Chaise  (?),  n.  [F.  chaise  seat, or chair, chaise or carriage, for
   chaire, from a peculiar Parisian pronunciation. See Chair.]

   1.  A two-wheeled carriage for two persons, with a calash top, and the
   body hung on leather straps, or thoroughbraces. It is usually drawn by
   one horse.

   2. Loosely, a carriage in general. Cowper.


   Cha"ja  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The crested screamer of
   Brazil (Palamedea, OR Chauna, chavaria), so called in imitation of its
   notes;  --  called  also  chauna,  and  faithful  kamichi. It is often
   domesticated and is useful in guarding other poultry. See Kamichi.


   Cha*la"za (?), n.; pl. E. Chalazas, L. Chalaz\'91 (#). [NL., fr. Gr.

   1. (Bot.) The place on an ovule, or seed, where its outer coats cohere
   with each other and the nucleus.

   2.  (Biol.)  A  spiral  band  of  thickened albuminous substance which
   exists in the white of the bird's egg, and serves to maintain the yolk
   in its position; the treadle.


   Cha*la"zal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the chalaza.


   Cha*laze" (?), n. Same as Chalaza.


   Chal`a*zif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Chalaza  +  -ferous.]  Having or bearing


   Cha*la"zi*on  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A small circumscribed tumor
   of the eyelid caused by retention of secretion, and by inflammation of
   the Melbomian glands.


   Chal*can"thite (?), n. [L. chalcanthum a solution of blue vitriol, Gr.
   (Min.) Native blue vitriol. See Blue vitriol, under Blue.


   Chal"ce*don"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to chalcedony.


   Chal*ced"o*ny  (?),  n.;  pl. Chalcedonies (#). [ L. chalcedonius, fr.
   Gr. calc\'82doine, OE. calcidoine, casidoyne. Cf. Cassidony.] (Min.) A
   cryptocrystalline,  translucent  variety  of  quartz, having usually a
   whitish color, and a luster nearly like wax. [Written also calcedony.]

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en ch alcedony is  va riegated wi th wi th spots or
     figures,  or  arranged  in differently colored layers, it is called
     agate; and if by reason of the thickness, color, and arrangement of
     the  layers  it  is  suitable  for  being carved into cameos, it is
     called  onyx.  Chrysoprase  is green chalcedony; carnelian, a flesh
     red, and sard, a brownish red variety.


   Chal`chi*huitl  (?),  n.  (Min.)  The  Mexican name for turquoise. See

                                  Chalcid fly

   Chal"cid  fly`  (?).  [From Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of a numerous family of
   hymenopterous  insects  (Chalcidid\'91. Many are gallflies, others are
   parasitic on insects.


   Chal*cid"i*an  (?),  n.  [L. chalcis a lizard, Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of a
   tropical  family of snakelike lizards (Chalcid\'91), having four small
   or rudimentary legs.


   Chal"co*cite  (?),  n. [Gr. (Min.) Native copper sulphide, called also
   copper  glance,  and  vitreous  copper; a mineral of a black color and
   metallic luster. [Formerly written chalcosine.]

                         Chalcographer, Chalcographist

   Chal*cog"ra*pher  (?), Chal*cog"ra*phist (?), n. An engraver on copper
   or brass; hence, an engraver of copper plates for printing upon paper.


   Chal*cog"ra*phy  (?), n. [Gr. -graphy.] The act or art of engraving on
   copper or brass, especially of engraving for printing.


   Chal`co*pyr"ite  (?), n. [Gr. pyrite. So named from its color.] (Min.)
   Copper  pyrites,  or  yellow  copper  ore;  a  common  ore  of  opper,
   containing  copper,  iron,  and  sulphur.  It  occurs  massive  and in
   tetragonal crystals of a bright brass yellow color.


   Chal*da"ic (?), a. [L. Chaldaicus.] Of or pertaining to Chaldes. -- n.
   The language or dialect of the Chaldeans; Chaldee.


   Chal"da*ism (?), n. An idiom or peculiarity in the Chaldee dialect.


   Chal*de"an  (?), a. [L. Chaldaeus.] Of or pertaining to Chaldea. -- n.
   (a)  A  native  or  inhabitant  of Chaldea. (b) A learned man, esp. an
   astrologer;  -- so called among the Eastern nations, because astrology
   and  the  kindred  arts  were  much  cultivated  by the Chaldeans. (c)


   Chal"dee  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to Chaldea. -- n. The language or
   dialect  of  the  Chaldeans;  eastern  Aramaic, or the Aramaic used in
   Chaldea. Chaldee Paraphrase, A targum written in Aramaic.

                              Chaldrich, Chalder

   Chal"drich  (?), Chal"der (?), n. [Icel. tjaldr.] (Zo\'94l.) A kind of
   bird; the oyster catcher.


   Chal"dron  (?), n. [OF. chaldron, F. chaudron kettle. The same word as
   caldron.]  An English dry measure, being, at London, 36 bushels heaped
   up,  or  its  equivalent  weight,  and  more  than  twice  as  much at
   Newcastle. Now used exlusively for coal and coke.

     NOTE: &hand; In  the United States the chaldron is ordinarily 2,940
     lbs, but at New York it is 2,500 lbs.

   De Colange.


   Cha*let" (?), n. [F.]

   1. A herdsman's hut in the mountains of Switzerland.

     Chalets are summer huts for the Swiss herdsmen. Wordsworth.

   2.  A  summer  cottage  or  country  house in the Swiss mountains; any
   country house built in the style of the Swiss cottages.


   Chal"ice  (?), n. [OR. chalis, calice, OF. chalice, calice, F. calice,
   fr.  L.  calix, akin to Gr. helmet. Cf. Calice, Calyx.] A cup or bowl;
   especially, the cup used in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.


   Chal"iced  (?),  a.  Having  a  calyx  or  cup;  cupshaped.  "Chaliced
   flowers." Shak.


   Chalk  (?),  n. [AS. cealc lime, from L. calx limestone. See Calz, and

   1.  (Min.) A soft, earthy substance, of a white, grayish, or yellowish
   white  color,  consisting  of  calcium  carbonate, and having the same
   composition as common limestone.

   2.  (Fine  Arts)  Finely  prepared chalk, used as a drawing implement;
   also,  by  extension,  a  compound,  as of clay and black lead, or the
   like, used in the same manner. See Crayon.
   Black  chalk,  a  mineral  of  a bluish color, of a slaty texture, and
   soiling  the fingers when handled; a variety of argillaceous slate. --
   By  a  long  chalk, by a long way; by many degrees. [Slang] Lowell. --
   Chalk drawing (Fine Arts), a drawing made with crayons. See Crayon. --
   Chalk  formation. See Cretaceous formation, under Cretaceous. -- Chalk
   line,  a  cord  rubbed  with  chalk, used for making straight lines on
   boards  or other material, as a guide in cutting or in arranging work.
   --  Chalk  mixture, a preparation of chalk, cinnamon, and sugar in gum
   water,  much  used  in  diarrheal affection, esp. of infants. -- Chalk
   period. (Geol.) See Cretaceous period, under Cretaceous. -- Chalk pit,
   a  pit  in which chalk is dug. -- Drawing chalk. See Crayon, n., 1. --
   French  chalk, steatite or soapstone, a soft magnesian mineral. -- Red
   chalk, an indurated clayey ocher containing iron, and used by painters
   and artificers; reddle.


   Chalk, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chalked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chalking.]

   1. To rub or mark with chalk.

   2. To manure with chalk, as land. Morimer.

   3. To make white, as with chalk; to make pale; to bleach. Tennyson.

     Let a bleak paleness chalk the door. Herbert.

   To  chalk  out,  to  sketch  with,  or  as with, chalk; to outline; to
   indicate;  to  plan. [Colloq.] "I shall pursue the plan I have chalked
   out." Burke.
   Chalk"cut`ter (?), n. A man who digs chalk. 


   Chalk"i*ness (?), n. The state of being chalky.


   Chalk"stone` (?), n.

   1. A mass of chalk.

     As chalkstones . . . beaten in sunder. Isa. xxvii. 9.

   2.  (Med.)  A  chalklike  concretion,  consisting  mainly  of urate of
   sodium,  found in and about the small joints, in the external ear, and
   in other situations, in those affected with gout; a tophus.


   Chalk"y (?), a. Consisting of, or resembling, chalk; containing chalk;
   as, a chalky cliff; a chalky taste.


   Chal"lenge  (?),  n.  [OE.  chalenge claim, accusation, challenge, OF.
   chalenge,  chalonge, claim, accusation, contest, fr. L. calumnia false
   accusation, chicanery. See Calumny.]

   1.  An invitation to engage in a contest or controversy of any kind; a
   defiance; specifically, a summons to fight a duel; also, the letter or
   message conveying the summons.

     A challenge to controversy. Goldsmith.

   2. The act of a sentry in halting any one who appears at his post, and
   demanding the countersign.

   3. A claim or demand. [Obs.]

     There must be no challenge of superiority. Collier.

   4.  (Hunting)  The  opening  and crying of hounds at first finding the
   scent of their game.

   5.  (Law)  An  exception to a juror or to a member of a court martial,
   coupled  with  a demand that he should be held incompetent to act; the
   claim  of  a  party  that a certain person or persons shall not sit in
   trial upon him or his cause. Blackstone

   6.  An  exception  to  a  person  as not legally qualifed to vote. The
   challenge must be made when the ballot is offered. [U. S.]
   Challenge  to  the  array  (Law),  an exception to the whole panel. --
   Challenge  to the favor, the alleging a special cause, the sufficiency
   of  which is to be left to those whose duty and office it is to decide
   upon  it.  -- Challenge to the polls, an exception taken to any one or
   more  of  the  individual  jurors returned. -- Peremptory challenge, a
   privilege  sometimes  allowed  to defendants, of challenging a certain
   number  of  jurors  (fixed  by  statute  in  different States) without
   assigning any cause. -- Principal challenge, that which the law allows
   to be sufficient if found to be true.


   Chal"lenge,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Challenged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Challenging.]   [OE.  chalengen  to  accuse,  claim,  OF.  chalengier,
   chalongier, to claim, accuse, dispute, fr. L. calumniar to attack with
   false accusations. See Challenge, n., and cf. Calumniate.]

   1. To call to a contest of any kind; to call to answer; to defy.

     I  challenge  any  man  to  make  any pretense to power by right of
     fatherhood. Locke.

   2.  To  call,  invite,  or summon to answer for an offense by personal

     By this I challenge him to single fight. Shak.

   3. To claim as due; to demand as a right.

     Challenge better terms. Addison.

   4. To censure; to blame. [Obs.]

     He complained of the emperors . . . and challenged them for that he
     had no greater revenues . . . from them. Holland.

   5. (Mil.) To question or demand the countersign from (one who attempts
   to  pass  the  lines); as, the sentinel challenged us, with "Who comes

   6.  To take exception to; question; as, to challenge the accuracy of a
   statement or of a quotation.

   7.  (Law)  To object to or take exception to, as to a juror, or member
   of a court.

   8.  To  object  to the reception of the vote of, as on the ground that
   the person in not qualifed as a voter. [U. S.]
   To challenge to the array, favor, polls. See under Challenge, n.


   Chal"lenge, v. i. To assert a right; to claim a place.

     Where nature doth with merit challenge. Shak.


   Chal"lenge*a*ble (?), a. That may be challenged.


   Chal"len*ger (?), n. One who challenges.


   Chal"lis  (?),  n. [F. chaly, challis, a stuff made of goat's hair.] A
   soft  and  delicate  woolen,  or  woolen and silk, fabric, for ladies'
   dresses. [Written also chally.]


   Cha"lon (?), n. A bed blanket. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Cha*lyb"e*an (?), a. [L. chalybe\'8bus, fr. chalybs steel, Gr.

   1.  Of  or  pertaining to the Chalybes, an ancient people of Pontus in
   Asia Minor, celebrated for working in iron and steel.

   2. Of superior quality and temper; -- applied to steel. [Obs.] Milton.


   Cha*lyb"e*ate   (?),  a.  [NL.  chalybeatus,  fr.  chalube\'8bus.  See
   Chalubean.]  Impregnated with salts of iron; having a taste like iron;
   as, chalybeate springs.


   Cha*lyb"e*ate,  n.  Any  water,  liquid,  or medicine, into which iron
   enters as an ingredient.


   Cha*lyb"e*ous  (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Steel blue; of the color of tempered


   Chal"y*bite  (?),  n.  (Min.) Native iron carbonate; -- usually called


   Cham (?), v. t. [See Chap.] To chew. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Sir T. More.


   Cham  (?),  n.  [See  Khan.]  The  sovereign prince of Tartary; -- now
   usually written khan. Shak.


   Cha*made (?), n. [F. chamade, fr. Pg. chamada, fr. chamar to call, fr.
   L. clamare.] (Mil.) A signal made for a parley by beat of a drum.

     They beat the chamade, and sent us carte blanche. Addison.


   Cha"mal  (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) The Angora goat. See Angora
   goat, under Angora.


   Cham"ber (?), n. [F. chambre, fr. L. camera vault, arched roof, in LL.
   chamber, fr. Gr. kmar to be crooked. Cf. Camber, Camera, Comrade.]

   1.  A  retired  room, esp. an upper room used for sleeping; a bedroom;
   as, the house had four chambers.

   Page 238

   2. pl. Apartments in a lodging house. "A bachelor's life in chambers."

   3.  A  hall, as where a king gives audience, or a deliberative body or
   assembly meets; as, presence chamber; senate chamber.

   4.  A  legislative  or  judicial  body;  an  assembly;  a  society  or
   association; as, the Chamber of Deputies; the Chamber of Commerce.

   5. A compartment or cell; an inclosed space or cavity; as, the chamber
   of a canal lock; the chamber of a furnace; the chamber of the eye.

   6.  pl.  (Law.)  A  room or rooms where a lawyer transacts business; a
   room or rooms where a judge transacts such official business as may be
   done out of court.

   7. A chamber pot. [Colloq.]

   8. (Mil.) (a) That part of the bore of a piece of ordnance which holds
   the charge, esp. when of different diameter from the rest of the bore;
   -- formerly, in guns, made smaller than the bore, but now larger, esp.
   in  breech-loading  guns. (b) A cavity in a mine, usually of a cubical
   form,  to  contain the powder. (c) A short piece of ornance or cannon,
   which stood on its breech, without any carriage, formerly used chiefly
   for rejoicings and theatrical cannonades.
   Air  chamber.  See  Air  chamber,  in  the  Vocabulary.  -- Chamber of
   commerce, a board or association to protect the interests of commerce,
   chosen  from  among  the  merchants  and traders of a city. -- Chamber
   council,  a  secret  council. Shak. -- Chamber counsel OR counselor, a
   counselor  who  gives  his opinion in private, or at his chambers, but
   does  not  advocate  causes  in  court.  --  Chamber fellow, a chamber
   companion;  a  roommate;  a  chum.  --  Chamber  hangings, tapestry or
   hangings for a chamber. -- Chamber lye, urine. Shak. -- Chamber music,
   vocal  or  instrumental  music  adapted to performance in a chamber or
   small  apartment or audience room, instead of a theater, concert hall,
   or  chuch.  --  Chamber practice (Law.), the practice of counselors at
   law,  who  give their opinions in private, but do not appear in court.
   -- To sit at chambers, to do business in chambers, as a judge.


   Cham"ber  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Chambered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To reside in or occupy a chamber or chambers.

   2. To be lascivious. [Obs.]


   Cham"ber, v. t.

   1. To shut up, as inn a chamber. Shak.

   2. To furnish with a chamber; as, to chamber a gun.


   Cham"bered  (?),  a.  Having  a  chamber  or chambers; as, a chambered
   shell; a chambered gun.


   Cham"ber*er (?), n.

   1. One who attends in a chamber; a chambermaid. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. A civilian; a carpetmonger. [Obs.]


   Cham"ber*ing, n. Lewdness. [Obs.] Rom. xiii. 13.


   Cham"ber*lain (?), n. [OF. chamberlain, chambrelencF. chambellon, OHG.
   chamerling,  chamarlinc,  G.  k\'84mmerling,  kammer  chamber  (fr. L.
   camera)   +   -ling.   See  Chamber,  and  -ling.]  [Formerly  written

   1. An officer or servant who has charge of a chamber or chambers.

   2. An upper servant of an inn. [Obs.]

   3.  An  officer  having  the  direction  and management of the private
   chambers  of  a nobleman or monarch; hence, in Europe, one of the high
   officers of a court.

   4.  A  treasurer  or  receiver of public money; as, the chamberlain of
   London, of North Wales, etc.
   The  lord  chamberlain  of England, an officer of the crown, who waits
   upon  the  sovereign on the day of coronation, and provides requisites
   for  the  palace of Westminster, and for the House of Lords during the
   session  of  Parliament.  Under him are the gentleman of the black rod
   and  other  officers.  His  office  is  distinct from that of the lord
   chamberlain  of  the  Household,  whose  functions relate to the royal
   Cham"ber*lain*ship, n. Office if a chamberlain. 


   Cham"ber*maid` (?), n.

   1.  A  maidservant  who  has  the  care  of chambers, making the beds,
   sweeping, cleaning the rooms, etc.

   2. A lady's maid. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Cham`ber*tin"  (?),  n.  A  red  wine  from  Chambertin near Dijon, in


   Cham"brel (?), n. Same as Gambrel.


   Cha*meck" (?), n. [Native Brazilian name.] (Zo\'94l.) A kind of spider
   monkey  (Ateles  chameck), having the thumbs rudimentary and without a


   Cha*me"le*on (?), n. [L. Chamaeleon, Gr. Humble, and Lion.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A  lizardlike  reptile  of  the genus Cham\'91leo, of several species,
   found  in  Africa,  Asia,  and  Europe.  The skin is covered with fine
   granmulations; the tail is prehensile, and the body is much compressed
   laterally, giving it a high back.

     NOTE: &hand; It s co lor changes more or less with the color of the
     objects  about  it,  or  with its temper when disturbed. In a cool,
     dark  place it is nearly white, or grayish; on admitting the light,
     it changes to brown, bottle-green, or blood red, of various shades,
     and  more  or  less  mottled in arrangment. The American chameleons
     belong  to Anolis and allied genera of the family Iguanid\'91. They
     are  more  slender  in  form than the true chameleons, but have the
     same power of changing their colors.

   Chameleon mineral (Chem.), the compound called potassium permanganate,
   a dark violet, crystalline substance, KMnO4, which in formation passes
   through  a  peculiar  succession  of color from green to blue, purple,
   red, etc. See Potassium permanganate, under Potassium.


   Cha*me"le*on*ize (?), v. t. To change into various colors. [R.]


   Cham"fer  (?),  n.  [See Chamfron.] The surface formed by cutting away
   the  arris, or angle, formed by two faces of a piece of timber, stone,


   Cham"fer, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chamfered ; p. pr. & vb. n. Chamfering.(

   1.  (Carp.) To cut a furrow in, as in a column; to groove; to channel;
   to flute.

   2. To make a chamfer on.


   Cham"fret (?), n. [See Chamfron.]

   1. (Carp.) A small gutter; a furrow; a groove.

   2. A chamfer.


   Cham"fron  (?),  n. [F. chanfrein.] (Anc. Armor) The frontlet, or head
   armor, of a horse. [Written also champfrain and chamfrain.]


   Cham"let (?), n. See Camlet. [Obs.]


   Cham"ois, n. [F. chamois, prob. fr. OG. gamz, G. gemse.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A small species of antelope (Rupicapra tragus), living
   on the loftiest mountain ridges of Europe, as the Alps, Pyrenees, etc.
   It possesses remarkable agility, and is a favorite object of chase.

   2.  A  soft  leather  made  from  the  skin  of  the  chamois, or from
   sheepskin,  etc.; -- called also chamois leather, and chammy or shammy
   leather. See Shammy.


   Cham"o*mile (?), n. (Bot.) See Camomile.


   Champ (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Champed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Champing.]
   [Prob,   of  Scand.  orgin;  cf.  dial.  Sw.  k\'84msa  to  chew  with
   difficulty, champ; but cf. also OF. champier, champeyer, champoyer, to
   graze in fields, fr. F. champ field, fr. L. campus. Cf. Camp.]

   1. To bite with repeated action of the teeth so as to be heard.

     Foamed and champed the golden bit. Dryden.

   2. To bite into small pieces; to crunch. Steele.


   Champ, v. i. To bite or chew impatiently.

     They began . . . irefully to champ upon the bit. Hooker.

                                 Champ, Champe

   Champ,  Champe,  n.  [F. champ, L. campus field.] (Arch.) The field or
   ground on which carving appears in relief.


   Cham*pagne"  (?),  n.  [F.  See  Champaign.]  A light wine, of several
   kinds, originally made in the province of Champagne, in France.

     NOTE: &hand; Ch ampagne properly includes several kinds not only of
     sparkling  but  off still wines; but in America the term is usually
     restricted to wines which effervesce.


   Cham*paign"  (?),  n. [OF. champaigne; same word as campagne.] A flat,
   open country.

     Fair champaign, with less rivers interveined. Milton.

     Through Apline vale or champaign wide. Wordsworth.


   Cham*paign", a. Flat; open; level.

     A wide, champaign country, filled with herds. Addison.


   Champ"er (?), n. One who champs, or bites.


   Cham"per*tor  (?),  n.  [F.  champarteur  a divider of fields or field
   rent. See Champerty.] (Law) One guilty of champerty; one who purchases
   a  suit,  or the right of suing, and carries it on at his own expense,
   in order to obtain a share of the gain.


   Cham"per*ty  (?),  n. [F. champart field rent, L. campipars; champ (L.
   campus) field + part (L. pars) share.]

   1. Partnership in power; equal share of authority. [Obs.]

     Beaut\'82  ne  sleighte,  strengthe ne hardyness, Ne may with Venus
     holde champartye. Chaucer.

   2.  (Law)  The prosecution or defense of a suit, whether by furnishing
   money  or  personal  services,  by  one  who has no legitimate concern
   therein,  in  consideration  of an agreement that he shall receive, in
   the  event of success, a share of the matter in suit; maintenance with
   the  addition  of  an  agreement  to  divide  the  thing  in suit. See

     NOTE: &hand; By  ma ny au thorities ch amperty is  de fined as  an 
     agreement of this nature. From early times the offence of champerty
     has been forbidden and punishable.


   Cham*pi"gnon  (?), n. [F., a mushroom, ultimately fr. L. campus field.
   See Camp.] (Bot.) An edible species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris).
   Fairy  ring  champignon,  the  Marasmius  oreades,  which has a strong
   flavor but is edible.


   Chap"pi*on  (?), n. [F. champion, fr. LL.campio, of German origin; cf.
   OHG.  chempho,  chemphio,  fighter,  champf,  G. kampf, contest; perh.
   influenced  by  L.  campus  field,  taken  in  the  sense of "field of

   1.  One  who  engages  in  any  contest; esp. one who in ancient times
   contended  in single combat in behalf of another's honor or rights; or
   one  who  acts or speaks in behalf of a person or a cause; a defender;
   an advocate; a hero.

     A stouter champion never handled sword. Shak.

     Champions of law and liberty. Fisher Ames.

   2.  One  who  by  defeating  all  rivals, has obtained an acknowledged
   supremacy  in any branch of athetics or game of skill, and is ready to
   contend with any rival; as, the champion of England.

     NOTE: &hand; Ch ampion is  us ed at tributively in  th e se nse of 
     surpassing  all  competitors; overmastering; as, champion pugilist;
     champion chess player.

   Syn.   --  Leader;  chieftain;  combatant;  hero;  warrior;  defender;


   Cham"pi*on,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Championed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Championing.] [Obs.] Shak.

   2.  To  furnish  with  a champion; to attend or defend as champion; to
   support or maintain; to protect.

     Championed or unchampioned, thou diest. Sir W. Scott.


   Cham"pi*on*ness (?), n. A female champion. Fairfax.


   Cham"pi*on*ship, n. State of being champion; leadership; supremancy.

                               Champlain period

   Cham*plain"  pe"ri*od (?). (Geol.) A subdivision of the Quaternary age
   immediately  following  the Glacial period; -- so named from beds near
   Lake Champlain.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ea rlier de posits of this period are diluvial in
     character,  as  if  formed  in connection with floods attending the
     melting  of  the  glaciers,  while  the later deposits are of finer
     material in more quiet waters, as the alluvium.


   Cham*sin" (?), n. [F.] See Kamsin.


   Chance (?), n. [F. chance, OF. cheance, fr. LL. cadentia a allusion to
   the  falling  of the dice), fr. L. cadere to fall; akin to Skr. \'87ad
   to fall, L. cedere to yield, E. cede. Cf. Cadence.]

   1.  A  supposed  material or psychical agent or mode of activity other
   than  a  force, law, or purpose; fortune; fate; -- in this sense often

     It  is  strictly and philosophically true in nature and reason that
     there is no such thing as chance or accident; it being evident that
     these  words do not signify anything really existing, anything that
     is  truly  an  agent  or  the  cause of any event; but they signify
     merely  men's  ignorance  of  the  real and immediate cause. Samuel

     Any society into which chance might throw him. Macaulay.

     That power Which erring men call Chance. Milton.

   2. The operation or activity of such agent.

     By chance a priest came down that way. Luke x. 31.

   3.  The  supposed  effect of such an agent; something that befalls, as
   the  result  of unknown or unconsidered forces; the issue of uncertain
   conditions;  an event not calculated upon; an unexpected occurrence; a
   happening; accident; fortuity; casualty.

     It was a chance that happened to us. 1 Sam. vi. 9.

     The  Knave  of  Diamonds  tries his wily arts, And wins (O shameful
     chance!) the Queen of Hearts. Pope.

     I spake of most disastrous chance. Shak.

   4.  A  possibity; a likelihood; an opportunity; -- with reference to a
   doubtful result; as, a chance result; as, a chance to escape; a chance
   for life; the chances are all against him.

     So  weary  with disasters, tugged with fortune. That I would get my
     life on any chance, To mend it, or be rid on't Shak.

   5. (Math.) Probability.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e mathematical expression, of a chance is the ratio
     of  frequency  with  which  an event happens in the long run. If an
     event  may  happen  in  a  ways and may fail in b ways, and each of
     these  a  +  b  ways is equally likely, the chance, or probability,
     that  the  event will happen is measured by the fraction a/(a + b),
     and  the  chance,  or probability, that it will fail is measured by
     b/(a + b).

   Chance  comer,  one  who,  comes unexpectedly. -- The last chance, the
   sole  remaining  ground  of  hope.  --  The  main  chance,  the  chief
   opportunity;  that  upon which reliance is had, esp. self-interest. --
   Theory  of  chances,  Doctrine  of  chances  (Math.),  that  branch of
   mathematics  which  treats  of  the  probability  of the occurrence of
   particular  events, as the fall of dice in given positions. -- To mind
   one's chances, to take advantage of every circumstance; to seize every


   Chance, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chanced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chancing.] To
   happen,  come,  or arrive, without design or expectation. "Things that
   chance daily." Robynson (More's Utopia).

     If a bird's nest chance to be before thee. Deut. xxii. 6.

     I chanced on this letter. Shak.

     NOTE: Often used impersonally; as, how chances it?

     How chance, thou art returned so soon? Shak.


   Chance, v. t.

   1.  To  take  the  chances  of; to venture upon; -- usually with it as

     Come what will, I will chance it. W. D. Howells.

   2. To befall; to happen to. [Obs.] W. Lambarde.


   Chance, a. Happening by chance; casual.


   Chance, adv. By chance; perchance. Gray.


   Chance"a*ble (?), a. Fortuitous; casual. [Obs.]


   Chance"a*bly, adv. By chance. [Obs.]


   Chance"ful (?), a. Hazardous. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Chan"cel  (?),  n.  [OF. chancel, F. chanceau, cancel, fr. L. cancelli
   lattices,  crossbars. (The chancel was formerly inclosed with lattices
   or  crossbars)  See  Cancel, v. t.] (Arch.) (a) That part of a church,
   reserved  for  the  use  of  the clergy, where the altar, or communion
   table,  is  placed.  Hence,  in  modern  use;  (b)  All that part of a
   cruciform  church  which  is  beyond the line of the transept farthest
   from  the main front. Chancel aisle (Arch.), the aisle which passes on
   either  side  of  or  around the chancel. -- Chancel arch (Arch.), the
   arch  which  spans the main opening, leading to the chancel -- Chancel
   casement,  the  principal  window  in  a chancel. Tennyson. -- Chancel
   table, the communion table. 


   Chan"cel*ler*y (?), n. [Cf. Chancery.] Chancellorship. [Obs.] Gower.


   Chan"cel*lor  (?),  n.  [OE.  canceler, chaunceler, F. chancelier, LL.
   cancellarius  chancellor,  a  director  of  chancery,  fr. L. cancelli
   lattices,  crossbars,  which  surrounded  the  seat  of  judgment. See
   Chancel.]  A  judicial  court of chancery, which in England and in the
   United States is distinctively a court with equity jurisdiction.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ch ancellor wa s or iginally a  ch ief sc ribe or
     secretary under the Roman emperors, but afterward was invested with
     judicial powers, and had superintendence over the other officers of
     the empire. From the Roman empire this office passed to the church,
     and  every  bishop  has  his chancellor, the principal judge of his
     consistory.  In  later  times,  in  most  countries  of Europe, the
     chancellor was a high officer of state, keeper of the great seal of
     the  kingdom,  and having the supervision of all charters, and like
     public  instruments  of  the crown, which were authenticated in the
     most solemn manner. In France a secretary is in some cases called a
     chancellor. In Scotland, the appellation is given to the foreman of
     a  jury, or assize. In the present German empire, the chancellor is
     the  president  of the federal council and the head of the imperial
     administration. In the United States, the title is given to certain
     judges of courts of chancery or equity, established by the statutes
     of separate States.

   Blackstone.  Wharton.  Chancellor  of a bishop, OR of a diocese (R. C.
   Ch. & ch. of Eng.), a law officer appointed to hold the bishop's court
   in  his diocese, and to assist him in matter of ecclesiastical law. --
   Chancellor  of  a  cathedral, one of the four chief dignitaries of the
   cathedrals  of  the  old  foundation,  and an officer whose duties are
   chiefly  educational,  with  special  reference  to the cultivation of
   theology.  --  Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, an officer before
   whom,  or  his  deputy, the court of the duchy chamber of Lancaster is
   held.  This  is a special jurisdiction. -- Chancellor of a university,
   the  chief  officer of a collegiate body. In Oxford, he is elected for
   life;  in  Cambridge, for a term of years; and his office is honorary,
   the chief duties of it devolving on the vice chancellor. -- Chancellor
   of  the  exchequer, a member of the British cabinet upon whom devolves
   the charge of the public income and expenditure as the highest finance
   minister  of  the government. -- Chancellor of the order of the Garter
   (or  other  military orders), an officer who seals the commissions and
   mandates  of  the  chapter  and  assembly  of  the  knights, keeps the
   register  of their proceedings, and delivers their acts under the seal
   of  their  order.  --  Lord  high chancellor of England, the presiding
   judge  in  the  court of chancery, the highest judicial officer of the
   crown, and the first lay person of the state after the blood royal. He
   is  created  chancellor  by the delivery into his custody of the great
   seal, of which he becomes keeper. He is privy counselor by his office,
   and prolocutor of the House of Lords by prescription.


   Chan"cel*lor*ship  (?), n. The office of a chancellor; the time during
   which one is chancellor.


   Chance"-med`ley (?), n. [Chance + medley.]

   1.  (Law)  The  kiling  of  another  in self-defense upon a sudden and
   unpremeditated encounter. See Chaud-Medley.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm ha s be en sometimes applied to any kind of
     homicide  by misadventure, or to any accidental killing of a person
     without  premeditation  or  evil  intent,  but,  in  strictness, is
     applicable  to  such  killing  as  happens  in defending one's self
     against assault.


   2. Luck; chance; accident. Milton. Cowper.


   Chan"cer*y   (?),  n.  [F.  chancellerie,  LL.  cancellaria,  from  L.
   cancellarius. See Chancellor, and cf. Chancellery.]

