Unabridged Dictionary - Letter P

Etext from the Gutenberg project, formatted by r0k
Back to contents
View © info
View fine print

   Pack  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Packed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Packing.]
   [Akin to D. pakken, G. packen, Dan. pakke, Sw. packa, Icel. pakka. See
   Pack, n.]

   1.  To  make  a  pack  of;  to arrange closely and securely in a pack;
   hence,  to  place  and  arrange  compactly as in a pack; to press into
   close  order  or  narrow  compass;  as to pack goods in a box; to pack

     Strange materials packed up with wonderful art. Addison.

     Where . . . the bones Of all my buried ancestors are packed. Shak.

   2.  To  fill in the manner of a pack, that is, compactly and securely,
   as for transportation; hence, to fill closely or to repletion; to stow
   away  within; to cause to be full; to crowd into; as, to pack a trunk;
   the play, or the audience, packs the theater.

   3.  To sort and arrange (the cards) in a pack so as to secure the game

     And mighty dukes pack cards for half a crown. Pope.

   4.  Hence:  To bring together or make up unfairly and fraudulently, in
   order to secure a certain result; as, to pack a jury or a causes.

     The  expected council was dwindling into . . . a packed assembly of
     Italian bishops. Atterbury.

   5. To contrive unfairly or fraudulently; to plot. [Obs.]

     He  lost  life . . . upon a nice point subtilely devised and packed
     by his enemies. Fuller.

   6.  To  load  with  a pack; hence, to load; to encumber; as, to pack a

     Our thighs packed with wax, our mouths with honey. Shack.

   7.  To  cause to go; to send away with baggage or belongings; esp., to
   send away peremptorily or suddenly; -- sometimes with off; as, to pack
   a boy off to school.

     He . . . must not die

     Till George be packed with post horse up to heaven. Shak.

     8.  To  transport  in a pack, or in the manner of a pack (i. e., on
     the backs of men or beasts). [Western U.S.]

     9.  (Hydropathy)  To envelop in a wet or dry sheet, within numerous
     coverings. See Pack, n., 5.

     10. (Mech.) To render impervious, as by filling or surrounding with
     suitable material, or to fit or adjust so as to move without giving
     passage  to  air, water, or steam; as, to pack a joint; to pack the
     piston of a steam engine.


     Pack, v. i.

     1.  To  make up packs, bales, or bundles; to stow articles securely
     for transportation.

     2.  To  admit  of  stowage,  or  of making up for transportation or
     storage;  to become compressed or to settle together, so as to form
     a  compact  mass;  as,  the goods pack conveniently; wet snow packs

     3.  To  gather  in  flocks  or schools; as, the grouse or the perch
     begin to pack. [Eng.]

     4. To depart in haste; -- generally with off or away.

     Poor Stella must pack off to town Swift.

     You shall pack, And never more darken my doors again. Tennyson.

     5.  To  unite  in bad measures; to confederate for ill purposes; to
     join in collusion. [Obs.] "Go pack with him." Shak.

   To send packing, to drive away; to send off roughly or in disgrace; to
   dismiss  unceremoniously.  "The  parliament  .  . . presently sent him
   packing. South.
   Pack"age (?), n.
   1. Act or process of packing.
   2.  A  bundle  made up for transportation; a packet; a bale; a parcel;
   as, a package of goods.
   3. A charge made for packing goods.

   4.  A duty formerly charged in the port of London on goods imported or
   exported by aliens, or by denizens who were the sons of aliens.


   Pack"er (?), n. A person whose business is to pack things; especially,
   one who packs food for preservation; as, a pork packer.


   Pack"et  (?), n. [F. paquet, dim. fr. LL. paccus, from the same source
   as E. pack. See Pack.]

   1. A small pack or package; a little bundle or parcel; as, a packet of
   letters. Shak.

   2. Originally, a vessel employed by government to convey dispatches or
   mails;  hence,  a  vessel  employed  in  conveying  dispatches, mails,
   passengers, and goods, and having fixed days of sailing; a mail boat.
   Packet  boat,  ship,  OR vessel. See Packet, n., 2. -- Packet day, the
   day for mailing letters to go by packet; or the sailing day. -- Packet
   note OR post. See under Paper.


   Pack"et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Packeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Packeting.]

   1. To make up into a packet or bundle.

   2. To send in a packet or dispatch vessel.

     Her husband Was packeted to France. Ford.


   Pack"et, v. i. To ply with a packet or dispatch boat.


   Pack"fong`  (?),  n.  [Chin.  peh  tung.]  (Metal.) A Chinese alloy of
   nickel, zinc, and copper, resembling German silver.

                                  Pack herse

   Pack herse. See under 2d Pack.


   Pack"house` (?), n. Warehouse for storing goods.


   Pack"ing, n.

   1. The act or process of one who packs.

   2.  Any  material  used  to pack, fill up, or make close. Specifically
   (Mach.): A substance or piece used to make a joint impervious; as: (a)
   A  thin  layer,  or  sheet,  of  yielding or elastic material inserted
   between  the  surfaces  of  a  flange  joint.  (b)  The substance in a
   stuffing  box, through which a piston rod slides. (c) A yielding ring,
   as  of  metal,  which surrounds a piston and maintains a tight fit, as
   inside a cylinder, etc.

   3. (Masonry) Same as Filling. [Rare in the U. S.]

   4. A trick; collusion. [Obs.] Bale.
   Cherd  packing  (Bridge  Building),  the arrangement, side by side, of
   several  parts,  as  bars,  diagonals,  a  post, etc., on a pin at the
   bottom  of a chord. Waddell. -- Packing box, a stuffing box. See under
   Stuffing.  -- Packing press, a powerful press for baling cotton, wool,
   hay,  etc. -- Packing ring. See Packing, 2 (c), and Illust. of Piston.
   --  Packing  sheet.  (a)  A large cloth for packing goods. (b) A sheet
   prepared for packing hydropathic patients.


   Pack"man (?), n.; pl. Packmen (. One who bears a pack; a peddler.

                           Pack saddle, Pack thread

   Pack saddle, Pack thread. See under 2d Pack.


   Pack"wax` (?), n. (Anat.) Same as Paxwax.


   Pack"way` (?), n. A path, as over mountains, followed by pack animals.

                                  Paco, Pacos

   Pa"co (?), Pa"cos (?), n. [Sp. paco, fr. Peruv. paco. Cf. Alpaca.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Alpaca.

   2.  [Peruv.  paco,  pacu, red, reddish, reddish ore containing silver;
   perh.  a  different word.] (Min.) An earthy-looking ore, consisting of
   brown oxide of iron with minute particles of native silver. Ure.


   Pact  (?), n. [L. pactum, fr. paciscere to make a bargain or contract,
   fr.  pacere  to  settle,  or  agree  upon;  cf. pangere to fasten, Gr.
   p\'beca  bond,  and  E.  fang:  cf. F. pacie. Cf. Peace, Fadge, v.] An
   agreement; a league; a compact; a covenant. Bacon.

     The  engagement  and  pact of society whish goes by the name of the
     constitution. Burke.


   Pac"tion  (?), n. [L. pactio: cf. F. paction. See Pact.] An agreement;
   a compact; a bargain. [R.] Sir W. Scott.


   Pac"tion*al  (?),  a. Of the nature of, or by means of, a paction. Bp.


   Pac*ti"tious  (?),  a. [L. pactitius, pacticius.] Setted by a pact, or
   agreement. [R.] Johnson.


   Pac*to"li*an  (?),  a.  Pertaining to the Pactolus, a river in ancient
   Lydia famous for its golden sands.


   Pa"cu  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A South American freah-water fish (Myleies
   pacu), of the family Characinid\'91. It is highly esteemed as food.


   Pad (?), n. [D. pad. &root;21. See Path.]

   1. A footpath; a road. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

   2. An easy-paced horse; a padnag. Addison

     An abbot on an ambling pad. Tennyson.

   3.  A  robber  that infests the road on foot; a highwayman; -- usually
   called a footpad. Gay. Byron.

   4. The act of robbing on the highway. [Obs.]


   Pad, v. t. To travel upon foot; to tread. [Obs.]

     Padding the streets for half a crown. Somerville.


   Pad, v. i.

   1. To travel heavily or slowly. Bunyan.

   2. To rob on foot. [Obs.] Cotton Mather.

   3. To wear a path by walking. [Prov. Eng.]


   Pad, n. [Perh. akin to pod.]

   1. A soft, or small, cushion; a mass of anything soft; stuffing.

   2.  A  kind  of  cushion  for writing upon, or for blotting; esp., one
   formed  of  many  flat  sheets of writing paper, or layers of blotting
   paper; a block of paper.

   3. A cushion used as a saddle without a tree or frame.

   4. A stuffed guard or protection; esp., one worn on the legs of horses
   to prevent bruising.

   5.  (Zo\'94l.) A cushionlike thickening of the skin one the under side
   of the toes of animals.

   6. A floating leaf of a water lily or similar plant.

   7.  (Med.)  A soft bag or cushion to relieve pressure, support a part,

   8.  (Naut.)  A piece of timber fixed on a beam to fit the curve of the
   deck. W. C. Russel.

   9.  A  measure  for  fish; as, sixty mackerel go to a pad; a basket of
   soles. [Eng.] Simmonds.
   Pad cloth, a saddlecloth; a housing. -- Pad saddle. See def. 3, above.
   --  Pad  tree  (Harness  Making), a piece of wood or metal which gives
   rigidity and shape to a harness pad. Knight.


   Pad, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Padded; p. pr. & vb. n. Padding.]

   1. To stuff; to furnish with a pad or padding.

   2.  (Calico  Printing)  To  imbue uniformly with a mordant; as, to pad
   cloth. Ure.


   Pad"ar  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  Groats; coarse flour or meal.
   [Obs.] Sir. H. Wotton.


   Pad"der (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, pads.

   2. A highwayman; a footpad. [Obs.]


   Pad"ding, n.

   1. The act or process of making a pad or of inserting stuffing.

   2. The material with which anything is padded.

   3.  Material  of inferior value, serving to extend a book, essay, etc.
   London Sat. Rev.

   4. (Calico Printing) The uniform impregnation of cloth with a mordant.


   Pad"dle  (?), v. i. [Prob. for pattle, and a dim. of pat, v.; cf. also
   E.  pad  to tread, Prov. G. paddeln, padden, to walk with short steps,
   to  paddle,  G.  patschen  to  splash,  dash, dabble, F. patouiller to
   dabble, splash, fr. patte a paw.

   1.  To  use the hands or fingers in toying; to make caressing strokes.
   [Obs.] Shak.

   2.  To  dabble  in  water  with  hands  or  feet;  to use a paddle, or
   something  which  serves as a paddle, in swimming, in paddling a boat,

     As the men were paddling for their lives. L'Estrange.

     While paddling ducks the standing lake desire. Gay.


   Pad"dle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Paddled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paddling

   1. To pat or stroke amorously, or gently.

     To be paddling palms and pinching fingers. Shak.

   2. To propel with, or as with, a paddle or paddles.

   3. To pad; to tread upon; to trample. [Prov. Eng.]


   Pad"dle, n. [See Paddle, v. i.]

   1.  An  implement  with  a  broad blade, which is used without a fixed
   fulcrum in propelling and steering canoes and boats.

   2.  The  broad part of a paddle, with which the stroke is made; hence,
   any short, broad blade, resembling that of a paddle.

     Thou shalt have a paddle upon thy weapon. Deut. xxiii. 13.

   3. One of the broad boards, or floats, at the circumference of a water
   wheel, or paddle wheel.

   4. A small gate in sluices or lock gates to admit or let off water; --
   also called clough.

   5. (Zo\'94l.) A paddle-shaped foot, as of the sea turtle.

   6. A paddle-shaped implement for string or mixing.

   7.  [In  this  sense  prob.  for  older spaddle, a dim. of spade.] See
   Paddle staff (b), below. [Prov. Eng.]
   Paddle  beam  (Shipbuilding),  one of two large timbers supporting the
   spring  beam  and  paddle  box of a steam vessel. -- Paddle board. See
   Paddle,  n.,  3. -- Paddle box, the structure inclosing the upper part
   of  the paddle wheel of a steam vessel. -- Paddle shaft, the revolving
   shaft  which  carries  the  paddle  wheel of a steam vessel. -- Paddle
   staff.  (a)  A staff tipped with a broad blade, used by mole catchers.
   [Prov.  Eng.]  (b)  A long-handled spade used to clean a plowshare; --
   called also plow staff. [Prov. Eng.] -- Paddle steamer, a steam vessel
   propelled  by paddle wheels, in distinction from a screw propeller. --
   Paddle  wheel,  the propelling wheel of a steam vessel, having paddles
   (or  floats)  on  its circumference, and revolving in a vertical plane
   parallel to the vessel's length.


   Pad"dle*cock` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The lumpfish. [Prov. Eng.]


   Pad"dle*fish`   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l)  A  large  ganoid  fish  (Polyodon
   spathula) found in the rivers of the Mississippi Valley. It has a long
   spatula-shaped  snout.  Called  also  duck-billed  cat,  and spoonbill


   Pad"der (?), n. One who, or that which, paddles.


   Pad"dle*wood`   (?),   n.   (Bot.)  The  light  elastic  wood  of  the
   Aspidosperma  excelsum, a tree of Guiana having a fluted trunk readily
   split into planks.


   Pad"dock  (?), n. [OE. padde toad, frog + -ock; akin to D. pad, padde,
   toad,  Icel.  &  Sw.  padda,  Dan.  padde.] (Zo\'94l.) A toad or frog.
   Wyclif.   "Loathed   paddocks."   Spenser   Paddock   pipe  (Bot.),  a
   hollow-stemmed plant of the genus Equisetum, especially E. limosum and
   the  fruiting  stems of E. arvense; -- called also padow pipe and toad
   pipe. See Equisetum. -- Paddock stone. See Toadstone. -- Paddock stool
   (Bot.),a toadstool.


   Pad"dock, n. [Corrupted fr. parrock. See Parrock.]

   1. A small inclosure or park for sporting. [Obs.]

   2.  A  small  inclosure  for  pasture;  esp.,  one adjoining a stable.
   Evelyn. Cowper.


   Pad"dy  (?),  a.  [Prov.  E.  paddy  worm-eaten.]  Low; mean; boorish;
   vagabond.  "Such  pady  persons."  Digges (1585). "The paddy persons."


   Pad"dy,  n.;  pl. Paddies (#). [Corrupted fr. St. Patrick, the tutelar
   saint of Ireland.] A jocose or contemptuous name for an Irishman.


   Pad"dy,  n.  [Either  fr. Canarese bhatta or Malay p\'bed\'c6.] (Bot.)
   Unhusked  rice;  -- commonly so called in the East Indies. Paddy bird.
   (Zo\'94l.) See Java sparrow, under Java.


   Pad`e*li"on  (?),  n.  [F.  pas de lionon's foot.] (Bot.) A plant with
   pedately lobed leaves; the lady's mantle.


   Pa*del"la  (?),  n. [It., prop., a pan, a friing pan, fr. L. patella a
   pan.]  A  large cup or deep saucer, containing fatty matter in which a
   wick  is  placed, -- used for public illuminations, as at St. Peter's,
   in Rome. Called also padelle.


   Pad`e*mel"on (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Wallaby.


   Pad"e*soy` (?), n. See Paduasoy.


   Padge,  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  barn owl; -- called also pudge, and pudge
   owl. [Prov. Eng.]


   Pa`di*shah"  (?),  n.  [Per.  p\'bedish\'beh. Cf. Pasha.] Chief ruler;
   monarch;  sovereign;  --  a  title of the Sultan of Turkey, and of the
   Shah of Persia.


   Pad"lock`  (?),  n.  [Perh.  orig.,  a  lock for a pad gate, or a gate
   opening  to a path, or perh., a lock for a basket or pannier, and from
   Prov. E. pad a pannier. Cf. Pad a path, Paddler.]

   1.  A  portable lock with a bow which is usually jointed or pivoted at
   one  end so that it can be opened, the other end being fastened by the
   bolt, -- used for fastening by passing the bow through a staple over a
   hasp or through the links of a chain, etc.

   2. Fig.: A curb; a restraint.


   Pad"lock`,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Padlocked  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Padlocking.]  To fasten with, or as with, a padlock; to stop; to shut;
   to confine as by a padlock. Milton. Tennyson.


   Pad"nag`  (?),  n.  [lst pad + nag.] An ambling nag. "An easy padnag."


   Pad"ow  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A paddock, or toad. Padow pipe. (Bot.) See
   Paddock pipe, under Paddock.


   Pa*dro"ne (?), n.; pl. It. Padroni (#), E. Padrones. [It. See Patron.]

   1. A patron; a protector.

   2. The master of a small coaster in the Mediterranean.

   3.  A man who imports, and controls the earnings of, Italian laborers,
   street musicians, etc.


   Pad`u*a*soy"  (?),  n. [From Padua, in Italy + F. soie silk; or cf. F.
   pou-de-soie.] A rich and heavy silk stuff. [Written also padesoy.]


   Pa*du"cahs (?), n. pl.; sing. Paducah (. (Ethnol.) See Comanches.


   P\'91"an (?), n. [L. paean, Gr. P\'91on, Peony.] [Written also pean.]

   1.  An  ancient Greek hymn in honor of Apollo as a healing deity, and,
   later, a song addressed to other deities.

   2.  Any  loud  and  joyous  song;  a  song of triumph. Dryden. "Public
   p\'91ans of congratulation." De Quincey.

   3. See P\'91on.


   P\'91`do*bap"tism (?), n. Pedobaptism.

   Page 1030


   P\'91`do*gen"esis  (?),  n.  [Gr.  , , child + E. genesis.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Reproduction by young or larval animals.


   P\'91`do*ge*net"ic  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Producing young while in the
   immature or larval state; -- said of certain insects, etc.


   P\'91"on (?), n. [L. paeon, Gr. a solemn song, also, a p\'91on, equiv.
   to P\'91an.] (Anc. Poet.) A foot of four syllables, one long and three
   short,  admitting  of four combinations, according to the place of the
   long syllable. [Written also, less correctly, p\'91an.]


   P\'91"o*nine  (?),  n.  (Chem.) An artifical red nitrogenous dyestuff,
   called also red coralline.


   P\'91"o*ny (?), n. (Bot.) See Peony.


   Pa"gan  (?),  n. [L. paganus a countryman, peasant, villager, a pagan,
   fr.  paganus of or pertaining to the country, rustic, also, pagan, fr.
   pagus  a  district,  canton, the country, perh. orig., a district with
   fixed  boundaries:  cf.  pangere  to  fasten. Cf. Painim, Peasant, and
   Pact,  also  Heathen.]  One  who  worships false goods; an idolater; a
   heathen; one who is neither a Christian, a Mohammedan, nor a Jew.

     Neither having the accent of Christians, nor the gait of Christian,
     pagan, nor man. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Gentile;  heathen;  idolater.  --  Pagan,  Gentile, Heathen.
   Gentile was applied to the other nations of the earth as distinguished
   from  the  Jews.  Pagan  was  the name given to idolaters in the early
   Christian  church,  because  the villagers, being most remote from the
   centers  of instruction, remained for a long time unconverted. Heathen
   has  the  same  origin. Pagan is now more properly applied to rude and
   uncivilized   idolaters,  while  heathen  embraces  all  who  practice


   Pa"gan,  a.  [L.  paganus  of or pertaining to the country, pagan. See
   Pagan,  n.] Of or pertaining to pagans; relating to the worship or the
   worshipers  of  false  goods; heathen; idolatrous, as, pagan tribes or

     And all the rites of pagan honor paid. Dryden.


   Pa"gan*dom  (?),  n.  The pagan lands; pagans, collectively; paganism.

                              Paganic, Paganical

   Pa*gan"ic  (?),  Pa*gan"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to pagans or
   paganism;  heathenish;  paganish.  [R.]  "The  paganic  fables  of the
   goods." Cudworth. -- Pa*gan"ic*al*ly, adv. [R.]


   Pa"gan*ish  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to pagans; heathenish. "The old
   paganish idolatry." Sharp


   Pa"gan*ism  (?),  n.  [L. paganismus: cf. F. paganisme. See Pagan, and
   cf.  Painim.]  The  state of being pagan; pagan characteristics; esp.,
   the  worship  of  idols  or  false  gods,  or  the system of religious
   opinions and worship maintained by pagans; heathenism.


   Pa*gan"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  Paganitas.]  The  state  of being a pagan;
   paganism. [R.] Cudworth.


   Pa"gan*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Paganized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Paganizing  (?).]  To  render  pagan  or  heathenish;  to  convert  to
   paganism. Hallywell.


   Pa"gan*ize, v. i. To behave like pagans. Milton.


   Pa"gan*ly, adv. In a pagan manner. Dr. H. More.


   Page  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  It.  paggio,  LL. pagius, fr. Gr. puer. Cf.
   Pedagogue, Puerile.]

   1. A serving boy; formerly, a youth attending a person of high degree,
   especially  at  courts,  as  a  position  of  honor and education; now
   commonly,  in  England,  a youth employed for doin errands, waiting on
   the  door,  and similar service in households; in the United States, a
   boy emploed to wait upon the members of a legislative body.

     He had two pages of honor -- on either hand one. Bacon.

   2. A boy child. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   3. A contrivance, as a band, pin, snap, or the like, to hold the skirt
   of a woman's dress from the ground.

   4.  (Brickmaking.)  A  track along which pallets carrying newly molded
   bricks are conveyed to the hack.

   5.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any one of several species of beautiful South American
   moths of the genus Urania.


   Page, v. t. To attend (one) as a page. [Obs.] Shak.


   Page, n. [F., fr. L. pagina; prob. akin to pagere, pangere, to fasten,
   fix,  make,  the  pages  or  leaves being fastened together. Cf. Pact,
   Pageant, Pagination.]

   1. One side of a leaf of a book or manuscript.

     Such was the book from whose pages she sang. Longfellow.

   2. Fig.: A record; a writing; as, the page of history.

   3. (Print.) The type set up for printing a page.


   Page,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Paged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paging (?).] To
   mark  or number the pages of, as a book or manuskript; to furnish with


   Pag"eant (?), n. [OE. pagent, pagen, originally, a movable scaffold or
   stage,  hence,  what  was  exhibited  on  it,  fr. LL. pagina, akin to
   pangere to fasten; cf. L. pagina page, leaf, slab, compaginare to join
   together,  compages a joining together, structure. See Pact, Page of a

   1.  A  theatrical  exhibition;  a spectacle. "A pageant truly played."

     To see sad pageants of men's miseries. Spenser.

   2.  An  elaborate  exhibition  devised  for  the  entertainmeut  of  a
   distinguished  personage,  or  of  the  public;  a show, spectacle, or

     The gaze of fools, and pageant of a day ! Pope.

     We love the man, the paltry pageant you. Cowper.


   Pag"eant,  a. Of the nature of a pageant; spectacular. "Pageant pomp."


   Pag"eant,  v.  t. To exhibit in show; to represent; to mimic. [R.] "He
   pageants us." Shak.


   Pag"eant*ry  (?),  n. Scenic shows or spectacles, taken collectivelly;
   spectacular guality; splendor.

     Such pageantry be to the people shown. Dryden.

     The pageantry of festival. J. A. Symonds.

   Syn. -- Pomp; parade; show; display; spectacle.


   Page"hood (?), n. The state of being a page.


   Pag"i*na (?), n.; pl. Pagin\'91 (#). [L.] (Bot.) The surface of a leaf
   or of a flattened thallus.


   Pag"i*nal  (?),  a.  [L.  paginalis.]  Consisting  of  pages. "Paginal
   books." Sir T. Browne.


   Pag`i*na"tion  (?),  n. The act or process of paging a book; also, the
   characters used in numbering the pages; page number. Lowndes.


   Pa"ging (?), n. The marking or numbering of the pages of a book.


   Pa"god (?), n. [Cf. F. pagode. See Pagoda.]

   1. A pagoda. [R.] "Or some queer pagod." Pope.

   2. An idol. [Obs.] Bp. Stillingfleet.


   Pa*go"da  (?),  n.  [Pg.  pagoda,  pagode, fr.Hind. & Per. but-kadah a
   house  of  idols, or abode of God; Per. but an idol + kadah a house, a

   1.   A  term  by  which  Europeans  designate  religious  temples  and
   tower-like  buildings  of  the Hindoos and Buddhists of India, Farther
   India,  China,  and  Japan, -- usually but not always, devoted to idol

   2. An idol. [R.] Brande & C.

   3.  [Prob.  so  named  from the image of a pagoda or a deity (cf. Skr.
   bhagavat  holy,  divine)  stamped  on  it.]  A gold or silver coin, of
   various  kinds  and values, formerly current in India. The Madras gold
   pagoda was worth about three and a half rupees.


   Pa*go"dite (?), n. (Min.) Agalmatolite; -- so called because sometimes
   carved by the Chinese into the form of pagodas. See Agalmatolite.


   Pa*gu"ma  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several species of East Indian
   viverrine mammals of the genus Paguma. They resemble a weasel in form.


   Pa*gu"ri*an  (?), n. [L. pagurus a kind of crab, Gr. .] (Zo\'94l.) Any
   one  of  a  tribe of anomuran crustaceans, of which Pagurus is a type;
   the hermit crab. See Hermit crab, under Hermit.


