Unabridged Dictionary - Letter B

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   B  (?)  is  the  second  letter of the English alphabet. (See Guide to
   Pronunciation,   196,220.) It is etymologically related to p , v , f
   ,  w  and  m  ,  letters  representing  sounds  having a close organic
   affinity to its own sound; as in Eng. bursar and purser; Eng. bear and
   Lat.  pear;  Eng. silver and Ger. silber; Lat. cubitum and It. gomito;
   Eng. seven, Anglo-Saxon seofon, Ger. sieben, Lat. septem, Gr.ptan. The
   form of letter B is Roman, from Greek B (Beta), of Semitic origin. The
   small b was formed by gradual change from the capital B.

     NOTE: In Mu sic, B  is the nominal of the seventh tone in the model
     major  scale (the scale of C major ), or of the second tone in it's
     relative minor scale (that of A minor ) . Bb stands for B flat, the
     tone  a  half step , or semitone, lower than B. In German, B stands
     for our Bb, while our B natural is called H (pronounced h\'84).


   Ba  (?),  v. i. [Cf. OF. baer to open mouth, F. baer.] To kiss. [Obs.]


   Baa  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf. G. b\'84en; an imitative word.] To cry baa, or
   bleat as a sheep.

     He treble baas for help, but none can get. Sir P. Sidney.


   Baa (?), n.; pl. Baas. [Cf. G. b\'84.] The cry or bleating of a sheep;
   a bleat.


   Baa"ing, n. The bleating of a sheep. Marryat.


   Ba"al (?), n.; Heb. pl. Baalim (. [Heb. ba'al lord.]

   1. (Myth.) The supreme male divinity of the Phoenician and Canaanitish

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me of this god occurs in the Old Testament and
     elsewhere  with  qualifying  epithets  subjoined,  answering to the
     different  ideas  of  his  character; as, Baal-berith (the Covenant
     Baal), Baal-zebub (Baal of the fly).

   2.  pl.  The  whole  class  of  divinities  to  whom the name Baal was
   applied. Judges x. 6.


   Ba"al*ism (?), n. Worship of Baal; idolatry.

                               Baalist, Baalite

   Ba"al*ist (?), Ba"al*ite (?), n. A worshiper of Baal; a devotee of any
   false religion; an idolater.


   Ba"ba (?), n. [F.] A kind of plum cake.


   Bab"bitt (?), v. t. To line with Babbitt metal.

                                 Babbitt metal

   Bab"bitt   met`al   (?).   [From   the   inventor,  Isaac  Babbitt  of
   Massachusetts.]  A soft white alloy of variable composition (as a nine
   parts  of  tin  to  one of copper, or of fifty parts of tin to five of
   antimony and one of copper) used in bearings to diminish friction.


   Bab"ble,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Babbled (p. pr. & vb. n. Babbling.]
   [Cf.LG.  babbeln,  D.  babbelen, G. bappeln, bappern, F. babiller, It.
   babbolare;  prob.  orig.,  to  keep  saying  ba,  imitative of a child
   learning to talk.]

   1.   To   utter   words   indistinctly  or  unintelligibly;  to  utter
   inarticulate sounds; as a child babbles.

   2. To talk incoherently; to utter unmeaning words.

   3. To talk much; to chatter; to prate.

   4. To make a continuous murmuring noise, as shallow water running over

     In every babbling he finds a friend. Wordsworth.

     NOTE: &hand; Ho unds ar e sa id to  babble, or to be babbling, when
     they are too noisy after having found a good scent.

   Syn. -- To prate; prattle; chatter; gossip.


   Bab"ble, v. i.

   1. To utter in an indistinct or incoherent way; to repeat,as words, in
   a childish way without understanding.

     These [words] he used to babble in all companies. Arbuthnot.

   2. To disclose by too free talk, as a secret.


   Bab"ble, n.

   1.  Idle talk; senseless prattle; gabble; twaddle. "This is mere moral
   babble." Milton.

   2. Inarticulate speech; constant or confused murmur.

     The babble of our young children. Darwin.

     The babble of the stream. Tennyson.


   Bab"ble*ment (?), n. Babble. Hawthorne.


   Bab"bler (?), n.

   1. An idle talker; an irrational prater; a teller of secrets.

     Great babblers, or talkers, are not fit for trust. L'Estrange.

   2. A hound too noisy on finding a good scent.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  name  given  to  any one of family (Timalin\'91) of
   thrushlike birds, having a chattering note.


   Bab"ble*ry (?), n. Babble. [Obs.] Sir T. More


   Babe (?), n. [Cf. Ir. bab, baban, W. baban, maban.]

   1. An infant; a young child of either sex; a baby.

   2. A doll for children. Spenser.


   Babe"hood (?), n. Babyhood. [R.] Udall.


   Ba"bel  (?),  n. [Heb. B\'bebel, the name of the capital of Babylonia;
   in Genesis associated with the idea of "confusion"]

   1.  The  city  and tower in the land of Shinar, where the confusion of
   languages took place.

     Therefore is the name of it called Babel. Gen. xi. 9.

   2.  Hence: A place or scene of noise and confusion; a confused mixture
   of sounds, as of voices or languages.

     That babel of strange heathen languages. Hammond.

     The grinding babel of the street. R. L. Stevenson.


   Bab"er*y  (?),  n.  [Perh.  orig.  for baboonery. Cf. Baboon, and also
   Babe.]  Finery  of  a kind to please a child. [Obs.] "Painted babery."
   Sir P. Sidney.

                                Babian, Babion

   Ba"bi*an  (?),  Ba"bi*on  (?),  n.  [See  Baboon]  A baboon. [Obs.] B.


   Bab"il*lard (?), n. [F., a babbler.] (Zo\'94l.) The lesser whitethroat
   of Europe; -- called also babbling warbler.


   Bab"ing*ton*ite  (?),  n.  [From  Dr.  Babbington.]  (Min.)  A mineral
   occurring  in triclinic crystals approaching pyroxene in angle, and of
   a greenish black color. It is a silicate of iron, manganese, and lime.

                             Babiroussa, Babirussa

   Bab`i*rous"sa,  Bab`i*rus"sa (, n. [F. babiroussa, fr.Malay b\'beb\'c6
   hog  +  r deer.] (Zo\'94l.) A large hoglike quadruped (Sus, or Porcus,
   babirussa) of the East Indies, sometimes domesticated; the Indian hog.
   Its upper canine teeth or tusks are large and recurved.


   Bab"ish  (?),  a.  Like  a  babe;  a  childish;  babyish. [R.] "Babish
   imbecility." Drayton. -- Bab"ish*ly, adv. -- Bab"ish*ness, n. [R.]


   Bab"ism (?), n. [From Bab (Pers. bab a gate), the title assumed by the
   founder, Mirza Ali Mohammed.] The doctrine of a modern religious sect,
   which  originated  in  Persia  in 1843, being a mixture of Mohammedan,
   Christian, Jewish and Parsee elements.


   Bab"ist, n. A believer in Babism.


   Bab"lah  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Per.  bab  a  species  of mimosa yielding gum
   arabic.]  The  ring  of  the  fruit  of several East Indian species of
   acacia;  neb-neb.  It contains gallic acid and tannin, and is used for
   dyeing drab.

                                  Baboo, Babu

   Ba"boo, Ba"bu (?), n. [Hind. b\'beb ] A Hindoo gentleman; native clerk
   who  writes English; also, a Hindoo title answering to Mr. or Esquire.


   Bab*oon"   (?),  n.  [OE.  babewin,  baboin,  fr.F.  babouin,  or  LL.
   babewynus.  Of  unknown  origin; cf. D. baviaan, G. pavian, baboon, F.
   babin lip of ape, dogs, etc., dial. G. b\'84ppe mouth.] (Zo\'94l.) One
   of the Old World Quadrumana, of the genera Cynocephalus and Papio; the
   dog-faced  ape.  Baboons have dog-like muzzles and large canine teeth,
   cheek  pouches,  a  short tail, and naked callosities on the buttocks.
   They are mostly African. See Mandrill, and Chacma, and Drill an ape.


   Bab*oon"ery (?), n. Baboonish behavior. Marryat.


   Bab*oon"ish, a. Like a baboon.


   Ba"by  (?), n.; pl. Babies. [Dim. of babe] An infant or young child of
   either sex; a babe.

   2. A small image of an infant; a doll.
   Babies in the eyes, the minute reflection which one sees of one's self
   in the eyes of another.

     She  clung  about  his  neck,  gave  him ten kisses, Toyed with his
     locks, looked babies in his eyes. Heywood.


   Ba"by,  a.  Pertaining  to, or resembling, an infant; young or little;
   as, baby swans. "Baby figure" Shak.


   Ba"by,  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Babied (p. pr. & vb. n.Babying.] To treat
   like a young child; to keep dependent; to humor; to fondle. Young.

                                   Baby farm

   Ba"by  farm` (?). A place where the nourishment and care of babies are
   offered for hire.

                                  Baby farmer

   Ba"by farm`er (?). One who keeps a baby farm.

                                 Baby farming

   Ba"by farm`ing. The business of keeping a baby farm.


   Ba"by*hood (?), n. The state or period of infancy.


   Ba"by*house`   (?),  a.  A  place  for  children's  dolls  and  dolls'
   furniture. Swift.


   Ba"by*ish, a. Like a baby; childish; puerile; simple. -- Ba"by*ish*ly,
   adv. -- Ba"by*ish*ness, n.


   Ba"by*ism (?), n.

   1. The state of being a baby.

   2. A babyish manner of acting or speaking.

                                  Baby jumper

   Ba"by  jump`er  (?).  A hoop suspended by an elastic strap, in which a
   young  child may be held secure while amusing itself by jumping on the


   Bab`y*lo"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the real or to the mystical
   Babylon, or to the ancient kingdom of Babylonia; Chaldean.


   Bab`y*lo"ni*an, n.

   1. An inhabitant of Babylonia (which included Chaldea); a Chaldean.

   2.  An  astrologer; -- so called because the Chaldeans were remarkable
   for the study of astrology.

                            Babylonic, Babylonical

   Bab`y*lon"ic (?), Bab`y*lon"ic*al (?), a.

   1.    Pertaining   to   Babylon,   or   made   there;   as   Babylonic
   garments,carpets, or hangings.

   2. Tumultuous; disorderly. [Obs.] Sir J. Harrington.


   Bab"y*lo`nish (?), n.

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to,  or  made  in,  Babylon  or  Babylonia. "A
   Babylonish garment." Josh. vii. 21.

   2. Pertaining to the Babylon of Revelation xiv.8.

   3. Pertaining to Rome and papal power. [Obs.]

     The . . . injurious nickname of Babylonish. Gape.

   4. Confused; Babel-like.

                             Babyroussa, Babyrussa

   Bab`y*rous"sa, Bab`y*rus"sa (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Babyroussa.


   Ba"by*ship  (?), n. The quality of being a baby; the personality of an


   Bac (?), n. [F. See Back a vat]

   1. A broad, flatbottomed ferryboat, usually worked by a rope.

   2. A vat or cistern. See 1st Back.


   Bac"ca*lau"re*ate  (?),  n. [NL. baccalaureatus, fr.LL. baccalaureus a
   bachelor  of  arts,  fr.  baccalarius,  but  as  if  fr L. bacca lauri
   bayberry,  from  the  practice  of the bachelor's wearing a garland of
   bayberries. See Bachelor.]

   1. The degree of bachelor of arts. (B.A. or A.B.), the first or lowest
   academical degree conferred by universities and colleges.

   2. A baccalaureate sermon. [U.S.]


   Bac`ca*lau"re*ate,  a. Pertaining to a bachelor of arts. Baccalaureate
   sermon,  in  some  American colleges, a sermon delivered as a farewell
   discourse to a graduating class.

                               Baccara, Baccarat

   Bac`ca*ra", Bac`ca*rat" (?), n. [F.] A French game of cards, played by
   a banker and punters.

                               Baccare, Backare

   Bac*ca"re,  Bac*ka"re  (?),  interj. Stand back! give place! -- a cant
   word  of  the Elizabethan writers, probably in ridicule of some person
   who pretended to a knowledge of Latin which he did not possess.

     Baccare! you are marvelous forward. Shak.


   Bac"cate  (?),  a.  [L.  baccatus,  fr.  L. bacca berry.] (Bot.) Pulpy
   throughout, like a berry; -- said of fruits. Gray.


   Bac"ca*ted (?), a.

   1. Having many berries.

   2. Set or adorned with pearls. [Obs.]


   Bac"cha*nal (?), a. [L. Bacchanalis. See Bacchanalia.]

   1. Relating to Bacchus or his festival.

   2. Engaged in drunken revels; drunken and riotous or noisy.


   Bac"cha*nal (?), n.

   1.  A  devotee of Bacchus; one who indulges in drunken revels; one who
   is noisy and riotous when intoxicated; a carouser. "Tipsy bacchanals."

   2. pl. The festival of Bacchus; the bacchanalia.

   3. Drunken revelry; an orgy.

   4. A song or dance in honor of Bacchus.


   Bac`cha*na"li*a  (?), n. pl. [L. Bacchanal a place devoted to Bacchus;
   in  the  pl.  Bacchanalia  a  feast of Bacchus, fr. Bacchus the god of
   wine, Gr.

   1. (Myth.) A feast or an orgy in honor of Bacchus.

   2. Hence: A drunken feast; drunken reveler.


   Bac`cha*na"li*an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to the festival of Bacchus;
   relating to or given to reveling and drunkenness.

     Even bacchanalian madness has its charms. Cowper.


   Bac`aha*na"li*an, n. A bacchanal; a drunken reveler.


   Bac`cha*na"li*an*ism   (?),   n.   The   practice   of  bacchanalians;
   bacchanals; drunken revelry.


   Bac"chant  (?),  n.;  pl.  E.  Bacchants, L. Bacchantes. [L. bacchans,
   -antis, p. pr. of bacchari to celebrate the festival of Bacchus.]

   1. A priest of Bacchus.

   2. A bacchanal; a reveler. Croly.


   Bac"chant,  a.  Bacchanalian;  fond  of  drunken revelry; wine-loving;
   reveling; carousing. Byron.


   Bac"chante (?), n.; L. pl. Bacchantes.

   1. A priestess of Bacchus.

   2. A female bacchanal.


   Bac*chan"tic (?), a. Bacchanalian.

                              Bacchic, Bacchical

   Bac"chic (?), Bac"chic*al (?), a. [L. Bacchicus, Gr. Of or relating to
   Bacchus; hence, jovial, or riotous,with intoxication.


   Bac*chi"us  (?),  n.;  pl.  Bacchii.  [L.  Bacchius pes, Gr. (Pros.) A
   metrical  foot  composed  of  a  short  syllable  and  two  long ones;
   according to some, two long and a short.


   Bac"chus  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Myth.) The god of wine, son of Jupiter
   and Semele.


   Bac*cif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  baccifer;  bacca berry + ferre to bear]
   Producing berries. " Bacciferous trees." Ray.


   Bac"ci*form  (?),  a.  [L. bacca berry + -form. ] Having the form of a


   Bac*civ"o*rous (?), a. [L. bacca berry + varare to devour.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Eating, or subsisting on, berries; as, baccivorous birds.


   Bace (?), n., a., & v. See Base. [Obs.] Spenser.

                             Bacharach, Backarack

   Bach"a*rach,  Back"a*rack  (?), n. A kind of wine made at Bacharach on
   the Rhine.


   Bache"e*lor  (?),  n.  [OF.  bacheler  young man, F. bachelier (cf.Pr.
   bacalar,  Sp.bachiller,  Pg. bacharel, It. baccalare), LL. baccalarius
   the  tenant  of a kind of farm called baccalaria, a soldier not old or
   rich enough to lead his retainers into battle with a banner, person of
   an  inferior  academical degree aspiring to a doctorate. In the latter
   sense,  it  was  afterward changed to baccalaureus. See Baccalaureate,

   1. A man of any age who has not been married.

     As  merry  and  mellow an old bachelor as ever followed a hound. W.

   2. An unmarried woman. [Obs.] B. Jonson. <-- p. 110 -->

   3.  A  person  who has taken the first or lowest degree in the liberal
   arts,  or in some branch of science, at a college or university; as, a
   bachelor of arts.

   4.  A  knight  who  had  no  standard of his own, but fought under the
   standard of another in the field; often, a young knight.

   5.  In the companies of London tradesmen, one not yet admitted to wear
   the livery; a junior member. [Obs.]

   6.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  kind  of  bass, an edible fresh-water fish (Pomoxys
   annularis) of the southern United States.


   Bach"e*lor*dom  (?),  n.  The state of bachelorhood; the whole body of


   Bach"e*lor*hood  (?),  n.  The state or condition of being a bachelor;


   Bach"e*lor*ism  (?),  n.  Bachelorhood;  also, a manner or peculiarity
   belonging to bachelors. W. Irving.

                               Bachelor's button

   Bach"e*lor's  but"ton  (?),  (Bot.)  A  plant with flowers shaped like
   buttons; especially, several species of Ranunculus, and the cornflower
   (Centaures cyanus) and globe amaranth (Gomphrena).

     NOTE: &hand; Ba chelor's bu ttons, a  name given to several flowers
     "from  their  similitude  to  the jagged cloathe buttons, anciently
     worne  in  this  kingdom",  according  to  Johnson's Gerarde, p.472
     (1633);  but  by  other  writers  ascribed  to  "a habit of country
     fellows to carry them in their pockets to divine their success with
     their sweethearts." Dr. Prior.


   Bach"e*lor*ship, n. The state of being a bachelor.


   Bach"el*ry  (?),  n. [OF. bachelerie.] The body of young aspirants for
   knighthood. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ba*cil"lar  (?),  a. [L. bacillum little staff.] (Biol.) Shaped like a
   rod or staff.


   Bac"il*la`ri*\'91  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr.L. bacillum, dim. of baculum
   stick.] (Biol.) See Diatom.


   Bac"il*la*ry (?), a. Of or pertaining to little rods; rod-shaped.


   Ba*cil"li*form (?), a. [L. bacillum little staff + -form.] Rod-shaped.


   Ba*cil"lus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Bacilli  (.  [NL.,  for  L.  bacillum. See
   Bacillarle.] (Biol.) A variety of bacterium; a microscopic, rod-shaped
   vegetable organism.


   Back (?), n. [F. bac: cf. Arm. bak tray, bowl.]

   1.  A  large  shallow vat; a cistern, tub, or trough, used by brewers,
   distillers,  dyers,  picklers,  gluemakers,  and others, for mixing or
   cooling wort, holding water, hot glue, etc.
   Hop  back,  Jack back, the cistern which receives the infusion of malt
   and  hops  from  the  copper.  -- Wash back, a vat in which distillers
   ferment  the  wort  to  form  wash. -- Water back, a cistern to hold a
   supply  of  water;  esp.  a small cistern at the back of a stove, or a
   group  of  pipes  set  in  the fire box of a stove or furnace, through
   which water circulates and is heated.

   2. A ferryboat. See Bac, 1


   Back (?), n. [As b\'91c, bac; akin to Icel., Sw., & LG. bak, Dan. bag;
   cf. OHG. bahho ham, Skr. bhaj to turn, OSlav. b flight. Cf. Bacon.]

   1.  In  human  beings, the hinder part of the body, extending from the
   neck  to the end of the spine; in other animals, that part of the body
   which  corresponds  most nearly to such part of a human being; as, the
   back of a horse, fish, or lobster.

   2. An extended upper part, as of a mountain or ridge.

     [The  mountains]  their  broad  bare backs upheave Into the clouds.

   3.  The  outward  or upper part of a thing, as opposed to the inner or
   lower  part;  as, the back of the hand, the back of the foot, the back
   of a hand rail.

     Methought  Love  pitying  me, when he saw this, Gave me your hands,
     the backs and palms to kiss. Donne.

   4.  The part opposed to the front; the hinder or rear part of a thing;
   as, the back of a book; the back of an army; the back of a chimney.

   5.  The  part  opposite to, or most remote from, that which fronts the
   speaker or actor; or the part out of sight, or not generally seen; as,
   the back of an island, of a hill, or of a village.

   6.  The part of a cutting tool on the opposite side from its edge; as,
   the back of a knife, or of a saw.

   7. A support or resource in reserve.

     This project Should have a back or second, that might hold, If this
     should blast in proof. Shak.

   8. (Naut.) The keel and keelson of a ship.

   9.  (Mining)  The  upper  part  of a lode, or the roof of a horizontal
   underground passage.

   10. A garment for the back; hence, clothing.

     A bak to walken inne by daylight. Chaucer.

   Behind one's back, when one is absent; without one's knowledge; as, to
   ridicule  a  person  behind his back. -- Full back, Half back, Quarter
   back  (Football), players stationed behind those in the front line. --
   To  be  or lie on one's back, to be helpless. -- To put, or get, one's
   back  up,  to  assume  an  attitude  of obstinate resistance (from the
   action  of  a cat when attacked.). [Colloq.] -- To see the back of, to
   get  rid  of. -- To turn the back, to go away; to flee. -- To turn the
   back on one, to forsake or neglect him.


   Back, a.

   1.  Being  at  the  back or in the rear; distant; remote; as, the back
   door; back settlements.

   2. Being in arrear; overdue; as, back rent.

   3. Moving or operating backward; as, back action.
   Back  charges,  charges brought forward after an account has been made
   up.  -- Back filling (Arch.), the mass of materials used in filling up
   the space between two walls, or between the inner and outer faces of a
   wall,  or  upon  the  haunches  of an arch or vault. -- Back pressure.
   (Steam  Engine)  See under Pressure. -- Back rest, a guide attached to
   the  slide  rest  of  a lathe, and placed in contact with the work, to
   steady  it  in  turning. -- Back slang, a kind of slang in which every
   word  is  written  or  pronounced  backwards; as, nam for man. -- Back
   stairs,  stairs in the back part of a house; private stairs. Also used
   adjectively.  See  Back  stairs,  Backstairs,  and  Backstair,  in the
   Vocabulary.  --  Back step (Mil.), the retrograde movement of a man or
   body of men, without changing front. -- Back stream, a current running
   against  the  main  current  of a stream; an eddy. -- To take the back
   track, to retrace one's steps; to retreat. [Colloq.]


   Back (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Backed (; p. pr. & vb. n. Backing.]

   1. To get upon the back of; to mount.

     I will back him [a horse] straight. Shak.

   2. To place or seat upon the back. [R.]

     Great Jupiter, upon his eagle backed, Appeared to me. Shak.

   3.  To  drive or force backward; to cause to retreat or recede; as, to
   back oxen.

   4. To make a back for; to furnish with a back; as, to back books.

   5. To adjoin behind; to be at the back of.

     A garden . . . with a vineyard backed. Shak.

     The chalk cliffs which back the beach. Huxley.

   6. To write upon the back of; as, to back a letter; to indorse; as, to
   back a note or legal document.

   7.  To  support;  to  maintain;  to  second  or  strengthen  by aid or
   influence;  as,  to  back a friend. "Parliament would be backed by the
   people." Macaulay.

     Have  still  found it necessary to back and fortify their laws with
     rewards and punishments. South.

     The mate backed the captain manfully. Blackw. Mag.

   8. To bet on the success of; -- as, to back a race horse.
   To back an anchor (Naut.), to lay down a small anchor ahead of a large
   one,  the  cable  of  the small one being fastened to the crown of the
   large  one.  --  To  back the field, in horse racing, to bet against a
   particular  horse  or  horses,  that some one of all the other horses,
   collectively designated "the field", will win. -- To back the oars, to
   row  backward with the oars. -- To back a rope, to put on a preventer.
   --  To back the sails, to arrange them so as to cause the ship to move
   astern.  --  To  back up, to support; to sustain; as, to back up one's
   friends. -- To back a warrant (Law), is for a justice of the peace, in
   the  county  where the warrant is to be executed, to sign or indorse a
   warrant,  issued  in  another  county, to apprehend an offender. -- To
   back  water  (Naut.),  to  reverse the action of the oars, paddles, or
   propeller, so as to force the boat or ship backward.


   Back, v. i.

   1. To move or go backward; as, the horse refuses to back.

   2.  (Naut.) To change from one quarter to another by a course opposite
   to that of the sun; -- used of the wind.

   3.  (Sporting)  To stand still behind another dog which has poined; --
   said of a dog. [Eng.]
   To  back  and  fill,  to  manage  the sails of a ship so that the wind
   strikes  them  alternately  in  front and behind, in order to keep the
   ship  in  the  middle  of a river or channel while the current or tide
   carries  the  vessel  against the wind. Hence: (Fig.) To take opposite
   positions  alternately;  to assert and deny. [Colloq.] -- To back out,
   To  back  down,  to retreat or withdraw from a promise, engagement, or
   contest; to recede. [Colloq.]

     Cleon  at  first  .  .  .  was  willing to go; but, finding that he
     [Nicias] was in earnest, he tried to back out. Jowett (Thucyd. )


   Back, adv. [Shortened from aback.]

   1. In, to, or toward, the rear; as, to stand back; to step back.

   2. To the place from which one came; to the place or person from which
   something  is  taken  or  derived;  as,  to go back for something left
   behind;  to  go  back  to one's native place; to put a book back after
   reading it.

   3. To a former state, condition, or station; as, to go back to private
   life; to go back to barbarism.

   4.  (  Of  time)  In  times  past; ago. "Sixty or seventy years back."

   5. Away from contact; by reverse movement.

     The  angel  of  the Lord . . . came, and rolled back the stone from
     the door. Matt. xxvii. 2.

   6.  In  concealment  or  reserve; in one's own possession; as, to keep
   back the truth; to keep back part of the money due to another.

   7. In a state of restraint or hindrance.

     The Lord hath kept thee back from honor. Numb. xxiv. 11.

   8. In return, repayment, or requital.

     What have I to give you back! Shak.

   9.  In  withdrawal  from  a statement, promise, or undertaking; as, he
   took back0 the offensive words.

   10. In arrear; as, to be back in one's rent. [Colloq.]
   Back  and forth, backwards and forwards; to and fro. -- To go back on,
   to  turn back from; to abandon; to betray; as, to go back on a friend;
   to go back on one's professions. [Colloq.]


   Back"a*rack (?), n. See Bacharach.


   Bac*ka"re (?), interj. Same as Baccare.


   Back"band`  (?),  n.  [2nd  back ,n.+ band.] (Saddlery) The band which
   passes over the back of a horse and holds up the shafts of a carriage.


   Back"bite`,  v.  i.  [2nd  back,  n.,  + bite] To wound by clandestine
   detraction;  to  censure  meanly  or spitefully (as absent person); to
   slander or speak evil of (one absent). Spenser.


   Back"bite`, v. i. To censure or revile the absent.

     They are arrant knaves, and will backbite. Shak.


   Back"bit`er  (?),  n.  One  who  backbites;  a  secret  calumniator or


   Back"bit`ing (?), n. Secret slander; detraction.

     Backbiting, and bearing of false witness. Piers Plowman.


   Back"board` (?), n. [2nd back, n. + board.]

   1. A board which supports the back wen one is sitting;

     NOTE: specifically, the board athwart the after part of a boat.

   2. A board serving as the back part of anything, as of a wagon.

   3. A thin stuff used for the backs of framed pictures, mirrors, etc.

   4.  A  board attached to the rim of a water wheel to prevent the water
   from running off the floats or paddies into the interior of the wheel.
   W. Nicholson.

   5.  A  board  worn  across  the  back to give erectness to the figure.


   Back"bond`  (?),  n.  [Back,  adv.  + bond.] (Scots Law) An instrument
   which,  in  conjunction  with  another making an absolute disposition,
   constitutes a trust.


   Back"bone", n. [2d back,n.+ bone. ]

   1.  The  column of bones in the back which sustains and gives firmness
   to the frame; the spine; the vertebral or spinal column.

   2. Anything like , or serving the purpose of, a backbone.

     The lofty mountains on the north side compose the granitic axis, or
     backbone of the country. Darwin.

     We have now come to the backbone of our subject. Earle.

   3. Firmness; moral principle; steadfastness.

     Shelley's thought never had any backbone. Shairp.

   To  the  backbone, through and through; thoroughly; entirely. "Staunch
   to the backbone." Lord Lytton.
   Back"boned" (?), a. Vertebrate. 


   Back"cast`   (?),   n.  [Back,  adv.+  cast.]  Anything  which  brings
   misfortune  upon  one, or causes failure in an effort or enterprise; a
   reverse. [Scot.]

                                   Back door

   Back"  door"  (?).  A  door  in the back part of a building; hence, an
   indirect way. Atterbury.


   Back"door",  a.  Acting  from  behind  and in concealment; as backdoor


   Back"down`  (?),  n.  A  receding  or giving up; a complete surrender.


   Backed  (?),  a.  Having  a  back;  fitted  with  a back; as, a backed
   electrotype  or  stereotype  plate.  Used  in  composition; as, broad-
   backed; hump-backed.


   Back"er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or that which, backs; especially one who
   backs a person or thing in a contest.


   Back"fall`  (?),  n. [2nd back ,n. + fall] A fall or throw on the back
   in wrestling.


   Back"friend`  (?), n. [Back,n.or adv. + friend] A secret enemy. [Obs.]


   Back"gam`mon  (?), n. [Origin unknown; perhaps fr.Dan. bakke tray + E.
   game; or very likely the first part is from E.back, adv., and the game
   is so called because the men are often set back.] A game of chance and
   skill,  played by two persons on a "board" marked off into twenty-four
   spaces  called "points". Each player has fifteen pieces, or "men", the
   movements  of  which  from  point  to point are determined by throwing
   dice.  Formerly  called tables. Backgammon board , a board for playing
   backgammon,  often  made  in  the form of two rectangular trays hinged
   together, each tray containing two "tables".


   Back"gam`mon,  v.  i. In the game of backgammon, to beat by ending the
   game before the loser is clear of his first "table".


   Back"ground` (?), n. [Back, a. + ground.]

   1. Ground in the rear or behind, or in the distance, as opposed to the
   foreground, or the ground in front.

   2. (Paint.) The space which is behind and subordinate to a portrait or
   group of figures.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e di stance in  a  pi cture is usually divided into
     foreground, middle distance, and background.


   3. Anything behind, serving as a foil; as, the statue had a background
   of red hangings.

   4. A place in obscurity or retirement, or out of sight.

     I  fancy there was a background of grinding and waiting before Miss
     Torry  could  produce  this highly finished . . . performance. Mrs.

     A husband somewhere in the background. Thackeray.


   Back"hand` (?), n. [Back, adv. + hand.] A kind of handwriting in which
   the downward slope of the letters is from left to right.


   Back"hand`, a.

   1. Sloping from left to right; -- said of handwriting.

   2. Backhanded; indirect; oblique. [R.]


   Back"hand`ed, a.

   1. With the hand turned backward; as, a backhanded blow.

   2.   Indirect;   awkward;   insincere;  sarcastic;  as,  a  backhanded

   3. Turned back, or inclining to the left; as, a backhanded letters.


   Back"hand`ed*ness,   n.  State  of  being  backhanded;  the  using  of
   backhanded or indirect methods.


   Back"hand`er (?), n. A backhanded blow.


   Back"house`  (?),  n.  [Back,  a. + house.] A building behind the main
   building. Specifically: A privy; a necessary.


   Back"ing, n.

   1.  The  act  of  moving  backward,  or  of putting or moving anything

   2.  That  which  is  behind,  and forms the back of, anything, usually
   giving strength or stability.

   3. Support or aid given to a person or cause.

   4.  (Bookbinding)  The  preparation  of  the back of a book with glue,
   etc., before putting on the cover.


   Back"joint`  (?),  n. [Back , a. or adv. + joint.] (Arch.) A rebate or
   chase in masonry left to receive a permanent slab or other filling.


   Back"lash`  (?), n. [Back , adv. + lash.] (Mech.) The distance through
   which  one  part of connected machinery, as a wheel, piston, or screw,
   can  be  moved  without  moving  the  connected  parts, resulting from
   looseness  in fitting or from wear; also, the jarring or reflex motion
   caused  in  badly fitting machinery by irregularities in velocity or a
   reverse of motion.


   Back"less, a. Without a back.


   Back"log` (?), n. [Back, a. + log.] A large stick of wood, forming the
   of a fire on the hearth. [U.S.]

     There  was  first a backlog, from fifteen to four and twenty inches
     in  diameter  and  five  feet  long,  imbedded  in the ashes. S. G.

                             Backpiece, Backplate

   Back"piece` (?), Back"plate` (?), n. [Back,n.or a. + piece, plate. ] A
   piece,  or plate which forms the back of anything, or which covers the
   back; armor for the back. <-- p. 111 -->

                               Backrack, Backrag

   Back"rack (?), Back"rag (?), n. See Bacharach.


   Backs  (?),  n.  pl.  Among leather dealers, the thickest and stoutest
   tanned hides.


   Back"saw`  (?),  n.  [2d  back,n.+  saw.] A saw (as a tenon saw) whose
   blade is stiffened by an added metallic back.


   Back"set` (?), n. [Back, adv. + set.]

   1. A check; a relapse; a discouragement; a setback.

   2. Whatever is thrown back in its course, as water.

     Slackwater, or the backset caused by the overflow. Harper's Mag.


   Back"set`,  v.  i. To plow again, in the fall; -- said of prairie land
   broken up in the spring. [Western U.S.]


   Back"set"tler  (?), n. [Back, a. + settler.] One living in the back or
   outlying districts of a community.

     The English backsettlers of Leinster and Munster. Macaulay.

                             Backsheesh, Backshish

   Back"sheesh`,   Back"shish`   (?),   n.   [Pers.   bakhsh\'c6sh,   fr.
   bakhsh\'c6dan to give.] In Egypt and the Turkish empire, a gratuity; a


   Back"side` (?), n. [Back, a. + side. ] The hinder part, posteriors, or
   rump of a person or animal.

     NOTE: &hand; Backside (one word) was formerly used of the rear part
     or side of any thing or place, but in such senses is now two words.


   Back"sight`  (?), n. [Back, adv. + sight. ] (Surv.) The reading of the
   leveling  staff in its unchanged position when the leveling instrument
   has  been  taken  to  a  new position; a sight directed backwards to a
   station previously occupied. Cf. Foresight, n., 3.


   Back`slide"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  Backslid  (?); p.p. Backslidden (?),
   Backslid;  p.  pr.  &  vb.  n. Backsliding. ] [Back , adv.+ slide.] To
   slide  back;  to  fall  away;  esp. to abandon gradually the faith and
   practice of a religion that has been professed.


   Back"slid"er (?), n. One who backslides.


   Back"slid"ing,  a.  Slipping  back;  falling  back  into sin or error;

     Turn, O backsliding children, saith the Lord. Jer. iii. 14.


   Back"slid"ing,  n. The act of one who backslides; abandonment of faith
   or duty.

     Our backslidings are many. Jer. xiv. 7.


   Back"staff`  (?),  n.  An  instrument  formerly  used  for  taking the
   altitude  of  the  heavenly bodies, but now superseded by the quadrant
   and  sextant; -- so called because the observer turned his back to the
   body observed.

                                  Back stairs

   Back"  stairs`.  Stairs  in the back part of a house, as distinguished
   from the front stairs; hence, a private or indirect way.

                             Backstairs, Backstair

   Back"stairs`,  Back"stair`,  a. Private; indirect; secret; intriguing;
   as if finding access by the back stairs.

     A backstairs influence. Burke.

     Female caprice and backstairs influence. Trevelyan.


   Back"stay` (?), n. [Back, a. orn.+ stay.]

   1. (Naut.) A rope or stay extending from the masthead to the side of a
   ship,  slanting  a little aft, to assist the shrouds in supporting the
   mast. [ Often used in the plural.]

   2. A rope or strap used to prevent excessive forward motion.


   Back"ster (?), n. [See Baxter.] A backer. [Obs.]


   Back"stitch`  (?),  n. [Back, adv. + stitch.] A stitch made by setting
   the  needle back of the end of the last stitch, and bringing it out in
   front of the end.


   Back"stitch`,  v.  i.  To  sew  with backstitches; as, to backstitch a


   Back"stress (?), n. A female baker. [Obs.]


   Back"sword` (?), n. [2d back,n.+ sword.]

   1. A sword with one sharp edge.

   2.  In  England,  a  stick  with  a  basket  handle,  used  in  rustic
   amusements;  also,  the  game  in which the stick is used. Also called
   singlestick. Halliwell.

                              Backward, Backwards

   Back"ward (?), Back"wards (?), adv. [Back, adv. + -ward.]

   1. With the back in advance or foremost; as, to ride backward.

   2. Toward the back; toward the rear; as, to throw the arms backward.

   3. On the back, or with the back downward.

     Thou wilt fall backward. Shak.

   4. Toward, or in, past time or events; ago.

     Some reigns backward. Locke.

   5. By way of reflection; reflexively. Sir J. Davies.

   6.  From  a  better  to  a  worse  state, as from honor to shame, from
   religion to sin.

     The work went backward. Dryden.

   7. In a contrary or reverse manner, way, or direction; contrarily; as,
   to read backwards.

     We might have . . . beat them backward home. Shak.


   Back"ward, a.

   1. Directed to the back or rear; as, backward glances.

   2. Unwilling; averse; reluctant; hesitating; loath.

     For wiser brutes were backward to be slaves. Pope.

   3.  Not  well  advanced  in learning; not quick of apprehension; dull;
   inapt; as, a backward child. "The backward learner." South.

   4. Late or behindhand; as, a backward season.

   5.  Not  advanced  in  civilization;  undeveloped;  as, the country or
   region is in a backward state.

   6. Already past or gone; bygone. [R.]

     And flies unconscious o'er each backward year. Byron.


   Back"ward, n. The state behind or past. [Obs.]

     In the dark backward and abysm of time. Shak.


   Back"ward, v. i. To keep back; to hinder. [Obs.]


   Back`war*da"tion  (?),  n.  [Backward, v.i.+ -ation.] (Stock Exchange)
   The  seller's  postponement  of  delivery of stock or shares, with the
   consent  of  the  buyer,  upon  payment of a premium to the latter; --
   also, the premium so paid. See Contango. Biddle.


   Back"ward*ly (?), adv.

   1. Reluctantly; slowly; aversely. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

   2. Perversely; ill.[Obs.]

     And does he think so backwardly of me? Shak.


   Back"ward*ness, n. The state of being backward.


   Back"wash` (?), v. i. To clean the oil from (wood) after combing.


   Back"wa`ter (?), n. [Back, a. or adv. + -ward. ]

   1.  Water  turned  back  in  its course by an obstruction, an opposing
   current  , or the flow of the tide, as in a sewer or river channel, or
   across a river bar.

   2.  An  accumulation  of water overflowing the low lands, caused by an

   3.  Water thrown back by the turning of a waterwheel, or by the paddle
   wheels of a steamer.


   Back"woods"  (?),  n.  pl.  [Back,  a. + woods.] The forests or partly
   cleared grounds on the frontiers.


   Back"woods"man (?), n.; pl. Backwoodsmen (. A men living in the forest
   in  or beyond the new settlements, especially on the western frontiers
   of the older portions of the United States. Fisher Ames.


   Back"worm`  (?),  n.  [2d  back,n.+  worm.  ]  A disease of hawks. See
   Filanders. Wright.


   Ba"con  (?),  n.  [OF.  bacon, fr. OHG. bacho, bahho, flitch of bacon,
   ham; akin to E. back. Cf. Back the back side.] The back and sides of a
   pig  salted  and smoked; formerly, the flesh of a pig salted or fresh.
   Bacon   beetle  (Zo\'94l.),  a  beetle  (Dermestes  lardarius)  which,
   especially  in the larval state, feeds upon bacon, woolens, furs, etc.
   See  Dermestes. -- To save one's bacon, to save one's self or property
   from harm or less. [Colloq.]


   Ba*co"ni*an  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Lord Bacon, or to his system
   of philosophy. Baconian method, the inductive method. See Induction.


   Bac*te"ri*a (?), n.p. See Bacterium.


   Bac*te"ri*al (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to bacteria.


   Bac*te"ri*ci`dal (?), a. Destructive of bacteria.


   Bac*te"ri*cide  (?),  n. [Bacterium + L. caedere to kill] (Biol.) Same
   as Germicide.


   Bac*te"ri*o*log`ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to bacteriology; as,
   bacteriological studies.


   Bac*te"ri*ol`o*gist, n. One skilled in bacteriology.


   Bac*te"ri*ol`o*gy  (?),  n.  [Bacterium + -logy. ] (Biol.) The science
   relating to bacteria.


   Bac*te`ri*o*scop"ic  (?),  a. (Biol.) Relating to bacterioscopy; as, a
   bacterioscopic examination.


   Bac*te`ri*os"co*pist  (?),  n.  (Biol.)  One skilled in bacterioscopic


   Bac*te`ri*os"co*py   (?),   n.  [Bacterium  +  -scopy  ]  (Biol.)  The
   application  of  a  knowledge  of  bacteria  for  their  detection and
   identification, as in the examination of polluted water.


   Bac*te"ri*um  (?), n.; pl. Bacteria (#). [NL., fr. Gr., , a staff: cf.
   F.  bact\'82rie. ] (Biol.) A microscopic vegetable organism, belonging
   to  the  class  Alg\'91,  usually  in  the  form  of a jointed rodlike
   filament,  and  found  in  putrefying  organic infusions. Bacteria are
   destitute   of  chlorophyll,  and  are  the  smallest  of  microscopic
   organisms.  They are very widely diffused in nature, and multiply with
   marvelous rapidity, both by fission and by spores. Certain species are
   active  agents in fermentation, while others appear to be the cause of
   certain infectious diseases. See Bacillus.

                            Bacteroid, Bacteroidal

   Bac"te*roid  (?),  Bac`te*roid"al  (?), a. [Bacterium + -oid.] (Biol.)
   Resembling bacteria; as, bacteroid particles.


   Bac"tri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Bactria in Asia. -- n. A native
   of Bactria. Bactrian camel, the two-humped camel.


   Bac"ule (?), n. [F.] (Fort.) See Bascule.


   Bac"u*line  (?), a. [L. baculum staff.] Of or pertaining to the rod or
   punishment with the rod.


   Bac"u*lite  (?),  n.  [L.  baculune  stick,  staff;  cf. F. baculite.]
   (Paleon.) A cephalopod of the extinct genus Baculites, found fossil in
   the Cretaceous rocks. It is like an uncoiled ammonite.


   Bac`u*lom"e*try  (?),  n.  [L.  baculum staff + -metry] Measurement of
   distance or altitude by a staff or staffs.


   Bad (?), imp. of Bid. Bade. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Bad (?), a. [Compar. Worse (?); superl. Worst (?). ] [Probably fr. AS.
   b\'91ddel  hermaphrodite;  cf.  b\'91dling effeminate fellow.] Wanting
   good   qualities,  whether  physical  or  moral;  injurious,  hurtful,
   inconvenient,  offensive,  painful,  unfavorable, or defective, either
   physically or morally; evil; vicious; wicked; -- the opposite of good;
   as a bad man; bad conduct; bad habits; bad soil; bad health; bad crop;
   bad news.

     NOTE: Sometimes used substantively.

     The strong antipathy of good to bad. Pope.

   Syn. -- Pernicious; deleterious; noxious; baneful; injurious; hurtful;
   evil; vile; wretched; corrupt; wicked; vicious; imperfect.


   Bad"der (?), compar. of Bad, a. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bad"der*locks   (?),   n.  [Perh.  for  Balderlocks,  fr.  Balder  the
   Scandinavian  deity.]  (Bot.) A large black seaweed (Alaria esculenta)
   sometimes  eaten  in  Europe;  --  also called murlins, honeyware, and


   Bad"dish, a. Somewhat bad; inferior. Jeffrey.


   Bade (?). A form of the pat tense of Bid.


   Badge (?), n. [LL. bagea, bagia, sign, prob. of German origin; cf. AS.
   be\'a0g,  be\'a0h,  bracelet,  collar,  crown, OS b in comp., AS. b to
   bow, bend, G. biegen. See Bow to bend.]

   1. A distinctive mark, token, sign, or cognizance, worn on the person;
   as,  the badge of a society; the badge of a policeman. "Tax gatherers,
   recognized by their official badges. " Prescott.

   2. Something characteristic; a mark; a token.

     Sweet mercy is nobility's true badge. Shak.

   3.  (Naut.)  A  carved ornament on the stern of a vessel, containing a
   window or the representation of one.


   Badge (?), v. t. To mark or distinguish with a badge.


   Badge"less, a. Having no badge. Bp. Hall.


   Badg"er  (?),  n. [Of uncertain origin; perh. fr. an old verb badge to
   lay  up  provisions  to  sell  again.] An itinerant licensed dealer in
   commodities  used  for food; a hawker; a huckster; -- formerly applied
   especially  to  one  who  bought  grain  in  one  place and sold it in
   another. [Now dialectic, Eng.]


   Badg"er,  n. [OE. bageard, prob. fr. badge + -ard, in reference to the
   white mark on its forehead. See Badge,n.]

   1.  A  carnivorous quadruped of the genus Meles or of an allied genus.
   It  is  a  burrowing animal, with short, thick legs, and long claws on
   the  fore feet. One species (M. vulgaris), called also brock, inhabits
   the  north  of  Europe and Asia; another species (Taxidea Americana or
   Labradorica) inhabits the northern parts of North America. See Teledu.

   2. A brush made of badgers' hair, used by artists.
   Badger dog. (Zo\'94l.) See Dachshund.


   Badg"er,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Badgered (p. pr. & vb. n. Badgering.]
   [For sense 1, see 2d Badger; for 2, see 1st Badger.]

   1.  To  tease  or annoy, as a badger when baited; to worry or irritate

   2. To beat down; to cheapen; to barter; to bargain.


   Badg"er*er (?), n.

   1. One who badgers.

   2. A kind of dog used in badger baiting.


   Badg"er*ing, n.

   1. The act of one who badgers.

   2.  The  practice of buying wheat and other kinds of food in one place
   and selling them in another for a profit. [Prov. Eng.]


   Badg"er-legged`  (?),  a. Having legs of unequal length, as the badger
   was thought to have. Shak.


   Bad`i*a"ga  (?),  n.  [Russ. badiaga.] (Zo\'94l.) A fresh-water sponge
   (Spongilla),  common  in  the  north of Europe, the powder of which is
   used to take away the livid marks of bruises.


   Ba"di*an  (?),  n. [F.badiane, fr. Per. b\'bedi\'ben anise.] (Bot.) An
   evergreen  Chinese  shrub  of the Magnolia family (Illicium anisatum),
   and its aromatic seeds; Chinese anise; star anise.


   Ba*di"geon  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  cement  or  paste  (as  of  plaster and
   freestone,  or  of  sawdust  and  glue  or  lime)  used  by sculptors,
   builders,  and workers in wood or stone, to fill holes, cover defects,
   or finish a surface.


   Ba`di`nage" (?), n. [F., fr. badiner to joke, OF. to trifle, be silly,
   fr. badin silly.] Playful raillery; banter. "He . . . indulged himself
   only in an elegant badinage." Warburton.

                                   Bad lands

   Bad"  lands"  (?).  Barren  regions,  especially in the western United
   States,  where  horizontal  strata (Tertiary deposits) have been often
   eroded into fantastic forms, and much intersected by canons, and where
   lack of wood, water, and forage increases the difficulty of traversing
   the  country,  whence  the  name,  first given by the Canadian French,
   Mauvaises Terres (bad lands).


   Bad"ly,  adv.  In  a  bad  manner;  poorly;  not  well;  unskillfully;
   imperfectly;   unfortunately;   grievously;   so  as  to  cause  harm;
   disagreeably; seriously.

     NOTE: &hand; Badly is often used colloquially for very much or very
     greatly, with words signifying to want or need.


   Bad"min*ton (?), n. [From the name of the seat of the Duke of Beaufort
   in England.]

   1. A game, similar to lawn tennis, played with shuttlecocks.

   2. A preparation of claret, spiced and sweetened.


   Bad"ness, n. The state of being bad.


   B\'91"no*mere  (?),  n.  [Gr.  to walk + -mere.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   somites (arthromeres) that make up the thorax of Arthropods. Packard.


   B\'91"no*pod  (?),  n. [Gr. -pod.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the thoracic legs
   of Arthropods.


   B\'91"no*some  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -some  body.]  (Zo\'94l.) The thorax of
   Arthropods. Packard.


   Baff (?), n. A blow; a stroke. [Scot.] H. Miller.


   Baf"fle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Baffled (p. pr. & vb. n. Baffling (.]
   [Cf.  Lowland Scotch bauchle to treat contemptuously, bauch tasteless,
   abashed,  jaded, Icel. b\'begr uneasy, poor, or b\'begr, n., struggle,
   b\'91gja  to  push,  treat  harshly,  OF.  beffler,  beffer,  to mock,
   deceive, dial. G. b\'84ppe mouth, beffen to bark, chide.]

   1. To cause to undergo a disgraceful punishment, as a recreant knight.

     He  by  the  heels  him  hung upon a tree, And baffled so, that all
     which passed by The picture of his punishment might see. Spenser.

   2. To check by shifts and turns; to elude; to foil.

     The art that baffles time's tyrannic claim. Cowper.

   3.  To  check  by  perplexing; to disconcert, frustrate, or defeat; to
   thwart. "A baffled purpose." De Quincey.

     A suitable scripture ready to repel and baffle them all. South.

     Calculations  so difficult as to have baffled, until within a . . .
     recent period, the most enlightened nations. Prescott.

     The mere intricacy of a question should not baffle us. Locke.

   Baffling  wind  (Naut.),  one that frequently shifts from one point to
   another. Syn. -- To balk; thwart; foil; frustrate; defeat.


   Baf"fle, v. i.

   1. To practice deceit. [Obs.] Barrow.

   2.  To  struggle  against  in vain; as, a ship baffles with the winds.


   Baf"fle,  n.  A  defeat  by artifice, shifts, and turns; discomfiture.
   [R.] "A baffle to philosophy." South.


   Baf"fle*ment  (?),  n.  The  process  or  act of baffling, or of being
   baffled; frustration; check.


   Baf"fler (?), n. One who, or that which, baffles. <-- p. 112 -->


   Baf"fling   (?),  a.  Frustrating;  discomfiting;  disconcerting;  as,
   baffling  currents, winds, tasks. -- Bafflingly, adv. -- Bafflingness,


   Baft (?). n. Same as Bafta.


   Baf"ta  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Per.  baft.  woven,  wrought.] A coarse stuff,
   usually  of  cotton,  originally  made in India. Also, an imitation of
   this fabric made for export.


   Bag  (?),  n. [OE. bagge; cf. Icel. baggi, and also OF. bague, bundle,
   LL. baga.]

   1. A sack or pouch, used for holding anything; as, a bag of meal or of

   2.  A sac, or dependent gland, in animal bodies, containing some fluid
   or  other  substance;  as,  the  bag  of  poison  in the mouth of some
   serpents; the bag of a cow.

   3.  A  sort  of silken purse formerly tied about men's hair behind, by
   way of ornament. [Obs.]

   4. The quantity of game bagged.

   5.  (Com.)  A certain quantity of a commodity, such as it is customary
   to  carry  to  market in a sack; as, a bag of pepper or hops; a bag of
   Bag  and  baggage, all that belongs to one. -- To give one the bag, to
   disappoint him. [Obs.] Bunyan.


   Bag, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bagged(p. pr. & vb. n. Bagging]

   1. To put into a bag; as, to bag hops.

   2. To seize, capture, or entrap; as, to bag an army; to bag game.

   3. To furnish or load with a bag or with a well filled bag.

     A bee bagged with his honeyed venom. Dryden.


   Bag, v. i.

   1.  To  swell  or  hang  down  like a full bag; as, the skin bags from
   containing morbid matter.

   2. To swell with arrogance. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   3. To become pregnant. [Obs.] Warner. (Alb. Eng. ).


   Ba*gasse" (?), n. [F.] Sugar cane, as it


   Bag`a*telle"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  It. bagatella; cf. Prov. It. bagata
   trifle, OF. bague, Pr. bagua, bundle. See Bag, n.]

   1. A trifle; a thing of no importance.

     Rich trifles, serious bagatelles. Prior.

   2.  A  game  played  on  an  oblong board, having, at one end, cups or
   arches  into  or through which balls are to be driven by a rod held in
   the hand of the player.


   Bag"gage  (?), n. [F. bagage, from OF. bague bungle. In senses 6 and 7
   cf. F. bagasse a prostitute. See Bag, n.]

   1. The clothes, tents, utensils, and provisions of an army.

     NOTE: &hand; "T he term itself is made to apply chiefly to articles
     of clothing and to small personal effects."


   2.  The trunks, valises, satchels, etc., which a traveler carries with
   him on a journey; luggage.

     The baronet's baggage on the roof of the coach. Thackeray.

     We saw our baggage following below. Johnson.

     NOTE: &hand; The English usually call this luggage.

   3. Purulent matter. [Obs.] Barrough.

   4. Trashy talk. [Obs.] Ascham.

   5. A man of bad character. [Obs.] Holland.

   6. A woman of loose morals; a prostitute.

     A   disreputable,   daring,   laughing,   painted  French  baggage.

   7. A romping, saucy girl. [Playful] Goldsmith.

                                Baggage master

   Bag"gage  mas`ter  (?). One who has charge of the baggage at a railway
   station or upon a line of public travel. [U.S.]


   Bag"ga*ger  (?),  n.  One  who takes care of baggage; a camp follower.
   [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.


   Bag"ga*la  (?),  n.  [Ar.  "fem. of baghl a mule." Balfour.] (Naut.) A
   two-masted Arab or Indian trading vessel, used in Indian Ocean.


   Bag"gi*ly (?), adv. In a loose, baggy way.


   Bag"ging, n.

   1. Cloth or other material for bags.

   2. The act of putting anything into, or as into, a bag.

   3. The act of swelling; swelling.


   Bag"ging,  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.] Reaping peas, beans, wheat, etc.,
   with a chopping stroke. [Eng.]


   Bag"gy (?), a. Resembling a bag; loose or puffed out, or pendent, like
   a bag; flabby; as, baggy trousers; baggy cheeks.


   Bag"man  (?), n.; pl. Bagmen (. A commercial traveler; one employed to
   solicit orders for manufacturers and tradesmen. Thackeray.

                                    Bag net

   Bag" net` (?). A bag-shaped net for catching fish.


   Bagn"io (?), n. [It. bagno, fr. L. balneum. Cf. Bain.]

   1.  A  house for bathing, sweating, etc.; -- also, in Turkey, a prison
   for slaves. [Obs.]

   2. A brothel; a stew; a house of prostitution.


   Bag"pipe  (?),  n.  A musical wind instrument, now used chiefly in the
   Highlands of Scotland.

     NOTE: &hand; It  co nsists of a leather bag, which receives the air
     by  a  tube  that  is stopped by a valve; and three sounding pipes,
     into  which the air is pressed by the performer. Two of these pipes
     produce  fixed tones, namely, the bass, or key tone, and its fifth,
     and  form together what is called the drone; the third, or chanter,
     gives the melody.


   Bag"pipe,  v. t. To make to look like a bagpipe. To bagpipe the mizzen
   (Naut.),  to lay it aback by bringing the sheet to the mizzen rigging.


   Bag"pip`er (?), n. One who plays on a bagpipe; a piper. Shak.


   Bag"reef` (?), n. [Bag + reef.] (Naut.) The lower reef of fore and aft
   sails; also, the upper reef of topsails. Ham. Nav. Encyc.


   Bague  (?),  n.  [F.,  a ring] (Arch.) The annular molding or group of
   moldings  dividing  a  long shaft or clustered column into two or more

                               Baguet, Baguette

   Ba*guet",  Ba*guette"  (?), n. [F. baguette, prop. a rodbacchetta, fr.
   L. baculum, baculu stick, staff.]

   1. (Arch.) A small molding, like the astragal, but smaller; a bead.

   2.  (Zo\'94l) One of the minute bodies seen in the divided nucleoli of
   some Infusoria after conjugation.


   Bag"wig"  (?),  n. A wig, in use in the 18th century, with the hair at
   the back of the head in a bag.


   Bag"worm`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of several lepidopterous insects
   which  construct, in the larval state, a baglike case which they carry
   about  for  protection. One species (Plat\'d2ceticus Gloveri) feeds on
   the orange tree. See Basket worm.


   Bah (?), interj. An exclamation expressive of extreme contempt.

     Twenty-five  years  ago  the  vile  ejaculation,  Bah!  was utterly
     unknown to the English public. De Quincey.


   Ba*har"  (?),  n. [Ar. bah\'ber, from bahara to charge with a load.] A
   weight  used in certain parts of the East Indies, varying considerably
   in different localities, the range being from 223 to 625 pounds.


   Baigne  (?), v. i. [F. baigner to bathe, fr. L. balneum bath.] To soak
   or drench. [Obs.]


   Bail  (?), n. [F. baille a bucket, pail; cf. LL. bacula, dim. of bacca
   a  sort  of  vessel. Cf. Bac.] A bucket or scoop used in bailing water
   out of a boat. [Obs.]

     The bail of a canoe . . . made of a human skull. Capt. Cook.


   Bail, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bailed (p. pr. & vb. n. Bailing.]

   1.  To  lade; to dip and throw; -- usually with out; as, to bail water
   out of a boat.

     Buckets . . . to bail out the water. Capt. J. Smith.

   2.  To  dip  or  lade  water  from;  --  often  with  out  to  express
   completeness; as, to bail a boat.

     By the help of a small bucket and our hats we bailed her out. R. H.
     Dana, Jr.


   Bail,  v.  [OF. bailler to give, to deliver, fr. L. bajulare to bear a
   burden, keep in custody, fr. bajulus

   1. To deliver; to release. [Obs.]

     Ne none there was to rescue her, ne none to bail. Spenser.

   2.  (Law)  (a) To set free, or deliver from arrest, or out of custody,
   on  the  undertaking  of  some other person or persons that he or they
   will be responsible for the appearance, at a certain day and place, of
   the person bailed.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e wo rd is applied to the magistrate or the surety.
     The magistrate bails (but admits to bail is commoner) a man when he
     liberates  him  from  arrest  or  imprisonment upon bond given with
     sureties.  The  surety  bails a person when he procures his release
     from arrest by giving bond for his appearance.

   Blackstone. (b) To deliver, as goods in trust, for some special object
   or  purpose,  upon  a  contract,  expressed or implied, that the trust
   shall  be  faithfully  executed  on  the part of the bailee, or person
   intrusted; as, to bail cloth to a tailor to be made into a garment; to
   bail goods to a carrier. Blackstone. Kent.


   Bail,  n.  [OF. bail guardian, administrator, fr. L. bajulus. See Bail
   to deliver.]

   1. Custody; keeping. [Obs.]

     Silly Faunus now within their bail. Spenser.

   2.  (Law)  (a)  The  person  or  persons  who procure the release of a
   prisoner  from  the  custody  of the officer, or from imprisonment, by
   becoming surely for his appearance in court.

     The bail must be real, substantial bondsmen. Blackstone.

     A. and B. were bail to the arrest in a suit at law. Kent.

   (b)  The  security  given for the appearance of a prisoner in order to
   obtain  his release from custody of the officer; as, the man is out on
   bail; to go bail for any one.

     Excessive bail ought not to be required. Blackstone.


   Bail,  n.  [OE.  beyl;  cf.  Dan. b\'94ile an bending, ring, hoop, Sw.
   b\'94gel,  bygel,  and  Icel.  beyla hump, swelling, akin to E. bow to

   1.  The  arched  handle  of a kettle, pail, or similar vessel, usually
   movable. Forby.

   2.  A  half hoop for supporting the cover of a carrier's wagon, awning
   of a boat, etc.


   Bail, n. [OF. bail, baille. See Bailey.]

   1.  (Usually  pl.) A line of palisades serving as an exterior defense.
   [Written also bayle.] [Obs.]

   2. The outer wall of a feudal castle. Hence: The space inclosed by it;
   the outer court. Holinshed.

   3. A certain limit within a forest. [Eng.]

   4. A division for the stalls of an open stable.

   5.  (Cricket)  The  top  or  cross  piece ( or either of the two cross
   pieces) of the wicket.


   Bail"a*ble (?), a.

   1.  Having the right or privilege of being admitted to bail, upon bond
   with sureties; -- used of persons. "He's bailable, I'm sure." Ford.

   2. Admitting of bail; as, a bailable offense.

   3. That can be delivered in trust; as, bailable goods.

                                   Bail bond

   Bail"  bond`  (?).  (Law) (a) A bond or obligation given by a prisoner
   and  his  surety, to insure the prisoner's appearance in court, at the
   return  of  the writ. (b) Special bail in court to abide the judgment.


   Bail`ee"  (?),  n.  [OF.  baill\'82,  p.p.  of  bailler.  See  Bail to
   deliver.]  (Law)  The person to whom goods are committed in trust, and
   who  has  a temporary possession and a qualified property in them, for
   the purposes of the trust. Blackstone.

     NOTE: &hand; In  penal statutes the word includes those who receive
     goods for another in good faith.



   Bail"er (?), n. (Law) See Bailor.


   Bail"er, n.

   1. One who bails or lades.

   2.  A  utensil,  as  a  bucket  or cup, used in bailing; a machine for
   bailing water out of a pit.


   Bai"ley  (?),  n.  [The  same  word as bail line of palisades; cf. LL.
   ballium  bailey,  OF.  bail,  baille, a palisade, baillier to inclose,

   1. The outer wall of a feudal castle. [Obs.]

   2.  The  space  immediately  within  the  outer  wall  of  a castle or
   fortress. [Obs.]

   3.  A prison or court of justice; -- used in certain proper names; as,
   the  Old  Bailey  in London; the New Bailey in Manchester. [Eng.] Oxf.


   Bail"ie  (?),  n.  [See Bailiff.] An officer in Scotland, whose office
   formerly  corresponded to that of sheriff, but now corresponds to that
   of an English alderman.


   Bail"iff  (?), n. [OF. baillif, F. bailli, custodiabajulus porter. See
   Bail to deliver.]

   1. Originally, a person put in charge of something especially, a chief
   officer,  magistrate,  or  keeper,  as  of a county, town, hundred, or
   castle; one to whom power Abbott.

     Lausanne  is  under the canton of Berne, governed by a bailiff sent
     every three years from the senate. Addison.

   2.  (Eng.  Law) A sheriff's deputy, appointed to make arrests, collect
   fines, summon juries, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; In American law the term bailiff is seldom used except
     sometimes  to  signify a sheriff's officer or constable, or a party
     liable  to  account  to  another  for  the rent and profits of real


   3.  An  overseer  or under steward of an estate, who directs husbandry
   operations, collects rents, etc. [Eng.]


   Bail"iff*wick (?), n. See Bailiwick. [Obs.]


   Bail"i*wick  (?),  n.  [Bailie,  bailiff  + wick a village.] (Law) The
   precincts  within  which  a  bailiff has jurisdiction; the limits of a
   bailiff's authority.


   Bail"lie (?), n.

   1. Bailiff. [Obs.]

   2. Same as Bailie. [Scot.]


   Bail"ment (?), n.

   1. (Law) The action of bailing a person accused.

     Bailment  .  .  .  is the saving or delivery of a man out of prison
     before he hath satisfied the law. Dalton.

   2.  (Law)  A  delivery  of  goods or money by one person to another in
   trust,  for  some  special  purpose,  upon  a  contract,  expressed or
   implied, that the trust shall be faithfully executed. Blackstone.

     NOTE: &hand; In   a   ge  neral se nse it  is  so metimes us ed as 
     comprehending all duties in respect to property.



   Bail`or"  (?),  n. (Law) One who delivers goods or money to another in


   Bail"piece` (?), n. (Law) A piece of parchment, or paper, containing a
   recognizance or bail bond.


   Bain  (?), n. [F. bain, fr. L. balneum. Cf. Bagnio.] A bath; a bagnio.
   [Obs.] Holland.


   Bain`-ma`rie"  (?),  n.  [F.]  A vessel for holding hot water in which
   another  vessel  may be heated without scorching its contents; -- used
   for warming or preparing food or pharmaceutical preparations.


   Bai"ram  (?),  n.  [Turk.  ba\'8br\'bem.]  The  name of two Mohammedan
   festivals,  of  which  one  is  held  at  the close of the fast called
   Ramadan, and the other seventy days after the fast.


   Bairn  (?),  n.  [Scot.  bairn,  AS. bearn, fr. beran to bear; akin to
   Icel., OS., &Goth. barn. See Bear to support.] A child. [Scot. & Prov.

     Has he not well provided for the bairn ! Beau. & Fl.


   Baise"mains`  (?),  n.  pl.  [F.,  fr.  baiser to kiss + mains hands.]
   Respects; compliments. [Obs.]


   Bait (?), n. [Icel. beita food, beit pasture, akin to AS. b\'bet food,
   Sw. bete. See Bait, v. i.]

   1.  Any substance, esp. food, used in catching fish, or other animals,
   by alluring them to a hook, snare, inclosure, or net.

   2. Anything which allures; a lure; enticement; temptation. Fairfax.

   3.  A  portion  of food or drink, as a refreshment taken on a journey;
   also, a stop for rest and refreshment.

   4. A light or hasty luncheon.
   Bait bug (Zo\'94l), a crustacean of the genus Hippa found burrowing in
   sandy beaches. See Anomura.


   Bait,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Baited; p. pr. & vb. n. Baiting.] [OE.
   baiten,  beit,  to  feed,  harass,  fr. Icel. beita, orig. to cause to
   bite, fr. b\'c6ta. &root;87. See Bite.]

   1. To provoke and harass; esp., to harass or torment for sport; as, to
   bait a bear with dogs; to bait a bull.

   2.  To give a portion of food and drink to, upon the road; as, to bait
   horses. Holland.

   3. To furnish or cover with bait, as a trap or hook.

     A crooked pin . . . bailed with a vile earthworm. W. Irving.


   Bait,  v.  i.  To  stop  to  take  a  portion  of  food  and drink for
   refreshment of one's self or one's beasts, on a journey.

     Evil news rides post, while good news baits. Milton.

     My lord's coach conveyed me to Bury, and thence baiting aEvelyn.


   Bait,  v.  i. [F. battre de l'aile (or des ailes), to flap oBatter, v.
   i.] To flap the wings; to flutter as if to fly; or to hover, as a hawk
   when she stoops to her prey. "Kites that bait and beat." Shak.


   Bait"er (?), n. One who baits; a tormentor.


   Baize  (?),  n.  [For bayes, pl. fr. OF. baie; cf. F. bai bay-colored.
   See  Bay  a  color.] A coarse woolen stuff with a long nap; -- usually
   dyed in plain colors.

     A new black baize waistcoat lined with silk. Pepys.


   Ba*joc"co  (?), n. [It., fr. bajo brown, bay, from its color.] A small
   cooper  coin  formerly current in the Roman States, worth about a cent
   and a half.


   Bake  (?), v. t. [imp.& p. p. Baked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Baking.] [AS.
   bacan;  akin  to D. bakken, OHG. bacchan, G. backen, Icel. & Sw. baca,
   Dan. bage, Gr.

   1. To prepare, as food, by cooking in a dry heat, either in an oven or
   under  coals,  or  on  heated stone or metal; as, to bake bread, meat,

     NOTE: &hand; Ba king is  the term usually applied to that method of
     cooking  which  exhausts the moisture in food more than roasting or
     broiling;  but  the  distinction  of  meaning  between roasting and
     baking is not always observed.

   2.  To  dry  or  harden  (anything) by subjecting to heat, as, to bake
   bricks; the sun bakes the ground.

   3. To harden by cold.

     The earth . . . is baked with frost. Shak.

     They bake their sides upon the cold, hard stone. Spenser.


   Bake, v. i.

   1.  To  do  the  work  of baking something; as, she brews, washes, and
   bakes. Shak.

   2.  To  be baked; to become dry and hard in heat; as, the bread bakes;
   the ground bakes in the hot sun.


   Bake, n. The process, or result, of baking.


   Bake"house`  (?), n. [AS. b\'91ch. See Bak, v. i., and House.] A house
   for baking; a bakery. <-- p. 113 -->

                             Bakemeat, Baked-meat

   Bake"meat`  (?),  Baked"-meat`  (?), n. A pie; baked food. [Obs.] Gen.
   xl. 17. Shak.


   Bak"en (?), p. p. of Bake. [Obs. or. Archaic]


   Bak"er (?), n. [AS. b\'91cere. See Bake, v. i.]

   1. One whose business it is to bake bread, biscuit, etc.

   2. A portable oven in which baking is done. [U.S.]
   A  baker's  dozen,  thirteen.  -- Baker foot, a distorted foot. [Obs.]
   Jer.  Taylor.  -- Baker's itch, a rash on the back of the hand, caused
   by   the   irritating  properties  of  yeast.  --  Baker's  salt,  the
   subcarbonate  of  ammonia,  sometimes  used instead of soda, in making


   Bak"er-legged` (?), a. Having legs that bend inward at the knees.


   Bak"er*y (?), n.

   1. The trade of a baker. [R.]

   2. The place for baking bread; a bakehouse.


   Bak"ing, n.

   1.  The  act  or  process  of  cooking  in  an  oven, or of drying and
   hardening by heat or cold.

   2. The quantity baked at once; a batch; as, a baking of bread.
   Baking  powder, a substitute for yeast, usually consisting of an acid,
   a carbonate, and a little farinaceous matter.


   Bak"ing*ly, adv. In a hot or baking manner.


   Bak"is*tre (?), n. [See Baxter.] A baker. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                              Baksheesh, Bakshish

   Bak"sheesh`, Bak"shish` (?), n. Same as Backsheesh.


   Ba"laam  (?),  n.  A paragraph describing something wonderful, used to
   fill out a newspaper column; -- an allusion to the miracle of Balaam's
   ass  speaking.  Numb.  xxii. 30. [Cant] Balaam basket or box (Print.),
   the receptacle for rejected articles. Blackw. Mag.


   Bal"a*chong  (?),  n.  [Malay  b\'belach\'ben.]  A condiment formed of
   small  fishes  or  shrimps,  pounded up with salt and spices, and then
   dried. It is much esteemed in China.


   Bal`\'91*noi"de*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  L.  balaena  whale  + -oid.]
   (Zo\'94l) A division of the Cetacea, including the right whale and all
   other whales having the mouth fringed with baleen. See Baleen.


   Bal"ance  (?),  n.  [OE. balaunce, F. balance, fr. L. bilan, bilancis,
   having two scales; bis twice (akin to E. two) + lanx plate, scale.]

   1. An apparatus for weighing.

     NOTE: &hand; In  its simplest form, a balance consists of a beam or
     lever  supported exactly in the middle, having two scales or basins
     of  equal  weight  suspended  from its extremities. Another form is
     that  of the Roman balance, our steelyard, consisting of a lever or
     beam,  suspended  near one of its extremities, on the longer arm of
     which  a counterpoise slides. The name is also given to other forms
     of  apparatus for weighing bodies, as to the combinations of levers
     making  up platform scales; and even to devices for weighing by the
     elasticity of a spring.

   2. Act of weighing mentally; comparison; estimate.

     A fair balance of the advantages on either side. Atterbury.

   3. Equipoise between the weights in opposite scales.

   4.  The  state  of  being  in equipoise; equilibrium; even adjustment;

     And hung a bottle on each side To make his balance true. Cowper.

     The order and balance of the country were destroyed. Buckle.

     English workmen completely lose their balance. J. S. Mill.

   5.  An equality between the sums total of the two sides of an account;
   as,  to  bring  one's  accounts  to  a balance; -- also, the excess on
   either  side;  as,  the  balance  of  an  account.  " A balance at the
   banker's. " Thackeray.

     I  still  think  the  balance  of  probabilities  leans towards the
     account given in the text. J. Peile.

   6.  (Horol.)  A  balance  wheel,  as of a watch, or clock. See Balance
   wheel (in the Vocabulary).

   7.  (Astron.) (a) The constellation Libra. (b) The seventh sign in the
   Zodiac,  called  Libra,  which  the  sun  enters  at  the  equinox  in

   8. A movement in dancing. See Balance, v. i., S.
   Balance  electrometer,  a  kind  of balance, with a poised beam, which
   indicates, by weights suspended from one arm, the mutual attraction of
   oppositely  electrified  surfaces.  Knight. -- Balance fish. (Zo\'94l)
   See  Hammerhead. -- Balance knife, a carving or table knife the handle
   of which overbalances the blade, and so keeps it from contact with the
   table.  --  Balance  of power. (Politics), such an adjustment of power
   among sovereign states that no one state is in a position to interfere
   with  the independence of the others; international equilibrium; also,
   the  ability  ( of a state or a third party within a state) to control
   the  relations between sovereign states or between dominant parties in
   a  state. -- Balance sheet (Bookkeeping), a paper showing the balances
   of  the  open  accounts  of  a business, the debit and credit balances
   footing  up  equally,  if  the  system of accounts be complete and the
   balances  correctly  taken.  --  Balance  thermometer,  a  thermometer
   mounted  as  a  balance  so  that the movement of the mercurial column
   changes  the  indication  of  the  tube. With the aid of electrical or
   mechanical  devices  adapted  to  it,  it  is  used  for the automatic
   regulation  of  the temperature of rooms warmed artificially, and as a
   fire  alarm. -- Balance of torsion. See Torsion Balance. -- Balance of
   trade  (Pol.  Econ.),  an  equilibrium between the money values of the
   exports  and  imports  of  a  country;  or  more  commonly, the amount
   required  on  one  side  or  the other to make such an equilibrium. --
   Balance  valve,  a valve whose surfaces are so arranged that the fluid
   pressure  tending  to  seat, and that tending to unseat the valve, are
   nearly  in  equilibrium; esp., a puppet valve which is made to operate
   easily  by  the admission of steam to both sides. See Puppet valve. --
   Hydrostatic  balance.  See under Hydrostatic. -- To lay in balance, to
   put  up  as  a  pledge  or  security.  [Obs.]  Chaucer. -- To strike a
   balance, to find out the difference between the debit and credit sides
   of an account.


   Bal"ance  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Balanced (p. pr. & vb. n. Balancing
   ( [From Balance, n.: cf. F. balancer. ]

   1.  To  bring to an equipoise, as the scales of a balance by adjusting
   the weights; to weigh in a balance.

   2.  To  support  on  a narrow base, so as to keep from falling; as, to
   balance a plate on the end of a cane; to balance one's self on a tight

   3.  To equal in number, weight, force, or proportion; to counterpoise,
   counterbalance, counteract, or neutralize.

     One expression . . . must check and balance another. Kent.

   4. To compare in relative force, importance, value, etc.; to estimate.

     Balance the good and evil of things. L'Estrange.

   5.  To settle and adjust, as an account; to make two accounts equal by
   paying the difference between them.

     I  am  very  well  satisfied  that it is not in my power to balance
     accounts with my Maker. Addison.

   6.  To make the sums of the debits and credits of an account equal; --
   said of an item; as, this payment, or credit, balances the account.

   7.  To arrange accounts in such a way that the sum total of the debits
   is  equal  to  the  sum  total of the credits; as, to balance a set of

   8.  (Dancing) To move toward, and then back from, reciprocally; as, to
   balance partners.

   9.  (Naut.)  To  contract,  as a sail, into a narrower compass; as, to
   balance the boom mainsail.
   Balanced valve. See Balance valve, under Balance, n. Syn. -- To poise;
   weigh; adjust; counteract; neutralize; equalize.


   Bal"ance, v. i.

   1.  To  have  equal  weight  on each side; to be in equipoise; as, the
   scales balance.

   2. To fluctuate between motives which appear of equal force; to waver;
   to hesitate.

     He  would  not  balance  or err in the determination of his choice.

   3. (Dancing) To move toward a person or couple, and then back.


   Bal"ance*a*ble (?), a. Such as can be balanced.


   Bal"ance*ment  (?),  n.  The  act or result of balancing or adjusting;
   equipoise; even adjustment of forces. [R.] Darwin.


   Bal"an*cer (?), n.

   1. One who balances, or uses a balance.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) In Diptera, the rudimentary posterior wing.


   Bal"ance*reef`  (?),  n. (Naut.) The last reef in a fore-and-aft sail,
   taken to steady the ship.

                                 Balance wheel

   Bal"ance wheel` (?).

   1.  (Horology)  (a)  A  wheel which regulates the beats or pulses of a
   watch  or  chronometer, answering to the pendulum of a clock; -- often
   called  simply  a  balance. (b) A ratchet-shaped scape wheel, which in
   some watches is acted upon by the axis of the balance wheel proper (in
   those watches called a balance).

   2.  (Mach.)  A  wheel which imparts regularity to the movements of any
   engine or machine; a fly wheel.


   Bal`a*nif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  balanus  acorn + -ferous.] Bearing or
   producing acorns.


   Bal"a*nite  (?),  n.  [L. balanus acorn: cf. F. balanite.] (Paleon.) A
   fossil balanoid shell.


   Bal`a*no*glos"sus  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l) A peculiar marine
   worm. See Enteropneusta, and Tornaria.


   Bal"a*noid  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -oid.]  (Zo\'94l.) Resembling an acorn; --
   applied  to a group of barnacles having shells shaped like acorns. See
   Acornshell, and Barnacle.

                                  Balas ruby

   Bal"as ru`by (?). [OE. bales, balais, F. balais, LL. balascus, fr. Ar.
   balakhsh, so called from Badakhshan, Balashan, or Balaxiam, a place in
   the  neighborhood  of  Samarcand,  where this ruby is found.] (Min.) A
   variety  of  spinel  ruby, of a pale rose red, or inclining to orange.
   See Spinel.


   Ba*laus"tine  (?),  n. [L. balaustium, Gr. (Bot.) The pomegranate tree
   (Punica  granatum).  The  bark of the root, the rind of the fruit, and
   the flowers are used medicinally.

                            Balbutiate, Balbucinate

   Bal*bu"ti*ate (?), Bal*bu"ci*nate (?), v. i. [L. balbutire, fr. balbus
   stammering: cf. F. balbutier.] To stammer. [Obs.]


   Bal*bu"ti*es  (?), n. (Med.) The defect of stammering; also, a kind of
   incomplete pronunciation.


   Bal"con (?), n. A balcony. [Obs.] Pepys.


   Bal"co*nied (?), a. Having balconies.


   Bal"co*ny  (?),  n.;  pl.  Balconies (#). [It. balcone; cf. It. balco,
   palco, scaffold, fr. OHG. balcho, pa, beam, G. balken. See Balk beam.]

   1.  (Arch.) A platform projecting from the wall of a building, usually
   resting  on  brackets  or  consoles,  and inclosed by a parapet; as, a
   balcony  in front of a window. Also, a projecting gallery in places of
   amusement; as, the balcony in a theater.

   2. A projecting gallery once common at the stern of large ships.

     NOTE: &hand; "T he ac cent has shifted from the second to the first
     syllable within these twenty years."

   Smart (1836).


   Bald  (?), a. [OE. balled, ballid, perh. the p.p. of ball to reduce to
   the roundness or smoothness of a ball, by removing hair. &root;85. But
   cf. W. bali whiteness in a horse's forehead.]

   1.  Destitute of the natural or common covering on the head or top, as
   of hair, feathers, foliage, trees, etc.; as, a bald head; a bald oak.

     On the bald top of an eminence. Wordsworth.

   2. Destitute of ornament; unadorned; bare; literal.

     In the preface to his own bald translation. Dryden.

   3. Undisguised. " Bald egotism." Lowell.

   4. Destitute of dignity or value; paltry; mean. [Obs.]

   5. (Bot.) Destitute of a beard or awn; as, bald wheat.

   6. (Zo\'94l.) (a) Destitute of the natural covering. (b) Marked with a
   white spot on the head; bald-faced.
   Bald  buzzard  (Zo\'94l.),  the  fishhawk  or  osprey.  --  Bald  coot
   (Zo\'94l.), a name of the European coot (Fulica atra), alluding to the
   bare patch on the front of the head.


   Bal"da*chin  (?),  n.  [LL. baldachinus, baldechinus, a canopy of rich
   silk  carried  over  the  host;  fr.  Bagdad,  It. Baldacco, a city in
   Turkish  Asia  from whence these rich silks came: cf. It. baldacchino.
   Cf. Baudekin.]

   1. A rich brocade; baudekin. [Obs.]

   2.  (Arch.)  A  structure  in form of a canopy, sometimes supported by
   columns,  and sometimes suspended from the roof or projecting from the
   wall;  generally  placed  over  an  altar;  as,  the  baldachin in St.

   3. A portable canopy borne over shrines, etc., in procession. [Written
   also baldachino, baldaquin, etc.]

                                  Bald eagle

   Bald"  ea"gle  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  The  white-headed eagle (Hali\'91etus
   leucocephalus)  of  America.  The young, until several years old, lack
   the white feathers on the head.

     NOTE: &hand; The bald eagle is represented in the coat of arms, and
     on the coins, of the United States.


   Bal"der (?), n. [Icel. Baldr, akin to E. bold.] (Scan. Myth.) The most
   beautiful  and  beloved of the gods; the god of peace; the son of Odin
   and Freya. [Written also Baldur.]


   Bal"der*dash  (?),  n.  [Of  uncertain  origin: cf. Dan. balder noise,
   clatter,   and   E.   dash;  hence,  perhaps,  unmeaning  noise,  then
   hodgepodge,   mixture;   or   W.  baldorduss  a  prattling,  baldordd,
   baldorddi, to prattle.]

   1. A worthless mixture, especially of liquors.

     Indeed  beer, by a mixture of wine, hath lost both name and nature,
     and is called balderdash. Taylor (Drink and Welcome).

   2. Senseless jargon; ribaldry; nonsense; trash.


   Bal"der*dash (?), v. t. To mix or adulterate, as liquors.

     The  wine  merchants  of  Nice brew and balderdash, and even mix it
     with pigeon's dung and quicklime. Smollett.


   Bald"-faced`  (?), a. Having a white face or a white mark on the face,
   as a stag.


   Bald"head` (?), n.

   1. A person whose head is bald. 2 Kings ii. 23.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A white-headed variety of pigeon.


   Bald"head`ed, a. Having a bald head.


   Bald"ly, adv. Nakedly; without reserve; inelegantly.


   Bald"ness,  n.  The  state or condition of being bald; as, baldness of
   the head; baldness of style.

     This  gives  to their syntax a peculiar character of simplicity and
     baldness. W. D. Whitney.


   Bald"pate` (?), n.

   1. A baldheaded person. Shak.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The American widgeon (Anas Americana).

                              Baldpate, Baldpated

   Bald"pate`  (?),  Bald"pat`ed  (?),  a. Destitute of hair on the head;
   baldheaded. Shak.


   Bald"rib`  (?),  n.  A piece of pork cut lower down than the sparerib,
   and destitute of fat. [Eng.] Southey.


   Bal"dric  (?),  n. [OE. baudric, bawdrik, through OF. (cf. F. baudrier
   and  LL. baldringus, baldrellus), from OHG. balderich, cf. balz, palz,
   akin  to  E.  belt.  See  Belt,  n.]  A  broad  belt, sometimes richly
   ornamented,  worn  over one shoulder, across the breast, and under the
   opposite arm; less properly, any belt. [Also spelt bawdrick.]

     A  radiant  baldric o'er his shoulder tied Sustained the sword that
     glittered at his side. Pope.


   Bald"win  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A kind of reddish, moderately acid, winter
   apple. [U.S.]


   Bale  (?), n. [OE. bale, OF. bale, F. balle, LL. bala, fr. OHG. balla,
   palla,  pallo,  G.  ball, balle, ballen, ball round pack; cf. D. baal.
   Cf. Ball a round body.] A bundle or package of goods in a cloth cover,
   and corded for storage or transportation; also, a bundle of straw Bale
   of dice, a pair of dice. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Bale,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Baled (p. pr. & vb. n. Baling.] To make up
   in a bale. Goldsmith.


   Bale, v. t. See Bail, v. t., to lade. <-- p. 114 -->


   Bale  (?),  n. [AS. bealo, bealu, balu; akin to OS. , OHG. balo, Icel.
   b\'94l, Goth. balweins.]

   1. Misery;

     Let now your bliss be turned into bale. Spenser.

   2.  Evil;  an  evil,  pernicious  influence;  something  causing great
   injury. [Now chiefly poetic]


   Bal`e*ar"ic  (?), a. [L. Balearicus, fr. Gr. the Balearic Islands.] Of
   or  pertaining  to  the isles of Majorca, Minorca, Ivica, etc., in the
   Mediterranean   Sea,  off  the  coast  of  Valencia.  Balearic  crane.
   (Zo\'94l.) See Crane.


   Ba*leen"  (?), n. [F. baleine whale and whalibone, L. balaena a whale;
   cf.  Gr.  .  ] (Zo\'94l. & Com.) Plates or blades of "whalebone," from
   two  to  twelve feet long, and sometimes a foot wide, which in certain
   whales  (Bal\'91noidea) are attached side by side along the upper jaw,
   and  form  a  fringelike  sieve  by  which the food is retained in the


   Bale"fire` (?), n. [AS. b the fire of the b fire, flame (akin to Icel.
   b\'bel,  OSlav. b, white, Gr. bright, white, Skr. bh\'bela brightness)
   + f, E. fire.] A signal fire; an alarm fire.

     Sweet  Teviot!  on  thy  silver tide The glaring balefires blaze no
     more. Sir W. Scott.


   Bale"ful (?), a. [AS. bealoful. See Bale misery.]

   1.  Full  of  deadly  or  pernicious  influence; destructive. "Baleful
   enemies." Shak.

     Four  infernal  rivers  that  disgorge  Into the burning lake their
     baleful streams. Milton.

   2. Full of grief or sorrow; woeful; sad. [Archaic]


   Bale"ful*ly, adv. In a baleful manner; perniciously.


   Bale"ful*ness, n. The quality or state of being baleful.


   Bal"i*sa`ur  (?),  n.  [Hind.] (Zo\'94l.) A badgerlike animal of India
   (Arcionyx collaris).


   Bal"is*ter  (?),  n.  [OF. balestre. See Ballista.] A crossbow. [Obs.]


   Bal"is*toid  (?),  a. (Zo\'94l.) Like a fish of the genus Balistes; of
   the family Balistid\'91. See Filefish.


   Bal`is*tra"ri*a  (?),  n.  [LL.]  (Anc. Fort.) A narrow opening, often
   cruciform, through which arrows might be discharged.


   Ba*lize" (?), n. [F. balise; cf. Sp. balisa.] A pole or a frame raised
   as a sea beacon or a landmark.


   Balk (?), n. [AS. balca beam, ridge; akin to Icel. b\'belkr partition,
   bj\'belki  beam,  OS.  balko, G. balken; cf. Gael. balc ridge of earth
   between two furrows. Cf. Balcony, Balk, v. i., 3d Bulk.]

   1.  A  ridge of land left unplowed between furrows, or at the end of a
   field; a piece missed by the plow slipping aside.

     Bad plowmen made balks of such ground. Fuller.

   2. A great beam, rafter, or timber; esp., the tie-beam of a house. The
   loft above was called "the balks."

     Tubs hanging in the balks. Chaucer.

   3.  (Mil.)  One  of  the beams connecting the successive supports of a
   trestle bridge or bateau bridge.

   4. A hindrance or disappointment; a check.

     A balk to the confidence of the bold undertaker. South.

   5. A sudden and obstinate stop; a failure.

   6. (Baseball) A deceptive gesture of the pitcher, as if to deliver the
   Balk  line  (Billiards),  a line across a billiard table near one end,
   marking  a  limit within which the cue balls are placed in beginning a
   game;  also,  a  line around the table, parallel to the sides, used in
   playing a particular game, called the balk line game.
   Balk, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Balked (p. pr. & vb. n. Balking.] [From Balk
   a  beam; orig. to put a balk or beam in one's way, in order to stop or
   hinder. Cf., for sense 2, AS. on balcan legan to lay in heaps.]

   1. To leave or make balks in. [Obs.] Gower.

   2. To leave heaped up; to heap up in piles. [Obs.]

     Ten  thousand  bold  Scots, two and twenty knights, Balk'd in their
     own blood did Sir Walter see. Shak.

   3. To omit, miss, or overlook by chance. [Obs.]

   4.  To miss intentionally; to avoid; to shun; to refuse; to let go by;
   to shirk. [Obs. or Obsolescent]

     By reason of the contagion then in London, we balked the Evelyn.

     Sick he is, and keeps his bed, and balks his meat. Bp. Hall.

     Nor doth he any creature balk, But lays on all he meeteth. Drayton.

   5.  To  disappoint;  to  frustrate; to foil; to baffle; to as, to balk

     They shall not balk my entrance. Byron.


   Balk, v. i.

   1. To engage in contradiction; to be in opposition. [Obs.]

     In strifeful terms with him to balk. Spenser.

   2.  To  stop  abruptly  and  stand  still obstinately; to jib; to stop
   short; to swerve; as, the horse balks.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is ha s be en re garded as  an  Americanism, but it
     occurs in Spenser's "Fa\'89rie Queene," Book IV., 10, xxv.

     Ne  ever ought but of their true loves talkt, Ne ever for rebuke or
     blame of any balkt.


     Balk,  v.  i.  [Prob. from D. balken to bray, bawl.] To indicate to
     fishermen,  by shouts or signals from shore, the direction taken by
     the shoals of herring.


     Balk"er (?), n. [See 2d Balk.] One who, or that which balks.


     Balk"er  (?),  n. [See last Balk.] A person who stands on a rock or
     eminence to espy the shoals of herring, etc., and to give notice to
     the men in boats which way they pass; a conder; a huer.


     Bale"ing*ly, adv. In manner to balk or frustrate.


     Balk"ish, a. Uneven; ridgy. [R.] Holinshed.


     Balk"y (?), a. Apt to balk; as, a balky horse.


     Ball  (?),  n. [OE. bal, balle; akin to OHG. balla, palla, G. ball,
     Icel. b\'94llr, ball; cf. F. balle. Cf. 1st Bale, n., Pallmall.]

     1.  Any  round  or  roundish body or mass; a sphere or globe; as, a
     ball of twine; a ball of snow.

     2.  A spherical body of any substance or size used to play with, as
     by throwing, knocking, kicking, etc.

     3.  A  general name for games in which a ball is thrown, kicked, or
     knocked. See Baseball, and Football.

     4.  Any solid spherical, cylindrical, or conical projectile of lead
     or  iron,  to  be  discharged  from a firearm; as, a cannon ball; a
     ;  -- often used collectively; as, powder and ball. Spherical balls
     for the smaller firearms are commonly called bullets.

     5.  (Pirotechnics  &  Mil.)  A flaming, roundish body shot into the
     air;  a  case  filled  with combustibles intended to burst and give
     light  or set fire, or to produce smoke or stench; as, a fire ball;
     a stink ball.

     6.  (Print.) A leather-covered cushion, fastened to a handle called
     a  ballstock; -- formerly used by printers for inking the form, but
     now superseded by the roller.

     7. A roundish protuberant portion of some part of the body; as, the
     ball of the thumb; the ball of the foot.

     8.  (Far.) A large pill, a form in which medicine is commonly given
     to horses; a bolus. White.

     9. The globe or earth. Pope.

     Move round the dark terrestrial ball. Addison.

   Ball  and socket joint, a joint in which a ball moves within a socket,
   so  as to admit of motion in every direction within certain limits. --
   Ball  bearings, a mechanical device for lessening the friction of axle
   bearings  by  means  of  small loose metal balls. -- Ball cartridge, a
   cartridge  containing a ball, as distinguished from a blank cartridge,
   containing  only  powder.  --  Ball  cock,  a faucet or valve which is
   opened  or  closed  by the fall or rise of a ball floating in water at
   the  end  of  a  lever.  -- Ball gudgeon, a pivot of a spherical form,
   which  permits  lateral  deflection  of  the  arbor  or  shaft,  while
   retaining  the  pivot  in its socket. Knight. -- Ball lever, the lever
   used  in  a  ball  cock.  --  Ball  of  the  eye,  the  eye itself, as
   distinguished  from its lids and socket; -- formerly, the pupil of the
   eye. -- Ball valve (Mach.), a contrivance by which a ball, placed in a
   circular  cup  with a hole in its bottom, operates as a valve. -- Ball
   vein (Mining), a sort of iron ore, found in loose masses of a globular
   form,  containing sparkling particles. -- Three balls, or Three golden
   balls, a pawnbroker's sign or shop. Syn. -- See Globe.


   Ball,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Balled (p. pr. & vb. n. Balling.] To gather
   balls which cling to the feet, as of damp snow or clay; to gather into
   balls; as, the horse balls; the snow balls.


   Ball, v. t.

   1. (Metal.) To heat in a furnace and form into balls for rolling.

   2. To form or wind into a ball; as, to ball cotton.


   Ball,  n.  [F.  bal,  fr.  OF.  baler  to  dance,  fr. LL. ballare. Of
   uncertain  origin; cf. Gr. to toss or throw, or , , to leap, bound, to
   dance,  jump  about;  or  cf.  1st Ball, n.] A social assembly for the
   purpose of dancing.


   Bal"lad (?), n. [OE. balade, OF. balade, F. ballade, fr. Pr. ballada a
   dancing  song, fr. ballare to dance; cf. It. ballata. See 2d Ball, n.,
   and  Ballet.] A popular kind of narrative poem, adapted for recitation
   or  singing;  as,  the  ballad  of Chevy Chase; esp., a sentimental or
   romantic poem in short stanzas.


   Bal"lad, v. i. To make or sing ballads. [Obs.]


   Bal"lad, v. t. To make mention of in ballads. [Obs.]


   Bal*lade"  (?),  n.  [See  Ballad, n.] A form of French versification,
   sometimes  imitated  in  English,  in which three or four rhymes recur
   through  three  stanzas  of  eight  or  ten  lines  each,  the stanzas
   concluding with a refrain, and the whole poem with an envoy.


   Bal"lad*er (?), n. A writer of ballads.

                                 Ballad monger

   Bal"lad  mon`ger  (?).  [See  Monger.] A seller or maker of ballads; a
   poetaster. Shak.


   Bal"lad*ry  (?),  n.  [From  Ballad, n. ] Ballad poems; the subject or
   style of ballads. "Base balladry is so beloved." Drayton.

                              Ballahoo, Ballahou

   Bal"la*hoo,  Bal"la*hou  (?),  n. A fast-sailing schooner, used in the
   Bermudas and West Indies.


   Bal"la*rag (?), v. i. [Corrupted fr. bullirag.] To bully; to threaten.
   [Low] T. Warton.


   Bal"last  (?),  n.  [D.  ballast;  akin to Dan. baglast, ballast, OSw.
   barlast,  Sw.  ballast.  The  first  part is perh. the same word as E.
   bare, adj.; the second is last a burden, and hence the meaning a bare,
   or mere, load. See Bare, a., and Last load.]

   1.  (Naut.)  Any  heavy  substance, as stone, iron, etc., put into the
   hold  to  sink  a  vessel  in  the water to such a depth as to prevent

   2.  Any  heavy  matter  put  into  the  car  of  a  balloon to give it

   3.  Gravel,  broken stone, etc., laid in the bed of a railroad to make
   it firm and solid.

   4.  The  larger  solids,  as  broken  stone  or gravel, used in making

   5.  Fig.:  That  which  gives,  or  helps  to  maintain,  uprightness,
   steadiness, and security.

     It [piety] is the right ballast of prosperity. Barrow.

   Ballast  engine, a steam engine used in excavating and for digging and
   raising  stones  and  gravel  for  ballast. -- Ship in ballast, a ship
   carring only ballast.


   Bal"last, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ballasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ballasting.]

   1. To steady, as a vessel, by putting heavy substances in the hold.

   2.  To fill in, as the bed of a railroad, with gravel, stone, etc., in
   order to make it firm and solid.

   3. To keep steady; to steady, morally.

     'T is charity must ballast the heart. Hammond.


   Bal"last*age  (?), n. (Law) A toll paid for the privilege of taking up
   ballast in a port or harbor.


   Bal"last*ing, n. That which is used for steadying anything; ballast.


   Bal"la*try (?), n. See Balladry. [Obs.] Milton.


   Bal"let` (?), n. [F., a dim. of bal dance. See 2d Ball, n.]

   1.  An  artistic  dance performed as a theatrical entertainment, or an
   interlude,  by  a number of persons, usually women. Sometimes, a scene
   accompanied by pantomime and dancing.

   2. The company of persons who perform the ballet.

   3.  (Mus.)  A  light  part  song,  or madrigal, with a fa la burden or
   chorus, -- most common with the Elizabethan madrigal composers.

   4.  (Her.) A bearing in coats of arms, representing one or more balls,
   which are denominated bezants, plates, etc., according to color.


   Ball"-flow`er  (?), n. (Arch.) An ornament resembling a ball placed in
   a circular flower, the petals of which form a cup round it, -- usually
   inserted in a hollow molding.


   Bal*lis"ta (?), n.; pl. Ballist (#). [L. ballista, balista, fr. Gr. to
   throw.]  An  ancient  military engine, in the form of a crossbow, used
   for hurling large missiles.


   Bal"lis*ter (?), n. [L. ballista. Cf. Balister.] A crossbow. [Obs.]


   Bal*lis"tic (?), a.

   1.  Of  or pertaining to the ballista, or to the art of hurling stones
   or missile weapons by means of an engine.

   2. Pertaining to projection, or to a projectile.
   Ballistic  pendulum,  an  instrument  consisting  of a mass of wood or
   other  material  suspended  as a pendulum, for measuring the force and
   velocity of projectiles by means of the arc through which their impact
   impels it.


   Bal*lis"tics (?), n. [Cf. F. balistique. See Ballista.] The science or
   art of hurling missile weapons by the use of an engine. Whewell.


   Bal"li*um (?), n. [LL.] See Bailey.


   Bal*loon" (?), n. [F. ballon, aug. of balle ball: cf. It. ballone. See
   1st Ball, n., and cf. Pallone.]

   1.  A  bag  made  of  silk  or  other  light material, and filled with
   hydrogen gas or heated air, so as to rise and float in the atmosphere;
   especially, one with a car attached for a\'89rial navigation.

   2. (Arch.) A ball or globe on the top of a pillar, church, etc., as at
   St. Paul's, in London. [R.]

   3.  (Chem.)  A  round  vessel,  usually  with a short neck, to hold or
   receive whatever is distilled; a glass vessel of a spherical form.

   4. (Pyrotechnics) A bomb or shell. [Obs.]

   5. A game played with a large inf [Obs.]

   6.  (Engraving) The outline inclosing words represented as coming from
   the mouth of a pictured figure.
   Air  balloon,  a  balloon  for  a\'89rial navigation. -- Balloon frame
   (Carp.),  a  house  frame  constructed  altogether of small timber. --
   Balloon  net,  a  variety  of woven lace in which the weft threads are
   twisted in a peculiar manner around the warp.


   Bal*loon", v. t. To take up in, or as if in, a balloon.


   Bal*loon", v. i.

   1. To go up or voyage in a balloon.

   2. To expand, or puff out, like a balloon.


   Bal*looned" (?), a. Swelled out like a balloon.


   Bal*loon"er (?), n. One who goes up in a balloon; an a\'89ronaut.

                                 Balloon fish

   Bal*loon"  fish`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  A  fish of the genus Diodon or the
   genus Tetraodon, having the power of distending its body by taking air
   or water into its dilatable esophagus. See Globefish, and Bur fish.


   Bal*loon"ing, n.

   1. The art or practice of managing balloons or voyaging in them.

   2.  (Stock Exchange) The process of temporarily raising the value of a
   stock, as by fictitious sales. [U.S.]

                               Ballooning spider

   Bal*loon"ing  spi"der  (?). (Zo\'94l.) A spider which has the habit of
   rising  into  the  air.  Many  kinds ( esp. species of Lycosa) do this
   while  young  by  ejecting threads of silk until the force of the wind
   upon them carries the spider aloft.


   Bal*loon"ist, n. An a\'89ronaut.


   Bal*loon"ry  (?),  n.  The  art or practice of ascending in a balloon;


   Bal"lot (?), n. [F. ballotte, fr. It. ballotta. See Ball round body.]

   1.  Originally,  a  ball used for secret voting. Hence: Any printed or
   written ticket used in voting.

   2.  The  act  of  voting  by  balls  or  written or printed ballots or
   tickets; the system of voting secretly by balls or by tickets.

     The insufficiency of the ballot. Dickens.

   <-- p. 115 -->

   3.  The  whole  number  of  votes  cast  at an election, or in a given
   territory or electoral district.
   Ballot box, a box for receiving ballots.


   Bal"lot (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Balloted; p. pr. & vb. n. Balloting.]
   [F.  ballotter  to toss, to ballot, or It. ballottare. See Ballot, n.]
   To vote or decide by ballot; as, to ballot for a candidate.


   Bal"lot, v. t. To vote for or in opposition to.

     None  of  the competitors arriving to a sufficient number of balls,
     they fell to ballot some others. Sir H. Wotton.


   Bal"lo*tade`  (?),  n.  [F.  ballottade,  fr.  ballotter  to toss. See
   Ballot,  v.  i.]  (Man.) A leap of a horse, as between two pillars, or
   upon  a  straight  line, so that when his four feet are in the air, he
   shows only the shoes of his hind feet, without jerking out.


   Bal`lo*ta"tion (?), n. Voting by ballot. [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.


   Bal"lot*er (?), n. One who votes by ballot.


   Bal"lo*tin  (?),  n.  [F.]  An officer who has charge of a ballot box.
   [Obs.] Harrington.


   Bal"low (?), n. A cudgel. [Obs.] Shak.


   Ball"proof`  (?),  a.  Incapable  of  being  penetrated  by balls from


   Ball"room` (, n. A room for balls or dancing.


   Balm  (?),  n.  [OE.  baume,  OF. bausme, basme, F. baume, L. balsamum
   balsam,  from  Gr.  ; perhaps of Semitic origin; cf. Heb. b\'bes\'bem.
   Cf. Balsam.]

   1. (Bot.) An aromatic plant of the genus Melissa.

   2.  The  resinous  and  aromatic exudation of certain trees or shrubs.

   3. Any fragrant ointment. Shak.

   4.  Anything  that  heals or that mitigates pain. "Balm for each ill."
   Mrs. Hemans.
   Balm  cricket  (Zo\'94l.),  the  European cicada. Tennyson. -- Balm of
   Gilead  (Bot.),  a  small  evergreen  African  and Asiatic tree of the
   terebinthine  family  (Balsamodendron  Gileadense).  Its leaves yield,
   when  bruised, a strong aromatic scent; and from this tree is obtained
   the  balm  of  Gilead  of  the  shops,  or balsam of Mecca. This has a
   yellowish  or greenish color, a warm, bitterish, aromatic taste, and a
   fragrant  smell. It is valued as an unguent and cosmetic by the Turks.
   The  fragrant  herb Dracocephalum Canariense is familiarly called balm
   of Gilead, and so are the American trees, Populus balsamifera, variety
   candicans (balsam poplar), and Abies balsamea (balsam fir).
   Balm, v. i. To anoint with balm, or with anything medicinal. Hence: To
   soothe; to mitigate. [Archaic] Shak.
   Balm"i*fy (?), v. t. [Balm + -fy.] To render balmy. [Obs.] Cheyne.
   Balm"i*ly, adv. In a balmy manner. Coleridge.
   Bal*mor"al (?), n. [From Balmoral Castle, in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.]
   1. A long woolen petticoat, worn immediately under the dress.
   2. A kind of stout walking shoe, laced in front.

     A man who uses his balmorals to tread on your toes. George Eliot.


   Balm"y (?), a.

   1.  Having  the  qualities  of balm; odoriferous; aromatic; assuaging;
   soothing; refreshing; mild. "The balmy breeze." Tickell.

     Tired nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep ! Young.

   2.   Producing  balm.  "The  balmy  tree."  Pope.  Syn.  --  Fragrant;
   sweet-scented; odorous; spicy.


   Bal"ne*al  (?),  a.  [L.  balneum  bath.]  Of or pertaining to a bath.


   Bal"ne*a*ry (?), n. [L. balnearium, fr. balneum bath.] A bathing room.
   Sir T. Browne.


   Bal`ne*a"tion  (?),  n.  [LL. balneare to bathe, fr. L. balneum bath.]
   The act of bathing. [R.]


   Bal"ne*a*to*ry (?), a. [L. balneatorius.] Belonging to a bath. [Obs.]


   Bal`ne*og"ra*phy (?), n. [L. balneum bath + -graphy.] A description of


   Bal`ne*ol"o*gy (?), n. [L. balneum bath + -logy.] A treatise on baths;
   the science of bathing.


   Bal`ne*o*ther"a*py  (?),  n.  [L.  balneum  bath  +  Gr. to heal.] The
   treatment of disease by baths.


   Bal"o*tade` (?), n. See Ballotade.


   Bal"sa  (?),  n.  [Sp.  or  Pg.  balsa.] (Naut.) A raft or float, used
   principally on the Pacific coast of South America.


   Bal"sam  (?),  n. [L. balsamum the balsam tree or its resin, Gr. . See
   Balm, n.]

   1. A resin containing more or less of an essential or volatile oil.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e balsams are aromatic resinous substances, flowing
     spontaneously  or  by incision from certain plants. A great variety
     of  substances  pass  under  this name, but the term is now usually
     restricted  to resins which, in addition to a volatile oil, contain
     benzoic  and  cinnamic acid. Among the true balsams are the balm of
     Gilead,  and the balsams of copaiba, Peru, and Tolu. There are also
     many pharmaceutical preparations and resinous substances, possessed
     of a balsamic smell, to which the name balsam has been given.

   2. (Bot.) (a) A species of tree (Abies balsamea). (b) An annual garden
   plant (Impatiens balsamina) with beautiful flowers; balsamine.

   3. Anything that heals, soothes, or restores.

     Was not the people's blessing a balsam to thy blood? Tennyson.

   Balsam  apple  (Bot.), an East Indian plant ( Momordica balsamina), of
   the  gourd  family, with red or orange-yellow cucumber-shaped fruit of
   the  size  of  a  walnut,  used  as  a vulnerary, and in liniments and
   poultices.  --  Balsam fir (Bot.), the American coniferous tree, Abies
   balsamea, from which the useful Canada balsam is derived. -- Balsam of
   copaiba. See Copaiba. -- Balsam of Mecca, balm of Gilead. -- Balsam of
   Peru, a reddish brown, syrupy balsam, obtained from a Central American
   tree  (  Myroxylon Pereir\'91 and used as a stomachic and expectorant,
   and  in  the  treatment  of  ulcers, etc. It was long supposed to be a
   product  of  Peru.  --  Balsam  of  Tolu, a reddish or yellowish brown
   semisolid  or  solid  balsam,  obtained  from  a South American tree (
   Myxoxylon  toluiferum.).  It  is  highly  fragrant,  and  is used as a
   stomachic  and expectorant. -- Balsam tree, any tree from which balsam
   is obtained, esp. the Abies balsamea. -- Canada balsam, Balsam of fir,
   Canada  turpentine,  a  yellowish,  viscid  liquid, which, by time and
   exposure,  becomes  a  transparent solid mass. It is obtained from the
   balm  of  Gilead  (or  balsam)  fir  (Abies  balsamea) by breaking the
   vesicles upon the trunk and branches. See Balm.


   Bal"sam (?), v. t. To treat or anoint with balsam; to relieve, as with
   balsam; to render balsamic.


   Bal`sam*a"tion (?), n.

   1. The act of imparting balsamic properties.

   2. The art or process of embalming.

                             Balsamic, Balsamical

   Bal*sam"ic  (?), Bal*sam"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. balsamique.] Having the
   qualities   of   balsam;  containing,  or  resembling,  balsam;  soft;
   mitigative; soothing; restorative.


   Bal`sam*if"er*ous (?), a. [Balsam + -ferous.] Producing balsam.


   Bal"sam*ine  (?),  n. [Cf. F. balsamine, fr. Gr. balsam plant.] (Bot.)
   The Impatiens balsamina, or garden balsam.


   Bal"sam*ous  (?),  a. Having the quality of balsam; containing balsam.
   "A balsamous substance." Sterne.


   Bal"ter  (?),  v.  t. [Etymol. uncertain. Cf. Bloodboltered.] To stick
   together.[Obs.] Holland.


   Bal"tic  (?), a. [NL. mare Balticum, fr. L. balteus belt, from certain
   straits or channels surrounding its isles, called belts. See Belt.] Of
   or  pertaining  to  the  sea  which  separates  Norway and Sweden from
   Jutland, Denmark, and Germany; situated on the Baltic Sea.

                       Baltimore bird. Baltimore oriole

   Bal"ti*more  bird`  (?). Bal"ti*more o"ri*ole (?). (Zo\'94l.) A common
   American  bird  (Icterus galbula), named after Lord Baltimore, because
   its  colors (black and orange red) are like those of his coat of arms;
   -- called also golden robin.


   Bal"us*ter  (?), n. [F. balustre, It. balaustro, fr. L. balaustium the
   flower  of  the  wild  pomegranate,  fr.  Gr.  ;  -- so named from the
   similarity  of  form.]  (Arch.)  A  row of balusters topped by a rail,
   serving  as  an open parapet, as along the edge of a balcony, terrace,
   bridge, staircase, or the eaves of a building.


   Bam  (?),  n. [Prob. a contr. of bamboozle.] An imposition; a cheat; a
   hoax. Garrick.

     To relieve the tediumbams. Prof. Wilson.


   Bam, v. t. To cheat; to wheedle. [Slang] Foote.


   Bam*bi"no  (?), n. [It., a little boy, fr. bambo silly; cf. Gr. , , to
   chatter.] A child or baby; esp., a representation in art of the infant
   Christ wrapped in swaddling clothes.


   Bam*boc`ci*ade"  (?), n. [It. bambocciata, fr. Bamboccio a nickname of
   Peter  Van  Laer, a Dutch genre painter; properly, a child, simpleton,
   puppet,  fr.  bambo  silly.]  (Paint.) A representation of a grotesque
   scene from common or rustic life.


   Bam*boo" (?), n. [Malay bambu, mambu.] (Bot.) A plant of the family of
   grasses, and genus Bambusa, growing in tropical countries.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e most useful species is Bambusa arundinacea, which
     has  a  woody,  hollow, round, straight, jointed stem, and grows to
     the  height  of  forty  feet  and upward. The flowers grow in large
     panicles,  from  the joints of the stalk, placed three in a parcel,
     close  to  their receptacles. Old stalks grow to five or six inches
     in  diameter,  and  are  so  hard  and  durable  as  to be used for
     building,  and for all sorts of furniture, for water pipes, and for
     poles  to  support  palanquins.  The  smaller  stalks  are used for
     walking sticks, flutes, etc.


   Bam*boo", v. t. To flog with the bamboo.


   Bam*boo"zle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Bamboozled (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bamboozling ( [Said to be of Gipsy origin.] To deceive by trickery; to
   cajole  by  confusing  the  senses;  to  hoax;  to mystify; to humbug.
   [Colloq.] Addison.

     What oriental tomfoolery is bamboozling you? J. H. Newman.


   Bam*boo"zler  (?),  n.  A  swindler;  one  who  deceives  by trickery.
   [Colloq.] Arbuthnot.


   Ban (?), n. [AS. bann command, edict; akin to D. ban, Icel. bann, Dan.
   band,  OHG. ban, G. bann, a public proclamation, as of interdiction or
   excommunication, Gr. to say, L. fari to speak, Skr. bhan to speak; cf.
   F. ban, LL. bannum, of G. origin. Abandon, Fame.]

   1. A public proclamation or edict; a public order or notice, mandatory
   or prohibitory; a summons by public proclamation.

   2.  (Feudal  & Mil.) A calling together of the king's (esp. the French
   king's)  vassals  for military service; also, the body of vassals thus
   assembled  or  summoned.  In present usage, in France and Prussia, the
   most  effective part of the population liable to military duty and not
   in the standing army.

   3.  pl. Notice of a proposed marriage, proclaimed in church. See Banns
   (the common spelling in this sense).

   4.  An  interdiction,  prohibition,  or  proscription.  "Under  ban to
   touch." Milton.

   5. A curse or anathema. "Hecate's ban." Shak.

   6.  A  pecuniary mulct or penalty laid upon a delinquent for offending
   against a ban; as, a mulct paid to a bishop by one guilty of sacrilege
   or other crimes.
   Ban  of  the  empire  (German  Hist.),  an imperial interdict by which
   political  rights  and  privileges,  as  those  of  a prince, city, or
   district, were taken away.


   Ban,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Banned (p. pr. & vb. n. Banning.] [OE.
   bannen,  bannien, to summon, curse, AS. bannan to summon; akin to Dan.
   bande,  forbande,  to curse, Sw. banna to revile, bannas to curse. See
   Ban an edict, and cf. Banish.]

   1. To curse; to invoke evil upon. Sir W. Scott.

   2. To forbid; to interdict. Byron.


   Ban, v. i. To curse; to swear. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Ban,  n.  [Serv.  ban;  cf.  Russ. & Pol. pan a masterban.] An ancient
   title of the warden of the eastern marches of Hungary; now, a title of
   the viceroy of Croatia and Slavonia.


   Ban"al  (?),  a.  [F.,  fr.  ban  an ordinance.] Commonplace; trivial;
   hackneyed; trite.


   Ba*nal"i*ty  (?), n.; pl. Banalities (#). [F. banalit\'82. See Banal.]
   Something  commonplace,  hackneyed,  or  trivial;  the commonplace, in

     The  highest  things  were  thus  brought down to the banalities of
     discourse. J. Morley.


   Ba*na"na  (?),  n. [Sp. banana, name of the fruit.] (Bot.) A perennial
   herbaceous  plant  of almost treelike size (Musa sapientum); also, its
   edible fruit. See Musa.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ba nana has a soft, herbaceous stalk, with leaves
     of  great  length and breadth. The flowers grow in bunches, covered
     with  a sheath of a green or purple color; the fruit is five or six
     inches long, and over an inch in diameter; the pulp is soft, and of
     a  luscious taste, and is eaten either raw or cooked. This plant is
     a  native of tropical countries, and furnishes an important article
     of food.

   Banana  bird  (Zo\'94l.), a small American bird (Icterus leucopteryx),
   which  feeds on the banana. -- Banana quit (Zo\'94l.), a small bird of
   tropical America, of the genus Certhiola, allied to the creepers.