   1.  In  England, formerly, the highest court of judicature next to the
   Parliament, exercising jurisdiction at law, but chiefly in equity; but
   under  the jurisdiction act of 1873 it became the chancery division of
   the  High  Court  of  Justice,  and now exercises jurisdiction only in

   2.  In  the  Unites  States,  a court of equity; equity; proceeding in

     NOTE: &hand; A  co urt of  ch ancery, so  fa r as  it is a court of
     equity, in the English and American sense, may be generally, if not
     precisely, described as one having jurisdiction in cases of rights,
     recognized  and  protected  by the municipal jurisprudence, where a
     plain,  adequate,  and complete remedy can not be had in the courts
     of  common law. In some of the American States, jurisdiction at law
     and  in  equity  centers  in  the  same tribunal. The courts of the
     United States also have jurisdiction both at law and in equity, and
     in  all  such  cases they exercise their jurisdiction, as courts of
     law,  or  as  courts  of equity, as the subject of adjudication may
     require.  In  others  of  the  American  States,  the  courts  that
     administer  equity are distinct tribunals, having their appropriate
     judicial  officers,  and  it  is to the latter that the appellation
     courts  of  chancery  is usually applied; but, in American law, the
     terms  equity and court of equity are more frequently employed than
     the corresponding terms chancery and court of chancery.

   Burrill.  Inns  of  chancery. See under Inn. -- To get (or to hold) In
   chancery  (Boxing),  to get the head of an antagonist under one's arm,
   so  that one can pommel it with the other fist at will; hence, to have
   wholly  in  One's  power. The allusion is to the condition of a person
   involved  in  the  chancery  court,  where  he was helpless, while the
   lawyers lived upon his estate.


   Chan"cre  (?), n. [F. chancere. See Cancer.] (Med.) A venereal sore or
   ulcer;  specifically,  the  initial  lesion  of true syphilis, whether
   forming  a  distinct  ulcer  or  not;  --  called  also  hard chancre,
   indurated  chancre,  and Hunterian chancre. Soft chancre. A chancroid.
   See Chancroid.


   Chan"croid   (?),  n.  [Chancre  +  -oil.]  (Med.)  A  venereal  sore,
   resembling  a  chancre  in  its seat and some external characters, but
   differing  from  it  in  being  the  starting  point of a purely local
   process and never of a systemic disease; -- called also soft chancre.


   Chan"crous  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  chancreux.]  (Med.) Of the nature of a
   chancre; having chancre.


   Chan`de*lier" (?), n. [F. See Chandler.]

   1.  A  candlestick,  lamp,  stand,  gas  fixture,  or the like, having
   several branches; esp., one hanging from the ceiling.

   2.  (Fort.)  A  movable  parapet, serving to support fascines to cover
   pioneers. [Obs.]


   Chan"dler  (?),  n. [F. chandelier a candlestick, a maker or seller of
   candles,  LL. candelarius chandler, fr. L. candela candle. See Candle,
   and cf. Chandelier.]

   1. A maker or seller of candles.

     The chandler's basket, on his shoulder borne, With tallow spots thy
     coat. Gay.

   2.  A  dealer  in  other  commodities,  which  are indicated by a word
   prefixed; as, ship chandler, corn chandler.


   Chan"dler*ly (?), a. Like a chandler; in a petty way. [Obs.] Milton.


   Chan"dler*y (?), n. Commodities sold by a chandler.


   Chan*doo"  (?),  n.  An extract or preparation of opium, used in China
   and India for smoking. Balfour.


   Chan"dry  (?),  n.  Chandlery.  [Obs.]  "Torches from the chandry." B.


   Chan"frin  (?),  n.  [F.  chanfrein. Cf. Chamfron.] The fore part of a
   horse's head.


   Change  (?),  v.  t.  [Imp.  &  p.  p.  Changed  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Changing.]  [F.  changer,  fr.  LL.  cambiare, to exchange, barter, L.
   cambire. Cf. Cambial.]

   1.  To  alter;  to  make different; to cause to pass from one state to
   another;  as,  to  change  the position, character, or appearance of a
   thing; to change the countenance.

     Therefore will I change their glory into shame. Hosea. iv. 7.

   2.  To  alter  by substituting something else for, or by giving up for
   something else; as, to change the clothes; to change one's occupation;
   to change one's intention.

     They  that  do  change old love for new, Pray gods, they change for
     worse! Peele.

   3.  To  give  and take reciprocally; to exchange; -- followed by with;
   as, to change place, or hats, or money, with another.

     Look  upon  those  thousands  with  whom  thou wouldst not, for any
     interest, change thy fortune and condition. Jer. Taylor.

   4.  Specifically:  To give, or receive, smaller denominations of money
   (technically  called  change) for; as, to change a gold coin or a bank

     He pulled out a thirty-pound note and bid me change it. Goldsmith.

   To  change  a  horse,  or  To  change hand (Man.), to turn or bear the
   horse's  head  from  one hand to the other, from the left to right, or
   from  the  right to the left. -- To change hands, to change owners. --
   To  change one's tune, to become less confident or boastful. [Colloq.]
   -- To change step, to take a break in the regular succession of steps,
   in  marching or walking, as by bringing the hollow of one foot against
   the heel of the other, and then stepping off with the foot which is in
   advance.  Syn.  --  To  alter;  vary;  deviate;  substitute; innovate;
   diversify; shift; veer; turn. See Alter.


   Change, v. i.

   1.  To  be altered; to undergo variation; as, men sometimes change for
   the better.

     For I am Lord, I change not. Mal. iii. 6.

   2.  To  pass from one phase to another; as, the moon changes to-morrow


   Change, n. [F. change, fr. changer. See Change. v. t.]

   1.  Any  variation  or alteration; a passing from one state or form to
   another;   as,  a  change  of  countenance;  a  change  of  habits  or

     Apprehensions of a change of dynasty. Hallam.

     All the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come.
     Job xiv. 14.

   2. A succesion or substitution of one thing in the place of another; a
   difference; novelty; variety; as, a change of seasons.

     Our fathers did for change to France repair. Dryden.

     The ringing grooves of change. Tennyson.

   3. A passing from one phase to another; as, a change of the moon.

   4. Alteration in the order of a series; permutation.

   5. That which makes a variety, or may be substituted for another.

     Thirty change (R.V. changes) of garments. Judg. xiv. 12.

   6.  Small money; the money by means of which the larger coins and bank
   bills  are  made  available  in  small  dealings;  hence,  the balance
   returned  when payment is tendered by a coin or note exceeding the sum

   7. [See Exchange.] A place where merchants and others meet to transact
   business;   a   building  appropriated  for  mercantile  transactions.
   [Colloq. for Exchange.]

   8. A public house; an alehouse. [Scot.]

     They call an alehouse a change. Burt.

   9.  (Mus.) Any order in which a number of bells are struck, other than
   that of the diatonic scale.

     Four bells admit twenty-four changes in ringing. Holder.

   Change  of  life,  the period in the life of a woman when menstruation
   and  the  capacity  for  conception  cease,  usually occurring between
   forty-five  and  fifty  years of age. -- Change ringing, the continual
   production,  without  repetition,  of  changes  on  bells, See def. 9.
   above.  --  Change  wheel (Mech.), one of a set of wheels of different
   sizes  and number of teeth, that may be changed or substituted one for
   another  in  machinery,  to  produce  a different but definite rate of
   angular  velocity  in  an axis, as in cutting screws, gear, etc. -- To
   ring the changes on, to present the same facts or arguments in variety
   of ways. Syn. -- Variety; variation; alteration; mutation; transition;
   vicissitude; innovation; novelty; transmutation; revolution; reverse.


   Change`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Changeableness.


   Change"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. changeable.]

   1.  Capable  of  change;  subject  to  alteration;  mutable; variable;
   fickle; inconstant; as, a changeable humor.

   2.  Appearing  different,  as  in color, in different lights, or under
   different   circumstances;  as,  changeable  silk.  Syn.  --  Mutable;
   alterable;  variable;  inconstant;  fitful;  vacillating;  capricious;
   fickle;  unstable;  unsteady;  unsettled;  wavering;  erratic;  giddy;


   Change"a*ble*ness,  n.  The  quality  of being changeable; fickleness;
   inconstancy; mutability.


   Change"a*bly, adv. In a changeable manner.


   Change"ful  (?),  a.  Full  of  change;  mutable;  inconstant; fickle;
   uncertain. Pope.

     His course had been changeful. Motley.

   -- Change"ful*ly, adv. -- Change"ful*ness, n.


   Change"less,  a.  That  can not be changed; constant; as, a changeless
   purpose. -- Change"less*ness, n.


   Change"ling, n. [Change + -ling.]

   1.  One  who, or that which, is left or taken in the place of another,
   as a child exchanged by fairies.

     Such,  men  do  changelings  call,  so  changed  by fairies' theft.

     The changeling [a substituted writing] never known. Shak.

   2. A simpleton; an idiot. Macaulay.

     Changelings and fools of heaven, and thence shut out.

     Wildly we roam in discontent about. Dryden.

     3. One apt to change; a waverer. "Fickle changelings." Shak.


     Change"ling, a.

     1. Taken or left in place of another; changed. "A little changeling
     boy." Shak.

     2. Given to change; inconstant. [Obs.]

     Some are so studiously changeling. Boyle.


     Chan"ger (?), n.

     1. One who changes or alters the form of anything.

     2. One who deals in or changes money. John ii. 14.

     3. One apt to change; an inconstant person.


     Chank"  (?), n. [Skr. \'87a\'efkha. See Conch.] (Zo\'94l.) The East
     Indian  name  for  the large spiral shell of several species of sea
     conch  much  used  in making bangles, esp. Turbinella pyrum. Called
     also chank chell.


     Chan"nel  (?), n. [OE. chanel, canel, OF. chanel, F. chenel, fr. L.
     canalis. See Canal.]

     1. The hollow bed where a stream of water runs or may run.

     2. The deeper part of a river, harbor, strait, etc., where the main
     current  flows,  or  which  affords the best and safest passage for

     3.  (Geog.) A strait, or narrow sea, between two portions of lands;
     as, the British Channel.

     4. That through which anything passes; means of passing, conveying,
     or  transmitting;  as,  the  news  was  conveyed to us by different

     The veins are converging channels. Dalton.

     At  best,  he  is  but a channel to convey to the National assembly
     such matter as may import that body to know. Burke.

     5. A gutter; a groove, as in a fluted column.

     6. pl. [Cf. Chain wales.] (Naut.) Flat ledges of heavy plank bolted
     edgewise  to the outside of a vessel, to increase the spread of the
     shrouds and carry them clear of the bulwarks.

     Channel bar

   ,  Channel  iron  (Arch.),  an  iron  bar  or  beam  having  a section
   resembling  a  flat  gutter  or channel. -- Channel bill (Zo\'94l.), a
   very large Australian cucko (Scythrops Nov\'91hollandi\'91. -- Channel
   goose. (Zo\'94l.) See Gannet.


   Chan"nel,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Channeled (?), or Channelled; p. pr. &
   vb. n. Channeling, or Channelling.]

   1.  To  form a channel in; to cut or wear a channel or channels in; to

     No more shall trenching war channel her fields. Shak.

   2. To course through or over, as in a channel. Cowper.


   Chan"nel*ing, n.

   1. The act or process of forming a channel or channels.

   2. A channel or a system of channels; a groove.


   Chan"son,  n. [F., fr. L. cantion song. See Cantion, Canzone.] A song.


   Chan`son*nette" (?), n.; pl. Chansonnettes (#). [F., dim. of chanson.]
   A little song.

     These pretty little chansonnettes that he sung. Black.


   Chant (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chanted; p. pr. & vb. n. Chanting.] [F.
   chanter,  fr. L. cantare, intens. of canere to sing. Cf. Cant affected
   speaking, and see Hen.]

   1. To utter with a melodious voice; to sing.

     The cheerful birds . . . do chant sweet music. Spenser.

   2. To celebrate in song.

     The poets chant in the theaters. Bramhall.

   3.  (Mus.) To sing or recite after the manner of a chant, or to a tune
   called a chant.


   Chant, v. i.

   1.  To make melody with the voice; to sing. "Chant to the sound of the
   viol." Amos vi. 5.

   2. (Mus.) To sing, as in reciting a chant.
   To  chant  (OR chaunt) horses, to sing their praise; to overpraise; to
   cheat in selling. See Chaunter. Thackeray.


   Chant,  n.[F.  chant, fr. L. cantus singing, song, fr. canere to sing.
   See Chant, v. t.]

   1. Song; melody.

   2.  (Mus.) A short and simple melody, divided into two parts by double
   bars, to which unmetrical psalms, etc., are sung or recited. It is the
   most ancient form of choral music.

   3. A psalm, etc., arranged for chanting.

   4. Twang; manner of speaking; a canting tone. [R.]

     His strange face, his strange chant. Macaulay.

   Ambrosian  chant, See under Ambrosian. Chant royal [F.], in old French
   poetry,  a  poem  containing five strophes of eleven lines each, and a
   concluding  stanza.  --  each  of these six parts ending with a common
   refrain. -- Gregorian chant. See under Gregorian.


   Chan`tant"  (?),  a.  [F. singing.] (Mus.) Composed in a melodious and
   singing style.


   Chant"er (?), n. [Cf. F. chanteur.]

   1. One who chants; a singer or songster. Pope.

   2. The chief singer of the chantry. J. Gregory.

   3. The flute or finger pipe in a bagpipe. See Bagpipe.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) The hedge sparrow.


   Chan`te*relle"  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Bot.)  A  name for several species of
   mushroom,  of  which  one (Cantharellus cibrius) is edible, the others
   reputed poisonous.


   Chan"ti*cleer  (?),  n. [F. Chanteclair, name of the cock in the Roman
   du  Renart  (Reynard  the  Fox);  chanter  to chant + clair clear. See
   Chant,  and  Clear.] A cock, so called from the clearness or loundness
   of his voice in crowing.


   Chant"ing  (?),  n.  Singing, esp. as a chant is sung. Chanting falcon
   (Zo\'94l.),  an African falcon (Melierax canorus or musicus). The male
   has  the  habit, remarkable in a bird of prey, of singing to his mate,
   while she is incubating.


   Chant"or (?), n. A chanter.


   Chant"ress  (?), n. [Cf. OF. chanteresse.] A female chanter or singer.

   Page 240


   Chant"ry  (?),  n.;  pl. Chantries (#). [OF. chanterie, fr. chanter to

   1.  An endowment or foundation for the chanting of masses and offering
   of prayers, commonly for the founder.

   2. A chapel or altar so endowed. Cowell.


   Cha"o*man`cy  (?),  n. [Gr. -mancy.] Divination by means of apperances
   in the air.


   Cha"os (?), n. [L. chaos chaos (in senses 1 & 2), Gr. Chasm.]

   1. An empty, immeasurable space; a yawning chasm. [Archaic]

     Between  us and there is fixed a great chaos. Luke xvi. 26 (Rhemish
     Trans. ).

   2.  The  confused,  unorganized condition or mass of matter before the
   creation of distinct and order forms.

   3.  Any  confused  or  disordered  collection  or  state  of things; a
   confused mixture; confusion; disorder.


   Cha*ot"ic (?), a. Resembling chaos; confused.


   Cha*ot"ic*al*ly (?), adv. In a chaotic manner.


   Chap  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chapped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chapping.]
   [See Chop to cut.]

   1. To cause to open in slits or chinks; to split; to cause the skin of
   to crack or become rough.

     Then  would  unbalanced  heat licentious reign, Crack the dry hill,
     and chap the russet plain. Blackmore.

     Nor winter's blast chap her fair face. Lyly.

   2. To strike; to beat. [Scot.]


   Chap, v. i.

   1. To crack or open in slits; as, the earth chaps; the hands chap.

   2. To strike; to knock; to rap. [Scot.]


   Chap, n. [From Chap, v. t. & i.]

   1. A cleft, crack, or chink, as in the surface of the earth, or in the

   2. A division; a breach, as in a party. [Obs.]

     Many clefts and chaps in our council board. T. Fuller.

   3. A blow; a rap. [Scot.]


   Chap  (?),  n.  [OE. chaft; of Scand. origin; cf. Icel kjaptr jaw, Sw.
   K\'84ft, D. ki\'91ft; akin to G. kiefer, and E. jowl. Cf. Chops.]

   1. One of the jaws or the fleshy covering of a jaw; -- commonly in the
   plural, and used of animals, and colloquially of human beings.

     His chaps were all besmeared with crimson blood. Cowley.

     He unseamed him [Macdonald] from the nave to the chaps. Shak.

   2. One of the jaws or cheeks of a vise, etc.


   Chap  (?),  n.  [Perh.  abbreviated  fr.  chapman,  but used in a more
   general sense; or cf. Dan. ki\'91ft jaw, person, E. chap jaw.]

   1. A buyer; a chapman. [Obs.]

     If you want to sell, here is your chap. Steele.

   2. A man or boy; a youth; a fellow. [Colloq.]


   Chap, v. i. [See Cheapen.] To bargain; to buy. [Obs.]


   Cha`par*ral" (?), n. [Sp., fr. chaparro an evergeen oak.]

   1. A thicket of low evergreen oaks.

   2.  An almost impenetrable thicket or succession of thickets of thorny
   shrubs and brambles.
   Chaparral  cock;  fem.  Chaparral hen (Zo\'94l.), a bird of the cuckoo
   family  (Geococcyx Californianus), noted for running with great speed.
   It  ranges  from California to Mexico and eastward to Texas; -- called
   also  road  runner,  ground cuckoo, churea, and snake killer<--; it is
   the state bird of New Mexico -->. 


   Chap"book` (?), n. [See Chap to cheapen.] Any small book carried about
   for sale by chapmen or hawkers. Hence, any small book; a toy book.


   Chape (?), n. [F., a churchman's cope, a cover, a chape, fr. L. cappa.
   See Cap.]

   1.  The piece by which an object is attached to something, as the frog
   of a scabbard or the metal loop at the back of a buckle by which it is
   fastened to a strap.

   2. The transverse guard of a sword or dagger.

   3.  The metal plate or tip which protects the end of a scabbard, belt,
   etc. Knight.


   Cha`peau"  (?),  n.;  pl.  Chapeux  (#).  [F., fr. OF. chapel hat. See

   1. hat or covering for the head.

   2. (Her.) A cap of maintenance. See Maintenance.
   Chapeau  bras ( [F. chapeau hat + bras arm], a hat so made that it can
   be compressed and carried under the arm without injury. Such hats were
   particularly worn on dress occasions by gentlemen in the 18th century.
   A  chapeau  bras  is now worn in the United States army by general and
   staff officers.
   Chaped  (?),  p.  p.  OR  a.  Furnished with a chape or chapes. [Obs.]


   Chap"el  (?),  n. [OF. chapele, F. chapelle, fr. LL. capella, orig., a
   short cloak, hood, or cowl; later, a reliquary, sacred vessel, chapel;
   dim. of cappa, capa, cloak, cape, cope; also, a covering for the head.
   The chapel where St. Martin's cloak was preserved as a precious relic,
   itself  came  to  be  called  capella,  whence the name was applied to
   similar  paces  of  worship, and the guardian of this cloak was called
   capellanus, or chaplain. See Cap, and cf. Chaplain., Chaplet.]

   1.  A  subordinate  place  of worship; as, (a) a small church, often a
   private  foundation,  as for a memorial; (b) a small building attached
   to a church; (c) a room or recess in a church, containing an altar.

     NOTE: &hand; In Catholic churches, and also in cathedrals and abbey
     churches,  chapels are usually annexed in the recesses on the sides
     of the aisles.


   2. A place of worship not connected with a church; as, the chapel of a
   palace, hospital, or prison.

   3.  In  England,  a  place  of  worship  used  by  dissenters from the
   Established Church; a meetinghouse.

   4.  A  choir  of  singers, or an orchastra, attached to the court of a
   prince or nobleman.

   5.  (Print.)  (a)  A  printing  office,  said  to be so called because
   printing  was first carried on in England in a chapel near Westminster
   Abbey. (b) An association of workmen in a printing office.
   Chapel of ease. (a) A chapel or dependent church built for the ease or
   a  accommodation of an increasing parish, or for parishioners who live
   at  a distance from the principal church. (b) A privy. (Law) -- Chapel
   master,  a  director  of music in a chapel; the director of a court or
   orchestra. -- To build a chapel (Naut.), to chapel a ship. See Chapel,
   v.  t.,  2. -- To hold a chapel, to have a meeting of the men employed
   in  a  printing  office,  for  the  purpose  of  considering questions
   affecting their interests.


   Chap"el (?), v. t.

   1. To deposit or inter in a chapel; to enshrine. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

   2.  (Naut.) To cause (a ship taken aback in a light breeze) so to turn
   or  make  a circuit as to recover, without bracing the yards, the same
   tack on which she had been sailing.


   Chape"less (?), a. Without a chape.


   Chap"e*let (?), n. [F. See Chaplet.]

   1.  A pair of Straps, with stirrups, joined at the top and fastened to
   the  pommel  or the frame of the saddle, after they have been adjusted
   to the convenience of the rider. [Written also chaplet.]

   2. A kind of chain pump, or dredging machine.


   Chap"el*la*ny  (?), n.; pl. Chapellanies (#). [Cf. E. chapellenie, LL.
   capellania.  See  Chaplain.]  A  chapel  within  the jurisdiction of a
   church; a subordinate ecclesiastical foundation.


   Chap"el*ry  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF.  chapelerie.]  The territorial disrict
   legally assigned to a chapel.


   Chap"er*on (?), n. [F. chaperon. See Chape, Cape, Cap.]

   1. A hood; especially, an ornamental or an official hood.

     His  head  and face covered with a chaperon, out of which there are
     but two holes to look through. Howell.

   2. A divice placed on the foreheads of horses which draw the hearse in
   pompous funerals.

   3.  A matron who accompanies a young lady in public, for propriety, or
   as a guide and protector.


   Chap"er*on,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Chaperoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chaperoning.]  [Cf. F. chaperonner, fr. chaperon.] To attend in public
   places as a guide and protector; to matronize.

     Fortunately Lady Bell Finley, whom I had promised to chaperon, sent
     to excuse herself. Hannah More.


   Chap"er*on`age  (?),  n. Attendance of a chaperon on a lady in public;
   protection afforded by a chaperon.


   Chap"fall`en  (?),  a.  Having  the  lower chap or jaw drooping, -- an
   indication of humiliation and dejection; crestfallen; discouraged. See


   Chap"i*ter  (?),  n.  [OF. chapitel, F. chapiteau, from L. capitellum,
   dim. of caput head. Cf. Capital, Chapter.]

   1. (Arch.) A capital [Obs.] See Chapital. Ex. xxxvi. 38.

   2.  (Old  Eng.  Law) A summary in writing of such matters as are to be
   inquired  of  or  presented  before  justices  in eyre, or justices of
   assize,  or  of the peace, in their sessions; -- also called articles.


   Chap"lain  (?), n. [F. chapelain, fr. LL. capellanus, fr. capella. See

   1. An ecclesiastic who has a chapel, or who performs religious service
   in a chapel.

   2. A clergyman who is officially atteched to the army or navy, to some
   public  institution,  or  to  a  family  or  court, for the purpose of
   performing divine service.

   3.  Any  person  (clergyman  or  layman)  chosen  to conduct religious
   exercises  for  a  society,  etc.;  as,  a  chaplain of a Masonic or a
   temperance lodge.


   Chap"lain*cy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Chaplaincies (. The office, position, or
   station of a chaplain. Swift.


   Chap"lain*ship, n.

   1. The office or business of a chaplain.

     The Bethesda of some knight's chaplainship. Milton.

   2. The possession or revenue of a chapel. Johnson.


   Chap"less (?), a. Having no lower jaw; hence, fleshless. [R.] "Yellow,
   chapless skulls." Shak.


   Chap"let  (?),  n. [F. chapelet, dim. of OF. chapel hat, garland, dim.
   fr. LL. cappa. See Cap, and cf. Chapelet, Chapeau.]

   1. A garland or wreath to be worn on the head.

   2.  A  string of beads, or part of a string, used by Roman Catholic in
   praying; a third of a rosary, or fifty beads.

     Her chaplet of beads and her missal. Longfellow.

   3. (Arch.) A small molding, carved into beads, pearls, olives, etc.

   4. (Man.) A chapelet. See Chapelet, 1.

   5. (Founding) A bent piece of sheet iron, or a pin with thin plates on
   its ends, for holding a core in place in the mold.

   6. A tuft of feathers on a peacock's head. Johnson.


   Chap"let, n. A small chapel or shrine.


   Chap"let,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Chapleted.] To adorn with a chaplet or
   with flowers. R. Browning.


   Chap"man  (?),  n.;  pl. Chapmen (#). [AS. ce\'a0pman; ce\'a0p trade +
   man  man;  akin  to  D.  koopman,  Sw. k\'94pman, Dan. ki\'94pmand, G.
   kaufmann.f. Chap to cheapen, and see Cheap.]

   1. One who buys and sells; a merchant; a buyer or a seller. [Obs.]

     The  word of life is a quick commodity, and ought not, as a drug to
     be  obtruded  on  those  chapmen  who  are  unwilling to buy it. T.

   2. A peddler; a hawker.


   Chap"py (?), Full of chaps; cleft; gaping; open.


   Chaps  (?), n. pl. The jaws, or the fleshy parts about them. See Chap.
   "Open your chaps again." Shak.


   Chap"ter (?), n. [OF. chapitre, F. chapitre, fr. L. capitulum, dim. of
   caput  head,  the  chief  person or thing, the principal division of a
   writing, chapter. See Chief, and cf, Chapiter.]

   1. A division of a book or treatise; as, Genesis has fifty chapters.

   2.  (Eccl.)  (a)  An  assembly  of monks, or of the prebends and other
   clergymen  connected  with  a  cathedral,  conventual,  or  collegiate
   church,  or  of  a  diocese,  usually  presided over by the dean.(b) A
   community  of  canons  or  canonesses.(c)  A  bishop's  council.(d)  A
   business meeting of any religious community.

   3.  An  organized  branch  of  some  society  or  fraternity as of the
   Freemasons. Robertson.

   4. A meeting of certain organized societies or orders.

   5. A chapter house. [R.] Burrill.

   6. A decretal epistle. Ayliffe.

   7. A location or compartment.

     In his bosom! In what chapter of his bosom? Shak.

   Chapter  head,  OR Chapter heading, that which stands at the head of a
   chapter, as a title. -- Chapter house, a house or room where a chapter
   meets,  esp. a cathedral chapter. -- The chapter of accidents, chance.


   Chap"ter (?), v. t.

   1. To divide into chapters, as a book. Fuller.

   2.  To  correct; to bring to book, i. e., to demand chapter and verse.
   [Obs.] Dryden.


   Chap"trel (?), n. [See Chapiter.] (Arch.) An impost. [Obs.]

                                  Char, Charr

   Char,  Charr (?), n. [Ir. cear, Gael. ceara, lit., red, blood-colored,
   fr.  cear  blood.  So named from its red belly.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   several  species  of  fishes  of  the  genus Salvelinus, allied to the
   spotted trout and salmon, inhabiting deep lakes in mountainous regions
   in   Europe.  In  the  United  States,  the  brook  trout  (Salvelinus
   fontinalis) is sometimes called a char.


   Char, n. [F.] A car; a chariot. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Char  (?),  n. [OE. cherr, char a turning, time, work, AS. cerr, cyrr,
   turn,  occasion,  business,  fr.  cerran, cyrran, to turn; akin to OS.
   k\'89rian,  OHG.  ch\'89ran, G. kehren. Cf. Chore, Ajar.] Work done by
   the day; a single job, or task; a chore. [Written also chare.] [Eng.]

     When  thou  hast  done  this  chare, I give thee leave To play till
     doomsday. Shak.

                                  Char, Chare

   Char, Chare, v. t. [See 3d Char.]

   1. To perform; to do; to finish. [Obs.] Nores.

     Thet  char is chared, as the good wife said when she had hanged her
     husband. Old Proverb.

   2. To work or hew, as stone. Oxf. Gloss.

                                  Char, Chare

   Char, Chare, v. i. To work by the day, without being a regularly hired
   servant; to do small jobs.


   Char  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Charring.]
   [Prob. the same word as char to perform (see Char, n.), the modern use
   coming from charcoal, prop. coal-turned, turned to coal.]

   1.  To  reduce  to  coal  or  carbon by exposure to heat; to reduce to
   charcoal; to burn to a cinder.

   2. To burn slightly or partially; as, to char wood.


   Cha"ra  (?),  n.  [NL.,  of  uncertain  origin.]  (Bot.)  A  genus  of
   flowerless plants, having articulated stems and whorled branches. They
   flourish in wet places.


   Char`-a-bancs" (?), n.; pl. Chars-a-banc (#). [F.] A long, light, open
   vehicle, with benches or seats running lengthwise.


   Char"act  (?),  n.  A distinctive mark; a character; a letter or sign.
   [Obs.] See Character.

     In all his dressings, characts, titles, forms. Shak.


   Char"ac*ter  (?),  n.  [L.,  an instrument for marking, character, Gr.

   1. A distinctive mark; a letter, figure, or symbol.

     It  were much to be wished that there were throughout the world but
     one  sort  of  character  for each letter to express it to the eye.

   2.  Style  of  writing  or printing; handwriting; the peculiar form of
   letters  used  by a particular person or people; as, an inscription in
   the Runic character.

     You know the character to be your brother's? Shak.

   3. The peculiar quality, or the sum of qualities, by which a person or
   a  thing  is distinguished from others; the stamp impressed by nature,
   education,  or  habit; that which a person or thing really is; nature;

     The character or that dominion. Milton.

     Know  well  each  Ancient's  proper  character; His fable, subject,
     scope in every page; Religion, Country, genius of his Age. Pope.

     A man of . . . thoroughly subservient character. Motley.

   4.  Strength  of mind; resolution; independence; individuality; as, he
   has a great deal of character.

   5.  Moral  quality;  the principles and motives that control the life;
   as, a man of character; his character saves him from suspicion.

   6.  Quality,  position,  rank,  or  capacity;  quality or conduct with
   respect to a certain office or duty; as, in the miserable character of
   a  slave;  in  his  character  as  a  magistrate;  her  character as a

   7.  The  estimate,  individual or general, put upon a person or thing;
   reputation;  as, a man's character for truth and veracity; to give one
   a bad character.

     This  subterraneous passage is much mended since Seneca gave so bad
     a character of it. Addison.

   8.  A  written  statement as to behavior, competency, etc., given to a
   servant. [Colloq.]

   9.  A unique or extraordinary individuality; a person characterized by
   peculiar or notable traits; a person who illustrates certain phases of
   character;   as,  Randolph  was  a  character;  C\'91sar  is  a  great
   historical character.

   10. One of the persons of a drama or novel.

     NOTE: &hand; "I t wo uld be  we ll if character and reputation were
     used  distinctively.  In  truth,  character  is  what  a person is;
     reputation  is  what he is supposed to be. Character is in himself,
     reputation  is  in  the  minds  of  others. Character is injured by
     temptations, and by wrongdoing; reputation by slanders, and libels.
     Character endures throughout defamation in every form, but perishes
     when  there  is  a  voluntary  transgression;  reputation  may last
     through  numerous transgressions, but be destroyed by a single, and
     even an unfounded, accusation or aspersion." Abbott.


   Char"ac*ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charactered (?).]

   1. To engrave; to inscribe. [R.]

     These trees shall be my books. And in their barks my thoughts I 'll
     character. Shak.

   2.  To  distinguish  by  particular  marks  or traits; to describe; to
   characterize. [R.] Mitford.

   Page 241


   Char"ac*ter*ism   (?),   n.   [Gr.   A  distinction  of  character;  a
   characteristic. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Char`ac*ter*is"tic  (?),  a. [Gr. charact\'82ristique.] Pertaining to,
   or  serving  to  constitute,  the character; showing the character, or
   distinctive  qualities  or  traits,  of  a  person or thing; peculiar;

     Characteristic clearness of temper. Macaulay.


   Char`ac*ter*is"tic, n.

   1.  A  distinguishing  trait,  quality,  or  property;  an  element of
   character; that which characterized. Pope.

     The characteristics of a true critic. Johnson.

   2.  (Math.)  The  integral  part  (whether  positive or negative) of a


   Char`ac*ter*is"tic*al (?), a. Characteristic.


   Char`ac*ter*is"tic*al*ly,  adv.  In  a characteristic manner; in a way
   that characterizes.


   Char`ac*ter*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of characterizing.


   Char"ac*ter*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Characterized (?); p. pr. &
   vb. n. Characterizing.] [LL. characterizare, Gr. charact\'82riser.]

   1.  To  make distinct and recognizable by peculiar marks or traits; to
   make with distinctive features.

     European,   Asiatic,   Chinese,  African,  and  Grecian  faces  are
     Characterized. Arbuthot.

   2. To engrave or imprint. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

   3. To indicate the character of; to describe.

     Under  the  name  of  Tamerlane  he  intended  to characterize King
     William. Johnson.

   4. To be a characteristic of; to make, or express the character of.

     The  softness  and effeminacy which characterize the men of rank in
     most countries. W. Irving.