   Pah  (?),  interj.  An exclamation expressing disgust or contempt. See

     Fie!  fie!  fie!  pah!  pah!  Give  me  an  ounce  of  civet,  good
     apothecary, to sweeten my imagination. Shak.


   Pah (?), n. [From native name.] A kind of stockaded intrenchment. [New
   Zealand.] Farrow.


   Pa"hi (?), n. (Naut.) A large war canoe of the Society Islands.


   Pah"le*vi (?), n. Same as Pehlevi.


   Pa*ho"e*ho`e  (?),  n.  (Min.) A name given in the Sandwich Islands to
   lava  having  a  relatively  smooth  surface,  in distinction from the
   rough-surfaced lava, called a-a.<-- Sandwich islands = Hawaii -->


   Pah"*Utes` (?), n. pl. (Ethnol.) See Utes.


   Paid (?), imp., p. p., & a. of Pay.

   1. Receiving pay; compensated; hired; as, a paid attorney.

   2. Satisfied; contented. [Obs.] "Paid of his poverty." Chaucer.


   Pai*deu"tics  (?),  n. [Gr. , fr. to teach, fr. ,, a boy.] The science
   or art of teaching.


   Pai"en (?), n. & a. Pagan. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pai"gle  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  (Bot.) A species of Primula,
   either  the  cowslip  or  the  primrose.  [Written  also pagle, pagil,
   peagle, and pygil.]


   Pai*ja"ma (?), n. Pyjama.


   Pail  (?),  n. [OE. paile, AS. p\'91gel a wine vessel, a pail, akin to
   D.  &  G.  pegel  a  watermark,  a  gauge rod, a measure of wine, Dan.
   p\'91gel  half  a  pint.]  A  vessel  of  wood  or  tin, etc., usually
   cylindrical  and  having a bail, -- used esp. for carrying liquids, as
   water or milk, etc.; a bucket. It may, or may not, have a cover. Shak.


   Pail"ful  (?), n.; pl. Pailfuls (. The quantity that a pail will hold.
   "By pailfuls." Shak.


   Pail*lasse"  (?;  F. , n. [F., fr. paille straw. See Pallet a bed.] An
   under bed or mattress of straw. [Written also palliasse.]


   Pail`mall" (?), n. & a. See Pall-mall. [Obs.]


   Pain  (?), n. [OE. peine, F. peine, fr. L. poena, penalty, punishment,
   torment,  pain;  akin  to  Gr.  penalty.  Cf. Penal, Pine to languish,

   1.  Punishment suffered or denounced; suffering or evil inflicted as a
   punishment  for  crime,  or  connected with the commission of a crime;
   penalty. Chaucer.

     We will, by way of mulct or pain, lay it upon him. Bacon.

     Interpose, on pain of my displeasure. Dryden.

     None shall presume to fly, under pain of death. Addison.

   2.  Any  uneasy  sensation in animal bodies, from slight uneasiness to
   extreme   distress  or  torture,  proceeding  from  a  derangement  of
   functions,  disease,  or  injury  by violence; bodily distress; bodily
   suffering; an ache; a smart. "The pain of Jesus Christ." Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Pa in ma y occur in any part of the body where sensory
     nerves  are  distributed,  and  it  is  always  due to some kind of
     stimulation  of  them.  The  sensation is generally referred to the
     peripheral end of the nerve.

   3. pl. Specifically, the throes or travail of childbirth.

     She  bowed  herself  and  travailed, for her pains came upon her. 1
     Sam. iv. 19.

   4.  Uneasiness  of mind; mental distress; disquietude; anxiety; grief;
   solicitude; anguish. Chaucer.

     In rapture as in pain. Keble.

   5. See Pains, labor, effort.
   Bill of pains and penalties. See under Bill. -- To die in the pain, to
   be tortured to death. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pain,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Pained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paining.] [OE.
   peinen, OF. pener, F. peiner to fatigue. See Pain, n.]

   1.  To  inflict  suffering upon as a penalty; to punish. [Obs.] Wyclif
   (Acts xxii. 5).

   2.  To  put  to  bodily  uneasiness or anguish; to afflict with uneasy
   sensations of any degree of intensity; to torment; to torture; as, his
   dinner or his wound pained him; his stomach pained him.

     Excess of cold, as well as heat, pains us. Lock

   3. To render uneasy in mind; to disquiet; to distress; to grieve; as a
   child's faults pain his parents.

     I am pained at mJer. iv. 19.

   To  pain one's self, to exert or trouble one's self; to take pains; to
   be  solicitous.  [Obs.]  "She  pained  her  to do all that she might."
   Chaucer.  Syn.  --  To  disquiet;  trouble; afflict; grieve; aggrieve;
   distress; agonize; torment; torture.
   Pain"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82nible.] Causing pain; painful. [Obs.] 

     The  manacles  of  Astyages  were  not  .  . . the less weighty and
     painable for being composed of gold or silver. Evelyn.


   Pain"ful (?), a.

   1.  Full  of  pain; causing uneasiness or distress, either physical or
   mental; afflictive; disquieting; distressing Addison.

   2. Requiring labor or toil; difficult; executed with laborious effort;
   as a painful service; a painful march.

   3. Painstaking; careful; industrious. [Obs.] Fuller.

     A very painful person, and a great clerk. Jer. Taylor.

     Nor must the painful husbandman be tired. Dryden.

   Syn.  --  Disquieting; troublesome; afflictive; distressing; grievous;
   laborious;  toilsome;  difficult;  arduous.  --  Pain"ful*ly,  adv. --
   Pain"ful*ness, n.


   Pai"nim  (?),  n.[OE.  painime  pagans,  paganism,  fr.  OF. paienisme
   paganism,  LL.  paganismus. See Paganism, Pagan.] A pagan; an infidel;
   -- used also adjectively. [Written also panim and paynim.] Peacham.


   Pain"less  (?), a. Free from pain; without pain. -- Pain"less*ly, adv.
   -- Pain"less*ness, n.


   Pains  (?), n.Labor; toilsome effort; care or trouble taken; -- plural
   in form, but used with a singular or plural verb, commonly the former.

     And all my pains is sorted to no proof. Shak.

     The pains they had taken was very great. Clarendon.

     The labored earth your pains have sowed and tilled. Dryden.


   Pains"tak`er  (?), n. One who takes pains; one careful and faithful in
   all work. Gay.


   Pains"tak`ing,  a.  Careful  in  doing; diligent; faithful; attentive.
   "Painstaking men." Harris.


   Pains"tak`ing, n. The act of taking pains; carefulness and fidelity in
   performance. Beau. & Fl.


   Pains"wor`thy (?), a. Worth the pains o


   Paint  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Painted; p. pr. & vb. n. Painting.]
   [OE.  peinten,  fr. F. peint, p. p. opeindre to paint, fr. L. pingere,
   pictum;  cf. Gr. many-colored, Skr. pic to adorn. Cf. Depict, Picture,
   Pigment, Pint.]

   1.  To  cover  with coloring matter; to apply paint to; as, to paint a
   house, a signboard, etc.

     Jezebel painted her face and tired her head. 2 Kings ix. 30.

   2.  Fig.: To color, stain, or tinge; to adorn or beautify with colors;
   to diversify with colors.

     Not painted with the crimson spots of blood. Shak.

     Cuckoo buds of yellow hue Do paint the meadows with delight. Shak.

   3.  To  form  in  colors a figure or likeness of on a flat surface, as
   upon  canvas; to represent by means of colors or hues; to exhibit in a
   tinted  image;  to  portray  with paints; as, to paint a portrait or a

   4.  Fig.: To represent or exhibit to the mind; to describe vividly; to
   delineate; to image; to depict.

     Disloyal? The word is too good to paint out her wickedness. Shak.

     If folly grow romantic, I must paint it. Pope.

   Syn.  --  To color; picture; depict; portray; delineate; sketch; draw;


   Paint, v. t.

   1. To practice the art of painting; as, the artist paints well.

   2. To color one's face by way of beautifying it.

     Let her paint an inch thick. Shak.


   Paint, n.

   1.  (a)  A pigment or coloring substance. (b) The same prepared with a
   vehicle,  as  oil,  water  with gum, or the like, for application to a

   2. A cosmetic; rouge. Praed.


   Paint"ed, a.

   1. Covered or adorned with paint; portrayed in colors.

     As idle as a painted ship Upon a painted ocean. Coleridge.

   2.  (Nat.  Hist.)  Marked  with bright colors; as, the painted turtle;
   painted bunting.
   Painted  beauty  (Zo\'94l.),  a  handsome  American butterfly (Vanessa
   Huntera),  having  a  variety of bright colors, -- Painted cup (Bot.),
   any  plant  of  an  American  genus of herbs (Castilleia) in which the
   bracts  are  usually  bright-colored  and more showy than the flowers.
   Castilleia  coccinea  has brilliantly scarlet bracts, and is common in
   meadows.  -- Painted finch. See Nonpareil. -- Painted lady (Zo\'94l.),
   a  bright-colored  butterfly. See Thistle butterfly. -- Painted turtle
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  common American freshwater tortoise (Chrysemys picta),
   having bright red and yellow markings beneath.


   Paint"er  (?),  n.  [OE,  pantere  a noose, snare, F. panti\'8are, LL.
   panthera,  L.  panther  a  hunting net, fr. Gr. ; painteir a net, gin,
   snare,  Gael. painntear.] (Naut.) A rope at the bow of a boat, used to
   fasten it to anything. Totten.


   Paint"er,  n.  [Corrupt. of panther.] (Zo\'94l.) The panther, or puma.
   [A form representing an illiterate pronunciation, U. S.] J. F. Cooper.


   Paint"er,  n. [See lst Paint.] One whose occupation is to paint; esp.:
   (a)  One  who  covers  buildings,  ships, ironwork, and the like, with
   paint.  (b)  An  artist who represents objects or scenes in color on a
   flat surface, as canvas, plaster, or the like. Painter's colic. (Med.)
   See  Lead  colic,  under  Colic.  -- Painter stainer. (a) A painter of
   coats  of  arms.  Crabb.  (b) A member of a livery company or guild in
   London, bearing this name.

   Page 1031


   Paint"er*ly  (?),  a. Like a painter's work. [Obs.] "A painterly glose
   of a visage." Sir P. Sidney.


   Paint"er*ship,  n.  The state or position of being a painter. [R.] Br.


   Paint"ing, n.

   1.  The  act  or  employment of laying on, or adorning with, paints or

   2. (Fine Arts) The work of the painter; also, any work of art in which
   objects  are  represented  in  color  on  a  flat  surface;  a colored
   representation of any object or scene; a picture.

   3. Color laid on; paint. [R.] Shak.

   4.  A  depicting  by words; vivid representation in words. Syn. -- See


   Paint"less,  a.  Not  capable  of  being  painted  or  described.  "In
   paintless patience." Savage.


   Pain"ture  (?),  n.  [F. peinture. See Paint, v. t., and cf. Picture.]
   The art of painting. [Obs.] Chaucer. Dryden.


   Paint"y  (?), a. Unskillfully painted, so that the painter's method of
   work  is  too  obvious;  also,  having too much pigment applied to the
   surface. [Cant]


   Pair (?), n. [F. paire, LL. paria, L. paria, pl. of par pair, fr. par,
   adj., equal. Cf. Apparel, Par equality, Peer an equal.]

   1. A number of things resembling one another, or belonging together; a
   set; as, a pair or flight of stairs. "A pair of beads." Chaucer. Beau.
   & Fl. "Four pair of stairs." Macaulay.

     NOTE: [Now mostly or quite disused, except as to stairs.]

     Two crowns in my pocket, two pair of cards. Beau. & Fl.

   2.  Two  things  of a kind, similar in form, suited to each other, and
   intended  to  be  used  together; as, a pair of gloves or stockings; a
   pair of shoes.

   3.  Two  of  a  sort; a span; a yoke; a couple; a brace; as, a pair of
   horses; a pair of oxen.

   4.  A  married  couple;  a  man and wife. "A happy pair." Dryden. "The
   hapless pair." Milton.

   5.  A  single  thing,  composed of two pieces fitted to each other and
   used  together;  as,  a  pair  of scissors; a pair of tongs; a pair of

   6.  Two  members of opposite parties or opinion, as in a parliamentary
   body, who mutually agree not to vote on a given question, or on issues
   of a party nature during a specified time; as, there were two pairs on
   the final vote. [Parliamentary Cant]

   7.  (Kinematics) In a mechanism, two elements, or bodies, which are so
   applied to each other as to mutually constrain relative motion.

     NOTE: &hand; Pa irs are named in accordance with the kind of motion
     they permit; thus, a journal and its bearing form a turning pair, a
     cylinder  and  its  piston  a  sliding  pair, a screw and its nut a
     twisting  pair,  etc. Any pair in which the constraining contact is
     along  lines  or  at  points  only  (as  a  cam  and  roller acting
     together),   is   designated   a   higher  pair;  any  pair  having
     constraining  surfaces  which  fit each other (as a cylindrical pin
     and eye, a screw and its nut, etc.), is called a lower pair.

   Pair  royal  (pl.  Pairs  Royal)  three  things  of  a  sort;  -- used
   especially  of  playing  cards  in  some  games, as cribbage; as three
   kings,  three  "eight  spots"  etc. Four of a kind are called a double
   pair  royal. "Something in his face gave me as much pleasure as a pair
   royal  of  naturals in my own hand." Goldsmith. "That great pair royal
   of adamantine sisters [the Fates]." Quarles. [Written corruptly parial
   and  prial.]  Syn.  --  Pair,  Flight,  Set.  Originally, pair was not
   confined  to two things, but was applied to any number of equal things
   (pares),  that  go  together.  Ben  Jonson  speaks  of a pair (set) of
   chessmen;  also,  he and Lord Bacon speak of a pair (pack) of cards. A
   "pair  of  stairs"  is  still  in  popular  use,  as well as the later
   expression, "flight of stairs."
   Pair, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pairing.]
   1. To be joined in paris; to couple; to mate, as for breeding.
   2. To suit; to fit, as a counterpart.
     My heart was made to fit and pair with thine. Rowe.
   3. Same as To pair off. See phrase below.
   To  pair  off, to separate from a company in pairs or couples; specif.
   (Parliamentary  Cant),  to  agree  with  one  of the opposite party or
   opinion  to  abstain from voting on specified questions or issues. See
   Pair, n., 6.


   Pair, v. t.

   1.  To  unite  in  couples;  to  form a pair of; to bring together, as
   things  which  belong together, or which complement, or are adapted to
   one another.

     Glossy jet is paired with shining white. Pope.

   2.  To  engage  (one's  self) with another of opposite opinions not to
   vote  on  a  particular question or class of questions. [Parliamentary
   Paired fins. (Zo\'94l.) See under Fin.


   Pair, v. t. [See Impair.] To impair. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Pair"er (?), n. One who impairs. [Obs.] Wyclif.


   Pair"ing, n. [See Pair, v. i.]

   1. The act or process of uniting or arranging in pairs or couples.

   2. See To pair off, under Pair, v. i.
   Pairyng time, the time when birds or other animals pair.


   Pair"ment (?), n. Impairment. [Obs.] Wyclif.


   Pa`is  (?),  n.  [OF.  pu\'8bs,  F.  pays,  country.]  (O. E. Law) The
   country; the people of the neighborhood.

     NOTE: &hand; A  tr ial per pais is a trial by the country, that is,
     by  a jury; and matter in pais is matter triable by the country, or


   Pa`i*sa"no  (?),  n.  [Sp.,  of  the country, (Zo\'94l.) The chaparral


   Paise (?), n. [Obs.] See Poise. Chapman.


   Pa"jock (?), n. A peacock. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pak"fong` (?), n. See Packfong.


   Pal  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  A  mate;  a  partner;  esp.,  an
   accomplice or confederate. [Slang]


   Pal"ace (?), n. [OE. palais, F. palais, fr. L. palatium, fr. Palatium,
   one of the seven hills of Rome, Paladin.]

   1.  The  residence  of  a  sovereign,  including  the lodgings of high
   officers  of  state,  and  rooms  for  business,  as well as halls for
   ceremony and reception. Chaucer.

   2.   The  official  residence  of  a  bishop  or  other  distinguished

   3. Loosely, any unusually magnificent or stately house.
   Palace   car.   See  under  Car.  --  Palace  court,  a  court  having
   jurisdiction  of  personal  actions arising within twelve miles of the
   palace  at Whitehall. The court was abolished in 1849. [Eng.] Mozley &


   Pa*la"cious (?), a. Palatial. [Obs.] Graunt.


   Pal"a*din (?), n. [F., fr.It. paladino, fr. L. palatinus an officer of
   the  palace. See Palatine.] A knight-errant; a distinguished champion;
   as, the paladins of Charlemagne. Sir W. Scott.


   Pa"l\'91*o- (?). See Paleo-.

                     Pal\'91ographer, n., Pal\'91ographic

   Pa`l\'91*og"ra*pher  (?),  n.,  Pa`l\'91*o*graph"ic  (,  a.,  etc. See
   Paleographer, Paleographic, etc.


   Pa"l\'91*o*type  (?),  n.  [Pal\'91o-  +  -type.]  (Phon.) A system of
   representing  all  spoken  sounds  by  means  of the printing types in
   common    use.    Ellis.    --   Pa`l\'91*o*typ"ic*al   (#),   a.   --
   Pa`l\'91*o*typ"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Pa*l\'91s"tra (?), n. See Palestra.


   Pa*l\'91s"tric (?), a. See Palestric.


   Pa*l\'91`ti*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in pal\'91tiology.


   Pa*l\'91`ti*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Pal\'91o-  + \'91tiology.] The science
   which  explains,  by  the  law  of  causation,  the past condition and
   changes of the earth. -- Pa*l\'91`ti*o*log"ic*al (#), a.


   Pal"a*ma (?), n.; pl. Palamme (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A membrane
   extending  between  the  toes of a bird, and uniting them more or less
   closely together.


   Pal`a*me"de*\'91  (?),  n. pl. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) An order, or suborder,
   including the kamichi, and allied South American birds; -- called also
   screamers.  In  many  anatomical  characters  they  are  allied to the
   Anseres, but they externally resemble the wading birds.


   Pal`am*pore" (?), n. See Palempore.


   Pa*lan"ka  (?),  n.  [Cf.  It.,  Pg.,  &  Sp.  palanca, fr.L. palanga,
   phalanga a pole, Gr. (Mil.) A camp permanently intrenched, attached to
   Turkish frontier fortresses.


   Pal`an*quin"  (?),  n.  [F. palanquin, Pg. palanquim, Javan. palangki,
   OJavan.  palangkan, through Prakrit fr. Skr. parya, palya, bed, couch;
   pari  around (akin to E. pref. peri-) + a a hook, flank, probably akin
   to  E.  angle  fishing  tackle.  Cf.  Palkee.] An inclosed carriage or
   litter,  commonly about eight feet long, four feet wide, and four feet
   high,  borne on the shoulders of men by means of two projecting poles,
   --  used  in India, China, etc., for the conveyance of a single person
   from place to place. [Written also palankeen.]


   Pa*lap"te*ryx  (?),  n.  [Paleo- + apteryx.] (Paleon.) A large extinct
   ostrichlike bird of New Zealand.


   Pal`a*ta*bil"i*ty (?), n. Palatableness.


   Pal"a*ta*ble  (?), a. [From Palate.] Agreeable to the palate or taste;
   savory;  hence,  acceptable;  pleasing;  as, palatable food; palatable


   Pal"a*ta*ble*ness,  n.  The quality or state of being agreeable to the
   taste; relish; acceptableness.


   Pal"a*ta*bly, adv. In a palatable manner.


   Pal"a*tal (?), a. [Cf. F. palatal.]

   1. Of or pertaining to the palate; palatine; as, the palatal bones.

   2.  (Phonetics)  Uttered  by the aid of the palate; -- said of certain
   sounds, as the sound of k in kirk.


   Pal"a*tal,  n. (Phon.) A sound uttered, or a letter pronounced, by the
   aid of the palate, as the letters k and y.


   Pal"a*tal*ize (?), v. t. (Phon.) To palatize.


   Pal"ate (?), n. [L. palatum: cf. F. palais, Of. also palat.]

   1. (Anat.) The roof of the mouth.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fixed portion, or palate proper, supported by the
     maxillary  and  palatine  bones,  is  called  the  hard  palate  to
     distinguish  it  from  the  membranous  and  muscular curtain which
     separates  the  cavity  of the mouth from the pharynx and is called
     the soft palate, or velum.

   2.  Relish;  taste;  liking;  --  a  sense originating in the mistaken
   notion that the palate is the organ of taste.

     Hard task! to hit the palate of such guests. Pope.

   3. Fig.: Mental relish; intellectual taste. T. Baker.

   4.  (Bot.)  A  projection  in  the  throat  of  such  flowers  as  the


   Pal"ate, v. t. To perceive by the taste. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pa*la"tial  (?), a. [L. palatium palace. See Palace.] Of or pertaining
   to  a  palace;  suitable  for  a  palace;  resembling a palace; royal;
   magnificent; as, palatial structures. "Palatial style." A. Drummond.


   Pa*la"tial,  a.  [From  Palate.]  (Anat.)  Palatal;  palatine.  [Obs.]


   Pa*la"tial, n. A palatal letter. [Obs.] Sir W. Jones.


   Pa*lat"ic (?), a. (Anat.) Palatal; palatine.


   Pa*lat"ic, n. (Phon.) A palatal. [R.]


   Pa*lat"i*nate  (?),  n.  [F. palatinat. See Palatine.] The province or
   seigniory of a palatine; the dignity of a palatine. Howell.


   Pa*lat"i*nate (?), v. t. To make a palatinate of. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Pal"a*tine  (?),  a.  [F.  palatin,  L.  palatinus,  fr. palatium. See
   Palace,  and  cf. Paladin.] Of or pertaining to a palace, or to a high
   officer  of  a  palace;  hence,  possessing  royal  privileges.  Count
   palatine,  County  palatine.  See under Count, and County. -- Palatine
   hill,  OR  The palatine, one of the seven hills of Rome, once occupied
   by the palace of the C\'91sars. See Palace.


   Pal"a*tine (?), n.

   1. One invested with royal privileges and rights within his domains; a
   count palatine. See Count palatine, under 4th Count.

   2. The Palatine hill in Rome.


   Pal"a*tine,  a. [From Palate.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the palate.
   Palatine bones (Anat.), a pair of bones (often united in the adult) in
   the root of the mouth, back of and between the maxillaries.


   Pal"a*tine, (Anat.) A palatine bone.


   Pal"a*tive  (?), a. Pleasing to the taste; palatable. [Obs.] "Palative
   delights." Sir T. Browne.


   Pal"a*tize  (?),  v. t. To modify, as the tones of the voice, by means
   of  the palate; as, to palatize a letter or sound. -- Pal`a*ti*za"tion
   (#), n. J. Peile.


   Pal"a*to-  (?).  [From  Palate.]  A  combining form used in anatomy to
   indicate   relation   to,  or  connection  with,  the  palate;  as  in


   Pal`a*to*na"res  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Palato-, and Nares.] (Anat.) The
   posterior nares. See Nares.


   Pal`a*top*ter"y*goid (?), a. [Palato- + pterygoid.] (Anat.) Pertaining
   to   the   palatine  and  pterygoid  region  of  the  skull;  as,  the
   palatopterygoid  cartilage,  or  rod,  from  which  the  palatine  and
   pterygoid bones are developed.


   Pa*la"ver  (?),  n.  [Sp.  palabra,  or Pg. palavra, fr. L. parabola a
   comparison, a parable, LL., a word. See Parable.]

   1.  Talk; conversation; esp., idle or beguiling talk; talk intended to
   deceive; flattery.

   2.  In  Africa,  a  parley  with  the natives; a talk; hence, a public
   conference and deliberation; a debate.

     This epoch of parliaments and eloquent palavers. Carlyle.


   Pa*la"ver,  v.  t.  &  i. [imp. & p. p. Palavered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Palavering.] To make palaver with, or to; to used palaver;to talk idly
   or  deceitfully;  to  employ  flattery;  to  cajole;  as,  to  palaver

     Palavering the little language for her benefit. C. Bront


   Pa*la"ver*er (?), n. One who palavers; a flatterer.


   Pale  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Paler (?); superl. Palest.] [F. p\'83le, fr.
   p\'83lir  to turn pale, L. pallere to be oAppall, Fallow, pall, v. i.,

   1.  Wanting  in color; not ruddy; dusky white; pallid; wan; as, a pale
   face; a pale red; a pale blue. "Pale as a forpined ghost." Chaucer.

     Speechless he stood and pale. Milton.

     They are not of complexion red or pale. T. Randolph.

   2.  Not  bright  or  brilliant; of a faint luster or hue; dim; as, the
   pale light of the moon.

     The  night,  methinks,  is but the daylight sick; It looks a little
     paler. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Pale is often used in the formation of self-explaining
     compounds;  as,  pale-colored, pale-eyed, pale-faced, pale-looking,


   Pale, n. Paleness; pallor. [R.] Shak.


   Pale,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paling.] To turn
   pale; to lose color or luster. Whittier.

     Apt to pale at a trodden worm. Mrs. Browning.