   Ban"at  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. & G. banat. See Ban a warden.] The territory
   governed by a ban.

                              Banc, Bancus, Bank

   Banc  (?),  Ban"cus (?), Bank (?), n. [OF. banc, LL. bancus. See Bank,
   n.]  A  bench;  a  high  seat,  or  seat of distinction or judgment; a
   tribunal  or  court.  In  banc,  In banco (the ablative of bancus), In
   bank,  in full court, or with full judicial authority; as, sittings in
   banc (distinguished from sittings at nisi prius).
   Ban"co (?), n. [It. See Bank.] A bank, especially that of Venice.
     NOTE: &hand; T his term is used in some parts of Europe to indicate
     bank money, as distinguished from the current money, when this last
     has become depreciated.
   Band  (?), n. [OE. band, bond, Icel. band; akin to G., Sw., & D. band,
   OHG.  bant,  Goth.  banti,  Skr.  bandha a binding, bandh to bind, for
   bhanda, bhandh, also to E. bend, bind. In sense 7, at least, it is fr.
   F. bande, from OHG. bant. Bind, v. t., and cf. Bend, Bond, 1st Bandy.]
   1.  A  fillet,  strap,  or  any  narrow ligament with which a thing is
   encircled, or fastened, or by which a number of things are tied, bound
   together, or confined; a fetter.

     Every one's bands were loosed. Acis xvi 26.

   2. (Arch.) (a) A continuous tablet, stripe, or series of ornaments, as
   of  carved  foliage,  of  color,  or  of brickwork, etc. (b) In Gothic
   architecture,  the  molding, or suite of moldings, which encircles the
   pillars and small shafts.

   3.  That  which  serves  as  the  means of union or connection between
   persons; a tie. "To join in Hymen's bands." Shak.

   4. A linen collar or ruff worn in the 16th and 17th centuries.

   5. pl. Two strips of linen hanging from the neck in front as part of a
   clerical, legal, or academic dress.

   6.  A narrow strip of cloth or other material on any article of dress,
   to  bind,  strengthen,  ornament, or complete it. "Band and gusset and
   seam." Hood. <-- p. 116 -->

   7. A company of persons united in any common design, especially a body
   of armed men.

     Troops of horsemen with his bands of foot. Shak.

   8.  A  number  of  musicians  who  play together upon portable musical
   instruments,  especially  those  making  a loud sound, as certain wind
   instruments (trumpets, clarinets, etc.), and drums, or cymbals.

   9.  (Bot.) A space between elevated lines or ribs, as of the fruits of
   umbelliferous plants.

   10.  (Zo\'94l.) A stripe, streak, or other mark transverse to the axis
   of the body.

   11. (Mech.) A belt or strap.

   12. A bond [Obs.] "Thy oath and band." Shak.

   13. Pledge; security. [Obs.] Spenser.
   Band  saw,  a  saw in the form of an endless steel belt, with teeth on
   one edge, running over wheels.


   Band (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Banded; p. pr. & vb. n. Banding.]

   1. To bind or tie with a band.

   2. To mark with a band.

   3.  To  unite in a troop, company, or confederacy. "Banded against his
   throne." Milton.
   Banded  architrave,  pier,  shaft,  etc. (Arch.), an architrave, pier,
   etc.,  of  which  the  regular  profile  is  interrupted  by blocks or
   projections crossing it at right angles.


   Band,  v.  i.  To  confederate  for  some common purpose; to unite; to
   conspire together.

     Certain of the Jews banded together. Acts xxiii. 12.


   Band, v. t. To bandy; to drive away. [Obs.]


   Band, imp. of Bind. [Obs.]


   Band"age (?), n. [F. bandage, fr. bande. See Band.]

   1.  A  fillet or strip of woven material, used in dressing and binding
   up wounds, etc.

   2.  Something  resembling a bandage; that which is bound over or round
   something to cover, strengthen, or compress it; a ligature.

     Zeal  too had a place among the rest, with a bandage over her eyes.


   Band"age, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bandaged (p. pr. & vb. n. Bandaging ( To
   bind, dress, or cover, with a bandage; as, to bandage the eyes.


   Ban*da"la (?), n. A fabric made in Manilla from the older leaf sheaths
   of the abaca (Musa textilis).

                               Bandanna, Bandana

   Ban*dan"na,  Ban*dan"a  (?),  n.  [Hind. b\'bendhn a mode of dyeing in
   which the cloth is tied in different places so as to prevent the parts
   tied from receiving the dye. Cf. Band, n.]

   1.  A  species of silk or cotton handkerchief, having a uniformly dyed
   ground,  usually  of  red  or  blue, with white or yellow figures of a
   circular, lozenge, or other simple form.

   2.  A  style  of  calico  printing, in which white or bright spots are
   produced upon cloth previously dyed of a uniform red or dark color, by
   discharging portions of the color by chemical means, while the rest of
   the cloth is under pressure. Ure.


   Band"box`  (?),  n.  A  light  box of pasteboard or thin wood, usually
   cylindrical,  for  holding  ruffs  (the  bands  of  the 17th century),
   collars, caps, bonnets, etc.


   Ban"deau  (?),  n.;  pl. Bandeaux (#). [F.] A narrow band or fillet; a
   part of a head-dress.

     Around  the edge of this cap was a stiff bandeau of leather. Sir W.

                               Bandelet, Bandlet

   Band"e*let  (?),  Band"let  (?), n. [F. bandelette, dim. of bande. See
   Band, n., and ch. Bendlet.] (Arch.) A small band or fillet; any little
   band or flat molding, compassing a column, like a ring. Gwilt.


   Band"er (?), n. One banded with others. [R.]

                              Banderole, Bandrol

   Band"e*role  (?), Band"rol (?), n. [F. banderole, dim. of bandi\'8are,
   banni\'8are,  banner; cf. It. banderuola a little banner. See Banner.]
   A little banner, flag, or streamer. [Written also bannerol.]

     From the extremity of which fluttered a small banderole or streamer
     bearing a cross. Sir W. Scott.

                                   Band fish

   Band"  fish` (?). (Zo\'94l.) A small red fish of the genus Cepola; the
   ribbon fish.


   Ban"di*coot  (?), n. [A corruption of the native name.] (Zo\'94l.) (a)
   A  species  of  very  large  rat  (Mus  giganteus), found in India and
   Ceylon.  It does much injury to rice fields and gardens. (b) A ratlike
   marsupial  animal  (genus  Perameles)  of  several  species,  found in
   Australia and Tasmania.

                                 Banding plane

   Band"ing plane` (?). A plane used for cutting out grooves and inlaying
   strings and bands in straight and circular work.


   Ban"dit (?), n.; pl.Bandits (#), OR Banditti (#). [It. bandito outlaw,
   p.p.  of  bandire  to  proclaim, to banish, to proscribe, LL. bandire,
   bannire. See Ban an edict, and cf. Banish.] An outlaw; a brigand.

     No savage fierce, bandit, or mountaineer. Milton.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e plural banditti was formerly used as a collective

     Deerstealers are ever a desperate banditti. Sir W. Scott.


   Ban"dle  (?),  n. [Ir. bannlamh cubit, fr. bann a measure + lamh hand,
   arm.] An Irish measure of two feet in length.


   Band"let (?), n. Same as Bandelet.


   Band"mas`ter (?), n. The conductor of a musical band.


   Ban"dog`  (?),  n.  [Band  + dog, i.e., bound dog.] A mastiff or other
   large and fierce dog, usually kept chained or tied up.

     The  keeper entered leading his bandog, a large bloodhound, tied in
     a leam, or band, from which he takes his name. Sir W. Scott.

                             Bandoleer, Bandolier

   Ban`do*leer",   Ban`do*lier"   (?),   n.  [F.  bandouli\'8are  (cf.It.
   bandoliera,  Sp.bandolera), fr.F. bande band, Sp.&It. banda. See Band,

   1.  A  broad  leather  belt  formerly  worn by soldiers over the right
   shoulder  and  across the breast under the left arm. Originally it was
   used for supporting the musket and twelve cases for charges, but later
   only as a cartridge belt.

   2.  One  of the leather or wooden cases in which the charges of powder
   were carried. [Obs.]


   Ban"do*line  (?),  n.  [Perh. allied to band.] A glutinous pomatum for
   the fair.


   Ban"don (?), n. [OF. bandon. See Abandon.] Disposal; control; license.
   [Obs.] Rom. of R.


   Ban"dore  (?), n. [Sp. bandurria, fr. L. pandura, pandurium, a musical
   instrument  of three strings, fr. Gr. . Cf. Pandore, Banjo, Mandolin.]
   A musical stringed instrument, similar in form to a guitar; a pandore.


   Band"rol (?), n. Same as Banderole.


   Ban"dy  (?), n. [Telugu bandi.] A carriage or cart used in India, esp.
   one drawn by bullocks.


   Ban"dy,  n.;  pl. Bandies (. [Cf. F. band\'82, p.p. of bander to bind,
   to bend (a bow), to bandy, fr. bande. See Band, n.]

   1. A club bent at the lower part for striking a ball at play; a hockey
   stick. Johnson.

   2. The game played with such a club; hockey; shinney; bandy ball.


   Ban"dy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bandied (p. pr. & vb. n. Bandying.]

   1. To beat to and fro, as a ball in playing at bandy.

     Like  tennis balls bandied and struck upon us . . . by rackets from
     without. Cudworth.

   2.  To  give  and  receive  reciprocally; to exchange. "To bandy hasty
   words." Shak.

   3. To toss about, as from man to man; to agitate.

     Let  not obvious and known truth be bandied about in a disputation.
     I. Watts.


   Ban"dy,  v.  i.  To  content, as at some game in which each strives to
   drive the ball his own way.

     Fit to bandy with thy lawless sons. Shak.


   Ban"dy,  a. Bent; crooked; curved laterally, esp. with the convex side
   outward; as, a bandy leg.


   Ban"dy-legged` (?), a. Having crooked legs.


   Bane  (?),  n. [OE. bane destruction, AS. bana murderer; akin to Icel.
   bani  death,  murderer,  OHG. bana murder, bano murderer, murder, OIr.
   bath death, benim I strike.

   1.  That  which  destroys life, esp. poison of a deadly quality. [Obs.
   except in combination, as in ratsbane, henbane, etc.]

   2. Destruction; death. [Obs.]

     The cup of deception spiced and tempered to their bane. Milton.

   3. Any cause of ruin, or lasting injury; harm; woe.

     Money, thou bane of bliss, and source of woe. Herbert.

   4.  A disease in sheep, commonly termed the rot. Syn. -- Poison; ruin;
   destruction; injury; pest.


   Bane, v. t. To be the bane of; to ruin. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Bane"ber`ry  (?), n. (Bot.) A genus (Act\'91a) of plants, of the order
   Ranunculace\'91,  native in the north temperate zone. The red or white
   berries are poisonous.


   Bane"ful  (?),  a.  Having  poisonous  qualities; deadly; destructive;
   injurious;  noxious;  pernicious.  "Baneful  hemlock." Garth. "Baneful
   wrath." Chapman. -- Bane"ful*ly, adv. --Bane"ful*ness, n.


   Bane"wort (?), n. (Bot.) Deadly nightshade.


   Bang (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Banged; p. pr. & vb. n. Banging.] [Icel.
   banga  to  hammer;  akin  to  Dan.  banke  to beat, Sw.b\'86ngas to be
   impetuous, G. bengel club, clapper of a bell.]

   1.  To  beat,  as  with  a  club or cudgel; to treat with violence; to
   handle roughly.

     The desperate tempest hath so banged the Turks. Shak.

   2. To beat or thump, or to cause ( something) to hit or strike against
   another  object,  in such a way as to make a loud noise; as, to bang a
   drum  or  a  piano; to bang a door (against the doorpost or casing) in
   shutting it.


   Bang,  v.  i. To make a loud noise, as if with a blow or succession of
   blows; as, the window blind banged and waked me; he was banging on the


   Bang, n.

   1. A blow as with a club; a heavy blow.

     Many a stiff thwack, many a bang. Hudibras.

   2. The sound produced by a sudden concussion.


   Bang,  v.  t.  To  cut  squarely across, as the tail of a hors, or the
   forelock of human beings; to cut (the hair).

     His hair banged even with his eyebrows. The Century Mag.


   Bang,  n.  The  short,  front hair combed down over the forehead, esp.
   when cut squarely across; a false front of hair similarly worn.

     His hair cut in front like a young lady's bang. W. D. Howells.

                                 Bang, Bangue

   Bang, Bangue (?), n. See Bhang.


   Bang"ing, a. Huge; great in size. [Colloq.] Forby.


   Ban"gle  (?), v. t. [From 1st Bang.] To waste by little and little; to
   fritter away. [Obs.]


   Ban"gle, n. [Hind. bangr\'c6 bracelet, bangle.] An ornamental circlet,
   of  glass, gold, silver, or other material, worn by women in India and
   Africa,  and  in some other countries, upon the wrist or ankle; a ring
   bracelet.  Bangle  ear, a loose hanging ear of a horse, like that of a


   Ban"ian  (?),  n.  [Skr.  banij merchant. The tree was so named by the
   English, because used as a market place by the merchants.]

   1. A Hindoo trader, merchant, cashier, or money changer. [Written also

   2. A man's loose gown, like that worn by the Banians.

   3. (Bot.) The Indian fig. See Banyan.
   Banian  days  (Naut.),  days  in  which the sailors have no flesh meat
   served  out to them. This use seems to be borrowed from the Banians or
   Banya race, who eat no flesh.


   Ban"ish  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Banished(p. pr. & vb. n. Banishing.]
   [OF. banir, F. bannir, LL. bannire, fr. OHG. bannan to summon, fr. ban
   ban. See Ban an edict, and Finish, v. t.]

   1. To condemn to exile, or compel to leave one's country, by authority
   of the ruling power. "We banish you our territories." Shak.

   2.  To  drive out, as from a home or familiar place; -- used with from
   and out of.

     How  the  ancient  Celtic  tongue  came to be banished from the Low
     Countries in Scotland. Blair.

   3.  To  drive  away;  to  compel  to  depart;  to  dispel. "Banish all
   offense."  Shak.  Syn.  --  To  Banish,  Exile,  Expel.  The idea of a
   coercive  removal  from  a  place  is  common to these terms. A man is
   banished  when  he  is  forced by the government of a country (be he a
   foreigner  or  a native) to leave its borders. A man is exiled when he
   is  driven  into  banishment from his native country and home. Thus to
   exile  is to banish, but to banish is not always to exile. To expel is
   to  eject  or  banish, summarily or authoritatively, and usually under
   circumstances  of disgrace; as, to expel from a college; expelled from
   decent society.


   Ban"ish*er (?), n. One who banishes.


   Ban"ish*ment  (?),  n. [Cf. F. bannissement.] The act of banishing, or
   the state of being banished.

     He secured himself by the banishment of his enemies. Johnson.

     Round the wide world in banishment we roam. Dryden.

   Syn.  --  Expatriation;  ostracism;  expulsion;  proscription;  exile;


   Ban"is*ter  (?),  n. [Formerly also banjore and banjer; corrupted from
   bandore,  through  negro  slave  pronunciation.]  A  stringed  musical
   instrument having a head and neck like the guitar, and its body like a
   tambourine.  It  has  five strings, and is played with the fingers and


   Bank  (?),  n.  [OE.  banke;  akin  to  E.  bench, and prob. of Scand.
   origin.; cf. Icel. bakki. See Bench.]

   1.  A  mound,  pile,  or  ridge of earth, raised above the surrounding
   level;  hence,  anything  shaped like a mound or ridge of earth; as, a
   bank of clouds; a bank of snow.

     They cast up a bank against the city. 2 Sam. xx. 15.

   2. A steep acclivity, as the slope of a hill, or the side of a ravine.

   3.  The  margin  of a watercourse; the rising ground bordering a lake,
   river, or sea, or forming the edge of a cutting, or other hollow.

     Tiber trembled underneath her banks. Shak.

   4.  An  elevation, or rising ground, under the sea; a shoal, shelf, or
   shallow; as, the banks of Newfoundland.

   5.  (Mining) (a) The face of the coal at which miners are working. (b)
   A deposit of ore or coal, worked by excavations above water level. (c)
   The ground at the top of a shaft; as, ores are brought to bank.
   Bank  beaver  (Zo\'94l.),  the otter. [Local, U.S.] -- Bank swallow, a
   small  American and European swallow (Clivicola riparia) that nests in
   a hole which it excavates in a bank.


   Bank, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Banked(p. pr. & vb. n. Banking.]

   1. To raise a mound or dike about; to inclose, defend, or fortify with
   a bank; to embank. "Banked well with earth." Holland.

   2. To heap or pile up; as, to bank sand.

   3. To pass by the banks of. [Obs.] Shak.
   To  bank  a fire, To bank up a fire, to cover the coals or embers with
   ashes or cinders, thus keeping the fire low but alive.


   Bank,  n.  [Prob. fr. F. banc. Of German origin, and akin to E. bench.
   See Bench.]

   1. A bench, as for rowers in a galley; also, a tier of oars.

     Placed  on  their  banks,  the  lusty Trojan sweep Neptune's smooth
     face, and cleave the yielding deep. Waller.

   2.  (Law)  (a)  The  bench  or seat upon which the judges sit. (b) The
   regular  term  of  a  court  of law, or the full court sitting to hear
   arguments  upon  questions  of law, as distinguished from a sitting at
   Nisi Prius, or a court held for jury trials. See Banc. Burrill.

   3. (Printing) A sort of table used by printers.

   4.  (Music)  A bench, or row of keys belonging to a keyboard, as in an
   organ. Knight.


   Bank, n. [F. banque, It. banca, orig. bench, table, counter, of German
   origin,  and  akin  to  E.  bench;  cf. G. bank bench, OHG. banch. See
   Bench, and cf. Banco, Beach.]

   1.  An  establishment  for  the  custody, loan, exchange, or issue, of
   money,  and  for  facilitating  the transmission of funds by drafts or
   bills  of  exchange; an institution incorporated for performing one or
   more of such functions, or the stockholders (or their representatives,
   the directors), acting in their corporate capacity.

   2. The building or office used for banking purposes.

   3.  A  fund  from deposits or contributions, to be used in transacting
   business; a joint stock or capital. [Obs.]

     Let  it  be no bank or common stock, but every man be master of his
     own money. Bacon.

   4.  (Gaming) The sum of money or the checks which the dealer or banker
   has as a fund, from which to draw his stakes and pay his losses.

   5.  In  certain  games,  as  dominos,  a fund of pieces from which the
   players are allowed to draw.
   Bank  credit,  a  credit  by  which  a  person who has give -- Bank of
   deposit,  a  bank  which  receives  money for safe keeping. -- Bank of
   issue, a bank which issues its own notes payable to bearer.


   Bank, v. t. To deposit in a bank.


   Bank, v. i.

   1.  To  keep  a bank; to carry on the business of a banker. <-- p. 117

   2. To deposit money in a bank; to have an account with a banker.


   Bank"a*ble (?), a. Receivable at a bank.

                                   Bank bill

   Bank" bill` (?).

   1.  In  America (and formerly in England), a promissory note of a bank
   payable to the bearer on demand, and used as currency; a bank note.

   2.  In  England,  a note, or a bill of exchange, of a bank, payable to
   order,  and  usually  at  some  future  specified time. Such bills are
   negotiable,  but form, in the strict sense of the term, no part of the

                                   Bank book

   Bank"  book` (?). A book kept by a depositor, in which an officer of a
   bank enters the debits and credits of the depositor's account with the


   Bank"er (?), n.[See the nouns Bank and the verbs derived from them.]

   1. One who conducts the business of banking; one who, individually, or
   as  a  member  of a company, keeps an establishment for the deposit or
   loan of money, or for traffic in money, bills of exchange, etc.

   2. A money changer. [Obs.]

   3. The dealer, or one who keeps the bank in a gambling house.

   4.  A vessel employed in the cod fishery on the banks of Newfoundland.
   Grabb. J. Q. Adams.

   5. A ditcher; a drain digger. [Prov. Eng.]

   6. The stone bench on which masons cut or square their work. Weale.


   Bank"er*ess (?), n. A female banker. Thackeray.


   Bank"ing,  n. The business of a bank or of a banker. Banking house, an
   establishment or office in which, or a firm by whom, banking is done.

                                   Bank note

   Bank" note` (?).

   1.  A  promissory note issued by a bank or banking company, payable to
   bearer on demand.

     NOTE: &hand; In the United States popularly called a bank bill.

   2.  Formerly,  a promissory note made by a banker, or banking company,
   payable  to  a specified person at a fixed date; a bank bill. See Bank
   bill, 2. [Obs.]

   3. A promissory note payable at a bank.


   Bank"rupt  (?),  n.  [F.  banqueroute,  fr. It. bancarotta bankruptcy;
   banca  bank  (fr.  OHG.  banch, G. bank, bench) + rotta broken, fr. L.
   ruptus,  p.p.  of  rumpere  to  break.  At  Florence,  it is said, the
   bankrupt  had his bench ( i.e., money table) broken. See 1st Bank, and
   Rupture, n.]

   1. (Old Eng. Low) A trader who secretes himself, or does certain other
   acts tending to defraud his creditors. Blackstone.

   2.  A trader who becomes unable to pay his debts; an insolvent trader;
   popularly,  any  person  who  is unable to pay his debts; an insolvent
   person. M 

   3.  (Law) A person who, in accordance with the terms of a law relating
   to  bankruptcy,  has been judicially declared to be unable to meet his

     NOTE: &hand; In  En gland, un til the year 1861 none but a "trader"
     could  be  made  a  bankrupt;  a  non-trader  failing  to  meet his
     liabilities   being   an  "insolvent".  But  this  distinction  was
     abolished  by the Bankruptcy Act of 1861. The laws of 1841 and 1867
     of   the   United   States  relating  to  bankruptcy  applied  this
     designation bankrupt to others besides those engaged in trade.


   Bank"rupt, a.

   1. Being a bankrupt or in a condition of bankruptcy; unable to pay, or
   legally discharged from paying, one's debts; as, a bankrupt merchant.

   2.  Depleted  of  money;  not  having  the  means of meeting pecuniary
   liabilities; as, a bankrupt treasury.

   3. Relating to bankrupts and bankruptcy.

   4.  Destitute  of,  or  wholly  wanting  (something once possessed, or
   something one should possess). "Bankrupt in gratitude." Sheridan.
   Bankrupt law, a law by which the property of a person who is unable or
   unwilling  to  pay  his  debts  may  be  taken  and distributed to his
   creditors,  and by which a person who has made a full surrender of his
   property,  and  is  free  from fraud, may be discharged from the legal
   obligation of his debts. See Insolvent, a.


   Bank"rupt,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bankrupted;  p.  pr.  &  vb.  n.
   Bankrupting.]  To  make  bankrupt;  to  bring  financial ruin upon; to


   Bank"rupt*cy (?), n.; pl. Bankruptcies(

   1. The state of being actually or legally bankrupt.

   2. The act or process of becoming a bankrupt.

   3. Complete loss; -- followed by of.


   Bank"side`  (?),  n.  The slope of a bank, especially of the bank of a


   Bank"-sid`ed  (?),  a.  (Naut.)  Having  sides inclining inwards, as a
   ship; -- opposed to wall-sided.

                                 Bank swallow

   Bank" swal"low (?). See under 1st Bank, n.


   Ban"li*eue`  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  LL.  bannum leucae, banleuca; bannum
   jurisdiction  +  leuca  league.]  The territory without the walls, but
   within the legal limits, of a town or city. Brande & C.


   Ban"ner (?), n. [OE. banere, OF. baniere, F. banni\'8are, bandi\'8are,
   fr.  LL.  baniera,  banderia,  fr.  bandum banner, fr. OHG. bant band,
   strip  of cloth; cf. bindan to bind, Goth. bandwa, bandwo, a sign. See
   Band, n.]

   1.  A  kind  of  flag attached to a spear or pike by a crosspiece, and
   used by a chief as his standard in battle.

     Hang out our banners on the outward walls. Shak.

   2.  A  large  piece  of  silk  or other cloth, with a device or motto,
   extended  on  a crosspiece, and borne in a procession, or suspended in
   some conspicuous place.

   3. Any flag or standard; as, the star-spangled banner.
   Banner fish (Zo\'94l.), a large fish of the genus Histiophorus, of the
   Swordfish  family, having a broad bannerlike dorsal fin; the sailfish.
   One species (H. Americanus) inhabits the North Atlantic.
   Ban"nered (?), a. bannered host." Milton.


   Ban"ner*et  (?),  n.[OE. baneret, OF. baneret, F. banneret; properly a
   dim. of OF. baniere. See Banner.]

   1.  Originally,  a knight who led his vassals into the field under his
   own banner; -- commonly used as a title of rank.

   2. A title of rank, conferred for heroic deeds, and hence, an order of
   knighthood; also, the person bearing such title or rank.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e usual mode of conferring the rank on the field of
     battle  was  by  cutting  or tearing off the point of the pennon or
     pointed  flag  on  the  spear of the candidate, thereby making it a

   3. A civil officer in some Swiss cantons.

   4. A small banner. Shak.


   Ban"ner*ol  (?),  n. A banderole; esp. a banner displayed at a funeral
   procession and set over the tomb. See Banderole.


   Ban*ni"tion   (?),   n.   [LL.  bannitio.  See  Banish.]  The  act  of
   expulsion.[Obs.] Abp. Laud.


   Ban"nock  (?),  n.  [Gael. bonnach.] A kind of cake or bread, in shape
   flat  and  roundish, commonly made of oatmeal or barley meal and baked
   on  an  iron  plate,  or griddle; -- used in Scotland and the northern
   counties of England. Jamieson. Bannock fluke, the turbot. [Scot.]


   Banns (?), n. pl. [See Ban.] Notice of a proposed marriage, proclaimed
   in  a  church,  or  other  place  prescribed by law, in order that any
   person  may  object, if he knows of just cause why the marriage should
   not take place.


   Ban"quet  (?),  n.  [F.,  a feast, prop. a dim. of banc bench; cf. It.
   banchetto,  dim.  of banco a bench, counter. See Bank a bench, and cf.

   1. A feast; a sumptuous entertainment of eating and drinking; often, a
   complimentary or ceremonious feast, followed by speeches.

   2.  A  dessert;  a  course  of  sweetmeats; a sweetmeat or sweetmeats.

     We'll  dine  in  the  great  room, but let the music And banquet be
     prepared here. Massinger.


   Ban"quet,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Banqueted; p. pr. & vb. n. Banqueting.]
   To treat with a banquet or sumptuous entertainment of food; to feast.

     Just  in  time  to banquet The illustrious company assembled there.


   Ban"quet, v.i.

   1. To regale one's self with good eating and drinking; to feast.

     Were it a draught for Juno when she banquets, I would not taste thy
     treasonous offer. Milton.

   2. To partake of a dessert after a feast. [Obs.]

     Where they did both sup and banquet. Cavendish.


   Ban"quet*ter (?), n. One who banquets; one who feasts or makes feasts.


   Ban*quette" (?), n. [F. See Banquet, n.]

   1.  (Fort.)  A  raised way or foot bank, running along the inside of a
   parapet, on which musketeers stand to fire upon the enemy.

   2. (Arch.) A narrow window seat; a raised shelf at the back or the top
   of a buffet or dresser.

                               Banshee, Banshie

   Ban"shee,  Ban"shie  (?), n. [Gael. bean-shith fairy; Gael. & Ir. bean
   woman  + Gael. sith fairy.] A supernatural being supposed by the Irish
   and  Scotch  peasantry  to warn a family of the speedy death of one of
   its  members,  by  wailing  or  singing  in a mournful voice under the
   windows of the house.


   Ban"stic`kle (?), n. [OE. ban, bon, bone + stickle prickle, sting. See
   Bone,  n.,  Stickleback.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small fish, the three-spined


   Ban"tam (?), n. A variety of small barnyard fowl, with feathered legs,
   probably brought from Bantam, a district of Java.

                                  Bantam work

   Ban"tam work`. Carved and painted work in imitation of Japan ware.


   Ban"teng (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The wild ox of Java (Bibos Banteng).


   Ban"ter (?), v. t. [ imp. & p. p. Bantered(p. pr. & vb. n. Bantering.]
   [Prob. corrupted fr. F. badiner to joke, or perh. fr. E. bandy to beat
   to and fro. See Badinage, and cf. Barter fr. OF. barater.]

   1.  To  address  playful  good-natured  ridicule  to,  --  the  person
   addressed,  or  something  pertaining to him, being the subject of the
   jesting; to rally; as, he bantered me about my credulity.

     Hag-ridden  by  my  own  fancy  all  night, and then bantered on my
     haggard looks the next day. W. Irving.

   2.  To  jest  about; to ridicule in speaking of, as some trait, habit,
   characteristic, and the like. [Archaic]

     If they banter your regularity, order, and love of study, banter in
     return their neglect of them. Chatham.

   3. To delude or trick, -- esp. by way of jest. [Obs.]

     We  diverted  ourselves  with  bantering several poor scholars with
     hopes of being at least his lordship's chaplain. De Foe.

   4.  To  challenge  or  defy  to a match. [Colloq. Southern and Western


   Ban"ter,  n.  The  act  of  bantering;  joking or jesting; humorous or
   good-humored raillery; pleasantry.

     Part banter, part affection. Tennyson.


   Ban"ter*er (?), n. One who banters or rallies.


   Ban"ting*ism  (?), n. A method of reducing corpulence by avoiding food
   containing  much farinaceous, saccharine, or oily matter; -- so called
   from William Banting of London.


   Bant"ling  (?), n. [Prob. for bandling, from band, and meaning a child
   wrapped  in swaddling bands; or cf. G. b\'84ntling a bastard, fr. bank
   bench.  Cf.  Bastard, n.] A young or small child; an infant. [Slightly
   contemptuous or depreciatory.]

     In  what  out  of the way corners genius produces her bantlings. W.


   Banx"ring  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) An East Indian insectivorous mammal of
   the genus Tupaia.


   Ban"yan  (?),  n. [See Banian.] (Bot.) A tree of the same genus as the
   common  fig,  and called the Indian fig (Ficus Indica), whose branches
   send  shoots  to  the  ground,  which  take root and become additional
   trunks,  until  it  may be the tree covers some acres of ground and is
   able to shelter thousands of men.


   Ba"o*bab  (?),  n.  [The  native name.] (Bot.) A gigantic African tree
   (Adansonia digitata), also naturalized in India. See Adansonia.


   Baph"o*met  (?),  n.[A  corruption of Mahomet or Mohammed, the Arabian
   prophet:  cf.  Pr.  Bafomet,  OSp. Mafomat, OPg. Mafameda.] An idol or
   symbolical  figure  which  the Templars were accused of using in their
   mysterious rites.


   Bap"tism  (?),  n.  [OE.  baptim,  baptem,  OE.  baptesme, batisme, F.
   bapt\'88me,  L.  baptisma,  fr.  Gr.  ,  fr. to baptize, fr. to dip in
   water,  akin  to  deep,  Skr.  g\'beh to dip, bathe, v. i.] The act of
   baptizing;  the  application  of  water to a person, as a sacrament or
   religious  ceremony,  by which he is initiated into the visible church
   of Christ. This is performed by immersion, sprinkling, or pouring.


   Bap*tis"mal  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. baptismal.] Pertaining to baptism; as,
   baptismal  vows. Baptismal name, the Christian name, which is given at


   Bap*tis"mal*ly, adv. In a baptismal manner.


   Bap"tist (?), n. [L. baptista, G. ]

   1.  One  who administers baptism; -- specifically applied to John, the
   forerunner of Christ. Milton.

   2. One of a denomination of Christians who deny the validity of infant
   baptism  and  of  sprinkling,  and  maintain  that  baptism  should be
   administered  to  believers  alone,  and  should  be by immersion. See

     NOTE: In do ctrine the Baptists of this country [the United States]
     are Calvinistic, but with much freedom and moderation.

   Amer.  Cyc.  Freewill Baptists, a sect of Baptists who are Arminian in
   doctrine, and practice open communion. -- Seventh-day Baptists, a sect
   of  Baptists who keep the seventh day of the week, or Saturday, as the
   Sabbath.  See  Sabbatarian.  The  Dunkers  and  Campbellites  are also


   Bap"tis*ter*y  (?),Bap"tis*try  (?), n.; pl. Baptisteries (, -tries (.
   [L.  baptisterium,  Gr.  : cf. F. baptist\'8are.] (Arch.) (a) In early
   times,  a  separate  building,  usually  polygonal, used for baptismal
   services.  Small  churches  were  often changed into baptisteries when
   larger  churches  were built near. (b) A part of a church containing a
   font and used for baptismal services.


   Bap*tis"tic (?), a. [Gr. ] Of or for baptism; baptismal.


   Bap*tis"tic*al (?), a. Baptistic. [R.]


   Bap*tiz"a*ble  (?),  a. Capable of being baptized; fit to be baptized.


   Bap`ti*za"tion (?), n. Baptism. [Obs.]

     Their baptizations were null. Jer. Taylor.


   Bap*tize"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Baptized (; p. pr. & vb. n.>/pos>
   Baptizing.] [F. baptiser, L. baptizare, fr.Gr. . See Baptism.]

   1. To administer the sacrament of baptism to.

   2. To christen ( because a name is given to infants at their baptism);
   to give a name to; to name.

     I'll be new baptized; Henceforth I never will be Romeo. Shak.

   3. To sanctify; to consecrate.


   Bap*tize"ment (?), n. The act of baptizing.[R.]


   Bap*tiz"er (?), n. One who baptizes.


   Bar  (?), n. [OE. barre, F. barre, fr. LL. barra, W. bar the branch of
   a tree, bar, baren branch, Gael. & Ir. barra bar.

   1.  A  piece  of wood, metal, or other material, long in proportion to
   its  breadth  or  thickness,  used  as  a  lever and for various other
   purposes,  but  especially for a hindrance, obstruction, or fastening;
   as, the bars of a fence or gate; the bar of a door.

     Thou shalt make bars of shittim wood. Ex. xxvi. 26.

   2.  An  indefinite quantity of some substance, so shaped as to be long
   in  proportion  to  its breadth and thickness; as, a bar of gold or of
   lead; a bar of soap.

   3.  Anything  which obstructs, hinders, or prevents; an obstruction; a

     Must I new bars to my own joy create? Dryden.

   <-- p. 118 -->

   4.  A  bank  of  sand, gravel, or other matter, esp. at the mouth of a
   river or harbor, obstructing navigation.

   5. Any railing that divides a room, or office, or hall of assembly, in
   order  to reserve a space for those having special privileges; as, the
   bar of the House of Commons.

   6.  (Law) (a) The railing that incloses the place which counsel occupy
   in  courts  of  justice.  Hence,  the  phrase  at the bar of the court
   signifies  in  open  court. (b) The place in court where prisoners are
   stationed  for  arraignment, trial, or sentence. (c) The whole body of
   lawyers  licensed  in a court or district; the legal profession. (d) A
   special plea constituting a sufficient answer to plaintiff's action.

   7. Any tribunal; as, the bar of public opinion; the bar of God.

   8.  A  barrier  or  counter, over which liquors and food are passed to
   customers;  hence,  the  portion  of the room behind the counter where
   liquors for sale are kept.

   9.  (Her.)  An  ordinary, like a fess but narrower, occupying only one
   fifth part of the field.

   10.  A  broad  shaft, or band, or stripe; as, a bar of light; a bar of

   11.  (Mus.)  A  vertical  line across the staff. Bars divide the staff
   into  spaces  which  represent  measures,  and  are  themselves called

     NOTE: &hand; A  do uble ba r ma rks th e en d of  a  strain or main
     division  of a movement, or of a whole piece of music; in psalmody,
     it  marks  the  end of a line of poetry. The term bar is very often
     loosely  used  for  measure,  i.e., for such length of music, or of
     silence, as is included between one bar and the next; as, a passage
     of eight bars; two bars' rest.

   12.  (Far.)  pl.  (a)  The space between the tusks and grinders in the
   upper  jaw of a horse, in which the bit is placed. (b) The part of the
   crust  of a horse's hoof which is bent inwards towards the frog at the
   heel on each side, and extends into the center of the sole.

   13.  (Mining)  (a)  A  drilling  or  tamping  rod.  (b) A vein or dike
   crossing a lode.

   14.  (Arch.)  (a)  A  gatehouse  of  a castle or fortified town. (b) A
   slender  strip  of  wood  which  divides  and  supports the glass of a
   window; a sash bar.
   Bar  shoe  (Far.),  a  kind of horseshoe having a bar across the usual
   opening  at  the  heel,  to  protect a tender frog from injury. -- Bar
   shot,  a  double headed shot, consisting of a bar, with a ball or half
   ball at each end; -- formerly used for destroying the masts or rigging
   in  naval  combat.  --  Bar  sinister  (Her.),  a  term  popularly but
   erroneously  used for baton, a mark of illegitimacy. See Baton. -- Bar
   tracery  (Arch.), ornamental stonework resembling bars of iron twisted
   into the forms required. -- Blank bar (Law). See Blank. -- Case at bar
   (Law), a case presently before the court; a case under argument. -- In
   bar  of, as a sufficient reason against; to prevent. -- Matter in bar,
   or  Defence  in  bar, a plea which is a final defense in an action. --
   Plea in bar, a plea which goes to bar or defeat the plaintiff's action
   absolutely  and  entirely.  -- Trial at bar (Eng. Law), a trial before
   all  the judges of one the superior courts of Westminster, or before a
   quorum representing the full court.


   Bar  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Barred (p. pr. & vb. n. Barring.] [ F.
   barrer. See Bar, n.]

   1. To fasten with a bar; as, to bar a door or gate.

   2.  To restrict or confine, as if by a bar; to hinder; to obstruct; to
   prevent;  to  prohibit; as, to bar the entrance of evil; distance bars
   our  intercourse;  the  statute  bars my right; the right is barred by
   time; a release bars the plaintiff's recovery; -- sometimes with up.

     He  barely  looked  the idea in the face, and hastened to bar it in
     its dungeon. Hawthorne.

   3. To except; to exclude by exception.

     Nay,  but  I  bar  to-night:  you  shall not gauge me By what we do
     to-night. Shak.

   4. To cross with one or more stripes or lines.

     For the sake of distinguishing the feet more clearly, I have barred
     them singly. Burney.


   Barb (?), n. [F. barbe, fr. L. barba beard. See Beard, n.]

   1. Beard, or that which resembles it, or grows in the place of it.

     The  barbel,  so  called  by reason of his barbs, or wattles in his
     mouth. Walton.

   2. A muffler, worn by nuns and mourners. [Obs.]

   3. pl. Paps, or little projections, of the mucous membrane, which mark
   the  opening of the submaxillary glands under the tongue in horses and
   cattle.  The  name  is  mostly applied when the barbs are inflamed and
   swollen. [Written also barbel and barble.]

   4.  The  point  that  stands  backward in an arrow, fishhook, etc., to
   prevent  it  from being easily extracted. Hence: Anything which stands
   out  with  a  sharp  point  obliquely  or crosswise to something else.
   "Having two barbs or points." Ascham.

   5. A bit for a horse. [Obs.] Spenser.

   6.   (Zo\'94l.)   One  of  the  side  branches  of  a  feather,  which
   collectively constitute the vane. See Feather.

   7.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  southern name for the kingfishes of the eastern and
   southeastern  coasts  of  the United States; -- also improperly called

   8. (Bot.) A hair or bristle ending in a double hook.


   Barb, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Barbed (p. pr. & vb. n. Barbing.]

   1. To shave or dress the beard of. [Obs.]

   2. To clip; to mow. [Obs.] Marston.

   3.  To  furnish  with barbs, or with that which will hold or hurt like
   barbs, as an arrow, fishhook, spear, etc.

     But rattling storm of arrows barbed with fire. Milton.


   Barb, n. [F. barbe, fr. Barbarie.]

   1.  The  Barbary  horse, a superior breed introduces from Barbary into
   Spain by the Moors.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  blackish  or  dun variety of the pigeon, originally
   brought from Barbary.


   Barb, n. [Corrupted fr. bard.] Armor for a horse. Same as 2d Bard, n.,


   Bar"ba*can (?), n. See Barbican.


   Bar"ba*can*age (?), n. See Barbicanage.


   Bar*ba"di*an  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Barbados. -- n. A native of

                             Barbados OR Barbadoes

   Bar*ba"dos  OR  Bar*ba"does  (?),  n. A West Indian island, giving its
   name  to  a disease, to a cherry, etc. Barbados cherry (Bot.), a genus
   of  trees  of the West Indies (Malpighia) with an agreeably acid fruit
   resembling   a   cherry.   --   Barbados  leg  (Med.),  a  species  of
   elephantiasis incident to hot climates. -- Barbados nuts, the seeds of
   the  Jatropha  curcas, a plant growing in South America and elsewhere.
   The seeds and their acrid oil are used in medicine as a purgative. See
   Physic nut.
   Bar"ba*ra  (?),  n.  [Coined  by logicians.] (Logic) The first word in
   certain  mnemonic  lines  which  represent  the  various  forms of the
   syllogism.  It  indicates  a  syllogism  whose  three propositions are
   universal affirmatives. Whately. 


   Bar`ba*resque"  (?),  a.  Barbaric  in  form or style; as, barbaresque
   architecture. De Quincey.


   Bar*ba"ri*an (?), n. [See Barbarous.]

   1. A foreigner. [Historical]

     Therefore  if  I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto
     him  that  speaketh  a  barbarian,  and he that speaketh shall be a
     barbarian unto me. 

   2. A man in a rule, savage, or uncivilized state.

   3. A person destitute of culture. M. Arnold.

   4.  A  cruel,  savage,  brutal man; one destitute of pity or humanity.
   "Thou fell barbarian." Philips.


   Bar*ba"ri*an,  a.  Of,  or  pertaining  to, or resembling, barbarians;
   rude; uncivilized; barbarous; as, barbarian governments or nations.


   Bar*ba"ic (?), a. [L. barbaricus foreign, barbaric, Gr. .]

   1. Of, or from, barbarian nations; foreign; -- often with reference to
   barbarous nations of east. "Barbaric pearl and gold." Milton.

   2.  Of  or  pertaining  to,  or  resembling,  an uncivilized person or
   people; barbarous; barbarian; destitute of refinement. "Wild, barbaric
   music." Sir W. Scott.


   Bar"ba*rism (?), n. [L. barbarismus, Gr.; cf. F. barbarisme.]

   1.  An  uncivilized state or condition; rudeness of manners; ignorance
   of arts, learning, and literature; barbarousness. Prescott.

   2. A barbarous, cruel, or brutal action; an outrage.

     A heinous barbarism . . . against the honor of marriage. Milton.

   3.  An offense against purity of style or language; any form of speech
   contrary to the pure idioms of a particular language. See Solecism.

     The  Greeks  were  the  first that branded a foreign term in any of
     their writers with the odious name of barbarism. G. Campbell.


   Bar*bar"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Barbarities (#). [From Barbarous.] The state
   or manner of a barbarian; lack of civilization.

   2. Cruelty; ferociousness; inhumanity.

     Treating  Christians  with a barbarity which would have shocked the
     very Moslem. Macaulay.

   3. A barbarous or cruel act.

   4. Barbarism; impurity of speech. [Obs.] Swift.


   Bar"ba*rize  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Barbarized (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Barbarizing (.]

   1. To become barbarous.

     The  Roman  empire was barbarizing rapidly from the time of Trajan.
     De Quincey.

   2. To adopt a foreign or barbarous mode of speech.

     The  ill  habit . . . of wretched barbarizing against the Latin and
     Greek idiom, with their untutored Anglicisms. Milton.


   Bar"ba*rize  (?),  v. t. [Cf. F. barbariser, LL. barbarizare.] To make

     The hideous changes which have barbarized France. Burke.


   Bar"ba*rous  (?),  a.  [L.  barbarus,  Gr.  , strange, foreign; later,
   slavish,  rude,  ignorant;  akin to L. balbus stammering, Skr. barbara
   stammering, outlandish. Cf. Brave, a.]

   1.  Being in the state of a barbarian; uncivilized; rude; peopled with
   barbarians; as, a barbarous people; a barbarous country.

   2. Foreign; adapted to a barbaric taste.[Obs.]

     Barbarous gold. Dryden.

   3. Cruel; ferocious; inhuman; merciless.

     By their barbarous usage he died within a few days, to the grief of
     all that knew him. Clarendon.

   4. Contrary to the pure idioms of a language.

     A barbarous expression G. Campbell.

   Syn.  --  Uncivilized;  unlettered; uncultivated; untutored; ignorant;
   merciless; brutal. See Ferocious.


   Bar"ba*rous*ly, adv. In a barbarous manner.


   Bar"ba*rous*ness,   n.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  barbarous;
   barbarity; barbarism.


   Bar"ba*ry  (?),  n.  [Fr.  Ar.  Barbar  the  people  of  Barbary.] The
   countries  on  the  north  coast of Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic.
   Hence: A Barbary horse; a barb. [Obs.] Also, a kind of pigeon. Barbary
   ape  (Zo\'94l.),  an ape (Macacus innus) of north Africa and Gibraltar
   Rock,  being  the  only  monkey inhabiting Europe. It is very commonly
   trained by showmen.


   Bar"ba*stel`  (?),  n.  [F.  barbastelle.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A European bat
   (Barbastellus communis), with hairy lips.


   Bar"bate  (?),  a.  [L.  barbatus,  fr.  barba beard. See Barb beard.]
   (Bot.) Bearded; beset with long and weak hairs.


   Bar"ba*ted (?), a. Having barbed points.

     A dart uncommonly barbated. T. Warton.


   Bar"be*cue  (?),  n. [In the language of Indians of Guiana, a frame on
   which all kinds of flesh and fish are roasted or smoke-dried.]

   1.  A  hog,  ox,  or other large animal roasted or broiled whole for a

   2.  A social entertainment, where many people assemble, usually in the
   open  air,  at  which one or more large animals are roasted or broiled

   3. A floor, on which coffee beans are sun-dried.


   Bar"be*cue  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Barbecued (; p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To dry or cure by exposure on a frame or gridiron.

     They use little or no salt, but barbecue their game and fish in the
     smoke. Stedman.

   2. To roast or broil whole, as an ox or hog.

     Send me, gods, a whole hog barbecued. Pope.


   Barbed  (?),  a.  [See  4th Bare.] Accoutered with defensive armor; --
   said  of  a  horse.  See  Barded  (  which is the proper form.) Sir W.


   Barbed,  a. Furnished with a barb or barbs; as, a barbed arrow; barbed
   wire.  Barbed  wire,  a wire, or a strand of twisted wires, armed with
   barbs or sharp points. It is used for fences.


   Bar"bel  (?), n.[OE. barbel, F. barbeau, dim. of L. barbus barbel, fr.
   barba beard. See 1st Barb.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A slender tactile organ on the lips of certain fished.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  fresh-water fish ( Barbus vulgaris) found in
   many European rivers. Its upper jaw is furnished with four barbels.

   3.  pl.  Barbs or paps under the tongued of horses and cattle. See 1st
   Barb, 3.


   Bar"bel*late (?), a. [See 1st Barb.] (Bot.) Having short, stiff hairs,
   often barbed at the point. Gray.


   Bar*bel"lu*late  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Barbellate with diminutive hairs or


   Bar"ber  (?),  n.  [OE. barbour, OF. barbeor, F. barbier, as if fr. an
   assumed  L.  barbator,  fr.  barba  beard.  See  1st  Barb.] One whose
   occupation  it is to shave or trim the beard, and to cut and dress the
   hair of his patrons. Barber's itch. See under Itch.

     NOTE: &hand; Formerly the barber practiced some offices of surgery,
     such as letting blood and pulling teeth. Hence such terms as barber
     surgeon ( old form barber chirurgeon), barber surgery, etc.


   Bar"ber,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Barbered (p. pr. & vb. n. Barbering.] To
   shave and dress the beard or hair of. Shak.

                                  Barber fish

   Bar"ber fish. (Zo\'94l.) See Surgeon fish.


   Bar"ber*mon`ger (?), n. A fop. [Obs.]


   Bar"ber*ry  (?),  n.  [OE.  barbarin,  barbere, OF. berbere.] (Bot.) A
   shrub  of  the genus Berberis, common along roadsides and in neglected
   fields.  B. vulgaris is the species best known; its oblong red berries
   are made into a preserve or sauce, and have been deemed efficacious in
   fluxes  and  fevers. The bark dyes a fine yellow, esp. the bark of the
   root. [Also spelt berberry.]


   Bar"bet  (?),  n.  [F.  barbet,  fr.barbe  beard, long hair of certain
   animals.  See  Barb  beard.]  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A variety of small dog,
   having  long curly hair. (b) A bird of the family Bucconid\'91, allied
   to  the Cuckoos, having a large, conical beak swollen at the base, and
   bearded  with  five  bunches  of  stiff  bristles;  the  puff bird. It
   inhabits  tropical  America  and  Africa.  (c)  A  larva that feeds on


   Bar*bette"  (?),  n.  [F.  Cf.  Barbet.] (Fort.) A mound of earth or a
   platform  in  a  fortification, on which guns are mounted to fire over
   the  parapet.  En  barbette,  In  barbette, said of guns when they are
   elevated  so  as  to  fire  over the top of a parapet, and not through
   embrasures.  --  Barbette gun, or Barbette battery, a single gun, or a
   number  of  guns,  mounted  in  barbette,  or partially protected by a
   parapet or turret. -- Barbette carriage, a gun carriage which elevates
   guns sufficiently to be in barbette. [See Illust. of Casemate.]
                              Barbican, Barbacan
   Bar"bi*can  (?),  Bar"ba*can  (?),  n.  [OE.  barbican,  barbecan,  F.
   barbacane,  LL.  barbacana,  barbicana,  of  uncertain origin: cf. Ar.
   barbakh  aqueduct,  sewer.  F. barbacane also means, an opening to let
   out water, loophole.]
   1.  (  Fort.)  A  tower  or  advanced work defending the entrance to a
   castle or city, as at a gate or bridge. It was often large and strong,
   having a ditch and drawbridge of its own.
   2.  An  opening in the wall of a fortress, through which missiles were
   discharged upon an enemy.
                           Barbicanage, Barbacanage

   Bar"bi*can*age  (?),  Bar"ba*can*age  (?),  n. [LL. barbicanagium. See
   Barbican.] Money paid for the support of a barbican. [Obs.]


   Bar"bi*cel  (?),  n. [NL. barbicella, dim. of L. barba. See 1st Barb.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the  small  hooklike processes on the barbules of


   Bar"biers (?), n. (Med.) A variety of paralysis, peculiar to India and
   the Malabar coast; -- considered by many to be the same as beriberi in
   chronic form.


   Bar*big"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L. barba a beard + gerous.] Having a beard;
   bearded; hairy.


   Bar"bi*ton  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. .] (Mus.) An ancient Greek instrument
   resembling a lyre.

                                Barbituric acid

   Bar`bi*tu"ric  ac"id  (?). (Chem.) A white, crystalline substance, <--
   p. 119 -->


   Bar"ble (?), n. See Barbel.


   Bar"bo*tine  (?),  n.  [F.]  A paste of clay used in decorating coarse
   pottery in relief.


   Bar"bre (?), a. Barbarian. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bar"bule (?), n. [L. barbula, fr. barba beard.]

   1. A very minute barb or beard. Booth.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  One of the processes along the edges of the barbs of a
   feather, by which adjacent barbs interlock. See Feather.


   Bar"ca*rolle  (?),  n.  [F.  barcarolle, fr. It. barcaruola, fr. barca
   bark,  barge.]  (Mus.)  (a)  A popular song or melody sung by Venetian
   gondoliers. (b) A piece of music composed in imitation of such a song.


   Bar"con (?), n. [It. barcone, fr. barca a bark.] A vessel for freight;
   -- used in Mediterranean.


   Bard  (?),  n. [Of Celtic origin; cf. W. bardd, Arm. barz, Ir. & Gael.
   bard, and F. barde.]

   1.  A  professional poet and singer, as among the ancient Celts, whose
   occupation  was  to  compose  and  sing  verses in honor of the heroic
   achievements of princes and brave men.

   2. Hence: A poet; as, the bard of Avon.

                                  Bard, Barde

   Bard, Barde (?), n. [F. barde, of doubtful origin.]

   1.  A  piece  of  defensive  (or,  sometimes,  ornamental) armor for a
   horse's neck, breast, and flanks; a barb. [Often in the pl.]

   2. pl. Defensive armor formerly worn by a man at arms.

   3. (Cookery) A thin slice of fat bacon used to cover any meat or game.


   Bard, v. t. (Cookery) To cover (meat or game) with a thin slice of fat


   Bard"ed, p.a. [See Bard horse armor.]

   1. Accoutered with defensive armor; -- said of a horse.

   2. (Her.) Wearing rich caparisons.

     Fifteen hundred men . . . barded and richly trapped. Stow.


   Bard"ic,  a.  Of  or pertaining to bards, or their poetry. "The bardic
   lays of ancient Greece." G. P. Marsh.


   Bard"ish,  a.  Pertaining to, or written by, a bard or bards. "Bardish
   impostures." Selden.


   Bard"ism  (?),  n.  The  system  of  bards; the learning and maxims of


   Bard"ling (?), n. An inferior bard. J. Cunningham.


   Bard"ship, n. The state of being a bard.


   Bare  (?),  a.  [OE. bar, bare, AS. b\'91r; akin to D. & G. baar, OHG.
   par, Icel. berr, Sw. & Dan. bar, OSlav. bos barefoot, Lith. basas; cf.
   Skr. bh\'bes to shine

   1. Without clothes or covering; stripped of the usual covering; naked;
   as, his body is bare; the trees are bare.

   2. With head uncovered; bareheaded.

     When once thy foot enters the church, be bare. Herbert.

   3.  Without anything to cover up or conceal one's thoughts or actions;
   open to view; exposed.

     Bare in thy guilt, how foul must thou appear ! Milton.

   4.  Plain;  simple; unadorned; without polish; bald; meager. "Uttering
   bare truth." Shak.

   5.  Destitute;  indigent; empty; unfurnished or scantily furnished; --
   used  with of (rarely with in) before the thing wanting or taken away;
   as, a room bare of furniture. "A bare treasury." Dryden.

   6. Threadbare; much worn.

     It  appears  by  their  bare  liveries  that they live by your bare
     words. Shak.

   7.  Mere;  alone; unaccompanied by anything else; as, a bare majority.
   "The bare necessaries of life." Addison.

     Nor are men prevailed upon by bare of naked truth. South.

   Under bare poles (Naut.), having no sail set.


   Bare, n.

   1. Surface; body; substance. [R.]

     You have touched the very bare of naked truth. Marston.

   2.  (Arch.)  That  part  of  a  roofing slate, shingle, tile, or metal
   plate, which is exposed to the weather.


   Bare,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bared(p. pr. & vb. n. Baring.] [AS. barian.
   See  Bare, a.] To strip off the covering of; to make bare; as, to bare
   the breast.


   Bare. Bore; the old preterit of Bear, v.


   Bare"back`  (?),  adv.  On  the  bare back of a horse, without using a
   saddle; as, to ride bareback.


   Bare"backed`  (?),  a.  Having  the  back  uncovered; as, a barebacked


   Bare"bone`  (?),  n.  A very lean person; one whose bones show through
   the skin. Shak.


   Bare"faced` (?), a.

   1.  With  the  face  uncovered; not masked. "You will play barefaced."

   2.  Without  concealment;  undisguised.  Hence:  Shameless; audacious.
   "Barefaced treason." J. Baillie.


   Bare"faced`ly, adv. Openly; shamelessly. Locke.


   Bare"faced`ness,  n.  The  quality  of being barefaced; shamelessness;
   assurance; audaciousness.


   Bare"foot  (?),  a.  &  adv.  With  the  feet  bare;  without shoes or


   Bare"foot`ed, a. Having the feet bare.


   Ba*r\'82ge"  (?),  n. [F. bar\'82ge, so called from Bar\'82ges, a town
   in  the Pyrenees.] A gauzelike fabric for ladies' dresses, veils, etc.
   of worsted, silk and worsted, or cotton and worsted.


   Bare"hand`ed (?), n. Having bare hands.

                             Bareheaded, Barehead

   Bare"head`ed  (?), Bare"head, a. & adv. Having the head uncovered; as,
   a bareheaded girl.


   Bare"legged` (?), a. Having the legs bare.


   Bare"ly, adv.

   1. Without covering; nakedly.

   2. Without concealment or disguise.

   3. Merely; only.

     R.  For  now  his  son is duke. W. Barely in title, not in revenue.

   4.  But just; without any excess; with nothing to spare ( of quantity,
   time,  etc.); hence, scarcely; hardly; as, there was barely enough for
   all; he barely escaped.


   Bare"necked` (?), a. Having the neck bare.


   Bare"ness, n. The state of being bare.


   Bare"sark  (?),  n.  [Literally,  bare sark or shirt.] A Berserker, or
   Norse  warrior  who  fought  without  armor,  or shirt of mail. Hence,
   adverbially: Without shirt of mail or armor.


   Bar"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Calico bass.


   Bar"ful (?), a. Full of obstructions. [Obs.] Shak.


   Bar"gain (?), n. [OE. bargayn, bargany, OF. bargaigne, bargagne, prob.
   from  a  supposed  LL.  barcaneum,  fr.  barca  a  boat  which carries
   merchandise  to  the  shore; hence, to traffic to and fro, to carry on
   commerce in general. See Bark a vessel. ]

   1.  An agreement between parties concerning the sale of property; or a
   contract  by  which  one  party binds himself to transfer the right to
   some  property  for a consideration, and the other party binds himself
   to receive the property and pay the consideration.

     A contract is a bargain that is legally binding. Wharton.

   2. An agreement or stipulation; mutual pledge.

     And  whon  your honors mean to solemnize The bargain of your faith.

   3.  A  purchase; also ( when not qualified), a gainful transaction; an
   advantageous purchase; as, to buy a thing at a bargain.

   4. The thing stipulated or purchased; also, anything bought cheap.

     She was too fond of her most filthy bargain. Shak.

   Bargain  and  sale  (Law),  a  species  of  conveyance,  by  which the
   bargainor  contracts to convey the lands to the bargainee, and becomes
   by such contract a trustee for and seized to the use of the bargainee.
   The  statute  then completes the purchase; i.e., the bargain vests the
   use,  and  the  statute  vests the possession. Blackstone. -- Into the
   bargain,  over  and  above  what  is  stipulated;  besides. -- To sell
   bargains, to make saucy ( usually indelicate) repartees. [Obs.] Swift.
   --  To  strike  a bargain, to reach or ratify an agreement. "A bargain
   was  struck."  Macaulay.  Syn.  --  Contract;  stipulation;  purchase;
   Bar"gain,  v.  i.  [OE.  barganien,  OF. bargaigner, F. barguigner, to
   hesitate,  fr.  LL. barcaniare. See Bargain, n.] To make a bargain; to
   make  a contract for the exchange of property or services; -- followed
   by with and for; as, to bargain with a farmer for a cow. 

     So worthless peasants bargain for their wives. Shak.


   Bar"gain,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bargained (p. pr. & vb. n. Bargaining.]
   To  transfer  for a consideration; to barter; to trade; as, to bargain
   one horse for another. To bargain away, to dispose of in a bargain; --
   usually  with  a  sense  of  loss or disadvantage; as, to bargain away
   one's  birthright.  "The  heir  .  .  . had somehow bargained away the
   estate." G. Eliot.
   Bar`fain*ee" (?), n. [OF. bargaign\'82, p.p. See Bargain, v. i.] (Law)
   The  party  to  a  contract  who  receives,  or agrees to receive, the
   property sold. Blackstone.
   Bar"gain*er (?), n. One who makes a bargain; -- sometimes in the sense
   of bargainor.
   Bar`gain*or"  (?), n. (Law) One who makes a bargain, or contracts with
   another;  esp.,  one  who  sells,  or  contracts  to sell, property to
   another. Blackstone. 


   Barge  (?),  n.  [OF.  barge, F. berge, fr. LL. barca, for barica (not
   found),  prob.  fr.  L. baris an Egyptian rowboat, fr. Gr. , prob. fr.
   Egyptian: cf. Coptic bari a boat. Cf. Bark a vessel.]

   1. A pleasure boat; a vessel or boat of state, elegantly furnished and

   2.  A large, roomy boat for the conveyance of passengers or goods; as,
   a ship's barge; a charcoal barge.

   3. A large boat used by flag officers.

   4.  A double-decked passenger or freight vessel, towed by a steamboat.

   5. A large omnibus used for excursions. [Local, U.S.]


   Barge"board` (?), n. [Perh. corrup. of vergeboard; or cf. LL. bargus a
   kind of gallows.] A vergeboard.


   Barge"course`  (?),  n. [See Bargeboard.] (Arch.) A part of the tiling
   which  projects beyond the principal rafters, in buildings where there
   is a gable. Gwilt.


   Bar*gee" (?), n. A bargeman. [Eng.]


   Barge"man (?), n. The man who manages a barge, or one of the crew of a


   Barge"mast`ter (?), n. The proprietor or manager of a barge, or one of
   the crew of a barge.


   Bar"ger (?), n. The manager of a barge. [Obs.]


   Bar"ghest`  (?), n. [Perh. G. berg mountain + geist demon, or b\'84r a
   bear  +  geist.]  A  goblin,  in  the shape of a large dog, portending
   misfortune. [Also written barguest.]


   Ba"ri*a (?), n. [Cf. Barium.] (Chem.) Baryta.


   Bar"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to barium; as, baric oxide.


   Bar"ic, a. [Gr. weight.] (Physics) Of or pertaining to weight, esp. to
   the weight or pressure of the atmosphere as measured by the barometer.


   Ba*ril"la (?), n. [Sp. barrilla.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A name given to several species of Salsola from which soda
   is made, by burning the barilla in heaps and lixiviating the ashes.

   2.  (Com.)  (a)  The  alkali  produced from the plant, being an impure
   carbonate  of  soda,  used  for  making  soap,  glass,  etc.,  and for
   bleaching  purposes.  (b)  Impure  soda obtained from the ashes of any
   seashore plant, or kelp. Ure.
   Copper barilla (Min.), native copper in granular form mixed with sand,
   an ore brought from Bolivia; -- called also Barilla de cobre.


   Bar"il*let  (?),  n.  [F.,  dim.  of  baril barrel.] A little cask, or
   something resembling one. Smart.

                                   Bar iron

   Bar" i`ron (?). See under Iron.


   Ba"rite  (?), n. (Min.) Native sulphate of barium, a mineral occurring
   in   transparent,  colorless,  white  to  yellow  crystals  (generally
   tabular),  also  in  granular  form,  and  in  compact  massive  forms
   resembling  marble. It has a high specific gravity, and hence is often
   called heavy spar. It is a common mineral in metallic veins.


   Bar"i*tone (?), a. & n. See Barytone.


   Ba"ri*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  bary`s heavy.] (Chem.) One of the
   elements,  belonging  to  the  alkaline  earth group; a metal having a
   silver-white  color,  and  melting  at  a very high temperature. It is
   difficult  to  obtain  the pure metal, from the facility with which it
   becomes oxidized in the air. Atomic weight, 137. Symbol, Ba. Its oxide
   called baryta. [Rarely written barytum.]

     NOTE: &hand; So me of  the compounds of this element are remarkable
     for  their  high  specific  gravity,  as the sulphate, called heavy
     spar,  and  the  like.  The  oxide  was called barote, by Guyton de
     Morveau,  which name was changed by Lavoisier to baryta, whence the
     name of the metal.


   Bard  (?),  n.  [Akin  to  Dan.  & Sw. bark, Icel. b\'94rkr, LG. & HG.

   1.  The  exterior  covering  of  the trunk and branches of a tree; the

   2. Specifically, Peruvian bark.
   Bark  bed. See Bark stove (below). -- Bark pit, a pit filled with bark
   and  water,  in  which  hides  are  steeped  in tanning. -- Bark stove
   (Hort.),  a glazed structure for keeping tropical plants, having a bed
   of tanner's bark (called a bark bed) or other fermentable matter which
   produces a moist heat.
   Bark, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Barked (p. pr. & vb. n. Barking.]

   1. To strip the bark from; to peel.

   2.  To  abrade  or  rub  off any outer covering from; as to bark one's

   3. To girdle. See Girdle, v. t., 3.

   4.  To  cover  or  inclose with bark, or as with bark; as, to bark the
   roof of a hut.


   Bark,  v. i. [OE. berken, AS. beorcan; akin to Icel. berkja, and prob.
   to E. break.]

   1.  To  make  a short, loud, explosive noise with the vocal organs; --
   said of some animals, but especially of dogs.

   2. To make a clamor; to make importunate outcries.

     They bark, and say the Scripture maketh heretics. Tyndale.

     Where  there  is  the barking of the belly, there no other commands
     will be heard, much less obeyed. Fuller.


   Bark,  n. The short, loud, explosive sound uttered by a dog; a similar
   sound made by some other animals.

                                 Bark, Barque

   Bark,  Barque  (?), n. [F. barque, fr. Sp. or It. barca, fr. LL. barca
   for barica. See Barge.]

   1.  Formerly,  any  small sailing vessel, as a pinnace, fishing smack,
   etc.;  also,  a  rowing  boat;  a  barge.  Now applied poetically to a
   sailing vessel or boat of any kind. Byron.

   2.  (Naut.)  A  three-masted  vessel, having her foremast and mainmast
   squarerigged, and her mizzenmast schooner-rigged.


   Bark"an*tine (?), n. Same as Barkentine.

                                  Bark beetle

   Bark"  bee`tle  (?). (Zo\'94l.) A small beetle of many species (family
   Scolytid\'91), which in the larval state bores under or in the bark of
   trees, often doing great damage.


   Bark"bound`  (?),  a.  Prevented  from growing, by having the bark too
   firm or close.


   Bar"keep`er  (?),  n.  One  who  keeps  or tends a bar for the sale of


   Bark"en (?), a. Made of bark. [Poetic] Whittier.


   Bark"en*tine  (?),  n. [See Bark, n., a vessel.] (Naut.) A threemasted
   vessel,   having   the   foremast   square-rigged,   and   the  others
   schooner-rigged.  [Spelled  also  barquentine,  barkantine,  etc.] See
   Illust. in Append.


   Bark"er (?), n.

   1. An animal that barks; hence, any one who clamors unreasonably.

   2. One who stands at the doors of shops to urg [Cant, Eng.]

   3. A pistol. [Slang] Dickens.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) The spotted redshank.


   Bark"er, n. One who strips trees of their bark.

                                 Barker's mill

   Bark"er's  mill`  (?).  [From  Dr.  Barker,  the inventor.] A machine,
   invented  in the 17th century, worked by a form of reaction wheel. The
   water  flows  into a vertical tube and gushes from apertures in hollow
   horizontal arms, causing the machine to revolve on its axis.


   Bark"er*y (?), n. A tanhouse.

                                 Barking irons

   Bark"ing i`rons (?).

   1. Instruments used in taking off the bark of trees. Gardner.

   2. A pair of pistols. [Slang]


   Bark"less, a. Destitute of bark.

                                  Bark louse

   Bark" louse` (?). (Zo\'94l.) An insect of the family Coccid\'91, which
   infests the bark of trees and vines.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e wi ngless females assume the shape of scales. The
     bark louse of vine is Pulvinaria innumerabilis; that of the pear is
     Lecanium pyri. See Orange scale.


   Bark"y  (?),  a. Covered with, or containing, bark. "The barky fingers
   of the elm." Shak.


   Bar"ley  (?),  n.  [OE.  barli,  barlich, AS. b\'91rlic; bere barley +
   l\'c6c  (which  is prob. the same as E. like, adj., or perh. a form of
   AS.  le\'bec  leek).  AS.  bere  is  akin  to Icel, barr barley, Goth.
   barizeins  made  of  barley,  L. far spelt; cf. W. barlys barley, bara
   bread.  Farina,  6th  Bear.] (Bot.) A valuable grain, of the family of
   grasses, genus Hordeum, used for food, and for making malt, from which
   are  prepared  beer,  ale,  and  whisky.  <--  p.  120 --> Barley bird
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  siskin.  --  Barley  sugar,  sugar boiled till it is
   brittle  (formerly  with a decoction of barley) and candied. -- Barley
   water,  a  decoction  of  barley, used in medicine, as a nutritive and

                            Barleybrake Barleybreak

   Bar"ley*brake`  Bar"ley*break` (?), n. An ancient rural game, commonly
   played  round  stacks  of barley, or other grain, in which some of the
   party attempt to catch others who run from a goal.


   Bar"ley-bree`  (?), n. [Lit. barley broth. See Brew.] Liquor made from
   barley; strong ale. [Humorous] [Scot.] Burns.


   Bar"ley*corn` (?), n. [See Corn.]

   1. A grain or "corn" of barley.

   2.  Formerly  ,  a measure of length, equal to the average length of a
   grain of barley; the third part of an inch.
   John Barleycorn, a humorous personification of barley as the source of
   malt liquor or whisky.


   Barm  (?),  n.  [OE.  berme,  AS.  beorma;  akin  to  Sw. b\'84rma, G.
   b\'84rme,  and  prob. L. fermenium. \'fb93.] Foam rising upon beer, or
   other  malt  liquors,  when  fermenting,  and used as leaven in making
   bread and in brewing; yeast. Shak.


   Barm,  n.  [OE.  bearm,  berm,  barm,  AS.  beorma; akin to E. bear to
   support.] The lap or bosom. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bar"maid`  (?), n. A girl or woman who attends the customers of a bar,
   as in a tavern or beershop.

     A bouncing barmaid. W. Irving.


   Bar"mas`ter  (?),  n. [Berg + master: cf. G. Bergmeister.] Formerly, a
   local judge among miners; now, an officer of the barmote. [Eng.]


   Barm"cloth` (?), n. Apron. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bar"me*ci`dal  (?),  a.  [See Barmecide.] Unreal; illusory. "A sort of
   Barmecidal feast." Hood.


   Bar"me*cide (?), n. [A prince of the Barmecide family, who, as related
   in  the  "Arabian  Nights'  Tales", pretended to set before the hungry
   Shacabac  food,  on  which  the  latter  pretended  to feast.] One who
   proffers  some  illusory  advantage  or benefit. Also used as an adj.:
   Barmecidal. "A Barmecide feast." Dickens.


   Bar"mote`  (?),  n. [Barg + mote meeting.] A court held in Derbyshire,
   in England, for deciding controversies between miners. Blount.


   Balm"y  (?),  a.  Full  of  barm or froth; in a ferment. "Barmy beer."


   Barn (?), n. [OE. bern, AS. berern, bern; bere barley + ern, \'91rn, a
   close  place.  Barley.]  A  covered  building used chiefly for storing
   grain,  hay,  and  other productions of a farm. In the United States a
   part  of  the  barn is often used for stables. Barn owl (Zo\'94l.), an
   owl  of  Europe  and America (Aluco flammeus, or Strix flammea), which
   frequents  barns  and other buildings. -- Barn swallow (Zo\'94l.), the
   common  American  swallow (Hirundo horreorum), which attaches its nest
   of mud to the beams and rafters of barns.


   Barn, v. t. To lay up in a barn. [Obs.] Shak.

     Men . . . often barn up the chaff, and burn up the grain. Fuller.


   Barn, n. A child. [Obs.] See Bairn.


   Bar"na*bite (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A member of a religious order, named
   from St. Barnabas.


   Bar"na*cle  (?), n. [Prob. from E. barnacle a kind of goose, which was
   popularly  supposed  to  grow  from this shellfish; but perh. from LL.
   bernacula  for  pernacula,  dim. of perna ham, sea mussel; cf. Gr. ham
   Cf.  F.  bernacle,  barnacle,  E. barnacle a goose; and Ir. bairneach,
   barneach,  limpet.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  cirriped  crustacean adhering to
   rocks,  floating  timber,  ships,  etc.,  esp. (a) the sessile species
   (genus  Balanus  and  allies),  and (b) the stalked or goose barnacles
   (genus Lepas and allies). See Cirripedia, and Goose barnacle. Barnacle
   eater (Zo\'94l.), the orange filefish. -- Barnacle scale (Zo\'94l.), a
   bark  louse  (Ceroplastes  cirripediformis)  of  the orange and quince
   trees  in  Florida.  The  female  scale  curiously resembles a sessile
   barnacle in form.


   Bar"na*cle, n. [See Bernicle.] A bernicle goose.


   Bar"na*cle,  n.  [OE.  bernak,  bernacle; cf. OF. bernac, and Prov. F.
   (Berri) berniques, spectacles.]

   1.  pl.  (Far.)  An  instrument  for pinching a horse's nose, and thus
   restraining him.

     NOTE: [Formerly used in the sing.]

     The  barnacles  . . . give pain almost equal to that of the switch.

   2.  pl.  Spectacles;  --  so  called  from  their  resemblance  to the
   barnacles used by farriers. [Cant, Eng.] Dickens.


   Barn"yard` (?), n. A yard belonging to a barn.


   Ba*roc"co (?), a. [It.] (Arch.) See Baroque.


   Bar"o*graph (?), n. [Gr. weight + -graph.] (Meteor.) An instrument for
   recording automatically the variations of atmospheric pressure.


   Ba*ro"ko  (?),  n.  [A  mnemonic  word.]  (Logic)  A  form  or mode of
   syllogism  of  which the first proposition is a universal affirmative,
   and the other two are particular negative.


   Ba*rol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  weight + -logy.] The science of weight or


   Bar`o*ma*crom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr. weight + long + -meter.] (Med.) An
   instrument for ascertaining the weight and length of a newborn infant.


   Ba*rom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr. weight + -meter: cf. F. barom\'8atre.] An
   instrument  for  determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere,
   and  hence  for  judging  of  the  probable changes of weather, or for
   ascertaining the height of any ascent.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ba rometer was invented by Torricelli at Florence
     about  1643. It is made in its simplest form by filling a graduated
     glass  tube about 34 inches long with mercury and inverting it in a
     cup  containing mercury. The column of mercury in the tube descends
     until  balanced  by  the  weight of the atmosphere, and its rise or
     fall  under  varying  conditions  is a measure of the change in the
     atmospheric pressure. At the sea level its ordinary height is about
     30 inches (760 millimeters). See Sympiesometer.

   Nichol.  Aneroid  barometer.  See Aneroid barometer, under Aneroid. --
   Marine  barometer,  a  barometer  with  tube  contracted  at bottom to
   prevent  rapid  oscillations  of the mercury, and suspended in gimbals
   from an arm or support on shipboard. -- Mountain barometer, a portable
   mercurial barometer with tripod support, and long scale, for measuring
   heights.  --  Siphon  barometer, a barometer having a tube bent like a
   hook  with the longer leg closed at the top. The height of the mercury
   in  the  longer  leg  shows  the  pressure of the atmosphere. -- Wheel
   barometer,  a  barometer with recurved tube, and a float, from which a
   cord passes over a pulley and moves an index.

                           Barometric, Barometrical

   Bar`o*met"ric   (?),   Bar`o*met"ric*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  the
   barometer;  made  or indicated by a barometer; as, barometric changes;
   barometrical observations.


   Bar`o*met"ric*al*ly,  adv.  By  means  of a barometer, or according to
   barometric observations.


   Bar`o*met"ro*graph  (?), n. [Gr. weight + measure + -graph.] A form of
   barometer  so constructed as to inscribe of itself upon paper a record
   of the variations of atmospheric pressure.


   Ba*rom"e*try  (?),  n.  The  art  or  process  of  making barometrical


   Bar"o*metz   (?),  n.  [Cf.  Russ.  baranets'  clubmoss.]  (Bot.)  The
   woolly-skinned  rhizoma  or  rootstock of a fern (Dicksonia barometz),
   which,  when  specially  prepared  and  inverted, somewhat resembles a
   lamb; -- called also Scythian lamb.


   Bar"on  (?), n. [OE. baron, barun, OF. baron, accus. of ber, F. baron,
   prob.  fr.  OHG.  baro (not found) bearer, akin to E. bear to support;
   cf. O. Frisian bere, LL. baro, It. barone, Sp. varon. From the meaning
   bearer  (of  burdens) seem to have come the senses strong man, man (in
   distinction  from  woman),  which is the oldest meaning in French, and
   lastly, nobleman. Cf. L. baro, simpleton. See Bear to support.]

   1. A title or degree of nobility; originally, the possessor of a fief,
   who  had  feudal  tenants  under  him;  in modern times, in France and
   Germany, a nobleman next in rank below a count; in England, a nobleman
   of  the  lowest  grade  in  the  House  of  Lords,  being next below a

     NOTE: &hand; "T he te nants in chief from the Crown, who held lands
     of the annual value of four hundred pounds, were styled Barons; and
     it  is  to  them, and not to the members of the lowest grade of the
     nobility  (to  whom  the  title  at the present time belongs), that
     reference  is  made when we read of the Barons of the early days of
     England's  history  .  . . . Barons are addressed as 'My Lord,' and
     are   styled  'Right  Honorable.'  All  their  sons  and  daughters


   2.  (Old  Law)  A  husband; as, baron and feme, husband and wife. [R.]
   Baron of beef, two sirloins not cut asunder at the backbone. -- Barons
   of the Cinque Ports, formerly members of the House of Commons, elected
   by  the  seven  Cinque  Ports,  two  for  each  port.  -- Baron of the
   exchequer,  the  judges  of  the  Court of Exchequer, one of the three
   ancient courts of England, now abolished.


   Bar"on*age  (?),  n. [OE. barnage, baronage, OF.barnage, F. baronnage;
   cf. LL. baronagium.]

   1. The whole body of barons or peers.

     The baronage of the kingdom. Bp. Burnet.

   2. The dignity or rank of a baron.

   3. The land which gives title to a baron. [Obs.]


   Bar"on*ess (?), n. A baron's wife; also, a lady who holds the baronial
   title in her own right; as, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts.


   Bar"on*et  (?),  n.  [Baron  + -et.] A dignity or degree of honor next
   below  a  baron and above a knight, having precedency of all orders of
   knights  except  those of the Garter. It is the lowest degree of honor
   that is hereditary. The baronets are commoners.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e or der wa s fo unded by  James I. in 1611, and is
     given by patent. The word, however, in the sense of a lesser baron,
     was  in use long before. "Baronets have the title of 'Sir' prefixed
     to  their  Christian  names; their surnames being followed by their
     dignity,  usually  abbreviated  Bart.  Their wives are addressed as
     'Lady'  or  'Madam'.  Their  sons  are possessed of no title beyond



   Bar"on*et*age (?), n.

   1. State or rank of a baronet.

   2. The collective body of baronets.


   Bar"on*et*cy (?), n. The rank or patent of a baronet.


   Ba*ro"ni*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  a  baron or a barony. "Baronial
   tenure." Hallam.


   Bar"o*ny  (?),  n.;  pl.  Baronies  (.  [OF. baronie, F. baronnie, LL.
   baronia. See Baron.]

   1.  The  fee or domain of a baron; the lordship, dignity, or rank of a

   2.  In  Ireland,  a  territorial division, corresponding nearly to the
   English  hundred, and supposed to have been originally the district of
   a  native  chief.  There  are  252  of these baronies. In Scotland, an
   extensive freehold. It may be held by a commoner. Brande & C.


   Ba*roque"  (?),  a.  [F.;  cf.  It.  barocco.]  (Arch.)  In bad taste;
   grotesque; odd.


   Bar"o*scope  (?),  n.  [Gr.  weight  +  -scope: cf. F. baroscope.] Any
   instrument  showing the changes in the weight of the atmosphere; also,
   less  appropriately,  any  instrument  that  indicates -or foreshadows
   changes of the weather, as a deep vial of liquid holding in suspension
   some substance which rises and falls with atmospheric changes.

                           Baroscopic, Baroscopical

   Bar`o*scop"ic   (?),   Bar`o*scop"ic*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or
   determined by, the baroscope.


   Ba*rouche"   (?),  n.  [G.  barutsche,  It.  baroccio,  biroccio,  LL.
   barrotium,  fr.  L. birotus two-wheeled; bi=bis twice + rota wheel.] A
   four-wheeled  carriage,  with a falling top, a seat on the outside for
   the  driver,  and  two double seats on the inside arranged so that the
   sitters on the front seat face those on the back seat.


   Ba`rou*chet" (?), n. A kind of light barouche.


   Bar"post`  (?),  n.  A  post  sunk  in  the ground to receive the bars
   closing a passage into a field.


   Barque (?), n. Same as 3d Bark, n.


   Bar"ra*can  (?),  n.  [F.  baracan,  bouracan  (cf.  Pr. barracan, It.
   baracane,  Sp.  barragan,  Pg.  barregana,  LL.  barracanus),  fr. Ar.
   barrak\'ben  a kind of black gown, perh. fr. Per. barak a garment made
   of  camel's  hair.]  A  thick,  strong stuff, somewhat like camlet; --
   still used for outer garments in the Levant.


   Bar"rack  (?), n. [F. baraque, fr. It. baracca (cf. Sp. barraca), from
   LL. barra bar. See Bar, n.]

   1.  (Mil.)  A  building  for  soldiers,  especially  when in garrison.
   Commonly  in  the  pl.,  originally  meaning  temporary  huts, but now
   usually applied to a permanent structure or set of buildings.

     He  lodged  in a miserable hut or barrack, composed of dry branches
     and thatched with straw. Gibbon.

   2.  A  movable  roof  sliding on four posts, to cover hay, straw, etc.
   [Local, U.S.]


   Bar"rack, v. t. To supply with barracks; to establish in barracks; as,
   to barrack troops.


   Bar"rack, v. i. To live or lodge in barracks.


   Bar"ra*clade  (?), n. [D. baar, OD. baer, naked, bare + kleed garment,
   i.e.,  cloth  undressed  or  without  nap.] A home-made woolen blanket
   without nap. [Local, New York] Bartlett.


   Bar"ra*coon`  (?),  n.  [Sp.  or  Pg.  barraca.  See Barrack.] A slave
   warehouse,  or an inclosure where slaves are quartered temporarily. Du

                            Barracuda, Barracouata

   Bar`ra*cu"da (?), Bar`ra*cou"ata (?), n.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  voracious  pikelike,  marine  fish,  of  the  genus
   Sphyr\'91na, sometimes used as food.

     NOTE: &hand; Th at of  Europe and our Atlantic coast is Sphyr\'91na
     spet  (or  S.  vulgaris);  a  southern  species  is  S. picuda; the
     Californian is S. argentea.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  edible fresh-water fish of Australia and New
   Zealand (Thyrsites atun).


   Bar"rage  (?), n. [F., fr. barrer to bar, from barre bar.] (Engin.) An
   artificial  bar  or  obstruction  placed in a river or water course to
   increase the depth of water; as, the barrages of the Nile.


   Bar*ran"ca  (?),  n.  [Sp.]  A  ravine  caused  by  heavy  rains  or a
   watercourse. [Texas & N. Mex.]


   Bar"ras (?), n. [F.] A resin, called also galipot.


   Bar"ra*tor  (?),  n.  [OE.  baratour,  OF.  barateor deceiver, fr. OF.
   barater,  bareter,  to  deceive, cheat, barter. See Barter, v. i.] One
   guilty of barratry.


   Bar"ra*trous  (?),  (Law)  Tainter with, or constituting, barratry. --
   Bar"ra*trous*ly, adv. Kent.


   Bar"ra*try (?), n. [Cf. F. baraterie, LL. barataria. See Barrator, and
   cf. Bartery.]

   1.  (Law)  The  practice  of  exciting  and  encouraging  lawsuits and
   quarrels. [Also spelt barretry.] Coke. Blackstone.

   2.  (Mar.  Law)  A  fraudulent  breach of duty or willful act of known
   illegality  on  the  part  of  a master of a ship, in his character of
   master,  or of the mariners, to the injury of the owner of the ship or
   cargo,  and  without  his  consent.  It includes every breach of trust
   committed  with  dishonest  purpose, as by running away with the ship,
   sinking  or  deserting  her,  etc.,  or by embezzling the cargo. Kent.

   3.  (Scots  Law)  The crime of a judge who is influenced by bribery in
   pronouncing judgment. Wharton.

                                  Barred owl

   Barred" owl" (?). (Zo\'94l.) A large American owl (Syrnium nebulosum);
   --  so  called  from  the transverse bars of a dark brown color on the


   Bar"rel  (?),  n.[OE.  barel,  F.  baril,  prob.  fr.  barre  bar. Cf.

   1. A round vessel or cask, of greater length than breadth, and bulging
   in  the  middle, made of staves bound with hoops, and having flat ends
   or heads.

   2.  The  quantity  which  constitutes  a  full barrel. This varies for
   different  articles and also in different places for the same article,
   being regulated by custom or by law. A barrel of wine is 31 gallons; a
   barrel of flour is 196 pounds.

   3.  A  solid  drum,  or a hollow cylinder or case; as, the barrel of a
   windlass;  the  barrel  of a watch, within which the spring is coiled.
   <-- p. 121 -->

   4.  A  metallic  tube,  as  of  a  gun,  from  which  a  projectile is
   discharged. Knight.

   5. A jar. [Obs.] 1 Kings xvii. 12.

   6. (Zo\'94l.) The hollow basal part of a feather.
   Barrel  bulk  (Com.),  a  measure  equal  to  five cubic feet, used in
   estimating  capacity,  as  of  a  vessel  for freight. -- Barrel drain
   (Arch.),  a  drain  in  the form of a cylindrical tube. -- Barrel of a
   boiler,  the  cylindrical  part  of a boiler, containing the flues. --
   Barrel of the ear (Anat.), the tympanum, or tympanic cavity. -- Barrel
   organ,  an instrument for producing music by the action of a revolving
   cylinder. -- Barrel vault. See under Vault.
   Bar"rel  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Barreled (Barrelled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Barreling, or Barrelling.] To put or to pack in a barrel or barrels. 

                              Barreled, Barrelled

   Bar"reled, Bar"relled (?), a. Having a barrel; -- used in composition;
   as, a double-barreled gun.


   Bar"ren  (?),  a.  [OE.  barein, OF. brehaing, brehaigne, baraigne, F.
   br\'82haigne;   of  uncertain  origin;  cf.  Arm.  br\'82kha,  markha,
   sterile;  LL.  brana  a  sterile  mare,  principally in Aquitanian and
   Spanish documents; Bisc. barau, baru, fasting.]

   1. Incapable of producing offspring; producing no young; sterile; --

     She was barren of children. Bp. Hall.

   2.  Not  producing  vegetation, or useful vegetation; "Barren mountain
   tracts." Macaulay.

   3. Unproductive; fruitless; unprofitable; empty.

     Brilliant but barren reveries. Prescott.

     Some schemes will appear barren of hints and matter. Swift.

   4. Mentally dull; stupid. Shak.
   Barren  flower,  a  flower which has only stamens without a pistil, or
   which  as  neither  stamens  nor pistils. -- Barren Grounds (Geog.), a
   vast  tract  in  British  America  northward of the forest regions. --
   Barren  Ground bear (Zo\'94l.), a peculiar bear, inhabiting the Barren
   Grounds,  now believed to be a variety of the brown bear of Europe. --
   Barren   Ground   caribou   (Zo\'94l.),  a  small  reindeer  (Rangifer
   Gr\'d2nlandicus) peculiar to the Barren Grounds and Greenland.


   Bar"ren, n.

   1. A tract of barren land.

   2.  pl.  Elevated  lands  or plains on which grow small trees, but not
   timber;  as,  pine  barrens;  oak  barrens.  They  are not necessarily
   sterile, and are often fertile. [Amer.] J. Pickering.


   Bar"ren*ly, adv. Unfruitfully; unproductively.


   Bar"ren*ness,   n.   The   condition   of   being  barren;  sterility;

     A total barrenness of invention. Dryden.


   Bar"ren*wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  An  herbaceous  plant of the Barberry
   family  (Epimedium alpinum), having leaves that are bitter and said to
   be sudorific.


   Bar"ret  (?),  n.  [F. barrette, LL. barretum a cap. See Berretta, and
   cf.  Biretta.] A kind of cap formerly worn by soldiers; -- called also
   barret cap. Also, the flat cap worn by Roman Catholic ecclesiastics.


   Bar`ri*cade" (?), n. [F. barricade, fr. Sp. barricada, orig. a barring
   up with casks; fr. barrica cask, perh. fr. LL. barra bar. See Bar, n.,
   and cf. Barrel, n.]

   1.  (Mil.) A fortification, made in haste, of trees, earth, palisades,
   wagons,  or  anything  that will obstruct the progress or attack of an
   enemy.  It  is  usually  an  obstruction formed in streets to block an
   enemy's access.

   2. Any bar, obstruction, or means of defense.

     Such  a  barricade  as would greatly annoy, or absolutely stop, the
     currents of the atmosphere. Derham.


   Bar`ri*cade",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Barricaded;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Barricading.]  [Cf.  F.  barricader.  See Barricade, n.] To fortify or
   close  with  a barricade or with barricades; to stop up, as a passage;
   to obstruct; as, the workmen barricaded the streets of Paris.

     The  further  end  whereof  [a bridge] was barricaded with barrels.


   Bar`ri*cad"er (?), n. One who constructs barricades.


   Bar`ri*ca"do (?), n. & v. t. See Barricade. Shak.


   Bar"ri*er (?), n. [OE. barrere, barere, F. barri\'8are, fr. barre bar.
   See Bar, n.]

   1.  (Fort.)  A carpentry obstruction, stockade, or other obstacle made
   in a passage in order to stop an enemy.

   2.  A  fortress  or  fortified  town,  on  the  frontier of a country,
   commanding an avenue of approach.

   3.  pl.  A  fence or railing to mark the limits of a place, or to keep
   back a crowd.

     No  sooner  were the barriers opened, than he paced into the lists.
     Sir W. Scott.

   4.  An  any  obstruction;  anything  which hinders approach or attack.
   "Constitutional barriers." Hopkinson.

   5. Any limit or boundary; a line of separation.

     'Twixt that [instinct] and reason, what a nice barrier ! Pope.

   Barrier  gate, a heavy gate to close the opening through a barrier. --
   Barrier reef, a form of coral reef which runs in the general direction
   of the shore, and incloses a lagoon channel more or less extensive. --
   To  fight  at  barriers, to fight with a barrier between, as a martial
   exercise. [Obs.]


   Bar`ri*gu"do  (?),  n.  [Native  name, fr. Sp. barrigudo big-bellied.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A large, dark-colored, South American monkey, of the genus
   Lagothrix, having a long prehensile tail.


   Bar`ring*out"  (?),  n.  The  act of closing the doors of a schoolroom
   against  a  schoolmaster;  --  a  boyish mode of rebellion in schools.


   Bar"ris*ter  (?),  n.  [From  Bar,  n.]  Counselor  at  law; a counsel
   admitted  to  plead  at  the  bar,  and  undertake the public trial of
   causes,  as distinguished from an attorney or solicitor. See Attorney.


   Bar"room`  (?), n. A room containing a bar or counter at which liquors
   are sold.


   Bar"row  (?),  n.  [OE.  barow,  fr.  AS.  beran  to bear. See Bear to
   support, and cf. Bier.]

   1.  A  support  having  handles, and with or without a wheel, on which
   heavy  or bulky things can be transported by hand. See Handbarrow, and

   2. (Salt Works) A wicker case, in which salt is put to drain.


   Bar"row  (?),  n.  [OE.  barow, bargh, AS. bearg, bearh; akin to Icel.
   b\'94rgr,  OHG.  barh,  barug,  G.  barch.  A  hog,  esp.  a  male hog
   castrated. Holland.


   Bar"row, n. [OE. bergh, AS. beorg, beorh, hill, sepulchral mound; akin
   to G. berg mountain, Goth. bairgahei hill, hilly country, and perh. to
   Skr. b high, OIr. brigh mountain. Cf. Berg, Berry a mound, and Borough
   an incorporated town.]

   1.  A  large  mound of earth or stones over the remains of the dead; a

   2. (Mining) A heap of rubbish, attle, etc.


   Bar"row*ist,  n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Henry Barrowe, one of the
   founders  of Independency or Congregationalism in England. Barrowe was
   executed for nonconformity in 1953.


   Bar"ru*let  (?),  n. [Dim. of bar, n.] (Her.) A diminutive of the bar,
   having one fourth its width.


   Bar"ru*ly (?), a. (Her.) Traversed by barrulets or small bars; -- said
   of the field.


   Bar"ry (?), a. (Her.), Divided into bars; -- said of the field.


   Barse  (?), n. [AS. bears, b\'91rs, akin to D. baars, G. bars, barsch.
   Cf.  1st  Bass,  n.]  The  common  perch.  See  1st Bass. [Prov. Eng.]


   Bar"tend`er (?), n. A barkeeper.


   Bar"ter (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bartered (p. pr. & vb. n. Bartering.]
   [OE.  bartren, OF. barater, bareter, to cheat, exchange, perh. fr. Gr.
   to  do,  deal  (well  or  ill),  use practices or tricks, or perh. fr.
   Celtic; cf. Ir. brath treachery, W. brad. Cf. Barrator.] To traffic or
   trade,  by exchanging one commodity for another, in distinction from a
   sale  and  purchase,  in  which  money  is  paid  for  the commodities
   transferred; to truck.


   Bar"ter,  v. t. To trade or exchange in the way of barter; to exchange
   (frequently  for  an unworthy consideration); to traffic; to truck; --
   sometimes followed by away; as, to barter away goods or honor.


   Bar"ter, n.

   1.  The  act or practice of trafficking by exchange of commodities; an
   exchange of goods.

     The spirit of huckstering and barter. Burke.

   2.  The  thing  given in exchange. Syn. -- Exchange; dealing; traffic;
   trade; truck.


   Bar"ter*er (?), n. One who barters.


   Bar"ter*y (?), n. Barter. [Obs.] Camden.


   Barth (?), n. [Etymol. unknown.] A place of shelter for cattle. [Prov.
   Eng.] Halliwell.

                               Bartholomew tide

   Bar*thol"o*mew  tide`  (?).  Time  of the festival of St. Bartholomew,
   August 24th. Shak.


   Bar"ti*zan`  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Brettice.]  (Arch.)  A small, overhanging
   structure  for lookout or defense, usually projecting at an angle of a
   building or near an entrance gateway.


   Bart"lett  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A Bartlett pear, a favorite kind of pear,
   which  originated  in  England  about  1770,  and was called Williams'
   Bonchr\'82tien.  It  was  brought  to  America, and distributed by Mr.
   Enoch Bartlett, of Dorchester, Massachusetts.


   Bar"ton  (?),  n.  [AS.  beret  courtyard,  grange; bere barley + t an
   inclosure. ]

   1.  The  demesne  lands  of  a  manor;  also, the manor itself. [Eng.]

   2. A farmyard. [Eng.] Southey.


   Bar"tram (?), n. (Bot.) See Bertram. Johnson.


   Bar"way`  (?),  n. A passage into a field or yard, closed by bars made
   to take out of the posts.


   Bar"wise` (?), adv. (Her.) Horizontally.


   Bar"wood`  (?),  n.  A  red wood of a leguminous tree (Baphia nitida),
   from  Angola  and  the  Gaboon in Africa. It is used as a dyewood, and
   also for ramrods, violin bows and turner's work.


   Bar`y*cen"tric  (?),  a. [Gr. heavy + center.] Of or pertaining to the
   center of gravity. See Barycentric calculus, under Calculus.


   Ba*ryph"o*ny (?), n. [Gr. heavy + a sound voice.] (Med.) Difficulty of


   Ba*ry"ta  (?),  n.  [Gr. heavy. Cf. Baria.] (Chem.) An oxide of barium
   (or barytum); a heavy earth with a specific gravity above 4.


   Ba*ry"tes  (?),  n.  [Gr. heavy: cf. Gr. heaviness, F. baryte.] (Min.)
   Barium sulphate, generally called heavy spar or barite. See Barite.


   Ba*ryt"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to baryta.


   Ba*ry"to-cal"cite  (?),  n.  [Baryta + calcite.] (Min.) A mineral of a
   white  or  gray  color,  occurring  massive  or  crystallized. It is a
   compound of the carbonates of barium and calcium.

                              Barytone, Baritone

   Bar"y*tone, Bar"i*tone (?), a. [Gr. ; heavy + tone.]

   1. (Mus.) Grave and deep, as a kind of male voice.

   2.  (Greek  Gram.) Not marked with an accent on the last syllable, the
   grave accent being understood.

                              Barytone, Baritone

   Bar"y*tone, Bar"i*tone, n. [F. baryton: cf. It. baritono.]

   1.  (Mus.)  (a)  A  male  voice,  the compass of which partakes of the
   common  bass  and  the tenor, but which does not descend as low as the
   one,  nor  rise  as  high as the other. (b) A person having a voice of
   such range. (c) The viola di gamba, now entirely disused.

   2.  (Greek  Gram.)  A  word  which  has  no  accent marked on the last
   syllable, the grave accent being understood.


   Ba*ry"tum (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) The metal barium. See Barium. [R.]


   Ba"sal  (?), a. Relating to, or forming, the base. Basal cleavage. See
   under  Cleavage.  --  Basal  plane  (Crystallog.), one parallel to the
   lateral or horizontal axis.


   Ba"sal-nerved`  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Having the nerves radiating from the
   base; -- said of leaves.


   Ba*salt"  (?),  n.  [N.  basaltes  (an  African word), a dark and hard
   species of marble found in Ethiopia: cf. F. basalte.]

   1.  (Geol.)  A  rock  of  igneous  origin,  consisting  of  augite and
   triclinic  feldspar, with grains of magnetic or titanic iron, and also
   bottle-green particles of olivine frequently disseminated.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  us ually of a greenish black color, or of some
     dull  brown  shade,  or  black. It constitutes immense beds in some
     regions,  and  also  occurs in veins or dikes cutting through other
     rocks.  It  has  often  a  prismatic  structure  as  at the Giant's
     Causeway,  in  Ireland,  where the columns are as regular as if the
     work  of  art. It is a very tough and heavy rock, and is one of the
     best materials for macadamizing roads.

   2.  An  imitation,  in  pottery,  of  natural  basalt; a kind of black


   Ba*salt"ic  (?),  a. [Cf. F. basaltique.] Pertaining to basalt; formed
   of, or containing, basalt; as basaltic lava.


   Ba*salt"i*form  (?),  a.  [Basalt  +  -form.]  In  the form of basalt;


   Ba*salt"oid (?), a. [Basalt + -oid.] Formed like basalt; basaltiform.


   Bas"an (?), n. Same as Basil, a sheepskin.


   Bas"a*nite  (?),  n.  [L.  basanites lapis, Gr. the touchstone: cf. F.
   basanite.]  (Min.)  Lydian  stone,  or  black  jasper,  a  variety  of
   siliceous  or  flinty slate, of a grayish or bluish black color. It is
   employed  to  test  the  purity  of  gold,  the  amount of alloy being
   indicated by the color left on the stone when rubbed by the metal.


   Bas`bleu"  (?), n. [F., fr. bas stocking + bleu blue.] A bluestocking;
   a literary woman. [Somewhat derisive]


   Bas"ci*net  (?),  n.  [OE.  bacinet, basnet, OF. bassinet, bacinet, F.
   bassinet,  dim.  of  OF.  bacin,  F. bassin, a helmet in the form of a
   basin.]  A  light  helmet, at first open, but later made with a visor.
   [Written also basinet, bassinet, basnet.]


   Bas"cule  (?),  n.  [F.,  a  seesaw.] In mechanics an apparatus on the
   principle  of  the  seesaw, in which one end rises as the other falls.
   Bascule bridge, a counterpoise or balanced drawbridge, which is opened
   by sinking the counterpoise and thus lifting the footway into the air.


   Base (?), a. [OE. bass, F. bas, low, fr. LL. bassus thick, fat, short,
   humble;  cf.  L. Bassus, a proper name, and W. bas shallow. Cf. Bass a
   part in music.]

   1.  Of little, or less than the usual, height; of low growth; as, base
   shrubs. [Archaic] Shak.

   2. Low in place or position. [Obs.] Shak.

   3.  Of humble birth; or low degree; lowly; mean. [Archaic] "A pleasant
   and base swain." Bacon.

   4. Illegitimate by birth; bastard. [Archaic]

     Why bastard? wherefore base? Shak.

   5.  Of little comparative value, as metal inferior to gold and silver,
   the precious metals.

   6. Alloyed with inferior metal; debased; as, base coin; base bullion.

   7.  Morally  low.  Hence:  Low-minded;  unworthy;  without  dignity of
   sentiment;  ignoble;  mean; illiberal; menial; as, a base fellow; base
   motives;  base  occupations.  "A  cruel  act of a base and a cowardish
   mind." Robynson (More's Utopia). "Base ingratitude." Milton.

   8. Not classical or correct. "Base Latin." Fuller.

   9.  Deep  or  grave  in sound; as, the base tone of a violin. [In this
   sense, commonly written bass.]

   10.  (Law)  Not held by honorable service; as, a base estate, one held
   by  services not honorable; held by villenage. Such a tenure is called
   base, or low, and the tenant, a base tenant.
   Base  fee,  formerly,  an  estate held at the will of the lord; now, a
   qualified  fee.  See  note  under Fee, n., 4. -- Base metal. See under
   Metal. Syn. -- Dishonorable; worthless; ignoble; low-minded; infamous;
   sordid;  degraded.  --  Base,  Vile,  Mean. These words, as expressing
   moral qualities, are here arranged in the order of their strength, the
   strongest  being  placed  first.  Base  marks  a  high degree of moral
   turpitude;  vile  and  mean  denote, in different degrees, the want of
   what  is  valuable  or  worthy  of  esteem.  What  is base excites our
   abhorrence;  what is vile provokes our disgust or indignation; what is
   mean awakens contempt. Base is opposed to high-minded; vile, to noble;
   mean, to liberal or generous. Ingratitude is base; sycophancy is vile;
   undue compliances are mean.


   Base,  n.  [F.  base,  L.  basis,  fr.  Gr.  a  stepping step, a base,
   pedestal, fr. to go, step, akin to E. come. Cf. Basis, and see Come.]

   1. The bottom of anything, considered as its support, or that on which
   something rests for support; the foundation; as, the base of a statue.
   "The base of mighty mountains." Prescott.

   2.  Fig.:  The fundamental or essential part of a thing; the essential
   principle; a groundwork.

   3. (Arch.) (a) The lower part of a wall, pier, or column, when treated
   as   a   separate   feature,  usually  in  projection,  or  especially
   ornamented.  (b) The lower part of a complete architectural design, as
   of  a  monument;  also,  the  lower  part  of  any  elaborate piece of
   furniture or decoration.

   4.  (Bot.)  That  extremity  of  a  leaf,  fruit, etc., at which it is
   attached to its support. <-- p. 122 -->

   5.  (Chem.) The positive, or non-acid component of a salt; a substance
   which, combined with an acid, neutralizes the latter and forms a salt;
   --  applied  also  to  the  hydroxides  of  the  positive  elements or
   radicals,  and  to  certain  organic  bodies  resembling them in their
   property of forming salts with acids.

   6. (Pharmacy) The chief ingredient in a compound.

   7. (Dyeing) A substance used as a mordant. Ure.

   8.  (Fort.)  The  exterior side of the polygon, or that imaginary line
   which connects the salient angles of two adjacent bastions.

   9.  (Geom.)  The line or surface constituting that part of a figure on
   which it is supposed to stand.

   10. (Math.) The number from which a mathematical table is constructed;
   as, the base of a system of logarithms.

   11. [See Base low.] A low, or deep, sound. (Mus.) (a) The lowest part;
   the  deepest  male  voice.  (b) One who sings, or the instrument which
   plays, base. [Now commonly written bass.]

     The trebles squeak for fear, the bases roar. Dryden.

   12.  (Mil.)  A place or tract of country, protected by fortifications,
   or  by  natural  advantages,  from  which  the  operations  of an army
   proceed, forward movements are made, supplies are furnished, etc.

   13. (Mil.) The smallest kind of cannon. [Obs.]

   14.  (Zo\'94l.)  That  part  of  an  organ  by which it is attached to
   another more central organ.

   15. (Crystallog.) The basal plane of a crystal.

   16.  (Geol.)  The  ground mass of a rock, especially if not distinctly

   17. (Her.) The lower part of the field. See Escutcheon.

   18. The housing of a horse. [Obs.]

   19. pl. A kind of skirt ( often of velvet or brocade, but sometimes of
   mailed armor) which hung from the middle to about the knees, or lower.

   20. The lower part of a robe or petticoat. [Obs.]

   21. An apron. [Obs.] "Bakers in their linen bases." Marston.

   22.  The point or line from which a start is made; a starting place or
   a goal in various games.

     To their appointed base they went. Dryden.

   23.  (Surv.)  A line in a survey which, being accurately determined in
   length  and  position,  serves as the origin from which to compute the
   distances  and positions of any points or objects connected with it by
   a system of triangles. Lyman.

   24.  A  rustic  play;  -- called also prisoner's base, prison base, or
   bars. "To run the country base." Shak.

   25.  (Baseball)  Any  one of the four bounds which mark the circuit of
   the infield.
   Altern base. See under Altern. -- Attic base. (Arch.) See under Attic.
   --  Base course. (Arch.) (a) The first or lower course of a foundation
   wall,  made  of  large  stones  of  a mass of concrete; -- called also
   foundation course. (b) The architectural member forming the transition
   between  the  basement  and  the wall above. -- Base hit (Baseball), a
   hit,  by  which  the  batsman,  without  any  error on the part of his
   opponents,  is  able to reach the first base without being put out. --
   Base  line.  (a)  A  main  line taken as a base, as in surveying or in
   military  operations.  (b) A line traced round a cannon at the rear of
   the  vent.  -- Base plate, the foundation plate of heavy machinery, as
   of  the  steam  engine;  the  bed  plate.  --  Base ring (Ordnance), a
   projecting band of metal around the breech, connected with the body of
   the gun by a concave molding. H. L. Scott.


   Base  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Based (p. pr. & vb. n. Basing.] [From
   Base,  n.]  To  put  on  a base or basis; to lay the foundation of; to
   found, as an argument or conclusion; -- used with on or upon. Bacon.


   Base, v. t. [See Base, a., and cf. Abase.]

   1. To abase; to let, or cast, down; to lower. [Obs.]

     If any . . . based his pike. Sir T. North.

   2. To reduce the value of; to debase. [Obs.]

     Metals which we can not base. Bacon.


   Base"ball" (?), n.

   1.  A  game  of  ball,  so  called  from the bases or bounds ( four in
   number) which designate the circuit which each player must endeavor to
   make after striking the ball.

   2. The ball used in this game.


   Base"board  (?),  n. (Arch.) A board, or other woodwork, carried round
   the walls of a room and touching the floor, to form a base and protect
   the  plastering;  -- also called washboard (in England), mopboard, and


   Base"born` (?), a.

   1. Born out of wedlock. Gay.

   2. Born of low parentage.

   3. Vile; mean. "Thy baseborn heart." Shak.


   Base"-burn`er  (?),  n.  A  furnace  or  stove  in  which  the fuel is
   contained  in a hopper or chamber, and is fed to the fire as the lower
   stratum is consumed.


   Base"-court` (?), n. [F. basse-cour. See Base, a., and Court, n.]

   1.  The  secondary,  inferior, or rear courtyard of a large house; the
   outer court of a castle.

   2. (Law) An inferior court of law, not of record.


   Based (?), p. p. & a.

   1. Having a base, or having as a base; supported; as, broad-based.

   2.  [See  Base,  n.,  18-21.]  Wearing, or protected by, bases. [Obs.]
   "Based in lawny velvet." E. Hall.

                               Basedow's disease

   Ba"se*dow's   dis*ease"   (?).   [Named  for  Dr.  Basedow,  a  German
   physician.]  (Med.)  A  disease  characterized  by  enlargement of the
   thyroid  gland,  prominence  of the eyeballs, and inordinate action of
   the heart; -- called also exophthalmic goiter. Flint.


   Bas"e*lard  (?), n. [OF. baselarde, LL. basillardus.] A short sword or
   dagger,  worn  in  the  fifteenth  century.  [Written  also  baslard.]


   Base"less,  a.  Without  a base; having no foundation or support. "The
   baseless fabric of this vision." Shak.


   Base"ly, adv.

   1.   In   a  base  manner;  with  despicable  meanness;  dishonorably;

   2. Illegitimately; in bastardy. [Archaic] Knolles.


   Base"ment (?), n. [F. soubassement. Of uncertain origin. Cf. Base, a.,
   Bastion.] (Arch.) The outer wall of the ground story of a building, or
   of  a  part  of that story, when treated as a distinct substructure. (
   See   Base,   n.,  3  (a).)  Hence:  The  rooms  of  a  ground  floor,
   collectively.  Basement membrane (Anat.), a delicate membrane composed
   of a single layer of flat cells, forming the substratum upon which, in
   many organs, the epithelioid cells are disposed.


   Base"ness (?), n. The quality or condition of being base; degradation;

     I once did hold it a baseness to write fair. Shak.


   Bas"e*net (?), n. See Bascinet. [Obs.]

                                   Base viol

   Base" vi`ol (?). See Bass viol.


   Bash  (?),  v. t. & i. [OE. baschen, baissen. See Abash.] To abash; to
   disconcert or be disconcerted or put out of countenance. [Obs.]

     His countenance was bold and bashed not. Spenser.


   Ba*shaw" (?), n. [See Pasha.]

   1. A Turkish title of honor, now written pasha. See Pasha.

   2. Fig.: A magnate or grandee.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  very  large siluroid fish (Leptops olivaris) of the
   Mississippi valley; -- also called goujon, mud cat, and yellow cat.


   Bash"ful (?), a. [See Bash.]

   1. Abashed; daunted; dismayed. [Obs.]

   2.  Very modest, or modest excess; constitutionally disposed to shrink
   from  public notice; indicating extreme or excessive modesty; shy; as,
   a  bashful  person,  action,  expression. Syn. -- Diffident; retiring;
   reserved; shamefaced; sheepish.


   Bash"ful*ly, adv. In a bashful manner.


   Bash"ful*ness,  n.  The quality of being bashful. Syn. -- Bashfulness,
   Modesty,  Diffidence,  Shyness.  Modesty arises from a low estimate of
   ourselves;  bashfulness is an abashment or agitation of the spirits at
   coming  into  contact  with others; diffidence is produced by an undue
   degree  of  self-distrust;  shyness  usually  arises from an excessive
   self-consciousness, and a painful impression that every one is looking
   at  us.  Modesty  of  deportment is becoming at all; bashfulness often
   gives   rise   to  mistakes  and  blundering;  diffidence  is  society
   frequently makes a man a burden to himself; shyness usually produces a
   reserve or distance which is often mistaken for haughtiness.


   Bash"i-ba*zouk"  (?),  n. [Turkish, light-headed, a foolish fellow.] A
   soldier belonging to the irregular troops of the Turkish army.


   Bash"less, a. Shameless; unblushing. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Bas"hyle (?), n. (Chem.) See Basyle.


   Ba"si-  (?).  A combining form, especially in anatomical and botanical
   words,  to  indicate the base or position at or near a base; forming a
   base;  as, basibranchials, the most ventral of the cartilages or bones
   of  the  branchial  arches;  basicranial,  situated at the base of the
   cranium; basifacial, basitemporal, etc.


   Ba"sic (?), a.

   1.  (Chem.) (a) Relating to a base; performing the office of a base in
   a  salt.  (b)  Having  the  base  in excess, or the amount of the base
   atomically  greater  than that of the acid, or exceeding in proportion
   that  of the related neutral salt. (c) Apparently alkaline, as certain
   normal salts which exhibit alkaline reactions with test paper.

   2.  (Min.)  Said  of  crystalline rocks which contain a relatively low
   percentage of silica, as basalt.
   Basic  salt  (Chem.),  a  salt  formed from a base or hydroxide by the
   partial  replacement  of its hydrogen by a negative or acid element or


   Ba*sic"er*ite  (?),  n.  [Basi-  +  Gr. horn, antenna.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   second joint of the antenn\'91 of crustaceans.


   Ba*sic"i*ty,  n. (Chem.) (a) The quality or state of being a base. (b)
   The power of an acid to unite with one or more atoms or equivalents of
   a  base,  as  indicated  by  the  number of replaceable hydrogen atoms
   contained in the acid.


   Ba*sid"i*o*spore (?), n. [Basidium + spore.] (Bot.) A spore borne by a
   basidium. -- Ba*sid`i*o*spor"ous (, a.


   Ba*sid"i*um  (?),  n. [NL., dim. of Gr. base.] (Bot.) A special oblong
   or  pyriform  cell,  with  slender branches, which bears the spores in
   that  division  of  fungi  called  Basidiomycetes, of which the common
   mushroom is an example.


   Ba"si*fi`er  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  That  which converts into a salifiable


   Ba*sif"u*gal  (?),  a. [Base,n.+ L. fugere to flee.] (Bot.) Tending or
   proceeding away from the base; as, a basifugal growth.


   Ba"si*fy (?), v. t. [Base + -fy.] (Chem.) To convert into a salifiable


   Ba`si*gyn"i*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. base + woman.] (Bot.) The pedicel
   on  which  the  ovary  of  certain  flowers, as the passion flower, is
   seated; a carpophore or thecaphore.


   Ba`si*hy"al  (?),  a.  [Basi-  +  Gr.  (Anat.) Noting two small bones,
   forming the body of the inverted hyoid arch.


   Ba`si*hy"oid (?), n. [Basi- + hyoid.] (Anat.) The central tongue bone.


   Bas"il  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. basile and E. Bezel.] The slope or angle to
   which the cutting edge of a tool, as a plane, is ground. Grier.


   Bas"il,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Basiled (p. pr. & vb. n. Basiling.] To
   grind or form the edge of to an angle. Moxon.