   Syn.   --   To   describe;   distinguish;   mark;   designate;  style;
   particularize; entitle.


   Char"ac*ter*less,  a. Destitute of any distinguishing quality; without
   character or force.


   Char"ac*ter*y (?), n.

   1.  The  art  or  means  of  characterizing;  a  system  of  signs  or
   characters; symbolism; distinctive mark.

     Fairies use flowers for their charactery. Shak.

   2. That which is charactered; the meaning. [Obs.]

     I will construe to thee All the charactery of my sad brows. Shak.


   Cha*rade" (?), n. [F. charade, cf. Pr. charrada long chat, It ciarlare
   to  chat,  whence E. charlatan.] A verbal or acted enigma based upon a
   word  which  has  two  or more significant syllables or parts, each of
   which,  as  well  as  the  word  itself,  is  to  be  guessed from the
   descriptions or representations.


   Char"bo*cle  (?),  n.  Carbuncle.  [Written  also  Charboncle.] [Obs.]


   Char"bon (?), n. [F., coal, charbon.]

   1.  (Far.)  A  small black spot or mark remaining in the cavity of the
   corner  tooth  of  a  horse  after  the  large spot or mark has become

   2.  A  very contagious and fatal disease of sheep, horses, and cattle.
   See Maligmant pustule.


   Char"coal` (?), n. [See Char, v. t., to burn or to reduce to coal, and

   1.  Impure  carbon prepared from vegetable or animal substances; esp.,
   coal  made by charring wood in a kiln, retort, etc., from which air is
   excluded. It is used for fuel and in various mechanical, artistic, and
   chemical processes.

   2.  (Fine  Arts)  Finely  prepared charcoal in small sticks, used as a
   drawing implement.
   Animal  charcoal,  a  fine  charcoal  prepared by calcining bones in a
   closed  vessel; -- used as a filtering agent in sugar refining, and as
   an  absorbent and disinfectant. -- Charcoal blacks, the black pigment,
   consisting  of  burnt  ivory,  bone,  cock,  peach  stones,  and other
   substances.  --  Charcoal  drawing  (Fine  Arts),  a drawing made with
   charcoal.  See Charcoal, 2. Until within a few years this material has
   been  used  almost  exclusively  for preliminary outline, etc., but at
   present  many finished drawings are made with it. -- Charcoal point, a
   carbon  pencil  prepared  for  use  un an electric light apparatus. --
   Mineral  charcoal, a term applied to silky fibrous layers of charcoal,
   interlaminated in beds of ordinary bituminous coal; -- known to miners
   as mother of coal.
   Chard (?), n. [Cf. F. carde esclent thistle.] 

   1. The tender leaves or leafstalks of the artichoke, white beet, etc.,
   blanched for table use.

   2. A variety of the white beet, which produces large, succulent leaves
   and leafstalks.


   Chare (?), n. A narrow street. [Prov. Eng.]


   Chare, n. & v. A chore; to chore; to do. See Char.


   Charge  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Charged  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Charging.] [OF. chargier, F. charger, fr. LL. carricare, fr. L. carrus
   wagon. Cf. Cargo, Caricature, Cark, and see Car.]

   1. To lay on or impose, as a load, tax, or burden; to load; to fill.

     A carte that charged was with hay. Chaucer.

     The charging of children's memories with rules. Locke.

   2.  To  lay  on  or  impose,  as  a  task, duty, or trust; to command,
   instruct,  or exhort with authority; to enjoin; to urge earnestly; as,
   to  charge  a  jury;  to  charge the clergy of a diocese; to charge an

     Moses . . . charged you to love the Lord your God. Josh. xxii. 5.

     Cromwell, I charge thee, fing away ambition. Shak.

   3. To lay on, impose, or make subject to or liable for.

     When land shal be charged by any lien. Kent.

   4.  To fix or demand as a prince; as, he charges two dollars a barrelk
   for apples.

   5.  To  place  something  to the account of as a debt; to debit, as to
   charge  one  with  goods.  Also,  to  enter  upon the debit side of an
   account; as, to charge a sum to one.

   6. To impute or ascribe; to lay to one's charge.

     No  more  accuse  thy  pen, but charge the crime On native loth and
     negligence of time. Dryden.

   7.  To  accuse;  to  make  a charge or assertion against (a) person or
   thing);  to lay the responsibility (for something said or done) at the
   door of.

     If the did that wrong you charge with. Tennyson.

   8.  To  place  within  or  upon  any  firearm,  piece  of apparatus or
   machinery,  the quantity it is intended and fitted to hold or bear; to
   load;  to  fill; as, to charge a gun; to charge an electrical machine,

     Their battering cannon charged to the mouths. Shak.

   9.  To  ornament with or cause to bear; as, to charge an architectural
   member with a molding.

   10.  (Her.)  To assume as a bearing; as, he charges three roses or; to
   add to or represent on; as, he charges his shield with three roses or.

   11. To call to account; to challenge. [Obs.]

     To charge me to an answer. Shak.

   12. To bear down upon; to rush upon; to attack.

     Charged our main battle's front. Shak.

   Syn.  --  To  intrust;  command;  exhort;  instruct;  accuse; impeach;
   arraign. See Accuse.


   Charge (?), v. i.

   1. To make an onset or rush; as, to charge with fixed bayonets.

     Like your heroes of antiquity, he charges in iron. Glanvill.

     "Charge for the guns!" he said. Tennyson.

   2. To demand a price; as, to charge high for goods.

   3. To debit on an account; as, to charge for purchases.

   4.  To  squat  on  its  belly  and  be  still; -- a command given by a
   sportsman to a dog.


   Charge (?), n. [F. charge, fr. charger to load. See Charge, v. t., and
   cf. Cargo, Caricature.]

   1. A load or burder laid upon a person or thing.

   2.  A  person  or thing commited or intrusted to the care, custody, or
   management of another; a trust.

     NOTE: &hand; The people of a parish or church are called the charge
     of the clergyman who is set over them.

   3.   Custody   or  care  of  any  person,  thing,  or  place;  office;
   responsibility; oversight; obigation; duty.

     'Tis a great charge to come under one body's hand. Shak.

   4. Heed; care; anxiety; trouble. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   5. Harm. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   6. An order; a mandate or command; an injunction.

     The king gave cherge concerning Absalom. 2. Sam. xviii. 5.

   7.  An  address  (esp.  an  earnest  or impressive address) containing
   instruction  or  exhortation; as, the charge of a judge to a jury; the
   charge of a bishop to his clergy.

   8.  An  accusation  of  a  wrong  of  offense; allegation; indictment;
   specification of something alleged.

     The  charge  of  confounding  very  different classes of phenomena.

   9.  Whatever constitutes a burden on property, as rents, taxes, lines,
   etc.; costs; expense incurred; -- usually in the plural.

   10. The price demanded for a thing or service.

   11.  An  entry  or  a  account  of that which is due from one party to
   another; that which is debited in a business transaction; as, a charge
   in an account book.

   12.  That  quantity,  as  of ammunition, electricity, ore, fuel, etc.,
   which  any  apparatus,  as  a gun, battery, furnace, machine, etc., is
   intended  to receive and fitted to hold, or which is actually in it at
   one time

   13.  The  act of rushing upon, or towards, an enemy; a sudden onset or
   attack,  as of troops, esp. cavalry; hence, the signal for attack; as,
   to sound the charge.

     Never, in any other war afore, gave the Romans a hotter charge upon
     the enemies. Holland.

     The charge of the light brigade. Tennyson.

   14.  A position (of a weapon) fitted for attack; as, to bring a weapon
   to the charge.

   15. (Far.) A soft of plaster or ointment.

   16. (Her.) A bearing. See Bearing, n., 8.

   17.  [Cf.  Charre.]  Thirty-six  pigs of lead, each pig weighing about
   seventy pounds; -- called also charre.

   18. Weight; import; value.

     Many suchlike "as's" of great charge. Shak.

   Back  charge.  See  under  Back,  a. -- Bursting charge. (a (Mil.) The
   charge which bursts a shell, etc. (b (Mining) A small quantity of fine
   powder  to  secure  the  ignition  of  a  charge  of  coarse powder in
   blasting.  --  Charge and discharge (Equity Practice), the old mode or
   form  of  taking  an  account  before  a master in chancery. -- Charge
   sheet,  the paper on which are entered at a police station all arrests
   and  accusations.  --  To  sound the charge, to give the signal for an
   attack.  Syn.  --  Care;  custody; trust; management; office; expense;
   cost;  price;  assault;  attack;  onset;  injunction;  command; order;
   mandate; instruction; accusation; indictment.


   Charge"a*ble (?), a.

   1.  That  may  be  charged,  laid,  imposed,  or  imputes;  as, a duty
   chargeable on iron; a fault chargeable on a man.

   2.  Subject  to  be  charge  or  accused;  liable  or responsible; as,
   revenues chargeable with a claim; a man chargeable with murder.

   3. Serving to create expense; costly; burdensome.

     That we might not be chargeable to any of you. 2. Thess. iii. 8.

     For  the  sculptures,  which  are  elegant,  were  very chargeable.


   Charge"a*ble*ness,  n.  The  quality of being chargeable or expensive.
   [Obs.] Whitelocke.


   Charge"a*bly (?), adv. At great cost; expensively. [Obs.]


   Char"geant  (?),  a.  [F. chargeant, fr. charger to load.] Burdensome;
   troublesome. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                             Charg\'82 d'affaires

   Char`g\'82"  d'af`faires"  (?),  n.;  pl.  Charg\'82s d'affaires. [F.,
   "charged  with  affairs."] A diplomatic representative, or minister of
   an  inferior  grade,  accredited by the government of one state to the
   minister  of  foreign  affairs  of  another;  also,  a  substitute, ad
   interim, for an ambassador or minister plenipotentiary.


   Charge"ful (?), a. Costly; expensive. [Obs.]

     The fineness of the gold and chargeful fashion. Shak.


   Charge"house` (?), n. A schoolhouse. [Obs.]


   Charge"less, a. Free from, or with little, charge.


   Char"geous (?), a. Burdensome. [Obs.]

     I was chargeous to no man. Wyclif, (2 Cor. xi. 9).


   Char"ger (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which charges.

   2. An instrument for measuring or inserting a charge.

   3. A large dish. [Obs.]

     Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger. Matt. xiv. 8.

   4. A horse for battle or parade. Macaulay.

     And furious every charger neighed. Campbell.


   Char*ge"ship (?), n. The office of a charg\'82 d'affaires.


   Char"i*ly   (?),  adv.  In  a  chary  manner;  carefully;  cautiously;


   Char"i*ness, n. The quality of being chary.


   Char"i*ot (?), n. [F. Chariot, from char car. See Car.]

   1.  (Antiq.)  A  two-wheeled  car  or  vehicle  for war, racing, state
   processions, etc.

     First moved the chariots, after whom the foot. Cowper.

   2. A four-wheeled pleasure or state carriage, having one seat. Shak.


   Char"i*ot, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Charioted; p. pr. & vb. n. Charioting.]
   To convey in a chariot. Milton.


   Char`i*ot*ee" (?), n. A light, covered, four-wheeled pleasure carriage
   with two seats.


   Char`i*ot*eer" (?), n.

   1. One who drives a chariot.

   2. (Astron.) A constellation. See Auriga, and Wagones.


   Cha"rism  (?),  n.  [Gr.  .] (Eccl.) A miraculously given power, as of
   healing,   speaking   foreign  languages  without  instruction,  etc.,
   attributed to some of the early Christians.


   Char`is*mat"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a charism.


   Char"i*ta*ble (?), a.[F. See Charity.]

   1. Full of love and good will; benevolent; kind.

     Be  thy  intents  wicked or charitable, . . . . . . I will speak to
     thee. Shak.

   2.  Liberal  in  judging of others; disposed to look on the best side,
   and to avoid harsh judgment.

   3.  Liberal  in  benefactions  to  the  poor; giving freely; generous;

     What charitable men afford to beggars. Shak.

   4.  Of  or  pertaining  to  charity;  springing from, or intended for,
   charity;   relating  to  almsgiving;  elemosynary;  as,  a  charitable

   5. Dictated by kindness; favorable; lenient.

     By a charitable construction it may be a sermon. L. Andrews.

   Syn.  --  Kind;  beneficent; benevolent; generous; lenient; forgiving;
   helpful; liberal; favorable; indulgent.


   Char"i*ta*ble*ness,  n.  The quality of being charitable; the exercise
   of charity.


   Char"i*ta*bly, adv. In a charitable manner.


   Char"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl. Charities (#). [F. charit\'82 fr. L. caritas
   dearness,  high  regard, love, from carus dear, costly, loved; asin to
   Skr.  kam  to  wish, love, cf. Ir. cara a friend, W. caru to love. Cf.

   1. Love; universal benevolence; good will.

     Now  abideth faith, hope, charity, three; but the greatest of these
     is charity. 1. Cor. xiii. 13.

     They,  at least, are little to be envied, in whose hearts the great
     charities . . . lie dead. Ruskin.

     With malice towards none, with charity for all. Lincoln.

   2. Liberality in judging of men and their actions; a disposition which
   inclines  men to put the best construction on the words and actions of

     The   highest   exercise   of   charity   is  charity  towards  the
     uncharitable. Buckminster.

   3.   Liberality   to   the  poor  and  the  suffering,  to  benevolent
   institutions, or to worthy causes; generosity.

     The heathen poet, in commending the charity of Dido to the Trojans,
     spake like a Christian. Dryden.

   4.  Whatever  is  bestowed  gratuitously on the needy or suffering for
   their relief; alms; any act of kindness.

     She did ill then to refuse her a charity. L'Estrange.

   5.  A  charitable institution, or a gift to create and support such an
   institution; as, Lady Margaret's charity.

   6.  pl.  (Law) Eleemosynary appointments [grants or devises] including
   relief  of  the  poor or friendless, education, religious culture, and
   public institutions.

     The  charities  that  soothe, and heal, and bless, Are scattered at
     the feet of man like flowers. Wordsworth.

   Sisters  of  Charity  (R.  C.  Ch.),  a  sisterhood of religious women
   engaged  in  works  of  mercy,  esp. in nursing the sick; -- a popular
   designation.  There are various orders of the Sisters of Charity. Syn.
   --  Love;  benevolence; good will; affection; tenderness; beneficence;
   liberality; almsgiving.


   Cha*ri`va*ri"  (?), n. [F.] A mock serenade of discordant noises, made
   with kettles, tin horns, etc., designed to annoy and insult.

     NOTE: &hand; It  wa s at  fi rst pe rformed before the house of any
     person of advanced age who married a second time.


   Chark  (?),  n.  [Abbrev.  fr.  charcoal.]  Charcoal; a cinder. [Obs.]


   Chark,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Charked (?).] To burn to a coal; to char.


   Char"la*tan (?), n. [F. charlatan, fr. It. ciarlatano, fr. ciarlare to
   chartter,  prate; of imitative origin; cf. It. zirlare to whistle like
   a   thrush.]  One  who  prates  much  in  his  own  favor,  and  makes
   unwarrantable  pretensions;  a  quack;  an  impostor;  an  empiric;  a

   Page 242

   Page 242

                          Charlatanic, Charlatanical

   Char`la*tan"ic  (?), Char`la*tan"ic*al (?), a. Of or like a charlatan;
   making   undue   pretension;   empirical;  pretentious;  quackish.  --
   Char`la*tan"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Char"la*tan*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. charlatanisme.] Charlatanry.


   Char"la*tan*ry  (?),  n. [F. charlatanrie, from It. ciarlataneria. See
   Charlatan.]   Undue   pretensions   to   skill;  quackery;  wheedling;

                                Charles's Wain

   Charles's  Wain  (?). [Charles + wain; cf. AS. Carles w (for w\'91gn),
   Sw.  karlvagnen,  Dan.  karlsvogn. See Churl, and Wain.] (Astron.) The
   group of seven stars, commonly called the Dipper, in the constellation
   Ursa Major, or Great Bear. See Ursa major, under Ursa.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e na  me is   so  metimes al  so ap plied to  th e


   Char"lock  (?),  n. [AS. cerlic; the latter part perh. fr. AS. le\'a0c
   leek.  Cf. Hemlock.] (Bot.) A cruciferous plant (Brassica sinapistrum)
   with  yellow flowers; wild mustard. It is troublesome in grain fields.
   Called  also  chardock,  chardlock,  chedlock,  and  kedlock.  Jointed
   charlock,  White  charlock, a troublesome weed (Raphanus Raphanistrum)
   with  straw-colored,  whitish,  or purplish flowers, and jointed pods:
   wild radish.


   Char"lotte (?), n. [F.] A kind of pie or pudding made by lining a dish
   with  slices  of  bread, and filling it with bread soaked in milk, and
   baked.  Charlotte  Russe  (,  or  Charlotte  \'85  la russe [F., lit.,
   Russian  charlotte]  (Cookery),  a dish composed of custard or whipped
   cream, inclosed in sponge cake.


   Charm  (?), n. [F. charme, fr. L. carmen song, verse, incantation, for
   casmen,  akin  to Skr. \'87asman, \'87as\'be, a laudatory song, from a
   root signifying to praise, to sing.]

   1. A melody; a song. [Obs.]

     With charm of earliest birds. Milton.

     Free liberty to chant our charms at will. Spenser.

   2.  A  word  or combination of words sung or spoken in the practice of
   magic;   a   magical   combination  of  words,  characters,  etc.;  an

     My high charms work. Shak.

   3. That which exerts an irresistible power to please and attract; that
   which fascinates; any alluring quality.

     Charms strike the sight, but merit wins the soul. Pope.

     The charm of beauty's powerful glance. Milton.

   4.  Anything  worn for its supposed efficacy to the wearer in averting
   ill or securing good fortune.

   5. Any small decorative object worn on the person, as a seal, a key, a
   silver  whistle,  or the like. Bunches of charms are often worn at the
   watch  chain.  Syn.  -  Spell;  incantation; conjuration; enchantment;
   fascination; attraction.


   Charm,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Charmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Charming.]
   [Cf. F. charmer. See Charm, n.]

   1. To make music upon; to tune. [Obs. & R.]

     Here we our slender pipes may safely charm. Spenser.

   2.  To  subdue,  control,  or  summon  by  incantation or supernatural
   influence; to affect by magic.

     No witchcraft charm thee! Shak.

   3.  To subdue or overcome by some secret power, or by that which gives
   pleasure; to allay; to soothe.

     Music the fiercest grief can charm. Pope.

   4.  To  attract  irresistibly;  to delight exceedingly; to enchant; to

     They,  on their mirth and dance Intent, with jocund music charm his
     ear. Milton.

   5.  To  protect  with,  or  make  invulnerable  by, spells, charms, or
   supernatural influences; as, a charmed life.

     I, in my own woe charmed, Could not find death. Shak.

   Syn.  -  To fascinate; enchant; enrapture; captivate; bewitch; allure;
   subdue; delight; entice; transport.


   Charm, v. i.

   1. To use magic arts or occult power; to make use of charms.

     The voice of charmers, charming never so wisely. Ps. lviii. 5.

   2. To act as, or produce the effect of, a charm; to please greatly; to
   be fascinating.

   3. To make a musical sound. [Obs.] Milton.


   Char"mel (?), n. [Heb.] A fruitful field.

     Libanus shall be turned into charmel, and charmel shall be esteemed
     as a forest. Isa. xxix. 17 (Douay version).


   Charm"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who  charms, or has power to charm; one who uses the power of
   enchantment; a magician. Deut. xviii. 11.

   2. One who delights and attracts the affections.


   Charm"er*ess (?), n. An enchantress. Chaucer.


   Charm"ful (?), a. Abounding with charms. "His charmful lyre." Cowley.


   Charm"ing,   a.  Pleasing  the  mind  or  senses  in  a  high  degree;
   delighting; fascinating; attractive.

     How charming is divine philosophy. Milton.

   Syn.  -  Enchanting;  bewitching;  captivating; enrapturing; alluring;
   fascinating;   delightful;  pleasurable;  graceful;  lovely;  amiable;
   pleasing; winning. -- Charm"ing*ly, adv. -- Charm"ing*ness, n.


   Charm"less, a. Destitute of charms. Swift.

                              Charneco, Charnico

   Char"ne*co, Char"ni*co (?), n. A sort of sweet wine. [Obs.] Shak.


   Char"nel  (?),  a.  [F.  charnel carnal, fleshly, fr. L. carnalis. See
   Carnal.]  Containing the bodies of the dead. "Charnel vaults." Milton.
   Charnel house, a tomb, vault, cemetery, or other place where the bones
   of the dead are deposited; originally, a place for the bones thrown up
   when digging new graves in old burial grounds.


   Char"nel, n. A charnel house; a grave; a cemetery.

     In their proud charnel of Thermopyl\'91. Byron.


   Cha"ron (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Cless. Myth.) The son of Erebus and Nox,
   whose  office  it  was to ferry the souls of the dead over the Styx, a
   river of the infernal regions. Shak.


   Char"pie  (?),  n. [F., properly fem. p. p. of OF. charpir, carpir, to
   pluck,  fr.  L. carpere. Cf. Carpet.] (Med.) Straight threads obtained
   by unraveling old linen cloth; -- used for surgical dressings.


   Char"qui  (?),  n. [Sp. A term used in South America, Central America,
   and the Western United States.] Jerked beef; beef cut into long strips
   and dried in the wind and sun. Darwin.


   Charr (?), n. See 1st Char.


   Char"ras  (?),  n.  The gum resin of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).
   Same as Churrus. Balfour.


   Charre (?), n. [LL. charrus a certain weight.] See Charge, n., 17.


   Char"ry  (?),  a. [See 6th Char.] Pertaining to charcoal, or partaking
   of its qualities.


   Chart  (?),  n. [A doublet of card: cf. F. charte charter, carte card.
   See Card, and cf. Charter.]

   1.  A sheet of paper, pasteboard, or the like, on which information is
   exhibited,  esp. when the information is arranged in tabular form; as,
   an historical chart.

   2.  A  map;  esp.,  a  hydrographic  or  marine map; a map on which is
   projected  a  portion  of water and the land which it surrounds, or by
   which it is surrounded, intended especially for the use of seamen; as,
   the United States Coast Survey charts; the English Admiralty charts.

   3. A written deed; a charter.
   Globular  chart,  a  chart  constructed  on a globular projection. See
   under  Globular.  --  Heliographic  chart,  a  map of the sun with its
   spots.  --  Mercator's  chart, a chart constructed on the principle of
   Mercator's   projection.   See   Projection.   --   Plane   chart,   a
   representation  of some part of the superficies of the globe, in which
   its  spherical form is disregarded, the meridians being drawn parallel
   to  each  other,  and the parallels of latitude at equal distances. --
   Selenographic  chart,  a  map representing the surface of the moon. --
   Topographic chart, a minute delineation of a limited place or region.


   Chart,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Charted.] To lay down in a chart; to map;
   to delineate; as, to chart a coast.


   Char"ta  (?), n. [L., leaf of paper. See Chart.] (Law) (a) Material on
   which instruments, books, etc., are written; parchment or paper. (b) A
   charter or deed; a writing by which a grant is made. See Magna Charta.


   Char*ta"ceous (?), a. [L. chartaceus. See Charta.] Resembling paper or
   parchment; of paper-like texture; papery.


   Charte  (?),  n. [F. See Chart.] The constitution, or fundamental law,
   of  the  French  monarchy,  as established on the restoration of Louis
   XVIII., in 1814.


   Char"ter  (?),  n. [OF. chartre, F. chartre, charte, fr. L. chartula a
   little paper, dim. of charta. See Chart, Card.]

   1. A written evidence in due form of things done or granted, contracts
   made, etc., between man and man; a deed, or conveyance. [Archaic]

   2.  An  instrument  in writing, from the sovereign power of a state or
   country,  executed  in  due  form,  bestowing  rights,  franchises, or

     The  king  [John,  a.d. 1215], with a facility somewhat suspicious,
     signed  and  sealed  the  charter  which  was required of him. This
     famous deed, commonly called the "Great Charter," either granted or
     secured  very  important liberties and privileges to every order of
     men in the kingdom. Hume.

   3.  An  act  of  a  legislative  body  creating  a  municipal or other
   corporation   and   defining  its  powers  and  privileges.  Also,  an
   instrument  in writing from the constituted authorities of an order or
   society (as the Freemasons), creating a lodge and defining its powers.

   4. A special privilege, immunity, or exemption.

     My  mother,  Who  has  a  charter to extol her blood, When she does
     praise me, grieves me. Shak.

   5.  (Com.)  The letting or hiring a vessel by special contract, or the
   contract or instrument whereby a vessel is hired or let; as, a ship is
   offered for sale or charter. See Charter party, below.
   Charter  land  (O.  Eng.  Law),  land  held  by charter, or in socage;
   bookland.  -- Charter member, one of the original members of a society
   or  corporation,  esp.  one  named in a charter, or taking part in the
   first  proceedings  under  it. -- Charter party [F. chartre partie, or
   charte  partie,  a  divided  charter; from the practice of cutting the
   instrument  of  contract  in  two,  and giving one part to each of the
   contractors]  (Com.),  a  mercantile  lease  of  a  vessel; a specific
   contract  by  which  the  owners of a vessel let the entire vessel, or
   some  principal  part  of the vessel, to another person, to be used by
   the  latter  in transportation for his own account, either under their
   charge  or  his.  -- People's Charter (Eng. Hist.), the document which
   embodied  the  demands  made  by  the  Chartists,  so called, upon the
   English government in 1838.


   Char"ter,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Chartered  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.

   1. To establish by charter.

   2.  To  hire  or  let  by charter, as a ship. See Charter party, under
   Charter, n.


   Char"tered (?), a.

   1.  Granted  or  established  by charter; having, or existing under, a
   charter; having a privilege by charter.

     The sufficiency of chartered rights. Palfrey.

     The air, a chartered libertine. Shak.

   2. Hired or let by charter, as a ship.


   Char"ter*er  (?), n. One who charters; esp. one who hires a ship for a


   Char"ter*house`  (?),  n.  A  well  known public school and charitable
   foundation  in  the  building  once  used  as  a  Carthusian monastery
   (Chartreuse) in London.


   Char"ter*ist, n. Same as Chartist.


   Chart"ism  (?),  n.  [F.  charte  charter.  Cf.  Charte,  Chart.]  The
   principles  of a political party in England (1838-48), which contended
   for  universal suffrage, the vote by ballot, annual parliaments, equal
   electoral  districts,  and  other  radical  reforms, as set forth in a
   document called the People's Charter.


   Chart"ist (?), n. A supporter or partisan of chartism. [Eng.]


   Chart"less, a.

   1. Without a chart; having no guide.

   2. Not mapped; uncharted; vague. Barlow.

                       Chartographer, n., Chartographic

   Char*tog"ra*pher  (?),  n., Char`to*graph"ic (, a., Char*tog"ra*phy (,
   n., etc. Same as Cartographer, Cartographic, Cartography, etc.


   Char"to*man`cy  (?),  n.  [L.  charta paper + -mancy. Cf. Cartomancy.]
   Divination by written paper or by cards.


   Char*tom"e*ter  (?),  n. [Chart + -meter.] An instrument for measuring
   charts or maps.


   Char`treuse" (?), n. [F.]

   1.  A Carthusian monastery; esp. La Grande Chartreuse, mother house of
   the order, in the mountains near Grenoble, France.

   2.  An alcoholic cordial, distilled from aromatic herbs; -- made at La
   Grande Chartreuse.


   Char`treux" (?), n. [F.] A Carthusian.


   Char"tu*la*ry (?), n. See Cartulary.


   Char"wom`an  (?),  n.;  pl. Charwomen (#). [See Char a chore.] A woman
   hired for odd work or for single days.


   Char"y  (?),  a.  [AS.  cearig  careful,  fr.  cearu  care. See Care.]
   Careful;  wary;  cautious; not rash, reckless, or spendthrift; saving;

     His rising reputation made him more chary of his fame. Jeffrey.


   Cha*ryb"dis  (?),  n.  [L.,  Gr. A dangerous whirlpool on the coast of
   Sicily  opposite  Scylla  on the Italian coast. It is personified as a
   female monster. See Scylla.


   Chas"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being chased; fit for hunting. Gower.


   Chase  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chasing.]
   [OF.  chacier,  F. chasser, fr. (assumed) LL. captiare, fr. L. captare
   to strive to seize. See Catch.]

   1.  To  pursue  for  the purpose of killing or taking, as an enemy, or
   game; to hunt.

     We are those which chased you from the field. Shak.

     Philologists,  who chase A panting syllable through time and place.

   2. To follow as if to catch; to pursue; to compel to move on; to drive
   by following; to cause to fly; -- often with away or off; as, to chase
   the hens away.

     Chased  by their brother's endless malice from prince to prince and
     from place to place. Knolles.

   3. To pursue eagerly, as hunters pursue game.

     Chasing each other merrily. Tennyson.


   Chase,  v.  i.  To  give  chase;  to hunt; as, to chase around after a
   doctor. [Colloq.]


   Chase, n. [Cf. F. chasse, fr. chasser. See Chase, v.]

   1.  Vehement pursuit for the purpose of killing or capturing, as of an
   enemy,  or  game; an earnest seeking after any object greatly desired;
   the act or habit of hunting; a hunt. "This mad chase of fame." Dryden.

     You see this chase is hotly followed. Shak.

   2. That which is pursued or hunted.

     Nay,  Warwick,  seek  thee  out some other chase, For I myself must
     hunt this deer to death. Shak.

   3.  An open hunting ground to which game resorts, and which is private
   properly, thus differing from a forest, which is not private property,
   and from a park, which is inclosed. Sometimes written chace. [Eng.]

   4.  (Court  Tennis)  A division of the floor of a gallery, marked by a
   figure  or  otherwise;  the spot where a ball falls, and between which
   and  the  dedans  the adversary must drive his ball in order to gain a
   Chase  gun  (Naut.),  a  cannon placed at the bow or stern of an armed
   vessel,  and  used  when pursuing an enemy, or in defending the vessel
   when pursued. -- Chase port (Naut.), a porthole from which a chase gun
   is fired. -- Stern chase (Naut.), a chase in which the pursuing vessel
   follows directly in the wake of the vessel pursued.


   Chase,  n.  [F.  ch\'a0se,  fr.  L.  capsa box, case. See Case a box.]

   1.  A  rectangular  iron  frame  in which pages or columns of type are

   2.  (Mil.) The part of a cannon from the re\'89nforce or the trunnions
   to the swell of the muzzle. See Cannon.

   3.  A  groove,  or channel, as in the face of a wall; a trench, as for
   the reception of drain tile.

   4. (Shipbuilding) A kind of joint by which an overlap joint is changed
   to  a flush joint, by means of a gradually deepening rabbet, as at the
   ends of clinker-built boats.


   Chase, v. t. [A contraction of enchase.]

   1.  To ornament (a surface of metal) by embossing, cutting away parts,
   and the like.

   2. To cut, so as to make a screw thread.


   Chas"er (?), n.

   1. One who or that which chases; a pursuer; a driver; a hunter.

   2.  (Naut.)  Same  as  Chase  gun,  esp. in terms bow chaser and stern
   chaser. See under Bow, Stern.


   Chas"er, n.

   1. One who chases or engraves. See 5th Chase, and Enchase.

   2.  (Mech.)  A tool with several points, used for cutting or finishing
   screw  threads,  either  external  or internal, on work revolving in a


   Chas"i*ble (?), n. See Chasuble.


   Chas"ing  (?),  n.  The  art  of ornamenting metal by means of chasing
   tools; also, a piece of ornamental work produced in this way.


   Chasm (?), n. [L. chasma, Gr. Chaos.]

   1.  A  deep  opening made by disruption, as a breach in the earth or a
   rock; a yawning abyss; a cleft; a fissure.

     That  deep,  romantic  chasm  which  slanted  down  the green hill.

   2. A void space; a gap or break, as in ranks of men.

     Memory . . . fills up the chasms of thought. Addison.


   Chasmed (?), a. Having gaps or a chasm. [R.]


   Chas"my  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to a chasm; abounding in chasms.

     They cross the chasmy torrent's foam-lit bed. Wordsworth.

   Page 243


   Chas`se"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. chass\'82, p. p. of chasser to chase.] A
   movement in dancing, as across or to the right or left.


   Chas`se",  v.  i. (Dancing) To make the movement called chass\'82; as,
   all chass\'82; chass\'82 to the right or left.


   Chas"se*las  (?),  n.  [F.,  from  the  village of Chasselas.] A white
   grape, esteemed for the table.