   Pale, v. t. To make pale; to diminish the brightness of.

     The glowpale his uneffectual fire. Shak.


   Pale,  n. [F. pal, fr. L. palus: cf. D. paal. See Pol a stake, and lst

   1. A pointed stake or slat, either driven into the ground, or fastened
   to a rail at the top and bottom, for fencing or inclosing; a picket.

     Deer creep through when a pale tumbles down. Mortimer.

   2.  That  which incloses or fences in; a boundary; a limit; a fence; a
   palisade. "Within one pale or hedge." Robynson (More's Utopia).

   3.  A  space  or  field  having  bounds or limits; a limited region or
   place; an inclosure; -- often used figuratively. "To walk the studious
   cloister's pale." Milton. "Out of the pale of civilization." Macaulay.

   4. A stripe or band, as on a garment. Chaucer.

   5.  (Her.)  One of the greater ordinaries, being a broad perpendicular
   stripe  in  an  escutcheon,  equally  distant  from the two edges, and
   occupying one third of it.

   6. A cheese scoop. Simmonds.

   7. (Shipbuilding) A shore for bracing a timber before it is fastened.
   English  pale  (Hist.), the limits or territory within which alone the
   English  conquerors  of  Ireland held dominion for a long period after
   their invasion of the country in 1172. Spencer.


   Pale,  v.  t. To inclose with pales, or as with pales; to encircle; to
   encompass; to fence off.

     [Your isle, which stands] ribbed and paled in With rocks unscalable
     and roaring waters. Shak.


   Pa"le*a (?), n.; pl. Pale\'91 (-&emac;). [L., chaff.]

   1.  (Bot.)  (a)  The interior chaff or husk of grasses. (b) One of the
   chaffy  scales or bractlets growing on the receptacle of many compound
   flowers, as the Coreopsis, the sunflower, etc.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A pendulous process of the skin on the throat of a bird,
   as in the turkey; a dewlap.


   Pa`le*a"ceous  (?),  a. [L. palea chaff.] (Bot.) Chaffy; resembling or
   consisting  of  pale\'91,  or  chaff;  furnished  with  chaff;  as,  a
   paleaceous receptacle.


   Pa`le*arc"tic  (?), a. [Paleo- + arctic.] Belonging to a region of the
   earth's  surface which includes all Europe to the Azores, Iceland, and
   all temperate Asia.


   Paled (?), a. [See 5th Pale.]

   1. Striped. [Obs.] "[Buskins] . . . paled part per part." Spenser.

   2. Inclosed with a paling. "A paled green." Spenser.


   Pa`le*\'89ch`i*noi"de*a  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Paleo-, and Echinoidea.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  An  extinct  order  of  sea urchins found in the Paleozoic
   rocks.  They had more than twenty vertical rows of plates. Called also
   Pal\'91echini. [Written also Pal\'91echinoidea.]

   Page 1032


   Pale"face`  (?), n. A white person; -- an appellation supposed to have
   been applied to the whites by the American Indians. J. F. Cooper.


   Pa`le*ich"thy*es  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Paleo-,  and Ichthyology.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  comprehensive  division  of  fishes  which includes the
   elasmobranchs and ganoids. [Written also Pal\'91ichthyes.]


   Pale"ly  (?), adv. [From Pale, a.] In a pale manner; dimly; wanly; not
   freshly or ruddily. Thackeray.


   Pal`em*pore"  (?), n. A superior kind of dimity made in India, -- used
   for  bed  coverings.  [Written  also  palampore,  palampoor,  etc.] De


   Pale"ness  (?),  n.  The  quality  or condition of being pale; want of
   freshness  or  ruddiness; a sickly whiteness; lack of color or luster;

     The blood the virgin's cheek forsook; A livid paleness spreads o'er
     all her look. Pope.


   Pa*len"que  (?), n. pl. (Ethnol.) A collective name for the Indians of
   Nicaragua and Honduras.


   Pa"le*o-  (?). [Gr. , adj.] A combining form meaning old, ancient; as,
   palearctic,   paleontology,  paleothere,  paleography.  [Written  also


   Pa`le*o*bot"a*nist (?), n. One versed in paleobotany.


   Pa`le*o*bot"a*ny   (?),   n.   [Paleo-   +  botany.]  That  branch  of
   paleontology which treats of fossil plants.


   Pa`le*o*car"ida  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ancient + , , , a kind of
   crustacean.]   (Zo\'94l.)   Same   as   Merostomata.   [Written   also


   Pa`le*o*cri*noi"de*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See Paleo-, and Crinoidea.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  suborder  of  Crinoidea  found chiefly in the Paleozoic


   Pa`le*o*crys"tic  (?),  a.  [Paleo-  + Gr. ice.] Of, pertaining to, or
   derived from, a former glacial formation.


   Pa`le*o*g\'91"an  (?),  a.  [Paleo-  +  Gr. the eart] (Zo\'94l.) Of or
   pertaining to the Eastern hemisphere. [Written also pal\'91og\'91an.]


   Pa"le*o*graph (?), n. An ancient manuscript.


   Pa`le*og"ra*pher (?), n. One skilled in paleography; a paleographist.

                         Paleographic, Paleographical

   Pa`le*o*graph"ic    (?),   Pa`le*o*graph"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   pal\'82ographique.] Of or pertaining to paleography.


   Pa`le*og"ra*phist (?), n. One versed in paleography; a paleographer.


   Pa`le*og"ra*phy, n. [Paleo- + -graphy: cf. F. pal\'82ographie.]

   1.  An  ancient manner of writing; ancient writings, collectively; as,
   Punic paleography.

   2.  The study of ancient inscriptions and modes of writing; the art or
   science of deciphering ancient writings, and determining their origin,
   period, etc., from external characters; diplomatics.


   Pa*le"o*la  (?),  n.;  pl.  Paleol\'91  (#).  [NL., dim. of L. palea.]
   (Bot.) A diminutive or secondary palea; a lodicule.


   Pa"le*o*lith  (?),  n.  [Paleo-  +  -lith.]  (Geol.)  A  relic  of the
   Paleolithic era.


   Pa`le*o*lith"ic  (?),  a. (Geol.) Of or pertaining to an era marked by
   early  stone  implements. The Paleolithic era (as proposed by Lubbock)
   includes the earlier half of the "Stone Age;" the remains belonging to
   it  are  for  the  most  part of extinct animals, with relics of human


   Pa`le*ol"ogist   (?),  n.  One  versed  in  paleology;  a  student  of


   Pa`le*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Paleo-  +  -logy.] The study or knowledge of
   antiquities,  esp. of prehistoric antiquities; a discourse or treatise
   on antiquities; arch\'91ology .


   Pa`le*on`to*graph"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to the description of
   fossil remains.


   Pa`le*on*tog"ra*phy (?), n. [Paleo- + Gr. -graphy.] The description of
   fossil remains.


   Pa`le*on`to*log"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to paleontology. --
   Pa`le*on`to*log"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Pa`le*on*tol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. pal\'82ontologiste.] One versed in


   Pa`le*on*tol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Paleo-  +  Gr. -logy. Cf. Ontology.] The
   science  which  treats of the ancient life of the earth, or of fossils
   which are the remains of such life.


   Pa`le*o*phy*tol"o*gist (?), n. A paleobotanist.


   Pa`le*o*phy*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Paleo- + phytology.] Paleobotany.


   Pa`le*or`ni*thol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Paleo- + ornithology.] The branch of
   paleontology which treats of fossil birds.


   Pa`le*o*sau"rus  (?),  n.[NL.,  fr. Gr. ancient + (Paleon.) A genus of
   fossil saurians found in the Permian formation.


   Pa`le*o*tech"nic   (?),  a.  [Paleo-  +  technic.]  Belonging  to,  or
   connected with, ancient art. "The paleotechnic men of central France."
   D. Wilson.


   Pa"le*o*there  (?), n. [F. pal\'82oth\'8are.] (Paleon.) Any species of


   Pa`le*o*the"ri*an  (?),  a.  [F.  pal\'82oth\'82rien.] (Paleon.) Of or
   pertaining to Paleotherium.


   Pa`le*o*the"ri*um  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.) An extinct genus of
   herbivorous  Tertiary  mammals,  once  supposed  to have resembled the
   tapir  in  form, but now known to have had a more slender form, with a
   long neck like that of a llama. [Written also Pal\'91otherium.]


   Pa`le*o*the"roid   (?),  [Paleothere  +  -oid.]  (Paleon.)  Resembling
   Paleotherium.   --   n.  An  animal  resembling,  or  allied  to,  the


   Pa"le*o*type (?), n. See Pal\'91otype.


   Pa"le*ous  (?),  a.  [L. palea chaff.] Chaffy; like chaff; paleaceous.
   [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Pa`le*o*zo"ic  (?),  a.  [Paleo- + Gr. (Geol.) Of or pertaining to, or
   designating,  the  older division of geological time during which life
   is  known  to  have  existed,  including  the  Silurian, Devonian, and
   Carboniferous  ages,  and also to the life or rocks of those ages. See
   Chart of Geology.


   Pa`le*o*zo*\'94l"o*gy (?), n. (Geol.) The Paleozoic time or strata.


   Pa`le*o*zo*\'94"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Paleo-  + zo\'94logy.] The science of
   extinct animals, a branch of paleontology.

                                Palesie, Palesy

   Pale"sie (?), Pale"sy, n. Palsy. [Obs.] Wyclif.

                           Palestinian, Palestinean

   Pal`es*tin"i*an  (?),  Pal`es*tin"e*an  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to


   Pa*les"tra  (?),  n.;  pl. L. Palestr\'91 (#), E. Palestras (#). [NL.,
   fr.  L.  palaestra,  Gr.  [Written  also  pal\'91stra.] (Antiq.) (a) A
   wrestling  school;  hence, a gymnasium, or place for athletic exercise
   in general. (b) A wrestling; the exercise of wrestling.

                      Palestrian, Palestric, Palestrical

   Pa*les"tri*an   (?),  Pa*les"tric  (?),  Pa*les"tric*al  (?),  a.  [L.
   palaestricus, Gr. Of or pertaining to the palestra, or to wrestling.


   Pal"et (?), n. [See Palea.] (Bot.) Same as Palea.


   Pal"e*tot  (?),  n. [F. paletot, OF. palletoc, prob. fr. L. palla (see
   Palla)  +  F.  toque cap, and so lit., a frock with a cap or hood; cf.
   Sp.  paletoque.] (a) An overcoat. Dickens. (b) A lady's outer garment,
   -- of varying fashion.


   Pal"ette (?), n. [See Pallet a thin board.]

   1. (Paint.) A thin, oval or square board, or tablet, with a thumb hole
   at  one  end  for  holding  it,  on which a painter lays and mixes his
   pigments. [Written also pallet.]

   2.  (Anc.  Armor) One of the plates covering the points of junction at
   the bend of the shoulders and elbows. Fairholt.

   3. (Mech.) A breastplate for a breast drill.
   Palette knife, a knife with a very flexible steel blade and no cutting
   edge,  rounded  at  the  end,  used  by  painters to mix colors on the
   grinding  slab or palette. -- To set the palette (Paint.), to lay upon
   it the required pigments in a certain order, according to the intended
   use of them in a picture. Fairholt.


   Pale"wise`  (?),  adv.  (Her.)  In  the  manner of a pale or pales; by
   perpendicular   lines  or  divisions;  as,  to  divide  an  escutcheon


   Pal"frey  (?),  n.  [OE.  palefrai,  OF.  palefrei,  F.  palefroi, LL.
   palafredus,  parafredus, from L. paraveredus a horse for extraordinary
   occasions, an extra post horse; Gr. veredus a post horse.]

   1.   A  saddle  horse  for  the  road,  or  for  state  occasions,  as
   distinguished from a war horse. Chaucer.

   2. A small saddle horse for ladies. Spenser.

     Call the host and bid him bring Charger and palfrey. Tennyson.


   Pal"freyed (?), a. Mounted on a palfrey. Tickell.


   Pal"grave (?), n. See Palsgrave.


   Pa"li (?), n., pl. of Palus.


   Pa"li  (?), n. [Ceylonese, fr. Skr. p\'beli row, line, series, applied
   to  the  series  of  Buddhist  sacred texts.] A dialect descended from
   Sanskrit,  and  like  that,  a  dead language, except when used as the
   sacred language of the Buddhist religion in Farther India, etc.


   Pal`i*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  palus a stake + -ficare (in comp.) to
   make:  cf.  F.  palification. See -fy.] The act or practice of driving
   piles or posts into the ground to make it firm. [R.] Sir H. Wotton.


   Pa"li*form  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Resembling a palus; as, the paliform
   lobes of the septa in corals.


   Pa*lil"o*gy  (?),  n.  [L.  palilogia, Gr. (Rhet.) The repetition of a
   word,  or  part  of  a sentence, for the sake of greater emphasis; as,
   "The living, the living, he shall praise thee." Is. xxxviii. 19.


   Pal"imp*sest  (?),  n. [L. palimpsestus, Gr. palimpseste.] A parchment
   which  has  been  written  upon  twice,  the first writing having been
   erased to make place for the second. Longfellow.


   Pal"in*drome  (?),  n.  [Gr.  palindrome.] A word, verse, or sentence,
   that  is the same when read backward or forward; as, madam; Hannah; or
   Lewd did I live, & evil I did dwel.

                          Palindromic, Palindromical

   Pal`in*drom"ic  (?),  Pal`in*drom"ic*al  (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or
   like, a palindrome.


   Pa*lin"dro*mist (?), n. A writer of palindromes.


   Pal"ing (?), n.

   1.  Pales,  in general; a fence formed with pales or pickets; a limit;
   an inclosure.

     They moved within the paling of order and decorum. De Quincey.

   2.  The  act  of  placing pales or stripes on cloth; also, the stripes
   themselves. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   Paling board, one of the slabs sawed from the sides of a log to fit it
   to be sawed into boards. [Eng.]


   Pal`in*ge*ne"si*a (?), n.[NL.] See Palingenesis.

                           Palingenesis, Palingenesy

   Pal`in*gen"e*sis (?), Pal`in*gen"e*sy (?), n. [Gr. paling\'82n\'82sie.
   See Genesis.]

   1.  A  new birth; a re-creation; a regeneration; a continued existence
   in different manner or form.

   2.  (Biol.)  That  form  of  evolution  in  which  the truly ancestral
   characters  conserved  by  heredity  are  reproduced  in  development;
   original simple descent; -- distinguished from kenogenesis. Sometimes,
   in zo\'94logy, the abrupt metamorphosis of insects, crustaceans, etc.


   Pal`in*ge*net"ic  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to palingenesis: as, a
   palingenetic process. -- Pal`in*ge*net"ic*al*ly (#), adv.


   Pal"i*node (?), n. [L. palinodia, from Gr. Ode.]

   1.  An  ode recanting, or retracting, a former one; also, a repetition
   of an ode.

   2. A retraction; esp., a formal retraction. Sandys.


   Pal`i*no"di*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to a palinode, or retraction.
   J. Q. Adams.


   Pal"i*no*dy (?), n. See Palinode. [Obs.] Wood.


   Pal`inu"rus  (?),  n.  [So  called  from  L.  Palinurus,  the pilot of
   \'92neas.]  (Naut.)  An  instrument  for  obtaining  directly, without
   calculation,  the true bearing of the sun, and thence the variation of
   the compass


   Pal`i*sade"  (?),  n.  [F. palissade, cf. Sp. palizada, It. palizzata,
   palizzo,  LL.  palissata;  all  fr. L. palus a stake, pale. See Pale a

   1. (Fort.) A strong, long stake, one end of which is set firmly in the
   ground,  and  the  other  is  sharpened;  also, a fence formed of such
   stakes set in the ground as a means of defense.

   2. Any fence made of pales or sharp stakes.
   Palisade  cells (Bot.), vertically elongated parenchyma cells, such as
   are seen beneath the epidermis of the upper surface of many leaves. --
   Palisade  worm  (Zo\'94l.),  a  nematoid  worm  (Strongylus  armatus),
   parasitic  in  the  blood  vessels  of the horse, in which it produces
   aneurisms, often fatal.


   Pal`i*sade",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Palisaded;  p.  pr.  &  vb. n.
   Palisading.]  [Cf.  F.  palissader.] To surround, inclose, or fortify,
   with palisades.


   Pal`i*sad"ing (?), n. Fort.) A row of palisades set in the ground.


   Pal`i*sa*"do (?), n.; pl. Palisadoes (. A palisade. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pal`i*sa"do, v. t. To palisade. [Obs.] Sterne.


   Pal"ish (?), a. Somewhat pale or wan.


   Pal`is*san"der  (?),  n. [F. palissandre.] (Bot.) (a) Violet wood. (b)


   Pal"is*sy  (?), a. Designating, or of the nature of, a kind of pottery
   made  by Bernard Palissy, in France, in the 16th centry. Palissy ware,
   glazed  pottery  like  that  made by Bernard Palissy; especially, that
   having figures of fishes, reptiles, etc., in high relief.


   Pal"kee  (?),  n.  [Hind.  p\'belk\'c6;  of  the  same  origin  as  E.
   palanquin.] A palanquin. Malcom.


   Pall (?), n. Same as Pawl.


   Pall,  n.  [OE. pal, AS. p\'91l, from L. pallium cover, cloak, mantle,
   pall; cf. L. palla robe, mantle.]

   1. An outer garment; a cloak mantle.

     His lion's skin changed to a pall of gold. Spenser.

   2.  A  kind of rich stuff used for garments in the Middle Ages. [Obs.]
   Wyclif (Esther viii. 15).

   3. (R. C. Ch.) Same as Pallium.

     About  this  time  Pope  Gregory  sent  two archbishop's palls into
     England, -- the one for London, the other for York. Fuller.

   4. (Her.) A figure resembling the Roman Catholic pallium, or pall, and
   having the form of the letter Y.

   5. A large cloth, esp., a heavy black cloth, thrown over a coffin at a
   funeral; sometimes, also, over a tomb.

     Warriors carry the warrior's pall. Tennyson.

   6. (Eccl.) A piece of cardboard, covered with linen and embroidered on
   one side; -- used to put over the chalice.


   Pall, v. t. To cloak. [R.] Shak


   Pall,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Palled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palling.]
   [Either  shortened  fr.  appall,  or fr. F. p\'83lir to grow pale. Cf.
   Appall,  Pale,  a.]  To  become vapid, tasteless, dull, or insipid; to
   lose strength, life, spirit, or taste; as, the liquor palls.

     Beauty  soon  grows  familiar  to  the lover, Fades in the eye, and
     palls upon the sense. Addisin.


   Pall, v. t.

   1.  To make vapid or insipid; to make lifeless or spiritless; to dull;
   to weaken. Chaucer.

     Reason and reflection . . . pall all his enjoyments. Atterbury.

   2. To satiate; to cloy; as, to pall the appetite.


   Pall, n. Nausea. [Obs.] Shaftesbury.


   Pal"la  (?),  n.  [L.  See  Pall  a  cloak.]  (Rom.  Antuq.) An oblong
   rectangular  piece  of  cloth, worn by Roman ladies, and fastened with


   Pal*la"di*an  (?),  a.  (Arch.)  Of,  pertaining to, or designating, a
   variety  of  the revived classic style of architecture, founded on the
   works of Andrea Palladio, an Italian architect of the 16th century.


   Pal*la"dic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  derived from,
   palladium;  -- used specifically to designate those compounds in which
   the  element  has  a  higher  valence  as  contrasted  with palladious


   Pal*la"di*ous  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Of,  pertaining  to,  or containing,
   palladium;  -- used specifically to designate those compounds in which
   palladium has a lower valence as compared with palladic compounds.


   Pal*la"di*um (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Gr.  Antiq.)  Any  statue of the goddess Pallas; esp., the famous
   statue  on  the  preservation  of which depended the safety of ancient

   2.  Hence:  That  which  affords  effectual  protection or security; a
   sateguard; as, the trial by jury is the palladium of our civil rights.


   Pal*la"di*um,  n.  [NL.]  (Chem.) A rare metallic element of the light
   platinum group, found native, and also alloyed with platinum and gold.
   It  is a silver-white metal resembling platinum, and like it permanent
   and  untarnished  in the air, but is more easily fusible. It is unique
   in  its  power  of  occluding hydrogen, which it does to the extent of
   nearly  a  thousand  volumes,  forming  the alloy Pd2H. It is used for
   graduated  circles and verniers, for plating certain silver goods, and
   somewhat  in  dentistry. It was so named in 1804 by Wollaston from the
   asteroid  Pallas,  which  was  discovered  in  1802. Symbol Pd. Atomic
   weight, 106.2.

   Page 1033


   Pala"di*um*ize  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Palladiumized (?); p. pr. &
   vb. n. Palladiumizing (?).] To cover or coat with palladium. [R.]


   Pal"lah (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A large South African antelope (\'92pyceros
   melampus).  The  male has long lyrate and annulated horns. The general
   color  is  bay,  with  a  black  crescent  on  the  croup. Called also


   Pal"las  (?),  n.  [L., fr. Gr. (Gr. Myth.) Pallas Athene, the Grecian
   goddess  of  wisdom,  called  also  Athene, and identified, at a later
   period, with the Roman Minerva.<-- usu. spelled Athena -->


   Pall"bear*er  (?), n. One of those who attend the coffin at a funeral;
   -- so called from the pall being formerly carried by them.


   Pal"let  (?),  n. [OE. paillet, F. paillet a heap of straw, fr. paille
   straw,  fr.  L.  palea chaff; cf. Gr. pala straw, pal\'beva chaff. Cf.
   Paillasse.] A small and mean bed; a bed of straw. Milton.


   Pa"let,  n.  [Dim.  of pale. See Pale a stake.] (Her.) A perpendicular
   band upon an escutcheon, one half the breadth of the pale.


   Pal"let,  n.  [F.  palette:  af.  It. paletta; prop. and orig., a fire
   shovel, dim. of L. pala a shovel, spade. See Peel a shovel.]

   1. (Paint.) Same as Palette.

   2.  (Pettery) (a) A wooden implement used by potters, crucible makers,
   etc.,  for  forming,  beating,  and  rounding their works. It is oval,
   round, and of other forms. (b) A potter's wheel.

   3.  (Gilding)  (a)  An  instrument  used to take up gold leaf from the
   pillow,  and  to  apply  it. (b) A tool for gilding the backs of books
   over the bands.

   4.  (Brickmaking) A board on which a newly molded brick is conveyed to
   the hack. Knight.

   5. (Mach.) (a) A click or pawl for driving a ratchet wheel. (b) One of
   the series of disks or pistons in the chain pump. Knight.

   6.  (Horology) One of the pieces or levers connected with the pendulum
   of  a  clock,  or  the balance of a watch, which receive the immediate
   impulse of the scape-wheel, or balance wheel. Brande & C.

   7.  (Mus.)  In the organ, a valve between the wind chest and the mouth
   of a pipe or row of pipes.

   8.  (Zo\'94l.)  One of a pair of shelly plates that protect the siphon
   tubes of certain bivalves, as the Teredo. See Illust. of Teredo.

   9. A cup containing three ounces, --


   Pal"li*al  (?),  a.  [L. pallium a mantle. See Pall.] (Zo\'94l.) Of or
   pretaining to a mantle, especially to the mantle of mollusks; produced
   by  the  mantle;  as, the pallial line, or impression, which marks the
   attachment  of the mantle on the inner surface of a bivalve shell. See
   Illust. of Bivalve. Pallial chamber (Zo\'94l.), the cavity inclosed by
   the  mantle.  --  Pallial  sinus  (Zo\'94l.), an inward bending of the
   pallial  line,  near  the  posterior end of certain bivalve shells, to
   receive the siphon. See Illust. of Bivalve.
   Pal"li*a*ment  (?),  n.  [LL.  palliare  to  clothe,  fr. L. pallium a
   manltle. See Pall the garment.] A dress; a robe. [Obs.] Shak. 


   Pal"liard  (?), n. [F. paillard, orig., one addicted to the couch, fr.
   paille straw. See Pallet a small bed.]

   1. A born beggar; a vagabond. [Obs.] Halliwell.

   2. A lecher; a lewd person. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Pal*liasse" (?), n. See Paillasse.


   Pal"li*ate  (?),  a.  [L. palliatus, fr. pallium a cloak. See Pall the

   1. Covered with a mant [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

   2. Eased; mitigated; alleviated. [Obs.] Bp. Fell.


   Pal"li*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Palliated(?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To cover with a mantle or cloak; to cover up; to hide. [Obs.]

     Being palliated with a pilgrim's coat. Sir T. Herbert.

   2.  To  cover with excuses; to conceal the enormity of, by excuses and
   apologies; to extenuate; as, to palliate faults.

     They never hide or palliate their vices. Swift.

   3.  To  reduce  in  violence; to lessen or abate; to mitigate; to ease
   withhout curing; as, to palliate a disease.

     To palliate dullness, and give time a shove. Cowper.