   Bas"il,  n.  [F.  basilic,  fr.  L.  badilicus royal, Gr. , fr. king.]
   (Bot.)  The  name  given to several aromatic herbs of the Mint family,
   but  chiefly  to the common or sweet basil (Ocymum basilicum), and the
   bush basil, or lesser basil (O. minimum), the leaves of which are used
   in  cookery.  The name is also given to several kinds of mountain mint
   (Pycnanthemum).  Basil  thyme,  a  name  given  to  the fragrant herbs
   Calamintha  Acinos  and  C. Nepeta. -- Wild basil, a plant (Calamintha
   clinopodium) of the Mint family.
   Bas"il  (?),  n.  [Corrupt.  from  E.  basan, F. basane, LL. basanium,
   bazana, fr. Ar. bith\'bena, prop., lining.] The skin of a sheep tanned
   with bark.
                               Basilar, Basilary
   Bas"i*lar  (?),  Bas"i*la*ry  (?), a. [F. basilaire, fr. L. basis. See
   Base, n.] 

   1. Relating to, or situated at, the base.

   2.  Lower;  inferior;  applied  to impulses or springs of action. [R.]
   "Basilar instincts." H. W. Beecher.


   Ba*sil"ic (?), n. [F. basilique.] Basilica.

                              Basilic, Basilical

   Ba*sil"ic (?), Ba*sil"ic*al (?), a. [See Basilica.]

   1. Royal; kingly; also, basilican.

   2.  (Anat.)  Pertaining to certain parts, anciently supposed to have a
   specially important function in the animal economy, as the middle vein
   of the right arm.


   Ba*sil"i*ca  (?),  n.;  pl.  Basilicas (#); sometimes Basilic (#). [L.
   basilica,  Gr. ( sc. , or ) fr. royal, fr. .] Originally, the place of
   a  king; but afterward, an apartment provided in the houses of persons
   of  importance, where assemblies were held for dispensing justice; and
   hence, any large hall used for this purpose.

   2.  (Arch.)  (a)  A  building  used by the Romans as a place of public
   meeting,  with  court  rooms, etc., attached. (b) A church building of
   the  earlier  centuries  of  Christianity, the plan of which was taken
   from  the  basilica  of  the Romans. The name is still applied to some
   churches by way of honorary distinction.


   Ba*sil"i*ca, n. A digest of the laws of Justinian, translated from the
   original Latin into Greek, by order of Basil I., in the ninth century.
   P. Cyc.


   Ba*sil"i*can  (?),  a.  Of,  relating  to,  or resembling, a basilica;

     There  can  be  no  doubt that the first churches in Constantinople
     were in the basilican form. Milman.


   Ba*sil"i*cok (?), n. [OF. basilicoc.] The basilisk. [Obs.] Chaucer


   Ba*sil"i*con (?), n. [L. basilicon, Gr. , neut. of : cf. F. basilicon.
   See  Basilica.]  (Med.) An ointment composed of wax, pitch, resin, and
   olive oil, lard, or other fatty substance.


   Bas"i*lisk  (?),  n. [L. basiliscus, Gr. little king, kind of serpent,
   dim. of king; -- so named from some prominences on the head resembling
   a crown.]

   1.  A  fabulous  serpent,  or  dragon.  The  ancients alleged that its
   hissing  would drive away all other serpents, and that its breath, and
   even its look, was fatal. See Cockatrice.

     Make me not sighted like the basilisk. Shak.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  lizard  of  the  genus Basiliscus, belonging to the
   family Iguanid\'91.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is ge nus is remarkable for a membranous bag rising
     above  the  occiput, which can be filled with air at pleasure; also
     for  an  elevated  crest  along  the  back,  that  can be raised or
     depressed at will.

   3.  (Mil.)  A  large  piece  of  ordnance, so called from its supposed
   resemblance to the serpent of that name, or from its size. [Obs.]


   Ba"sin (?), n. [OF. bacin, F. bassin, LL. bacchinus, fr. bacca a water
   vessel,  fr.  L. bacca berry, in allusion to the round shape; or perh.
   fr. Celtic. Cf. Bac.]

   1. A hollow vessel or dish, to hold water for washing, and for various
   other uses.

   2. The quantity contained in a basin.

   3.  A  hollow vessel, of various forms and materials, used in the arts
   or  manufactures,  as  that used by glass grinders for forming concave
   glasses, by hatters for molding a hat into shape, etc.

   4.  A  hollow  place  containing water, as a pond, a dock for ships, a
   little bay.

   5.  (Physical  Geog.)  (a) A circular or oval valley, or depression of
   the  surface  of  the  ground,  the  lowest part of which is generally
   occupied  by  a lake, or traversed by a river. (b) The entire tract of
   country drained by a river, or sloping towards a sea or lake.

   6.  (Geol.) An isolated or circumscribed formation, particularly where
   the  strata  dip  inward, on all sides, toward a center; -- especially
   applied to the coal formations, called coal basins or coal fields.


   Ba"sined (?), a. Inclosed in a basin. "Basined rivers." Young.


   Bas"i*net (?), n. Same as Bascinet.


   Ba`si*oc*cip"i*tal   (?),  a.  [Basi-  +  occipital.]  (Anat.)  Of  or
   pertaining  to the bone in the base of the cranium, frequently forming
   a  part  of  the  occipital  in the adult, but usually distinct in the
   young. -- n. The basioccipital bone.


   Ba"si*on  (?),  n.  [Gr.  a  base.] (Anat.) The middle of the anterior
   margin of the great foramen of the skull.


   Ba*sip"o*dite  (?),  n. [Basi- + , , foot.] (Anat.) The basal joint of
   the legs of Crustacea.


   Ba*sip`te*ryg"i*um  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. a base + a fin.] (Anat.) A
   bar  of cartilage at the base of the embryonic fins of some fishes. It
   develops into the metapterygium. -- Ba*sip`ter*yg"i*al (, a.


   Ba`sip*ter"y*goid (?), a. & n. [Basi- + pierygoid.] (Anat.) Applied to
   a protuberance of the base of the sphenoid bone.


   Ba"sis (?), n.; pl. Bases (#). [L. basis, Gr. . See Base, n.]

   1. The foundation of anything; that on which a thing rests. Dryden.

   2. The pedestal of a column, pillar, or statue. [Obs.]

     If no basis bear my rising name. Pope.

   <-- p. 123 -->

   3.  The  ground  work  the  first or fundamental principle; that which

     The basis of public credit is good faith. A. Hamilton.

   4. The principal component part of a thing.


   Ba*sis"o*lute  (?),  a.  [Basi-  + solute, a.] (Bot.) Prolonged at the
   base, as certain leaves.

                         Basisphenoid, Basisphenoidal

   Ba`si*sphe"noid  (?),  Ba`si*sphe*noid"al  (?), a. [Basi- + spheroid.]
   (Anat.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  that  part of the base of the cranium
   between  the basioccipital and the presphenoid, which usually ossifies
   separately  in  the  embryo or in the young, and becomes a part of the
   sphenoid in the adult.


   Ba`si*sphe"noid, n. (Anat.) The basisphenoid bone.


   Bask,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Basked (p. pr. & vb. n. Basking.] [ OScand.
   ba  to  bathe one's self, or perh. bakask to bake one's self, sk being
   reflexive.  See Bath, n., Bake, v. t.] To lie in warmth; to be exposed
   to genial heat.

     Basks in the glare, and stems the tepid wave. Goldsmith.


   Bask, v. t. To warm by continued exposure to heat; to warm with genial

     Basks at the fire his hairy strength. Milton.


   Bas"ket (?), n. [Of unknown origin. The modern Celtic words seem to be
   from the English.]

   1.  A  vessel made of osiers or other twigs, cane, rushes, splints, or
   other  flexible material, interwoven. "Rude baskets . . . woven of the
   flexile willow." Dyer.

   2.  The  contents  of  a  basket;  as much as a basket contains; as, a
   basket of peaches.

   3.  (Arch.) The bell or vase of the Corinthian capital. [Improperly so
   used.] Gwilt.

   4.  The  two  back  seats  facing  one  another  on  the  outside of a
   stagecoach. [Eng.] Goldsmith.
   Basket  fish  (Zo\'94l.), an ophiuran of the genus Astrophyton, having
   the arms much branched. See Astrophyton. -- Basket hilt, a hilt with a
   covering wrought like basketwork to protect the hand. Hudibras. Hence,
   Baskethilted,  a. -- Basket work, work consisting of plaited osiers or
   twigs.  -- Basket worm (Zo\'94l.), a lepidopterous insect of the genus
   Thyridopteryx  and allied genera, esp. T. ephemer\'91formis. The larva
   makes  and  carries about a bag or basket-like case of silk and twigs,
   which  it  afterwards  hangs up to shelter the pupa and wingless adult
   Bas"ket, v. t. To put into a basket. [R.] 


   Bas"ket*ful  (?),  n.;  pl.  Basketfuls  (.  As  much as a basket will


   Bas"ket*ry  (?),  n.  The  art of making baskets; also, baskets, taken

                                 Basking shark

   Bask"ing  shark`  (?). (Zo\'94l.) One of the largest species of sharks
   (Cetorhinus  maximus), so called from its habit of basking in the sun;
   the  liver  shark,  or  bone  shark.  It inhabits the northern seas of
   Europe  and America, and grows to a length of more than forty feet. It
   is a harmless species.


   Bas"net (?), n. Same as Bascinet.


   Ba*som`ma*toph"o*ra  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. base + eye + to bear.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  group of Pulmonifera having the eyes at the base of the
   tentacles, including the common pond snails.


   Ba"son (?), n. A basin. [Obs. or Special form]


   Basque  (?),  a.  [F.]  Pertaining  to  Biscay,  its  people, or their


   Basque (?), n. [F.]

   1. One of a race, of unknown origin, inhabiting a region on the Bay of
   Biscay in Spain and France.

   2. The language spoken by the Basque people.

   3.  A  part of a lady's dress, resembling a jacket with a short skirt;
   --  probably  so  called  because  this fashion of dress came from the


   Basqu"ish (?), a. [F. Basque Biscayan: cf. G. Baskisch.] Pertaining to
   the  country,  people,  or  language  of  Biscay; Basque [Obs.] Sir T.


   Bas`-re*lief"  (?),  n.  [F. bas-relief; bas law + relief raised work,
   relever  to  raise:  cf. It. bassorilievo.] Low relief; sculpture, the
   figures  of which project less than half of their true proportions; --
   called also bassrelief and basso-rilievo. See Alto-rilievo.


   Bass  (?),  n.;  pl.  Bass, and sometimes Basses (#). [A corruption of
   barse.] (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  An  edible,  spiny-finned fish, esp. of the genera Roccus, Labrax,
   and related genera. There are many species.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon Eu ropean ba ss is Labrax lupus. American
     species  are:  the  striped bass (Roccus lineatus); white or silver
     bass  of  the  lakes.  (R.  chrysops);  brass  or  yellow  bass (R.

   2.   The  two  American  fresh-water  species  of  black  bass  (genus
   Micropterus). See Black bass.

   3. Species of Serranus, the sea bass and rock bass. See Sea bass.

   4.  The  southern,  red,  or  channel  bass  (Sci\'91na ocellata). See

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  al so applied to many other fishes. See
     Calico bass, under Calico.


   Bass, n. [A corruption of bast.]

   1. (Bot.) The linden or lime tree, sometimes wrongly called whitewood;
   also, its bark, which is used for making mats. See Bast.

   2. (Pron. A hassock or thick mat.


   Bass (?), n. [F. basse, fr. bas low. See Base, a.]

   1. A bass, or deep, sound or tone.

   2.  (Mus.)  (a)  The lowest part in a musical composition. (b) One who
   sings, or the instrument which plays, bass. [Written also base.]
   Thorough bass. See Thorough bass.


   Bass, a. Deep or grave in tone. Bass clef (Mus.), the character placed
   at  the  beginning  of the staff containing the bass part of a musical
   composition.  [See  Illust. under Clef.] -- Bass voice, a deepsounding
   voice; a voice fitted for singing bass.


   Bass, v. t. To sound in a deep tone. [R.] Shak.

                                 Bassa, Bassaw

   Bas"sa (?), Bas*saw" (?), n. See Bashaw.

                                   Bass drum

   Bass`  drum"  (?). (Mus.) The largest of the different kinds of drums,
   having two heads, and emitting a deep, grave sound. See Bass, a.


   Bas"set  (?),  n. [F. bassette, fr.It. bassetta. Cf. Basso.] A game at
   cards,  resembling  the  modern  faro,  said  to have been invented at

     Some  dress,  some  dance,  some  play,  not  to forget Your piquet
     parties, and your dear basset. Rowe.


   Bas"set  (?),  a.  [Cf.  OF.  basset  somewhat  low, dim. of bas low.]
   (Geol.) Inclined upward; as, the basset edge of strata. Lyell.


   Bas"set, n. (Geol.) The edge of a geological stratum at the surface of
   the ground; the outcrop.


   Bas"set,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Basseted; p. pr. & vb. n. Basseting.]
   (Geol.)  To  inclined  upward  so as to appear at the surface; to crop
   out; as, a vein of coal bassets.

                                  Basset horn

   Bas"set  horn` (?). [See Basset, a.] (Mus.) An instrument blown with a
   reed,  and  resembling  a  clarinet,  but  of  much  greater  compass,
   embracing nearly four octaves.

                                 Basset hound

   Bas"set hound` (?). [F. basset.] (Zo\'94l.) A small kind of hound with
   a long body and short legs, used as an earth dog.


   Bas"set*ing,  n.  The  upward  direction  of  a  vein  in  a mine; the
   emergence of a stratum at the surface.


   Bas*set"to  (?),  n.  [It., adj., somewhat low; n., counter tenor. See
   Basso.] (Mus.) A tenor or small bass viol.

                                   Bass horn

   Bass"  horn" (?). (Mus.) A modification of the bassoon, much deeper in


   Bas"si*net  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. bassinet, dim. of bassin. See Basin, and
   cf. Bascinet.]

   1.  A  wicker  basket,  with a covering or hood over one end, in which
   young children are placed as in a cradle.

   2. See Bascinet. Lord Lytton.


   Bas"so (?), n. [It., fr. LL. bassus. See Base, a.] (Mus.) (a) The bass
   or  lowest part; as, to sing basso. (b) One who sings the lowest part.
   (c)  The  double  bass,  or  contrabasso. Basso continuo (. [It., bass
   continued.]  (Mus.)  A  bass  part written out continuously, while the
   other  parts  of  the harmony are indicated by figures attached to the
   bass; continued bass.


   Bas"sock (?), n. A hassock. See 2d Bass, 2.


   Bas*soon" (?), n. [F. basson, fr. basse bass; or perh. fr. bas son low
   sound.  See  Bass  a  part in music. ] (Mus.) A wind instrument of the
   double  reed  kind,  furnished  with  holes,  which are stopped by the
   fingers,  and  by keys, as in flutes. It forms the natural bass to the
   oboe, clarinet, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Its compass comprehends three octaves. For convenience
     of  carriage it is divided into two parts; whence it is also called
     a fagot.


   Bas*soon"ist, n. A performer on the bassoon. Busby.

                         Basso-rilievo, Basso-relievo

   Bas"so-ri*lie"vo  (?),  Bas"so-re*lie"vo  (?), n. [It. basso-rilievo.]
   Same as Bas-relief.


   Bas"so*rin (?), n. [Cf. F. bassorine.] (Chem.) A constituent part of a
   species  of  gum  from Bassora, as also of gum tragacanth and some gum
   resins. It is one of the amyloses. Ure.


   Bass"-re*lief` (?), n. Some as Bas-relief.

                                   Bass viol

   Bass" vi`ol (?). (Mus.) A stringed instrument of the viol family, used
   for playing bass. See 3d Bass, n., and Violoncello.


   Bass"wood` (?), n. (Bot.) The bass (Tilia) or its wood; especially, T.
   Americana. See Bass, the lime tree.

     All  the  bowls  were  made  of  basswood,  White and polished very
     smoothly. Longfellow.


   Bast (?), n. [AS. b\'91st; akin to Icel., Sw., Dan., D., & G. bast, of
   unknown origin. Cf. Bass the tree.]

   1.  The  inner  fibrous bark of various plants; esp. of the lime tree;
   hence, matting, cordage, etc., made therefrom.

   2. A thick mat or hassock. See 2d Bass, 2.


   Bas"ta (?), interj. [It.] Enough; stop. Shak.


   Bas"tard  (?),  n. [OF. bastard, bastart, F. b, prob. fr. OF. bast, F.
   b,  a  packsaddle  used  as  a bed by the muleteers (fr. LL. bastum) +
   -ard.  OF.  fils  de bast son of the packsaddle; as the muleteers were
   accustomed  to  use their saddles for beds in the inns. See Cervantes,
   "Don Quixote," chap. 16; and cf.G. bankert, fr. bank bench.]

   1.  A  "natural"  child;  a child begotten and born out of wedlock; an
   illegitimate child; one born of an illicit union.

     NOTE: &hand; By  th e civil and canon laws, and by the laws of many
     of  the  United States, a bastard becomes a legitimate child by the
     intermarriage  of  the parents at any subsequent time. But by those
     of England, and of some states of the United States, a child, to be
     legitimate, must at least be born after the lawful marriage.

   Kent. Blackstone.

   2.  (Sugar  Refining)  (a)  An  inferior  quality of soft brown sugar,
   obtained from the sirups that (b) A large size of mold, in which sugar
   is drained.

   3. A sweet Spanish wine like muscadel in flavor.

     Brown bastard is your only drink. Shak.

   4. A writing paper of a particular size. See Paper.


   Bas"tard (?), a.

   1.  Begotten  and  born  out  of  lawful  matrimony; illegitimate. See
   Bastard, n., note.

   2.  Lacking in genuineness; spurious; false; adulterate; -- applied to
   things which resemble those which are genuine, but are really not so.

     That   bastard  self-love  which  is  so  vicious  in  itself,  and
     productive of so many vices. Barrow.

   3.  Of  an unusual make or proportion; as, a bastard musket; a bastard
   culverin. [Obs.]

   4.  (Print.)  Abbreviated,  as  the half title in a page preceding the
   full title page of a book.
   Bastard ashlar (Arch.), stones for ashlar work, roughly squared at the
   quarry.  -- Bastard file, a file intermediate between the coarsest and
   the  second  cut.  -- Bastard type (Print.), type having the face of a
   larger  or  a  smaller size than the body; e.g., a nonpareil face on a
   brevier body. -- Bastard wing (Zo\'94l.), three to five quill feathers
   on  a  small  joint  corresponding to the thumb in some mam malia; the


   Bas"tard, v. t. To bastardize. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Bas"tard*ism (?), n. The state of being a bastard; bastardy.


   Bas"tard*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Bastardized (p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  make  or prove to be a bastard; to stigmatize as a bastard; to
   declare or decide legally to be illegitimate.

     The  law  is  so indulgent as not to bastardize the child, if born,
     though not begotten, in lawful wedlock. Blackstone.

   2. To beget out of wedlock. [R.] Shak.


   Bas"tard*ly,  a.  Bastardlike; baseborn; spuripous; corrupt. [Obs.] --
   adv. In the manner of a bastard; spuriously. [Obs.] Shak. Donne.


   Bas"tar*dy (?), n.

   1. The state of being a bastard; illegitimacy.

   2. The procreation of a bastard child. Wharton.


   Baste  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Basted; p. pr. & vb. n. Basting.] [Cf.
   Icel.  beysta  to  strike,  powder; Sw. basa to beat with a rod: perh.
   akin to E. beat.]

   1. To beat with a stick; to cudgel.

     One  man  was basted by the keeper for carrying some people over on
     his back through the waters. Pepys.

   2.  (Cookery) To sprinkle flour and salt and drip butter or fat on, as
   on meat in roasting.

   3. To mark with tar, as sheep. [Prov. Eng.]


   Baste,  v.  t. [OE. basten, OF. bastir, F. b, prob. fr. OHG. bestan to
   sew,  MHG.  besten  to  bind,  fr.  OHG.  bast bast. See Bast.] To sew
   loosely,  or with long stitches; -- usually, that the work may be held
   in position until sewed more firmly. Shak.

                               Bastile Bastille

   Bas*tile"  Bas*tille"  (?),  n.  [F.  bastille fortress, OF. bastir to
   build, F. b.]

   1. (Feud. Fort.) A tower or an elevated work, used for the defense, or
   in the siege, of a fortified place.

     The high bastiles . . . which overtopped the walls. Holland.

   2.  "The  Bastille", formerly a castle or fortress in Paris, used as a
   prison,  especially  for political offenders; hence, a rhetorical name
   for a prison.


   Bas`ti*nade" (?), n. See Bastinado, n.


   Bas`ti*nade", v. t. To bastinado. [Archaic]


   Bas`ti*na"do  (?),  n.;  pl.  Bastinadoes  (#). [Sp. bastonada (cf. F.
   bastonnade), fr. baston (cf. F. b) a stick or staff. See Baston.]

   1. A blow with a stick or cudgel.

   2.  A  sound  beating  with a stick or cudgel. Specifically: A form of
   punishment among the Turks, Chinese, and others, consisting in beating
   an offender on the soles of his feet.


   Bas`ti*na"do,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Bastinadoes (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bastinadoing.] To beat with a stick or cudgel, especially on the soles
   of the feet.


   Bas"tion  (?),  n.  [F. bastion (cf. It. bastione), fr. LL. bastire to
   build  (cf.  F.  b, It. bastire), perh. from the idea of support for a
   weight,  and  akin  to  Gr.  to lift, carry, and to E. baston, baton.]
   (Fort.)  A  work  projecting  outward  from  the  main  inclosure of a
   fortification,  consisting  of  two  faces  and  two  flanks,  and  so
   constructed  that it is able to defend by a flanking fire the adjacent
   curtain,  or  wall  which  extends  from  one  bastion to another. Two
   adjacent  bastions are connected by the curtain, which joins the flank
   of  one with the adjacent flank of the other. The distance between the
   flanks  of  a  bastion  is  called  the gorge. A lunette is a detached
   bastion. See Ravelin.


   Bas"tioned  (?),  a. Furnished with a bastion; having bastions. <-- p.
   124 -->


   Bas"to (?), n. [Sp.] The ace of clubs in qua Pope.


   Bas"ton  (?),  n.  [OF.  baston, F. b, LL. basto. See Bastion, and cf.
   Baton, and 3d Batten.]

   1. A staff or cudgel. [Obs.] "To fight with blunt bastons." Holland.

   2. (Her.) See Baton.

   3.  An officer bearing a painted staff, who formerly was in attendance
   upon  the  king's  court to take into custody persons committed by the
   court. Mozley & W.


   Bas"yle  (?),  n.  [Gr.  base  + wood. See -yl.] (Chem.) A positive or
   nonacid  constituent  of compound, either elementary, or, if compound,
   performing the functions of an element.


   Bas"y*lous  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or having the nature of, a basyle;
   electro-positive; basic; -- opposed to chlorous. Graham.


   Bat  (?),  n. [OE. batte, botte, AS. batt; perhaps fr. the Celtic; cf.
   Ir.  bat,  bata, stick, staff; but cf. also F. batte a beater (thing),
   wooden sword, battre to beat.]

   1.  A  large stick; a club; specifically, a piece of wood with one end
   thicker  or broader than the other, used in playing baseball, cricket,

   2. (Mining) Shale or bituminous shale. Kirwan.

   3. A sheet of cotton used for filling quilts or comfortables; batting.

   4. A part of a brick with one whole end.
   Bat  bolt  (Machinery), a bolt barbed or jagged at its butt or tang to
   make it hold the more firmly. Knight.


   Bat,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Batted (p. pr. & vb. n. Batting.] To strike
   or hit with a bat or a pole; to cudgel; to beat. Holland.


   Bat, v. i. To use a bat, as in a game of baseball.


   Bat, n. [Corrupt. from OE. back, backe, balke; cf. Dan. aften-bakke]/>
   (aften   evening),  Sw.  natt-backa]/>  (natt  night),  Icel.  le  (le
   leather),  Icel. blaka to flutter.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the Cheiroptera,
   an  order  of  flying  mammals,  in  which  the  wings are formed by a
   membrane  stretched between the elongated fingers, legs, and tail. The
   common  bats are small and insectivorous. See Cheiroptera and Vampire.
   Bat  tick  (Zo\'94l.),  a  wingless,  dipterous  insect  of  the genus
   Nycteribia, parasitic on bats.


   Bat"a*ble (?), a. [Abbrev. from debatable.] Disputable. [Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e bo rder la nd between England and Scotland, being
     formerly  a  subject of contention, was called batable or debatable


   Bat"ailled (?), a. Embattled. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ba`tar*deau" (?), n. [F.]

   1. A cofferdam. Brande & C.

   2.  (Mil.)  A  wall  built across the ditch of a fortification, with a
   sluice gate to regulate the height of water in the ditch on both sides
   of the wall.

                                Batatas, Batata

   Ba*ta"tas  (?),  Ba*ta"ta  (?), n. An aboriginal American name for the
   sweet potato (Ipom\'91a batatas).


   Ba*ta"vi*an  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to (a) the Batavi, an ancient
   Germanic  tribe;  or  to (b) as, a Batavian legion. Batavian Republic,
   the name given to Holland by the French after its conquest in 1795.


   Ba*ta"vi*an,  n.  A  native  or inhabitant of Batavia or Holland. [R.]


   Batch  (?),  n.  [OE.  bache,  bacche,  fr.  AS. bacan to bake; cf. G.
   geb\'84ck and D. baksel. See Bake, v. t.]

   1. The quantity of bread baked at one time.

   2.  A  quantity  of  anything  produced  at  one operation; a group or
   collection  of  persons  or  things  of  the same kind; as, a batch of
   letters;  the  next batch of business. "A new batch of Lords." Lady M.
   W. Montagu.


   Bate  (?),  n. [Prob. abbrev. from debate.] Strife; contention. [Obs.]


   Bate,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bated; p. pr. & vb. n. Bating.] [From

   1. To lessen by retrenching, deducting, or reducing; to abate; to beat
   down; to lower.

     He  must  either bate the laborer's wages, or not employ or not pay
     him. Locke.

   2. To allow by way of abatement or deduction.

     To whom he bates nothing or what he stood upon with the parliament.

   3. To leave out; to except. [Obs.]

     Bate me the king, and, be he flesh and blood. He lies that says it.
     Beau. & Fl.

   4. To remove. [Obs.]

     About autumn bate the earth from about the roots of olives, and lay
     them bare. Holland.

   5. To deprive of. [Obs.]

     When  baseness  is exalted, do not bate The place its honor for the
     person's sake. Herbert.


   Bate, v. i.

   1. To remit or retrench a part; -- with of.

     Abate thy speed, and I will bate of mine. Dryden.

   2. To waste away. [Obs.] Shak.


   Bate (?), v. t. To attack; to bait. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Bate, imp. of Bite. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Bate,  v. i. [F. battre des ailes to flutter. Cf. Bait to flutter.] To
   flutter as a hawk; to bait. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Bate, n. (Jewish Antiq.) See 2d Bath.


   Bate, n. [Cf. Sw. beta maceration, soaking, G. beize, and E. bite.] An
   alkaline  solution  consisting  of  the  dung  of  certain animals; --
   employed in the preparation of hides; grainer. Knight.


   Bate, v. t. To steep in bate, as hides, in the manufacture of leather.


   Ba*teau"  (?),  n.;  pl.  Bateaux  (#).  [F. bateau, LL. batellus, fr.
   battus,  batus,  boa,  which  agrees  with AS. b\'bet boat: cf. W. bad
   boat.  See Boat, n.] A boat; esp. a flat-bottomed, clumsy boat used on
   the  Canadian  lakes  and  rivers.  [Written  also, but less properly,
   batteau.] Bateau bridge, a floating bridge supported by bateaux.


   Bat"ed  (?),  a. Reduced; lowered; restrained; as, to speak with bated
   breath. Macaulay.


   Bate"ful  (?),  a.  Exciting  contention;  contentious. [Obs.] "It did
   bateful question frame. " Sidney.


   Bate"less, a. Not to be abated. [Obs.] Shak.


   Bate"ment (?), n. [For Abatement. See 2d Bate.] Abatement; diminution.
   Moxon.  Batement  light  (Arch.), a window or one division of a window
   having  vertical  sides, but with the sill not horizontal, as where it
   follows the rake of a staircase.


   Bat"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  name  given  to several species of
   fishes:  (a)  The  Malthe  vespertilio  of the Atlantic coast. (b) The
   flying  gurnard  of  the Atlantic (Cephalacanthus spinarella). (c) The
   California batfish or sting ray (Myliobatis Californicus.)


   Bat"fowl`er (?), n. One who practices or finds sport in batfowling.


   Bat"fowl`ing  (?),  n. [From Bat a stick.] A mode of catching birds at
   night,  by  holding  a  torch  or other light, and beating the bush or
   perch  where  they  roost.  The birds, flying to the light, are caught
   with nets or otherwise.


   Bat"ful  (?),  a. [Icel. bati amelioration, batna to grow better; akin
   to  AS. bet better. Goth. ga-batnan to profit. Batten, v. i., Better.]
   Rich; fertile. [Obs.] "Batful valleys." Drayton.


   Bath  (?), n.; pl. Baths (#). [AS. b\'91; akin to OS. & Icel. ba, Sw.,
   Dan., D., & G. bad, and perh. to G. b\'84hen to foment.]

   1.  The act of exposing the body, or part of the body, for purposes of
   cleanliness,  comfort,  health, etc., to water, vapor, hot air, or the
   like;  as, a cold or a hot bath; a medicated bath; a steam bath; a hip

   2. Water or other liquid for bathing.

   3.  A  receptacle  or  place  where  persons may immerse or wash their
   bodies in water.

   4.  A  building  containing  an  apartment  or  a series of apartments
   arranged for bathing.

     Among  the  ancients,  the  public baths were of amazing extent and
     magnificence. Gwilt.

   5.  (Chem.)  A  medium, as heated sand, ashes, steam, hot air, through
   which heat is applied to a body.

   6.  (Photog.) A solution in which plates or prints are immersed; also,
   the receptacle holding the solution.

     NOTE: &hand; Ba th is  us ed ad jectively or  in combination, in an
     obvious  sense  of or for baths or bathing; as, bathroom, bath tub,
     bath keeper.

   Douche bath. See Douche. -- Order of the Bath, a high order of British
   knighthood,  composed  of  three  classes,  viz., knights grand cross,
   knights  commanders,  and  knights companions, abbreviated thus: G. C.
   B.,  K.  C.  B.,  K.  B.  --  Russian bath, a kind of vapor bath which
   consists  in  a prolonged exposure of the body to the influence of the
   steam of water, followed by washings and shampooings. -- Turkish bath,
   a kind of bath in which a profuse perspiration is produced by hot air,
   after  which  the body is washed and shampooed. -- Bath house, a house
   used for the purpose of bathing; -- also a small house, near a bathing
   place, where a bather undresses and dresses.


   Bath  (?), n. [Heb.] A Hebrew measure containing the tenth of a homer,
   or  five  gallons  and  three pints, as a measure for liquids; and two
   pecks and five quarts, as a dry measure.


   Bath  (?),  n.  A city in the west of England, resorted to for its hot
   springs,  which  has  given its name to various objects. Bath brick, a
   preparation  of  calcareous  earth,  in  the form of a brick, used for
   cleaning  knives,  polished metal, etc. -- Bath chair, a kind of chair
   on  wheels,  as used by invalids at Bath. "People walked out, or drove
   out, or were pushed out in their Bath chairs." Dickens. -- Bath metal,
   an alloy consisting of four and a half ounces of zinc and one pound of
   copper.  --  Bath note, a folded writing paper, 8 1/2 by 14 inches. --
   Bath  stone,  a species of limestone (o\'94lite) found near Bath, used
   for building.


   Bathe  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bathed (p. pr. & vb. n. Bathing.] [OE.
   ba, AS. ba, fr. b\'91 bath. See 1st Bath, and cf. Bay to bathe.]

   1. To wash by immersion, as in a bath; to subject to a bath.

     Chancing to bathe himself in the River Cydnus. South.

   2.  To  lave;  to  wet.  "The  lake which bathed the foot of the Alban
   mountain." T. Arnold.

   3. To moisten or suffuse with a liquid.

     And let us bathe our hands in C\'91sar's blood. Shak.

   4.  To  apply water or some liquid medicament to; as, to bathe the eye
   with  warm  water  or  with  sea  water;  to bathe one's forehead with

   5. To surround, or envelop, as water surrounds a person immersed. "The
   rosy  shadows  bathe  me. " Tennyson. "The bright sunshine bathing all
   the world." Longfellow.


   Bathe (?), v. i.

   1.  To  bathe  one's  self;  to  take  a bath or baths. "They bathe in
   summer." Waller.

   2.  To  immerse  or cover one's self, as in a bath. "To bathe in fiery
   floods." Shak. "Bathe in the dimples of her cheek." Lloyd.

   3. To bask in the sun. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bathe,  n.  The immersion of the body in water; as to take one's usual
   bathe. Edin. Rev.


   Bath"er (?), n. One who bathes.


   Ba*thet"ic (?), a. Having the character of bathos. [R.]


   Bath"ing  (?),  n.  Act  of taking a bath or baths. Bathing machine, a
   small room on wheels, to be driven into the water, for the convenience
   of bathers, who undress and dress therein.


   Bath"mism (?), n. See Vital force.


   Ba*thom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.  depth  +  -meter.]  An  instrument  for
   measuring  depths,  esp.  one  for taking soundings without a sounding


   Bat"horse`  (?),  n.  [F.  b  packsaddle  (cheval de b packhorse) + E.
   horse. See Bastard.] A horse which carries an officer's baggage during
   a campaign.


   Ba"thos  (?),  n.  [Gr.  depth, fr. deep.] (Rhet.) A ludicrous descent
   from the elevated to the low, in writing or speech; anticlimax.


   Ba*thyb"i*us  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. deep + life] (Zo\'94l.) A name
   given  by  Prof. Huxley to a gelatinous substance found in mud dredged
   from  the  Atlantic  and preserved in alcohol. He supposed that it was
   free  living protoplasm, covering a large part of the ocean bed. It is
   now known that the substance is of chemical, not of organic, origin.

                          Bathymetric, Bathymetrical

   Bath`y*met"ric   (?),   Bath`y*met"ric*al   (?),   a.   Pertaining  to
   bathymetry;  relating  to  the  measurement  of  depths, especially of
   depths in the sea.


   Ba*thym"e*try  (?),  n.  [Gr.  depth  + -metry.] The art or science of
   sounding, or measuring depths in the sea.


   Bat"ing  (?),  prep.  [Strictly  p.  pr.  of  Bat  to abate.] With the
   exception of; excepting.

     We  have  little  reason  to  think that they bring many ideas with
     them, bating some faint ideas of hunger and thirst. Locke.


   Ba*tiste"  (?),  n.  [F.  batiste,  from the name of the alleged first
   maker, Baptiste of Cambrai. Littr\'82.] Originally, cambric or lawn of
   fine  linen;  now  applied  also  to  cloth of similar texture made of


   Bat"let (?), n. [Bat stick + -let.] A short bat for beating clothes in
   washing  them;  --  called  also batler, batling staff, batting staff.


   Bat"man  (?),  n.  [Turk.  batman.] A weight used in the East, varying
   according  to the locality; in Turkey, the greater batman is about 157
   pounds,  the  lesser  only a fourth of this; at Aleppo and Smyrna, the
   batman is 17 pounds. Simmonds.


   Bat"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Batmen  (#).  [F.  b packsaddle + E. man. Cf.
   Bathorse.] A man who has charge of a bathorse and his load. Macaulay.


   Ba*toi"de*i  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  a  kind  of  ray + -oid.]
   (Zo\'94l.) The division of fishes which includes the rays and skates.


   Bat"on (?), n. [F. b. See Baston.]

   1. A staff or truncheon, used for various purposes; as, the baton of a
   field marshal; the baton of a conductor in musical performances.

     He held the baton of command. Prescott.

   2.  (Her.) An ordinary with its ends cut off, borne sinister as a mark
   of  bastardy,  and  containing  one  fourth  in  breadth  of  the bend
   sinister; -- called also bastard bar. See Bend sinister.


   Ba*toon" (?), n. See Baton, and Baston.

                                 Bat printing

   Bat" print`ing (?). (Ceramics) A mode of printing on glazed ware.


   Ba*tra"chi*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. belonging to a frog, fr. frog.]
   (Zo\'94l.) The order of amphibians which includes the frogs and toads;
   the  Anura.  Sometimes the word is used in a wider sense as equivalent
   to Amphibia.


   Ba*tra"chi*an  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the Batrachia. -- n.
   One of the Batrachia.


   Bat"ra*choid   (?),   a.  [Batrachia  +  -oid.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Froglike.
   Specifically:  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  Batrachid\'91, a family of
   marine  fishes,  including  the  toadfish.  Some have poisonous dorsal


   Bat`ra*cho*my*om"a*chy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  ;  frog + mouse + battle.] The
   battle  between the frogs and mice; -- a Greek parody on the Iliad, of
   uncertain authorship.


   Bat`ra*choph"a*gous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  frog + to eat.] Feeding on frogs.
   Quart. Rev.


   Bats"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Batsmen  (.  The  one  who wields the bat in
   cricket, baseball, etc. <-- in baseball, usu. called the batter. -->

                             Bat's-wing or Batwing

   Bat's"-wing"  (?)  or  Bat"wing,  a.  Shaped  like a bat's wing; as, a
   bat's-wing burner.


   Bat"ta  (?),  n.  [Prob.  through  Pg. for Canarese bhatta rice in the
   husk.]  Extra  pay;  esp.  an  extra  allowance  to an English officer
   serving in India. Whitworth. <-- p. 125 -->


   Bat"ta  (?),  n.  [Hind.  ba.] Rate of exchange; also, the discount on
   uncurrent coins. [India]


   Bat"ta*ble (?), a. [See Batful.] Capable of culti [Obs.] Burton.


   Bat"tail*ant (?), a. [F. bataillant, p. pr. See Battle, v. i. ] [Obs.]
   Prepared  for  battle; combatant; warlike. Spenser. -- n. A combatant.


   Bat"tail*ous  (?),  a.  [OF.  bataillos, fr. bataille. See Battle, n.]
   Arrayed  for  battle;  fit  or  eager  for battle; warlike. [Obs.] "In
   battailous aspect." Milton.


   Bat*tal"ia (?), n. [LL. battalia battle, a body of troops. See Battle,

   1.  Order  of  battle; disposition or arrangement of troops (brigades,
   regiments, battalions, etc.), or of a naval force, for action.

     A drawing up the armies in battalia. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  An  army  in battle array; also, the main battalia or body. [Obs.]


   Bat*tal"ion (?), n. [F. bataillon, fr. It. battaglione. See Battalia.]

   1. A body of troops; esp. a body of troops or an army in battle array.
   "The whole battalion views." Milton.

   2.  (Mil.)  A  regiment,  or two or more companies of a regiment, esp.
   when assembled for drill or battle.


   Bat*tal"ion (?), v. t. To form into battalions. [R.]


   Bat"tel  (?),  n.  [Obs.  form.  of  Battle.]  (Old Eng. Law) A single
   combat; as, trial by battel. See Wager of battel, under Wager.


   Bat"tel,  n.  [Of  uncertain  etymology.]  Provisions ordered from the
   buttery;  also,  the charges for them; -- only in the pl., except when
   used adjectively. [Univ. of Oxford, Eng.]


   Bat"tel, v. i. To be supplied with provisions from the buttery. [Univ.
   of Oxford, Eng.]


   Bat"tel, v. t. [Cf. Batful, Batten, v. i.] To make fertile. [Obs.] "To
   battel barren land." Ray.


   Bat"tel, a. Fertile; fruitful; productive. [Obs.]

     A battel soil for grain, for pasture good. Fairfax.

                               Batteler, Battler

   Bat"tel*er  (?),  Bat"tler  (?),  n.  [See 2d Battel, n.] A student at
   Oxford who is supplied with provisions from the buttery; formerly, one
   who  paid  for  nothing  but what he called for, answering nearly to a
   sizar at Cambridge. Wright.


   Bat"ten (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Battened (p. pr. & vb. n. Battening.]
   [See Batful.]

   1.  To  make  fat  by  plenteous  feeding;  to  fatten. "Battening our
   flocks." Milton.

   2. To fertilize or enrich, as land.


   Bat"ten,  v.  i.  To grow fat; to grow fat in ease and luxury; to glut
   one's self. Dryden.

     The pampered monarch lay battening in ease. Garth.

     Skeptics, with a taste for carrion, who batten on the hideous facts
     in history, -- persecutions, inquisitions. Emerson.


   Bat"ten,  n  . [F. b stick, staff. See Baton.] A strip of sawed stuff,
   or  a scantling; as, (a) pl. (Com. & Arch.) Sawed timbers about 7 by 2
   1/2  inches  and  not less than 6 feet long. Brande & C. (b) (Naut.) A
   strip  of wood used in fastening the edges of a tarpaulin to the deck,
   also  around  masts to prevent chafing. (c) A long, thin strip used to
   strengthen  a part, to cover a crack, etc. Batten door (Arch.), a door
   made  of  boards  of  the whole length of the door, secured by battens
   nailed crosswise.


   Bat"ten,  v.  t. To furnish or fasten with battens. To batten down, to
   fasten  down with battens, as the tarpaulin over the hatches of a ship
   during a storm.


   Bat"ten, n. [F. battant. See Batter, v. t.] The movable bar of a loom,
   which strikes home or closes the threads of a woof.


   Bat"ten*ing  (?),  n.  (Arch.)  Furring  done with small pieces nailed
   directly upon the wall.


   Bat"ter  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Battered  (;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Battering.]  [OE.  bateren, OF. batre, F. battre, fr. LL. battere, for
   L.  batuere  to  strike,  beat;  of unknown origin. Cf. Abate, Bate to

   1.  To  beat  with  successive  blows;  to  beat  repeatedly  and with
   violence,  so as to bruise, shatter, or demolish; as, to batter a wall
   or rampart.

   2. To wear or impair as if by beating or by hard usage. "Each battered
   jade." Pope.

   3.  (Metallurgy) To flatten (metal) by hammering, so as to compress it
   inwardly and spread it outwardly.


   Bat"ter,  n.  [OE. batere, batire; cf. OF. bateure, bature, a beating.
   See Batter, v. t.]

   1.  A  semi-liquid  mixture  of  several ingredients, as, flour, eggs,
   milk, etc. , beaten together and used in cookery. King.

   2. Paste of clay or loam. Holland.

   3. (Printing) A bruise on the face of a plate or of type in the form.


   Bat"ter,  n.  A  backward  slope  in  the face of a wall or of a bank;
   receding  slope.  Batter  rule,  an instrument consisting of a rule or
   frame,  and  a  plumb  line, by which the batter or slope of a wall is
   regulated in building.


   Bat"ter, v. i. (Arch.) To slope gently backward.


   Bat"ter, n. One who wields a bat; a batsman.


   Bat"ter*er (?), n. One who, or that which, batters.


   Bat"ter*ing-ram`  (?), n. 1. (Mil.) An engine used in ancient times to
   beat down the walls of besieged places.

     NOTE: &hand; It  wa s a  large beam, with a head of iron, which was
     sometimes  made  to resemble the head of a ram. It was suspended by
     ropes  t  a  beam  supported  by posts, and so balanced as to swing
     backward and forward, and was impelled by men against the wall.


   2. A blacksmith's hammer, suspended, and worked horizontally.

                                Battering train

   Bat"ter*ing  train`  (?).  (Mil.)  A  train  of  artillery  for  siege


   Bat"ter*y  (?),  n.;  pl. Batteries (#). [F. batterie, fr. battre. See
   Batter, v. t.]

   1. The act of battering or beating.

   2.  (Law)  The unlawful beating of another. It includes every willful,
   angry  and  violent,  or  negligent  touching  of  another's person or
   clothes, or anything attached to his person or held by him.

   3.  (Mil.)  (a)  Any  place  where  cannon or mortars are mounted, for
   attack  or  defense. (b) Two or more pieces of artillery in the field.
   (c)  A  company or division of artillery, including the gunners, guns,
   horses,  and all equipments. In the United States, a battery of flying
   artillery consists usually of six guns.
   Barbette  battery.  See Barbette. -- Battery d'enfilade, or Enfilading
   battery,  one that sweeps the whole length of a line of troops or part
   of  a  work.  --  Battery  en \'82charpe, one that plays obliquely. --
   Battery gun, a gun capable of firing a number, of shots simultaneously
   or  successively  without  stopping to load. -- Battery wagon, a wagon
   employed  to  transport  the  tools  and  materials  for repair of the
   carriages,  etc., of the battery. -- In battery, projecting, as a gun,
   into an embrasure or over a parapet in readiness for firing. -- Masked
   battery,  a battery artificially concealed until required to open upon
   the enemy. -- Out of battery, or From battery, withdrawn, as a gun, to
   a position for loading.

   4. (Elec.) (a) A number of coated jars (Leyden jars) so connected that
   they  may  be  charged and discharged simultaneously. (b) An apparatus
   for generating voltaic electricity.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e tr ough ba ttery, co pper an d zi nc pl ates,
     connected  in pairs, divide the trough into cells, which are filled
     with  an  acid  or  oxidizing  liquid; the effect is exhibited when
     wires  connected  with  the two end-plates are brought together. In
     Daniell's  battery,  the  metals are zinc and copper, the former in
     dilute  sulphuric  acid,  or  a  solution  of sulphate of zinc, the
     latter   in   a   saturated  solution  of  sulphate  of  copper.  A
     modification  of this is the common gravity battery, so called from
     the  automatic  action  of  the  two fluids, which are separated by
     their specific gravities. In Grove's battery, platinum is the metal
     used  with  zinc; two fluids are used, one of them in a porous cell
     surrounded  by  the  other.  In Bunsen's or the carbon battery, the
     carbon  of  gas coke is substituted for the platinum of Grove's. In
     Leclanch\'82's  battery,  the  elements  are  zinc in a solution of
     ammonium chloride, and gas carbon surrounded with manganese dioxide
     in  a  porous  cell. A secondary battery is a battery which usually
     has  the  two plates of the same kind, generally of lead, in dilute
     sulphuric  acid,  and which, when traversed by an electric current,
     becomes  charged, and is then capable of giving a current of itself
     for  a  time,  owing  to  chemical changes produced by the charging
     current.  A storage battery is a kind of secondary battery used for
     accumulating  and  storing  the  energy  of  electrical  charges or
     currents,  usually  by  means  of  chemical  work  done by them; an

   5.  A  number of similar machines or devices in position; an apparatus
   consisting  of  a  set  of similar parts; as, a battery of boilers, of
   retorts, condensers, etc.

   6.  (Metallurgy)  A series of stamps operated by one motive power, for
   crushing ores containing the precious metals. Knight.

   7. The box in which the stamps for crushing ore play up and down.

   8. (Baseball) The pitcher and catcher together.


   Bat"ting (?), n.

   1.  The  act of one who bats; the management of a bat in playing games
   of ball. Mason.

   2.  Cotton  in  sheets,  prepared  for use in making quilts, etc.; as,
   cotton batting.


   Bat"tle (?), a. Fertile. See Battel, a. [Obs.]


   Bat"tle,  n.  [OE. bataille, bataile, F. bataille battle, OF., battle,
   battalion,  fr.  L.  battalia,  battualia,  the  fighting  and fencing
   exercises of soldiers and gladiators, fr. batuere to strike, beat. Cf.
   Battalia, 1st Battel, and see Batter, v. t. ]

   1.  A  general action, fight, or encounter, in which all the divisions
   of an army are or may be engaged; an engagement; a combat.

   2. A struggle; a contest; as, the battle of life.

     The  whole intellectual battle that had at its center the best poem
     of the best poet of that day. H. Morley.

   3. A division of an army; a battalion. [Obs.]

     The king divided his army into three battles. Bacon.

     The  cavalry,  by way of distinction, was called the battle, and on
     it alone depended the fate of every action. Robertson.

   4.  The main body, as distinct from the van and rear; battalia. [Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; Ba ttle is  used adjectively or as the first part of a
     self-explaining compound; as, battle brand, a "brand" or sword used
     in  battle;  battle  cry;  battlefield; battle ground; battlearray;
     battle song.

   Battle  piece,  a  painting,  or a musical composition, representing a
   battle.  -- Battle royal. (a) A fight between several gamecocks, where
   the  one  that stands longest is the victor. Grose. (b) A contest with
   fists  or  cudgels  in which more than two are engaged; a m\'88l\'82e.
   Thackeray.  --  Drawn  battle,  one  in  which neither party gains the
   victory.  -- To give battle, to attack an enemy. -- To join battle, to
   meet  the attack; to engage in battle. -- Pitched battle, one in which
   the armies are previously drawn up in form, with a regular disposition
   of  the  forces.  --  Wager  of  battle.  See  under Wager, n. Syn. --
   Conflict;   encounter;   contest;   action.   Battle,  Combat,  Fight,
   Engagement.  These  words  agree in denoting a close encounter between
   contending  parties.  Fight is a word of less dignity than the others.
   Except  in  poetry, it is more naturally applied to the encounter of a
   few  individuals,  and  more  commonly an accidental one; as, a street
   fight. A combat is a close encounter, whether between few or many, and
   is  usually  premeditated.  A  battle  is  commonly  more  general and
   prolonged.  An engagement supposes large numbers on each side, engaged
   or intermingled in the conflict.


   Bat"tle  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Battled (p. pr. & vb. n. Battling.]
   [F.  batailler,  fr.  bataille.  See Battle, n.] To join in battle; to
   contend in fight; as, to battle over theories.

     To meet in arms, and battle in the plain. Prior.


   Bat"tle, v. t. To assail in battle; to fight.

                             Battle-ax Battle-axe

   Bat"tle-ax`  Bat"tle-axe`  (?),  n.  (Mil.) A kind of broadax formerly
   used as an offensive weapon.


   Bat"tled (?), p. p. Embattled. [Poetic] Tennyson.


   Bat"tle*door`  (?),  n.  [OE. batyldour. A corrupted form of uncertain
   origin;  cf.  Sp. batallador a great combatant, he who has fought many
   battles,  Pg.  batalhador,  Pr.  batalhador,  warrior, soldier, fr. L.
   battalia;  or  cf.  Pr.  batedor  batlet,  fr.  batre  to beat, fr. L.
   batuere. See Battle, n.]

   1. An instrument, with a handle and a flat part covered with parchment
   or  crossed  with  catgut, used to strike a shuttlecock in play; also,
   the play of battledoor and shuttlecock.

   2. [OE. battleder.] A child's hornbook. [Obs.] Halliwell.


   Bat"tle*ment  (?), n. [OE. batelment; cf. OF. bataillement combat, fr.
   batailler,  also  OF.  bastillier, bateillier, to fortify. Cf. Battle,
   n., Bastile, Bastion.] (Arch.) (a) One of the solid upright parts of a
   parapet   in  ancient  fortifications.  (b)  pl.  The  whole  parapet,
   consisting  of  alternate  solids  and  open spaces. At first purely a
   military feature, afterwards copied on a smaller scale with decorative
   features, as for churches.


   Bat"tle*ment*ed (?), a. Having battlements.

     A battlemented portal. Sir W. Scott.


   Bat*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who battologizes.


   Bat*tol"o*gize  (?),  v.  t. To keep repeating needlessly; to iterate.
   Sir T. Herbert.


   Bat*tol"o*gy  (?), n. [F. battologie, fr. Gr. ; a stammerer + speech.]
   A needless repetition of words in speaking or writing. Milton.


   Bat"ton (?), n. See Batten, and Baton.


   Bat"tue`  (?),  n.  [F. battue, fr. battre to beat. See Batter, v. t.,
   and  cf. Battuta.] (Hunting) (a) The act of beating the woods, bushes,
   etc., for game. (b) The game itself. (c) The wanton slaughter of game.


   Bat`ture"  (?), n. [F., fr. battre to beat. ] An elevated river bed or
   sea bed.


   Bat*tu"ta  (?),  n.  [It.  battuta,  fr.  battere to beat.] (Mus.) The
   measuring of time by beating.


   Bat"ty  (?),  a.  Belonging  to,  or resembling, a bat. "Batty wings."


   Bat"ule (?), n. A springboard in a circus or gymnasium; -- called also
   batule board.


   Batz  (?),  n.;  pl.  Batzen  (#).  [Ger.  batz, batze, batzen, a coin
   bearing the image of a bear, Ger. b\'84tz, betz, bear.] A small copper
   coin,  with  a  mixture  of  silver, formerly current in some parts of
   Germany and Switzerland. It was worth about four cents.


   Bau*bee" (?), n. Same as Bawbee.


   Bau"ble  (?),  n. [Cf. OF. baubel a child's plaything, F. babiole, It.
   babbola, LL. baubellum gem, jewel, L. babulus,a baburrus, foolish.]

   1.  A  trifling piece of finery; a gewgaw; that which is gay and showy
   without real value; a cheap, showy plaything.

     The ineffective bauble of an Indian pagod. Sheridan.

   2.  The  fool's club. [Obs.] "A fool's bauble was a short stick with a
   head  ornamented  with  an  ass's  ears fantastically carved upon it."


   Bau"bling (?), a. See Bawbling. [Obs.]


   Bau"de*kin  (?),  n. [OE. bawdekin rich silk stuff, OF. baudequin. See
   Baldachin.]  The  richest kind of stuff used in garments in the Middle
   Ages, the web being gold, and the woof silk, with embroidery : -- made
   originally  at  Bagdad.  [Spelt  also  baudkin, baudkyn, bawdekin, and
   baldakin.] Nares.


   Bau"drick (?), n. A belt. See Baldric.

                                  Bauk, Baulk

   Bauk, Baulk (?), n. & v. See Balk.


   Baun"scheidt*ism   (?),  n.  [From  the  introducer,  a  German  named
   Baunscheidt.] (Med.) A form of acupuncture, followed by the rubbing of
   the part with a stimulating fluid.

                               Bauxite, Beauxite

   Baux"ite, Beaux"ite (?),n. [F., fr. Baux or Beaux, near Arles.] (Min.)
   A   ferruginous  hydrate  of  alumina.  It  is  largely  used  in  the
   preparation  of  aluminium and alumina, and for the lining of furnaces
   which are exposed to intense heat.


   Ba*va"ri*an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Bavaria. -- n. A native or an
   inhabitant of Bavaria. Bavarian cream. See under Cream.


   Bav"a*roy  (?), n. [F. Bavarois Bavarian.] A kind of cloak or surtout.
   [Obs.] Johnson.

     Let the looped bavaroy the fop embrace. Gay.

   <-- p. 126 -->


   Ba"vi*an (?), n. [See Baboon.] A baboon.


   Bav"in (?), n. [Cf. Gael. & Ir. baban tuft, tassel.]

   1.  A  fagot  of  brushwood,  or  other  light combustible matter, for
   kindling fires; refuse of brushwood. [Obs. or Dial. Eng.]

   2. Impure limestone. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.


   Baw*bee"  (?),  n. [Perh. corrupt. fr. halfpenny.] A halfpenny. [Spelt
   also baubee.] [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]


   Baw"ble (?), n. A trinket. See Bauble.


   Baw"bling, a. Insignificant; contemptible. [Obs.]


   Baw"cock  (?),  n.  [From  F.  beau fine + E. cock (the bird); or more
   prob. fr. OF. baud bold, gay + E. cock. Cf. Bawd.] A fine fellow; -- a
   term of endearment. [Obs.] "How now, my bawcock ?" Shak.


   Bawd (?), n. [OE. baude, OF. balt, baut, baude, bold, merry, perh. fr.
   OHG.  bald  bold; or fr. Celtic, cf. W. baw dirt. Cf. Bold, Bawdry.] A
   person who keeps a house of prostitution, or procures women for a lewd
   purpose; a procurer or procuress; a lewd person; -- usually applied to
   a woman.


   Bawd, v. i. To procure women for lewd purposes.


   Bawd"i*ly (?), adv. Obscenely; lewdly.


   Bawd"i*ness, n. Obscenity; lewdness.


   Bawd"rick (?), n. A belt. See Baldric.


   Bawd"ry  (?),  n. [OE. baudery, OF. bauderie, balderie, boldness, joy.
   See Bawd.]

   1. The practice of procuring women for the gratification of lust.

   2. Illicit intercourse; fornication. Shak.

   3.  Obscenity;  filthy,  unchaste language. "The pert style of the pit
   bawdry." Steele.


   Bawd"y, a.

   1. Dirty; foul; -- said of clothes. [Obs.]

     It [a garment] is al bawdy and to-tore also. Chaucer.

   2. Obscene; filthy; unchaste. "A bawdy story." Burke.


   Baw"dy*house`  (?), n. A house of prostitution; a house of ill fame; a


   Baw"horse` (?), n. Same as Bathorse.


   Bawl (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bawled (p. pr. & vb. n. Bawling.] [Icel.
   baula to low, bellow, as a cow; akin to Sw. b\'94la; cf. AS bellan, G.
   bellen to bark, E. bellow, bull.]

   1.  To  cry  out with a loud, full sound; to cry with vehemence, as in
   calling or exultation; to shout; to vociferate.

   2. To cry loudly, as a child from pain or vexation.


   Bawl,  v.  t. To proclaim with a loud voice, or by outcry, as a hawker
   or town-crier does. Swift.


   Bawl, n. A loud, prolonged cry; an outcry.


   Bawl"er (?), n. One who bawls.


   Bawn (?), n. [Ir. & Gael. babhun inclosure, bulwark.]

   1.  An  inclosure  with  mud  or  stone  walls,  for keeping cattle; a
   fortified inclosure. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2. A large house. [Obs.] Swift.


   Baw"rel  (?), n. [Cf. It. barletta a tree falcon, or hobby.] A kind of
   hawk. [Obs.] Halliwell.

                                Bawsin, Bawson

   Baw"sin  (?), Baw"son (?), n. [OE. bawson, baucyne, badger (named from
   its  color),  OF. bauzan, baucant, bauchant, spotted with white, pied;
   cf.  It.  balzano,  F. balzan, a white-footed horse, It. balza border,
   trimming, fr. L. balteus belt, border, edge. Cf. Belt.]

   1. A badger. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

   2. A large, unwieldy person. [Obs.] Nares.


   Bax"ter  (?),  n. [OE. bakestre, bakistre, AS. b\'91cestre, prop. fem.
   of  b\'91cere  baker. See Baker.] A baker; originally, a female baker.
   [Old Eng. & Scotch]


   Bay  (?),  a.  [F.  bai, fr. L. badius brown, chestnutcolored; -- used
   only of horses.] Reddish brown; of the color of a chestnut; -- applied
   to  the  color of horses. Bay cat (Zo\'94l.), a wild cat of Africa and
   the  East  Indies  (Felis  aurata). -- Bay lynx (Zo\'94l.), the common
   American lynx (Felis, or Lynx, rufa).


   Bay,  n.  [F. baie, fr. LL. baia. Of uncertain origin: cf. Ir. & Gael.
   badh  or  bagh  bay  harbor,  creek; Bisc. baia, baiya, harbor, and F.
   bayer to gape, open the mouth.]

   1.  (Geol.)  An  inlet of the sea, usually smaller than a gulf, but of
   the same general character.

     NOTE: &hand; The name is not used with much precision, and is often
     applied  to  large  tracts  of water, around which the land forms a
     curve;  as,  Hudson's  Bay. The name is not restricted to tracts of
     water  with  a narrow entrance, but is used foe any recess or inlet
     between capes or headlands; as, the Bay of Biscay.

   2.  A small body of water set off from the main body; as a compartment
   containing  water  for a wheel; the portion of a canal just outside of
   the gates of a lock, etc.

   3. A recess or indentation shaped like a bay.

   4.  A  principal  compartment  of  the walls, roof, or other part of a
   building,  or  of the whole building, as marked off by the buttresses,
   vaulting, mullions of a window, etc.; one of the main divisions of any
   structure, as the part of a bridge between two piers.

   5.  A  compartment  in  a  barn,  for  depositing hay, or grain in the

   6. A kind of mahogany obtained from Campeachy Bay.
   Sick  bay,  in vessels of war, that part of a deck appropriated to the
   use of the sick. Totten.


   Bay, n. [F. baie a berry, the fruit of the laurel and other trees, fr.
   L.  baca,  bacca,  a  small  round fruit, a berry, akin to Lith. bapka
   laurel berry.]

   1. A berry, particularly of the laurel. [Obs.]

   2. The laurel tree (Laurus nobilis). Hence, in the plural, an honorary
   garland  or  crown  bestowed  as  a  prize  for victory or excellence,
   anciently made or consisting of branches of the laurel.

     The patriot's honors and the poet's bays. Trumbull.

   3. A tract covered with bay trees. [Local, U. S.]
   Bay leaf, the leaf of the bay tree (Laurus nobilis). It has a fragrant
   odor and an aromatic taste.


   Bay,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bayed (p. pr. & vb. n. Baying.] [ OE. bayen,
   abayen, OF. abaier, F. aboyer, to bark; of uncertain origin.] To bark,
   as a dog with a deep voice does, at his game.

     The hounds at nearer distance hoarsely bayed. Dryden.


   Bay  (?), v. t. To bark at; hence, to follow with barking; to bring or
   drive to bay; as, to bay the bear. Shak.


   Bay (?), n. [See Bay, v. i.]

   1. Deep-toned, prolonged barking. "The bay of curs." Cowper.

   2.  [OE.  bay,  abay,  OF. abai, F. aboi barking, pl. abois, prop. the
   extremity  to  which  the stag is reduced when surrounded by the dogs,
   barking (aboyant); aux abois at bay.] A state of being obliged to face
   an antagonist or a difficulty, when escape has become impossible.

     Embolden'd by despair, he stood at bay. Dryden.

     The  most terrible evils are just kept at bay by incessant efforts.
     I. Taylor


   Bay,  v. t. [Cf. OE. b\'91wen to bathe, and G. b\'84hen to foment.] To
   bathe. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Bay, n. A bank or dam to keep back water.


   Bay, v. t. To dam, as water; -- with up or back.


   Ba"ya  (?),  n.  [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) The East Indian weaver bird
   (Ploceus Philippinus).

                                Bayad, Bayatte

   Ba*yad"  (?),  Ba*yatte"  (?),  n.  [Ar.  bayad.]  (Zo\'94l.) A large,
   edible,  siluroid  fish of the Nile, of two species (Bagrina bayad and
   B. docmac).


   Ba`ya*dere"  (?),  n. [F., from Pg. bailadeira a female dancer, bailar
   to  dance.]  A  female  dancer  in  the  East  Indies.  [Written  also


   Bay"-ant`ler (?), n. [See Bez-Antler.] (Zo\'94l.) The second tine of a
   stag's horn. See under Antler.


   Bay"ard (?), n.

   1.  [OF.  bayard,  baiart, bay horse; bai bay + -ard. See Bay, a., and
   -ard.]  Properly,  a  bay  horse, but often any horse. Commonly in the
   phrase blind bayard, an old blind horse.

     Blind bayard moves the mill. Philips.

   2.  [Cf.  F.  bayeur,  fr.  bayer to gape.] A stupid, clownish fellow.
   [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Bay"ard*ly,  a.  Blind; stupid. [Obs.] "A formal and bayardly round of
   duties." Goodman.


   Bay"ber*ry  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  (a)  The fruit of the bay tree or Laurus
   nobilis.  (b) A tree of the West Indies related to the myrtle (Pimenta
   acris).  (c)  The  fruit  of  Myrica  cerifera (wax myrtle); the shrub
   itself;  --  called also candleberry tree. Bayberry tallow, a fragrant
   green  wax  obtained  from  the bayberry or wax myrtle; -- called also
   myrtle wax.


   Bay"bolt` (?), n. A bolt with a barbed shank.


   Bayed (?), a. Having a bay or bays. "The large bayed barn." Drayton.

                                    Bay ice

   Bay" ice` (?). See under Ice.

                                   Bay leaf

   Bay" leaf` (?). See under 3d Bay.


   Bay"o*net  (?),  n. [F. bayonnette, ba\'8bonnette; -- so called, it is
   said, because the first bayonets were made at Bayonne.]

   1. (Mil.) A pointed instrument of the dagger kind fitted on the muzzle
   of  a  musket  or  rifle, so as to give the soldier increased means of
   offense and defense.

     NOTE: &hand; Or iginally, the bayonet was made with a handle, which
     required to be fitted into the bore of the musket after the soldier
     had fired.

   2.  (Mach.)  A pin which plays in and out of holes made to receive it,
   and which thus serves to engage or disengage parts of the machinery.
   Bayonet  clutch.  See  Clutch.  --  Bayonet  joint, a form of coupling
   similar to that by which a bayonet is fixed on the barrel of a musket.


   Bay"o*net, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bayoneted; p. pr. & vb. n. Bayoneting.]

   1. To stab with a bayonet.

   2. To compel or drive by the bayonet.

     To bayonet us into submission. Burke.


   Bay"ou  (?), n.; pl. Bayous (. [North Am. Indian bayuk, in F. spelling
   bayouc,  bayouque.]  An inlet from the Gulf of Mexico, from a lake, or
   from  a large river, sometimes sluggish, sometimes without perceptible
   movement except from tide and wind. [Southern U. S.]

     A  dark  slender  thread of a bayou moves loiteringly northeastward
     into a swamp of huge cypresses. G. W. Cable.

                                    Bay rum

   Bay"  rum"  (?).  A  fragrant  liquid, used for cosmetic and medicinal

     NOTE: &hand; Th e or iginal ba y ru m, fr om th e We st In dies, is
     prepared,  it  is  believed, by distillation from the leaves of the
     bayberry (Myrcia acris). The bay rum of the Pharmacop\'d2ia (spirit
     of myrcia) is prepared from oil of myrcia (bayberry), oil of orange
     peel, oil of pimento, alcohol, and water.

                                  Bays, Bayze

   Bays, Bayze (?), n. See Baize. [Obs.]

                                   Bay salt

   Bay"  salt`  (?).  Salt  which  has  been  obtained from sea water, by
   evaporation  in  shallow  pits  or basins, by the heat of the sun; the
   large crystalline salt of commerce. Bacon. Ure.

                                   Bay tree

   Bay" tree`. A species of laurel. (Laurus nobilis).

                                  Bay window

   Bay"  win"dow (?). (Arch.) A window forming a bay or recess in a room,
   and  projecting  outward  from  the  wall,  either  in  a rectangular,
   polygonal,  or  semicircular  form;  --  often  corruptly called a bow

                                   Bay yarn

   Bay" yarn` (?). Woolen yarn. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.

                                 Bazaar Bazar

   Ba*zaar" Ba*zar" (?), n. [Per. b\'bezar market.]

   1. In the East, an exchange, marketplace, or assemblage of shops where
   goods are exposed for sale.

   2.  A  spacious  hall or suite of rooms for the sale of goods, as at a

   3.  A  fair  for  the  sale of fancy wares, toys, etc., commonly for a
   charitable objects. Macaulay.


   Bdel"lium  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ; cf. Heb. b'dolakh bdellium (in sense

   1.  An unidentified substance mentioned in the Bible (Gen. ii. 12, and
   Num. xi. 7), variously taken to be a gum, a precious stone, or pearls,
   or perhaps a kind of amber found in Arabia.

   2. A gum resin of reddish brown color, brought from India, Persia, and

     NOTE: &hand; In dian bd ellium or  false myrrh is an exudation from
     Balsamodendron  Roxb.  Other  kinds are known as African, Sicilian,


   Bdel*loi"de*a  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. leech + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   order of Annulata which includes the leeches. See Hirudinea.


   Bdel*lom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. leech + -meter.] (Med.) A cupping glass to
   which   are   attached  a  scarificator  and  an  exhausting  syringe.


   Bdel`lo*mor"pha  (?),n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  leech + form.] (Zo\'94l.) An
   order of Nemertina, including the large leechlike worms (Malacobdella)
   often parasitic in clams.


   Be  (?),  v. i. [imp. Was (?); p. p. Been (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Being.]
   [OE.  been,  beon,  AS. be\'a2n to be, be\'a2m I am; akin to OHG. bim,
   pim,  G.  bin, I am, Gael. & Ir. bu was, W. bod to be, Lith. bu-ti, O.
   Slav.  by-ti,  to be, L. fu-i I have been, fu-turus about to be, fo-re
   to be about to be, and perh to fieri to become, Gr. to be born, to be,
   Skr.  bh  to  be.  This  verb  is defective, and the parts lacking are
   supplied  by  verbs  from  other roots, is, was, which have no radical
   connection  with  be. The various forms, am, are, is, was, were, etc.,
   are considered grammatically as parts of the verb "to be", which, with
   its conjugational forms, is often called the substantive verb. Future,

   1. To exist actually, or in the world of fact; to have ex

     To be contents his natural desire. Pope.

     To be, or not to be: that is the question. Shak.

   2.  To  exist in a certain manner or relation, -- whether as a reality
   or  as  a  product  of  thought;  to exist as the subject of a certain
   predicate,  that is, as having a certain attribute, or as belonging to
   a  certain  sort, or as identical with what is specified, -- a word or
   words for the predicate being annexed; as, to be happy; to be here; to
   be large, or strong; to be an animal; to be a hero; to be a nonentity;
   three  and  two  are five; annihilation is the cessation of existence;
   that is the man.

   3. To take place; to happen; as, the meeting was on Thursday.

   4. To signify; to represent or symbolize; to answer to.

     The field is the world. Matt. xiii. 38.

     The  seven  candlesticks  which thou sawest are the seven churches.
     Rev. i. 20.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e verb to be (including the forms is, was, etc.) is
     used in forming the passive voice of other verbs; as, John has been
     struck  by  James. It is also used with the past participle of many
     intransitive  verbs  to express a state of the subject. But have is
     now  more  commonly  used  as  the  auxiliary,  though expressing a
     different  sense;  as, "Ye have come too late -- but ye are come. "
     "The  minstrel  boy  to the war is gone." The present and imperfect
     tenses  form, with the infinitive, a particular future tense, which
     expresses  necessity,  duty,  or  purpose;  as, government is to be
     supported;  we  are to pay our just debts; the deed is to be signed

     NOTE: Have or  ha d been, followed by to, implies movement. "I have
     been  to Paris." Sydney Smith. "Have you been to Franchard ?" R. L.

     NOTE: &hand; Be en, or  be n, wa s an ciently th e pl ural of  th e
     indicative  present.  "Ye ben light of the world." Wyclif, Matt. v.
     14.  Afterwards be was used, as in our Bible: "They that be with us
     are more than they that be with them." 2 Kings vi. 16. Ben was also
     the old infinitive: "To ben of such power." R. of Gloucester. Be is
     used as a form of the present subjunctive: "But if it be a question
     of  words  and names." Acts xviii. 15. But the indicative forms, is
     and are, with if, are more commonly used.

   Be  it so, a phrase of supposition, equivalent to suppose it to be so;
   or of permission, signifying let it be so. Shak. -- If so be, in case.
   --  To  be from, to have come from; as, from what place are you ? I am
   from Chicago. -- To let be, to omit, or leave untouched; to let alone.
   "Let be, therefore, my vengeance to dissuade." Spenser. Syn. -- To be,
   Exist.  The  verb  to  be,  except  in  a  few rare case, like that of
   Shakespeare's  "To  be,  or not to be", is used simply as a copula, to
   connect  a  subject with its predicate; as, man is mortal; the soul is
   immortal.  The  verb to exist is never properly used as a mere copula,
   but  points  to  things that stand forth, or have a substantive being;
   as,  when the soul is freed from all corporeal alliance, then it truly
   exists. It is not, therefore, properly synonymous with to be when used
   as  a copula, though occasionally made so by some writers for the sake
   of  variety;  as in the phrase "there exists [is] no reason for laying
   new  taxes."  We  may,  indeed,  say,  "a  friendship has long existed
   between  them,"  instead  of saying, "there has long been a friendship
   between  them;"  but  in  this case, exist is not a mere copula. It is
   used  in  its  appropriate sense to mark the friendship as having been
   long in existence.
   Be*.  [AS.  be,  and in accented form b\'c6, akin to OS. be and b\'c6,
   OHG.  bi,  pi,  and p\'c6, MHG. be and b\'c6, G. be and bei, Goth. bi,
   and  perh.  Gr.  about (cf. AS. bese\'a2n to look about). By, Amb-.] A
   prefix,  originally the same word as by; joined with verbs, it serves:
   (a)  To intensify the meaning; as, bespatter, bestir. (b) To render an
   intransitive  verb  transitive; as, befall (to fall upon); bespeak (to
   speak  for).  (c) To make the action of a verb particular or definite;
   as, beget (to get as offspring); beset (to set around).
     NOTE: It is joined with certain substantives, and a few adjectives,
     to form verbs; as, bedew, befriend, benight, besot; belate (to make
     late);  belittle (to make little). It also occurs in certain nouns,
     adverbs, and prepositions, often with something of the force of the
     preposition  by,  or  about;  as, belief (believe), behalf, bequest
     (bequeath);  because,  before,  beneath,  beside,  between. In some
     words  the original force of be is obscured or lost; as, in become,
     begin, behave, behoove, belong.
   <-- p. 127 -->
   Beach  (?),  n.; pl. Beaches (. [Cf. Sw. backe hill, Dan. bakke, Icel.
   bakki hill, bank. Cf. Bank.]
   1. Pebbles, collectively; shingle.
   2.  The  shore of the sea, or of a lake, which is washed by the waves;
   especially, a sandy or pebbly shore; the strand.
   Beach  flea  (Zo\'94l.),  the  common name of many species of amphipod
   Crustacea, of the family Orchestid\'91, living on the sea beaches, and
   leaping  like  fleas. -- Beach grass (Bot.), a coarse grass (Ammophila
   arundinacea), growing on the sandy shores of lakes and seas, which, by
   its  interlaced  running  rootstocks,  binds  the  sand  together, and
   resists  the  encroachment  of the waves. -- Beach wagon, a light open
   wagon  with  two  or  more  seats. -- Raised beach, an accumulation of
   water-worn  stones,  gravel, sand, and other shore deposits, above the
   present  level of wave action, whether actually raised by elevation of
   the  coast,  as  in Norway, or left by the receding waters, as in many
   lake and river regions.


   Beach,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beached (p. pr. & vb. n. Beaching.] To run
   or drive (as a vessel or a boat) upon a beach; to strand; as, to beach
   a ship.

                                 Beach comber

   Beach"  comb`er  (?).  A long, curling wave rolling in from the ocean.
   See Comber. [Amer.]


   Beached (?), p. p. & a.

   1. Bordered by a beach.

     The beached verge of the salt flood. Shak.

   2.  Driven  on a beach; stranded; drawn up on a beach; as, the ship is


   Beach"y  (?),  a.  Having  a  beach  or  beaches; formed by a beach or
   beaches; shingly.

     The beachy girdle of the ocean. Shak.


   Bea"con  (?),  n. [OE. bekene, AS. be\'a0cen, b; akin to OS. b, Fries.
   baken, beken, sign, signal, D. baak, OHG. bouhhan, G. bake; of unknown
   origin. Cf. Beckon.]

   1. A signal fire to notify of the approach of an enemy, or to give any
   notice, commonly of warning.

     No flaming beacons cast their blaze afar. Gay.

   2. A signal or conspicuous mark erected on an eminence near the shore,
   or moored in shoal water, as a guide to mariners.

   3. A high hill near the shore. [Prov. Eng.]

   4. That which gives notice of danger.

     Modest doubt is called The beacon of the wise. Shak.

   Beacon fire, a signal fire.


   Bea"con, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beaconed (p. pr. & vb. n. Beaconing.]

   1. To give light to, as a beacon; to light up; to illumine.

     That beacons the darkness of heaven. Campbell.

   2. To furnish with a beacon or beacons.


   Bea"con*age  (?), n. Money paid for the maintenance of a beacon; also,
   beacons, collectively.


   Bea"con*less, a. Having no beacon.


   Bead  (?),  n.  [OE. bede prayer, prayer bead, AS. bed, gebed, prayer;
   akin  to D. bede, G. bitte, AS. biddan, to ask, bid, G. bitten to ask,
   and  perh.  to  Gr. to persuade, L. fidere to trust. Beads are used by
   the  Roman  Catholics  to  count their prayers, one bead being dropped
   down  a  string  every time a prayer is said. Cf. Sp. cuenta bead, fr.
   contar to count. See Bid, in to bid beads, and Bide.]

   1. A prayer. [Obs.]

   2.  A  little  perforated ball, to be strung on a thread, and worn for
   ornament;  or  used  in  a  rosary  for  counting prayers, as by Roman
   Catholics  and  Mohammedans,  whence  the phrases to tell beads, to at
   one's beads, to bid beads, etc., meaning, to be at prayer.

   3. Any small globular body; as, (a) A bubble in spirits. (b) A drop of
   sweat or other liquid. "Cold beads of midnight dew." Wordsworth. (c) A
   small  knob  of  metal  on  a firearm, used for taking aim (whence the
   expression  to  draw  a  bead,  for, to take aim). (d) (Arch.) A small
   molding  of  rounded  surface,  the  section being usually an arc of a
   circle.  It  may  be continuous, or broken into short embossments. (e)
   (Chem.)  A  glassy  drop of molten flux, as borax or microcosmic salt,
   used  as  a  solvent  and  color  test  for several mineral earths and
   oxides,  as  of  iron,  manganese,  etc., before the blowpipe; as, the
   borax bead; the iron bead, etc.
   Bead  and  butt (Carp.), framing in which the panels are flush, having
   beads stuck or run upon the two edges. Knight. -- Beat mold, a species
   of  fungus or mold, the stems of which consist of single cells loosely
   jointed  together  so  as to resemble a string of beads. [Written also
   bead mould.] -- Bead tool, a cutting tool, having an edge curved so as
   to  make  beads  or  beading. -- Bead tree (Bot.), a tree of the genus
   Melia,  the  best  known  species  of  which  (M. azedarach), has blue
   flowers which are very fragrant, and berries which are poisonous.


   Bead,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Beaded;  p. pr. & vb. n. Beading.] To
   ornament with beads or beading.


   Bead, v. i. To form beadlike bubbles.

                             Beadhouse, Bedehouse

   Bead"house`,  Bede"house`  (?),  n.  [OE.  bede prayer + E. house. See
   Bead,  n.]  An  almshouse  for  poor  people  who pray daily for their


   Bead"ing, n.

   1. (Arch.) Molding in imitation of beads.

   2.  The  beads  or  bead-forming  quality  of certain liquors; as, the
   beading of a brand of whisky.


   Bea"dle  (?),  n.  [OE. bedel, bidel, budel, OF. bedel, F. bedeau, fr.
   OHG.  butil,  putil, G. b\'81ttel, fr. OHG. biotan, G. bieten, to bid,
   confused with AS. bydel, the same word as OHG. butil. See. Bid, v.]

   1.  A messenger or crier of a court; a servitor; one who cites or bids
   persons to appear and answer; -- called also an apparitor or summoner.

   2.  An  officer  in  a  university, who precedes public processions of
   officers and students. [Eng.]

     NOTE: &hand; In this sense the archaic spellings bedel (Oxford) and
     bedell (Cambridge) are preserved.

   3.  An  inferior parish officer in England having a variety of duties,
   as  the  preservation  of order in church service, the chastisement of
   petty offenders, etc.


   Bea"dle*ry (?), n. Office or jurisdiction of a beadle.


   Bea"dle*ship,  n. The state of being, or the personality of, a beadle.
   A. Wood.

                                  Bead proof

   Bead" proof` (?).

   1. Among distillers, a certain degree of strength in alcoholic liquor,
   as  formerly  ascertained by the floating or sinking of glass globules
   of  different  specific  gravities  thrown into it; now ascertained by
   more accurate meters.

   2. A degree of strength in alcoholic liquor as shown by beads or small
   bubbles  remaining  on  its surface, or at the side of the glass, when


   Bead"roll` (?), n. (R. C. Ch.) A catalogue of persons, for the rest of
   whose  souls a certain number of prayers are to be said or counted off
   on the beads of a chaplet; hence, a catalogue in general.

     On Fame's eternal beadroll worthy to be field. Spenser.

     It  is  quite  startling,  on  going  over  the beadroll of English
     worthies,  to  find  how  few  are directly represented in the male
     line. Quart. Rev.

                              Beadsman, Bedesman

   Beads"man,  Bedes"man  (?), n.; pl. -men (. A poor man, supported in a
   beadhouse,  and  required  to  pray  for  the  soul of its founder; an

     Whereby  ye  shall  bind  me to be your poor beadsman for ever unto
     Almighty God. Fuller.


   Bead"snake`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  poisonous  snake of North
   America (Elaps fulvius), banded with yellow, red, and black.

                            Beadswoman, Bedeswoman

   Beads"wom`an, Bedes"wom`an (?), n.; pl. -women (. Fem. of Beadsman.


   Bead"work` (?), n. Ornamental work in beads.


   Bead"y (?), a.

   1.  Resembling  beads;  small,  round,  and  glistening. "Beady eyes."

   2. Covered or ornamented with, or as with, beads.

   3. Characterized by beads; as, beady liquor.


   Bea"gle  (?),  n. [OE. begele; perh. of Celtic origin; cf. Ir. & Gael.
   beag small, little, W. bach. F. bigle is from English.]

   1.  A small hound, or hunting dog, twelve to fifteen inches high, used
   in hunting hares and other small game. See Illustration in Appendix.

   2. Fig.: A spy or detective; a constable.


   Beak  (?), n. [OE. bek, F. bec, fr. Celtic; cf. Gael. & Ir. bac, bacc,
   hook,  W.  bach.]  1.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  bill  or  nib  of a bird,
   consisting  of a horny sheath, covering the jaws. The form varied much
   according  to  the food and habits of the bird, and is largely used in
   the  classification  of birds. (b) A similar bill in other animals, as
   the  turtles.  (c)  The long projecting sucking mouth of some insects,
   and  other  invertebrates,  as  in  the  Hemiptera.  (d)  The upper or
   projecting  part  of  the  shell, near the hinge of a bivalve. (e) The
   prolongation of certain univalve shells containing the canal.

   2.  Anything  projecting  or  ending  in  a  point,  like a beak, as a
   promontory of land. Carew.

   3.  (Antiq.)  A  beam,  shod  or armed at the end with a metal head or
   point,  and projecting from the prow of an ancient galley, in order to
   pierce the vessel of an enemy; a beakhead.

   4.  (Naut.)  That  part  of  a  ship,  before the forecastle, which is
   fastened to the stem, and supported by the main knee.

   5. (Arch.) A continuous slight projection ending in an arris or narrow
   fillet; that part of a drip from which the water is thrown off.

   6.  (Bot.)  Any  process somewhat like the beak of a bird, terminating
   the fruit or other parts of a plant.

   7. (Far.) A toe clip. See Clip, n. (Far.).

   8. A magistrate or policeman. [Slang, Eng.]


   Beaked (?), a.

   1.  Having  a  beak  or  a  beaklike  point; beak-shaped. "Each beaked
   promontory." Milton.

   2. (Biol.) Furnished with a process or a mouth like a beak; rostrate.
   Beaked  whale  (Zo\'94l.),  a  cetacean  of  the genus Hyperoodon; the
   bottlehead whale.


   Beak"er  (?), n. [OE. biker; akin to Icel. bikarr, Sw. b\'84gare, Dan.
   baeger,  G.  becher, It. bicchiere; -- all fr. LL. bicarium, prob. fr.
   Gr. wine jar, or perh. L. bacar wine vessel. Cf. Pitcher a jug.]

   1.  A  large  drinking  cup, with a wide mouth, supported on a foot or

   2.  An  open-mouthed,  thin  glass vessel, having a projecting lip for
   pouring; -- used for holding solutions requiring heat. Knight.


   Beak"head` (?), n.

   1. (Arch.) An ornament used in rich Norman doorways, resembling a head
   with a beak. Parker.

   2.  (Naut.) (a) A small platform at the fore part of the upper deck of
   a  vessel,  which contains the water closets of the crew. (b) (Antiq.)
   Same as Beak, 3.


   Beak"i*ron  (?),  n.  [From  Bickern.] A bickern; a bench anvil with a
   long  beak, adapted to reach the interior surface of sheet metal ware;
   the horn of an anvil.


   Beal  (,  n.  [See Boil a tumor.] (Med.) A small inflammatory tumor; a
   pustule. [Prov. Eng.]


   Beal, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bealed (; p. pr & vb. n. Bealing.] To gather
   matter; to swell and come to a head, as a pimple. [Prov. Eng.]


   Be"-all` (?), n. The whole; all that is to be. [Poetic] Shak.


   Beam  (?),  n.  [AS.  be\'a0m  beam, post, tree, ray of light; akin to
   OFries.  b\'bem  tree, OS. b, D. boom, OHG. boum, poum, G. baum, Icel.
   ba,  Goth.  bahms  and  Gr.  a growth, to become, to be. Cf. L. radius
   staff,  rod, spoke of a wheel, beam or ray, and G. strahl arrow, spoke
   of a wheel, ray or beam, flash of lightning. Be; cf. Boom a spar.]

   1.  Any  large  piece  of  timber  or  iron  long in proportion to its
   thickness, and prepared for use.

   2. One of the principal horizontal timbers of a building or ship.

     The beams of a vessel are strong pieces of timber stretching across
     from side to side to support the decks. Totten.

   3.  The  width  of  a vessel; as, one vessel is said to have more beam
   than another.

   4.  The  bar  of  a  balance,  from  the  ends of which the scales are

     The doubtful beam long nods from side to side. Pope.

   5. The principal stem or horn of a stag or other deer, which bears the
   antlers, or branches.

   6. The pole of a carriage. [Poetic] Dryden.

   7.  A  cylinder  of wood, making part of a loom, on which weavers wind
   the  warp  before  weaving;  also,  the cylinder on which the cloth is
   rolled,  as it is woven; one being called the fore beam, the other the
   back beam.

   8. The straight part or shank of an anchor.

   9.  The  main  part  of  a  plow,  to which the handles and colter are
   secured,  and to the end of which are attached the oxen or horses that
   draw it.

   10.  (Steam Engine) A heavy iron lever having an oscillating motion on
   a central axis, one end of which is connected with the piston rod from
   which  it  receives  motion, and the other with the crank of the wheel
   shaft; -- called also working beam or walking beam.

   11. A ray or collection of parallel rays emitted from the sun or other
   luminous body; as, a beam of light, or of heat.

     How far that little candle throws his beams ! Shak.

   12. Fig.: A ray; a gleam; as, a beam of comfort.

     Mercy with her genial beam. Keble.

   13.  One  of  the  long feathers in the wing of a hawk; -- called also
   beam feather.
   Abaft  the  beam (Naut.), in an arc of the horizon between a line that
   crosses  the  ship  at right angles, or in the direction of her beams,
   and  that  point of the compass toward which her stern is directed. --
   Beam  center  (Mach.), the fulcrum or pin on which the working beam of
   an engine vibrates. -- Beam compass, an instrument consisting of a rod
   or  beam, having sliding sockets that carry steel or pencil points; --
   used  for drawing or describing large circles. -- Beam engine, a steam
   engine  having  a  working beam to transmit power, in distinction from
   one  which  has  its  piston rod attached directly to the crank of the
   wheel  shaft.  --  Before  the  beam (Naut.), in an arc of the horizon
   included between a line that crosses the ship at right angles and that
   point of the compass toward which the ship steers. -- On the beam , in
   a  line  with  the  beams, or at right angled with the keel. -- On the
   weather  beam, on the side of a ship which faces the wind. -- To be on
   her  beam  ends, to incline, as a vessel, so much on one side that her
   beams approach a vertical position.


   Beam,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Beamed (p. pr. & vb. n. Beaming.] To send
   forth;  to  emit;  --  followed ordinarily by forth; as, to beam forth


   Beam, v. i. To emit beams of light.

     He beamed, the daystar of the rising age. Trumbull.


   Beam"bird`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A small European flycatcher (Muscicapa
   gricola), so called because it often nests on a beam in a building.


   Beamed (?), a. Furnished with beams, as the head of a stag.

     Tost his beamed frontlet to the sky. Sir W. Scott.


   Beam"ful (?), a. Beamy; radiant.


   Beam"i*ly (?), adv. In a beaming manner.


   Beam"i*ness, n. The state of being beamy.


   Beam"ing, a. Emitting beams; radiant.


   Beam"ing*ly, adv. In a beaming manner; radiantly.


   Beam"less, a.

   1. Not having a beam.

   2. Not emitting light.


   Beam"let (?), n. A small beam of light.

                                   Beam tree

   Beam"  tree` (?). [AS. be\'a0m a tree. See Beam.] (Bot.) A tree (Pyrus
   aria) related to the apple.


   Beam"y (?), a.

   1. Emitting beams of light; radiant; shining. "Beamy gold." Tickell.

   Page 128

   2. Resembling a beam in size and weight; massy.

     His double-biting ax, and beamy spear. Dryden.

   3. Having horns, or antlers.

     Beamy stags in toils engage. Dryden.


   Bean (?), n. [OE. bene, AS.be\'a0n; akin to D. boon, G. bohne, OHG. p,
   Icel.  baun,  Dan.  b\'94nne,  Sw. b\'94na, and perh. to Russ. bob, L.

   1.  (Bot.)  A  name  given  to  the  seed of certain leguminous herbs,
   chiefly  of  the  genera  Faba,  Phaseolus, and Dolichos; also, to the

     NOTE: &hand; Th e origin and classification of many kinds are still
     doubtful. Among true beans are: the black-eyed bean and China bean,
     included  in  Dolichos  Sinensis;  black  Egyptian bean or hyacinth
     bean,  D.  Lablab;  the  common haricot beans, kidney beans, string
     beans,  and  pole  beans,  all  included in Phaseolus vulgaris; the
     lower  bush  bean,  Ph.  vulgaris,  variety  nanus;  Lima bean, Ph.
     lunatus;  Spanish bean and scarlet runner, Ph. maltiflorus; Windsor
     bean, the common bean of England, Faba vulgaris.

   As an article of food beans are classed with vegetables.

   2.  The  popular name of other vegetable seeds or fruits, more or less
   resembling true beans.
   Bean aphis (Zo\'94l.), a plant louse (Aphis fab\'91) which infests the
   bean  plant.  --  Bean fly (Zo\'94l.), a fly found on bean flowers. --
   Bean  goose  (Zo\'94l.),  a  species of goose (Anser segetum). -- Bean
   weevil  (Zo\'94l.),  a  small weevil that in the larval state destroys
   beans.  The  American  species  in  Bruchus  fab\'91.  -- Florida bean
   (Bot.),  the  seed of Mucuna urens, a West Indian plant. The seeds are
   washed  up  on the Florida shore, and are often polished and made into
   ornaments.  -- Ignatius bean, or St. Ignatius's bean (Bot.), a species
   of  Strychnos.  -- Navy bean, the common dried white bean of commerce;
   probably  so  called because an important article of food in the navy.
   --  Pea  bean,  a very small and highly esteemed variety of the edible
   white  bean;  --  so  called  from its size. -- Sacred bean. See under
   Sacred.  --  Screw  bean.  See  under  Screw. -- Sea bean. (a) Same as
   Florida  bean. (b) A red bean of unknown species used for ornament. --
   Tonquin  bean, or Tonka bean, the fragrant seed of Dipteryx odorata, a
   leguminous tree. -- Vanilla bean. See under Vanilla.

                                  Bean caper

   Bean"  ca`per.  (Bot.)  A  deciduous plant of warm climates, generally
   with fleshy leaves and flowers of a yellow or whitish yellow color, of
   the genus Zygophyllum.

                                 Bean trefoil

   Bean"  tre"foil.  (Bot.)  A  leguminous shrub of southern Europe, with
   trifoliate leaves (Anagyris f\'d2tida).


   Bear  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  Bore (?) (formerly Bare (); p. p. Born (?),
   Borne  (p.  pr.  &  vb. n. Bearing.] [OE. beren, AS. beran, beoran, to
   bear,  carry, produce; akin to D. baren to bring forth, G. geb\'84ren,
   Goth.  ba\'a1ran  to  bear  or  carry,  Icel.  bera, Sw. b\'84ra, Dan.
   b\'91re,  OHG.  beran,  peran, L. ferre to bear, carry, produce, Gr. ,
   OSlav  brati  to  take,  carry,  OIr.  berim  I bear, Skr. bh to bear.
   &root;92. Cf. Fertile.]

   1. To support or sustain; to hold up.

   2. To support and remove or carry; to convey.

     I 'll bear your logs the while. Shak.

   3. To conduct; to bring; -- said of persons. [Obs.]

     Bear them to my house. Shak.

   4. To possess and use, as power; to exercise.

     Every man should bear rule in his own house. Esther i. 22.

   5.  To  sustain;  to have on (written or inscribed, or as a mark), as,
   the tablet bears this inscription.

   6.  To  possess  or  carry,  as a mark of authority or distinction; to
   wear; as, to bear a sword, badge, or name.

   7. To possess mentally; to carry or hold in the mind; to entertain; to
   harbor Dryden.

     The ancient grudge I bear him. Shak.

   8. To endure; to tolerate; to undergo; to suffer.

     Should  such a man, too fond to rule alone, Bear, like the Turk, no
     brother near the throne. Pope.

     I cannot bear The murmur of this lake to hear. Shelley.

     My punishment is greater than I can bear. Gen. iv. 13.

   9. To gain or win. [Obs.]

     Some think to bear it by speaking a great word. Bacon.

     She  was  .  .  .  found not guilty, through bearing of friends and
     bribing of the judge. Latimer.

   10.   To   sustain,   or   be   answerable  for,  as  blame,  expense,
   responsibility, etc.

     He shall bear their iniquities. Is. liii. 11.

     Somewhat that will bear your charges. Dryden.

   11. To render or give; to bring forward. "Your testimony bear" Dryden.

   12.  To  carry on, or maintain; to have. "The credit of bearing a part
   in the conversation." Locke.

   13.  To  admit or be capable of; that is, to suffer or sustain without
   violence, injury, or change.

     In  all  criminal cases the most favorable interpretation should be
     put on words that they can possibly bear. Swift.

   14. To manage, wield, or direct. "Thus must thou thy body bear." Shak.
   Hence: To behave; to conduct.

     Hath he borne himself penitently in prison ? Shak.

   15. To afford; to be to ; to supply with.

     bear him company. Pope.

   16.  To  bring forth or produce; to yield; as, to bear apples; to bear
   children; to bear interest.

     Here dwelt the man divine whom Samos bore. Dryden.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e pa ssive fo rm of  this verb, the best modern
     usage  restricts  the  past participle born to the sense of brought
     forth,  while borne is used in the other senses of the word. In the
     active form, borne alone is used as the past participle.

   To  bear  down.  (a)  To  force  into a lower place; to carry down; to
   depress  or sink. "His nose, . . . large as were the others, bore them
   down  into  insignificance."  Marryat.  (b)  To  overthrow or crush by
   force;  as,  to bear down an enemy. -- To bear a hand. (a) To help; to
   give assistance. (b) (Naut.) To make haste; to be quick. -- To bear in
   hand, to keep (one) up in expectation, usually by promises never to be
   realized; to amuse by false pretenses; to delude. [Obs.] "How you were
   borne in hand, how crossed." Shak. -- To bear in mind, to remember. --
   To  bear  off.  (a) To restrain; to keep from approach. (b) (Naut.) To
   remove to a distance; to keep clear from rubbing against anything; as,
   to  bear off a blow; to bear off a boat. (c) To gain; to carry off, as
   a  prize.  --  To bear one hard, to owe one a grudge. [Obs.] "C\'91sar
   doth  bear me hard." Shak. -- To bear out. (a) To maintain and support
   to the end; to defend to the last. "Company only can bear a man out in
   an  ill  thing." South. (b) To corroborate; to confirm. -- To bear up,
   to  support; to keep from falling or sinking. "Religious hope bears up
   the  mind  under  sufferings."  Addison.  Syn.  -- To uphold; sustain;
   maintain;  support;  undergo; suffer; endure; tolerate; carry; convey;
   transport; waft.
   Bear (?), v. i.
   1. To produce, as fruit; to be fruitful, in opposition to barrenness.
     This age to blossom, and the next to bear. Dryden.

   2. To suffer, as in carrying a burden.

     But man is born to bear. Pope.

   3. To endure with patience; to be patient.

     I can not, can not bear. Dryden.

   4. To press; -- with on or upon, or against.

     These men bear hard on the suspected party. Addison.

   5. To take effect; to have influence or force; as, to bring matters to

   6.  To  relate or refer; -- with on or upon; as, how does this bear on
   the question?

   7. To have a certain meaning, intent, or effect.

     Her  sentence  bore  that  she should stand a certain time upon the
     platform. Hawthorne.

   8.  To  be  situated,  as  to  the  point  of compass, with respect to
   something else; as, the land bears N. by E.
   To  bear  against, to approach for attack or seizure; as, a lion bears
   against his prey. [Obs.] -- To bear away (Naut.), to change the course
   of  a  ship,  and  make  her  run before the wind. -- To bear back, to
   retreat.  "Bearing back from the blows of their sable antagonist." Sir
   W.  Scott. -- To bear down upon (Naut.), to approach from the windward
   side;  as,  the  fleet  bore  down  upon the enemy. -- To bear in with
   (Naut.),  to run or tend toward; as, a ship bears in with the land. --
   To  bear  off (Naut.), to steer away, as from land. -- To bear up. (a)
   To  be  supported;  to have fortitude; to be firm; not to sink; as, to
   bear  up  under  afflictions.  (b)  (Naut.)  To put the helm up (or to
   windward) and so put the ship before the wind; to bear away. Hamersly.
   --  To bear upon (Mil.), to be pointed or situated so as to affect; to
   be  pointed  directly  against,  or  so as to hit (the object); as, to
   bring or plant guns so as to bear upon a fort or a ship; the artillery
   bore upon the center. -- To bear up to, to tend or move toward; as, to
   bear  up  to  one another. -- To bear with, to endure; to be indulgent
   to; to forbear to resent, oppose, or punish.


   Bear (?), n. A bier. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Bear (?), n. [OE. bere, AS. bera; akin to D. beer, OHG. bero, pero, G.
   b\'84r,  Icel. & Sw. bj\'94rn, and possibly to L. fera wild beast, Gr.
   beast, Skr. bhalla bear.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  species  of  the  genus Ursus, and of the closely
   allied  genera. Bears are plantigrade Carnivora, but they live largely
   on fruit and insects.

     NOTE: The European brown bear (U. arctos), the white polar bear (U.
     maritimus),  the  grizzly  bear (U. horribilis), the American black
     bear, and its variety the cinnamon bear (U. Americanus), the Syrian
     bear  (Ursus  Syriacus),  and the sloth bear, are among the notable

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  An animal which has some resemblance to a bear in form
   or  habits, but no real affinity; as, the woolly bear; ant bear; water
   bear; sea bear.

   3.  (Astron.)  One  of  two constellations in the northern hemisphere,
   called  respectively the Great Bear and the Lesser Bear, or Ursa Major
   and Ursa Minor.

   4. Metaphorically: A brutal, coarse, or morose person.

   5. (Stock Exchange) A person who sells stocks or securities for future
   delivery in expectation of a fall in the market.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e be ars an d bu lls of  th e Stock Exchange, whose
     interest it is, the one to depress, and the other to raise, stocks,
     are said to be so called in allusion to the bear's habit of pulling
     down, and the bull's of tossing up.

   6. (Mach.) A portable punching machine.

   7.  (Naut.)  A block covered with coarse matting; -- used to scour the
   Australian  bear.  (Zo\'94l.) See Koala. -- Bear baiting, the sport of
   baiting  bears  with  dogs.  -- Bear caterpillar (Zo\'94l.), the hairy
   larva  of  a  moth,  esp. of the genus Euprepia. -- Bear garden. (a) A
   place  where  bears  are kept for diversion or fighting. (b) Any place
   where  riotous  conduct  is  common  or  permitted. M. Arnold. -- Bear
   leader,  one  who  leads  about  a performing bear for money; hence, a
   facetious term for one who takes charge of a young man on his travels.


   Bear,  v.  t. (Stock Exchange) To endeavor to depress the price of, or
   prices in; as, to bear a railroad stock; to bear the market.

                                  Bear, Bere

   Bear,  Bere  (?),  n.  [AS.  bere.  See  Barley.]  (Bot.)  Barley; the
   six-rowed  barley or the four-rowed barley, commonly the former (Hord.
   vulgare). [Obs. except in North of Eng. and Scot.]


   Bear"a*ble  (?),  a.  Capable of being borne or endured; tolerable. --
   Bear"a*bly, adv.


   Bear"ber*ry  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  trailing  plant  of the heath family
   (Arctostaphylos   uva-ursi),   having   leaves  which  are  tonic  and
   astringent, and glossy red berries of which bears are said to be fond.


   Bear"bind` (?), n. (Bot.) The bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis).


   Beard  (?), n. [OE. berd, AS. beard; akin to Fries. berd, D. baard, G.
   bart,  Lith. barzda, OSlav. brada, Pol. broda, Russ. boroda, L. barba,
   W. barf. Cf. 1st Barb.]

   1.  The  hair  that grows on the chin, lips, and adjacent parts of the
   human face, chiefly of male adults.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) The long hairs about the face in animals, as in the
   goat.  (b)  The  cluster  of small feathers at the base of the beak in
   some  birds  (c) The appendages to the jaw in some Cetacea, and to the
   mouth  or jaws of some fishes. (d) The byssus of certain shellfish, as
   the  muscle.  (e)  The  gills  of some bivalves, as the oyster. (f) In
   insects, the hairs of the labial palpi of moths and butterflies.

   3.  (Bot.)  Long  or stiff hairs on a plant; the awn; as, the beard of

   4.  A  barb or sharp point of an arrow or other instrument, projecting
   backward to prevent the head from being easily drawn out.

   5.  That  part of the under side of a horse's lower jaw which is above
   the chin, and bears the curb of a bridle.

   6.  (Print.)  That part of a type which is between the shoulder of the
   shank and the face.

   7. An imposition; a trick. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   Beard  grass (Bot.), a coarse, perennial grass of different species of
   the  genus  Andropogon.  --  To  one's  beard,  to one's face; in open


   Beard (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bearded; p. pr. & vb. n. Bearding.]

   1.  To  take  by  the  beard; to seize, pluck, or pull the beard of (a
   man), in anger or contempt.

   2. To oppose to the gills; to set at defiance.

     No  admiral,  bearded by three corrupt and dissolute minions of the
     palace,  dared  to  do  more  than  mutter  something about a court
     martial. Macaulay.

   3.  To  deprive  of  the  gills;  --  used only of oysters and similar


   Beard"ed,  a. Having a beard. "Bearded fellow." Shak. "Bearded grain."
   Dryden.  Bearded vulture, Bearded eagle. (Zo\'94l.) See Lammergeir. --
   Bearded tortoise. (Zo\'94l.) See Matamata.


   Beard"ie  (?),  n.  [From  Beard,  n.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The  bearded loach
   (Nemachilus barbatus) of Europe. [Scot.]


   Beard"less, a.

   1.  Without  a beard. Hence: Not having arrived at puberty or manhood;

   2. Destitute of an awn; as, beardless wheat.


   Beard"less*ness, n. The state or quality of being destitute of beard.


   Bear"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or that which, bears, sustains, or carries. "Bearers of
   burdens." 2 Chron. ii. 18. "The bearer of unhappy news." Dryden.

   2.  Specifically:  One  who assists in carrying a body to the grave; a
   pallbearer. Milton.

   3. A palanquin carrier; also, a house servant. [India]

   4. A tree or plant yielding fruit; as, a good bearer.

   5.  (Com.)  One who holds a check, note, draft, or other order for the
   payment of money; as, pay to bearer.

   6.  (Print.)  A  strip  of  reglet  or other furniture to bear off the
   impression from a blank page; also, a type or type-high piece of metal
   interspersed in blank parts to support the plate when it is shaved.


   Bear"herd` (?), n. A man who tends a bear.


   Bear"hound` (?), n. A hound for baiting or hunting bears. Car 


   Bear"ing (?), n.

   1.  The  manner  in  which  one  bears  or  conducts one's self; mien;
   behavior; carriage.

     I know him by his bearing. Shak.

   2. Patient endurance; suffering without complaint.

   3.  The  situation  of  one  object,  with  respect  to  another, such
   situation  being  supposed  to  have  a connection with the object, or
   influence  upon  it,  or  to  be  influenced  by  it; hence, relation;

     But   of  this  frame,  the  bearings  and  the  ties,  The  strong
     connections, nice dependencies. Pope.

   4. Purport; meaning; intended significance; aspect.

   5. The act, power, or time of producing or giving birth; as, a tree in
   full bearing; a tree past bearing.

     [His mother] in travail of his bearing. R. of Gloucester.

   6.  (Arch.) (a) That part of any member of a building which rests upon
   its  supports;  as,  a  lintel or beam may have four inches of bearing
   upon  the  wall. (b) The portion of a support on which anything rests.
   (c)  Improperly, the unsupported span; as, the beam has twenty feet of
   bearing between its supports.

   7.  (Mach.)  (a)  The  part  of  an  axle or shaft in contact with its
   support,  collar,  or boxing; the journal. (b) The part of the support
   on which a journal rests and rotates.

   8. (Her.) Any single emblem or charge in an escutcheon or coat of arms
   -- commonly in the pl.

     A carriage covered with armorial bearings. Thackeray.

   9.  (Naut.)  (a)  The  situation of a distant object, with regard to a
   ship's  position,  as  on  the  bow,  on  the  lee  quarter, etc.; the
   direction  or point of the compass in which an object is seen; as, the
   bearing  of  the cape was W. N. W. (b) pl. The widest part of a vessel
   below  the plank-sheer. (c) pl. The line of flotation of a vessel when
   properly trimmed with cargo or ballast.
   Ball  bearings.  See  under  Ball. -- To bring one to his bearings, to
   bring  one  to  his  senses.  --  To  lose  one's  bearings, to become
   bewildered.  --  To  take  bearings,  to  ascertain by the compass the
   position  of  an  object;  to  ascertain the relation of one object or
   place  to  another;  to  ascertain  one's  position  by  reference  to
   landmarks  or to the compass; hence (Fig.), to ascertain the condition
   of  things  when  one is in trouble or perplexity. Syn. -- Deportment;
   gesture;  mien;  behavior;  manner; carriage; demeanor; port; conduct;
   direction; relation; tendency; influence.

                                 Bearing cloth

   Bear"ing  cloth`  (?).  A  cloth  with  which  a child is covered when
   carried to be baptized. Shak.

                                 Bearing rein

   Bear"ing  rein`  (?).  A  short rein looped over the check hook or the
   hames  to  keep  the horse's head up; -- called in the United States a


   Bear"ish,  a.  Partaking of the qualities of a bear; resembling a bear
   in temper or manners. Harris.


   Bear"ish*ness, n. Behavior like that of a bear.


   Bearn (?), n. See Bairn. [Obs.]


   Bear's"-breech`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  (a)  See  Acanthus,  n., 1. (b) The
   English cow parsnip (Heracleum sphondylium) Dr. Prior.

   Page 129


   Bear's-ear`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A kind of primrose (Primula auricula), so
   called from the shape of the leaf.


   Bear's"-foot`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  species  of  hellebore (Helleborus
   f\'d2tidus), with digitate leaves. It has an offensive smell and acrid
   taste, and is a powerful emetic, cathartic, and anthelmintic.


   Bear"skin` (?), n.

   1. The skin of a bear.

   2. A coarse, shaggy, woolen cloth for overcoats.

   3. A cap made of bearskin, esp. one worn by soldiers.


   Bear's"-paw`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large bivalve shell of the East
   Indies (Hippopus maculatus), often used as an ornament.


   Bear"ward`  (?),  n.  [Bear  +  ward a keeper.] A keeper of bears. See
   Bearherd. [R.] Shak.


   Beast (?), n. [OE. best, beste, OF. beste, F. b\'88te, fr. L. bestia.]

   1.  Any  living  creature;  an animal; -- including man, insects, etc.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. Any four-footed animal, that may be used for labor, food, or sport;
   as, a beast of burden.

     A righteous man regardeth the life of his beast. Prov. xii. 10.

   3. As opposed to man: Any irrational animal.

   4. Fig.: A coarse, brutal, filthy, or degraded fellow.

   5. A game at cards similar to loo. [Obs.] Wright.

   6.  A penalty at beast, omber, etc. Hence: To be beasted, to be beaten
   at beast, omber, etc.
   Beast  royal,  the lion. [Obs.] Chaucer. Syn. -- Beast, Brute. When we
   use  these words in a figurative sense, as applicable to human beings,
   we think of beasts as mere animals governed by animal appetite; and of
   brutes  as being destitute of reason or moral feeling, and governed by
   unrestrained  passion.  Hence  we  speak of beastly appetites; beastly
   indulgences,  etc.;  and  of brutal manners; brutal inhumanity; brutal
   ferocity. So, also, we say of a drunkard, that he first made himself a
   beast, and then treated his family like a brute.


   Beast"hood (?), n. State or nature of a beast.


   Beast"ings (?), n. pl. See Biestings.


   Beast"li*head  (?),  n.  [Beastly  + -head state.] Beastliness. [Obs.]


   Beast"like" (?), a. Like a beast.


   Beast"li*ness, n. The state or quality of being beastly.


   Beast"ly (?), a.

   1. Pertaining to, or having the form, nature, or habits of, a beast.

     Beastly divinities and droves of gods. Prior.

   2.  Characterizing  the  nature of a beast; contrary to the nature and
   dignity of man; brutal; filthy.

     The beastly vice of drinking to excess. Swift.

   3.  Abominable;  as,  beastly weather. [Colloq. Eng.] Syn. -- Bestial;
   brutish; irrational; sensual; degrading.


   Beat  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  Beat; p. p. Beat, Beaten (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beating.] [OE. beaten, beten, AS. be\'a0tan; akin to Icel. bauta, OHG.
   b. Cf. 1st Butt, Button.]

   1. To strike repeatedly; to lay repeated blows upon; as, to beat one's
   breast;  to  beat  iron  so as to shape it; to beat grain, in order to
   force out the seeds; to beat eggs and sugar; to beat a drum.

     Thou shalt beat some of it [spices] very small. Ex. xxx. 36.

     They did beat the gold into thin plates. Ex. xxxix. 3.

   2. To punish by blows; to thrash.

   3.  To scour or range over in hunting, accompanied with the noise made
   by striking bushes, etc., for the purpose of rousing game.

     To beat the woods, and rouse the bounding prey. Prior.

   4. To dash against, or strike, as with water or wind.

     A frozen continent . . . beat with perpetual storms. Milton.

   5. To tread, as a path.

     Pass awful gulfs, and beat my painful way. Blackmore.

   6.  To  overcome  in  a  battle, contest, strife, race, game, etc.; to
   vanquish or conquer; to surpass.

     He beat them in a bloody battle. Prescott.

     For loveliness, it would be hard to beat that. M. Arnold.

   7.  To  cheat;  to  chouse; to swindle; to defraud; -- often with out.

   8. To exercise severely; to perplex; to trouble.

     Why  should any one . . . beat his head about the Latin grammar who
     does not intend to be a critic? Locke.

   9. (Mil.) To give the signal for, by beat of drum; to sound by beat of
   drum; as, to beat an alarm, a charge, a parley, a retreat; to beat the
   general, the reveille, the tattoo. See Alarm, Charge, Parley, etc.
   To  beat  down,  to  haggle with (any one) to secure a lower price; to
   force  down.  [Colloq.]  --  To  beat  into,  to  teach or instill, by
   repetition. -- To beat off, to repel or drive back. -- To beat out, to
   extend by hammering. -- To beat out of a thing, to cause to relinquish
   it, or give it up. "Nor can anything beat their posterity out of it to
   this  day."  South.  --  To  beat  the dust. (Man.) (a) To take in too
   little  ground  with the fore legs, as a horse. (b) To perform curvets
   too  precipitately  or too low. -- To beat the hoof, to walk; to go on
   foot.  --  To  beat  the  wing,  to  flutter;  to move with fluttering
   agitation.  --  To  beat time, to measure or regulate time in music by
   the  motion of the hand or foot. -- To beat up, to attack suddenly; to
   alarm  or  disturb;  as,  to  beat  up an enemy's quarters. Syn. -- To
   strike; pound; bang; buffet; maul; drub; thump; baste; thwack; thrash;
   pommel; cudgel; belabor; conquer; defeat; vanquish; overcome.
   Beat, v. i. 

   1.  To  strike  repeatedly;  to  inflict  repeated  blaows;  to  knock
   vigorously or loudly.

     The men of the city . . . beat at the door. Judges. xix. 22.

   2. To move with pulsation or throbbing.

     A thousand hearts beat happily. Byron.

   3. To come or act with violence; to dash or fall with force; to strike
   anything, as, rain, wind, and waves do.

     Sees rolling tempests vainly beat below. Dryden.

     They [winds] beat at the crazy casement. Longfellow.

     The sun beat upon the head of Jonah, that he fainted, and wisbed in
     himself to die. Jonah iv. 8.

     Public envy seemeth to beat chiefly upon ministers. Bacon.

   4. To be in agitation or doubt. [Poetic]

     To still my beating mind. Shak


   5.  (Naut.)  To make progress against the wind, by sailing in a zigzag
   line or traverse.

   6. To make a sound when struck; as, the drums beat.

   7.  (Mil.) To make a succession of strokes on a drum; as, the drummers
   beat to call soldiers to their quarters.

   8. (Acoustics & Mus.) To sound with more or less rapid alternations of
   greater  and  less  intensity, so as to produce a pulsating effect; --
   said of instruments, tones, or vibrations, not perfectly in unison.
   A  beating wind (Naut.), a wind which necessitates tacking in order to
   make  progress. -- To beat about, to try to find; to search by various
   means  or  ways.  Addison.  --  To  beat about the bush, to approach a
   subject  circuitously.  -- To beat up and down (Hunting), to run first
   one  way  and  then  another;  --  said  of  a stag. -- To beat up for
   recruits,   to  go  diligently  about  in  order  to  get  helpers  or
   participators in an enterprise.


   Beat (?), n.

   1. A stroke; a blow.

     He,  with  a careless beat, Struck out the mute creation at a heat.

   2.  A recurring stroke; a throb; a pulsation; as, a beat of the heart;
   the beat of the pulse.

   3.  (Mus.)  (a)  The  rise  or  fall  of the hand or foot, marking the
   divisions  of time; a division of the measure so marked. In the rhythm
   of  music  the  beat  is  the unit. (b) A transient grace note, struck
   immediately before the one it is intended to ornament.