   Chasse`pot"  (?),  n.  [From  the  French  inventor, A. A. Chassepot.]
   (Mil.)  A kind of breechloading, center-fire rifle, or improved needle


   Chas`seur" (?), n. [F., a huntsman. See Chase to pursue.]

   1.  (Mil.) One of a body of light troops, cavalry or infantry, trained
   for rapid movements.

   2.  An  attendant  upon persons of rank or wealth, wearing a plume and

     The great chasseur who had announced her arrival. W. Irving.


   Chas"sis  (?),  n. [F. ch.] (Mil.) A traversing base frame, or movable
   railway,  along which the carriage of a barbette or casemate gum moves
   backward and forward. [See Gun carriage.]


   Chast (?), v. t. to chasten. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chaste  (?),  a.  [F.  chaste, from L. castus pure, chaste; cf. Gr. to

   1.  Pure  from  unlawful  sexual intercourse; virtuous; continent. "As
   chaste as Diana." Shak.

     Whose bed is undefiled and chaste pronounced. Milton.

   2.  Pure  in  thought  and  act;  innocent;  free  from  lewdness  and
   obscenity,  or  indecency in act or speech; modest; as, a chaste mind;
   chaste eyes.

   3.  Pure  in  design  and expression; correct; free from barbarisms or
   vulgarisms; refined; simple; as, a chaste style in composition or art.

     That  great  model  of  chaste,  lofty,  and eloquence, the Book of
     Common Prayer. Macaulay.

   4.  Unmarried.  [Obs.]  Chaucer.  Syn.  --  Undefiled; pure; virtuous;
   continent; immaculate; spotless.
   Chaste tree. Same as Agnus castus.


   Chaste"ly, adv. In a chaste manner; with purity.


   Chas"ten  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Chastened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chastening.]  [OE.  chastien, OF. Chastier, F. Ch, fr. L. castigare to
   punish, chastise; castus pure + agere to lead, drive. See Chaste, Act,
   and cf. Castigate, Chastise.]

   1.  To  correct  by  punishment;  to  inflict pain upon the purpose of
   reclaiming; to discipline; as, to chasten a son with a rod.

     For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth. Heb. xii. 6.

   2. To purify from errors or faults; to refine.

     They  [classics]  chasten and enlarge the mind, and excite to noble
     actions. Layard.

   Syn.  -- To chastise; punish; correct; discipline; castigate; afflict;
   subdue; purify. To Chasten, Punish, Chastise. To chasten is to subject
   to affliction or trouble, in order to produce a general change for the
   better  in  life  or  character.  To  punish is to inflict penalty for
   violation   of   law,   disobedience   to  authority,  or  intentional
   wrongdoing.  To  chastise  is  to punish a particular offense, as with
   stripes,  especially  with  the  hope  that  suffering or disgrace may
   prevent a repetition of faults.


   Chas"tened  (?),  a.  Corrected; disciplined; refined; purified; toned
   down. Sir. W. Scott.

     Of such a finished chastened purity. Tennyson.


   Chas"ten*er (?), n. One who chastens.


   Chaste"ness (?), n.

   1. Chastity; purity.

   2.  (Literature  & Art) Freedom from all that is meretricious, gaundy,
   or affected; as, chasteness of design.


   Chas*tis"a*ble   (?),   a.   Capable  or  deserving  of  chastisement;
   punishable. Sherwood.


   Chas*tise"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp  & p. p. Chastised (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chastising.]  [OE.  chastisen;  chastien + ending -isen + modern -ise,
   ize, L. izare, G. Chasten.]

   1.  To inflict pain upon, by means of stripes, or in any other manner,
   for  the  purpose  of  punishment  or  reformation; to punish, as with

     How fine my master is! I am afraid He will chastise me. Shak.

     I  am  glad  to see the vanity or envy of the canting chemists thus
     discovered and chastised. Boyle.

   2. To reduce to order or obedience; to correct or purify; to free from
   faults or excesses.

     The gay, social sense, by decency chastised. Thomson.

   Syn. -- See Chasten.


   Chas"tise*ment  (?),  n.  [From Chastise.] The act of chastising; pain
   inflicted for punishment and correction; discipline; punishment.

     Shall  I so much dishonor my fair stars, On equal terms to give him
     chastesement! Shak.

     I  have  borne chastisement; I will not offend any more. Job xxxiv.


   Chas*tis"er  (?),  n. One who chastises; a punisher; a corrector. Jer.

     The chastiser of the rich. Burke.


   Chas"ti*ty  (?),  n. [F. chastet\'82, fr. L. castitas, fr. castus. See

   1.  The  state  of being chaste; purity of body; freedom from unlawful
   sexual intercourse.

     She . . . hath preserved her spotless chastity. T. Carew.

   2. Moral purity.

     So  dear  to heaven is saintly chastity, That, when a soul is found
     sicerely so A thousand liveried angels lackey her. Milton.

   3. The unmarried life; celibacy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   4. (Literature & Art) Chasteness.


   Chas"u*ble  (?),  n.  [F. chasuble, LL. casubula, cassibula, casula, a
   hooded  garment,  covering  the  person  like  a little house; cf. It.
   casupola,  casipola,  cottage,  dim  of  L. casa cottage.] (Eccl.) The
   outer  vestment  worn by the priest in saying Mass, consisting, in the
   Roman  Catholic  Church,  of a broad, flat, back piece, and a narrower
   front  piece,  the two connected over the shoulders only. The back has
   usually a large cross, the front an upright bar or pillar, designed to
   be  emblematical  of  Christ's  sufferings.  In  the  Greek Church the
   chasuble  is  a  large  round  mantle.  [Written  also  chasible,  and


   Chat  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Chatted; p. pr. & vb. n. Chatting.]
   [From  Chatter.  \'fb22.]  To  talk in a light and familiar manner; to
   converse without form or ceremony; to gossip. Shak.

     To chat a while on their adventures. Dryden.

   Syn. -- To talk; chatter; gossip; converse.


   Chat, v. t. To talk of. [Obs.]


   Chat, n.

   1. Light, familiar talk; conversation; gossip.

     Snuff,  or  fan, supply each pause of chat, With singing, laughing,
     ogling, and all that. Pope.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) A bird of the genus Icteria, allied to the warblers, in
   America.  The  best  known  species  are  the  yelow-breasted chat (I.
   viridis),  and  the  long  chat (I. longicauda). In Europe the name is
   given  to several birds of the family Saxicolid\'91, as the stonechat,
   and whinchat.
   Bush chat. (Zo\'94l.) See under Bush.


   Chat, n.

   1. A twig, cone, or little branch. See Chit.

   2. pl. (Mining) Small stones with ore.
   Chat potatoes, small potatoes, such as are given to swine. [Local.]


   Cha`teau"  (?),  n.;  pl.  Chateux  (#).  [F. ch\'83teau a castle. See

   1. A castle or a fortress in France.

   2.  A manor house or residence of the lord of the manor; a gentleman's
   country  seat;  also, particularly, a royal residence; as, the chateau
   of the Louvre; the chateau of the Luxembourg.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e distinctive, French term for a fortified caste of
     the middle ages is ch\'83teau-fort.

   Chateau en Espagne ( [F.], a castle in Spain, that is, a castle in the
   air, Spain being the region of romance.


   Chat"e*laine  (?),  n.  [F. ch\'83telaine the wife of a castellan, the
   mistress  of  a  chateau,  a chatelaine chain.] An ornamental hook, or
   brooch worn by a lady at her waist, and having a short chain or chains
   attached  for a watch, keys, trinkets, etc. Also used adjectively; as,
   a chatelaine chain.


   Chat"e*let (?), n. [F. ch\'83telet, dim. of ch\'83teau. See Castle.] A
   little castle.


   Chat"el*la*ny (?), n. [F. ch\'83tellenie.] Same as Castellany.


   Cha`ti"  (?),  n. [Cf. F. chat cat.] (Zo\'94l.) A small South American
   species of tiger cat (Felis mitis).


   Cha*toy"ant  (?), a. [F., p. pr. of chatoyer to be chatoyant, fr. chat
   cat.]  (Min.) Having a changeable, varying luster, or color, like that
   of a changeable silk, or oa a cat's eye in the dark.


   Cha*toy"ant,  n. (Min.) A hard stone, as the cat's-eye, which presents
   on  a  polished  surface,  and  in the interior, an undulating or wary


   Cha*toy"ment  (?),  n. [F. chatoiement. See Chatoyant.] Changeableness
   of color, as in a mineral; play of colors. Cleaceland.


   Chat"tel  (?),  n.  [OF.  chatel;  another form of catel. See Cattle.]
   (Law)  Any  item of movable or immovable property except the freehold,
   or the things which are parcel of it. It is a more extensive term than
   goods or effects.

     NOTE: &hand; Ch attels ar e pe rsonal or real: personal are such as
     are  movable,  as goods, plate, money; real are such rights in land
     as  are  less  than a freehold, as leases, mortgages, growing corn,

   Chattel   mortgage   (Law),   a  mortgage  on  personal  property,  as
   distinguished from one on real property.


   Chat"tel*ism  (?),  n.  The  act or condition of holding chattels; the
   state of being a chattel.


   Chat"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Chattered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chattering.] [Of imitative origin. Cf. Chat, v. i. Chitter.]

   1.   To  utter  sounds  which  somewhat  resemble  language,  but  are
   inarticulate and indistinct.

     The jaw makes answer, as the magpie chatters. Wordsworth.

   2.  To  talk  idly,  carelessly, or with undue rapidity; to jabber; to

     To tame a shrew, and charm her chattering tongue. Shak.

   3. To make a noise by rapid collisions.

     With chattering teeth, and bristling hair upright. Dryden.


   Chat"ter, v. t. To utter rapidly, idly, or indistinctly.

     Begin his witless note apace to chatter. Spenser.


   Chat"ter, n.

   1.  Sounds  like  those  of  a  magpie  or  monkey;  idle talk; rapid,
   thoughtless talk; jabber; prattle.

     Your words are but idle and empty chatter. Longfellow.

   2. Noise made by collision of the teeth, as in shivering.


   Chat*ter*a"tion (?), n. The act or habit of chattering. [Colloq.]


   Chat"ter*er (?), n.

   1. A prater; an idle talker.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A bird of the family Ampelid\'91 -- so called from its
   monotonous  note.  The  Bohemion chatterer (Ampelis garrulus) inhabits
   the  arctic regions of both continents. In America the cedar bird is a
   more common species. See Bohemian chatterer, and Cedar bird.


   Chat"ter*ing  (?),  n. The act or habit of talking idly or rapidly, or
   of  making  inarticulate sounds; the sounds so made; noise made by the
   collision of the teeth; chatter.


   Chat"ti*ness (?), n. The quality of being chatty, or of talking easily
   and pleasantly.


   Chat"ty  (?),  a. Given to light, familiar talk; talkative. Lady M. W.


   Chat"ty,  n.  [Tamil sh\'beti.] A porous earthen pot used in India for
   cooling water, etc.


   Chat"wood`  (?), n. [Chat a little stick + wood.] Little sticks; twigs
   for burning; fuel. Johnson.


   Chaud"-med`ley  (?),  n.  [F. chaude m\'88l\'82e; chaud hot + m\'88ler
   (Formerly  sometimes  spelt medler) to mingle.] (Law) The killing of a
   person  in  an  affray,  in  the  heat  of  blood, and while under the
   influence of passion, thus distinguished from chance-medley or killing
   in self-defense, or in a casual affray. Burrill.


   Chau"dron (?), n. See Chawdron. [Obs.]


   Chauf"fer  (?),  n. [Cf. F. chauffoir a kind of stone, fr. chauffer to
   heat.  See  Chafe.]  (Chem.) A table stove or small furnace, usually a
   cylindrical box of sheet iron, with a grate at the bottem, and an open


   Chaul"dron (?), n. See Chawdron. [Obs.]


   Chaun (?), n. A gap. [Obs.] Colgrave.


   Chaun, v. t. & i. To open; to yawn. [Obs.]

     O, chaun thy breast. Marston.


   Chaunt (?), n. & v. See Chant.


   Chaunt"er (?), n.

   1. A street seller of ballads and other broadsides. [Slang, Eng.]

   2. A deceitful, tricky dealer or horse jockey. [Colloq.]

     He was a horse chaunter; he's a leg now. Dickens.

   3. The flute of a bagpipe. See Chanter, n., 3.


   Chaunt"er*ie (?), n. See Chantry. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Cha"us  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) a lynxlike animal of Asia and Africa (Lynx


   Chausses  (?),  n.  pl. [F.] The garment for the legs and feet and for
   the  body  below the waist, worn in Europe throughout the Middle Ages;
   applied  also  to  the  armor  for the same parts, when fixible, as of
   chain mail.


   Chaus`sure" (?), n. [F.] A foot covering of any kind.


   Chau"vin*ism  (?),  n.  [F.  chauvinisme,  from  Chauvin,  a character
   represented  as  making  grotesque  and  threatening  displays  of his
   attachment  to  his  fallen  chief,  Napoleon  I., in 1815.] Blind and
   absurd  devotion  to  a  fallen  leader  or  an obsolete cause; hence,
   absurdly  vainglorious  or exaggerated patriotism. -- Chau"vin*ist, n.
   -- Chau`vin*is"tic (, a.

     NOTE: &hand; To  ha ve a  generous belief in the greatness of one's
     country  is  not  chauvinism.  It  is  the  character of the latter
     quality  to  be  wildly extravagant, to be fretful and childish and
     silly,  to  resent  a doubt as an insult, and to offend by its very

   Prof. H. Tuttle.


   Chav"en*der (?), n. [Cf. Cheven.] (Zo\'94l.) The chub. Walton.


   Chaw  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Chawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chawing.]
   [See Chew.]

   1.  To grind with the teeth; to masticate, as food in eating; to chew,
   as the cud; to champ, as the bit.

     The  trampling  steed,  with  gold  and purple trapped, Chawing the
     foamy bit, there fiercely stood. Surrey.

   2. To ruminate in thought; to consider; to keep the mind working upon;
   to brood over. Dryden.

     NOTE: A word formerly in good use, but now regarded as vulgar.


   Chaw, n. [See Chaw, v. t.]

   1. As much as is put in the mouth at once; a chew; a quid. [Law]

   2. [Cf. Jaw.] The jaw. [Obs.] Spenser.
   Chaw  bacon,  a  rustic;  a  bumpkin;  a  lout. (Law) -- Chaw tooth, a
   grinder. (Law)


   Chaw"dron (?), n. [OF. chaudun, caudun, caldun; cf. G. kaldaunen guts,
   bowels,  LL.  calduna  intestine,  W.  coluddyn  gut,  dim.  of coludd
   bowels.] Entrails. [Obs.] [Written also chaudron, chauldron.] Shak.

                                   Chay root

   Chay"  root`  (?).  [Tamil  sh\'beya.]  The  root  of  the Oldenlandia
   umbellata,  native  in  India,  which  yieds  a  durable red dyestuff.
   [Written also choy root.]

                                  Chazy epoch

   Cha*zy"  ep"och  (?).  (Geol.)  An  epoch at the close of the Canadian
   period  of  the  American  Lower  Silurian  system; -- so named from a
   township in Clinton Co., New York. See the Diagram under Geology.


   Cheap  (?),  n.  [AS.  ce\'a0p  bargain,  sale, price; akin to D. Koop
   purchase,  G. Kauf, ICel. kaup bargain. Cf. Cheapen, Chapman, Chaffer,
   Cope, v. i.] A bargain; a purchase; cheapness. [Obs.]

     The  sack  that  thou  hast drunk me would have bought me lights as
     good cheap at the dearest chandler's in Europe. Shak.


   Cheap,  a.  [Abbrev. fr. "good cheap": a good purchase or bargain; cf.
   F. bon march\'82, \'85 bon march\'82. See Cheap, n., Cheapen.]

   1.  Having  a low price in market; of small cost or price, as compared
   with the usual price or the real value.

     Where there are a great sellers to a few buyers, there the thing to
     be sold will be cheap. Locke.

   2. Of comparatively small value; common; mean.

     You grow cheap in every subject's eye. Dryden.

   Dog   cheap,   very   cheap,  --  a  phrase  formed  probably  by  the
   catachrestical  transposition  of  good  cheap.  [Colloq.]<--  =  dirt
   Cheap, adv. Cheaply. Milton. 


   Cheap, v. i. To buy; to bargain. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   Page 244


   Cheap"en  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Cheapened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cheapening.]   [OE.   cheapien,  chepen,  to  trade,  buy,  sell,  AS.
   ce\'a0pian;  akin  to  D. koopen to buy, G. kaufen, Icel. kaupa, Goth.
   kaup\'d3n to trade. Cf. Chap to bargain.]

   1. To ask the price of; to bid, bargain, or chaffer for. [Obsoles.]

     Pretend to cheapen goods, but nothing buy. Swift.

   2.  [Cf. Cheap, a.] To beat down the price of; to lessen the value of;
   to depreciate. Pope.

     My proffered love has cheapened me. Dryden.


   Cheap"en*er (?), n. One who cheapens.

                            Cheap-jack, Cheap-john

   Cheap"-jack`  (?),  Cheap"-john`  (?),  n.  A  seller of low-priced or
   second goods; a hawker.


   Cheap"ly  (?),  adv.  At a small price; at a low value; in a common or
   inferior manner.


   Cheap"ness  (?),  n. Lowness in price, considering the usual price, or
   real value.


   Chear (?), n. & v. [Obs.] See Cheer.


   Cheat (?), n. [rob. an abbrevation of escheat, lands or tenements that
   fall  to  a lord or to the state by forfeiture, or by the death of the
   tenant  without heirs; the meaning being explained by the frauds, real
   or  supposed,  that  were  resorted  to  in  procuring  escheats.  See

   1.  An  act of deception or fraud; that which is the means of fraud or
   deception; a fraud; a trick; imposition; imposture.

     When I consider life, 'tis all a cheat. Dryden.

   2. One who cheats or deceives; an impostor; a deceiver; a cheater.

     Airy wonders, which cheats interpret. Johnson

   3.  (Bot.)  A troublesome grass, growing as a weed in grain fields; --
   called also chess. See Chess.

   4.  (Law)  The  obtaining  of  property from another by an intentional
   active distortion of the truth.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en ch eats ar e ef fected by  de ceitful or illegal
     symbols  or tokens which may affect the public at large and against
     which  common  prudence could not have guarded, they are indictable
     at common law. Wharton.

   Syn.  --  Deception;  imposture;  fraud;  delusion;  artifice;  trick;
   swindle; deceit; guile; finesse; stratagem.


   Cheat,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Cheated; p. pr. & vb. n. Cheating.] [See
   CHeat, n., Escheat.]

   1. To deceive and defraud; to impose upon; to trick; to swindle.

     I  am  subject  to  a  tyrant, a sorcerer, that by his cunning hath
     cheated me of this island. Shak.

   2. To beguile. Sir W. Scott.

     To cheat winter of its dreariness. W. Irving.

   Syn.  --  To  trick;  cozen;  gull;  chouse; fool; outwit; circumvent;
   beguile; mislead; dupe; swindle; defraud; overreach; delude; hoodwink;
   deceive; bamboozle.


   Cheat, v. i. To practice fraud or trickery; as, to cheat at cards.


   Cheat,  n.  [Perh. from OF. chet\'82 goods, chattels.] Wheat, or bread
   made from wheat. [Obs.] Drayton.

     Their  purest  cheat, Thrice bolted, kneaded, and subdued in paste.


   Cheat"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being cheated.


   Cheat"a*ble*ness, n. Capability of being cheated.


   Cheat"er (?), n.

   1. One who cheats.

   2. An escheator. [R.] Shak.


   Che*bac"co (?), n. [From Chebacco, the former name of Essex, a town in
   Massachusetts where such vessels were built.] (Naut.) A narrow-sterned
   boat  formerly much used in the Newfoundland fisheries; -- called also
   pinkstern and chebec. Bartlett.


   Che"bec (?), n. (Naut.) See Chebacco.


   Che*bec"  (?),  n.  [Named from its note.] (Zo\'94l.) A small American
   bird (Empidonax minimus); the least flycatcher.


   Check  (?),  n. [OE. chek, OF. eschec, F. \'82chec, a stop, hindrance,
   orig.  check  in  the game of chess, pl. \'82checs chess, through AR.,
   fr. Pers. sh\'beh king. See Shah, and cf. Checkmate, Chess, Checker.]

   1. (Chess) A word of warning denoting that the king is in danger; such
   a  menace  of  a  player's king by an adversary's move as would, if it
   were  any  other  piece,  expose  it  to  immediate capture. A king so
   menaced  is  said  to  be  in check, and must be made safe at the next

   2.  A  condition  of  interrupted  or  impeded progress; arrest; stop;
   delay; as, to hold an enemy in check.

     Which   gave   a   remarkable   check  to  the  first  progress  of
     Christianity. Addison.

     No check, no stay, this streamlet fears. Wordsworth.

   3.  Whatever  arrests  progress, or limits action; an obstacle, guard,
   restraint, or rebuff.

     Useful check upon the administration of government. Washington.

     A man whom no check could abash. Macaulay.

   4.  A  mark, certificate, or token, by which, errors may be prevented,
   or  a  thing  or  person  may be identified; as, checks placed against
   items  in  an  account; a check given for baggage; a return check on a

   5.  A written order directing a bank or banker to pay money as therein
   stated. See Bank check, below.

   6.  A  woven  or  painted design in squares resembling the patten of a
   checkerboard;  one of the squares of such a design; also, cloth having
   such a figure.

   7.  (Falconry)  The  forsaking  by a hawk of its proper game to follow
   other birds.

   8. Small chick or crack.
   Bank  check, a written order on a banker or broker to pay money in his
   keeping  belonging  to  the  signer.  -- Check book, a book containing
   blank  forms  for  checks  upon  a  bank. -- Check hook, a hook on the
   saddle  of a harness, over which a checkrein is looped. -- Check list,
   a  list or catalogue by which things may be verified, or on which they
   may  be  checked. -- Check nut (Mech.), a secondary nut, screwing down
   upon  the  primary nut to secure it. Knight. -- Check valve (Mech.), a
   valve  in  the feed pipe of a boiler to prevent the return of the feed
   water.  --  To  take  check,  to  take offense. [Obs.] Dryden. Syn. --
   Hindrance;  setback;  interruption;  obstruction;  reprimand; censure;
   rebuke;  reproof; repulse; rebuff; tally; counterfoil; counterbalance;
   ticket; draft.


   Check, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Checked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. checking.]

   1.  (Chess)  To  make a move which puts an adversary's piece, esp. his
   king, in check; to put in check.

   2.  To put a sudden restraint upon; to stop temporarily; to hinder; to
   repress; to curb.

     So  many  clogs to check and retard the headlong course of violence
     and oppression. Burke.

   3.  To verify, to guard, to make secure, by means of a mark, token, or
   other  check;  to  distinguish  by  a check; to put a mark against (an
   item)  after  comparing  with an original or a counterpart in order to
   secure accuracy; as, to check an account; to check baggage.

   4. To chide, rebuke, or reprove.

     The good king, his master, will check him for it. Shak.

   5.  (Naut.)  To  slack  or  ease  off, as a brace which is too stiffly

   6.  To make checks or chinks in; to cause to crack; as, the sun checks
   timber.  Syn.  -- To restrain; curb; bridle; repress; control; hinder;
   impede; obstruct; interrupt; tally; rebuke; reprove; rebuff.


   Check (?), v. i. To make a stop; to pause; -- with at.

     The  mind,  once  jaded  by  an  attempt above its power, either is
     disabled for the future, or else checks at any vigorous undertaking
     ever after. Locke.

   2. To clash or interfere. [R.] Bacon.

   3. To act as a curb or restraint.

     It [his presence] checks too strong upon me. Dryden.

   4.  To  crack  or  gape  open, as wood in drying; or to crack in small
   checks, as varnish, paint, etc.

   5.  (Falconry)  To turn, when in pursuit of proper game, and fly after
   other birds.

     And  like the haggard, check at every feather That comes before his
     eye. Shak.


   Check, a. Checkered; designed in checks.


   Check"age (?), n.

   1.  The act of checking; as, the checkage of a name or of an item in a

   2.  The  items, or the amount, to which attention is called by a check
   or checks.


   Check"er, n. [From Check, v. t.] One who checks.


   Check"er  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Checkered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Checkering.]  [From  OF. eschequier a chessboard, F. \'82chiquier. See
   Check, n., and cf. 3d Checker.]

   1.  To  mark  with  small  squares like a checkerboard, as by crossing
   stripes of different colors.

   2.  To variegate or diversify with different qualities, color, scenes,
   or events; esp., to subject to frequent alternations of prosterity and

     Our  minds  are,  as  it  were, checkered with truth and falsehood.


   Check"er, n. [OF. eschequier. See Checker, v. t.]

   1. A piece in the game of draughts or checkers.

   2. A pattern in checks; a single check.

   3. Checkerwork.

     NOTE: &hand; This word is also written chequer.


   Check"er*ber`ry  (?), n.; pl. Checkerberries (#). (Bot.) A spicy plant
   and  its  bright  red  berry; the wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens).
   Also incorrectly applied to the partridge berry (Mitchella repens).


   Check"er*board  (?),  n.  A board with sixty-four squares of alternate
   color, used for playing checkers or draughts.


   Chack"ered (?), a.

   1.  Marked  with  alternate  squares  or  checks of different color or

     Dancing in the checkered shade. Milton.

   2.  Diversified  or  variegated  in a marked manner, as in appearance,
   character, circumstances, etc.

     This checkered narrative. Macaulay.


   Check"ers  (?),  n. pl. [See Checher, v.] A game, called also daughts,
   played  on  a  checkerboard  by  two  persons,  each having twelve men
   (counters  or  checkers) which are moved diagonally. The game is ended
   when either of the players has lost all his men, or can not move them.


   Check"er*work` (?), n.

   1.  Work  consisting  of  or showing checkers varied alternately as to
   colors or materials.

   2. Any aggregate of varied vicissitudes.

     How strange a checkerwork of Providence is the life of man. De Foe.


   Check"la*ton (?), n.

   1. Ciclatoun. [Obs.]

   2. Gilded leather. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Check"less, a. That can not be checked or restrained.


   Check"mate,  n. [F. \'82chec et mat, fr. Per. sh\'beh m\'bet ceckmate,
   lit.,  the  king  is dead, fr. Ar. m\'beta he died, is dead. The king,
   when made prisoner, or checkmated, is assumed to be dead, and the game
   is finished. See Chess.]

   1.  The  position  in  the  game  of chess when a king is in check and
   cannot be released, -- which ends the game.

   2. A complete check; utter defeat or overthrow.


   Check"mate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Checkmated; p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. (Chess) To check (an adversary's king) in such a manner that escape
   in  impossible;  to defeat (an adversary) by putting his king in check
   from which there is no escape.

   2. To defeat completely; to terminate; to thwart.

     To checkmate and control my just demands. Ford.


   Check"rein` (?), n.

   1.  A  short  rein  looped over the check hook to prevent a horse from
   lowering his head; -- called also a bearing rein.

   2. A branch rein connecting the driving rein of one horse of a span or
   pair with the bit of the other horse.


   Check"roll`  (?), n. A list of servants in a household; -- called also
   chequer roll.


   Check"string`  (?), n. A cord by which a person in a carriage or horse
   car may signal to the driver.


   Check"work  (?),  n. Anything made so as to form alternate squares lke
   those of a checkerboard.


   Check"y  (?),  a. (Her.) Divided into small alternating squares of two
   tinctures;  --  said  of the field or of an armorial bearing. [Written
   also checquy, cheguy.]


   Ched"dar (?), a. Of or pertaining to, or made at, Cheddar, in England;
   as, Cheddar cheese.


   Cheek  (?),  n.  [OE. cheke, cheoke, AS. c\'82ace, c\'82oce; cf. Goth.
   kukjan to kiss, D. kaak cheek; perh. akin to E. chew, jaw.]

   1. The side of the face below the eye.

   2. The cheek bone. [Obs.] Caucer.

   3.  pl.  (Mech.) Those pieces of a machine, or of any timber, or stone
   work,  which  form  corresponding  sides,  or which are similar and in
   pair;  as,  the cheeks (jaws) of a vise; the cheeks of a gun carriage,

   4. pl. The branches of a bridle bit. Knight.

   5.  (Founding)  A  section  of  a  flask, so made that it can be moved
   laterally,  to  permit  the  removal of the pattern from the mold; the
   middle part of a flask.

   6. Cool confidence; assurance; impudence. [Slang]
   Cheek  of beef. See Illust. of Beef. -- Cheek bone (Anat.) the bone of
   the  side of the fase; esp., the malar bone. -- Cheek by jowl, side by
   side; very intimate. -- Cheek pouch (Zo\'94l.), a sacklike dilation of
   the  cheeks  of certain monkeys and rodents, used for holding food. --
   Cheeks  of  a  block, the two sides of the shell of a tackle block. --
   Cheeks  of  a  mast, the projection on each side of a mast, upon which
   the  trestletrees  rest.  --  Cheek  tooth  (Anat.), a hinder or molar
   tooth. -- Butment cheek. See under Butment.


   Cheek (?), v. t. To be impudent or saucy to. [Slang.]


   Cheeked  (?), a. Having a cheek; -- used in composition. "Rose-cheeked
   Adonis." Shak.


   Cheek"y, a Brazen-faced; impudent; bold. [Slang.]


   Cheep (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cheeped (?).] [Cf. Chirp]. To chirp, as
   a young bird.


   Cheep, v. t. To give expression to in a chirping tone.

     Cheep and twitter twenty million loves. Tennyson.


   Cheep, n. A chirp, peep, or squeak, as of a young bird or mousse.


   Cheer  (?),  n.  [OE.  chere  face,  welcome,  cheer,  OF.  chiere, F.
   ch\'8are,  fr. LL. cara face, Gr. , L. cerebrum brain, G. hirn, and E.

   1.  The  face; the countenance or its expression. [Obs.] "Sweat of thy
   cheer." Wyclif.

   2. Feeling; spirit; state of mind or heart.

     Be of good cheer. Matt. ix. 2.

     The parents . . . fled away with heavy cheer. Holland.

   3. Gayety; mirth; cheerfulness; animation.

     I  have  not that alacrity of spirit, Nor cheer of mind, that I was
     wont to have. Shak.

   1.  That  which  promotes  good  spirits  or  cheerfulness; provisions
   prepared  for  a  feast;  entertainment;  as, a table loaded with good

   5.  A  shout,  hurrah,  or  acclamation,  expressing  joy  enthusiasm,
   applause, favor, etc.

     Welcome her, thundering cheer of the street. Tennyson.

   Whzt cheer? Now do you fare? What is there that is cheering?


   Cheer, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Cheered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. cheering.]

   1.  To  cause  to rejoice; to gladden; to make cheerful; -- often with
   up. Cowpe.

   2.  To infuse life, courage, animation, or hope, into; to inspirit; to
   solace or comfort.

     The proud he tamed, the penitent he cheered. Dryden.

   3.  To  salute  or  applaud  with cheers; to urge on by cheers; as, to
   cheer hounds in a chase.
   To cheer ship, to salute a passing ship by cheers of sailors stationed
   in  the  rigging.  Syn.  --  To gladden; encourage; inspirit; comfort;
   console; enliven; refresh; exhilarate; animate; applaud.


   Cheer, v. i.

   1. To grow cheerful; to become gladsome or joyous; -- usually with up.

     At sight of thee my gloomy soul cheers up. A. Philips.

   2. To be in any state or temper of mind. [Obs.]

     How cheer'st thou, Jessica? Shak.

   3. To utter a shout or shouts of applause, triumph, etc.

     And  even  the  ranks  of  Tusculum  Could  scare forbear to cheer.


   Cheer"er  (?),  n.  One  who cheers; one who, or that which, gladdens.
   "Thou cheerer of our days." Wotton. "Prime cheerer, light." Thomson.


   Cheer"ful  (?),  a.  Having  or showing good spirits or joy; cheering;
   cheery; contented; happy; joyful; lively; animated; willing.

     To entertain a cheerful disposition. Shak.

     The cheerful birds of sundry kind Do chant sweet music. Spenser.

     A cheerful confidence in the mercy of God. Macaulay.

     This general applause and cheerful shout. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Lively;  animated;  gay; joyful; lightsome; gleeful; blithe;
   airy;  sprightly;  jocund;  jolly;  joyous; vivacious; buoyant; sunny;
   happy; hopeful.


   Cheer"ful*ly, adv. In a cheerful manner, gladly.


   Cheer"ful*ness,  n.  Good  spirits; a state of moderate joy or gayety;


   Cheer"i*ly (?), adv. In a cheery manner.