   Syn.  --  To  cover;  cloak; hide; extenuate; conceal. -- To Palliate,
   Extenuate,  Cloak.  These  words,  as  here  compared,  are  used in a
   figurative  sense  in  reference  to our treatment of wrong action. We
   cloak  in  order  to  conceal completely. We extenuate a crime when we
   endeavor to show that it is less than has been supposed; we palliate a
   crime  when  we endeavor to cover or conceal its enormity, at least in
   part. This naturally leads us to soften some of its features, and thus
   palliate  approaches  extenuate  till they have become nearly or quite
   identical.  "To  palliate  is not now used, though it once was, in the
   sense  of  wholly cloaking or covering over, as it might be, our sins,
   but in that of extenuating; to palliate our faults is not to hide them
   altogether, but to seek to diminish their guilt in part." Trench.


   Pal`li*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. palliation.]

   1.  The  act  of palliating, or state of being palliated; extenuation;
   excuse; as, the palliation of faults, offenses, vices.

   2. Mitigation; alleviation, as of a disease. Bacon.

   3.  That  which  cloaks  or covers; disguise; also, the state of being
   covered or disguised. [Obs.]


   Pal"li*a*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. palliatif.] Serving to palliate; serving
   to extenuate or mitigate.


   Pal"li*a*tive (?), n. That which palliates; a palliative agent. Sir W.


   Pal"li*a*to*ry (?), a. Palliative; extenuating.


   Pal"lid  (?),  a.  [L.  pallidus,  fr. pallere to be or look pale. See
   pale,  a.]  Deficient  in  color; pale; wan; as, a pallid countenance;
   pallid blue. Spenser.


   Pal*lid"i*ty (?), n. Pallidness; paleness.


   Pal"lid*ly (?), adv. In a pallid manner.


   Pal"lid*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state  of being pallid; paleness;
   pallor; wanness.


   Pal`li*o*bran`chi*a"ta   (?),   n.   pl.   [NL.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Same  as


   Pal`li*o*bran"chi*ate  (?), a. [See Pallium, and Branchia.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Having the pallium, or mantle, acting as a gill, as in brachiopods.


   Pal"li*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  L.  Pallia(Palliums  (#).  [L. See Pall the

   1.  (Anc.  Costume)  A large, square, woolen cloak which enveloped the
   whole  person,  worn  by  the  Greeks and by certain Romans. It is the
   Roman name of a Greek garment.

   2.  (R.C.Ch.)  A  band of white wool, worn on the shoulders, with four
   purple crosses worked on it; a pall.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e wo ol is  ob tained from two lambs brought to the
     basilica  of  St. Agnes, Rome, and blessed. It is worn by the pope,
     and  sent  to patriarchs, primates, and archbishops, as a sign that
     they  share  in the plenitude of the episcopal office. Befoer it is
     sent,  the  pallium  is  laid  on  the  tomb of St. Peter, where it
     remains all night.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) The mantle of a bivalve. See Mantle. (b) The mantle
   of a bird.


   Pall`-mall"  (?),  n.  [OF. palemail, It. pallamagio; palla a ball (of
   German  origin,  akin  to E. ball) + magio hammer, fr. L. malleus. See
   lst  Ball,  and  Mall a beetle.] A game formerly common in England, in
   which  a wooden ball was driven with a mallet through an elevated hoop
   or  ring  of  iron. The name was also given to the mallet used, to the
   place  where  the game was played, and to the street, in London, still
   called  Pall  Mall.  [Written  also  pail-mail  and pell-mell.] Sir K.
   Digby. Evelyn.


   Pal*lo"ne (?), n. [It., a large ball, fr. palla ball. See Balloon.] An
   Italian game, played with a large leather ball.


   Pal"lor  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. pallere to be or look pale. See Pale, a.]
   Paleness; want of color; pallidity; as, pallor of the complexion. Jer.


   Palm  (?), n. [OE. paume, F. paume, L. palma, Gr. p\'beni hand, and E.
   fumble. See Fumble, Feel, and cf. 2d Palm.]

   1. (Anat.) The inner and somewhat concave part of the hand between the
   bases of the fingers and the wrist.

     Clench'd her fingers till they bit the palm. Tennyson.

   2.  A lineal measure equal either to the breadth of the hand or to its
   length  from  the wrist to the ends of the fingers; a hand; -- used in
   measuring a horse's height.

     NOTE: &hand; In  Greece, the palm was reckoned at three inches. The
     Romans  adopted  two measures of this name, the lesser palm of 2.91
     inches,  and  the  greater palm of 8.73 inches. At the present day,
     this  measure  varies in the most arbitrary manner, being different
     in each country, and occasionally varying in the same.

   Internat. Cyc.

   3.  (Sailmaking)  A  metallic  disk, attached to a strap, and worn the
   palm  of  the  hand, -- used to push the needle through the canvas, in
   sewing sails, etc.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  broad  flattened  part  of  an  antler,  as  of a
   full-grown  fallow  deer;  --  so called as resembling the palm of the
   hand with its protruding fingers.

   5. (Naut.) The flat inner face of an anchor fluke.


   Palm,  n.  [AS.  palm, L. palma; -- so named fr. the leaf resembling a
   hand. See lst Palm, and cf. Pam.]

   1.  (Bot.) Any endogenous tree of the order Palm\'91 or Palmace\'91; a
   palm tree.

     NOTE: &hand; Pa lms ar e pe rennial woody plants, often of majestic
     size.  The  trunk  is  usually erect and rarely branched, and has a
     roughened  exterior  composed  of  the persistent bases of the leaf
     stalks. The leaves are borne in a terminal crown, and are supported
     on  stout,  sheathing, often prickly, petioles. They are usually of
     great size, and are either pinnately or palmately many-cleft. There
     are about one thousand species known, nearly all of them growing in
     tropical  or semitropical regions. The wood, petioles, leaves, sap,
     and  fruit  of  many  species  are  invaluable  in  the arts and in
     domestic economy. Among the best known are the date palm, the cocoa
     palm,  the  fan  palm, the oil palm, the wax palm, the palmyra, and
     the various kinds called cabbage palm and palmetto.

   2.  A  branch or leaf of the palm, anciently borne or worn as a symbol
   of victory or rejoicing.

     A  great  multitude  .  . . stood before the throne, and before the
     Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palme in their hands. Rev. vii.

   3.  Hence:  Any  symbol  or token of superiority, success, or triumph;
   also, victory; triumph; supremacy. "The palm of martyrdom." Chaucer.

     So  get  the  start  of the majestic world And bear the palm alone.

   Molucca  palm  (Bot.),  a labiate herb from Asia (Molucella l\'91vis),
   having  a  curious cup-shaped calyx. -- Palm cabbage, the terminal bud
   of  a  cabbage  palm, used as food. -- Palm cat (Zo\'94l.), the common
   paradoxure.  --  Palm  crab (Zo\'94l.), the purse crab. -- Palm oil, a
   vegetable oil, obtained from the fruit of several species of palms, as
   the   African   oil  palm  (El\'91is  Guineensis),  and  used  in  the
   manufacture   of  soap  and  candles.  See  El\'91is.  --  Palm  swift
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  small swift (Cypselus Btassiensis) which frequents the
   palmyra  and cocoanut palms in India. Its peculiar nest is attached to
   the  leaf  of  the  palmyra palm. -- Palm toddy. Same as Palm wine. --
   Palm  weevil  (Zo\'94l.),  any  one  of mumerous species of very large
   weevils of the genus Rhynchophorus. The larv\'91 bore into palm trees,
   and  are  called  palm  borers,  and grugru worms. They are considered
   excellent  food.  --  Palm  wine, the sap of several species of palms,
   especially,  in  India,  of the wild date palm (Ph\'d2nix sylvestrix),
   the  palmyra,  and  the  Caryota  urens.  When  fermented it yields by
   distillation  arrack,  and  by  evaporation  jaggery. Called also palm
   toddy.  --  Palm worm, OR Palmworm. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The larva of a palm
   weevil. (b) A centipede.


   Palm (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Palmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palming.]

   1. To handle. [Obs.] Prior.

   2. To manipulate with, or conceal in, the palm of the hand; to juggle.

     They palmed the trick that lost the game. Prior.

   3.  To impose by frand, as by sleight of hand; to put by unfair means;
   -- usually with off.

     For you may palm upon us new for old. Dryden.


   Pal*ma"ceous  (?),  a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to palms; of the nature
   of, or resembling, palms.

                                 Palma Christi

   Pal"ma  Chris"ti  (?).  [L.,  palm of Christ.] (Bot.) A plant (Ricinus
   communis) with ornamental peltate and palmately cleft foliage, growing
   as  a  woody perennial in the tropics, and cultivated as an herbaceous
   annual   in  temperate  regions;  --  called  also  castor-oil  plant.
   [Sometimes corrupted into palmcrist.]


   Pal"ma*cite (?), n. (Paleon.) A fossil palm.


   Pal"mar  (?),  a. [L. palmaris, fr. palma the palm of the hand: cf. F.

   1. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or corresponding with, the palm of the hand.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the under side of the wings of


   Pal*ma"ri*um  (?),  n.; pl. Palmaria (#). [NL. See Palmar.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One of the bifurcations of the brachial plates of a crinoid.


   Pal"ma*ry (?), a. (Anat.) Palmar.


   Pal"ma*ry,  a.  [L. palmarius, palmaris, belonging to palms, deserving
   the  palm  or  prize,  fr.  palma  a palm.] Worthy of the palm; palmy;
   pre\'89minent;  superior;  principal;  chief;  as,  palmary  work. Br.


   Pal"mate  (?),  n.(Chem.)  A  salt  of  palmic  acid;  a  ricinoleate.

                               Palmate, Palmated

   Pal"mate  (?), Pal"ma*ted (?), a. [L. palmatus marked with the palm of
   a hand, from palma the palm of the hand.]

   1.  Having  the  shape of the hand; resembling a hand with the fingers

   2.  (Bot.) Spreading from the apex of a petiole, as the divisions of a
   leaf,  or leaflets, so as to resemble the hand with outspread fingers.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) (a) Having the anterior toes united by a web, as in most
   swimming  birds;  webbed.  See  Illust. (i) under Aves. (b) Having the
   distal  portion  broad,  flat, and more or less divided into lobes; --
   said of certain corals, antlers, etc.


   Pal"mate*ly (?), adv. In a palmate manner.


   Pal*mat"i*fid  (?),  a.  [L.  palmatus  palmate  +  root of findere to
   split.]  (Bot.)  Palmate, with the divisions separated but little more
   than halfway to the common center.


   Pal*mat"i*lobed  (?),  a.  [L.  palmatus  palmate  + E. lobed.] (Bot.)
   Palmate,  with the divisions separated less than halfway to the common

                          Palmatisect, Palmatisected

   Pal*mat"i*sect  (?),  Pal*mat`i*sect"ed (?), a. [L. palmatus palmate +
   secare to cut.] (Bot.) Divided, as a palmate leaf, down to the midrib,
   so that the parenchyma is interrupted.


   Palm"crist  (?), n. The palma Christi. (Jonah iv. 6, margin, and Douay
   version, note.)


   Palmed  (?),  a.  Having  or  bearing  a  palm  or  palms. Paimed deer
   (Zo\'94l.), a stag of full growth, bearing palms. See lst Palm, 4.


   Palm"er  (?),  n.  [From  Palm,  v. t.] One who palms or cheats, as at
   cards or dice.


   Palm"er,  n.[From  Palm  the  tree.]  A  wandering  religious  votary;
   especially,  one  who  bore  a  branch  of palm as a token that he had
   visited the Holy Land and its sacred places. Chaucer.

     Pilgrims and palmers plighted them together. P. Plowman.

     The  pilgrim  had some home or dwelling place, the palmer had none.
     The pilgrim traveled to some certain, designed place or places, but
     the palmer to all. T. Staveley.


   Palm"er*worm`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  Any  hairy caterpillar which
   appears  in great numbers, devouring herbage, and wandering about like
   a  palmer.  The name is applied also to other voracious insects. Joel.
   i.  4.  (b)  In  America, the larva of any one of several moths, which
   destroys  the  foliage  of  fruit  and forest trees, esp. the larva of
   Ypsolophus pometellus, which sometimes appears in vast numbers.


   Pal*mette"  (?),  n.  [F.,  dim.  of palme a palm.] A floral ornament,
   common  in  Greek  and other ancient architecture; -- often called the
   honeysuckle ornament.


   Pal*met"to  (?), n. [Dim. of palm the tree: cf. Sp. palmito.] (Bot.) A
   name  given to palms of several genera and species growing in the West
   Indies  and the Southern United States. In the United States, the name
   is  applied  especially  to  the Cham\'91rops, OR Sabal, Palmetto, the
   cabbage  tree  of  Florida  and the Carolinas. See Cabbage tree, under

   Page 1034

   Royal  palmetto,  the  West  Indian  Sabal umbraculifera, the trunk of
   which,  when  hollowed,  is  used for water pipes, etc. The leaves are
   used  for thatching, and for making hats, ropes, etc. -- Saw palmetto,
   Sabal serrulata, a native of Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida. The
   nearly impassable jungle which it forms is called palmetto scrub.
   Pal"mic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  palmique.]  (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or
   derived  from,  the  castor-oil  plant  (Ricinus  communis,  or  Palma
   Christi);  -- formerly used to designate an acid now called ricinoleic
   acid. [Obsoles.] 


   Pal`mi*dac"ty*les (?), n. pl. [NL. See Palm, and Dactyl.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   group of wading birds having the toes webbed, as the avocet.


   Pal*mif"er*ous  (?), a.[L. palmifer; palma a palm + ferre to bear: cf.
   F. palmif\'8are.] Bearing palms.


   Pal"mi*grade  (?),  a.  [L.  palma  palm of the hand + gradi to walk.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Putting the whole foot upon the ground in walking, as some


   Pal"min  (?),  n.  [From palma Christi: cf. F. palmine.] (Chem.) (a) A
   white   waxy   or  fatty  substance  obtained  from  castor  oil.  (b)
   Ricinolein. [Obs.]


   Pal"mi*ped (?), a.[L. palmipes, -edis, broad-footed; palma the palm of
   the hand + pes a foot; cf. F. palmip\'8ade.] (Zo\'94l.) Web-footed, as
   a water fowl. -- n. A swimming bird; a bird having webbed feet.


   Pal*mip"e*des (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as Natatores.


   Pal"mis*ter  (?),  n.  [From  Palm  of  the  hand.]  One who practices
   palmistry Bp. Hall.


   Pal`mis*try (?), n.[See Palmister.]

   1.  The art or practice of divining or telling fortunes, or of judging
   of  character,  by  the  lines  and  marks  in  the  palm of the hand;
   chiromancy. Ascham. Cowper.

   2. A dexterous use or trick of the hand. Addison.


   Pal"mi*tate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of palmitic acid.


   Pal"mite  (?),  n. [From Palm.] (Bot.) A South African plant (Prionium
   Palmita)  of  the  Rush family, having long serrated leaves. The stems
   have been used for making brushes.


   Pal*mit"ic  (?),  a. (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from,
   palmitin  or  palm  oil;  as,  palmitic acid, a white crystalline body
   belonging  to  the  fatty  acid  series.  It is readily soluble in hot
   alcohol, and melts to a liquid oil at 62 C.


   Pal"mi*tin (?), n. [So called because abundant in palm oil.] (Physiol.
   Chem.)  A solid crystallizable fat, found abundantly in animals and in
   vegetables.  It  occurs  mixed  with  stearin  and olein in the fat of
   animal  tissues, with olein and butyrin in butter, with olein in olive
   oil,  etc.  Chemically,  it  is  a  glyceride  of palmitic acid, three
   molecules  of  palmitic acid being united to one molecule of glyceryl,
   and   hence   it   is  technically  called  tripalmitin,  or  glyceryl


   Pal`mi*tol"ic (?), a. [Palmitic + -oleic + ic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
   or  designating, an artificial acid of the oleic acid series, isomeric
   with linoleic acid.


   Pal"mi*tone (?), n. (Chem.) The ketone of palmitic acid.

                                  Palm Sunday

   Palm" Sun`day (?). (Eccl.) The Sunday next before Easter; -- so called
   in  commemoration of our Savior's triumphal entry into Jerusalem, when
   the multitude strewed palm branches in the way.


   Palm"y (?), a.

   1.  Bearing palms; abounding in palms; derived from palms; as, a palmy
   shore. Pope.

     His golden sands and palmy wine. Goldsmith.

   2. Worthy of the palm; flourishing; prosperous.

     In the most high and palmy state of Rome. Shak.


   Pal*my"ra  (?),  n. (Bot.) A species of palm (Borassus flabelliformis)
   having  a  straight,  black, upright trunk, with palmate leaves. It is
   found  native  along  the  entire northern shores of the Indian Ocean,
   from  the  mouth  of the Tigris to New Guinea. More than eight hundred
   uses  to which it is put are enumerated by native writers. Its wood is
   largely  used  for  building  purposes;  its fruit and roots serve for
   food, its sap for making toddy, and its leaves for thatching huts.


   Pa*lo"la  (?), n. [Fr. the native name.] (Zo\'94l.) An annelid (Palola
   viridis)  which, at certain seasons of the year, swarms at the surface
   of the sea about some of the Pcific Islands, where it is collected for


   Pal`lo*me"ta (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A pompano.


   Palp (?), n. [Cf. F. palpe. See Palpable.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as Palpus.


   Palp,  v.  t. [L. palpare: cf. F. palper.] To have a distinct touch or
   feeling of; to feel. [Obs.]

     To bring a palp\'8ad darkness o'er the earth. Heywood.


   Pal`pa*bil"i*ty  (?), n. The quality of being palpable, or perceptible
   by the touch. Arbuthnot.


   Pal"pa*ble  (?),  a. [F. palpable, L. palpabilis, fr. palpare to feel,
   stroke; cf. palpus the soft palm of the hand.]

   1.  Capable of being touched and felt; perceptible by the touch; as, a
   palpable form. Shak.

     Darkness must overshadow all his bounds, Palpable darkness. Milton.

   2. Easily perceptible; plain; distinct; obvious; readily perceived and
   detected;  gross; as, palpable imposture; palpable absurdity; palpable
   errors. "Three persons palpable." P. Plowman.

     [Lies] gross as a mountain, open, palpable. Shak.

   -- Pal"pa*ble*ness, n. -- Pal"pa*bly, adv.


   Pal*pa"tion (?), n. [L. palpatio, fr. palpare. See Palpable.]

   1. Act of touching or feeling.

   2. (Med.) Examination of a patient by touch. Quain.


   Pal*pa"tor  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  stroker.] (Zo\'94l.) One of a family of
   clavicorn  beetles,  including  those  which  have very long maxillary


   Pal"pe*bra (?), n.; pl. Palpebr\'91 (#). [L.] (Zo\'94l.) The eyelid.


   Pal"pe*bral   (?),   a.   [L.   palpebralis,   fr.  palpebra:  cf.  F.
   palp\'82bral.] Of or pertaining to the eyelids.


   Pal"pr*brate (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Having eyelids.


   Palped (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Having a palpus.


   Pal"pi (?), n., pl. of Palpus. (Zo\'94l.) See Palpus.


   Pal"pi*corn (?), n. [See Palpus, and Cornu.] (Zo\'94l.) One of a group
   of  aquatic beetles (Palpicornia) having short club-shaped antenn\'91,
   and long maxillary palpi.


   Pal"pi*fer  (?),  n.  [Palpus  + L. ferre to bear.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Pal"pi*form  (?),  a.  [Palpus + -form: cf. F. palpiforme.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Having the form of a palpus.


   Pal"pi*ger  (?),  n. [See Palpigerous.] (Zo\'94l.) That portion of the
   labium which bears the palpi in insects.


   Pal*pig"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Palpus  +  -gerous.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Bearing a
   palpus. Kirby.


   Pal"pi*tant  (?),  a.  [L.  palpitans, p. pr.] Palpitating; throbbing;
   trembling. Carlyle.


   Pal"pi*tate  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Palpitated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Palpitating(?).]  [L.  palpitare,  palpitatum, v. intens. fr. pappare.
   See Palpable.] To beat rapidly and more strongly than usual; to throb;
   to  bound  with emotion or exertion; to pulsate violently; to flutter;
   -- said specifically of the heart when its action is abnormal, as from


   Pal`pi*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L. palpitatio: cf. F. palpitation.] A rapid
   pulsation;  a throbbing; esp., an abnormal, rapid beating of the heart
   as when excited by violent exertion, strong emotion, or by disease.


   Palp"less (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Without a palpus.


   Pal"po*cil  (?), n. [See Palpus, and Cilium.] (Zo\'94l.) A minute soft
   filamentary process springing from the surface of certain hydroids and


   Pal"pus  (?),  n.; pl. Palpi (#). [NL. See Palp.] (Zo\'94l.) A feeler;
   especially,  one  of  the  jointed  sense organs attached to the mouth
   organs  of  insects,  arachnids,  crustaceans,  and  annelids; as, the
   mandibular palpi, maxillary palpi, and labial palpi. The palpi of male
   spiders  serve  as  sexual  organs.  Called  also palp. See Illust. of
   Arthrogastra and Orthoptera.


   Pals"grave` (?), n. [D. paltsgraaf; palts palace (l. palatium) + graaf
   count;  cf.  G.  pfalzgraf. See Palace, and Landgrave.] (Ger. Hist.) A
   count  or  earl  who  presided  in  the  domestic  court,  and had the
   superintendence, of a royal household in Germany.


   Pals"gra*vine`  (?),  n.[D.  paltsgravin:  cf.  G.  pfalzgrafin.]  The
   consort or widow of a palsgrave.


   Pal"si*cal   (?),   a.[From  Palsy.]  Affected  with  palsy;  palsied;
   paralytic. [R.] Johnson.


   Pal"sied (?), a. Affected with palsy; paralyzed.


   Pal"stave`  (?),  n.  [Dan.  paalstav.] A peculiar bronze adz, used in
   prehistoric Europe about the middle of the bronze age. Dawkins.


   Pal"ster   (?),   n.  [D.  palsterstaf.]  A  pilgrim's  staff.  [Obs.]


   Pal"sy (?), n.; pl. Palsies (#). [OE. palesie, parlesy, OF. paralesie,
   F. paralysie, L. paralysis. See Paralysis.] (Med.) Paralysis, complete
   or partial. See Paralysis. "One sick of the palsy." Mark ii. 3. Bell's
   palsy, paralysis of the facial nerve, producing distortion of one side
   of  the  face;  -- so called from Sir Charles Bell, an English surgeon
   who  described  it.  --  Scrivener's  palsy. See Writer's cramp, under
   Writer.  --  Shaking  palsy,  paralysis  agitans,  a  disease  usually
   occurring  in  old  people,  characterized  by  muscular tremors and a
   peculiar shaking and tottering gait.
   Pal"sy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Palsied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Palsying.] To
   affect  with  palsy, or as with palsy; to deprive of action or energy;
   to paralyze. 


   Pal"sy*wort`  (?), n. (Bot.) The cowslip (Primula veris); -- so called
   from its supposed remedial powers. Dr. Prior.


   Pal"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Paltered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Paltering.] [See Paltry.]

   1. To haggle. [Obs.] Cotgrave.

   2.  To  act  in  insincere  or  deceitful  manner;  to  play false; to
   equivocate; to shift; to dodge; to trifle.

     Romans, that have spoke the word, And will not palter. Shak.

     Who  never  sold  the  truth  to  serve the hour, Nor paltered with
     eternal God for power. Tennyson.

   3. To babble; to chatter. [Obs.]


   Pal"ter, v. t. To trifle with; to waste; to squander in paltry ways or
   on  worthless  things.  [Obs.]  "Palter  out  your  time  in the penal
   statutes." Beau. & Fl.


   Pal"ter*er (?), n. One who palters. Johnson.


   Pal"ter*ly,  a.  &  adv.  Paltry; shabby; shabbily; paltrily. [Obs. or
   Prov. Eng.] "In palterly clothes." Pepys.


   Pal"tock  (?),  n.  [See Paletot.] A kind of doublet; a jacket. [Obs.]
   Piers Plowman.


   Pal"tri*ly (?), adv. In a paltry manner.


   Pal"tri*ness, n. The state or quality of being paltry.


   Pal"try (?), a. [Compar. Paltrier (; superl. Paltriest.] [Cf. Prov. E.
   paltry  refuse, rubbish, LG. paltering ragged, palte, palter, a rag, a
   tatter,  Dan.  pialt,  Sw.  palta, pl. paltor.] Mean; vile; worthless;
   despicable;  contemptible;  pitiful;  trifling;  as,  a paltry excuse;
   paltry gold. Cowper.

     The paltry prize is hardly worth the cost. Byron.

   Syn. -- See Contemptible.


   Pa*lu"dal  (?),  a.  [L.  palus,  -udis, a marsh.] Of or pertaining to
   marshes  or  fens;  marshy.  [R.] Paludal fever, malarial fever; -- so
   called because generated in marshy districts.


   Pa*lu"da*ment (?), n. See Paludamentum.


   Pa*lu`da*men*tum  (?),  n.; pl. Paladumenta ( (Rom. Antiq.) A military
   cloak worn by a general and his principal officers.


   Pal`u*dic"o*l\'91  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL., fr. L. palus, -udis, a marsh +
   colere  to  inhabit.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  division of birds, including the
   cranes, rails, etc.