   4.  (Acoustics  &  Mus.)  A  sudden  swelling or re\'89nforcement of a
   sound,   recurring   at   regular   intervals,  and  produced  by  the
   interference   of   sound  waves  of  slightly  different  periods  of
   vibrations;  applied also, by analogy, to other kinds of wave motions;
   the  pulsation  or throbbing produced by the vibrating together of two
   tones not quite in unison. See Beat, v. i., 8.

   5.  A  round or course which is frequently gone over; as, a watchman's

   6. A place of habitual or frequent resort.

   7.  A  cheat  or  swindler of the lowest grade; -- often emphasized by
   dead; as, a dead beat. [Low]
   Beat  of  drum  (Mil.),  a  succession of strokes varied, in different
   ways,  for  particular  purposes,  as  to  regulate  a  march, to call
   soldiers  to  their arms or quarters, to direct an attack, or retreat,
   etc.  --  Beat  of  a watch, OR clock, the stroke or sound made by the
   action of the escapement. A clock is in beat or out of beat, according
   as the strokes is at equal or unequal intervals.
   Beat, a. Weary; tired; fatigued; exhausted. [Colloq.]
     Quite beat, and very much vexed and disappointed. Dickens.
   Beat"en (?), a. 

   1.  Made  smooth  by  beating  or  treading; worn by use. "A broad and
   beaten way." Milton. "Beaten gold." Shak.

   2. Vanquished; conquered; baffled.

   3. Exhausted; tired out.

   4. Become common or trite; as, a beaten phrase. [Obs.]

   5. Tried; practiced. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Beat"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, beats.

   2. A person who beats up game for the hunters. Black.


   Beath  (?),  v. t. [AS. be to foment.] To bathe; also, to dry or heat,
   as unseasoned wood. [Obs.] Spenser.

                             Beatific, Beatifical

   Be`a*tif"ic  (?),  Be`a*tif"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. b\'82atifique, L.
   beatificus.  See  Beatify.]  Having  the  power  to impart or complete
   blissful   enjoyment;  blissful.  "The  beatific  vision."  South.  --
   Be`a*tif"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Be`a*tif"i*cate (?), v. t. To beatify. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Be*at`i*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  b\'82atification.]  The act of
   beatifying,  or  the  state  of  being  beatified;  esp., in the R. C.
   Church,  the  act  or  process  of  ascertaining  and declaring that a
   deceased  person  is  one of "the blessed," or has attained the second
   degree of sanctity, -- usually a stage in the process of canonization.
   "The beatification of his spirit." Jer. Taylor.


   Be*at"i*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Beatified (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beatifying.]  [L.  beatificare; beatus happy (fr. beare to bless, akin
   to bonus good) + facere to make: cf. F. b\'82atifier. See Bounty.]

   1.  To  pronounce  or  regard  as  happy,  or supremely blessed, or as
   conferring happiness.

     The common conceits and phrases that beatify wealth. Barrow.

   2. To make happy; to bless with the completion of celestial enjoyment.
   "Beatified spirits." Dryden.

   3.  (R.  C.  Ch.)  To  ascertain  and declare, by a public process and
   decree,  that  a  deceased person is one of "the blessed" and is to be
   reverenced as such, though not canonized.


   Beat"ing (?), n.

   1.  The act of striking or giving blows; punishment or chastisement by

   2. Pulsation; throbbing; as, the beating of the heart.

   3. (Acoustics & Mus.) Pulsative sounds. See Beat, n.

   4.  (Naut.) The process of sailing against the wind by tacks in zigzag


   Be*at"i*tude (?), n. [L. beatitudo: cf. F. b\'82atitude. See Beatify.]

   1. Felicity of the highest kind; consummate bliss.

   2.  Any  one of the nine declarations (called the Beatitudes), made in
   the  Sermon  on  the  Mount  (Matt.  v.  3-12),  with  regard  to  the
   blessedness  of  those  who  are  distinguished  by  certain specified

   3.  (R.  C. Ch.) Beatification. Milman. Syn. -- Blessedness; felicity;


   Beau (?), n.; pl. F. Beaux (E. pron. b), E. Beaus (#). [F., a fop, fr.
   beau fine, beautiful, fr. L. bellus pretty, fine, for bonulus, dim. of
   bonus good. See Bounty, and cf. Belle, Beauty.] 

   1. A man who takes great care to dress in the latest fashion; a dandy.

   2.  A  man  who  escorts,  or pays attentions to, a lady; an escort; a


   Beau"catch`er  (?),  n. A small flat curl worn on the temple by women.


   Beau"fet  (?),  n.  [See  Buffet.] A niche, cupboard, or sideboard for
   plate, china, glass, etc.; a buffet.

     A beaufet . . . filled with gold and silver vessels. Prescott.


   Beau"fin (?), n. See Biffin. Wright.

                                  Beau ideal

   Beau"  i*de"al (?). [F. beau beautiful + id\'82al ideal.] A conception
   or  image of consummate beauty, moral or physical, formed in the mind,
   free  from  all the deformities, defects, and blemishes seen in actual
   existence; an ideal or faultless standard or model.


   Beau"ish (?), n. Like a beau; characteristic of a beau; foppish; fine.
   "A beauish young spark." Byrom.

                                  Beau monde

   Beau` monde" (?). [F. beau fine + monde world.] The fashionable world;
   people of fashion and gayety. Prior.


   Beau"pere` (?), n. [F. beau p\'82re; beau fair + p\'82re father.]

   1. A father. [Obs.] Wyclif.

   2. A companion. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Beau`se`ant"  (?),  n. [F. beauc\'82ant.] The black and white standard
   of the Knights Templars.


   Beau"ship  (?),  n.  The  state  of being a beau; the personality of a
   beau. [Jocular] Dryden.


   Beau"te*ous  (?), a. Full of beauty; beautiful; very handsome. [Mostly
   poetic] -- Beau"te*ous*ly, adv. -- Beau"te*ous*ness, n.


   Beau"tied (?), p. a. Beautiful; embellished. [Poetic] Shak.


   Beau"ti*fi`er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or that which, beautifies or makes


   Beau"ti*ful  (?),  a.  Having  the  qualities which constitute beauty;
   pleasing to the sight or the mind.

     A  circle  is  more  beautiful  than  a  square;  a  square is more
     beautiful than a parallelogram. Lord Kames.

   Syn.  --  Handsome; elegant; lovely; fair; charming; graceful; pretty;
   delightful. See Fine. -- Beau"ti*ful*ly, adv. -- Beau"ti*ful*ness, n.


   Beau"ti*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Beautified (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beautifying.]  [Beauty  +  -fy.]  To  make or render beautiful; to add
   beauty to; to adorn; to deck; to grace; to embellish.

     The arts that beautify and polish life. Burke.

   Syn. -- To adorn; grace; ornament; deck; decorate.


   Beau"ti*fy, v. i. To become beautiful; to advance in beauty. Addison.


   Beau"ti*less, a. Destitute of beauty. Hammond.


   Beau"ty  (?), n.; pl. Beauties (#). [OE. beaute, beute, OF. beaut\'82,
   biaut\'82, Pr. beltat, F. beaut\'82, fr. an assumed LL. bellitas, from
   L. bellus pretty. See Beau.]

   1. An assemblage or graces or properties pleasing to the eye, the ear,
   the intellect, the \'91sthetic faculty, or the moral sense.

     Beauty  consists  of  a  certain  composition  of color and figure,
     causing delight in the beholder. Locke.

     The  production  of  beauty  by a multiplicity of symmetrical parts
     uniting in a consistent whole. Wordsworth.

     The  old definition of beauty, in the Roman school, was, "multitude
     in  unity;"  and  there  is  no doubt that such is the principle of
     beauty. Coleridge.

   2.  A  particular  grace,  feature,  ornament, or excellence; anything
   beautiful; as, the beauties of nature.

   3. A beautiful person, esp. a beautiful woman.

     All the admired beauties of Verona. Shak.

   4. Prevailing style or taste; rage; fashion. [Obs.]

     She  stained  her  hair  yellow,  which  was  then the beauty. Jer.

   Beauty  spot,  a  patch  or  spot  placed  on  the face with intent to
   heighten beauty by contrast.


   Beaux (?), n., pl. of Beau.


   Beaux"ite (?), n. (Min.) See Bauxite.


   Bea"ver  (?), n. [OE. bever, AS. beofer, befer; akin to D. bever, OHG.
   bibar,  G.  biber,  Sw.  b\'84fver,  Dan. b\'91ver, Lith. bebru, Russ.
   bobr',  Gael.  beabhar,  Corn. befer, L. fiber, and Skr. babhrus large
   ichneumon;  also  as  an  adj., brown, the animal being probably named
   from its color. Brown.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) An amphibious rodent, of the genus Castor.

     NOTE: &hand; It  has palmated hind feet, and a broad, flat tail. It
     is  remarkable for its ingenuity in constructing its valued for its
     fur,  and  for  the material called castor, obtained from two small
     bags  in  the  groin  of the animal. The European species is Castor
     fiber,  and the American is generally considered a variety of this,
     although sometimes called Castor Canadensis.

   2. The fur of the beaver.

   3.  A  hat, formerly made of the fur of the beaver, but now usually of

     A brown beaver slouched over his eyes. Prescott.

   4.  Beaver cloth, a heavy felted woolen cloth, used chiefly for making
   Beaver  rat  (Zo\'94l.),  an  aquatic  ratlike  quadruped  of Tasmania
   (Hydromys chrysogaster). -- Beaver skin, the furry skin of the beaver.
   -- Bank beaver. See under 1st Bank.


   Bea"ver,  n.  [OE. baviere, bauier, beavoir, bever; fr. F. bavi\'8are,
   fr.  bave  slaver,  drivel, foam, OF., prattle, drivel, perh. orig. an
   imitative  word.  Bavi\'8are,  according  to  Cotgrave, is the bib put
   before  a  (slavering) child.] That piece of armor which protected the
   lower  part of the face, whether forming a part of the helmet or fixed
   to  the  breastplate. It was so constructed (with joints or otherwise)
   that the wearer could raise or lower it to eat and drink.


   Bea"vered  (?),  a.  Covered  with,  or wearing, a beaver or hat. "His
   beavered brow." Pope.


   Bea"ver*teen  (?), n. A kind of fustian made of coarse twilled cotton,
   shorn after dyeing. Simmonds.

   Page 130

                            Bebeerine, OR Bebirine

   Be*bee"rine,  OR  Be*bi"rine  (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid got from the
   bark  of  the bebeeru, or green heart of Guiana (Nectandra Rodi\'d2i).
   It is a tonic, antiperiodic, and febrifuge, and is used in medicine as
   a substitute for quinine. [Written also bibirine.] 


   Be*bleed"  (?),  v.  t.  To  make  bloody; to stain with blood. [Obs.]

                               Beblood, Bebloody

   Be*blood"  (?),  Be*blood"y  (?),  v. t. To make bloody; to stain with
   blood. [Obs.] Sheldon.


   Be*blot" (?), v. t. To blot; to stain. Chaucer.


   Be*blub"ber  (?),  v.  t. To make swollen and disfigured or sullied by
   weeping; as, her eyes or cheeks were beblubbered.


   Be*calm"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Becalmed  (p.  pr.  & vb. n.

   1. To render calm or quiet; to calm; to still; to appease.

     Soft whispering airs . . . becalm the mind. Philips.

   2.  To  keep  from motion, or stop the progress of, by the stilling of
   the wind; as, the fleet was becalmed.


   Be*came" (?), imp. of Become.


   Bec"ard  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A South American bird of the flycatcher
   family. (Tityra inquisetor).


   Be*cause" (?), conj. [OE. bycause; by + cause.]

   1.  By  or  for  the  cause that; on this account that; for the reason
   that. Milton.

   2. In order that; that. [Obs.]

     And  the  multitude  rebuked  them  because  they should hold their
     peace. Matt. xx. 31.

   Because of, by reason of, on account of. [Prep. phrase.]

     Because  of  these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children
     of disobedience. Eph. v. 6.

   Syn,  --  Because,  For,  Since,  As, Inasmuch As. These particles are
   used, in certain connections, to assign the reason of a thing, or that
   "on  account of" which it is or takes place. Because (by cause) is the
   strongest  and  most  emphatic; as, I hid myself because I was afraid.
   For is not quite so strong; as, in Shakespeare, "I hate him, for he is
   a  Christian."  Since is less formal and more incidental than because;
   as,  I  will  do  it  since  you request me. It more commonly begins a
   sentence;  as,  Since your decision is made, I will say no more. As is
   still  more incidental than since, and points to some existing fact by
   way  of  assigning  a  reason. Thus we say, as I knew him to be out of
   town,  I  did  not  call. Inasmuch as seems to carry with it a kind of
   qualification which does not belong to the rest. Thus, if we say, I am
   ready  to  accept  your proposal, inasmuch as I believe it is the best
   you can offer, we mean, it is only with this understanding that we can
   accept it.


   Bec`ca*bun"ga  (?), n. [NL. (cf. It. beccabunga, G. bachbunge), fr. G.
   bach  brook  +  bunge,  OHG.  bungo,  bulb.  See  Beck  a  brook.] See


   Bec`ca*fi"co  (?),  n.;  pl. Beccaficos (. [It., fr. beccare to peck +
   fico  fig.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  bird.  (Silvia hortensis), which is
   highly  prized  by  the  Italians for the delicacy of its flesh in the
   autumn, when it has fed on figs, grapes, etc.


   Bach"a*mel  (?), n. [F. b\'82chamel, named from its inventor, Louis de
   B\'82chamel.]  (Cookery) A rich, white sauce, prepared with butter and


   Be*chance"  (?),  adv.  [Pref.  be-  for  by  + chance.] By chance; by
   accident. [Obs.] Grafton.


   Be*chance", v. t. & i. To befall; to chance; to happen to.

     God knows what hath bechanced them. Shak.


   Be*charm" (?), v. t. To charm; to captivate.

                                B\'88che de mer

   B\'88che`  de  mer"  (?).  [F.,  lit.,  a  sea  spade.] (Zo\'94l.) The


   Be"chic  (?), a. [L. bechicus, adj., for a cough, Gr. , fr. cough: cf.
   F.  b\'82chique.] (Med.) Pertaining to, or relieving, a cough. Thomas.
   -- n. A medicine for relieving coughs. Quincy.


   Beck (?), n. See Beak. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Beck,  n.  [OE. bek, AS. becc; akin to Icel. bekkr brook, OHG. pah, G.
   bach.] A small brook.

     The brooks, the becks, the rills. Drayton.


   Beck, n. A vat. See Back.


   Beck,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Becked (; p. pr. & vb. n. Becking.] [Contr.
   of  beckon.]  To  nod, or make a sign with the head or hand. [Archaic]


   Beck,  v.  t.  To  notify or call by a nod, or a motion of the head or
   hand; to intimate a command to. [Archaic]

     When gold and silver becks me to come on. Shak.


   Beck,  n.  A significant nod, or motion of the head or hand, esp. as a
   call or command.

     They have troops of soldiers at their beck. Shak.


   Beck"er  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A European fish (Pagellus centrodontus);
   the sea bream or braise.


   Beck"et (?), n. [Cf. D. bek beak, and E. beak.]

   1. (Naut.) A small grommet, or a ring or loop of rope

   2. A spade for digging turf. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.


   Beck"on,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beckoned (p. pr. & vb. n. Beckoning.] To
   make  a  significant  sign to; hence, to summon, as by a motion of the

     His distant friends, he beckons near. Dryden.

     It beckons you to go away with it. Shak.


     Beck"on,  n.  A  sign  made  without  words;  a beck. "At the first
     beckon." Bolingbroke.


     Be*clap (?), v. t. [OE. biclappen.] To catch; to grasp; to insnare.
     [Obs.] Chaucer.


     Be*clip" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beclipped ( [AS. beclyppan; pref.
     be + clyppan to embrace.] To embrace; to surround. [Obs.] Wyclif.


     Be*cloud"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Beclouded; p. pr. & vb. n.
     Beclouding.] To cause obscurity or dimness to; to dim; to cloud.

     If thou becloud the sunshine of thine eye. Quarles.


     Be*come" (?), v. i. [imp. Became (?); p. p. Become; p. pr. & vb. n.
     Becoming.]  [OE.  bicumen,  becumen,  AS.  becuman  to  come to, to
     happen;  akin  to  D. bekomen, OHG.a piqu\'89man, Goth. biquiman to
     come upon, G. bekommen to get, suit. See Be-, and Come.]

     1.  To  pass from one state to another; to enter into some state or
     condition,  by  a  change  from  another  state,  or by assuming or
     receiving  new properties or qualities, additional matter, or a new

     The  Lord  God . . . breathed into his nostrils the breath of life;
     and man became a living soul. Gen. ii. 7.

     That error now which is become my crime. Milton.

     2. To come; to get. [Obs.]

     But, madam, where is Warwick then become! Shak.

   To  become of, to be the present state or place of; to be the fate of;
   to be the end of; to be the final or subsequent condition of.

     What is then become of so huge a multitude? Sir W. Raleigh.


   Be*come",  v.  t.  To suit or be suitable to; to be congruous with; to
   befit; to accord with, in character or circumstances; to be worthy of,
   or proper for; to cause to appear well; -- said of persons and things.

     It becomes me so to speak of so excellent a poet. Dryden.

     I have known persons so anxious to have their dress become them, as
     to convert it, at length, into their proper self, and thus actually
     to become the dress. Coleridge.


   Be*com"ed (?), a. Proper; decorous. [Obs.]

     And gave him what becomed love I might. Shak.


   Be*com"ing,  a.  Appropriate  or  fit;  congruous; suitable; graceful;

     A low and becoming tone. Thackeray.

     NOTE: Formerly sometimes followed by of.

     Such discourses as are becoming of them. Dryden.

   Syn. -- Seemly; comely; decorous; decent; proper.


   Be*com"ing, n. That which is becoming or appropriate. [Obs.]


   Be*com"ing*ly, adv. In a becoming manner.


   Be*com"ing*ness,  n.  The  quality  of being becoming, appropriate, or
   fit; congruity; fitness.

     The becomingness of human nature. Grew.


   Be*crip"ple (?), v. t. To make a cripple of; to cripple; to lame. [R.]
   Dr. H. More.


   Be*cu"na  (?),  n.  [Sp.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  fish  of  the  Mediterranean
   (Sphyr\'91na spet). See Barracuda.


   Be*curl" (?), v. t. To curl; to adorn with curls.


   Bed  (?), n. [AS. bed, bedd; akin to OS. bed, D. bed, bedde, Icel. be,
   Dan.  bed,  Sw.  b\'84dd, Goth. badi, OHG. betti, G. bett, bette, bed,
   beet a plat of ground; all of uncertain origin.]

   1.  An  article  of furniture to sleep or take rest in or on; a couch.
   Specifically:  A  sack or mattress, filled with some soft material, in
   distinction  from  the  bedstead  on which it is placed (as, a feather
   bed), or this with the bedclothes added. In a general sense, any thing
   or  place  used  for  sleeping or reclining on or in, as a quantity of
   hay, straw, leaves, or twigs.

     And made for him [a horse] a leafy bed. Byron.

     I wash, wring, brew, bake, . . . make the beds. Shak.

     In bed he slept not for my urging it. Shak.

   2. (Used as the symbol of matrimony) Marriage.

     George, the eldest son of his second bed. Clarendon.

   3.  A  plat  or  level  piece  of ground in a garden, usually a little
   raised  above  the  adjoining  ground.  "Beds  of hyacinth and roses."

   4.  A mass or heap of anything arranged like a bed; as, a bed of ashes
   or coals.

   5.  The  bottom of a watercourse, or of any body of water; as, the bed
   of a river.

     So sinks the daystar in the ocean bed. Milton.

   6.  (Geol.)  A  layer or seam, or a horizontal stratum between layers;
   as, a bed of coal, iron, etc.

   7. (Gun.) See Gun carriage, and Mortar bed.

   8.  (Masonry)  (a) The horizontal surface of a building stone; as, the
   upper  and  lower  beds. (b) A course of stone or brick in a wall. (c)
   The place or material in which a block or brick is laid. (d) The lower
   surface of a brick, slate, or tile. Knight.

   9.  (Mech.) The foundation or the more solid and fixed part or framing
   of  a  machine; or a part on which something is laid or supported; as,
   the bed of an engine.

   10. The superficial earthwork, or ballast, of a railroad.

   11. (Printing) The flat part of the press, on which the form is laid.

     NOTE: &hand; Be d is  mu ch used adjectively or in combination; as,
     bed  key  or bedkey; bed wrench or bedwrench; bedchamber; bedmaker,

   Bed of justice (French Hist.), the throne (F. lit bed) occupied by the
   king  when sitting in one of his parliaments (judicial courts); hence,
   a  session  of  a refractory parliament, at which the king was present
   for  the  purpose  of  causing  his decrees to be registered. -- To be
   brought  to  bed, to be delivered of a child; -- often followed by of;
   as, to be brought to bed of a son. -- To make a bed, to prepare a bed;
   to  arrange  or  put  in  order a bed and its bedding. -- From bed and
   board  (Law),  a  phrase applied to a separation by partial divorce of
   man  and  wife,  without  dissolving the bonds of matrimony. If such a
   divorce  (now commonly called a judicial separation) be granted at the
   instance of the wife, she may have alimony.
   Bed, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bedded; p. pr. & vb. n. Bedding.] 

   1. To place in a bed. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2. To make partaker of one's bed; to cohabit with.

     I'll to the Tuscan wars, and never bed her. Shak.

   3. To furnish with a bed or bedding.

   4.  To plant or arrange in beds; to set, or cover, as in a bed of soft
   earth; as, to bed the roots of a plant in mold.

   5.  To  lay or put in any hollow place, or place of rest and security,
   surrounded  or inclosed; to embed; to furnish with or place upon a bed
   or foundation; as, to bed a stone; it was bedded on a rock.

     Among  all  chains  or  clusters of mountains where large bodies of
     still water are bedded. Wordsworth.

   6.  (Masonry) To dress or prepare the surface of stone) so as to serve
   as a bed.

   7. To lay flat; to lay in order; to place in a horizontal or recumbent
   position. "Bedded hair." Shak.


   Bed (?), v. i. To go to bed; to cohabit.

     If he be married, and bed with his wife. Wiseman.


   Be*dab*ble  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Bedabbled (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bedabbling (.] To dabble; to sprinkle or wet. Shak.


   Be*daff" (?), v. t. To make a daff or fool of. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bed"a*gat (?), n. The sacred books of the Buddhists in Burmah. Malcom.


   Be*dag"gle (?), v. t. To daggle.


   Be*dash"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bedashed  (p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Bedashing.]  To wet by dashing or throwing water or other liquid upon;
   to bespatter. "Trees bedashed with rain." Shak.


   Be*daub"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bedaubed  (p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Bedaubing.]  To  daub over; to besmear or soil with anything thick and

     Bedaub foul designs with a fair varnish. Barrow.


   Be*daz"zle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bedazzled (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bedazzling  ( To dazzle or make dim by a strong light. "Bedazzled with
   the sun." Shak.


   Bed"bug`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  wingless, bloodsucking, hemipterous
   insect  (Cimex Lectularius), sometimes infesting houses and especially
   beds. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Bed"chair`  (?),  n.  A  chair  with adjustable back, for the sick, to
   support them while sitting up in bed.


   Bed"cham`ber  (?),  n. A chamber for a bed; an apartment form sleeping
   in.  Shak.  Lords  of  the  bedchamber,  eight  officers  of the royal
   household, all of noble families, who wait in turn a week each. [Eng.]
   --  Ladies  of  the  bedchamber,  eight  ladies, all titled, holding a
   similar  official position in the royal household, during the reign of
   a queen. [Eng.]


   Bed"clothes` (?), n. pl. Blankets, sheets, coverlets, etc., for a bed.


   Bed"cord`  (?),  n.  A  cord or rope interwoven in a bedstead so as to
   support the bed.


   Bed"ded (?), a. Provided with a bed; as, double-bedded room; placed or
   arranged in a bed or beds.


   Bed"ding (?), n. [AS. bedding, beding. See Bed.]

   1. A bed and its furniture; the materials of a bed, whether for man or
   beast; bedclothes; litter.

   2. (Geol.) The state or position of beds and layers.


   Bede  (?), v. t. [See Bid, v. t.] To pray; also, to offer; to proffer.
   [Obs.] R. of Gloucester. Chaucer.


   Bede, n. (Mining) A kind of pickax.


   Be*deck"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bedecked  (p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Bedecking.] To deck, ornament, or adorn; to grace.

     Bedecked with boughs, flowers, and garlands. Pennant.

                               Bedeguar, Bedegar

   Bed"e*guar,  Bed"e*gar  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  Per.  b\'bed-\'beward, or
   b\'bed-\'bewardag,  prop.,  a  kind of white thorn or thistle.] A gall
   produced  on  rosebushes,  esp.  on  the sweetbrier or eglantine, by a
   puncture  from  the ovipositor of a gallfly (Rhodites ros\'91). It was
   once supposed to have medicinal properties.


   Bede"house` (?),n.Same as Beadhouse.

                                 Bedel, Bedell

   Be"del, Be"dell (?),n.Same as Beadle.


   Be"del*ry (?), n. Beadleship. [Obs.] Blount.


   Bed"en  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  Abyssinian  or  Arabian ibex (Capra
   Nubiana). It is probably the wild goat of the Bible.


   Bedes"man (?), n. Same as Beadsman. [Obs.]


   Be*dev"il  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bedevilled (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bedeviling or Bedevilling.]

   1.  To throw into utter disorder and confusion, as if by the agency of
   evil spirits; to bring under diabolical influence; to torment.

     Bedeviled and used worse than St. Bartholomew. Sterne.

   2. To spoil; to corrupt. Wright.


   Be*dev"il*ment  (?),  n.  The  state  of  being bedeviled; bewildering
   confusion; vexatious trouble. [Colloq.]


   Be*dew"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bedewed (p. pr. & vb. n. Bedewing.]
   To  moisten  with dew, or as with dew. "Falling tears his face bedew."


   Be*dew"er (?), n. One who, or that which, bedews.


   Be*dew"y (?), a. Moist with dew; dewy. [Obs.]

     Night with her bedewy wings. A. Brewer.


   Bed"fel`low  (?),  n.  One  who  lies  with another in the same bed; a
   person who shares one's couch.

                               Bedfere Bedphere

   Bed"fere`  Bed"phere`  (?),  n.  [Bed  +  AS.  fera  a  companion.]  A
   bedfellow. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Bed"gown` (?), n. A nightgown.


   Be*dight"  (?),  v. t. [p. p. Bedight, Bedighted.] To bedeck; to array
   or equip; to adorn. [Archaic] Milton.


   Be*dim" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bedimmed (p. pr. & vb. n. Bedimming.]
   To make dim; to obscure or darken. Shak.


   Be*diz"en (?), v. t. To dress or adorn tawdrily or with false taste.

     Remnants  of tapestried hangings, . . . and shreds of pictures with
     which he had bedizened his tatters. Sir W. Scott.


   Be*diz"en*ment  (?),  n.  That which bedizens; the act of dressing, or
   the state of being dressed, tawdrily.


   Bed"key` (?), n. An instrument for tightening the parts of a bedstead.


   Bed"lam (?), n. [See Bethlehem.]

   1.  A  place appropriated to the confinement and care of the insane; a
   madhouse. Abp. Tillotson.

   2. An insane person; a lunatic; a madman. [Obs.]

     Let's get the bedlam to lead him. Shak.

   3. Any place where uproar and confusion prevail.


   Bed"lam,  a.  Belonging  to,  or  fit  for,  a  madhouse. "The bedlam,
   brainsick duchess." Shak.


   Bed"lam*ite  (?),  n.  An  inhabitant of a madhouse; a madman. "Raving
   bedlamites." Beattie.


   Bed"mak`er (?), n. One who makes beds.

   Page 131


   Bed"-mold`ing  Bed"-mould`ing (?), n. (Arch.) The molding of a cornice
   immediately below the corona. Oxf. Gloss.


   Be*dote" (?), v. t. To cause to dote; to deceive. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bed"ou*in  (?),  n.  [F.  b\'82douin, OF. b\'82duin, fr. Ar. bedaw\'c6
   rural,  living  in the desert, fr. badw desert, fr. bad\'be to live in
   the desert, to lead a nomadic life.] One of the nomadic Arabs who live
   in  tents,  and are scattered over Arabia, Syria, and northern Africa,
   esp. in the deserts. -- Bed"ou*in*ism (, n.


   Bed"ou*in, a. Pertaining to the Bedouins; nomad.


   Bed"pan` (?), n.

   1. A pan for warming beds. Nares.

   2.  A  shallow chamber vessel, so constructed that it can be used by a
   sick person in bed.


   Bed"phere` (?), n. See Bedfere. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

                              Bedpiece, Bedplate

   Bed"piece`  (?),  Bed"plate` (?), n. (Mach.) The foundation framing or
   piece,  by  which the other parts are supported and held in place; the
   bed; -- called also baseplate and soleplate.


   Bed"post` (?), n.

   1.  One  of  the  four standards that support a bedstead or the canopy
   over a bedstead.

   2.  Anciently,  a  post  or  pin  on  each side of the bed to keep the
   clothes from falling off. See Bedstaff. Brewer.


   Bed"quilt` (?), n. A quilt for a bed; a coverlet.


   Be*drab"ble (?), v. t. To befoul with rain and mud; to drabble.


   Be*drag"gle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Bedraggled (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bedraggling  (.]  To  draggle; to soil, as garments which, in walking,
   are suffered to drag in dust, mud, etc. Swift.


   Be*drench"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Bedrenched (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bedrenching.] To drench; to saturate with moisture; to soak. Shak.


   Be*drib"ble (?), v. t. To dribble upon.

                               Bedrid, Bedridden

   Bed"rid`  (?), Bed"rid`den (?), a. [OE. bedrede, AS. bedreda, bedrida;
   from bed, bedd, a bed or couch + ridda a rider; cf. OHG. pettiriso, G.
   bettrise.  See  Bed,  n.,  and  Ride,  v.  i. ] Confined to the bed by
   sickness  or infirmity. "Her decrepit, sick, and bedrid father." Shak.
   "The estate of a bedridden old gentleman." Macaulay.

                               Bedright Bedrite

   Bed"right`  Bed"rite`  (?),  n.  [Bed  +  right,  rite.]  The  duty or
   privilege of the marriage bed. Shak.


   Be*driz"zle (?), v. t. To drizzle upon.

                                   Bed rock

   Bed"  rock"  (?).  (Mining)  The  solid  rock  underlying  superficial
   formations. Also Fig.


   Bed"room (?), n.

   1. A room or apartment intended or used for a bed; a lodging room.

   2. Room in a bed.

     NOTE: [In this sense preferably bed room.]

     Then by your side no bed room me deny. Shak.


   Be*drop" (?), v. t. To sprinkle, as with drops.

     The yellow carp, in scales bedropped with gold. Pope.


   Be*drug" (?), v. t. To drug abundantly or excessively.

                                   Bed screw

   Bed" screw` (?).

   1.  (Naut.)  A  form  of  jack  screw  for  lifting  large bodies, and
   assisting in launching.

   2.  A  long  screw  formerly  used  to  fasten a bedpost to one of the
   adjacent side pieces.


   Bed"side` (?), n. The side of a bed.


   Bed"site` (?), n. A recess in a room for a bed.

     Of  the  three  bedrooms,  two have fireplaces, and all are of fair
     size, with windows and bedsite well placed. Quart. Rev.


   Bed"sore`  (?),  n.  (Med.) A sore on the back or hips caused by lying
   for a long time in bed.


   Bed"spread` (?), n. A bedquilt; a counterpane; a coverlet. [U. S.]


   Bed"staff`  (?), n.; pl. Bedstaves (. "A wooden pin stuck anciently on
   the sides of the bedstead, to hold the clothes from slipping on either
   side." Johnson.

     Hostess, accommodate us with a bedstaff. B. Jonson.

     Say there is no virtue in cudgels and bedstaves. Brome.


   Bed"stead  (?), n. [Bed + stead a frame.] A framework for supporting a

                                   Bed steps

   Bed" steps` (?). Steps for mounting a bed of unusual height.


   Bed"stock  (?),  n.  The  front  or  the  back  part of the frame of a
   bedstead. [Obs. or Dial. Eng.]


   Bed"straw` (?), n.

   1. Straw put into a bed. Bacon.

   2. (Bot.) A genus of slender herbs, usually with square stems, whorled
   leaves, and small white flowers.
   Our  Lady's  bedstraw,  which  has yellow flowers, is Galium verum. --
   White bedstraw is G. mollugo.


   Bed"swerv`er  (?),  n.  One  who swerves from and is unfaithful to the
   marriage vow. [Poetic] Shak.


   Bed"tick`  (?), n. A tick or bag made of cloth, used for inclosing the
   materials of a bed.


   Bed"time` (?), n. The time to go to bed. Shak.


   Be*duck"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Beducked (.] To duck; to put the
   head under water; to immerse. "Deep himself beducked." Spenser.


   Bed"uin (?), n. See Bedouin.


   Be*dung"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bedunged (#).] To cover with dung,
   as  for  manuring; to bedaub or defile, literally or figuratively. Bp.


   Be*dust" (?), v. t. To sprinkle, soil, or cover with dust. Sherwood.


   Bed"ward (?), adv. Towards bed.


   Be*dwarf" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bedwarfed (#).] To make a dwarf of;
   to stunt or hinder the growth of; to dwarf. Donne.


   Be*dye"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bedyed  (#);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bedyeing.] To dye or stain.

     Briton fields with Sarazin blood bedyed. Spenser.


   Bee (?), p. p. of Be; -- used for been. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Bee  (?), n. [AS. be\'a2; akin to D. bij and bije, Icel. b, Sw. & Dan.
   bi,  OHG.  pini, G. biene, and perh. Ir. beach, Lith. bitis, Skr. bha.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) An insect of the order Hymenoptera, and family Apid\'91
   (the  honeybees),  or  family  Andrenid\'91  (the  solitary bees.) See

     NOTE: &hand; There are many genera and species. The common honeybee
     (Apis  mellifica) lives in swarms, each of which has its own queen,
     its  males  or  drones,  and  its  very numerous workers, which are
     barren  females.  Besides  the A. mellifica there are other species
     and varieties of honeybees, as the A. ligustica of Spain and Italy;
     the  A. Indica of India; the A. fasciata of Egypt. The bumblebee is
     a  species  of  Bombus.  The  tropical  honeybees  belong mostly to
     Melipoma and Trigona.

   2. A neighborly gathering of people who engage in united labor for the
   benefit of an individual or family; as, a quilting bee; a husking bee;
   a raising bee. [U. S.]

     The cellar . . . was dug by a bee in a single day. S. G. Goodrich.

   3.  pl.  [Prob.  fr.  AS.  be\'a0h  ring, fr. b to bend. See 1st Bow.]
   (Naut.)  Pieces  of  hard wood bolted to the sides of the bowsprit, to
   reeve the fore-topmast stays through; -- called also bee blocks.
   Bee  beetle  (Zo\'94l.),  a  beetle  (Trichodes apiarius) parasitic in
   beehives.  --  Bee  bird (Zo\'94l.), a bird that eats the honeybee, as
   the  European  flycatcher,  and  the  American kingbird. -- Bee flower
   (Bot.),  an orchidaceous plant of the genus Ophrys (O. apifera), whose
   flowers  have  some  resemblance to bees, flies, and other insects. --
   Bee fly (Zo\'94l.), a two winged fly of the family Bombyliid\'91. Some
   species,  in the larval state, are parasitic upon bees. -- Bee garden,
   a garden or inclosure to set beehives in ; an apiary. Mortimer. -- Bee
   glue, a soft, unctuous matter, with which bees cement the combs to the
   hives,  and  close  up the cells; -- called also propolis. -- Bee hawk
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  honey  buzzard.  --  Bee  killer (Zo\'94l.), a large
   two-winged  fly of the family Asilid\'91 (esp. Trupanea apivora) which
   feeds  upon  the  honeybee. See Robber fly. -- Bee louse (Zo\'94l.), a
   minute,  wingless, dipterous insect (Braula c\'91ca) parasitic on hive
   bees.  --  Bee martin (Zo\'94l.), the kingbird (Tyrannus Carolinensis)
   which  occasionally  feeds  on  bees.  --  Bee moth (Zo\'94l.), a moth
   (Galleria cereana) whose larv\'91 feed on honeycomb, occasioning great
   damage  in  beehives.  --  Bee  wolf  (Zo\'94l.), the larva of the bee
   beetle.  See Illust. of Bee beetle. -- To have a bee in the head OR in
   the  bonnet.  (a) To be choleric. [Obs.] (b) To be restless or uneasy.
   B.  Jonson.  (c)  To  be full of fancies; to be a little crazy. "She's
   whiles crack-brained, and has a bee in her head." Sir W. Scott.
   Bee"bread`  (?),  n.  A  brown,  bitter substance found in some of the
   cells  of  honeycomb.  It  is made chiefly from the pollen of flowers,
   which is collected by bees as food for their young. 


   Beech  (?),  n.;  pl. Beeches (#). [OE. beche, AS. b; akin to D. beuk,
   OHG.  buocha,  G. buche, Icel. beyki, Dan. b\'94g, Sw. bok, Russ. buk,
   L.  fagus,  Gr.  oak,  to  eat,  Skr.  bhaksh;  the  tree  being named
   originally  from  the  esculent  fruit.  See  Book,  and cf. 7th Buck,
   Buckwheat.] (Bot.) A tree of the genus Fagus.

     NOTE: &hand; It  gr ows to  a  large size, having a smooth bark and
     thick  foliage,  and bears an edible triangular nut, of which swine
     are  fond.  The Fagus sylvatica is the European species, and the F.
     ferruginea that of America.

   Beech  drops  (Bot.),  a  parasitic  plant which grows on the roots of
   beeches  (Epiphegus  Americana). -- Beech marten (Zo\'94l.), the stone
   marten  of  Europe  (Mustela  foina).  --  Beech mast, the nuts of the
   beech,  esp. as they lie under the trees, in autumn. -- Beech oil, oil
   expressed  from the mast or nuts of the beech tree. -- Cooper beech, a
   variety of the European beech with copper-colored, shining leaves.


   Beech"en  (?), a. [AS. b.] Consisting, or made, of the wood or bark of
   the beech; belonging to the beech. "Plain beechen vessels." Dryden.


   Beech"nut` (?), n. The nut of the beech tree.

                                  Beech tree

   Beech" tree` (?). The beech.


   Beech"y (?), a. Of or relating to beeches.


   Bee"-eat`er  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) A bird of the genus Merops, that
   feeds  on  bees.  The European species (M. apiaster) is remarkable for
   its brilliant colors. (b) An African bird of the genus Rhinopomastes.


   Beef  (?), n. [OE. boef, befe, beef, OF. boef, buef, F. b, fr. L. bos,
   bovis, ox; akin to Gr. , Skr. g cow, and E. cow. See 2d Cow.]

   1.  An  animal  of  the  genus  Bos, especially the common species, B.
   taurus,  including  the  bull, cow, and ox, in their full grown state;
   esp., an ox or cow fattened for food.

     NOTE: [In this, which is the original sense, the word has a plural,
     beeves (.]

     A herd of beeves, fair oxen and fair kine. Milton.

   2.  The  flesh  of  an ox, or cow, or of any adult bovine animal, when
   slaughtered for food.

     NOTE: [In this sense, the word has no plural.]

   "Great meals of beef." Shak.

   3. Applied colloquially to human flesh.


   Beef (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, beef. Beef tea, essence
   of beef, or strong beef broth.


   Beef"eat`er  (?), n. [Beef + eater; prob. one who eats another's beef,
   as his servant. Cf. AS. hl\'bef servant, properly a loaf eater.]

   1. One who eats beef; hence, a large, fleshy person.

   2. One of the yeomen of the guard, in England.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) An African bird of the genus Buphaga, which feeds on the
   larv\'91  of  botflies hatched under the skin of oxen, antelopes, etc.
   Two species are known.


   Beef"steak`  (?),  n.  A  steak  of  beef;  a slice of beef broiled or
   suitable for broiling.


   Beef"-wit`ted (?), n. Stupid; dull. Shak.


   Beef"wood`  (?),  n. An Australian tree (Casuarina), and its red wood,
   used  for  cabinetwork;  also,  the  trees Stenocarpus salignus of New
   South Wales, and Banksia compar of Queensland.


   Beef"y,  a.  Having much beef; of the nature of beef; resembling beef;


   Bee"hive` (?), n. A hive for a swarm of bees. Also used figuratively.

     NOTE: &hand; A  common and typical form of beehive was a domeshaped
     inverted   basket,   whence   certain   ancient  Irish  and  Scotch
     architectural remains are called beehive houses.


   Bee"house` (?), n. A house for bees; an apiary.

                                 Bee larkspur

   Bee" lark`spur (?). (Bot.) See Larkspur.


   Beeld (?), n. Same as Beild. Fairfax.

                                   Bee line

   Bee" line` (?). The shortest line from one place to another, like that
   of  a bee to its hive when loaded with honey; an air line. "A bee line
   for the brig." Kane.


   Be*el"ze*bub  (?),  n.  The  title of a heathen deity to whom the Jews
   ascribed  the  sovereignty  of the evil spirits; hence, the Devil or a
   devil. See Baal.


   Beem (?), n. [AS. b, b.] A trumpet. [Obs.]


   Bee"mas`ter (?), n. One who keeps bees.


   Been  (?).  [OE.  beon, ben, bin, p. p. of been, beon, to be. See Be.]
   The  past  participle  of  Be. In old authors it is also the pr. tense
   plural of Be. See 1st Bee.

     Assembled been a senate grave and stout. Fairfax.


   Beer  (?),  n. [OE. beor, ber, AS. be\'a2r; akin to Fries. biar, Icel.
   bj, OHG. bior, D. & G. bier, and possibly E. brew. \'fb93, See Brew.]

   1.  A  fermented  liquor made from any malted grain, but commonly from
   barley  malt,  with  hops  or  some other substance to impart a bitter

     NOTE: &hand; Be er has different names, as small beer, ale, porter,
     brown  stout,  lager  beer,  according  to  its  strength, or other
     qualities. See Ale.

   2. A fermented extract of the roots and other parts of various plants,
   as spruce, ginger, sassafras, etc.
   Small beer, weak beer; (fig.) insignificant matters. "To suckle fools,
   and chronicle small beer." Shak.
   Beer"e*gar (?), n. [Beer + eager.] Sour beer. [Obs.]
   Beer"house` (?), n. A house where malt liquors are sold; an alehouse.
   Beer"i*ness (?), n. Beery condition. 


   Beer"y (?), a. Of or resembling beer; affected by beer; maudlin.


   Beest"ings (?), n. Same as Biestings.


   Bees"wax`  (?),  n. The wax secreted by bees, and of which their cells
   are constructed.


   Bees"wing`  (?),  n.  The  second  crust formed in port and some other
   wines  after  long  keeping.  It  consists  of pure, shining scales of
   tartar, supposed to resemble the wing of a bee.


   Beet (?), n. [AS. bete, from L. beta.]

   1. (Bot.) A biennial plant of the genus Beta, which produces an edible
   root the first year and seed the second year.

   2.  The  root  of  plants  of  the  genus  Beta, different species and
   varieties  of  which  are used for the table, for feeding stock, or in
   making sugar.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e ma ny va rieties of  the common beet (Beta
     vulgaris).   The  Old  "white  beet",  cultivated  for  its  edible
     leafstalks, is a distinct species (Beta Cicla).

                                  Beete, Bete

   Beete, Bete (?), v. t. [AS. b to mend. See Better.]

   1. To mend; to repair. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. To renew or enkindle (a fire). [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bee"tle  (?),  n.  [OE.  betel,  AS.  b\'c6tl,  b, mallet, hammer, fr.
   be\'a0tan to beat. See Beat, v. t.]

   1. A heavy mallet, used to drive wedges, beat pavements, etc.

   2.  A  machine  in  which fabrics are subjected to a hammering process
   while  passing  over  rollers,  as  in  cotton  mills;  -- called also
   beetling machine. Knight.

   Page 132


   Bee"tle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Beetled  (#); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To beat with a heavy mallet.

   2.  To  finish  by  subjecting  to  a hammering process in a beetle or
   beetling machine; as, to beetle cotton goods.


   Bee"tle, n. [OE. bityl, bittle, AS. b, fr. b to bite. See Bite, v. t.]
   Any  insect of the order Coleoptera, having four wings, the outer pair
   being stiff cases for covering the others when they are folded up. See
   Coleoptera.  Beetle  mite (Zo\'94l.), one of many species of mites, of
   the  family  Oribatid\'91,  parasitic on beetles. -- Black beetle, the
   common large black cockroach (Blatta orientalis).


   Bee"tle,  v. i. [See Beetlebrowed.] To extend over and beyond the base
   or support; to overhang; to jut.

     To the dreadful summit of the cliff That beetles o'er his base into
     the sea. Shak.

     Each beetling rampart, and each tower sublime. Wordsworth.

                                  Beetle brow

   Bee"tle brow` (?). An overhanging brow.


   Bee"tle-browed`  (?), a. [OE. bitelbrowed; cf. OE. bitel, adj., sharp,
   projecting,  n.,  a  beetle.  See Beetle an insect.] Having prominent,
   overhanging brows; hence, lowering or sullen.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e earlier meaning was, "Having bushy or overhanging


   Bee"tle*head` (?), n. [Beetle a mallet + head.]

   1. A stupid fellow; a blockhead. Sir W. Scott.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  black-bellied  plover,  or  bullhead  (Squatarola
   helvetica). See Plover.


   Bee"tle-head`ed (?), a. Dull; stupid. Shak.


   Bee"tle*stock` (?), n. The handle of a beetle.

                                  Beet radish

   Beet" rad`ish (?). Same as Beetrave.


   Beet"rave`  (?),  n.  [F.  betterave;  bette  beet + rave radish.] The
   common beet (Beta vulgaris).


   Beeve  (?),  n.  [Formed  from  beeves,  pl.  of beef.] A beef; a beef

     They would knock down the first beeve they met with. W. Irving.


   Beeves (?), n.; plural of Beef, the animal.


   Be*fall" (?), v. t. [imp. Befell (?); p. p. Befallen (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Befalling.] [AS. befeallan; pref. be- + feallan to fall.] To happen

     I  beseech your grace that I may know The worst that may befall me.


   Be*fall", v. i. To come to pass; to happen.

     I have revealed . . . the discord which befell. Milton.


   Be*fit" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Befitted; p. pr. & vb. n. Befitting.]
   To be suitable to; to suit; to become.

     That name best befits thee. Milton.


   Be*fit"ting, a. Suitable; proper; becoming; fitting.


   Be*fit"ting*ly, adv. In a befitting manner; suitably.


   Be*flat"ter (?), v. t. To flatter excessively.


   Be*flow"er  (?), v. t. To besprinkle or scatter over with, or as with,
   flowers. Hobbes.


   Be*fog"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Befogged (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Befogging (#).]

   1. To involve in a fog; -- mostly as a participle or part. adj.

   2. Hence: To confuse; to mystify.


   Be*fool"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Befooled (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Befooling.] [OE. befolen; pref. be- + fol fool.]

   1. To fool; to delude or lead into error; to infatuate; to deceive.

     This story . . . contrived to befool credulous men. Fuller.

   2.  To  cause  to behave like a fool; to make foolish. "Some befooling
   drug." G. Eliot.


   Be*fore"  (?), prep. [OE. beforen, biforen, before, AS. beforan; pref.
   be- + foran, fore, before. See Be-, and Fore.]

   1.  In front of; preceding in space; ahead of; as, to stand before the
   fire; before the house.

     His  angel, who shall go Before them in a cloud and pillar of fire.

   2.  Preceding  in  time;  earlier than; previously to; anterior to the
   time  when; -- sometimes with the additional idea of purpose; in order

     Before Abraham was, I am. John viii. 58.

     Before  this  treatise can become of use, two points are necessary.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rmerly before, in this sense, was followed by that.
     "Before that Philip called thee . . . I saw thee."

   John i. 48.

   3. An advance of; farther onward, in place or time.

     The golden age . . . is before us. Carlyle.

   4. Prior or preceding in dignity, order, rank, right, or worth; rather

     He that cometh after me is preferred before me. John i. 15.

     The eldest son is before the younger in succession. Johnson.

   5. In presence or sight of; face to face with; facing.

     Abraham bowed down himself before the people. Gen. xxiii. 12.

     Wherewith shall I come before the Lord? Micah vi. 6.

   6. Under the cognizance or jurisdiction of.

     If a suit be begun before an archdeacon. Ayliffe.

   7. Open for; free of access to; in the power of.

     The world was all before them where to choose. Milton.

   Before  the  mast  (Naut.), as a common sailor, -- because the sailors
   live  in  the  forecastle, forward of the foremast. -- Before the wind
   (Naut.),  in  the direction of the wind and by its impulse; having the
   wind aft.


   Be*fore", adv.

   1.  On  the  fore part; in front, or in the direction of the front; --
   opposed to in the rear.

     The battle was before and behind. 2 Chron. xiii. 14.

   2. In advance. "I come before to tell you." Shak.

   3. In time past; previously; already.

     You tell me, mother, what I knew before. Dryden.

   4. Earlier; sooner than; until then.

     When the butt is out, we will drink water; not a drop before. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Before is often used in self-explaining compounds; as,
     before-cited, before-mentioned; beforesaid.


   Be*fore"hand` (?), adv. [Before + hand.]

   1.  In a state of anticipation ore preoccupation; in advance; -- often
   followed by with.

     Agricola . . . resolves to be beforehand with the danger. Milton.

     The last cited author has been beforehand with me. Addison.

   2. By way of preparation, or preliminary; previously; aforetime.

     They may be taught beforehand the skill of speaking. Hooker.


   Be*fore"hand`,  a.  In  comfortable circumstances as regards property;

     Rich and much beforehand. Bacon.


   Be*fore"time` (?), adv. Formerly; aforetime.

     [They] dwelt in their tents, as beforetime. 2 Kings xiii. 5.


   Be*for"tune (?), v. t. To befall. [Poetic]

     I wish all good befortune you. Shak.


   Be*foul"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Befouled (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Befouling.] [Cf. AS. bef; pref. be- + f to foul. See Foul, a.]

   1. To make foul; to soil.

   2. To entangle or run against so as to impede motion.


   Be*friend"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Befriended; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Befriending.]  To  act  as  a friend to; to favor; to aid, benefit, or

     By the darkness befriended. Longfellow.


   Be*friend"ment (?), n. Act of befriending. [R.]


   Be*frill" (?), v. t. To furnish or deck with a frill.


   Be*fringe" (?), v. t. To furnish with a fringe; to form a fringe upon;
   to adorn as with fringe. Fuller.


   Be*fud"dle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Befuddled (#)] To becloud and
   confuse, as with liquor.


   Beg  (?),  n.  [Turk. beg, pronounced bay. Cf. Bey, Begum.] A title of
   honor in Turkey and in some other parts of the East; a bey.


   Beg  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Begged (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Begging.]
   [OE.  beggen,  perh.  fr. AS. bedecian (akin to Goth. bedagwa beggar),
   biddan to ask. (Cf. Bid, v. t.); or cf. beghard, beguin.]

   1. To ask earnestly for; to entreat or supplicate for; to beseech.

     I do beg your good will in this case. Shak.

     [Joseph] begged the body of Jesus. Matt. xxvii. 58.

     NOTE: Sometimes im plying de ferential an d respectful, rather than
     earnest,  asking;  as,  I  beg your pardon; I beg leave to disagree
     with you.

   2.  To  ask for as a charity, esp. to ask for habitually or from house
   to house.

     Yet  have  I  not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed begging
     bread. Ps. xxxvii. 25.

   3.  To  make  petition  to; to entreat; as, to beg a person to grant a

   4. To take for granted; to assume without proof.

   5.  (Old Law) To ask to be appointed guardian for, or to ask to have a
   guardian appointed for.

     Else some will beg thee, in the court of wards. Harrington.

   Hence:  To  beg (one) for a fool, to take him for a fool. I beg to, is
   an  elliptical expression for I beg leave to; as, I beg to inform you.
   --  To  bag  the  question, to assume that which was to be proved in a
   discussion,  instead  of adducing the proof or sustaining the point by
   argument.  --  To  go  a-begging,  a  figurative phrase to express the
   absence  of  demand  for something which elsewhere brings a price; as,
   grapes  are so plentiful there that they go a-begging. Syn. -- To Beg,
   Ask,  Request.  To  ask (not in the sense of inquiring) is the generic
   term  which embraces all these words. To request is only a polite mode
   of asking. To beg, in its original sense, was to ask with earnestness,
   and implied submission, or at least deference. At present, however, in
   polite  life,  beg has dropped its original meaning, and has taken the
   place of both ask and request, on the ground of its expressing more of
   deference  and  respect.  Thus,  we  beg  a  person's  acceptance of a
   present;  we beg him to favor us with his company; a tradesman begs to
   announce  the arrival of new goods, etc. Crabb remarks that, according
   to  present  usage, "we can never talk of asking a person's acceptance
   of a thing, or of asking him to do us a favor." This can be more truly
   said of usage in England than in America.
   Beg, v. i. To ask alms or charity, especially to ask habitually by the
   wayside or from house to house; to live by asking alms. 

     I can not dig; to beg I am ashamed. Luke xvi. 3.


   Be"ga (?), n. See Bigha.


   Be*gem"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Begemmed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Begemming.] To adorn with gems, or as with gems.

     Begemmed with dewdrops. Sir W. Scott.

     Those lonely realms bright garden isles begem. Shelley.


   Be*get"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. Begot (?), (Archaic) Begat (; p. p. Begot,
   Begotten (; p. pr. & vb. n. Begetting.] [OE. bigiten, bigeten, to get,
   beget, AS. begitan to get; pref. be- + gitan. See Get, v. t. ]

   1. To procreate, as a father or sire; to generate; -- commonly said of
   the father.

     Yet they a beauteous offspring shall beget. Milton.

   2. To get (with child.) [Obs.] Shak.

   3. To produce as an effect; to cause to exist.

     Love is begot by fancy. Granville.


   Be*get"ter (?), n. One who begets; a father.


   Beg"ga*ble (?), a. Capable of being begged.


   Beg"gar (?), n. [OE. beggere, fr. beg.]

   1. One who begs; one who asks or entreats earnestly, or with humility;
   a petitioner.

   2. One who makes it his business to ask alms.

   3.  One who is dependent upon others for support; -- a contemptuous or
   sarcastic use.

   4. One who assumes in argument what he does not prove. Abp. Tillotson.


   Beg"gar, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beggared (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Beggaring.]

   1.  To  reduce to beggary; to impoverish; as, he had beggared himself.

   2. To cause to seem very poor and inadequate.

     It beggared all description. Shak.


   Beg"gar*hood  (?), n. The condition of being a beggar; also, the class
   of beggars.


   Beg"gar*ism (?), n. Beggary. [R.]


   Beg"gar*li*ness  (?),  n.  The  quality  or  state  of being beggarly;


   Beg"gar*ly (?), a.

   1.  In  the  condition  of,  or like, a beggar; suitable for a beggar;
   extremely  indigent;  poverty-stricken;  mean;  poor; contemptible. "A
   bankrupt,  beggarly  fellow."  South.  "A beggarly fellowship." Swift.
   "Beggarly elements." Gal. iv. 9.

   2. Produced or occasioned by beggary. [Obs.]

     Beggarly  sins,  that  is,  those  sins  which idleness and beggary
     usually  betray  men  to;  such  as  lying, flattery, stealing, and
     dissimulation. Jer. Taylor.


   Beg"gar*ly,  adv.  In  an indigent, mean, or despicable manner; in the
   manner of a beggar.

                                 Beggar's lice

   Beg"gar's  lice`  (?).  (Bot.)  The  prickly  fruit or seed of certain
   plants  (as some species of Echinospermum and Cynoglossum) which cling
   to the clothing of those who brush by them.

                                Beggar's ticks

   Beg"gar's ticks` (?). The bur marigold (Bidens) and its achenes, which
   are  armed  with  barbed awns, and adhere to clothing and fleeces with
   unpleasant tenacity.


   Beg"gar*y (?), n. [OE. beggerie. See Beggar, n.]

   1.  The  act  of  begging;  the  state  of being a beggar; mendicancy;
   extreme poverty.

   2. Beggarly appearance. [R.]

     The freedom and the beggary of the old studio. Thackeray.

   Syn. -- Indigence; want; penury; mendicancy.


   Beg"gar*y, a. Beggarly. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Beg"ge*stere (?), n. [Beg + -ster.] A beggar. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                Beghard Beguard

   Be*ghard" Be*guard" (?), n. [F. b\'82gard, b\'82guard; cf. G. beghard,
   LL.  Beghardus, Begihardus, Begardus. Prob. from the root of beguine +
   -ard  or  -hard.  See Beguine.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of an association of
   religious  laymen  living  in imitation of the Beguines. They arose in
   the  thirteenth century, were afterward subjected to much persecution,
   and were suppressed by Innocent X. in 1650. Called also Beguins.


   Be*gild" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Begilded or Begilt (#).] To gild. B.


   Be*gin" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Began (#), Begun (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beginning (#).] [AS. beginnan (akin to OS. biginnan, D. & G. beginnen,
   OHG. biginnan, Goth., du-ginnan, Sw. begynna, Dan. begynde); pref. be-
   + an assumed ginnan. &root;31. See Gin to begin.]

   1.  To  have  or  commence  an independent or first existence; to take
   rise; to commence.

     Vast chain of being! which from God began. Pope.

   2.  To  do the first act or the first part of an action; to enter upon
   or  commence something new, as a new form or state of being, or course
   of  action;  to  take the first step; to start. "Tears began to flow."

     When I begin, I will also make an end. 1 Sam. iii. 12.


   Be*gin", v. t.

   1. To enter on; to commence.

     Ye nymphs of Solyma ! begin the song. Pope.

   2. To trace or lay the foundation of; to make or place a beginning of.

     The  apostle  begins our knowledge in the creatures, which leads us
     to the knowledge of God. Locke.

   Syn. -- To commence; originate; set about; start.


   Be*gin", n. Beginning. [Poetic & Obs.] Spenser.


   Be*gin"ner   (?),   n.   One   who   begins  or  originates  anything.
   Specifically:  A  young  or  inexperienced  practitioner or student; a

     A sermon of a new beginner. Swift.


   Be*gin"ning (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  doing that which begins anything; commencement of an
   action, state, or space of time; entrance into being or upon a course;
   the first act, effort, or state of a succession of acts or states.

     In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Gen. i. 1.

   2. That which begins or originates something; the first cause; origin;

     I am . . . the beginning and the ending. Rev. i. 8.

   3. That which is begun; a rudiment or element.

     Mighty things from small beginnings grow. Dryden.

   4.  Enterprise.  "To  hinder our beginnings." Shak. Syn. -- Inception;
   prelude; opening; threshold; origin; outset; foundation.


   Be*gird" (?), v. t. [imp. Begirt (?), Begirded; p. p. Begirt; p. pr. &
   vb.  n. Begirding.] [AS. begyrdan (akin to Goth. bigairdan); pref. be-
   + gyrdan to gird.]

   1. To bind with a band or girdle; to gird.

   2. To surround as with a band; to encompass.


   Be*gir"dle (?), v. t. To surround as with a girdle.


   Be*girt" (?), v. t. To encompass; to begird. Milton.


   Beg"ler*beg`  (?),  n. [Turk. beglerbeg, fr. beg, pl. begler. See Beg,
   n.]  The governor of a province of the Ottoman empire, next in dignity
   to the grand vizier.


   Be*gnaw"  (?),  v.  t.  [p.  p.  Begnawed  (?),  (R.) Begnawn (.] [AS.
   begnagan;  pref.  be-  +  gnagan  to  gnaw.]  To gnaw; to eat away; to

     The worm of conscience still begnaw thy soul. Shak.


   Be*god" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Begodded.] To exalt to the dignity of
   a god; to deify. [Obs.] "Begodded saints." South.


   Be*gone"  (?),  interj. [Be, v. i. + gone, p. p.] Go away; depart; get
   you gone.


   Be*gone",  p.  p. [OE. begon, AS. big\'ben; pref. be- + g\'ben to go.]
   Surrounded;  furnished;  beset;  environed  (as in woe-begone). [Obs.]
   Gower. Chaucer.


   Be*go"ni*a (?), n. [From Michel Begon, a promoter of botany.] (Bot.) A
   genus of plants, mostly of tropical America, many species of which are
   grown  as  ornamental  plants. The leaves are curiously one-sided, and
   often exhibit brilliant colors.

   Page 133


   Be*gore" (?), v. t. To besmear with gore.


   Be*got" (?), imp. & p. p. of Beget.


   Be*got"ten (?), p. p. of Beget.


   Be*grave"  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. be- + grave; akin to G. begraben, Goth.
   bigraban  to  dig  a  ditch around.] To bury; also, to engrave. [Obs.]


   Be*grease"  (?),  v.  t.  To  soil  or  daub with grease or other oily


   Be*grime"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Begrimed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Begriming.] To soil with grime or dirt deeply impressed or rubbed in.

     Books falling to pieces and begrimed with dust. Macaulay.


   Be*grim"er (?), n. One who, or that which, begrimes.


   Be*grudge"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Begrudged (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Begrudging.] To grudge; to envy the possession of.


   Be*guile"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Beguiled (#); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To delude by guile, artifice, or craft; to deceive or impose on, as
   by a false statement; to lure.

     The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. Gen. iii. 13.

   2. To elude, or evade by craft; to foil. [Obs.]

     When misery could beguile the tyrant's rage. Shak.

   3.  To cause the time of to pass without notice; to relieve the tedium
   or weariness of; to while away; to divert.

     Ballads . . . to beguile his incessant wayfaring. W. Irving.

   Syn.  --  To  delude; deceive; cheat; insnare; mislead; amuse; divert;


   Be*guile"ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of beguiling, or the state of being


   Be*guil"er (?), n. One who, or that which, beguiles.


   Be*guil"ing, a. Alluring by guile; deluding; misleading; diverting. --
   Be*guil"ing*ly, adv.


   Be`guin" (?), n. [F.] See Beghard.


   Be`gui`nage" (?), n. [F.] A collection of small houses surrounded by a
   wall and occupied by a community of Beguines.


   Be`guine" (?), n. [F. b\'82guine; LL. beguina, beghina; fr. Lambert le
   B\'8ague  (the  Stammerer)  the  founder  of the order. (Du Cange.)] A
   woman belonging to one of the religious and charitable associations or
   communities  in  the Netherlands, and elsewhere, whose members live in
   beguinages and are not bound by perpetual vows.


   Be"gum  (?),  n.  [Per.,  fr.  Turk., perh. properly queen mother, fr.
   Turk.  beg  (see  Beg,  n.)  +  Ar. umm mother.] In the East Indies, a
   princess or lady of high rank. Malcom.


   Be*gun" (?), p. p. of Begin.


   Be*half"  (?), n. [OE. on-behalve in the name of, bihalven by the side
   of,  fr. AS. healf half, also side, part: akin to G. halb half, halber
   on  account  of.  See  Be-,  and  Half,  n.]  Advantage; favor; stead;
   benefit; interest; profit; support; defense; vindication.

     In behalf of his mistress's beauty. Sir P. Sidney.

     Against  whom  he  had  contracted  some prejudice in behalf of his
     nation. Clarendon.

   In  behalf  of, in the interest of. -- On behalf of, on account of; on
   the part of.


   Be*hap"pen (?), v. t. To happen to. [Obs.]


   Be*have"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Behaved (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Behaving.]  [AS.  behabban  to  surround, restrain, detain (akin to G.
   gehaben  (obs.)  to have, sich gehaben to behave or carry one's self);
   pref. be- + habban to have. See Have, v. t. ]

   1. To manage or govern in point of behavior; to discipline; to handle;
   to restrain. [Obs.]

     He did behave his anger ere 't was spent. Shak.

   2.  To  carry;  to  conduct;  to  comport; to manage; to bear; -- used

     Those that behaved themselves manfully. 2 Macc. ii. 21.


   Be*have",  v.  i. To act; to conduct; to bear or carry one's self; as,
   to behave well or ill.

     NOTE: &hand; This verb is often used colloquially without an adverb
     of  manner;  as,  if he does not behave, he will be punished. It is
     also  often  applied  to  inanimate  objects;  as, the ship behaved


   Be*hav"ior  (?),  n.  Manner of behaving, whether good or bad; mode of
   conducting  one's self; conduct; deportment; carriage; -- used also of
   inanimate objects; as, the behavior of a ship in a storm; the behavior
   of the magnetic needle.

     A gentleman that is very singular in his behavior. Steele.

   To be upon one's good behavior, To be put upon one's good behavior, to
   be  in  a  state  of  trial,  in  which something important depends on
   propriety  of  conduct. -- During good behavior, while (or so long as)
   one conducts one's self with integrity and fidelity or with propriety.
   Syn.  --  Bearing; demeanor; manner. -- Behavior, Conduct. Behavior is
   the  mode in which we have or bear ourselves in the presence of others
   or  toward them; conduct is the mode of our carrying ourselves forward
   in  the  concerns  of  life. Behavior respects our manner of acting in
   particular  cases; conduct refers to the general tenor of our actions.
   We  may  say  of  soldiers,  that  their conduct had been praiseworthy
   during  the  whole  campaign,  and  their  behavior admirable in every
   instance when they met the enemy.


   Be*head"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Beheaded;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Beheading.]  [OE.  bihefden,  AS. behe\'a0fdian; pref. be- + he\'a0fod
   head. See Head.] To sever the head from; to take off the head of.


   Be*head"al (?),n.Beheading. [Modern]


   Be*held" (?), imp. & p. p. of Behold.


   Be"he*moth (?), n. [Heb. behem, fr. Egyptian P-ehe-maut hippopotamus.]
   An animal, probably the hippopotamus, described in Job xl. 15-24.

                                  Behen, Behn

   Be"hen  (?),  Behn  (?), n. [Per. & Ar. bahman, behmen, an herb, whose
   leaves  resemble  ears  of  corn,  saffron.]  (Bot.) (a) The Centaurea
   behen,  or  saw-leaved  centaury.  (b) The Cucubalus behen, or bladder
   campion,  now  called Silene inflata. (c) The Statice limonium, or sea


   Be*hest" (?), n. [OE. biheste promise, command, AS. beh promise; pref.
   be- + h command. See Hest, Hight.]

   1.  That  which  is  willed  or  ordered;  a  command;  a  mandate; an

     To do his master's high behest. Sir W. Scott.

   2. A vow; a promise. [Obs.]

     The  time  is  come that I should send it her, if I keep the behest
     that I have made. Paston.


   Be*hest", v. t. To vow. [Obs.] Paston.


   Be*hete" (?), v. t. See Behight. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be*hight"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  Behight; p. p. Behight, Behoten.] [OE.
   bihaten, AS. beh\'betan to vow, promise; pref. be- + h\'betan to call,
   command. See Hight, v.] [Obs. in all its senses.]

   1. To promise; to vow.

     Behight by vow unto the chaste Minerve. Surrey.

   2. To give in trust; to commit; to intrust.

     The keys are to thy hand behight. Spenser.

   3. To adjudge; to assign by authority.

     The second was to Triamond behight. Spenser.

   4. To mean, or intend.

     More than heart behighteth. Mir. for Mag.

   5. To consider or esteem to be; to declare to be.

     All the lookers-on him dead behight. Spenser.

   6. To call; to name; to address.

     Whom . . . he knew and thus behight. Spenser.

   7. To command; to order.

     He behight those gates to be unbarred. Spenser.


   Be*hight", n. A vow; a promise. [Obs.] Surrey.


   Be*hind" (?), prep. [AS. behindan; pref. be- + hindan. See Hind, a.]

   1.  On  the  side opposite the front or nearest part; on the back side
   of;  at the back of; on the other side of; as, behind a door; behind a

     A tall Brabanter, behind whom I stood. Bp. Hall.

   2.  Left  after  the  departure  of,  whether this be by removing to a
   distance or by death.

     A small part of what he left behind him. Pope.

   3.  Left  a distance by, in progress of improvement Hence: Inferior to
   in dignity, rank, knowledge, or excellence, or in any achievement.

     I was not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles. 2 Cor. xi. 5.


   Be*hind", adv.

   1. At the back part; in the rear. "I shall not lag behind." Milton.

   2. Toward the back part or rear; backward; as, to look behind.

   3.  Not  yet  brought  forward, produced, or exhibited to view; out of
   sight; remaining.

     We can not be sure that there is no evidence behind. Locke.

   4. Backward in time or order of succession; past.

     Forgetting those things which are behind. Phil. ii. 13.

   5. After the departure of another; as, to stay behind.

     Leave not a rack behind. Shak.


   Be*hind", n. The backside; the rump. [Low]


   Be*hind"hand` (?), adv. & a. [Behind + hand.]

   1. In arrears financially; in a state where expenditures have exceeded
   the receipt of funds.

   2.  In  a  state  of backwardness, in respect to what is seasonable or
   appropriate,  or as to what should have been accomplished; not equally
   forward  with  some  other  person or thing; dilatory; backward; late;
   tardy; as, behindhand in studies or in work.

     In this also [dress] the country are very much behindhand. Addison.


   Be*hith"er (?), prep. On this side of. [Obs.]

     Two miles behither Clifden. Evelyn.


   Be*hold" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beheld ( (p. p. formerly Beholden (,
   now  used only as a p. a.); p. pr. & vb. n. Beholding.] [OE. bihalden,
   biholden, AS. behealdan to hold, have in sight; pref. be- + healdan to
   hold,  keep;  akin to G. behalten to hold, keep. See Hold.] To have in
   sight; to see clearly; to look at; to regard with the eyes.

     When he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived. Num. xxi. 9.

     Behold  the  Lamb  of  God, which taketh away the sin of the world.
     John. i. 29.

   Syn. -- To scan; gaze; regard; descry; view; discern.


   Be*hold", v. i. To direct the eyes to, or fix them upon, an object; to
   look; to see.

     And  I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne, . . . a lamb as
     it had been slain. Rev. v. 6.


   Be*hold"en  (?),  p.  a.  [Old  p. p. of behold, used in the primitive
   sense of the simple verb hold.] Obliged; bound in gratitude; indebted.

     But being so beholden to the Prince. Tennyson.


   Be*hold"er (?), n. One who beholds; a spectator.


   Be*hold"ing, a. Obliged; beholden. [Obs.]

     I  was  much  bound  and  beholding  to  the right reverend father.
     Robynson (More's Utopia).

     So  much  hath  Oxford  been  beholding to her nephews, or sister's
     children. Fuller.


   Be*hold"ing,  n. The act of seeing; sight; also, that which is beheld.


   Be*hold"ing*ness,  n.,  The state of being obliged or beholden. [Obs.]
   Sir P. Sidney.


   Be*hoof"  (?),  n. [OE. to bihove for the use of, AS. beh advantage, a
   word  implied  in  beh  necessary;  akin  to Sw. behof, Dan. behov, G.
   behuf, and E. heave, the root meaning to seize, hence the meanings "to
   hold,  make  use  of."  See  Heave, v. t.] Advantage; profit; benefit;
   interest; use.

     No mean recompense it brings To your behoof. Milton.


   Be*hoov"a*ble (?), a. Supplying need; profitable; advantageous. [Obs.]


   Be*hoove"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Behooved (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Behooving.]  [OE.  bihoven, behoven, AS. beh to have need of, fr. beh.
   See  Behoof.] To be necessary for; to be fit for; to be meet for, with
   respect   to   necessity,   duty,   or  convenience;  --  mostly  used

     And thus it behooved Christ to suffer. Luke xxiv. 46.

   [Also written behove.]


   Be*hoove"  (?),  v. i. To be necessary, fit, or suitable; to befit; to
   belong as due. Chaucer.


   Be*hoove", n. Advantage; behoof. [Obs.]

     It shall not be to his behoove. Gower.


   Be*hoove"ful  (?),  a.  Advantageous; useful; profitable. [Archaic] --
   Be*hoove"ful*ly, adv. -- Be*hoove"ful*ness, n. [Archaic]


   Be*hove" (?), v., and derivatives. See Behoove, & c.


   Be*hove"ly, a. & adv. Useful, or usefully. [Obs.]


   Be*howl" (?), v. t. To howl at. [Obs.]

     The wolf behowls the moon. Shak.


   Beige (?), n. [F.] Debeige.


   Beild  (?),  n.  [Prob. from the same root as build, v. t.] A place of
   shelter;  protection; refuge. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.] [Also written bield
   and beeld.]

     The random beild o' clod or stane. Burns.


   Be"ing (?), p. pr. from Be. Existing.

     NOTE: &hand; Be ing wa s fo rmerly us ed wh ere we  now use having.
     "Being to go to a ball in a few days." Miss Edgeworth.

     NOTE: &hand; In  mo dern us age, is, are, was or were being, with a
     past  participle  following  (as  built,  made, etc.) indicates the
     process  toward  the  completed result expressed by the participle.
     The  form  is  or  was  building, in this passive signification, is
     idiomatic,  and,  if free from ambiguity, is commonly preferable to
     the  modern  is  or  was  being  built. The last form of speech is,
     however,  sufficiently  authorized  by  approved writers. The older
     expression was is, or was, a-building or in building.

     A man who is being strangled. Lamb.

     While the article on Burns was being written. Froude.

     Fresh experience is always being gained. Jowett (Thucyd. )


   Be"ing, n.

   1.   Existence,  as  opposed  to  nonexistence;  state  or  sphere  of

     In Him we live, and move, and have our being. Acts xvii. 28.

   2. That which exists in any form, whether it be material or spiritual,
   actual  or  ideal;  living  existence,  as  distinguished from a thing
   without life; as, a human being; spiritual beings.

     What a sweet being is an honest mind ! Beau. & Fl.

     A Being of infinite benevolence and power. Wordsworth.

   3. Lifetime; mortal existence. [Obs.]

     Claudius,  thou Wast follower of his fortunes in his being. Webster

   4. An abode; a cottage. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.

     It  was a relief to dismiss them [Sir Roger's servants] into little
     beings within my manor. Steele.


   Be"ing, adv. Since; inasmuch as. [Obs. or Colloq.]

     And  being  you  have  Declined  his  means, you have increased his
     malice. Beau. & Fl.


   Be*jade" (?), v. t. To jade or tire. [Obs.] Milton.


   Be*jape" (?), v. t. To jape; to laugh at; to deceive. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be*jaun"dice (?), v. t. To infect with jaundice.


   Be*jew"el (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bejeweled or Bejewelled (#); p. pr.
   &  vb. n. Bejeweling or Bejewelling.] To ornament with a jewel or with
   jewels; to spangle. "Bejeweled hands." Thackeray.


   Be*jum"ble (?), v. t. To jumble together.


   Be"kah (?), n. [Heb.] Half a shekel.


   Be*knave" (?), v. t. To call knave. [Obs.] Pope.


   Be*know" (?), v. t. To confess; to acknowledge. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bel  (?), n. The Babylonian name of the god known among the Hebrews as
   Baal. See Baal. Baruch vi. 41.


   Be*la"bor  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Belabored (#); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  ply  diligently;  to  work  carefully  upon.  "If the earth is
   belabored with culture, it yieldeth corn." Barrow.

   2. To beat soundly; to cudgel.

     Ajax belabors there a harmless ox. Dryden.


   Bel`-ac*coyle"  (?), n. [F. bel beautiful + accueil reception.] A kind
   or favorable reception or salutation. [Obs.]


   Be*lace" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Belaced (#).]

   1. To fasten, as with a lace or cord. [Obs.]

   2. To cover or adorn with lace. [Obs.] Beaumont.

   3. To beat with a strap. See Lace. [Obs.] Wright.


   Be*lam"  (?),  v.  t.  [See Lam.] To beat or bang. [Prov. & Low, Eng.]


   Bel"a*mour (?), n. [F. bel amour fair love.]

   1. A lover. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2. A flower, but of what kind is unknown. [Obs.]

     Her snowy brows, like budded belamours. Spenser.


   Bel"a*my  (?),  n. [F. bel ami fair friend.] Good friend; dear friend.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be*late"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Belated; p. pr. & vb. n. Belating.]
   To retard or make too late. Davenant.


   Be*lat"ed,  a.  Delayed  beyond the usual time; too late; overtaken by
   night;  benighted.  "Some belated peasant." Milton. -- Be*lat"ed*ness,
   n. Milton.


   Be*laud" (?), v. t. To laud or praise greatly.


   Be*lay"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Belaid, Belayed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Belaying.]  [For senses 1 & 2, D. beleggen to cover, belay; akin to E.
   pref.  be-, and lay to place: for sense 3, OE. beleggen, AS. belecgan.
   See pref. Be-, and Lay to place.]

   1. To lay on or cover; to adorn. [Obs.]

     Jacket . . . belayed with silver lace. Spenser.

   2.  (Naut.)  To  make fast, as a rope, by taking several turns with it
   round a pin, cleat, or kevel. Totten.

   3.  To  lie  in wait for with a view to assault. Hence: to block up or
   obstruct. [Obs.] Dryden.
   Belay thee! Stop.

   Page 134

                                 Belaying pin

   Be*lay"ing  pin` (?). (Naut.) A strong pin in the side of a vessel, or
   by  the  mast,  round  which ropes are wound when they are fastened or


   Belch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Belched (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Belching.]
   [OE. belken, AS. bealcan, akin to E. bellow. See Bellow, v. i.]

   1. To eject or throw up from the stomach with violence; to eruct.

     I belched a hurricane of wind. Swift.

   2.  To  eject  violently  from within; to cast forth; to emit; to give
   vent to; to vent.

     Within  the  gates  that  now  Stood open wide, belching outrageous
     flame. Milton.


   Belch, v. i.

   1. To eject wind from the stomach through the mouth; to eructate.

   2. To issue with spasmodic force or noise. Dryden.


   Belch, n.

   1. The act of belching; also, that which is belched; an eructation.

   2.  Malt  liquor;  -- vulgarly so called as causing eructation. [Obs.]


   Belch"er (?), n. One who, or that which, belches.

                                Beldam Beldame

   Bel"dam  Bel"dame  (?),  n.  [Pref. bel-, denoting relationship + dame
   mother:  cf.  F.  belledame  fair lady, It. belladonna. See Belle, and

   1. Grandmother; -- corresponding to belsire.

     To show the beldam daughters of her daughter. Shak.

   2. An old woman in general; especially, an ugly old woman; a hag.

     Around the beldam all erect they hang. Akenside.


   Be*lea"guer  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beleaguered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beleaguering.]  [D.  belegeren  (akin  to G. belagern, Sw. bel\'84gra,
   Dan.  beleire); pref. be- = E. be- + leger bed, camp, army, akin to E.
   lair. See Lair.] To surround with an army so as to preclude escape; to
   besiege; to blockade.

     The wail of famine in beleaguered towns. Longfellow.

   Syn. -- To block up; environ; invest; encompass.


   Be*lea"guer*er (?), n. One who beleaguers.


   Be*leave" (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Beleft (#).] To leave or to be
   left. [Obs.] May.


   Be*lec"ture  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Belectured (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Belecturing.] To vex with lectures; to lecture frequently.


   Be*lee" (?), v. t. To place under the lee, or unfavorably to the wind.


   Be*lem"nite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  dart,  fr.  dart,  fr.  to  throw: cf. F.
   b\'82lemnite.]  (Paleon.)  A  conical calcareous fossil, tapering to a
   point  at the lower extremity, with a conical cavity at the other end,
   where  it  is  ordinarily broken; but when perfect it contains a small
   chambered cone, called the phragmocone, prolonged, on one side, into a
   delicate  concave blade; the thunderstone. It is the internal shell of
   a cephalopod related to the sepia, and belonging to an extinct family.
   The belemnites are found in rocks of the Jurassic and Cretaceous ages.
   -- Bel*em*nit"ic, a.


   Be*lep"er  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Belepered (#).] To infect with
   leprosy. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Bel"-es*prit"  (?),  n.; pl. Beaux-esprits (#). [F., fine wit.] A fine
   genius, or man of wit. "A man of letters and a bel esprit." W. Irving.


   Bel"fry  (?),  n.  [OE.  berfray  movable  tower  used  in sieges, OF.
   berfreit,  berfroit,  F.  beffroi,  fr.  MHG.  bervrit,  bercvrit,  G.
   bergfriede,  fr. MHG. bergen to protect (G. bergen to conceal) + vride
   peace,  protection,  G.  friede peace; in compounds often taken in the
   sense  of  security,  or  place  of  security; orig. therefore a place
   affording security. G. friede is akin to E. free. See Burg, and Free.]

   1.  (Mil. Antiq.) A movable tower erected by besiegers for purposes of
   attack and defense.

   2.  A  bell tower, usually attached to a church or other building, but
   sometimes separate; a campanile.

   3. A room in a tower in which a bell is or may be hung; or a cupola or
   turret for the same purpose.

   4. (Naut.) The framing on which a bell is suspended.


   Bel*gard"  (?),  n.  [It.  bel guardo.] A sweet or loving look. [Obs.]


   Bel"gi*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to Belgium. -- n. A native or
   inhabitant of Belgium.


   Bel"gic (?), a. [L. Belgicus, fr. Belgae the Belgians.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the Belg\'91, a German tribe who anciently
   possessed the country between the Rhine, the Seine, and the ocean.

     How unlike their Belgic sires of old. Goldsmith.

   2. Of or pertaining to the Netherlands or to Belgium.


   Bel*gra"vi*an (?), a. Belonging to Belgravia (a fashionable quarter of
   London, around Pimlico), or to fashionable life; aristocratic.


   Be"li*al  (?),  n.  [Heb. beli ya'al; beli without + ya'al profit.] An
   evil  spirit; a wicked and unprincipled person; the personification of

     What concord hath Christ with Belia ? 2 Cor. vi. 15.

   A  son (or man) of Belial, a worthless, wicked, or thoroughly depraved
   person. 1 Sam. ii. 12.


   Be*li"bel  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Libel,  v. t. ] To libel or traduce; to
   calumniate. Fuller.


   Be*lie"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Belied (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Belying
   (#).]  [OE.  bilien,  bili,  AS. bele\'a2gan; pref. be- + le\'a2gan to
   lie. See Lie, n.]

   1. To show to be false; to convict of, or charge with, falsehood.

     Their trembling hearts belie their boastful tongues. Dryden.

   2. To give a false representation or account of.

     Should I do so, I should belie my thoughts. Shak.

   3. To tell lie about; to calumniate; to slander.

     Thou dost belie him, Percy, thou dost belie him. Shak.

   4. To mimic; to counterfeit. [Obs.] Dryden.

   5.  To  fill  with  lies. [Obs.] "The breath of slander doth belie all
   corners of the world." Shak.


   Be*lief"  (?),  n.  [OE.  bileafe,  bileve;  cf.  AS.  gele\'a0fa. See

   1.  Assent  to  a  proposition  or affirmation, or the acceptance of a
   fact,  opinion,  or  assertion  as  real  or  true,  without immediate
   personal  knowledge;  reliance upon word or testimony; partial or full
   assurance   without   positive   knowledge   or   absolute  certainty;
   persuasion;  conviction;  confidence;  as,  belief  of  a witness; the
   belief of our senses.

     Belief  admits  of all degrees, from the slightest suspicion to the
     fullest assurance. Reid.

   2. (Theol.) A persuasion of the truths of religion; faith.

     No  man  can attain [to] belief by the bare contemplation of heaven
     and earth. Hooker.

   3. The thing believed; the object of belief.

     Superstitious  prophecies are not only the belief of fools, but the
     talk sometimes of wise men. Bacon.

   4.  A tenet, or the body of tenets, held by the advocates of any class
   of views; doctrine; creed.

     In  the  heat  of persecution to which Christian belief was subject
     upon its first promulgation. Hooker.

   Ultimate  belief,  a  first principle incapable of proof; an intuitive
   truth;  an  intuition.  Sir  W.  Hamilton.  Syn.  --  Credence; trust;
   reliance; assurance; opinion.


   Be*lief"ful (?), a. Having belief or faith.


   Be*liev"a*ble   (?),  a.  Capable  of  being  believed;  credible.  --
   Be*liev"a*ble*ness, n. -- Be*liev`a*bil"i*ty (, n.


   Be*lieve"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Believed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Believing.]  [OE.  bileven  (with pref. be- for AS. ge-), fr. AS. gel,
   gel;  akin  to  D. gelooven, OHG. gilouban, G. glauben, OS. gil, Goth.
   galaubjan,  and Goth. liubs dear. See Lief, a., Leave, n.] To exercise
   belief in; to credit upon the authority or testimony of another; to be
   persuaded  of  the  truth  of,  upon  evidence  furnished  by reasons,
   arguments,  and deductions of the mind, or by circumstances other than
   personal  knowledge;  to regard or accept as true; to place confidence
   in;  to think; to consider; as, to believe a person, a statement, or a

     Our conqueror (whom I now Of force believe almighty). Milton.

     King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets ? Acts xxvi.

     Often  followed  by a dependent clause. I believe that Jesus Christ
     is the Son of God. Acts viii. 37.

   Syn. -- See Expect.


   Be*lieve", v. i.

   1.  To have a firm persuasion, esp. of the truths of religion; to have
   a persuasion approaching to certainty; to exercise belief or faith.

     Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief. Mark ix. 24.

     With the heart man believeth unto righteousness. Rom. x. 10.

   2. To think; to suppose.

     I will not believe so meanly of you. Fielding.

   To  believe  in.  (a) To believe that the subject of the thought (if a
   person  or  thing)  exists,  or (if an event) that it has occurred, or
   will  occur;  --  as, to believe in the resurrection of the dead. "She
   does  not  believe  in Jupiter." J. H. Newman. (b) To believe that the
   character,  abilities,  and  purposes of a person are worthy of entire
   confidence;  --  especially  that his promises are wholly trustworthy.
   "Let  not  your  heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in
   me."  John  xiv. 1. (c) To believe that the qualities or effects of an
   action  or  state are beneficial: as, to believe in sea bathing, or in
   abstinence  from  alcoholic  beverages.  --  To  believe on, to accept
   implicitly as an object of religious trust or obedience; to have faith
   Be*liev"er (?), n.
   1.  One  who believes; one who is persuaded of the truth or reality of
   some doctrine, person, or thing.
   2.  (Theol.) One who gives credit to the truth of the Scriptures, as a
   revelation  from  God; a Christian; -- in a more restricted sense, one
   who  receives  Christ  as his Savior, and accepts the way of salvation
   unfolded in the gospel.
     Thou  didst  open  the  Kingdom of Heaven to all believers. Book of
     Com. Prayer.
   3.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  One  who  was admitted to all the rights of divine
   worship and instructed in all the mysteries of the Christian religion,
   in distinction from a catechumen, or one yet under instruction.
   Be*liev"ing, a. That believes; having belief. -- Be*liev"ing*ly, adv.
   Be*light" (?), v. t. To illuminate. [Obs.] Cowley.
   Be*like"  (?),  adv.  [Pref.  be-  (for  by)  + like.] It is likely or
   probably; perhaps. [Obs. or Archaic] -- Be*like"ly, adv.
     Belike, boy, then you are in love. Shak.
   Be*lime"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Belimed (#).] To besmear or insnare
   with birdlime. 


   Be*lit"tle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Belittled (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Belittling.] To make little or less in a moral sense; to speak of in a
   depreciatory or contemptuous way. T. Jefferson.


   Be*live" (?), adv. [Cf. Live, a.] Forthwith; speedily; quickly. [Obs.]


   Belk (?), v. t. [See Belch.] To vomit. [Obs.]


   Bell (?), n. [AS. belle, fr. bellan to bellow. See Bellow.]

   1. A hollow metallic vessel, usually shaped somewhat like a cup with a
   flaring  mouth,  containing  a  clapper  or tongue, and giving forth a
   ringing sound on being struck.

     NOTE: &hand; Be lls ha ve been made of various metals, but the best
     have always been, as now, of an alloy of copper and tin.

   The  Liberty  Bell,  the  famous bell of the Philadelphia State House,
   which  rang when the Continental Congress declared the Independence of
   the United States, in 1776. It had been cast in 1753, and upon it were
   the  words  "Proclaim  liberty  throughout  all  the  land, to all the
   inhabitants thereof."

   2.  A  hollow perforated sphere of metal containing a loose ball which
   causes it to sound when moved.

   3.  Anything  in  the form of a bell, as the cup or corol of a flower.
   "In a cowslip's bell I lie." Shak.

   4.  (Arch.)  That part of the capital of a column included between the
   abacus  and  neck  molding;  also  used  for  the naked core of nearly
   cylindrical shape, assumed to exist within the leafage of a capital.

   5.  pl.  (Naut.)  The  strikes of the bell which mark the time; or the
   time so designated.

     NOTE: &hand; On  sh ipboard, ti me is  ma rked by  a bell, which is
     struck  eight  times at 4, 8, and 12 o'clock. Half an hour after it
     has struck "eight bells" it is struck once, and at every succeeding
     half  hour  the  number of strokes is increased by one, till at the
     end of the four hours, which constitute a watch, it is struck eight

   To  bear away the bell, to win the prize at a race where the prize was
   a  bell;  hence,  to  be superior in something. Fuller. -- To bear the
   bell, to be the first or leader; -- in allusion to the bellwether or a
   flock,  or the leading animal of a team or drove, when wearing a bell.
   --   To   curse   by   bell,  book,  and  candle,  a  solemn  form  of
   excommunication  used  in  the  Roman  Catholic church, the bell being
   tolled,  the  book  of  offices  for the purpose being used, and three
   candles  being extinguished with certain ceremonies. Nares. -- To lose
   the  bell,  to  be  worsted in a contest. "In single fight he lost the
   bell." Fairfax. -- To shake the bells, to move, give notice, or alarm.

     NOTE: &hand; Be ll is much used adjectively or in combinations; as,
     bell  clapper; bell foundry; bell hanger; bell-mouthed; bell tower,
     etc., which, for the most part, are self-explaining.

   Bell  arch (Arch.), an arch of unusual form, following the curve of an
   ogee.  --  Bell  cage,  or  Bell  carriage  (Arch.),  a  timber  frame
   constructed  to  carry one or more large bells. -- Bell cot (Arch.), a
   small  or  subsidiary  construction,  frequently corbeled out from the
   walls  of  a  structure,  and  used to contain and support one or more
   bells.  -- Bell deck (Arch.), the floor of a belfry made to serve as a
   roof  to  the rooms below. -- Bell founder, one whose occupation it is
   to  found  or  cast  bells. -- Bell foundry, or Bell foundery, a place
   where  bells  are  founded  or  cast.  --  Bell gable (Arch.), a small
   gable-shaped construction, pierced with one or more openings, and used
   to  contain  bells. -- Bell glass. See Bell jar. -- Bell hanger, a man
   who  hangs  or  puts  up bells. -- Bell pull, a cord, handle, or knob,
   connecting with a bell or bell wire, and which will ring the bell when
   pulled. Aytoun. -- Bell punch, a kind of conductor's punch which rings
   a  bell when used. -- Bell ringer, one who rings a bell or bells, esp.
   one  whose  business it is to ring a church bell or chime, or a set of
   musical  bells  for public entertainment. -- Bell roof (Arch.), a roof
   shaped  according to the general lines of a bell. -- Bell rope, a rope
   by  which  a  church  or  other bell is rung. -- Bell tent, a circular
   conical-topped tent. -- Bell trap, a kind of bell shaped stench trap.


   Bell (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Belled (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Belling.] To
   put a bell upon; as, to bell the cat.

   2. To make bell-mouthed; as, to bell a tube.


   Bell,  v. i. To develop bells or corollas; to take the form of a bell;
   to blossom; as, hops bell.


   Bell, v. t. [AS. bellan. See Bellow.] To utter by bellowing. [Obs.]


   Bell,  v. i. To call or bellow, as the deer in rutting time; to make a
   bellowing sound; to roar.

     As loud as belleth wind in hell. Chaucer.

     The wild buck bells from ferny brake. Sir W. Scott.


   Bel`la*don"na  (?),  n.  [It.,  literally fine lady; bella beautiful +
   donna   lady.]   (Bot.)  (a)  An  herbaceous  European  plant  (Atropa
   belladonna)   with  reddish  bell-shaped  flowers  and  shining  black
   berries.  The  whole  plant  and its fruit are very poisonous, and the
   root  and leaves are used as powerful medicinal agents. Its properties
   are  largely  due  to  the alkaloid atropine which it contains. Called
   also  deadly  nightshade.  (b) A species of Amaryllis (A. belladonna);
   the belladonna lily.

                                Bell animalcule

   Bell"  an`i*mal"cule  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  An  infusorian  of  the family
   Vorticellid\'91, common in fresh-water ponds.

                                  Bell bearer

   Bell"  bear`er  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  A  Brazilian  leaf  hopper (Bocydium
   tintinnabuliferum),  remarkable for the four bell-shaped appendages of
   its thorax.


   Bell"bird`  (?),  n.  [So  called  from their notes.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A
   South   American   bird   of   the   genus  Casmarhincos,  and  family
   Cotingid\'91,  of  several  species;  the  campanero. (b) The Myzantha
   melanophrys of Australia.

                                  Bell crank

   Bell" crank` (?). A lever whose two arms form a right angle, or nearly
   a right angle, having its fulcrum at the apex of the angle. It is used
   in bell pulls and in changing the direction of bell wires at angles of
   rooms, etc., and also in machinery.

   Page 135


   Belle  (?),  n.  [F.  belle,  fem.  of bel, beau, beautiful, fine. See
   Beau.]  A  young  lady  of superior beauty and attractions; a handsome
   lady, or one who attracts notice in society; a fair lady.


   Belled (?), a. Hung with a bell or bells.


   Belle-let"trist (?), n. One versed in belleslettres.


   Bel*ler"o*phon  (?),  n.  (Paleon.) A genus of fossil univalve shells,
   believed to belong to the Heteropoda, peculiar to the Paleozoic age.


   Belles-let"tres  (?),  n.  pl.  [F.] Polite or elegant literature; the
   humanities;  --  used  somewhat  vaguely  for  literary works in which
   imagination and taste are predominant.

                         Belletristic, Belletristical

   Bel`le*tris"tic  (?),  Bel`le*tris"tic*al  (?),  a.  Occupied with, or
   pertaining  to,  belles-lettres. "An unlearned, belletristic trifler."
   M. Arnold.


   Bell"-faced`  (?),  a.  Having the striking surface convex; -- said of


   Bell"flow`er  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  plant of the genus Campanula; -- so
   named from its bell-shaped flowers.


   Bell"flow`er,  n.  [F.  bellefleur, lit., beautiful flower.] A kind of
   apple. The yellow bellflower is a large, yellow winter apple. [Written
   also bellefleur.]


   Bel"li*bone  (?),  n. [F. belle et bonne, beautiful and good.] A woman
   excelling both in beauty and goodness; a fair maid. [Obs.] Spenser.

                               Bellic, Bellical

   Bel"lic  (?),  Bel"li*cal  (?), a. [L. bellicus. See Bellicose.] Of or
   pertaining   to  war;  warlike;  martial.  [Obs.]  "Bellic  C\'91sar."


   Bel"li*cose`  (?),  a. [L. bellicosus, fr. bellicus of war, fr. bellum
   war. See Duel.] Inclined to war or contention; warlike; pugnacious.

     Arnold was, in fact, in a bellicose vein. W. Irving.


   Bel"li*cose`ly, adv. In a bellicose manner.


   Bel"li*cous (?), a. Bellicose. [Obs.]


   Bel"lied  (?),  a.  Having  (such)  a  belly;  puffed  out; -- used in
   composition; as, pot-bellied; shad-bellied.

                          Belligerence, Belligerency

   Bel*lig"er*ence  (?),  Bel*lig"er*en*cy  (?),  n. The quality of being
   belligerent; act or state of making war; warfare.


   Bel*lig"er*ent (?), a. [L. bellum war + gerens, -entis, waging, p. pr.
   of gerere to wage: cf. F. bellig\'82rant. See Bellicose, Jest.]

   1. Waging war; carrying on war. "Belligerent powers." E. Everett.

   2. Pertaining, or tending, to war; of or relating to belligerents; as,
   a belligerent tone; belligerent rights.


   Bel*lig"er*ent,  n. A nation or state recognized as carrying on war; a
   person engaged in warfare.


   Bel*lig"er*ent*ly, adv. In a belligerent manner; hostilely.


   Bell"ing  (?),  n. [From Bell to bellow.] A bellowing, as of a deer in
   rutting time. Johnson.


   Bel*lip"o*tent  (?), a. [L. bellipotens; bellum war + potens powerful,
   p. pr. of posse to be able.] Mighty in war; armipotent. [R.] Blount.

                                   Bell jar

   Bell"  jar`  (?). (Phys.) A glass vessel, varying in size, open at the
   bottom  and closed at the top like a bell, and having a knob or handle
   at the top for lifting it. It is used for a great variety of purposes;
   as,  with  the  air  pump, and for holding gases, also for keeping the
   dust from articles exposed to view.


   Bell"man  (?), n. A man who rings a bell, especially to give notice of
   anything  in  the streets. Formerly, also, a night watchman who called
   the hours. Milton.

                                  Bell metal

   Bell"  met`al (?). A hard alloy or bronze, consisting usually of about
   three  parts  of  copper to one of tin; -- used for making bells. Bell
   metal ore, a sulphide of tin, copper, and iron; the mineral stannite.


   Bell"-mouthed` (?), a. Expanding at the mouth; as, a bell-mouthed gun.


   Bel"lon (?), n. Lead colic.


   Bel*lo"na  (?),  n. [L., from bellum war.] (Rom. Myth.) The goddess of


   Bel"low  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bellowed  ;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Bellowing.]  [OE. belwen, belowen, AS. bylgean, fr. bellan; akin to G.
   bellen,  and  perh.  to L. flere to weep, OSlav. bleja to bleat, Lith.
   balsas voice. Cf. Bell, n. & v., Bawl, Bull.]

   1. To make a hollow, loud noise, as an enraged bull.

   2. To bowl; to vociferate; to clamor. Dryden.

   3.  To  roar; as the sea in a tempest, or as the wind when violent; to
   make a loud, hollow, continued sound.

     The bellowing voice of boiling seas. Dryden.


   Bel"low,  v. t. To emit with a loud voice; to shout; -- used with out.
   "Would bellow out a laugh." Dryden.


   Bel"low,  n. A loud resounding outcry or noise, as of an enraged bull;
   a roar.


   Bel"low*er (?), n. One who, or that which, bellows.


   Bel"lows  (?),  n.  sing.  & pl. [OE. bely, below, belly, bellows, AS.
   b\'91lg, b\'91lig, bag, bellows, belly. Bellows is prop. a pl. and the
   orig.  sense  is  bag. See Belly.] An instrument, utensil, or machine,
   which,  by alternate expansion and contraction, or by rise and fall of
   the top, draws in air through a valve and expels it through a tube for
   various  purposes, as blowing fires, ventilating mines, or filling the
   pipes of an organ with wind. Bellows camera, in photography, a form of
   camera,  which  can  be  drawn  out  like  an accordion or bellows. --
   Hydrostatic  bellows.  See  Hydrostatic.  --  A  pair  of bellows, the
   ordinary  household  instrument  for  blowing fires, consisting of two
   nearly  heart-shaped  boards  with  handles, connected by leather, and
   having a valve and tube.

                                 Bellows fish

   Bel"lows  fish` (?). (Zo\'94l.) A European fish (Centriscus scolopax),
   distinguished  by a long tubular snout, like the pipe of a bellows; --
   called also trumpet fish, and snipe fish.

                                  Bell pepper

   Bell"  pep`per (?). (Bot.) A species of Capsicum, or Guinea pepper (C.
   annuum). It is the red pepper of the gardens.


   Bell"-shaped`  (?),  a.  Having  the  shape  of  a  widemouthed  bell;


   Bel"lu*ine (?), a. [L. belluinus, fr. bellua beast.] Pertaining to, or
   like, a beast; brutal. [R.]

     Animal and belluine life. Atterbury.


   Bell"weth`er (?), n.

   1. A wether, or sheep, which leads the flock, with a bell on his neck.

   2. Hence: A leader. [Contemptuous] Swift.


   Bell"wort"  (?), n. (Bot.) A genus of plants (Uvularia) with yellowish
   bell-shaped flowers.


   Bel"ly  (?),  n.; pl. Bellies (#). [OE. bali, bely, AS. belg, b\'91lg,
   b\'91lig,  bag,  bellows, belly; akin to Icel. belgr bag, bellows, Sw.
   b\'84lg,  Dan.  b\'91lg, D. & G. balg, cf. W. bol the paunch or belly,
   dim. boly, Ir. bolg. Cf. Bellows, Follicle, Fool, Bilge.]

   1.  That part of the human body which extends downward from the breast
   to the thighs, and contains the bowels, or intestines; the abdomen.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rmerly all the splanchnic or visceral cavities were
     called  bellies;  --  the lower belly being the abdomen; the middle
     belly, the thorax; and the upper belly, the head.


   2.  The  under part of the body of animals, corresponding to the human

     Underneath the belly of their steeds. Shak.

   3. The womb. [Obs.]

     Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee. Jer. i. 5.

   4.   The   part  of  anything  which  resembles  the  human  belly  in
   protuberance  or  in  cavity;  the  innermost part; as, the belly of a
   flask, muscle, sail, ship.

     Out of the belly of hell cried I. Jonah ii. 2.

   5. (Arch.) The hollow part of a curved or bent timber, the convex part
   of which is the back.
   Belly  doublet,  a  doublet of the 16th century, hanging down so as to
   cover  the  belly.  Shak.  -- Belly fretting, the chafing of a horse's
   belly with a girth. Johnson. -- Belly timber, food. [Ludicrous] Prior.
   --  Belly  worm,  a worm that breeds or lives in the belly (stomach or
   intestines). Johnson.


   Bel"ly, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bellied (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bellying.] To
   cause to swell out; to fill. [R.]

     Your breath of full consent bellied his sails. Shak.


   Bel"ly,  v.  i.  To  swell  and become protuberant, like the belly; to

     The bellying canvas strutted with the gale. Dryden.


   Bel"ly*ache` (?), n. Pain in the bowels; colic.


   Bel"ly*band` (?), n.

   1.  A band that passes under the belly of a horse and holds the saddle
   or harness in place; a girth.

   2. A band of flannel or other cloth about the belly.

   3. (Naut.) A band of canvas, to strengthen a sail.


   Bel"ly*bound` (, a. Costive; constipated.


   Bel"ly*cheat`  (?),  n.  An  apron  or  covering  for the front of the
   person. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Bel"ly*cheer`  (?),  n.  [Perh.  from  F. belle ch\'8are.] Good cheer;
   viands.  [Obs.]  "Bellycheer  and  banquets."  Rowlands.  "Loaves  and
   bellycheer." Milton.


   Bel"ly*cheer`, v. i. To revel; to feast. [Obs.]

     A  pack  of  clergymen  [assembled]  by themselves to bellycheer in
     their presumptuous Sion. Milton.


   Bel"ly*ful  (?),  n. As much as satisfies the appetite. Hence: A great
   abundance; more than enough. Lloyd.

     King  James  told  his  son  that  he  would  have  his bellyful of
     parliamentary impeachments. Johnson.


   Bel"ly-god`  (?),  n.  One  whose  great pleasure it is to gratify his
   appetite; a glutton; an epicure.


   Bel"ly-pinched`   (?),   a.   Pinched   with   hunger;  starved.  "The
   belly-pinched wolf." Shak.


   Be*lock"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Belocked (#).] [Pref. be- + lock:
   cf. AS. bel.] To lock, or fasten as with a lock. [Obs.] Shak.


   Bel"o*man`cy  (?), n. [Gr. ; arrow + a diviner: cf. F. b\'82lomancie.]
   A  kind  of  divination  anciently practiced by means of marked arrows
   drawn  at  random  from a bag or quiver, the marks on the arrows drawn
   being supposed to foreshow the future. Encyc. Brit.


   Be*long"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Belonged (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Belonging.] [OE. belongen (akin to D. belangen to concern, G. belangen
   to  attain to, to concern); pref. be- + longen to desire. See Long, v.

     NOTE: [Usually construed with to.]

   1. To be the property of; as, Jamaica belongs to Great Britain.

   2.  To be a part of, or connected with; to be appendant or related; to
   owe allegiance or service.

     A desert place belonging to . . . Bethsaids. Luke ix. 10.

     The mighty men which belonged to David. 1 Kings i. 8.

   3.  To  be the concern or proper business or function of; to appertain
   to. "Do not interpretations belong to God ?" Gen. xl. 8.

   4. To be suitable for; to be due to.

     Strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age. Heb. v. 14.

     No blame belongs to thee. Shak.

   5.  To  be  native  to,  or  an  inhabitant  of;  esp. to have a legal
   residence,  settlement,  or inhabitancy, whether by birth or operation
   of law, so as to be entitled to maintenance by the parish or town.

     Bastards  also  are  settled  in  the parishes to which the mothers
     belong. Blackstone.


   Be*long" (?), v. t. To be deserved by. [Obs.]

     More evils belong us than happen to us. B. Jonson.


   Be*long"ing, n. [Commonly in the pl.]

   1. That which belongs to one; that which pertains to one; hence, goods
   or effects. "Thyself and thy belongings." Shak.

   2.  That  which  is  connected  with  a principal or greater thing; an
   appendage; an appurtenance.

   3. Family; relations; household. [Colloq.]

     Few  persons  of her ladyship's belongings stopped, before they did
     her bidding, to ask her reasons. Thackeray.


   Bel"o*nite (?), n. [Gr. a needle.] (Min.) Minute acicular or dendritic
   crystalline forms sometimes observed in glassy volcanic rocks.

                              Belooche Beloochee

   Bel*oo"che Bel*oo"chee (?), a. Of or pertaining to Beloochistan, or to
   its inhabitants. -- n. A native or an inhabitant of Beloochistan.


   Be*lord" (?), v. t.

   1. To act the lord over.

   2. To address by the title of "lord".


   Be*love"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Beloved (#).] [OE. bilufien. See
   pref. Be-, and Love, v. t.] To love. [Obs.] Wodroephe.


   Be*loved" (?), p. p. & a. Greatly loved; dear to the heart.

     Antony, so well beloved of C\'91sar. Shak.

     This is my beloved Son. Matt. iii. 17.


   Be*lov"ed (?), n. One greatly loved.

     My beloved is mine, and I am his. Cant. ii. 16.


   Be*low" (?), prep. [Pref. be- by + low.]

   1.  Under, or lower in place; beneath not so high; as, below the moon;
   below the knee. Shak.

   2.  Inferior  to  in  rank, excellence, dignity, value, amount, price,
   etc.; lower in quality. "One degree below kings." Addison.

   3. Unworthy of; unbefitting; beneath.

     They  beheld, with a just loathing and disdain, . . . how below all
     history the persons and their actions were. Milton.

     Who thinks no fact below his regard. Hallam.

   Syn. -- Underneath; under; beneath.


   Be*low", adv.

   1.  In  a  lower  place,  with respect to any object; in a lower room;

     Lord Marmion waits below. Sir W. Scott.

   2. On the earth, as opposed to the heavens.

     The fairest child of Jove below. Prior.

   3. In hell, or the regions of the dead.

     What businesss brought him to the realms below. Dryden.

   4.  In  court  or  tribunal of inferior jurisdiction; as, at the trial
   below. Wheaton.

   5. In some part or page following.


   Be*lowt"  (?),  v. t. To treat as a lout; to talk abusively to. [Obs.]


   Bel"sire`  (?),  n. [Pref. bel- + sire. Cf. Beldam.] A grandfather, or
   ancestor. "His great belsire Brute." [Obs.] Drayton.


   Bel"swag`ger  (?),  n. [Contr. from bellyswagger.] A lewd man; also, a
   bully. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Belt  (?),  n.  [AS.  belt;  akin  to  Icel. belti, Sw. b\'84lte, Dan.
   b\'91lte, OHG. balz, L. balteus, Ir. & Gael. balt bo

   1.  That  which  engirdles  a person or thing; a band or girdle; as, a
   lady's belt; a sword belt.

     The shining belt with gold inlaid. Dryden.

   2. That which restrains or confines as a girdle.

     He  cannot  buckle  his  distempered cause Within the belt of rule.

   3. Anything that resembles a belt, or that encircles or crosses like a
   belt; a strip or stripe; as, a belt of trees; a belt of sand.

   4.  (Arch.)  Same  as  Band, n., 2. A very broad band is more properly
   termed a belt.

   5.  (Astron.)  One  of  certain girdles or zones on the surface of the
   planets Jupiter and Saturn, supposed to be of the nature of clouds.

   6.  (Geog.)  A  narrow  passage  or strait; as, the Great Belt and the
   Lesser Belt, leading to the Baltic Sea.

   7. (Her.) A token or badge of knightly rank.

   8.  (Mech.)  A  band  of leather, or other flexible substance, passing
   around two wheels, and communicating motion from one to the other.

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Pulley.]

   9. (Nat. Hist.) A band or stripe, as of color, round any organ; or any
   circular ridge or series of ridges.
   Belt  lacing,  thongs  used  for  lacing  together the ends of machine


   Belt,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Belted;  p. pr. & vb. n. Belting.] To
   encircle with, or as with, a belt; to encompass; to surround.

     A coarse black robe belted round the waist. C. Reade.

     They belt him round with hearts undaunted. Wordsworth.

   2.  To  shear,  as  the  buttocks  and  tails  of  sheep. [Prov. Eng.]


   Bel"tane (?), n. [Gael. bealltainn, bealltuinn.]

   1. The first day of May (Old Style).

     The  quarter-days  anciently in Scotland were Hallowmas, Candlemas,
     Beltane, and Lammas. New English Dict.

   2.  A  festival  of  the heathen Celts on the first day of May, in the
   observance  of which great bonfires were kindled. It still exists in a
   modified form in some parts of Scotland and Ireland.


   Belt"ed (?), a.

   1.  Encircled  by,  or  secured with, a belt; as, a belted plaid; girt
   with a belt, as an honorary distinction; as, a belted knight; a belted

   2. Marked with a band or circle; as, a belted stalk.

   3. Worn in, or suspended from, the belt.

     Three men with belted brands. Sir W. Scott.

   Belted cattle, cattle originally from Dutch stock, having a broad band
   of  white  round  the  middle, while the rest of the body is black; --
   called also blanketed cattle.

                                Beltein, Beltin

   Bel"tein (?), Bel"tin (?), n. See Beltane.


   Belt"ing  (?),  n. The material of which belts for machinery are made;
   also, belts, taken collectively.

   Page 136


   Be*lu"ga  (?), n. [Russ. bieluga a sort of large sturgeon, prop. white
   fish,  fr.  bieluii  white.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  cetacean  allied  to  the

     NOTE: &hand; Th e no rthern be luga (Delphinapterus catodon) is the
     white  whale  and  white  fish  of the whalers. It grows to be from
     twelve to eighteen feet long.


   Be*lute"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beluted; p. pr. & vb. n. Beluting.]
   [Pref. be- + L. lutum mud.] To bespatter, as with mud. [R.] Sterne.


   Bel`ve*dere" (?), n. [It., fr. bello, bel, beautiful + vedere to see.]
   (Arch.)  A small building, or a part of a building, more or less open,
   constructed in a place commanding a fine prospect.


   Bel"ze*buth  (?),  n.  [From  Beelzebub.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A spider monkey
   (Ateles belzebuth) of Brazil.


   Be"ma (?), n. [Gr. step, platform.]

   1.  (Gr. Antiq.) A platform from which speakers addressed an assembly.

   2.  (Arch.)  (a)  That  part  of  an  early Christian church which was
   reserved  for  the  higher  clergy;  the  inner or eastern part of the
   chancel. (b) Erroneously: A pulpit.


   Be*mad" (?), v. t. To make mad. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Be*man"gle (?), v. t. To mangle; to tear asunder. [R.] Beaumont.


   Be*mask" (?), v. t. To mask; to conceal.


   Be*mas"ter (?), v. t. To master thoroughly.


   Be*maul"  (?), v. t. To maul or beat severely; to bruise. "In order to
   bemaul Yorick." Sterne.


   Be*maze  (?),  v.  t.  [OE.  bimasen;  pref.  be- + masen to maze.] To

     Intellects bemazed in endless doubt. Cowper.


   Be*mean" (?), v. t. To make mean; to lower. C. Reade.


   Be*meet"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bemet  (#);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bemeeting.] To meet. [Obs.]

     Our very loving sister, well bemet. Shak.


   Be*mete" (?), v. t. To mete. [Obs.] Shak.


   Be*min"gle (?), v. t. To mingle; to mix.


   Be*mire"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bemired (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bemiring.]  To  drag  through,  encumber with, or fix in, the mire; to
   soil by passing through mud or dirt.

     Bemired and benighted in the dog. Burke.


   Be*mist" (?), v. t. To envelop in mist. [Obs.]


   Be*moan"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Bemoaned (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bemoaning.]  [OE.  bimenen, AS. bem; pref. be- + m to moan. See Moan.]
   To  express  deep  grief  for  by  moaning;  to express sorrow for; to
   lament; to bewail; to pity or sympathize with.

     Implores their pity, and his pain bemoans. Dryden.

   Syn. -- See Deplore.


   Be*moan"er (?), n. One who bemoans.


   Be*mock" (?), v. t. To mock; to ridicule.

     Bemock the modest moon. Shak.


   Be*moil" (?), v. t. [Pref. be- + moil, fr. F. mouiller to wet; but cf.
   also  OE.  bimolen to soil, fr. AS. m\'bel spot: cf. E. mole.] To soil
   or encumber with mire and dirt. [Obs.] Shak.


   Be"mol (?), n. [F. b\'82mol, fr. b\'82 soft.] (Mus.) The sign [Obs.]


   Be*mon"ster  (?),  v.  t.  To make monstrous or like a monster. [Obs.]


   Be*mourn" (?), v. t. To mourn over. Wyclif.


   Be*mud"dle (?), v. t. To muddle; to stupefy or bewilder; to confuse.