   Cheer"i*ness, n. The state of being cheery.


   Cheer"ing*ly (?), adv. In a manner to cheer or encourage.


   Cheer"is*ness, n. Cheerfulness. [Obs.]

     There  is  no Christian duty that is not to be seasoned and set off
     with cheerishness. Milton.


   Cheer"less,  a.  Without  joy, gladness, or comfort. -- Cheer"less*ly,
   adv. -- Cheer"less*ness, n.

     My cheerful day is turned to cheerles night. Spenser.

   Syn.   --   Gloomy;   sad;  comfortless;  dispiriting;  dicsconsolate;
   dejected; melancholy; forlorn.


   Cheer"ly (?), a. Gay; cheerful. [Obs.] Shak.


   Cheer"ly, adv. Cheerily. [Archaic] Tennyson.


   Cheer"ry (?), a. Cheerful; lively; gay; bright; pleasant; as, a cheery

     His   cheery   little   study,  where  the  sunshine  glimmered  so
     pleasantly. Hawthorne.

   Page 245


   Cheese (?), n. [OE. chese, AS. c\'c7se, fr. L. caseus, LL. casius. Cf.

   1.  The  curd  of milk, coagulated usually with rennet, separated from
   the whey, and pressed into a solid mass in a hoop or mold.

   2. A mass of pomace, or ground apples, pressed togehter in the form of
   a cheese.

   3.  The flat, circuliar, mucilaginous fruit of the dwarf mallow (Malva
   rotundifolia). [Colloq.]

   4.  A low courtesy; -- so called on account of the cheese form assumed
   by  a  woman's  dress  when she stoops after extending the skirts by a
   rapid gyration. De Quincey. Thackeray.
   Cheese  cake,  a  cake  made  of or filled with, a composition of soft
   curds,  sugar,  and  butter.  Prior. -- Cheese fly (Zo\'94l.), a black
   dipterous  insect  (Piophila  casei) of which the larv\'91 or maggots,
   called ckippers or hoppers, live in cheese. -- Cheese mite (Zo\'94l.),
   a  minute mite (Tryoglyhus siro) in cheese and other articles of food.
   --  Cheese  press, a press used in making cheese, to separate the whey
   from  the  curd,  and  to press the curd into a mold. -- Cheese rennet
   (Bot.),  a  plant  of  the  Madder  family  (Golium  verum,  or yellow
   bedstraw),  sometimes  used to coagulate milk. The roots are used as a
   substitute  for  madder. -- Cheese vat, a vat or tub in which the curd
   is formed and cut or broken, in cheese making.
   Cheese"lep (?), n. [Cf. Keslop.] A bag in which rennet is kept.
   Cheese"mon`ger (?), n. One who deals incheese. B. Jonson.
   Cheese"par`ing  (?),  n. A thin portion of the rind of a cheese. -- a.
   Scrimping; mean; as, cheeseparing economy. 


   Chees"i*ness (?), n. The quality of being cheesy.


   Chees"y   (?),   a.   Having   the  nature,  qualities,  taste,  form,
   consistency, or appearance of cheese.


   Chee"tah  (?), n. [Hind. ch\'c6t\'be.] (Zo\'94l.) A species of leopard
   (Cyn\'91lurus jubatus) tamed and used for hunting in India. The woolly
   cheetah of South Africa is C. laneus. [Written also chetah.]


   Chef (?), n. [F.]

   1. A chief of head person.

   2. The head cook of large establishment, as a club, a family, etc.

   3. (Her.) Same as Chief.


   Chef`-d'\'d2uvre"   (?),   n.;   pl.   Chefs-d'\'d2uvre  (#).  [F.]  A
   masterpiece; a capital work in art, literature, etc.

                                Chegoe, Chegre

   Cheg"oe (?), Cheg"re (?), n. See Chigoe.


   Chei"lo*plas`ty  (?), n. [Gr. -plasty.] (Surg.) The process of forming
   an  artificial  tip or part of a lip, by using for the purpose a piece
   of healthy tissue taken from some neighboring part.


   Chei*lop"o*da (?), n. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) See Ch.


   Chei*rep"ter (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Cheiroptera.


   Chei*rop"te*ra  (?),  n.;  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   mammalia, including the bats, having four toes of each of the anterior
   limbs  elongated and connected by a web, so that they can be used like
   wings in flying. See Bat.


   Chei*rop"ter*ous  (?),  a. (Zo\'94l.) Belonging to the Cheiroptera, or
   Bat family.


   Chei*rop`te*ryg"i*um  (?),  n.;  pl. Cheiropterygia (#). [NL., fr. Gr.
   (Anat.) The typical pentadactyloid limb of the higher vertebrates.


   Chei*ros"o*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  The  art of reading character as it is
   delineated in the hand. -- Chei*ros"o*phist (, n.


   Chei`ro*the"ri*um  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Poleon.) A genus of extinct
   animals, so named from fossil footprints rudely resembling impressions
   of  the  human  hand, and believed to have been made by labyrinthodont
   reptiles. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Chek`e*la*toun" (?), n. See Ciclatoun. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chek"mak (?), n. A turkish fabric of silk and cotton, with gold thread


   Che"la  (?),  n.;  pl.  Chel\'91  (#).  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The
   pincherlike claw of Crustacea and Arachnida.


   Che"late (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Cheliferous.


   Chel`e*ryth"rine (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) Am alkaloidal principle obtained
   from the celandine, and named from the red color of its salts, It is a
   coloriess crystalline substance, and acts as an acrid narcotic poison.
   It is identical with sanguinarine.


   Che*lic"e*ra  (?),  n.;  pl. Chelicer\'91 (#) [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.)
   One  of the anterior pair of mouth organs, terminated by a pincherlike
   claw,  in scorpions and allied Arachnida. They are homologous with the
   falcers of spiders, and probably with the mandibles of insects.


   Chel"i*don  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The hollow at the flexure of
   the arm.


   Chel`i*don"ic  (?),  a. [See Celandine.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or
   derived  from,  the  celandine.  Cheidonic acid, a weak acid extracted
   fron  the  celandine  (Chelidonium  majus),  as  a  white  crystalline


   Chel`i*do"ni*us  (?), n. [L. (sc. lapillus.)] A small stone taken from
   the  gizzard  of  a  young  swallow.  -- anciently worn as a medicinal


   Chel"i*fer  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -fer.] (Zo\'94l.) See Book scorpion, under


   Che*lif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -ferous.]  (Zo\'94l.) Having cheliform
   claws, like a crab.


   Chel"i*form  (?), a. [Gr. -form.] (Zo\'94l.) Having a movable joint or
   finger  closing  againts a preceding joint or a projecting part of it,
   so  that  the  whole  may be ised for grasping, as the claw of a crab;


   Che*lo"ne  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Bot.) A genus of hardy perennial flowering
   plants,  of  the order Scrophulariacea\'91., natives of North America;
   -- called also snakehead, turtlehead, shellflower, etc.


   Che*lo"ni*a  (?),  n.;  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  order of
   reptiles,  including  the tortoises and turtles, perculiar in having a
   part  of  the  vertebr\'91,  ribs,  and sternum united with the dermal
   plates  so  as  to  form a firm shell. The jaws are covered by a horny
   beak. See Reptilia; also, Illust. in Appendix.


   Che*lo"ni*an  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of or pertaining to animals of the
   tortoise kind. -- n. One of the Chelonia.


   Che*lu"ra  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of marine amphipod
   crustacea, which bore into and sometimes destroy timber.


   Che"ly (?), n. A claw. See Chela. [Obs.]


   Chem"ic (?), n. [See Chenistry.]

   1. A chemist; an alchemist. [Obs.]

   2. (Bleaching) A solution of chloride of line.


   Chem"ic, a. Chemical. Blackw. Mag.


   Chem"ic*al  (?), a. Pertaining to chemistry; characterized or produced
   by  the  forces and operations of chemistry; employed in the processes
   of  chemistry;  as, chemical changes; chemical comnbinations. Chemical
   attraction OR affinity. See under Attraction.


   Chem"ic*al,  n.  A  substance  used for producing a chemical effect; a


   Chem"ic*al*ly,  adv.  According  to  chemical  principles; by chemical
   process or operation.


   Chem`i*glyph"ic (?), a. [Chemical + Engraved by a voltaic battary.


   Chem`i*loon"  (?),  n.  A garment for women, consisting of chemise and
   drawers united in one. [U. S.]


   Che*mise"  (?),  n.  [F.,  shirt, fr. LL. camisa, camisia, shirt, thin
   dress; cf. G. hemd, or Olr. coimumse sort of garment. Cf. Camis.]

   1. A shift, or undergarment, worn by women.

   2. A wall that lines the face of a bank or earthwork.


   Chem`i*sette"  (?), n.[F., dim. of chemise.] An under-garment, worn by
   women, usually covering the neck, shoulders, and breast.


   Chem"ism  (?),  n. [Cf. F. chimisme. See Chemistry.] The force exerted
   between  the  atoms of elementary substance whereby they unite to form
   chemical compounds; chemical attaction; affinity; -- sometimes used as
   a general expression for chemical activity or relationship.


   Chem"ist,  n.  [Shortened  from  alchemist; cf. F. chimiste.] A person
   versed  in chemistry or given to chemical investigation; an analyst; a
   maker or seller of chemicals or drugs.


   Chem"is*try (?), n. [From Chemist. See Alchemy.]

   1.  That  branch  of  science  which  treats  of  the  composition  of
   substances,  and  of  the changes which they undergo in consequence of
   alterations  in  the  constitution of the molecules, which depend upon
   variations  of  the  number,  kind,  or  mode  of  arrangement, of the
   constituent  atoms. These atoms are not assumed to be indivisible, but
   merely  the  finest  grade of subdivision hitherto attained. Chemistry
   deals  with  the  changes  in  the  composition  and  constitution  of
   molecules. See Atom, Molecule.

     NOTE: &hand; Historically, chemistry is an outgrowth of alchemy (or
     alchemistry), with which it was anciently identified.

   2.  An  application of chemical theory and method to the consideration
   of  some  particular subject; as, the chemistry of iron; the chemistry
   of indigo.

   3. A treatise on chemistry.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd an d its derivatives were formerly written
     with  y, and sometimes with i, instead of e, in the first syllable,
     chymistry,   chymist,   chymical,   etc.,  or  chimistry,  chimist,
     chimical,   etc.;  and  the  pronunciation  was  conformed  to  the

   Inorganic  chemistry,  that  which  treats  of  inorganic  or  mineral
   substances.  -- Organic chemistry, that which treats of the substances
   which  from  the  structure  of  organized  beings and their products,
   whether  animal  or  vegetable; -- called also chemistry of the carbon
   compounds.  There  is  no  fundamental  difference between organic and
   inorganic  chemistry. -- Physiological chemistry, the chemistry of the
   organs  and  tissues  of  the  body,  and of the various physiological
   processes  incident  to  life.  --  Practical  chemistry,  or  Applied
   chemistry,  that  which  treats  of  the  modes  of  manufacturing the
   products   of  chemistry  that  are  useful  in  the  arts,  of  their
   applications  to  economical purposes, and of the conditions essential
   to  their  best use. -- Pure chemistry, the consideration of the facts
   and  theories  of  chemistry  in  their  purely  scientific relations,
   without  necessary  reference  to their practical applications or mere


   Chem"i*type (?), n. [Chemical + -type.] (Engraving) One of a number of
   processes by which an impression from an engraved plate is obtained in
   relief, to be used for printing on an ordinary printing press.


   Che*mol"y*sis  (?), n. [Chemical + Gr. A term sometimes applied to the
   decomposition of organic substance into more simple bodies, by the use
   of chemical agents alone. Thudichum.


   Chem`os*mo"sis  (?),  n.  [Chemical + osmosis.] Chemical action taking
   place through an intervening membrane.


   Chem`os*mot"ic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to, or produced by, chemosmosis.

                                Chemung period

   Che*mung" pe"ri*od (?), (Geol.) A subdivision in the upper part of the
   Devonian  system  in  America,  so named from the Chemung River, along
   which  the  rocks  are  well  developed.  It  includes the Portage and
   Chemung groups or epochs. See the Diagram under Geology.


   Cheng  (?), n. [Chinese.] A chinese reed instrument, with tubes, blown
   by the mouth.


   Che*nille" (?), n. [F., prop., a caterpillar.] Tufted cord, of silk or
   worsted,  for  the  trimimg  of  ladies'  dresses,  for embroidery and
   fringes, and for the weft of chenille rugs.


   Che`no*mor"ph\'91  (?),  n.; pl. [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   birds, including the swans, ducks, geese, flamingoes and screamers.


   Chep"ster (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European starling. [Local, Eng.]


   Cheque (?), n. See Check.


   Cheq"uer (?), n. & v. Same as Checker.


   Che*quing" (?), n. A coin. See Sequin. Shak.


   Cheq"uy (?), n. (Her.) Same as Checky.


   Cher"if (?), n. See Cherif.


   Cher`i*moy"er (?), n. [F. ch\'82rimolier.] (Bot.)

   1.  A  small  downy-leaved  tree  (Anona  Cherimolia),  with  fragrant
   flowers. It is a native of Peru.

   2.  Its  delicious fruit, which is succulent, dark purple, and similar
   to the custard apple of the West Indies.


   Cher"ish  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Cherished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Cherising.]  [F.  ch\'82rir,  fr. cher dear, fr. L. carus. See Caress,

   1.  To  treat  with tenderness and affection; to nurture with care; to
   protect and aid.

     We  were gentle among you, even as a nurse cherisheth her children.
     1 Thess. ii. 7.

   2.  To  hold dear; to embrace with interest; to indulge; to encourage;
   to foster; to promote; as, to cherish religious principle.

     To cherish virtue and humanity. Burke.

   Syn.  --  To  nourish;  foster;  nurse; nurture; entertain; encourage;
   comfort; protect; support; See Nurture.


   Cher"ish*er (?), n. One who cherishes.

     The cherisher of my flesh and blood. Shak.


   Cher"ish*ment (?), n. Encouragement; comfort. [Obs.]

     Rich bounty and dear cherishment. Spenser.


   Cher"mes (?), n. See Kermes.


   Cher"o*gril (?), n. [L. choerogryllus, Gr. (Zo\'94l.) See Cony.


   Cher`o*kees"  (?),  n.  pl.;  sing. Cherokee. (Ethnol.) An Appalachian
   tribe of Indians, formerly inhabiting the region about the head waters
   of  the  Tennessee  River.  They  are now mostly settled in the Indian
   Territory,  and  have  become  one of the most civilized of the Indian


   Che*root"  (?),  n.  [Tamil shuruttu, prop., a roll.] A kind of cigar,
   originally  brought  from  Mania, in the Philippine Islands; now often
   made of inferior or adulterated tabacco.


   Cher"ry  (?),  n.  [OE. chery, for cherys, fr. F. cerise (cf. AS. cyrs
   cherry), fr. LL. ceresia, fr. L. cerasus Cherry tree, Gr.

   1. (Bot.) A tree or shrub of the genus Prunus (Which also includes the
   plum)  bearing a fleshy drupe with a bony stone; (a) The common garden
   cherry  (Prunus  Cerasus),  of  which  several  hundred  varieties are
   cultivated   for   the  fruit,  some  of  which  are,  the  begarreau,
   blackheart,  black  Tartarian,  oxheart,  morelle or morello, May-duke
   (corrupted  from  M\'82doc in France). (b) The wild cherry; as, prunus
   serotina  (wild  black  cherry),  valued for its timber; P. Virginiana
   (choke  cherry),  an  American  shrub which bears astringent fruit; P.
   avium and P. Padus, European trees (bird cherry).

   2.  The  fruit  of  the  cherry  tree,  a  drupe of various colors and

   3.  The  timber  of the cherry tree, esp. of the black cherry, used in
   cabinetmaking, etc.

   4. A peculiar shade of red, like that of a cherry.
   Barbadoes  cherry.  See under Barbadoes. -- Cherry bird (Zo\'94l.), an
   American  bird;  the  cedar  bird;  -- so called from its fondness for
   cherries. -- Cherry bounce, cherry brandy and sugar. -- Cherry brandy,
   brandy  in  which cherries have been steeped. -- Cherry laurel (Bot.),
   an  evergren  shrub  (Prunus Lauro-cerasus) common in shrubberies, the
   poisonous  leaves  of which have a flavor like that of bitter almonds.
   --  Cherry pepper (Bot.), a species of Capsicum (C. cerasiforme), with
   small,  scarlet, intensely piquant cherry-shaped fruit. -- Cherry pit.
   (a)  A  child's  play, in which cherries are thrown into a hole. Shak.
   (b)  A  cherry  stone.  -- Cherry rum, rum in which cherries have been
   steeped.  -- Cherry sucker (Zo\'94l.), the European spotted flycatcher
   (Musicapa grisola); -- called also cherry chopper cherry snipe. Cherry
   tree, a tree that bears cherries. -- Ground cherry, Winter cherry, See

   Page 246


   Cher"ry  (?),  a.  Like  a red cherry in color; ruddy; blooming; as, a
   cherry lip; cherry cheeks.


   Cher"so*nese  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  peninsula;  a  tract  of  land nearly
   surrounded by water, but united to a larger tract by a neck of land or
   isthmus;   as,   the   Cimbric  Chersonese,  or  Jutland;  the  Tauric
   Chersonese, or Crimea.


   Chert  (?),  n.  [Ir.  ceart  stone, perh. akin to E. crag.] (Min.) An
   impure, massive, flintlike quartz or hornstone, of a dull color.


   Chert"y (?), a. Like chert; containing chert; flinty.


   Cher"ub  (?),  n.; pl. Cherubs (#); but the Hebrew plural Cherubim (#)
   is also used. [Heb. ker\'d4b.]

   1.  A  mysterious composite being, the winged footstool and chariot of
   the Almighty, described in Ezekiel i. and x.

     I knew that they were the cherubim. Ezek. x. 20.

     He rode upon a cherub and did fly. Ps. xviii. 10.

   2.  A symbolical winged figure of unknown form used in connection with
   the mercy seat of the Jewish Ark and Temple. Ez. xxv. 18.

   3. One of a order of angels, variously represented in art. In European
   painting the cherubim have been shown as blue, to denote knowledge, as
   distinguished  from  the  seraphim  (see Seraph), and in later art the
   children's heads with wings are generally called cherubs.

   4.  A  beautiful  child; -- so called because artists have represented
   cherubs as beautiful children.

                             Cherubic, Cherubical

   Che*ru"bic  (?),  Che*ru"bic*al  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to cherubs;
   angelic. "The cherubic host." Milton.


   Cher"u*bim (?), n. The Hebrew plural of Cherub.. Cf. Seraphim.

     NOTE: &hand; Ch erubims, in the King James version of the bible, is
     an incorrect form, made by adding the English plural termination to
     the Hebrew plural cherubim instead of to the singular cherub.


   Cher"u*bin (?), a. Cherubic; angelic. [Obs.] Shak.


   Cher"u*bin, n. A cherub. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Cher"up  (?),  v.  i.  [Prob.  fr.  chirp.]  To  make a short, shrill,
   cheerful sound; to chirp. See Chirrup. "Cheruping birds." Drayton.


   Cher"up,  v.  t.  To  excite  or  urge  on  by making a short, shrill,
   cheerful sound; to cherup to. See Chirrup.

     He cherups brisk ear-erecting steed. Cowper.


   Cher"up,  n.  A  short, sharp, cheerful noise; a chirp; a chirrup; as,
   the cherup of a cricket.


   Cher"vil (?), n. [AS. cerfille, fr. L. caerefolium, chaerephyllum, Gr.
   (Bot.) A plant (Anthriscus cerefolium) with pinnately divided aromatic
   leaves,  of  which  several  curled  varieties  are  used in soups and


   Ches (?), pret. of Chese. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chese (?), v. t. To choose [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ches"i*ble (?), n. See Chasuble.


   Ches"lip (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The wood louse. [Prov. Eng.]


   Chess  (?),  n.  [OE. ches, F. \'82checs, prop. pl. of \'82chec check.
   See  1st  Check.]  A game played on a chessboard, by two persons, with
   two  differently colored sets of men, sixteen in each set. Each player
   has  a  king, a queen, two bishops, two knights, two castles or rooks,
   and eight pawns.


   Chess,  n. (Bot.) A species of brome grass (Bromus secalinus) which is
   a  troublesome weed in wheat flelds, and is often erroneously regarded
   as  degenerate or changed wheat; it bears a very slight resemblance to
   oats,  and  if  reaped  and ground up with wheat, so as to be used for
   food,  is  said  to produce narcotic effects; -- called also cheat and
   Willard's bromus. [U. S.]

     NOTE: &hand; Other species of brome grass are called upright chess,
     soft chess, etc.


   Chess"-ap`ple (?), n. The wild service of Europe (Purus torminalis).


   Chess"board` (?), n. The board used in the game of chess, having eight
   rows  of  alternate  light  and  dark  squares, eight in each row. See

     NOTE: &hand; The chessboard and the checkerboard are alike.


   Ches"sel (?), n. The wooden mold in which cheese is pressed. Simmonds.


   Chess"es  (?), n. pl. [Cf. F. chassis a framework of carpenty.] (Mil.)
   The  platforms, consisting of two or more planks doweled together, for
   the flooring of a temporary military bridge. Wilhelm.

     A singular, chess, is sometimes used. "Each chess consists of three
     planks." Farrow.


   Ches"sil  (?),  n.  [OE.  chesil,  AS. ceosel gravel, sand.] Gravel or
   pebbles. Halliwell.


   Chess"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Chessmen  (#).  A piece used in the game of


   Ches"some (#), n. [Cf. Chisley.] Mwllow earth; mold. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Chess"tree`  (?), n. [Cf. F chassis a framework of carpentry.] (Naut.)
   A  piece of oak bolted perpendicularly on the side of a vessel, to aid
   in drawing down and securing the clew of the mainsail.

                                 Chessy copper

   Ches`sy"  cop"per  (?).  (Min.)  The  mineral  azurite,  found in fine
   crystallization at Chessy, near Lyons; called also chessylite.


   Chest  (?),  n. [OE. chest, chist, AS. cest, cist, cyst, L. cista, fr.
   Gr. Cist, Cistern.]

   1.  A  large  box  of wood, or other material, having, like a trunk, a
   lid, but no covering of skin, leather, or cloth.

     Heaps of money crowded in the chest. Dryden.

   2. A coffin. [Obs.]

     He is now dead and mailed in his cheste. Chaucer.

   3.  The  part  of  the  body  inclosed by the ribs and breastbone; the

   4.  (Com.)  A  case  in  which certain goods, as tea, opium, etc., are
   transported; hence, the quantity which such a case contains.

   5.  (Mech.) A tight receptacle or box, usually for holding gas, steam,
   liguids,  etc.; as, the steam chest of an engine; the wind chest of an
   Bomb  chest,  See  under  Bomb. -- Chest of drawers, a case or movable
   frame containing drawers.


   Chest (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chested.]

   1. To deposit in a chest; to hoard.

   2. To place in a coffin. [Obs.]

     He dieth and is chested. Gen. 1. 26 (heading).


   Chest  (?), n. [AS. ce\'a0st.] Strife; contention; controversy. [Obs.]
   P. Plowman.


   Chest"ed,   a.   Having   (such)  a  chest;  --  in  composition;  as,
   broad-chested; narrow-chested.


   Ches"ter*lite  (?),  n.  [See  -lite.]  A variety of feldspar found in
   crystals in the county of Chester, Pennsylvania.


   Ches"teyn (?), n. The chestnut tree. [Obs.]

     Wilwe, elm, plane, assch, box, chesteyn. Chaucer.

                                 Chest founder

   Chest"  foun`der  (?).  (Far.) A rheumatic affection of the muscles of
   the breast and fore legs of a horse, affecting motion and respiration.


   Chest"nut  (?),  n. [For chesten-nut; OE. chestein, chesten, chastein,
   chestnut, fr. AS. cisten in cistenbe\'a0m chestnut tree, influenced by
   OF.  chastaigne, F. ch\'83taigne, both the AS. and the F. words coming
   from L. castanea a chestnut, Gr. Castanets.]

   1.  (Bot.)  The edible nut of a forest tree (Castanea vesce) of Europe
   and America. Commonly two or more of the nuts grow in a prickly bur.

   2.  The  tree  itself,  or  its light, coarse-grained timber, used for
   ornamental work, furniture, etc.

   3. A bright brown color, like that of the nut.

   4. The horse chestnut (often so used in England).

   5.  One  of the round, or oval, horny plates on the inner sides of the
   legs of the horse, and allied animals.

   6. An old joke or story. [Slang]
   Chestnut tree, a tree that bears chestnuts.


   Chest"nut,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  of  a chestnut; of a reddish brown
   color; as, chestnut curls.


   Che"tah (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Cheetah.


   Chet"vert  (?),  n.  [Russ.  chetverte.]  A  measure of grain equal to
   0.7218 of an imperial quarter, or 5.95 Winchester bushels. [Russia]


   Chev"a*chie` (?), n. See Chivachie. [Obs.]


   Che"vage (?), n. See Chiefage. [Obs.]


   Che*val" (?), n.; pl. Chevaux (#). [F. See Cavalcade.] A horse; hence,
   a  support  or  frame. Cheval glass, a mirror swinging in a frame, and
   large enough to reflect the full leght figure.


   Che*val"-de-frise" (?), n.; commonly used in the pl. Chevaux-de-frise.
   [F.;  cheval horse + Frise Friesland, where it was first used.] (Mil.)
   A piece of timber or an iron barrel traversed with iron-pointed spikes
   or  spears,  five  or  six feet long, used to defend a passage, stop a
   breach, or impede the advance of cavalry, etc.

     Obstructions of chain, boom, and cheval-de-frise. W. Irving.


   Che`va*lier" (?), n. [F., fr. LL. caballarius. See Cavaller.]

   1.  A  horseman; a knight; a gallant young man. "Mount, chevaliers; to
   arms." Shak.

   2. A member of certain orders of knighthood.
   Chevalier  d'industrie  (  [F.], one who lives by persevering fraud; a
   pickpocket; a sharper. -- The Chevalier St. George (Eng. Hist.), James
   Francis  Edward  Stuart (son of James II.), called "The Pretender." --
   The  Young  Chevalier, Charles Edward Stuart, son of the Chevalier St.


   Che*vaux" (?), n. pl. See Cheval.


   Cheve  (?), v. i. [OF. chevir. See Chievance.] To come to an issue; to
   turn  out;  to  succed;  as,  to cheve well in a enterprise. [Prov. or
   Obs.] Holland.


   Cheve*lure" (?), n. [F., head of hair.] A hairlike envelope.

     The nucleus and chevelure of nebulous star. Sir. W. Hershel.


   Chev"en  (?),  n. [Cf. F. chevanne. Cf. Chavender.] (Zo\'94l.) A river
   fish; the chub. Sir T. Browne.


   Chev"en*tein (?), n. A variant of Chieftain. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chev"er*il  (?),  n.  [OF.  chevrel,  F. chevreau, kid, dim. of chevre
   goat,  fr.  L. capra. See Caper, v. i.] Soft leather made of kid skin.
   Fig.: Used as a symbol of flexibility. [Obs.]

     Here's  wit  of  cheveril, that stretches from an inch narrow to an
     ell broad. Shak.


   Chev"er*il, a. Made of cheveril; pliant. [Obs.]

     A cheveril conscience and a searching wit. Drayton.


   Chev"er*li*ize  (?),  v.  i. To make as pliable as kid leather. [Obs.]
   Br. Montagu.


   Che*vet" (?), n. [F., head of the bed, dim. fr. chef head. See Chief.]
   (Arch.) The extreme end of the chancel or choir; properly the round or
   polygonal part.


   Chev"i*ot (?), n.

   1.  A  valuable  breed  of mountain sheep in Scotland, which takes its
   name from the Cheviot hills.

   2. A woolen fabric, for men's clothing.


   Chev"i*sance  (?),  n. [Of. chevisance, chevissance, fr. chevircome to
   an  end,  perform, fr. chef head, end, from L. caput head. See Chieve,

   1. Achievement; deed; performance. [Obs.]

     Fortune, the foe of famous chevisance. Spenser.

   2. A bargain; profit; gain. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

   3. (O. Eng. Law) (a) A making of contracts. (b) A bargain or contract;
   an  agreement  about  a  matter in dispute, such as a debt; a business
   compact. (c) An unlawful agreement or contract.


   Chev*rette"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  ch\'82vre  goat,  fr.  L. capra. Cf.
   Chevron.]  (Mil.)  A  machine  for  raising  guns or mortar into their


   Chev"ron  (?),  n.  [F.,  rafter,  chevron,  from  ch\'82vre goat, OF.
   chevre, fr. L. capra she-goat. See Cheveril.]

   1.  (Her.)  One  of  the  nine honorable ordinaries, consisting of two
   broad  bands  of  the width of the bar, issuing, respectively from the
   dexter and sinister bases of the field and conjoined at its center.

   2.  (Mil.)  A  distinguishing mark, above the elow, on the sleeve of a
   noncommisioned officer's coat.

   3.  (Arch.)  A  zigzag molding, or group of moldings, common in Norman
   Chevron  bones (Anat.), The V-shaped subvertebral arches which inclose
   the caudal blood vessels in some animals.


   Chev"roned  (?),  p. a. Having a chevron; decorated with an ornamental
   figure of a zigzag from.

     [A  garment]  whose nether parts, with their bases, were of watchet
     cloth of silver, chevroned all over with lace. B. Jonson.


   Chev"ron*el  (?), n. (Her.) A bearing like a chevron, but of only half
   its width.


   Chev"ron*wise`  (?),  adv.  (Her.) In the manner of a chevron; as, the
   field may be divided chevronwise.


   Chev`ro*tain"  (?),  n.  [F.  chevrotin, OF. chevrot little goat, roe,
   dim.  of chevre goat. See Chevron.] (Zo\'94l.) A small ruminant of the
   family  Tragulid\'91 a allied to the musk deer. It inhabits Africa and
   the East Indies. See Kanchil.


   Chev"y (?), v. t. See Chivy, v. t. [Slang, Eng.]

     One  poor fellow was chevied about among the casks in the storm for
     ten minutes. London Times.


   Chew  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Chewed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chewing.]
   [As ce\'a2wan, akin to D. kauwen, G. kauen. Cf. Chaw, Jaw.]

   1. To bite and grind with the teeth; to masticate.

   2. To ruminate mentally; to meditate on.

     He chews revenge, abjuring his offense. Prior.

   To  chew  the cud, to chew the food ocer again, as a cow; to ruminate;
   hence, to meditate.

     Every  beast  the parteth the hoof, and cleaveth the cleft into two
     claws,  and  cheweth  the  cud among the beasts, that ye shall eat.
     Deut. xxiv. 6.


   Chew,  v.  i.  To  perform  the action of biting and grinding with the
   teeth; to ruminate; to meditate.

     old politicians chew wisdom past. Pope.


   Chew,  n.  That  which  is  chewed; that which is held in the mouth at
   once; a cud. [Law]


   Chew"er (?), n. One who chews.


   Chew"et, n. A kind of meat pie. [Obs.]


   Che"wink (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) An american bird (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)
   of  the  Finch  family, so called from its note; -- called also towhee
   bunting and ground robin.


   Chey*ennes"  (?), n. pl.; sing. cheyenne. (Ethnol.) A warlike tribe of
   indians,  related  to the blackfeet, formerly inhabiting the region of
   Wyoming,  but now mostly on reservations in the Indian Territory. They
   are noted for their horsemanship.


   Chi"an  (?)  a.  [L.  chius,  fr.  Chios  the  island Chios, Gr. Of or
   pertaining  to  Chios,  an  island in the \'92gean Sea. Chian earth, a
   dense,  compact  kind  of  earth,  from  Chios,  used  anciently as an
   astringent  and  a  cosmetic.  -- Chian turpentine, a fragrant, almost
   transparent turpentine, obtained from the Pistacia Terebinthus.


   Chi*a`ros*cu"rist  (?),  n.  A painter who cares for and studies light
   and shade rather than color.

                          Chiaroscuro, Chiaro-oscuro

   Chia`ro*scu"ro  (?),  Chi*a"ro-os*cu"ro (?), n. [It., clear dark.] (a)
   The  arrangement  of  light and dark parts in a work of art, such as a
   drawing or painting, whether in monochrome or in color. (b) The art or
   practice  of  so  arranging  the  light and dark parts as to produce a
   harmonious effect. Cf. Clair-obscur.

                                Chiasm, Chiasma

   Chi"asm  (?),  Chi*as"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.  chiasma,  fr.  Gr. (Anat.) A
   commissure;  especially, the optic commissure, or crucial union of the
   optic nerves. -- Chi*as"mal (, a..


