Unabridged Dictionary - Letter Y

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   Y  (?).  Y,  the  twenty-fifth  letter of the English alphabet, at the
   beginning  of  a  word  or syllable, except when a prefix (see Y-), is
   usually  a  fricative vocal consonant; as a prefix, and usually in the
   middle  or  at  the  end  of  a  syllable, it is a vowel. See Guide to
   Pronunciation,  145, 178-9, 272.

     NOTE: It derives its form from the Latin Y, which is from the Greek
     u,  i, o, and j. g; as in full, fill, AS. fyllan; E. crypt, grotto;
     young, juvenile; day, AS. d\'91g. See U, I, and J, G.

     NOTE: &hand; Y  has been called the Pythagorean letter, because the
     Greek  letter  was  taken represent the sacred triad, formed by the
     duad  proceeding from the monad; and also because it represents the
     dividing  of  the  paths  of  vice and virtue in the development of
     human life.


   Y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Y's  ( or Ys. Something shaped like the letter Y; a
   forked piece resembling in form the letter Y. Specifically: (a) One of
   the  forked  holders  for  supporting  the  telescope  of  a  leveling
   instrument,  or  the  axis  of  a  theodolite;  a wye. (b) A forked or
   bifurcated pipe fitting. (c) (Railroads) A portion of track consisting
   of  two  diverging tracks connected by a cross track. Y level (Surv.),
   an  instrument  for  measuring  differences  of  level  by  means of a
   telescope  resting  in  Y's. -- Y moth (Zo\'94l.), a handsome European
   noctuid  moth  Plusia  gamma) which has a bright, silvery mark, shaped
   like  the  letter  Y,  on  each of the fore wings. Its larva, which is
   green  with  five  dorsal white species, feeds on the cabbage, turnip,
   bean, etc. Called also gamma moth, and silver Y.


   Y (?), pron. I. [Obs.] King Horn. Wyclif.

                                   Y-, OR I-

   Y-  (?),  OR  I-. [OE. y-, i-, AS. ge-, akin to D. & G. ge-, OHG. gi-,
   ga-,  Goth.  ga-,  and  perhaps  to  Latin  con-;  originally meaning,
   together.  Cf.  Com-,  Aware,  Enough,  Handiwork,  Ywis.] A prefix of
   obscure  meaning,  originally  used  with  verbs, adverbs, adjectives,
   nouns,  and  pronouns.  In  the  Middle  English period, it was little
   employed  except with verbs, being chiefly used with past participles,
   though occasionally with the infinitive Ycleped, or yclept, is perhaps
   the only word not entirely obsolete which shows this use.

     That no wight mighte it see neither yheere. Chaucer.

     Neither to ben yburied nor ybrent. Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; So me ex amples of  Ch aucer's use of this prefix are;
     ibe,  ibeen, icaught, ycome, ydo, idoon, ygo, iproved, ywrought. It
     inough,  enough,  it  is combined with an adjective. Other examples
     are  in  the  Vocabulary.  Spenser  and  later  writers  frequently
     employed this prefix when affecting an archaic style, and sometimes
     used it incorrectly.


   Ya (?), adv. Yea. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yac"a*re`   (?),   n.   [See  Jacare.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South  American
   crocodilian  (Jacare  sclerops)  resembling  the alligator in size and
   habits.  The  eye  orbits  are  connected  together, and surrounded by
   prominent   bony   ridges.   Called  also  spectacled  alligator,  and
   spectacled cayman. [Written also jacare.]

     NOTE: &hand; The name is also applied to allied species.


   Yac"ca  (?),  n.  (Bot.) A West Indian name for two large timber trees
   (Podocarpus coriaceus, and P. Purdicanus) of the Yew family. The wood,
   which is much used, is pale brownish with darker streaks.


   Yacht  (?),  n.  [D.  jagt, jacht; perhaps properly, a jagen to chase,
   hunt, akin to G. jagen, OHG. jag, of uncertain origin; or perhaps akin
   to  OHG.  g\'behi  quick,  sudden  (cf.  Gay).]  (Naut.)  A  light and
   elegantly  furnished  vessel,  used  either  for  private  parties  of
   pleasure, or as a vessel of state to convey distinguished persons from
   one  place to another; a seagoing vessel used only for pleasure trips,
   racing, etc. Yacht measurement. See the Note under Tonnage, 4.


   Yacht, v. i. To manage a yacht; to voyage in a yacht.


   Yacht"er (?), n. One engaged in sailing a jacht.


   Yacht"ing, n. Sailing for pleasure in a yacht.


   Yacht"man (?), n. See Yachtsman.


   Yachts"man  (?), n.; pl. Yachtsmen (. One who owns or sails a yacht; a


   Yaf  (?),  obs.  imp.  of Give. [AS. geaf, imp. of giefan to give. See
   Give] Gave. See Give. Chaucer.


   Yaf"fin*gale (?), n. [See Yaffle, and cf. Nightingale.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   yaffle. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yaf"fle  (?),  n.  [Probably imitative of its call or cry.] (Zo\'94l.)
   The European green woodpecker (Picus, OR Genius, viridis). It is noted
   for  its  loud  laughlike  note.  Called also eccle, hewhole, highhoe,
   laughing  bird,  popinjay,  rain  bird,  yaffil,  yaffler, yaffingale,
   yappingale, yackel, and woodhack.


   Ya"ger (?; 277), n. [G. j\'84ger a hunter, from jagen to chase, hunt.]
   (Mil.)  In  the German army, one belonging to a body of light infantry
   armed  with  rifles,  resembling  the  chasseur  of  the  French army.
   [Written also jager.]


   Ya`gua*run"di  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Same as Jaguarondi. [Written also
   yaguarondi, and yagouarondi.]


   Yaj"ur-Ve"da (?), n. [Skr. yajur-v.] See Veda.


   Yak  (?), n. [Thibetan gyag.] (Zo\'94l.) A bovine mammal (Po\'89phagus
   grunnies)  native  of  the  high plains of Central Asia. Its neck, the
   outer  side  of  its  legs,  and  its  flanks,  are covered with long,
   flowing,  fine  hair.  Its tail is long and bushy, often white, and is
   valued as an ornament and for other purposes in India and China. There
   are  several  domesticated  varieties, some of which lack the mane and
   the  long  hair  on  the flanks. Called also chauri gua, grunting cow,
   grunting  ox,  sarlac,  sarlik,  and sarluc. Yak lace, a coarse pillow
   lace made from the silky hair of the yak.


   Yak"a*milk (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Trumpeter, 3 (a).


   Yak"a*re` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Yacare.


   Ya"kin   (?),   n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  Asiatic  antelope  (Budorcas
   taxicolor) native of the higher parts of the Himalayas and other lofty
   mountains. Its head and neck resemble those of the ox, and its tail is
   like that of the goat. Called also budorcas.


   Ya*koots"  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Yakoot (. (Ethnol.) A nomadic Mongolian
   tribe native of Northern Siberia, and supposed to be of Turkish stock.
   They are mainly pastoral in their habits. [Written also Yakuts.]


   Yak"sha  (?),  n. [Skr.] (Hindoo Myth.) A kind of demigod attendant on
   Kuvera, the god of wealth.


   Ya"lah (?), n. The oil of the mahwa tree.


   Yam  (?),  n.  [Pg.  inhame, probably from some native name.] (Bot.) A
   large,  esculent,  farinaceous tuber of various climbing plants of the
   genus  Dioscorea;  also, the plants themselves. Mostly natives of warm
   climates.  The  plants  have  netted-veined, petioled leaves, and pods
   with  three  broad  wings.  The  commonest  species  is D. sativa, but
   several  others  are  cultivated.  Chinese  yam,  a  plant  (Dioscorea
   Batatas) with a long and slender tuber, hardier than most of the other
   species.  --  Wild  yam. (a) A common plant (Dioscorea villosa) of the
   Eastern  United  States,  having  a  hard and knotty rootstock. (b) An
   orchidaceous plant (Gastrodia sesamoides) of Australia and Tasmania.


   Ya"ma  (?),  n.  [Skr.  yama  a  twin.] (Hindoo Myth.) The king of the
   infernal regions, corresponding to the Greek Pluto, and also the judge
   of  departed  souls.  In later times he is more exclusively considered
   the  dire  judge  of  all,  and  the  tormentor  of  the wicked. He is
   represented  as of a green color, with red garments, having a crown on
   his head, his eyes inflamed, and sitting on a buffalo, with a club and
   noose in his hands.


   Yam"ma (?), n. [See Llama.] (Zo\'94l.) The llama.


   Yamp  (?),  n.  (Bot.) An umbelliferous plant (Carum Gairdneri); also,
   its  small  fleshy roots, which are eaten by the Indians from Idaho to


   Yang (?), n. [Of imitative origin.] The cry of the wild goose; a honk.


   Yang, v. i. To make the cry of the wild goose.


   Yank  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Scot.  yank a sudden and severe blow.] A jerk or
   twitch. [Colloq. U. S.]


   Yank,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Yanked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yanking.] To
   twitch; to jerk. [Colloq. U. S.]


   Yank, n. An abbreviation of Yankee. [Slang]


   Yan"kee  (?), n. [Commonly considered to be a corrupt pronunciation of
   the word English, or of the French word Anglais, by the native Indians
   of America. According to Thierry, a corruption of Jankin, a diminutive
   of  John, and a nickname given to the English colonists of Connecticut
   by  the Dutch settlers of New York. Dr. W. Gordon ("Hist. of the Amer.
   War,"  ed,  1789,  vol.  i., pp. 324, 325) says it was a favorite cant
   word  in  Cambridge,  Mass.,  as  early  as  1713,  and  that it meant
   excellent;  as,  a yankee good horse, yankee good cider, etc. Cf. Scot
   yankie   a  sharp,  clever,  and  rather  bold  woman,  and  Prov.  E.
   bow-yankees  a  kind  of  leggins  worn  by  agricultural laborers.] A
   nickname  for  a  native  of  citizen  of  New England, especially one
   descended  from  old New England stock; by extension, an inhabitant of
   the  Northern States as distinguished from a Southerner; also, applied
   sometimes by foreigners to any inhabitant of the United States.

     From  meanness  first  this  Portsmouth  Yankey  rose, And still to
     meanness  all  his conduct flows. Oppression, A poem by an American
     (Boston, 1765).


   Yan"kee,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  Yankee; characteristic of the

     The alertness of the Yankee aspect. Hawthorne.

   Yankee clover. (Bot.) See Japan clover, under Japan.


   Yan`kee-Doo"dle (?), n.

   1. The name of a tune adopted popularly as one of the national airs of
   the United States.

   2. Humorously, a Yankee.

     We  might  have  withheld our political noodles From knocking their
     heads against hot Yankee-Doodles. Moore.


   Yan"kee*ism (?), n. A Yankee idiom, word, custom, or the like. Lowell.


   Yaourt  (?), n. [Turk. yoghurt.] A fermented drink, or milk beer, made
   by the Turks.<-- now yoghurt-->


   Yap  (?), v. i. [Icel. gj\'belpa; akin to yelp. Cf. Yaup.] To bark; to
   yelp. L'Estrange.


   Yap (?), n. A bark; a yelp.


   Ya"pock  (?;  277), n. [Probably from the river Oyapok, between French
   Guiana  and  Brazil.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South  American  aquatic opossum
   (Chironectes variegatus) found in Guiana and Brazil. Its hind feet are
   webbed, and its fore feet do not have an opposable thumb for climbing.
   Called also water opossum. [Written also yapack.]

   Page 1673


   Ya"pon (?; 277), n. (Bot.) Same as Yaupon.


   Yar"age  (?;  48),  n.  [See Yare, a.] (Naut.) The power of moving, or
   being managed, at sea; -- said with reference to a ship. Sir T. North.


   Yard  (?),  n. [OE. yerd, AS. gierd, gyrd, a rod, ierde, OS. gerda, D.
   garde,  G. gerte, OHG. gartia, gerta, gart, Icel. gaddr a goad, sting,
   Goth.  gazds, and probably to L. hasta a spear. Cf. Gad, n., Gird, n.,
   Gride, v. i., Hastate.]

   1. A rod; a stick; a staff. [Obs.] P. Plowman.

     If men smote it with a yerde. Chaucer.