   Be*muf"fle (?), v. t. To cover as with a muffler; to wrap up.

     Bemuffled with the externals of religion. Sterne.


   Be*muse"  (?),  v.  t.  To muddle, daze, or partially stupefy, as with

     A parson much bemused in beer. Pope.

                                 Ben, Ben nut

   Ben  (?),  Ben"  nut`  (?). [Ar. b\'ben, name of the tree.] (Bot.) The
   seed of one or more species of moringa; as, oil of ben. See Moringa.


   Ben,  adv.  &  prep. [AS. binnan; pref. be- by + innan within, in in.]
   Within;  in;  in  or  into  the  interior; toward the inner apartment.


   Ben,  n. [See Ben, adv.] The inner or principal room in a hut or house
   of two rooms; -- opposed to but, the outer apartment. [Scot.]


   Ben. An old form of the pl. indic. pr. of Be. [Obs.]


   Be*name"  (?),  v.  t.  [p. p. Benamed, Benempt.] To promise; to name.


   Bench  (?),  n.;  pl. Benches (#). [OE. bench, benk, AS. benc; akin to
   Sw.  b\'84nk,  Dan b\'91nk, Icel. bekkr, OS., D., & G. bank. Cf. Bank,

   1. A long seat, differing from a stool in its greater length.

     Mossy benches supplied the place of chairs. Sir W. Scott.

   2.  A  long table at which mechanics and other work; as, a carpenter's

   3. The seat where judges sit in court.

     To pluck down justice from your awful bench. Shak.

   4.  The  persons  who sit as judges; the court; as, the opinion of the
   full bench. See King's Bench.

   5.  A collection or group of dogs exhibited to the public; -- so named
   because the animals are usually placed on benches or raised platforms.

   6.  A  conformation  like a bench; a long stretch of flat ground, or a
   kind of natural terrace, near a lake or river.
   Bench  mark  (Leveling),  one  of  a  number  of marks along a line of
   survey,  affixed  to  permanent objects, to show where leveling staffs
   were  placed.  -- Bench of bishops, the whole body of English prelates
   assembled in council. -- Bench plane, any plane used by carpenters and
   joiners  for  working  a flat surface, as jack planes, long planes. --
   Bench  show,  an  exhibition  of  dogs.  --  Bench  table  (Arch.),  a
   projecting  course  at  the  base  of  a  building, or round a pillar,
   sufficient to form a seat.


   Bench (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Benched (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Benching.]

   1. To furnish with benches.

     'T was benched with turf. Dryden.

     Stately theaters benched crescentwise. Tennyson.

   2. To place on a bench or seat of honor.

     Whom I . . . have benched and reared to worship. Shak.


   Bench, v. i. To sit on a seat of justice. [R.] Shak.


   Bench"er (?), n.

   1.  (Eng.  Law)  One  of the senior and governing members of an Inn of

   2. An alderman of a corporation. [Eng.] Ashmole.

   3. A member of a court or council. [Obs.] Shak.

   4. One who frequents the benches of a tavern; an idler. [Obs.]

                                 Bench warrant

   Bench" war`rant (?). (Law) A process issued by a presiding judge or by
   a court against a person guilty of some contempt, or indicted for some
   crime; -- so called in distinction from a justice's warrant.


   Bend  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Bended or Bent (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bending.]  [AS.  bendan  to bend, fr. bend a band, bond, fr. bindan to
   bind. See Bind, v. t., and cf. 3d & 4th Bend.]

   1. To strain or move out of a straight line; to crook by straining; to
   make crooked; to curve; to make ready for use by drawing into a curve;
   as, to bend a bow; to bend the knee.

   2.  To  turn  toward  some certain point; to direct; to incline. "Bend
   thine ear to supplication." Milton.

     Towards Coventry bend we our course. Shak.

     Bending her eyes . . . upon her parent. Sir W. Scott.

   3. To apply closely or with interest; to direct.

     To bend his mind to any public business. Temple.

     But when to mischief mortals bend their will. Pope.

   4.  To  cause  to  yield; to render submissive; to subdue. "Except she
   bend her humor." Shak.

   5. (Naut.) To fasten, as one rope to another, or as a sail to its yard
   or stay; or as a cable to the ring of an anchor. Totten.
   To bend the brow, to knit the brow, as in deep thought or in anger; to
   scowl; to frown. Camden. Syn. -- To lean; stoop; deflect; bow; yield.


   Bend, v. i.

   1.  To  be  moved  or  strained out of a straight line; to crook or be
   curving; to bow.

     The  green  earth's  end  Where  the  bowed  welkin slow doth bend.

   2. To jut over; to overhang.

     There  is  a  cliff, whose high and bending head Looks fearfully in
     the confined deep. Shak.

   3. To be inclined; to be directed.

     To whom our vows and wished bend. Milton.

   4. To bow in prayer, or in token of submission.

     While each to his great Father bends. Coleridge.


   Bend, n. [See Bend, v. t., and cf. Bent, n.]

   1.  A  turn  or  deflection  from  a  straight line or from the proper
   direction  or  normal position; a curve; a crook; as, a slight bend of
   the body; a bend in a road.

   2. Turn; purpose; inclination; ends. [Obs.]

     Farewell, poor swain; thou art not for my bend. Fletcher.

   3.  (Naut.)  A  knot by which one rope is fastened to another or to an
   anchor, spar, or post. Totten.

   4. (Leather Trade) The best quality of sole leather; a butt. See Butt.

   5. (Mining) Hard, indurated clay; bind.
   Bends  of a ship, the thickest and strongest planks in her sides, more
   generally  called  wales.  They  have  the beams, knees, and foothooks
   bolted  to  them.  Also,  the frames or ribs that form the ship's body
   from the keel to the top of the sides; as, the midship bend.
   Bend, n. [AS. bend. See Band, and cf. the preceding noun.]
   1. A band. [Obs.] Spenser.
   2. [OF. bende, bande, F. bande. See Band.] (Her.) One of the honorable
   ordinaries,  containing  a  third  or  a  fifth  part of the field. It
   crosses  the  field  diagonally  from the dexter chief to the sinister
   Bend  sinister  (Her.),  an honorable ordinary drawn from the sinister
   chief to the dexter base.


   Bend"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being bent.


   Bend"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, bends.

   2. An instrument used for bending.

   3. A drunken spree. [Low, U. S.] Bartlett.

   4. A sixpence. [Slang, Eng.]


   Bend"ing,  n.  The  marking  of the clothes with stripes or horizontal
   bands. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bend"let  (?), n. [Bend + -let: cf. E. bandlet.] (Her.) A narrow bend,
   esp. one half the width of the bend.


   Bend"wise (?), adv. (Her.) Diagonally.


   Ben"dy  (?), a. [From Bend a band.] (Her.) Divided into an even number
   of bends; -- said of a shield or its charge. Cussans.


   Ben"e (?), n. (Bot.) See Benne.


   Be"ne (?), n. [AS. b.] A prayer; boon. [Archaic]

     What is good for a bootless bene ? Wordsworth.

                                   Bene, Ben

   Bene,  Ben  (?),  n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A hoglike mammal of New
   Guinea (Porcula papuensis).


   Be*neaped" (?), a. (Naut.) See Neaped.


   Be*neath" (?), prep. [OE. benethe, bineo, AS. beneo, beny; pref. be- +
   neo, ny, downward, beneath, akin to E. nether. See Nether.]

   1.  Lower  in  place,  with  something  directly  over  or  on; under;
   underneath; hence, at the foot of. "Beneath the mount." Ex. xxxii. 19.

     Beneath a rude and nameless stone he lies. Pope.

   2. Under, in relation to something that is superior, or that oppresses
   or burdens.

     Our country sinks beneath the yoke. Shak.

   3.  Lower in rank, dignity, or excellence than; as, brutes are beneath
   man; man is beneath angels in the scale of beings. Hence: Unworthy of;

     He will do nothing that is beneath his high station. Atterbury.


   Be*neath" (?), adv.

   1. In a lower place; underneath.

     The earth you take from beneath will be barren. Mortimer.

   2. Below, as opposed to heaven, or to any superior region or position;
   as, in earth beneath.


   Ben`e*dic"i*te  (?), n. [L., (imperative pl.,) bless ye, praise ye.] A
   canticle  (the Latin version of which begins with this word) which may
   be  used  in the order for morning prayer in the Church of England. It
   is taken from an apocryphal addition to the third chapter of Daniel.


   Ben`e*dic"i*te,   interj.   [See   Benedicite,   n.]   An  exclamation
   corresponding to Bless you !.

                              Benedict, Benedick

   Ben"e*dict  (?),  Ben"e*dick  (?),  n.  [From  Benedick,  one  of  the
   characters  in  Shakespeare's  play  of  "Much  Ado about Nothing."] A
   married man, or a man newly married.


   Ben"e*dict,  a.  [L.  benedictus,  p.  p.  of benedicere to bless. See
   Benison, and cf. Bennet.] Having mild and salubrious qualities. [Obs.]


   Ben`e*dic"tine (?), a. Pertaining to the monks of St. Benedict, or St.


   Ben`e*dic"tine,  n.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  One  of  a famous order of monks,
   established by St. Benedict of Nursia in the sixth century. This order
   was introduced into the United States in 1846.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e Be  nedictines we ar bl ack cl othing, an d ar e
     sometimes  called  Black  Monks. The name Black Fr which belongs to
     the Dominicans, is also sometimes applied to the Benedictines.


   Ben`e*dic"tion  (?),  n. [L. benedictio: cf. F. b\'82n\'82diction. See

   1. The act of blessing.

   2.  A  blessing;  an expression of blessing, prayer, or kind wishes in
   favor  of  any person or thing; a solemn or affectionate invocation of

     So  saying,  he  arose;  whom  Adam thus Followed with benediction.

     Homeward  serenely  she  walked  with  God's  benediction upon her.

   Specifically:  The  short  prayer  which closes public worship; as, to
   give the benediction.

   3.  (Eccl.)  The  form  of  instituting  an  abbot,  answering  to the
   consecration of a bishop. Ayliffe.

   4.  (R.  C. Ch.) A solemn rite by which bells, banners, candles, etc.,
   are blessed with holy water, and formally dedicated to God.


   Ben`e*dic"tion*al (?), n. A book of benedictions.


   Ben`e*dic"tion*a*ry (?), n. A collected series of benedictions.

     The benedictionary of Bishop Athelwold. G. Gurton's Needle.


   Ben`e*dic"tive (?), a. Tending to bless. Gauden.


   Ben`e*dic"to*ry  (?), a. Expressing wishes for good; as, a benedictory
   prayer. Thackeray.


   Ben`e*dic"tus  (?),  n.  [L.,  blessed.  See Benedict, a.] The song of
   Zacharias  at  the birth of John the Baptist (Luke i. 68); -- so named
   from the first word of the Latin version.


   Ben"e*dight (?), a. Blessed. [R.] Longfellow.


   Ben`e*fac"tion  (?),  n.  [L. benefactio, fr. benefacere to do good to
   one; bene well + facere to do. See Benefit.]

   1. The act of conferring a benefit. Johnson.

   2.  A  benefit  conferred;  esp.  a charitable donation. Syn. -- Gift;
   present; gratuity; boon; alms.


   Ben`e*fac"tor  (?),n.  [L.]  One  who  confers  a benefit or benefits.


   Ben`e*fac"tress, n. A woman who confers a benefit.

     His benefactress blushes at the deed. Cowper.


   Be*nef"ic (?), a. [L. beneficus. See Benefice.] Favorable; beneficent.


   Ben"e*fice  (?), n. [F. b\'82n\'82fice, L. beneficium, a kindness , in
   LL.  a  grant  of  an estate, fr. L. beneficus beneficent; bene well +
   facere to do. See Benefit.]

   1. A favor or benefit. [Obs.] Baxter.

   2. (Feudal Law) An estate in lands; a fief.

     NOTE: &hand; Such an estate was granted at first for life only, and
     held  on  the  mere  good  pleasure  of  the  donor; but afterward,
     becoming  hereditary,  it received the appellation of fief, and the
     term benefice became appropriated to church livings.

   3. An ecclesiastical living and church preferment, as in the Church of
   England; a church endowed with a revenue for the maintenance of divine
   service. See Advowson.

     NOTE: &hand; Al l ch urch pr eferments are called benefices, except
     bishoprics,  which  are called dignities. But, ordinarily, the term
     dignity  is  applied  to bishoprics, deaneries, archdeaconries, and
     prebendaryships; benefice to parsonages, vicarages, and donatives.


   Ben"e*fice, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beneficed.] To endow with a benefice.

     NOTE: [Commonly in the past participle.]


   Ben"e*ficed  (?),  a. Possessed of a benefice o "Beneficed clergymen."


   Ben"e*fice*less (?), a. Having no benefice. "Beneficeless precisians."


   Be*nef"i*cence  (?),  n.  [L.  beneficentia,  fr.  beneficus:  cf.  F.
   b\'82n\'82ficence.  See  Benefice.] The practice of doing good; active
   goodness,  kindness,  or  charity;  bounty  springing  from purity and

     And whose beneficence no charge exhausts. Cowper.

   Syn. -- See Benevolence.


   Be*nef`i*cent  (?),  a.  Doing  or  producing good; performing acts of
   kindness and charity; characterized by beneficence.

     The beneficent fruits of Christianity. Prescott.

   Syn. -- See Benevolent.


   Be*nef`i*cen"tial (?), a. Relating to beneficence.

   Page 137


   Be*nef"i*cent*ly (?), adv. In a beneficent manner; with beneficence.


   Ben`e*fi"cial (?), a. [Cf. F. b\'82n\'82ficial, LL. beneficialis.]

   1. Conferring benefits; useful; profito

     The war which would have been most beneficial to us. Swift.

   2. (Law) Receiving, or entitled to have or receive, advantage, use, or
   benefit; as, the beneficial owner of an estate. Kent.

   3. King. [Obs.] "A beneficial foe." B. Jonson. Syn. -- See Advantage.


   Ben`e*fi"cial*ly,   adv.  In  a  beneficial  or  advantageous  manner;
   profitably; helpfully.


   Ben`e*fi"cial*ness,    n.    The    quality   of   being   beneficial;


   Ben`e*fi"ci*a*ry    (?),    a.   [Cf.   F.   b\'82n\'82ficiaire,   LL.

   1.  Holding  some  office  or valuable possession, in subordination to
   another;  holding under a feudal or other superior; having a dependent
   and secondary possession.

     A feudatory or beneficiary king of England. Bacon.

   2. Bestowed as a gratuity; as, beneficiary gifts.


   Ben`e*fi"ci*a*ry, n.; pl. Beneficiaries (.

   1. A feudatory or vassal; hence, one who holds a benefice and uses its
   proceeds. Ayliffe.

   2.  One who receives anything as a gift; one who receives a benefit or
   advantage;  esp.  one  who receives help or income from an educational
   fund or a trust estate.

     The  rich  men  will  be  offering  sacrifice  to their Deity whose
     beneficiaries they are. Jer. Taylor.


   Ben`e*fi"ci*ate (?), v. t. [Sp. beneficiar to benefit, to work mines.]
   (Mining) To reduce (ores). -- Ben`e*fi`ci*a"tion (n.


   Ben`e*fi"cient (?), a. Beneficent. [Obs.]


   Ben"e*fit  (?), n. [OE. benefet, benfeet, bienfet, F. bienfait, fr. L.
   benefactum;  bene  well (adv. of bonus good) + factum, p. p. of facere
   to do. See Bounty, and Fact.]

   1. An act of kindness; a favor conferred.

     Bless  the  Lord,  O  my soul, and forget not all his benefits. Ps.
     ciii. 2.

   2.  Whatever promotes prosperity and personal happiness, or adds value
   to property; advantage; profit.

     Men have no right to what is not for their benefit. Burke.

   3.  A  theatrical performance, a concert, or the like, the proceeds of
   which do not go to the lessee of the theater or to the company, but to
   some individual actor, or to some charitable use.

   4. Beneficence; liberality. [Obs.] Webster (1623).

   5.  pl.  Natural  advantaged;  endowments;  accomplishments. [R.] "The
   benefits of your own country." Shak.
   Benefit  of  clergy.  (Law) See under Clergy. Syn. -- Profit; service;
   use; avail. See Advantage.


   Ben"e*fit,   v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Benefited;  p.  pr.  &  vb.  n.
   Benefitting.]  To  be  beneficial  to; to do good to; to advantage; to
   advance in health or prosperity; to be useful to; to profit.

     I  will  repent of the good, wherewith I said I would benefit them.
     Jer. xviii. 10.


   Ben"e*fit,  v.  i.  To gain advantage; to make improvement; to profit;
   as, he will benefit by the change.


   Ben"e*fit`er  (?),  n.  One  who  confers  a benefit; -- also, one who
   receives a benefit.


   Be*neme"  (?),  v.  t.  [AS. ben. Cf. Benim.] To deprive (of), or take
   away (from). [Obs.]


   Be*nempt" (?), p. p. of Bename.

   1. Promised; vowed. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2. Named; styled. [Archaic] Sir W. Scott.

                                 Bene placito

   Be`ne  plac"i*to  (?).  [It.  beneplacito pleasure, fr. L. bene well +
   placitus pleasing.]

   1. At or during pleasure.

     For  our  English  judges there never was . . . any bene placito as
     their tenure. F. Harrison.

   2. (Mus.) At pleasure; ad libitum.


   Be*net"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Benetted.] To catch in a net; to
   insnare. Shak.


   Be*nev"o*lence   (?),   n.  [OF.  benevolence,  L.  benevolentia.  See

   1.  The  disposition  to  do  good; good will; charitableness; love of
   mankind, accompanied with a desire to promote their happiness.

     The wakeful benevolence of the gospel. Chalmers.

   2. An act of kindness; good done; charity given.

   3.  A  species  of compulsory contribution or tax, which has sometimes
   been  illegally  exacted  by  arbitrary  kings of England, and falsely
   represented   as   a   gratuity.  Syn.  --  Benevolence,  Beneficence,
   Munificence.  Benevolence  marks a disposition made up of a choice and
   desire  for  the happiness of others. Beneficence marks the working of
   this  disposition  in  dispensing  good  on  a  somewhat  broad scale.
   Munificence  shows the same disposition, but acting on a still broader
   scale,  in  conferring  gifts  and  favors.  These are not necessarily
   confined to objects of immediate utility. One may show his munificence
   in presents of pictures or jewelry, but this would not be beneficence.
   Benevolence   of  heart;  beneficence  of  life;  munificence  in  the
   encouragement of letters.


   Be*nev"o*lent (?), a. [L. benevolens, -entis; bene well (adv. of bonus
   good)  +  volens,  p.  pr.  of  volo  I  will, I wish. See Bounty, and
   Voluntary.] Having a disposition to do good; possessing or manifesting
   love  to  mankind,  and  a  desire  to  promote  their  prosperity and
   happiness;  disposed  to  give  to  good objects; kind; charitable. --
   Be*nev"o*lent*ly,  adv. Syn. -- Benevolent, Beneficent. Etymologically
   considered, benevolent implies wishing well to others, and beneficent,
   doing  well.  But  by  degrees the word benevolent has been widened to
   include  not  only feelings, but actions; thus, we speak of benevolent
   operations,   benevolent   labors  for  the  public  good,  benevolent
   societies.  In  like  manner,  beneficent  is  now  often  applied  to
   feelings; thus, we speak of the beneficent intentions of a donor. This
   extension  of  the  terms  enables us to mark nicer shades of meaning.
   Thus,  the phrase "benevolent labors" turns attention to the source of
   these  labors, viz., benevolent feeling; while beneficent would simply
   mark  them as productive of good. So, "beneficent intentions" point to
   the  feelings  of the donor as bent upon some specific good act; while
   "benevolent intentions" would only denote a general wish and design to
   do good.


   Be*nev"o*lous  (?),  a.  [L.  benevolus.]  Kind; benevolent. [Obs.] T.


   Ben*gal" (?), n.

   1.  A  province  in India, giving its name to various stuffs, animals,

   2.  A  thin  stuff,  made  of  silk  and hair, originally brought from

   3. Striped gingham, originally brought from Bengal; Bengal stripes.
   Bengal  light, a firework containing niter, sulphur, and antimony, and
   producing  a sustained and vivid colored light, used in making signals
   and  in  pyrotechnics; -- called also blue light. -- Bengal stripes, a
   kind  of  cotton  cloth  woven with colored stripes. See Bengal, 3. --
   Bengal tiger. (Zo\'94l.). See Tiger.

                               Bengalee, Bengali

   Ben*gal"ee, Ben*gal"i (?), n. The language spoken in Bengal.


   Ben`gal*ese"  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Bengal. -- n. sing. & pl. A
   native or natives of Bengal.


   Ben*go"la (?), n. A Bengal light.


   Be*night"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Benighted;  p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  involve  in  darkness;  to shroud with the shades of night; to
   obscure. [Archaic]

     The clouds benight the sky. Garth.

   2.  To overtake with night or darkness, especially before the end of a
   day's journey or task.

     Some virgin, sure, . . . benighted in these woods. Milton.

   3.  To  involve  in  moral  darkness,  or  ignorance;  to  debar  from
   intellectual light.

     Shall we to men benighted The lamp of life deny ? Heber.


   Be*night"ment (?), n. The condition of being benighted.


   Be*nign"  (?), a. [OE. benigne, bening, OF. benigne, F. b\'82nin, fem.
   b\'82nigne,  fr. L. benignus, contr. from benigenus; bonus good + root
   of genus kind. See Bounty, and Genus.]

   1.  Of  a  kind  or gentle disposition; gracious; generous; favorable;

     Creator bounteous and benign. Milton.

   2.  Exhibiting or manifesting kindness, gentleness, favor, etc.; mild;
   kindly; salutary; wholesome.

     Kind influences and benign aspects. South.

   3.  Of  a  mild type or character; as, a benign disease. Syn. -- Kind;
   propitious;  bland;  genial; salubrious; favorable salutary; gracious;


   Be*nig"nan*cy (?), n. Benignant quality; kindliness.


   Be*nig"nant  (?),  a.  [LL.  benignans,  p.  pr. of benignare, from L.
   benignus.  See  Benign.] Kind; gracious; favorable. -- Be*nig"nant*ly,


   Be*nig"ni*ty   (?),   n.   [OE.  benignite,  F.  b\'82nignit\'82,  OF.
   b\'82nignet\'82, fr. L. benignitas. See Benign.]

   1.  The  quality  of  being  benign; goodness; kindness; graciousness.
   "Benignity of aspect." Sir W. Scott.

   2. Mildness; gentleness.

     The benignity or inclemency of the season. Spectator.

   3. Salubrity; wholesome quality. Wiseman.


   Be*nign"ly (?), adv. In a benign manner.


   Be*nim"  (?),  v.  t.  [AS. beniman. See Benumb, and cf. Nim.] To take
   away. [Obs.]

     Ire . . . benimeth the man fro God. Chaucer.


   Ben"i*son  (?), n. [OE. beneysun, benesoun, OF. bene\'8b, bene\'8bson,
   fr.  L. benedictio, fr. benedicere to bless; bene (adv. of bonus good)
   +  dicere  to  say.  See  Bounty,  and  Diction, and cf. Benediction.]
   Blessing; beatitude; benediction. Shak.

     More precious than the benison of friends. Talfourd.


   B\'82*ni"tier`  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  b\'82nir to bless.] (R. C. Ch.) A
   holy-water stoup. Shipley.


   Ben"ja*min (?), n. [Corrupted from benzoin.] See Benzoin.


   Ben"ja*min, n. A kind of upper coat for men. [Colloq. Eng.]


   Ben"ja*mite  (?),  n.  A  descendant  of Benjamin; one of the tribe of
   Benjamin. Judg. iii. 15.


   Ben"ne  (?),  n. [Malay bijen.] (Bot.) The name of two plants (Sesamum
   orientale  and  S.  indicum),  originally  Asiatic; -- also called oil
   plant.  From  their  seeds an oil is expressed, called benne oil, used
   mostly  for  making  soap. In the southern United States the seeds are
   used in candy.


   Ben"net  (?), n. [F. beno\'8cte, fr. L. benedicta, fem. of benedictus,
   p.  p.,  blessed.  See Benedict, a.] (Bot.) The common yellow-flowered
   avens  of  Europe  (Geum  urbanum); herb bennet. The name is sometimes
   given to other plants, as the hemlock, valerian, etc.


   Ben"shee (?), n. See Banshee.


   Bent (?), imp. & p. p. of Bend.


   Bent, a. & p. p.

   1.  Changed by pressure so as to be no longer straight; crooked; as, a
   bent pin; a bent lever.

   2.   Strongly  inclined  toward  something,  so  as  to  be  resolved,
   determined,  set,  etc.;  -- said of the mind, character, disposition,
   desires,  etc.,  and used with on; as, to be bent on going to college;
   he is bent on mischief.


   Bent, n. [See Bend, n. & v.]

   1.  The  state  of  being curved, crooked, or inclined from a straight
   line; flexure; curvity; as, the bent of a bow. [Obs.] Wilkins.

   2. A declivity or slope, as of a hill. [R.] Dryden.

   3.  A  leaning  or  bias;  proclivity;  tendency of mind; inclination;
   disposition; purpose; aim. Shak.

     With a native bent did good pursue. Dryden.

   4. Particular direction or tendency; flexion; course.

     Bents and turns of the matter. Locke.

   5. (Carp.) A transverse frame of a framed structure.

   6. Tension; force of acting; energy; impetus. [Archaic]

     The full bent and stress of the soul. Norris.

   Syn.  --  Predilection;  turn. Bent, Bias, Inclination, Prepossession.
   These  words  agree  in describing a permanent influence upon the mind
   which  tends  to  decide its actions. Bent denotes a fixed tendency of
   the  mind  in  a given direction. It is the widest of these terms, and
   applies  to  the  will,  the  intellect,  and  the  affections,  taken
   conjointly;  as,  the  whole  bent  of  his  character was toward evil
   practices. Bias is literally a weight fixed on one side of a ball used
   in  bowling,  and  causing  it  to swerve from a straight course. Used
   figuratively,  bias  applies particularly to the judgment, and denotes
   something  which  acts with a permanent force on the character through
   that  faculty;  as,  the  bias  of early education, early habits, etc.
   Inclination  is  an excited state of desire or appetency; as, a strong
   inclination  to the study of the law. Prepossession is a mingled state
   of feeling and opinion in respect to some person or subject, which has
   laid  hold  of  and occupied the mind previous to inquiry. The word is
   commonly  used in a good sense, an unfavorable impression of this kind
   being  denominated  a  prejudice. "Strong minds will be strongly bent,
   and  usually  labor  under a strong bias; but there is no mind so weak
   and  powerless as not to have its inclinations, and none so guarded as
   to be without its prepossessions." Crabb.


   Bent  (?),  n.  [AS.  beonet; akin to OHG. pinuz, G. binse, rush, bent
   grass; of unknown origin.]

   1. A reedlike grass; a stalk of stiff, coarse grass.

     His spear a bent, both stiff and strong. Drayton.

   2.  (Bot.)  A  grass of the genus Agrostis, esp. Agrostis vulgaris, or
   redtop. The name is also used of many other grasses, esp. in America.

   3.  Any  neglected  field  or  broken ground; a common; a moor. [Obs.]

     Bowmen bickered upon the bent. Chevy Chase.

                                  Bent grass

   Bent" grass` (?). (Bot.) Same as Bent, a kind of grass.


   Ben"thal  (?),  a. [Gr. the depth of the sea.] Relating to the deepest
   zone or region of the ocean.


   Ben*tham"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Bentham or Benthamism.


   Ben"tham*ism  (?),  n.  That  phase  of the doctrine of utilitarianism
   taught by Jeremy Bentham; the doctrine that the morality of actions is
   estimated  and  determined by their utility; also, the theory that the
   sensibility  to pleasure and the recoil from pain are the only motives
   which  influence  human  desires  and  actions, and that these are the
   sufficient explanation of ethical and jural conceptions.


   Ben"tham*ite (?), n. One who believes in Benthamism.

                                 Benting time

   Bent"ing time" (?). The season when pigeons are said to feed on bents,
   before peas are ripe.

     Bare benting times . . . may come. Dryden.


   Bent"y (?), a.

   1.  A  bounding  in  bents,  or  the stalks of coarse, stiff, withered
   grass; as, benty fields.

   2. Resembling bent. Holland.


   Be*numb"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Benumbed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Benumbing.]  [OE. binomen, p. p. of binimen to take away, AS. beniman;
   pref.  be  +  niman  to  take.  See  Numb, a., and cf. Benim.] To make
   torpid; to deprive of sensation or sensibility; to stupefy; as, a hand
   or foot benumbed by cold.

     The creeping death benumbed her senses first. Dryden.


   Be*numbed"  (?),  a.  Made  torpid; numbed; stupefied; deadened; as, a
   benumbed body and mind. -- Be*numbed"ness, n.


   Be*numb"ment  (?),  n.  Act  of benumbing, or state of being benumbed;
   torpor. Kirby.


   Ben"zal   (?),   n.   [Benzoic  +  aldehyde.]  (Chem.)  A  transparent
   crystalline substance,


   Ben*zam"ide   (?),   n.  [Benzoin  +  amide.]  (Chem.)  A  transparent
   crystalline  substance, C6H5.CO.NH2, obtained by the action of ammonia
   upon  chloride  of  benzoyl,  as  also by several other reactions with
   benzoyl compounds.


   Ben"zene  (?), n. [From Benzoin.] (Chem.) A volatile, very inflammable
   liquid,  C6H6,  contained  in  the naphtha produced by the destructive
   distillation  of  coal,  from  which  it  is  separated  by fractional
   distillation.  The  name  is  sometimes  applied  also  to  the impure
   commercial  product  or  benzole,  and  also, but rarely, to a similar
   mixed  product  of petroleum. Benzene nucleus, Benzene ring (Chem.), a
   closed  chain  or  ring, consisting of six carbon atoms, each with one
   hydrogen  atom  attached, regarded as the type from which the aromatic
   compounds  are derived. This ring formula is provisionally accepted as
   representing  the probable constitution of the benzene molecule, C6H6,
   and as the type on which its derivatives are formed.


   Ben"zile  (?),  n.  [From  Benzoin.]  (Chem.)  A yellowish crystalline
   substance,  C6H5.CO.CO.C6H5,  formed  from  benzoin  by  the action of
   oxidizing agents, and consisting of a doubled benzoyl radical.


   Ben"zine (?), n. [From Benzoin.] (Chem.)

   1.  A  liquid  consisting  mainly  of  the  lighter  and more volatile
   hydrocarbons  of  petroleum or kerosene oil, used as a solvent and for
   cleansing  soiled  fabrics; -- called also petroleum spirit, petroleum
   benzine.   Varieties   or  similar  products  are  gasoline,  naphtha,
   rhigolene, ligroin, etc.

   2. Same as Benzene. [R.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e hydrocarbons of benzine proper are essentially of
     the   marsh  gas  series,  while  benzene  proper  is  the  typical
     hydrocarbon of the aromatic series.


   Ben"zo*ate  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. benzoate.] (Chem.) A salt formed by the
   union of benzoic acid with any salifiable base.

   Page 138


   Ben*zo"ic  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. benzo\'8bque.] Pertaining to, or obtained
   from,  benzoin.  Benzoic  acid,  or  flowers  of  benzoin,  a peculiar
   vegetable  acid,  C6H5.CO2H,  obtained  from  benzoin,  and some other
   balsams, by sublimation or decoction. It is also found in the urine of
   infants and herbivorous animals. It crystallizes in the form of white,
   satiny  flakes;  its  odor  is  aromatic;  its  taste  is pungent, and
   somewhat  acidulous.  --  Benzoic aldehyde, oil of bitter almonds; the
   aldehyde,  C6H5.CHO,  intermediate  in  composition between benzoic or
   benzyl alcohol, and benzoic acid. It is a thin colorless liquid.


   Ben*zoin"  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. benjoin, Sp. benjui, Pg. beijoin; all fr.
   Ar.  lub\'ben-j\'bew\'c6  incense form Sumatra (named Java in Arabic),
   the first syllable being lost. Cf. Benjamin.]

     NOTE: [Called also benjamin.]

   1.  A  resinous  substance,  dry and brittle, obtained from the Styrax
   benzoin,  a  tree  of Sumatra, Java, etc., having a fragrant odor, and
   slightly  aromatic  taste.  It  is  used in the preparation of benzoic
   acid, in medicine, and as a perfume.

   2.  A  white  crystalline  substance,  C14H12O2, obtained from benzoic
   aldehyde and some other sources.

   3. (Bot.) The spicebush (Lindera benzoin).
   Flowers of benzoin, benzoic acid. See under Benzoic.


   Ben*zoin"a*ted  (?), a. (Med.) Containing or impregnated with benzoin;
   as, benzoinated lard.

                                Benzole Benzol

   Ben"zole  Ben"zol  (?), n. [Benzoin + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) An impure
   benzene,  used  in  the  arts  as  a  solvent,  and  for various other
   purposes. See Benzene.

     NOTE: &hand; It   ha  s gr eat so lvent po wers, an d is  us ed by 
     manufacturers  of  India rubber and gutta percha; also for cleaning
     soiled kid gloves, and for other purposes.


   Ben"zo*line  (?), n. (Chem.) (a) Same as Benzole. (b) Same as Amarine.
   [R.] Watts.


   Ben"zoyl  (?),  n.  [Benzoic  +  Gr. -yl.] (Chem.) A compound radical,
   C6H5.CO;  the  base of benzoic acid, of the oil of bitter almonds, and
   of an extensive series of compounds. [Formerly written also benzule.]


   Ben"zyl (?), n. [Benzoic + -yl.] (Chem.) A compound radical, C6H5.CH2,
   related to toluene and benzoic acid; -- commonly used adjectively.


   Be*paint"  (?),  v.  t.  To paint; to cover or color with, or as with,

     Else would a maiden blush bepaint my cheek. Shak.


   Be*pelt" (?), v. t. To pelt roundly.


   Be*pinch"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bepinched (#).] To pinch, or mark
   with pinches. Chapman.


   Be*plas"ter  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Beplastered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beplastering.] To plaster over; to cover or smear thickly; to bedaub.

     Beplastered with rouge. Goldsmith.


   Be*plumed" (?), a. Decked with feathers.


   Be*pom"mel  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Bepommeled (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bepommeling.]  To  pommel;  to beat, as with a stick; figuratively, to
   assail or criticise in conversation, or in writing. Thackeray.


   Be*pow"der (?), v. t. To sprinkle or cover with powder; to powder.


   Be*praise" (?), v. t. To praise greatly or extravagantly. Goldsmith.


   Be*prose"  (?), v. t. To reduce to prose. [R.] "To beprose all rhyme."


   Be*puffed" (?), a. Puffed; praised. Carlyle.


   Be*pur"ple (?), v. t. To tinge or dye with a purple color.


   Be*queath"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Bequeathed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bequeathing.]  [OE.  biquethen,  AS.  becwe  to say, affirm, bequeath;
   pref. be- + cwe to say, speak. See Quoth.]

   1.  To give or leave by will; to give by testament; -- said especially
   of personal property.

     My heritage, which my dead father did bequeath to me. Shak.

   2. To hand down; to transmit.

     To bequeath posterity somewhat to remember it. Glanvill.

   3. To give; to offer; to commit. [Obs.]

     To  whom, with all submission, on my knee I do bequeath my faithful
     services And true subjection everlastingly. Shak.

   Syn.  --  To  Bequeath,  Devise. Both these words denote the giving or
   disposing  of  property  by  will. Devise, in legal usage, is property
   used  to  denote a gift by will of real property, and he to whom it is
   given is called the devisee. Bequeath is properly applied to a gift by
   will  or  legacy;  i.  e.,  of personal property; the gift is called a
   legacy,  and  he who receives it is called a legatee. In popular usage
   the  word  bequeath is sometimes enlarged so as to embrace devise; and
   it is sometimes so construed by courts.


   Be*queath"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being bequeathed.


   Be*queath"al  (?),  n.  The act of bequeathing; bequeathment; bequest.


   Be*queath"ment  (?),  n. The act of bequeathing, or the state of being
   bequeathed; a bequest.


   Be*quest" (?), n. [OE. biquest, corrupted fr. bequide; pref. be- + AS.
   cwide  a saying, becwe to bequeath. The ending -est is probably due to
   confusion with quest. See Bequeath, Quest.]

   1.  The  act  of  bequeathing  or  leaving  by  will; as, a bequest of
   property by A. to B.

   2. That which is left by will, esp. personal property; a legacy; also,
   a gift.


   Be*quest", v. t. To bequeath, or leave as a legacy. [Obs.] "All I have
   to bequest." Gascoigne.


   Be*queth"en (?), old p. p. of Bequeath. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be*quote" (?), v. t. To quote constantly or with great frequency.


   Be*rain  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Berained (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beraining.] To rain upon; to wet with rain. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be*rate"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Berated; p. pr. & vb. n. Berating.]
   To rate or chide vehemently; to scold. Holland. Motley.


   Be*rat"tle  (,  v.  t.  To  make rattle; to scold vociferously; to cry
   down. [Obs.] Shak.


   Be*ray"  (?) v.t. [Pref. be + ray to defile] TO make foul; to soil; to
   defile. [Obs.] Milton.


   Berbe  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Berber,  Barb  a  Barbary horse.] (Zo\'94l.) An
   African genet (Genetta pardina). See Genet.


   Ber"ber  (?), n. [See Barbary.] A member of a race somewhat resembling
   the  Arabs,  but  often  classed  as  Hamitic,  who  were formerly the
   inhabitants  of  the  whole  of  North  Africa  from the Mediterranean
   southward  into  the Sahara, and who still occupy a large part of that
   region;  --  called  also  Kabyles.  Also, the language spoken by this


   Ber"ber*ine  (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid obtained, as a bitter, yellow
   substance,  from  the  root  of  the  barberry, gold thread, and other


   Ber"ber*ry (?),n.See Barberry.


   Ber"dash (?),n.A kind of neckcloth. [Obs.]

     A treatise against the cravat and berdash. Steele.


   Bere  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  OIcel.  berja  to strike.] To pierce. [Obs.]


   Bere,n.See Bear, barley. [Scot.]


   Be*reave" (, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bereaved (, Bereft (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bereaving.] [OE. bireven, AS. bere\'a0fian. See Be-, and Reave.]

   1.  To  make  destitute;  to  deprive; to strip; -- with of before the
   person or thing taken away.

     Madam, you have bereft me of all words. Shak.

     Bereft of him who taught me how to sing. Tickell.

   2. To take away from. [Obs.]

     All  your  interest in those territories Is utterly bereft you; all
     is lost. Shak.

   3. To take away. [Obs.]

     Shall move you to bereave my life. Marlowe.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e im p. and past pple. form bereaved is not used in
     reference to immaterial objects. We say bereaved or bereft by death
     of a relative, bereft of hope and strength.

   Syn. -- To dispossess; to divest.


   Be*reave"ment  (?), n. The state of being bereaved; deprivation; esp.,
   the loss of a relative by death.


   Be*reav"er (?), n. One who bereaves.


   Be*reft" (?), imp. & p. p. of Bereave.


   Be*ret"ta (?), n. Same as Berretta.


   Berg  (?),  n.  [&root;95.  See Barrow hill, and cf. Iceberg.] A large
   mass or hill, as of ice.

     Glittering bergs of ice. Tennyson



   Ber"ga*mot  (?),  n.  [F.  bergamote,  fr.  It.  bergamotta;  prob.  a
   corruption of Turk. beg arm

   1 . (Bot.) (a) A tree of the Orange family (Citrus bergamia), having a
   roundish or pear-shaped fruit, from the rind of which an essential oil
   of  delicious  odor  is extracted, much prized as a perfume. Also, the
   fruit. (b) A variety of mint (Mentha aquatica, &var;. glabrata).

   2. The essence or perfume made from the fruit.

   3. A variety of pear. Johnson.

   4. A variety of snuff perfumed with bergamot.

     The better hand . . . gives the nose its bergamot. Cowper


   5. A coarse tapestry, manufactured from flock of cotton or hemp, mixed
   with  ox's  or  goat's hair; -- said to have been invented at Bergamo,
   Italy. Encyc. Brit.
   Wild  bergamot  (Bot.),  an  American herb of the Mint family (Monarda


   Ber"gan*der  (?),  n. [Berg, for burrow + gander a male goose ? Cf. G.
   bergente,  Dan.  gravgaas.] (Zo\'94l.) A European duck (Anas tadorna).
   See Sheldrake.


   Ber"ger*et  (?),  n. [OF. bergerete, F. berger a shepherd.] A pastoral
   song. [Obs.]


   Bergh (?), n. [AS. beorg.] A hill. [Obs.]


   Berg"mas`ter (?), n. See Barmaster.


   Berg"meal  (?),  n.  [G.  berg mountain + mehl meal.] (Min.) An earthy
   substance,  resembling  fine  flour.  It  is composed of the shells of
   infusoria,  and  in  Lapland and Sweden is sometimes eaten, mixed with
   flour  or  ground  birch bark, in times of scarcity. This name is also
   given to a white powdery variety of calcite.


   Berg"mote (?), n. See Barmote.


   Ber"go*mask  (?),  n.  A  rustic  dance,  so called in ridicule of the
   people of Bergamo, in Italy, once noted for their clownishness.


   Ber"gylt  (?),  n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) The Norway haddock.
   See Rosefish.


   Be*rhyme"  (,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Berhymed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Berhyming.] To mention in rhyme or verse; to rhyme about.

     NOTE: [Sometimes use depreciatively.]



   Be`ri*be"ri  (?),  n.  [Singhalese  beri  weakness.]  An acute disease
   occurring  in India, characterized by multiple inflammatory changes in
   the  nerves,  producing great muscular debility, a painful rigidity of
   the limbs, and cachexy.


   Be*rime" (, v. t. To berhyme.

     NOTE: [The earlier and etymologically preferable spelling.]


   Berke*le"ian  (?),a.Of or relating to Bishop Berkeley or his system of
   idealism; as, Berkeleian philosophy. -- Berke"ley*ism, n.


   Ber"lin (?), n. [The capital of Prussia]

   1.  A  four-wheeled  carriage, having a sheltered seat behind the body
   and separate from it, invented in the 17th century, at Berlin.

   2.  Fine worsted for fancy-work; zephyr worsted; -- called also Berlin
   Berlin  black,  a black varnish, drying with almost a dead surface; --
   used  for  coating  the better kinds of ironware. Ure. -- Berlin blue,
   Prussian  blue.  Ure. -- Berlin green, a complex cyanide of iron, used
   as  a  green dye, and similar to Prussian blue. -- Berlin iron, a very
   fusible  variety  of  cast iron, from which figures and other delicate
   articles  are  manufactured.  These  are often stained or lacquered in
   imitation  of  bronze.  -- Berlin shop, a shop for the sale of worsted
   embroidery  and  the  materials for such work. -- Berlin work, worsted

                                  Berm Berme

   Berm  Berme  (?),  n.  [F.  berme,  of  German  origin;  cf. G. brame,
   br\'84me, border, akin to E. brim.]

   1.  (Fort.) A narrow shelf or path between the bottom of a parapet and
   the ditch.

   2.  (Engineering) A ledge at the bottom of a bank or cutting, to catch
   earth that may roll down the slope, or to strengthen the bank.

                                 Bermuda grass

   Ber*mu"da  grass`  (?).  (Bot.)  A  kind  of  grass (Cynodon Dactylon)
   esteemed  for pasture in the Southern United States. It is a native of
   Southern  Europe,  but is now wide-spread in warm countries; -- called
   also scutch grass, and in Bermuda, devil grass.


   Ber"na*cle (?), n. See Barnacle.

                                   Berna fly

   Ber"na  fly` (?). (Zo\'94l.) A Brazilian dipterous insect of the genus
   Trypeta,  which  lays its eggs in the nostrils or in wounds of man and
   beast, where the larv\'91 do great injury.


   Ber"nar*dine  (?), a. Of or pertaining to St. Bernard of Clairvaux, or
   to the Cistercian monks. -- n. A Cistercian monk.


   Ber*nese"  (?), a. Pertaining to the city o -- n. sing. & pl. A native
   or natives of Bern.


   Ber"ni*cle  (?),  n.  [OE. bernak, bernacle; cf. OF. bernac; prob. fr.
   LL.  bernacula  for  hibernicula,  bernicula,  fr. Hibernia; the birds
   coming  from Hibernia or Ireland. Cf. 1st Barnacle.] A bernicle goose.
   [Written  also  barnacle.]  Bernicle goose (Zo\'94l.), a goose (Branta
   leucopsis),  of  Arctic  Europe  and America. It was formerly believed
   that  it  hatched  from  the cirripeds of the sea (Lepas), which were,
   therefore,  called  barnacles, goose barnacles, or Anatifers. The name
   is also applied to other related species. See Anatifa and Cirripedia.


   Ber*nouse" (?), n. Some as Burnoose.


   Be*rob" (?), v. t. To rob; to plunder. [Obs.]


   Ber"o*e  (?),  n.  [L.  Beroe,  one  of  the  Oceanid\'91 Gr. : cf. F.
   bero\'82.]  (Zo\'94l.) A small, oval, transparent jellyfish, belonging
   to the Ctenophora.


   Ber*ret"ta  (?),  n. [It., fr. LL. birrettum, berretum, a cap, dim. of
   L.  birrus,  birrum, a cloak to keep off rain, cf. Gr. tawny, red: cf.
   Sp.  birreta,  Pg.  barrete,  and  E.  Barret.]  A  square cap worn by
   ecclesiastics  of  the Roman Catholic Church. A cardinal's berretta is
   scarlet;  that  worn by other clerics is black, except that a bishop's
   is lined with green. [Also spelt beretta, biretta, etc.]


   Ber"ried  (?),  a.  Furnished  with  berries;  consisting  of a berry;
   baccate; as, a berried shrub.


   Ber"ry (?), n.; pl. Berries. [OE. berie, AS. berie, berige; akin to D.
   bes,  G.  beere, OS. and OHG. beri, Icel. ber, Sw. b\'84r, Goth. basi,
   and perh. Skr. bhas to eat.]

   1.  Any  small fleshy fruit, as the strawberry, mulberry, huckleberry,

   2.  (Bot.) A small fruit that is pulpy or succulent throughout, having
   seeds loosely imbedded in the pulp, as the currant, grape, blueberry.

   3. The coffee bean.

   4. One of the ova or eggs of a fish. Travis.
   In berry, containing ova or spawn.


   Ber"ry, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Berried (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Berrying.] To
   bear or produce berries.


   Ber"ry,  n.  [AS.  beorh.  See  Barrow a hill.] A mound; a hillock. W.


   Ber"ry*ing,  n. A seeking for or gathering of berries, esp. of such as
   grow wild.

                              Berserk, Berserker

   Ber"serk (?), Ber"serk*er (?), n. [Icel. berserkr.]

   1.  (Scand.  Myth.)  One  of  a  class of legendary heroes, who fought
   frenzied  by  intoxicating  liquors,  and naked, regardless of wounds.

   2. One who fights as if frenzied, like a Berserker.


   Bers"tle (?), n. See Bristle. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Berth  (?), n. [From the root of bear to produce, like birth nativity.
   See Birth.] [Also written birth.]

   1.  (Naut.)  (a)  Convenient sea room. (b) A room in which a number of
   the  officers or ship's company mess and reside. (c) The place where a
   ship lies when she is at anchor, or at a wharf.

   2. An allotted place; an appointment; situation or employment. "He has
   a good berth." Totten.

   3. A place in a ship to sleep in; a long box or shelf on the side of a
   cabin or stateroom, or of a railway car, for sleeping in.
   Berth  deck,  the deck next below the lower gun deck. Ham. Nav. Encyc.
   --  To  give  (the  land  or  any  object)  a wide berth, to keep at a
   distance from it.


   Berth, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Berthed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Berthing.]

   1. To give an anchorage to, or a place to lie at; to place in a berth;
   as, she was berthed stem to stern with the Adelaide.

   2.  To allot or furnish berths to, on shipboard; as, to berth a ship's
   company. Totten.


   Ber"tha  (?),  n.  [F.  berthe, fr. Berthe, a woman's name.] A kind of
   collar or cape worn by ladies.


   Berth"age (?), n. A place for mooring vessels in a dock or harbor.


   Ber"thi*er*ite  (?), n. [From Berthier, a French naturalist.] (Min.) A
   double sulphide of antimony and iron, of a dark steel-gray color.


   Berth"ing  (?), n. (Naut.) The planking outside of a vessel, above the
   sheer strake. Smyth.


   Ber"tram  (?),  n. [Corrupted fr. L. pyrethrum, Gr. a hot spicy plant,
   fr. fire.] (Bot.) Pellitory of Spain (Anacyclus pyrethrum).

   Page 139


   Ber"y*coid  (?), a. [NL. beryx, the name of the typical genus + -oid.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to the Berycid\'91, a family of marine


   Ber"yl  (?),  n. [F. b\'82ryl, OF. beril, L. beryllus, Gr. , prob. fr.
   Skr.  vaid.  Cf.  Brilliant.] (Min.) A mineral of great hardness, and,
   when  transparent,  of  much  beauty.  It  occurs in hexagonal prisms,
   commonly  of a green or bluish green color, but also yellow, pink, and
   white.  It  is  a  silicate of aluminium and glucinum (beryllium). The
   aquamarine  is  a  transparent,  sea-green  variety used as a gem. The
   emerald is another variety highly prized in jewelry, and distinguished
   by  its  deep color, which is probably due to the presence of a little
   oxide of chromium.


   Ber"yl*line (?), a. Like a beryl; of a light or bluish green color.


   Be*ryl"li*um  (,  n.  [NL.]  (Chem.)  A  metallic element found in the
   beryl. See Glucinum.


   Ber"yl*loid  (?),  n. [Beryl + -oid.] (Crystallog.) A solid consisting
   of  a  double twelve-sided pyramid; -- so called because the planes of
   this form occur on crystals of beryl.

                           Besaiel, Besaile, Besayle

   Be*saiel", Be*saile", Be*sayle" (, n. [OF. beseel, F. bisa\'8beul, fr.
   L. bis twice + LL. avolus, dim. of L. avus grandfather.]

   1. A great-grandfather. [Obs.]

   2.  (Law)  A kind of writ which formerly lay where a great-grandfather
   died  seized  of  lands  in  fee simple, and on the day of his death a
   stranger  abated  or  entered  and  kept  the  heir  out.  This is now
   abolished. Blackstone.


   Be*saint" (?), v. t. To make a saint of.


   Be*sant" (?), n. See Bezant.


   Bes-ant"ler (?), n. Same as Bez-antler.


   Be*scat"ter (?), v. t.

   1. To scatter over.

   2.  To  cover  sparsely  by  scattering  (something);  to strew. "With
   flowers bescattered." Spenser.


   Be*scorn"  (?),  v.  t.  To treat with scorn. "Then was he bescorned."


   Be*scratch"  (?),  v.  t.  To  tear  with  the  nails;  to  cover with


   Be*scrawl" (?), v. t. To cover with scrawls; to scribble over. Milton.


   Be*screen"  (?), v. t. To cover with a screen, or as with a screen; to
   shelter; to conceal. Shak.


   Be*scrib"ble   (?),   v.   t.  To  scribble  over.  "Bescribbled  with
   impertinences." Milton.

                             Bescumber, Bescummer

   Be*scum"ber  (?),  Be*scum"mer  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  be-  +  scumber,
   scummer.] To discharge ordure or dung upon. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Be*see"  (?),  v. t. & i. [AS. bese\'a2n; pref. be- + to see.] To see;
   to look; to mind. [Obs.] Wyclif.


   Be*seech"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Besought (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beseeching.]  [OE.  bisechen,  biseken (akin to G. besuchen to visit);
   pref. be- + sechen, seken, to seek. See Seek.]

   1. To ask or entreat with urgency; to supplicate; to implore.

     I beseech you, punish me not with your hard thoughts. Shak.

     But Eve . . . besought his peace. Milton.

   Syn.  --  To  beg; to crave. -- To Beseech, Entreat, Solicit, Implore,
   Supplicate.  These  words  agree  in  marking that sense of want which
   leads  men  to  beg  some favor. To solicit is to make a request, with
   some degree of earnestness and repetition, of one whom we address as a
   superior.  To  entreat  implies  greater  urgency, usually enforced by
   adducing  reasons  or  arguments.  To  beseech  is still stronger, and
   belongs  rather  to the language of poetry and imagination. To implore
   denotes increased fervor of entreaty, as addressed either to equals or
   superiors.  To  supplicate  expresses  the  extreme  of  entreaty, and
   usually   implies  a  state  of  deep  humiliation.  Thus,  a  captive
   supplicates  a  conqueror  to spare his life. Men solicit by virtue of
   their  interest with another; they entreat in the use of reasoning and
   strong  representations;  they  beseech  with importunate earnestness;
   they  implore  from  a sense of overwhelming distress; they supplicate
   with a feeling of the most absolute inferiority and dependence.


   Be*seech", n. Solicitation; supplication. [Obs. or Poetic] Shak.


   Be*seech"er (?), n. One who beseeches.


   Be*seech"ing,  a.  Entreating  urgently;  imploring;  as, a beseeching
   look. -- Be*seech"ing*ly, adv. -- Be*seech"ing*ness, n.


   Be*seech"ment  (?),  n. The act of beseeching or entreating earnestly.
   [R.] Goodwin.


   Be*seek" (?), v. t. To beseech. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be*seem"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Beseemed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beseeming.]  [Pref.  be-  + seem.] Literally: To appear or seem (well,
   ill,  best,  etc.)  for  (one)  to  do  or  to have. Hence: To be fit,
   suitable, or proper for, or worthy of; to become; to befit.

     A duty well beseeming the preachers. Clarendon.

     What form of speech or behavior beseemeth us, in our prayers to God
     ? Hocker.


   Be*seem", v. i. To seem; to appear; to be fitting. [Obs.] "As beseemed
   best." Spenser.


   Be*seem"ing, n.

   1. Appearance; look; garb. [Obs.]

     I . . . did company these three in poor beseeming. Shak.

   2. Comeliness. Baret.


   Be*seem"ing,  a. Becoming; suitable. [Archaic] -- Be*seem"ing*ly, adv.
   -- Be*seem"ing*ness, n.


   Be*seem"ly, a. Fit; suitable; becoming. [Archaic]

     In beseemly order sitten there. Shenstone.


   Be*seen" (?), a. [Properly the p. p. of besee.]

   1. Seen; appearing. [Obs. or Archaic]

   2. Decked or adorned; clad. [Archaic] Chaucer.

   3. Accomplished; versed. [Archaic] Spenser.


   Be*set"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Beset; p. pr. & vb. n. Besetting.]
   [AS. besettan (akin to OHG. bisazjan, G. besetzen, D. bezetten); pref.
   be- + settan to set. See Set.]

   1. To set or stud (anything) with ornaments or prominent objects.

     A robe of azure beset with drops of gold. Spectator.

     The  garden  is  so  beset  with all manner of sweet shrubs that it
     perfumes the air. Evelyn.

   2.  To hem in; to waylay; to surround; to besiege; to blockade. "Beset
   with foes." Milton.

     Let thy troops beset our gates. Addison.

   3.  To  set  upon  on  all  sides;  to  perplex; to harass; -- said of
   dangers,  obstacles,  etc. "Adam, sore beset, replied." Milton. "Beset
   with ills." Addison. "Incommodities which beset old age." Burke.

   4.  To  occupy;  to  employ;  to  use  up.  [Obs.] Chaucer. Syn. -- To
   surround;  inclose;  environ;  hem  in;  besiege; encircle; encompass;
   embarrass; urge; press.


   Be*set"ment (?), n. The act of besetting, or the state of being beset;
   also, that which besets one, as a sin. "Fearing a besetment." Kane.


   Be*set"ter (?), n. One who, or that which, besets.


   Be*set"ting,  a.  Habitually attacking, harassing, or pressing upon or
   about; as, a besetting sin.


   Be*shine"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Beshone;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Beshining.] To shine upon; to ullumine.


   Be*show"   (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  food  fish
   (Anoplopoma  fimbria)  of  the  north  Pacific  coast;  -- called also


   Be*shrew" (?), v. t. To curse; to execrate.

     Beshrew me, but I love her heartily. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Of ten a  ve ry mild form of imprecation; sometimes so
     far  from  implying  a  curse, as to be uttered coaxingly, nay even
     with some tenderness. Schmidt.


   Be*shroud" (?), v. t. To cover with, or as with, a shroud; to screen.


   Be*shut" (?), v. t. To shut up or out. [Obs.]


   Be*side"  (?),  prep.  [OE.  biside, bisiden, bisides, prep. and adv.,
   beside, besides; pref. be- by + side. Cf. Besides, and see Side, n.]

   1. At the side of; on one side of. "Beside him hung his bow." Milton.

   2.  Aside  from;  out of the regular course or order of; in a state of
   deviation from; out of.

     [You] have done enough To put him quite beside his patience. Shak.

   3. Over and above; distinct from; in addition to.

     NOTE: [In this use besides is now commoner.]

     Wise  and learned men beside those whose names are in the Christian
     records. Addison.

   To be beside one's self, to be out ob one's wits or senses.

     Paul, thou art beside thyself. Acts xxvi. 24.

   Syn.  -- Beside, Besides. These words, whether used as prepositions or
   adverbs,  have  been  considered  strictly  synonymous,  from an early
   period  of  our  literature,  and have been freely interchanged by our
   best writers. There is, however, a tendency, in present usage, to make
   the  following  distinction  between them: 1. That beside be used only
   and  always  as  a preposition, with the original meaning "by the side
   of; " as, to sit beside a fountain; or with the closely allied meaning
   "aside  from",  "apart  from",  or  "out  of";  as, this is beside our
   present purpose; to be beside one's self with joy. The adverbial sense
   to  be  wholly  transferred to the cognate word. 2. That besides, as a
   preposition,  take  the  remaining sense "in addition to", as, besides
   all this; besides the considerations here offered. "There was a famine
   in  the land besides the first famine." Gen. xxvi. 1. And that it also
   take the adverbial sense of "moreover", "beyond", etc., which had been
   divided between the words; as, besides, there are other considerations
   which  belong  to  this  case.  The  following  passages  may serve to
   illustrate this use of the words: --

     Lovely Thais sits beside thee. Dryden.

     Only  be  patient  till  we  have  appeased  The  multitude, beside
     themselves with fear. Shak.

     It  is  beside  my present business to enlarge on this speculation.

     Besides  this,  there  are  persons  in  certain situations who are
     expected to be charitable. Bp. Porteus.

     And,  besides, the Moor May unfold me to him; there stand I in much
     peril. Shak.

     That man that does not know those things which are of necessity for
     him  to  know is but an ignorant man, whatever he may know besides.

     NOTE: See Moreover.

                                Besides, Beside

   Be*sides"  (?),  Be*side"  (?),  adv.  [OE. Same as beside, prep.; the
   ending -s is an adverbial one, prop. a genitive sign.]

   1. On one side. [Obs.] Chaucer. Shak.

   2.  More  than that; over and above; not included in the number, or in
   what has been mentioned; moreover; in addition.

     The men said unto Lot, Hast thou here any besides ? Gen. xix. 12.

     To  all  beside,  as  much  an  empty shade, An Eugene living, as a
     C\'91sar dead. Pope.

     NOTE: &hand; These sentences may be considered as elliptical.


   Be*sides  (?),  prep.  Over  and  above; separate or distinct from; in
   addition  to;  other  than;  else than. See Beside, prep., 3, and Syn.
   under Beside.

     Besides your cheer, you shall have sport. Shak.


   Be*siege"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Besieged (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Besieging.]  [OE.  bisegen; pref. be- + segen to siege. See Siege.] To
   beset  or surround with armed forces, for the purpose of compelling to
   surrender; to lay siege to; to beleaguer; to beset.

     Till Paris was besieged, famished, and lost. Shak.

   Syn. -- To environ; hem in; invest; encompass.


   Be*siege"ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of besieging, or the state of being
   besieged. Golding.


   Be*sie"ger (?), n. One who besieges; -- opposed to the besieged.


   Be*sie"ging (?), a. That besieges; laying siege to. -- Be*sie"ging*ly,


   Be*sit"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  be- + sit.] To suit; to fit; to become.


   Be*slab"ber (?), v. t. To beslobber.


   Be*slave" (?), v. t. To enslave. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Be*slav"er  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Beslavered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beslavering.] To defile with slaver; to beslobber.


   Be*slime" (?), v. t. To daub with slime; to soil. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Be*slob"ber  (?),  v.  t. To slobber on; to smear with spittle running
   from the mouth. Also Fig.: as, to beslobber with praise.


   Be*slub"ber (?), v. t. To beslobber.


   Be*smear"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Besmeared (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Besmearing.]  To  smear with any viscous, glutinous matter; to bedaub;
   to soil.

     Besmeared with precious balm. Spenser.


   Be*smear"er (?), n. One that besmears.


   Be*smirch"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Besmirched (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Besmirching.]  To  smirch  or soil; to discolor; to obscure. Hence: To
   dishonor; to sully. Shak.


   Be*smoke" (?), v. t.

   1. To foul with smoke.

   2. To harden or dry in smoke. Johnson.


   Be*smut"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Besmutted;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Besmutting.]  [Pref.  be-  +  smut:  cf. AS. besm\'c6tan, and also OE.
   besmotren.] To blacken with smut; to foul with soot.


   Be*snow"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Besnowed (#).] [OE. bisnewen, AS.
   besn\'c6wan; pref. be- + sn\'c6wan to snow.]

   1.  To  scatter  like  snow; to cover thick, as with snow flakes. [R.]

   2. To cover with snow; to whiten with snow, or as with snow.


   Be*snuff" (?), v. t. To befoul with snuff. Young.


   Be*sogne" (?), n. [F. bisogne.] A worthless fellow; a bezonian. [Obs.]


   Be"som  (?),  n.  [OE.  besme, besum, AS. besma; akin to D. bezem, OHG
   pesamo, G. besen; of uncertain origin.] A brush of twigs for sweeping;
   a broom; anything which sweeps away or destroys. [Archaic or Fig.]

     I will sweep it with the besom of destruction. Isa. xiv. 23.

     The housemaid with her besom. W. Irving.


   Be"som,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Besomed (#).] To sweep, as with a besom.
   [Archaic or Poetic] Cowper.

     Rolls back all Greece, and besoms wide the plain. Barlow.


   Be"som*er (?), n. One who uses a besom. [Archaic]


   Be*sort" (?), v. t. To assort or be congruous with; to fit, or become.

     Such men as may besort your age. Shak.


   Be*sort", n. Befitting associates or attendants. [Obs.]

     With  such  accommodation  and  besort As levels with her breeding.


   Be*sot"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Besotted (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Besotting.]  To  make  sottish; to make dull or stupid; to stupefy; to

     Fools besotted with their crimes. Hudibras.


   Be*sot"ted,  a.  Made sottish, senseless, or infatuated; characterized
   by   drunken   stupidity,  or  by  infatuation;  stupefied.  "Besotted
   devotion." Sir W. Scott. -- Be*sot"ted*ly, adv. -- Be*sot"ted*ness, n.


   Be*sot"ting*ly, adv. In a besotting manner.


   Be*sought" (?), p. p. of Beseech.


   Be*span"gle  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bespangled (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bespangling  (#).]  To  adorn  with  spangles; to dot or sprinkle with
   something brilliant or glittering.

     The grass . . . is all bespangled with dewdrops. Cowper.


   Be*spat"ter  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bespattered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To soil by spattering; to sprinkle, esp. with dirty water, mud, or
   anything which will leave foul spots or stains.

   2. To asperse with calumny or reproach.

     Whom never faction could bespatter. Swift.


   Be*spawl"  (?),  v.  t.  To  daub,  soil,  or  make foul with spawl or
   spittle. [Obs.] Milton.


   Be*speak"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  Bespoke  (?), Bespake (Archaic); p. p.
   Bespoke,  Bespoken  (; p. pr. & vb. n. Bespeaking.] [OE. bispeken, AS.
   besprecan,  to  speak  to,  accuse;  pref. be- + sprecan to speak. See

   1.  To  speak  or arrange for beforehand; to order or engage against a
   future time; as, to bespeak goods, a right, or a favor.

     Concluding,  naturally,  that to gratify his avarice was to bespeak
     his favor. Sir W. Scott.

   2. To show beforehand; to foretell; to indicate.

     [They] bespoke dangers . . . in order to scare the allies. Swift.

   3. To betoken; to show; to indicate by external marks or appearances.

     When  the abbot of St. Martin was born, he had so little the figure
     of a man that it bespoke him rather a monster. Locke.

   4. To speak to; to address. [Poetic]

     He thus the queen bespoke. Dryden.


   Be*speak", v. i. To speak. [Obs.] Milton.


   Be*speak", n. A bespeaking. Among actors, a benefit (when a particular
   play is bespoken.) "The night of her bespeak." Dickens.


   Be*speak"er (?), n. One who bespeaks.


   Be*spec"kle  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bespeckled (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bespeckling.] To mark with speckles or spots. Milton.


   Be*spew" (?), v. t. To soil or daub with spew; to vomit on.


   Be*spice"  (?),  v.  t. To season with spice, or with some spicy drug.


   Be*spirt" (?), v. t. Same as Bespurt.

   Page 140

   Page 140


   Be*spit  (?),  v. t. [imp. Bespit; p. p. Bespit, Bespitten (; p. pr. &
   vb. n. Bespitting.] To daub or soil with spittle. Johnson.


   Be*spoke" (?), imp. & p. p. of Bespeak.


   Be*spot"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Bespotted (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bespotting.] To mark with spots, or as with spots.


   Be*spread"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bespread;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bespreading.] To spread or cover over.

     The carpet which bespread His rich pavilion's floor. Glover.


   Be*sprent" (?), p. p. [OE. bespreynt, p. p. of besprengen, bisprengen,
   to besprinkle, AS. besprengan, akin to D. & G. besprengen; pref. be- +
   sprengan to sprinkle. See Sprinkle.] Sprinkled over; strewed.

     His face besprent with liquid crystal shines. Shenstone.

     The floor with tassels of fir was besprent. Longfellow.


   Be*sprin"kle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Besprinkled (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Besprinkling (#).] To sprinkle over; to scatter over.

     The bed besprinkles, and bedews the ground. Dryden.


   Be*sprin"kler (?), n. One who, or that which, besprinkles.


   Be*sprin"kling  (?),  n.  The act of sprinkling anything; a sprinkling


   Be*spurt" (?), v. t. To spurt on or over; to asperse. [Obs.] Milton.

                                Bessemer steel

   Bes"se*mer  steel`  (.  Steel made directly from cast iron, by burning
   out  a  portion  of  the  carbon  and other impurities that the latter
   contains, through the agency of a blast of air which is forced through
   the  molten  metal;  --  so called from Sir Henry Bessemer, an English
   engineer, the inventor of the process.


   Best  (?),  a.; superl. of Good. [AS. besta, best, contr. from betest,
   betst,  betsta;  akin to Goth. batists, OHG. pezzisto, G. best, beste,
   D.  best,  Icel.  beztr,  Dan.  best,  Sw.  b\'84st.  This word has no
   connection in origin with good. See Better.]

   1.  Having  good  qualities  in  the  highest degree; most good, kind,
   desirable,  suitable, etc.; most excellent; as, the best man; the best
   road; the best cloth; the best abilities.

     When he is best, he is a little worse than a man. Shak.

     Heaven's last, best gift, my ever new delight. Milton.

   2.  Most advanced; most correct or complete; as, the best scholar; the
   best view of a subject.

   3. Most; largest; as, the best part of a week.
   Best man, the only or principal groomsman at a wedding ceremony.


   Best, n. Utmost; highest endeavor or state; most nearly perfect thing,
   or being, or action; as, to do one's best; to the best of our ability.
   At  best, in the utmost degree or extent applicable to the case; under
   the  most  favorable circumstances; as, life is at best very short. --
   For  best,  finally.  [Obs.]  "Those  constitutions  .  .  .  are  now
   established  for  best,  and  not to be mended." Milton. -- To get the
   best  of, to gain an advantage over, whether fairly or unfairly. -- To
   make  the  best of. (a) To improve to the utmost; to use or dispose of
   to  the  greatest  advantage.  "Let  there  be  freedom to carry their
   commodities  where  they  can  make  the  best of them." Bacon. (b) To
   reduce  to  the  least possible inconvenience; as, to make the best of
   ill fortune or a bad bargain.
   Best, adv.; superl. of Well.
   1.  In the highest degree; beyond all others. "Thou serpent! That name
   best befits thee." Milton.
     He  prayeth  best, who loveth best All things both great and small.
   2.  To  the  most  advantage;  with  the  most  success, case, profit,
   benefit, or propriety.

     Had we best retire? I see a storm. Milton.

     Had I not best go to her? Thackeray.

   3.  Most  intimately;  most  thoroughly  or  correctly;  as,  what  is
   expedient is best known to himself.


   Best, v. t. To get the better of. [Colloq.]


   Be*stad"  (?),  imp.  &  p. p. of Bestead. Beset; put in peril. [Obs.]


   Be*stain" (?), v. t. To stain.


   Be*star" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bestarred (#).] To sprinkle with, or
   as  with,  stars;  to  decorate  with,  or  as with, stars; to bestud.
   "Bestarred with anemones." W. Black.


   Be*stead"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Bestead or Bested, also (Obs.)
   Bestad. In sense 3 imp. also Besteaded.] [Pref. be- + stead a place.]

   1.  To  put  in  a certain situation or condition; to circumstance; to
   place. [Only in p. p.]

     They  shall  pass  through it, hardly bestead and hungry: . . . and
     curse their king and their God. Is. viii. 21.

     Many far worse bestead than ourselves. Barrow.

   2. To put in peril; to beset.

     NOTE: [Only in p. p.]


   3. To serve; to assist; to profit; to avail. Milton.


   Bes"tial  (?),  a.  [F.  bestial,  L. bestialis, fr. bestia beast. See

   1. Belonging to a beast, or to the class of beasts.

     Among the bestial herds to range. Milton.

   2.  Having  the  qualities  of  a  beast; brutal; below the dignity of
   reason  or  humanity; irrational; carnal; beastly; sensual. Shak. Syn.
   --  Brutish;  beastly;  brutal;  carnal; vile; low; depraved; sensual;


   Bes"tial,  n.  A domestic animal; also collectively, cattle; as, other
   kinds of bestial. [Scot.]


   Bes*tial"i*ty (?), n. [F. bestialit\'82.]

   1. The state or quality of being bestial.

   2. Unnatural connection with a beast.


   Bes"tial*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bestialized (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bestializing.]  To  make  bestial,  or  like  a  beast; to degrade; to

     The process of bestializing humanity. Hare.


   Bes"tial*ly, adv. In a bestial manner.


   Be*stick"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Bestuck (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Besticking.]  To  stick over, as with sharp points pressed in; to mark
   by infixing points or spots here and there; to pierce.

     Truth shall retire Bestuck with slanderous darts. Milton.


   Be*still" (?), v. t. To make still.


   Be*stir"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Bestirred (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bestirring.]  To  put into brisk or vigorous action; to move with life
   and vigor; -- usually with the reciprocal pronoun.

     You have so bestirred your valor. Shak.

     Rouse and bestir themselves ere well awake. Milton.


   Be*storm" (?), v. i. & t. To storm. Young.


   Be*stow"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Bestowed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bestowing.] [OE. bestowen; pref. be- + stow a place. See Stow.]

   1. To lay up in store; to deposit for safe keeping; to stow; to place;
   to put. "He bestowed it in a pouch." Sir W. Scott.

     See that the women are bestowed in safety. Byron.

   2.  To  use;  to  apply;  to  devote,  as  time  or  strength  in some

   3. To expend, as money. [Obs.]

   4. To give or confer; to impart; -- with on or upon.

     Empire is on us bestowed. Cowper.

     Though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor. 1 Cor. xiii. 3.

   5. To give in marriage.

     I could have bestowed her upon a fine gentleman. Tatler.

   6.  To  demean;  to  conduct;  to  behave;  -- followed by a reflexive
   pronoun. [Obs.]

     How  might  we  see  Falstaff  bestow  himself to-night in his true
     colors, and not ourselves be seen ? Shak.

   Syn. -- To give; grant; present; confer; accord.


   Be*stow"al (?), n. The act of bestowing; disposal.


   Be*stow"er (?), n. One that bestows.


   Be*stow"ment (?), n.

   1. The act of giving or bestowing; a conferring or bestowal.

     If we consider this bestowment of gifts in this view. Chauncy.

   2. That which is given or bestowed.

     They  almost  refuse  to  give  due  praise and credit to God's own
     bestowments. I. Taylor.


   Be*strad"dle (?), v. t. To bestride.


   Be*straught"  (?),  a.  [Pref.  be-  +  straught;  prob. here used for
   distraught.] Out of one's senses; distracted; mad. [Obs.] Shak.


   Be*streak" (?), v. t. To streak.


   Be*strew"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. Bestrewed (?); p. p. Bestrewed, Bestrown
   (p. pr. & vb. n. Bestrewing.] To strew or scatter over; to besprinkle.
   [Spelt also bestrow.] Milton.


   Be*stride"  (?),  v. t. [imp. Bestrode (?), (Obs. or R.) Bestrid (; p.
   p.  Bestridden  (?),  Bestrid,  Bestrode; p. pr. & vb. n. Bestriding.]
   [AS. bestr\'c6dan; pref. be- + str\'c6dan to stride.]

   1.  To  stand  or sit with anything between the legs, or with the legs
   astride; to stand over

     That horse that thou so often hast bestrid. Shak.

     Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world Like a Colossus. Shak.

   2.  To  step  over;  to  stride  over  or  across;  as,  to bestride a


   Be*strode" (?), imp. & p. p. of Bestride.


   Be*strown" (?), p. p. of Bestrew.


   Be*stuck" (?), imp. & p. p. Bestick.


   Be*stud"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bestudded;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Bestudding.] To set or adorn, as with studs or bosses; to set thickly;
   to stud; as, to bestud with stars. Milton.


   Be*swike", v. t. [AS. besw\'c6can; be- + sw\'c6can to deceive, entice;
   akin  to OS. sw\'c6kan, OHG. sw\'c6hhan, Icel. sv\'c6kja.] To lure; to
   cheat. [Obs.] Gower.


   Bet  (?),  n.  [Prob.  from OE. abet abetting, OF. abet, fr. abeter to
   excite,  incite. See Abet.] That which is laid, staked, or pledged, as
   between  two  parties,  upon  the event of a contest or any contingent
   issue;  the  act  of  giving  such a pledge; a wager. "Having made his
   bets." Goldsmith.


   Bet, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bet, Betted (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Betting.] To
   stake or pledge upon the event of a contingent issue; to wager.

     John  a  Gaunt  loved  him well, and betted much money on his head.

     I'll bet you two to one I'll make him do it. O. W. Holmes.


   Bet, imp. & p. p. of Beat. [Obs.]


   Bet,  a. & adv. An early form of Better. [Obs.] To go bet, to go fast;
   to hurry. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be"ta*ine  (?),  n.  [From  beta, generic name of the beet.] (Chem.) A
   nitrogenous  base, C5H11NO2, produced artificially, and also occurring
   naturally  in  beetroot  molasses  and  its residues, from which it is
   extracted  as a white crystalline substance; -- called also lycine and
   oxyneurine. It has a sweetish taste. <-- not the amino acid lysine -->


   Be*take"  (?), v. t. [imp. Betook (#); p. p. Betaken (#); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Betaking.] [Pref. be- + take.]

   1. To take or seize. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2.  To  have  recourse  to;  to  apply;  to  resort;  to go; -- with a
   reflexive pronoun.

     They betook themselves to treaty and submission. Burke.

     The rest, in imitation, to like arms Betook them. Milton.

     Whither shall I betake me, where subsist? Milton.

   3. To commend or intrust to; to commit to. [Obs.]


   Be*taught" (?),a. [p. p. of OE. bitechen, AS. bet, to assign, deliver.
   See Teach.] Delivered; committed in trust. [Obs.]


   Bete (?), v. t. To better; to mend. See Beete. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be*tee"la  (?), n. [Pg. beatilha.] An East India muslin, formerly used
   for cravats, veils, etc. [Obs.]


   Be*teem"  (?),  v. t. [Pref. be- + an old verb teem to be fitting; cf.
   D. betamen to beseem, G. ziemen, Goth. gatiman, and E. tame. See Tame,

   1.  To  give  ;  to  bestow;  to  grant; to accord; to consent. [Obs.]
   Spenser. Milton.

   2. To allow; to permit; to suffer. [Obs.]

     So  loving  to  my  mother,  That  he might not beteem the winds of
     heaven Visit her face too roughly. Shak.


   Be"tel  (?), n. [Pg., fr. Tamil vettilei, prop. meaning, a mere leaf.]
   (Bot.)  A  species  of  pepper  (Piper betle), the leaves of which are
   chewed,  with  the  areca or betel nut and a little shell lime, by the
   inhabitants  of  the  East  Indies.  I  is  a woody climber with ovate
   manynerved leaves.


   Bet"el*guese (?), n. [F. B\'82telgeuse, of Arabic origin.] (Astron.) A
   bright  star  of  the  first  magnitude,  near  one shoulder of Orion.
   [Written also Betelgeux and Betelgeuse.]

                                   Betel nut

   Be"tel  nut`  (?).  The  nutlike seed of the areca palm, chewed in the
   East with betel leaves (whence its name) and shell lime.

                                 B\'88te noire

   B\'88te"  noire"  (?).  [Fr.,  lit. black beast.] Something especially
   hated or dreaded; a bugbear.

                                Bethabara wood

   Beth*ab"a*ra wood` (?). (Bot.) A highly elastic wood, used for fishing
   rods, etc. The tree is unknown, but it is thought to be East Indian.


   Beth"el (?), n. [Heb. b house of God.]

   1. A place of worship; a hallowed spot. S. F. Adams.

   2. A chapel for dissenters. [Eng.]

   3. A house of worship for seamen.


   Be*think"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Bethought (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bethinking.]  [AS.  be;  pref.  be- + to think. See Think.] To call to
   mind;   to   recall   or   bring   to   recollection,  reflection,  or
   consideration;  to  think;  to  consider;  --  generally followed by a
   reflexive  pronoun,  often  with  of  or  that  before  the subject of

     I have bethought me of another fault. Shak.

     The rest . . . may . . . bethink themselves, and recover. Milton.

     We bethink a means to break it off. Shak.

   Syn. -- To recollect; remember; reflect.


   Be*think",  v.  i.  To  think; to recollect; to consider. "Bethink ere
   thou dismiss us." Byron.


   Beth"le*hem  (?),  n.  [Heb.  b  house of food; b house + lekhem food,
   l\'bekham  to  eat. Formerly the name of a hospital for the insane, in
   London,  which  had  been  the  priory  of  St. Mary of Bethlehem. Cf.

   1. A hospital for lunatics; -- corrupted into bedlam.

   2.  (Arch.)  In  the  Ethiopic  church, a small building attached to a
   church edifice, in which the bread for the eucharist is made. Audsley.

                           Bethlehemite, Bethlemite

   Beth"le*hem*ite (?), Beth"lem*ite (?), n.

   1. An inhabitant of Bethlehem in Judea.

   2. An insane person; a madman; a bedlamite.

   3. One of an extinct English order of monks.


   Be*thought" (?), imp. & p. p. of Bethink.


   Be*thrall"  (?),  v.  t.  To  reduce to thralldom; to inthrall. [Obs.]


   Be*thumb" (?), v. t. To handle; to wear or soil by handling; as books.


   Be*thump"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bethumped (#), or Bethumpt; p. pr.
   & vb. n. Bethumping.] To beat or thump soundly. Shak.


   Be*tide"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Betided (#), Obs. Betid (#); p. pr.
   &  vb.  n.  Betiding.]  [OE.  bitiden; pref. bi-, be- + tiden, fr. AS.
   t\'c6dan,  to  happen,  fr.  t\'c6d  time. See Tide.] To happen to; to
   befall; to come to ; as, woe betide the wanderer.

     What will betide the few ? Milton.


   Be*tide", v. i. To come to pass; to happen; to occur.

     A salve for any sore that may betide. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Shakespeare has used it with of. "What would betide of
     me ?"

                                Betime, Betimes

   Be*time" (?), Be*times" (?), adv. [Pref. be- (for by) + time; that is,
   by the proper time. The -s is an adverbial ending.]

   1. In good season or time; before it is late; seasonably; early.

     To measure life learn thou betimes. Milton.

     To  rise  betimes  is  often  harder than to do all the day's work.

   2. In a short time; soon; speedily; forth with.

     He tires betimes that spurs too fast betimes. Shak.


   Be*ti"tle  (?),  v.  t. To furnish with a title or titles; to entitle.
   [Obs.] Carlyle.


   Be*to"ken  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Betokened (#); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To signify by some visible object; to show by signs or tokens.

     A  dewy  cloud,  and in the cloud a bow . . . Betokening peace from
     God, and covenant new. Milton.

   2.  To foreshow by present signs; to indicate something future by that
   which  is seen or known; as, a dark cloud often betokens a storm. Syn.
   -- To presage; portend; indicate; mark; note.


   B\'82`ton"  (?),  n.  [F. b\'82ton, fr. L. bitumen bitumen.] (Masonry)
   The  French  name  for concrete; hence, concrete made after the French


   Be*tongue" (?), v. t. To attack with the tongue; to abuse; to insult.


   Bet"o*ny  (?),  n.; pl. Betonies (#). [OE. betony, betany, F. betoine,
   fr.  L.  betonica,  vettonica.]  (Bot.)  A plant of the genus Betonica

     NOTE: &hand; Th e pu rple or wood betony (B. officinalis, Linn.) is
     common  in  Europe, being formerly used in medicine, and (according
     to Loudon) in dyeing wool a yellow color.


   Be*took" (?), imp. of Betake.


   Be*torn" (?), a. Torn in pieces; tattered.


   Be*toss  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Betossed (#).] To put in violent
   motion; to agitate; to disturb; to toss. "My betossed soul." Shak.


   Be*trap" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Betrapped (#).]

   1.  To  draw  into,  or  catch  in, a trap; to insnare; to circumvent.

   2. To put trappings on; to clothe; to deck.

     After  them followed two other chariots covered with red satin, and
     the horses betrapped with the same. Stow.

   Page 141


   Be*tray"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Betrayed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Betraying.]  [OE.  betraien,  bitraien;  pref.  be-  + OF. tra\'8br to
   bertray, F. trahir, fr. L. tradere. See Traitor.]

   1.  To  deliver  into  the hands of an enemy by treachery or fraud, in
   violation  of  trust;  to give up treacherously or faithlessly; as, an
   officer betrayed the city.

     Jesus  said  unto  them,  The Son of man shall be betrayed into the
     hands of men. Matt. xvii. 22.

   2.  To  prove  faithless  or  treacherous to, as to a trust or one who
   trusts; to be false to; to deceive; as, to betray a person or a cause.

     But when I rise, I shall find my legs betraying me. Johnson.

   3. To violate the confidence of, by disclosing a secret, or that which
   one is bound in honor not to make known.

     Willing to serve or betray any government for hire. Macaulay.

   4. To disclose or discover, as something which prudence would conceal;
   to reveal unintentionally.

     Be swift to hear, but cautious of your tongue, lest you betray your
     ignorance. T. Watts.

   5.  To  mislead;  to expose to inconvenience not foreseen to lead into
   error or sin.

     Genius . . . often betrays itself into great errors. T. Watts.

   6.  To  lead  astray,  as  a  maiden;  to  seduce (as under promise of
   marriage) and then abandon.

   7. To show or to indicate; -- said of what is not obvious at first, or
   would otherwise be concealed.

     All the names in the country betray great antiquity. Bryant.


   Be*tray"al (?) n. The act or the result of betraying.


   Be*tray"er (?), n. One who, or that which, betrays.


   Be*tray"ment (?), n. Betrayal. [R.] Udall.


   Be*trim"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Betrimmed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Betrimming.]  To  set  in  order;  to adorn; to deck, to embellish; to
   trim. Shak.


   Be*troth"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Betrothed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Betrothing.] [Pref. be- + troth, i. e., truth. See Truth.]

   1.  To  contract  to  any  one for a marriage; to engage or promise in
   order to marriage; to affiance; -- used esp. of a woman.

     He,  in  the first flower of my freshest age, Betrothed me unto the
     only heir. Spenser.

     Ay, and we are betrothed. Shak.

   2. To promise to take (as a future spouse); to plight one's troth to.

     What  man  is  there that hath betrothed a wife, and hath not taken
     her? Deut. xx. 7.

   3. To nominate to a bishopric, in order to consecration. Ayliffe.


   Be*troth"al  (?),  n.  The  act  of  betrothing,  or the fact of being
   betrothed;  a  mutual  promise,  engagement,  or contract for a future
   marriage  between  the  persons betrothed; betrothment; affiance. "The
   feast of betrothal." Longfellow.


   Be*troth"ment  (?),  n.  The  act of betrothing, or the state of being
   betrothed; betrothal.


   Be*trust" (?), v. t. To trust or intrust. [Obs.]


   Be*trust"ment  (?),  n. The act of intrusting, or the thing intrusted.
   [Obs.] Chipman.


   Bet"so (?), n. [It. bezzo.] A small brass Venetian coin. [Obs.]


   Bet"ter  (?),  a.;  compar.  of Good. [OE. betere, bettre, and as adv.
   bet, AS. betera, adj., and bet, adv.; akin to Icel. betri, adj., betr,
   adv.,  Goth.  batiza,  adj., OHG. bezziro, adj., baz, adv., G. besser,
   adj.  and  adv.,  bass,  adv.,  E.  boot,  and  prob.  to  Skr. bhadra
   excellent. See Boot advantage, and cf. Best, Batful.]

   1.  Having  good  qualities  in  a  greater degree than another; as, a
   better man; a better physician; a better house; a better air.

     Could make the worse appear The better reason. Milton.

   2.  Preferable in regard to rank, value, use, fitness, acceptableness,
   safety, or in any other respect.

     To obey is better than sacrifice. 1 Sam. xv. 22.

     It  is  better  to  trust  in  the  Lord  than to put confidence in
     princes. Ps. cxviii. 9.

   3. Greater in amount; larger; more.

   4.  Improved in health; less affected with disease; as, the patient is

   5. More advanced; more perfect; as, upon better acquaintance; a better
   knowledge of the subject.
   All the better. See under All, adv. -- Better half, an expression used
   to designate one's wife.

     My  dear,  my  better half (said he), I find I must now leave thee.
     Sir P. Sidney.

   --  To be better off, to be in a better condition. -- Had better. (See
   under Had).

     NOTE: The ph rase had better, followed by an infinitive without to,
     is  idiomatic.  The earliest form of construction was "were better"
     with  a dative; as, "Him were better go beside." (Gower.) i. e., It
     would  be  better  for  him,  etc. At length the nominative (I, he,
     they,  etc.)  supplanted the dative and had took the place of were.
     Thus we have the construction now used.

     By  all  that's holy, he had better starve Than but once think this
     place becomes thee not. Shak.


   Bet"ter, n.

   1.  Advantage, superiority, or victory; -- usually with of; as, to get
   the better of an enemy.

   2.  One who has a claim to precedence; a superior, as in merit, social
   standing, etc.; -- usually in the plural.

     Their betters would hardly be found. Hooker.

   For  the  better,  in  the  way  of  improvement;  so  as  to  produce
   improvement. "If I have altered him anywhere for the better." Dryden.
   Bet"ter, adv.; compar. of Well. 

   1. In a superior or more excellent manner; with more skill and wisdom,
   courage,  virtue,  advantage, or success; as, Henry writes better than
   John; veterans fight better than recruits.

     I could have better spared a better man. Shak.

   2. More correctly or thoroughly.

     The better to understand the extent of our knowledge. Locke.

   3.  In  a  higher or greater degree; more; as, to love one better than

     Never was monarch better feared, and loved. Shak.

   4.  More,  in  reference to value, distance, time, etc.; as, ten miles
   and better. [Colloq.]
   To  think better of (any one), to have a more favorable opinion of any
   one.  --  To  think  better  of  (an  opinion,  resolution,  etc.), to
   reconsider and alter one's decision.


   Bet"ter  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bettered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bettering.] [AS. beterian, betrian, fr. betera better. See Better, a.]

   1. To improve or ameliorate; to increase the good qualities of.

     Love betters what is best. Wordsworth.

     He thought to better his circumstances. Thackeray.

   2.  To  improve  the  condition  of, morally, physically, financially,
   socially, or otherwise.

     The constant effort of every man to better himself. Macaulay.

   3. To surpass in excellence; to exceed; to excel.

     The  works  of  nature  do  always  aim  at  that  which can not be
     bettered. Hooker.

   4.  To  give  advantage  to;  to  support; to advance the interest of.

     Weapons more violent, when next we meet, May serve to better us and
     worse our foes. Milton.

   Syn.  --  To  improve;  meliorate;  ameliorate;  mend; amend; correct;
   emend; reform; advance; promote.


   Bet"ter, v. i. To become better; to improve. Carlyle.


   Bet"ter, n. One who bets or lays a wager.


   Bet"ter*ment (?), n.

   1. A making better; amendment; improvement. W. Montagu.

   2. (Law) An improvement of an estate which renders it better than mere
   repairing would do; -- generally used in the plural. [U. S.] Bouvier.


   Bet"ter*most` (?), a. Best. [R.] "The bettermost classes." Brougham.


   Bet"ter*ness, n.

   1.  The  quality of being better or superior; superiority. [R.] Sir P.

   2. The difference by which fine gold or silver exceeds in fineness the


   Bet"tong (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A small, leaping Australian
   marsupial of the genus Bettongia; the jerboa kangaroo.


   Bet"tor (?), n. One who bets; a better. Addison.


   Bet"ty (?), n.

   1.  [Supposed to be a cant word, from Betty, for Elizabeth, as such an
   instrument  is  also  called  Bess  (i.  e., Elizabeth) in the Canting
   Dictionary  of  1725,  and  Jenny  (i. e., Jane).] A short bar used by
   thieves to wrench doors open. [Written also bettee.]

     The powerful betty, or the artful picklock. Arbuthnot.

   2.  [Betty, nickname for Elizabeth.] A name of contempt given to a man
   who  interferes  with  the  duties  of  women  in  a household, or who
   occupies himself with womanish matters.

   3.  A  pear-shaped bottle covered round with straw, in which olive oil
   is  sometimes  brought  from  Italy;  -- called by chemists a Florence
   flask. [U. S.] Bartlett.


   Bet"u*lin  (?),  n.  [L.  betula birch tree.] (Chem.) A substance of a
   resinous  nature,  obtained from the outer bark of the common European
   birch  (Betula  alba),  or  from the tar prepared therefrom; -- called
   also birch camphor. Watts.


   Be*tum"ble  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Betumbled (#).] To throw into
   disorder; to tumble. [R.]

     From her betumbled couch she starteth. Shak.


   Be*tu"tor  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Betutored (#).] To tutor; to
   instruct. Coleridge.


   Be*tween"  (?),  prep.  [OE.  bytwene,  bitweonen,  AS.  betwe\'a2nan,
   betwe\'a2num; prefix be- by + a form fr. AS. tw\'be two, akin to Goth.
   tweihnai two apiece. See Twain, and cf. Atween, Betwixt.]

   1.  In  the  space  which  separates; betwixt; as, New York is between
   Boston and Philadelphia.

   2.  Used  in expressing motion from one body or place to another; from
   one to another of two.

     If things should go so between them. Bacon.

   3. Belonging in common to two; shared by both.

     Castor and Pollux with only one soul between them. Locke.

   4.  Belonging to, or participated in by, two, and involving reciprocal
   action  or  affecting  their  mutual  relation; as, opposition between
   science and religion.

     An  intestine  struggle,  open  or  secret,  between  authority and
     liberty. Hume.

   5.  With  relation to two, as involved in an act or attribute of which
   another  is  the  agent  or subject; as, to judge between or to choose
   between courses; to distinguish between you and me; to mediate between

   6.  In  intermediate  relation  to,  in  respect to time, quantity, or
   degree; as, between nine and ten o'clock.
   Between  decks,  the  space,  or  in the space, between the decks of a
   vessel.  -- Between ourselves, Between you and me, Between themselves,
   in  confidence;  with  the  understanding that the matter is not to be
   communicated to others. Syn. -- Between, Among. Between etymologically
   indicates  only  two; as, a quarrel between two men or two nations; to
   be  between two fires, etc. It is however extended to more than two in
   expressing a certain relation.

     I  .  . . hope that between public business, improving studies, and
     domestic  pleasures,  neither  melancholy nor caprice will find any
     place for entrance. Johnson.

   Among  implies  a  mass or collection of things or persons, and always
   supposes  more than two; as, the prize money was equally divided among
   the ship's crew.


   Be*tween",  n.  Intermediate  time  or  space; interval. [Poetic & R.]


   Be*twixt" (?), prep. [OE. betwix, bitwix, rarely bitwixt, AS. betweox,
   betweohs,  betweoh,  betw\'c6h;  pref.  be- by + a form fr. AS. tw\'be
   two. See Between.]

   1. In the space which separates; between.

     From betwixt two aged oaks. Milton.

   2. From one to another of; mutually affecting.

     There was some speech of marriage Betwixt myself and her. Shak.

   Betwixt  and  between,  in a midway position; so-so; neither one thing
   nor the other. [Colloq.]


   Beur*r\'82"  (?),  n.  [F., fr. beurre butter.] (Bot.) A beurr\'82 (or
   buttery)  pear,  one  with  the  meas,  Beurr\'82  d'Anjou;  Beurr\'82


   Bev"el  (?),  n. [C. F. biveau, earlier buveau, Sp. baivel; of unknown
   origin. Cf. Bevile.]

   1.  Any  angle  other  than a right angle; the angle which one surface
   makes  with  another  when  they are not at right angles; the slant or
   inclination  of  such  surface;  as,  to give a bevel to the edge of a
   table or a stone slab; the bevel of a piece of timber.

   2.  An instrument consisting of two rules or arms, jointed together at
   one  end, and opening to any angle, for adjusting the surfaces of work
   to  the  same  or  a given inclination; -- called also a bevel square.


   Bev"el, a.

   1. Having the slant of a bevel; slanting.

   2. Hence: Morally distorted; not upright. [Poetic]

     I may be straight, though they themselves be bevel. Shak.

   A  bevel  angle,  any  angle  other than one of 90. -- Bevel wheel, a
   cogwheel whose working face is oblique to the axis. Knight.


   Bev"el,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Beveled  (Bevelled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beveling  or Bevelling.] To cut to a bevel angle; to slope the edge or
   surface of.


   Bev"el, v. i. To deviate or incline from an angle of 90

     Their houses are very ill built, the walls bevel. Swift.

                               Beveled, Bevelled

   Bev"eled, Bev"elled (?), a.

   1. Formed to a bevel angle; sloping; as, the beveled edge of a table.

   2.  (Min.)  Replaced by two planes inclining equally upon the adjacent
   planes,  as an edge; having its edges replaces by sloping planes, as a
   cube or other solid.

                                  Bevel gear

   Bev"el  gear`  (?).  (Mech.)  A  kind  of gear in which the two wheels
   working  together lie in different planes, and have their teeth cut at
   right  angles  to the surfaces of two cones whose apices coincide with
   the point where the axes of the wheels would meet.


   Bev"el*ment  (?),  n. (Min.) The replacement of an edge by two similar
   planes, equally inclined to the including faces or adjacent planes.


   Be"ver  (?), n. [OE. bever a drink, drinking time, OF. beivre, boivre,
   to  drink,  fr.  L.  bibere.]  A  light repast between meals; a lunch.
   [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Be"ver,  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Bevered ( To take a light repast between
   meals. [Obs.]


   Bev"er*age (?), n. [OF. bevrage, F. breuvage, fr. beivre to drink, fr.
   L. bibere. Cf. Bib, v. t., Poison, Potable.]

   1.   Liquid   for   drinking;  drink;  --  usually  applied  to  drink
   artificially  prepared and of an agreeable flavor; as, an intoxicating

     He knew no beverage but the flowing stream. Thomson.

   2. Specifically, a name applied to various kinds of drink.

   3. A treat, or drink money. [Slang]


   Bev"ile  (?),  n. [See Bevel.] (Her.) A chief broken or opening like a
   carpenter's bevel. Encyc. Brit.

                               Beviled, Bevilled

   Bev"iled,  Bev"illed  (?),  a.  (Her.) Notched with an angle like that
   inclosed  by  a  carpenter's  bevel;  -- said of a partition line of a


   Bev"y  (?), n.; pl. Bevies (#). [Perhaps orig. a drinking company, fr.
   OF.  bev\'82e (cf. It. beva) a drink, beverage; then, perh., a company
   in  general,  esp.  of ladies; and last applied by sportsmen to larks,
   quails, etc. See Beverage.]

   1.  A  company;  an  assembly  or collection of persons, especially of

     What a bevy of beaten slaves have we here ! Beau. & Fl.

   2. A flock of birds, especially quails or larks; also, a herd of roes.


   Be*wail"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Bewailed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bewailing.]  To  express deep sorrow for, as by wailing; to lament; to
   wail over.

     Hath  widowed  and  unchilded many a one, Which to this hour bewail
     the injury. Shak.

   Syn. -- To bemoan; grieve. -- See Deplore.


   Be*wail", v. i. To express grief; to lament. Shak.


   Be*wail"a*ble  (?),  a.  Such  as  may,  or  ought  to,  be  bewailed;


   Be*wail"er (?), n. One who bewails or laments.


   Be*wail"ing, a. Wailing over; lamenting. -- Be*wail"ing*ly, adv.


   Be*wail"ment (?), n. The act of bewailing.


   Be*wake"  (?),  v.  t.  & i. To keep watch over; to keep awake. [Obs.]


   Be*ware"  (?),  v.  i. [Be, imperative of verb to be + ware. See Ware,

   1.  To  be  on  one's guard; to be cautious; to take care; -- commonly
   followed by of or lest before the thing that is to be avoided.

     Beware of all, but most beware of man ! Pope.

     Beware the awful avalanche. Longfellow.

   2. To have a special regard; to heed. [Obs.]

     Behold,  I send an Angel before thee. . . . Beware of him, and obey
     his voice. Ex. xxiii. 20, 21.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd is  a compound from be and the Old English
     ware,  now  wary,  which  is  an  adjective.  "Be  ye  war of false
     prophetis."  Wyclif,  Matt.  vii.  15.  It  is used commonly in the
     imperative  and infinitive modes, and with such auxiliaries (shall,
     should, must, etc.) as go with the infinitive.

   Page 142


   Be*ware"  (?),  v.  t.  To avoid; to take care of; to have a care for.
   [Obs.] "Priest, beware your beard." Shak.

     To wish them beware the son. Milton.


   Be*wash"  (?),  v.  t.  To  drench or souse with water. "Let the maids
   bewash the men." Herrick.


   Be*weep"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bewept  (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Beweeping.]  [AS. bew; pref. be- + weep.] To weep over; to deplore; to
   bedew with tears. "His timeless death beweeping." Drayton.


   Be*weep", v. i. To weep. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Be*wet"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bewet, Bewetted.] To wet or moisten.


   Be*whore" (?), v. t.

   1.  To  corrupt  with  regard  to  chastity;  to  make  a whore of. J.

   2. To pronounce or characterize as a whore. Shak.


   Be*wig"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Bewigged (#).] To cover (the head)
   with a wig. Hawthorne.


   Be*wil"der  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Bewildered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bewildering.]  [Pref.  be-  +  wilder.]  To  lead  into  perplexity or
   confusion,  as  for want of a plain path; to perplex with mazes; or in
   general, to perplex or confuse greatly.

     Lost and bewildered in the fruitless search. Addison.

   Syn.  --  To  perplex;  puzzle;  entangle; confuse; confound; mystify;
   embarrass; lead astray.


   Be*wil"dered (?), a. Greatly perplexed; as, a bewildered mind.


   Be*wil"dered*ness (?), n. The state of being bewildered; bewilderment.


   Be*wil"der*ing  (?),  a. Causing bewilderment or great perplexity; as,
   bewildering difficulties. -- Be*wil"der*ing*ly, adv.


   Be*wil"der*ment (?), n.

   1. The state of being bewildered.

   2. A bewildering tangle or confusion.

     He  .  .  .  soon  lost  all traces of it amid bewilderment of tree
     trunks and underbrush. Hawthorne.


   Be*win"ter (?), v. t. To make wintry. [Obs.]


   Bew"it  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF. buie bond, chain, fr. L. boja neck collar,
   fetter.  Cf.  Buoy.]  A  double  slip  of  leather  by which bells are
   fastened to a hawk's legs.


   Be*witch"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Bewitched (#); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  gain  an  ascendency over by charms or incantations; to affect
   (esp. to injure) by witchcraft or sorcery.

     See  how I am bewitched; behold, mine arm Is like a blasted sapling
     withered up. Shak.

   2.  To charm; to fascinate; to please to such a degree as to take away
   the power of resistance; to enchant.

     The charms of poetry our souls bewitch. Dryden.

   Syn. -- To enchant; captivate; charm; entrance.


   Be*witch"ed*ness (?), n. The state of being bewitched. Gauden.


   Be*witch"er (?), n. One who bewitches.


   Be*witch"er*y   (?),  n.  The  power  of  bewitching  or  fascinating;
   bewitchment; charm; fascination.

     There is a certain bewitchery or fascination in words. South.


   Be*witch"ing,  a.  Having  power  to bewitch or fascinate; enchanting;
   captivating;  charming. -- Be*witch"ing*ly, adv. -- Be*witch"ing*ness,


   Be*witch"ment (?), n.

   1. The act of bewitching, or the state of being bewitched. Tylor.

   2. The power of bewitching or charming. Shak.


   Be*won"der (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bewondered (#).]

   1. To fill with wonder. [Obs.]

   2. To wonder at; to admire. [Obs.]


   Be*wrap"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Bewrapped (#).] To wrap up; to
   cover. Fairfax.


   Be*wray" (?), v. t. To soil. See Beray.


   Be*wray",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bewrayed  (#);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Bewraying.]  [OE.  bewraien,  biwreyen;  pref. be- + AS. wr to accuse,
   betray;  akin to OS. wr, OHG. ruog, G. r\'81gen, Icel. r\'91gja, Goth.
   wr  to accuse.] To expose; to reveal; to disclose; to betray. [Obs. or

     The  murder  being  once done, he is in less fear, and in more hope
     that  the  deed  shall  not  be bewrayed or known. Robynson (More's
     Utopia. )

     Thy speech bewrayeth thee. Matt. xxvi. 73.


   Be*wray"er  (?), n. One who, or that which, bewrays; a revealer. [Obs.
   or Archaic] Addison.


   Be*wray"ment (?), n. Betrayal. [R.]


   Be*wreck" (?), v. t. To wreck. [Obs.]


   Be*wreke"  (?), v. t. [Pref. be- + wreak.] To wreak; to avenge. [Obs.]
   Ld. Berners.


   Be*wrought"  (?),  a.  [Pref.  be-  +  wrought, p. p. of work, v. t. ]
   Embroidered. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Bey  (?),  n. [See Beg a bey.] A governor of a province or district in
   the  Turkish  dominions; also, in some places, a prince or nobleman; a
   beg; as, the bey of Tunis.


   Bey"lic (?), n. [Turk.] The territory ruled by a bey.


   Be*yond"  (?),  prep. [OE. biyonde, bi, AS. begeondan, prep. and adv.;
   pref. be- + geond yond, yonder. See Yon, Yonder.]

   1. On the further side of; in the same direction as, and further on or
   away than.

     Beyond that flaming hill. G. Fletcher.

   2. At a place or time not yet reached; before.

     A thing beyond us, even before our death. Pope.

   3.  Past,  out  of the reach or sphere of; further than; greater than;
   as, the patient was beyond medical aid; beyond one's strength.

   4.  In  a  degree  or  amount exceeding or surpassing; proceeding to a
   greater  degree  than; above, as in dignity, excellence, or quality of
   any kind. "Beyond expectation." Barrow.

     Beyond any of the great men of my country. Sir P. Sidney.

   Beyond  sea.  (Law)  See  under  Sea.  --  To  go beyond, to exceed in
   ingenuity, in research, or in anything else; hence, in a bed sense, to
   deceive or circumvent.

     That  no  man  go  beyond  and defraud his brother in any matter. 1
     Thess. iv. 6.


   Be*yond" (?), adv. Further away; at a distance; yonder.

     Lo, where beyond he lyeth languishing. Spenser.


   Be*zant" (?), n. [See Byzant.]

   1.  A  gold coin of Byzantium or Constantinople, varying in weight and
   value,  usually  (those  current in England) between a sovereign and a
   half sovereign. There were also white or silver bezants. [Written also
   besant, byzant, etc.]

   2.  (Her.)  A  circle  in  or, i. e., gold, representing the gold coin
   called bezant. Burke.

   3.  A decoration of a flat surface, as of a band or belt, representing
   circular disks lapping one upon another.


   Bez`-ant"ler  (?), n. [L. bis twice (OF. bes) + E. antler.] The second
   branch of a stag's horn.


   Bez"el  (?), n. [From an old form of F. biseau sloping edge, prob. fr.
   L. bis double. See Bi-.] The rim which encompasses and fastens a jewel
   or  other object, as the crystal of a watch, in the cavity in which it
   is set.


   B\'82*zique" (?), n. [F. b\'82sigue.] A game at cards in which various
   combinations of cards in the hand, when declared, score points.


   Be"zoar  (?),  n.  [F. b\'82zoard, fr. Ar. b\'bezahr, b\'bedizahr, fr.
   Per.  p\'bed-zahr  bezoar;  p\'bed protecting + zahr poison; cf. Pg. &
   Sp. bezoar.] A calculous concretion found in the intestines of certain
   ruminant  animals  (as  the  wild  goat, the gazelle, and the Peruvian
   llama)  formerly  regarded  as an unfailing antidote for poison, and a
   certain  remedy for eruptive, pestilential, or putrid diseases. Hence:
   Any antidote or panacea.

     NOTE: &hand; Tw o ki nds we re pa rticularly es teemed, th e Bezoar
     orientale of India, and the Bezoar occidentale of Peru.

   Bezoar  antelope.  See  Antelope.  -- Bezoar goat (Zo\'94l.), the wild
   goat  (Capra  \'91gagrus).  --  Bezoar  mineral, an old preparation of
   oxide of antimony. Ure.


   Bez`o*ar"dic   (?),   a.   [Cf.  F.  b\'82zoardique,  b\'82zoartique.]
   Pertaining to, or compounded with, bezoar. -- n. A medicine containing

                            Bezoartic, Bezoartical

   Bez`o*ar"tic  (?), Bez`o*ar"tic*al (?), a. [See Bezoardic.] Having the
   qualities of an antidote, or of bezoar; healing. [Obs.]


   Be*zo"ni*an  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  besoin need, want, It bisogno.] A low
   fellow or scoundrel; a beggar.

     Great men oft die by vile bezonians. Shak.


   Bez"zle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bezzled (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bezzling
   (#).]  [OF. besillier, besiler, to maltreat, pillage; or shortened fr.
   embezzle. Cf. Embezzle.] To plunder; to waste in riot. [Obs.]


   Bez"zle, v. i. To drink to excess; to revel. [Obs.]


   Bhang  (?), n. [Per. bang; cf. Skr. bhang\'be hemp.] An astringent and
   narcotic  drug  made  from  the dried leaves and seed capsules of wild
   hemp (Cannabis Indica), and chewed or smoked in the East as a means of
   intoxication. See Hasheesh.


   Bhun"der  (?),  n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) An Indian monkey (Macacus
   Rhesus), protected by the Hindoos as sacred. See Rhesus.


   Bi*  (?). [L. bis twice, which in composition drops the -s, akin to E.
   two. See Bis-, Two, and cf. Di-, Dis-.]

   1.  In most branches of science bi- in composition denotes two, twice,
   or doubly; as, bidentate, two-toothed; biternate, doubly ternate, etc.

   2. (Chem.) In the composition of chemical names bi- denotes two atoms,
   parts,  or  equivalents of that constituent to the name of which it is
   prefixed,  to  one of the other component, or that such constituent is
   present in double the ordinary proportion; as, bichromate, bisulphide.
   Be- and di- are often used interchangeably.


   Bi*ac"id (?), a. [Pref. bi- + acid.] (Chem.) Having two hydrogen atoms
   which  can be replaced by negative atoms or radicals to form salts; --
   said of bases. See Diacid.


   Bi`a*cu"mi*nate  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + acuminate.] (Bot.) Having points
   in two directions.


   Be*an"gu*lar  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  angular.] Having two angles or

                            Biangulate, Biangulated

   Bi*an"gu*late  (?),  Bi*an"gu*la`ted  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + angulate,
   angulated.] Biangular.


   Bi*an"gu*lous (?),a. [Pref. bi- + angulous.] Biangular. [R.]


   Bi*an`ther*if"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  antherigerous.] (Bot.)
   Having two anthers.


   Bi`ar*tic"u*late  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + articulate.] (Zo\'94l.) Having,
   or consisting of, tow joints.


   Bi"as  (?),  n.;  pl.  Biases  (#).  [F.  biasis,  perh. fr. LL. bifax
   two-faced; L. bis + facies face. See Bi-, and cf. Face.]

   1.  A  weight  on the side of the ball used in the game of bowls, or a
   tendency imparted to the ball, which turns it from a straight line.

     Being  ignorant that there is a concealed bias within the spheroid,
     which will . . . swerve away. Sir W. Scott.

   2.  A  learning  of  the  mind;  propensity or prepossession toward an
   object or view, not leaving the mind indifferent; bent inclination.

     Strong love is a bias upon the thoughts. South.

     Morality  influences  men's  lives,  and  gives a bias to all their
     actions. Locke.

   3.  A wedge-shaped piece of cloth taken out of a garment (as the waist
   of a dress) to diminish its circumference.

   4.  A  slant;  a  diagonal;  as,  to  cut  cloth  on the bias. Syn. --
   Prepossession; prejudice; partiality; inclination. See Bent.


   Bi"as, a.

   1. Inclined to one side; swelled on one side. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. Cut slanting or diagonally, as cloth.


   Bi"as,  adv.  In  a slanting manner; crosswise; obliquely; diagonally;
   as, to cut cloth bias.


   Bi"as,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Biased (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Biasing.] To
   incline  to one side; to give a particular direction to; to influence;
   to prejudice; to prepossess.

     Me  it  had  not  biased  in  the one direction, nor should it have
     biased any just critic in the counter direction. De. Quincey.


   Bi`au*ric"u*late (?), a. [Pref. bi- + au riculate.]

   1.  (Anat.)  Having  two auricles, as the heart of mammals, birds, and

   2.  (Bot. & Zo\'94l.) Having two earlike projections at its base, as a

                                Biaxal, Biaxial

   Bi*ax"al  (?),  Bi*ax"i*al  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + axal, axial.] (Opt.)
   Having two axes; as, biaxial polarization. Brewster. -- Bi*ax"i*al*ly,


   Bib (?), n. [From Bib, v., because the bib receives the drink that the
   child slavers from the mouth.]

   1. A small piece of cloth worn by children over the breast, to protect
   the clothes.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  arctic  fish (Gadus luscus), allied to the cod; --
   called also pout and whiting pout.

   3. A bibcock.

                                  Bib, Bibbe

   Bib,  Bibbe  (?),  v. t. [L. bibere. See Beverage, and cf. Imbibe.] To
   drink; to tipple. [Obs.]

     This miller hath . . . bibbed ale. Chaucer.


   Bib, v. i. To drink; to sip; to tipple.

     He was constantly bibbing. Locke.


   Bi*ba"cious (?), a. [L. bibax, bibacis, fr. bibere. See Bib.] Addicted
   to drinking.


   Bi*bac"i*ty  (?),  n.  The  practice  or  habit  of drinking too much;
   tippling. Blount.


   Bi*ba"sic  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  + basic.] (Chem.) Having to hydrogen
   atoms  which can be replaced by positive or basic atoms or radicals to
   form salts; -- said of acids. See Dibasic.


   Bibb (?), n. A bibcock. See Bib, n., 3.


   Bib"ber  (?), n. One given to drinking alcoholic beverages too freely;
   a tippler; -- chiefly used in composition; as, winebibber.


   Bib"ble-bab"ble  (?),  n.  [A  reduplication  of  babble.]  Idle talk;
   babble. Shak.


   Bibbs  (?), n. pl. (Naut.) Pieces of timber bolted to certain parts of
   a mast tp support the trestletrees.


   Bib"cock` (?), n. A cock or faucet having a bent down nozzle. Knight.


   Bi*bi"rine (?), n. (Chem.) See Bebeerine.


   Bib"i*to*ry (?), a. Of or pertaining to drinking or tippling.


   Bi"ble (?), n. [F. bible, L. biblia, pl., fr. Gr. , pl. of , dim. of ,
   , book, prop. Egyptian papyrus.]

   1. A book. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  The Book by way of eminence, -- that is, the book which is made up
   of  the  writings  accepted  by  Christians  as  of  divine origin and
   authority,  whether  such  writings  be  in  the original language, or
   translated; the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments; -- sometimes
   in  a  restricted  sense,  the  Old Testament; as, King James's Bible;
   Douay  Bible;  Luther's  Bible.  Also,  the  book  which is made up of
   writings similarly accepted by the Jews; as, a rabbinical Bible.

   3.  A  book  containing the sacred writings belonging to any religion;
   as,  the  Koran  is often called the Mohammedan Bible. <-- 4. (Fig.) A
   book with an authoritative exposition of some topic, respected by many
   experts on the field. -->
   Bible Society, an association for securing the multiplication and wide
   distribution  of the Bible. -- Douay Bible. See Douay Bible. -- Geneva
   Bible. See under Geneva.


   Bib"ler  (?), n. [See Bib, v. t.] A great drinker; a tippler. [Written
   also bibbler and bibbeler.]


   Bib"li*cal  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or derived from, the Bible; as,
   biblical learning; biblical authority.


   Bib`li*cal"i*ty  (?),  n.  The  quality  of being biblical; a biblical
   subject. [R.]