   Chi*as"mus  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Chiasm.] (Rhet.) An inversion of the
   order  of  words or phrases, when repeated or subsequently referred to
   in a sentence; thus,

     If  e'er  to bless thy sons My voice or hands deny, These hands let
     useful skill forsake, This voice in silence die. Dwight.

   Page 247


   Chi*as"to*lite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -lite.  See Chiasm. So called from the
   resemblance  of  the cross cuts of is crystals to the Greek letter x.]
   (Min.)  A  variety of andalusite; -- called also macle. The tesselated
   apperance  of a cross section is due to the symmetrical arrangement of
   impurities in the crystal.


   Chib"bal (?), n. (Bot.) See Cibol.

                              Chibouque, Chibouk

   Chi*bouque",  Chi*bouk"  (?),  n.  [F. chibouque, fr. Turk.] A Turkish
   pipe,  usually  with  a mouthpiece of amber, a stem, four or five feet
   long and not pliant, of some valuable wood, and a bowl of baked clay.


   Chic  (?),  n.  [F.]  Good form; style. [Slang] <-- adj. in good form,
   stylish; in current fashion, fashionable. -->


   Chi"ca  (?),  n.  [Sp.]  A  red  coloring  matter.  extracted from the
   Bignonia Chica, used by some tribes of South American Indians to stain
   the skin.

   2.  A fermented liquor or beer made in South American from a decoction
   of maize.

   3.  A  popular  Moorish, Spanish, and South American dance, said to be
   the original of the fandango, etc.


   Chi*cane"  (?),  n. [F., prob. earlier meaning a dispute, orig. in the
   game  of  mall (F. mail), fr. LGr. chaug\'ben club or bat; or possibly
   ultimated  fr.  L.  ciccus  a  trible.]  The use of artful subterfuge,
   designed to draw away attention from the merits of a case or question;
   --  specifically  applied  to  legal proceedings; trickery; chicanery;
   caviling; sophistry. Prior.

     To shuffle from them by chicane. Burke.

     To  cut  short  this,  I propound it fairly to your own canscience.


   Chi*cane",  v.  i.  [Cf.  F. chicaner. See Chicane, n.] To use shifts,
   cavils, or artifices. Burke.


   Chi*can"er (?), n. [Cf. F. chicaneur.] One who uses chicanery. Locke.


   Chi*can"er*y  (?),  n.  [F.  chicanerie.]  Mean  or unfair artifice to
   perplex  a  cause  and  obscure  the truth; stratagem; sharp practice;

     Irritated by perpetual chicanery. Hallam.

   Syn. -- Trickery; sophistry; stratagem.


   Chi"co*ry (?), n. See Chicory.


   Chich  (?),  n.;  pl. Chiches (. [F. chiche, pois chiche, a dwarf pea,
   from L. cicer the chick-pea.] (Bot.) The chick-pea.


   Chi"cha (?), n. [Sp.] See Chica.


   Chiche"vache`  (?), n. [F. chiche lean + vache cow.] A fabulous cow of
   enormous  size,  whose food was patient wives, and which was therefore
   in very lean condition.

                          Chichling, Chichling vetch

   Chich"ling  (?),  Chich"ling  vetch` (?), n. [Chich + -ling.] (Bot.) A
   leguminous  plant (Lathyrus sativus), with broad flattened seeds which
   are sometimes used for food.


   Chick  (?), v. i. [OE. chykkyn, chyke, chicken.] To sprout, as seed in
   the ground; to vegetate. Chalmers.


   Chick, n.

   1. A chicken.

   2. A child or young person; -- a term of endearment. Shak.


   Chick"a*bid`dy  (?),  n.  A  chicken;  a fowl; also, a trivial term of
   endearment for a child.


   Chick"a*dee`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A small bird, the blackcap titmouse
   (Parus atricapillus), of North America; -- named from its note.


   Chick"a*ree`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The American red squirrel (Sciurus
   Hudsonius); -- so called from its cry.


   Chick"a*saws (?), n. pl.; sing. Chickasaw. (Ethnol.) A trible of North
   American  Indians  (Southern Appalachian) allied to the Choctaws. They
   formerly  occupied  the  northern part of Alabama and Mississippi, but
   now live in the Indian Territory.


   Chick"en  (?),  n.  [AS.  cicen, cyceun, dim. of coc cock; akin to LG.
   kiken,  k\'81ken,  D.  Kieken,  kuiken,  G.  k\'81chkein. See Cock the

   1. A young bird or fowl, esp. a young barnyard fowl.

   2.  A  young person; a child; esp. a young woman; a maiden. "Stella is
   no chicken." Swift.
   Chicken  cholera,  a contagious disease of fowls; -- so called because
   first  studied  during the prevalence of a cholera epidemic in France.
   It has no resemblance to true cholera.


   Chick"en-breast`ed  (?),  a. Having a narrow, projecting chest, caused
   by forward curvature of the vertebral column.


   Chick"en-heart`ed (?), a. Timid; fearful; cowardly. Bunyan.

                                  Chicken pox

   Chick"en   pox"  (?).  (Med.)  A  mild,  eruptive  disease,  generally
   attacking children only; varicella.


   Chick"ling (?), n. [Chick+-ling.] A small chick or chicken.


   Chick"-pea` (?), n. [See Chich.]

   1.  (Bot.) A Small leguminous plant (Cicer arietinum) of Asia, Africa,
   and the sounth of Europe; the chick; the dwarf pea; the gram.

   2.  Its nutritious seed, used in cookery, and especially, when roasted
   (parched pulse), as food for travelers in the Eastern deserts.


   Chick"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) The name of several caryophyllaseous weeds,
   especially  Stellaria  media, the seeds and flower buds of which are a
   favorite food of small birds.


   Chick"y  (?),  n.  A  chicken;  --  used  as a diminutive or pet name,
   especially in calling fowls.


   Chic"o*ry  (?),  n.  [F.  chicor\'82e,  earlier  also  cichor\'82e, L.
   cichorium, fr. Gr. , , Cf. Succory.]

   1.  (Bot.) A branching perennial plant (Cichorium Intybus) with bright
   blue  flowers,  growing  wild  in  Europe,  Asia,  and  America;  also
   cultivated  for  its roots and as a salad plant; succory; wild endive.
   See Endive.

   2. The root, which is roasted for mixing with coffe.


   Chide  (?),  v. t. [imp. Chid (?), or Chode (Obs.); p. p. Chidden (?),
   Chid; p. pr. & vb. n. Chiding.] [AS. c\'c6dan; of unknown origin.]

   1. To rebuke; to reprove; to scold; to find fault with.

     Upbraided, chid, and rated at. Shak.

   2. Fig.: To be noise about; to chafe against.

     The sea that chides the banks of England. Shak.

   To  chide  hither,  chide from, OR chide away, to cause to come, or to
   drive away, by scolding or reproof. Syn. -- To blame; rebuke; reprove;
   scold; censure; reproach; reprehend; reprimand.


   Chide, v. i.

   1. To utter words of disapprobation and displeasure; to find fault; to
   contend angrily.

     Wherefore the people did chide with Moses. Ex. xvii. 2.

   2. To make a clamorous noise; to chafe.

     As doth a rock againts the chiding flood. Shak.


   Chide, n. [AS. c\'c6d] A continuous noise or murmur.

     The chide of streams. Thomson.


   Chid"er (?), n. One who chides or quarrels. Shak.


   Chid"er*ess, n. She who chides. [Obs.]


   Chide"ster (?), n. [Chide + -ster.] A female scold. [Obs.]


   Chid"ing*ly (?), adv. In a chiding or reproving manner.


   Chief (?), n. [OE. chief, chef, OF. chief, F. chef, fr. L. caput head,
   possibly akin to E. head. Cf. Captain, Chapter]

   1.  The head or leader of any body of men; a commander, as of an army;
   a  head man, as of a tribe, clan, or family; a person in authority who
   directs the work of others; the pricipal actio or agent.

   2. The principal part; the most valuable portion.

     The  chief  of the things which should be utterly destroyed.1. Sam.
     xv. 21

   3.  (Her.)  The  upper  third  part of the field. It is supposed to be
   composed of the dexter, sinister, and middle chiefs.
   In  chief.  (a)  At the head; as, a commander in chief. (b) (Eng. Law)
   From the king, or sovereign; as, tenure in chief, tenure directly from
   the  king.  Syn.  --  Chieftain;  captain; general; commander; leader;
   head;   principal;  sachem;  sagamore;  sheik.  --  Chief,  chieftain,
   Commander,  Leader.  These  words  fluctuate somewhat in their meaning
   according  to circumstances, but agree in the general idea of rule and
   authority.  The term chief is now more usually applied to one who is a
   head  man, leader, or commander in civil or military affairs, or holds
   a  hereditary  or  acquired  rank in a tribe or clan; as, the chief of
   police;  the  chief  of an Indian tribe. A chieftain is the chief of a
   clan  or  tribe  ,  or  a  military  leader.  A  commander directs the
   movements of or has control over a body of men, as a military or naval
   force.  A  leader  is  one whom men follow, as in a political party, a
   legislative  body,  a military or scientific expedition, etc., one who
   takes the command and gives direction in particular enterprises.
   Chief, a.
   1.  Highest  in office or rank; principal; head. "Chief rulers." John.
   xii. 42.
   2.   Principal  or  most  eminent  in  any  quality  or  action;  most
   distinguished; having most influence; taking the lead; most important;
   as, the chief topic of conversation; the chief interest of man.
   3. Very intimate, near, or close. [Obs.]

     A whisperer separateth chief friends. Prov. xvi. 28.

   Syn.  --  Principal;  head;  leading; main; paramount; supreme; prime;
   vital; especial; great; grand; eminent; master.


   Chief"age  (?), n. [OF. chevage, fr. chief head. See Chief.] A tribute
   by  the  head;  a  capitation tax. [Written also chevage and chivage.]

                                  Chief baron

   Chief"  bar"on  (?).  (Eng.  Law)  The presiding judge of the court of


   Chief"est, a. [Superl. of Chief.] First or foremost; chief; principal.
   [Archaic] "Our chiefest courtier." Shak.

     The chiefest among ten thousand. Canticles v. 10.

                                  Chief hare

   Chief"  hare`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  rodent  (Lagamys  princeps)
   inhabiting  the  summits of the Rocky Mountains; -- also called crying
   hare, calling hare, cony, American pika, and little chief hare.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  no t a true hare or rabbit, but belongs to the
     curious family Lagomyid\'91.

                                 Chief justice

   Chief"  jus"tice  (?). The presiding justice, or principal judge, of a
   court.  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  England,  The presiding judge of the
   Queen's  Bench  Division  of  the  High  Court of Justice. The highest
   judicial  officer  of  the realm is the Lord High Chancellor. -- Chief
   Justice  of  the  United  States,  the  presiding judge of the Supreme
   Court, and Highest judicial officer of the republic.


   Chief"-jus"tice*ship, n. The office of chief justice.

     Jay  selected  the chief-justiceship as most in accordance with his
     tastes. The Century.


   Chief"less (?), a. Without a chief or leader.


   Chief"ly (?), adv.

   1.   In   the   first   place;  principally;  pre\'89minently;  above;

     Search  through  this garden; leave unsearched no nook; But chiefly
     where those two fair creatures lodge. Milton.

   2. For the most part; mostly.

     Those  parts  of  the  kingdom  where  the  .  .  .  estates of the
     dissenters chiefly lay. Swift.


   Chief"rie  (?),  n.  A  small  rent paid to the lord paramount. [Obs.]


   Chief"tain  (?),  n.  [OE.  cheftayn,  chevetayn,  OF.  chevetain,  F.
   capitaine,  LL.  capitanus,  fr.  L.  caput head. Cf. Captain, and see
   chief.] A captain, leader, or commander; a chief; the head of a troop,
   army, or clan. Syn. -- Chief; commander; leader; head. See Chief.

                          Chieftaincy, Chieftainship

   Chief"tain*cy (?), Chief"tain*ship, n. The rank, dignity, or office of
   a chieftain.


   Chier"te  (?),  n.  [OF. chert\'82. See Charity.] Love; tender regard.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chiev"ance  (?),  n. [OF. chevance property, equiv. To chevisance, fr.
   chevir to accomplish. See Chevisance.] An unlawful bargain; traffic in
   which money is exported as discount. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Chieve (?), v. i. See Cheve, v. i. [Obs.]


   Chiff"-chaff  (, n. [So called from its note.] (Zo\'94l.) A species of
   European  warbler  (Sylvia  hippolais);  -- called also chip-chap, and

                       Chiffonier, fem. Chiffo-ni\'8are

   Chif`fo*nier"  (?),  fem.  Chif`fo-ni\'8are"  (?), n. [F. chiffonnier,
   fem. chiffonni\'8are, fr. chiffon rag, fr. chiffe a rag, fimsy cloth.]

   1. One who gathers rags and odds and ends; a ragpicker.

   2. A receptacle for rags or shreds.

   3.  A movable and ornamental closet or piece of furniture with shelves
   or drawers. G. Eliot.


   Chi"gnon  (,  n.  [F.,  prop. equiv. to cha\'8cnon link, fr. cha\'8cne
   chain,  fr.  L.  catena  Cf.  Chain.]  A  knot, boss, or mass of hair,
   natural or artificial, worn by a woman at the back of the head.

     A curl that had strayed from her chignon. H. James.

                                Chigoe, Chigre

   Chig"oe  (?),  Chig"re  (?), n. [Cf. F. chigue, perh. fr. Catalan chic
   small, Sp. chico; or of Peruvian origin.] (Zo\'94l.) A species of flea
   (Pulex  penetrans), common in the West Indies and South America, which
   often  attacks  the  feet  or  any exposed part of the human body, and
   burrowing  beneath the skin produces great irritation. When the female
   is  allowed  to  remain and breed, troublesome sores result, which are
   sometimes dangerous. See Jigger. [Written also chegre, chegoe, chique,
   chigger, jigger.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  so metimes erroneously given to certain
     mites or ticks having similar habits.


   Chi*ka"ra  (,  n.  [Hind.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) The Ingoat antelope (Tragops
   Bennettii)  Of  India. (b) The Indian four-horned antelope (Tetraceros


   Chil"blain`  (?),  n.  [Chill + Blain.] A blain, sore, or inflammatory
   swelling,  produced  by  exposure  of  the  feet or hands to cold, and
   attended by itching, pain, and sometimes ulceration.


   Chil"blain`, v. t. To produce chilblains upon.


   Child  (?),  n.;  pl.  Children  (#). [AS. cild, pl. cildru; cf. Goth.
   kil\'edei womb, in-kil\'ed\'d3 with child.]

   1.  A  son  or  a  daughter; a male or female descendant, in the first
   degree;  the immediate progeny of human parents; -- in law, legitimate
   offspring. Used also of animals and plants.

   2.  A  descendant, however remote; -- used esp. in the plural; as, the
   children of Israel; the children of Edom.

   3.  One who, by character of practice, shows signs of relationship to,
   or  of  the influence of, another; one closely connected with a place,
   occupation, character, etc.; as, a child of God; a child of the devil;
   a child of disobedience; a child of toil; a child of the people.

   4. A noble youth. See Childe. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   5.  A  young person of either sex. esp. one between infancy and youth;
   hence, one who exhibits the characteristics of a very young person, as
   innocence, obedience, trustfulness, limited understanding, etc.

     When  I  was  child. I spake as a child, I understood as a child, I
     thought  as  a  child; but when I became a man, I put away childish
     things. 1. Cor. xii. 11.

   6. A female infant. [Obs.]

     A boy or a child, I wonder? Shak.

   To  be  with  child,  to  be  pregnant. -- Child's play, light work; a
   trifling contest.


   Child, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Childed; p. pr. & vb. n. Childing.] To give
   birth; to produce young.

     This queen Genissa childing died. Warner.

     It chanced within two days they childed both. Latimer.


   Child"bear`ing  (?),  n.  The  act  of  producing  or  bringing  forth
   children; parturition. Milton. Addison.


   Child"bed  (?),  n.  The  state  of a woman bringing forth a child, or
   being in labor; parturition.


   Child"birth (?), n. The act of bringing forth a child; travail; labor.
   Jer. Taylor.


   Child"crow`ing  (?),  n.  (Med.)  The  crowing  noise made by children
   affected with spasm of the laryngeal muscles; false croup.


   Childe  (?), n. A cognomen formerly prefixed to his name by the oldest
   son,  until he succeeded to his ancestral titles, or was knighted; as,
   Childe Roland.


   Child"ed (?), a. Furnished with a child. [Obs.]

                                Childermas day

   Chil"dermas  day`  (?).  [AS. cildam\'91sse-d\'91g; cild child +d\'91g
   day.]  (Eccl.)  A  day  (December  28) observed by mass or festival in
   commemoration  of  the children slain by Herod at Bethlehem; -- called
   also Holy Innocent's Day.

   Page 248


   Child"hood  (?),  n. [AS. cildh\'bed; cild child + -h\'bed. See Child,
   and hood.]

   1. The state of being a child; the time in which persons are children;
   the condition or time from infancy to puberty.

     I have walked before you from my childhood. 1. Sam. xii. 2.

   2. Children, taken collectively. [R.]

     The well-governed childhood of this realm. Sir. W. Scott.

   3. The commencement; the first period.

     The childhood of our joy. Shak.

   Second  childhood,  the  state  of being feeble and incapable from old


   Child"ing  (?),  a.  [See  Child,  v.  i.]  Bearing  Children;  (Fig.)
   productive; fruitful. [R.] Shak.


   Child"ish, a.

   1.  Of,  pertaining  to,  befitting, or resembling, a child. "Childish
   innocence." Macaulay.

   2. Peurile; trifling; weak.

     Methinks that simplicity in her countenance is rather childish than
     innocent. Addison.

     NOTE: &hand; Ch ildish, as  applied tc persons who are grown up, is
     in a disparaging sense; as, a childish temper.


   Child"ish*ly,  adv.  In the manner of a child; in a trifling way; in a
   weak or foolish manner.


   Child"ish*ness, n. The state or quality of being childish; simplicity;
   harmlessness; weakness of intellect.


   Child"less*ness, n. The state of being childless.


   Child"like  (?),  a.  Resembling  a  child,  or  that which belongs to
   children;  becoming  a  child;  meek;  submissive; dutiful. "Childlike
   obedience." Hooker.

     NOTE: &hand; Childlike, as applied to persons grown up, is commonly
     in  a  good  sense;  as,  childlike  grace or simplicity; childlike


   Child"ly,   a.  Having  tthe  character  of  a  child;  belonging,  or
   appropriate, to a child. Gower.


   Child"ly, adv. Like a child. Mrs. Browning.


   Child"ness,  n.  The manner characteristic of a child. [Obs.] "Varying
   childness." Shak.


   Chil"dren (?), n.; pl. of Child.


   Child"ship, n. The state or relation of being a child.


   Chil"i  (?), n. [Sp. chili, chile.] A kind of red pepper. See Capsicum
   [Written also chilli and chile.]


   Chil"i*ad (?), n. [Gr. A thousand; the aggregate of a thousand things;
   especially, a period of a thousand years.

     The  world,  then  in  the seventh chiliad, will be assumed up unto
     God. Sir. T. More.


   Chil"i*a*gon  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  plane figure of a thousand angles and
   sides. Barlow.


   Chil"i*a*hedron  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  figure bounded by a thousand plane
   surfaces [Spelt also chilia\'89dron.]


   Chil"i*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Chili. -- n. A native or citizen
   of Chili.

                              Chilian, Chiliarch

   Chil"i*an  (?),  Chil"i*arch` (?), n. [Gr. The commander or chief of a
   thousand men.


   Chil"i*arch`y  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  body  consisting  of a thousand men.


   Chil"i*asm (?), n. [Gr.

   1. The millennium.

   2.  The  doctrine  of the personal reign of Christ on earth during the


   Chil"i*ast  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Chiliasm.]  One who believes in the second
   coming of Christ to reign on earth a thousand years; a milllenarian.


   Chili*astic  (?),  a.  Millenarian.  "The  obstruction  offered by the
   chiliastic errors." J. A. Alexander.


   Chill  (?), n. [AS. cele, cyle, from the same root as celan, calan, to
   be  cold;  akin  to  D.  kil cold, coldness, Sw. kyla to chill, and E.
   cool. See Cold, and cf. Cool.]

   1.  A  moderate  but  disagreeable  degree  of  cold;  a  disagreeable
   sensation of coolness, accompanied with shivering. "[A] wintry chill."
   W. Irving.

   2.  (Med.)  A  sensation  of cold with convulsive shaking of the body,
   pinched face, pale skin, and blue lips, caused by undue cooling of the
   body  or  by  nervous  excitement,  or  forming  the precursor of some
   constitutional disturbance, as of a fever.

   3.  A  check to enthusiasm or warmth of feeling; discouragement; as, a
   chill comes over an assemblly.

   4.  An iron mold or portion of a mold, serving to cool rapidly, and so
   to  harden,  the  surface  of  molten iron brought in contact with it.

   5.  The  hardened  part  of  a  casting,  as the tread of a car wheel.
   Chill and fever, fever and ague.


   Chill, a.

   1. Moderately cold; tending to cause shivering; chilly; raw.

     Noisome winds, and blasting vapors chill. Milton.

   2. Affected by cold. "My veins are chill." Shak.

   3.  Characterized  by  coolness  of  manner,  feeling,  etc.;  lacking
   enthusiasm or warmth; formal; distant; as, a chill reception.

   4. Discouraging; depressing; dispiriting.


   Chill,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Chilled  (ch\'ccld); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  strike  with  a  chill; to make chilly; to cause to shiver; to
   affect with cold.

     When winter chilled the day. Goldsmith.

   2.  To  check  enthusiasm  or  warmth  of  feeling  of; to depress; to

     Every thought on God chills the gayety of his spirits. Rogers.

   3. (Metal.) To produce, by sudden cooling, a change of crystallization
   at  or  near  the  surface of, so as to increase the hardness; said of
   cast iron.


   Chill,  v.  i.  (Metal.)  To become surface-hardened by sudden cooling
   while  solidifying;  as,  some  kinds  of cast iron chill to a greater
   depth than others.


   Chilled (?), a.

   1.  Hardened  on  the surface or edge by chilling; as, chilled iron; a
   chilled wheel.

   2.  (Paint.)  Having  that  cloudiness  or  dimness of surface that is
   called "blooming."


   Chil"li (?), n. See Chili.


   Chill"i*ness (?), n.

   1.  A  state or sensation of being chilly; a disagreeable sensation of

   2.  A  moderate  degree of coldness; disagreeable coldness or rawness;
   as, the chilliness of the air.

   3. Formality; lack of warmth.


   Chill"ing  (?),  a.  Making  chilly or cold; depressing; discouraging;
   cold;   distant;   as,  a  chilling  breeze;  a  chilling  manner.  --
   Chill"ing"ly, adv.


   Chill"ness, n. Coolness; coldness; a chill.

     Death is the chillness that precedes the dawn. Longfellow.


   Chill"y  (?),  a. Moderately cold; cold and raw or damp so as to cause
   shivering;  causing  or feeling a disagreeable sensation of cold, or a


   Chi"log*nath (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A myriapod of the order Chilognatha.


   Chi*log"na*tha  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of the two
   principal  orders  of  myriapods.  They  have  numerous segments, each
   bearing   two  pairs  of  small,  slender  legs,  which  are  attached
   ventrallly, near together.


   Chi*lo"ma  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. -oma.] (Zo\'94l.) The tumid upper lip
   of certain mammals, as of a camel.


   Chi"lo*pod (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A myriapod of the order Chilopoda.


   Chi*lop"o*da  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   orders  of myriapods, including the centipeds. They have a single pair
   of  elongated  legs attached laterally to each segment; well developed
   jaws;  and  a  pair of thoracic legs converted into poison fangs. They
   are insectivorous, very active, and some species grow to the length of
   a foot.

                           Chilostoma, Chilostomata

   Chi*los"to*ma   (?),  Chi*lo*stom"a*ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.)  An  extensive  suborder  of  marine  Bryozoa,  mostly with
   calcareous  shells.  They  have  a  movable lip and a lid to close the
   aperture of the cells. [Also written Chillostomata.]


   Chi`lo*stoma*tous   (?),   a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the

                               Chiltern Hundreds

   Chiltern  Hundreds  (?).  [AS.  Chiltern  the  Chiltern, high hills in
   Buckinghamshire,  perh.  Fr. ceald cold + ern, \'91rn, place.] A tract
   of crown land in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, England, to which is
   attached  the  nominal  office  of  steward.  As members of Parliament
   cannot  resign, when they wish to go out they accept this stewardship,
   which legally vacates their seats.


   Chi*m\'91"ra  (?),  n.  [NL.  See Chimera.] (Zo\'94l.) A cartilaginous
   fish of several species, belonging to the order Holocephali. The teeth
   are few and large. The head is furnished with appendages, and the tail
   terminates in a point.


   Chi*m\'91"roid  (?),  a. [Chim\'91ra + old.] (Zo\'94l.) Related to, or
   like, the chim\'91ra.


   Chi*man"go  [Native  name] (Zo\'94l.) A south American carrion buzzard
   (Milvago chimango). See Caracara.


   Chimb  (ch\'c6m), n. [AS. cim, in cimst\'ben base of a pillar; akin to
   D.  kim,  f.  Sw. kim., G. kimme f.] The edge of a cask, etc; a chine.
   See Chine, n., 3. [Written also hime.]


   Chimb, v. i. Chime. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chime (?), n. [See Chimb.] See Chine, n., 3.


   Chime  (?),  n.  [OE.  chimbe,  prop., cymbal, OF. cymbe, cymble, in a
   dialectic form, chymble, F. cymbale, L. cymbalum, fr. Gr. Cymbal.]

   1. The harmonious sound of bells, or of musical instruments.

     Instruments that made melodius chime. Milton.

   2.  A set of bells musically tuned to each other; specif., in the pl.,
   the  music  performed  on  such a set of bells by hand, or produced by
   mechanism to accompany the striking of the hours or their divisions.

     We have heard the chimes at midnight. Shak.

   3.  Pleasing correspondence of proportion, relation, or sound. "Chimes
   of verse." Cowley.


   Chime,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chimed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chiming.] [See
   Chime, n.]

   1. To sound in harmonious accord, as bells.

   2. To be in harmony; to agree; to sut; to harmonize; to correspond; to
   fall in with.

     Everything chimed in with such a humor. W. irving.

   3.  To join in a conversation; to express assent; -- followed by in or
   in with. [Colloq.]

   4.  To make a rude correspondence of sounds; to jingle, as in rhyming.


   Chime (?), v. i.

   1.  To  cause  to  sound  in harmony; to play a tune, as upon a set of
   bells; to move or strike in harmony.

     And chime their sounding hammers. Dryden.

   2. To utter harmoniously; to recite rhythmically.

     Chime his childish verse. Byron.


   Chim"er (?), n. One who chimes.


   Chime"ra  (?),  n.; pl. Chimeras (#). [L. chimaera a chimera (in sense
   1), Gr. qymbr a yearling ewe.]

   1. (Myth.) A monster represented as vomiting flames, and as having the
   head  of  a  lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a dragon. "Dire
   chimeras and enchanted isles." Milton.

   2.  A  vain,  foolish,  or  incongruous  fancy,  or  creature  of  the
   imagination; as, the chimera of an author. Burke.


   Chi*mere"  (?),  n.  [OF. chamarre., F. simarre (cf. It. zimarra), fr.
   Sp.  chamarra,  zamarra, a coat made of sheepskins, a sheepskin, perh.
   from  Ar.  samm\'d4r  the  Scythian  weasel  or marten, the sable. Cf.
   Simarre.]  The  upper robe worn by a bishop, to which lawn sleeves are
   usually attached. Hook.


   Chi*mer"ic (?), a. Chimerical.


   Chi*mer"ic*al (?), a. Merely imaginary; fanciful; fantastic; wildly or
   vainly conceived; having, or capable of having, no existence except in
   thought;   as,  chimerical  projects.  Syn.  --  Imaginary;  fanciful;
   fantastic; wild; unfounded; vain; deceitful; delusive.


   Chi*mer"ic*al*ly, adv. Wildy; vainly; fancifully.


   Chim"i*nage (?), n. [OF. cheminage, fr. chemin way, road.] (Old Law) A
   toll for passage through a forest. [Obs.] Cowell.


   Chim"ney,  n.; pl. Chimneys (#). [F. chemin\'82e, LL. caminata, fr. L.
   caminus furnace, fireplace, Gr.

   1. A fireplace or hearth. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

   2.  That  part  of  a building which contains the smoke flues; esp. an
   upright  tube  or  flue  of  brick  or  stone, in most cases extending
   through  or  above  the  roof  of  the building. Often used instead of
   chimney shaft.

     Hard by a cottage chimney smokes. Milton.

   3.  A  tube  usually of glass, placed around a flame, as of a lamp, to
   create a draft, and promote combustion.

   4. (Min.) A body of ore, usually of elongated form, extending downward
   in a vein. Raymond.
   Chimney  board,  a  board  or  screen  used  to  close  a fireplace; a
   fireboard.  --  Chimney  cap,  a  device  to  improve the draught of a
   chimney,  by presenting an exit aperture always to leeward. -- Chimney
   corner,  the  space  between  the sides of the fireplace and the fire;
   hence,  the  fireside.  --  Chimney  hook, a hook for holding pats and
   kettles  over  a fire, -- Chimney money, hearth money, a duty formerly
   paid  in  England for each chimney. -- Chimney pot (Arch.), a cylinder
   of  earthenware  or  sheet  metal placed at the top of a chimney which
   rises  above  the roof. -- Chimney swallow. (Zo\'94l.) (a) An American
   swift  (Ch\'91ture pelasgica) which lives in chimneys. (b) In England,
   the  common  swallow  (Hirundo  rustica).  --  Chimney  sweep, Chimney
   sweeper,  one  who  cleans chimneys of soot; esp. a boy who climbs the
   flue, and brushes off the soot.


   Chim"ney-breast`  (?),  n.  (Arch.)  The  horizontal  projection  of a
   chimney from the wall in which it is built; -- commonly applied to its
   projection in the inside of a building only.


   Chim"ney-piece`  (?),  n. (Arch.) A decorative construction around the
   opning of a fireplace.


   Chim*pan"zee  (?),  n.  [From  the  native  name: cf. F. chimpanz\'82,
   chimpans\'82,    chimpanz\'82e.]    (Zo\'94l.)    An    african    ape
   (Anthropithecus  troglodytes  <--,  Pan  troglodytes-->or  Troglodytes
   niger) which approaches more nearly to man, in most respects, than any
   other ape. When full grown, it is from three to four feet high.


   Chin  (?),  n.  [AS.  cin, akin to OS. kin, G kinn, Icel. kinn, cheek,
   Dan. & Sw. kind, L. gena, Gr. hanu. \'fb232.]

   1.  The  lower extremity of the face below the mouth; the point of the
   under jaw.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  exterior  or  under  surface embraced between the
   branches of the lower jaw bone, in birds.


   Chi"na (?), n.

   1. A country in Eastern Asia.

   2.  China  ware,  which  is the modern popular term for porcelain. See
   China  aster  (Bot.), a well-known garden flower and plant. See Aster.
   --  China  bean. See under Bean, 1. -- China clay See Kaolin. -- China
   grass,  Same  as  Ramie.  --  China  ink. See India ink. -- China pink
   (Bot.),  an anual or biennial species of Dianthus (D. Chiensis) having
   variously colored single or double flowers; Indian pink. -- China root
   (Med.),  the rootstock of a species of Smilax (S. China, from the East
   Indies;  --  formerly much esteemed for the purposes that sarsaparilla
   is  now  used  for.  Also  the galanga root (from Alpinia Gallanga and
   Alpinia  officinarum).  --  China  rose. (Bot.) (a) A popular name for
   several  free-blooming varieties of rose derived from the Rosa Indica,
   and  perhaps  other  species. (b) A flowering hothouse plant (Hibiscus
   Rosa-Sinensis)  of  the  Mallow family, common in the gardens of China
   and  the  east  Indies. -- China shop, a shop or store for the sale of
   China  ware  or of crockery. -- China ware, porcelain; -- so called in
   the 17th century because brought from the far East, and differing from
   the  pottery  made  in Europa at that time; also, loosely, crockery in
   general. -- Pride of China, China tree. (Bot.) See Azedarach.

   Page 249


   Chin*al"dine  (?),  n.  [NL.  chinium quinine + aldehyde.] (Chem.) See


   Chi"na*man (?), n.; pl. Chinamen (. A native of China; a Chinese.