   Pa*lu"di*cole    (?),    a.    [Cf.    F.    paludicole.]   (Zo\'94l.)
   Marsh-inhabiting; belonging to the Paludicol\'91


   Pal`u*di"na  (?),  n.; pl. L. Paludin\'91 (#), E. Paludinas (#). [NL.,
   fr.  L.  palus,  -udis, a marsh, pool.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of numerous
   species   of   freshwater  pectinibranchiate  mollusks,  belonging  to
   Paludina,  Melantho, and allied genera. They have an operculated shell
   which  is  usually  green, often with brown bands. See Illust. of Pond
   snail, under Pond.


   Pal`u*di"nal (?), a. Inhabiting ponds or swamps.


   Pal"u*dine  (?),  a. [L. palus, -udis, a marsh.] Of or pertaining to a
   marsh. Buckland.


   Pa*lu"di*nous (?), a.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  Paludinal.  (b)  Like  or pertaining to the genus

   2. Of or pertaining to a marsh or fen. [R.]


   Pa*lu"dism  (?),  n.  (Med.) The morbid phenomena produced by dwelling
   among marshes; malarial disease or disposition.


   Pal"u*dose`  (?), a.[L. paludosus marshy.] Growing or living in marshy
   places; marshy.


   Pal"ule (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Palulus or Palus.


   Pal"u*lus  (?),  n.;  pl. Paluli (#). [NL., dim. of L. palus a stake.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Same as Palus.


   Pa"lus (?), n.; pl. Pali (#). [L., a stake.] (Zo\'94l.) One of several
   upright  slender  calcareous processes which surround the central part
   of the calicle of certain corals.


   Pa*lus"tral  (?), a. [L. paluster, -ustris.] Of or pertaining to a bog
   or marsh; boggy. [R.]


   Pa*lus"trine  (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or living in, a marsh or
   swamp; marshy.


   Pal"y (?), a. [From Pale, a.] Pale; wanting color; dim. [Poetic] Shak.


   Pal"y, a. [Cf. F. pal\'82. See Pale a stake.] (Her.) Divided into four
   or  more  equal  parts  by  perpendicular  lines, and of two different
   tinctures disposed alternately.


   Pam  (?), n. [From Palm victory; cf. trump, fr. triumph.] The knave of
   clubs. [Obs.] Pope.


   Pa"ment (?), n. A pavement. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pam"pa*no (?), n. [Sp.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as Pompano.


   Pam"pas  (?),  n.  pl.  [Sp.,  fr.  Peruv. pampa a field, plain.] Vast
   plains  in  the central and southern part of the Argentine Republic in
   South  America.  The  term  is sometimes used in a wider sense for the
   plains  extending  from  Bolivia  to  Southern  Patagonia.  Pampas cat
   (Zo\'94l.),  a South American wild cat (Felis pajeros). It has oblique
   transverse bands of yellow or brown. It is about three and a half feet
   long.  Called  also  straw  cat.  --  Pampas deer (Zo\'94l.), a small,
   reddish-brown,   South   American   deer   (Cervus,   OR  Blastocerus,
   campestris).  --  Pampas  grass  (Bot.),  a very tall ornamental grass
   (Gynerium  argenteum)  with  a  silvery-white  silky  panicle. It is a
   native of the pampas of South America.


   Pam"per  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Pampered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Pampering.]  [Cf.  LG.  pampen, slampampen, to live luxuriously, pampe
   thick pap, and E. pap.]

   1.  To  feed  to the full; to feed luxuriously; to glut; as, to pamper
   the  body or the appetite. "A body . . . pampered for corruption." Dr.
   T. Dwight.

   2. To gratify inordinately; to indulge to excess; as, to pamper pride;
   to pamper the imagination. South.


   Pam"pered  (?),  a.  Fed  luxuriously;  indulged  to  the full; hence,
   luxuriant.  "Pampered  boughs." Milton. "Pampered insolence." Pope. --
   Pam"pered*ness, n. Bp. Hall.


   Pam"per*er (?), n. One who, or that which, pampers. Cowper.


   Pam"per*ize (?), v. t. To pamper. [R.] Sydney Smith.


   Pam*pe"ro  (?),  n.[Sp.,  fr.  pampa a plain.] A violent wind from the
   west  or  southwest, which sweeps over the pampas of South America and
   the adjacent seas, often doing great damage. Sir W. Parish.


   Pam*pe"ros  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Pampero (. [Sp. American.] (Ethnol.) A
   tribe of Indians inhabiting the pampas of South America.


   Pam"phlet  (?),  n. [OE. pamflet, pamfilet, paunflet, possibly fr. OF.
   palme the palm of the hand, F. paume (see Palm) + OF. fueillet a leaf,
   dim.  of  fueil,  m.,  F.  feuille, f., fr. L. folium, pl. folia, thus
   meaning,  a  leaf to be held in the hand; or perh. through old French,
   fr.  L.  Pamphila,  a  female historian of the first century who wrote
   many  epitomes; prob., however, fr. OF. Pamflette, the Old French name
   given  to  Pamphilus,  a  poem  in  Latin  verse  of the 12th century,
   pamphlets being named from the popularity of this poem.]

   1. A writing; a book. Testament of love.

     Sir Thomas More in his pamphlet of Richard the Third. Ascham.

   2.  A small book consisting of a few sheets of printed paper, stitched
   together,  often  with  a paper cover, but not bound; a short essay or
   written discussion, usually on a subject of current interest.

   Page 1035


   Pam"phlet (?), v. i. To write a pamphlet or pamphlets. [R.] Howell.


   Pam`phlet*eer"  (?),  n.  A  writer of pamphlets; a scribbler. Dryden.


   Pam`phlet*eer", v. i. To write or publish pamphlets.

     By pamphleteering we shall not win. C. Kingsley.


   Pam*pin"i*form (?), a. [L. pampinus a tendril + -form.] (Anat.) In the
   form  of  tendrils; -- applied especially to the spermatic and ovarian


   Pam"pre  (?),  n.  [F. pampre a vine branch, L. pampinus.] (Sculp.) An
   ornament,  composed  of  vine  leaves  and bunches of grapes, used for
   decorating spiral columns.


   Pam`pro*dac"tyl*ous (?), a. [Pan- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Having all the toes
   turned forward, as the colies.

                             Pan-, Panta-, Panto-

   Pan-  (?),  Pan"ta-  (?), Pan"to- (?). [Gr. Combining forms signifying
   all,  every;  as,  panorama,  pantheism,  pantagraph, pantograph. Pan-
   becomes pam- before b or p, as pamprodactylous.


   Pan, n. [OE. See 2d Pane.]

   1. A part; a portion.

   2.  (Fort.) The distance comprised between the angle of the epaule and
   the flanked angle.

   3. [Perh. a different word.] A leaf of gold or silver.


   Pan,  v. t. & i. [Cf. F. pan skirt, lappet, L. pannus a cloth, rag, W.
   panu  to  fur,  to  full.]  To  join or fit together; to unite. [Obs.]


   Pan (?), n. [Hind. p\'ben, Skr. parna leaf.] The betel leaf; also, the
   masticatory made of the betel leaf, etc. See .


   Pan (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Gr. Myth.) The god of shepherds, guardian of
   bees,  and patron of fishing and hunting. He is usually represented as
   having  the head and trunk of a man, with the legs, horns, and tail of
   a  goat,  and  as  playing on the shepherd's pipe, which he is said to
   have invented.


   Pan,  n.  [OE.  panne,  AS. panne; cf. D. pan, G. pfanne, OHG. pfanna,
   Icel.,  Sw.,  LL., & Ir. panna, of uncertain origin; cf. L. patina, E.

   1. A shallow, open dish or vessel, usually of metal, employed for many
   domestic  uses,  as  for  setting milk for cream, for frying or baking
   food,  etc.;  also employed for various uses in manufacturing. "A bowl
   or a pan." Chaucer.

   2.  (Manuf.)  A  closed  vessel for boiling or evaporating. See Vacuum
   pan, under Vacuum.

   3. The part of a flintlock which holds the priming.

   4.  The  skull, considered as a vessel containing the brain; the upper
   part of the head; the brainpan; the cranium. Chaucer.

   5. (C A recess, or bed, for the leaf of a hinge.

   6.  The  hard stratum of earth that lies below the soil. See Hard pan,
   under Hard.

   7. A natural basin, containing salt or fresh water, or mud.
   Flash  in the pan. See under Flash. -- To savor of the pan, to suggest
   the  process  of  cooking  or  burning;  in a theological sense, to be
   heretical. Ridley. Southey.


   Pan,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Panned  (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Panning.]
   (Mining) To separate, as gold, from dirt or sand, by washing in a kind
   of pan. [U. S.]

     We  .  .  .  witnessed  the process of cleaning up and panning out,
     which is the last process of separating the pure gold from the fine
     dirt and black sand. Gen. W. T. Sherman.


   Pan, v. i.

   1.  (Mining)  To  yield  gold in, or as in, the process of panning; --
   usually with out; as, the gravel panned out richly.

   2.  To  turn  out (profitably or unprofitably); to result; to develop;
   as,  the investigation, or the speculation, panned out poorly. [Slang,
   U.  S.]  <--  Pan  v.t.  &  i.,  to  scan  (a movie camera), usu. in a
   horizontal  direction, to obtain a panoramic effect; also, to move the
   camera  so as to keep the subject in view. 2. to criticise (a drama or
   literary work) harshly. -->


   Pan"a*base  (?),  n. [Pan- + base. So called in allusion to the number
   of metals contained in it.] (Min.) Same as Tetrahedrite.


   Pan`a*ce"a (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  A  remedy  for  all  diseases;  a  universal medicine; a cure-all;
   catholicon; hence, a relief or solace for affliction.

   2. (Bot.) The herb allheal.


   Pan`a*ce"an (?), a. Having the properties of a panacea. [R.] "Panacean
   dews." Whitehead.


   Pa*nache"  (?),  n. [F., fr. L. penna a feather. See Pen a feather.] A
   plume  or bunch of feathers, esp. such a bunch worn on the helmet; any
   military plume, or ornamental group of feathers.

     A panache of variegated plumes. Prescott.

                                Panada, Panade

   Pa*na"da (?), Pa*nade" (?), n. [Sp. panada, fr. L. panis bread: cf. F.
   panade. See Pantry.] Bread boiled in water to the consistence of pulp,
   and sweetened or flavored. [Written also panado.]


   Pa*nade" (?), n. A dagger. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                  Panama hat

   Pan`a*ma" hat` (?). A fine plaited hat, made in Central America of the
   young leaves of a plant (Carludovica palmata).


   Pan`-A*mer"i*can  (?),  a.  [See Pan-.] Of or pertaining to both North
   and South America.


   Pan`-An"gli*can  (?),  a.  [Pan- + Anglican.] (Eccl.) Belonging to, or
   representing,  the  whole  Church  of  England; used less strictly, to
   include  the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States; as, the
   Pan-Anglican Conference at Lambeth, in 1888.


   Pan"a*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  panis bread.] Of or pertaining to bread or to


   Pan"a*ry, n. A storehouse for bread. Halliwell.


   Pan"cake`  (?),  n.  A  thin  cake  of  batter  fried in a pan or on a
   griddle;  a  griddlecake;  a flapjack. "A pancake for Shrove Tuesday."


   Pan"carte`  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. LL. pancharta. See Pan-, and Carte.] A
   royal  charter  confirming  to  a  subject all his possessions. [Obs.]


   Pance (?), n. (Bot.) The pansy. [Also paunce.]


   Panch (?), n. (Naut.) See Paunch.


   Panch"way (?), n. [Hind. pan.] (Naut.) A Bengalese four-oared boat for
   passengers. [Written also panshway and paunchwas.] Malcom.


   Pan*cra"tian (?), a. Pancratic; athletic.


   Pan*cra"ti*ast  (?),  n.  One  who  engaged  in  the  contests  of the


   Pan*cra`ti*as"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the pancratium. G. West.


   Pan*crat"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. (Opt.) Having all or many degrees of power;
   having  a great range of power; -- said of an eyepiece made adjustable
   so as to give a varying magnifying power.

                            Pancratic, Pancratical

   Pan*crat"ic  (?),  Pan*crat"ic*al  (?),  a.  [See  Pancratium.]  Of or
   pertaining to the pancratium; athletic. Sir T. Browne


   Pan"cra*tist (?), n. An athlete; a gymnast.


   Pan*cra"ti*um (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Gr.  Antiq.)  An  athletic  contest  involving  both  boxing  and

   2.  (Bot.) A genus of Old World amaryllideous bulbous plants, having a
   funnel-shaped  perianth  with six narrow spreading lobes. The American
   species are now placed in the related genus Hymenocallis.


   Pan"cre*as (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pancr\'82as.] (Anat.) The sweetbread,
   a  gland connected with the intestine of nearly all vertebrates. It is
   usually  elongated  and  light-colored,  and its secretion, called the
   pancreatic  juice,  is  discharged, often together with the bile, into
   the  upper part of the intestines, and is a powerful aid in digestion.
   See Illust. of Digestive apparatus.


   Pan`cre*at"ic   (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  pancr\'82atique.]  (Anat.)  Of  or
   pertaining  to  the pancreas; as, the pancreatic secretion, digestion,
   ferments.  Pancreatic  juice  (Physiol.),  a  colorless alkaline fluid
   secreted intermittently by the pancreatic gland. It is one of the most
   important  of the digestive fluids, containing at least three distinct
   ferments,  trypsin,  steapsin  and  an amylolytic ferment, by which it
   acts upon all three classes of food stuffs. See Pancreas.


   Pan"cre*a*tin  (?),  n.  [See  Pancreas.]  (Physiol. Chem.) One of the
   digestive  ferments  of  the  pancreatic  juice;  also,  a preparation
   containing such a ferment, made from the pancreas of animals, and used
   in medicine as an aid to digestion.

     NOTE: &hand; By  so me th e te rm pa ncreatin is  restricted to the
     amylolytic ferment of the pancreatic juice, by others it is applied
     to trypsin, and by still others to steapsin.


   Pan"cy (?), n. See Pansy. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Pan"da  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A small Asiatic mammal (Ailurus fulgens)
   having  fine  soft  fur.  It is related to the bears, and inhabits the
   mountains of Northern India.


   Pan*da"nus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Malay  pandan.]  (Bot.)  A  genus of
   endogenous plants. See Screw pine.


   Pan"dar  (?),  n.  Same  as  Pander. "Seized by the pandar of Appius."


   Pan"dar*ism (?), n. Same as Panderism. Swift.


   Pan"dar*ize (?), v. i. To pander. [Obs.]


   Pan"dar*ous (?), a. Panderous. [Obs.]


   Pan*de"an,  a.  [From 4th Pan.] Of or relating to the god Pan. Pandean
   pipes,  a  primitive  wind instrument, consisting of a series of short
   hollow  reeds  or pipes, graduated in length by the musical scale, and
   fastened  together  side  by side; a syrinx; a mouth organ; -- said to
   have  been  invented  by Pan. Called also Pan's pipes and Panpipes.<--
   also, pipes of Pan -->


   Pan"dect (?), n. [L. pandecta, pandectes, Gr. pandectes, pl.]

   1. A treatise which comprehends the whole of any science.

     [Thou] a pandect mak'st, and universal book. Donne.

   2.  pl.  The  digest, or abridgment, in fifty books, of the decisions,
   writings,  and  opinions  of  the old Roman jurists, made in the sixth
   century by direction of the emperor Justinian, and forming the leading
   compilation of the Roman civil law. Kent.


   Pan*dem"ic (?), a. [L. pandemus, Gr. pand\'82mique.] Affecting a whole
   people or a number of countries; everywhere epidemic. -- n. A pandemic
   disease. Harvey.


   Pan`de*mo"ni*um (?), n. [NL., from Gr.

   1.  The  great  hall  or  council  chamber  of demons or evil spirits.

   2. An utterly lawless, riotous place or assemblage.


   Pan"der  (?),  n.  [From Pandarus, a leader in the Trojan army, who is
   represented  by Chaucer and Shakespeare as having procured for Troilus
   the possession of Cressida.]

   1. A male bawd; a pimp; a procurer.

     Thou art the pander to her dishonor. Shak.

   2.  Hence,  one  who  ministers  to  the  evil designs and passions of

     Those wicked panders to avarice and ambition. Burke.


   Pan"der, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pandered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pandering.]
   To  play  the  pander  for.  <-- pander to (base emotions), to achieve
   one's  purpose  by  appealing  to a person's base emotions (less noble
   desires), as lust, prejudice, hate; to exploit base emotions -->


   Pan"der, v. i. To act the part of a pander.


   Pan"der*age (?), n. The act of pandering.


   Pan"der*ism  (?),  n.  The employment, arts, or practices of a pander.
   Bp. Hall.


   Pan"der*ly,  a.  Having  the  quality  of  a  pander. "O, you panderly
   rascals." Shak.


   Pan*der"mite  (?),  n.  [From  Panderma,  a port on the Black Sea from
   which it is exported.] (Min.) A hydrous borate of lime, near priceite.


   Pan"der*ous (?), Of or relating to a pander; characterizing a pander.


   Pan*dic"u*la`ted  (?),  a.  [See Pandiculation.] Extended; spread out;


   Pan*dic`u*la"tion  (?),  n. [L. pandiculari to stretch one's self, fr.
   pandere  to  spread out.] A stretching and stiffening of the trunk and
   extremities, as when fatigued and drowsy.


   Pan"dit (?), n. See Pundit.


   Pan"door (?) n. Same as Pandour.


   Pan*do"ra  (?),  n.  [L., fr. Gr. Pandw`ra; pa^s, pa^n, all + dw^ron a

   1.  (Class. Myth.) A beautiful woman (all-gifted), whom Jupiter caused
   Vulcan  to make out of clay in order to punish the human race, because
   Prometheus had stolen the fire from heaven. Jupiter gave Pandora a box
   containing all human ills, which, when the box was opened, escaped and
   spread over the earth. Hope alone remained in the box. Another version
   makes  the  box contain all the blessings of the gods, which were lost
   to men when Pandora opened it.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of marine bivalves, in which one valve is flat,
   the other convex.


   Pan"dore  (?),  n. [F. See Bandore.] An ancient musical instrument, of
   the lute kind; a bandore. [Written also pandoran.]<-- a bandura? -->


   Pan"dour  (?),  n. One of a class of Hungarian mountaineers serving in
   the  Austrian  army; -- so called from Pandur, a principal town in the
   region from which they originally came. [Written also pandoor.]

     Her whiskered pandours and her fierce hussars. Campbell.


   Pan*dow"dy  (?),  n. A deep pie or pudding made of baked apples, or of
   sliced bread and apples baked together, with no bottom crust.

                            Pandurate, Panduriform

   Pan"du*rate, Pan*du"ri*form (?), a. [L. pandura a pandore + -form: cf.
   F.  panduriforme.]  Obovate,  with  a concavity in each side, like the
   body  of  a violin; fiddle-shaped; as, a panduriform leaf; panduriform
   color markings of an animal.


   Pane (?), n. [F. panne.] The narrow edge of a hammer head. See Peen.


   Pane,  n.  [OE.  pan part, portion of a thing, F. pan a skirt, lappet,
   part  or  piece  of  a wall, side, fr. L. pannus a cloth, fillet, rag;
   akin to E. vane. See Vane, and cf. Panel, Pawn pledge.]

   1.  A  division; a distinct piece, limited part, or compartment of any
   surface; a patch; hence, a square of a checkered or plaided pattern.

   2.  One  of  the  openings  in  a  slashed garment, showing the bright
   colored  silk,  or  the  like,  within; hence, the piece of colored or
   other stuff so shown.

   3. (Arch.) (a) A compartment of a surface, or a flat space; hence, one
   side  or  face  of  a building; as, an octagonal tower is said to have
   eight  panes.  (b)  Especially,  in  modern  use,  the  glass  in  one
   compartment of a window sash.

   4.  In  irrigating,  a  subdivision  of an irrigated surface between a
   feeder and an outlet drain.

   5.  (a)  One  of  the  flat  surfaces, or facets, of any object having
   several  sides. (b) One of the eight facets surrounding the table of a
   brilliant cut diamond.


   Paned (?), a.

   1.  Having  panes;  provided  with panes; also, having openings; as, a
   paned window; paned window sash. "Paned hose." Massinger.

   2. (Mach.) Having flat sides or surfaces; as, a sixpaned nut.


   Pan`e*gyr"ic  (?),  n.  [L.  panegyricus,  Gr.  panhgyrico`s:  cf.  F.
   pan\'82gyrique.  See  Panegyric, a.] An oration or eulogy in praise of
   some  person  or  achievement;  a  formal  or  elaborate  encomium;  a
   laudatory discourse; laudation. See Synonym of Eulogy.

                            Panegyric, Panegyrical

   Pan`e*gyr"ic   (?),  Pan`e*gyr"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L.  panegyricus,  Gr.
   panhgyrico`s,  from  pa^,  pa^n  all  +  Containing  praise or eulogy;
   encomiastic;     laudatory.     "Panegyric    strains."    Pope.    --
   Pan`e*gyr"ic*al*ly, adv.

     Some of his odes are panegyrical. Dryden.


   Pa*neg"y*ris  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. Panegyric.] A festival; a public
   assembly. [Obs.] S. Harris.


   Pan"e*gyr`ist  (?),  n.  [L.  panegyrista,  Gr.  Panegyric.]  One  who
   delivers a panegyric; a eulogist; one who extols or praises, either by
   writing or speaking.

     If these panegyrists are in earnest. Burke.


   Pan"e*gy*rize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Panegyrized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Panegyrizing (?).] [Gr. Panegyrist.] To praise highly; to extol in
   a public speech; to write or deliver a panegyric upon; to eulogize.


   Pan"e*gy*rize, v. i. To indulge in panegyrics. Mitford.


   Pan"e*gyr`y (?), n. A panegyric. [Obs.] Milton.


   Pan"el  (?), n. [Orig., a little piece; OF. panel, pannel, F. panneau,
   dim.  of  pan  skirt,  lappet,  part  or piece of a wall, side. See 2d

   1.  (Arch.)  A  sunken  compartment  with  raised  margins,  molded or
   otherwise, as in ceilings, wainscotings, etc.

   Page 1036

   2.  (Law) (a) A piece of parchment or a schedule, containing the names
   of  persons  summoned as jurors by the sheriff; hence, more generally,
   the  whole  jury. Blackstone. (b) (Scots Law) A prisoner arraigned for
   trial at the bar of a criminal court. Burrill.

   3.  Formerly,  a piece of cloth serving as a saddle; hence, a soft pad
   beneath a saddletree to prevent chafing.

   4.  (Joinery)  A  board  having  its edges inserted in the groove of a
   surrounding frame; as, the panel of a door.

   5. (Masonry) One of the faces of a hewn stone. Gwilt.

   6. (Painting) A slab or plank of wood upon which, instead of canvas, a
   picture is painted.

   7.  (Mining)  (a)  A  heap  of  dressed  ore. (b) One of the districts
   divided by pillars of extra size, into which a mine is laid off in one
   system of extracting coal.

   8.  (Dressmaking) A plain strip or band, as of velvet or plush, placed
   at intervals lengthwise on the skirt of a dress, for ornament.

   9.  A  portion of a framed structure between adjacent posts or struts,
   as in a bridge truss.
   Panel  game,  a  method  of  stealing money in a panel house. -- Panel
   house,  a  house  of  prostitution  in  which  the  rooms  have secret
   entrances  to facilitate theft by accomplices of the inmates. -- Panel
   saw,  handsaw with fine teeth, -- used for cutting out panels, etc. --
   Panel thief, one who robs in a panel house.


   Pan"el  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paneled (?) or Panelled; p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Paneling  or Panelling.] To form in or with panels; as, to panel a
   wainscot.<--  to put panels on (e.g. a wall) --> Paneled back (Arch.),
   the paneled work covering the window back. See Window back.


   Pan`el*a"tion  (?),  n.  The act of impaneling a jury. [Obs.] [Written
   also panellation.] Wood.


   Pane"less (?), a. Without panes.

     To patch his paneless window. Shenstone.


   Pan"el*ing  (?),  n.  A  forming  in  panels; panelwork. [Written also


   Pan"el*work` (?), n. (Arch.) Wainscoting.


   Pan*eu"lo*gism  (?),  n.  [See  Pan-,  Eulogy.]  Eulogy of everything;
   indiscriminate praise. [R.]

     Her book has a trace of the cant of paneulogism. National Rev.


   Pan"ful (?), n.; pl. Panfuls (#). [See 5th Pan.] Enough to fill a pan.


   Pang  (?),  n.  [Prob.  for  older  prange.  Cf. Prong.] A paroxysm of
   extreme  pain  or anguish; a sudden and transitory agony; a throe; as,
   the pangs of death. Syn. -- Agony; anguish; distress. See Agony.


   Pang,  v.  t. To torture; to cause to have great pain or suffering; to
   torment. [R.] Shak.