   Bib"li*cal*ly (?), adv. According to the Bible.


   Bib"li*cism  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  biblicisme.]  Learning  or literature
   relating to the Bible. [R.]


   Bib"li*cist  (?),  n.  One  skilled  in  the knowledge of the Bible; a
   demonstrator of religious truth by the Scriptures.


   Bib"li*o*graph` (?), n. Bibliographer.


   Bib`li*og"ra*pher  (?),  n.  [Gr.  ,  fr.  book  +  to  write : cf. F.
   bibliographe.] One who writes, or is versed in, bibliography.

                        Bibliographic, Bibliographical

   Bib`li*o*graph"ic   (?),   Bib`li*o*graph"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.  F.
   bibliographique.] Pertaining to bibliography, or the history of books.
   -- Bib`li*o*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Bib`li*og"ra*phy  (?)  n.;  pl.  Bibliographies  (#).  [Gr.  :  cf. F.
   bibliographie.]  A  history  or  description of books and manuscripts,
   with  notices  of  the  different  editions,  the times when they were
   printed, etc.

                          Bibliolater, Bibliolatrist

   Bib`li*ol"a*ter  (?),  Bib`li*ol"a*trist (?), n. [See. Bibliolatry.] A
   worshiper  of  books; especially, a worshiper of the Bible; a believer
   in its verbal inspiration. De Quincey.


   Bib`li*ol"a*try  (?), n. [Gr. book + service, worship, to serve.] Book
   worship,  esp.  of  the  Bible;  --  applied  by Roman Catholic divine
   Coleridge. F. W. Newman.


   Bib`li*o*log"ic*al (?), a. Relating to bibliology.


   Bib`li*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. book + -logy.]

   1. An account of books; book lore; bibliography.

   2. The literature or doctrine of the Bible.


   Bib"li*o*man`cy  (?),  n.  [Gr. book + -mancy: cf. F. bibliomancie.] A
   kind  of  divination,  performed by selecting passages of Scripture at
   hazard, and drawing from them indications concerning future events.


   Bib`li*o*ma"ni*a  (?),  n. [Gr. book + madness: cf. F. bibliomanie.] A
   mania for acquiring books.


   Bib`li*o*ma"ni*ac  (?),  n.  One  who  has  a  mania  for books. -- a.
   Relating to a bibliomaniac.


   Bib`li*o*ma*ni"ac*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  a  passion  for books;
   relating to a bibliomaniac.


   Bib`li*o*peg"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  book + to make fast.] Relating to the
   binding of books. [R.]

   Page 143


   Bib`li*op"e*gist (?), n. A bookbinder.


   Bib`li*op`e*gis"tic  (?),  a.  Pertaining to the art of binding books.
   [R.] Dibdin.


   Bib`li*op"e*gy  (?),  n.  [See Bibliopegic.] The art of binding books.


   Bib"li*o*phile  (?),  n.  [Gr.  book + to love: cf. F. bibliophile.] A
   lover of books.


   Bib`li*oph"i*lism (?), n. Love of books.


   Bib`li*oph"i*list (?), n. A lover of books.


   Bib`li*o*pho"bi*a (?), n. [Gr. book + to fear.] A dread of books. [R.]


   Bib"li*o*pole  (?),  n.  [L.  bibliopola, Gr. ; book + to sell: cf. F.
   bibliopole.] One who sells books.

                           Bibliopolic, Bibliopolar

   Bib`li*o*pol"ic  (?),  Bib`li*op"o*lar (?), a. [See Bibliopole.] Of or
   pertaining to the sale of books. "Bibliopolic difficulties." Carlyle.


   Bib`li*op"o*lism (?), n. The trade or business of selling books.


   Bib`li*op"o*list (?), n. Same as Bibliopole.


   Bib`li*op`o*lis"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to bibliopolism. Dibdin.

                           Bibliotaph, Bibliotaphist

   Bib"li*o*taph  (?),  Bib`li*ot"a*phist  (?), n. [Gr. book + a burial.]
   One who hides away books, as in a tomb. [R.] Crabb.


   Bib"li*o*thec (?), n. A librarian.


   Bib`li*o*the"ca (?), n. [L. See Bibliotheke.] A library.


   Bib`li*o*the"cal   (?),   a.  [L.  bibliothecalis.  See  Bibliotheke.]
   Belonging to a library. Byrom.


   Bib`li*oth"e*ca*ry    (?),    n.    [L.    bibliothecarius:   cf.   F.
   biblioth\'82caire.] A librarian. [Obs.] Evelin.


   Bib"li*o*theke  (?), n. [L. bibliotheca, Gr. ; book + a case, box, fr.
   to place: cf. F. biblioth\'8aque.] A library. [Obs.] Bale.


   Bib"list (?), n. [Cf. F. bibliste. See Bible.]

   1. One who makes the Bible the sole rule of faith.

   2. A biblical scholar; a biblicist. I. Taylor.


   Bi*brac"te*ate (?), a. [Pref. bi- + bracteate.] (Bot.) Furnished with,
   or having, two bracts.


   Bib"u*lous (?), a. [L. bibulus, fr. bibere to drink. See Bib, v. t. ]

   1.  Readily imbibing fluids or moisture; spongy; as, bibulous blotting

   2. Inclined to drink; addicted to tippling.


   Bib"u*lous*ly,  adv.  In a bibulous manner; with profuse imbibition or
   absorption. De Quincey.


   Bi*cal"ca*rate  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + calcarate.] Having two spurs, as
   the wing or leg of a bird.

                             Bicallose, Bicallous

   Bi*cal"lose  (?),  Bi*cal"lous (?), a. [Pref. bi- + callose, callous.]
   (Bot.) Having two callosities or hard spots. Gray.


   Bi*cam"er*al   (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  camera.]  Consisting  of,  or
   including, two chambers, or legislative branches. Bentham.


   Bi*cap"su*lar  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + capsular: cf. F. bicapsulaire.]
   (Bot.) Having two capsules; as, a bicapsular pericarp.


   Bi*car"bon*ate  (?), n. [Pref. bi-+ carbonate.] (Chem.) A carbonate in
   which  but  half  the  hydrogen  of the acid is replaced by a positive
   element  or  radical,  thus  making  the proportion of the acid to the
   positive  or  basic portion twice what it is in the normal carbonates;
   an acid carbonate; -- sometimes called supercarbonate.

                            Bicarbureted or -retted

   Bi*car"bu*ret`ed or -ret`ted (?), a. [Pref. bi- + carbureted.] (Chem.)
   Containing  two  atoms or equivalents of carbon in the molecule. [Obs.
   or R.]


   Bi*car"i*nate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  carinate.] (Biol.) Having two
   keel-like projections, as the upper palea of grasses.


   Bi*cau"dal  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + caudal.] Having, or terminating in,
   two tails.


   Bi*cau"date (?), a. [Pref. bi- + caudate.] Two-tailed; bicaudal.


   Bic"ched  (?), a. [Of unknown origin.] Pecked; pitted; notched. [Obs.]
   Chaucer. Bicched bones, pecked, or notched, bones; dice.

                                  Bice, Bise

   Bice,  Bise  (?),  n.  [F.  bis, akin to It. bigio light gray, tawny.]
   (Paint.)  A pale blue pigment, prepared from the native blue carbonate
   of  copper,  or  from  smalt;  -- called also blue bice. Green bice is
   prepared from the blue, by adding yellow orpiment, or by grinding down
   the green carbonate of copper. Cooley. Brande & C.


   Bi*cen"te*na*ry  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + centenary.] Of or pertaining to
   two hundred, esp. to two hundred years; as, a bicentenary celebration.
   -- n. The two hundredth anniversary, or its celebration.


   Bi`cen*ten"ni*al, a. [Pref. bi- + centennial.]

   1. Consisting of two hundred years.

   2. Occurring every two hundred years.


   Bi`cen*ten"ni*al,  n.  The  two  hundredth year or anniversary, or its


   Bi*ceph"a*lous  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + cephalous: cf. F. bic\'82phale.]
   Having two heads.


   Bi"ceps (?), n. [L., two-headed; bis twice + caput head. See Capital.]
   (Anat.)  A muscle having two heads or origins; -- applied particularly
   to a flexor in the arm, and to another in the thigh.


   Bi*chir"  (?),  n.  [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A remarkable ganoid fish
   (Polypterus  bichir)  found  in the Nile and other African rivers. See


   Bi*chlo"ride  (?),  n.  [Pref.  bi-  +  chloride.]  (Chem.) A compound
   consisting  of two atoms of chlorine with one or more atoms of another
   element;  --  called  also dichloride. Bichloride of mercury, mercuric
   chloride; -- sometimes called corrosive sublimate.


   Bi"cho (?), n. [Sp.] (Zo\'94l.) See Jigger.


   Bi*chro"mate (?), n. [Pref. bi- + chromate.] (Chem.) A salt containing
   two  parts  of  chromic  acid  to  one  of  the other ingredients; as,
   potassium bichromate; -- called also dichromate.


   Bi*chro"ma*tize (?), v. t. To combine or treat with a bichromate, esp.
   with bichromate of potassium; as, bichromatized gelatine.


   Bi*cip"i*tal  (?),  a.  [L.  biceps,  bicipitis: cf. F. bicipital. See

   1.  (Anat.)  (a)  Having  two  heads  or  origins,  as  a  muscle. (b)
   Pertaining  to a biceps muscle; as, bicipital furrows, the depressions
   on either side of the biceps of the arm.

   2.  (Bot.)  Dividing into two parts at one extremity; having two heads
   or two supports; as, a bicipital tree.


   Bi*cip"i*tous   (?),  a.  Having  two  heads;  bicipital.  "Bicipitous
   serpents." Sir T. Browne.


   Bick"er,  n.  [See  Beaker.]  A small wooden vessel made of staves and
   hoops, like a tub. [Prov. Eng.]


   Bick"er  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bickered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bickering.]  [OE.  bikeren,  perh.  fr. Celtic; cf. W. bicra to fight,
   bicker, bicre conflict, skirmish; perh. akin to E. beak.]

   1. To skirmish; to exchange blows; to fight.def> [Obs.]

     Two eagles had a conflict, and bickered together. Holland.

   2. To contend in petulant altercation; to wrangle.

     Petty things about which men cark and bicker. Barrow.

   3.  To  move  quickly  and  unsteadily,  or with a pattering noise; to
   quiver; to be tremulous, like flame.

     They [streamlets] bickered through the sunny shade. Thomson.


   Bick"er, n.

   1. A skirmish; an encounter. [Obs.]

   2. A fight with stones between two parties of boys. [Scot.] Jamieson.

   3. A wrangle; also, a noise,, as in angry contention.


   Bick"er*er (?), n. One who bickers.


   Bick"er*ing, n.

   1. A skirmishing. "Frays and bickerings." Milton.

   2. Altercation; wrangling.


   Bick"er*ment (?), n. Contention. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Bick"ern  (?),  n. [F. bigorne. See Bicorn.] An anvil ending in a beak
   or point (orig. in two beaks); also, the beak or horn itself.


   Bi*col"li*gate  (?),  a.  [L.  bis  twice  +  colligatus,  p.  p.  See
   Colligate,  v. t. ] (Zo\'94l.) Having the anterior toes connected by a
   basal web.

                              Bicolor, Bicolored

   Bi"col`or  (?),  Bi"col`ored  (?),  a.  [L. bicolor; bis twice + color
   color.] Of two colors.


   Bi*con"cave  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + concave.] Concave on both sides; as,
   biconcave vertebr\'91.


   Bi*con"ju*gate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  conjugate,  a.] (Bot.) Twice
   paired, as when a petiole forks twice. Gray.


   Bi*con"vex  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + convex.] Convex on both sides; as, a
   biconvex lens.

                          Bicorn, Bicorned, Bicornous

   Bi"corn  (?),  Bi"corned  (?),  Bi*cor"nous  (?), a. [L. bicornis; bis
   twice  +  cornu  horn: cf. F. bicorne. Cf. Bickern.] Having two horns;
   two-horned; crescentlike.


   Bi*cor"po*ral (?), a. [Pref. bi- + corporal.] Having two bodies.


   Bi*cor"po*rate  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + corporate.] (Her.) Double-bodied,
   as a lion having one head and two bodies.


   Bi*cos"tate (?), a. [Pref. bi- + costate.] (Bot.) Having two principal
   ribs running longitudinally, as a leaf.


   Bi*cre"nate  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + crenate.] (Bot.) Twice crenated, as
   in the case of leaves whose crenatures are themselves crenate.


   Bi`cres*cen"tic  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + crescent.] Having the form of a
   double crescent.


   Bi*cru"ral (?), a. [Pref. bi- + crural.] Having two legs. Hooker.

                             Bicuspid, Bicuspidate

   Bi*cus"pid (?), Bi*cus"pid*ate (?), a. [See pref. Bi-, and Cuspidate.]
   Having  two  points  or  prominences; ending in two points; -- said of
   teeth, leaves, fruit, etc.


   Bi*cus"pid,  n.  (Anat.)  One  of  the  two double-pointed teeth which
   intervene  between  the canines (cuspids) and the molars, on each side
   of each jaw. See Tooth, n.


   Bi*cy"a*nide (?), n. See Dicyanide.


   Bi"cy*cle  (?),  n.  [Pref.  bi-  + cycle.] A light vehicle having two
   wheels  one behind the other. It has a saddle seat and is propelled by
   the rider's feet acting on cranks or levers.


   Bi"cy*cler (?), n. One who rides a bicycle.


   Bi*cyc"lic (?), a. Relating to bicycles.


   Bi"cy*cling  (?),  n.  The  use  of  a bicycle; the act or practice of
   riding a bicycle.


   Bi"cy*clism (?), n. The art of riding a bicycle.


   Bi"cy*clist (?), n. A bicycler.


   Bi*cyc"u*lar (?), a. Relating to bicycling.


   Bid (?), v. t. [imp. Bade (?), Bid, (Obs.) Bad; p. p. Bidden (?), Bid;
   p.  pr.  & vb. n. Bidding.] [OE. bidden, prop to ask, beg, AS. biddan;
   akin  to  OS. biddian, Icel. bi, OHG. bittan, G. bitten, to pray, ask,
   request,  and  E.  bead,  also  perh. to Gr. to persuade, L. fidere to
   trust,  E.  faith, and bide. But this word was early confused with OE.
   beden,  beoden,  AS.  be\'a2dan,  to offer, command; akin to Icel. bj,
   Goth.  biudan  (in  comp.), OHG. biotan to command, bid, G. bieten, D.
   bieden,  to  offer,  also  to Gr. to learn by inquiry, Skr. budh to be
   awake,  to  heed, present OSlav. bud to be awake, E. bode, v. The word
   now has the form of OE. bidden to ask, but the meaning of OE. beden to
   command, except in "to bid beads." &root;30.]

   1. To make an offer of; to propose. Specifically : To offer to pay ( a
   certain  price,  as  for  a  thing  put  up at auction), or to take (a
   certain price, as for work to be done under a contract).

   2.  To offer in words; to declare, as a wish, a greeting, a threat, or
   defiance, etc.; as, to bid one welcome; to bid good morning, farewell,

     Neither bid him God speed. 2. John 10.

     He bids defiance to the gaping crowd. Granrille.

   3. To proclaim; to declare publicly; to make known. [Mostly obs.] "Our
   banns thrice bid !" Gay.

   4. To order; to direct; to enjoin; to command.

     That Power who bids the ocean ebb and flow. Pope

     Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee. Matt. xiv. 28

     I was bid to pick up shells. D. Jerrold.

   5. To invite; to call in; to request to come.

     As many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage. Matt. xxii. 9

   To  bid  beads,  to  pray  with  beads,  as  the  Roman  Catholics; to
   distinguish  each  bead by a prayer. [Obs.] -- To bid defiance to , to
   defy  openly;  to  brave. -- To bid fair, to offer a good prospect; to
   make  fair promise; to seem likely. Syn. -- To offer; proffer; tender;
   propose; order; command; direct; charge; enjoin.


   Bid (?), imp. & p. p. of Bid.


   Bid,  n. An offer of a price, especially at auctions; a statement of a
   sum which one will give for something to be received, or will take for
   something to be done or furnished; that which is offered.


   Bid, v. i. [See Bid, v. t.]

   1. To pray. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. To make a bid; to state what one will pay or take.


   Bid"ale` (?), n. [Bid + ale.] An invitation of friends to drink ale at
   some  poor  man's  house,  and  there to contribute in charity for his
   relief. [Prov. Eng.]


   Bid"da*ble (?), a. Obedient; docile. [Scot.]


   Bid"den (?), p. p. of Bid.


   Bid"der (?), n. [AS. biddere. ] One who bids or offers a price. Burke.

                                 Biddery ware

   Bid"der*y  ware` (?). [From Beder or Bidar a town in India.] A kind of
   metallic  ware  made  in India. The material is a composition of zinc,
   tin,  and  lead,  in  which ornaments of gold and silver are inlaid or
   damascened. [Spelt also bidry, bidree, bedery, beder.]


   Bid"ding, n.

   1.  Command; order; a proclamation or notifying. "Do thou thy master's
   bidding." Shak.

   2. The act or process of making bids; an offer; a proposal of a price,
   as at an auction.

                                Bidding prayer

   Bid"ding prayer` (?).

   1.  (R.  C.  Ch.) The prayer for the souls of benefactors, said before
   the sermon.

   2.  (Angl.  Ch.)  The  prayer  before  the  sermon, with petitions for
   various specified classes of persons.


   Bid"dy  (?), n. [Etymology uncertain.] A name used in calling a hen or
   chicken. Shak.


   Bid"dy,  n.  [A  familiar  form of Bridget.] An Irish serving woman or
   girl. [Colloq.]


   Bide  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Bided; p. pr. & vb. n. Biding.] [OE.
   biden, AS. b\'c6dan; akin to OHG. b\'c6tan, Goth. beidan, Icel. b\'c6;
   perh.  orig., to wait with trust, and akin to bid. See Bid, v. t., and
   cf. Abide.]

   1. To dwell; to inhabit; to abide; to stay.

     All  knees  to thee shall bow of them that bide In heaven or earth,
     or under earth, in hell. Milton.

   2.  To  remain;  to  continue  or be permanent in a place or state; to
   continue to be. Shak.


   Bide, v. t.

   1.  To  encounter;  to  remain  firm under (a hardship); to endure; to
   suffer; to undergo.

     Poor  naked wretches, wheresoe'er you are, That bide the pelting of
     this pitiless storm. Shak.

   2. To wait for; as, I bide my time. See Abide.


   Bi"dent  (?),  n.  [L.  bidens, -entis, having two prongs; bis twice +
   dens a tooth.] An instrument or weapon with two prongs.


   Bi*den"tal (?), a. Having two teeth. Swift.


   Bi*den"tate  (?),  a.  (Bot.  &  Zo\'94l.)  Having  two  teeth  or two
   toothlike processes; two-toothed.


   Bi*det"  (?),  n.  [F. bidet, perh. fr. Celtic; cr. Gael. bideach very
   little,  diminutive,  bidein a diminutive animal, W. bidan a weakly or
   sorry wretch.]

   1.  A  small  horse  formerly  allowed  to each trooper or dragoon for
   carrying his baggage. B. Jonson.

   2. A kind of bath tub for sitting baths; a sitz bath.


   Bi*dig"i*tate  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + digitate.] Having two fingers or
   fingerlike projections.


   Bid"ing (?), n. Residence; habitation. Rowe.


   Bield (?), n. A shelter. Same as Beild. [Scot.]


   Bield, v. t. To shelter. [Scot.]


   Bi*en"ni*al (?), a. [L. biennalis and biennis, fr. biennium a space of
   two years; bis twice + annus year. Cf. Annual.]

   1.  Happening,  or  taking  place,  once  in two years; as, a biennial

   2.  (Bot.)  Continuing  for  two  years, and then perishing, as plants
   which  form  roots  and  leaves  the first year, and produce fruit the


   Bi*en"ni*al, n.

   1.  Something  which  takes place or appears once in two years; esp. a
   biennial examination.

   2. (Bot.) A plant which exists or lasts for two years.


   Bi*en"ni*al*ly, adv. Once in two years.


   Bier  (?),  n.  [OE.  b\'91e,  beere,  AS. b, b; akin to D. baar, OHG.
   b\'bera,  G.  bahre,  Icel  barar, Dbaare, L. feretrum, Gr. , from the
   same bear to produce. See 1st Bear, and cf. Barrow.]

   1. A handbarrow or portable frame on which a corpse is placed or borne
   to the grave.

   2.  (Weaving)  A count of forty threads in the warp or chain of woolen
   cloth. Knight.

   Page 144


   Bier"balk`  (?),  n.  [See Bier, and Balk, n.] A church road (e. g., a
   path across fields) for funerals. [Obs.] Homilies.

                             Biestings, Beestings

   Biest"ings, Beest"ings (?), n. pl. [OE. bestynge, AS. b, fr. b, beost;
   akin  to D. biest, OHG. biost, G. biest; of unknown origin.] The first
   milk given by a cow after calving. B. Jonson.

     The  thick  and curdy milk . . . commonly called biestings. Newton.


   Bi*fa"cial  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + facial.] Having the opposite surfaces


   Bi*fa"ri*ous (?), a. [L. bifarius; bis twice + fari to speak. Cf. Gr.

   1. Twofold; arranged in two rows.

   2.  (Bot.)  Pointing  two  ways,  as leaves that grow only on opposite
   sides of a branch; in two vertical rows.


   Bi*fa"ri*ous*ly, adv. In a bifarious manner.


   Bif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  bifer;  bis twice + ferre to bear.] Bearing
   fruit twice a year.


   Bif"fin (?), n. [Cf. Beaufin.]

   1. A sort of apple peculiar to Norfolk, Eng.

     NOTE: [Sometimes ca lled beaufin; but properly beefin (it is said),
     from its resemblance to raw beef.]


   2.  A baked apple pressed down into a flat, round cake; a dried apple.


   Bi"fid  (?),  a. [L. bifidus; bis twice + root of findere to cleave or
   split:  cf.  F.  bifide.]  Cleft  to the middle or slightly beyond the
   middle; opening with a cleft; divided by a linear sinus, with straight


   Bif"i*date (?), a. [L. bifidatus.] See Bifid.


   Bi*fi"lar (?), a. [Pref. bi- + filar.] Two-threaded; involving the use
   of  two  threads;  as,  bifilar suspension; a bifilar balance. Bifilar
   micrometer  (often  called  a  bifilar),  an instrument form measuring
   minute  distances  or  angles  by  means  of  two  very minute threads
   (usually  spider  lines),  one of which, at least, is movable; -- more
   commonly called a filar micrometer.


   Bi`fla*bel"late   (?),   a.   [Pref.  bi-  +  flabellate.]  (Zo\'94l.)
   Flabellate on both sides.


   Bi`fla*gel"late  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + flagellate.] Having two long,
   narrow, whiplike appendages.

                             Biflorate, Biflorous

   Bi*flo"rate  (?),  Bi*flo"rous  (?),  a. [L. bis twice + flos, floris,
   flower.] (Bot.) Bearing two flowers; two-flowered.


   Bi"fold  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + fold.] Twofold; double; of two kinds,
   degrees, etc. Shak.


   Bi*fo"li*ate  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + foliate.] (Bot.) Having two leaves;


   Bi*fo"li*o*late  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + foliolate.] (Bot.) Having two
   leaflets, as some compound leaves.


   Bif"o*rate (?), a. [L. bis twice + foratus, p. p. of forare to bore or
   pierce.] (Bot.) Having two perforations.


   Bif"o*rine (?), n. [L. biforis, biforus, having two doors; bis twice +
   foris  door.]  (Bot.)  An  oval  sac  or  cell, found in the leaves of
   certain  plants  of the order Arace\'91. It has an opening at each end
   through which raphides, generated inside, are discharged.


   Bi"forked (?), a. Bifurcate.


   Bi"form  (?),  a.  [L.  biformis;  bis  twice  +  forma  shape: cf. F.
   biforme.] Having two forms, bodies, or shapes. Croxall.


   Bi"formed (?), a. [Pref. bi- + form.] Having two forms. Johnson.


   Bi*form"i*ty (?), n. A double form.


   Bi*forn" (?), prep. & adv. Before. [Obs.]


   Bif"o*rous  (?),  a.  [L.  biforis  having two doors; bis twice, two +
   foris door.] See Biforate.


   Bi*front"ed (?), a. [Pref. bi- + front.] Having two fronts. "Bifronted
   Janus." Massinger.

                             Bifurcate, Bifurcated

   Bi*fur"cate   (?),  Bi*fur"ca*ted  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  furcate.]
   Two-pronged; forked.


   Bi*fur"cate (?), v. i. To divide into two branches.


   Bi`fur*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. bifurcation.] A forking, or division
   into two branches.


   Bi*fur"cous  (?),  a.  [L.  bifurcus;  bis  twice  +  furca fork.] See
   Bifurcate, a. [R.] Coles.


   Big (?), a. [compar. Bigger; superl. Biggest.] [Perh. from Celtic; cf.
   W.  beichiog,  beichiawg, pregnant, with child, fr. baich burden, Arm.
   beac'h;  or  cf.  OE.  bygly,  Icel.  biggiligr, (properly) habitable;
   (then) magnigicent, excellent, fr. OE. biggen, Icel. byggja, to dwell,
   build, akin to E. be.]

   1. Having largeness of size; of much bulk or magnitude; of great size;
   large. "He's too big to go in there." Shak.

   2.  Great  with  young;  pregnant;  swelling;  ready  to give birth or
   produce; -- often figuratively.

     [Day] big with the fate of Cato and of Rome. Addison.

   3.  Having  greatness,  fullness,  importance,  inflation, distention,
   etc.,  whether in a good or a bad sense; as, a big heart; a big voice;
   big  looks; to look big. As applied to looks, it indicates haughtiness
   or pride.

     God hath not in heaven a bigger argument. Jer. Taylor.

     NOTE: &hand; Bi g is  of ten used in self-explaining compounds; as,
     big-boned; big-sounding; big-named; big-voiced.

   To talk big, to talk loudly, arrogantly, or pretentiously.

     I talked big to them at first. De Foe.

   Syn. -- Bulky; large; great; massive; gross.

                                   Big, Bigg

   Big,  Bigg,  n.  [OE.  bif,  bigge;  akin to Icel. bygg, Dan. byg, Sw.
   bjugg.] (Bot.) Barley, especially the hardy four-rowed kind.

     "Bear  interchanges  in local use, now with barley, now with bigg."
     New English Dict.

                                   Big, Bigg

   Big, Bigg, v. t. [OE. biggen, fr. Icel. byggja to inhabit, to build, b
   (neut.)  to  dwell  (active)  to  make ready. See Boor, and Bound.] To
   build. [Scot. & North of Eng. Dial.] Sir W. Scott.


   Bi"ga (?), n. [L.] (Antiq.) A two-horse chariot.


   Big"am  (?), n. [L. bigamus twice married: cf. F. bigame. See Bigamy.]
   A bigamist. [Obs.]


   Big"a*mist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Digamist.]  One  who  is guilty of bigamy.


   Big"a*mous  (?), a. Guilty of bigamy; involving bigamy; as, a bigamous


   Big"a*my (?), n. [OE. bigamie, fr. L. bigamus twice married; bis twice
   +  Gr.  marriage;  prob.  akin to Skt. j\'bemis related, and L. gemini
   twins,  the  root  meaning to bind, join: cf. F. bigamie. Cf. Digamy.]
   (Law)  The offense of marrying one person when already legally married
   to another. Wharton.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  no t st rictly co rrect to  ca ll this offense
     bigamy:  it  more  properly  denominated  polygamy, i. e., having a
     plurality  of wives or husbands at once, and in several statutes in
     the  United  States  the  offense  is  classed  under  the  head of
     polygamy.  In  the canon law bigamy was the marrying of two virgins
     successively, or one after the death of the other, or once marrying
     a  widow.  This  disqualified  a  man  for  orders, and for holding
     ecclesiastical  offices.  Shakespeare  uses  the word in the latter
     sense. Blackstone. Bouvier.

     Base declension and loathed bigamy. Shak.

                              Bigarreau, Bigaroon

   Big`ar*reau"  (?),  Big`a*roon"  (?), n. [F. bigarreau, fr. bigarr\'82
   variegated.] (Bot.) The large white-heart cherry.


   Big"-bel`lied  (?),  a. Having a great belly; as, a big-bellied man or
   flagon; advanced in pregnancy.


   Bi*gam"i*nate  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + geminate.] (Bot.) Having a forked
   petiole,  and  a  pair  of  leaflets  at  the  end  of  each division;
   biconjugate; twice paired; -- said of a decompound leaf.


   Bi*gen"tial  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + L. gens, gentis, tribe.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Including two tribes or races of men.


   Big"eye`   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  fish  of  the  genus  Priacanthus,
   remarkable for the large size of the eye.


   Bigg (?), n. & v. See Big, n. & v.


   Big"gen  (?),  v.  t. & i. To make or become big; to enlarge. [Obs. or
   Dial.] Steele.


   Big"ger (?), a., compar. of Big.


   Big"gest (?), a., superl. of Big.


   Big"gin  (?),  n.  [F.  b\'82guin,  prob.  from  the  cap  worn by the
   B\'82guines. Cf. Beguine, Biggon.] A child's cap; a hood, or something
   worn on the head.

     An old woman's biggin for a nightcap. Massinger.


   Big"gin,  n. A coffeepot with a strainer or perforated metallic vessel
   for  holding the ground coffee, through which boiling water is poured;
   -- so called from Mr. Biggin, the inventor.

                                Biggin, Bigging

   Big"gin,  Big"ging, n. [OE. bigging. See Big, Bigg, v. t.] A building.

                               Biggon, Biggonnet

   Big"gon  (?),  Big"gon*net (?), n. [F. b\'82guin and OF. beguinet, dim
   of  b\'82guin.  See  Biggin a cap.] A cap or hood with pieces covering
   the ears.


   Big"ha  (?), n. A measure of land in India, varying from a third of an
   acre to an acre.


   Big"horn`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  Rocky  Mountain  sheep  (Ovis or
   Caprovis montana).


   Bight  (?),  n.  [OE. bi a bending; cf. Sw. & Dan. bugt bend, bay; fr.
   AS. byht, fr. b. &root;88. Cf. Bout, Bought a bend, and see Bow, v.]

   1.  A  corner,  bend,  or  angle; a hollow; as, the bight of a horse's
   knee; the bight of an elbow.

   2.  (Geog.)  A  bend  in a coast forming an open bay; as, the Bight of

   3.  (Naut.) The double part of a rope when folded, in distinction from
   the  ends;  that  is, a round, bend, or coil not including the ends; a


   Bi*glan"du*lar  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + glandular.] Having two glands, as
   a plant.


   Big"ly  (?),  adv.  [From  Big,  a.]  In a tumid, swelling, blustering
   manner; haughtily; violently.

     He brawleth bigly. Robynson (More's Utopia. )


   Big"ness, n. The state or quality of being big; largeness; size; bulk.


   Big*no"ni*a  (?),  n.  [Named from the Abb\'82 Bignon.] (Bot.) A large
   genus  of  American, mostly tropical, climbing shrubs, having compound
   leaves  and showy somewhat tubular flowers. B. capreolata is the cross
   vine  of  the Southern United States. The trumpet creeper was formerly
   considered to be of this genus.


   Big*no`ni*a"ceous  (?), a. (Bot.) Of pertaining to, or resembling, the
   family of plants of which the trumpet flower is an example.


   Big"ot  (?),  n.  [F. bigot a bigot or hypocrite, a name once given to
   the  Normans in France. Of unknown origin; possibly akin to Sp. bigote
   a  whisker;  hombre  de  bigote  a  man  of  spirit and vigor; cf. It.
   s-bigottire  to  terrify, to appall. Wedgwood and others maintain that
   bigot is from the same source as Beguine, Beghard.]

   1. A hypocrite; esp., a superstitious hypocrite. [Obs.]

   2. A person who regards his own faith and views in matters of religion
   as  unquestionably  right,  and  any  belief  or opinion opposed to or
   differing from them as unreasonable or wicked. In an extended sense, a
   person  who  is intolerant of opinions which conflict with his own, as
   in  politics or morals; one obstinately and blindly devoted to his own
   church, party, belief, or opinion.

     To  doubt,  where  bigots  had  been content to wonder and believe.


   Big"ot, a. Bigoted. [Obs.]

     In a country more bigot than ours. Dryden.


   Big"ot*ed,  a. Obstinately and blindly attached to some creed, opinion
   practice,  or  ritual;  unreasonably devoted to a system or party, and
   illiberal  toward  the opinions of others. "Bigoted to strife." Byron.
   Syn. -- Prejudiced; intolerant; narrow-minded.


   Big"ot*ed*ly, adv. In the manner of a bigot.


   Big"ot*ry (?), n. [Cf. F. bigoterie.]

   1.  The state of mind of a bigot; obstinate and unreasoning attachment
   of  one's  own  belief and opinions, with narrow-minded intolerance of
   beliefs opposed to them.

   2. The practice or tenets of a bigot.


   Big"wig`  (?),  n.  [Big,a.+  wig.]  A  person of consequence; as, the
   bigwigs of society. [Jocose]

     In  our  youth  we  have  heard  him  spoken of by the bigwigs with
     extreme condescension. Dickens.


   Big"-wigged` (?), a. characterized by pomposity of manner. [Eng.]


   Bi`hy*drog"u*ret  (?), n. [Pref. bi- + hydroguret.] (Chem.) A compound
   of two atoms of hydrogen with some other substance. [Obs.]


   Bi*jou" (?), n.; pl. Bijoux (#). [F.; of uncertain origin.] A trinket;
   a  jewel;  --  a  word  applied  to  anything  small  and  of  elegant


   Bi*jou"try  (?),  n.  [F.  bijouterie.  See  Bijou.] Small articles of
   virtu, as jewelry, trinkets, etc.


   Bij"u*gate  (?), a. [L. bis twice + jugatus, p. p. of jugare to join.]
   (Bot.) Having two pairs, as of leaflets.


   Bij"u*gous  (?),  a. [L. bijugus yoked two together; bis twice + jugum
   yoke, pair.] (Bot.) Bijugate.


   Bike  (?), n. [Ethymol. unknown.] A nest of wild bees, wasps, or ants;
   a swarm. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.


   Bikh  (?),  n.  [Hind., fr. Skr. visha poison.] (Bot.) The East Indian
   name  of  a  virulent  poison  extracted  from Aconitum ferox or other
   species of aconite: also, the plant itself.


   Bi*la"bi*ate (?), a. [Pref. bi- + labiate.] (Bot.) Having two lips, as
   the corols of certain flowers.


   Bi`la*cin"i*ate (?), a. [Pref. bi- + laciniate.] Doubly fringed.


   Bi*la"lo  (?), n. A two-masted passenger boat or small vessel, used in
   the bay of Manila.

                           Bilamellate, Bilamellated

   Bi*lam"el*late  (?), Bi*lam"el*la`ted (?), a. [Pref. bi- + lamellate.]
   (Bot.)  Formed  of  two  plates,  as  the stigma of the Mimulus; also,
   having two elevated ridges, as in the lip of certain flowers.

                             Bilaminar, Bilaminate

   Bi*lam"i*nar   (?),  Bi*lam"i*nate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  laminar,
   laminate.] Formed of, or having, two lamin\'91, or thin plates.


   Bi"land (?), n. A byland. [Obs.] Holland.


   Bil"an*der  (?),  n.  [D.  bijlander;  bij  by  + land land, country.]
   (Naut.)  A small two-masted merchant vessel, fitted only for coasting,
   or for use in canals, as in Holland.

     Why  choose  we, then, like bilanders to creep Along the coast, and
     land in view to keep? Dryden.


   Bi*lat"er*al (?), a. [Pref. bi- + lateral: cf. F. bilat\'82ral.]

   1.  Having  two sides; arranged upon two sides; affecting two sides or
   two parties.

   2.  (Biol.)  Of  or  pertaining  to the two sides of a central area or
   organ,  or of a central axis; as, bilateral symmetry in animals, where
   there  is  a  similarity  of  parts on the right and left sides of the


   Bi*lat`er*al"i*ty (?), n. State of being bilateral.


   Bil"ber*ry  (?),  n.;  pl.  Bilberries  (.  [Cf.  Dan.  b\'94lleb\'91r
   bilberry, where b\'94lle is perh. akin to E. ball.]

   1.  (Bot.)  The European whortleberry (Vaccinium myrtillus); also, its
   edible bluish black fruit.

     There pinch the maids as blue as bilberry. Shak.

   2.  (Bot.)  Any  similar  plant  or  its  fruit; esp., in America, the
   species Vaccinium myrtilloides, V. c\'91spitosum and V. uliginosum.


   Bil"bo (?), n.; pl. Bilboes (.

   1. A rapier; a sword; so named from Bilbao, in Spain. Shak.

   2. pl. A long bar or bolt of iron with sliding shackles, and a lock at
   the  end, to confine the feet of prisoners or offenders, esp. on board
   of ships.

     Methought I lay Worse than the mutines in the bilboes. Shak.


   Bil"bo*quet (?), n. [F.] The toy called cup and ball.


   Bil"cock (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European water rail.


   Bild"stein  (?), n. [G., fr. bild image, likeness + stein stone.] Same
   as Agalmatolite.


   Bile (?), n. [L. bilis: cf. F. bile.]

   1. (Physiol.) A yellow, or greenish, viscid fluid, usually alkaline in
   reaction,  secreted by the liver. It passes into the intestines, where
   it  aids in the digestive process. Its characteristic constituents are
   the bile salts, and coloring matters.

   2.  Bitterness of feeling; choler; anger; ill humor; as, to stir one's
   bile. Prescott.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e an cients co nsidered th e bile to be the "humor"
     which caused irascibility.


   Bile,  n.  [OE. byle, bule, bele, AS. b, b; skin to D. buil, G. beule,
   and  Goth.  ufbauljan  to  puff  up. Cf. Boil a tumor, Bulge.] A boil.
   [Obs. or Archaic]


   Bi*lec"tion  (?), n. (Arch.) That portion of a group of moldings which
   projects beyond the general surface of a panel; a bolection.


   Bile"stone`  (?), n. [Bile + stone.] A gallstone, or biliary calculus.
   See Biliary. E. Darwin.


   Bilge  (?),  n.  [A  different orthography of bulge, of same origin as
   belly. Cf. Belly, Bulge.]

   1. The protuberant part of a cask, which is usually in the middle.

   2.  (Naut.) That part of a ship's hull or bottom which is broadest and
   most nearly flat, and on which she would rest if aground.

   3. Bilge water.
   Bilge  free  (Naut.),  stowed in such a way that the bilge is clear of
   everything; -- said of a cask. -- Bilge pump, a pump to draw the bilge
   water  from  the  gold  of a ship. -- Bilge water (Naut.), water which
   collects in the bilge or bottom of a ship or other vessel. It is often
   allowed  to  remain till it becomes very offensive. -- Bilge ways, the
   timbers  which  support  the cradle of a ship upon the ways, and which
   slide upon the launching ways in launching the vessel.

   Page 145


   Bilge (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bilged (; p. pr. & vb. n. Bilging.]

   1.  (Naut.)  To  suffer a fracture in the bilge; to spring a leak by a
   fracture in the bilge.

   2. To bulge.


   Bilge, v. t.

   1. (Naut.) To fracture the bilge of, or stave in the bottom of (a ship
   or other vessel).

   2. To cause to bulge.


   Bil"gy (?), a. Having the smell of bilge water.


   Bil"la*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  bilis  bile:  cf.  F.  biliaire.] (Physiol.)
   Relating  or  belonging  to  bile;  conveying bile; as, biliary acids;
   biliary  ducts.  Biliary calculus (Med.), a gallstone, or a concretion
   formed in the gall bladder or its duct.


   Bil`i*a"tion (?), n. (Physiol.) The production and excretion of bile.


   Bi*lif"er*ous (?), a. Generating bile.


   Bil`i*fus"cin  (?),  n.  [L.  bilis  bile + fuscus dark.] (Physiol.) A
   brownish  green  pigment found in human gallstones and in old bile. It
   is a derivative of bilirubin.

                              Bilimbi, Bilimbing

   Bi*lim"bi  (?),  Bi*lim"bing  (?), n. [Malay.] The berries of two East
   Indian  species of Averrhoa, of the Oxalide\'91 or Sorrel family. They
   are  very  acid,  and  highly  esteemed when preserved or pickled. The
   juice  is used as a remedy for skin diseases. [Written also blimbi and


   Bil"i*ment (?), n. A woman's ornament; habiliment. [Obs.]


   Bi"lin (?), n. [Cf. F. biline, from L. bilis bile.] (Physiol. Chem.) A
   name  applied  to the amorphous or crystalline mass obtained from bile
   by the action of alcohol and ether. It is composed of a mixture of the
   sodium salts of the bile acids.


   Bi*lin"e*ar  (?),  a.  (Math.)  Of, pertaining to, or included by, two
   lines; as, bilinear co\'94rdinates.


   Bi*lin"gual  (?),  a.  [L.  bilinguis;  bis  twice  +  lingua  tongue,
   language.]  Containing,  or consisting of, two languages; expressed in
   two languages; as, a bilingual inscription; a bilingual dictionary. --
   Bi*lin"gual*ly, adv.


   Bi*lin"gual*ism (?), n. Quality of being bilingual.

     The bilingualism of King's English. Earle.


   Bi*lin"guar (?), a. See Bilingual.


   Bi*lin"guist (?), n. One versed in two languages.


   Bi*lin"guous  (?),  a. [L. bilinguis.] Having two tongues, or speaking
   two languages. [Obs.]


   Bil"ious (?), a. [L. biliosus, fr. bilis bile.]

   1. Of or pertaining to the bile.

   2.  Disordered  in  respect  to  the bile; troubled with and excess of
   bile;  as,  a  bilious  patient; dependent on, or characterized by, an
   excess of bile; as, bilious symptoms.

   3.   Choleric;  passionate;  ill  tempered.  "A  bilious  old  nabob."
   Bilious temperament. See Temperament.


   Bil"ious*ness, n. The state of being bilious.


   Bil`i*pra"sin  (?),  n. [L. bilis bile + prasinus green.] (Physiol.) A
   dark green pigment found in small quantity in human gallstones.


   Bil`i*ru"bin (?), n. [L. bilis biel + ruber red.] (Physiol.) A reddish
   yellow pigment present in human bile, and in that from carnivorous and
   herbivorous animals; the normal biliary pigment.


   Bi*lit"er*al  (?),  a.  [L. bis twice + littera letter.] Consisting of
   two letters; as, a biliteral root of a Sanskrit verb. Sir W. Jones. --
   n. A word, syllable, or root, consisting of two letters.


   Bi*lit"er*al*ism (?), n. The property or state of being biliteral.


   Bil`i*ver"din  (?),  n.  [L. bilis bile + viridis green. Cf. Verdure.]
   (Physiol.)  A green pigment present in the bile, formed from bilirubin
   by oxidation.


   Bilk  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Bilked (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bilking.]
   [Origin  unknown. Cf. Balk.] To frustrate or disappoint; to deceive or
   defraud,  by  nonfulfillment  of engagement; to leave in the lurch; to
   give the slip to; as, to bilk a creditor. Thackeray.


   Bilk, n.

   1. A thwarting an adversary in cribbage by spoiling his score; a balk.

   2. A cheat; a trick; a hoax. Hudibras.

   3. Nonsense; vain words. B. Jonson.

   4.  A  person  who tricks a creditor; an untrustworthy, tricky person.


   Bill (?), n. [OE. bile, bille, AS. bile beak of a bird, proboscis; cf.
   Ir.  & Gael. bil, bile, mouth, lip, bird's bill. Cf. Bill a weapon.] A
   beak, as of a bird, or sometimes of a turtle or other animal. Milton.


   Bill, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Billed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Billing.]

   1. To strike; to peck. [Obs.]

   2.  To join bills, as doves; to caress in fondness. "As pigeons bill."
   To  bill  and  coo, to interchange caresses; -- said of doves; also of
   demonstrative lovers. Thackeray.


   Bill, n. The bell, or boom, of the bittern

     The bittern's hollow bill was heard. Wordsworth.


   Bill,  n.  [OE.  bil,  AS. bill, bil; akin to OS. bil sword, OHG. bill
   pickax, G. bille. Cf. Bill bea

   1.  A  cutting  instrument,  with hook-shaped point, and fitted with a
   handle;  --  used  in  pruning, etc.; a billhook. When short, called a
   hand bill, when long, a hedge bill.

   2. A weapon of infantry, in the 14th and 15th centuries. A common form
   of  bill consisted of a broad, heavy, double-edged, hook-shaped blade,
   having  a  short pike at the back and another at the top, and attached
   to the end of a long staff.

     France  had  no  infantry  that  dared to face the English bows end
     bills. Macaulay.

   3. One who wields a bill; a billman. Strype.

   4. A pickax, or mattock. [Obs.]

   5.  (Naut.)  The  extremity  of  the arm of an anchor; the point of or
   beyond the fluke.


   Bill (?), v. t. To work upon ( as to dig, hoe, hack, or chop anything)
   with a bill.


   Bill,  n. [OE. bill, bille, fr. LL. billa (or OF. bille), for L. bulla
   anything  rounded, LL., seal, stamp, letter, edict, roll; cf. F. bille
   a  ball,  prob.  fr.  Ger.; cf. MHG. bickel, D. bikkel, dice. Cf. Bull
   papal edict, Billet a paper.]

   1.  (Law)  A  declaration  made  in  writing,  stating  some wrong the
   complainant  has  suffered from the defendant, or a fault committed by
   some person against a law.

   2.  A  writing binding the signer or signers to pay a certain sum at a
   future day or on demand, with or without interest, as may be stated in
   the document. [Eng.]

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e United States, it is usually called a note, a
     note of hand, or a promissory note.

   3. A form or draft of a law, presented to a legislature for enactment;
   a proposed or projected law.

   4.  A  paper,  written  or  printed,  and  posted up or given away, to
   advertise  something,  as  a  lecture, a play, or the sale of goods; a
   placard; a poster; a handbill.

     She put up the bill in her parlor window. Dickens.

   5. An account of goods sold, services rendered, or work done, with the
   price  or  charge;  a  statement of a creditor's claim, in gross or by
   items; as, a grocer's bill.

   6.  Any  paper,  containing  a statement of particulars; as, a bill of
   charges  or  expenditures; a weekly bill of mortality; a bill of fare,
   Bill  of adventure. See under Adventure. -- Bill of costs, a statement
   of  the items which form the total amount of the costs of a party to a
   suit  or action. -- Bill of credit. (a) Within the constitution of the
   United States, a paper issued by a State, on the mere faith and credit
   of the State, and designed to circulate as money. No State shall "emit
   bills  of  credit."  U.  S.  Const. Peters. Wharton. Bouvier (b) Among
   merchants,  a  letter  sent by an agent or other person to a merchant,
   desiring  him to give credit to the bearer for goods or money. -- Bill
   of  divorce,  in the Jewish law, a writing given by the husband to the
   wife,  by  which  the marriage relation was dissolved. Jer. iii. 8. --
   Bill  of entry, a written account of goods entered at the customhouse,
   whether  imported  or intended for exportation. -- Bill of exceptions.
   See  under  Exception.  -- Bill of exchange (Com.), a written order or
   request  from  one  person or house to another, desiring the latter to
   pay to some person designated a certain sum of money therein generally
   is,  and,  to  be  negotiable,  must  be,  made payable to order or to
   bearer.  So  also  the  order  generally expresses a specified time of
   payment,  and that it is drawn for value. The person who draws the bil
   is  called  the  drawer,  the  person  on  whom it is drawn is, before
   acceptance,  called the drawee, -- after acceptance, the acceptor; the
   person  to  whom the money is directed to be paid is called the payee.
   The  person making the order may himself be the payee. The bill itself
   is frequently called a draft. See Exchange. Chitty. -- Bill of fare, a
   written or printed enumeration of the dishes served at a public table,
   or  of  the  dishes  (with  prices  annexed) which may be ordered at a
   restaurant,  etc.  --  Bill  of  health, a certificate from the proper
   authorities  as to the state of health of a ship's company at the time
   of  her  leaving  port.  --  Bill  of indictment, a written accusation
   lawfully  presented to a grand jury. If the jury consider the evidence
   sufficient  to  support the accusation, they indorse it "A true bill,"
   or  "Not  found,"  or  "Ignoramus", or "Ignored." -- Bill of lading, a
   written account of goods shipped by any person, signed by the agent of
   the  owner  of the vessel, or by its master, acknowledging the receipt
   of  the  goods,  and  promising  to  deliver  them  safe  at the place
   directed,  dangers  of the sea excepted. It is usual for the master to
   sign  two, three, or four copies of the bill; one of which he keeps in
   possession,  one  is  kept  by  the  shipper,  and  one is sent to the
   consignee of the goods. -- Bill of mortality, an official statement of
   the number of deaths in a place or district within a given time; also,
   a  district  required  to  be  covered  by such statement; as, a place
   within  the  bills  of  mortality  of  London.  --  Bill  of pains and
   penalties,  a special act of a legislature which inflicts a punishment
   less  than  death  upon  persons  supposed  to be guilty of treason or
   felony,  without  any  conviction  in  the ordinary course of judicial
   proceedings. Bouvier. Wharton. -- Bill of parcels, an account given by
   the  seller  to  the buyer of the several articles purchased, with the
   price  of  each. -- Bill of particulars (Law), a detailed statement of
   the  items of a plaintiff's demand in an action, or of the defendant's
   set-off. -- Bill of rights, a summary of rights and privileges claimed
   by  a  people.  Such  was  the  declaration presented by the Lords and
   Commons  of  England to the Prince and Princess of Orange in 1688, and
   enacted  in Parliament after they became king and queen. In America, a
   bill or declaration of rights is prefixed to most of the constitutions
   of  the  several  States. -- Bill of sale, a formal instrument for the
   conveyance or transfer of goods and chattels. -- Bill of sight, a form
   of  entry  at  the  customhouse,  by which goods, respecting which the
   importer  is  not  possessed of full information, may be provisionally
   landed  for  examination.  --  Bill of store, a license granted at the
   customhouse  to  merchants, to carry such stores and provisions as are
   necessary  for a voyage, custom free. Wharton. -- Bills payable (pl.),
   the  outstanding  unpaid  notes  or  acceptances made and issued by an
   individual  or  firm. -- Bills receivable (pl.), the unpaid promissory
   notes  or  acceptances  held  by an individual or firm. McElrath. -- A
   true bill, a bill of indictment sanctioned by a grand jury.


   Bill, v. t.

   1. To advertise by a bill or public notice.

   2. To charge or enter in a bill; as, to bill goods.


   Bil"lage (?), n. and v. t. & i. Same as Bilge.


   Bil"lard  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) An English fish, allied to the cod; the
   coalfish. [Written also billet and billit.]

                            Billbeetle, or Billbug

   Bill`bee"tle (?), or Bill"bug` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A weevil or curculio
   of various species, as the corn weevil. See Curculio.


   Bill"board` (?), n.

   1.  (Naut.)  A piece of thick plank, armed with iron plates, and fixed
   on  the bow or fore channels of a vessel, for the bill or fluke of the
   anchor to rest on. Totten.

   2.  A  flat  surface,  as of a panel or of a fence, on which bills are
   posted; a bulletin board. <-- esp. a large board on which the space is
   rented for advertising purposes. -->

                                   Bill book

   Bill"  book`  (?). (Com.) A book in which a person keeps an account of
   his  notes,  bills,  bills of exchange, etc., thus showing all that he
   issues and receives.

                                  Bill broker

   Bill" bro`ker (?). One who negotiates the discount of bills.


   Billed  (?),  a. Furnished with, or having, a bill, as a bird; -- used
   in composition; as, broad-billed.


   Bil"let  (?),  n.  [F.  billet,  dim. of an OF. bille bill. See Bill a

   1.  A  small  paper;  a  note;  a short letter. "I got your melancholy
   billet." Sterne.

   2.  A ticket from a public officer directing soldiers at what house to
   lodge; as, a billet of residence.


   Bil"let,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Billeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Billeting.]
   [From  Billet  a ticket.] (Mil.) To direct, by a ticket or note, where
   to  lodge.  Hence:  To  quarter,  or place in lodgings, as soldiers in
   private houses.

     Billeted in so antiquated a mansion. W. Irving.


   Bil"let,  n.  [F. billette, bille, log; of unknown origin; a different
   word from bille ball. Cf. Billiards, Billot.]

   1. A small stick of wood, as for firewood.

     They shall beat out my brains with billets. Shak.

   2. (Metal.) A short bar of metal, as of gold or iron.

   3.  (Arch.)  An  ornament  in Norman work, resembling a billet of wood
   either square or round.

   4.  (Saddlery)  (a)  A  strap  which enters a buckle. (b) A loop which
   receives the end of a buckled strap. Knight.

   5. (Her.) A bearing in the form of an oblong rectangle.


   Bil`let-doux"  (?),  n.;  pl. Billets-doux (#). [F. billet note + doux
   sweet, L. dulcis.] A love letter or note.

     A lover chanting out a billet-doux. Spectator.


   Bil"let*head`  (?),  n.  (Naut.) A round piece of timber at the bow or
   stern  of  a  whaleboat, around which the harpoon lone is run out when
   the whale darts off.


   Bill"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  name  applied to several distinct
   fishes:  (a)  The  garfish  (Tylosurus,  or  Belone, longirostris) and
   allied  species.  (b)  The saury, a slender fish of the Atlantic coast
   (Scomberesox  saurus).  (c)  The  Tetrapturus albidus, a large oceanic
   species  related  to  the  swordfish;  the spearfish. (d) The American
   fresh-water garpike (Lepidosteus osseus). 


   Bill"head`  (?),  n.  A  printed form, used by merchants in making out
   bills or rendering accounts.

                                  Bill holder

   Bill" hold`er (?).

   1. A person who holds a bill or acceptance.

   2. A device by means of which bills, etc., are held.


   Bill"hook`  (?),  n. [Bill + hook.] A thick, heavy knife with a hooked
   point,  used in pruning hedges, etc. When it has a short handle, it is
   sometimes called a hand bill; when the handle is long, a hedge bill or


   Bil"liard  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to the game of billiards. "Smooth
   as is a billiard ball." B. Jonson.


   Bil"liards (?), n. [F. billiard billiards, OF. billart staff, cue form
   playing,  fr. bille log. See Billet a stick.] A game played with ivory
   balls  o  a  cloth-covered,  rectangular  table,  bounded  by  elastic
   cushions.  The  player seeks to impel his ball with his cue so that it
   shall  either  strike  (carom  upon) two other balls, or drive another
   ball  into  one  of  the  pockets  with  which  the table sometimes is


   Bill"ing (?), a. & n. Caressing; kissing.


   Bil"lings*gate` (?), n.

   1.  A market near the Billings gate in London, celebrated for fish and
   foul language.

   2.   Coarsely   abusive,  foul,  or  profane  language;  vituperation;


   Bil"lion  (?), n. [F. billion, arbitrarily formed fr. L. bis twice, in
   imitation  of million a million. See Million.] According to the French
   and   American   method   of   numeration,  a  thousand  millions,  or
   1,000,000,000; according to the English method, a million millions, or
   1,000,000,000,000. See Numeration.


   Bill"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Billmen (. One who uses, or is armed with, a
   bill or hooked ax. "A billman of the guard." Savile.


   Bil`lon"  (?), n. [F. Cf. Billet a stick.] An alloy of gold and silver
   with  a  large  proportion  of  copper  or  other  base metal, used in


   Bil"lot  (?),  n.  [F.  billot,  dim.  of  bille. See Billet a stick.]
   Bullion in the bar or mass.


   Bil"low (?), n. [Cf. Icel. bylgja billow, Dan. b\'94lge, Sw. b\'94lja;
   akin to MHG. bulge billow, bag, and to E. bulge. See Bulge.]

   1.  A great wave or surge of the sea or other water, caused usually by
   violent wind.

     Whom the winds waft where'er the billows roll. Cowper.

   2. A great wave or flood of anything. Milton.


   Bil"low, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Billowed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Billowing.]
   To  surge;  to  rise  and  roll  in waves or surges; to undulate. "The
   billowing snow." Prior.


   Bil"low*y  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to billows; swelling or swollen
   into large waves; full of billows or surges; resembling billows.

     And  whitening down the many-tinctured stream, Descends the billowy
     foam. Thomson.

                            Billposter, Billsticker

   Bill"post`er  (?),  Bill"stick"er  (?),  n. One whose occupation is to
   post handbills or posters in public places.


   Bil"ly (?), n.

   1. A club; esp., a policeman's club.

   2. (Wool Manuf.) A slubbing or roving machine.


   Bil"ly*boy`  (?),  n.  A flat-bottomed river barge or coasting vessel.

                                  Billy goat

   Bil"ly goat` (?). A male goat. [Colloq.]

   Page 146


   Bi*lo"bate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + lobate.] Divided into two lobes or


   Bi"lobed (?), a. [Pref. bi- + lobe.] Bilobate.


   Bi`lo*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [Pref.  bi- + location.] Double location; the
   state  or  power  of  being  in  two  places at the same instant; -- a
   miraculous power attributed to some of the saints. Tylor.


   Bi*loc"u*lar  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  locular:  cf. F. biloculaire.]
   Divided  into  two  cells  or  compartments; as, a bilocular pericarp.


   Bil"sted (?), n. (Bot.) See Sweet gum.


   Bil"tong  (?),  n.  [S.  African.]  Lean  meat  cut  into  strips  and
   sun-dried. H. R. Haggard.


   Bi*mac"u*late  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + maculate, a.] Having, or marked
   with, two spots.


   Bim"a*na (?), n. pl. [NL. See Bimanous.] (Zo\'94l.) Animals having two
   hands;  --  a  term  applied  by  Cuvier  to man as a special order of


   Bim"a*nous  (?), a. [L. bis twice + manus hand.] (Zo\'94l.) Having two
   hands; two-handed.


   Bi*mar"gin*ate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  marginate.]  Having a double
   margin, as certain shells.


   Bi*mas"tism (?), n. [Pref. bi- + Gr. breast.] (Anat.) The condition of
   having two mamm\'91 or teats.


   Bi*me"di*al  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + medial.] (Geom.) Applied to a line
   which is the sum of two lines commensurable only in power (as the side
   and diagonal of a square).


   Bi*mem"bral  (?),  a.  [L. bis twice + membrum member.] (Gram.) Having
   two members; as, a bimembral sentence. J. W. Gibbs.


   Bi*men"sal  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + mensal.] See Bimonthly, a. [Obs. or


   Bi*mes"tri*al  (?),  a.  [L.  bimestris;  bis  twice  + mensis month.]
   Continuing two months. [R.]


   Bi`me*tal"lic  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + metallic: cf. F. bim\'82tallique.]
   Of  or  relating to, or using, a double metallic standard (as gold and
   silver) for a system of coins or currency.


   Bi*met"al*lism  (?),  n. [F. bim\'82talisme.] The legalized use of two
   metals  (as  gold and silver) in the currency of a country, at a fixed
   relative value; -- in opposition to monometallism.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e wo rds bi m\'82tallisme and monom\'82tallisme are
     due to M. Cernuschi [1869].



   Bi*met"al*list (?), n. An advocate of bimetallism.


   Bi*month"ly (?), a. [Pref. bi- + monthly.] Occurring, done, or coming,
   once  in  two months; as, bimonthly visits; bimonthly publications. --
   n. A bimonthly publication.


   Bi*month"ly, adv. Once in two months.


   Bi*mus"cu*lar  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + muscular.] (Zo\'94l.) Having two
   adductor muscles, as a bivalve mollusk.


   Bin  (?), n. [OE. binne, AS. binn manager, crib; perh. akin to D. ben,
   benne, basket, and to L. benna a kind of carriage ( a Gallic word), W.
   benn, men, wain, cart.] A box, frame, crib, or inclosed place, used as
   a  receptacle  for  any  commodity; as, a corn bin; a wine bin; a coal


   Bin,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Binned (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Binning.] To put
   into a bin; as, to bin wine.


   Bin. An old form of Be and Been. [Obs.]


   Bin*. A euphonic form of the prefix Bi-.


   Bi"nal (?), a. [See Binary.] Twofold; double. [R.] "Binal revenge, all
   this." Ford.


   Bin`ar*se"ni*ate  (?),  n.  [Pref.  bin-  + arseniate.] (Chem.) A salt
   having two equivalents of arsenic acid to one of the base. Graham.


   Bi"na*ry (?), a. [L. binarius, fr. bini two by two, two at a time, fr.
   root  of  bis  twice;  akin  to E. two: cf. F. binaire.] Compounded or
   consisting  of  two  things  or  parts; characterized by two (things).
   Binary  arithmetic,  that  in which numbers are expressed according to
   the  binary scale, or in which two figures only, 0 and 1, are used, in
   lieu  of  ten;  the cipher multiplying everything by two, as in common
   arithmetic  by  ten.  Thus,  1  is one; 10 is two; 11 is three; 100 is
   four,  etc.  Davies  & Peck. -- Binary compound (Chem.), a compound of
   two  elements, or of an element and a compound performing the function
   of  an  element,  or  of  two  compounds  performing  the  function of
   elements.  --  Binary  logarithms,  a  system of logarithms devised by
   Euler  for  facilitating musical calculations, in which 1 is logarithm
   of  2,  instead  of  10,  as in the common logarithms, and the modulus
   1.442695  instead  of  .43429448.  --  Binary  measure (Mus.), measure
   divisible  by  two  or four; common time. -- Binary nomenclature (Nat.
   Hist.),  nomenclature  in  which  the  names  designate both genus and
   species.  --  Binary scale (Arith.), a uniform scale of notation whose
   ratio  is  two.  -- Binary star (Astron.), a double star whose members
   have  a  revolution  round  their  common center of gravity. -- Binary
   theory  (Chem.), the theory that all chemical compounds consist of two
   constituents of opposite and unlike qualities.


   Bi"na*ry,  n.  That  which  is  constituted of two figures, things, or
   parts; two; duality. Fotherby.


   Bi"nate (?), a. [L. bini two and two.] (Bot.) Double; growing in pairs
   or couples. Gray.


   Bin*au"ral  (?), a. [Pref. bin- + aural.] Of or pertaining to, or used
   by, both ears.


   Bind (?), v. t. [imp. Bound (?); p. p. Bound, formerly Bounden (#); p.
   pr.  & vb. n. Binding.] [AS. bindan, perfect tense band, bundon, p. p.
   bunden;  akin  to D. & G. binden, Dan. binde, Sw. & Icel. binda, Goth.
   bindan,  Skr. bandh (for bhandh) to bind, cf. Gr. (for ) cable, and L.
   offendix. &root;90.]

   1.  To  tie,  or  confine with a cord, band, ligature, chain, etc.; to
   fetter;  to  make  fast;  as,  to  bind  grain  in  bundles; to bind a

   2. To confine, restrain, or hold by physical force or influence of any
   kind;  as,  attraction  binds  the planets to the sun; frost binds the
   earth, or the streams.

     He bindeth the floods from overflowing. Job xxviii. 11.

     Whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years. Luke xiii. 16.

   3. To cover, as with a bandage; to bandage or dress; -- sometimes with
   up; as, to bind up a wound.

   4.  To  make  fast ( a thing) about or upon something, as by tying; to
   encircle  with  something;  as,  to  bind  a belt about one; to bind a
   compress upon a part.

   5.  To  prevent  or  restrain  from  customary  or natural action; as,
   certain drugs bind the bowels.

   6.  To  protect  or  strengthen by a band or binding, as the edge of a
   carpet or garment.

   7.  To  sew  or fasten together, and inclose in a cover; as, to bind a

   8.  Fig.:  To  oblige,  restrain,  or  hold,  by authority, law, duty,
   promise,  vow,  affection,  or  other  moral  tie;  as,  to  bind  the
   conscience;  to  bind  by kindness; bound by affection; commerce binds
   nations to each other.

     Who made our laws to bind us, not himself. Milton.

   9. (Law) (a) To bring (any one) under definite legal obligations; esp.
   under the obligation of a bond or covenant. Abbott. (b) To place under
   legal obligation to serve; to indenture; as, to bind an apprentice; --
   sometimes with out; as, bound out to service.
   To  bind  over,  to  put  under bonds to do something, as to appear at
   court, to keep the peace, etc. -- To bind to, to contract; as, to bind
   one's  self  to  a  wife.  --  To  bind  up  in, to cause to be wholly
   engrossed  with;  to  absorb  in.  Syn.  --  To  fetter;  tie; fasten;
   restrain; restrict; oblige.


   Bind (?), v. i.

   1. To tie; to confine by any ligature.

     They that reap must sheaf and bind. Shak.

   2.  To contract; to grow hard or stiff; to cohere or stick together in
   a mass; as, clay binds by heat. Mortimer.

   3.  To be restrained from motion, or from customary or natural action,
   as by friction.

   4. To exert a binding or restraining influence. Locke.


   Bind, n.

   1. That which binds or ties.

   2. Any twining or climbing plant or stem, esp. a hop vine; a bine.

   3.  (Metal.)  Indurated  clay, when much mixed with the oxide of iron.

   4. (Mus.) A ligature or tie for grouping notes.


   Bind"er (?), n.

   1. One who binds; as, a binder of sheaves; one whose trade is to bind;
   as, a binder of books.

   2.  Anything  that binds, as a fillet, cord, rope, or band; a bandage;
   --  esp.  the  principal piece of timber intended to bind together any


   Bind"er*y (?), n. A place where books, or other articles, are bound; a
   bookbinder's establishment.


   Bind"heim*ite  (?),  n.  [From  Bindheim,  a  German who analyzed it.]
   (Min.)  An  amorphous antimonate of lead, produced from the alteration
   of other ores, as from jamesonite.


   Bind"ing  (?),  a.  That  binds; obligatory. Binding beam (Arch.), the
   main  timber  in  double  flooring.  --  Binding  joist  (Arch.),  the
   secondary  timber  in  double-framed  flooring.  Syn.  --  Obligatory;
   restraining; restrictive; stringent; astringent; costive; styptic.


   Bind"ing, n.

   1. The act or process of one who, or that which, binds.

   2.  Anything  that binds; a bandage; the cover of a book, or the cover
   with  the  sewing, etc.; something that secures the edge of cloth from

   3.  pl.  (Naut.)  The transoms, knees, beams, keelson, and other chief
   timbers used for connecting and strengthening the parts of a vessel.


   Bind"ing*ly, adv. So as to bind.


   Bind"ing*ness,   n.  The  condition  or  property  of  being  binding;
   obligatory quality. Coleridge.


   Bind"weed`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  plant  of  the genus Convolvulus; as,
   greater  bindweed  (C.  Sepium);  lesser  bindweed  (C. arvensis); the
   white,  the blue, the Syrian, bindweed. The black bryony, or Tamus, is
   called black bindweed, and the Smilax aspera, rough bindweed.

     The fragile bindweed bells and bryony rings. Tennyson.


   Bine  (?),  n.  [Bind, cf. Woodbine.] The winding or twining stem of a
   hop vine or other climbing plant.


   Bi*nerv"ate (?), a. [L. bis twice + nervus sinew, nerve.]

   1. (Bot.) Two-nerved; -- applied to leaves which have two longitudinal
   ribs or nerves.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Having only two nerves, as the wings of some insects.


   Bing  (?),  n. [Cf. Icel. bingr, Sw. binge, G. beige, beuge. Cf. Prov.
   E.  bink  bench, and bench coal the uppermost stratum of coal.] A heap
   or  pile; as, a bing of wood. "Potato bings." Burns. "A bing of corn."
   Surrey. [Obs. or Dial. Eng. & Scot.]


   Bin*i"o*dide (?), n. Same as Diiodide.


   Bink (?), n. A bench. [North of Eng. & Scot.]


   Bin"na*cle  (?),  n.  [For  bittacle, corrupted (perh. by influence of
   bin) fr. Pg. bitacola binnacle, fr. L. habitaculum dwelling place, fr.
   habitare to dwell. See Habit, and cf. Bittacle.] (Naut.) A case or box
   placed  near  the  helmsman,  containing  the compass of a ship, and a
   light to show it at night. Totten.


   Bin"ny  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A large species of barbel (Barbus bynni),
   found in the Nile, and much esteemed for food.


   Bin"o*cle  (?),  n.  [F. binocle; L. bini two at a time + oculus eye.]
   (Opt.)  A  dioptric telescope, fitted with two tubes joining, so as to
   enable  a  person  to  view  an  object  with  both  eyes  at  once; a
   double-barreled field glass or an opera glass.


   Bin*oc"u*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. binoculaire. See Binocle.]

   1. Having two eyes. "Most animals are binocular." Derham.

   2. Pertaining to both eyes; employing both eyes at once; as, binocular

   3.  Adapted  to  the  use  of both eyes; as, a binocular microscope or
   telescope. Brewster.


   Bin*oc"u*lar   (?),   n.  A  binocular  glass,  whether  opera  glass,
   telescope, or microscope.


   Bin*oc"u*lar*ly, adv. In a binocular manner.


   Bin*oc"u*late (?), a. Having two eyes.


   Bi*no"mi*al  (?),  n.  [L.  bis twice + nomen name: cf. F. binome, LL.
   binomius  (or  fr. bi- + Gr. distribution ?). Cf. Monomial.] (Alg.) An
   expression  consisting  of two terms connected by the sign plus (+) or
   minus (-); as, a+b, or 7-3.


   Bi*no"mi*al, a.

   1.  Consisting  of  two terms; pertaining to binomials; as, a binomial

   2. (Nat. Hist.) Having two names; -- used of the system by which every
   animal and plant receives two names, the one indicating the genus, the
   other the species, to which it belongs.
   Binomial  theorem  (Alg.),  the  theorem  which  expresses  the law of
   formation of any power of a binomial.


   Bi*nom"i*nal  (?),  a.  [See Binomial.] Of or pertaining to two names;


   Bi*nom"i*nous (?), a. Binominal. [Obs.]


   Bi*not"o*nous (?), a. [L. bini two at a time + tonus, fr. Gr. , tone.]
   Consisting of two notes; as, a binotonous cry.


   Bi"nous (?), a. Same as Binate.


   Bin*ox"a*late  (?),  n.  [Pref. bin- + oxalate.] (Chem.) A salt having
   two equivalents of oxalic acid to one of the base; an acid oxalate.


   Bin*ox"ide (?), n. [Pref. bin- + oxide.] (Chem.) Same as Dioxide.


   Bin"tu*rong  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small Asiatic civet of the genus

                             Binuclear, Binucleate

   Bi*nu"cle*ar   (?),  Bi*nu"cle*ate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  nuclear,
   nucleate.] (Biol.) Having two nuclei; as, binucleate cells.


   Bi*nu"cle*o*late  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + nucleolus.] (Biol.) Having two


   Bi"o*blast (?), n. [Gr. life + -blast.] (Biol.) Same as Bioplast.


   Bi*oc"el*late  (?),  a.  [L.  bis  twice  + ocellatus. See Ocellated.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Having two ocelli (eyelike spots); -- said of a wing, etc.


   Bi`o*chem"is*try  (?),  n.  [Gr.  life  +  E.  chemistry.] (Biol.) The
   chemistry   of  living  organisms;  the  chemistry  of  the  processes
   incidental to, and characteristic of, life.


   Bi`o*dy*nam"ics (?), n. [Gr. life + E. dynamics.] (Biol.) The doctrine
   of vital forces or energy.


   Bi"o*gen (?), n. [Gr. life + -gen.] (Biol.) Bioplasm.

                              Biogenesis, Biogeny

   Bi`o*gen"e*sis (?), Bi*og"e*ny (?), n. [Gr. life + , , birth.] (Biol.)
   (a)  A doctrine that the genesis or production of living organisms can
   take  place  only  through  the  agency of living germs or parents; --
   opposed to abiogenesis. (b) Life development generally.


   Bi`o*ge*net"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Pertaining to biogenesis.


   Bi*og"e*nist (?), n. A believer in the theory of biogenesis.


   Bi`og*no"sis   (?),   n.  [Gr.  life  +  investigation.]  (Biol.)  The
   investigation of life.


   Bi*og"ra*pher (?), n. One who writes an account or history of the life
   of a particular person; a writer of lives, as Plutarch.

                           Biographic, Biographical

   Bi"o*graph"ic  (?),  Bi`o*graph"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to
   biography; containing biography. -- Bi`o*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Bi*og"ra*phize (?), v. t. To write a history of the life of. Southey.


   Bi*og"ra*phy (?), n.; pl. Biographies (#). [Gr. ; life + to write: cf.
   F. biographie. See Graphic.]

   1. The written history of a person's life.

   2. Biographical writings in general.

                             Biologic, Biological

   Bi`o*log"ic  (?), Bi`o*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or relating to biology. --
   Bi`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Bi*ol"o*gist  (?),  n. A student of biology; one versed in the science
   of biology.


   Bi*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. life + -logy: cf. F. biologie.] The science of
   life;  that  branch  of  knowledge  which  treats  of living matter as
   distinct  from matter which is not living; the study of living tissue.
   It  has  to  do with the origin, structure, development, function, and
   distribution of animals and plants.


   Bi*ol"y*sis (?), n. [Gr. life + a dissolving.] (Biol.) The destruction
   of life.


   Bi`o*lyt"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  life  +  to  destroy.]  Relating  to  the
   destruction of life.


   Bi`o*mag*net"ic (?), a. Relating to biomagnetism.


   Bi`o*mag"net*ism (?), n. [Gr. life + E. magnetism.] Animal magnetism.


   Bi*om"e*try  (?),  n.  [Gr.  life  +  -metry.]  Measurement  of  life;
   calculation of the probable duration of human life.


   Bi"on   (?),  n.  [Gr.  living,  p.  pr.  of  to  live.]  (Biol.)  The
   physiological    individual,   characterized   by   definiteness   and
   independence  of  function,  in  distinction  from  the  morphological
   individual or morphon.


   Bi*on"o*my (?), n. [Gr. life + law.] Physiology. [R.] Dunglison.

                               Biophor Biophore

   Bi"o*phor`  Bi"o*phore`  (?),  n.  [Gr.  life + bearing, fr. to bear.]
   (Biol.)  One  of  the  smaller  vital  units  of a cell, the bearer of
   vitality and heredity. See Pangen, in Supplement.


   Bi"o*plasm  (?),  n.  [Gr.  life + form, mold, fr. to mold.] (Biol.) A
   name  suggested  by  Dr.  Beale for the germinal matter supposed to be
   essential  to the functions of all living beings; the material through
   which every form of life manifests itself; unaltered protoplasm.

   Page 147


   Bi`o*plas"mic (?), a. Pertaining to, or consisting of, bioplasm.


   Bi"o*plast  (?),  n.  [Gr.  life  +  to  form.] (Biol.) A tiny mass of
   bioplasm,  in  itself  a  living unit and having formative power, as a
   living white blood corpuscle; bioblast.


   Bi`o*plas"tic (?), a. (Biol.) Bioplasmic.


   Bi*or"gan  (?),  n.  [Gr.  life  +  E. organ.] (Biol.) A physiological
   organ;   a   living   organ;   an  organ  endowed  with  function;  --
   distinguished from idorgan.


   Bi`o*stat"ics (?), n. [Gr. life + . See Statics.] (Biol.) The physical
   phenomena of organized bodies, in opposition to their organic or vital


   Bi`o*sta*tis"tics  (?),  n.  [Gr. life + E. statistics.] (Biol.) Vital


   Bi"o*tax`y   (?),   n.   [Gr.   life   +   arrangement.]  (Biol.)  The
   classification  of  living  organisms  according  to  their structural
   character; taxonomy.


   Bi*ot"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr. pert. to life.] (Biol.) Relating to life; as,
   the biotic principle.


   Bi"o*tite  (?),  n.  [From  Biot,  a  French  naturalist.] (Min.) Mica
   containing  iron  and  magnesia,  generally  of  a black or dark green
   color; -- a common constituent of crystalline rocks. See Mica.


   Bi*pal"mate  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + palmate.] (Bot.) Palmately branched,
   with the branches again palmated.


   Bi`pa*ri"e*tal   (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  parietal.]  (Anat.)  Of  or
   pertaining  to the diameter of the cranium, from one parietal fossa to
   the other.


   Bip"a*rous  (?),  a.  [L. bis twice + parere to bring forth.] Bringing
   forth two at a birth.


   Bi*part"i*ble  (?),  a. [Cf. F. bipartible. See Bipartite.] Capable of
   being divided into two parts.


   Bi*par"tient  (?),  a.  [L. bis twice + partiens, p. pr. of partire to
   divide.]  Dividing into two parts. -- n. A number that divides another
   into two equal parts without a remainder.


   Bi*par"tile (?), a. Divisible into two parts.


   Bip"ar*tite  (?),  a.  [L. bipartitus, p. p. of bipartire; bis twice +
   partire. See Partite.]

   1.  Being  in  two  parts;  having two correspondent parts, as a legal
   contract  or  writing,  one  for  each  party;  shared  by  two; as, a
   bipartite treaty.

   2. Divided into two parts almost to the base, as a leaf; consisting of
   two parts or subdivisions. Gray.


   Bi`par*ti"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of  dividing into two parts, or of
   making two correspondent parts, or the state of being so divided.

                           Bipectinate, Bipectinated

   Bi*pec"ti*nate  (?), Bi*pec"ti*na`ted (?), a. [Pref. bi- + pectinate.]
   (Biol.) Having two margins toothed like a comb.


   Bi"ped  (?),  n.  [L.  bipes;  bis  twice  + pes, pedis, bip\'8ade.] A
   two-footed animal, as man.


   Bi"ped, a. Having two feet; two-footed.

     By which the man, when heavenly life was ceased, Became a helpless,
     naked, biped beast. Byrom.


   Bip"e*dal (?), a. [L. bipedalis: cf. F. bip\'82dal. See Biped, n.]

   1. Having two feet; biped.

   2. Pertaining to a biped.


   Bi*pel"tate  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + peltate.] Having a shell or covering
   like a double shield.

                             Bipennate, Bipennated

   Bi*pen"nate  (?),  Bi*pen"na*ted  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + pennate: cf. L.
   bipennis.  Cf.  Bipinnate.]  Having  two  wings. "Bipennated insects."


   Bi*pen"nis  (?),  n.  [L.] An ax with an edge or blade on each side of
   the handle.


   Bi*pet"al*ous  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  petalous.]  (Bot.) Having two


   Bi`pin*na"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  L.  bis  twice + pinna feather.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  The  larva  of  certain  starfishes  as  developed  in the
   free-swimming stage.

                             Bipinnate, Bipinnated

   Bi*pin"nate  (?),  Bi*pin"na*ted  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + pinnate; cf. F.
   bipinn\'82. Cf. Bipennate.] Twice pinnate.


   Bi`pin*nat"i*fid  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  pinnatifid.] (Bot.) Doubly

     NOTE: A bi pinnatifid leaf is a pinnatifid leaf having its segments
     or  divisions  also  pinnatifid. The primary divisions are pinn\'91
     and the secondary pinnules.


   Bip"li*cate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  + plicate.] Twice folded together.


   Bi*plic"i*ty  (?),  n. The state of being twice folded; reduplication.
   [R.] Bailey.


   Bi*po"lar  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  + polar. Cf. Dipolar.] Doubly polar;
   having two poles; as, a bipolar cell or corpuscle.


   Bi`po*lar"i*ty (?), n. Bipolar quality.

                               Bipont, Bipontine

   Bi"pont  (?), Bi*pont"ine (?), a. (Bibliog.) Relating to books printed
   at Deuxponts, or Bipontium (Zweibr\'81cken), in Bavaria.


   Bi*punc"tate  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + punctate.] Having two punctures, or


   Bi*punc"tu*al (?), a. Having two points.


   Bi*pu"pil*late  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + pupil (of the eye).] (Zo\'94l.)
   Having  an  eyelike  spot  on  the  wing, with two dots within it of a
   different color, as in some butterflies.


   Bi`py*ram"i*dal  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + pyramidal.] Consisting of two
   pyramids  placed  base  to  base;  having  a  pyramid  at  each of the
   extremities of a prism, as in quartz crystals.


   Bi*quad"rate (?), n. [Pref. bi- + quadrate.] (Math.) The fourth power,
   or  the  square  of  the  square.  Thus  4x4=16,  the square of 4, and
   16x16=256, the biquadrate of 4.


   Bi`quad*rat"ic  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + quadratic: cf. F. biquadratique.]
   (Math.)   Of  or  pertaining  to  the  biquadrate,  or  fourth  power.
   Biquadratic  equation  (Alg.), an equation of the fourth degree, or an
   equation  in  some term of which the unknown quantity is raised to the
   fourth  power. -- Biquadratic root of a number, the square root of the
   square  root  of that number. Thus the square root of 81 is 9, and the
   square root of 9 is 3, which is the biquadratic root of 81. Hutton.
   Bi`quad*rat"ic,  n.  (Math.)  (a)  A  biquadrate.  (b)  A  biquadratic


   Bi*quin"tile  (?),  n.  [Pref.  bi-  +  quintile:  cf. F. biquintile.]
   (Astron.)  An  aspect  of  the planets when they are distant from each
   other  by  twice the fifth part of a great circle -- that is, twice 72

                             Biradiate, Biradiated

   Bi*ra"di*ate (?), Bi*ra"di*a`ted (?), a. [Pref. bi- + radiate.] Having
   two rays; as, a biradiate fin.


   Bi*ra"mous (?), a. [Pref. bi- + ramous.] (Biol.) Having, or consisting
   of, two branches.


   Birch  (?),  n.; pl. Birches (#). [OE. birche, birk, AS. birce, beorc;
   akin  to  Icel.  bj\'94rk,  Sw.  bj\'94rk,  Dan.  birk,  D. berk, OHG.
   piricha,  MHG.  birche,  birke,  G.  birke, Russ. bereza, Pol. brzoza,
   Serv. breza, Skr. bh. &root;254. Cf. 1st Birk.]

   1.  A  tree of several species, constituting the genus Betula; as, the
   white  or  common  birch  (B. alba) (also called silver birch and lady
   birch);  the dwarf birch (B. glandulosa); the paper or canoe birch (B.
   papyracea); the yellow birch (B. lutea); the black or cherry birch (B.

   2. The wood or timber of the birch.

   3. A birch twig or birch twigs, used for flogging.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e tw igs of  th e co mmon European birch (B. alba),
     being  tough  and  slender,  were  formerly  much  used for rods in
     schools. They were also made into brooms.

     The threatening twigs of birch. Shak.

   4. A birch-bark canoe.
   Birch of Jamaica, a species (Bursera gummifera) of turpentine tree. --
   Birch  partridge.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  Ruffed grouse. -- Birch wine, wine
   made  of  the  spring  sap  of  the birch. -- Oil of birch. (a) An oil
   obtained from the bark of the common European birch (Betula alba), and
   used  in  the preparation of genuine ( and sometimes of the imitation)
   Russia  leather,  to  which  it  gives  its  peculiar odor. (b) An oil
   prepared  from  the  black birch (B. lenta), said to be identical with
   the oil of wintergreen, for which it is largely sold.


   Birch, a. Of or pertaining to the birch; birchen.


   Birch,  v.  t. [imp & p. p. Birched (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Birching.] To
   whip with a birch rod or twig; to flog.


   Birch"en (?), a. Of or relating to birch.

     He  passed  where  Newark's  stately  tower Looks out from Yarrow's
     birchen bower. Sir W. Scott.


   Bird  (?), n. [OE. brid, bred, bird, young bird, bird, AS. bridd young

   1.  Orig., a chicken; the young of a fowl; a young eaglet; a nestling;
   and hence, a feathered flying animal (see 2).

     That ungentle gull, the cuckoo's bird. Shak.

     The  brydds  [birds]  of the aier have nestes. Tyndale (Matt. viii.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  warm-blooded,  feathered  vertebrate  provided with
   wings. See Aves.

   3. Specifically, among sportsmen, a game bird.

   4. Fig.: A girl; a maiden.

     And by my word! the bonny bird In danger shall not tarry. Campbell.

   Arabian bird, the phenix. -- Bird of Jove, the eagle. -- Bird of Juno,
   the  peacock. -- Bird louse (Zo\'94l.), a wingless insect of the group
   Mallophaga,  of  which  the  genera  and species are very numerous and
   mostly  parasitic  upon  birds.  -- Bird mite (Zo\'94l.), a small mite
   (genera  Dermanyssus,  Dermaleichus  and allies) parasitic upon birds.
   The  species  are  numerous.  -- Bird of passage, a migratory bird. --
   Bird  spider  (Zo\'94l.),  a  very large South American spider (Mygale
   avicularia).  It is said sometimes to capture and kill small birds. --
   Bird  tick  (Zo\'94l.), a dipterous insect parasitic upon birds (genus
   Ornithomyia, and allies), usually winged.


   Bird (?), v. i.

   1. To catch or shoot birds.

   2. Hence: To seek for game or plunder; to thieve. [R.] B. Jonson.


   Bird"bolt`  (?),  n.  A  short  blunt  arrow for killing birds without
   piercing them. Hence: Anything which smites without penetrating. Shak.

                            Bird cage, OR Birdcage

   Bird" cage", OR Bird"cage` (?), n. A cage for confining birds.


   Bird"call` (?), n.

   1.  A  sound  made  in  imitation of the note or cry of a bird for the
   purpose of decoying the bird or its mate.

   2.  An  instrument of any kind, as a whistle, used in making the sound
   of a birdcall.


   Bird"catch`er  (?),  n.  One  whose employment it is to catch birds; a


   Bird"catch`ing,  n.  The  art, act, or occupation or catching birds or
   wild fowls.

                                  Bird cherry

   Bird"  cher`ry  (?).  (Bot.) A shrub (Prunus Padus ) found in Northern
   and Central Europe. It bears small black cherries.


   Bird"er (?), n. A birdcatcher.


   Bird"-eyed` (?), a. Quick-sighted; catching a glance as one goes.

                                 Bird fancier

   Bird" fan`ci*er (?).

   1.  One  who  takes  pleasure in rearing or collecting rare or curious

   2.  One  who has for sale the various kinds of birds which are kept in


   Bird"ie (?), n. A pretty or dear little bird; -- a pet name. Tennyson.


   Bird"i*kin (?), n. A young bird. Thackeray.


   Bird"ing,  n.  Birdcatching or fowling. Shak. Birding piece, a fowling
   piece. Shak.


   Bird"let, n. A little bird; a nestling.


   Bird"like` (?), a. Resembling a bird.


   Bird"lime`  (?),  n.  [Bird  +  lime  viscous substance.] An extremely
   adhesive  viscid  substance,  usually  made  of the middle bark of the
   holly,  by  boiling,  fermenting,  and  cleansing  it.  When a twig is
   smeared  with  this substance it will hold small birds which may light
   upon it. Hence: Anything which insnares.

     Not birdlime or Idean pitch produce A more tenacious mass of clammy
     juice. Dryden.

     NOTE: &hand; Birdlime is also made from mistletoe, elder, etc.


   Bird"lime`,  v.  t. To smear with birdlime; to catch with birdlime; to

     When  the heart is thus birdlimed, then it cleaves to everything it
     meets with. Coodwin.


   Bird"ling, n. A little bird; a nestling.


   Bird"man (?), n. A fowler or birdcatcher.

                               Bird of paradise

   Bird" of par"a*dise (?). (Zo\'94l.) The name of several very beautiful
   birds  of the genus Paradisea and allied genera, inhabiting New Guinea
   and  the  adjacent  islands.  The males have brilliant colors, elegant
   plumes, and often remarkable tail feathers.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Gr eat em erald (P aradisea apoda) and the Lesser
     emerald  (P. minor) furnish many of the plumes used as ornaments by
     ladies;  the  Red  is  P. rubra or sanguinea; the Golden is Parotia
     aurea  or  sexsetacea;  the King is Cincinnurus regius. The name is
     also  applied  to  the longer-billed birds of another related group
     (Epimachin\'91)  from the same region. The Twelve-wired (Seleucides
     alba) is one of these. See Paradise bird, and Note under Apod.

                                  Bird pepper

   Bird"  pep`per  (?).  A species of capsicum (Capsicum baccatum), whose
   small,  conical,  coral-red fruit is among the most piquant of all red


   Bird's"-beak`  (?),  n.  (Arch.) A molding whose section is thought to
   resemble a beak.


   Bird"seed` (?), n. Canary seed, hemp, millet or other small seeds used
   for feeding caged birds.


   Bird's"-eye` (?), a.

   1.  Seen  from  above,  as  if by a flying bird; embraced at a glance;
   hence, generalas, a bird's-eye view.

   2.  Marked  with  spots resembling bird's eyes; as, bird's-eye diaper;
   bird's-eye maple.


   Bird's"-eye`,  n.  (Bot.)  A  plant with a small bright flower, as the
   Adonis  or  pheasant's eye, the mealy primrose (Primula farinosa), and
   species of Veronica, Geranium, etc.

                               Bird's-eye maple

   Bird's"-eye` ma"ple (?). See under Maple.


   Bird's"-foot`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A papilionaceous plant, the Ornithopus,
   having  a curved, cylindrical pod tipped with a short, clawlike point.
   Bird's-foot  trefoil.  (Bot.)  (a)  A  genus  of  plants  (Lotus) with
   clawlike pods. L. corniculatas, with yellow flowers, is very common in
   Great  Britain. (b) the related plant, Trigonella ornithopodioides, is
   also European.


   Bird's-mouth`  (?),  n. (Arch.) An interior acrow's-foot in the United

                          Bird's nest, OR Bird's-nest

   Bird's" nest`, OR Bird's-nest (?), n.

   1. The nest in which a bird lays eggs and hatches her young.

   2.  (Cookery)  The  nest  of  a small swallow (Collocalia nidifica and
   several allied species), of China and the neighboring countries, which
   is mixed with soups.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e nests are found in caverns and fissures of cliffs
     on  rocky  coasts, and are composed in part of alg\'91. They are of
     the  size  of a goose egg, and in substance resemble isinglass. See
     Illust. under Edible.

   Page 148

   3.  (Bot.) An orchideous plant with matted roots, of the genus Neottia
   (N. nidus-avis.)
   Bird's-nest pudding, a pudding containing apples whose cores have been
   replaces  by  sugar.  --  Yellow  bird's  nest, a plant, the Monotropa
   Bird's-nest`ing  (?), n. Hunting for, or taking, birds' nests or their


   Bird's"-tongue` (?), n. (Bot.) The knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare).


   Bird"-wit`ted  (?),  a.  Flighty;  passing rapidly from one subject to
   another; not having the faculty of attention. Bacon.


   Bi`rec*tan"gu*lar  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + rectangular.] Containing or
   having two right angles; as, a birectangular spherical triangle.


   Bi"reme (?), n. [L. biremis; bis twice + remus oar: cf. F. bir\'8ame.]
   An ancient galley or vessel with two banks or tiers of oars.


   Bi*ret"ta (?), n. Same as Berretta.


   Bir"gan*der (?), n. See Bergander.


   Birk  (?),  n.  [See Birch, n.] A birch tree. [Prov. Eng.] "The silver
   birk." Tennyson.


   Birk, n. (Zo\'94l.) A small European minnow (Leuciscus phoxinus).


   Birk"en  (?),  v.  t.  [From  1st  Birk.] To whip with a birch or rod.


   Birk"en, a. Birchen; as, birken groves. Burns.


   Bir"kie (?), n. A lively or mettlesome fellow. [Jocular, Scot.] Burns.


   Birl  (?), v. t. & i. To revolve or cause to revolve; to spin. [Scot.]
   Sir W. Scott.


   Birl (?), v. t. & i. [AS. byrlian. To pour (beer or wine); to ply with
   drink; to drink; to carouse. [Obs. or Dial.] Skelton.


   Bir"law  (?),  n.  [See  By-law.]  (Law)  A  law  made  by  husbandmen
   respecting  rural  affairs;  a rustic or local law or by-law. [Written
   also byrlaw, birlie, birley.]

                            Birostrate, Birostrated

   Bi*ros`trate  (?),  Bi*ros"tra*ted  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + rostrate.]
   Having a double beak, or two processes resembling beaks.

     The capsule is bilocular and birostrated. Ed. Encyc.


   Birr  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Birred (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Birring.]
   [Cf.  OE.  bur,  bir,  wind,  storm  wind,  fr. Icel. byrr wind. Perh.
   imitative.]  To  make, or move with, a whirring noise, as of wheels in


   Birr, n.

   1. A whirring sound, as of a spinning wheel.

   2. A rush or impetus; force.


   Bir"rus  (?), n. [LL., fr. L. birrus a kind of cloak. See Berretta.] A
   coarse  kind  of  thick  woolen  cloth, worn by the poor in the Middle
   Ages;  also,  a woolen cap or hood worn over the shoulders or over the


   Birse (?), n. A bristle or bristles. [Scot.]


   Birt  (?),  n.  [OE.  byrte;  cf.  F.  bertonneau.  Cf.  Bret,  Burt.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  fish of the turbot kind; the brill. [Written also burt,
   bret, or brut.] [Prov. Eng.]


   Birth  (?), n. [OE. burth, birth, AS. beor, gebyrd, fr. beran to bear,
   bring forth; akin to D. geboorate, OHG. burt, giburt, G. geburt, Icel.
   bur,  Skr.  bhrti  bearing,  supporting; cf. Ir. & Gael. beirthe born,
   brought forth. Bear, and cf. Berth.]

   1. The act or fact of coming into life, or of being born; -- generally
   applied to human beings; as, the birth of a son.

   2.   Lineage;   extraction;  descent;  sometimes,  high  birth;  noble

     Elected  without reference to birth, but solely for qualifications.

   3. The condition to which a person is born; natural state or position;
   inherited disposition or tendency.

     A foe by birth to Troy's unhappy name. Dryden.

   4. The act of bringing forth; as, she had two children at a birth. "At
   her next birth." Milton.

   5.  That  which  is  born;  that  which is produced, whether animal or

     Poets are far rarer births that kings. B. Jonson.

     Others hatch their eggs and tend the birth till it is able to shift
     for itself. Addison.

   6. Origin; beginning; as, the birth of an empire.
   New  birth  (Theol.), regeneration, or the commencement of a religious
   life. Syn. -- Parentage; extraction; lineage; race; family.


   Birth, n. See Berth. [Obs.] De Foe.


   Birth"day` (?), n.

   1. The day in which any person is born; day of origin or commencement.

     Those   barbarous   ages  past,  succeeded  next  The  birthday  of
     invention. Cowper.

   2.  The  day  of  the  month  in  which a person was born, in whatever
   succeeding year it may recur; the anniversary of one's birth.

     This is my birthday; as this very day Was Cassius born. Shak.


   Birth"day`,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  day  of  birth,  or  its
   anniversary; as, birthday gifts or festivities.


   Birth"dom  (?),  n.  [Birth  +  -dom.]  The land of one's birth; one's
   inheritance. [R.] Shak.


   Birth"ing,  n.  (Naut.)  Anything  added to raise the sides of a ship.


   Birth"less, a. Of mean extraction. [R.] Sir W. Scott.


   Birth"mark`  (?),  n.  Some  peculiar  mark  or blemish on the body at

     Most  part  of  this  noble  lineage  carried upon their body for a
     natural birthmark, . . . a snake. Sir T. North.


   Birth"night`  (?),  n.  The  night  in  which  a  person  is born; the
   anniversary of that night in succeeding years.

     The  angelic  song in Bethlehem field, On thy birthnight, that sung
     thee Savior born. Milton.


   Birth"place`  (?),  n.  The  town, city, or country, where a person is
   born;  place  of  origin  or  birth,  in  its more general sense. "The
   birthplace of valor." Burns.


   Birth"right`  (?),  n.  Any right, privilege, or possession to which a
   person  is  entitled by birth, such as an estate descendible by law to
   an  heir,  or civil liberty under a free constitution; esp. the rights
   or inheritance of the first born.

     Lest there be any . . . profane person, as Esau, who for one morsel
     of meat sold his birthright. Heb. xii. 16.


   Birth"root` (?), n. (Bot.) An herbaceous plant (Trillium erectum), and
   its astringent rootstock, which is said to have medicinal properties.


   Birth"wort`  (?),  n.  A  genus  of  herbs  and shrubs (Aristolochia),
   reputed to have medicinal properties.


   Bis  (?),  adv. [L. bis twice, for duis, fr. root of duo two. See Two,
   and cf. Bi-.] Twice; -- a word showing that something is, or is to be,
   repeated; as a passage of music, or an item in accounts.


   Bis*, pref. A form of Bi-, sometimes used before s, c, or a vowel.

                                 Bisa antelope

   Bi"sa an"te*lope (?). (Zo\'94l.) See Oryx.


   Bi*sac"cate  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + saccate.] (Bot.) Having two little
   bags, sacs, or pouches.


   Bis*cay"an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Biscay in Spain. -- n. A native
   or inhabitant of Biscay.


   Bis"co*tin  (?),  n.  [F. biscotin. See Biscuit.] A confection made of
   flour, sugar, marmalade, and eggs; a sweet biscuit.


   Bis"cuit  (?),  n.  [F.  biscuit  (cf. It. biscotto, Sp. bizcocho, Pg.
   biscouto),  fr. L. bis twice + coctus, p. p. of coquere to cook, bake.
   See Cook, and cf. Bisque a kind of porcelain.]

   1.  A  kind  of  unraised  bread,  of many varieties, plain, sweet, or
   fancy, formed into flat cakes, and bakes hard; as, ship biscuit.

     According  to military practice, the bread or biscuit of the Romans
     was twice prepared in the oven. Gibbon.

   2.  A small loaf or cake of bread, raised and shortened, or made light
   with  soda  or  baking  powder. Usually a number are baked in the same
   pan, forming a sheet or card.

   3.  Earthen  ware  or  porcelain which has undergone the first baking,
   before it is subjected to the glazing.

   4.  (Sculp.)  A  species of white, unglazed porcelain, in which vases,
   figures, and groups are formed in miniature.
   Meat   biscuit,   an  alimentary  preparation  consisting  of  matters
   extracted  from  meat  by boiling, or of meat ground fine and combined
   with flour, so as to form biscuits.


   Bi*scu"tate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  scutate.] (Bot.) Resembling two
   bucklers placed side by side.


   Bise  (?),  n.  [F.]  A cold north wind which prevails on the northern
   coasts  of  the  Mediterranean and in Switzerland, etc.; -- nearly the
   same as the mistral.


   Bise (?), n. (Paint.) See Bice.


   Bi*sect"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bisected;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Bisecting.] [L. bis twice + secare, sectum, to cut.]

   1. To cut or divide into two parts.

   2. (Geom.) To divide into two equal parts.


   Bi*sec"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. bissection.] Division into two parts, esp.
   two equal parts.


   Bi*sec"tor  (?),  n.  One  who, or that which, bisects; esp. (Geom.) a
   straight line which bisects an angle.


   Bi*sec"trix  (?),  n.  The  line bisecting the angle between the optic
   axes of a biaxial crystal.


   Bi*seg"ment (?), n. [Pref. bi- + segment.] One of tow equal parts of a
   line, or other magnitude.


   Bi*sep"tate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  + septate.] With two partitions or
   septa. Gray.

                              Biserial, Biseriate

   Bi*se"ri*al  (?),  Bi*se"ri*ate (?), a. [Pref. bi- + serial, seriate.]
   In two rows or series.


   Bi*ser"rate (?), a. [Pref. bi- + serrate.]

   1. (Bot.) Doubly serrate, or having the serratures serrate, as in some

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Serrate on both sides, as some antenn\'91.

                              Bisetose, Bisetous

   Bi*se"tose  (?),  Bi*se"tous  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + setose, setous.]
   Having two bristles.


   Bi*sex"ous  (?),  a.  [L.  bis  twice  +  sexus  sex: cf. F. bissexe.]
   Bisexual. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Bi*sex"u*al  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  sexual.] (Biol.) Of both sexes;
   hermaphrodite;  as  a  flower  with  stamens  and pistil, or an animal
   having ovaries and testes.


   Bi*sex"u*ous (?), a. Bisexual.


   Bi*seye"  (?),  p.  p.  of  Besee.  [Obs.]  Chaucer.  Evil biseye, ill
   looking. [Obs.]


   Bish (?), n. Same as Bikh.


   Bish"op (?), n. [OE. bischop, biscop, bisceop, AS. bisceop, biscop, L.
   episcopus   overseer,   superintendent,  bishop,  fr.  Gr.  ,  over  +
   inspector,  fr.  root  of  , , to look to, perh. akin to L. specere to
   look at. See Spy, and cf. Episcopal.]

   1. A spiritual overseer, superintendent, or director.

     Ye  were  as  sheep  going  astray;  but  are now returned unto the
     Shepherd and Bishop of your souls. 1 Pet. ii. 25.

     It  is a fact now generally recognized by theologians of all shades
     of  opinion,  that  in  the  language of the New Testament the same
     officer  in  the  church  is  called indifferently "bishop" ( J. B.

   2.  In the Roman Catholic, Greek, and Anglican or Protestant Episcopal
   churches,  one ordained to the highest order of the ministry, superior
   to  the  priesthood,  and  generally claiming to be a successor of the
   Apostles.  The  bishop  is  usually  the  spiritual head or ruler of a
   diocese, bishopric, or see.
   Bishop  in  partibus [infidelium] (R. C. Ch.), a bishop of a see which
   does  not  actually  exist;  one who has the office of bishop, without
   especial  jurisdiction. Shipley. -- Titular bishop (R. C. Ch.), a term
   officially  substituted  in  1882  for bishop in partibus. -- Bench of
   Bishops. See under Bench.

   3.  In  the  Methodist  Episcopal  and some other churches, one of the
   highest church officers or superintendents.

   4.  A  piece  used in the game of chess, bearing a representation of a
   bishop's miter; -- formerly called archer.

   5.  A beverage, being a mixture of wine, oranges or lemons, and sugar.

   6. An old name for a woman's bustle. [U. S.]

     If,  by  her  bishop,  or  her  "grace" alone, A genuine lady, or a
     church, is known. Saxe.


   Bish"op, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bishoped (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bishoping.]
   To  admit  into  the  church  by  confirmation;  to confirm; hence, to
   receive formally to favor.


   Bish"op  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bishoped (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bishoping.]  [From  the  name of the scoundrel who first practiced it.
   Youatt.]  (Far.)  To make seem younger, by operating on the teeth; as,
   to bishop an old horse or his teeth.

     NOTE: The pl an adopted is to cut off all the nippers with a saw to
     the  proper length, and then with a cutting instrument the operator
     scoops  out  an  oval  cavity  in  the  corner  nippers,  which  is
     afterwards burnt with a hot iron until it is black. J. H. Walsh.


   Bish"op*dom  (?),  n.  Jurisdiction  of  a bishop; episcopate. "Divine
   right of bishopdom." Milton.


   Bish"op*like`  (?),  a.  Resembling  a  bishop; belonging to a bishop.


   Bish"op*ly, a. Bishoplike; episcopal. [Obs.]


   Bish"op*ly, adv. In the manner of a bishop. [Obs.]


   Bish"op*ric  (?),  n.  [AS.  bisceopr\'c6ce;  bisceop bishop + r\'c6ce
   dominion. See -ric.]

   1.  A  diocese;  the  district over which the jurisdiction of a bishop

   2.  The  office  of a spiritual overseer, as of an apostle, bishop, or
   presbyter. Acts i. 20.

                                 Bishop's cap

   Bish"op's  cap`  (?).  (Bot.) A plant of the genus Mitella; miterwort.

                                 Bishop sleeve

   Bish"op sleeve` (?). A wide sleeve, once worn by women.

                                Bishop's length

   Bish"op's  length`  (?).  A  canvas  for a portrait measuring 58 by 94
   inches. The half bishop measures 45 of 56.


   Bish"op-stool` (?), n. A bishop's seat or see.


   Bish"op's-weed` (?), n. (Bot.) (a) An umbelliferous plant of the genus
   Ammi. (b) Goutweed (\'92gopodium podagraria).


   Bish"op's-wort`  (?),  n. (Bot.) Wood betony (Stachys betonica); also,
   the    plant    called   fennel   flower   (Nigella   Damascena),   or


   Bis"ie (?), v. t. To busy; to employ. [Obs.]


   Bi*sil"i*cate  (?),  n. (Min. Chem.) A salt of metasilicic acid; -- so
   called  because the ratio of the oxygen of the silica to the oxygen of
   the  base  is  as two to one. The bisilicates include many of the most
   common and important minerals.


   Bisk  (?), n. [F. bisque.] Soup or broth made by boiling several sorts
   of flesh together. King.


   Bisk, n. [F. bisque.] (Tennis) See Bisque.

                                Bismare, Bismer

   Bi*smare"  (?),  Bi*smer"  (?),  n. [AS. bismer.] Shame; abuse. [Obs.]


   Bis"mer (?), n.

   1. A rule steelyard. [Scot.]

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The fifteen-spined (Gasterosteus spinachia).


   Bis*mil"lah  (?),  interj. [Arabic, in the name of God!] An adjuration
   or exclamation common among the Mohammedans. [Written also Bizmillah.]


   Bis"mite (?), n. (Min.) Bismuth trioxide, or bismuth ocher.


   Bis"muth  (?), n. [Ger. bismuth, wismuth: cf. F. bismuth.] (Chem.) One
   of  the  elements;  a metal of a reddish white color, crystallizing in
   rhombohedrons.  It  is  somewhat harder than lead, and rather brittle;
   masses  show  broad  cleavage surfaces when broken across. It melts at
   507  Fahr.,  being easily fused in the flame of a candle. It is found
   in  a  native  state,  and as a constituent of some minerals. Specific
   gravity 9.8. Atomic weight 207.5. Symbol Bi.

     NOTE: &hand; Ch emically, bi smuth (w ith ar senic an d antimony is
     intermediate  between  the  metals  and  nonmetals;  it  is used in
     thermo-electric  piles,  and  as  an alloy with lead and tin in the
     fusible  alloy  or metal. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic substance

   Bismuth  glance,  bismuth  sulphide; bismuthinite. -- Bismuth ocher, a
   native bismuth oxide; bismite.


   Bis"muth*al (?), a. Containing bismuth.


   Bis"muth*ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Of or pertaining to bismuth; containing
   bismuth,  when  this  element  has  its  higher valence; as, bismuthic


   Bis`muth*if"er*ous (?), a. [Bismuth + -ferous.] Containing bismuth.

                           Bismuthine, Bismuthinite

   Bis"muth*ine  (?), Bis"muth*in*ite (?), n. Native bismuth sulphide; --
   sometimes called bismuthite.


   Bis"muth*ous (?), a. Of, or containing, bismuth, when this element has
   its lower valence.


   Bis"muth*yl`  (?),  n.  (Min.) Hydrous carbonate of bismuth, an earthy
   mineral of a dull white or yellowish color. [Written also bismuthite.]


   Bi"son  (?),  n.  [L.  bison,  Gr.  ,  a wild ox; akin to OHG. wisunt,
   wisant,  G.  wisent,  AS.  wesend,  Icel.  v\'c6sundr:  cf. F. bison.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The aurochs or European bison. (b) The American bison
   buffalo  (Bison Americanus), a large, gregarious bovine quadruped with
   shaggy mane and short black horns, which formerly roamed in herds over
   most  of the temperate portion of North America, but is now restricted
   to very limited districts in the region of the Rocky Mountains, and is
   rapidly decreasing in numbers.

   Page 149


   Bi*spi"nose  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  spinose.] (Zo\'94l.) Having two


   Bisque (?), n. [A corruption of biscuit.] Unglazed white porcelain.


   Bisque,  n.  [F.] A point taken by the receiver of odds in the game of
   tennis; also, an extra innings allowed to a weaker player in croquet.


   Bisque, n. [F.] A white soup made of crayfish.


   Bis*sex"tile  (?),  n.  [L.  bissextilis  annus,  fr. bissextus (bis +
   sextus  sixth,  fr.  sex  six)  the  sixth of the calends of March, or
   twenty-fourth  day  of February, which was reckoned twice every fourth
   year, by the intercalation of a day.] Leap year; every fourth year, in
   which a day is added to the month of February on account of the excess
   of the tropical year (365 d. 5 h. 48 m. 46 s.) above 365 days. But one
   day added every four years is equivalent to six hours each year, which
   is  11  m.  14  s. more than the excess of the real year. Hence, it is
   necessary  to  suppress the bissextile day at the end of every century
   which  is  not  divisible  by  400, while it is retained at the end of
   those which are divisible by 400.


   Bis*sex"tile, a. Pertaining to leap year.


   Bis"son  (?), a. [OE. bisen, bisne, AS. bisen, prob. for b\'c6s; bi by
   +   s   clear,  akin  to  se\'a2n  to  see;  clear  when  near,  hence
   short-sighted.  See  See.]  Purblind; blinding. [Obs.] "Bisson rheum."

                                Bister, Bistre

   Bis"ter,  Bis"tre  (?), n. [F. bistre a color made of soot; of unknown
   origin.  Cf.,  however,  LG. biester frowning, dark, ugly.] (Paint.) A
   dark brown pigment extracted from the soot of wood.


   Bi*stip"uled  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  +  stipule.]  (Bot.)  Having  two


   Bis"tort  (?), n. [L. bis + tortus, p. p. of torquere to twist: cf. F.
   bistorte.]  (Bot.) An herbaceous plant of the genus Polygonum, section
   Bistorta;  snakeweed;  adderwort.  Its  root is used in medicine as an


   Bis"tou*ry  (?),  n.;  pl.  Bistouries  (#). [F. bistouri.] A surgical
   instrument  consisting  of a slender knife, either straight or curved,
   generally  used  by introducing it beneath the part to be divided, and
   cutting towards the surface.


   Bis"tre (?), n. See Bister.


   Bi*sul"cate (?), a. [Pref. bi- + sulcate.]

   1. Having two grooves or furrows.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Cloven; said of a foot or hoof.


   Bi*sul"cous  (?),  a.  [L.  bisulcus;  bis  twice  +  sulcus  furrow.]
   Bisulcate. Sir T. Browne.


   Bi*sul"phate  (?),  n.  [Pref.  bi- + sulphate.] (Chem.) A sulphate in
   which  but  half  the  hydrogen  of the acid is replaced by a positive
   element  or  radical,  thus  making  the proportion of the acid to the
   positive or basic portion twice what it is in the normal sulphates; an
   acid sulphate.


   Bi*sul"phide (?), n. [Pref. bi- + sulphide.] (Chem.) A sulphide having
   two  atoms  of  sulphur  in  the  molecule;  a  disulphide, as in iron
   pyrites, FeS2; -- less frequently called bisulphuret.


   Bi*sul"phite  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A salt of sulphurous acid in which the
   base replaces but half the hydrogen of the acid; an acid sulphite.


   Bi*sul"phu*ret   (?),   n.   [Pref.  bi-  +  sulphuret.]  (Chem.)  See


   Bit (?), n. [OE. bitt, bite, AS. bite, bite, fr. b\'c6tan to bite. See
   Bite, n. & v., and cf. Bit a morsel.]

   1.  The  part  of  a bridle, usually of iron, which is inserted in the
   mouth  of  a  horse,  and  having  appendages  to  which the reins are
   fastened. Shak.

     The foamy bridle with the bit of gold. Chaucer.

   2. Fig.: Anything which curbs or restrains.


   Bit,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bitted (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bitting.] To put
   a bridle upon; to put the bit in the mouth of.


   Bit, imp. & p. p. of Bite.


   Bit, n. [OE. bite, AS. bita, fr. b\'c6tan to bite; akin to D. beet, G.
   bissen  bit,  morsel,  Icel. biti. See Bite, v., and cf. Bit part of a

   1.  A  part  of  anything, such as may be bitten off or taken into the
   mouth; a morsel; a bite. Hence: A small piece of anything; a little; a

   2. Somewhat; something, but not very great.

     My young companion was a bit of a poet. T. Hook.

     NOTE: &hand; This word is used, also, like jot and whit, to express
     the smallest degree; as, he is not a bit wiser.

   3.  A  tool  for boring, of various forms and sizes, usually turned by
   means of a brace or bitstock. See Bitstock.

   4.  The part of a key which enters the lock and acts upon the bolt and
   tumblers. Knight.

   5. The cutting iron of a plane. Knight.

   6.  In  the  Southern and Southwestern States, a small silver coin (as
   the  real)  formerly  current; commonly, one worth about 12 1/2 cents;
   also, the sum of 12 1/2 cents.
   Bit my bit, piecemeal. Pope.


   Bit, 3d sing. pr. of Bid, for biddeth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bi*take"  (?),  v.  t.  [See Betake, Betaught.] To commend; to commit.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bi*tan"gent  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi-  + tangent.] (Geom.) Possessing the
   property  of touching at two points. -- n. A line that touches a curve
   in two points.


   Bi*tar"trate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of tartaric acid in which the base
   replaces  but  half  the  acid hydrogen; an acid tartrate, as cream of


   Bitch  (?),  n.  [OE.  biche,  bicche, AS. bicce; cf. Icel. bikkja, G.
   betze, peize.]

   1. The female of the canine kind, as of the dog, wolf, and fox.

   2. An opprobrious name for a woman, especially a lewd woman. Pope.


   Bite  (?), v. t. [imp. Bit (?); p. p. Bitten (?), Bit; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Biting.]  [OE.  biten,  AS. b\'c6tan; akin to D. bijten, OS. b\'c6tan,
   OHG. b\'c6zan, G. beissen, Goth. beitan, Icel. b\'c6ta, Sw. bita, Dan.
   bide,  L.  findere  to  cleave,  Skr.  bhid  to  cleave. &root;87. Cf.

   1.  To  seize  with  the  teeth,  so  that they enter or nip the thing
   seized;  to  lacerate,  crush, or wound with the teeth; as, to bite an
   apple; to bite a crust; the dog bit a man.

     Such  smiling  rogues  as these, Like rats, oft bite the holy cords
     atwain. Shak.