   2. A branch; a twig. [Obs.]

     The  bitter frosts with the sleet and rain Destroyed hath the green
     in every yerd. Chaucer.

   3. A long piece of timber, as a rafter, etc. [Obs.]

   4.  A  measure  of  length, equaling three feet, or thirty-six inches,
   being the standard of English and American measure.

   5. The penis.

   6. (Naut.) A long piece of timber, nearly cylindrical, tapering toward
   the  ends, and designed to support and extend a square sail. A yard is
   usually hung by the center to the mast. See Illust. of Ship.
   Golden Yard, OR Yard and Ell (Astron.), a popular name the three stars
   in  the  belt  of  Orion.  -- Under yard [i. e., under the rod], under
   contract. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yard, n. [OE. yard, yerd, AS. geard; akin to OFries. garda garden, OS.
   gardo  garden,  gard  yard,  D.  gaard  garden,  G. garten, OHG. garto
   garden,  gari  inclosure,  Icel. gar yard, house, Sw. g\'86rd, Dan. g,
   Goth.  gards  a  house,  garda sheepfold, L. hortus garden, Gr. Court,
   Garden, Garth, Horticulture, Orchard.]

   1.  An  inclosure;  usually,  a  small  inclosed place in front of, or
   around, a house or barn; as, a courtyard; a cowyard; a barnyard.

     A  yard  .  .  .  inclosed all about with sticks In which she had a
     cock, hight chanticleer. Chaucer.

   2. An inclosure within which any work or business is carried on; as, a
   dockyard; a shipyard.
   Liberty  of  the  yard,  a  liberty, granted to persons imprisoned for
   debt, of walking in the yard, or within any other limits prescribed by
   law,  on  their  giving  bond not to go beyond those limits. -- Prison
   yard,  an  inclosure  about a prison, or attached to it. -- Yard grass
   (Bot.),  a low-growing grass (Eleusine Indica) having digitate spikes.
   It is common in dooryards, and like places, especially in the Southern
   United States. Called also crab grass. -- Yard of land. See Yardland.


   Yard, v. t. To confine (cattle) to the yard; to shut up, or keep, in a
   yard; as, to yard cows.


   Yard"arm`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  Either  half of a square-rigged vessel's
   yard, from the center or mast to the end.

     NOTE: &hand; Sh ips are said to be yardarm and yardarm when so near
     as to touch, or interlock yards.


   Yard"ful  (?),  n.;  pl.  Yardfuls  (. As much as a yard will contain;
   enough to fill a yard.


   Yard"land`  (?),  n.  (O.  Eng.  Law)  A  measure of land of uncertain
   quantity, varying from fifteen to forty acres; a virgate. [Obs.]


   Yard"stick`  (?), n. A stick three feet, or a yard, in length, used as
   a measure of cloth, etc.


   Yard"wand` (?), n. A yardstick. Tennyson.


   Yare  (?),  a.  [OE.  yare, \'f4aru, AS. gearu; akin to OS. garu, OHG.
   garo, G. gar, Icel. gerr perfect, g\'94rva quite, G. gerben to tan, to
   curry,  OHG.  garawen,  garwen,  to  make  ready.  Cf.  Carouse,  Garb
   clothing,  Gear,  n.]  Ready; dexterous; eager; lively; quick to move.
   [Obs.] "Be yare in thy preparation." Shak.

     The  lesser  [ship]  will  come and go, leave or take, and is yare;
     whereas the greater is slow. Sir W. Raleigh.


   Yare, adv. Soon. [Obs.] Cursor Mundi.


   Yare"ly, adv. In a yare manner. [Obs.] Shak.


   Yark (?), v. t. & i. To yerk. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yar"ke (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Saki.


   Yarn  (?),  n.  [OE.  yarn,  \'f4arn, AS. gearn; akin to D. garen, G.,
   OHG., Icel., Sw., & Dan. garn; of uncertain origin. Cf. Cord.]

   1.  Spun  wool;  woolen  thread; also, thread of other material, as of
   cotton,  flax,  hemp,  or  silk; material spun and prepared for use in
   weaving, knitting, manufacturing sewing thread, or the like.

   2. (Rope Making) One of the threads of which the strands of a rope are

   3.  A  story  told  by a sailor for the amusement of his companions; a
   story or tale; as, to spin a yarn. [Colloq.]


   Yarn"en  (?),  a.  Made of yarn; consisting of yarn. [Obs.] "A pair of
   yarnen stocks." Turbervile.


   Yar"nut` (?), n. (Bot.) See Yernut.


   Yarr  (?),  v.  i. [OE. \'f4arren.] To growl or snarl as a dog. [Obs.]


   Yar"rish  (?),  a. [Prov. E. yar sour, yare brackish.] Having a rough,
   dry taste. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yar"row  (?), n. [OE. yarowe, yarwe, \'f4arowe, AS. gearwe; akin to D.
   gerw,  OHG.  garwa,  garawa,  G.  garbe, schafgarbe, and perhaps to E.
   yare.]  (Bot.)  An  American  and  European  composite plant (Achillea
   Millefolium)  with  very  finely  dissected  leaves  and  small  white
   corymbed  flowers.  It  has  a strong, and somewhat aromatic, odor and
   taste,  and is sometimes used in making beer, or is dried for smoking.
   Called also milfoil, and nosebleed.


   Yar"whip`  (?),  n.  [So called from its sharp cry uttered when taking
   wing.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The  European  bar-tailed  godwit;  -- called also
   yardkeep, and yarwhelp. See Godwit. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yat"a*ghan  (?),  n. [Turk. y\'bet\'begh\'ben.] A long knife, or short
   saber, common among Mohammedan nations, usually having a double curve,
   sometimes nearly straight. [Written also ataghan, attaghan.] Chaucer.


   Yate (?), n. A gate. See 1st Gate. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Spenser.


   Yaud (?), n. See Yawd. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]


   Yaul (?), n. (Naut.) See Yawl.


   Yaulp (?), v. i. To yaup.


   Yaup (?), v. i. [See Yap, and Yelp.] To cry out like a child; to yelp.
   [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.] [Written also yawp.]


   Yaup, n. [Written also yawp.]

   1.  A cry of distress, rage, or the like, as the cry of a sickly bird,
   or of a child in pain. [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.]

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The blue titmouse. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yaup"er (?), n. One who, or that which, yaups.


   Yau"pon  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A shrub (Ilex Cassine) of the Holly family,
   native from Virginia to Florida. The smooth elliptical leaves are used
   as a substitute for tea, and were formerly used in preparing the black
   drink  of  the  Indians  of North Carolina. Called also South-Sea tea.
   [Written also yapon, youpon, and yupon.]


   Yaw  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Yawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yawing.] [Cf.
   Yew,  v.  i.]  To  rise  in blisters, breaking in white froth, as cane
   juice in the clarifiers in sugar works.


   Yaw,  v. i. & t. [Cf. Prov. G. gagen to rock, gageln to totter, shake,
   Norw.  gaga  to bend backward, Icel. gagr bent back, gaga to throw the
   neck  back.]  (Naut.) To steer wild, or out of the line of her course;
   to  deviate from her course, as when struck by a heavy sea; -- said of
   a ship.

     Just as he would lay the ship's course, all yawing being out of the
     question. Lowell.


   Yaw, n. (Naut.) A movement of a vessel by which she temporarily alters
   her course; a deviation from a straight course in steering.


   Yawd  (?),  n. [Cf. Icel. jalda a mare, E. jade a nag.] A jade; an old
   horse or mare. [Written also yaud.] [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Grose.


   Yawl  (?),  n.  [D.  jol;  akin  to  LG.  & Dan. jolle, Sw. julle. Cf.
   Jolly-boat.] (Naut.) A small ship's boat, usually rowed by four or six
   oars. [Written also yaul.]


   Yawl,  v. i. [OE. \'f4aulen, \'f4oulen, gaulen, goulen, Icel. gaula to
   low,  bellow.  Cf.  Gowl.]  To  cry out like a dog or cat; to howl; to
   yell. Tennyson.

     There howling Scyllas yawling round about. Fairfax.


   Yawl"-rigged"  (?),  a.  (Naut.)  Having  two  masts with fore-and-aft
   sails,  but  differing  from a schooner in that the after mast is very
   small,  and  stepped  as  far  aft  as  possible.  See Illustration in


   Yawn  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Yawned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yawning.]
   [OE.  yanien, \'f4anien, ganien, gonien, AS. g\'benian; akin to ginian
   to  yawn,  g\'c6nan  to  yawn,  open  wide, G. g\'84hnen to yawn, OHG.
   gin&emac;n,  gein&omac;n, Icel. g\'c6na to yawn, gin the mouth, OSlav.
   zijati  to  yawn, L. hiare to gape, yawn; and perhaps to E. begin, cf.
   Gr. b. Cf. Begin, Gin to begin, Hiatus.]

   1.  To  open  the mouth involuntarily through drowsiness, dullness, or
   fatigue; to gape; to oscitate. "The lazy, yawning drone." Shak.

     And  while  above  he  spends  his breath, The yawning audience nod
     beneath. Trumbull.

   2.  To  open  wide;  to  gape,  as if to allow the entrance or exit of

     't  is  now the very witching time of night, When churchyards yawn.

   3.  To  open  the mouth, or to gape, through surprise or bewilderment.

   4.  To  be  eager; to desire to swallow anything; to express desire by
   yawning;  as,  to  yawn  for  fat  livings.  "One long, yawning gaze."


   Yawn, n.

   1.  An  involuntary  act, excited by drowsiness, etc., consisting of a
   deep  and  long  inspiration  following several successive attempts at
   inspiration, the mouth, fauces, etc., being wide open.

     One  person  yawning  in company will produce a spontaneous yawn in
     all present. N. Chipman.

   2. The act of opening wide, or of gaping. Addison.

   3. A chasm, mouth, or passageway. [R.]

     Now  gape  the  graves, and trough their yawns let loose Imprisoned
     spirits. Marston.


   Yawn"ing*ly, adv. In a yawning manner.


   Yawp (?), v. & n. See Yaup.


   Yaws (?), n. [African yaw a raspberry.] (Med.) A disease, occurring in
   the  Antilles  and  in  Africa,  characterized by yellowish or reddish
   tumors,  of  a  contagious  character, which, in shape and appearance,
   often  resemble  currants,  strawberries,  or  raspberries.  There are
   several  varieties  of  this disease, variously known as framb\'d2sia,
   pian, verrugas, and crab-yaws.


   Yaw"-weed`  (?),  n.  (Bot.) A low, shrubby, rubiaceous plant (Morinda
   Royoc)  growing  along  the seacoast of the West Indies. It has small,
   white, odorous flowers.


   Y*be" (?), obs. p. p. of Be. Been. Chaucer.


   Y*cleped"  (?),  p.  p.  [AS.  geclipod,  p.  p. of clipian, cleopian,
   cliopian,  to  call.  See  Clepe, and also the Note under Y-.] Called;
   named;  --  obsolete,  except  in archaic or humorous writings. [Spelt
   also yclept.]

     It is full fair to ben yclept madame. Chaucer.

     But come, thou goddess fair and free. In heaven ycleped Euphrosyne.

     Those charming little missives ycleped valentines. Lamb.


   Y*do" (?), obs. p. p. of Do. Done. Chaucer.


   Y*drad" (?), obs. p. p. of Dread. Dreaded.

     Yet nothing did he dread, but ever was ydrad. Spenser.

                                    Ye, Ye

   Ye,  Ye  (?),  an old method of printing the article the (AS. e), the
   "y"  being used in place of the Anglo-Saxon thorn (). It is sometimes
   incorrectly pronounced y\'c7. See The, and Thorn, n., 4.


   Y"\'89 (&emac;"e), n.; pl. Y\'89n (. An eye. [Obs.]

     From his y\'89n ran the water down. Chaucer.


   Ye (y&emac;), pron. [OE. ye, \'f4e, nom. pl., AS. ge, g&imac;; cf. OS.
   ge,  g\'c6,  OFries. g\'c6, \'c6, D. gij, Dan. & Sw. i, Icel. &emac;r,
   OHG.  ir,  G.  ihr, Goth. jus, Lith. jus, Gr. yuyam. The plural of the
   pronoun of the second person in the nominative case.