   Pan*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Pan- + genesis.] (Biol.) An hypothesis advanced
   by Darwin in explanation of heredity.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e th eory re sts on  the assumption, that the whole
     organization,  in  the  sense  of  every  separate  atom  or  unit,
     reproduces  itself,  the  cells throwing off minute granules called
     gemmules, which circulate freely throughout the system and multiply
     by  subdivision.  These gemmules collect in the reproductive organs
     and  products, or in buds, so that the egg or bud contains gemmules
     from  all parts of the parent or parents, which in development give
     rise  to  cells  in  the offspring similar to those from which they
     were  given  off  in  the  parent. The hypothesis also assumes that
     these  gemmules  need  not in all cases develop into cells, but may
     lie  dormant,  and  be  transmitted  from  generation to generation
     without  producing  a  noticeable  effect  until  a case of atavism

   <--  ingenious,  but  wrong.  A  hundred years later we are still only
   beginning to understand the development process. -->


   Pan`ge*net"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to pangenesis.


   Pang"ful (?), a. Full of pangs. Richardson.


   Pang"less, a. Without a pang; painless. Byron.


   Pan"go*lin (?), n. [Malay pang.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several species
   of  Manis,  Pholidotus,  and related genera, found in Africa and Asia.
   They  are  covered  with imbricated scales, and feed upon ants. Called
   also scaly ant-eater.


   Pan*goth"ic  (?), a. [Pan- + Gothic.] Of, pertaining to, or including,
   all the Gothic races. "Ancestral Pangothic stock." Earle.


   Pan`hel*len"ic  (?),  a.  [See  Panhellenium.] Of or pertaining to all
   Greece, or to Panhellenism; including all Greece, or all the Greeks.


   Pan*hel"len*ism  (?),  n.  A  scheme  to  unite  all the Greeks in one
   political body.


   Pan*hel"len*ist, n. An advocate of Panhellenism.


   Pan`hel*le"ni*um  (?),  n.  [NL., from Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) An assembly or
   association of Greeks from all the states of Greece.


   Pan"ic  (?),  n.  [L.  panicum.]  (Bot.) A plant of the genus Panicum;
   panic  grass;  also,  the edible grain of some species of panic grass.
   Panic grass (Bot.), any grass of the genus Panicum.


   Pan"ic,   a.   [Gr.   panique.]   Extreme  or  sudden  and  causeless;
   unreasonable;  --  said  of  fear  or  fright; as, panic fear, terror,
   alarm. "A panic fright." Dryden.


   Pan"ic, n. [Gr. panigue. See Panic, a.]

   1.  A  sudden,  overpowering  fright;  esp.,  a  sudden and groundless
   fright;  terror  inspired  by a trifling cause or a misapprehension of
   danger; as, the troops were seized with a panic; they fled in a panic.

   2. By extension: A sudden widespread fright or apprehension concerning
   financial affairs.


   Pan"ic*al (?), a. See Panic, a. [Obs.] Camden.


   Pan"i*cle  (?),  n.  [L.  panicula a tuft on plants, dim. of panus the
   thread  wound  upon  the  bobbin  in  a  shuttle; cf. Gr. pane: cf. F.
   panicule.  See  2d Pane.] (Bot.) A pyramidal form of inflorescence, in
   which  the  cluster  is  loosely  branched below and gradually simpler
   toward the end. <-- Illustr. of a panicle -->


   Pan"i*cled  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Furnished with panicles; arranged in, or
   like, panicles; paniculate.

                         Panic-stricken, Panic-struck

   Pan"ic-strick`en  (?),  Pan"ic-struck` (?), a. Struck with a panic, or
   sudden fear. Burke.

                            Paniculate, Paniculated

   Pa*nic"u*late  (?),  Pa*nic"u*la`ted (?), a. [See Panicle.] (Bot) Same
   as Panicled.


   Pan"i*cum  (?),  n.  [L.,  panic  grass.]  (Bot.)  A genus of grasses,
   including  several  hundred species, some of which are valuable; panic


   Pan*id`i*o*mor"phic  (?),  a.  [Pan-  + idiomorphic.] (Geol.) Having a
   completely idiomorphic structure; -- said of certain rocks.


   Pan"ier (?), n. See Pannier, 3. [Obs.]


   Pan`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. panis bread + -ficare (in comp.) to make:
   cf. F. panification.] The act or process of making bread. Ure.


   Pa"nim (?), n. See Painim. [Obs.] Milton.


   Pan*is"lam*ism  (?),  n.  [Pan-  + Islamism.] A desire or plan for the
   union of all Mohammedan nations for the conquest of the world.


   Pa*niv"o*rous  (?),  a.  [L.  panis  bread + vorare to devour.] Eating
   bread; subsisting on bread.


   Pan*nade" (?), n. The curvet of a horse.


   Pan"nage  (?),  n.  [OF.  pasnage,  LL.  pasnadium,  pastinaticum, fr.
   pastionare  to  feed  on  mast,  as  swine, fr. L. pastio a pasturing,
   grazing.  See  Pastor.]  (O.  Eng.  Law)  (a) The food of swine in the
   woods,  as  beechnuts,  acorns,  etc.; -- called also pawns. (b) A tax
   paid for the privilege of feeding swine in the woods.


   Pan"na*ry (?), a. See Panary. Loudon.


   Pan"nel (?), n. [See Panel.]

   1. A kind of rustic saddle. Tusser.

   2. (Falconry) The stomach of a hawk. Ainsworth.

   3.  (Mil.)  A carriage for conveying a mortar and its bed, on a march.


   Pan"nier (?), n. [F. panier, fr. L. panarium a bread basket, fr. panis
   bread. Cf. Pantry.]

   1.  A bread basket; also, a wicker basket (used commonly in pairs) for
   carrying fruit or other things on a horse or an ass Hudibras.

   2. (Mil. Antiq.) A shield of basket work formerly used by archers as a
   shelter from the enemy's missiles.

   3. A table waiter at the Inns of Court, London.

   4.  A  framework  of steel or whalebone, worn by women to expand their
   dresses; a kind of bustle.


   Pan"niered (?), a. Bearing panniers. Wordsworth.


   Pan"ni*kel  (?),  n.  [See Pan a dish.] The brainpan, or skull; hence,
   the crest. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Pan"ni*kin  (?), n. [Dim. of pan a dish.] A small pan or cup. Marryat.


   Pan"nose`   (?),  a.  [See  Pannus.]  (Bot.)  Similar  in  texture  or
   appearance to felt or woolen cloth.


   Pan"nus  (?),  n.  [L.,  cloth.  See  2d Pane.] (Med.) A very vascular
   superficial  opacity  of  the cornea, usually caused by granulation of
   the eyelids. Foster.


   Pan`o*is"tic  (?),  a.  [Pan-  + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Producing ova only; --
   said   of  the  ovaries  of  certain  insects  which  do  not  produce
   vitelligenous cells.


   Pan`om*phe"an  (?),  a.  [L.  panomphaeus,  Gr.  Uttering  ominous  or
   prophetic voices; divining. [R.]

     We want no half gods, panomphean Joves. Mrs. Browning.


   Pan"o*plied (?), a. Dressed in panoply.


   Pan"o*ply  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Defensive  armor in general; a full suit of
   defensive armor. Milton.

     We  had  need  to  take  the Christian panoply, to put on the whole
     armor of God. Ray.


   Pa*nop"ti*con (?), n. [NL. See Pan-, and Optic.]

   1.  A  prison  so  contructed  that  the inspector can see each of the
   prisoners at all times, without being seen.

   2. A room for the exhibition of novelties.


   Pan`o*ra"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Pan-, and Wary.]

   1. A complete view in every direction.

   2.  A picture presenting a view of objects in every direction, as from
   a central point.

   3.  A  picture  representing scenes too extended to be beheld at once,
   and so exhibited a part at a time, by being unrolled, and made to pass
   continuously before the spectator.

                            Panoramic, Panoramical

   Pan`o*ram"ic  (?), Pan`o*ram"ic*al (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or like,
   a panorama. Panoramic camera. See under Camera.


   Pa*nor"pi*an  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Like,  or pertaining to, the genus
   Panorpa. -- n. Same as Panorpid.


   Pa*nor"pid  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any neuropterous insect of the genus
   Panorpa, and allied genera. The larv\'91 feed on plant lice.


   Pan*phar"ma*con  (?), n. [NL. See Pan-, and Pharmacon.] A medicine for
   all diseases; a panacea. [R.]


   Pan`pres`by*te"ri*an  (?),  a. [Pan- + Presbyterian.] Belonging to, or
   representative  of,  those who hold Presbyterian views in all parts of
   the world; as, a Panpresbyterian council.

              Pansclavic, Pansclavism, Pansclavist, Pansclavonian

   Pan`sclav"ic  (?), Pan`sclav"ism (?), Pan`sclav"ist, Pan`scla*vo"ni*an
   (?). See Panslavic, Panslavism, etc.


   Pan"shon  (?),  n.  An  earthen  vessel  wider  at the top than at the
   bottom,  --  used  for  holding  milk  and for various other purposes.
   [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Pan"sied  (?),  a. [From Pansy.] Covered or adorned with pansies. "The
   pansied grounds." Darwin.


   Pan`slav"ic  (?),  a.  [Pan-  +  Slavic.] Pertaining to all the Slavic


   Pan`slav"ism  (?), n. A scheme or desire to unite all the Slavic races
   into one confederacy.


   Pan`slav"ist (?), n. One who favors Panslavism.


   Pan`sla*vo"ni*an (?), a. See Panslavic.


   Pan*soph"ic*al  (?),  a.  [See Pansophy.] All-wise; claiming universal
   knowledge; as, pansophical pretenders. [R.] John Worthington.


   Pan"so*phy  (?),  n. [Pan- + Gr. pansophie.] Universal wisdom; esp., a
   system  of  universal knowledge proposed by Comenius (1592 -- 1671), a
   Moravian educator. [R.] Hartlib.

                          Panspermatist, Panspermist

   Pan*sper"ma*tist  (?),  Pan"sper`mist  (?),  n.  (Biol.) A believer in
   panspermy;  one  who  rejects  the theory of spontaneous generation; a


   Pan`sper"mic  (?),  a.  (Biol.) Of or pertaining to panspermy; as, the
   panspermic hypothesis.


   Pan"sper`my  (?),  n.  [Pan-  +  Gr.  (Biol.)  (a) The doctrine of the
   widespread   distribution   of   germs,  from  which  under  favorable
   circumstances  bacteria,  vibrios, etc., may develop. (b) The doctrine
   that  all  organisms must come from living parents; biogenesis; -- the
   opposite of spontaneous generation.


   Pan*ste`re*o*ra"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. A model of a town or country,
   in  relief,  executed in wood, cork, pasteboard, or the like. Brande &


   Pan"sy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Pansies (#). [F. Pens\'82e thought, pansy, fr.
   penser  to  think, L. pensare to weigh, ponder. See Pensive.] (Bot.) A
   plant  of  the  genus  Viola (V. tricolor) and its blossom, originally
   purple  and  yellow. Cultivated varieties have very large flowers of a
   great diversity of colors. Called also heart's-ease, love-in-idleness,
   and many other quaint names.


   Pant  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Panted; p. pr. & vb. n. Panting.] [Cf.
   F.  panteler  to  gasp for breath, OF. panteisier to be breathless, F.
   pantois  out of breath; perh. akin to E. phantom, the verb prob. orig.
   meaning, to have the nightmare.]

   1.  To  breathe  quickly  or in a labored manner, as after exertion or
   from  eagerness  or excitement; to respire with heaving of the breast;
   to gasp.

     Pluto plants for breath from out his cell. Dryden.

   2. Hence: To long eagerly; to desire earnestly.

     As the hart panteth after the water brooks. Ps. xlii. 1.

     Who pants for glory finds but short repose. Pope.

   3.  To  beat  with  unnatural  violence  or rapidity; to palpitate, or
   throb; -- said of the heart. Spenser.

   4. To sigh; to flutter; to languish. [Poetic]

     The whispering breeze Pants on the leaves, and dies upon the trees.


   Pant, v. t.

   1. To breathe forth quickly or in a labored manner; to gasp out.

     There  is  a  cavern  where  my spirit Was panted forth in anguish.

   2. To long for; to be eager after. [R.]

     Then shall our hearts pant thee. Herbert.


   Pant, n.

   1. A quick breathing; a catching of the breath; a gasp. Drayton.

   2. A violent palpitation of the heart. Shak.


   Pan"ta- (?). See Pan-.


   Pan"ta*ble (?), n. See Pantofle. [Obs.]


   Pan"ta*cosm (?), n. [Panta- + Gr. See Cosmolabe.


   Pan"ta*graph (?), n. See Pantograph.


   Pan*tag"ru*el*ism  (?),  n. [From Pantagruel, one of the characters of

   1.  The  theory  or  practice  of  the  medical profession; -- used in
   burlesque or ridicule.

   2.  An  assumption  of  buffoonery to cover some serious purpose. [R.]


   Pan`ta*let"  (?),  n.  [Dim.  of pantal.] One of the legs of the loose
   drawers  worn  by  children and women; particularly, the lower part of
   such a garment, coming below the knee, often made in a separate piece;
   -- chiefly in the plural.


   Pan`ta*loon"  (?),  n.  [F.  pantalon,  fr.  It.  pantalone,  a masked
   character  in the Italian comedy, who wore breeches and stockings that
   were  all  of  one piece, from Pantaleone, the patron saint of Venice,
   which,  as a baptismal name, is very frequent among the Venetians, and
   is applied to them by the other Italians as a nickname, fr. Gr.

   1.  Aridiculous  character,  or  an old dotard, in the Italian comedy;
   also, a buffoon in pantomimes. Addison.

     The sixth age shifts Into the lean and slippered pantaloon. Shak.

   2.  pl.  A  bifurcated  garment  for a man, covering the body from the
   waist downwards, and consisting of breeches and stockings in one.

   3. pl. In recent times, same as Trousers.


   Pan`ta*loon"er*y (?), n.

   1.  The  character  or  performances  of a pantaloon; buffoonery. [R.]

   2. Materials for pantaloons.


   Pan"ta*morph (?), n. That which assumes, or exists in, all forms.


   Pan`ta*mor"phic (?), a. [Panta- + Gr. Taking all forms.


   Pan"ta*scope  (?),  n.  [Panta-  +  -scope.]  (Photog.)  A pantascopic


   Pan`ta*scop"ic  (?),  a.  Viewing all; taking a view of the whole. See
   under Camera.

   Page 1037


   Pan`ta*stom"a*ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   divisions of Flagellata, including the monads and allied forms.


   Pan*tech"ni*con  (?),  n. [NL. See Pan-, and Technic.] A depository or
   place where all sorts of manufactured articles are collected for sale.


   Pan*tel"e*graph (?), n. [Pan- + telegraph.] See under Telegraph.


   Pant"er (?), n. One who pants. Congreve.


   Pan"ter  (?),  n.[F.  panetier. See Pantry.] A keeper of the pantry; a
   pantler. [Obs.] Tyndale.


   Pan"ter, n. [See Painter a rope.] A net; a noose. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pan`teu*ton"ic  (?), a. [Pan- + Teutonic.] Of or pertaining to all the
   Teutonic races.


   Pan"the*ism  (?),  n. [Pan- + theism.] The doctrine that the universe,
   taken  or  conceived of as a whole, is God; the doctrine that there is
   no  God  but  the  combined force and laws which are manifested in the
   existing universe; cosmotheism.


   Pan"the*ist, n. One who holds to pantheism.

                          Pantheistic, Pantheistical

   Pan`the*is"tic  (?),  Pan`the*is"tic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to
   pantheism;    founded    in,    or    leading    to,   pantheism.   --
   Pan`the*is"tic*al*ly, adv.


   Pan`the*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in pantheology.


   Pan`the*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Pan-  +  theology.]  A  system of theology
   embracing all religions; a complete system of theology.


   Pan*the"on  (?), n. [L. pantheon, pantheum, Gr. panth\'82on. See Pan-,
   and Theism.]

   1.  A  temple  dedicated  to all the gods; especially, the building so
   called at Rome.

   2.  The collective gods of a people, or a work treating of them; as, a
   divinity of the Greek pantheon.


   Pan"ther  (?),  n.  [OE.  pantere,  F.  panth\'8are,  L. panthera, Gr.
   pundr\'c6ka a tiger.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  dark-colored variety of the leopard, by some
   zo\'94logists  considered  a distinct species. It is marked with large
   ringlike  spots, the centers of which are darker than the color of the

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) In America, the name is applied to the puma, or cougar,
   and sometimes to the jaguar. <-- Illustr. of Panther (Felis leopardus,
   or pardus) -->
   Panther  cat  (Zo\'94l.),  the  ocelot. -- Panther cowry (Zo\'94l.), a
   spotted  East  Indian  cowry (Cypr\'91a pantherina); -- so called from
   its color.


   Pan"ther*ess, n. (Zo\'94l.) A female panther.


   Pan"ther*ine (?), a. Like a panther, esp. in color; as, the pantherine
   snake (Ptyas mucosus) of Brazil.


   Pan"tile`  (?),  n.  [5th  pan  +  tile.]  (Arch.)  A roofing tile, of
   peculiar  form,  having a transverse section resembling an elongated S
   laid on its side (


   Pant"ing*ly (?), adv. With palpitation or rapid breathing. Shak.


   Pan`ti*soc"ra*cy  (?),  n. [Panto- + Gr. A Utopian community, in which
   all should rule equally, such as was devised by Coleridge, Lovell, and
   Southey, in their younger days.


   Pan*tis"o*crat (?), n. A pantisocratist.


   Pan`ti*so*crat"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a pantisocracy.


   Pan`ti*soc"ra*tist  (?), n. One who favors or supports the theory of a
   pantisocracy. Macaulay.


   Pan"tler  (?),  n.  [F.  panetier. See Panter, Pantry.] The servant or
   officer,  in  a  great  family,  who  has  charge of the bread and the
   pantry. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pan"to- (?). See Pan-.


   Pan`to*chro*nom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Panto- + chronometer.] An instrument
   combining a compass, sundial, and universal time dial. Brande & C.


   Pan*to"fle  (?),  n.  [F. pantoufle.] A slipper for the foot. [Written
   also pantable and pantoble.]


   Pan"to*graph  (?),  n.  [Panto-  +  -graph:  cf.  F.  pantographe.] An
   instrument  for  copying plans, maps, and other drawings, on the same,
   or  on  a reduced or an enlarged, scale. [Written also pantagraph, and
   incorrectly  pentagraph.]  <-- 2. an electrical trolley supported by a
   collapsible frame, resembling a pantograph (1). --> Skew pantograph, a
   kind  of  pantograph for drawing a copy which is inclined with respect
   to the original figure; -- also called plagiograph.

                         Pantographic, Pantographical

   Pan`to*graph"ic    (?),    Pan`to*graph"ic*al    (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   pantographique.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  pantograph;  relating  to


   Pan*tog"ra*phy  (?),  n. [Cf. F. pantographie.] A general description;
   entire view of an object.


   Pan`to*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to pantology.


   Pan*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in pantology; a writer of pantology.


   Pan*tol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Panto-  +  -logy.]  A  systematic view of all
   branches of human knowledge; a work of universal information.


   Pan*tom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Panto-  +  -meter: cf. F. pantom\'8atre.] An
   instrument for measuring angles for determining elevations, distances,


   Pan*tom"e*try  (?),  n.  Universal measurement. [R.] -- Pan`to*met"ric
   (#), a. [R.]


   Pan"to*mime (?), n. [F., fr. L. pantomimus, Gr. pantomimo. See Mimic.]

   1.  A  universal  mimic;  an  actor  who assumes many parts; also, any
   actor. [Obs.]

   2.  One  who acts his part by gesticulation or dumb show only, without
   speaking; a pantomimist.

     [He]  saw  a  pantomime  perform  so  well that he could follow the
     performance from the action alone. Tylor.

   3.  A dramatic representation by actors who use only dumb show; hence,
   dumb show, generally.

   4.  A  dramatic  and spectacular entertainment of which dumb acting as
   well  as  burlesque  dialogue, music, and dancing by Clown, Harlequin,
   etc., are features.


   Pan"to*mime,  a.  Representing only in mute actions; pantomimic; as, a
   pantomime dance.

                           Pantomimic, Pantomimical

   Pan`to*mim"ic  (?), Pan`to*mim"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. pantomimique.] Of
   or pertaining to the pantomime; representing by dumb show. "Pantomimic
   gesture." Bp. Warburton. -- Pan`to*mim"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Pan"to*mi`mist  (?),  n.  An  actor  in pantomime; also, a composer of


   Pan"ton  (?), n. [F. patin. See Patten.] (Far.) A horseshoe to correct
   a narrow, hoofbound heel.


   Pan*toph"a*gist (?), n. [See Pantophagous.] A person or an animal that
   has the habit of eating all kinds of food.


   Pan*toph"a*gous (?), a. [Gr. Eating all kinds of food.


   Pan*toph"a*gy  (?),  n. [Gr. The habit or power of eating all kinds of


   Pan*top"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL. See Panto-, & -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Pan`to*scop"ic  (?),  a.  [Panto-  +  -scope + -ic.] Literally, seeing
   everything; -- a term applied to eyeglasses or spectacles divided into
   two  segments,  the upper being designed for distant vision, the lower
   for vision of near objects.<-- = bifocal -->


   Pan"try  (?),  n.;  pl.  Pantries (#). [OE. pantrie, F. paneterie, fr.
   panetier  pantler,  LL. panetarius baker, panetus small loaf of bread,
   L. panis bread. Cf. Company, Pannier, Pantler.] An apartment or closet
   in which bread and other provisions are kept.


   Pan*ur"gic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  Gr.  Skilled  in  all  kinds of work. "The
   panurgic Diderot." J. Morley.


   Pan"ur*gy  (?), n. [Gr. Skill in all kinds of work or business; craft.
   [R.] Bailey.


   Pan"yard (?), n. See Pannier. [Obs.] Pepys.


   Pa"nym (?), n. & a. See Panim. [Obs.]


   Pan*zo"ism  (?),  n.  [Pan- + Gr. (Biol.) A term used to denote all of
   the  elements or factors which constitute vitality or vital energy. H.


   Pa"o*lo  (?),  n.  [It.  Cf.  Paul.] An old Italian silver coin, worth
   about ten cents.


   Pap (?), n. [Cf. OSw. papp. Cf. Pap soft food.]

   1. (Anat.) A nipple; a mammilla; a teat. Dryden.

     The paps which thou hast sucked. Luke xi. 27.

   2. A rounded, nipplelike hill or peak; anything resembling a nipple in
   shape; a mamelon. Macaulay.


   Pap, n. [Cf. D. pap, G. pappe, both perh. fr. L. papa, pappa, the word
   with which infants call for food: cf. It. pappa.]

   1.  A soft food for infants, made of bread boiled or softtened in milk
   or water.

   2.  Nourishment  or support from official patronage; as, treasury pap.
   [Colloq. & Contemptuous]

   3. The pulp of fruit. Ainsworth.


   Pap, v. t. To feed with pap. Beau. & Fl.


   Pa*pa" (?), n. [F. papa, L. papa; cf. Gr. Pope.]

   1. A child's word for father.

   2. A parish priest in the Greek Church. Shipley.


   Pa`pa*bo"te (?), n. [Probably of Creole origin.] (Zo\'94l.) The upland
   plover. [Local, U. S.]


   Pa"pa*cy  (?),  n.  [LL.  papatia,  fr.  L. papa a father, bishop. See

   1.  The  office  and  dignity  of the pope, or pontiff, of Rome; papal

   2. The popes, collectively; the succession of popes.

   3.  The  Roman Catholic religion; -- commonly used by the opponents of
   the Roman Catholics in disparagement or in an opprobrious sense.


   Pap"a*gay (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Popinjay, 1 (b).


   Pa*pa"in (?), n. [From Papaw.] (Physiol. Chem.) A proteolytic ferment,
   like  trypsin,  present  in  the juice of the green fruit of the papaw
   (Carica Papaya) of tropical America.


   Pa"pal (?), a. [F., fr. L. papa bishop. See Papacy.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to the pope of Rome; proceeding from the pope;
   ordered  or  pronounced  by  the pope; as, papal jurisdiction; a papal
   edict; the papal benediction. Milman.

   2.  Of or pertaining to the Roman Catholic Church. "Papal Christians."
   Bp. Burnet.
   Papal cross. See Illust. 3 of Cross. -- Papal crown, the tiara.


   Pa"pal*ist (?), n. A papist. [Obs.] Baxter.


   Pa*pal"i*ty  (?),  n.  [LL. papalitas: cf. F. papaut\'82.] The papacy.
   [Obs.] Ld. Berners. Milton.


   Pa"pal*ize (?), v. t. To make papal. [R.]


   Pa"pal*ize, v. i. To conform to popery. Cowper.


   Pa"pal*ly, adv. In a papal manner; popishly


   Pa"pal*ty (?), n. The papacy. [Obs.] Milton.


   Pa`pa*pho"bi*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. L. papa bishop + Gr. Intense fear or
   dread of the pope, or of the Roman Catholic Church. [R.]


   Pa"par*chy  (?),  n.  [L. papa bishop + -archy.] Government by a pope;
   papal rule.


   Pa*pa"ver (?), n. [L., poppy.] (Bot.) A genus of plants, including the


   Pa*pav`er*a"ceous  (?),  a. (Bot.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a
   natural  order  of  plants  (Papaverace\'91)  of  which the poppy, the
   celandine, and the bloodroot are well-known examples.


   Pa*pav"er*ine  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  An alkaloid found in opium. It has a
   weaker therapeutic action than morphine.