   2.  To puncture, abrade, or sting with an organ (of some insects) used
   in taking food.

   3.  To  cause  sharp  pain,  or  smarting, to; to hurt or injure, in a
   literal  or a figurative sense; as, pepper bites the mouth. "Frosts do
   bite the meads." Shak.

   4. To cheat; to trick; to take in. [Colloq.] Pope.

   5.  To  take hold of; to hold fast; to adhere to; as, the anchor bites
   the ground.

     The  last  screw  of  the rack having been turned so often that its
     purchase crumbled, . . . it turned and turned with nothing to bite.

   To bite the dust, To bite the ground, to fall in the agonies of death;
   as,  he  made  his  enemy  bite  the dust. -- To bite in (Etching), to
   corrode  or  eat  into metallic plates by means of an acid. -- To bite
   the  thumb  at  (any  one),  formerly  a mark of contempt, designed to
   provoke  a quarrel; to defy. "Do you bite your thumb at us ?" Shak. --
   To bite the tongue, to keep silence. Shak.


   Bite (?), v. i.

   1.  To  seize  something  forcibly  with  the teeth; to wound with the
   teeth; to have the habit of so doing; as, does the dog bite?

   2. To cause a smarting sensation; to have a property which causes such
   a sensation; to be pungent; as, it bites like pepper or mustard.

   3. To cause sharp pain; to produce anguish; to hurt or injure; to have
   the property of so doing.

     At  the  last  it  [wine] biteth like serpent, and stingeth like an
     adder. Prov. xxiii. 32.

   4.  To  take  a  bait into the mouth, as a fish does; hence, to take a
   tempting offer.

   5. To take or keep a firm hold; as, the anchor bites.


   Bite,  n.  [OE.  bite, bit, bitt, AS. bite bite, fr. b\'c6tan to bite,
   akin to Icel. bit, OS. biti, G. biss. See Bite, v., and cf. Bit.]

   1.  The act of seizing with the teeth or mouth; the act of wounding or
   separating with the teeth or mouth; a seizure with the teeth or mouth,
   as of a bait; as, to give anything a hard bite.

     I  have known a very good fisher angle diligently four or six hours
     for a river carp, and not have a bite. Walton.

   2. The act of puncturing or abrading with an organ for taking food, as
   is done by some insects.

   3.  The wound made by biting; as, the pain of a dog's or snake's bite;
   the bite of a mosquito.

   4. A morsel; as much as is taken at once by biting.

   5.  The  hold  which the short end of a lever has upon the thing to be
   lifted, or the hold which one part of a machine has upon another.

   6. A cheat; a trick; a fraud. [Colloq.]

     The  baser methods of getting money by fraud and bite, by deceiving
     and overreaching. Humorist.

   7. A sharper; one who cheats. [Slang] Johnson.

   8.  (Print.)  A  blank  on  the  edge  or corner of a page, owing to a
   portion  of  the  frisket,  or something else, intervening between the
   type and paper.


   Bit"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or  that  which,  bites;  that which bites often, or is
   inclined  to  bite,  as  a dog or fish. "Great barkers are no biters."

   2. One who cheats; a sharper. [Colloq.] Spectator.


   Bi*ter"nate  (?),  a.  [Pref. bi- + ternate.] (Bot.)Doubly ternate, as
   when  a  petiole  has  three ternate leaflets. -- Bi*ter"nate*ly, adv.


   Bi"the*ism  (?),  n.  [Pref. bi- + theism.] Belief in the existence of
   two gods; dualism.


   Bit"ing  (?),  a.  That  bites; sharp; cutting; sarcastic; caustic. "A
   biting affliction." "A biting jest." Shak.

                                   Biting in

   Bit"ing  in"  (?).  (Etching.) The process of corroding or eating into
   metallic plates, by means of an acid. See Etch. G. Francis.


   Bit"ing*ly, adv. In a biting manner.


   Bit"less (?), a. Not having a bit or bridle.


   Bit"stock` (?), n. A stock or handle for holding and rotating a bit; a


   Bitt (?), n. (Naut.) See Bitts.


   Bitt  (?),  v.  t. [See Bitts.] (Naut.) To put round the bitts; as, to
   bitt  the  cable,  in  order  to fasten it or to slacken it gradually,
   which is called veering away. Totten.


   Bit"ta*cle (?), n. A binnacle. [Obs.]


   Bit"ten (?), p. p. of Bite.


   Bit"ten  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Terminating  abruptly,  as  if  bitten off;


   Bit"ter  (?),  n.  [See  Bitts.] (Naut.) AA turn of the cable which is
   round  the  bitts. Bitter end, that part of a cable which is abaft the
   bitts, and so within board, when the ship rides at anchor.


   Bit"ter  (?),  a.  [AS. biter; akin to Goth. baitrs, Icel. bitr, Dan.,
   Sw.,  D.,  &  G. bitter, OS. bittar, fr. root of E. bite. See Bite, v.

   1. Having a peculiar, acrid, biting taste, like that of wormwood or an
   infusion of hops; as, a bitter medicine; bitter as aloes.

   2.  Causing  pain  or  smart;  piercing; painful; sharp; severe; as, a
   bitter cold day.

   3.  Causing,  or  fitted  to  cause,  pain  or  distress  to the mind;
   calamitous; poignant.

     It  is  an  evil thing and bitter, that thou hast forsaken the Lord
     thy God. Jer. ii. 19.

   4.  Characterized  by  sharpness,  severity, or cruelty; harsh; stern;
   virulent; as, bitter reproach.

     Husbands,  love  your  wives,  and be not bitter against them. Col.
     iii. 19.

   5. Mournful; sad; distressing; painful; pitiable.

     The  Egyptians . . . made their lives bitter with hard bondage. Ex.
     i. 14.

   Bitter  apple, Bitter cucumber, Bitter gourd. (Bot.) See Colocynth. --
   Bitter cress (Bot.), a plant of the genus Cardamine, esp. C. amara. --
   Bitter   earth  (Min.),  tale  earth;  calcined  magnesia.  --  Bitter
   principles  (Chem.),  a  class of substances, extracted from vegetable
   products,  having  strong  bitter  taste  but  with no sharply defined
   chemical  characteristics.  --  Bitter  salt,  Epsom salts;; magnesium
   sulphate.  --  Bitter  vetch  (Bot.),  a  name  given  to two European
   leguminous  herbs,  Vicia  Orobus  and Ervum Ervilia. -- To the bitter
   end,  to the last extremity, however calamitous. Syn. -- Acrid; sharp;
   harsh; pungent; stinging; cutting; severe; acrimonious.


   Bit"ter (?), n. Any substance that is bitter. See Bitters.


   Bit"ter, v. t. To make bitter. Wolcott.


   Bit"ter*bump` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) the butterbump or bittern.


   Bit"ter*ful (?), a. Full of bitterness. [Obs.]


   Bit"ter*ing, n. A bitter compound used in adulterating beer; bittern.


   Bit"ter*ish, a. Somewhat bitter. Goldsmith.


   Bit"ter*ling  (?),  n.  [G.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  roachlike  European  fish
   (Rhodima amarus).


   Bit"ter*ly, adv. In a bitter manner.


   Bit"tern  (?),  n.  [OE.  bitoure,  betore,  bitter,  fr. F. butor; of
   unknown  origin.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  wading  bird  of the genus Botaurus,
   allied to the herons, of various species.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e common European bittern is Botaurus stellaris. It
     makes,  during  the  brooding  season,  a  noise  called  by Dryden
     bumping,  and  by  Goldsmith  booming.  The  American bittern is B.
     lentiginosus,  and  is also called stake-driver and meadow hen. See

     NOTE: The na me is  ap plied to  ot her related birds, as the least
     bittern (Ardetta exilis), and the sun bittern.


   Bit"tern, n. [From Bitter, a.]

   1.  The brine which remains in salt works after the salt is concreted,
   having  a  bitter  taste  from  the  chloride  of  magnesium  which it

   2.  A very bitter compound of quassia, cocculus Indicus, etc., used by
   fraudulent brewers in adulterating beer. Cooley.


   Bit"ter*ness (?), n. [AS. biternys; biter better + -nys = -ness.]

   1.  The quality or state of being bitter, sharp, or acrid, in either a
   literal  or figurative sense; implacableness; resentfulness; severity;
   keenness  of reproach or sarcasm; deep distress, grief, or vexation of

     The lip that curls with bitterness. Percival.

     I will complain in the bitterness of my soul. Job vii. 11.

   2. A state of extreme impiety or enmity to God.

     Thou  art  in  the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity.
     Acts viii. 23.

   3. Dangerous error, or schism, tending to draw persons to apostasy.

     Looking  diligently, . . . lest any root of bitterness springing up
     trouble you. Heb. xii. 15.


   Bit"ter*nut",   n.   (Bot.)  The  swamp  hickory  (Carya  amara).  Its
   thin-shelled nuts are bitter.


   Bit"ter*root`  (?), n. (Bot.) A plant (Lewisia rediviva) allied to the
   purslane, but with fleshy, farinaceous roots, growing in the mountains
   of Idaho, Montana, etc. It gives the name to the Bitter Root mountains
   and river. The Indians call both the plant and the river Sp\'91t'lum.


   Bit"ters  (?), n. pl. A liquor, generally spirituous in which a bitter
   herb, leaf, or root is steeped.

                                  Bitter spar

   Bit"ter  spar" (?). A common name of dolomite; -- so called because it
   contains  magnesia,  the  soluble  salts  of  which  are  bitter.  See


   Bit"ter*sweet` (?), a. Sweet and then bitter or bitter and then sweet;
   esp.  sweet  with  a  bitter  after  taste; hence (Fig.), pleasant but


   Bit"ter*sweet`, n.

   1. Anything which is bittersweet.

   2. A kind of apple so called. Gower.

   3.  (Bot.)  (a) A climbing shrub, with oval coral-red berries (Solanum
   dulcamara);  woody nightshade. The whole plant is poisonous, and has a
   taste  at  first  sweetish  and  then  bitter.  The  branches  are the
   officinal   dulcamara.   (b)  An  American  woody  climber  (Celastrus
   scandens), whose yellow capsules open late in autumn, and disclose the
   red aril which covers the seeds; -- also called Roxbury waxwork.


   Bit"ter*weed`   (?),   n.   (Bot.)   A   species   of   Ambrosia   (A.
   artemisi\'91folia); Roman worm wood. Gray.


   Bit"ter*wood` (?), n. A West Indian tree (Picr\'91na excelsa) from the
   wood of which the bitter drug Jamaica quassia is obtained.


   Bit"ter*wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea),
   which has a very bitter taste.


   Bit"tock  (?),  n.  [See  Bit  a  morsel.] A small bit of anything, of
   indefinite size or quantity; a short distance. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

                                Bittor Bittour

   Bit"tor Bit"tour (?), n. [See Bittern] (Zo\'94l.) The bittern. Dryden.


   Bitts  (?),  n. pl. [Cf. F. bitte, Icel. biti, a beam. (Naut.) A frame
   of  two  strong  timbers  fixed  perpendicularly in the fore part of a
   ship, on which to fasten the cables as the ship rides at anchor, or in
   warping.  Other  bitts  are  used  for  belaying (belaying bitts), for
   sustaining  the  windlass  (carrick  bitts,  winch  bitts, or windlass
   bitts), to hold the pawls of the windlass (pawl bitts) etc.


   Bi*tume" (?), n. [F. See Bitumen.] Bitumen. [Poetic] May.


   Bi*tumed"  (?), a. Smeared with bitumen. [R.] "The hatches caulked and
   bitumed." Shak.


   Bi*tu"men (?), n. [L. bitumen: cf. F. bitume. Cf. B\'82ton.]

   1.  Mineral  pitch;  a  black,  tarry substance, burning with a bright
   flame;  Jew's  pitch. It occurs as an abundant natural product in many
   places,  as  on the shores of the Dead and Caspian Seas. It is used in
   cements, in the construction of pavements, etc. See Asphalt.

   Page 150

   2.  By  extension,  any one of the natural hydrocarbons, including the
   hard,  solid,  brittle  varieties called asphalt, the semisolid maltha
   and  mineral  tars,  the oily petroleums, and even the light, volatile


   Bi*tu"mi*nate  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Bituminated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bituminating.] [L. bituminatus, p. p. of bituminare to bituminate. See
   Bitumen.] To treat or impregnate with bitumen; to cement with bitumen.
   "Bituminated walls of Babylon." Feltham.


   Bi*tu`mi*nif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Bitumen + -ferous.] Producing bitumen.


   Bi*tu`mi*ni*za"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. bituminisation.] The process of
   bituminizing. Mantell.


   Bi*tu"mi*nize  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bituminized (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bituminizing.] [Cf. F. bituminiser.] To prepare, treat, impregnate, or
   coat with bitumen.


   Bi*tu"mi*nous  (?), a. [L. bituminosus: cf. F. bitumineux.] Having the
   qualities of bitumen; compounded with bitumen; containing bitumen.

     Near that bituminous lake where Sodom flamed. Milton.

   Bituminous  coal,  a  kind  of  coal  which  yields,  when  heated,  a
   considerable  amount  of  volatile  bituminous matter. It burns with a
   yellow  smoky  flame. -- Bituminous limestone, a mineral of a brown or
   black  color,  emitting  an  unpleasant  smell  when  rubbed.  That of
   Dalmatia  is  so charged with bitumen that it may be cut like soap. --
   Bituminous  shale,  an  argillaceous  shale  impregnated with bitumen,
   often accompanying coal.


   Bi"u*ret  (?),  n.  [Pref.  bi- + urea.] (Chem.) A white, crystalline,
   nitrogenous  substance,  C2O2N3H5,  formed  by  heating  urea.  It  is
   intermediate between urea and cyanuric acid.


   Biv"a*len*cy (?), n. (Chem.) The quality of being bivalent.


   Biv"a*lent  (?),  a.  [L.  bis  twice  +  valens, p. pr. See Valence.]
   (Chem.)  Equivalent  in  combining or displacing power to two atoms of
   hydrogen; dyad.


   Bi"valve (?), n. [F. bivalve; bi- (L. bis) + valve valve.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  mollusk  having  a  shell consisting of two lateral
   plates  or valves joined together by an elastic ligament at the hinge,
   which  is  usually strengthened by prominences called teeth. The shell
   is closed by the contraction of two transverse muscles attached to the
   inner  surface,  as  in  the clam, -- or by one, as in the oyster. See

   2.  (Bot.)  A pericarp in which the seed case opens or splits into two
   parts or valves.


   Bi"valve  (?),  a.  [Pref.  bi- + valve.] (Zo\'94l. & Bot.) Having two
   shells  or  valves which open and shut, as the oyster and certain seed


   Bi"valved (?), a. Having two valves, as the oyster and some seed pods;


   Bi*val"vous (?), a. Bivalvular.


   Bi*val"vu*lar (?), a. Having two valves.


   Bi*vault"ed (?), a. [Pref. bi- + vault.] Having two vaults or arches.


   Bi*vec"tor (?), n. [Pref. bi- + vector.] (Math.) A term made up of the
   two parts


   Bi*ven"tral  (?), a. [Pref. bi- + ventral.] (Anat.) Having two bellies
   or  protuberances;  as,  a  biventral,  or  digastric,  muscle, or the
   biventral lobe of the cerebellum.


   Biv"i*al (?), a. Of or relating to the bivium.


   Biv"i*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  bivius;  bis  twice  +  via way.] Having, or
   leading, two ways.

     Bivious theorems and Janus-faced doctrines. Sir T. Browne.


   Biv"i*um  (?), n. [L., a place with two ways. See Bivious.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One  side  of  an  echinoderm,  including  a  pair  of  ambulacra,  in
   distinction  from  the  opposite  side (trivium), which includes three


   Biv"ouac  (?),  n.  [F.  bivouac,  bivac,  prab.  fr.  G. beiwache, or
   beiwacht;  bei by, near + wachen to watch, wache watch, guard. See By,
   and  Watch.]  (Mil.)  (a)  The watch of a whole army by night, when in
   danger  of surprise or attack. (b) An encampment for the night without
   tents or covering.


   Biv"ouac,   v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bivouacked  (p.  pr.  &  vb.  n.
   Bivouacking.]  (Mil.) (a) To watch at night or be on guard, as a whole
   army. (b) To encamp for the night without tents or covering.


   Bi"week`ly  (?),  a. [Pref. bi- + weekly.] Occurring or appearing once
   every  two  weeks;  fortnightly.  -- n. A publication issued every two
   weeks. -- Bi"week"ly, adv.


   Bi*wreye" (?), v. t. To bewray; to reveal. [Obs.]


   Biz"an*tine (?). See Byzantine.


   Bi*zarre"  (?),  a.  [F.  bizarre odd, fr. Sp. bizarro gallant, brave,
   liberal,  prob. of Basque origin; cf. Basque bizarra beard, whence the
   meaning  manly,  brave.]  Odd  in  manner  or  appearance;  fantastic;
   whimsical; extravagant; grotesque. C. Kingsley.


   Bi*zet"   (?),  n.  [Cf.  Bezel.]  The  upper  faceted  portion  of  a
   brilliant-cut  diamond,  which  projects from the setting and occupies
   the zone between the girdle and the table. See Brilliant, n.


   Blab (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blabbed (p. pr. & vb. n. Blabbing.] [Cf.
   OE.   blaberen,  or  Dan.  blabbre,  G.  plappern,  Gael.  blabaran  a
   stammerer;  prob.  of imitative origin. Cf. also Blubber, v.] To utter
   or tell unnecessarily, or in a thoughtless manner; to publish (secrets
   or trifles) without reserve or discretion. Udall.

     And  yonder  a  vile  physician  blabbing  The case of his patient.


   Blab, v. i. To talk thoughtlessly or without discretion; to tattle; to
   tell tales.

     She must burst or blab. Dryden.


   Blab,  n. [OE. blabbe.] One who blabs; a babbler; a telltale. "Avoided
   as a blab." Milton.

     For who will open himself to a blab or a babbler. Bacon.


   Blab"ber (?), n. A tattler; a telltale.


   Black  (?),  a.  [OE.  blak,  AS.  bl\'91c; akin to Icel. blakkr dark,
   swarthy,  Sw.  bl\'84ck ink, Dan. bl\'91k, OHG. blach, LG. & D. blaken
   to burn with a black smoke. Not akin to AS. bl\'bec, E. bleak pallid.

   1.  Destitute of light, or incapable of reflecting it; of the color of
   soot  or  coal;  of  the darkest or a very dark color, the opposite of
   white;  characterized  by such a color; as, black cloth; black hair or

     O night, with hue so black! Shak.

   2.  In  a  less literal sense: Enveloped or shrouded in darkness; very
   dark or gloomy; as, a black night; the heavens black with clouds.

     I spy a black, suspicious, threatening cloud. Shak.

   3.  Fig.:  Dismal,  gloomy, or forbidding, like darkness; destitute of
   moral   light   or  goodness;  atrociously  wicked;  cruel;  mournful;
   calamitous;  horrible.  "This  day's  black  fate."  "Black villainy."
   "Arise, black vengeance." "Black day." "Black despair." Shak.

   4.  Expressing menace, or discontent; threatening; sullen; foreboding;
   as, to regard one with black looks.

     NOTE: &hand; Black is often used in self-explaining compound words;
     as, black-eyed, black-faced, black-haired, black-visaged.

   Black  act, the English statute 9 George I, which makes it a felony to
   appear  armed  in  any park or warren, etc., or to hunt or steal deer,
   etc., with the face blackened or disguised. Subsequent acts inflicting
   heavy  penalties  for  malicious injuries to cattle and machinery have
   been  called black acts. -- Black angel (Zo\'94l.), a fish of the West
   Indies  and  Florida  (Holacanthus  tricolor),  with the head and tail
   yellow,  and  the middle of the body black. -- Black antimony (Chem.),
   the  black  sulphide of antimony, Sb2S3, used in pyrotechnics, etc. --
   Black bear (Zo\'94l.), the common American bear (Ursus Americanus). --
   Black beast. See B\'88te noire. -- Black beetle (Zo\'94l.), the common
   large cockroach (Blatta orientalis). -- Black and blue, the dark color
   of a bruise in the flesh, which is accompanied with a mixture of blue.
   "To  pinch  the  slatterns  black and blue." Hudibras. -- Black bonnet
   (Zo\'94l.),   the  black-headed  bunting  (Embriza  Sch\'d2niclus)  of
   Europe.  --  Black  canker,  a  disease  in  turnips  and other crops,
   produced  by  a  species  of caterpillar. -- Black cat (Zo\'94l.), the
   fisher,  a quadruped of North America allied to the sable, but larger.
   See  Fisher.  -- Black cattle, any bovine cattle reared for slaughter,
   in  distinction  from  dairy cattle. [Eng.] -- Black cherry. See under
   Cherry. -- Black cockatoo (Zo\'94l.), the palm cockatoo. See Cockatoo.
   --  Black  copper.  Same  as  Melaconite. -- Black currant. (Bot.) See
   Currant.  --  Black  diamond.  (Min.)  See Carbonado. -- Black draught
   (Med.), a cathartic medicine, composed of senna and magnesia. -- Black
   drop  (Med.),  vinegar  of  opium;  a  narcotic preparation consisting
   essentially  of  a solution of opium in vinegar. -- Black earth, mold;
   earth  of a dark color. Woodward. -- Black flag, the flag of a pirate,
   often  bearing  in white a skull and crossbones; a signal of defiance.
   -- Black flea (Zo\'94l.), a flea beetle (Haltica nemorum) injurious to
   turnips. -- Black flux, a mixture of carbonate of potash and charcoal,
   obtained  by deflagrating tartar with half its weight of niter. Brande
   &  C.  --  Black  fly.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) In the United States, a small,
   venomous,  two-winged  fly  of  the genus Simulium of several species,
   exceedingly  abundant  and  troublesome  in  the northern forests. The
   larv\'91  are  aquatic. (b) A black plant louse, as the bean aphis (A.
   fab\'91).  -- Black Forest [a translation of G. Schwarzwald], a forest
   in  Baden  and  W\'81rtemburg,  in  Germany;  a  part  of  the ancient
   Hercynian  forest.  --  Black  game,  or  Black grouse. (Zo\'94l.) See
   Blackcock,  Grouse,  and  Heath  grouse.  --  Black  grass  (Bot.),  a
   grasslike rush of the species Juncus Gerardi, growing on salt marshes,
   and making good hay. -- Black gum (Bot.), an American tree, the tupelo
   or  pepperidge.  See  Tupelo. -- Black Hamburg (grape) (Bot.), a sweet
   and  juicy  variety  of  dark  purple or "black" grape. -- Black horse
   (Zo\'94l.), a fish of the Mississippi valley (Cycleptus elongatus), of
   the sucker family; the Missouri sucker. -- Black lemur (Zo\'94l.), the
   Lemurniger of Madagascar; the acoumbo of the natives. -- Black list, a
   list  of  persons who are for some reason thought deserving of censure
   or  punishment;  -- esp. a list of persons stigmatized as insolvent or
   untrustworthy,  made for the protection of tradesmen or employers. See
   Blacklist,  v.  t.  --  Black  manganese  (Chem.),  the black oxide of
   manganese,  MnO2.  --  Black Maria, the close wagon in which prisoners
   are  carried  to or from jail. -- Black martin (Zo\'94l.), the chimney
   swift. See Swift. -- Black moss (Bot.), the common so-called long moss
   of the southern United States. See Tillandsia. -- Black oak. See under
   Oak.  --  Black  ocher.  See Wad. -- Black pigment, a very fine, light
   carbonaceous   substance,  or  lampblack,  prepared  chiefly  for  the
   manufacture  of  printers'  ink. It is obtained by burning common coal
   tar.  -- Black plate, sheet iron before it is tinned. Knight. -- Black
   quarter,  malignant anthrax with engorgement of a shoulder or quarter,
   etc., as of an ox. -- Black rat (Zo\'94l.), one of the species of rats
   (Mus rattus), commonly infesting houses. -- Black rent. See Blackmail,
   n.,  3.  --  Black  rust,  a disease of wheat, in which a black, moist
   matter  is deposited in the fissures of the grain. -- Black sheep, one
   in  a  family or company who is unlike the rest, and makes trouble. --
   Black  silver.  (Min.) See under Silver. -- Black and tan, black mixed
   or  spotted  with  tan  color  or reddish brown; -- used in describing
   certain  breeds  of  dogs.  --  Black tea. See under Tea. -- Black tin
   (Mining),  tin  ore  (cassiterite),  when dressed, stamped and washed,
   ready  for  smelting.  It  is in the form of a black powder, like fine
   sand.  Knight.  --  Black  walnut.  See under Walnut. -- Black warrior
   (Zo\'94l.),  an  American  hawk  (Buteo Harlani). Syn. -- Dark; murky;
   pitchy;   inky;   somber;   dusky;  gloomy;  swart;  Cimmerian;  ebon;


   Black (?), adv. Sullenly; threateningly; maliciously; so as to produce


   Black, n.

   1.  That  which is destitute of light or whiteness; the darkest color,
   or rather a destitution of all color; as, a cloth has a good black.

     Black  is  the  badge of hell, The hue of dungeons, and the suit of
     night. Shak.

   2. A black pigment or dye.

   3.  A  negro;  a person whose skin is of a black color, or shaded with
   black; esp. a member or descendant of certain African races.

   4.  A black garment or dress; as, she wears black; pl. (Obs.) Mourning
   garments of a black color; funereal drapery.

     Friends weeping, and blacks, and obsequies, and the like show death
     terrible. Bacon.

     That  was  the  full time they used to wear blacks for the death of
     their fathers. Sir T. North.

   5.  The  part of a thing which is distinguished from the rest by being

     The black or sight of the eye. Sir K. Digby.

   6. A stain; a spot; a smooch.

     Defiling  her  white  lawn  of  chastity  with ugly blacks of lust.

   Black  and  white, writing or print; as, I must have that statement in
   black  and  white.  -- Blue black, a pigment of a blue black color. --
   Ivory  black,  a  fine  kind  of animal charcoal prepared by calcining
   ivory or bones. When ground it is the chief ingredient of the ink used
   in copperplate printing. -- Berlin black. See under Berlin.


   Black,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Blacked ; p. pr. & vb. n. Blacking.] [See
   Black, a., and cf. Blacken.]

   1. To make black; to blacken; to soil; to sully.

     They  have  their teeth blacked, both men and women, for they say a
     dog  hath  his  teeth  white,  therefore  they  will  black theirs.

     Sins which black thy soul. J. Fletcher.

   2.  To  make  black  and  shining,  as  boots  or a stove, by applying
   blacking and then polishing with a brush.


   Black"a*moor (?), n. [Black + Moor.] A negro or negress. Shak.

                                   Black art

   Black"   art`  (?).  The  art  practiced  by  conjurers  and  witches;
   necromancy; conjuration; magic.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is name was given in the Middle Ages to necromancy,
     under  the  idea that the latter term was derived from niger black,
     instead  of  nekro`s,  a  dead  person,  and  mantei`a, divination.


   Black"-a-vised` (?), a. Dark-visaged; swart.


   Black"ball` (?), n.

   1. A composition for blacking shoes, boots, etc.; also, one for taking
   impressions of engraved work.

   2. A ball of black color, esp. one used as a negative in voting; -- in
   this sense usually two words.


   Black"ball`,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Blackballed (; p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  vote  against,  by  putting a black ball into a ballot box; to
   reject  or  exclude,  as  by  voting  against  with  black  balls;  to

     He was blackballed at two clubs in succession. Thackeray.

   2. To blacken (leather, shoes, etc.) with blacking.


   Black"band`  (?),  n.  (Min.)  An  earthy carbonate of iron containing
   considerable carbonaceous matter; -- valuable as an iron ore.

                                  Black bass

   Black" bass` (?). (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  An  edible,  fresh-water  fish  of the United States, of the genus
   Micropterus.   the   small-mouthed   kind   is   M.  dolomie\'c6;  the
   largemouthed is M. salmoides.

   2. The sea bass. See Blackfish, 3.


   Black"ber*ry  (?), n. [OE. blakberye, AS. bl\'91cerie; bl\'91c black +
   berie  berry.]  The fruit of several species of bramble (Rubus); also,
   the  plant  itself.  Rubus fruticosus is the blackberry of England; R.
   villosus  and R. Canadensis are the high blackberry and low blackberry
   of the United States. There are also other kinds.


   Black"bird  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) In England, a species of thrush (Turdus
   merula),  a  singing  bird  with a fin note; the merle. In America the
   name  is  given to several birds, as the Quiscalus versicolor, or crow
   blackbird;  the  Agel\'91us ph\'d2niceus, or red-winged blackbird; the
   cowbird; the rusty grackle, etc. See Redwing.


   Black"board` (?), n. A broad board painted black, or any black surface
   on which writing, drawing, or the working of mathematical problems can
   be done with chalk or crayons. It is much used in schools.

                                  Black book

   Black" book` (?).

   1.  One  of  several  books  of  a  political  character, published at
   different  times  and for different purposes; -- so called either from
   the color of the binding, or from the character of the contents.

   Page 151

   2. A book compiled in the twelfth century, containing a description of
   the  court  of  exchequer  of  England,  an  official statement of the
   revenues of the crown, etc.

   3.  A  book  containing  details  of  the  enormities practiced in the
   English  monasteries  and religious houses, compiled by order of their
   visitors under Henry VIII., to hasten their dissolution.

   4.  A book of admiralty law, of the highest authority, compiled in the
   reign of Edw. III. Bouvier. Wharton.

   5.  A  book  kept  for the purpose of registering the names of persons
   liable  to  censure  or punishment, as in the English universities, or
   the English armies.

   6. Any book which treats of necromancy.


   Black"-browed`  (?),  a. Having black eyebrows. Hence: Gloomy; dismal;
   threatening; forbidding. Shak. Dryden.

                             Blackburnian warbler

   Black*bur"ni*an  war"bler  (?). [Named from Mrs. Blackburn, an English
   lady.]  (Zo\'94l.) A beautiful warbler of the United States (Dendroica
   Blackburni\'91).  The male is strongly marked with orange, yellow, and
   black on the head and neck, and has an orange-yellow breast.


   Black"cap` (?), n.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A  small European song bird (Sylvia atricapilla),
   with  a  black  crown;  the mock nightingale. (b) An American titmouse
   (Parus atricapillus); the chickadee.

   2.  (Cookery)  An  apple roasted till black, to be served in a dish of
   boiled custard.

   3. The black raspberry.


   Black"coat` (?), n. A clergyman; -- familiarly so called, as a soldier
   is sometimes called a redcoat or a bluecoat.


   Black"cock`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) The male of the European black grouse
   (Tetrao  tetrix,  Linn.);  --  so  called  by sportsmen. The female is
   called gray hen. See Heath grouse.

                                  Black death

   Black"  death`  (?). A pestilence which ravaged Europe and Asia in the
   fourteenth century.


   Black"en  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Blackened (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blackening.] [See Black, a., and cf. Black, v. t. ]

   1. To make or render black.

     While the long funerals blacken all the way.



     2.  To  make  dark;  to  darken;  to  cloud.  "Blackened  the whole
     heavens." South.

     3.  To  defame; to sully, as reputation; to make infamous; as, vice
     blackens  the  character.  Syn.  --  To  denigrate; defame; vilify;
     slander; calumniate; traduce; malign; asperse.


     Black"en, v. i. To grow black or dark.


     Black"en*er (?), n. One who blackens.


     Black"-eyed` (?), a. Having black eyes. Dryden.


     Black"-faced`  (?),  a.  Having  a  black,  dark, or gloomy face or


     Black"feet`  (?),  n. pl. (Ethn.) A tribe of North American Indians
     formerly  inhabiting  the  country from the upper Missouri River to
     the Saskatchewan, but now much reduced in numbers.


     Black"fin` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Bluefin.


     Black"fish (?), n.

     1. (Zo\'94l.) A small kind of whale, of the genus Globicephalus, of
     several  species.  The  most  common  is  G.  melas. Also sometimes
     applied to other whales of larger size.

     2. (Zo\'94l.) The tautog of New England (Tautoga).

     3.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  black sea bass (Centropristis atrarius) of the
     Atlantic  coast.  It is excellent food fish; -- locally called also
     black Harry.

     4.  (Zo\'94l.) A fish of southern Europe (Centrolophus pompilus) of
     the Mackerel family.

     5. (Zo\'94l.) The female salmon in the spawning season.

     NOTE: &hand; The name is locally applied to other fishes.


     Black"foot`  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the Blackfeet; as, a
     Blackfoot Indian. -- n. A Blackfoot Indian.

                                  Black friar

     Black"  fri`ar  (?).  (Eccl.)  A  friar  of the Dominican order; --
     called  also  predicant  and  preaching  friar; in France, Jacobin.
     Also, sometimes, a Benedictine.


     Black"guard (?), n. [Black + guard.]

     1.  The  scullions and lower menials of a court, or of a nobleman's
     household,  who,  in  a  removal from one residence to another, had
     charge  of  the  kitchen  utensils, and being smutted by them, were
     jocularly   called  the  "black  guard";  also,  the  servants  and
     hangers-on of an army. [Obs.]

     A  lousy  slave, that . . . rode with the black guard in the duke's
     carriage, 'mongst spits and dripping pans. Webster (1612).

     2.  The criminals and vagrants or vagabonds of a town or community,
     collectively. [Obs.]

     3.  A  person  of  stained  or  low  character,  esp.  one who uses
     scurrilous language, or treats others with foul abuse; a scoundrel;
     a rough.

     A man whose manners and sentiments are decidedly below those of his
     class deserves to be called a blackguard. Macaulay.

     4. A vagrant; a bootblack; a gamin. [Obs.]


     Black"guard`,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Blackguarded; p. pr. & vb. n.
     Blackguarding.] To revile or abuse in scurrilous language. Southey.


     Black"guard,  a.  Scurrilous; abusive; low; worthless; vicious; as,
     blackguard language.


     Black"guard*ism  (?),  n.  The conduct or language of a blackguard;


     Black"guard*ly,  adv.  &  a.  In  the  manner  of  or  resembling a
     blackguard; abusive; scurrilous; ruffianly.


     Black"head` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The scaup duck.


     Black"heart` (?), n. A heart-shaped cherry with a very dark-colored


     Black"-heart`ed, a. Having a wicked, malignant disposition; morally

                                  Black hole

     Black"  hole`  (?).  A dungeon or dark cell in a prison; a military
     lock-up  or  guardroom;  --  now commonly with allusion to the cell
     (the  Black  Hole)  in  a  fort at Calcutta, into which 146 English
     prisoners  were  thrust  by  the nabob Suraja Dowla on the night of
     June  20,  17656,  and  in  which  123 of the prisoners died before
     morning from lack of air.

     A  discipline  of unlimited autocracy, upheld by rods, and ferules,
     and the black hole. H. Spencer.


     Black"ing, n.

     1.  Any  preparation for making things black; esp. one for giving a
     black luster to boots and shoes, or to stoves.

     2. The act or process of making black.


     Black"ish, a. Somewhat black.


     Black"-jack`, n.

     1.  (Min.)  A  name  given by English miners to sphalerite, or zinc
     blende; -- called also false galena. See Blende.

     2.  Caramel  or  burnt  sugar, used to color wines, spirits, ground
     coffee, etc.

     3. A large leather vessel for beer, etc. [Obs.]

     4. (Bot.) The Quercus nigra, or barren oak.

     5. The ensign of a pirate.

                                  Black lead

     Black`  lead"  (?).  Plumbago;  graphite.It  leaves a blackish mark
     somewhat like lead. See Graphite.


     Black`lead", v. t. To coat or to polish with black lead.


     Black"leg` (?), n.

     1. A notorious gambler. [Colloq.]

     2. A disease among calves and sheep, characterized by a settling of
     gelatinous matter in the legs, and sometimes in the neck. [Eng.]

                                 Black letter

     Black"  let`ter (?). The old English or Gothic letter, in which the
     Early English manuscripts were written, and the first English books
     were printed. It was conspicuous for its blackness. See Type.


     Black"-let`ter, a.

     1.   Written  or  printed  in  black  letter;  as,  a  black-letter
     manuscript or book.

     2.  Given  to  the  study of books in black letter; that is, of old
     books; out of date.

     Kemble, a black-letter man! J. Boaden.

     3. Of or pertaining to the days in the calendar not marked with red
     letters as saints' days. Hence: Unlucky; inauspicious.


     Black"list`  (?),  v.  t.  To  put  in a black list as deserving of
     suspicion, censure, or punishment; esp. to put in a list of persons
     stigmatized  as  insolvent  or  untrustworthy,  -- as tradesmen and
     employers  do for mutual protection; as, to blacklist a workman who
     has been discharged. See Black list, under Black, a.

     If you blacklist us, we will boycott you. John Swinton.


     Black"ly,  adv.  In  a  black  manner;  darkly, in color; gloomily;
     threateningly;  atrociously.  "Deeds  so  blackly grim and horrid."


     Black"mail` (?), n. [Black + mail a piece of money.]

     1. A certain rate of money, corn, cattle, or other thing, anciently
     paid, in the north of England and south of Scotland, to certain men
     who  were  allied  to  robbers,  or  moss  troopers,  to be by them
     protected from pillage. Sir W. Scott.

     2.  Payment  of  money  exacted  by  means  of  intimidation; also,
     extortion  of  money from a person by threats of public accusation,
     exposure, or censure.

     3.  (Eng.  Law)  Black  rent,  or  rent paid in corn, flesh, or the
     lowest coin, a opposed to "white rent", which paid in silver.

   To  levy  blackmail, to extort money by threats, as of injury to one's


   Black"mail`,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Blackmailed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blackmailing.]  To extort money from by exciting fears of injury other
   than bodily harm, as injury to reputation, distress of mind, etc.; as,
   to blackmail a merchant by threatening to expose an alleged fraud. [U.


   Black"mail`er  (?), n. One who extorts, or endeavors to extort, money,
   by black mailing.


   Black"mail`ing,  n. The act or practice of extorting money by exciting
   fears of injury other than bodily harm, as injury to reputation.

                                 Black Monday

   Black" Mon`day (?).

   1.  Easter  Monday,  so  called from the severity of that day in 1360,
   which  was so unusual that many of Edward III.'s soldiers, then before
   Paris, died from the cold. Stow.

     Then  it was not for nothing that may nose fell a bleeding on Black
     Monday last. Shak.

   2.  The  first  Monday  after  the  holidays;  -- so called by English
   schoolboys. Halliwell.

                                  Black monk

   Black" monk` (?). A Benedictine monk.


   Black"moor (?), n. See Blackamoor.


   Black"-mouthed` (?), a. Using foul or scurrilous language; slanderous.


   Black"ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state  of being black; black color;
   atrociousness or enormity in wickedness.

     They're darker now than blackness. Donne.


   Black"poll`  (?),  n. [Black + poll head.] (Zo\'94l.) A warbler of the
   United States (Dendroica striata).

                                 Black pudding

   Black"  pud"ding  (?).  A  kind  of sausage made of blood, suet, etc.,
   thickened with meal.

     And  fat  black puddings, -- proper food, For warriors that delight
     in blood. Hudibras.

                                   Black Rod

   Black" Rod` (?). (a) the usher to the Chapter of the Garter, so called
   from  the black rod which he carries. He is of the king's chamber, and
   also  usher  to  the  House  of  Lords.  [Eng.]  (b)  An  usher in the
   legislature of British colonies. Cowell.

     Committed to the custody of the Black Rod. Macaulay.


   Black"root`, n. (Bot.) See Colicroot.


   Blacks (?), n. pl.

   1.  The  name  of  a kind of in used in copperplate printing, prepared
   from the charred husks of the grape, and residue of the wine press.

   2. Soot flying in the air. [Eng.]

   3. Black garments, etc. See Black, n., 4.


   Black"salt`er (?), n. One who,makes crude potash, or black salts.

                                  Black salts

   Black" salts` (?). Crude potash. De Colange.


   Black"smith`  (?), n. [Black (in allusion to the color of the metal) +
   smith. Cf. Whitesmith.]

   1.  A  smith  who works in iron with a forge, and makes iron utensils,
   horseshoes, etc.

     The blacksmith may forge what he pleases. Howell.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  fish  of  the Pacific coast (Chromis, or Heliastes,
   punctipinnis), of a blackish color.

                           Black snake OR Blacksnake

   Black"  snake`  (?)  OR  Black"snake, n. (Zo\'94l.) A snake of a black
   color,  of  which  two  species  are  common in the United States, the
   Bascanium  constrictor,  or  racer,  sometimes  six feet long, and the
   Scotophis Alleghaniensis, seven or eight feet long.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  al so ap plied to  va rious other black
     serpents, as Natrix atra of Jamaica.


   Black"strap` (?), n.

   1. A mixture of spirituous liquor (usually rum) and molasses.

     No blackstrap to-night; switchel, or ginger pop. Judd.

   2. Bad port wine; any commo wine of the Mediterranean; -- so called by


   Black"tail` (?), n. [Black + tail.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A fish; the ruff or pope.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  The black-tailed deer (Cervus or Cariacus Columbianus)
   of  California and Oregon; also, the mule deer of the Rocky Mountains.
   See Mule deer.


   Black"thorn` (?), n. (Bot.) (a) A spreading thorny shrub or small tree
   (Prunus  spinosa), with blackish bark, and bearing little black plums,
   which  are  called  sloes;  the  sloe. (b) A species of Crat\'91gus or
   hawthorn (C. tomentosa). Both are used for hedges.

                                  Black vomit

   Black"  vom"it  (?). (Med.) A copious vomiting of dark-colored matter;
   or  the  substance so discharged; -- one of the most fatal symptoms in
   yellow fever.

                            Black wash OR Blackwash

   Black" wash` (?) OR Black"wash, n.

   1. (Med.) A lotion made by mixing calomel and lime water.

   2. A wash that blackens, as opposed to whitewash; hence, figuratively,

     To remove as far as he can the modern layers of black wash, and let
     the man himself, fair or foul, be seen. C. Kingsley.


   Black"wood  (?),  n. A name given to several dark-colored timbers. The
   East Indian black wood is from the tree Dalbergia latifolia. Balfour.


   Black"work`  (?),  n.  Work  wrought  by  blacksmiths; -- so called in
   distinction from that wrought by whitesmiths. Knight.


   Blad"der (?), n. [OE. bladder, bleddre, AS. bl, bl; akin to Icel. bla,
   SW.  bl\'84ddra,  Dan. bl\'91re, D. blaar, OHG. bl\'betara the bladder
   in  the body of animals, G. blatter blister, bustule; all fr. the same
   root as AS. bl\'bewan, E. blow, to puff. See Blow to puff.]

   1.  (Anat.) A bag or sac in animals, which serves as the receptacle of
   some  fluid;  as,  the  urinary  bladder; the gall bladder; -- applied
   especially  to  the urinary bladder, either within the animal, or when
   taken out and inflated with air.

   2.  Any  vesicle or blister, especially if filled with air, or a thin,
   watery fluid.

   3. (Bot.) A distended, membranaceous pericarp.

   4.  Anything  inflated,  empty,  or unsound. "To swim with bladders of
   philosophy." Rochester.
   Bladder  nut,  OR  Bladder  tree (Bot.), a genus of plants (Staphylea)
   with  bladderlike  seed  pods.  --  Bladder pod (Bot.), a genus of low
   herbs  (Vesicaria) with inflated seed pods. -- Bladdor senna (Bot.), a
   genus  of  shrubs  (Colutea),  with  membranaceous,  inflated pods. --
   Bladder  worm  (Zo\'94l.),  the  larva  of  any  species  of  tapeworm
   (T\'91nia),  found in the flesh or other parts of animals. See Measle,
   Cysticercus.  --  Bladder  wrack (Bot.), the common black rock weed of
   the seacoast (Fucus nodosus and F. vesiculosus) -- called also bladder
   tangle. See Wrack.


   Blad"der,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bladdered  (#);  p.  pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  swell  out  like  a  bladder  with  air; to inflate. [Obs.] G.

   2. To put up in bladders; as, bladdered lard.


   Blad"der*wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  genus (Utricularia) of aquatic or
   marshy  plants,  which usually bear numerous vesicles in the divisions
   of the leaves. These serve as traps for minute animals. See Ascidium.


   Blad"der*y (?), a. Having bladders; also, resembling a bladder.


   Blade  (?),  n.  [OE.  blade, blad, AS. bl\'91d leaf; akin to OS., D.,
   Dan.,  &  Sw.  blad,  Icel.  bla, OHG. blat, G. blatt, and perh. to L.
   folium,  Gr.  . The root is prob. the same as that of AS. bl, E. blow,
   to blossom. See Blow to blossom, and cf. Foil leaf of metal.]

   1.  Properly,  the  leaf,  or  flat  part  of  the leaf, of any plant,
   especially  of gramineous plants. The term is sometimes applied to the
   spire of grasses.

     The crimson dulse . . . with its waving blade. Percival.

     First  the  blade,  then  ear, after that the full corn in the ear.
     Mark iv. 28.

   2.  The  cutting  part of an instrument; as, the blade of a knife or a

   3.  The  broad  part  of an oar; also, one of the projecting arms of a
   screw propeller.

   4. The scapula or shoulder blade.

   5. pl. (Arch.) The principal rafters of a roof. Weale.

   6.  pl.  (Com.) The four large shell plates on the sides, and the five
   large  ones  of  the  middle, of the carapace of the sea turtle, which
   yield the best tortoise shell. De Colange.

   7.  A  sharp-witted,  dashing, wild, or reckless, fellow; -- a word of
   somewhat indefinite meaning.

     He saw a turnkey in a trice Fetter a troublesome blade. Coleridge.

   Page 152


   Blade (?), v. t. To furnish with a blade.


   Blade, v. i. To put forth or have a blade.

     As  sweet a plant, as fair a flower, is faded As ever in the Muses'
     garden bladed. P. Fletcher.


   Blade"bone` (?), n. The scapula. See Blade, 4.


   Blad"ed (?), a.

   1. Having a blade or blades; as a two-bladed knife.

     Decking with liquid pearl the bladed grass. Shak.

   2. Divested of blades; as, bladed corn.

   3. (Min.) Composed of long and narrow plates, shaped like the blade of
   a knife.


   Blade"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A long, thin, marine fish of Europe
   (Trichiurus lepturus); the ribbon fish.


   Blade"smith` (?), n. A sword cutler. [Obs.]


   Blad"y (?), a. Consisting of blades. [R.] "Blady grass." Drayton.


   Bl\'91  (?),  a.  [See  Blue.] Dark blue or bluish gray; lead-colored.


   Bl\'91"ber*ry (?), n. [Bl\'91 + berry; akin to Icel bl\'beber, Sw. bl,
   D. blaab\'91r. Cf. Blueberry.] The bilberry. [North of Eng. & Scot.]


   Blague (?), n. [F.] Mendacious boasting; falcefood; humbug.


   Blain (?), n. [OE. blein, bleyn, AS. bl; akin to Dan. blegn, D. blein;
   perh. fr. the same root as E. bladder. See Bladder.]

   1. An inflammatory swelling or sore; a bulla, pustule, or blister.

     Blotches and blains must all his flesh emboss. Milton.

   2.  (Far.)  A  bladder  growing  on the root of the tongue of a horse,
   against the windpipe, and stopping the breath.


   Blam"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. bl\'83mable.] Deserving of censure; faulty;
   culpable;  reprehensible; censurable; blameworthy. -- Blam"a*ble*ness,
   n. -- Blam"a*bly (, adv.


   Blame,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blamed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blaming.] [OE.
   blamen,  F. bl\'83r, OF. blasmer, fr. L. blasphemare to blaspheme, LL.
   also to blame, fr. Gr. to speak ill to slander, to blaspheme, fr. evil
   speaking,  perh,  for ; injury (fr. to injure) + a saying, fr. to say.
   Cf. Blaspheme, and see Fame.]

   1.  To  censure;  to express disapprobation of; to find fault with; to

     We have none to blame but ourselves. Tillotson.

   2. To bring reproach upon; to blemish. [Obs.]

     She . . . blamed her noble blood. Spenser.

   To  blame,  to  be  blamed,  or  deserving  blame;  in  fault; as, the
   conductor was to blame for the accident.
     You were to blame, I must be plain with you. Shak.

   Blame,  n. [OE. blame, fr. F. bl\'83me, OF. blasme, fr. bl\'83mer, OF.
   blasmer, to blame. See Blame, v.]

   1.  An  expression of disapprobation fir something deemed to be wrong;
   imputation of fault; censure.

     Let me bear the blame forever. Gen. xiiii. 9.

   2.  That which is deserving of censure or disapprobation; culpability;
   fault; crime; sin.

     Holy and without blame before him in love. Eph. i. 4.

   3.  Hurt;  injury.  [Obs.]  Spenser.  Syn.  --  Censure; reprehension;
   condemnation; reproach; fault; sin; crime; wrongdoing.


   Blame"ful (?), a.

   1. Faulty; meriting blame. Shak.

   2.   Attributing  blame  or  fault;  implying  or  conveying  censure;
   faultfinding;   censorious.   Chaucer.   --   Blame"ful*ly,   adv.  --
   Blame"ful*ness, n.


   Blame"less, a. Free from blame; without fault; innocent; guiltless; --
   sometimes followed by of.

     A bishop then must be blameless. 1 Tim. iii. 2.

     Blameless still of arts that polish to deprave. Mallet.

     We will be blameless of this thine oath. Josh. ii. 17.

   Syn.   --   Irreproachable;   sinless;   unblemished;  inculpable.  --
   Blameless,  Spotless,  Faultless,  Stainless.  We  speak of a thing as
   blameless when it is free from blame, or the just imputation of fault;
   as,  a  blameless life or character. The others are stronger. We speak
   of  a  thing  as  faultless, stainless, or spotless, only when we mean
   that  it  is  absolutely  without  fault or blemish; as, a spotless or
   stainless  reputation;  a  faultless course of conduct. The last three
   words apply only to the general character, while blameless may be used
   in  reverence  to  particular  points;  as, in this transaction he was
   wholly  blameless. We also apply faultless to personal appearance; as,
   a  faultless  figure;  which  can not be done in respect to any of the
   other words.


   Blame"less*ly, adv. In a blameless manner.


   Blame"less*ness,   n.   The  quality  or  state  of  being  blameless;


   Blam"er (?), n. One who blames. Wyclif.


   Blame"wor`thy  (?),  a.  Deserving  blame; culpable; reprehensible. --
   Blame"wor`thi*ness, n.


   Blan"card (?), n. [F., fr. blanc white.] A kind of linen cloth made in
   Normandy, the thread of which is partly blanches before it is woven.


   Blanch  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Blanched  (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blanching.]  [OE.  blanchen,  blaunchen, F. blanchir, fr. blanc white.
   See Blank, a.]

   1.  To take the color out of, and make white; to bleach; as, to blanch
   linen; age has blanched his hair.

   2.  (Gardening)  To  bleach  by  excluding the light, as the stalks or
   leaves of plants, by earthing them up or tying them together.

   3.  (Confectionery  &  Cookery) (a) To make white by removing the skin
   of,  as  by  scalding;  as,  to  blanch almonds. (b) To whiten, as the
   surface  of  meat,  by plunging into boiling water and afterwards into
   cold, so as to harden the surface and retain the juices.

   4.  To give a white luster to (silver, before stamping, in the process
   of coining.).

   5. To cover (sheet iron) with a coating of tin.

   6.  Fig.:  To whiten; to give a favorable appearance to; to whitewash;
   to palliate.

     Blanch over the blackest and most absurd things. Tillotson.

   Syn. -- To Blanch, Whiten. To whiten is the generic term, denoting, to
   render  white;  as, to whiten the walls of a room. Usually (though not
   of  necessity)  this  is  supposed  to  be  done by placing some white
   coloring  matter  in or upon the surface of the object in question. To
   blanch  is  to whiten by the removal of coloring matter; as, to blanch
   linen.  So  the cheek is blanched by fear, i. e., by the withdrawal of
   the blood, which leaves it white.


   Blanch (?), v. i. To grow or become white; as, his cheek blanched with
   fear; the rose blanches in the sun.

     [Bones] blanching on the grass. Tennyson.


   Blanch, v. t. [See Blench.]

   1. To avoid, as from fear; to evade; to leave unnoticed. [Obs.]

     Ifs  and  ands  to  qualify the words of treason, whereby every man
     might express his malice and blanch his danger. Bacon.

     I suppose you will not blanch Paris in your way. Reliq. Wot.

   2. To cause to turn aside or back; as, to blanch a deer.


   Blanch, v. i. To use evasion. [Obs.]

     Books will speak plain, when counselors blanch. Bacon.


   Blanch, n. (Mining) Ore, not in masses, but mixed with other minerals.


   Blanch"er  (?),  n. One who, or that which, blanches or whitens; esp.,
   one  who  anneals and cleanses money; also, a chemical preparation for
   this purpose.


   Blanch"er,  n.  One who, or that which, frightens away or turns aside.

     And  Gynecia, a blancher, which kept the dearest deer from her. Sir
     P. Sidney.

     And  so  even now hath he divers blanchers belonging to the market,
     to let and stop the light of the gospel. Latimer.

                                Blanch holding

   Blanch" hold`ing (?). (Scots Law) A mode of tenure by the payment of a
   small duty in white rent (silver) or otherwise.


   Blanch*im"e*ter  (?),  n.  [1st  blanch  +  -meter.] An instrument for
   measuring  the  bleaching  power  of  chloride  of  lime and potash; a
   chlorometer. Ure.


   Blanc*mange"  (?),  n. [F. blancmanger, lit. white food; blanc white +
   manger  to eat.] (Cookery) A preparation for desserts, etc., made from
   isinglass,  sea  moss,  cornstarch,  or  other  gelatinous  or starchy
   substance,  with mild, usually sweetened and flavored, and shaped in a


   Blanc*man"ger  (?),  n.  [F. See Blancmange.] A sort of fricassee with
   white sauce, variously made of capon, fish, etc. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bland (?), a. [L. blandus, of unknown origin.]

   1.  Mild;  soft;  gentle;  smooth and soothing in manner; suave; as, a
   bland temper; bland persuasion; a bland sycophant. "Exhilarating vapor
   bland." Milton.

   2.  Having soft and soothing qualities; not drastic or irritating; not
   stimulating; as, a bland oil; a bland diet.


   Blan*da"tion  (?),  n. [Cf. L. blanditia, blandities, fr. blandus. See
   Bland.] Flattery. [Obs.]


   Blan*dil"o*quence (?), n. [L. blandiloquentia; blandus mild + loqui to
   speak.] Mild, flattering speech.

                         Blandiloquous, Blandiloquious

   Blan*dil"o*quous   (?),   Blan*di*lo"qui*ous   (?),   a.  Fair-spoken;


   Blan"dise  (?),  v.  i.  [Same word as Blandish.] To blandish any one.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Blan"dish  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Blandished (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blandishing.]  [OE.  blaundisen,  F.  blandir,  fr.  L.  blandiri, fr.
   blandus mild, flattering.]

   1.  To  flatter with kind words or affectionate actions; to caress; to

   2. To make agreeable and enticing.

     Mustering all her wiles, With blandished parleys. Milton.


   Blan"dish*er (?), n. One who uses blandishments.


   Blan"dish*ment   (?),   n.   [Cf.   OF.  blandissement.]  The  act  of
   blandishing;  a  word  or act expressive of affection or kindness, and
   tending  to  win  the heart; soft words and artful caresses; cajolery;

     Cowering low with blandishment. Milton.

     Attacked by royal smiles, by female blandishments. Macaulay.


   Bland"ly (?), adv. In a bland manner; mildly; suavely.


   Bland"ness, n. The state or quality of being bland.


   Blank  (?), a. [OE. blank, blonc, blaunc, blaunche, fr. F. blanc, fem.
   blanche,  fr. OHG. blanch shining, bright, white, G. blank; akin to E.
   blink, cf. also AS. blanc white. Blink, and cf. 1st Blanch.]

   1. Of a white or pale color; without color.

     To the blank moon Her office they prescribed. Milton.

   2.  Free from writing, printing, or marks; having an empty space to be
   filled  in  with  some  special  writing;  -- said of checks, official
   documents, etc.; as, blank paper; a blank check; a blank ballot.

   3. Utterly confounded or discomfited.

     Adam . . . astonied stood, and blank. Milton.

   4.  Empty; void; without result; fruitless; as, a blank space; a blank

   5.  Lacking  characteristics which give variety; as, a blank desert; a
   blank  wall;  destitute  of interests, affections, hopes, etc.; as, to
   live   a   blank   existence;   destitute  of  sensations;  as,  blank

   6.   Lacking   animation   and   intelligence,   or  their  associated
   characteristics,  as  expression  of face, look, etc.; expressionless;
   vacant. "Blank and horror-stricken faces." C. Kingsley.

     The blank . . . glance of a half returned consciousness. G. Eliot.

   7. Absolute; downright; unmixed; as, blank terror.
   Blank bar (Law), a plea put in to oblige the plaintiff in an action of
   trespass to assign the certain place where the trespass was committed;
   --  called also common bar. -- Blank cartridge, a cartridge containing
   no  ball.  --  Blank  deed.  See  Deed. -- Blank door, OR Blank window
   (Arch.),  a  depression  in  a  wall  of the size of a door or window,
   either for symmetrical effect, or for the more convenient insertion of
   a  door  or  window  at  a  future time, should it be needed. -- Blank
   indorsement  (Law),  an indorsement which omits the name of the person
   in  whose  favor  it is made; it is usually made by simply writing the
   name  of the indorser on the back of the bill. -- Blank line (Print.),
   a  vacant space of the breadth of a line, on a printed page; a line of
   quadrats.  --  Blank  tire  (Mech.), a tire without a flange. -- Blank
   tooling.  See  Blind  tooling,  under Blind. -- Blank verse. See under
   Verse.  --  Blank  wall,  a  wall in which there is no opening; a dead


   Blank (?), n.

   1.  Any  void  space;  a  void  space  on  paper,  or  in  any written
   instrument;  an interval void of consciousness, action, result, etc; a

     I  can  not  write  a  paper full, I used to do; and yet I will not
     forgive a blank of half an inch from you. Swift.

     From  this  time there ensues a long blank in the history of French
     legislation. Hallam.

     I was ill. I can't tell how long -- it was a blank. G. Eliot.

   2. A lot by which nothing is gained; a ticket in a lottery on which no
   prize is indicated.

     In  Fortune's  lottery  lies  A  heap of blanks, like this, for one
     small prize. Dryden.

   3.  A  paper  unwritten;  a  paper without marks or characters a blank
   ballot;  -- especially, a paper on which are to be inserted designated
   items of information, for which spaces are left vacant; a bland form.

     The  freemen  signified their approbation by an inscribed vote, and
     their dissent by a blank. Palfrey.

   4.  A paper containing the substance of a legal instrument, as a deed,
   release, writ, or execution, with spaces left to be filled with names,
   date, descriptions, etc.

   5.  The  point  aimed at in a target, marked with a white spot; hence,
   the object to which anything is directed.

     Let me still remain The true blank of thine eye. Shak.

   6. Aim; shot; range. [Obs.]

     I  have stood . . . within the blank of his displeasure For my free
     speech. Shak.

   7.  A  kind of base silver money, first coined in England by Henry V.,
   and  worth  about  8  pence;  also,  a  French coin of the seventeenth
   century, worth about 4 pence. Nares.

   8.  (Mech.)  A  piece of metal prepared to be made into something by a
   further operation, as a coin, screw, nuts.

   9.  (Dominoes)  A piece or division of a piece, without spots; as, the
   "double blank"; the "six blank."
   In  blank, with an essential portion to be supplied by another; as, to
   make out a check in blank.
   Blank,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Blanked (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blanking.]
   [Cf. 3d Blanch.] 

   1. To make void; to annul. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2.  To  blanch;  to make blank; to damp the spirits of; to dispirit or
   confuse. [Obs.]

     Each opposite that blanks the face of joy. Shak.


   Blan"ket (?), n. [F. blanchet, OF. also blanket, a woolen waistcoat or
   shirt, the blanket of a printing press; prop. white woolen stuff, dim.
   of  blanc white; blanquette a kind of white pear, fr. blanc white. See
   Blank, a.]

   1.  A  heavy, loosely woven fabric, usually of wool, and having a nap,
   used  in  bed  clothing; also, a similar fabric used as a robe; or any
   fabric used as a cover for a horse.

   2.  (Print.)  A  piece  of  rubber, felt, or woolen cloth, used in the
   tympan to make it soft and elastic.

   3. A streak or layer of blubber in whales.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e us e of blankets formerly as curtains in theaters
     explains the following figure of Shakespeare.


     Nor  heaven  peep  through  the  blanket of the dark To cry, "Hold,
     hold!" Shak.

   Blanket  sheet,  a newspaper of folio size. -- A wet blanket, anything
   which damps, chills, dispirits, or discour


   Blan"ket, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blanketed; p. pr. & vb. n. Blanketing.]

   1. To cover with a blanket.

     I'll . . . blanket my loins. Shak.

   2. To toss in a blanket by way of punishment.

     We'll have our men blanket 'em i' the hall. B. Jonson.

   3. To take the wind out of the sails of (another vessel) by sailing to
   windward of her.
   Blanket cattle. See Belted cattle, under Belted.
   Blan"ket*ing, n. 

   1. Cloth for blankets.

   2. The act or punishment of tossing in a blanket.

     That  affair  of the blanketing happened to thee for the fault thou
     wast guilty of. Smollett.


   Blank"ly (?), adv.

   1.  In  a  blank  manner;  without expression; vacuously; as, to stare
   blankly. G. Eliot.

   2. Directly; flatly; point blank. De Quincey.


   Blank"ness, n. The state of being blank.


   Blan*quette"  (?),  n.  [F. blanquette, from blanc white.] (Cookery) A
   white fricassee.


   Blan*quil"lo (?), n. [Sp. blanquillo whitish.] (Zo\'94l.) A large fish
   of  Florida  and  the  W.  Indies  (Caulolatilus chrysops). It is red,
   marked with yellow.


   Blare  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Blared (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blaring.]
   [OE.  blaren,  bloren,  to  cry,  woop; cf. G. pl\'84rren to bleat, D.
   blaren  to  bleat, cry, weep. Prob. an imitative word, but cf. also E.
   blast.  Cf. Blore.] To sound loudly and somewhat harshly. "The trumpet
   blared." Tennyson.


   Blare,  v.  t.  To  cause  to  sound  like  the blare of a trumpet; to
   proclaim loudly.

     To blare its own interpretation. Tennyson.


   Blare,  n.  The  harsh  noise  of a trumpet; a loud and somewhat harsh
   noise, like the blast of a trumpet; a roar or bellowing.

     With blare of bugle, clamor of men. Tennyson.

     His ears are stunned with the thunder's blare. J. R. Drake.


   Blar"ney  (?),  n.  [Blarney, a village and castle near Cork.] Smooth,
   wheedling  talk; flattery. [Colloq.] Blarney stone, a stone in Blarney
   castle,  Ireland, said to make those who kiss it proficient in the use
   of blarney.


   Blar"ney,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Blarneyed  (#);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Blarneying.]  To influence by blarney; to wheedle with smooth talk; to
   make or accomplish by blarney. "Blarneyed the landlord." Irving.

     Had blarneyed his way from Long Island. S. G. Goodrich.


   Bla*s\'82"  (?),  a.  [F.,  p. p. of blaser.] Having the sensibilities
   deadened  by excess or frequency of enjoyment; sated or surfeited with
   pleasure; used up.

   Page 153


   Blas*pheme"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blasphemed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blaspheming.]   [OE.  blasfem,  L.  blasphemare,  fr.  Gr.  :  cf.  F.
   blasph\'82mer. See Blame, v.]

   1.  To  speak  of,  or  address,  with  impious irreverence; to revile
   impiously (anything sacred); as, to blaspheme the Holy Spirit.

     So  Dagon  shall  be  magnified,  and  God, Besides whom is no god,
     compared  with  idols,  Disglorified, blasphemed, and had in scorn.

     How  long,  O  Lord,  holy and true, dost thou not judge and avenge
     thyself  on  all those who thus continually blaspheme thy great and
     all-glorious name? Dr. W. Beveridge.

   2.  Figuratively,  of  persons  and things not religiously sacred, but
   held in high honor: To calumniate; to revile; to abuse.

     You do blaspheme the good in mocking me. Shak.

     Those  who from our labors heap their board, Blaspheme their feeder
     and forget their lord. Pope.


   Blas*pheme", v. i. To utter blasphemy.

     He   that  shall  blaspheme  against  the  Holy  Ghost  hath  never
     forgiveness. Mark iii. 29.


   Blas*phem"er (?), n. One who blasphemes.

     And  each blasphemer quite escape the rod, Because the insult's not
     on man, but God ? Pope.


   Blas"phe*mous  (?),  a.  [L.  blasphemus,  Gr.  .] Speaking or writing
   blasphemy;  uttering  or  exhibiting  anything  impiously  irreverent;
   profane;  as,  a  blasphemous  person;  containing  blasphemy;  as,  a
   blasphemous    book;    a    blasphemous    caricature.   "Blasphemous
   publications." Porteus.

     Nor  from  the Holy One of Heaven Refrained his tongue blasphemous.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo  rmerly th is wo rd wa s ac cented on  th e se cond
     syllable, as in the above example.


   Blas"phe*mous*ly, adv. In a blasphemous manner.


   Blas"phe*my (?), n. [L. blasphemia, Gr. : cf. OF. blasphemie.]

   1.  An indignity offered to God in words, writing, or signs; impiously
   irreverent  words or signs addressed to, or used in reference to, God;
   speaking  evil  of  God;  also,  the act of claiming the attributes or
   prerogatives of deity.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en us ed ge nerally in  st atutes or at common law,
     blasphemy  is  the use of irreverent words or signs in reference to
     the  Supreme  Being  in such a way as to produce scandal or provoke

   2.  Figuratively,  of  things  held  in  high  honor:  Calumny; abuse;

     Punished for his blasphemy against learning. Bacon.


   -blast  (?). [Gr. sprout, shoot.] A suffix or terminal formative, used
   principally in biological terms, and signifying growth, formation; as,
   bioblast, epiblast, mesoblast, etc.


   Blast  (?),  n.  [AS.  bl  a  puff  of  wind, a blowing; akin to Icel.
   bl\'bestr,  OHG.  bl\'best,  and  fr. a verb akin to Icel. bl\'besa to
   blow,  OHG.  bl\'83san,  Goth.  bl (in comp.); all prob. from the same
   root as E. blow. See Blow to eject air.]

   1. A violent gust of wind.

     And  see where surly Winter passes off, Far to the north, and calls
     his  ruffian  blasts;  His  blasts obey, and quit the howling hill.

   2.  A  forcible  stream of air from an orifice, as from a bellows, the
   mouth,  etc.  Hence: The continuous blowing to which one charge of ore
   or  metal  is subjected in a furnace; as, to melt so many tons of iron
   at a blast.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rms ho t bl ast and cold blast are employed to
     designate  whether  the  current  is  heated  or  not heated before
     entering  the furnace. A blast furnace is said to be in blast while
     it is in operation, and out of blast when not in use.

   3. The exhaust steam from and engine, driving a column of air out of a
   boiler chimney, and thus creating an intense draught through the fire;
   also, any draught produced by the blast.

   4.  The  sound  made by blowing a wind instrument; strictly, the sound
   produces at one breath.

     One  blast  upon  his  bugle horn Were worth a thousand men. Sir W.

     The blast of triumph o'er thy grave. Bryant.

   5. A sudden, pernicious effect, as if by a noxious wind, especially on
   animals and plants; a blight.

     By the blast of God they perish. Job iv. 9.

     Virtue preserved from fell destruction's blast. Shak.

   6.  The  act  of rending, or attempting to rend, heavy masses of rock,
   earth,  etc., by the explosion of gunpowder, dynamite, etc.; also, the
   charge   used  for  this  purpose.  "Large  blasts  are  often  used."

   7. A flatulent disease of sheep.
   Blast  furnace,  a furnace, usually a shaft furnace for smelting ores,
   into  which  air  is  forced by pressure. -- Blast hole, a hole in the
   bottom  of a pump stock through which water enters. -- Blast nozzle, a
   fixed  or  variable  orifice  in  the delivery end of a blast pipe; --
   called also blast orifice. -- In full blast, in complete operation; in
   a state of great activity. See Blast, n., 2. [Colloq.]


   Blast, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Blasting.]

   1.  To  injure,  as  by a noxious wind; to cause to wither; to stop or
   check   the  growth  of,  and  prevent  from  fruit-bearing,  by  some
   pernicious influence; to blight; to shrivel.

     Seven thin ears, and blasted with the east wind. Gen. xii. 6.

   2.  Hence,  to  affect with some sudden violence, plague, calamity, or
   blighting influence, which destroys or causes to fail; to visit with a
   curse; to curse; to ruin; as, to blast pride, hopes, or character.

     I'll cross it, though it blast me. Shak.

     Blasted with excess of light. T. Gray.

   3. To confound by a loud blast or din.

     Trumpeters, With brazen din blast you the city's ear. Shak.

   4.  To rend open by any explosive agent, as gunpowder, dynamite, etc.;
   to shatter; as, to blast rocks.


   Blast, v. i.

   1. To be blighted or withered; as, the bud blasted in the blossom.

   2. To blow; to blow on a trumpet. [Obs.]

     Toke  his  blake  trumpe  faste  And  gan  to puffen and to blaste.


   Blast"ed (?), a.

   1. Blighted; withered.

     Upon this blasted heath. Shak.

     2. Confounded; accursed; detestable.

     Some of her own blasted gypsies. Sir W. Scott.

     3. Rent open by an explosive.

     The blasted quarry thunders, heard remote. Wordsworth.


     Blas*te"ma  (?), n.; pl. Blastemata (#). [Gr. bud, sprout.] (Biol.)
     The structureless, protoplasmic tissue of the embryo; the primitive
     basis of an organ yet unformed, from which it grows.


     Blas*te"mal (?), a. (Biol.) Relating to the blastema; rudimentary.


     Blas`te*mat"ic  (?), a. (Biol.) Connected with, or proceeding from,
     the blastema; blastemal.


     Blast"er (?), n. One who, or that which, blasts or destroys.


     Blas"tide (?), n. [Gr. sprout, fr. to grow.] (Biol.) A small, clear
     space in the segments of the ovum, the precursor of the nucleus.


     Blast"ing (?), n.

     1. A blast; destruction by a blast, or by some pernicious cause.

     I have smitten you with blasting and mildew. Amos iv. 9.

     2.  The  act  or  process  of  one  who, or that which, blasts; the
     business of one who blasts.


     Blast"ment  (?),  n.  A  sudden  stroke  or injury produced by some
     destructive cause. [Obs.] Shak.


     Blas`to*car"pous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  sprout,  germ  +  fruit.]  (Bot.)
     Germinating inside the pericarp, as the mangrove. Brande & C.

  Blastoc Blas"to*c (?), n. [Gr. sprout + hollow.] (Biol.) The cavity of the
                     blastosphere, or segmentation cavity.


     Blas"to*cyst  (?),  n. [Gr. sprout + E. cyst.] (Biol.) The germinal


     Blas"to*derm  (?),  n. [Gr. sprout + E. derm.] (Biol.) The germinal
     membrane in an ovum, from which the embryo is developed.

                         Blastodermatic, Blastodermic

     Blas`to*der*mat"ic (?), Blas`to*der"mic (?), a. Of or pertaining to
     the blastoderm.


     Blas`to*gen"e*sis  (?),  n.  [Gr.  sprout  +  E.  genesis.] (Biol.)
     Multiplication or increase by gemmation or budding.


     Blas"toid (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Blastoidea.


     Blas*toid"e*a  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. sprout + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.)
     One  of the divisions of Crinoidea found fossil in paleozoic rocks;
     pentremites. They are so named on account of their budlike form.


     Blas"to*mere  (?),  n.  [Gr.  sprout  +  -mere.] (Biol.) One of the
     segments first formed by the division of the ovum. Balfour.

                          Blastophoral, Blastophoric

     Blas`toph"o*ral  (?),  Blas`to*phor"ic  (?),  a.  Relating  to  the


     Blas"to*phore  (?), n. [Gr. sprout + to bear.] (Biol.) That portion
     of  the  spermatospore  which is not converted into spermatoblasts,
     but carries them.


     Blas"to*pore  (?),  n.  [Gr. sprout + E. pore.] (Biol.) The pore or
     opening leading into the cavity of invagination, or archenteron.

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Invagination.]



     Blas"to*sphere (?), n. [Gr. sprout + E. sphere.] (Biol.) The hollow
     globe or sphere formed by the arrangement of the blastomeres on the
     periphery of an impregnated ovum.

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Invagination.]


     Blas"to*style  (?),  n. [Gr. sprout, bud + a pillar.] (Zo\'94l.) In
     certain  hydroids, an imperfect zooid, whose special function is to
     produce medusoid buds. See Hydroidea, and Athecata.

                                  Blast pipe

     Blast"  pipe`  (?). The exhaust pipe of a steam engine, or any pipe
     delivering steam or air, when so constructed as to cause a blast.


     Blas"tu*la  (?), n. [NL., dim. of Gr. a sprout.] (Biol.) That stage
     in  the  development  of  the  ovum in which the outer cells of the
     morula become more defined and form the blastoderm.


     Blas"tule (?), n. (Biol.) Same as Blastula.


     Blast"y (?), a.

     1. Affected by blasts; gusty.

     2. Causing blast or injury. [Obs.] Boyle.


     Blat  (?),  v.  i.  To cry, as a calf or sheep; to bleat; to make a
     senseless noise; to talk inconsiderately. [Low]


     Blat, v. t. To utter inconsiderately. [Low]

     If  I  have anything on my mind, I have to blat it right out. W. D.


     Bla"tan*cy (?), n. Blatant quality.


     Bla"tant  (?),  a.  [Cf.  Bleat.]  Bellowing,  as  a calf; bawling;
     brawling;  clamoring;  disagreeably  clamorous; sounding loudly and
     harshly. "Harsh and blatant tone." R. H. Dana.

     A monster, which the blatant beast men call. Spenser.

     Glory, that blatant word, which haunts some military minds like the
     bray of the trumpet. W. Irving.


     Bla"tant*ly, adv. In a blatant manner.


     Blath"er*skite  (?),  n.  A  blustering,  talkative  fellow. [Local
     slang, U. S.] Barllett.


     Blat"ter  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Blattered (#).] [L. blaterare to
     babble: cf. F. blat\'82rer to bleat.] To prate; to babble; to rail;
     to   make  a  senseless  noise;  to  patter.  [Archaic]  "The  rain
     blattered." Jeffrey.

     They  procured . . . preachers to blatter against me, . . . so that
     they had place and time to belie me shamefully. Latimer.


     Blat`ter*a"tion (?), n. [L. blateratio a babbling.] Blattering.


     Blat"ter*er   (?),  n.  One  who  blatters;  a  babbler;  a  noisy,
     blustering boaster.


     Blat"ter*ing, n. Senseless babble or boasting.


     Blat`ter*oon"  (?),  n. [L. blatero, -onis.] A senseless babbler or
     boaster. [Obs.] "I hate such blatteroons." Howell.


     Blau"bok  (?), n. [D. blauwbok.] (Zo\'94l.) The blue buck. See Blue
     buck, under Blue.


     Blay  (?), n. [AS. bl, fr. bl, bleak, white; akin to Icel. bleikja,
     OHG. bleicha, G. bleihe. See Bleak, n. & a.] (Zo\'94l.) A fish. See
     Bleak, n.


     Blaze (bl&amac;z), n. [OE. blase, AS. bl\'91se, blase; akin to OHG.
     blass  whitish,  G.  blass pale, MHG. blas torch, Icel. blys torch;
     perh. fr. the same root as E. blast. Cf. Blast, Blush, Blink.]

     1.  A stream of gas or vapor emitting light and heat in the process
     of  combustion;  a  bright  flame.  "To heaven the blaze uprolled."

     2. Intense, direct light accompanied with heat; as, to seek shelter
     from the blaze of the sun.

     O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon! Milton.

     3. A bursting out, or active display of any quality; an outburst; a
     brilliant  display.  "Fierce  blaze of riot." "His blaze of wrath."

     For what is glory but the blaze of fame? Milton.

     4.  [Cf.  D.  bles;  akin  to  E. blaze light.] A white spot on the
     forehead of a horse.

     5.  A  spot  made  on  trees  by  chipping off a piece of the bark,
     usually as a surveyor's mark.

     Three  blazes in a perpendicular line on the same tree indicating a
     legislative  road,  the  single  blaze a settlement or neighborhood
     road. Carlton.

   In  a  blaze,  on  fire; burning with a flame; filled with, giving, or
   reflecting  light;  excited or exasperated. -- Like blazes, furiously;
   rapidly.  [Low] "The horses did along like blazes tear." Poem in Essex
     NOTE: &hand; I n l ow l anguage i n the U. S., blazes is frequently
     used  of  something  extreme  or excessive, especially of something
     very bad; as, blue as blazes.
   Neal.  Syn.  -- Blaze, Flame. A blaze and a flame are both produced by
   burning  gas. In blaze the idea of light rapidly evolved is prominent,
   with  or  without heat; as, the blaze of the sun or of a meteor. Flame
   includes a stronger notion of heat; as, he perished in the flames. 


   Blaze, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Blazed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blazing.]

   1. To shine with flame; to glow with flame; as, the fire blazes.

   2.  To  send  forth  or  reflect glowing or brilliant light; to show a

     And far and wide the icy summit blazed. Wordsworth.

   3. To be resplendent. Macaulay.
   To  blaze away, to discharge a firearm, or to continue firing; -- said
   esp.  of  a number of persons, as a line of soldiers. Also used (fig.)
   of speech or action. [Colloq.]
   Blaze, v. t. 

   1. To mark (a tree) by chipping off a piece of the bark.

     I found my way by the blazed trees. Hoffman.

   2.  To  designate  by blazing; to mark out, as by blazed trees; as, to
   blaze a line or path.

     Champollion  died  in  1832, having done little more than blaze out
     the road to be traveled by others. Nott.


   Blaze,  v. t. [OE. blasen to blow; perh. confused with blast and blaze
   a flame, OE. blase. Cf. Blaze, v. i., and see Blast.]

   1. To make public far and wide; to make known; to render conspicuous.

     On charitable lists he blazed his name. Pollok.

     To blaze those virtues which the good would hide. Pope.

   2. (Her.) To blazon. [Obs.] Peacham.


   Blaz"er  (?),  n.  One  who  spreads reports or blazes matters abroad.
   "Blazers of crime." Spenser.


   Blaz"ing,  a.  Burning  with  a  blaze;  as,  a  blazing fire; blazing
   torches.  Sir  W.  Scott.  Blazing  star.  (a)  A  comet. [Obs.] (b) A
   brilliant  center  of  attraction.  (c) (Bot.) A name given to several
   plants;  as,  to  Cham\'91lirium  luteum  of  the Lily family; Liatris
   squarrosa; and Aletris farinosa, called also colicroot and star grass.


   Bla"zon  (?),  n.  [OE. blason, blasoun, shield, fr. F. blason coat of
   arms,  OF. shield, from the root of AS. bl\'91se blaze, i. e., luster,
   splendor, MHG. blas torch See Blaze, n.]

   1. A shield. [Obs.]

   2. An heraldic shield; a coat of arms, or a bearing on a coat of arms;
   armorial bearings.

     Their blazon o'er his towers displayed. Sir W. Scott.

   3.  The art or act of describing or depicting heraldic bearings in the
   proper language or manner. Peacham.

   4.  Ostentatious display, either by words or other means; publication;
   show; description; record.

     Obtrude the blazon of their exploits upon the company. Collier.

     Thy  tongue, thy face, thy limbs, actions, and spirit, Do give thee
     fivefold blazon. Shak.


   Bla"zon,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Blazoned (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blazoning
   (#).] [From blazon, n.; confused with 4th blaze: cf. F. blasonner.]

   1.  To  depict  in  colors;  to  display; to exhibit conspicuously; to
   publish or make public far and wide.

     Thyself thou blazon'st. Shak.

     There pride sits blazoned on th' unmeaning brow. Trumbull.

     To blazon his own worthless name. Cowper.

   2. To deck; to embellish; to adorn.

     She blazons in dread smiles her hideous form. Garth.

   3.  (Her.)  To  describe  in  proper  terms  (the  figures of heraldic
   devices); also, to delineate (armorial bearings); to emblazon.

     The  coat  of  ,  arms, which I am not herald enough to blazon into
     English. Addison.


   Bla"zon, v. i. To shine; to be conspicuous. [R.]


   Bla"zon*er  (?),  n.  One  who gives publicity, proclaims, or blazons;
   esp., one who blazons coats of arms; a herald. Burke.

   Page 154


   Bla"zon*ment (?), n. The act or blazoning; blazoning; emblazonment.


   Bla"zon*ry, n.

   1. Same as Blazon, 3.

     The principles of blazonry. Peacham.

   2. A coat of arms; an armorial bearing or bearings.

     The blazonry of Argyle. Lord Dufferin.

   3. Artistic representation or display.


   Blea (?), n. The part of a tree which lies immediately under the bark;
   the alburnum or sapwood.


   Blea"ber*ry (?), n. (Bot.) See Blaeberry.


   Bleach  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bleached  (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Bleaching.]  [OE. blakien, blechen, v. t. & v. i., AS. bl\'becian, bl,
   to  grow  pale;  akin  to  Icel.  bleikja,  Sw.  bleka, Dan. blege, D.
   bleeken,  G. bleichen, AS. bl\'bec pale. See Bleak, a.] To make white,
   or whiter; to remove the color, or stains, from; to blanch; to whiten.

     The  destruction  of the coloring matters attached to the bodies to
     be  bleached is effected either by the action of the air and light,
     of chlorine, or of sulphurous acid. Ure.

     Immortal  liberty,  whose  look  sublime Hath bleached the tyrant's
     cheek in every varying clime. Smollett.


   Bleach, v. i. To grow white or lose color; to whiten.


   Bleached (?), a. Whitened; make white.

     Let  their bleached bones, and blood's unbleaching stain, Long mark
     the battlefield with hideous awe. Byron.


   Bleach"er  (?),  n. One who whitens, or whose occupation is to whiten,
   by bleaching.


   Bleach"er*y  (?),  n.;  pl. Bleacheries (. A place or an establishment
   where bleaching is done.


   Bleach"ing,  n.  The act or process of whitening, by removing color or
   stains; esp. the process of whitening fabrics by chemical agents. Ure.
   Bleaching  powder,  a  powder for bleaching, consisting of chloride of
   lime, or some other chemical or chemicals.


   Bleak  (?),  a. [OE. blac, bleyke, bleche, AS. bl\'bec, bl, pale, wan;
   akin  to  Icel.  bleikr,  Sw.  blek, Dan. bleg, OS. bl, D. bleek, OHG.
   pleih, G. bleich; all from the root of AS. bl\'c6can to shine; akin to
   OHG. bl\'c6chen to shine; cf. L. flagrare to burn, Gr. to burn, shine,
   Skr. bhr\'bej to shine, and E. flame. Bleach, Blink, Flame.]

   1. Without color; pale; pallid. [Obs.]

     When  she came out she looked as pale and as bleak as one that were
     laid out dead. Foxe.

   2. Desolate and exposed; swept by cold winds.

     Wastes  too  bleak  to rear The common growth of earth, the foodful
     ear. Wordsworth.

     At daybreak, on the bleak sea beach. Longfellow.

   3. Cold and cutting; cheerless; as, a bleak blast. -- Bleak"ish, a. --
   Bleak"ly, adv. -- Bleak"ness, n.


   Bleak,  n.  [From  Bleak,  a.,  cf. Blay.] (Zo\'94l.) A small European
   river fish (Leuciscus alburnus), of the family Cyprinid\'91; the blay.
   [Written also blick.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e silvery pigment lining the scales of the bleak is
     used in the manufacture of artificial pearls.



   Bleak"y (?), a. Bleak. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Blear (?), a. [See Blear, v.]

   1. Dim or sore with water or rheum; -- said of the eyes.

     His blear eyes ran in gutters to his chin. Dryden.

   2. Causing or caused by dimness of sight; dim.

     Power to cheat the eye with blear illusion. Milton.


   Blear,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Bleared (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blearing.]
   [OE.  bleren; cf. Dan. plire to blink, Sw. plira to twinkle, wink, LG.
   plieren;  perh.  from  the  same  root as E. blink. See Blink, and cf.
   Blur.]  To make somewhat sore or watery, as the eyes; to dim, or blur,
   as  the  sight. Figuratively: To obscure (mental or moral perception);
   to blind; to hoodwink.

     That  tickling  rheums  Should  ever  tease the lungs and blear the
     sight. Cowper.

   To blear the eye of, to deceive; to impose upon. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bleared  (?), a. Dimmed, as by a watery humor; affected with rheum. --
   Blear"ed*ness (, n.

     Dardanian wives, With bleared visages, come forth to view The issue
     of the exploit. Shak.


   Blear"eye`  (?),  n.  (Med.)  A  disease of the eyelids, consisting in
   chronic  inflammation  of  the  margins,  with  a  gummy  secretion of
   sebaceous matter. Dunglison.


   Blear"-eyed` (?), a.

   1. Having sore eyes; having the eyes dim with rheum; dim-sighted.

     The blear-eyed Crispin. Drant.

   2.   Lacking  in  perception  or  penetration;  short-sighted;  as,  a
   blear-eyed bigot.


   Blear"eyed`ness, n. The state of being blear-eyed.


   Blear"y (?), a. Somewhat blear.


   Bleat  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Bleated; p. pr. & vb. n. Bleating.]
   [OE.  bleten,  AS.  bl;  akin  to  D. blaten, bleeten, OHG. bl\'bezan,
   pl\'bezan;  prob.  of  imitative origin.] To make the noise of, or one
   like that of, a sheep; to cry like a sheep or calf.

     Then suddenly was heard along the main, To low the ox, to bleat the
     woolly train. Pope

     The ewe that will not hear her lamb when it baas, will never answer
     a calf when he bleats. Shak.


   Bleat, n. A plaintive cry of, or like that of, a sheep.

     The bleat of fleecy sheep. Chapman's Homer.


   Bleat"er (?), n. One who bleats; a sheep.

     In cold, stiff soils the bleaters oft complain Of gouty ails. Dyer.


   Bleat"ing, a. Crying as a sheep does.

     Then  came  the  shepherd  back  with  his bleating flocks from the
     seaside. Longfellow.


   Bleat"ing, n. The cry of, or as of, a sheep. Chapman.


   Bleb  (?),  n. [Prov. E. bleb, bleib, blob, bubble, blister. This word
   belongs  to  the  root  of  blub,  blubber, blabber, and perh. blow to
   puff.]  A large vesicle or bulla, usually containing a serous fluid; a
   blister; a bubble, as in water, glass, etc.

     Arsenic abounds with air blebs. Kirwan.


   Bleb"by  (?),  a.  Containing  blebs,  or  characterized by blebs; as,
   blebby glass.

                                  Bleck, Blek

   Bleck,  Blek  (?),  v. t. To blacken; also, to defile. [Obs. or Dial.]


   Bled (?), imp. & p. p. of Bleed.


   Blee   (?),  n.  [AS.  ble\'a2,  ble\'a2h.]  Complexion;  color;  hue;
   likeness; form. [Archaic]

     For him which is so bright of blee. Lament. of Mary Magd.

     That boy has a strong blee of his father. Forby.


   Bleed  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Bled (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bleeding.]
   [OE.  bleden,  AS.  bl,  fr.  bl  blood;  akin  to  Sw. bl\'94da, Dan.
   bl\'94de, D. bloeden, G. bluten. See Blood.]

   1. To emit blood; to lose blood; to run with blood, by whatever means;
   as, the arm bleeds; the wound bled freely; to bleed at the nose.

   2. To withdraw blood from the body; to let blood; as, Dr. A. bleeds in

   3.  To  lose  or  shed  one's  blood, as in case of a violent death or
   severe wounds; to die by violence. "C\'91sar must bleed." Shak.

     The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day. Pope.

   4. To issue forth, or drop, as blood from an incision.

     For me the balm shall bleed. Pope.

   5. To lose sap, gum, or juice; as, a tree or a vine bleeds when tapped
   or wounded.

   6. To pay or lose money; to have money drawn or extorted; as, to bleed
   freely for a cause. [Colloq.]
   To  make  the  heart bleed, to cause extreme pain, as from sympathy or


   Bleed, v. t.

   1.  To  let  blood  from;  to take or draw blood from, as by opening a

   2. To lose, as blood; to emit or let drop, as sap.

     A decaying pine of stately size, bleeding amber. H. Miller.

   3.  To  draw  money  from  (one);  to induce to pay; as, they bled him
   freely for this fund. [Colloq.]


   Bleed"er  (?),  n. (Med.) (a) One who, or that which, draws blood. (b)
   One  in  whom  slight  wounds  give  rise to profuse or uncontrollable
   bleeding. <-- hemophiliac. -->


   Bleed"ing,  a.  Emitting,  or  appearing  to emit, blood or sap, etc.;
   also, expressing anguish or compassion.


   Bleed"ing,  n.  A  running  or issuing of blood, as from the nose or a
   wound;  a hemorrhage; the operation of letting blood, as in surgery; a
   drawing or running of sap from a tree or plant.


   Blem"ish  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Blemished (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blemishing.]  [OE.  blemissen,  blemishen,  OF.  blemir,  blesmir,  to
   strike,  injure,  soil,  F.  bl\'88mir  to  grow  pale, fr. OF. bleme,
   blesme,  pale,  wan,  F.  bl\'88me, prob. fr. Icel bl\'beman the livid
   color  of  a  wound,  fr.  bl\'ber  blue;  akin to E. blue. OF. blemir
   properly signifies to beat one (black and) blue, and to render blue or
   dirty. See Blue.]

   1.  To  mark with deformity; to injure or impair, as anything which is
   well  formed, or excellent; to mar, or make defective, either the body
   or mind.

     Sin is a soil which blemisheth the beauty of thy soul. Brathwait.

   2. To tarnish, as reputation or character; to defame.

     There  had nothing passed between us that might blemish reputation.


   Blem"ish,  n.;  pl.  Blemishes  (.  Any  mark  of deformity or injury,
   whether  physical  or  moral;  anything;  that  diminishes  beauty, or
   renders  imperfect  that  which  is  otherwise well formed; that which
   impairs reputation.

     He shall take two he lambs without blemish, and one ewe lamb of the
     first year without blemish. Lev. xiv. 10.

     The  reliefs  of  an  envious  man  are  those little blemishes and
     imperfections that discover themselves in an illustrious character.

   Syn.  --  Spot;  speck;  flaw; deformity; stain; defect; fault; taint;
   reproach; dishonor; imputation; disgrace.


   Blem"ish*less, a. Without blemish; spotless.

     A life in all so blemishless. Feltham.


   Blem"ish*ment (?), n. The state of being blemished; blemish; disgrace;
   damage; impairment.

     For dread of blame and honor's blemishment. Spenser.


   Blench  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Blenched  (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blenching.]  [OE.  blenchen  to blench, elude, deceive, AS. blencan to
   deceive;  akin  to  Icel. blekkja to impose upon. Prop. a causative of
   blink to make to wink, to deceive. See Blink, and cf. 3d Blanch.]

   1.  To  shrink;  to  start back; to draw back, from lack of courage or
   resolution; to flinch; to quail.

     Blench not at thy chosen lot. Bryant.

     This painful, heroic task he undertook, and never blenched from its
     fulfillment. Jeffrey.

   2. To fly off; to turn aside. [Obs.]

     Though sometimes you do blench from this to that. Shak.


   Blench, v. t.

   1.  To  baffle;  to disconcert; to turn away; -- also, to obstruct; to
   hinder. [Obs.]

     Ye  should  have  somewhat blenched him therewith, yet he might and
     would of likelihood have gone further. Sir T. More.

   2. To draw back from; to deny from fear. [Obs.]

     He now blenched what before he affirmed. Evelyn.


   Blench, n. A looking aside or askance. [Obs.]

     These blenches gave my heart another youth. Shak.


   Blench, v. i. & t. [See 1st Blanch.] To grow or make pale. Barbour.


   Blench"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or  that  which, scares another; specifically, a person
   stationed  to prevent the escape of the deer, at a hunt. See Blancher.

   2. One who blenches, flinches, or shrinks back.

                                Blench holding

   Blench" hold`ing. (Law) See Blanch holding.


   Blend  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blended or Blent (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blending.]  [OE.  blenden, blanden, AS. blandan to blend, mix; akin to
   Goth.  blandan  to  mix,  Icel.  blanda, Sw. blanda, Dan. blande, OHG.
   blantan to mis; to unknown origin.]

   1. To mix or mingle together; esp. to mingle, combine, or associate so
   that the separate things mixed, or the line of demarcation, can not be
   distinguished. Hence: To confuse; to confound.

     Blending the grand, the beautiful, the gay. Percival.

   2. To pollute by mixture or association; to spoil or corrupt; to blot;
   to  stain. [Obs.] Spenser. Syn. -- To commingle; combine; fuse; merge;
   amalgamate; harmonize.


   Blend  (?),  v.  i. To mingle; to mix; to unite intimately; to pass or
   shade insensibly into each other, as colors.

     There  is  a tone of solemn and sacred feeling that blends with our
     conviviality. Irving.


   Blend,  n.  A  thorough  mixture  of one thing with another, as color,
   tint, etc., into another, so that it cannot be known where one ends or
   the other begins.


   Blend,  v.  t.  [AS. blendan, from blind blind. See Blind, a.] To make
   blind,  literally  or  figuratively;  to  dazzle;  to  deceive. [Obs.]


   Blende  (?),  n. [G., fr. blenden to blind, dazzle, deceive, fr. blind
   blind.  So called either in allusion to its dazzling luster; or (Dana)
   because,  though  often  resembling  galena,  it  yields  no lead. Cf.
   Sphalerite.]  (Min.)  (a)  A  mineral,  called also sphalerite, and by
   miners mock lead, false galena, and black-jack. It is a zinc sulphide,
   but  often  contains some iron. Its color is usually yellow, brown, or
   black,  and its luster resinous. (b) A general term for some minerals,
   chiefly  metallic  sulphides  which  have  a  somewhat  brilliant  but
   nonmetallic luster.


   Blend"er  (?),  n. One who, or that which, blends; an instrument, as a
   brush, used in blending.


   Blend"ing, n.

   1. The act of mingling.

   2.  (Paint.)  The method of laying on different tints so that they may
   mingle  together  while  wet,  and  shade  into each other insensibly.


   Blend"ous (?), a. Pertaining to, consisting of, or containing, blende.


   Blend"wa`ter  (?),  n.  A distemper incident to cattle, in which their
   livers are affected. Crabb.

                               Blenheim spaniel

   Blen"heim  span"iel  (?).  [So called from Blenheim House, the seat of
   the duke of Marlborough, in England.] A small variety of spaniel, kept
   as a pet.


   Blenk, v. i. To blink; to shine; to look. [Obs.]

                              Blennioid, Blenniid

   Blen"ni*oid  (?),  Blen"ni*id  (?),  a. [Blenny + -oid] (Zo\'94l.) Of,
   pertaining to, or resembling, the blennies.


   Blen*nog"e*nous (?), a. [Gr. mucus + -genous.] Generating mucus.


   Blen`nor*rhe"a (?), n. [Gr. mucus + to flow.] (Med.) (a) An inordinate
   secretion and discharge of mucus. (b) Gonorrhea. Dunglison.


   Blen"ny  (?),  n.;  pl. Blennies (#). [L. blennius, blendius, blendea,
   Gr.  ,  fr.  slime,  mucus.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  marine  fish of the genus
   Blennius  or  family  Blenniid\'91;  --  so called from its coating of
   mucus. The species are numerous.


   Blent  (?),  imp. & p. p. of Blend to mingle. Mingled; mixed; blended;
   also, polluted; stained.

     Rider and horse, friend, foe, in one red burial blent. Byron.


   Blent,  imp.  &  p.  p. of Blend to blind. Blinded. Also (Chaucer), 3d
   sing. pres. Blindeth. [Obs.]


   Bles"bok  (?),  n.  [D.,  fr.  bles a white spot on the forehead + bok
   buck.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South  African antelope (Alcelaphus albifrons),
   having a large white spot on the forehead.


   Bless  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blessed (#) or Blest; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blessing.]  [OE. blessien, bletsen, AS. bletsian, bledsian, bloedsian,
   fr. bl blood; prob. originally to consecrate by sprinkling with blood.
   See Blood.]

   1. To make or pronounce holy; to consecrate

     And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it. Gen. ii. 3.

   2.  To  make  happy,  blithesome,  or  joyous; to confer prosperity or
   happiness upon; to grant divine favor to.

     The  quality  of  mercy  is . . . twice blest; It blesseth him that
     gives and him that takes. Shak.

     It hath pleased thee to bless the house of thy servant, that it may
     continue forever before thee. 1 Chron. xvii. 27 (R. V. )

   3.  To  express  a  wish  or  prayer for the happiness of; to invoke a
   blessing upon; -- applied to persons.

     Bless them which persecute you. Rom. xii. 14.

   4.  To  invoke  or  confer beneficial attributes or qualities upon; to
   invoke or confer a blessing on, -- as on food.

     Then  he took the five loaves and the two fishes, and looking up to
     heaven, he blessed them. Luke ix. 16.

   5.  To  make  the  sign  of  the  cross  upon;  to cross (one's self).
   [Archaic] Holinshed.

   6. To guard; to keep; to protect. [Obs.]

   7. To praise, or glorify; to extol for excellences.

     Bless  the  Lord,  O  my soul: and all that is within me, bless his
     holy name. Ps. ciii. 1.

   8. To esteem or account happy; to felicitate.

     The nations shall bless themselves in him. Jer. iv. 3.

   9. To wave; to brandish. [Obs.]

     And burning blades about their heads do bless. Spenser.

     Round his armed head his trenchant blade he blest. Fairfax.

     NOTE: &hand; This is an old sense of the word, supposed by Johnson,
     Nares,  and  others,  to  have  been  derived  from the old rite of
     blessing  a  field  by  directing the hands to all parts of it. "In
     drawing  [their bow] some fetch such a compass as though they would
     turn about and bless all the field."


   Page 155

   Bless  me!  Bless  us! an exclamation of surprise. Milton. -- To bless
   from,  to  secure, defend, or preserve from. "Bless me from marrying a
   usurer." Shak.
     To bless the doors from nightly harm. Milton.
   --  To  bless  with, To be blessed with, to favor or endow with; to be
   favored  or  endowed  with;  as,  God  blesses  us with health; we are
   blessed with happiness.


   Bless"ed (?), a.

   1.  Hallowed;  consecrated; worthy of blessing or adoration; heavenly;

     O,  run;  prevent them with thy humble ode, And lay it lowly at his
     blessed feet. Milton.

   2.  Enjoying happiness or bliss; favored with blessings; happy; highly

     All generations shall call me blessed. Luke i. 48.

     Towards England's blessed shore. Shak.

   3.  Imparting  happiness  or  bliss; fraught with happiness; blissful;
   joyful. "Then was a blessed time." "So blessed a disposition." Shak.

   4.  Enjoying,  or  pertaining  to,  spiritual  happiness,  or heavenly
   felicity; as, the blessed in heaven.

     Reverenced like a blessed saint. Shak.

     Cast out from God and blessed vision. Milton.

   5. (R. C. Ch.) Beatified.

   6. Used euphemistically, ironically, or intensively.

     Not a blessed man came to set her [a boat] free. R. D. Blackmore.


   Bless"ed*ly, adv. Happily; fortunately; joyfully.

     We shall blessedly meet again never to depart. Sir P. Sidney.


   Bless"ed*ness,  n.  The  state  of being blessed; happiness; felicity;
   bliss; heavenly joys; the favor of God.

     The assurance of a future blessedness. Tillotson.

   Single  blessedness,  the  unmarried state. "Grows, lives, and dies in
   single  blessedness."  Shak.  Syn. -- Delight; beatitude; ecstasy. See
                                Blessed thistle
   Bless"ed this"tle (?). See under Thistle. 


   Bless"er  (?),  n.  One  who  blesses;  one  who  bestows or invokes a


   Bless"ing, n. [AS. bletsung. See Bless, v. t.]

   1. The act of one who blesses.

   2.  A  declaration  of divine favor, or an invocation imploring divine
   favor  on  some  or  something;  a  benediction;  a  wish of happiness

     This  is  the blessing, where with Moses the man of God blessed the
     children of Israel. Deut. xxxiii. 1.

   3. A means of happiness; that which promotes prosperity and welfare; a
   beneficent gift.

     Nature's full blessings would be well dispensed. Milton.

   4. (Bib.) A gift. [A Hebraism] Gen. xxxiii. 11.

   5. Grateful praise or worship.


   Blest, a. Blessed. "This patriarch blest." Milton.

     White these blest sounds my ravished ear assail. Trumbull.


   Blet (?), n. [F. blet, blette, a., soft from over ripeness.] A form of
   decay in fruit which is overripe.


   Ble"ton*ism  (?),  n. The supposed faculty of perceiving subterraneous
   springs  and  currents  by sensation; -- so called from one Bleton, of


   Blet"ting  (?),  n.  A  form  of decay seen in fleshy, overripe fruit.


   Blew (?), imp. of Blow.


   Bleyme  (?),  n.  [F. bleime.] (Far.) An inflammation in the foot of a
   horse, between the sole and the bone. [Obs.]


   Bleyn"te (?), imp. of Blench. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Blick"ey  (?),  n.  [D.  blik  tin.] A tin dinner pail. [Local, U. S.]


   Blight  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blighted; p. pr. & vb. n. Blighting.]
   [Perh.  contr.  from AS. bl\'c6cettan to glitter, fr. the same root as
   E.  bleak. The meaning "to blight" comes in that case from to glitter,
   hence,  to be white or pale, grow pale, make pale, bleach. Cf. Bleach,

   1.  To  affect  with  blight;  to  blast;  to  prevent  the growth and
   fertility of.

     [This  vapor]  blasts  vegetables,  blights  corn and fruit, and is
     sometimes injurious even to man. Woodward.

   2. Hence: To destroy the happiness of; to ruin; to mar essentially; to
   frustrate; as, to blight one's prospects.

     Seared in heart and lone and blighted. Byron.


   Blight,  v. i. To be affected by blight; to blast; as, this vine never


   Blight, n.

   1.  Mildew;  decay;  anything  nipping  or  blasting;  -- applied as a
   general  name  to  various injuries or diseases of plants, causing the
   whole  or  a  part to wither, whether occasioned by insects, fungi, or
   atmospheric influences.

   2.  The  act of blighting, or the state of being blighted; a withering
   or  mildewing,  or  a  stoppage  of growth in the whole or a part of a
   plant, etc.

   3.  That  which  frustrates  one's  plans or withers one's hopes; that
   which impairs or destroys.

     A blight seemed to have fallen over our fortunes. Disraeli.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) A downy species of aphis, or plant louse, destructive to
   fruit trees, infesting both the roots and branches; -- also applied to
   several other injurious insects.

   5. pl. A rashlike eruption on the human skin. [U. S.]


   Blight"ing, a. Causing blight.


   Blight"ing*ly, adv. So as to cause blight.

                               Blimbi, Blimbing

   Blim"bi (?), Blim"bing (?), n. See Bilimbi, etc.


   Blin  (?), v. t. & i. [OE. blinnen, AS. blinnan; pref. be- + linnan to
   cease.] To stop; to cease; to desist. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Blin, n. [AS. blinn.] Cessation; end. [Obs.]


   Blind  (?),  a.  [AS.;  akin  to D., G., OS., Sw., & Dan. blind, Icel.
   blindr, Goth. blinds; of uncertain origin.]

   1.  Destitute  of  the sense of seeing, either by natural defect or by
   deprivation; without sight.

     He  that  is strucken blind can not forget The precious treasure of
     his eyesight lost. Shak.

   2.  Not  having  the faculty of discernment; destitute of intellectual
   light;  unable  or  unwilling  to understand or judge; as, authors are
   blind to their own defects.

     But  hard be hardened, blind be blinded more, That they may stumble
     on, and deeper fall. Milton.

   3. Undiscerning; undiscriminating; inconsiderate.

     This  plan is recommended neither to blind approbation nor to blind
     reprobation. Jay.

   4.  Having such a state or condition as a thing would have to a person
   who  is  blind; not well marked or easily discernible; hidden; unseen;
   concealed; as, a blind path; a blind ditch.

   5. Involved; intricate; not easily followed or traced.

     The blind mazes of this tangled wood. Milton.

   6.  Having  no  openings  for light or passage; as, a blind wall; open
   only at one end; as, a blind alley; a blind gut.

   7.  Unintelligible, or not easily intelligible; as, a blind passage in
   a book; illegible; as, blind writing.

   8.  (Hort.)  Abortive;  failing to produce flowers or fruit; as, blind
   buds; blind flowers.
   Blind  alley, an alley closed at one end; a cul-de-sac. -- Blind axle,
   an  axle which turns but does not communicate motion. Knight. -- Blind
   beetle,  one  of the insects apt to fly against people, esp. at night.
   --  Blind  cat (Zo\'94l.), a species of catfish (Gronias nigrolabris),
   nearly  destitute of eyes, living in caverns in Pennsylvania. -- Blind
   coal,  coal  that  burns  without flame; anthracite coal. Simmonds. --
   Blind door, Blind window, an imitation of a door or window, without an
   opening  for  passage or light. See Blank door or window, under Blank,
   a.  --  Blind  level (Mining), a level or drainage gallery which has a
   vertical shaft at each end, and acts as an inverted siphon. Knight. --
   Blind  nettle  (Bot.),  dead  nettle.  See Dead nettle, under Dead. --
   Blind  shell (Gunnery), a shell containing no charge, or one that does
   not  explode. -- Blind side, the side which is most easily assailed; a
   weak  or  unguarded  side;  the  side  on  which  one is least able or
   disposed  to  see  danger.  Swift. -- Blind snake (Zo\'94l.), a small,
   harmless,   burrowing   snake,   of  the  family  Typhlopid\'91,  with
   rudimentary  eyes.  --  Blind spot (Anat.), the point in the retina of
   the  eye  where  the  optic  nerve  enters, and which is insensible to
   light. -- Blind tooling, in bookbinding and leather work, the indented
   impression  of  heated  tools,  without  gilding; -- called also blank
   tooling, and blind blocking. -- Blind wall, a wall without an opening;
   a blank wall.


   Blind (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blinded; p. pr. & vb. n. Blinding.]

   1.  To  make  blind; to deprive of sight or discernment. "To blind the
   truth and me." Tennyson.

     A  blind  guide  is  certainly  a  great mischief; but a guide that
     blinds those whom he should lead is . . . a much greater. South.

   2.  To  deprive  partially of vision; to make vision difficult for and
   painful to; to dazzle.

     Her beauty all the rest did blind. P. Fletcher.

   3.  To  darken; to obscure to the eye or understanding; to conceal; to

     Such darkness blinds the sky. Dryden.

     The state of the controversy between us he endeavored, with all his
     art, to blind and confound. Stillingfleet.

   4.  To  cover  with  a thin coating of sand and fine gravel; as a road
   newly  paved,  in  order  that  the  joints  between the stones may be


   Blind (?), n.

   1.  Something  to  hinder  sight or keep out light; a screen; a cover;
   esp. a hinged screen or shutter for a window; a blinder for a horse.

   2.  Something  to  mislead the eye or the understanding, or to conceal
   some covert deed or design; a subterfuge.

   3.  [Cf.  F. blindes, pblende, fr. blenden to blind, fr. blind blind.]
   (Mil.) A blindage. See Blindage.

   4. A halting place. [Obs.] Dryden.

                                 Blind, Blinde

   Blind, Blinde (?), n. See Blende.


   Blind"age  (?), n. [Cf. F. blindage.] (Mil.) A cover or protection for
   an advanced trench or approach, formed of fascines and earth supported
   by a framework.


   Blind"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, blinds.

   2.  (Saddlery)  One  of  the  leather screens on a bridle, to hinder a
   horse from seeing objects at the side; a blinker.


   Blind"fish`  (,  n.  A small fish (Amblyopsis spel\'91us) destitute of
   eyes,  found  in  the waters of the Mammoth Cave, in Kentucky. Related
   fishes from other caves take the same name.


   Blind"fold`  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Blindfolded; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blindfolding.]  [OE.  blindfolden, blindfelden, blindfellen; AS. blind
   blind + prob. fellan, fyllan, to fell, strike down.] To cover the eyes
   of, as with a bandage; to hinder from seeing.

     And  when  they  had  blindfolded him, they struck him on the face.
     Luke xxii. 64.


   Blind"fold`,  a.  Having  the eyes covered; blinded; having the mental
   eye darkened. Hence: Heedless; reckless; as, blindfold zeal; blindfold

     Fate's blindfold reign the atheist loudly owns. Dryden.


   Blind"ing,  a.  Making  blind or as if blind; depriving of sight or of
   understanding; obscuring; as, blinding tears; blinding snow.


   Blind"ing,  n.  A  thin  coating  of sand and fine gravel over a newly
   paved road. See Blind, v. t., 4.


   Blind"ly,  adv.  Without sight, discernment, or understanding; without
   thought, investigation, knowledge, or purpose of one's own.

     By his imperious mistress blindly led. Dryden.

                                Blindman's buff

   Blind"man's  buff"  (. [See Buff a buffet.] A play in which one person
   is  blindfolded,  and  tries to catch some one of the company and tell
   who it is.

     Surely he fancies I play at blindman's buff with him, for he thinks
     I never have my eyes open. Stillingfleet.

                              Blindman's holiday

   Blind`man's hol"i*day (?). The time between daylight and candle light.


   Blind"ness  (?),  n.  State  or condition of being blind, literally or
   figuratively.   Darwin.  Color  blindness,  inability  to  distinguish
   certain color. See Daltonism.


   Blind"sto`ry   (?),  n.  (Arch.)  The  triforium  as  opposed  to  the


   Blind"worm` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A small, burrowing, snakelike, limbless
   lizard  (Anguis  fragilis), with minute eyes, popularly believed to be
   blind; the slowworm; -- formerly a name for the adder.

     Newts and blindworms do no wrong. Shak.


   Blink (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Blinked (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blinking.]
   [OE.  blenken;  akin  to dan. blinke, Sw. blinka, G. blinken to shine,
   glance, wink, twinkle, D. blinken to shine; and prob. to D. blikken to
   glance,  twinkle,  G. blicken to look, glance, AS. bl\'c6can to shine,
   E. bleak. &root;98. See Bleak; cf. 1st Blench.]

   1. To wink; to twinkle with, or as with, the eye.

     One eye was blinking, and one leg was lame. Pope

   2.  To  see with the eyes half shut, or indistinctly and with frequent
   winking, as a person with weak eyes.

     Show me thy chink, to blink through with mine eyne. Shak.

   3.  To shine, esp. with intermittent light; to twinkle; to flicker; to
   glimmer, as a lamp.

     The dew was falling fast, the stars began to blink. Wordsworth.

     The sun blinked fair on pool and stream . Sir W. Scott.

   4. To turn slightly sour, as beer, mild, etc.


   Blink, v. t.

   1.  To  shut out of sight; to avoid, or purposely evade; to shirk; as,
   to blink the question.

   2. To trick; to deceive. [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Blink, n. [OE. blink. See Blink, v. i. ]

   1. A glimpse or glance.

     This is the first blink that ever I had of him. Bp. Hall.

   2. Gleam; glimmer; sparkle. Sir W. Scott.

     Not a blink of light was there. Wordsworth.

   3.  (Naut.)  The  dazzling  whiteness  about the horizon caused by the
   reflection of light from fields of ice at sea; ice blink.

   4.  pl. [Cf. Blencher.] (Sporting) Boughs cast where deer are to pass,
   to turn or check them. [Prov. Eng.]


   Blink"ard (?), n. [Blind + -ard.]

   1. One who blinks with, or as with, weak eyes.

     Among the blind the one-eyed blinkard reigns. Marvell.

   2.  That  which  twinkles or glances, as a dim star, which appears and
   disappears. Hakewill.

                                  Blink beer

   Blink" beer` ( Beer kept unbroached until it is sharp. Crabb.


   Blink"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, blinks.

   2.  A  blinder  for  horses;  a flap of leather on a horse's bridle to
   prevent  him from seeing objects as his side hence, whatever obstructs
   sight or discernment.

     Nor  bigots  who but one way see, through blinkers of authority. M.

   3. pl. A kind of goggles, used to protect the eyes form glare, etc.


   Blink"-eyed` (, a. Habitually winking. Marlowe.


   Blirt (?), n. (Naut.) A gust of wind and rain. Ham. Nav. Encyc.


   Bliss,  n.;  pl. Blisses (#). [OE. blis, blisse, AS. blis, bl\'c6, fr.
   bl\'c6  blithe. See Blithe.] Orig., blithesomeness; gladness; now, the
   highest  degree  of happiness; blessedness; exalted felicity; heavenly

     An then at last our bliss Full and perfect is. Milton.

   Syn.  --  Blessedness; felicity; beatitude; happiness; joy; enjoyment.
   See Happiness.


   Bliss"ful  (?),  a.  Full  of,  characterized  by, or causing, joy and
   felicity; happy in the highest degree. "Blissful solitude." Milton. --
   Bliss"ful*ly, adv. -- Bliss"ful*ness, n.


   Bliss"less, a. Destitute of bliss. Sir P. Sidney.


   Blis"som  (?),  v. i. [For blithesome: but cf. also Icel. bl of a goat
   at heat.] To be lustful; to be lascivious. [Obs.]


   Blis"som, a. Lascivious; also, in heat; -- said of ewes.


   Blis"ter  (?),  n.  [OE.;  akin  to OD. bluyster, fr. the same root as
   blast, bladder, blow. See Blow to eject wind.]

   1.  A  vesicle of the skin, containing watery matter or serum, whether
   occasioned by a burn or other injury, or by a vesicatory; a collection
   of serous fluid causing a bladderlike elevation of the cuticle.

     And painful blisters swelled my tender hands. Grainger.