   Chin"ca*pin (?), n. See Chinquapin.


   Chinch (?), n. [Cf. Sp. chinche, fr. L. cimex.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) The bedbug (Cimex lectularius).

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  bug  (Blissus  leucopterus),  which,  in the United
   States, is very destructive to grass, wheat, and other grains; -- also
   called  chiniz,  chinch bug, chink bug. It resembles the bedbug in its
   disgusting odor.


   Chin"cha  (?), n. [Cf. Chinchilla.] (Zo\'94l.) A south American rodent
   of the genus Lagotis.


   Chinche  (?),  a. [F. chiche miserly.] Parsimonious; niggardly. [Obs.]


   Chinch"er*ie (?), n. Penuriousness. [Obs.]

     By cause of his skarsete and chincherie. Caucer.


   Chin*chil"la (?), n. [Sp.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A small rodent (Chinchilla lanigera), of the size of a
   large squirrel, remarkable for its fine fur, which is very soft and of
   a pearly gray color. It is a native of Peru and Chili.

   2. The fur of the chinchilla.

   3. A heavy, longnapped, tufted woolen cloth.

                              Chinchona, Chincona

   Chin*cho"na (?), Chin*co"na (?).See Cinchona.

                                  Chin cough

   Chin"  cough"  (?).  [For  chink cough; cf. As. cincung long laughter,
   Scot.  kink a violent fit of coughing, akin to MHG. k\'c6chen to pant.
   Cf. Kinknaust, Cough.] Whooping cough.


   Chine (?), n. [Cf. Chink.] A chink or cleft; a narrow and deep ravine;
   as,  Shanklin Chine in the Isle of Wight, a quarter of a mile long and
   230 feet deep. [Prov. Eng.] "The cottage in a chine." J. Ingelow.


   Chine  (?),  n.[OF.  eschine,  F.  \'82chine,  fr.  OHG. skina needle,
   prickle, shin, G. schiene splint, schienbein shin. For the meaning cf.
   L. spina thorn, prickle, or spine, the backbone. Cf. Shin.]

   1.  The  backbone  or  spine  of  an animal; the back. "And chine with
   rising bristles roughly spread." Dryden.

   2. A piece of the backbone of an animal, with the adjoining parts, cut
   for cooking.

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Beef.]

   3.  The  edge or rim of a cask, etc., formed by the projecting ends of
   the staves; the chamfered end of a stave.


   Chine, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chined (?).]

   1. To cut through the backbone of; to cut into chine pieces.

   2. Too chamfer the ends of a stave and form the chine..


   Chined (?), a.

   1.  Pertaining  to,  or  having,  a  chine,  or  backbone;  -- used in
   composition. Beau. & Fl.

   2. Broken in the back. [Obs.]

     He's chined, goodman. Beau. & Fl.


   Chi"nese"  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  China; peculiar to China.
   Chinese  paper.  See  India  paper,  under  India.  --  Chinese wax, a
   snowy-wgite,  waxlike substance brought from China. It is the bleached
   secretion  of  certain  insects  of  the  family Coccid\'91 especially
   Coccus Sinensis.


   Chi*nese", n. sing. & pl.

   1.  A  native  or  natives  of  China, or one of that yellow race with
   oblique eyelids who live principally in China.

   2. sing. The language of China, which is monosyllabic.

     NOTE: &hand; Chineses was used as a plural by the contemporaries of
     Shakespeare and Milton.


   Chink  (?), n. [OE. chine, AS. c\'c6ne fissure, chink, fr. c\'c6nan to
   gape;  akin  to  Goth. Keinan to sprout, G. keimen. Cf. Chit.] A small
   cleft,  rent,  or  fissure,  of  greater length than breadth; a gap or
   crack; as, the chinks of wall.

     Through one cloudless chink, in a black, stormy sky. Shines out the
     dewy morning star. Macaulay.


   Chink,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chinked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chinking.] To
   crack; to open.


   Chink, v. t.

   1. To cause to open in cracks or fissures.

   2. To fill up the chinks of; as, to chink a wall.


   Chink, n. [Of imitative origin. Cf. Jingle.]

   1.  A  short,  sharp sound, as of metal struck with a slight degree of
   violence. "Chink of bell." Cowper.

   2.  Money;  cash.  [Cant]  "To  leave  his  chink  to  better  hands."


   Chink,  v. t. To cause to make a sharp metallic sound, as coins, small
   pieces  of  metal,  etc.,  by  bringing  them into collision with each
   other. Pope.


   Chink,  v.  i.  To  make  a  slight,  sharp, metallic sound, as by the
   collision  of  little pieces of money, or other small sonorous bodies.


   Chink"y  (?), a. Full of chinks or fissures; gaping; opening in narrow
   clefts. Dryden.


   Chinned  (?),  a.  Having  a  chin;  -- used chiefly in compounds; as,


   Chi*noid"ine  (?), n. [NL. chinium quinine (cf. G. & F. china Peruvian
   bark) + --oil + -ine.] (Chem.) See Quinodine.


   Chin"o*line  (?),  n. [NL. chinium quinine (see Chinoldine) + L. oleum
   oil + -ine.] (Chem.) See Quinoline.


   Chi"none  (?),  n.  [NL.  chinium  quinine  (see Chinoidine.) + -one.]
   (Chem.) See Quinone.


   Chi*nook" (?), n.

   1.  (Ethnol.)  One  of a tribe of North American Indians now living in
   the  state  of  Washington,  noted  for the custom of flattening their
   skulls. Chinooks also called Flathead Indians.

   2.  A  warm  westerly wind from the country of the Chinooks, sometimes
   experienced  on  the  slope of the Rocky Mountains, in Montana and the
   adjacent territory.

   3. A jargon of words from various languages (the largest proportion of
   which  is  from  that of the Chinooks) generally understood by all the
   Indian tribes of the northwestern territories of the United States.


   Chin"qua*pin  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A branching, nut-bearing tree or shrub
   (Castanea  pumila)  of  North  America,  from six to twenty feet high,
   allied  to  the chestnut. Also, its small, sweet, edible nat. [Written
   also  chincapin  and  chinkapin.]  Chinquapin oak, a small shrubby oak
   (Quercus  prinoides)  of  the  Atlantic States, with edible acorns. --
   Western   Chinquapin,   an   evergreen   shrub   or  tree  (Castanopes
   chrysophylla)  of  the  Pacific coast. In California it is a shrub; in
   Oregon a tree 30 to 125 feet high.


   Chinse  (?),  v.  t.  &  i. [imp. & p. p. Chinsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chinsing.]  (Naut.)  To  thrust  oakum  into  (seams or chinks) with a
   chisel  ,  the point of a knife, or a chinsing iron; to calk slightly.
   Chinsing iron, a light calking iron.


   Chintz  (?),  n.;  pl.  Chintzes  (#).  [Hindi ch\'c6nt spotted cotton
   clooth,  ch\'c6nt\'be  spot.]  Cotton  cloth, printed with flowers and
   other  devices,  in  a  number  of different colors, and often glazed.


   Chiop*pine" (?), n. Same as Chopine, n.


   Chip  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chipped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chipping.]
   [Cf. G. kippen to cut off the edge, to clip, pare. Cf. Chop to cut.]

   1. To cut small pieces from; to diminsh or reduce to shape, by cutting
   away a little at a time; to hew. Shak.

   2.  To break or crack, or crack off a portion of, as of an eggshell in
   hatching, or a piece of crockery.

   3. To bet, as with chips in the game of poker.
   To  chip  in,  to  contribute,  as to a fund; to share in the risks or
   expenses of. [Slang. U. S.]


   Chip, v. i. To break or fly off in small pieces.


   Chip, n.

   1.  A  piece  of  wood, stone, or other substance, separated by an ax,
   chisel, or cutting instrument.

   2. A fragment or piece broken off; a small piece.

   3.  Wood  or  Cuban  palm leaf split into slips, or straw plaited in a
   special manner, for making hats or bonnets.

   4.   Anything   dried   up,  withered,  or  without  flavor;  --  used

   5. One of the counters used in poker and other games.

   6. (Naut.) The triangular piece of wood attached to the log line.
   Buffalo  chips. See under Buffalo. -- Chip ax, a small ax for chipping
   timber into shape. -- Chip bonnet, Chip hat, a bonnet or a hat made of
   Chip.  See  Chip,  n.,  3.  --  A  chip off the old block, a child who
   resembles  either  of  his  parents.  [Colloq.] Milton.- Potato chips,
   Saratoga chips, thin slices of raw potato fried crisp.


   Chip"munk` (?), n. [Indian name.] (Zo\'94l.) A squirrel-like animal of
   the  genus  Tamias,  sometimes  called  the striped squirrel, chipping
   squirrel,  ground  squirrel,  hackee. The common species of the United
   States  is  the Tamias striatus. [Written also chipmonk, chipmuck, and


   Chip"per  (?),  v. i. [Cf. Cheep, Chirp.] To chirp or chirrup. [ Prov.
   Eng.] Forby.


   Chip"per, a. Lively; cheerful; talkative. [U. S.]


   Chip"pe*ways  (?),  n.  pl.;  sing.  Chippeway.  (Ethnol.)  A tribe of
   Indians  formerly  inhabiting the northern and weastern shores of Lake
   Superior; -- called also Objibways.


   Chip"ping (?), n.

   1.  A  chip;  a  piece separated by a cutting or graving instrument; a

   2.  The  act or process of cutting or breaking off small pieces, as in
   dressing iron with a chisel, or reducing a timber or block of stone to

   3.  The  breaking  off  in small pieces of the edges of potter's ware,
   porcelain, etc.

                                 Chipping bird

   Chip"ping bird` (?). (Zo\'94l.) The chippy.

                               Chipping squirrel

   Chip"ping squir"rel (?). See Chipmunk.


   Chip"py (?), a. Abounding in, or resembling, chips; dry and tasteless.


   Chip"py   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  American  sparrow  (Spizella
   socialis), very common near dwelling; -- also called chipping bird and
   chipping sparrow, from its simple note.


   Chips (?), n. (Naut.) A ship's carpenter. [Cant.]


   Chi*ra"gra (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Med.) Gout in the hand.


   Chi*rag"ric*al (?), a. Having the gout in the hand, or subject to that
   disease. Sir. T. Browne.


   Chi*ret"ta  (?),  n.  [Hind.  chir\'be\'c6t\'be.]  A  plant (Agathotes
   Chirayta)  found in Northern India, having medicinal properties to the
   gentian, and esteemed as a tonic and febrifuge.


   Chirk (?), v. i. [Cf. Chirp, also Creak.]

   1. To shriek; to gnash; to utter harsh or shrill cries. [Obs.]

     All full of chirkyng was that sorry place. Cheucer.

   2. To chirp like a bird. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chirk,  v.  t. To cheer; to enliven; as, to chirk one up. [Colloq. New
   Eng. ]


   Chirk,  a.  [From  Chirk,  v.  i.]  Lively; cheerful; in good spirits.
   [Colloq. New Eng.]


   Chirm  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf.  AS.  cyrman, cirman, to cry out. \'fb24 Cf.
   Chirp.] To chirp or to make a mournful cry, as a bird. [Obs.] Huloet.


   Chi*rog"no*my  (?),  n. [Gr. The art of judging character by the shape
   and apperance of the hand.


   Chi"ro*graph  (?), n. [Gr. (Old. Law) (a) A writing which, reguiring a
   counterpart,  was engrossed twice on the same piece of parchment, with
   a  space  between, in which was written the word chirographum, through
   which  the  parchment  was  cut,  and one part given to each party. It
   answered to what is now called a charter party. (b) The last part of a
   fine of land, commonly called the foot of the fine. Bouvier.


   Chi*rog"ra*pher (?), n.

   1. One who practice the art or business of writing or engrossing.

   2. See chirographist, 2.
   Chirographer  of  fines  (Old  Eng.  Law),  an officer in the court of
   common pleas, who engrossed fines.

                         Chirographic, Chirographical

   Chi`ro*graph"ic  (?),  Chi`ro*graph"ic*al  (?)  a. Of or pertaining to


   Chi*rog"ra*phist (?), n.

   1. A chirographer; a writer or engrosser.

   2. One who tells fortunes by examining the hand.


   Chi*rog"ra*phy (?), n.

   1.  The  art  of  writing  or  engrossing; handwriting; as, skilled in

   2. The art of telling fortunes by examining the hand.


   Chi`ro*gym"nast  (?),  n. [Gr. A mechanocal contrivance for exercesing
   the fingers of a pianist.


   Chi`ro*log"ic*al (?), a. Relating to chirology.


   Chi*rol"o*gist  (?),  n.  One  who communicates thoughts by signs made
   with the hands and fingers.


   Chi*rol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -logy.] The art or practice of using the
   manual  alphabet  or  of  communicating  thoughts by sings made by the
   hands  and  fingers;  a  substitute  for spoken or written language in
   intercourse with the deaf and dumb. See Dactylalogy.


   Chi"ro*man`cer (?), n. One who practices chiromancy. Dryden.


   Chi"ro*mancy  (?), n. [Gr. -mancy.] The art or practice of foretelling
   events,  or  of  telling the fortunes or the disposition of persons by
   inspecting the hand; palmistry.

                           Chiromanist, Chiromantist

   Chi"ro*man`ist (?), Chi"ro*man`tist (?) n. [Gr. A chiromancer.

                          Chiromantic, Chiromantical

   Chi`ro*man"tic  (?),  Chi`ro*man"tic*al  (?)  a.  Of  or pertaining to


   Chi`ro*mon"ic (?), a. Relating to chironomy.


   Chi*ron"o*my (?), n. [Gr. The art of moving the hands in oratory or in
   pantomime; gesture [Obs.]


   Chi"ro*plast  (?),  n. [Gr. (Mus.) An instrument to guid the hands and
   fingers of pupils in playing on the piano, etc.


   Chi*rop"o*dist  (?),  n. [Gr. One who treats diseases of the hands and
   feet; especially, one who removes corns and bunions.


   Chirop"ody (?), n. The art of treating diseases of the hands and feet.


   Chiros"ophist (?), n. [Gr. Sophist.] A fortune teller.


   Chirp (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chirped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chirping.]
   [Of  imitative  orgin.  Cf. Chirk, Chipper, Cheep, Chirm, Chirrup.] To
   make a shop, sharp, cheerful, as of small birds or crickets.


   Chirp,  n.  A short, sharp note, as of a bird or insect. "The chirp of
   flitting bird." Bryant.


   Chirp"er (?), n. One who chirps, or is cheerful.


   Chirp"ing (?), a. Cheering; enlivening.

     He takes his chirping pint, he cracks his jokes. Pope.


   Chirp"ing*ly, adv. In a chirping manner.


   Chirre  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf.  G. girren, AS. corian to murmur, complain.
   \'fb24.] To coo, as a pigeon. [Obs.]


   Chir"rup  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Chirruped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chirruping.]  [See  Chirp.]  To  quicken  or  animate  by chirping; to


   Chir"rup, v. i. To chirp. Tennyson.

     The criket chirrups on the hearth. Goldsmith.


   Chir"rup, n. The act of chirping; a chirp.

     The sparrows' chirrup on the roof. Tennyson.


   Chir"rupy (?), a. Cheerful; joyous; chatty.


   Chi*rur"geon  (?),  n. [F. chirurgien, from chirurgie surgery, fr. Gr.
   Surgeon, Work.] A surgeon. [Obs.]


   Chi*rur"geon*ly, adv. Surgically. [Obs.] Shak.


   Chi*rur"ger*y  (?),  n.  [See  Chirurgeon,  and cf. Surgery.] Surgery.

                            Chirurgic, Chirurgical

   Chi*rur"gic  (?), Chirur"gical (?), a. [Cf. F. chirurgiquerurgical, L.
   Chirurgicus,  Gr.  Chirurgeon,  and  cf.  Surgical.]  Surgical  [Obs.]
   "Chirurgical lore" Longfellow.

   Page 250


   Chis"el  (?),  n.  [OF. chisel, F. ciseau, fr. LL. cisellus, prob. for
   caesellus,  fr.  L.  caesus, p. p. of caedere to cut. Cf. Scissors.] A
   tool  with  a  cutting  edge  on  one  end  of  a metal blade, used in
   dressing,  shaping,  or  working  in  timber,  stone,  metal, etc.; --
   usually driven by a mallet or hammer. Cold chisel. See under Cold, a.


   Chis"el,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chiseled (?), or Chiselled (p. pr. & vb.
   n. Chiseling, or Chiselling.] [Cf. F. ciseler.]

   1.  To  cut,  pare,  gouge,  or engrave with a chisel; as, to chisel a
   block of marble into a statue.

   2. To cut close, as in a bargain; to cheat. [Slang]


   Chis"leu  (?),  n. [Heb.] The ninth month of the Jewish ecclesiastical
   year, answering to a part of November with a part of December.


   Chis"ley  (?),  a.  [AS. ceosel gravel or sand. Cf. Chessom.] Having a
   large  admixture  of  small  pebbles  or  gravel;  --  said of a soil.


   Chit  (?),  n.  [Cf.  AS.  c\'c6  shoot,  sprig, from the same root as
   c\'c6nan to yawn. See Chink a cleft.]

   1.  The  embryo  or the growing bud of a plant; a shoot; a sprout; as,
   the chits of Indian corn or of potatoes.

   2.  A  child  or  babe;  as,  a forward chit; also, a young, small, or
   insignificant person or animal.

     A little chit of a woman. Thackeray.

   3. An excrescence on the body, as a wart. [Obs.]

   4. A small tool used in cleaving laths. Knight.


   Chit, v. i. To shoot out; to sprout.

     I  have  known  barley chit in seven hours after it had been thrown
     forth. Mortimer.


   Chit, 3d sing. of Chide. Chideth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chit"chat  (?),  n.  [From Chat, by way of reduplication.] Familiar or
   trifling talk; prattle.


   Chi"tin  (?),  n.  [See  Chiton.]  (Chem.)  A  white  amorphous  horny
   substance  forming the harder part of the outer integument of insects,
   crustacea, and various other invertebrates; entomolin.


   Chi`ti*ni*za"tion (?), n. The process of becoming chitinous.


   Chi"ti*nous  (?),  a.  Having  the nature of chitin; consisting of, or
   containing, chitin.


   Chi"ton (?), n. [Gr.

   1.  An under garment among the ancient Greeks, nearly representing the
   modern shirt.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  a  group  of gastropod mollusks, with a shell
   composed of eight movable dorsal plates. See Polyplacophora.


   Chit"ter (?), v. i. [Cf. Chatter.]

   1. To chirp in a tremulous manner, as a bird. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. To shiver or chatter with cold. [Scot.] Burns.


   Chit"ter*ling  (?),  n. The frill to the breast of a shirt, which when
   ironed  out  resembled  the  small  entrails. See Chitterlings. [Obs.]


   Chit"ter*lings (?), n. pl. [Cf. AS. cwi\'ed womb, Icel. kvi\'eb, Goth.
   qi\'edus,  belly,  womb,  stomach, G. kutteln chitterlings.] (Cookery)
   The smaller intestines of swine, etc., fried for food.


   Chit"tra  (?),  n.  [Native  Indian name.] (Zo\'94l.) The axis deer of


   Chit"ty (?), a.

   1. Full of chits or sprouts.

   2. Childish; like a babe. [Obs.]


   Chiv"a*chie`  (?),  n.  [OF.  chevauchie,  chevauch\'82e;  of the same
   origin as E. cavalcade.] A cavalry raid; hence, a military expedition.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Chiv"al*ric  (?),  a.  [See Chivalry.] Relating to chivalry; knightly;


   Chiv"al*rous  (?), a. [OF. chevalerus, chevalereus, fr. chevalier. See
   Chivalry.] Pertaining to chivalry or knight-errantry; warlike; heroic;
   gallant; high-spirited; high-minded; magnanimous.

     In brave pursuit of chivalrous emprise. Spenser.


   Chiv"al*rous*ly,    adv.    In   a   chivalrous   manner;   gallantly;


   Chiv"al*ry   (?),  n.  [F.  chevalerie,  fr.  chevalier  knight,  OF.,
   horseman. See Chevalier, and cf. Cavalry.]

   1.  A  body  or  order  of  cavaliers or knights serving on horseback;
   illustrious  warriors, collectively; cavalry. "His Memphian chivalry."

     By  his  light  Did  all  the chivalry of England move, To do brave
     acts. Shak.

   2. The dignity or system of knighthood; the spirit, usages, or manners
   of knighthood; the practice of knight-errantry. Dryden.

   3.  The qualifications or character of knights, as valor, dexterity in
   arms, courtesy, etc.

     The  glory  of  our  Troy  this  day doth lie On his fair worth and
     single chivalry. Shak.

   4.  (Eng.  Law) A tenure of lands by knight's service; that is, by the
   condition  of  a  knight's  performing  service  on  horseback,  or of
   performing some noble or military service to his lord.

   5. Exploit. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.
   Court  of  chivalry,  a  court  formerly  held  before  the  lord high
   constable  and earl marshal of England as judges, having cognizance of
   contracts  and  other  matters  relating  to  deeds  of  arms and war.


   Chive (?), n. (Bot.) A filament of a stamen. [Obs.]


   Chive  (?), n. [F. cive, fr. L. cepa, caepa, onion. Cf. Cives, Cibol.]
   (Bot.)  A  perennial  plant  (Allium  Sch\'d2noprasum),  allied to the
   onion. The young leaves are used in omelets, etc. [Written also cive.]


   Chiv"y  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Chivied  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chivying.] [Cf. Chevy.] To goad, drive, hunt, throw, or pitch. [Slang,
   Eng.] Dickens.


   Chlam"y*date  (?), a. [L. chlamydatus dressed in a military cloak. See
   Chlamys.]   (Zo\'94l.)   Having   a  mantle;  --  applied  to  certain


   Chlam"y*phore  (?), n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A small South American edentate
   (Chlamyphorus  truncatus,  and C. retusus) allied to the armadillo. It
   is  covered  with  a  leathery  shell  or  coat of mail, like a cloak,
   attached along the spine.


   Chla"mys  (?),  n.;  pl. E. Chlamyses (#), L. Chlamydes (#). [L., from
   Gr.  A  loose and flowing outer garment, worn by the ancient Greeks; a
   kind of cloak.


   Chlo*as"ma  (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) A cutaneous affection characterized by
   yellow or yellowish brown pigmented spots.


   Chlo"ral (?), n. [Chlorine + alcohol.]

   1.  (Chem.)  A  colorless oily liquid, CCl3.CHO, of a pungent odor and
   harsh taste, obtained by the action of chlorine upon ordinary or ethyl

   2. (Med.) Chloral hydrate.
   Chloral  hydrate,  a white crystalline substance, obtained by treating
   chloral  with  water.  It  produces  sleep  when  taken  internally or
   hypodermically; -- called also chloral.


   Chlo"ral*am`ide  (?),  n.  [Chloral  +  amide.]  (Chem.) A compound of
   chloral and formic amide used to produce sleep.


   Chlo"ral*ism (?), n. (Med.) A morbid condition of the system resulting
   from excessive use of chloral.


   Chlor`al"um (?), n. [Chlorine + aluminium.] An impure aqueous solution
   of chloride of aluminium, used as an antiseptic and disinfectant.


   Chlor`an"il (?), n. [Chlorine + aniline.] (Chem.) A yellow crystalline
   substance,  C6Cl4.O2, regarded as a derivative of quinone, obtained by
   the action of chlorine on certain benzene derivatives, as aniline.


   Chlo"rate  (?),  n. [Cf. F. chlorate. See Chlorine.] (Chem.) A salt of
   chloric acid; as, chlorate of potassium.


   Chlor`au"rate (?), n. [Chlorine + aurate.] (Chem.) See Aurochloride.


   Chlor`hy"dric  (?),  a.  [Chlorine  + hydrogen + -ic.] (Chem.) Same as


   Chlor`hy"drin  (?), n. (Chem.) One of a class of compounds formed from
   certain   polybasic   alcohols   (and   especially  glycerin)  by  the
   substitution of chlorine for one or more hydroxyl groups.


   Chlo"ric  (?),  a.  [From  Chlorine.] Pertaining to, or obtained from,
   chlorine; -- said of those compounds of chlorine in which this element
   has  a  valence of five, or the next to its highest; as, chloric acid,
   HClO3.  Chloric  ether (Chem.), ethylene dichloride. See Dutch liquid,
   under Dutch.


   Chlo"ri*date (?), v.t. To treat or prepare with a chloride, as a plate
   with chloride of silver, for the purposes of photography. R. Hunt.


   Chlo"ride  (?),  n. (Chem.) A binary compound of chlorine with another
   element  or radical; as, chloride of sodium (common salt). Chloride of
   ammonium,  sal  ammoniac.  --  Chloride  of  lime, bleaching powder; a
   grayish  white  substance, CaOClcalcium hypochlorite. See Hypochlorous
   acid, under Hypochlorous. -- Mercuric chloride, corrosive sublimate.


   Chlo*rid"ic  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to a chloride; containing a


   Chlo"rid*ize (?), v. t. See Chloridate.


   Chlo*rim"e*try (?), n. See Chlorometry.


   Chlo"rin*ate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chlorinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Chlorinating.] (Chem.) To treat, or cause to combine, with chlorine.


   Chlo`ri*na"tion  (?),  n. The act or process of subjecting anything to
   the  action  of  chlorine; especially, a process for the extraction of
   gold by exposure of the auriferous material to chlorine gas.


   Chlo"rine  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Yellow.]  (Chem.)  One  of  the  elementary
   substances,  commonly  isolated  as a greenish yellow gas, two and one
   half  times  as heavy as air, of an intensely disagreeable suffocating
   odor,  and  exceedingly  poisonous. It is abundant in nature, the most
   important  compound  being  common  salt.  It  is  powerful oxidizing,
   bleaching,  and  disinfecting  agent.  Symbol Cl. Atomic weight, 35.4.
   Chlorine family, the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine,
   called   the   halogens,   and  classed  together  from  their  common
   Chlor`i*od"ic  (?),  a.  Compounded of chlorine and iodine; containing
   chlorine and iodine. 


   Chlor`i"o*dine (?), n. A compound of chlorine and iodine. [R.]


   Chlo"rite (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) The name of a group of minerals, usually
   of  a  green  color  and  micaceous to granular in structure. They are
   hydrous  silicates  of  alumina, iron, and magnesia. Chlorite slate, a
   schistose or slaty rock consisting of alumina, iron, and magnesia.


   Chlo"rite,  n.  [Chlorous  + -ite.] (Chem.) Any salt of chlorous acid;
   as, chlorite of sodium.


   Chlo*rit"ic (?), a. [From 1st Chlorite.] Pertaining to, or containing,
   chlorite; as, chloritic sand.


   Chlor`meth"ane  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  colorless gas, CH3Cl, of a sweet
   odor,  easily  condensed  to a liquid; -- called also methyl chloride.
   <--  Also  chloromethane. b. p. -23.7 C. It is sold as a liquid under
   pressure,  and  used  to rapidly chill skin (so as to prevent swelling
   after  an  injury);  in  this  fashion  it  also  serves  as  a  local
   anaesthetic.  It chills by the cooling effect of the rapid evaporation
   of  the  liquid  form,  applied  directly  to the skin. Also used as a
   refrigerant. -->


   Chlo"ro- (?). (Chem.) A prefix denoting that chlorine is an ingredient
   in the substance named.


   Chlo`ro*cru"o*rin (?), n. [Gr. cruorin.] (Physiol.) A green substance,
   supposed  to  be  the  cause  of  the green color of the blood in some
   species of worms. Ray Lankester.


   Chlo"ro*dyne  (?), n. [From chlorine, in imitation of anodyne.] (Med.)
   A  patent anodyne medicine, containing opium, chloroform, Indian hemp,


   Chlo"ro*form  (?), n. [Chlorine + formyl, it having been regarded as a
   trichloride  of  this  radical:  cf.  F.  chloroforme, G. chloroform.]
   (Chem.)  A  colorless  volatile liquid, CHCl3, having an ethereal odor
   and  a sweetish taste, formed by treating alcohol with chlorine and an
   alkali.  It  is  a  powerful  solvent  of  wax,  resin,  etc.,  and is
   extensively used to produce an\'91sthesia in surgical operations; also
   externally, to alleviate pain.


   Chlo"ro*form  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chloroformed (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Chloroforming.]  To  treat  with chloroform, or to place under its


   Chlo`ro*leu"cite (?), n. [Gr. leucite.] (Bot.) Same as Chloroplastid.


   Chlo*rom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  chlorom\'8atre.  See Chlorine, and
   -meter.]  An  instrument  to test the decoloring or bleaching power of
   chloride of lime.


   Chlo*rom"e*try  (?),  n. The process of testing the bleaching power of
   any combination of chlorine.


   Chlo*ro"pal  (?), n. [Gr. opal.] (Min.) A massive mineral, greenish in
   color,  and  opal-like  in  appearance.  It  is  essentially a hydrous
   silicate of iron.


   Chlo`ro*pep"tic  (?),  a.  [Chlorine + peptic.] (Physiol. Chem.) Of or
   pertaining to an acid more generally called pepsin-hydrochloric acid.


   Chlo"ro*phane (?), n. [Gr. chlorophane.]

   1.  (Min.)  A  variety  of  fluor  spar,  which,  when heated, gives a
   beautiful emerald green light.

   2.  (Physiol.) The yellowish green pigment in the inner segment of the
   cones of the retina. See Chromophane.


   Chlo"ro*phyll  (?),  n.  [Gr.  chlorophylle.]  (Bot.)  Literally, leaf
   green;  a green granular matter formed in the cells of the leaves (and
   other parts exposed to light) of plants, to which they owe their green
   color, and through which all ordinary assimilation of plant food takes
   place.  Similar chlorophyll granules have been found in the tissues of
   the lower animals. [Written also chlorophyl.]


   Chlo`ro*plas"tid   (?),   n.   [Gr.  plastid.]  (Bot.)  A  granule  of
   chlorophyll; -- also called chloroleucite.


   Chlo`ro*pla*tin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) See Platinichloric.


   Chlo*ro"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. chlorose.]

   1.  (Med.)  The  green  sickness; an an\'91mic disease of young women,
   characterized  by  a  greenish  or  grayish  yellow  hue  of the skin,
   weakness, palpitation, etc.

   2.  (Bot.)  A  disease in plants, causing the flowers to turn green or
   the leaves to lose their normal green color.


   Chlo*rot"ic  (?),  a. [Cf. F. chlorotique.] Pertaining to, or affected
   by, chlorosis.


   Chlo"rous (?), a. [See Chlorine.]

   1.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  derived from, chlorine; -- said of those
   compounds  of  chlorine  in which this element has a valence of three,
   the next lower than in chloric compounds; as, chlorous acid, HClO2.

   2.  (Chem. Physics) Pertaining to, or resembling, the electro-negative
   character of chlorine; hence, electro-negative; -- opposed to basylous
   or zincous. [Obs.]


   Chlor`pi"crin  (?), n. (Chem.) A heavy, colorless liquid, CCl3.NO2, of
   a  strong  pungent  odor,  obtained  by  subjecting picric acid to the
   action of chlorine. [Written also chloropikrin.]


   Chlo"ru*ret (?), n. [Cf. F. chlorure.] (Chem.) A chloride. [Obs.]


   Choak (?), v. t. & i. See Choke.


   Cho"a*noid  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -oid.]  (Anat.)  Funnel-shaped; -- applied
   particularly  to  a  hollow  muscle attached to the ball of the eye in
   many reptiles and mammals.


   Cho"card (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The chough.


   Chock (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chocked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chocking.]
   To  stop or fasten, as with a wedge, or block; to scotch; as, to chock
   a wheel or cask.


   Chock,  v.  i.  To  fill  up, as a cavity. "The woodwork . . . exactly
   chocketh into joints." Fuller.


   Chock, n.

   1.  A  wedge, or block made to fit in any space which it is desired to
   fill,  esp.  something  to  steady a cask or other body, or prevent it
   from moving, by fitting into the space around or beneath it.

   2.  (Naut.)  A heavy casting of metal, usually fixed near the gunwale.
   It  has two short horn-shaped arms curving inward, between which ropes
   or hawsers may pass for towing, mooring, etc.


   Chock, adv. (Naut.) Entirely; quite; as, chock home; chock aft.


   Chock, v. t. [F. choquer. Cf. Shock, v. t.] To encounter. [Obs.]


   Chock, n. An encounter. [Obs.]


   Chock"a*block  (?),  a.  (Naut.)  Hoisted  as  high as the tackle will
   admit;  brought  close  together,  as  the  two  blocks of a tackle in


   Chock"-full` (?), a. Quite full; choke-full.