   Pa*pav"er*ous  (?), a. Of or pertaining to the poppy; of the nature of
   the poppy. Sir T. Browne.


   Pa*paw"  (?),  n.  [Prob. from the native name in the West Indies; cf.
   Sp.  papayo  papaw,  papaya  the  fruit  of  the papaw.] [Written also

   1. (Bot.) A tree (Carica Papaya) of tropical America, belonging to the
   order  Passiflore\'91.  It has a soft, spongy stem, eighteen or twenty
   feet high, crowned with a tuft of large, long-stalked, palmately lobed
   leaves.  The  milky juice of the plant is said to have the property of
   making meat tender. Also, its dull orange-colored, melon-shaped fruit,
   which  is  eaten  both  raw  and  cooked or pickled.<-- juice contains
   papain, a protease? -->

   2.  (Bot.)  A  tree  of the genus Asimina (A. triloba), growing in the
   western and southern parts of the United States, and producing a sweet
   edible fruit; also, the fruit itself. Gray.


   Pap"boat` (?), n.

   1. A kind of sauce boat or dish.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  spiral  East Indian marine shell (Turbinella
   rapha);  --  so  called because used by native priests to hold the oil
   for anointing.


   Pape (?), n. [Cf. F. pape, fr. L. papa. See Pope.] A spiritual father;
   specifically, the pope. [Obs.]


   Pa"pe*jay (?), n. A popinjay. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pa"per  (?),  n.  [F.  papier,  fr. L. papyrus papyrus, from which the
   Egyptians made a kind of paper, Gr. Papyrus.]

   1.  A  substance  in  the form of thin sheets or leaves intended to be
   written  or printed on, or to be used in wrapping. It is made of rags,
   straw,  bark,  wood, or other fibrous material, which is first reduced
   to pulp, then molded, pressed, and dried.

   2. A sheet, leaf, or piece of such substance.

   3.  A printed or written instrument; a document, essay, or the like; a
   writing; as, a paper read before a scientific society.

     They brought a paper to me to be signed. Dryden.

   4. A printed sheet appearing periodically; a newspaper; a journal; as,
   a daily paper.

   5. Negotiable evidences of indebtedness; notes; bills of exchange, and
   the like; as, the bank holds a large amount of his paper.

   6. Decorated hangings or coverings for walls, made of paper. See Paper
   hangings, below.

   7.  A  paper  containing (usually) a definite quantity; as, a paper of
   pins, tacks, opium, etc.

   8.  A  medicinal  preparation spread upon paper, intended for external
   application; as, cantharides paper.

     NOTE: &hand; Pa per is  ma nufactured in sheets, the trade names of
     which,  together with the regular sizes in inches, are shown in the
     following table. But paper makers vary the size somewhat.

   <-- insert table of paper trade names and sizes -->

     NOTE: In th e manufacture of books, etc., a sheet, of whatever size
     originally,  is  termed, when folded once, a folio; folded twice, a
     quarto,  or  4to;  three  times,  an  octavo, or 8vo; four times, a
     sextodecimo,  or  16mo;  five  times,  a 32mo; three times, with an
     offcut  folded  twice and set in, a duodecimo, or 12mo; four times,
     with an offcut folded three times and set in, a 24mo.

   Page 1038

     NOTE: &hand; Pa per is  of ten us ed adjectively or in combination,
     having  commonly  an  obvious  signification;  as,  paper cutter or
     paper-cutter; paper knife, paper-knife, or paperknife; paper maker,
     paper-maker, or papermaker; paper mill or paper-mill; paper weight,
     paper-weight, or paperweight, etc.

   Business  paper,  checks,  notes,  drafts,  etc.,  given in payment of
   actual  indebtedness; -- opposed to accommodation paper. -- Fly paper,
   paper  covered  with a sticky preparation, -- used for catching flies.
   --  Laid paper. See under Laid. -- Paper birch (Bot.), the canoe birch
   tree  (Betula  papyracea). -- Paper blockade, an ineffective blockade,
   as  by  a  weak  naval  force.  --  Paper boat (Naut.), a boat made of
   water-proof paper. -- Paper car wheel (Railroad), a car wheel having a
   steel  tire,  and a center formed of compressed paper held between two
   plate-iron  disks.  Forney.  --  Paper  credit,  credit  founded  upon
   evidences  of  debt, such as promissory notes, duebills, etc. -- Paper
   hanger,  one  who covers walls with paper hangings. -- Paper hangings,
   paper  printed  with  colored  figures,  or otherwise made ornamental,
   prepared  to  be  pasted  against  the walls of apartments, etc.; wall
   paper. -- Paper house, an audience composed of people who have come in
   on  free passes. [Cant] -- Paper money, notes or bills, usually issued
   by government or by a banking corporation, promising payment of money,
   and  circulated  as  the  representative  of  coin. -- Paper mulberry.
   (Bot.)  See  under  Mulberry. -- Paper muslin, glazed muslin, used for
   linings,  etc.  --  Paper nautilus. (Zo\'94l.) See Argonauta. -- Paper
   reed  (Bot.),  the papyrus. -- Paper sailor. (Zo\'94l.) See Argonauta.
   --  Paper stainer, one who colors or stamps wall paper. De Colange. --
   Paper  wasp  (Zo\'94l.),  any  wasp  which  makes  a nest of paperlike
   material,  as the yellow jacket. -- Paper weight, any object used as a
   weight  to  prevent  loose  papers  from  being  displaced by wind, or
   otherwise.  --  Parchment  paper. See Papyrine. -- Tissue paper, thin,
   gauzelike  paper,  such  as is used to protect engravings in books. --
   Wall  paper.  Same  as  Paper  hangings,  above. -- Waste paper, paper
   thrown  aside  as  worthless  or  useless,  except  for uses of little
   account.  --  Wove  paper, a writing paper with a uniform surface, not
   ribbed  or watermarked.<-- paper tiger, a person or group that appears
   to be powerful and dangerous but is in fact weak and ineffectual -->


   Pa"per  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to paper; made of paper; resembling
   paper; existing only on paper; unsubstantial; as, a paper box; a paper


   Pa"per, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Papered(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Papering.]

   1. To cover with paper; to furnish with paper hangings; as, to paper a
   room or a house.

   2. To fold or inclose in paper.

   3. To put on paper; to make a memorandum of. [Obs.]


   Pa"per*weight` (?), n. See under Paper, n.


   Pa"per*y  (?),  a.  Like  paper; having the thinness or consistence of
   paper. Gray.


   Pa*pes"cent (?), a. [From Pap soft food.] Containing or producing pap;
   like pap. [R.] Arbuthnot.


   Pa"pess  (?),  n.  [F.  papesse.] A female pope; i. e., the fictitious
   pope Joan. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Pa`pe*terie" (?), n. [F., paper manufacture, fr. papier paper.] A case
   or box containing paper and materials for writing.


   Pa"phi*an  (?),  a.  [L.  Paphius,  Gr. Of or pertaining to Paphos, an
   ancient  city  of  Cyprus, having a celebrated temple of Venus; hence,
   pertaining to Venus, or her rites.


   Pa"phi*an, n. A native or inhabitant of Paphos.


   Pa`pier"-ma`ch\'82"  (?),  n.  [F. papier m\'83ch\'82, lit., chewed or
   mashed  paper.] A hard and strong substance made of a pulp from paper,
   mixed  with  sise  or  glue,  etc. It is formed into various articles,
   usually by means of molds.


   Pa*pil"i*o   (?),   n.  [L.,  a  butterfly.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus  of

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rmerly it  in cluded numerous species which are now
     placed in other genera. By many writers it is now restricted to the
     swallow-tailed  butterflies,  like  Papilio polyxenes, or asterias,
     and related species.


   Pa*pil`io*na"ceous (?), a.

   1. Resembling the butterfly.

   2. (Bot.) (a) Having a winged corolla somewhat resembling a butterfly,
   as in the blossoms of the bean and pea. (b) Belonging to that suborder
   of  leguminous  plants (Papilionace\'91) which includes the bean, pea,
   vetch, clover, and locust.


   Pa*pil`i*o"nes  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Papilio.] (Zo\'94l.) The division
   of Lepidoptera which includes the butterflies.


   Pa*pil`i*on"i*des   (?),   n.   pl.   [NL.]   (Zo\'94l.)  The  typical


   Pa*pil"la  (?),  n.;  pl.  Papill\'91 (#). [L., a nipple, pimple.] Any
   minute nipplelike projection; as, the papill\'91 of the tongue.


   Pap"il*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. papillaire.] Same as Papillose.


   Pap"il*la*ry  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  papillaire.]  Of,  pertaining to, or
   resembling,  a  papilla  or  papill\'91;  bearing,  or  covered  with,
   papill\'91; papillose.


   Pap"il*late (?), v. t. & i. To cover with papill\'91; to take the form
   of a papilla, or of papill\'91.


   Pap"il*late (?), a. Same as Papillose.


   Pa*pil"li*form  (?),  a.  [Papilla  +  -form.]  Shaped like a papilla;


   Pap`il*lo"ma  (?),  n.;  pl.  Papillomata  (#).  [NL. See Papilla, and
   -Oma.]  (Med.)  A tumor formed by hypertrophy of the papill\'91 of the
   skin or mucous membrane, as a corn or a wart. Quain.


   Pap`il*lo"ma*tous  (?), a. (Med.) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of,


   Pap"il*lose`  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. papilleux.] Covered with, or bearing,
   papill\'91; resembling papill\'91; papillate; papillar; papillary.


   Pap"il*lote  (?),  n. [F., fr. papillon a butterfly.] a small piece of
   paper on which women roll up their hair to make it curl; a curl paper.


   Pap"il*lous (?), a. Papillary; papillose.


   Pa*pil"lu*late  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  a  minute papilla in the
   center of a larger elevation or depression.


   Pa"pi*on  (?), n. [Prob. from native name: cf. Sp. papion.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A West African baboon (Cynocephalus sphinx), allied to the chacma. Its
   color is generally chestnut, varying in tint.


   Pa"pism  (?), n. [F. papisme. See Pape, Pope.] Popery; -- an offensive
   term. Milton.


   Pa"pist  (?),  n.  [F. papiste. See Pape, Pope.] A Roman catholic; one
   who adheres to the Church of Rome and the authority of the pope; -- an
   offensive designation applied to Roman Catholics by their opponents.

                             Papistic, Papistical

   Pa*pis"tic  (?),  Pa*pis"tic*al  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. papistique.] Of or
   pertaining  to  the  Church  of Rome and its doctrines and ceremonies;
   pertaining to popery; popish; -- used disparagingly. "The old papistic
   worship." T. Warton. -- Pa*pis"tic*al*ly, adv.


   Pa"pist*ry  (?), n. The doctrine and ceremonies of the Church of Rome;
   popery. [R.] Whitgift.


   Pa"pized  (?),  a.  [From  Pape.] Conformed to popery. [Obs.] "Papized
   writers." Fuller.


   Pa*poose"  (?),  n. A babe or young child of Indian parentage in North


   Pap"pi*form (?), a. (Bot.) Resembling the pappus of composite plants.


   Pap*poose" (?), n. Same as Papoose. Pappoose root. (Bot.) See Cohosh.


   Pap*pose" (?) a. (Bot.) Furnished with a pappus; downy.


   Pap"pous (?), a. (Bot.) Pappose.


   Pap"pus  (?),  n.  [L.,  an old man or grandfather; hence, a substance
   resembling  gray  hairs, Gr. (Bot.) The hairy or feathery appendage of
   the  achenes  of  thistles,  dandelions,  and most other plants of the
   order   Composit\'91;  also,  the  scales,  awns,  or  bristles  which
   represent the calyx in other plants of the same order.


   Pap"py  (?),  a.  [From  Pap  soft  food.]  Like pap; soft; succulent;
   tender. Ray.


   Pap"u*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Papua.


   Pap"u*ars (?), n. pl.; sing. Papuan (. (Ethnol.) The native black race
   of Papua or New Guinea, and the adjacent islands.


   Pap"u*la (?), n.; pl. Papul\'91 (#). [L.]

   1.  (Med.)  A  pimple;  a  small,  usually  conical,  elevation of the
   cuticle, produced by congestion, accumulated secretion, or hypertrophy
   of tissue; a papule. Quain.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the  numerous  small  hollow processes of the
   integument between the plates of starfishes.


   Pap"u*lar (?), a.

   1. Covered with papules.

   2.  (Med.)  Consisting  of  papules;  characterized by the presence of
   papules; as, a papular eruption.


   Pap"ule (?), n.; pl. Papules (. Same as Papula.


   Pap"u*lose`  (?),  a.  (Biol.)  Having  papul\'91;  papillose;  as,  a
   papulose leaf.


   Pap"u*lous  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. pap.] Covered with, or characterized by,
   papul\'91; papulose.


   Pap`y*ra"ceous  (?),  a.  [L.  papyraceus  made  of  papyrus.] Made of
   papyrus; of the consistency of paper; papery.


   Pa*pyr"e*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  papyrus,  or  to paper;


   Pap"y*rine  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  papyrin  made  of  paper.  See Paper.]
   Imitation parchment, made by soaking unsized paper in dilute sulphuric


   Pa*pyr"o*graph   (?),   n.   [Papyrus  +  -graph.]  An  apparatus  for
   multiplying writings, drawings, etc., in which a paper stencil, formed
   by  writing  or  drawing with corrosive ink, is used. The word is also
   used  of other means of multiplying copies of writings, drawings, etc.
   See Copygraph, Hectograph, Manifold.


   Pap`y*rog"ra*phy   (?),  n.  The  process  of  multiplying  copies  of
   writings, etc., by means of the papyrograph. -- Pap`y*ro*graph"ic (#),


   Pa*py"rus (?), n.; pl. Papyri (#). [L., fr. Gr. Paper.]

   1. (Bot.) A tall rushlike plant (Cyperus Papyrus) of the Sedge family,
   formerly  growing in Egypt, and now found in Abyssinia, Syria, Sicily,
   etc. The stem is triangular and about an inch thick.

   2.  The material upon which the ancient Egyptians wrote. It was formed
   by  cutting the stem of the plant into thin longitudinal slices, which
   were gummed together and pressed.

   3. A manuscript written on papyrus; esp., pl., written scrolls made of
   papyrus; as, the papyri of Egypt or Herculaneum.


   P\'83que (?), n. [F. p\'83que.] See Pasch and Easter.


   Par (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Parr.


   Par,  prep. [F., fr. L. per. See Per.] By; with; -- used frequently in
   Early  English  in  phrases  taken  from  the  French, being sometimes
   written  as  a  part  of  the word which it governs; as, par amour, or
   paramour; par cas, or parcase; par fay, or parfay.


   Par (?), n. [L. par, adj., equal. See Peer an equal.]

   1.  Equal  value;  equality  of  nominal  and  actual value; the value
   expressed  on the face or in the words of a certificate of value, as a
   bond or other commercial paper.

   2. Equality of condition or circumstances.
   At par, at the original price; neither at a discount nor at a premium.
   --  Above par, at a premium. -- Below par, at a discount. -- On a par,
   on  a  level;  in  the  same condition, circumstances, position, rank,
   etc.; as, their pretensions are on a par; his ability is on a par with
   his  ambition.  --  Par of exchange. See under Exchange. -- Par value,
   nominal value; face value.


   Par"a- (?). [Gr. for- in forgive. Cf. For-.]

   1.  A  prefix signifying alongside of, beside, beyond, against, amiss;
   as  parable,  literally,  a  placing  beside;  paradox,  that which is
   contrary to opinion; parachronism.

   2. (Chem.) A prefix denoting: (a) Likeness, similarity, or connection,
   or  that  the  substance  resembles, but is distinct from, that to the
   name  of which it is prefixed; as paraldehyde, paraconine, etc.; also,
   an  isomeric  modification.  (b) Specifically: (Organ. Chem.) That two
   groups or radicals substituted in the benzene nucleus are opposite, or
   in  the  respective  positions  1  and  4;  2  and  5;  or 3 and 6, as
   paraxylene;  paroxybenzoic  acid.  Cf.  Ortho-,  and  Meta-. Also used


   Pa*ra"  (?), n. [Turk., fr. Per. p\'berah a piece.] A piece of Turkish
   money,  usually  copper,  the fortieth part of a piaster, or about one
   ninth of a cent.


   Par`a*ban"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a
   nitrogenous acid which is obtained by the oxidation of uric acid, as a
   white crystalline substance (C3N2H2O3); -- also called oxalyl urea.


   Par"a*blast  (?), n. [Cf. Gr. Para-, and -blast.] (Biol.) A portion of
   the  mesoblast  (of  peripheral  origin) of the developing embryo, the
   cells of which are especially concerned in forming the first blood and
   blood vessels. C. S. Minot.


   Par`a*blas"tic  (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to the parablast; as,
   the parablastic cells.


   Par"a*ble  (?),  a. [L. parabilis, fr. parare to provide.] Procurable.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Par"a*ble,  n.  [F.  parabole,  L.  parabola, fr. Gr. gal to drop. Cf.
   Emblem,   Gland,  Palaver,  Parabola,  Parley,  Parabole,  Symbol.]  A
   comparison;  a  similitude; specifically, a short fictitious narrative
   of  something  which might really occur in life or nature, by means of
   which a moral is drawn; as, the parables of Christ. Chaucer.

     Declare unto us the parable of the tares. Matt. xiii. 36.

   Syn. -- See Allegory, and Note under Apologue.


   Par"a*ble, v. t. To represent by parable. [R.]

     Which by the ancient sages was thus parabled. Milton.


   Pa*rab"o*la (?), n.; pl. Parabolas (#). [NL., fr. Gr. Parable, and cf.
   Parabole.]  (Geom.)  (a)  A  kind  of curve; one of the conic sections
   formed  by  the  intersection  of  the  surface of a cone with a plane
   parallel  to  one  of  its sides. It is a curve, any point of which is
   equally  distant  from  a  fixed  point, called the focus, and a fixed
   straight  line, called the directrix. See Focus. (b) One of a group of
   curves  defined  by  the  equation y = axn where n is a positive whole
   number or a positive fraction. For the cubical parabola n = 3; for the
   semicubical  parabola  n  =  . See under Cubical, and Semicubical. The
   parabolas have infinite branches, but no rectilineal asymptotes.


   Pa*rab"o*le  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr.  Parable.]  (Rhet.)  Similitude;

                            Parabolic, Parabolical

   Par`a*bol"ic  (?),  Par`a*bol"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  parabolique.  See

   1.  Of  the  nature  of  a  parable; expressed by a parable or figure;
   allegorical; as, parabolical instruction.

   2.  [From  Parabola.]  (Geom.)  (a)  Having  the  form  or nature of a
   parabola;  pertaining  to,  or resembling, a parabola; as, a parabolic
   curve.  (b)  Generated  by  the revolution of a parabola, or by a line
   that moves on a parabola as a directing curve; as, a parabolic conoid.
   Parabolic  conoid,  a  paraboloid; a conoid whose directing curve is a
   parabola.  See  Conoid.  -- Parabolic mirror (Opt.), a mirror having a
   paraboloidal surface which gives for parallel rays (as those from very
   distant objects) images free from aberration. It is used in reflecting
   telescopes. -- Parabolic spindle, the solid generated by revolving the
   portion  of  a parabola cut off by a line drawn at right angles to the
   axis  of the curve, about that line as an axis. -- Parabolic spiral, a
   spiral curve conceived to be formed by the periphery of a semiparabola
   when  its axis is wrapped about a circle; also, any other spiral curve
   having an analogy to the parabola.

   Page 1039


   Par`a*bol"ic*al*ly (?), adv.

   1. By way of parable; in a parabolic manner.

   2. In the form of a parabola.


   Par`a*bol"i*form  (?), a. [Parabola + -form.] Resembling a parabola in


   Pa*rab"o*lism  (?),  n.  [From  Parabola.]  (Alg.) The division of the
   terms of an equation by a known quantity that is involved in the first
   term. [Obs.]


   Pa*rab"o*list (?), n. A narrator of parables.


   Pa*rab"o*loid  (?),  n.  [Parabola  +  -oid:  cf.  F. parabolo\'8bde.]
   (Geom.)  The  solid  generated by the rotation of a parabola about its
   axis;  any  surface  of  the  second  order  whose  sections by planes
   parallel to a given line are parabolas.

     NOTE: &hand; The term paraboloid has sometimes been applied also to
     the parabolas of the higher orders.



   Par`a*bo*loid"al   (?),   a.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  resembling,  a


   Par`a*bron"chi*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Parabronchia  (#).  [NL. See Para-,
   Bronchia.]  (Anat.)  One  of  the  branches  of  an  ectobronchium  or


   Par`a*cel"si*an  (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or in conformity with, the
   practice  of  Paracelsus,  a  Swiss  physician  of  the  15th century.


   Par`a*cel"si*an,  n.  A  follower  of  Paracelsus  or  his practice or
   teachings. Hakewill.


   Par`a*cel"sist (?), n. A Paracelsian.


   Par`a*cen*te"sis  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr. (Med.) The perforation of a
   cavity  of  the  body  with  a  trocar,  aspirator,  or other suitable
   instrument, for the evacuation of effused fluid, pus, or gas; tapping.

                          Paracentric, Paracentrical

   Par`a*cen"tric  (?), Par`a*cen"tric*al (?), a. [Pref. para- + centric,
   -ical: cf. F. paracentrique.] Deviating from circularity; changing the
   distance  from a center. Paracentric curve (Math.), a curve having the
   property  that, when its plane is placed vertically, a body descending
   along it, by the force of gravity, will approach to, or recede from, a
   fixed  point  or  center, by equal distances in equal times; -- called
   also  a  paracentric. -- Paracentric motton OR velocity, the motion or
   velocity  of a revolving body, as a planet, by which it approaches to,
   or recedes from, the center, without reference to its motion in space,
   or to its motion as reckoned in any other direction.


   Par`a*chor"dal  (?),  a.  [Pref. para- + chordal.] (Anat.) Situated on
   either   side   of   the  notochord;  --  applied  especially  to  the
   cartilaginous rudiments of the skull on each side of the anterior part
   of the notochord. -- n. A parachordal cartilage.


   Pa*rach"ro*nism (?), n. [Pref. para- + Gr. parachronisme.] An error in
   chronology,  by  which the date of an event is set later than the time
   of its occurrence. [R.]


   Par"a*chrose (?), a. [Gr. (Min.) Changing color by exposure Mohs.


   Par"a*chute  (?), n. [F., fr. paper to ward off, guard + chute a fall.
   See Parry, and Chute, Chance.]

   1.  A  contrivance  somewhat  in  the form of an umbrella, by means of
   which  a  descent  may be made from a balloon, or any eminence.<-- usu
   used  for  descending  to  the  ground  from an airplane, for military
   operations  (airborne  troops),  in  an  emergency,  or for sport (sky
   diving) -->

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) A web or fold of skin which extends between the legs of
   certain  mammals,  as  the flying squirrels, colugo, and phalangister.
   <-- parachutist; parachuting. parachute = verb -->


   Par"a*clete (?), n. [L. paracletus, Gr. An advocate; one called to aid
   or  support; hence, the Consoler, Comforter, or Intercessor; -- a term
   applied to the Holy Spirit.

     From  which  intercession especially I conceive he hath the name of
     the Paraclete given him by Christ. Bp. Pearson.


   Par"a*close (?), n. (Arch.) See Parclose.


   Par`ac*mas"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Para-,  and  Acme.]  (Med.)  Gradually
   decreasing; past the acme, or crisis, as a distemper. Dunglison.


   Par`a*con"ic  (?), a. [Pref. para- + aconitic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
   or  designating,  an  organic  acid  obtained  as a deliquescent white
   crystalline  substance,  and  isomeric  with itaconic, citraconic, and
   mesaconic acids.


   Par`a*co"nine   (?),  n.  [Pref.  para-  +  conine.]  (Chem.)  A  base
   resembling  and  isomeric  with  conine,  and  obtained as a colorless
   liquid from butyric aldehyde and ammonia.


   Par`a*co*rol"la (?), n. [Pref. para- + corolla.] (Bot.) A secondary or
   inner corolla; a corona, as of the Narcissus.


   Par`a*cros"tic   (?),   n.   [Pref.  para-  +  acrostic.]  A  poetical
   composition,  in  which  the first verse contains, in order, the first
   letters of all the verses of the poem. Brande & C.


   Par`a*cy*an"o*gen   (?),  n.  [Pref.  para-  +  cyanogen.]  (Chem.)  A
   polymeric  modification  of  cyanogen,  obtained  as  a brown or black
   amorphous residue by heating mercuric cyanide.


   Par`a*cy"mene, n. [Pref. para- + cymene.] (Chem.) Same as Cymene.


   Par`a*dac"ty*lum,  n.;  pl.  Paradactyla  (#).  [NL.  See  Para-,  and
   Dactyl.] (Zo\'94l.) The side of a toe or finger.


   Pa*rade" (?), n. [F., fr. Sp. parada a halt or stopping, an assembling
   for  exercise,  a  place  where  troops are assembled to exercise, fr.
   parar to stop, to prepare. See Pare, v. t.]