     Ye ben to me right welcome heartily. Chaucer.

     But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified. 1 Cor. vi. 11.

     This would cost you your life in case ye were a man. Udall.

     NOTE: &hand; In  Ol d English ye was used only as a nominative, and
     you only as a dative or objective. In the 16th century, however, ye
     and  you  became confused and were often used interchangeably, both
     as nominatives and objectives, and you has now superseded ye except
     in  solemn  or  poetic  use. See You, and also the first Note under

     Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye. Shak.

     I come, kind gentlemen, strange news to tell ye. Dryden.


   Ye (?), adv. [See Yea.] Yea; yes. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yea  (y&amac;  OR  y&emac;;  277), adv. [OE. ye, ya, \'f4e, \'f4a, AS.
   ge\'a0;  akin to OFries. g, i, OS., D., OHG., G., Dan. & Sw. ja, Icel,
   j\'be, Goth. ja, jai, and probably to Gr. Yes.]

   1.  Yes;  ay;  a  word  expressing  assent,  or  an affirmative, or an
   affirmative answer to a question, now superseded by yes. See Yes.

     Let your communication be yea, yea; nay, nay. Matt. v. 37.

   2. More than this; not only so, but; -- used to mark the addition of a
   more specific or more emphatic clause. Cf. Nay, adv., 2.

     I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice. Phil. i. 18.

     NOTE: &hand; Ye a so metimes introduces a clause, with the sense of
     indeed,  verily,  truly.  "Yea,  hath God said, Ye shall not eat of
     every tree of the garden?"

   Gen. iii. 1.


   Yea,  n.  An affirmative vote; one who votes in the affirmative; as, a
   vote by yeas and nays.

     NOTE: &hand; In  the Scriptures, yea is used as a sign of certainty
     or  stability.  "All the promises of God in him are yea, and in him

   2 Cor. i. 20.


   Yead  (?),  v. i. Properly, a variant of the defective imperfect yode,
   but sometimes mistaken for a present. See the Note under Yede. [Obs.]

     Years yead away and faces fair deflower. Drant.


   Yean  (?),  v.  t.  &  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Yeaned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Yeaning.]  [AS.  e\'a0nian, or gee\'a0nian; perhaps akin to E. ewe, or
   perhaps  to  L.  agnus, Gr. Ean.] To bring forth young, as a goat or a
   sheep; to ean. Shak.


   Yean"ling  (?),  n.  [Yean  + -ling. Cf. Eanling.] A lamb or a kid; an
   eanling. Shak.


   Year  (?),  n. [OE. yer, yeer, \'f4er, AS. ge\'a0r; akin to OFries. i,
   g,  D.  jaar,  OHG. j\'ber, G. jahr, Icel. \'ber, Dan. aar, Sw. \'86r,
   Goth. j, Gr. y\'bere year. &root;4, 279. Cf. Hour, Yore.]

   1. The time of the apparent revolution of the sun trough the ecliptic;
   the  period  occupied by the earth in making its revolution around the
   sun,  called the astronomical year; also, a period more or less nearly
   agreeing  with  this, adopted by various nations as a measure of time,
   and  called  the  civil  year;  as, the common lunar year of 354 days,
   still  in  use  among  the  Mohammedans; the year of 360 days, etc. In
   common  usage,  the  year  consists of 365 days, and every fourth year
   (called  bissextile,  or  leap year) of 366 days, a day being added to
   February  on  that  year, on account of the excess above 365 days (see

     Of twenty year of age he was, I guess. Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ci vil, or  le gal, ye ar, in  En gland, formerly
     commenced  on the 25th of March. This practice continued throughout
     the British dominions till the year 1752.

   2.  The time in which any planet completes a revolution about the sun;
   as, the year of Jupiter or of Saturn.

   3. pl. Age, or old age; as, a man in years. Shak.
   Anomalistic  year,  the time of the earth's revolution from perihelion
   to  perihelion  again,  which is 365 days, 6 hours, 13 minutes, and 48
   seconds.  --  A  year's  mind  (Eccl.),  a commemoration of a deceased
   person,  as  by  a  Mass,  a year after his death. Cf. A month's mind,
   under  Month.  --  Bissextile year. See Bissextile. -- Canicular year.
   See under Canicular. -- Civil year, the year adopted by any nation for
   the  computation of time. -- Common lunar year, the period of 12 lunar
   months,  or  354  days.  --  Common  year,  each  year of 365 days, as
   distinguished from leap year. -- Embolismic year, OR Intercalary lunar
   year,  the  period  of  13  lunar  months, or 384 days. -- Fiscal year
   (Com.),  the  year by which accounts are reckoned, or the year between
   one  annual time of settlement, or balancing of accounts, and another.
   --  Great  year. See Platonic year, under Platonic. -- Gregorian year,
   Julian  year.  See under Gregorian, and Julian. -- Leap year. See Leap
   year,  in the Vocabulary. -- Lunar astronomical year, the period of 12
   lunar  synodical months, or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, 36 seconds.
   --  Lunisolar  year.  See  under  Lunisolar.  --  Periodical year. See
   Anomalistic  year, above. -- Platonic year, Sabbatical year. See under
   Platonic, and Sabbatical. -- Sidereal year, the time in which the sun,
   departing  from any fixed star, returns to the same. This is 365 days,
   6  hours,  9  minutes,  and  9.3  seconds. -- Tropical year. See under
   Tropical. -- Year and a day (O. Eng. Law), a time to be allowed for an
   act  or an event, in order that an entire year might be secured beyond
   all question. Abbott. -- Year of grace, any year of the Christian era;
   Anno Domini; A. D. or a. d.


   Ye*a"ra  (?),  n. (Bot.) The California poison oak (Rhus diversiloba).
   See under Poison, a.


   Year"book` (?), n.

   1.  A  book  published  yearly;  any  annual  report or summary of the
   statistics  or  facts  of  a  year, designed to be used as a reference
   book; as, the Congregational Yearbook.

   2.  (Eng.  Law)  A book containing annual reports of cases adjudged in
   the courts of England.

   Page 1674

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Ye arbooks are the oldest English reports extant,
     beginning  with  the reign of Edward II., and ending with the reign
     of  Henry VIII. They were published annually, and derive their name
     from  that  fact.  They  consist  of  eleven parts, or volumes, are
     written  in  Law  French, and extend over nearly two hundred years.
     There are, however, several hiatuses, or chasms, in the series.

   Kent. Bouvier.


   Yeared  (?),  a.  Containing  years;  having existed or continued many
   years; aged. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Year"ling  (?),  n.  [Year + -ling.] An animal one year old, or in the
   second  year  of  its  age;  --  applied chiefly to cattle, sheep, and


   Year"ling,  a. Being a year old. "A yearling bullock to thy name small
   smoke." Pope.


   Year"ly (?), a. [AS. ge\'a0rlic.]

   1.  Happening,  accruing,  or  coming every year; annual; as, a yearly
   income; a yearly feast.

   2. Lasting a year; as, a yearly plant.

   3.  Accomplished  in a year; as, the yearly circuit, or revolution, of
   the earth. Shak.


   Year"ly,  adv.  [AS.  ge\'a0rlice.] Annually; once a year to year; as,
   blessings yearly bestowed.

     Yearly will I do this rite. Shak.


   Yearn (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yearned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yearning.]
   [Also  earn,  ern;  probably  a corruption of OE. ermen to grieve, AS.
   ierman,  yrman, or geierman, geyrman, fr. earm wretched, poor; akin to
   D.  & G. arm, Icel. armr, Goth. arms. The y- in English is perhaps due
   to  the  AS.  ge  (see  Y-).]  To pain; to grieve; to vex. [Obs.] "She
   laments, sir, for it, that it would yearn your heart to see it." Shak.

     It yearns me not if men my garments wear. Shak.


   Yearn,  v.  i. To be pained or distressed; to grieve; to mourn. [Obs.]
   "Falstaff he is dead, and we must yearn therefore." Shak.


   Yearn, v. i. & t. [See Yearnings.] To curdle, as milk. [Scot.]


   Yearn,  v.  i.  [OE.  yernen,  ,  ,  AS.  geornian,  gyrnan, fr. georn
   desirous,  eager;  akin  to  OS.  gern  desirous, girnean, gernean, to
   desire,  D. gaarne gladly, willingly, G. gern, OHG. gerno, adv., gern,
   a., G. gier greed, OHG. gir\'c6 greed, ger desirous, ger to desire, G.
   begehren,  Icel. girna to desire, gjarn eager, Goth. fa\'a1huga\'a1rns
   covetous, ga\'a1rnjan to desire, and perhaps to Gr. hary to desire, to
   like.  To  be  filled  with longing desire; to be harassed or rendered
   uneasy  with  longing,  or feeling the want of a thing; to strain with
   emotions of affection or tenderness; to long; to be eager.

     Joseph  made  haste; for his bowels did yearn upon his brother; and
     he sought where to weep. Gen. xliii. 30.

     Your mother's heart yearns towards you. Addison.


   Yearn"ful  (?), a. [OE. , AS. geornfull.] Desirous. [Obs.] Ormulum. P.


   Yearn"ing*ly, adv. With yearning.


   Yearn"ings  (?),  n.  pl.  [Cf.  AS. geirnan, geyrnan, to rum. See 4th
   Earn.]  The  maws,  or  stomachs,  of  young calves, used a rennet for
   curdling milk. [Scot.]


   Yearth  (?),  n.  The  earth. [Obs.] "Is my son dead or hurt or on the
   yerthe felled?" Ld. Berners.


   Yeast (?), n. [OE. \'f4eest, \'f4est, AS. gist; akin to D. gest, gist,
   G.  gischt,  g\'84scht,  OHG.  jesan,  jerian, to ferment, G. gischen,
   g\'84schen, g\'84hren, Gr. zei^n to boil, Skr. yas. &root;111.]

   1.  The foam, or troth (top yeast), or the sediment (bottom yeast), of
   beer  or  other in fermentation, which contains the yeast plant or its
   spores,   and   under  certain  conditions  produces  fermentation  in
   saccharine  or  farinaceous substances; a preparation used for raising
   dough  for  bread  or  cakes,  and  making  it  light and puffy; barm;

   2. Spume, or foam, of water.

     They  melt  thy yeast of waves, which mar Alike the Armada's pride,
     or spoils of Trafalgar. Byron.

   <-- 3. A form of fungus which grows as indvidual rounded cells, rather
   than  in  a  mycelium,  and reproduces by budding; esp. members of the
   orders  Endomycetales  and  Moniliales.  Some fungi may grow both as a
   yeast  or  as  a  mycelium, depending on the conditions of growth. -->
   Yeast  cake, a mealy cake impregnated with the live germs of the yeast
   plant,  and used as a conveniently transportable substitute for yeast.
   --  Yeast  plant  (Bot.),  the vegetable organism, or fungus, of which
   beer  yeast  consists. The yeast plant is composed of simple cells, or
   granules,  about  one  three-thousandth  of an inch in diameter, often
   united  into  filaments  which reproduce by budding, and under certain
   circumstances  by  the  formation  of  spores. The name is extended to
   other  ferments of the same genus. See Saccharomyces. -- Yeast powder,
   a baling powder, -- used instead of yeast in leavening bread.


   Yeast"-bit`ten (?), a. (Brewing) A term used of beer when the froth of
   the yeast has re\'89ntered the body of the beer.


   Yeast"i*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being yeasty, or frothy.


   Yeast"y (?), a. Frothy; foamy; spumy, like yeast.


   Yed"ding  (?),  n.  [AS.  geddung,  gidding,  giedding, from gieddian,
   giddian,  to  sing,  speak.]  The song of a minstrel; hence, any song.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yede (?), obs. imp. Went. See Yode.

     All  as  he  bade fulfilled was indeed This ilke servant anon right
     out yede. Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Sp enser an d so me la ter wr iters mistook this for a
     present  of  the  defective  imperfect yode. It is, however, only a
     variant of yode. See Yode, and cf. Yead.

     [He] on foot was forced for to yeed. Spenser


   Yeel (?), n. An eel. [Obs.] Holland.