   Choc"o*late  (?),  n.  [Sp.,  fr.  the  Mexican name of the cacao. Cf.
   Cacao, Cocoa.]

   1.  A  paste  or  cake  composed of the roasted seeds of the Theobroma
   Cacao  ground  and  mixed  with  other ingredients, usually sugar, and
   cinnamon or vanilla.

   2.  The  beverage made by dissolving a portion of the paste or cake in
   boiling water or milk.
   Chocolate  house,  a  house  in  which  customers  may  be served with
   chocolate. -- Chocolate nut. See Cacao.


   Choc"taws  (?),  n.  pl.;  sing.  Choctaw.  (Ethnol.) A tribe of North
   American  Indians  (Southern  Appalachian),  in  early times noted for
   their  pursuit  of agriculture, and for living at peace with the white
   settlers.  They  are  now  one  of  the civilized tribes of the Indian


   Chode (?), the old imp. of chide. See Chide.


   Chog"set (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Cunner.

   Page 251


   Choice (?), n. [OE. chois, OF. chois, F. choix, fr. choisir to choose;
   of  German  origin;  cf.  Goth.  kausjan to examine, kiusan to choose,
   examine, G. kiesen. \'fb46. Cf. Choose.]

   1.  Act of choosing; the voluntary act of selecting or separating from
   two  or  more things that which is preferred; the determination of the
   mind in preferring one thing to another; election.

   2. The power or opportunity of choosing; option.

     Choice  there  is  not, unless the thing which we take be so in our
     power that we might have refused it. Hooker.

   3.  Care  in selecting; judgment or skill in distinguishing what is to
   be preferred, and in giving a preference; discrimination.

     I  imagine  they  [the  apothegms  of C\'91sar] were collected with
     judgment and choice. Bacon.

   4. A sufficient number to choose among. Shak.

   5.  The thing or person chosen; that which is approved and selected in
   preference to others; selection.

     The common wealth is sick of their own choice. Shak.

   6. The best part; that which is preferable.

     The  flower  and  choice  Of  many  provinces  from bound to bound.

   To  make  a  choice  of, to choose; to select; to separate and take in
   preference. Syn. - See Volition, Option.


   Choice, a. [Compar. Choicer (?); superl. Choicest (?).]

   1.  Worthly  of being chosen or preferred; select; superior; precious;

     My choicest hours of life are lost. Swift.

   2.  Preserving  or  using with care, as valuable; frugal; -- used with
   of; as, to be choice of time, or of money.

   3.  Selected  with care, and due attention to preference; deliberately

     Choice word measured phrase. Wordsworth.

   Syn. - Select; precious; exquisite; uncommon; rare; chary; careful/


   Choice"ful (?), a. Making choices; fickle. [Obs.]

     His choiceful sense with every change doth fit. Spenser.


   Choice"ly, adv.

   1.  With  care in choosing; with nice regard to preference. "A band of
   men collected choicely, from each county some." Shak.

   2.  In  a  preferable  or  excellent  manner;  excellently; eminently.
   "Choicely good." Walton.


   Choice"ness,  n.  The  quality  of being of particular value or worth;
   nicely; excellence.


   Choir (?), n. [OE. quer, OF. cuer, F. ch\'d2ur, fr. L. chorus a choral
   dance, chorus, choir, fr. Gr. hortus garden, and E. yard. See Chorus.]

   1.  A  band  or  organized  company  of  singers, especially in church
   service. [Formerly written also quire.]

   2. That part of a church appropriated to the singers.

   3. (Arch.) The chancel.
   Choir  organ (Mus.), one of the three or five distinct organs included
   in the full organ, each separable from the rest, but all controlled by
   one  performer;  a  portion of the full organ, complete in itself, and
   more  practicable  for ordinary service and in the accompanying of the
   vocal choir. -- Choir screen, Choir wall (Arch.), a screen or low wall
   separating the choir from the aisles. -- Choir service, the service of
   singing performed by the choir. T. Warton.


   Choke  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Choked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Choking.]
   [OE.  cheken,  choken; cf. AS. \'beceocian to suffocate, Icel. koka to
   gulp, E. chincough, cough.]

   1. To render unable to breathe by filling, pressing upon, or squeezing
   the windpipe; to stifle; to suffocate; to strangle.

     With eager feeding food doth choke the feeder. Shak.

   2.  To  obstruct  by  filling up or clogging any passage; to block up.

   3.  To  hinder  or  check,  as  growth,  expansion, progress, etc.; to

     Oats and darnel choke the rising corn. Dryden.

   4.  To  affect  with  a  sense  of  strangulation by passion or strong
   feeling. "I was choked at this word." Swift.

   5. To make a choke, as in a cartridge, or in the bore of the barrel of
   a shotgun.
   To  choke  off, to stop a person in the execution of a purpose; as, to
   choke off a speaker by uproar.
   Choke, v. i. 

   1. To have the windpipe stopped; to have a spasm of the throat, caused
   by stoppage or irritation of the windpipe; to be strangled.

   2. To be checked, as if by choking; to stick.

     The words choked in his throat. Sir W. Scott.


   Choke, n.

   1.  A stoppage or irritation of the windpipe, producing the feeling of

   2.  (Gun.)  (a) The tied end of a cartridge. (b) A constriction in the
   bore of a shotgun, case of a rocket, etc.


   Choke"ber`ry  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  small apple-shaped or pear-shaped
   fruit  of  an  American  shrub  (Pyrus  arbutifolia)  growing  in damp
   thickets; also, the shrub.


   Choke"cher`ry (?), n. (Bot.) The astringent fruit of a species of wild
   cherry  (Prunus  Virginiana);  also, the bush or tree which bears such

                                  Choke damp

   Choke" damp` (?). See Carbonic acid, under Carbonic.


   Cho`ke*dar"  (?),  n. [Hindi chauk\'c6-d\'ber.] A watchman; an officer
   of customs or police. [India]


   Choke"-full` (?), a. Full to the brim; quite full; chock-full.

                                  Choke pear

   Choke" pear` (?).

   1. A kind of pear that has a rough, astringent taste, and is swallowed
   with difficulty, or which contracts the mucous membrane of the mouth.

   2.  A sarcasm by which one is put to silence; anything that can not be
   answered. [Low] S. Richardson.


   Chok"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, chokes.

   2. A stiff wide cravat; a stock. [Slang]


   Choke"-strap` (?), n. (Saddlery) A strap leading from the bellyband to
   the lower part of the collar, to keep the collar in place.


   Chok"ing (?), a.

   1. That chokes; producing the feeling of strangulation.

   2.  Indistinct  in  utterance,  as the voice of a person affected with
   strong emotion.

                                 Choky Chokey

   Chok"y Chok"ey (?), a.

   1. Tending to choke or suffocate, or having power to suffocate.

   2.  Inclined  to  choke,  as a person affected with strong emotion. "A
   deep and choky voice." Aytoun.

     The allusion to his mother made Tom feel rather chokey. T. Hughes.


   Cho*l\'91"ma*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A disease characterized by
   severe   nervous   symptoms,   dependent  upon  the  presence  of  the
   constituents of the bile in the blood.


   Chol"a*gogue  (?), a. [Gr. cholagogue.] (Med.) Promoting the discharge
   of  bile  from the system. -- n. An agent which promotes the discharge
   of bile from the system.


   Cho"late  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Chem.)  A  salt  of cholic acid; as, sodium


   Chol`e*cys"tis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The gall bladder.


   Chol`e*cys*tot"o*my  (?),  n. [Cholecystis + Gr. (Surg.) The operation
   of  making  an  opening  in  the gall bladder, as for the removal of a


   Chol`e*dol"o*gy  (?), n. [Gr. -logy. Cf. F. chol\'82dologie.] (Med.) A
   treatise on the bile and bilary organs. Dunglison.

     NOTE: &hand; Li ttr\'82 sa ys th at th e wo rd ch ol\'82dologie is 
     absolutely barbarous, there being no Greek word cholology.


   Cho*le"ic  (?),  a.  (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from,
   bile; as, choleic acid.


   Chol"er  (?),  n. [OE. coler, F. col\'8are anger, L. cholera a bilious
   complaint, fr. Gr. Gall, and cf. Cholera.]

   1.  The  bile;  --  formerly  supposed  to  be  the  seat and cause of
   irascibility. [Obs.]

     His  [Richard  Hooker's]  complexion  .  .  .  was sanguine, with a
     mixture of choler; and yet his motion was slow. I. Warton.

   2. Irritation of the passions; anger; wrath.

     He is rash and very sudden in choler. Shak.


   Chol"er*a  (?),  n. [L., a bilious disease. See Choler.] (Med.) One of
   several diseases affecting the digestive and intestinal tract and more
   or  less  dangerous  to  life,  esp.  the  one commonly called Asiatic
   cholera.  Asiatic  cholera,  a  malignant  and  rapidly fatal disease,
   originating  in  Asia  and  frequently  epidemic  in  the  more filthy
   sections of other lands, to which the germ or specific poison may have
   been carried. It is characterized by diarrhea, rice-water evacuations,
   vomiting,  cramps,  pinched  expression, and lividity, rapidly passing
   into a state of collapse, followed by death, or by a stage of reaction
   of  fever.  --  Cholera  bacillus.  See  Comma  bacillus.  --  Cholera
   infantum,  a  dangerous  summer  disease,  of  infants,  caused by hot
   weather,  bad air, or poor milk, and especially fatal in large cities.
   --  Cholera  morbus,  a disease characterized by vomiting and purging,
   with  gripings  and cramps, usually caused by imprudence in diet or by
   gastrointestinal  disturbance.  -- Chicken cholera. See under Chicken.
   -- Hog cholera. See under Hog. -- Sporadic cholera, a disease somewhat
   resembling  the  Asiatic cholera, but originating where it occurs, and
   rarely becoming epidemic.


   Chol`er*a"ic  (?),  a.  Relating to, or resulting from, or resembling,


   Chol"er*ic (?), a. [L. cholericus, Gr. chol\'82rique.]

   1. Abounding with, or producing choler, or bile. Dryden.

   2. Easily irritated; irascible; inclined to anger.

   3.  Angry;  indicating anger; excited by anger. "Choleric speech." Sir
   W. Raleigh.
   Choleric temperament, the bilious temperament.


   Chol"er*ic*ly, adv. In a choleric manner; angrily.


   Chol"er*i*form` (?), a. [Cholera + -form.] Resembling cholera.


   Chol"er*ine (?), n. (Med.) (a) The precursory symptoms of cholera. (b)
   The first stage of epidemic cholera. (c) A mild form of cholera.


   Chol"er*oid, a. [Cholera + -oid.] Choleriform.


   Cho`les*ter"ic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  cholest\'82rique.]  Pertaining  to
   cholesterin, or obtained from it; as, cholesteric acid. Ure.


   Cho*les"ter*in  (?),  n. [Gr. cholest\'82rine. See Stearin.] (Chem.) A
   white,  fatty, crystalline substance, tasteless and odorless, found in
   animal  and plant products and tissue, and especially in nerve tissue,
   in the bile, and in gallstones.

                             Choliamb, Choliambic

   Cho"li*amb  (?),  Cho`li*am"bic  (?), n. [L. choliambus, Gr. (Pros.) A
   verse  having an iambus in the fifth place, and a spondee in the sixth
   or last.

                               Cholic, Cholinic

   Chol"ic  (?),  Cho*lin"ic (?), a. [Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to,
   or  obtained  from,  the  bile. Cholic acid (Chem.), a complex organic
   acid  found  as  a  natural constituent of taurocholic and glycocholic
   acids  in the bile, and extracted as a resinous substance, convertible
   under the influence of ether into white crystals.


   Cho"line (?), n. [Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) See Neurine.


   Chol"o*chrome (?), n. [Gr. (Physiol.) See Bilirubin.


   Chol`o*ph\'91"in (?), n. [Gr. (Physiol.) See Bilirubin.


   Chol"try (?), n. A Hindoo caravansary.


   Chomp  (?), v. i. To chew loudly and greedily; to champ. [Prov. Eng. &
   Colloq. U. S.] Halliwell.


   Chon`dri*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  (Physiol.)  Formation of, or conversion
   into, cartilage.


   Chon"dri*fy  (?),  v.  t. & i. [Gr. -fy.] To convert, or be converted,
   into cartilage.


   Chon"dri*gen  (?),  n. [Gr. -gen.] (Physiol. Chem.) The chemical basis
   of  cartilage,  converted  by  long boiling in water into a gelatinous
   body called chondrin.


   Chon*drig"e*nous (?), a. [Gr. -genous.] (Physiol.) Affording chondrin.


   Chon"drin  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Physiol.  Chem.)  A  colorless, amorphous,
   nitrogenous   substance,   tasteless   and   odorless,   formed   from
   cartilaginous  tissue by long-continued action of boiling water. It is
   similar to gelatin, and is a large ingredient of commercial gelatin.


   Chon"drite  (?),  n. [Gr. (Min.) A meteoric stone characterized by the
   presence of chondrules.


   Chon*drit"ic  (?),  a.  (Min.)  Granular; pertaining to, or having the
   granular  structure  characteristic of, the class of meteorites called


   Chon*dri"tis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. -itis.] (Med.) An inflammation of


   Chon"dro-  (?).  [Gr.  A  combining  form  meaning  a grain, granular,
   granular   cartilage,   cartilaginous;  as,  the  chondrocranium,  the
   cartilaginous skull of the lower vertebrates and of embryos.


   Chon"dro*dite (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) A fluosilicate of magnesia and iron,
   yellow  to  red  in  color,  often  occurring  in  granular  form in a
   crystalline limestone.


   Chon`dro*ga*noi"de*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. ganoidei. See Ganoid.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  An  order of ganoid fishes, including the sturgeons; -- so
   called on account of their cartilaginous skeleton.


   Chon"dro*gen (?), n. [Gr. -gen.] (Physiol. Chem.) Same as Chondrigen.


   Chon`dro*gen"e*sis  (?),  n. [Gr. genesis.] (Physiol.) The development
   of cartilage.


   Chon"droid (?), a. [Gr. -oid.] Resembling cartilage.


   Chon*drol"o*gy  (?),  n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. chondrologie.] (Anat.) The
   science which treats of cartilages. Dunglison.


   Chon*dro"ma  (?),  n.;  pl.  Chondromata  (#).  [NL., fr. Gr. -oma.] A
   cartilaginous tumor or growth.


   Chon*drom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. -meter.] A steelyard for weighting grain.


   Chon*drop`ter*yg"i*an  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  chondropterygien.] Having a
   cartilaginous skeleton. -- n. One of the Chondropterygii.


   Chon*drop`te*ryg"i*i  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of
   fishes,  characterized by cartilaginous fins and skeleton. It includes
   both  ganoids  (sturgeons,  etc.)  and selachians (sharks), but is now
   often restricted to the latter. [Written also Chondropterygia.]


   Chon*dros"te*i  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   fishes,  including  the sturgeons; -- so named because the skeleton is


   Chon*drot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. (Anat.) The dissection of cartilages.


   Chon"drule (?), n. [Dim. from Gr. (Min.) A peculiar rounded granule of
   some  mineral, usually enstatite or chrysolite, found imdedded more or
   less  aboundantly in the mass of many meteoric stones, which are hence
   called chondrites.


   Choose  (?), v. t. [imp. Chose (?); p. p. Chosen (?), Chose (Obs.); p.
   pr.  &  vb. n. Choosing.] [OE. chesen, cheosen, AS. ce\'a2san; akin to
   OS.  kiosan,  D.  kiezen,  G. kiesen, Icel. kj\'d3sa, Goth. kiusan, L.
   gustare to taste, Gr. jush to enjoy. \'fb46. Cf. Choice, 2d Gust.]

   1. To make choice of; to select; to take by way of preference from two
   or  more  objects  offered;  to  elect; as, to choose the least of two

     Choose me for a humble friend. Pope.

   2. To wish; to desire; to prefer. [Colloq.]

     The  landlady  now  returned  to  know  if we did not choose a more
     genteel apartment. Goldsmith.

   To  choose  sides.  See  under  Side. Syn. - To select; prefer; elect;
   adopt;  follow.  -- To Choose, Prefer, Elect. To choose is the generic
   term,  and  denotes  to  take  or  fix  upon  by  an  act of the will,
   especially in accordance with a decision of the judgment. To prefer is
   to  choose  or  favor  one  thing as compared with, and more desirable
   than,  another,  or more in accordance with one's tastes and feelings.
   To  elect  is  to  choose  or select for some office, employment, use,
   privilege,  etc.,  especially  by  the  concurrent  vote or voice of a
   sufficient  number  of  electors.  To  choose  a profession; to prefer
   private life to a public one; to elect members of Congress.


   Choose, v. i.

   1. To make a selection; to decide.

     They  had  only  to  choose  between  implicit  obedience  and open
     rebellion. Prescott.

   2. To do otherwise. "Can I choose but smile?" Pope.
   Can not choose but, must necessarily.

     Thou canst not choose but know who I am. Shak.


   Choos"er  (?),  n.  One who chooses; one who has the power or right of
   choosing; an elector. Burke.


   Chop  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Chopped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chopping.]
   [Cf. LG. & D. kappen, Dan. kappe, Sw. kappa. Cf. Chap to crack.]

   1.  To cut by striking repeatedly with a sharp instrument; to cut into
   pieces; to mince; -- often with up.

   Page 252

   2.  To  sever  or separate by one more blows of a sharp instrument; to
   divide; -- usually with off or down.

     Chop off your hand, and it to the king. Shak.

   3. To seize or devour greedily; -- with up. [Obs.]

     Upon the opening of his mouth he drops his breakfast, which the fox
     presently chopped up. L'estrange.


   Chop (?), v. i.

   1.  To  make  a quick strike, or repeated strokes, with an ax or other
   sharp instrument.

   2.  To  do  something  suddenly with an unexpected motion; to catch or
   attempt to seize.

     Out  of  greediness  to get both, he chops at the shadow, and loses
     the substance. L'Estrange.

   3. To interrupt; -- with in or out.

     This  fellow  interrupted  the  sermon,  even suddenly chopping in.


   Chop,  v.  t. [Cf. D. koopen to buy. See Cheapen, v. t., and cf. Chap,
   v. i., to buy.]

   1. To barter or truck.

   2. To exchange; substitute one thing for another.

     We go on chopping and changing our friends. L'Estrange.

   To  chop  logic,  to dispute with an affected use of logical terms; to
   argue sophistically.


   Chop, v. i.

   1. To purchase by way of truck.

   2. (Naut.) To vary or shift suddenly; as, the wind chops about.

   3. To wrangle; to altercate; to bandy words.

     Let not the counsel at the bar chop with the judge. Bacon.


   Chop, n. A change; a vicissitude. Marryat.


   Chop, v. t. & i. To crack. See Chap, v. t. & i.


   Chop, n.

   1. The act of chopping; a stroke.

   2.  A  piece  chopped off; a slice or small piece, especially of meat;
   as, a mutton chop.

   3. A crack or cleft. See Chap.


   Chop, n. [See Chap.]

   1. A jaw of an animal; -- commonly in the pl. See Chops.

   2. A movable jaw or cheek, as of a wooden vise.

   3.  The land at each side of the mouth of a river, harbor, or channel;
   as, East Chop or West Chop. See Chops.


   Chop, n. [Chin. & Hind. ch\'bep stamp, brand.]

   1. Quality; brand; as, silk of the first chop.

   2. A permit or clearance.
   Chop  dollar, a silver dollar stamped to attest its purity. -- chop of
   tea,  a  number  of  boxes  of  the  same make and quality of leaf. --
   Chowchow  chop.  See  under  Chowchow.  --  Grand  chop, a ship's port
   clearance. S. W. Williams.


   Chop"boat`  (?),  n.  [Chin.  chop  sort, quality.] A licensed lighter
   employed  in  the transportation of goods to and from vessels. [China]
   S. W. Williams.


   Chop"church` (?), n. [See Chop to barter.] (Old Eng. Law) An exchanger
   or an exchange of benefices. [Cant]


   Chop`fall`en  (?),  a.  Having the lower chop or jaw depressed; hence,
   crestfallen; dejected; dispirited;downcast. See Chapfallen.


   Chop"house`  (?),  n.  A  house where chops, etc., are sold; an eating

     The freedom of a chophouse. W. Irving.


   Chop"house`, n. [See Chop quality.] A customhouse where transit duties
   are levied. [China] S. W. Williams.


   Chop"in  (?),  n.  [F.  chopine,  fr.  G.  schoppen.] A liquid measure
   formerly used in France and Great Britain, varying from half a pint to
   a wine quart.


   Chop"in, n. See Chopine.


   Cho*pine" (?), n. [Cf. OF. chapin, escapin, Sp. chapin, Pg. chapim.] A
   clog,  or  patten,  having  a very thick sole, or in some cases raised
   upon  a  stilt  to  a  height  of  a  foot  or  more. [Variously spelt
   chioppine, chopin, etc.]

     Your  ladyship is nearer to heaven than when I saw you last, by the
     altitude of a chopine. Shak.


   Chop"-log`ic  (?),  n. One who bandies words or is very argunentative.
   [Jocular] Shak.


   Chop"ness (?), n. A kind of spade. [Eng.]


   Chop"per (?), n. One who, or that which, chops.


   Chop"ping (?), a. [Cf. Chubby.] Stout or plump; large. [Obs.] Fenton.


   Chop"ping,  a. [See Chop to barter.] Shifting or changing suddenly, as
   the  wind; also, having tumbling waves dashing against each other; as,
   a chopping sea.


   Chop"ping, n. Act of cutting by strokes. Chopping block, a solid block
   of  wood  on  which  butchers  and  others chop meat, etc. -- Chopping
   knife,  a  knife  for  chopping  or mincing meat, vegetables, etc.; --
   usually with a handle at the back of the blade instead of at the end.


   Chop"py (?), a. [Cf. Chappy.]

   1. Full of cracks. "Choppy finger." Shak.

   2.  [Cf.  Chop  a  change.] Rough, with short, tumultuous waves; as, a
   choppy sea.


   Chops (?), n. pl. [See Chop a jaw.]

   1. The jaws; also, the fleshy parts about the mouth.

   2.  The  sides  or  capes at the mouth of a river, channel, harbor, or
   bay; as, the chops of the English Channel.


   Chop"strick"  (?),  n.  One  of two small sticks of wood, ivory, etc.,
   used by the Chinese and Japanese to convey food to the mouth.


   Cho*rag"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Of  or  pertaining to a choragus. Choragic
   monument,  a building or column built by a victorious choragus for the
   reception  and  exhibition of the tripod which he received as a prize.
   Those of Lysicrates and Thrasyllus are still to be seen at Athens.


   Cho*ra"gus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Choragi  (#).  [L., fr. Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) A
   chorus  leader; esp. one who provided at his own expense and under his
   own  supervision  one  of  the  choruses  for  the musical contents at


   Cho"ral  (?),  a.  [LL.  choralis,  fr.  L. chorus. See Chorus.] Of or
   pertaining to a choir or chorus; singing, sung, or adapted to be sung,
   in chorus or harmony. Choral service, a service of song.


   Cho"ral,  n.  (Mus.) A hymn tune; a simple sacred tune, sung in unison
   by  the  congregation;  as,  the  Lutheran chorals. [Sometimes written


   Cho"ral*ist (?), n. A singer or composer of chorals.


   Cho"ral*ly,  adv.  In  the manner of a chorus; adapted to be sung by a
   choir; in harmony.


   Chord  (?),  n. [L chorda a gut, a string made of a gut, Gr. cord. See

   1. The string of a musical instrument. Milton.

   2.  (Mus.)  A combination of tones simultaneously performed, producing
   more or less perfect harmony, as, the common chord.

   3. (Geom.) A right line uniting the extremities of the arc of a circle
   or curve.

   4. (Anat.) A cord. See Cord, n., 4.

   5.  (Engin.)  The  upper or lower part of a truss, usually horizontal,
   resisting compression or tension. Waddell.
   Accidental,  Common,  and  Vocal chords. See under Accidental, Common,
   and  Vocal.  --  Chord  of  an  arch. See Illust. of Arch. -- Chord of
   curvature,  a  chord drawn from any point of a curve, in the circle of
   curvature for that point. -- Scale of chords. See Scale.


   Chord,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Chorded; p. pr. & vb. n. Chording.] To
   provide with musical chords or strings; to string; to tune.

     When Jubal struck the chorded shell. Dryden.

     Even the solitary old pine tree chords his harp. Beecher.


   Chord,  v.  i.  (Mus.) To accord; to harmonize together; as, this note
   chords with that.


   Chor"da  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  L.  chorda. See Chord.] (Anat.) A cord.
   Chorda  dorsalis  (.  [NL.,  lit.,  cord  of  the  back.]  (Anat.) See


   Chor"dal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a chord.


   Chor*da"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  L.  chorda  cord.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   comprehensive  division  of  animals including all Vertebrata together
   with the Tunicata, or all those having a dorsal nervous cord.


   Chor*dee"  (?),  n. [F. cord\'82, cord\'82e, p. p. of corder to cord.]
   (Med.)  A  painful  erection  of  the  penis,  usually  with  downward
   curvature, occurring in gonorrhea.


   Chore  (?),  n.  [The same word as char work done by the day.] A small
   job;  in  the  pl.,  the regular or daily light work of a household or
   farm, either within or without doors. [U. S.]


   Chore, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Choring.] To do
   chores. [U. S.]


   Chore (?), n. A choir or chorus. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Cho*re"a  (?).  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Med.) St. Vitus's dance; a disease
   attended with convulsive twitchings and other involuntary movements of
   the muscles or limbs.


   Cho*ree" (?), n. [F. chor\'82e.] See Choreus.

                         Choregraphic, Choregraphical

   Cho`re*graph"ic   (?),   Cho`re*graph"ic*al   (?),  a.  Pertaining  to


   Cho*reg"ra*phy  (?), n. [GR. -graphy.] The art of representing dancing
   by signs, as music is represented by notes. Craig.


   Cho*re"ic  (?),  a.  Of  the  nature  of,  or  pertaining  to, chorea;


   Cho`re*pis"co*pal  (?), a. Pertaining to a chorepiscopus or his change
   or authority.


   Cho`re*pis"co*pus (?), n.; pl. Chorepiscopi (#). [L., fr. Gr. Bishop.]
   (Eccl.)  A  "country"  or  suffragan  bishop, appointed in the ancient
   church  by  a  diocesan bishop to exercise episcopal jurisdiction in a
   rural district.

                                Choreus, Choree

   Cho*re"us  (?),  Cho*ree"  (,  n.  [L.  choreus, Gr. chor\'82e.] (Anc.
   Pros.) (a) a trochee. (b) A tribrach.


   Cho"ri*amb (?), n.; pl. Choriambs (. Same as Choriambus.


   Cho`ri*am"bic  (?), a. [L. choriambicus, gr. Pertaining to a choriamb.
   -- n. A choriamb.


   Cho`ri*am"bus  (?), n.; pl. L. Choriambi (#), E. Choriambuses (#). [L.
   choriambus,  Gr.  (Anc. Pros.) A foot consisting of four syllables, of
   which  the  first  and last are long, and the other short (- \'de \'de
   -); that is, a choreus, or trochee, and an iambus united.


   Cho"ric (?), a. [L. choricus, Gr. Of or pertaining to a chorus.

     I remember a choric ode in the Hecuba. Coleridge.


   Cho"ri*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1. (Anat.) (a) The outer membrane which invests the fetus in the womb;
   also,  the  similar  membrane  investing many ova at certain stages of
   development. (b) The true skin, or cutis.

   2. (Bot.) The outer membrane of seeds of plants.


   Cho"ri*sis  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) The separation of a leaf or
   floral organ into two more parts.

     NOTE: &hand; In  collateral chorisis the parts are side by side. --
     In parallel or median chorisis they are one in front of another.


   Cho"rist (?), n. [F. choriste.] A singer in a choir; a chorister. [R.]


   Chor"is*ter (?), n. [See Chorus.]

   1. One of a choir; a singer in a chorus. Dryden.

   2. One who leads a choir in church music. [U. S.]


   Cho*ris"tic (?), a. Choric; choral. [R.]


   Cho"ro*graph  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -graph.]  An instrument for constructing
   triangles in marine surveying, etc.


   Cho*rog"ra*pher (?), n.

   1.  One  who  describes  or  makes a map of a district or region. "The
   chorographers of Italy." Sir T. Browne.

   2.  A  geographical  antiquary;  one  who investigates the locality of
   ancient places.


   Cho`ro*graph"ic*al    (?),    a.   Pertaining   to   chorography.   --
   Cho`ro*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Cho*rog"ra*phy   (?),   n.   [L.  chorographia,  Gr.  the  mapping  or
   description of a region or district.

     The chorography of their provinces. Sir T. Browne.


   Cho"roid  (?), a. [gr. (Anat.) resembling the chorion; as, the choroid
   plexuses  of  the ventricles of the brain, and the choroid coat of the
   eyeball.  --  n.  The choroid coat of the eye. See Eye. Choroid plexus
   (Anat.),  one  of the delicate fringelike processes, consisting almost
   entirely  of  blood  vessels, which project into the ventricles of the


   Cho*roid"al (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the choroid coat.


   Cho*rol"o*gy  (?), n. [Gr. -logy.] (Biol.) The science which treats of
   the  laws of distribution of living organisms over the earth's surface
   as to latitude, altitude, locality, etc.

     Its distribution or chorology. Huxley.


   Cho*rom"e*try  (?),  n. [Gr. -metry.] The art of surveying a region or


   Cho"rus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Choruses (#). [L., a dance in a ring, a dance
   accompanied  with  song;  a chorus, a band of dancers and singers. Gr.

   1. (Antiq.) A band of singers and dancers.

     The  Grecian  tragedy was at first nothing but a chorus of singers.

   2.  (Gr. Drama) A company of persons supposed to behold what passed in
   the  acts  of  a  tragedy, and to sing the sentiments which the events
   suggested in couplets or verses between the acts; also, that which was
   thus sung by the chorus.

     What  the  lofty,  grave  tragedians  taught  In  chorus or iambic.

   3. An interpreter in a dumb show or play. [Obs.]

   4. (Mus.) A company of singers singing in concert.

   5.  (Mus.)  A  composition  of  two  or  more  parts, each of which is
   intended to be sung by a number of voices.

   6.  (Mus.)  Parts  of a song or hymn recurring at intervals, as at the
   end of stanzas; also, a company of singers who join with the singer or
   choir in singer or choir in singing such parts.

   7.  The  simultaneous  of  a company in any noisy demonstration; as, a
   Chorus of shouts and catcalls.


   Cho"rus, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Chorused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Chorusing.]
   To sing in chorus; to exclaim simultaneously. W. D. Howells.


   Chose  (?),  n.;  pl. Choses (#). [F., fr. L. causa cause, reason. See
   Cause.]  (Law) A thing; personal property. Chose in action, a thing of
   which  one has not possession or actual enjoyment, but only a right to
   it, or a right to demand it by action at law, and which does not exist
   at  the  time  in  specie;  a personal right to a thing not reduced to
   possession,  but  recoverable  by  suit  at law; as a right to recover
   money  due  on  a  contract,  or  damages for a tort, which can not be
   enforced   against  a  reluctant  party  without  suit.  --  Chose  in
   possession,  a  thing  in possession, as distinguished from a thing in
   action.  --  Chose  local,  a  thing annexed to a place, as a mill. --
   Chose transitory, a thing which is movable. Cowell. Blount.


   Chose (?), imp. & p. p. of Choose.


   Cho"sen  (?),  p.  p.  of  Choose. Selected from a number; picked out;

     Seven hundred chosen men left-handed. Judg. xx. 16.


   Cho"sen,  n. One who, or that which is the object of choice or special


   Chou"an  (?), n. [F.] One of the royalist insurgents in western France
   (Brittany, etc.), during and after the French revolution.


   Chough  (?),  n.  [OE. choughe, kowe (and cf. OE. ca), fr. AS. ce\'a2;
   cf.  also  D.  kauw,  OHG. ch\'beha; perh. akin to E. caw. \'fb22. Cf.
   Caddow.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A bird of the Crow family (Fregilus graculus) of
   Europe.  It is of a black color, with a long, slender, curved bill and
   red  legs;  --  also called chauk, chauk-daw, chocard, Cornish chough,
   red-legged  crow. The name is also applied to several allied birds, as
   the  Alpine  chough.  Cornish chough (Her.), a bird represented black,
   with red feet, and beak; -- called also aylet and sea swallow.


   Chou"i*cha (?), n. [Native name] (Zo\'94l.) The salmon of the Columbia
   River or California. See Quinna