   2.  Any  elevation  made  by the separation of the film or skin, as on
   plants;  or  by  the  swelling  of the substance at the surface, as on

   3.  A vesicatory; a plaster of Spanish flies, or other matter, applied
   to raise a blister. Dunglison.
   Blister  beetle,  a  beetle used to raise blisters, esp. the Lytta (or
   Cantharis)  vesicatoria, called Cantharis or Spanish fly by druggists.
   See Cantharis. -- Blister fly, a blister beetle. -- Blister plaster, a
   plaster designed to raise a blister; -- usually made of Spanish flies.
   -- Blister steel, crude steel formed from wrought iron by cementation;
   --  so  called because of its blistered surface. Called also blistered
   steel. -- Blood blister. See under Blood.


   Blis"ter,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Blistered  (#);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Blistering.]  To  be  affected  with  a blister or blisters; to have a
   blister form on.

     Let my tongue blister. Shak.


   Blis"ter, v. t.

   1. To raise a blister or blisters upon.

     My hands were blistered. Franklin.

   2. To give pain to, or to injure, as if by a blister.

     This tyrant, whose sole name blisters our tongue. Shak.


   Blis"ter*y (?), a. Full of blisters. Hooker.


   Blite  (?),  n.  [L.  blitum, Gr. .] (Bot.) A genus of herbs (Blitum>)
   with a fleshy calyx. Blitum capitatum is the strawberry blite.

   Page 156


   Blithe  (?),  a.  [AS.  bl\'c6  blithe, kind; akin to Goth. blei kind,
   Icel.  bl\'c6  mild,  gentle, Dan. & Sw. blid gentle, D. blijd blithe,
   OHG.  bl\'c6di  kind,  blithe.]  Gay;  merry; sprightly; joyous; glad;
   cheerful; as, a blithe spirit.

     The blithe sounds of festal music. Prescott.

     A daughter fair, So buxom, blithe, and debonair. Milton.


   Blithe"ful (?), a. Gay; full of gayety; joyous.


   Blithe"ly, adv. In a blithe manner.


   Blithe"ness, n. The state of being blithe. Chaucer.


   Blithe"some (?), a. Cheery; gay; merry.

     The blithesome sounds of wassail gay. Sir W. Scott.

   -- Blithe"some*ly, adv. -- Blithe"some*ness, n.


   Blive  (?), adv. [A contraction of Belive.] Quickly; forthwith. [Obs.]


   Bliz"zard  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Blaze  to  flash. Formerly, in local use, a
   rattling  volley;  cf.  "to  blaze  away"  to  fire  away.]  A gale of
   piercingly cold wind, usually accompanied with fine and blinding snow;
   a furious blast. [U. S.]


   Bloat  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Bloated; p. pr. & vb. n. Bloating.]
   [Cf.  Icel. blotna to become soft, blautr soft, wet, Sw. bl\'94t soft,
   bl\'94ta to soak; akin to G. bloss bare, and AS. ble\'a0t wretched; or
   perh. fr. root of Eng. 5th blow. Cf. Blote.]

   1.  To  make  turgid, as with water or air; to cause a swelling of the
   surface of, from effusion of serum in the cellular tissue, producing a
   morbid enlargement, often accompanied with softness.

   2. To inflate; to puff up; to make vain. Dryden.


   Bloat,  v.  i. To grow turgid as by effusion of liquid in the cellular
   tissue; to puff out; to swell. Arbuthnot.


   Bloat, a. Bloated. [R.] Shak.


   Bloat,  n.  A  term  of  contempt  for a worthless, dissipated fellow.


   Bloat, v. t. To dry (herrings) in smoke. See Blote.


   Bloat"ed  (?), p. a. Distended beyond the natural or usual size, as by
   the  presence  of  water,  serum, etc.; turgid; swollen; as, a bloated
   face. Also, puffed up with pride; pompous.


   Bloat"ed*ness, n. The state of being bloated.


   Bloat"er  (?), n. [See Bloat, Blote.] The common herring, esp. when of
   large size, smoked, and half dried; -- called also bloat herring.


   Blob (?), n. [See Bleb.]

   1. Something blunt and round; a small drop or lump of something viscid
   or thick; a drop; a bubble; a blister. Wright.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  fresh-water fish (Uranidea Richardsoni); the
   miller's thumb.


   Blob"ber  (?),  n.  [See  Blubber,  Blub.] A bubble; blubber. [Low] T.
   Carew. Blobber lip, a thick, protruding lip.

     His blobber lips and beetle brows commend. Dryden.


   Blob"ber-lipped`  (?), a. Having thick lips. "A blobber-lipped shell."


   Blo*cage"  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Arch.)  The  roughest and cheapest sort of
   rubblework, in masonry.


   Block (?), n. [OE. blok; cf. F. bloc (fr. OHG.), D. & Dan. blok, Sw. &
   G.  block, OHG. bloch. There is also an OHG. bloch, biloh; bi by + the
   same  root  as  that  of  E. lock. Cf. Block, v. t., Blockade, and see

   1.  A  piece  of wood more or less bulky; a solid mass of wood, stone,
   etc.,  usually  with one or more plane, or approximately plane, faces;
   as,  a  block  on  which a butcher chops his meat; a block by which to
   mount a horse; children's playing blocks, etc.

     Now  all  our  neighbors'  chimneys smoke, And Christmas blocks are
     burning. Wither.

     All her labor was but as a block Left in the quarry. Tennyson.

   2.  The solid piece of wood on which condemned persons lay their necks
   when they are beheaded.

     Noble heads which have been brought to the block. E. Everett.

   3.  The  wooden  mold on which hats, bonnets, etc., are shaped. Hence:
   The pattern on shape of a hat.

     He  wears  his faith but as the fashion of his hat; it ever changes
     with the next block. Shak.

   4.  A large or long building divided into separate houses or shops, or
   a  number of houses or shops built in contact with each other so as to
   form one building; a row of houses or shops.

   5.  A  square,  or  portion  of  a  city  inclosed by streets, whether
   occupied by buildings or not.

     The  new  city  was  laid  out  in  rectangular  blocks, each block
     containing  thirty building lots. Such an average block, comprising
     282  houses  and  covering  nine  acres of ground, exists in Oxford
     Street. Lond. Quart. Rev.

   6.  A  grooved  pulley  or sheave incased in a frame or shell which is
   provided with a hook, eye, or strap, by which it may be attached to an
   object.  It is used to change the direction of motion, as in raising a
   heavy  object that can not be conveniently reached, and also, when two
   or  more such sheaves are compounded, to change the rate of motion, or
   to  exert increased force; -- used especially in the rigging of ships,
   and in tackles.

   7. (Falconry) The perch on which a bird of prey is kept.

   8.  Any  obstruction, or cause of obstruction; a stop; a hindrance; an
   obstacle; as, a block in the way.

   9. A piece of box or other wood for engravers' work.

   10.  (Print.)  A piece of hard wood (as mahogany or cherry) on which a
   stereotype or electrotype plate is mounted to make it type high.

   11. A blockhead; a stupid fellow; a dolt. [Obs.]

     What a block art thou ! Shak.

   12.  A section of a railroad where the block system is used. See Block
   system, below.
   A  block  of  shares  (Stock  Exchange), a large number of shares in a
   stock company, sold in a lump. Bartlett. -- Block printing. (a) A mode
   of  printing (common in China and Japan) from engraved boards by means
   of  a  sheet  of  paper  laid  on the linked surface and rubbed with a
   brush. S. W. Williams. (b) A method of printing cotton cloth and paper
   hangings with colors, by pressing them upon an engraved surface coated
   with  coloring  matter. -- Block system on railways, a system by which
   the  track is divided into sections of three or four miles, and trains
   are  so run by the guidance of electric signals that no train enters a
   section or block before the preceding train has left it.


   Block (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blocked (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blocking.]
   [Cf. F. bloquer, fr. bloc block. See Block, n.]

   1.  To  obstruct  so  as  to  prevent  passage or progress; to prevent
   passage  from,  through, or into, by obstructing the way; -- used both
   of persons and things; -- often followed by up; as, to block up a road
   or harbor.

     With moles . . . would block the port. Rowe.

     A city . . . besieged and blocked about. Milton.

   2.  To  secure or support by means of blocks; to secure, as two boards
   at their angles of intersection, by pieces of wood glued to each.

   3. To shape on, or stamp with, a block; as, to block a hat.
   To block out, to begin to reduce to shape; to mark out roughly; to lay
   out; as, to block out a plan.


   Block*ade" (?), n. [Cf. It. bloccata. See Block, v. t. ]

   1.  The shutting up of a place by troops or ships, with the purpose of
   preventing  ingress  or  egress, or the reception of supplies; as, the
   blockade of the ports of an enemy.

     NOTE: &hand; Bl ockade is now usually applied to an investment with
     ships  or  vessels,  while  siege  is used of an investment by land
     forces.  To constitute a blockade, the investing power must be able
     to  apply  its force to every point of practicable access, so as to
     render  it  dangerous to attempt to enter; and there is no blockade
     of that port where its force can not be brought to bear.


   2. An obstruction to passage.
   To raise a blockade. See under Raise.


   Block*ade",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Blockaded;  p.  pr.  &  vb.  n.

   1.  To  shut up, as a town or fortress, by investing it with troops or
   vessels or war for the purpose of preventing ingress or egress, or the
   introduction  of  supplies. See note under Blockade, n. "Blockaded the
   place by sea." Gilpin.

   2. Hence, to shut in so as to prevent egress.

     Till storm and driving ice blockade him there. Wordsworth.

   3. To obstruct entrance to or egress from.

     Huge bales of British cloth blockade the door. Pope.


   Block*ad"er (?), n.

   1. One who blockades.

   2. (Naut.) A vessel employed in blockading.


   Block"age  (?),  n. The act of blocking up; the state of being blocked

                                  Block book

   Block"  book` (. A book printed from engraved wooden blocks instead of
   movable types.


   Block"head`  (,  n.  [Block + head.] A stupid fellow; a dolt; a person
   deficient in understanding.

     The  bookful  blockhead,  ignorantly  read,  With  loads of learned
     lumber in his head. Pope.


   Block"head`ed, a. Stupid; dull.


   Block"head*ism   (?),   n.   That  which  characterizes  a  blockhead;
   stupidity. Carlyle.


   Block"house` (, n. [Block + house: cf. G. blockhaus.]

   1.  (Mil.)  An  edifice  or  structure  of  heavy  timbers or logs for
   military  defense,  having its sides loopholed for musketry, and often
   an  upper  story projecting over the lower, or so placed upon it as to
   have  its  sides  make an angle wit the sides of the lower story, thus
   enabling  the  defenders  to  fire downward, and in all directions; --
   formerly much used in America and Germany.

   2. A house of squared logs. [West. & South. U. S.]


   Block"ing, n.

   1.  The  act  of  obstructing, supporting, shaping, or stamping with a
   block or blocks.

   2. Blocks used to support (a building, etc.) temporarily.

                                Blocking course

   Block"ing  course`  (.  (Arch.) The finishing course of a wall showing
   above a cornice.


   Block"ish,  a. Like a block; deficient in understanding; stupid; dull.
   "Blockish Ajax." Shak. -- Block"ish*ly, adv. -- Block"ish*ness, n.


   Block"like` (, a. Like a block; stupid.

                                   Block tin

   Block" tin` (. See under Tin.


   Bloe"dite  (?),  n.  [From  the  chemist  Bl\'94de.]  (Min.) A hydrous
   sulphate of magnesium and sodium.


   Blom"a*ry (?), n. See Bloomery.

                               Bloncket, Blonket

   Blonc"ket,  Blon"ket  (?),  a.  [OF.  blanquet  whitish, dim. of blanc
   white. Cf. Blanket.] Gray; bluish gray. [Obs.]

     Our bloncket liveries been all too sad. Spenser.

                                 Blond, Blonde

   Blond,  Blonde  (?), a. [F., fair, light, of uncertain origin; cf. AS.
   blonden-feax  gray-haired,  old, prop. blended-haired, as a mixture of
   white  and  brown  or  black.  See  Blend,  v.  t.  ] Of a fair color;
   light-colored; as, blond hair; a blond complexion.


   Blonde (?), n. [F.]

   1.  A  person  of very fair complexion, with light hair and light blue
   eyes. [Written also blond.]

   2.  [So  called from its color.] A kind of silk lace originally of the
   color of raw silk, now sometimes dyed; -- called also blond lace.

                                  Blond metal

   Blond"  met`al  (?).  A  variety  of clay ironstone, in Staffordshire,
   England, used for making tools.


   Blond"ness, n. The state of being blond. G. Eliot.


   Blood  (?), n. [OE. blod, blood, AS. bl; akin to D. bloed, OHG. bluot,
   G. blut, Goth, bl, Sw. & Dan. blod; prob. fr. the same root as E. blow
   to bloom. See Blow to bloom.]

   1.  The  fluid  which  circulates  in the principal vascular system of
   animals,  carrying  nourishment to all parts of the body, and bringing
   away waste products to be excreted. See under Arterial.

     NOTE: &hand; The blood consists of a liquid, the plasma, containing
     minute particles, the blood corpuscles. In the invertebrate animals
     it  is  usually  nearly  colorless,  and  contains only one kind of
     corpuscles;  but  in all vertebrates, except Amphioxus, it contains
     some  colorless  corpuscles,  with many more which are red and give
     the blood its uniformly red color. See Corpuscle, Plasma.

   2.  Relationship  by  descent  from  a common ancestor; consanguinity;

     To share the blood of Saxon royalty. Sir W. Scott.

     A friend of our own blood. Waller.

   Half  blood  (Law),  relationship  through  only  one parent. -- Whole
   blood,  relationship  through both father and mother. In American Law,
   blood includes both half blood, and whole blood. Bouvier. Peters.
   3.  Descent;  lineage;  especially, honorable birth; the highest royal
     Give us a prince of blood, a son of Priam. Shak.

     I am a gentleman of blood and breeding. Shak.

   4.   (Stock  Breeding)  Descent  from  parents  of  recognized  breed;
   excellence or purity of breed.

     NOTE: &hand; In  st ock br eeding half blood is descent showing one
     half  only of pure breed. Blue blood, full blood, or warm blood, is
     the same as blood.

   5. The fleshy nature of man.

     Nor gives it satisfaction to our blood. Shak.

   6.  The  shedding  of blood; the taking of life, murder; manslaughter;

     So  wills the fierce, avenging sprite, Till blood for blood atones.

   7. A bloodthirsty or murderous disposition. [R.]

     He  was  a  thing of blood, whose every motion Was timed with dying
     cries. Shak.

   8.  Temper  of  mind; disposition; state of the passions; -- as if the
   blood were the seat of emotions.

     When you perceive his blood inclined to mirth. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Of ten, in  th is se nse, ac companied with bad, cold,
     warm,  or  other  qualifying  word.  Thus, to commit an act in cold
     blood,  is to do it deliberately, and without sudden passion; to do
     it  in bad blood, is to do it in anger. Warm blood denotes a temper
     inflamed  or  irritated. To warm or heat the blood is to excite the
     passions. Qualified by up, excited feeling or passion is signified;
     as, my blood was up.

   9. A man of fire or spirit; a fiery spark; a gay, showy man; a rake.

     Seest  thou not . . . how giddily 'a turns about all the hot bloods
     between fourteen and five and thirty? Shak.

     It was the morning costume of a dandy or blood. Thackeray.

   10. The juice of anything, especially if red.

     He washed . . . his clothes in the blood of grapes. Gen. xiix. 11.

     NOTE: &hand; Bl ood is often used as an adjective, and as the first
     part   of  self-explaining  compound  words;  as,  blood-bespotted,
     blood-bought,      blood-curdling,      blood-dyed,      blood-red,
     blood-spilling, blood-stained, blood-warm, blood-won.

   Blood  baptism  (Eccl. Hist.), the martyrdom of those who had not been
   baptized.  They  were  considered  as  baptized in blood, and this was
   regarded as a full substitute for literal baptism. -- Blood blister, a
   blister or bleb containing blood or bloody serum, usually caused by an
   injury.  --  Blood  brother,  brother by blood or birth. -- Blood clam
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  bivalve  mollusk  of the genus Arca and allied genera,
   esp.  Argina  pexata of the American coast. So named from the color of
   its  flesh.  --  Blood  corpuscle.  See  Corpuscle.  --  Blood crystal
   (Physiol.),  one  of  the  crystals  formed  by  the  separation  in a
   crystalline  form  of  the  h\'91moglobin of the red blood corpuscles;
   h\'91matocrystallin. All blood does not yield blood crystals. -- Blood
   heat,  heat equal to the temperature of human blood, or about 98\'ab 
   Fahr.  --  Blood horse, a horse whose blood or lineage is derived from
   the purest and most highly prized origin or stock. -- Blood money. See
   in  the  Vocabulary. -- Blood orange, an orange with dark red pulp. --
   Blood  poisoning  (Med.),  a  morbid  state of the blood caused by the
   introduction  of  poisonous  or infective matters from without, or the
   absorption  or  retention  of such as are produced in the body itself;
   tox\'91mia.  --  Blood  pudding,  a  pudding  made  of blood and other
   materials.  --  Blood  relation, one connected by blood or descent. --
   Blood   spavin.  See  under  Spavin.  --  Blood  vessel.  See  in  the
   Vocabulary.  --  Blue  blood,  the  blood  of  noble  or  aristocratic
   families,  which, according to a Spanish prover , has in it a tinge of
   blue;  --  hence, a member of an old and aristocratic family. -- Flesh
   and blood. (a) A blood relation, esp. a child. (b) Human nature. -- In
   blood  (Hunting),  in a state of perfect health and vigor. Shak. -- To
   let  blood.  See  under  Let.  --  Prince  of  the blood, the son of a
   sovereign,  or  the  issue  of a royal family. The sons, brothers, and
   uncles of the sovereign are styled princes of the blood royal; and the
   daughters, sisters, and aunts are princesses of the blood royal.
   Blood (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blooded; p. pr. & vb. n. Blooding.]
   1. To bleed. [Obs.] Cowper.
   Page 157

   2. To stain, smear or wet, with blood. [Archaic]

     Reach out their spears afar, And blood their points. Dryden.

   3. To give (hounds or soldiers) a first taste or sight of blood, as in
   hunting or war.

     It  was  most  important  too  that  his  troops should be blooded.

   4. To heat the blood of; to exasperate. [Obs.]

     The  auxiliary  forces  of the French and English were much blooded
     one against another. Bacon.


   Blood"bird`  (,  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  Australian  honeysucker (Myzomela
   sanguineolata);  --  so  called  from the bright red color of the male


   Blood"-bol`tered (?), a. [Blood + Prov. E. bolter to mat in tufts. Cf.
   Balter.] Having the hair matted with clotted blood. [Obs. & R.]

     The blood-boltered Banquo smiles upon me. Shak.


   Blood"ed, a. Having pure blood, or a large admixture or pure blood; of
   approved breed; of the best stock.

     NOTE: &hand; Us ed al so in  co mposition in  ph rases indicating a
     particular   condition  or  quality  of  blood;  as,  cold-blooded;


   Blood"flow`er  (?),  n. [From the color of the flower.] (Bot.) A genus
   of  bulbous plants, natives of Southern Africa, named H\'91manthus, of
   the  Amaryllis  family.  The  juice  of  H.  toxicarius is used by the
   Hottentots to poison their arrows.


   Blood"guilt`y  (?),  a.  Guilty of murder or bloodshed. "A bloodguilty
   life." Fairfax. -- Blood"guilt`i*ness (, n. -- Blood"guilt`less, a.


   Blood"hound`  (,  n.  A  breed  of large and powerful dogs, with long,
   smooth,  and pendulous ears, and remarkable for acuteness of smell. It
   is  employed  to recover game or prey which has escaped wounded from a
   hunter,  and for tracking criminals. Formerly it was used for pursuing
   runaway  slaves.  Other  varieties  of dog are often used for the same
   purpose  and go by the same name. The Cuban bloodhound is said to be a
   variety of the mastiff.


   Blood"i*ly  (?),  adv. In a bloody manner; cruelly; with a disposition
   to shed blood.


   Blood"i*ness, n.

   1. The state of being bloody.

   2. Disposition to shed blood; bloodthirstiness.

     All  that  bloodiness  and  savage cruelty which was in our nature.


   Blood"less, a. [AS. bl.]

   1.  Destitute  of  blood,  or  apparently  so;  as,  bloodless cheeks;
   lifeless; dead.

     The bloodless carcass of my Hector sold. Dryden.

   2.  Not attended with shedding of blood, or slaughter; as, a bloodless
   victory. Froude.

   3. Without spirit or activity.

     Thou bloodless remnant of that royal blood ! Shak.

   -- Blood"less*ly, adv. -- Blood"less*ness, n.


   Blood"let`  (,  v.  t.  [AS.  bl;  bl blood + l to let.] bleed; to let
   blood. Arbuthnot.


   Blood"let`ter   (?),  n.  One  who,  or  that  which,  lets  blood;  a


   Blood"let`ting,  n.  (Med.)  The  act  or  process of letting blood or
   bleeding, as by opening a vein or artery, or by cupping or leeches; --
   esp. applied to venesection.

                                  Blood money

   Blood" mon`ey (?).

   1.  Money  paid  to the next of kin of a person who has been killed by

   2.  Money obtained as the price, or at the cost, of another's life; --
   said  of  a  reward for supporting a capital charge, of money obtained
   for  betraying  a  fugitive  or  for  committing  murder,  or of money
   obtained from the sale of that which will destroy the purchaser.


   Blood"root`  (, n. (Bot.) A plant (Sanguinaria Canadensis), with a red
   root  and red sap, and bearing a pretty, white flower in early spring;
   --  called also puccoon, redroot, bloodwort, tetterwort, turmeric, and
   Indian  paint.  It  has  acrid emetic properties, and the rootstock is
   used as a stimulant expectorant. See Sanguinaria.

     NOTE: &hand; In  En gland th e name is given to the tormentil, once
     used as a remedy for dysentery.


   Blood"shed`  (,  n.  [Blood + shed] The shedding or spilling of blood;
   slaughter; the act of shedding human blood, or taking life, as in war,
   riot, or murder.


   Blood"shed`der (?), n. One who sheds blood; a manslayer; a murderer.


   Blood"shed`ding (?), n. Bloodshed. Shak.


   Blood"shot` (, a. [Blood + shot, p. p. of shoot to variegate.] Red and
   inflamed;  suffused  with  blood,  or  having  the vessels turgid with
   blood, as when the conjunctiva is inflamed or irritated.

     His eyes were bloodshot, . . . and his hair disheveled. Dickens.


   Blood"-shot`ten (?), a. Bloodshot. [Obs.]


   Blood"stick"  (?),  n.  (Far.)  A piece of hard wood loaded at one end
   with lead, and used to strike the fleam into the vein. Youatt.


   Blood"stone`  (,  n. (Min.) (a) A green siliceous stone sprinkled with
   red  jasper,  as  if  with  blood;  hence  the  name;  --  called also
   heliotrope.  (b)  Hematite, an ore of iron yielding a blood red powder
   or "streak."


   Blood"stroke`  (,  n.  [Cf.  F.  coup  de sang.] Loss of sensation and
   motion from hemorrhage or congestion in the brain. Dunglison.


   Blood"suck`er (?), n.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  animal  that sucks blood; esp., the leech (Hirudo
   medicinalis), and related species.

   2.  One  who  sheds  blood;  a  cruel, bloodthirsty man; one guilty of
   bloodshed; a murderer. [Obs.] Shak.

   3.  A  hard  and  exacting  master,  landlord,  or  money  lender;  an


   Blood"thirst`y  (?),  a.  Eager  to  shed  blood;  cruel;  sanguinary;
   murderous. -- Blood"thirst`i*ness (n.


   Blood"ulf (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European bullfinch.

                                 Blood vessel

   Blood"  ves`sel  (?).  (Anat.)  Any  vessel  or  canal  in which blood
   circulates in an animal, as an artery or vein.

                              Bloodwite, Bloodwit

   Blood"wite`  (?),  Blood"wit` (, n. [AS. bl; bl blood, + w\'c6te wite,
   fine.]  (Anc.  Law) A fine or amercement paid as a composition for the
   shedding of blood; also, a riot wherein blood was spilled.


   Blood"wood  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A tree having the wood or the sap of the
   color of blood.

     NOTE: Norfolk Is land bl oodwood is a euphorbiaceous tree (Baloghia
     lucida),  from  which  the  sap  is  collected  for use as a plant.
     Various  other trees have the name, chiefly on account of the color
     of  the  wood,  as  Gordonia H\'91matoxylon of Jamaica, and several
     species   of   Australian  Eucalyptus;  also  the  true  logwood  (
     H\'91matoxylon campechianum).


   Blood"wort`  (,  n. (Bot.) A plant, Rumex sanguineus, or bloody-veined
   dock.  The name is applied also to bloodroot (Sanguinaria Canadensis),
   and  to an extensive order of plants (H\'91modorace\'91), the roots of
   many species of which contain a red coloring matter useful in dyeing.


   Blood"y (?), a. [AS. bl.]

   1.  Containing or resembling blood; of the nature of blood; as, bloody
   excretions; bloody sweat.

   2.  Smeared  or  stained  with  blood;  as,  bloody  hands;  a  bloody

   3. Given, or tending, to the shedding of blood; having a cruel, savage
   disposition; murderous; cruel.

     Some bloody passion shakes your very frame. Shak.

   4. Attended with, or involving, bloodshed; sanguinary; esp., marked by
   great slaughter or cruelty; as, a bloody battle.

   5. Infamous; contemptible; -- variously used for mere emphasis or as a
   low epithet. [Vulgar] Thackeray.


   Blood"y,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Bloodied (; p. pr. & vb. n. Bloodying.]
   To stain with blood. Overbury.


   Blood"y*bones` (, n. A terrible bugbear.

                                  Bloody flux

   Blood"y  flux`  (?).  The  dysentery,  a  disease in which the flux or
   discharge from the bowels has a mixture of blood. Arbuthnot.

                                  Bloody hand

   Blood"y hand` (.

   1.  A  hand stained with the blood of a deer, which, in the old forest
   laws  of  England,  was sufficient evidence of a man's trespass in the
   forest against venison. Jacob.

   2.  (Her.)  A  red  hand,  as  in the arms of Ulster, which is now the
   distinguishing mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom.


   Blood"y-mind"ed   (?),  a.  Having  a  cruel,  ferocious  disposition;
   bloodthirsty. Dryden.

                                 Bloody sweat

   Blood"y  sweat`  (.  A  sweat  accompanied  by a discharge of blood; a
   disease,  called  sweating sickness, formerly prevalent in England and
   other countries.


   Bloom  (?),  n.  [OE. blome, fr. Icel. bl, bl; akin to Sw. blom, Goth.
   bl, OS. bl, D. bloem, OHG. bluomo, bluoma, G. blume; fr. the same root
   as AS. bl to blow, blossom. See Blow to bloom, and cf. Blossom.]

   1.  A  blossom;  the  flower  of  a  plant;  an expanded bud; flowers,

     The rich blooms of the tropics. Prescott.

   2.  The  opening  of flowers in general; the state of blossoming or of
   having  the flowers open; as, the cherry trees are in bloom. "Sight of
   vernal bloom." Milton.

   3.  A  state  or  time  of beauty, freshness, and vigor; an opening to
   higher  perfection,  analogous  to that of buds into blossoms; as, the
   bloom of youth.

     Every  successive  mother  has  transmitted a fainter bloom, a more
     delicate and briefer beauty. Hawthorne.

   4.   The   delicate,   powdery   coating   upon   certain  growing  or
   newly-gathered  fruits  or  leaves,  as  on grapes, plums, etc. Hence:
   Anything  giving  an  appearance  of  attractive freshness; a flush; a

     A  new,  fresh,  brilliant  world,  with  all  the  bloom  upon it.

   5.  The  clouded  appearance  which  varnish  sometimes takes upon the
   surface of a picture.

   6. A yellowish deposit or powdery coating which appears on well-tanned
   leather. Knight.

   7.  (Min.)  A popular term for a bright-hued variety of some minerals;
   as, the rose-red cobalt bloom.


   Bloom, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bloomed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blooming.]

   1.  To  produce  or  yield  blossoms;  to  blossom; to flower or be in

     A flower which once In Paradise, fast by the tree of life, Began to
     bloom. Milton.

   2.  To  be  in  a state of healthful, growing youth and vigor; to show
   beauty  and  freshness,  as of flowers; to give promise, as by or with

     A better country blooms to view,

     Beneath a brighter sky. Logan.


     Bloom, v. t.

     1. To cause to blossom; to make flourish. [R.]

     Charitable affection bloomed them. Hooker.

     2.  To  bestow  a  bloom  upon;  to  make blooming or radiant. [R.]

     While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day. Keats.


     Bloom,  n.  [AS. bl a mass or lump, \'c6senes bl a lump or wedge of
     iron.]  (Metal.)  (a) A mass of wrought iron from the Catalan forge
     or  from  the  puddling  furnace, deprived of its dross, and shaped
     usually  in  the  form of an oblong block by shingling. (b) A large
     bar of steel formed directly from an ingot by hammering or rolling,
     being a preliminary shape for further working.


     Bloom"a*ry (?), n. See Bloomery.


     Bloom"er  (?),  n.  [From  Mrs. Bloomer, an American, who sought to
     introduce this style of dress.]

     1.  A  costume  for  women, consisting of a short dress, with loose
     trousers gathered round ankles, and (commonly) a broad-brimmed hat.

     2. A woman who wears a Bloomer costume.


     Bloom"er*y  (?),  n.  (Manuf.) A furnace and forge in which wrought
     iron  in the form of blooms is made directly from the ore, or (more
     rarely) from cast iron.


     Bloom"ing, n. (Metal.) The process of making blooms from the ore or
     from cast iron.


     Bloom"ing, a.

     1. Opening in blossoms; flowering.

     2.  Thriving in health, beauty, and vigor; indicating the freshness
     and beauties of youth or health.


     Bloom"ing*ly, adv. In a blooming manner.


     Bloom"ing*ness, n. A blooming condition.


     Bloom"less, a. Without bloom or flowers. Shelley.


     Bloom"y (?), a.

     1. Full of bloom; flowery; flourishing with the vigor of youth; as,
     a bloomy spray.

     But all the bloomy flush of life is fled. Goldsmith.

     2. Covered with bloom, as fruit. Dryden.


     Blooth (?), n. Bloom; a blossoming. [Prov. Eng.]

     All  that  blooth means heavy autumn work for him and his hands. T.


     Blore  (?), n. [Perh. a variant of blare, v. i.; or cf. Gael. & Ir.
     blor  a  loud  noise.] The act of blowing; a roaring wind; a blast.

     A most tempestuous blore. Chapman.


     Blos"my (?), a. Blossomy. [Obs.] Chaucer.


     Blos"som (?), n. [OE. blosme, blostme, AS. bl, bl, blossom; akin to
     D.  bloesem,  L.  fios,  and E. flower; from the root of E. blow to
     blossom. See Blow to blossom, and cf. Bloom a blossom.]

     1.  The flower of a plant, or the essential organs of reproduction,
     with  their appendages; florescence; bloom; the flowers of a plant,
     collectively;  as,  the blossoms and fruit of a tree; an apple tree
     in blossom.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm ha s been applied by some botanists, and is
     also  applied  in common usage, to the corolla. It is more commonly
     used  than  flower  or  bloom,  when we have reference to the fruit
     which  is  to  succeed. Thus we use flowers when we speak of plants
     cultivated  for  ornament, and bloom in a more general sense, as of
     flowers in general, or in reference to the beauty of flowers.

     Blossoms flaunting in the eye of day. Longfellow.

     2. A blooming period or stage of development; something lovely that
     gives rich promise.

     In the blossom of my youth. Massinger.

     3. The color of a horse that has white hairs intermixed with sorrel
     and bay hairs; -- otherwise called peach color.

   In blossom, having the blossoms open; in bloom.


   Blos"som,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Blossomed  (#);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Blossoming.] [AS. bl. See Blossom, n.]

   1. To put forth blossoms or flowers; to bloom; to blow; to flower.

     The  moving  whisper  of  huge  trees  that branched And blossomed.

   2. To flourish and prosper.

     Israel  shall  blossom and bud, and full the face of the world with
     fruit. Isa. xxvii. 6.


   Blos"som*less, a. Without blossoms.


   Blos"som*y (?), a. Full of blossoms; flowery.


   Blot  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blotted (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blotting.]
   [Cf. Dan. plette. See 3d Blot.]

   1. To spot, stain, or bespatter, as with ink.

     The brief was writ and blotted all with gore. Gascoigne.

   2. To impair; to damage; to mar; to soil.

     It blots thy beauty, as frosts do bite the meads. Shak.

   3. To stain with infamy; to disgrace.

     Blot not thy innocence with guiltless blood. Rowe.

   4.  To  obliterate,  as  writing  with  ink;  to cancel; to efface; --
   generally  with  out;  as,  to  blot  out  a word or a sentence. Often
   figuratively; as, to blot out offenses.

     One act like this blots out a thousand crimes. Dryden.

   5. To obscure; to eclipse; to shadow.

     He sung how earth blots the moon's gilded wane. Cowley.

   6.  To  dry,  as  writing, with blotting paper. Syn. -- To obliterate;
   expunge; erase; efface; cancel; tarnish; disgrace; blur; sully; smear;


   Blot, v. i. To take a blot; as, this paper blots easily.


   Blot, n. [Cf. Icel. blettr, Dan. plet.]

   1. A spot or stain, as of ink on paper; a blur. "Inky blots and rotten
   parchment bonds." Shak.

   2.  An  obliteration  of  something  written  or  printed; an erasure.

   3. A spot on reputation; a stain; a disgrace; a reproach; a blemish.

     This deadly blot in thy digressing son. Shak.


   Blot,  n.  [Cf.  Dan. blot bare, naked, Sw. blott, d. bloot, G. bloss,
   and perh. E. bloat.]

   1.  (Backgammon) (a) An exposure of a single man to be taken up. (b) A
   single man left on a point, exposed to be taken up.

     He  is too great a master of his art to make a blot which may be so
     easily hit. Dryden.

   2. A weak point; a failing; an exposed point or mark.


   Blotch  (?),  n.  [Cf. OE. blacche in blacchepot blacking pot, akin to
   black, as bleach is akin to bleak. See Black, a., or cf. Blot a spot.]

   1.  A  blot  or  spot,  as  of  color or of ink; especially a large or
   irregular spot. Also Fig.; as, a moral blotch.

     Spots and blotches . . . some red, others yellow. Harvey.

   2. (Med.) A large pustule, or a coarse eruption.

     Foul scurf and blotches him defile. Thomson.


   Blotched (?), a. Marked or covered with blotches.

     To give their blotched and blistered bodies ease. Drayton.


   Blotch"y (?), a. Having blotches.


   Blote  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bloted; p. pr. & vb. n. Bloting.] [Cf.
   Sw. bl\'94t-fisk soaked fish, fr. bl\'94ta to soak. See 1st Bloat.] To
   cure, as herrings, by salting and smoking them; to bloat. [Obs.]


   Blot"less (?), a. Without blot.


   Blot"ter (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or  that  which  blots;  esp.  a  device  for absorbing
   superfluous ink.

   Page 158

   2.  (Com.)  A  wastebook, in which entries of transactions are made as
   they take place.


   Blot*tesque" (, a. (Painting) Characterized by blots or heavy touches;
   coarsely depicted; wanting in delineation. Ruskin.

                                Blotting paper

   Blot"ting  pa`per  (?). A kind of thick, bibulous, unsized paper, used
   to  absorb  superfluous  ink from freshly written manuscript, and thus
   prevent blots.


   Blouse  (?),  n.  [F.  blouse.  Of  unknown  origin.]  A  light, loose
   over-garment,  like  a  smock  frock, worn especially by workingmen in
   France;  also,  a  loose  coat of any material, as the undress uniform
   coat of the United States army.


   Blow  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  Blew  (?); p. p. Blown (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blowing.] [OE. blowen, AS. bl to blossom; akin to OS. bl, D. bloeijen,
   OHG.  pluojan,  MHG.  bl,  G.  bl\'81hen, L. florere to flourish, OIr.
   blath  blossom. Cf. Blow to puff, Flourish.] To flower; to blossom; to

     How blows the citron grove. Milton.


   Blow, v. t. To cause to blossom; to put forth (blossoms or flowers).

     The odorous banks, that blow Flowers of more mingled hue. Milton.


   Blow,  n.  (Bot.)  A blossom; a flower; also, a state of blossoming; a
   mass of blossoms. "Such a blow of tulips." Tatler.


   Blow,  n.  [OE.  blaw,  blowe;  cf. OHG. bliuwan, pliuwan, to beat, G.
   bl\'84uen, Goth. bliggwan.]

   1.  A  forcible  stroke  with the hand, fist, or some instrument, as a
   rod, a club, an ax, or a sword.

     Well struck ! there was blow for blow. Shak.

   2. A sudden or forcible act or effort; an assault.

     A vigorous blow might win [Hanno's camp]. T. Arnold.

   3. The infliction of evil; a sudden calamity; something which produces
   mental, physical, or financial suffering or loss (esp. when sudden); a

     A most poor man, made tame to fortune's blows. Shak.

   At  a  blow,  suddenly; at one effort; by a single vigorous act. "They
   lose  a province at a blow." Dryden. -- To come to blows, to engage in
   combat; to fight; -- said of individuals, armies, and nations. Syn. --
   Stroke; knock; shock; misfortune.


   Blow, v. i. [imp. Blew (?); p. p. Blown (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Blowing.]
   [OE.  blawen,  blowen,  AS.  bl  to blow, as wind; akin to OHG. pl, G.
   bl\'84hen,  to blow up, swell, L. flare to blow, Gr. to spout out, and
   to E. bladder, blast, inflate, etc., and perh. blow to bloom.]

   1.  To produce a current of air; to move, as air, esp. to move rapidly
   or with power; as, the wind blows.

     Hark how it rains and blows ! Walton.

   2.  To send forth a forcible current of air, as from the mouth or from
   a pair of bellows.

   3. To breathe hard or quick; to pant; to puff.

     Here is Mistress Page at the door, sweating and blowing. Shak.

   4. To sound on being blown into, as a trumpet.

     There let the pealing organ blow. Milton.

   5. To spout water, etc., from the blowholes, as a whale.

   6.  To be carried or moved by the wind; as, the dust blows in from the

     The grass blows from their graves to thy own. M. Arnold.

   7. To talk loudly; to boast; to storm. [Colloq.]

     You  blow  behind  my  back,  but dare not say anything to my face.

   To  blow  hot  and  cold  (a saying derived from a fable of sop's), to
   favor a thing at one time and treat it coldly at another; or to appear
   both  to  favor  and  to  oppose.  -- To blow off, to let steam escape
   through  a passage provided for the purpose; as, the engine or steamer
   is  blowing off. -- To blow out. (a) To be driven out by the expansive
   force  of  a  gas  or vapor; as, a steam cock or valve sometimes blows
   out.  (b)  To  talk  violently or abusively. [Low] -- To blow over, to
   pass  away  without  effect; to cease, or be dissipated; as, the storm
   and  the  clouds  have blown over. -- To blow up, to be torn to pieces
   and  thrown  into  the  air as by an explosion of powder or gas or the
   expansive  force  of steam; to burst; to explode; as, a powder mill or
   steam boiler blows up. "The enemy's magazines blew up." Tatler.
   Blow, v. t.
   1.  To  force a current of air upon with the mouth, or by other means;
   as, to blow the fire.
   2.  To drive by a current air; to impel; as, the tempest blew the ship
     Off  at sea northeast winds blow Sabean odors from the spicy shore.

   3.  To  cause  air  to  pass  through  by  the action of the mouth, or
   otherwise;  to  cause  to  sound,  as a wind instrument; as, to blow a
   trumpet; to blow an organ.

     Hath she no husband That will take pains to blow a horn before her?

     Boy, blow the pipe until the bubble rise, Then cast it off to float
     upon the skies. Parnell.

   4. To clear of contents by forcing air through; as, to blow an egg; to
   blow one's nose.

   5.  To burst, shatter, or destroy by an explosion; -- usually with up,
   down, open, or similar adverb; as, to blow up a building.

   6. To spread by report; to publish; to disclose.

     Through the court his courtesy was blown. Dryden.

     His language does his knowledge blow. Whiting.

   7.  To  form  by  inflation;  to  swell  by injecting air; as, to blow
   bubbles; to blow glass.

   8. To inflate, as with pride; to puff up.

     Look how imagination blows him. Shak.

   9.  To put out of breath; to cause to blow from fatigue; as, to blow a
   horse. Sir W. Scott.

   10. To deposit eggs or larv\'91 upon, or in (meat, etc.).

     To suffer The flesh fly blow my mouth. Shak.

   To blow great guns, to blow furiously and with roaring blasts; -- said
   of  the  wind  at  sea or along the coast. -- To blow off, to empty (a
   boiler)  of  water  through  the  blow-off  pipe,  while  under  steam
   pressure; also, to eject (steam, water, sediment, etc.) from a boiler.
   --  To  blow  one's own trumpet, to vaunt one's own exploits, or sound
   one's  own praises. -- To blow out, to extinguish by a current of air,
   as  a  candle.  --  To blow up. (a) To fill with air; to swell; as, to
   blow  up  a  bladder  or  bubble.  (b)  To  inflate,  as  with  pride,
   self-conceit,  etc.;  to  puff  up;  as, to blow one up with flattery.
   "Blown  up  with  high  conceits  engendering  pride."  Milton. (c) To
   excite;  as,  to  blow up a contention.(d) To burst, to raise into the
   air,  or  to  scatter,  by an explosion; as, to blow up a fort. (e) To
   scold violently; as, to blow up a person for some offense. [Colloq.]
     I  have blown him up well -- nobody can say I wink at what he does.
     G. Eliot.
   To  blow  upon.  (a)  To  blast; to taint; to bring into discredit; to
   render stale, unsavory, or worthless. (b) To inform against. [Colloq.]
     How  far  the  very  custom of hearing anything spouted withers and
     blows  upon  a  fine  passage,  may  be seen in those speeches from
     [Shakespeare's]  Henry  V.  which  are  current  in  the  mouths of
     schoolboys. C. Lamb.
     A lady's maid whose character had been blown upon. Macaulay.
   Blow (?), n.
   1. A blowing, esp., a violent blowing of the wind; a gale; as, a heavy
   blow came on, and the ship put back to port.
   2.  The  act  of  forcing  air from the mouth, or through or from some
   instrument;  as, to give a hard blow on a whistle or horn; to give the
   fire a blow with the bellows.
   3. The spouting of a whale.
   4.  (Metal.)  A  single  heat  or operation of the Bessemer converter.
   5.  An  egg, or a larva, deposited by a fly on or in flesh, or the act
   of depositing it. Chapman.
   Blow"ball`  (,  n.  The downy seed head of a dandelion, which children
   delight to blow away. B. Jonson.
                                Blowen, Blowess
   Blow"en  (?),  Blow"ess (?), n. A prostitute; a courtesan; a strumpet.
   [Low] Smart. 


   Blow"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, blows.

   2.  (Mech.)  A  device for producing a current of air; as: (a) A metal
   plate  temporarily  placed  before  the  upper part of a grate or open
   fire.  (b)  A  machine for producing an artificial blast or current of
   air by pressure, as for increasing the draft of a furnace, ventilating
   a building or shaft, cleansing gram, etc.

   3.  A blowing out or excessive discharge of gas from a hole or fissure
   in a mine.

   4.  The  whale;  --  so called by seamen, from the circumstance of its
   spouting up a column of water.

   5.  (Zo\'94l.) A small fish of the Atlantic coast (Tetrodon turgidus);
   the puffer.

   6. A braggart, or loud talker. [Slang] Bartlett.


   Blow"fly`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any species of fly of the genus Musca
   that deposits its eggs or young larv\'91 (called flyblows and maggots)
   upon meat or other animal products.


   Blow"gun`  (?),  n.  A tube, as of cane or reed, sometimes twelve feet
   long,  through  which  an arrow or other projectile may be impelled by
   the  force  of the breath. It is a weapon much used by certain Indians
   of America and the West Indies; -- called also blowpipe, and blowtube.
   See Sumpitan.


   Blow"hole` (?), n.

   1.  A cavern in a cliff, at the water level, opening to the air at its
   farther extremity, so that the waters rush in with each surge and rise
   in a lofty jet from the extremity.

   2.  A  nostril  or spiracle in the top of the head of a whale or other

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e tw o sp iracles or blowholes in the common
     whales, but only one in sperm whales, porpoises, etc.

   3. A hole in the ice to which whales, seals, etc., come to breathe.

   4. (Founding) An air hole in a casting.


   Blown (?), p. p. & a.

   1. Swollen; inflated; distended; puffed up, as cattle when gorged with
   green food which develops gas.

   2. Stale; worthless.

   3.  Out of breath; tired; exhausted. "Their horses much blown." Sir W.

   4. Covered with the eggs and larv\'91 of flies; fly blown.


   Blown, p. p. & a. Opened; in blossom or having blossomed, as a flower.


   Blow"-off` (, n.

   1. A blowing off steam, water, etc.; -- Also, adj. as, a blow-off cock
   or pipe.

   2. An outburst of temper or excitement. [Colloq.]


   Blow"-out`  (,  n.  The  cleaning of the flues of a boiler from scale,
   etc., by a blast of steam.


   Blow"pipe` (, n.

   1.  A tube for directing a jet of air into a fire or into the flame of
   a lamp or candle, so as to concentrate the heat on some object.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  ca lled a  mo uth bl owpipe when used with the
     mouth;  but  for both chemical and industrial purposes, it is often
     worked by a bellows or other contrivance. The common mouth blowpipe
     is  a  tapering  tube  with  a  very small orifice at the end to be
     inserted  in  the  flame. The oxyhydrogen blowpipe, invented by Dr.
     Hare  in 1801, is an instrument in which oxygen and hydrogen, taken
     from  separate  reservoirs,  in  the  proportions of two volumes of
     hydrogen  to one of oxygen, are burned in a jet, under pressure. It
     gives  a  heat  that  will  consume the diamond, fuse platinum, and
     dissipate in vapor, or in gaseous forms, most known substances.

   2. A blowgun; a blowtube.
   Blowpipe  analysis  (Chem.),  analysis  by  means  of the blowpipe. --
   Blowpipe  reaction (Chem.), the characteristic behavior of a substance
   subjected to a test by means of the blowpipe.


   Blow"point` (, n. A child's game. [Obs.]


   Blowse, n. See Blowze.


   Blowth  (?),  n.  [From  Blow to blossom: cf. Growth.] A blossoming; a
   bloom. [Obs. or Archaic] "In the blowth and bud." Sir W. Raleigh.


   Blow"tube` (?), n.

   1. A blowgun. Tylor.

   2. A similar instrument, commonly of tin, used by boys for discharging
   paper wads and other light missiles.

   3.  (Glassmaking)  A  long  wrought iron tube, on the end of which the
   workman  gathers  a  quantity  of  "metal" (melted glass), and through
   which he blows to expand or shape it; -- called also blowing tube, and

                                  Blow valve

   Blow" valve` (. (Mach.) See Snifting valve.


   Blow"y (?), a. Windy; as, blowy weather; a blowy upland.


   Blowze (?), n. [Prob. from the same root as blush.] A ruddy, fat-faced
   woman; a wench. [Obs.] Shak.


   Blowzed  (?),  a.  Having  high  color  from  exposure to the weather;
   ruddy-faced; blowzy; disordered.

     Huge women blowzed with health and wind. Tennyson.


   Blowz"y  (?),  a. Coarse and ruddy-faced; fat and ruddy; high colored;


   Blub  (?), v. t. & i. [Cf. Bleb, Blob.] To swell; to puff out, as with
   weeping. [Obs.]


   Blub"ber (?), n. [See Blobber, Blob, Bleb.]

   1. A bubble.

     At his mouth a blubber stood of foam. Henryson.

   2.  The  fat  of  whales and other large sea animals from which oil is
   obtained.  It  lies  immediately  under the skin and over the muscular

   3. (Zo\'94l.) A large sea nettle or medusa.


   Blub"ber,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Blubbered  (#);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Blubbering.]  To  weep noisily, or so as to disfigure the face; to cry
   in a childish manner.

     She wept, she blubbered, and she tore her hair. Swift.


   Blub"ber, v. t.

   1. To swell or disfigure (the face) with weeping; to wet with tears.

     Dear Cloe, how blubbered is that pretty face! Prior.

   2.  To  give vent to (tears) or utter (broken words or cries); -- with
   forth or out.


   Blub"bered  (?),  p.  p.  &  a.  Swollen; turgid; as, a blubbered lip.


   Blub"ber*ing, n. The act of weeping noisily.

     He spake well save that his blubbering interrupted him. Winthrop.


   Blub"ber*y (?), a.

   1. Swollen; protuberant.

   2. Like blubber; gelatinous and quivering; as, a blubbery mass.


   Blu"cher  (?), n. A kind of half boot, named from the Prussian general
   Bl\'81cher. Thackeray.


   Bludg"eon  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Ir.  blocan  a little block, Gael. plocan a
   mallet, W. plocyn, dim. of ploc block; or perh. connected with E. blow
   a  stroke.  Cf.  Block,  Blow  a  stroke.] A short stick, with one end
   loaded,  or  thicker  and heavier that the other, used as an offensive


   Blue (?), a. [Compar. Bluer (?); superl. Bluest.] [OE. bla, blo, blew,
   blue, Sw. bl, D. blauw, OHG. bl, G. blau; but influenced in form by F.
   bleu, from OHG. bl\'beo.]

   1.  Having the color of the clear sky, or a hue resembling it, whether
   lighter or darker; as, the deep, blue sea; as blue as a sapphire; blue
   violets. "The blue firmament." Milton.

   2.  Pale,  without redness or glare, -- said of a flame; hence, of the
   color  of  burning  brimstone,  betokening  the  presence of ghosts or
   devils; as, the candle burns blue; the air was blue with oaths.

   3. Low in spirits; melancholy; as, to feel blue.

   4.  Suited  to  produce  low  spirits;  gloomy in prospect; as, thongs
   looked blue. [Colloq.]

   5.  Severe  or  over  strict  in  morals;  gloom;  as,  blue  and sour
   religionists; suiting one who is over strict in morals; inculcating an
   impracticable, severe, or gloomy mortality; as, blue laws.

   6.  Literary; -- applied to women; -- an abbreviation of bluestocking.

     The ladies were very blue and well informed. Thackeray.

   Blue  asbestus.  See Crocidolite. -- Blue black, of, or having, a very
   dark blue color, almost black. -- Blue blood. See under Blood. -- Blue
   buck   (Zo\'94l.),   a   small  South  African  antelope  (Cephalophus
   pygm\'91us);   also   applied   to   a   larger  species  (\'92goceras
   leucoph\'91us);  the blaubok. -- Blue cod (Zo\'94l.), the buffalo cod.
   --  Blue crab (Zo\'94l.), the common edible crab of the Atlantic coast
   of  the  United States (Callinectes hastatus). -- Blue curls (Bot.), a
   common  plant  (Trichostema  dichotomum),  resembling  pennyroyal, and
   hence  called  also  bastard  pennyroyal.  -- Blue devils, apparitions
   supposed to be seen by persons suffering with delirium tremens; hence,
   very  low  spirits. "Can Gumbo shut the hall door upon blue devils, or
   lay  them  all  in  a red sea of claret?" Thackeray. -- Blue gage. See
   under  Gage,  a  plum.  --  Blue  gum,  an  Australian myrtaceous tree
   (Eucalyptus  globulus), of the loftiest proportions, now cultivated in
   tropical  and  warm  temperate  regions  for  its  timber,  and  as  a
   protection  against malaria. The essential oil is beginning to be used
   in  medicine. The timber is very useful. See Eucalyptus. -- Blue jack,
   Blue stone, blue vitriol; sulphate of copper. -- Blue jacket, a man-of
   war's  man;  a  sailor  wearing a naval uniform. -- Blue jaundice. See
   under  Jaundice.  --  Blue  laws,  a name first used in the eighteenth
   century  to  describe  certain  supposititious  laws  of extreme rigor
   reported  to  have  been  enacted in New Haven; hence, any puritanical
   laws.  [U.  S.]  --  Blue  light,  a  composition  which  burns with a
   brilliant blue flame; -- used in pyrotechnics and as a night signal at
   sea,  and  in  military  operations. -- Blue mantle (Her.), one of the
   four pursuivants of the English college of arms; -- so called from the
   color  of  his  official robes. -- Blue mass, a preparation of mercury
   from  which is formed the blue pill. McElrath. -- Blue mold, or mould,
   the  blue fungus (Aspergillus glaucus) which grows on cheese. Brande &
   C.  --  Blue  Monday,  a  Monday following a Sunday of dissipation, or
   itself  given  to  dissipation  (as  the  Monday before Lent). -- Blue
   ointment (Med.), mercurial ointment. -- Blue Peter (British Marine), a
   blue  flag  with  a  white  square in the center, used as a signal for
   sailing,  to  recall  boats, etc. It is a corruption of blue repeater,
   one  of  the  British signal flags. -- Blue pill. (Med.) (a) A pill of
   prepared  mercury,  used  as  an aperient, etc. (b) Blue mass. -- Blue
   ribbon.  (a) The ribbon worn by members of the order of the Garter; --
   hence, a member of that order. (b) Anything the attainment of which is
   an   object   of  great  ambition;  a  distinction;  a  prize.  "These
   [scholarships]  were  the blue ribbon of the college." Farrar. (c) The
   distinctive   badge   of   certain   temperance  or  total  abstinence
   organizations,  as  of the Blue ribbon Army. -- Blue ruin, utter ruin;
   also,  gin.  [Eng.  Slang]  Carlyle.  -- Blue spar (Min.), azure spar;
   lazulite.  See  Lazulite.  --  Blue  thrush (Zo\'94l.), a European and
   Asiatic   thrush  (Petrocossyphus  cyaneas).  --  Blue  verditer.  See
   Verditer.  --  Blue vitriol (Chem.), sulphate of copper, a violet blue
   crystallized  salt,  used in electric batteries, calico printing, etc.
   --  Blue  water, the open ocean. -- To look blue, to look disheartened
   or  dejected.  --  True  blue, genuine and thorough; not modified, nor
   mixed;  not spurious; specifically, of uncompromising Presbyterianism,
   blue being the color adopted by the Covenanters.

   Page 159

     For his religion . . . 'T was Presbyterian, true blue. Hudibras.


   Blue (?), n.

   1.  One  of  the  seven  colors  into  which  the rays of light divide
   themselves,  when  refracted  through  a glass prism; the color of the
   clear  sky,  or  a color resembling that, whether lighter or darker; a
   pigment having such color. Sometimes, poetically, the sky.

   2. A pedantic woman; a bluestocking. [Colloq.]

   3.  pl.  [Short  for  blue devils.] Low spirits; a fit of despondency;
   melancholy. [Colloq.]
   Berlin  blue,  Prussian  blue.  -- Mineral blue. See under Mineral. --
   Prussian blue. See under Prussian.


   Blue,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blued (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bluing.] To make
   blue; to dye of a blue color; to make blue by heating, as metals, etc.


   Blue"back`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A trout (Salmo oquassa) inhabiting
   some  of  the lakes of Maine. (b) A salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) of the
   Columbia  River  and  northward. (c) An American river herring (Clupea
   \'91stivalis), closely allied to the alewife.


   Blue"beard  (?),  n.  The hero of a medi\'91val French nursery legend,
   who,  leaving home, enjoined his young wife not to open a certain room
   in  his  castle.  She entered it, and found the murdered bodies of his
   former  wives.  --  Also  used  adjectively  of  a subject which it is
   forbidden to investigate.

     The  Bluebeard  chamber  of his mind, into which no eye but his own
     must look. Carlyle.


   Blue"bell`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  (a)  A  plant  of  the  genus Campanula,
   especially  the  Campanula  rotundifolia, which bears blue bell-shaped
   flowers;  the  harebell.  (b)  A  plant  of  the  genus Scilla (Scilla


   Blue"berry  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Blaeberry.]  (Bot.)  The  berry of several
   species  of  Vaccinium,  and  ericaceous  genus,  differing  from  the
   American  huckleberries in containing numerous minute seeds instead of
   ten  nutlets.  The  commonest  species  are  V.  Pennsylvanicum and V.
   vacillans. V. corymbosum is the tall blueberry.


   Blue"bill`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  duck  of  the genus Fuligula. Two
   American  species  (F.  marila  and  F. affinis) are common. See Scaup


   Blue"bird`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A small song bird (Sialia sialis), very
   common in the United States, and, in the north, one of the earliest to
   arrive  in  spring.  The  male is blue, with the breast reddish. It is
   related  to the European robin. Pairy bluebird (Zo\'94l.), a brilliant
   Indian or East Indian bird of the genus Irena, of several species.

                          Blue bonnet or Blue-bonnet

   Blue" bon`net or Blue"-bon`net (?), n.

   1.  A broad, flat Scottish cap of blue woolen, or one waring such cap;
   a Scotchman.

   2. (Bot.) A plant. Same as Bluebottle.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  European  blue  titmouse (Parus c\'d2ruleus); the

                                   Blue book

   Blue" book` (?).

   1.  A parliamentary publication, so called from its blue paper covers.

   2. The United States official "Biennial Register."


   Blue"bot`tle (?), n.

   1.  (Bot.)  A plant (Centaurea cyanus) which grows in grain fields. It
   receives its name from its blue bottle-shaped flowers.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  and  troublesome  species  of blowfly (Musca
   vomitoria). Its body is steel blue.


   Blue"breast`   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   A  small  European  bird;  the
   blue-throated warbler.


   Blue"cap` (?), n.

   1. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The bluepoll. (b) The blue bonnet or blue titmouse.

   2.  A  Scot;  a  Scotchman;  --  so  named from wearing a blue bonnet.
   [Poetic] Shak.


   Blue"coat`  (?),  n.  One  dressed  in blue, as a soldier, a sailor, a
   beadle, etc.


   Blue"-eye`   (?),   n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  blue-cheeked  honeysucker  of


   Blue"-eyed` (?), a. Having blue eyes.

                                Blue-eyed grass

   Blue-eyed  grass  (?)  (Bot.) a grasslike plant (Sisyrinchium anceps),
   with small flowers of a delicate blue color.


   Blue"fin`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  species  of  whitefish  (Coregonus
   nigripinnis) found in Lake Michigan.


   Blue"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  A  large  voracious  fish  (Pomatomus  saitatrix),  of  the family
   Carangid\'91,  valued  as  a  food fish, and widely distributed on the
   American  coast. On the New Jersey and Rhode Island coast it is called
   the horse mackerel, in Virginia saltwater tailor, or skipjack.

   2.   A  West  Indian  fish  (Platyglossus  radiatus),  of  the  family

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  ap plied lo cally to  ot her species of
     fishes; as the cunner, sea bass, squeteague, etc.


   Blue"gown`  (?),  n.  One  of  a  class  of  paupers or pensioners, or
   licensed beggars, in Scotland, to whim annually on the king's birthday
   were distributed certain alms, including a blue gown; a beadsman.

                                  Blue grass

   Blue"  grass`  (?).  (Bot.)  A  species  of grass (Poa compressa) with
   bluish  green  stems,  valuable  in  thin  gravelly soils; wire grass.
   Kentucky  blue  grass,  a  species  of grass (Poa pratensis) which has
   running  rootstocks  and  spreads rapidly. It is valuable as a pasture
   grass,  as it endures both winter and drought better than other kinds,
   and is very nutritious.

                                   Blue jay

   Blue"  jay`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  The  common  jay  of  the United States
   (Cyanocitta,  or  Cyanura,  cristata). The predominant color is bright


   Blue"-john` (?), n. A name given to fluor spar in Derbyshire, where it
   is used for ornamental purposes.


   Blue"ly, adv. With a blue color. Swift.


   Blue"ness, n. The quality of being blue; a blue color. Boyle.


   Blue"nose (?), n. A nickname for a Nova Scotian.


   Blue"poll`  (,  n.  [Blue  +  poll  head.] (Zo\'94l.) A kind of salmon
   (Salmo Cambricus) found in Wales.


   Blue"print. See under Print.


   Blue"stock`ing (?), n.

   1. A literary lady; a female pedant. [Colloq.]

     NOTE: &hand; As  explained in Boswell's "Life of Dr. Johnson", this
     term  is  derived  from  the name given to certain meetings held by
     ladies,  in  Johnson's  time,  for  conversation with distinguished
     literary  men.  An  eminent attendant of these assemblies was a Mr.
     Stillingfleet,  who  always  wore  blue  stockings.  He was so much
     distinguished for his conversational powers that his absence at any
     time was felt to be a great loss, so that the remark became common,
     "We  can  do  nothing  without  the  blue  stockings."  Hence these
     meetings  were sportively called bluestocking clubs, and the ladies
     who attended them, bluestockings.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The American avocet (Recurvirostra Americana).


   Blue"stock`ing*ism  (?), n. The character or manner of a bluestocking;
   female pedantry. [Colloq.]


   Blue"stone` (, n.

   1. Blue vitriol. Dunglison.

   2. A grayish blue building stone, as that commonly used in the eastern
   United States.


   Blue"throat`  (#), n. (Zo\'94l.) A singing bird of northern Europe and
   Asia  (Cyanecula Suecica), related to the nightingales; -- called also
   blue-throated robin and blue-throated warbler.


   Blu"ets  (?),  n.  [F. bluet, bleuet, dim. of bleu blue. See Blue, a.]
   (Bot.) A name given to several different species of plants having blue
   flowers,   as  the  Houstonia  c\'d2rulea,  the  Centaurea  cyanus  or
   bluebottle, and the Vaccinium angustifolium.


   Blue"-veined` (, a. Having blue veins or blue streaks.


   Blue"wing` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The blue-winged teal. See Teal.


   Blue"y (?),a.Bluish. Southey.


   Bluff  (?),  a.  [Cf. OD. blaf flat, broad, blaffaert one with a broad
   face,  also, a boaster; or G. verbl\'81ffen to confuse, LG. bluffen to
   frighten; to unknown origin.]

   1.  Having  a  broad,  flattened  front; as, the bluff bows of a ship.
   "Bluff visages." Irving.

   2.  Rising  steeply  with  a  flat  or rounded front. "A bluff or bold
   shore." Falconer.

     Its banks, if not really steep, had a bluff and precipitous aspect.

   3. Surly; churlish; gruff; rough.

   4.  Abrupt;  roughly frank; unceremonious; blunt; brusque; as, a bluff
   answer;  a  bluff  manner of talking; a bluff sea captain. "Bluff King
   Hal." Sir W. Scott.

     There  is indeed a bluff pertinacity which is a proper defense in a
     moment of surprise. I. Taylor.


   Bluff, n.

   1. A high, steep bank, as by a river or the sea, or beside a ravine or
   plain; a cliff with a broad face.

     Beach, bluff, and wave, adieu. Whittier.

   2.  An  act  of  bluffing;  an  expression  of self-confidence for the
   purpose  of  intimidation;  braggadocio;  as, that is only bluff, or a

   3. A game at cards; poker. [U.S.] Bartlett.


   Bluff, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bluffed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bluffing.]

   1.  (Poker)  To deter (an opponent) from taking the risk of betting on
   his  hand  of cards, as the bluffer does by betting heavily on his own
   hand although it may be of less value. [U. S.]

   2.  To frighten or deter from accomplishing a purpose by making a show
   of  confidence  in one's strength or resources; as, he bluffed me off.


   Bluff, v. i. To act as in the game of bluff.


   Bluff"-bowed` (, a. (Naut.) Built with the stem nearly straight up and


   Bluff"er, ( n. One who bluffs.


   Bluff"-head`ed  (,  a.  (Naut.) Built with the stem nearly straight up
   and down.


   Bluff"ness, n. The quality or state of being bluff.


   Bluff"y (?), a.

   1. Having bluffs, or bold, steep banks.

   2. Inclined to bo bluff; brusque.


   Blu"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of rendering blue; as, the bluing of steel. Tomlinson.

   2. Something to give a bluish tint, as indigo, or preparations used by


   Blu"ish  (?),  a.  Somewhat  blue;  as,  bluish veins. "Bluish mists."
   Dryden. -- Blu"ish*ly, adv. -- Blu"ish*ness, n.


   Blun"der  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Blundered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blundering.]  [OE.  blunderen,  blondren,  to  stir, confuse, blunder;
   perh. allied to blend to mix, to confound by mixture.]

   1.  To  make  a  gross  error or mistake; as, to blunder in writing or
   preparing a medical prescription. Swift.

   2. To move in an awkward, clumsy manner; to flounder and stumble.

     I  was  never  distinguished  for  address,  and  have  often  even
     blundered in making my bow. Goldsmith.

     Yet knows not how to find the uncertain place, And blunders on, and
     staggers every pace. Dryden.

   To  blunder on. (a) To continue blundering. (b) To find or reach as if
   by  an  accident  involving  more  or  less  stupidity,  -- applied to
   something desirable; as, to blunder on a useful discovery.
   Blun"der, v. t. 

   1. To cause to blunder. [Obs.] "To blunder an adversary." Ditton.

   2. To do or treat in a blundering manner; to confuse.

     He blunders and confounds all these together. Stillingfleet.


   Blun"der, n.

   1. Confusion; disturbance. [Obs.]

   2.  A  gross error or mistake, resulting from carelessness, stupidity,
   or culpable ignorance. Syn. -- Blunder, Error, Mistake, Bull. An error
   is  a  departure or deviation from that which is right or correct; as,
   an  error  of  the  press;  an  error  of  judgment.  A mistake is the
   interchange  or  taking  of  one  thing  for  another,  through haste,
   inadvertence,  etc.; as, a careless mistake. A blunder is a mistake or
   error  of  a  gross  kind.  It supposes a person to flounder on in his
   course, from carelessness, ignorance, or stupidity. A bull is a verbal
   blunder containing a laughable incongruity of ideas.


   Blun"der*buss  (?), n. [Either fr. blunder + D. bus tube, box, akin to
   G.  b\'81chse  box,  gun,  E.  box;  or  corrupted  fr.  D.  donderbus
   (literally) thunder box, gun, musket.]

   1.  A  short  gun  or firearm, with a large bore, capable of holding a
   number of balls, and intended to do execution without exact aim.

   2. A stupid, blundering fellow.


   Blun"der*er (?), n. One who is apt to blunder.


   Blun"der*head` (, n. [Blunder + head.] A stupid, blundering fellow.


   Blun"der*ing, a. Characterized by blunders.


   Blun"der*ing*ly, adv. In a blundering manner.


   Blunge (?), v. t. To amalgamate and blend; to beat up or mix in water,
   as clay.


   Blun"ger (?), n. [Corrupted from plunger.] A wooden blade with a cross
   handle, used for mi Tomlinson.


   Blun"ging  (?),  n.  The  process  of  mixing clay in potteries with a
   blunger. Tomlinson.


   Blunt  (?), a. [Cf. Prov. G. bludde a dull or blunt knife, Dan. blunde
   to sleep, Sw. & Icel. blunda; or perh. akin to E. blind.]

   1. Having a thick edge or point, as an instrument; dull; not sharp.

     The murderous knife was dull and blunt. Shak.

   2.  Dull  in understanding; slow of discernment; stupid; -- opposed to

     His wits are not so blunt. Shak.

   3.  Abrupt  in  address;  plain;  unceremonious;  wanting the forms of
   civility;  rough  in  manners  or  speech. "Hiding his bitter jests in
   blunt behavior." "A plain, blunt man." Shak.

   4. Hard to impress or penetrate. [R.]

     I find my heart hardened and blunt to new impressions. Pope.

     NOTE: &hand; Bl unt is  mu ch us ed in composition, as blunt-edged,
     blunt-sighted, blunt-spoken.

   Syn.  --  Obtuse; dull; pointless; curt; short; coarse; rude; brusque;
   impolite; uncivil.


   Blunt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blunted; p. pr. & vb. n. Blunting.]

   1.  To dull the edge or point of, by making it thicker; to make blunt.

   2.  To  repress  or  weaken,  as any appetite, desire, or power of the
   mind;  to  impair  the  force, keenness, or susceptibility, of; as, to
   blunt the feelings.


   Blunt, n.

   1. A fencer's foil. [Obs.]

   2. A short needle with a strong point. See Needle.

   3. Money. [Cant] Beaconsfield.


   Blunt"ish, a. Somewhat blunt. -- Blunt"ish*ness, n.


   Blunt"ly, adv. In a blunt manner; coarsely; plainly; abruptly; without
   delicacy, or the usual forms of civility.

     Sometimes  after  bluntly giving his opinions, he would quietly lay
     himself asleep until the end of their deliberations. Jeffrey.


   Blunt"ness, n.

   1. Want of edge or point; dullness; obtuseness; want of sharpness.

     The multitude of elements and bluntness of angles. Holland.

   2.  A  bruptness  of  address;  rude plainness. "Bluntness of speech."


   Blunt"-wit`ted (?), n. Dull; stupid.

     Blunt-witted lord, ignoble in demeanor! Shak.


   Blur  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Blurred (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blurring.]
   [Prob. of same origin as blear. See Blear.]

   1.  To  render  obscure  by making the form or outline of confused and
   uncertain,  as  by soiling; to smear; to make indistinct and confused;
   as,  to  blur  manuscript  by  handling  it  while  damp;  to blur the
   impression of a woodcut by an excess of ink.

     But  time  hath  nothing blurred those lines of favor Which then he
     wore. Shak.

   2. To cause imperfection of vision in; to dim; to darken.

     Her eyes are blurred with the lightning's glare. J. R. Drake.

   3. To sully; to stain; to blemish, as reputation.

     Sarcasms  may  eclipse  thine own, But can not blur my lost renown.

   Syn. -- To spot; blot; disfigure; stain; sully.

   Page 160

   Page 160


   Blur (?), n.

   1.  That  which  obscures  without  effacing; a stain; a blot, as upon
   paper or other substance.

     As  for  those who cleanse blurs with blotted fingers, they make it
     worse. Fuller.

   2.  A  dim,  confused appearance; indistinctness of vision; as, to see
   things with a blur; it was all blur.

   3. A moral stain or blot.

     Lest  she  .  .  .  will  with her railing set a great blur on mine
     honesty and good name. Udall.


   Blur"ry (?), a. Full of blurs; blurred.


   Blurt  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Blurted; p. pr. & vb. n. Blurting.]
   [Cf.   Blare.]   To   utter   suddenly  and  unadvisedly;  to  divulge
   inconsiderately; to ejaculate; -- commonly with out.

     Others  .  .  .  can  not  hold,  but  blurt out, those words which
     afterward they forced to eat. Hakewill.

   To blurt at, to speak contemptuously of. [Obs.] Shak.


   Blush  (?) v. i. [imp. & p. p. Blushed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Blushing.]
   [OE.  bluschen  to shine, look, turn red, AS. blyscan to glow; akin to
   blysa  a  torch,  \'bebl  to  blush,  D. blozen, Dan. blusse to blaze,

   1.  To  become  suffused  with  red  in the cheeks, as from a sense of
   shame,  modesty,  or  confusion; to become red from such cause, as the
   cheeks or face.

     To the nuptial bower I led her blushing like the morn. Milton.

     In the presence of the shameless and unblushing, the young offender
     is ashamed to blush. Buckminster.

     He  would  stroke  The  head  of  modest  and ingenuous worth, That
     blushed at its own praise. Cowper.

   2. To grow red; to have a red or rosy color.

     The sun of heaven, methought, was loth to set, But stayed, and made
     the western welkin blush. Shak.

   3. To have a warm and delicate color, as some roses and other flowers.

     Full many a flower is born to blush unseen. T. Gray.


   Blush, v. t.

   1. To suffuse with a blush; to redden; to make roseate. [Obs.]

     To blush and beautify the cheek again. Shak.

   2. To express or make known by blushing.

     I'll blush you thanks. Shak.


   Blush, n.

   1.  A  suffusion  of  the  cheeks or face with red, as from a sense of
   shame, confusion, or modesty.

     The rosy blush of love. Trumbull.

   2. A red or reddish color; a rosy tint.

     Light's last blushes tinged the distant hills. Lyttleton.

   At  first  blush,  or  At  the first blush, at the first appearance or
   view.  "At  the  first blush, we thought they had been ships come from
   France." Hakluyt.
     NOTE: This p hrase i s used now more of ideas, opinions, etc., than
     of  material things. "All purely identical propositions, obviously,
     and at first blush, appear." etc. Locke.
   -- To put to the blush, to cause to blush with shame; to put to shame.


   Blush"er (?), n. One that blushes.


   Blush"et (?), n. A modest girl. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Blush"ful (?), a. Full of blushes.

     While  from  his ardent look the turning Spring Averts her blushful
     face. Thomson.


   Blush"ing,  a.  Showing  blushes; rosy red; having a warm and delicate
   color like some roses and other flowers; blooming; ruddy; roseate.

     The dappled pink and blushing rose. Prior.


   Blush"ing,  n.  The  act  of  turning red; the appearance of a reddish
   color or flush upon the cheeks.


   Blush"ing*ly,  adv. In a blushing manner; with a blush or blushes; as,
   to answer or confess blushingly.


   Blush"less,  a.  Free  from blushes; incapable of blushing; shameless;

     Vice now, secure, her blushless front shall raise. Dodsley.


   Blush"y  (?), a. Like a blush; having the color of a blush; rosy. [R.]
   "A blushy color." Harvey.


   Blus"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Blustered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Blustering.] [Allied to blast.]

   1.  To blow fitfully with violence and noise, as wind; to be windy and
   boisterous, as the weather.

     And ever-threatening storms Of Chaos blustering round. Milton.

   2. To talk with noisy violence; to swagger, as a turbulent or boasting
   person;  to  act  in  a  noisy,  tumultuous way; to play the bully; to
   storm; to rage.

     Your ministerial directors blustered like tragic tyrants. Burke.


   Blus"ter,  v.  t.  To  utter,  or do, with noisy violence; to force by
   blustering; to bully.

     He  bloweth  and blustereth out . . . his abominable blasphemy. Sir
     T. More.

     As  if  therewith  he  meant  to bluster all princes into a perfect
     obedience to his commands. Fuller.


   Blus"ter, n.

   1.   Fitful  noise  and  violence,  as  of  a  storm;  violent  winds;

     To  the winds they set Their corners, when with bluster to confound
     Sea, air, and shore. Milton.

   2. Noisy and violent or threatening talk; noisy and boastful language.
   L'Estrange.   Syn.   --  Noise;  boisterousness;  tumult;  turbulence;
   confusion; boasting; swaggering; bullying.


   Blus"ter*er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or  that  which,  blusters;  a noisy


   Blus"ter*ing, a.

   1. Exhibiting noisy violence, as the wind; stormy; tumultuous.

     A tempest and a blustering day. Shak.

   2.  Uttering  noisy  threats;  noisy  and  swaggering;  boisterous. "A
   blustering fellow." L'Estrange.


   Blus"ter*ing*ly, adv. In a blustering manner.


   Blus"ter*ous  (?),  a.  Inclined  to  bluster;  given  to  blustering;
   blustering. Motley.


   Blus"trous (?), a. Blusterous. Shak.


   Bo  (?), interj. [Cf. W. bw, an interj. of threatening or frightening;
   n.,  terror, fear, dread.] An exclamation used to startle or frighten.
   [Spelt also boh and boo.]


   Bo"a  (?),  n.;  pl. Boas . [L. boa a kind of water serpent. Perh. fr.
   bos an ox.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus of large American serpents, including the boa
   constrictor,  the  emperor  boa  of  Mexico  (B.  imperator),  and the
   chevalier boa of Peru (B. eques).

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  also applied to related genera; as, the
     dog-headed boa (Xiphosoma caninum).

   2.  A  long,  round  fur  tippet; -- so called from its resemblance in
   shape to the boa constrictor.

                                Boa constrictor

   Bo"a  con*strict"or  (?). [NL. See Boa, and Constrictor.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   large  and  powerful  serpent of tropical America, sometimes twenty or
   thirty feet long. See Illustration in Appendix.

     NOTE: &hand; It  ha s a  succession of spots, alternately black and
     yellow,   extending   along   the   back.  It  kills  its  prey  by
     constriction.  The  name  is  also  loosely  applied to other large
     serpents which crush their prey, particularly to those of the genus
     Python, found in Asia and Africa.


   Bo`a*ner"ges  (?).  [Gr.  ,  fr.  Heb.  bn  sons  of  thunder.  --  an
   appellation  given by Christ to two of his disciples (James and John).
   See Mark iii. 17.] Any declamatory and vociferous preacher or orator.


   Boar  (?), n. [OE. bar, bor, bore, AS. b\'ber; akin to OHG. p, MHG. b,
   G.  b\'84r,  boar (but not b\'84r bear), and perh. Russ. borov' boar.]
   (Zo\'94l.) The uncastrated male of swine; specifically, the wild hog.


   Board  (?),  n.  [OE.  bord,  AS.  bord board, shipboard; akin to bred
   plank,  Icel.  bor  board,  side of a ship, Goth. f footstool, D. bord
   board, G. brett, bort. See def. 8. &root;92.]

   1.  A  piece  of  timber  sawed  thin,  and of considerable length and
   breadth as compared with the thickness, -- used for building, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en sa wed th ick, as  ov er on e an d a half or two
     inches, it is usually called a plank.

   2. A table to put food upon.

     NOTE: &hand; The term board answers to the modern table, but it was
     often movable, and placed on trestles.


     Fruit  of  all  kinds  . . . She gathers, tribute large, and on the
     board Heaps with unsparing hand. Milton.

   3.  Hence: What is served on a table as food; stated meals; provision;
   entertainment;  -- usually as furnished for pay; as, to work for one's
   board; the price of board.

   4.  A  table  at  which  a council or court is held. Hence: A council,
   convened  for  business, or any authorized assembly or meeting, public
   or private; a number of persons appointed or elected to sit in council
   for  the management or direction of some public or private business or
   trust;  as,  the  Board  of  Admiralty;  a  board of trade; a board of
   directors, trustees, commissioners, etc.

     Both  better acquainted with affairs than any other who sat then at
     that board. Clarendon.

     We may judge from their letters to the board. Porteus.

   5.  A  square  or oblong piece of thin wood or other material used for
   some  special purpose, as, a molding board; a board or surface painted
   or arranged for a game; as, a chessboard; a backgammon board.

   6.  Paper  made  thick  and stiff like a board, for book covers, etc.;
   pasteboard; as, to bind a book in boards.

   7.  pl.  The  stage  in a theater; as, to go upon the boards, to enter
   upon the theatrical profession.

   8.  [In  this  use  originally  perh. a different word meaning border,
   margin;  cf. D. boord, G. bord, shipboard, and G. borte trimming; also
   F.  bord  (fr. G.) the side of a ship. Cf. Border.] The border or side
   of  anything.  (Naut.) (a) The side of a ship. "Now board to board the
   rival vessels row." Dryden. See On board, below. (b) The stretch which
   a ship makes in one tack.

     NOTE: &hand; Bo ard is much used adjectively or as the last part of
     a  compound;  as,  fir  board,  clapboard,  floor board, shipboard,
     sideboard,   ironing   board,  chessboard,  cardboard,  pasteboard,
     seaboard; board measure.

   The  American  Board,  a  shortened  form  of  "The  American Board of
   Commissioners for Foreign Missions" (the foreign missionary society of
   the  American  Congregational  churches).  -- Bed and board. See under
   Bed.  --  Board  and board (Naut.), side by side. -- Board of control,
   six  privy councilors formerly appointed to superintend the affairs of
   the British East Indies. Stormonth. -- Board rule, a figured scale for
   finding  without  calculation  the  number  of square feet in a board.
   Haldeman.  --  Board  of  trade,  in England, a committee of the privy
   council  appointed  to  superintend  matters relating to trade. In the
   United  States,  a  body  of  men  appointed  for  the advancement and
   protection  of  their  business  interests;  a chamber of commerce. --
   Board  wages.  (a)  Food  and  lodging  supplied  as  compensation for
   services;  as, to work hard, and get only board wages. (b) Money wages
   which are barely sufficient to buy food and lodging. (c) A separate or
   special  allowance  of  wages for the procurement of food, or food and
   lodging.  Dryden.  -- By the board, over the board, or side. "The mast
   went  by  the  board."  Totten.  Hence  (Fig.), To go by the board, to
   suffer  complete  destruction or overthrow. -- To enter on the boards,
   to  have  one's  name inscribed on a board or tablet in a college as a
   student.  [Cambridge,  England.] "Having been entered on the boards of
   Trinity  college." Hallam. -- To make a good board (Naut.), to sail in
   a  straight  line  when close-hauled; to lose little to leeward. -- To
   make  short boards, to tack frequently. -- On board. (a) On shipboard;
   in  a ship or a boat; on board of; as, I came on board early; to be on
   board  ship. (b) In or into a railway car or train. [Colloq. U. S.] --
   Returning  board,  a  board  empowered to canvass and make an official
   statement of the votes cast at an election. [U.S.]


   Board, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Boarded; p. pr. & vb. n. Boarding.]

   1.  To  cover  with  boards  or  boarding;  as, to board a house. "The
   boarded hovel." Cowper.

   2.  [Cf.  Board  to  accost,  and see Board, n.] To go on board of, or
   enter, as a ship, whether in a hostile or a friendly way.

     You  board  an enemy to capture her, and a stranger to receive news
     or make a communication. Totten.

   3. To enter, as a railway car. [Colloq. U. S.]

   4.  To  furnish  with  regular  meals, or with meals and lodgings, for
   compensation; to supply with daily meals.

   5.  To place at board, for compensation; as, to board one's horse at a
   livery stable.


   Board  (?), v. i. To obtain meals, or meals and lodgings, statedly for
   compensation; as, he boards at the hotel.

     We  are  several of us, gentlemen and ladies, who board in the same
     house. Spectator.


   Board, v. t. [F. aborder. See Abord, v. t.] To approach; to accost; to
   address; hence, to woo. [Obs.]

     I  will  board  her,  though  she chide as loud As thunder when the
     clouds in autumn crack. Shak.


   Board"a*ble (?), a. That can be boarded, as a ship.


   Board"er (?), n.

   1. One who has food statedly at another's table, or meals and lodgings
   in his house, for pay, or compensation of any kind.

   2.  (Naut.)  One  who  boards a ship; one selected to board an enemy's
   ship. Totten.


   Board"ing, n.

   1.  (Naut.)  The  act  of entering a ship, whether with a hostile or a
   friendly purpose.

     Both  slain  at  one  time,  as  they  attempted  the boarding of a
     frigate. Sir F. Drake.

   2.  The  act of covering with boards; also, boards, collectively; or a
   covering made of boards.

   3.  The act of supplying, or the state of being supplied, with regular
   or specified meals, or with meals and lodgings, for pay.
   Boarding  house,  a  house  in  which  boarders  are kept. -- Boarding
   nettings  (Naut.),  a  strong network of cords or ropes erected at the
   side  of a ship to prevent an enemy from boarding it. -- Boarding pike
   (Naut.),  a pike used by sailors in boarding a vessel, or in repelling
   an  attempt to board it. Totten. -- Boarding school, a school in which
   pupils receive board and lodging as well as instruction.


   Boar"fish`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A Mediterranean fish (Capros aper),
   of  the  family  Caproid\'91; -- so called from the resemblance of the
   extended  lips  to  a  hog's  snout.  (b)  An  Australian percoid fish
   (Histiopterus recurvirostris), valued as a food fish.


   Boar"ish, a. Swinish; brutal; cruel.

     In his anointed flesh stick boarish fangs. Shak.


   Boast  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Boasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Boasting.]
   [OE.  bosten,  boosten,  v.,  bost, boost, n., noise, boasting; cf. G.
   bausen,  bauschen,  to  swell, pusten, Dan. puste, Sw. pusta, to blow,
   Sw.  p\'94sa  to swell; or W. bostio to boast, bost boast, Gael. bosd.
   But these last may be from English.]

   1.  To  vaunt  one's  self;  to  brag; to say or tell things which are
   intended  to  give  others  a  high opinion of one's self or of things
   belonging  to  one's  self;  as,  to  boast of one's exploits courage,
   descent, wealth.

     By grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: ..
     not of works, lest any man should boast. Eph. ii. 8, 9.

   2. To speak in exulting language of another; to glory; to exult.

     In God we boast all the day long. Ps. xiiv. 8

   Syn. -- To brag; bluster; vapor; crow; talk big.


   Boast, v. t.

   1.  To  display  in  ostentatious  language;  to  speak of with pride,
   vanity, or exultation, with a view to self-commendation; to extol.

     Lest bad men should boast Their specious deeds. Milton.

   2. To display vaingloriously.

   3. To possess or have; as, to boast a name.
   To  boast  one's  self,  to  speak  with unbecoming confidence in, and
   approval  of, one's self; -- followed by of and the thing to which the
   boasting relates. [Archaic]
     Boast not thyself of to-morrow. Prov. xxvii.

   Boast, v. t. [Of uncertain etymology.]

   1. (Masonry) To dress, as a stone, with a broad chisel. Weale.

   2.  (Sculp.)  To  shape roughly as a preparation for the finer work to
   follow; to cut to the general form required.


   Boast, n.

   1. Act of boasting; vaunting or bragging.

     Reason  and morals? and where live they most, In Christian comfort,
     or in Stoic boast! Byron.

   2.  The  cause  of  boasting;  occasion  of  pride  or  exultation, --
   sometimes of laudable pride or exultation.

     The boast of historians. Macaulay.


   Boast"ance (?), n. Boasting. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Boast"er (?), n. One who boasts; a braggart.


   Boast"er, n. A stone mason's broad-faced chisel.


   Boast"ful  (?),  a. Given to, or full of, boasting; inclined to boast;
   vaunting;   vainglorious;  self-praising.  --  Boast"ful*ly,  adv.  --
   Boast"ful*ness, n.


   Boast"ing,  n. The act of glorying or vaunting; vainglorious speaking;
   ostentatious display.

     When boasting ends, then dignity begins. Young.


   Boast"ing*ly,  adv.  Boastfully;  with  boasting. "He boastingly tells
   you." Burke.


   Boast"ive (?), a. Presumptuous. [R.]


   Boast"less, a. Without boasting or ostentation.


   Boat  (?),  n.  [OE. boot, bat, AS. b\'bet; akin to Icel. b\'betr, Sw.
   b\'86t, Dan. baad, D.& G. boot. Cf. Bateau.]

   1.  A  small  open  vessel,  or  water craft, usually moved by cars or
   paddles, but often by a sail.

     NOTE: &hand; Di fferent ki nds of  bo ats have different names; as,
     canoe, yawl, wherry, pinnace, punt, etc.

   2. Hence, any vessel; usually with some epithet descriptive of its use
   or  mode  of  propulsion;  as,  pilot boat, packet boat, passage boat,
   advice boat, etc. The term is sometimes applied to steam vessels, even
   of the largest class; as, the Cunard boats.

   3.  A  vehicle, utensil, or dish, somewhat resembling a boat in shape;
   as, a stone boat; a gravy boat.

   Page 161

     NOTE: &hand; Bo  at is   mu  ch us  ed ei ther ad jectively or  in 
     combination;  as,  boat  builder  or  boatbuilder; boat building or
     boatbuilding;  boat  hook  or  boathook;  boathouse; boat keeper or
     boatkeeper;  boat  load;  boat race; boat racing; boat rowing; boat
     song; boatlike; boat-shaped.

   Advice boat. See under Advice. -- Boat hook (Naut.), an iron hook with
   a  point  on  the  back, fixed to a long pole, to pull or push a boat,
   raft,  log, etc. Totten. -- Boat rope, a rope for fastening a boat; --
   usually  called  a painter. -- In the same boat, in the same situation
   or predicament. [Colloq.] F. W. Newman.


   Boat (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Boated; p. pr. & vb. n. Boating.]

   1. To transport in a boat; as, to boat goods.

   2. To place in a boat; as, to boat oars.
   To boat the oars. See under Oar.


   Boat, v. i. To go or row in a boat.

     I boated over, ran my craft aground. Tennyson.


   Boat"a*ble (?), a.

   1. Such as can be transported in a boat.

   2. Navigable for boats, or small river craft.

     The boatable waters of the Alleghany. J. Morse.


   Boat"age  (?),  n.  Conveyance  by  boat;  also,  a  charge  for  such


   Boat"bill` (, n. (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  A wading bird (Cancroma cochlearia) of the tropical parts of South
   America. Its bill is somewhat like a boat with the keel uppermost.

   2. A perching bird of India, of the genus Eurylaimus.

                                   Boat bug

   Boat"  bug`  (.  (Zo\'94l.) An aquatic hemipterous insect of the genus
   Notonecta;  -- so called from swimming on its back, which gives it the
   appearance  of  a  little  boat.  Called  also  boat fly, boat insect,
   boatman, and water boatman.


   Boat"ful  (?),  n.;  pl. Boatfuls. The quantity or amount that fills a


   Boat"house` (?), n. A house for sheltering boats.

     Half the latticed boathouse hides. Wordsworth.


   Boat"ing, n.

   1.  The  act  or  practice of rowing or sailing, esp. as an amusement;
   carriage in boats.

   2. In Persia, a punishment of capital offenders, by laying them on the
   back in a covered boat, where they are left to perish.


   Bo*a"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  boatus,  fr. boare to roar.] A crying out; a
   roaring; a bellowing; reverberation. [Obs.]

     The  guns  were  heard . . . about a hundred Italian miles, in long
     boations. Derham.


   Boat"man (?), n.; pl. Boatmen (.

   1. A man who manages a boat; a rower of a boat.

     As late the boatman hies him home. Percival.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A boat bug. See Boat bug.


   Boat"man*ship, n. The art of managing a boat.


   Boat"-shaped` (, a. (Bot.) See Cymbiform.

                                  Boat shell

   Boat"  shell`  (.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A  marine  gastropod  of the genus
   Crepidula.  The species are numerous. It is so named from its form and
   interior deck. (b) A marine univalve shell of the genus Cymba.


   Boats"man (?), n. A boatman. [Archaic]


   Boat"swain (?), n. [Boat + swain.]

   1.  (Naut.)  An  officer  who has charge of the boats, sails, rigging,
   colors,  anchors,  cables,  cordage,  etc.,  of  a  ship, and who also
   summons the crew, and performs other duties.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The jager gull. (b) The tropic bird.
   Boatswain's mate, an assistant of the boatswain. Totten.


   Boat"-tail` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A large grackle or blackbird (Quiscalus
   major), found in the Southern United States.


   Boat"wom`an (?), n.; pl. Boatwomen (. A woman who manages a boat.


   Bob  (?),  n.  [An onomatopoetic word, expressing quick, jerky motion;
   OE.  bob  bunch,  bobben to strike, mock, deceive. Cf. Prov. Eng. bob,
   n.,  a  ball, an engine beam, bunch, blast, trick, taunt, scoff; as, a
   v., to dance, to courtesy, to disappoint, OF. bober to mock.]

   1.  Anything  that hangs so as to play loosely, or with a short abrupt
   motion,  as  at the end of a string; a pendant; as, the bob at the end
   of a kite's tail.

     In jewels dressed and at each ear a bob. Dryden.

   2.  A  knot of worms, or of rags, on a string, used in angling, as for
   eels; formerly, a worm suitable for bait.

     Or yellow bobs, turned up before the plow, Are chiefest baits, with
     cork and lead enow. Lauson.

   3.  A  small piece of cork or light wood attached to a fishing line to
   show when a fish is biting; a float.

   4.  The  ball or heavy part of a pendulum; also, the ball or weight at
   the end of a plumb line.

   5.  A  small  wheel,  made  of  leather,  with  rounded edges, used in
   polishing spoons, etc.

   6. A short, jerking motion; act of bobbing; as, a bob of the head.

   7. (Steam Engine) A working beam.

   8. A knot or short curl of hair; also, a bob wig.

     A plain brown bob he wore. Shenstone.

   9. A peculiar mode of ringing changes on bells.

   10. The refrain of a song.

     To bed, to bed, will be the bob of the song. L'Estrange.

   11. A blow; a shake or jog; a rap, as with the fist.

   12. A jeer or flout; a sharp jest or taunt; a trick.

     He  that a fool doth very wisely hit, Doth very foolishly, although
     he smart, Not to seem senseless of the bob. Shak.

   13. A shilling. [Slang, Eng.] Dickens.


   Bob  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Bobbed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bobbing.]
   [OE. bobben. See Bob, n.]

   1. To cause to move in a short, jerking manner; to move (a thing) with
   a bob. "He bobbed his head." W. Irving.

   2. To strike with a quick, light blow; to tap.

     If  any man happened by long sitting to sleep . . . he was suddenly
     bobbed on the face by the servants. Elyot.

   3. To cheat; to gain by fraud or cheating; to filch.

     Gold and jewels that I bobbed from him. Shak.

   4. To mock or delude; to cheat.

     To  play  her  pranks,  and  bob the fool, The shrewish wife began.

   5. To cut short; as, to bob the hair, or a horse's tail.


   Bob, v. i.

   1.  To  have  a  short,  jerking motion; to play to and fro, or up and
   down;  to  play  loosely  against anything. "Bobbing and courtesying."

   2. To angle with a bob. See Bob, n., 2 & 3.

     He ne'er had learned the art to bob For anything but eels. Saxe.

   To  bob at an apple, cherry, etc. to attempt to bite or seize with the
   mouth  an  apple,  cherry,  or other round fruit, while it is swinging
   from a string or floating in a tug of water.


   Bo"bac (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The Poland marmot (Arctomys bobac).


   Bo*bance"  (#), n. [OF. bobance, F. bombance, boasting, pageantry, fr.
   L. bombus a humming, buzzing.] A boasting. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bob"ber (?), n. One who, or that which, bobs.


   Bob"ber*y  (?),  n.  [Prob.  an Anglo-Indian form of Hindi b\'bep re O
   thou  father! (a very disrespectful address).] A squabble; a tumult; a
   noisy disturbance; as, to raise a bobbery. [Low] Halliwell.


   Bob"bin  (?),  n.  [F.  bobine;  of  uncertain origin; cf. L. bombus a
   humming,  from  the noise it makes, or Ir. & Gael. baban tassel, or E.

   1.  A  small  pin, or cylinder, formerly of bone, now most commonly of
   wood,  used  in  the  making of pillow lace. Each thread is wound on a
   separate  bobbin  which  hangs  down  holding  the  thread at a slight

   2.  A  spool or reel of various material and construction, with a head
   at  one  or  both  ends,  and  sometimes with a hole bored through its
   length  by which it may be placed on a spindle or pivot. It is used to
   hold yarn or thread, as in spinning or warping machines, looms, sewing
   machines, etc.

   3.  The  little  rounded  piece of wood, at the end of a latch string,
   which is pulled to raise the latch.

   4. (Haberdashery) A fine cord or narrow braid.

   5.  (Elec.)  A  cylindrical  or  spool-shaped  coil or insulated wire,
   usually containing a core of soft iron which becomes magnetic when the
   wire is traversed by an electrical current.
   Bobbin and fly frame, a roving machine. -- Bobbin lace, lace made on a
   pillow with bobbins; pillow lace.


   Bob`bi*net"  (?),  n.  [Bobbin  + net.] A kind of cotton lace which is
   wrought  by  machines, and not by hand./def> [Sometimes written bobbin

     The  English  machine-made  net  is now confined to point net, warp
     net,  and  bobbin  net, so called from the peculiar construction of
     the machines by which they are produced. Tomlinsom.


   Bob"bin*work` (?), n. Work woven with bobbins.


   Bob"bish (?), a. Hearty; in good spirits. [Low, Eng.] Dickens.


   Bob"by  (?),  n.  A nickname for a policeman; -- from Sir Robert Peel,
   who remodeled the police force. See Peeler. [Slang, Eng.] Dickens.


   Bob"-cher`ry (?), n. A play among children, in which a cherry, hung so
   as to bob against the mouth, is to be caught with the teeth.


   Bob"fly`  (?),  n.  (Fishing) The fly at the end of the leader; an end


   Bob"o*link`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) An American singing bird (Dolichonyx
   oryzivorus).  The  male  is  black  and white; the female is brown; --
   called also, ricebird, reedbird, and Boblincoln.

     The happiest bird of our spring is the bobolink. W. Irving.

                              Bobsled, Bobsleigh

   Bob"sled` (?), Bob"sleigh` (?), n. A short sled, mostly used as one of
   a  pair  connected  by a reach or coupling; also, the compound sled so
   formed. [U. S.]

     The long wagon body set on bobsleds. W. D. Howells.


   Bob"stay`  (,  n. [Bob + stay.] (Naut.) A rope or chain to confine the
   bowsprit of a ship downward to the stem or cutwater; -- usually in the


   Bob"tail`  (?),  n. [Bob + tail.] An animal (as a horse or dog) with a
   short tail. Rag, tag, and bobtail, the rabble.


   Bob"tail`, a. Bobtailed. "Bobtail cur." Marryat.


   Bob"tailed`  (,  a.  Having  the  tail  cut short, or naturally short;
   curtailed; as, a bobtailed horse or dog; a bobtailed coat.


   Bob"white`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  common  qua(Colinus,  or Ortyx,
   Virginianus); -- so called from its note.

                                    Bob wig

   Bob"  wig`  (.  A  short  wig with bobs or short curls; -- called also
   bobtail wig. Spectator.


   Bo"cal (?), n. [F.] A cylindrical glass vessel, with a large and short


   Bo*car"do (?), n. [A mnemonic word.]

   1.  (Logic)  A  form  of  syllogism  of  which  the  first  and  third
   propositions are particular negatives, and the middle term a universal

     Baroko  and  Bocardo  have  been stumbling blocks to the logicians.

   2.  A  prison; -- originally the name of the old north gate in Oxford,
   which was used as a prison. [Eng.] Latimer.


   Boc"a*sine (?), n. [F. bocassin, boucassin.] A sort of fine buckram.


   Boc"ca  (?), n. [It., mouth.] The round hole in the furnace of a glass
   manufactory through which the fused glass is taken out. Craig.


   Boce  (?), n. [L. box, bocis, Gr. , .] (Zo\'94l.) A European fish (Box
   vulgaris),  having a compressed body and bright colors; -- called also
   box, and bogue.

                                   Bock beer

   Bock" beer` (. [G. bockbier; bock a buck + bier beer; -- said to be so
   named  from its tendency to cause the drinker to caper like a goat.] A
   strong beer, originally made in Bavaria. [Also written buck beer.]


   Bock"e*let  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A kind of long-winged hawk; -- called
   also bockerel, and bockeret. [Obs.]


   Bock"ey  (?),  n.  [D.  bokaal.]  A  bowl or vessel made from a gourd.
   [Local, New York] Bartlett.


   Bock"ing,  n.  A coarse woolen fabric, used for floor cloths, to cover
   carpets,  etc.;  --  so  called  from the town of Bocking, in England,
   where it was first made.


   Bock"land (?), n. See Bookland.


   Bod"dice (?), n. See Bodick.


   Bode  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Boded; p. pr. & vb. n. Boding.] [OE.
   bodien,  AS.  bodian to announce, tell from bod command; akin to Icel.
   bo  to announce, Sw. b\'86da to announce, portend. &root;89. See Bid.]
   To  indicate by signs, as future events; to be the omen of; to portend
   to presage; to foreshow.

     A raven that bodes nothing but mischief. Goldsmith.

     Good onset bodes good end. Spenser.


   Bode, v. i. To foreshow something; to augur.

     Whatever now The omen proved, it boded well to you. Dryden.

   Syn. -- To forebode; foreshadow; augur; betoken.


   Bode, n.

   1. An omen; a foreshadowing. [Obs.]

     The owl eke, that of death the bode bringeth. Chaucer.

   2. A bid; an offer. [Obs. or Dial.] Sir W. Scott


   Bode,  n.  [AS.  boda;  akin to OFries. boda, AS. bodo, OHG. boto. See
   Bode, v. t.] A messenger; a herald. Robertson.


   Bode, n. [See Abide.] A stop; a halting; delay. [Obs.]


   Bode, imp. & p. p. from Bide. Abode.

     There that night they bode. Tennyson.


   Bode, p. p. of Bid. Bid or bidden. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Bode"ful (?), a. Portentous; ominous. Carlyle.


   Bode"ment (?), n. An omen; a prognostic. [Obs.]

     This   foolish,   dreaming,  superstitious  girl  Makes  all  these
     bodements. Shak.


   Bodge (?), n. A botch; a patch. [Dial.] Whitlock.


   Bodge  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Bodged  (#).] To botch; to mend
   clumsily; to patch. [Obs. or Dial.]


   Bodge, v. i. See Budge.


   Bo"di*an  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A large food fish (Diagramma lineatum),
   native of the East Indies.


   Bod"ice  (?),  n.  [This  is properly the plural of body, Oe. bodise a
   pair of bodies, equiv. to a bodice. Cf. Corset, and see Body.]

   1.  A kind of under waist stiffened with whalebone, etc., worn esp. by
   women; a corset; stays.

   2.  A  close-fitting  outer  waist or vest forming the upper part of a
   woman's dress, or a portion of it.

     Her bodice half way she unlaced. Prior.


   Bod"iced (?), a. Wearing a bodice. Thackeray.


   Bod"ied  (?),  a.  Having  a  body;  --  usually  in  composition; as,

     A  doe  .  .  . not altogether so fat, but very good flesh and good
     bodied. Hakluyt.


   Bod"i*less (?), a.

   1. Having no body.

   2. Without material form; incorporeal.

     Phantoms bodiless and vain. Swift.


   Bod"i*li*ness (?), n. Corporeality. Minsheu.


   Bod"i*ly (?), a.

   1.  Having a body or material form; physical; corporeal; consisting of

     You  are a mere spirit, and have no knowledge of the bodily part of
     us. Tatler.

   2. Of or pertaining to the body, in distinction from the mind. "Bodily
   defects." L'Estrange.

   3. Real; actual; put in execution. [Obs.]

     Be brought to bodily act. Shak.

   Bodily fear, apprehension of physical injury. Syn. -- See Corporal.


   Bod"i*ly, adv.

   1.  Corporeally;  in bodily form; united with a body or matter; in the

     For  in  him  dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead bodily. Col.
     ii. 9

   2.  In  respect  to,  or  so  as  to  affect, the entire body or mass;
   entirely;  all  at  once; completely; as, to carry away bodily. "Leapt
   bodily below." Lowell.

   Page 162


   Bod"ing (?), a. Foreshowing; presaging; ominous. -- Bod"ing*ly, adv.


   Bod"ing, n. A prognostic; an omen; a foreboding.


   Bod"kin  (?),  n.  [OE.  boydekyn  dagger; of uncertain origin; cf. W.
   bidog hanger, short sword, Ir. bideog, Gael. biodag.]

   1. A dagger. [Obs.]

     When he himself might his quietus make With a bare bodkin. Shak.

   2. (Needlework) An implement of steel, bone, ivory, etc., with a sharp
   point, for making holes by piercing; a

   3. (Print.) A sharp tool, like an awl, used for picking

   4.  A  kind  of needle with a large eye and a blunt point, for drawing
   tape, ribbon, etc., through a loop or a hem; a tape needle.

     Wedged whole ages in a bodkin's eye. Pope.

   5. A kind of pin used by women to fasten the hair.
   To  sit,  ride,  or  travel  bodkin, to sit closely wedged between two
   persons. [Colloq.] Thackeray.


   Bod"kin, n. See Baudekin. [Obs.] Shirley.


   Bo"dle (?), n. A small Scotch coin worth about one sixth of an English
   penny. Sir W. Scott.


   Bod"lei*an,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  Sir  Thomas Bodley, or to the
   celebrated library at Oxford, founded by him in the sixteenth century.


   Bo*dock"  (?),  n.  [Corrupt.  fr.  bois  d'arc.]  The  Osage  orange.
   [Southwestern U.S.]


   Bod"rage  (?),  n.  [Prob.  of  Celtic  origin: cf. Bordrage.] A raid.


   Bod"y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Bodies  (#). [OE. bodi, AS. bodig; akin to OHG.
   botah. &root;257. Cf. Bodice.]

   1.  The  material  organized substance of an animal, whether living or
   dead,  as  distinguished  from  the  spirit,  or  vital principle; the
   physical person.

     Absent in body, but present in spirit. 1 Cor. v. 3

     For of the soul the body form doth take. For soul is form, and doth
     the body make. Spenser.

   2.  The  trunk,  or main part, of a person or animal, as distinguished
   from the limbs and head; the main, central, or principal part, as of a
   tree, army, country, etc.

     Who set the body and the limbs Of this great sport together? Shak.

     The  van  of  the  king's army was led by the general; . . . in the
     body was the king and the prince. Clarendon.

     Rivers that run up into the body of Italy. Addison.

   3.  The  real, as opposed to the symbolical; the substance, as opposed
   to the shadow.

     Which  are  a  shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.
     Col. ii. 17.

   4. A person; a human being; -- frequently in composition; as, anybody,

     A dry, shrewd kind of a body. W. Irving.

   5.  A  number of individuals spoken of collectively, usually as united
   by  some  common  tie,  or as organized for some purpose; a collective
   whole  or  totality; a corporation; as, a legislative body; a clerical

     A numerous body led unresistingly to the slaughter. Prescott.

   6.  A  number of things or particulars embodied in a system; a general
   collection; as, a great body of facts; a body of laws or of divinity.

   7.  Any mass or portion of matter; any substance distinct from others;
   as,  a  metallic  body; a moving body; an a\'89riform body. "A body of
   cold air." Huxley.

     By collision of two bodies, grind The air attrite to fire. Milton.

   8. Amount; quantity; extent.

   9. That part of a garment covering the body, as distinguished from the
   parts covering the limbs.

   10.  The  bed  or box of a vehicle, on or in which the load is placed;
   as, a wagon body; a cart body.

   11.  (Print.) The shank of a type, or the depth of the shank (by which
   the size is indicated); as, a nonpareil face on an agate body.

   12.  (Geom.)  A  figure  that  has length, breadth, and thickness; any
   solid figure.

   13.  Consistency;  thickness;  substance; strength; as, this color has
   body; wine of a good body.

     NOTE: &hand; Co lors be ar a  bo dy wh en they are capable of being
     ground so fine, and of being mixed so entirely with oil, as to seem
     only a very thick oil of the same color.

   After  body  (Naut.),  the part of a ship abaft the dead flat. -- Body
   cavity  (Anat.),  the  space  between  the  walls  of the body and the
   inclosed  viscera;  the  c\'91lum;  --  in  mammals,  divided  by  the
   diaphragm  into  thoracic and abdominal cavities. -- Body of a church,
   the  nave.  --  Body  cloth;  pl.  Body cloths, a cloth or blanket for
   covering horses. -- Body clothes. (pl.)

   1. Clothing for the body; esp. underclothing.

   2. Body cloths for horses. [Obs.] Addison. --
   Body coat, a gentleman's dress coat. -- Body color (Paint.), a pigment
   that  has  consistency, thickness, or body, in distinction from a tint
   or  wash. -- Body of a law (Law), the main and operative part. -- Body
   louse  (Zo\'94l.),  a  species  of louse (Pediculus vestimenti), which
   sometimes  infests  the  human body and clothes. See Grayback. -- Body
   plan  (Shipbuilding),  an  end  elevation,  showing the conbour of the
   sides  of a ship at certain points of her length. -- Body politic, the
   collective  body  of a nation or state as politically organized, or as
   exercising political functions; also, a corporation. Wharton.

     As  to  the  persons  who  compose  the  body  politic or associate
     themselves,  they  take  collectively  the  name  of  "people",  or
     "nation". Bouvier.

   --  Body  servant,  a valet. -- The bodies seven (Alchemy), the metals
   corresponding to the planets. [Obs.]

     Sol  gold is, and Luna silver we threpe (=call), Mars yren (=iron),
     Mercurie  quicksilver  we clepe, Saturnus lead, and Jupiter is tin,
     and Venus coper. Chaucer.

   --  Body snatcher, one who secretly removes without right or authority
   a  dead  body  from  a  grave, vault, etc.; a resurrectionist. -- Body
   snatching  (Law),  the  unauthorized  removal  of a dead body from the
   grave; usually for the purpose of dissection.


   Bod"y  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Bodied (p. pr. & vb. n. Bodying.] To
   furnish  with,  or  as  with, a body; to produce in definite shape; to
   embody. To body forth, to give from or shape to mentally.

     Imagination bodies forth The forms of things unknown. Shak.


   Bod"y*guard` (, n.

   1. A guard to protect or defend the person; a lifeguard.

   2. Retinue; attendance; following. Bp. Porteus.


   B\'d2*o"tian  (?),  a.  [L.  Boeotia, Gr. , noted for its moist, thick
   atmosphere,  and the dullness and stupidity of its inhabitants.] Of or
   pertaining  to  B\'d2otia; hence, stupid; dull; obtuse. -- n. A native
   of B\'d2otia; also, one who is dull and ignorant.


   Boer  (?),  n. [D., a farmer. See Boor.] A colonist or farmer in South
   Africa of Dutch descent.


   Bo"es  (?),  3d  sing.  pr.  of  Behove.  Behoves  or behooves. [Obs.]


   Bog  (?), n. [Ir. & Gael. bog soft, tender, moist: cf. Ir. bogach bog,
   moor, marsh, Gael. bogan quagmire.]

   1. A quagmire filled with decayed moss and other vegetable matter; wet
   spongy ground where a heavy body is apt to sink; a marsh; a morass.

     Appalled  with  thoughts  of  bog,  or caverned pit, Of treacherous
     earth, subsiding where they tread. R. Jago.

   2.  A  little  elevated spot or clump of earth, roots, and grass, in a
   marsh or swamp. [Local, U. S.]
   Bog  bean.  See Buck bean. -- Bog bumper (bump, to make a loud noise),
   Bog  blitter,  Bog  bluiter,  Bog  jumper, the bittern. [Prov.] -- Bog
   butter, a hydrocarbon of butterlike consistence found in the peat bogs
   of  Ireland. -- Bog earth (Min.), a soil composed for the most part of
   silex  and  partially decomposed vegetable fiber. P. Cyc. -- Bog moss.
   (Bot.)  Same as Sphagnum. -- Bog myrtle (Bot.), the sweet gale. -- Bog
   ore.  (Min.)  (a)  An  ore  of  iron  found in boggy or swampy land; a
   variety  of  brown  iron  ore,  or  limonite.  (b)  Bog manganese, the
   hydrated  peroxide  of manganese. -- Bog rush (Bot.), any rush growing
   in bogs; saw grass. -- Bog spavin. See under Spavin.


   Bog,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Bogged (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Bogging.] To
   sink, as into a bog; to submerge in a bog; to cause to sink and stick,
   as in mud and mire.

     At  another  time,  he was bogged up to the middle in the slough of
     Lochend. Sir W. Scott.


   Bog"ber`ry  (?),  n. (Bot.) The small cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus),
   which grows in boggy places.


   Bo"gey (?), n. A goblin; a bugbear. See Bogy.


   Bog"gard (?), n. A bogey. [Local, Eng.]


   Bog"gle  (?), v. i. [imp & p. p. Boggled (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Boggling
   (#).] [ See Bogle, n.]

   1.  To  stop  or  hesitate  as if suddenly frightened, or in doubt, or
   impeded   by  unforeseen  difficulties;  to  take  alarm;  to  exhibit
   hesitancy and indecision.

     We start and boggle at every unusual appearance. Glanvill.

     Boggling at nothing which serveth their purpose. Barrow.

   2. To do anything awkwardly or unskillfully.

   3.  To  play  fast  and loose; to dissemble. Howell. Syn. -- To doubt;
   hesitate; shrink; stickle; demur.


   Bog"gle,  v.  t.  To  embarrass with difficulties; to make a bungle or
   botch of. [Local, U. S.]


   Bog"gler (?), n. One who boggles.


   Bog"glish (?), a. Doubtful; skittish. [Obs.]


   Bog"gy  (?),  a.  Consisting  of, or containing, a bog or bogs; of the
   nature of a bog; swampy; as, boggy land.


   Bo"gie  (?),  n. [A dialectic word. N. of Eng. & Scot.] A four-wheeled
   truck, having a certain amount of play around a vertical axis, used to
   support in part a locomotive on a railway track.


   Bo"gle  (?),  n. [Scot. and North Eng. bogle, bogill, bugill, specter;
   as  a  verb,  to  terrify, fr. W. bwgwl threatening, fear, bwg, bwgan,
   specter,  hobgoblin.  Cf.  Bug.]  A  goblin;  a  specter;  a frightful
   phantom; a bogy; a bugbear. [Written also boggle.]


   Bog"suck`er  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The American woodcock; -- so called
   from its feeding among the bogs.


   Bog"trot`ter  (?),  n. One who lives in a boggy country; -- applied in
   derision to the lowest class of Irish. Halliwell.


   Bog"trot`ting (?), a. Living among bogs.


   Bogue  (?),  v.  i. (Naut.) To fall off from the wind; to edge away to
   leeward; -- said only of inferior craft.


   Bogue  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The boce; -- called also bogue bream. See


   Bo"gus  (?),  a. [Etymol. uncertain.] Spurious; fictitious; sham; -- a
   cant  term  originally applied to counterfeit coin, and hence denoting
   anything counterfeit. [Colloq. U. S.]


   Bo"gus, n. A liquor made of rum and molasses. [Local, U. S.] Bartlett.


   Bog"wood`  (?),  n.  The wood of trees, esp. of oaks, dug up from peat
   bogs. It is of a shining black or ebony color, and is largely used for
   making ornaments.


   Bo"gy  (?), n.; pl. Bogies (#). [See Bogle.] A specter; a hobgoblin; a
   bugbear.  "Death's  heads  and  bogies."  J.  H. Newman. [Written also

     There  are  plenty  of such foolish attempts at playing bogy in the
     history of savages. C. Kingsley.


   Bo*hea"  (?),  n. [From Wu-i, pronounced by the Chinese bu-i, the name
   of  the hills where this kind of tea is grown.] Bohea tea, an inferior
   kind of black tea. See under Tea.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me wa s fo rmerly applied to superior kinds of
     black tea, or to black tea in general.


   Bo*he"mi*a (?), n.

   1. A country of central Europe.

   2.  Fig.:  The  region or community of social Bohemians. See Bohemian,
   n., 3.

     She  knew every one who was any one in the land of Bohemia. Compton