   Yeld"hall` (?), n. Guildhall. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                              Yeldrin OR Yeldrine

   Yel"drin   (?)   OR   Yel"drine,   n.  [Cf.  Yellow.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The
   yellow-hammer; -- called also yeldrock, and yoldrin. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yelk (?), n. Same as Yolk.


   Yell  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Yelled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yelling.]
   [OE.  yellen,  ,  AS. giellan, gillan, gyllan; akin to D. gillen, OHG.
   gellan, G. gellen, Icel. gjalla, Sw. g\'84lla to ring, resound, and to
   AS.,  OS.,  &  OHG.  galan  to  sing,  Icel.  gala.  Cf. 1st Gale, and
   Nightingale.]  To  cry out, or shriek, with a hideous noise; to cry or
   scream as with agony or horror.

     They yelleden as feendes doon in helle. Chaucer.

     Nor the night raven, that still deadly yells. Spenser.

     Infernal  ghosts  and  hellish  furies  round  Environed thee; some
     howled, some yelled. Milton.


   Yell (?), v. t. To utter or declare with a yell; to proclaim in a loud
   tone. Shak.


   Yell, n. A sharp, loud, hideous outcry.

     Their hideous yells Rend the dark welkin. J. Philips.


   Yel"low (?), a. [Compar. Yellower (?); superl. Yellowest.] [OE. yelow,
   yelwe,  \'f4elow,  \'f4eoluw,  from  AS. geolu; akin to D. geel, OS. &
   OHG.  gelo,  G.  gelb, Icel. gulr, Sw. gul, Dan. guul, L. helvus light
   bay,  Gr. hari tawny, yellowish. Chlorine, Gall a bitter liquid, Gold,
   Yolk.]  Being  of  a bright saffronlike color; of the color of gold or
   brass;  having  the  hue  of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar
   spectrum, which is between the orange and the green.

     Her yellow hair was browded [braided] in a tress. Chaucer.

     A  sweaty  reaper  from his tillage brought First fruits, the green
     ear and the yellow sheaf. Milton.

     The line of yellow light dies fast away. Keble.

   Yellow  atrophy  (Med.),  a  fatal affection of the liver, in which it
   undergoes  fatty  degeneration,  and  becomes rapidly smaller and of a
   deep  yellow  tinge.  The  marked  symptoms are black vomit, delirium,
   convulsions,  coma,  and  jaundice.  -- Yellow bark, calisaya bark. --
   Yellow  bass  (Zo\'94l.),  a  North  American fresh-water bass (Morone
   interrupta)  native  of  the  lower  parts  of the Mississippi and its
   tributaries.  It  is  yellow,  with  several more or less broken black
   stripes  or bars. Called also barfish. -- Yellow berry. (Bot.) Same as
   Persian berry, under Persian. -- Yellow boy, a gold coin, as a guinea.
   [Slang]  Arbuthnot. -- Yellow brier. (Bot.) See under Brier. -- Yellow
   bugle  (Bot.),  a  European  labiate  plant  (Ajuga Cham\'91pitys). --
   Yellow  bunting  (Zo\'94l.), the European yellow-hammer. -- Yellow cat
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  yellow  catfish;  especially,  the  bashaw.  -- Yellow
   copperas (Min.), a hydrous sulphate of iron; -- called also copiapite.
   --  Yellow  copper ore, a sulphide of copper and iron; copper pyrites.
   See   Chalcopyrite.   --   Yellow  cress  (Bot.),  a  yellow-flowered,
   cruciferous  plant  (Barbarea  pr\'91cox),  sometimes grown as a salad
   plant.  --  Yellow  dock.  (Bot.)  See  the Note under Dock. -- Yellow
   earth,  a  yellowish clay, colored by iron, sometimes used as a yellow
   pigment.  --  Yellow  fever  (Med.),  a malignant, contagious, febrile
   disease  of  warm climates, attended with jaundice, producing a yellow
   color  of  the skin, and with the black vomit. See Black vomit, in the
   Vocabulary. -- Yellow flag, the quarantine flag. See under Quarantine,
   and  3d Flag. -- Yellow jack. (a) The yellow fever. See under 2d Jack.
   (b)  The  quarantine  flag.  See  under  Quarantine.  -- Yellow jacket
   (Zo\'94l.), any one of several species of American social wasps of the
   genus  Vespa,  in which the color of the body is partly bright yellow.
   These  wasps  are  noted for their irritability, and for their painful
   stings.  --  Yellow  lead  ore  (Min.),  wulfenite.  --  Yellow  lemur
   (Zo\'94l.),  the kinkajou. -- Yellow macauco (Zo\'94l.), the kinkajou.
   --  Yellow  mackerel  (Zo\'94l.),  the jurel. -- Yellow metal. Same as
   Muntz  metal,  under  Metal. -- Yellow ocher (Min.), an impure, earthy
   variety of brown iron ore, which is used as a pigment. -- Yellow oxeye
   (Bot.),   a  yellow-flowered  plant  (Chrysanthemum  segetum)  closely
   related  to  the  oxeye  daisy. -- Yellow perch (Zo\'94l.), the common
   American perch. See Perch. -- Yellow pike (Zo\'94l.), the wall-eye. --
   Yellow  pine  (Bot.),  any  of  several  kinds  of  pine;  also, their
   yellowish  and  generally  durable  timber.  Among the most common are
   valuable  species  are Pinus mitis and P. palustris of the Eastern and
   Southern  States,  and  P.  ponderosa  and  P.  Arizonica of the Rocky
   Mountains  and Pacific States. -- Yellow plover (Zo\'94l.), the golden
   plover.  -- Yellow precipitate (Med. Chem.), an oxide of mercury which
   is  thrown  down  as  an  amorphous  yellow powder on adding corrosive
   sublimate  to limewater. -- Yellow puccoon. (Bot.) Same as Orangeroot.
   --   Yellow   rail   (Zo\'94l.),   a   small  American  rail  (Porzana
   Noveboracensis)  in  which the lower parts are dull yellow, darkest on
   the  breast. The back is streaked with brownish yellow and with black,
   and  spotted  with  white. Called also yellow crake. -- Yellow rattle,
   Yellow  rocket.  (Bot.)  See under Rattle, and Rocket. -- Yellow Sally
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  greenish  or yellowish European stone fly of the genus
   Chloroperla;  --  so  called by anglers. -- Yellow sculpin (Zo\'94l.),
   the   dragonet.   --  Yellow  snake  (Zo\'94l.),  a  West  Indian  boa
   (Chilobothrus  inornatus)  common in Jamaica. It becomes from eight to
   ten  long. The body is yellowish or yellowish green, mixed with black,
   and  anteriorly  with black lines. -- Yellow spot. (a) (Anat.) A small
   yellowish  spot with a central pit, the fovea centralis, in the center
   of the retina where vision is most accurate. See Eye. (b) (Zo\'94l.) A
   small  American butterfly (Polites Peckius) of the Skipper family. Its
   wings  are  brownish,  with  a large, irregular, bright yellow spot on
   each  of  the hind wings, most conspicuous beneath. Called also Peck's
   skipper.  See  Illust. under Skipper, n., 5. -- Yellow tit (Zo\'94l.),
   any   one   of  several  species  of  crested  titmice  of  the  genus
   Machlolophus, native of India. The predominating colors of the plumage
   are yellow and green. -- Yellow viper (Zo\'94l.), the fer-de-lance. --
   Yellow  warbler  (Zo\'94l.),  any  one  of several species of American
   warblers  of  the  genus  Dendroica  in which the predominant color is
   yellow, especially D. \'91stiva, which is a very abundant and familiar
   species;  --  called  also  garden  warbler,  golden  warbler,  summer
   yellowbird,  summer  warbler,  and yellow-poll warbler. -- Yellow wash
   (Pharm.),  yellow  oxide  of  mercury suspended in water, -- a mixture
   prepared  by  adding  corrosive sublimate to limewater. -- Yellow wren
   (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  European  willow  warbler. (b) The European wood


   Yel"low, n.

   1.  A bright golden color, reflecting more light than any other except
   white;  the  color  of  that part of the spectrum which is between the
   orange and green. "A long motley coat guarded with yellow." Shak. 

   2. A yellow pigment.
   Cadmium  yellow, Chrome yellow, Indigo yellow, King's yellow, etc. See
   under  Cadmium,  Chrome,  etc.  --  Naples  yellow, a yellow amorphous
   pigment,  used in oil, porcelain, and enamel painting, consisting of a
   basic  lead  metantimonate,  obtained by fusing together tartar emetic
   lead  nitrate, and common salt. -- Patent yellow (Old Chem.), a yellow
   pigment  consisting  essentially of a lead oxychloride; -- called also
   Turner's yellow.


   Yel"low  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Yellowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Yellowing.]  To make yellow; to cause to have a yellow tinge or color;
   to dye yellow.


   Yel"low, v. i. To become yellow or yellower.


   Yel"low*am`mer (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Yellow-hammer.


   Yel"low*bill` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The American scoter.


   Yel"low*bird`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  American  goldfinch, or
   thistle  bird. See Goldfinch. (b) The common yellow warbler; -- called
   also  summer  yellowbird. See Illust. of Yellow warbler, under Yellow,


   Yel"low-cov`ered   (?),   a.   Covered   or  bound  in  yellow  paper.
   Yellow-covered   literature,   cheap  sensational  novels  and  trashy
   magazines; -- formerly so called from the usual color of their covers.
   [Colloq. U. S.] Bartlett.


   Yel"low-eyed`  (?),  a.  Having yellow eyes. Yellow-eyed grass (Bot.),
   any plant of the genus Xyris.


   Yel"low*fin` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A large squeteague.


   Yel"low*fish`   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)  A  rock  trout  (Pleurogrammus
   monopterygius)  found  on  the coast of Alaska; -- called also striped
   fish, and Atka mackerel.


   Yel"low-golds`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A certain plant, probably the yellow
   oxeye. B. Jonson.


   Yel"low*ham`mer  (?),  n.  [For  yellow-ammer,  where ammer is fr. AS.
   amore  a  kind of bird; akin to G. ammer a yellow-hammer, OHG. amero.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A  common  European  finch (Emberiza citrinella). The
   color  of  the male is bright yellow on the breast, neck, and sides of
   the  head, with the back yellow and brown, and the top of the head and
   the tail quills blackish. Called also yellow bunting, scribbling lark,
   and  writing  lark.  [Written  also  yellow-ammer.]  (b)  The flicker.
   [Local, U. S.]


   Yel"low*ing, n. The act or process of making yellow.

     Softened . . . by the yellowing which time has given. G. Eliot.


   Yel"low*ish, a. Somewhat yellow; as, amber is of a yellowish color. --
   Yel"low*ish*ness, n.


   Yel"low*legs`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  several  species of
   long-legged  sandpipers  of  the  genus Totanus, in which the legs are
   bright   yellow;  --  called  also  stone  snipe,  tattler,  telltale,
   yellowshanks; and yellowshins. See Tattler, 2.


   Yel"low*ness, n.

   1.  The  quality  or  state  of being yellow; as, the yellowness of an

   2. Jealousy. [Obs.]

     I will possess him with yellowness. Shak.


   Yel"low*root`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  Any one of several plants with yellow
   roots. Specifically: (a) See Xanthorhiza. (b) Same as Orangeroot.


   Yel"lows (?), n.

   1.  (Far.) A disease of the bile in horses, cattle, and sheep, causing
   yellowness of the eyes; jaundice.

     His horse . . . sped with spavins, rayed with the yellows. Shak.

   2.  (Bot.)  A  disease  of  plants,  esp. of peach trees, in which the
   leaves turn to a yellowish color; jeterus.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.) A group of butterflies in which the predominating color
   is  yellow.  It  includes  the common small yellow butterflies. Called
   also redhorns, and sulphurs. See Sulphur.


   Yel"low*seed`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  kind  of  pepper  grass  (Lepidium

                           Yellowshanks, Yellowshins

   Yel"low*shanks` (?), Yel"low*shins` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Yellolegs.


   Yel"low*tail`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) Any one of several species of
   marine  carangoid  fishes  of the genus Seriola; especially, the large
   California  species  (S.  dorsalis)  which  sometimes weighs thirty or
   forty  pounds,  and  is highly esteemed as a food fish; -- called also
   cavasina, and white salmon. (b) The mademoiselle, or silver perch. (c)
   The   menhaden.   (d)  The  runner,  12.  (e)  A  California  rockfish
   (Sebastodes flavidus). (f) The sailor's choice (Diplodus rhomboides).

     NOTE: &hand; Se  veral ot  her fi  shes ar e al so lo cally ca lled


   Yel"low*throat`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of several species of
   American  ground  warblers  of the genus Geothlypis, esp. the Maryland
   yellowthroat (G. trichas), which is a very common species.


   Yel"low*top`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  kind of grass, perhaps a species of


   Yel"low*wood`  (?), n. (Bot.) The wood of any one of several different
   kinds of trees; also, any one of the trees themselves. Among the trees
   so  called  are the Cladrastis tinctoria, an American leguminous tree;
   the  several  species  of  prickly  ash  (Xanthoxylum); the Australian
   Flindersia  Oxleyana,  a  tree  related to the mahogany; certain South
   African  species  of  Podocarpus,  trees  related to the yew; the East
   Indian  Podocarpus  latifolia;  and  the  true  satinwood (Chloroxylon
   Swietenia). All these Old World trees furnish valuable timber.

   Page 1675


   Yel"low*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) A European yellow-flowered, gentianaceous
   (Chlora  perfoliata).  The  whole  plant  is  intensely bitter, and is
   sometimes used as a tonic, and also in dyeing yellow.


   Yelp  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Yelped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yelping.]
   [OE.  yelpen,  , to boast, boast noisily, AS. gielpan, gilpan, gylpan;
   akin to OHG. gelph arrogant: cf. Icel. gj\'belpa to yelp. Cf. Yap.]

   1. To boast. [Obs.]

     I keep [care] not of armes for to yelpe. Chaucer.

   2.  To  utter  a  sharp,  quick  cry, as a hound; to bark shrilly with
   eagerness, pain, or fear; to yaup.

     A  little  herd  of  England's  timorous deer, Mazed with a yelping
     kennel of French curs? Shak.

     At the least flourish of a broomstick or ladle, he would fly to the
     door with a yelping precipitation. W. Irving.


   Yelp, n. A sharp, quick cry; a bark. Chaucer.


   Yelp"er  (?),  n.  An  animal  that  yelps,  or makes a yelping noise.
   Specifically:  (Zo\'94l.) (a) The avocet; -- so called from its sharp,
   shrill cry. [Prov. Eng.] (b) The tattler. [Local, U. S.]


   Ye"man (?), n. A yeoman. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yen  (?),  n.  The  unit  of value and account in Japan. Since Japan's
   adoption  of the gold standard, in 1897, the value of the yen has been
   about 50 cents. The yen is equal to 100 sen.


   Yend (?), v. t. To throw; to cast. [Prov. Eng.]


   Ye"nite  (?),  n.  [After Jena, in Germany.] (Min.) A silicate of iron
   and  lime  occurring  in  black  prismatic  crystals;  --  also called
   ilvaite. [Spelt also jenite.]


   Yeo"man  (?),  n.;  pl. Yeomen (#). [OE. yoman, \'f4eman, \'f4oman; of
   uncertain origin; perhaps the first, syllable is akin to OFries. g\'be
   district, region, G. gau, OHG. gewi, gouwi, Goth. gawi. &root;100.]

   1.  A  common  man,  or  one  of  the  commonly  of  the first or most
   respectable class; a freeholder; a man free born.

     NOTE: &hand; A  yeoman in England is considered as next in order to
     the gentry. The word is little used in the United States, unless as
     a title in law proceedings and instruments, designating occupation,
     and this only in particular States.

   2. A servant; a retainer. [Obs.]

     A yeman hadde he and servants no mo. Chaucer.

   3.  A  yeoman  of  the  guard; also, a member of the yeomanry cavalry.

   4.  (Naut.)  An  interior  officer  under  the  boatswain,  gunner, or
   carpenters, charged with the stowage, account, and distribution of the
   Yeoman  of  the  guard, one of the bodyguard of the English sovereign,
   consisting of the hundred yeomen, armed with partisans, and habited in
   the  costume  of  the sixteenth century. They are members of the royal


   Yeo"man*like` (?), a. Resembling, or suitable to, a yeoman; yeomanly.


   Yeo"man*ly,  a.  Pertaining  to  a  yeoman; becoming or suitable to, a
   yeoman; yeomanlike. B. Jonson.

     Well could he dress his tackle yeomanly. Chaucer.


   Yeo"man*ry (?), n.

   1.  The position or rank of a yeoman. [Obs.] "His estate of yeomanry."

   2. The collective body of yeomen, or freeholders.

     The  enfranchised  yeomanry began to feel an instinct for dominion.

   3. The yeomanry cavalry. [Eng.]
   Yeomanry  cavalry,  certain  bodies  of  volunteer  cavalry  liable to
   service in Great Britain only. [Eng.]


   Yeor"ling (?), n. [Cf. Yellow.] (Zo\'94l.) The European yellow-hammer.


   Yer (?), prep. Ere; before. [Obs.] Sylvester.


   Yer"ba (?), n. [Sp.] (Bot.) An herb; a plant.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is word is much used in compound names of plants in
     Spanish;  as,  yerba  buena  [Sp.,  a good herb], a name applied in
     Spain  to several kinds of mint (Mentha sativa, viridis, etc.), but
     in  California  universally  applied  to  a  common,  sweet-scented
     labiate plant (Micromeria Douglasii).

   Yerba  dol  osa.  [Sp.,  herb  of  the  she-bear.] A kind of buckthorn
   (Rhamnus  Californica). -- Yerba mansa. [Sp., a mild herb, soft herb.]
   A  plant  (Anemopsis  Californica) with a pungent, aromatic rootstock,
   used medicinally by the Mexicans and the Indians. -- Yerba reuma. [Cf.
   Sp.  reuma  rheum, rheumatism.] A low California undershrub (Frankenia


   Yerd (?), n. See 1st & 2d Yard. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yerk  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Yerked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yerking.]
   [See Yerk.]

   1. To throw or thrust with a sudden, smart movement; to kick or strike
   suddenly; to jerk.

     Their wounded steeds . . . Yerk out their armed heels at their dead
     masters. Shak.

   2. To strike or lash with a whip. [Obs. or Scot.]


   Yerk, v. i.

   1. To throw out the heels; to kick; to jerk.

     They flirt, they yerk, they backward . . . fling. Drayton.

   2. To move a quick, jerking motion.


   Yerk, n. A sudden or quick thrust or motion; a jerk.


   Yern (?), v. i. See 3d Yearn. [Obs.]


   Yern, a. [OE. \'f4ern, \'f4eorne, AS. georn desirous, eager. See Yearn
   to long.] Eager; brisk; quick; active. [Obs.] "Her song . . . loud and
   yern." Chaucer.


   Yerne  (?),  adv.  [OE.  \'f4eorne.  See  Yern,  a.] Eagerly; briskly;
   quickly. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

     My hands and my tongue go so yerne. Chaucer.


   Yer"nut`  (?),  n. [Cf. Dan. jordn\'94d, Sw. jordn\'94t, earthnut. Cf.
   Jarnut.]  An  earthnut, or groundnut. See Groundnut (d). [Written also


   Yerst (?), adv. See Erst. [Obs.] Sylvester.


   Yes  (?),  adv.  [OE.  yis,  \'f4is,  \'f4es, \'f4ise, AS. gese, gise;
   probably  fr. ge\'a0 yea + sw\'be so. &root;188. See Yea, and So.] Ay;
   yea;  --  a word which expresses affirmation or consent; -- opposed to

     NOTE: &hand; Ye s is  us ed, like yea, to enforce, by repetition or
     addition,  something  which precedes; as, you have done all this --
     yes, you have done more. "Yes, you despise the man books confined."

     NOTE: &hand; "T he fi ne distinction between \'bfyea' and \'bfyes,'
     \'bfnay'  and  \'bfno,'  that  once  existed  in English, has quite
     disappeared.  \'bfYea'  and  \'bfnay'  in Wyclif's time, and a good
     deal   later,   were   the  answers  to  questions  framed  in  the
     affirmative. \'bfWill he come?' To this it would have been replied,
     \'bfYea'  or  \'bfNay',  as the case might be. But, \'bfWill he not
     come?'  To this the answer would have been \'bfYes' or \'bfNo.' Sir
     Thomas  More  finds  fault with Tyndale, that in his translation of
     the Bible he had not observed this distinction, which was evidently
     therefore  going  out  even  then,  that  is, in the reign of Henry
     VIII.; and shortly after it was quite forgotten."



   Yest (?), n. See Yeast. Shak.


   Yes"ter  (?),  a. [See Yesterday.] Last; last past; next before; of or
   pertaining to yesterday.

     [An enemy] whom yester sun beheld Mustering her charms. Dryden.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd is  no w se ldom us ed ex cept in  a  fe w
     compounds; as, yesterday, yesternight, etc.


   Yes"ter*day  (?),  n.  [OE.  \'f4isterdai,  AS.  geostran d\'91g, from
   geostran,  geostra,  giestran, gistran, gystran, yesterday (akin to D.
   gisteren,   G.   gestern,   OHG.  gestaron,  Icel.  g\'91r  yesterday,
   to-morrow, Goth. gistradagis to-morrow, L. heri yesterday, Gr. hyas) +
   d\'91g day. Cf. Hestern.

   1. The day last past; the day next before the present.

     All our yesterdays have lighted fools The way to dusty death. Shak.

     We are but of yesterday, and know nothing. Job viii. 9.

   2. Fig.: A recent time; time not long past.

     The  proudest royal houses are but of yesterday, when compared with
     the line of supreme pontiffs. Macaulay.


   Yes"ter*day,  adv.  On the day last past; on the day preceding to-day;
   as, the affair took place yesterday.

                           Yestereve, Yester-evening

   Yes"ter*eve`  (?), Yes"ter-e`ven*ing (?), n. The evening of yesterday;
   the evening last past.

                          Yestermorn, Yester-morning

   Yes"ter*morn`  (?),  Yes"ter-morn`ing,  n.  The  morning of yesterday.


   Yes"tern (?), a. [See Yester.] Of or pertaining to yesterday; relating
   to the day last past.


   Yes"ter*night` (?), n. The last night; the night last past.


   Yes"ter*night`,  adv.  [AS.  gystran niht. See Yesterday.] On the last
   night. B. Jonson.


   Yes"ter*noon` (?), n. The noon of yesterday; the noon last past.


   Yes"ter*week` (?), n. The week last past; last week.


   Yes"ter*year` (?), n. The year last past; last year. <-- now also used
   to mean in olden days, not just last year. -->


   Yes`treen"  (?),  n.  Yester-evening;  yesternight; last night. [R. or

     Yestreen I did not know How largely I could live. Bp. Coxe.


   Yest"y (?), a. See Yeasty. Shak.


   Yet  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one of several species of large marine
   gastropods belonging to the genus Yetus, or Cymba; a boat shell.


   Yet, adv. [OE. yet, \'f4et, \'f4it, AS. git, gyt, giet, gieta; akin to
   OFries. ieta, eta, ita, MHG. iezuo, ieze, now, G. jetzo, jetzt.]

   1.  In  addition;  further;  besides; over and above; still. "A little
   longer; yet a little longer." Dryden.

     This  furnishes  us  with  yet one more reason why our savior, lays
     such a particular stress acts of mercy. Atterbury.

     The  rapine  is  made  yet  blacker  by  the  pretense of piety and
     justice. L'Estrange.

   2. At the same time; by continuance from a former state; still.

     Facts they had heard while they were yet heathens. Addison.

   3.  Up to the present time; thus far; hitherto; until now; -- and with
   the negative, not yet, not up to the present time; not as soon as now;
   as, Is it time to go? Not yet. See As yet, under As, conj.

     Ne never yet no villainy ne said. Chaucer.

   4.  Before  some future time; before the end; eventually; in time. "He
   'll be hanged yet." Shak.

   5. Even; -- used emphatically.

     Men  may not too rashly believe the confessions of witches, nor yet
     the evidence against them. Bacon.


   Yet (?), conj. Nevertheless; notwithstanding; however.

     Yet  I  say  unto  you,  That even Solomon in all his glory was not
     arrayed like one of these. Matt. vi. 29.

   Syn. -- See However.


   Yeve (?), v. i. To give. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yev"en (?), p. p. Given. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yew (?), v. i. See Yaw.


   Yew,  n. [OE. ew, AS. e\'a2w, \'c6w, eoh; akin to D. ijf, OHG. \'c6wa,
   \'c6ha,  G. eibe, Icel. ; cf. Ir. iubhar, Gael. iubhar, iughar, W. yw,
   ywen, Lith. j\'89va the black alder tree.]

   1.  (Bot.)  An evergreen tree (Taxus baccata) of Europe, allied to the
   pines,  but  having  a  peculiar berrylike fruit instead of a cone. It
   frequently grows in British churchyards.

   2.  The  wood  of  the  yew.  It  is  light  red  in  color,  compact,
   fine-grained,  and very elastic. It is preferred to all other kinds of
   wood  for bows and whipstocks, the best for these purposes coming from

     NOTE: &hand; The American yew (Taxus baccata, var. Canadensis) is a
     low and straggling or prostrate bush, never forming an erect trunk.
     The California yew (Taxus brevifolia) is a good-sized tree, and its
     wood  is  used  for bows, spear handles, paddles, and other similar
     implements.  Another yew is found in Florida, and there are species
     in Japan and the Himalayas.

   3. A bow for shooting, made of the yew.


   Yew  (&umac;), a. Of or pertaining to yew trees; made of the wood of a
   yew tree; as, a yew whipstock.


   Yew"en (?), a. Made of yew; as, yewen bows.


   Yex  (?),  v.  i.  [OE.  \'f4exen,  yesken,  AS.  giscian  to sob.] To
   hiccough. [Written also yox, yux.] [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

     He yexeth and he speaketh through the nose. Chaucer.


   Yex,  n.  [AS. geocsa a sobbing, hiccough. Cf. Yex, v. i.] A hiccough.
   [Written also yox, and yux.] [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] "The excessive yex."


   Yez`de*ger"di*an  (?; 277), a. Of or pertaining to Yezdegerd, the last
   Sassanian  monarch  of  Persia, who was overthrown by the Mohammedans;
   as,  the Yezdegerdian era, which began on the 16th of June, a. d. 632.
   The era is still used by the Parsees.


   Yez"di (?), n. Same as Izedi. Taylor.

                                Yezidee, Yezidi

   Yez"i*dee (?), Yez"i*di (?), n. Same as Izedi.


   Y*fere" (?), adv. Together. See Ifere. [Obs.]

     As friends do when they be met yfere. Chaucer.


   Yg"dra*syl (?), n. (Scand. Myth.) See in the Dictionary of Noted Names
   in Fiction.


   Y"ghe (?), n. Eye. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Y*go" (?), obs. p. p. of Go. Gone. Chaucer.


   Y*ground" (?), obs. p. p. of Grind. Chaucer.


   Y*hold"e (?), obs. p. p. of Hold. Chaucer.


   Yield  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yielded; obs. p. p. Yold (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Yielding.]  [OE.  yelden,  \'f4elden, \'f4ilden, AS. gieldan,
   gildan,  to  pay,  give,  restore,  make  an offering; akin to OFries.
   jelda,  OS.  geldan,  D.  gelden to cost, to be worth, G. gelten, OHG.
   geltan  to  pay,  restore, make an offering, be worth, Icel. gjalda to
   pay,  give  up,  Dan.  gielde  to  be worth, Sw. g\'84lla to be worth,
   g\'84lda  to  pay,  Goth. gildan in fragildan, usgildan. Cf. 1st Geld,

   1.  To  give  in  return for labor expended; to produce, as payment or
   interest  on  what  is  expended  or  invested;  to  pay; as, money at
   interest yields six or seven per cent.

     To yelde Jesu Christ his proper rent. Chaucer.

     When  thou  tillest  the ground, it shall not henceforth yield unto
     thee her strength. Gen. iv. 12.

   2.  To  furnish;  to  afford;  to  render; to give forth. "Vines yield
   nectar." Milton.

     [He] makes milch kine yield blood. Shak.

     The  wilderness  yieldeth food for them and for their children. Job
     xxiv. 5.

   3.  To give up, as something that is claimed or demanded; to make over
   to  one  who  has  a  claim  or  right;  to  resign;  to surrender; to
   relinquish; as a city, an opinion, etc.

     And, force perforce, I'll make him yield the crown. Shak.

     Shall yield up all their virtue, all their fame. Milton.

   4. To admit to be true; to concede; to allow.

     I yield it just, said Adam, and submit. Milton.

   5. To permit; to grant; as, to yield passage.

   6. To give a reward to; to bless. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Tend  me  to-night two hours, I ask no more, And the gods yield you
     for 't. Shak.

     God yield thee, and God thank ye. Beau. & Fl.

   To  yield  the  breath,  the ghost, OR the life, to die; to expire; --
   often followed by up.
     One calmly yields his willing breath. Keble.

   Yield, v. i.

   1. To give up the contest; to submit; to surrender; to succumb.

     He saw the fainting Grecians yield. Dryden.

   2. To comply with; to assent; as, I yielded to his request.

   3. To give way; to cease opposition; to be no longer a hindrance or an
   obstacle;  as,  men  readily  yield  to  the current of opinion, or to
   customs; the door yielded.

     Will ye relent, And yield to mercy while 't is offered you? Shak.

   4.  To  give  place,  as inferior in rank or excellence; as, they will
   yield to us in nothing.

     Nay  tell  me first, in what more happy fields The thistle springs,
     to which the lily yields? Pope.


   Yield  (?),  n.  Amount  yielded;  product;  --  applied especially to
   products  resulting  from  growth  or  cultivation. "A goodly yield of
   fruit doth bring." Bacon.


   Yield"a*ble   (?),   a.   Disposed   to   yield  or  comply.  [R.]  --
   Yield"a*ble*ness, n. [R.] Bp. Hall.


   Yield"ance (?), n.

   1.  The  act of producing; yield; as, the yieldance of the earth. [R.]
   Bp. Hall.

   2. The act of yielding; concession. [R.] South.


   Yield"er (?), n. One who yields. Shak.


   Yield"ing,  a.  Inclined  to give way, or comply; flexible; compliant;
   accommodating;  as,  a yielding temper. Yielding and paying (Law), the
   initial words of that clause in leases in which the rent to be paid by
   the  lessee  is  mentioned  and reserved. Burrill. Syn. -- Obsequious;
   attentive. -- Yielding, Obsequious, Attentive. In many cases a man may
   be attentive or yielding in a high degree without any sacrifice of his
   dignity; but he who is obsequious seeks to gain favor by excessive and
   mean  compliances  for  some  selfish  end.  --  Yield"ing*ly, adv. --
   Yield"ing*ness, n.


   Yield"less, a. Without yielding; unyielding. [Obs.]


   Yift (?), n. Gift. [Obs.] "Great yiftes." Chaucer.


   Yin (?), n. A Chinese weight of 2 pounds.

   Page 1676


   Yis (?), adv. Yes. [Obs.]

     "Yis, sir," quod he, "yis, host." Chaucer.


   Yit (?), conj. Yet. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yite (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European yellow-hammer.


   Yive (?), v. t. & i. To give. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   -yl (?). [Gr. (Chem.) A suffix used as a characteristic termination of
   chemical radicals; as in ethyl, carbonyl, hydroxyl, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; -y l was first used in 1832 by Liebig and W\'94hler in
     naming  benzoyl,  in  the  sense of stuff, or fundamental material,
     then in 1834 by Dumas and Peligot in naming methyl, in the sense of
     wood. After this -yl was generally used as in benzoyl, in the sense
     of stuff, characteristic ground, fundamental material.


   Yie (?), n. Isle. [Obs.] "The barren yle." Chaucer.

                                    Y level

   Y" lev`el (?). (Surv.) See under Y, n.

                                 Yliche, Ylike

   Y*liche"  (?),  Y*like"  (?), a. & adv. Like; alike. [Obs.] "All . . .
   yliche good." Chaucer.


   Yl`lan*ra*ton" (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zo\'94l.) The agouara.


   Y*mak"ed (?), obs. p. p. of Make. Made.


   Y*mel"  (?),  prep.  [OE.  ymel,  imelle,  of Scand. origin; cf. Icel.
   &imac;  milli,  &imac;  millum  (properly,  in the middle, fr. mi, me,
   middle,  akin  to  E.  middle), Dan. imellem, Sw. emellan. See In, and
   Middle.] Among. [Obs.] "Ymel them all." Chaucer.


   Y*nam"bu  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South  American tinamou (Rhynchotus
   rufescens);  --  called  also  perdiz  grande, and rufous tinamou. See
   Illust. of Tinamou.

                                 Ynough, Ynow

   Y*nough" (?), Y*now" (?), a. [See Enough.] Enough. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yock"el (?), n. [Cf. Yokel.] (Zo\'94l.) The yaffle.


   Yode  (?),  obs.  imp.  of Go. [OE. yode, yede, , , eode, AS. e\'a2de,
   used  as the imp. of g\'ben to go; akin to Goth. iddja I, he, went, L.
   ire  to  go,  Gr.  i, y\'be. Issue.] Went; walked; proceeded. [Written
   also yede.] See Yede.

     Quer [whether] they rade [rode] or yoke. Cursor Mundi.

     Then into Cornhill anon I yode. Lydgate.

                                 Yodel, Yodle

   Yo"del  (?),  Yo"dle (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Yodeled, Yodled; p.
   pr.  &  vb.  n.  Yodeling,  Yodling.] [G. jodeln.] To sing in a manner
   common among the Swiss and Tyrolese mountaineers, by suddenly changing
   from  the  head  voice,  or  falsetto,  to  the  chest  voice, and the
   contrary; to warble.

                                 Yodel, Yodle

   Yo"del,  Yo"dle,  n.  A  song  sung  by  yodeling,  as  by  the  Swiss


   Yo"dler (?), n. One who yodels.


   Yo"ga  (?), n. [Skr. y\'d3ga union.] A species of asceticism among the
   Hindoos,  which  consists  in  a complete abstraction from all worldly
   objects,  by  which  the  votary  expects  to  obtain  union  with the
   universal spirit, and to acquire superhuman faculties.


   Yo"gi  (?),  n. [Skr. y\'d3gin.] A follower of the yoga philosophy; an
   ascetic. [Spelt also yokin.] Whitworth.


   Yo"icks (?), interj. (Hunting) A cry of encouragement to foxhounds.


   Yoit (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European yellow-hammer. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yo"jan  (?),  n. [Skr. y.] A measure of distance, varying from four to
   ten miles, but usually about five. [India] [Written also yojana.]


   Yoke  (?), n. [OE. yok, , AS. geoc; akin to D. juk, OHG. joh, G. joch,
   Icel.  &  Sw.  ok,  Dan.  aag,  Goth. juk, Lith. jungas, Russ. igo, L.
   jugum,  Gr.  yuga,  and  to  L. jungere to join, Gr. yui. Join, Jougs,
   Joust, Jugular, Subjugate, Syzycy, Yuga, Zeugma.]

   1. A bar or frame of wood by which two oxen are joined at the heads or
   necks for working together.

     A yearling bullock to thy name shall smoke, Untamed, unconscious of
     the galling yoke. Pope.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e modern yoke for oxen is usually a piece of timber
     hollowed,  or made curving, near each end, and laid on the necks of
     the  oxen,  being  secured in place by two bows, one inclosing each
     neck,  and  fastened through the timber. In some countries the yoke
     consists  of  a flat piece of wood fastened to the foreheads of the
     oxen by thongs about the horns.

   2.  A  frame  or  piece  resembling  a  yoke,  as  in  use  or  shape.
   Specifically:  (a)  A frame of wood fitted to a person's shoulders for
   carrying  pails,  etc., suspended on each side; as, a milkmaid's yoke.
   (b)  A  frame worn on the neck of an animal, as a cow, a pig, a goose,
   to  prevent  passage  through  a fence. (c) A frame or convex piece by
   which  a  bell  is  hung  for  ringing  it. See Illust. of Bell. (d) A
   crosspiece  upon  the  head  of a boat's rudder. To its ends lines are
   attached  which  lead  forward  so  that  the boat can be steered from
   amidships.  (e)  (Mach.) A bent crosspiece connecting two other parts.
   (f)  (Arch.) A tie securing two timbers together, not used for part of
   a  regular  truss,  but  serving  a  temporary  purpose, as to provide
   against  unusual  strain.  (g)  (Dressmaking) A band shaped to fit the
   shoulders  or the hips, and joined to the upper full edge of the waist
   or the skirt.

   3.  Fig.:  That  which  connects  or  binds;  a  chain; a link; a bond

     Boweth  your  neck  under  that  blissful yoke . . . Which that men
     clepeth spousal or wedlock. Chaucer.

     This yoke of marriage from us both remove. Dryden.

   4. A mark of servitude; hence, servitude; slavery; bondage; service.

     Our country sinks beneath the yoke. Shak.

     My yoke is easy, and my burden is light. Matt. xi. 30.

   5. Two animals yoked together; a couple; a pair that work together.

     I  have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them. Luke xiv.

   6.  The  quantity  of  land  plowed in a day by a yoke of oxen. [Obs.]

   7.  A  portion  of the working day; as, to work two yokes, that is, to
   work  both portions of the day, or morning and afternoon. [Prov. Eng.]
   Neck  yoke, Pig yoke. See under Neck, and Pig. -- Yoke elm (Bot.), the
   European  hornbeam  (Carpinus  Betulus), a small tree with tough white
   wood, often used for making yokes for cattle.


   Yoke (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yoked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Yoking.]

   1.  To  put a yoke on; to join in or with a yoke; as, to yoke oxen, or
   pair of oxen.

   2.  To  couple;  to join with another. "Be ye not unequally yoked with
   unbelievers." 2 Cor. vi. 14.

     Cassius, you are yoked with a lamb. Shak.

   3. To enslave; to bring into bondage; to restrain; to confine.

     Then were they yoked with garrisons. Milton.

     The  words  and promises that yoke The conqueror are quickly broke.


   Yoke, v. i. To be joined or associated; to be intimately connected; to
   consort closely; to mate.

     We 'll yoke together, like a double shadow. Shak.


   Yoke"age (?), n. See Rokeage. [Local, U. S.]


   Yoke"fel`low (?), n. [Yoke + fellow.] An associate or companion in, or
   as  in; a mate; a fellow; especially, a partner in marriage. Phil. iv.

     The  two  languages  [English  and  French] became yokefellows in a
     still more intimate manner. Earle.

     Those who have most distinguished themselves by railing at the sex,
     very  often  choose  one  of the most worthless for a companion and
     yokefellow. Addison.


   Yo"kel  (?),  n. [Perhaps from an AS. word akin to E. gawk.] A country
   bumpkin. [Eng.] Dickens.


   Yoke"let  (?), n. A small farm; -- so called as requiring but one yoke
   of oxen to till it. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yoke"mate` (?), n. Same as Yokefellow.


   Yoke"-toed`  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  two  toes  in front and two
   behind, as the trogons and woodpeckers.


   Yold (?), obs. p. p. of Yield. Yielded. Spenser.


   Yold"en (?), obs. p. p. of Yield. Yielded.


   Yolk  (?; 277), n. [OE. yolke, yelke, \'f4olke, \'f4elke, AS. geoloca,
   geoleca, fr. geolu yellow. See Yellow.] [Written also yelk.]

   1. The yellow part of an egg; the vitellus.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  oily  secretion which naturally covers the wool of
   Yolk  cord  (Zo\'94l.), a slender cord or duct which connects the yolk
   glands  with the egg chambers in certain insects, as in the aphids. --
   Yolk  gland (Zo\'94l.), a special organ which secretes the yolk of the
   eggs  in  many  turbellarians,  and  in  some other invertebrates. See
   Illust.  of  Hermaphrodite  in  Appendix.  --  Yolk  sack (Anat.), the
   umbilical vesicle. See under Unbilical.


   Yoll (?), v. i. To yell. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yon  (?),  a.  [OE. yon, , AS. geon; akin to G. jener, OHG. jen, Icel.
   enn,  inn;  cf. Goth. jains. Beyond, Yond, Yonder.] At a distance, but
   within view; yonder. [Poetic]

     Read thy lot in yon celestial sign. Milton.

     Though fast yon shower be fleeting. Keble.


   Yon, adv. Yonder. [Obs. or Poetic]

     But,  first  and  chiefest,  with  thee bring Him that yon soars on
     golden wing. Milton.


   Yon"co*pin   (?),  n.  [Perhaps  corrupted  from  Illinois  micoupena,
   Chippewa makopin, the American lotus.] (Bot.) A local name in parts of
   the Mississippi Valley for the American lotus (Nelumbo lutea).


   Yond (?), a. [Cf. AS. anda, onda, anger, andian to be angry.] Furious;
   mad; angry; fierce. [Obs.] "Then wexeth wood and yond." Spenser.


   Yond,  adv.  & a. [OE. yond, \'f4ond, \'f4eond, through, beyond, over,
   AS.  geond, adv. & prep.; cf. Goth. jaind thither. &root;188. See Yon,
   a.] Yonder. [Obs.] "Yond in the garden." Chaucer.


   Yon"der (?), adv. [OE. yonder, \'f4onder; cf. OD. ginder, Goth. jaindr
   there. Yond, adv.] At a distance, but within view.

     Yonder are two apple women scolding. Arbuthnot.


   Yon"der, a. Being at a distance within view, or conceived of as within
   view;  that  or  those  there; yon. "Yon flowery arbors, yonder alleys
   green." Milton. "Yonder sea of light." Keble.

     Yonder men are too many for an embassage. Bacon.


   Yo"ni  (?),  n. [Skr. y.] (Hindoo Myth.) The symbol under which Sakti,
   or  the  personification  of the female power in nature, is worshiped.
   Cf. Lingam.


   Yon"ker  (?),  n.  [See  Younker.] A young fellow; a younker. [Obs. or
   Colloq.] Sir W. Scott.


   Yore  (?), adv. [OE. , yare, , AS. ge\'a0ra;akin to ge\'a0r a year, E.
   year.  Year.]  In  time  long  past; in old time; long since. [Obs. or

     As it hath been of olde times yore. Chaucer.

     Which  though  he  hath  polluted  oft  and yore, Yet I to them for
     judgment just do fly. Spenser.

   Of  yore,  of  old  time; long ago; as, in times or days of yore. "But
   Satan now is wiser than of yore." Pope.
     Where Abraham fed his flock of yore. Keble.
   York"er (?), n. (Cricket) A tice.
   York"shire (?), n. A county in the north of England. Yorkshire grit, a
   kind  of  stone  used  for  polishing  marble,  and  copperplates  for
   engravers.  Simmonds.  --  Yorkshire  pudding,  a batter pudding baked
   under meat.

                                   York use

   York"  use`  (?). (Eccl.) The one of the three printed uses of England
   which  was  followed  in the north. It was based on the Sarum use. See
   Use, n., 6. Shipley.


   Yot (?), v. t. To unite closely. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yote  (?),  v. t. [OE. , , to pour, AS. ge\'a2tan. See Found to cast.]
   To pour water on; to soak in, or mix with, water. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

     My  fowls,  which well enough, I, as before, found feeding at their
     trough Their yoted wheat. Chapman.


   You  (?),  pron. [Possess. Your (?) or Yours (; dat. & obj. You.] [OE.
   you,  eou, eow, dat. & acc., AS. e\'a2w, used as dat. & acc. of ge, g,
   ye; akin to OFries. iu, io, D. u, G. euch, OHG. iu, dat., iuwih, acc.,
   Icel. y, dat. & acc., Goth. izwis; of uncertain origin. &root;189. Cf.
   Your.]  The  pronoun  of the second person, in the nominative, dative,
   and  objective  case,  indicating the person or persons addressed. See
   the Note under Ye.

     Ye go to Canterbury; God you speed. Chaucer.

     Good sir, I do in friendship counsel you To leave this place. Shak.

     In  vain  you  tell your parting lover You wish fair winds may waft
     him over. Prior.

     NOTE: &hand; Though you is properly a plural, it is in all ordinary
     discourse  used  also  in  addressing a single person, yet properly
     always with a plural verb. "Are you he that hangs the verses on the
     trees,  wherein  Rosalind  is  so admired ?" Shak. You and your are
     sometimes used indefinitely, like we, they, one, to express persons
     not specified. "The looks at a distance like a new-plowed land; but
     as  you  come  near  it,  you see nothing but a long heap of heavy,
     disjointed  clods."  Addison.  "Your  medalist  and critic are much
     nearer  related  than  the  world  imagine." Addison. "It is always
     pleasant  to  be  forced to do what you wish to do, but what, until
     pressed, you dare not attempt." Hook. You is often used reflexively
     for  yourself of yourselves. "Your highness shall repose you at the
     tower." Shak.


   Youl (?), v. i. To yell; to yowl. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Young  (?), a. [Compar. Younger (?); superl. Youngest (?).] [OE. yung,
   yong,  , , AS. geong; akin to OFries. iung, iong, D. joing, OS., OHG.,
   &  G.  jung,  Icel.  ungr,  Sw. & Dan. ung, Goth. juggs, Lith. jaunas,
   Russ. iunuii, L. juvencus, juvenis, Skr. juva, juven. Junior, Juniper,
   Juvenile, Younker, Youth.]

   1.  Not long born; still in the first part of life; not yet arrived at
   adolescence,  maturity, or age; not old; juvenile; -- said of animals;
   as, a young child; a young man; a young fawn.

     For he so young and tender was of age. Chaucer.

     "Whom the gods love, die young," has been too long carelessly said;
     . . . whom the gods love, live young forever. Mrs. H. H. Jackson.

   2. Being in the first part, pr period, of growth; as, a young plant; a
   young tree.

     While the fears of the people were young. De Foe.

   3.  Having  little  experience;  inexperienced; unpracticed; ignorant;

     Come, come, elder brother, you are too young in this. Shak.


   Young,  n.  The  offspring  of  animals,  either  a  single  animal or
   offspring collectively.

     [The  egg]  bursting  with  kindly  rupture,  forth disclosed Their
     callow young. Milton.

   With young, with child; pregnant.


   Young"ger  (?),  n.  One who is younger; an inferior in age; a junior.
   "The elder shall serve the younger." Rom. ix. 12.


   Young"ish (?), a. Somewhat young. Tatler.


   Young"ling (?), n. [AS. geongling.] A young person; a youth; also, any
   animal  in  its  early life. "More dear . . . than younglings to their
   dam." Spenser.

     He  will  not  be  so willing, I think, to join with you as with us
     younglings. Ridley.


   Young"ling, a. Young; youthful. Wordsworth.


   Young"ly,  a.  [AS.  geonglic.]  Like  a young person or thing; young;
   youthful. [Obs.] Shak.


   Young"ly, adv.

   1.  In  a  young manner; in the period of youth; early in life. [Obs.]

   2. Ignorantly; weakly. [R.]


   Young"ness, n. The quality or state of being young.


   Young"ster  (?),  n. A young person; a youngling; a lad. [Colloq.] "He
   felt  himself  quite  a  youngster,  with  a long life before him." G.


   Youngth (?), n. Youth. [Obs.]

     Youngth is a bubble blown up with breath. Spenser.


   Youngth"ly,  a.  Pertaining to, or resembling, youth; youthful. [Obs.]


   Youn"ker  (?),  n. [D. jonker, jonkeer; jong young + heer a lord, sir,
   gentleman. See Young, a.] A young person; a stripling; a yonker. [Obs.
   or Colloq.]

     That same younker soon was overthrown. Spenser.


   You"pon (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Yaupon.


   Your  (?),  pron.  &  a.  [OE.  your,  ,  eowr,  eower,  AS. e\'a2wer,
   originally  used  as  the gen. of ge, g\'c7, ye; akin to OFries. iuwer
   your,  OS.  iuwar, D. uw, OHG. iuw\'c7r, G. euer, Icel. y\'ebar, Goth.
   izwara,  izwar,  and  E.  you.  \'fb189.  See  You.]  The  form of the
   possessive case of the personal pronoun you.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e po ssessive takes the form yours when the noun to
     which  it  refers  is  not expressed, but implied; as, this book is
     yours. "An old fellow of yours."



   ours (?), pron. See the Note under Your.


   Your*self"   (?),  pron.;  pl.  Yourselves  (#).  [Your  +  self.]  An
   emphasized  or  reflexive form of the pronoun of the second person; --
   used  as  a  subject commonly with you; as, you yourself shall see it;
   also,  alone  in  the predicate, either in the nominative or objective
   case; as, you have injured yourself.

     Of which right now ye han yourselve heard. Chaucer.

     If yourselves are old, make it your cause. Shak.

     Why should you be so cruel to yourself ? Milton.

     The  religious  movement  which  you  yourself,  as  well  as I, so
     faithfully followed from first to last. J. H. Newman.


   Youth  (&umac;th),  n.;  pl.  Youths  (&umac;ths; 264) or collectively
   Youth.    [OE.    youthe,    youhe,    \'f4uhe\'ebe,    \'f4uwe\'ebe,
   \'f4eo\'f4e\'ebe,  AS.  geogu\'eb,  geogo\'eb; akin to OS. jug\'eb, D.
   jeugd, OHG. jugund, G. jugend, Goth. junda. \'fb281. See Young.]

   1.  The quality or state of being young; youthfulness; juvenility. "In
   my flower of youth." Milton.

     Such as in his face Youth smiled celestial. Milton.

   2.  The  part  of  life  that  succeeds  to  childhood;  the period of
   existence  preceding  maturity  or  age; the whole early part of life,
   from childhood, or, sometimes, from infancy, to manhood.

     He  wondered that your lordship Would suffer him to spend his youth
     at home. Shak.

     Those  who  pass  their youth in vice are justly condemned to spend
     their age in folly. Rambler.

   3. A young person; especially, a young man.

     Seven youths from Athens yearly sent. Dryden.

   4. Young persons, collectively.

     It is fit to read the best authors to youth first. B. Jonson.

   Page 1677


   Youth"ful (?), a.

   1. Not yet mature or aged; young. "Two youthful knights." Dryden. Also
   used figuratively. "The youthful season of the year." Shak.

   2. Of or pertaining to the early part of life; suitable to early life;
   as,  youthful  days;  youthful  sports.  "Warm, youthful blood." Shak.
   "Youthful thoughts." Milton.

   3. Fresh; vigorous, as in youth.

     After  millions  of  millions  of  ages  .  .  . still youthful and
     flourishing. Bentley.

   Syn.  -- Puerile; juvenile. -- Youthful, Puerile, Juvenile. Puerile is
   always  used  in  a  bad  sense,  or  at least in the sense of what is
   suitable  to  a  boy only; as, puerile objections, puerile amusements,
   etc.  Juvenile  is sometimes taken in a bad sense, as when speaking of
   youth  in  contrast  with  manhood;  as,  juvenile  tricks; a juvenile
   performance.  Youthful  is  commonly  employed  in  a  good sense; as,
   youthful  aspirations; or at least by way of extenuating; as, youthful
   indiscretions. "Some men, imagining themselves possessed with a divine
   fury,  often  fall into toys and trifles, which are only puerilities."
   Dryden.  "Raw, juvenile writers imagine that, by pouring forth figures
   often,  they  render  their compositions warm and animated." Blair. --
   Youth"ful*ly, adv. -- Youth"ful*ness, n.


   Youth"hood  (?),  n. [AS. geogu&edh;h\'bed. See Youth, and -hood.] The
   quality or state of being a youth; the period of youth. Cheyne.


   Youth"ly,  a.  [AS.  geogu&edh;lic.]  Young;  youthful. [Obs.] "All my
   youthly days." Spenser.


   Youth"some (?), a. Youthful. [Obs.] Pepys.


   Youth"y (?), a. Young. [Obs.] Spectator.


   Youze  (?),  n.  [From  a  native  East  Indian  name.] (Zo\'94l.) The


   Yow (?), pron. You. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Yowe  (?),  n.  [See  Ewe.]  (Zo\'94l.) A ewe. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] G.


   Yowl  (?), v. i. [See Yawl, v. i.] To utter a loud, long, and mournful
   cry, as a dog; to howl; to yell.


   Yowl,  n.  A  loud,  protracted, and mournful cry, as that of a dog; a


   Yow"ley  (?),  n. [Cf. Yellow.] (Zo\'94l.) The European yellow-hammer.
   [Prov. Eng.]


   Yox (?), v. i. See Yex. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Y*pight" (?), obs. p. p. of Pitch. See Pight.


   Yp"o*cras (?), n. Hippocras. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                  Ypres lace

   Y"pres  lace`  (?). Fine bobbin lace made at Ypres in Belgium, usually
   exactly like Valenciennes lace.


   Yp*sil"i*form (?), a. [Gr. -form.] (Biol.) Resembling the


   Yp"si*loid (?), a. (Anat.) In the form of the letter Y; Y-shaped.


   Y*raft" (?), obs. p. p. of Reave. Bereft. Chaucer.


   Yr"en (?), n. Iron. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Y*ron"ne (?), obs. p. p. of Run. Run. Chaucer.


   Y*same" (?), adv. [See Same.] Together. [Obs.] "And in a bag all sorts
   of seeds ysame." Spenser.

                                    Yt, Yt

   Yt,  Yt  (&th;&acr;t),  an  old  method  of printing that (AS. \'91t,
   &edh;\'91t)  the  "y"  taking the place of the old letter "thorn" ().
   Cf. Ye, the.


   Y*throwe" (?), obs. p. p. of Throw. Chaucer.


   Yt*ter"bic  (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, ytterbium;
   containing ytterbium.


   Yt*ter"bi*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Ytterby,  in  Sweden. See Erbium.]
   (Chem.)  A  rare element of the boron group, sometimes associated with
   yttrium  or  other  related  elements,  as in euxenite and gadolinite.
   Symbol Yb; provisional atomic weight 173.2. Cf. Yttrium.

     NOTE: &hand; Yt terbium is associated with other rare elements, and
     probably has not been prepared in a pure state.

   <-- purified before 1960 -->


   Yt"tri*a (?), n. [NL. See Yttrium.] (Chem.) The oxide, Y2O3, or earth,
   of yttrium.


   Yt"tric  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing,


   Yt*trif"er*ous  (?),  a.  Bearing  or containing yttrium or the allied
   elements; as, gadolinite is one of the yttriferous minerals.


   Yt"tri*ous (?), a. (Chem.) Same as Yttric.


   Yt"tri*um  (?), n. [NL., from Ytterby, in Sweden. See Erbium.] (Chem.)
   A  rare  metallic  element  of  the  boron-aluminium  group,  found in
   gadolinite  and  other  rare  minerals,  and  extracted as a dark gray
   powder. Symbol Y. Atomic weight, 89. [Written also ittrium.]

     NOTE: &hand; As sociated with yttrium are certain rare elements, as
     erbium,  ytterbium,  samarium,  etc., which are separated in a pure
     state  with  great  difficulty.  They are studied by means of their
     spark  or  phosphorescent  spectra.  Yttrium  is  now  regarded  as
     probably  not  a  simple  element,  but  as  a  mixture  of several

   <-- yttrium has been isolated as a pure element. -->


   Yt`tro-ce"rite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A  mineral  of  a violet-blue color,
   inclining  to  gray  and  white.  It  is a hydrous fluoride of cerium,
   yttrium, and calcium.

                       Yttro-columbite, Yttro-tantalite

   Yt`tro-co*lum"bite  (?), Yt`tro-tan"ta*lite (?), n. (Min.) A tantalate
   of uranium, yttrium, and calcium, of a brown or black color.


   Yu (?), n. [Chin.] (Min.) Jade.


   Yuc"ca (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Flicker, n., 2.


   Yuc"ca  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from Yuca, its name in St. Domingo.] (Bot.) A
   genus  of  American  liliaceous,  sometimes arborescent, plants having
   long,  pointed,  and  often rigid, leaves at the top of a more or less
   woody stem, and bearing a large panicle of showy white blossoms.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e sp  ecies wi th mo re ri gid le aves (a s Yu cca
     aloifolia,  Y.  Treculiana,  and  Y.  baccata)  are  called Spanish
     bayonet, and one with softer leaves (Y. filamentosa) is called bear
     grass, and Adam's needle.

   Yucca moth (Zo\'94l.), a small silvery moth (Pronuba yuccasella) whose
   larv\'91 feed on plants of the genus Yucca.


   Yuck  (?), v. i. [Cf. G. jucken, D. yeuken, joken. See Itch.] To itch.
   [Prov. Eng.] Grose.


   Yuck, v. t. To scratch. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.


   Yuck"el (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Yockel.


   Yu"en  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  crowned gibbon (Hylobates pileatus),
   native  of  Siam,  Southern  China,  and  the  Island of Hainan. It is
   entirely arboreal in its habits, and has very long arms. the males are
   dark  brown  or  blackish,  with a caplike mass of long dark hair, and
   usually  with  a white band around the face. The females are yellowish
   white, with a dark spot on the breast and another on the crown. Called
   also wooyen, and wooyen ape.


   Yufts (?), n. [Russ. iufte.] Russia leather.

                                   Yug, Yuga

   Yug  (?),  Yu"ga (?), n. [Skr. yuga an age, a yoke. See Yoke.] (Hindoo
   Cosmog.)  Any  one  of the four ages, Krita, or Satya, Treta, Dwapara,
   and  Kali,  into which the Hindoos divide the duration or existence of
   the world.


   Yuke (?), v. i. & t. Same as Yuck. [Prov. Eng.]


   Yu"lan  (?), n. (Bot.) A species of Magnolia (M. conspicua) with large
   white  blossoms  that  open  before  the  leaves.  See  the Note under


   Yule  (?), n. [OE. yol, \'f4ol, AS. ge\'a2l; akin to ge\'a2la December
   or  January,  Icel.  j\'d3l Yule, Ylir the name of a winter month, Sw.
   jul  Christmas,  Dan.  juul,  Goth.  jiuleis November or December. Cf.
   Jolly.]  Christmas  or Christmastide; the feast of the Nativity of our

     And  at each pause they kiss; was never seen such rule In any place
     but here, at bonfire, or at Yule. Drayton.

   Yule  block,  OR  Yule  log,  a  large log of wood formerly put on the
   hearth of Christmas eve, as the foundation of the fire. It was brought
   in  with  much  ceremony.  --  Yule  clog, the yule log. Halliwell. W.


   Yule"tide`  (?),  n.  Christmas  time;  Christmastide;  the  season of


   Yu"mas  (?), n. pl.; sing. Yuma (. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians native
   of  Arizona  and the adjacent parts of Mexico and California. They are
   agricultural, and cultivate corn, wheat, barley, melons, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e a  wi der se nse, the term sometimes includes the
     Mohaves and other allied tribes.


   Yunx  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of birds comprising the


   Yu"pon (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Yaupon.


   Yux (?), n. & v. See Yex, n. [Obs.]


   Y"vel (?), a. & adv. Evil; ill. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Y*war"  (?), a. [See Aware.] Aware; wary. [Obs.] "Be ywar, and his way
   shun." Piers Plowman.


   Y*wis" (?), adv. [OE. ywis, iwis, AS. gewis certain; akin to D. gewis,
   G.  gewiss,  and  E. wit to know. See Wit to know, and Y-.] Certainly;
   most likely; truly; probably. [Obs. or Archaic]

     "Ywis," quod he, "it is full dear, I say." Chaucer.

     She  answered  me,  "I-wisse,  all their sport in the park is but a
     shadow to that pleasure that I find in Plato." Ascham.

     A right good knight, and true of word ywis. Spenser.

     NOTE: &hand; The common form iwis was often written with the prefix
     apart  from  the  rest  of  the  word and capitalized, as, I wis, I
     wisse,  etc.  The  prefix  was mistaken for the pronoun, I and wis,
     wisse, for a form of the verb wit to know. See Wis, and cf. Wit, to

     Our ship, I wis, Shall be of another form than this. Longfellow.