   1.  The  ground  where a military display is held, or where troops are

   2. (Mil.) An assembly and orderly arrangement or display of troops, in
   full  equipments,  for  inspection  or evolutions before some superior
   officer;  a  review  of  troops.  Parades  are general, regimental, or
   private   (troop,   battery,  or  company),  according  to  the  force

   3. Pompous show; formal display or exhibition.

     Be rich, but of your wealth make no parade. Swift.

   4.  That  which  is  displayed;  a  show;  a  spectacle;  an  imposing
   procession;  the movement of any body marshaled in military order; as,
   a parade of firemen.

     In state returned the grand parade. Swift.

   5. Posture of defense; guard. [A Gallicism.]

     When they are not in parade, and upon their guard. Locke.

   6. A public walk; a promenade.
   Dress  parade, Undress parade. See under Dress, and Undress. -- Parade
   rest,  a  position  of  rest for soldiers, in which, however, they are
   required  to  be  silent and motionless. Wilhelm. Syn. -- Ostentation;
   display;  show. -- Parade, Ostentation. Parade is a pompous exhibition
   of  things  for  the  purpose  of  display;  ostentation now generally
   indicates a parade of virtues or other qualities for which one expects
   to  be  honored.  "It  was  not in the mere parade of royalty that the
   Mexican  potentates exhibited their power." Robertson. "We are dazzled
   with  the  splendor  of  titles,  the ostentation of learning, and the
   noise of victories." Spectator.


   Pa*rade"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paraded; p. pr. & vb. n. Parading.]
   [Cf. F. parader.]

   1. To exhibit in a showy or ostentatious manner; to show off.

     Parading all her sensibility. Byron.

   2.  To  assemble  and  form; to marshal; to cause to maneuver or march
   ceremoniously; as, to parade troops.


   Pa*rade", v. i.

   1.  To make an exhibition or spectacle of one's self, as by walking in
   a public place.

   2.  To  assemble  in  military order for evolutions and inspection; to
   form or march, as in review.


   Par"a*digm  (?),  n.  [F.  paradigme, L. paradigma, fr. Gr. Para-, and

   1. An example; a model; a pattern. [R.] "The paradigms and patterns of
   all things." Cudworth.

   2.  (Gram.)  An example of a conjugation or declension, showing a word
   in all its different forms of inflection.

   3. (Rhet.) An illustration, as by a parable or fable.

                         Paradigmatic, Paradigmatical

   Par`a*dig*mat"ic  (?),  Par`a*dig*mat"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Exemplary. --
   Par`a*dig*mat"ic*al*ly, adv. [Obs.]


   Par`a*dig*mat"ic,  n.  (Eccl.  Hist.) A writer of memoirs of religious
   persona, as examples of Christian excellence.


   Par`a*dig"ma*tize  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paradigmatized (?); p. pr.
   & vb. n. Paradigmatizing (?).] [Gr. Paradigm.] To set forth as a model
   or example. [Obs.] Hammond.

                           Paradisaic, Paradisaical

   Par`a*di*sa"ic  (?), Par`a*di*sa"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to, or
   resembling, paradise; paradisiacal. "Paradisaical pleasures." Gray.


   Par"a*di`sal (?), a. Paradisiacal.


   Par"a*dise   (?),  n.  [OE.  &  F.  paradis,  L.  paradisus,  fr.  Gr.
   para`deisos  park,  paradise,  fr.  Zend pairida&emac;za an inclosure;
   pairi  around  (akin  to Gr. diz to throw up, pile up; cf. Skr. dih to
   smear, and E. dough. Cf. Parvis.]

   1.  The  garden of Eden, in which Adam and Eve were placed after their

   2. The abode of sanctified souls after death.

     To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise. Luke xxiii. 43.

     It  sounds  to  him  like  her mother's voice, Singing in Paradise.

   3. A place of bliss; a region of supreme felicity or delight; hence, a
   state of happiness.

     The earth Shall be all paradise. Milton.

     Wrapt in the very paradise of some creative vision. Beaconsfield.

   4.  (Arch.) An open space within a monastery or adjoining a church, as
   the space within a cloister, the open court before a basilica, etc.

   5. A churchyard or cemetery. [Obs.] Oxf. Gloss.
   Fool's  paradise.  See  under  Fool, and Limbo. -- Grains of paradise.
   (Bot.)   See   Melequeta  pepper,  under  Pepper.  --  Paradise  bird.
   (Zo\'94l.)  Same as Bird of paradise. Among the most beautiful species
   are  the  superb  (Lophorina  superba);  the  magnificent (Diphyllodes
   magnifica);  and the six-shafted paradise bird (Parotia sefilata). The
   long-billed  paradise  birds  (Epimachin\'91) also include some highly
   ornamental  species,  as  the  twelve-wired  paradise bird (Seleucides
   alba),  which  is  black,  yellow,  and  white,  with  six long breast
   feathers  on each side, ending in long, slender filaments. See Bird of
   paradise  in  the Vocabulary. -- Paradise fish (Zo\'94l.), a beautiful
   fresh-water  Asiatic fish (Macropodus viridiauratus) having very large
   fins.  It  is  often  kept  alive  as  an ornamental fish. -- Paradise
   flycatcher (Zo\'94l.), any flycatcher of the genus Terpsiphone, having
   the  middle  tail  feathers  extremely elongated. The adult male of T.
   paradisi  is  white,  with the head glossy dark green, and crested. --
   Paradise  grackle  (Zo\'94l.), a very beautiful bird of New Guinea, of
   the  genus  Astrapia,  having  dark  velvety  plumage  with  brilliant
   metallic tints. -- Paradise nut (Bot.), the sapucaia nut. See Sapucaia
   nut. [Local, U. S.] -- Paradise whidah bird. (Zo\'94l.) See Whidah.


   Par"a*dise  (?), v. t. To affect or exalt with visions of felicity; to
   entrance; to bewitch. [R.] Marston.


   Par`a*dis"e*an (?), a. Paradisiacal.


   Par"a*dised  (?),  a.  Placed  in  paradise;  enjoying  delights as of

                           Paradisiac, Paradisiacal

   Par`a*dis"i*ac (?), Par`a*di*si"a*cal (?), a. [L. paradisiacus.] Of or
   pertaining  to  paradise; suitable to, or like, paradise. C. Kingsley.
   T. Burnet. "A paradisiacal scene." Pope.

     The valley . . . is of quite paradisiac beauty. G. Eliot.

                            Paradisial, Paradisian

   Par`a*dis"i*al (?), Par`a*dis"i*an (?), a. Paradisiacal. [R.]


   Par`a*dis"ic (?), a. Paradisiacal. [R.] Broome.


   Par`a*dis"ic*al (?), a. Paradisiacal. [R.]


   Par`a*dos  (?),  n.; pl. Paradoses (#). [F., fr. parer to defend + dos
   back,  L.  dorsum.] (Fort.) An intercepting mound, erected in any part
   of  a  fortification  to protect the defenders from a rear or ricochet
   fire; a traverse. Farrow.


   Par`a*dox  (?), n.; pl. Paradoxes (#). [F. paradoxe, L. paradoxum, fr.
   Gr.  Para-,  and  Dogma.]  A tenet or proposition contrary to received
   opinion; an assertion or sentiment seemingly contradictory, or opposed
   to  common sense; that which in appearance or terms is absurd, but yet
   may be true in fact.

     A  gloss there is to color that paradox, and make it appear in show
     not to be altogether unreasonable. Hooker.

     This was sometime a paradox, but now the time gives it proof. Shak.

   Hydrostatic paradox. See under Hydrostatic.


   Par"a*dox`al (?), a. Paradoxical. [Obs.]


   Par`a*dox"ic*al (?), a.

   1. Of the nature of a paradox.

   2. Inclined to paradoxes, or to tenets or notions contrary to received
   opinions.      Southey.     --     Par`a*dox"ic*al*ly,     adv.     --
   Par`a*dox"ic*al*ness, n.

                           Paradoxer, n., Paradoxist

   Par"a*dox`er (?), n., Par"a*dox`ist (, n. One who proposes a paradox.


   Par`a*dox"i*des  (?),  n.  [NL.] (Paleon.) A genus of large trilobites
   characteristic of the primordial formations.


   Par`a*dox*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Paradox  + -logy.] The use of paradoxes.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Par`a*dox"ure  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of Paradoxurus, a
   genus of Asiatic viverrine mammals allied to the civet, as the musang,
   and the luwack or palm cat (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus). See Musang.


   Par"a*dox`y (?), n.

   1. A paradoxical statement; a paradox.

   2. The quality or state of being paradoxical. Coleridge

                              Paraffin, Paraffine

   Par"af*fin  (?),  Par"af*fine  (?), n. [F. paraffine, fr. L. parum too
   little   +  affinis  akin.  So  named  in  allusion  to  its  chemical
   inactivity.]  (Chem.)  A  white waxy substance, resembling spermaceti,
   tasteless  and  odorless,  and  obtained  from  coal  tar,  wood  tar,
   petroleum,  etc.,  by  distillation.  It  is used as an illuminant and
   lubricant.  It  is  very  inert,  not  being acted upon by most of the
   strong  chemical  reagents.  It  was  formerly  regarded as a definite
   compound,  but  is now known to be a complex mixture of several higher
   hydrocarbons  of the methane or marsh-gas series; hence, by extension,
   any substance, whether solid, liquid, or gaseous, of the same chemical
   series; thus coal gas and kerosene consist largely of paraffins.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e pr esent ch emical us age th is word is spelt
     paraffin, but in commerce it is commonly spelt paraffine.

   Native  paraffin.  See  Ozocerite.  --  Paraffin  series.  See Methane
   series, under Methane.


   Par"age, n. [F., fr. L. par, adj., equal. Cf. Peerage, Peer an equal.]

   1.  (Old  Eng.  Law)  Equality  of condition, blood, or dignity; also,
   equality in the partition of an inheritance. Spelman.

   2.  (Feudal Law) Equality of condition between persons holding unequal
   portions of a fee. Burrill.

   Page 1040

   3. Kindred; family; birth. [Obs.] Ld. Berners.

     We claim to be of high parage. Chaucer.


   Par`a*gen"e*sis  (?),  n.  [Pref. para- + genesis.] (Min.) The science
   which treats of minerals with special reference to their origin.


   Par`a*gen"ic  (?),  a. [Pref. para- the root of (Biol.) Originating in
   the  character  of  the  germ,  or  at  the  first  commencement of an
   individual; -- said of peculiarities of structure, character, etc.


   Par`a*glob"u*lin (?), n. [Pref. para- + globulin.] (Physiol. Chem.) An
   albuminous  body  in blood serum, belonging to the group of globulins.
   See Fibrinoplastin.


   Par`a*glos"sa   (?),   n.;  pl.  Paragloss\'91  (#).  [NL.,  from  Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.)  One  of a pair of small appendages of the lingua or labium
   of certain insects. See Illust. under Hymenoptera.


   Par"ag*nath (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Paragnathus.


   Pa*rag"na*thous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  both mandibles of equal
   length, the tips meeting, as in certain birds.


   Pa*rag"na*thus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Paragnathi  (#).  [NL.  See Para-, and
   Gnathic.]  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  One  of the two lobes which form the lower
   lip,  or  metastome,  of  Crustacea.  (b)  One  of  the  small, horny,
   toothlike jaws of certain annelids.


   Par`a*go"ge (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Gram.) The addition of a letter or syllable to the end of a word,
   as withouten for without.

   2. (Med.) Coaptation. [Obs.] Dunglison.

                            Paragogic, Paragogical

   Par`a*gog"ic  (?),  Par`a*gog"ic*al  (?), a. [Cf. F. paragogique.] Of,
   pertaining  to,  or  constituting, a paragoge; added to the end of, or
   serving  to  lengthen,  a  word.  Paragogic  letters,  in  the Semitic
   languages,  letters which are added to the ordinary forms of words, to
   express additional emphasis, or some change in the sense.


   Par"a*gon  (?),  n.  [OF.  paragon, F. parangon; cf. It. paragone, Sp.
   paragon, parangon; prob. fr. Gr.

   1. A companion; a match; an equal. [Obs.] Spenser.

     Philoclea, who indeed had no paragon but her sister. Sir P. Sidney.

   2. Emulation; rivalry; competition. [Obs.]

     Full  many feats adventurous Performed, in paragon of proudest men.

   3.  A  model  or pattern; a pattern of excellence or perfection; as, a
   paragon of beauty or eloquence. Udall.

     Man, . . . the paragon of animals ! Shak.

     The  riches  of  sweet  Mary's  son,  Boy-rabbi,  Israel's paragon.

   4.  (Print.)  A size of type between great primer and double pica. See
   the Note under Type.


   Par"a*gon, v. t. [Cf. OF. paragonner, F. parangonner.]

   1.  To  compare;  to  parallel;  to  put in rivalry or emulation with.
   [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.

   2. To compare with; to equal; to rival. [R.] Spenser.

     In arms anon to paragon the morn, The morn new rising. Glover.

   3. To serve as a model for; to surpass. [Obs.]

     He  hath  achieved  a maid That paragons description and wild fame.


   Par"a*gon, v. i. To be equal; to hold comparison. [R.]

     Few or none could . . . paragon with her. Shelton.


   Pa*rag"o*nite  (?),  n.  [From  Gr.  (Min.)  A kind of mica related to
   muscovite, but containing soda instead of potash. It is characteristic
   of the paragonite schist of the Alps.


   Par"a*gram (?), n. [Gr. Paragraph.] A pun.

     Puns, which he calls paragrams. Addison.


   Par`a*gram"ma*tist (?), n. A punster.


   Pa`ra*gran"di*ne  (?), n. [It., from parare to parry + grandine hail.]
   An  instrument  to  avert  the  occurrence  of hailstorms. See Paragr.


   Par"a*graph  (?),  n.  [F. paragraphe, LL. paragraphus, fr. Gr. Para-,
   and Graphic, and cf. Paraph.]

   1.  Originally,  a  marginal  mark  or note, set in the margin to call
   attention  to  something in the text, e. g., a change of subject; now,
   the character

     NOTE: &hand; This character is merely a modification of a capital P
     (the initial of the word paragraph), the letter being reversed, and
     the  black part made white and the white part black for the sake of

   2.  A  distinct  part  of  a  discourse  or  writing;  any  section or
   subdivision  of  a  writing  or  chapter which relates to a particular
   point,  whether  consisting  of one or many sentences. The division is
   sometimes noted by the mark

   3.  A  brief  composition  complete  in  one  typographical section or
   paragraph;  an  item,  remark,  or  quotation comprised in a few lines
   forming  one  paragraph; as, a column of news paragraphs; an editorial


   Par"a*graph,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Paragraphed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To divide into paragraphs; to mark with the character .

   2.  To  express  in  the  compass  of a paragraph; as, to paragraph an

   3. To mention in a paragraph or paragraphs


   Par"a*graph`er (?), n. A writer of paragraphs; a paragraphist.

                          Paragraphic, Paragraphical

   Par`a*graph"ic  (?),  Par`a*graph"ic*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or
   consisting  of,  a  paragraph  or paragraphs. -- Par`a*graph"ic*al*ly,


   Par"a*graph`ist (?), n. A paragrapher.


   Par`a*gra*phis"tic*al  (?),  a. Of or relating to a paragraphist. [R.]
   Beau. & Fl.

                                  Para grass

   Pa*ra" grass` (?). (Bot.) A valuable pasture grass (Panicum barbinode)
   introduced into the Southern United States from Brazil.


   Pa`ra`gr\'88le"  (?),  n.  [F., fr. parer to guard + gr\'88le hail.] A
   lightning  conductor  erected,  as  in a vineyard, for drawing off the
   electricity in the atmosphere in order to prevent hailstorms. [France]


   Par`a*guay"an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Paraguay. -- n. A native or
   inhabitant of Paraguay.

                                 Paraguay tea

   Pa`ra*guay" tea" (?). See Mate, the leaf of the Brazilian holly.


   Par"ail  (?),  n.  See  Apparel.  [Obs.] "In the parail of a pilgrim."
   Piers Plowman.


   Par"a*keet` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Parrakeet.


   Par`a*lac"tic  (?),  a.  [Pref.  para-  +  lactic.]  (Physiol.  Chem.)
   Designating  an  acid  called  paralactic acid. See Lactic acid, under


   Par`al*bu"min  (?),  n.  [Pref.  para-  + albumin.] (Physiol. Chem.) A
   proteidlike  body found in the fluid from ovarian cysts and elsewhere.
   It  is  generally  associated  with  a  substance  related  to, if not
   identical with, glycogen.


   Par*al"de*hyde  (?),  n. [Pref. para- + aldehyde.] (Chem.) A polymeric
   modification of aldehyde obtained as a white crystalline substance.


   Par`a*leip"sis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A pretended or apparent
   omission;  a  figure  by  which a speaker artfully pretends to pass by
   what  he really mentions; as, for example, if an orator should say, "I
   do  not  speak of my adversary's scandalous venality and rapacity, his
   brutal  conduct,  his treachery and malice." [Written also paralepsis,
   paralepsy, paralipsis.]


   Par`a*lep"sis (?), n. [NL.] See Paraleipsis.


   Pa*ra"li*an (?), n. [Gr. A dweller by the sea. [R.]


   Par`a*li*pom"e*non  (?), n. pl. [L., fr. Gr. paraleipome`nwn of things
   omitted,  pass.  p.  pr. (neuter genitive plural) fr. A title given in
   the Douay Bible to the Books of Chronicles.

     NOTE: &hand; In   th  e Se  ptuagint th  ese bo  oks ar  e ca  lled
     Paraleipome`nwn  prw^ton  and dey`teron, which is understood, after
     Jerome's explanation, as meaning that they are supplementary to the
     Books of Kings W. Smith.


   Par`a*lip"sis (?), n. [NL.] See Paraleipsis.

                          Parallactic, Parallactical

   Par`al*lac"tic  (?), Par`al*lac"tic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. parallactique.]
   Of or pertaining to a parallax.


   Par"al*lax (?), n. [Gr. parallaxe. Cf. Parallel.]

   1. The apparent displacement, or difference of position, of an object,
   as seen from two different stations, or points of view.

   2.  (Astron.)  The  apparent  difference in position of a body (as the
   sun, or a star) as seen from some point on the earth's surface, and as
   seen  from some other conventional point, as the earth's center or the
   Annual  parallax,  the greatest value of the heliocentric parallax, or
   the  greatest  annual  apparent change of place of a body as seen from
   the  earth  and  sun;  as,  the  annual  parallax  of a fixed star. --
   Binocular  parallax,  the apparent difference in position of an object
   as  seen  separately  by  one  eye,  and  then  by the other, the head
   remaining  unmoved.  -- Diurnal, OR Geocentric, parallax, the parallax
   of  a  body  with reference to the earth's center. This is the kind of
   parallax  that  is  generally understood when the term is used without
   qualification.  --  Heliocentric parallax, the parallax of a body with
   reference  to  the  sun,  or  the angle subtended at the body by lines
   drawn from it to the earth and sun; as, the heliocentric parallax of a
   planet.  --  Horizontal parallax, the geocentric parallx of a heavenly
   body  when  in  the horizon, or the angle subtended at the body by the
   earth's  radius.  --  Optical  parallax,  the apparent displacement in
   position  undergone  by  an  object  when viewed by either eye singly.
   Brande & C. -- Parallax of the cross wires (of an optical instrument),
   their  apparent displacement when the eye changes its position, caused
   by  their  not  being  exactly  in  the  focus of the object glass. --
   Stellar parallax, the annual parallax of a fixed star.


   Par"al*lel (?), a. [F. parall\'8ale, L. parallelus, fr. Gr. alius. See

   1.  (Geom.)  Extended  in the same direction, and in all parts equally
   distant; as, parallel lines; parallel planes.

     Revolutions . . . parallel to the equinoctial. Hakluyt.

     NOTE: &hand; Cu rved lines or curved planes are said to be parallel
     when they are in all parts equally distant.

   2.  Having the same direction or tendency; running side by side; being
   in  accordance (with); tending to the same result; -- used with to and

     When  honor  runs parallel with the laws of God and our country, it
     can not be too much cherished. Addison.

   3.  Continuing  a  resemblance through many particulars; applicable in
   all  essential  parts;  like; similar; as, a parallel case; a parallel
   passage. Addison.
   Parallel  bar.  (a)  (Steam  Eng.) A rod in a parallel motion which is
   parallel with the working beam. (b) One of a pair of bars raised about
   five  feet  above  the floor or ground, and parallel to each other, --
   used  for  gymnastic exercises. -- Parallel circles of a sphere, those
   circles  of  the  sphere  whose  planes are parallel to each other. --
   Parallel  columns,  OR  Parallels  (Printing), two or more passages of
   reading  matter  printed  side by side, for the purpose of emphasizing
   the  similarity  or  discrepancy  between  them.  --  Parallel  forces
   (Mech.),  forces  which  act  in directions parallel to each other. --
   Parallel motion. (a) (Mach.) A jointed system of links, rods, or bars,
   by  which the motion of a reciprocating piece, as a piston rod, may be
   guided,  either  approximately or exactly in a straight line. Rankine.
   (b)  (Mus.)  The ascending or descending of two or more parts at fixed
   intervals,  as  thirds or sixths. -- Parallel rod (Locomotive Eng.), a
   metal  rod that connects the crank pins of two or more driving wheels;
   --  called  also  couping rod, in distinction from the connecting rod.
   See  Illust.  of  Locomotive, in App. -- Parallel ruler, an instrument
   for  drawing  parallel lines, so constructed as to have the successive
   positions  of  the  ruling  edge  parallel  to  each  other; also, one
   consisting  of  two  movable  parts,  the  opposite edges of which are
   always parallel. -- Parallel sailing (Naut.), sailing on a parallel of
   latitude.  --  Parallel sphere (Astron. & Geog.), that position of the
   sphere  in  which  the  circles  of  daily  motion are parallel to the
   horizon,  as  to  an observer at either pole. -- Parallel vise, a vise
   having jaws so guided as to remain parallel in all positions.


   Par"al*lel (?), n.

   1.  A  line  which,  throughout  its whole extent, is equidistant from
   another line; a parallel line, a parallel plane, etc.

     Who  made  the  spider parallels design, Sure as De Moivre, without
     rule or line ? Pope.

   2. Direction conformable to that of another line,

     Lines that from their parallel decline. Garth.

   3.  Conformity  continued through many particulars or in all essential
   points; resemblance; similarity.

     Twixt  earthly  females  and  the  moon  All parallels exactly run.

   4.  A  comparison made; elaborate tracing of similarity; as, Johnson's
   parallel between Dryden and Pope.

   5.  Anything  equal  to,  or  resembling,  another  in  all  essential
   particulars; a counterpart.

     None but thyself can be thy parallel. Pope.

   6.  (Geog.)  One of the imaginary circles on the surface of the earth,
   parallel to the equator, marking the latitude; also, the corresponding
   line on a globe or map.

   7.  (Mil.)  One  of  a  series  of  long trenches constructed before a
   besieged  fortress,  by  the  besieging  force,  as a cover for troops
   supporting  the  attacking batteries. They are roughly parallel to the
   line of outer defenses of the fortress.

   8.  (Print.)  A  character  consisting  of two parallel vertical lines
   (thus,  )  used  in the text to direct attention to a similarly marked
   note in the margin or at the foot of a page.
   Limiting  parallels.  See  under  Limit, v. t. -- Parallel of altitude
   (Astron.),  one  of  the  small circles of the sphere, parallel to the
   horizon;  an  almucantar. -- Parallel of declination (Astron.), one of
   the  small circles of the sphere, parallel to the equator. -- Parallel
   of  latitude.  (a) (Geog.) See def. 6. above. (b) (Astron.) One of the
   small circles of the sphere, parallel to the ecliptic.


   Par"al*lel,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Paralleled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Paralleling (?).]

   1. To place or set so as to be parallel; to place so as to be parallel
   to, or to conform in direction with, something else.

     The  needle  .  .  .  doth  parallel and place itself upon the true
     meridian. Sir T. Browne.

   2.  Fig.:  To  make to conform to something else in character, motive,
   aim, or the like.

     His  life  is paralleled Even with the stroke and line of his great
     justice. Shak.

   3. To equal; to match; to correspond to. Shak.

   4. To produce or adduce as a parallel. [R.] Locke.

     My young remembrance can not parallel A fellow to it. Shak.


   Par"al*lel,  v.  i.  To be parallel; to correspond; to be like. [Obs.]


   Par"al*lel`a*ble (?), a. Capable of being paralleled, or equaled. [R.]
   Bp. Hall.


   Par"al*lel*ism (?), n. [Gr. parall\'82lisme.]

   1. The quality or state of being parallel.

   2. Resemblance; correspondence; similarity.

     A close parallelism of thought and incident. T. Warton.

   3.  Similarity  of  construction  or meaning of clauses placed side by
   side,  especially  clauses  expressing  the same sentiment with slight
   modifications, as is common in Hebrew poetry; e. g.: --

     At  her  feet he bowed, he fell: Where he bowed, there he fell down
     dead. Judg. v. 27.


   Par`al*lel*is"tic  (?),  a.  Of the nature of a parallelism; involving

     The  antithetic  or parallelistic form of Hebrew poetry is entirely
     lost. Milman.


   Par"al*lel*ize (?), v. t. To render parallel. [R.]


   Par"al*lel*less, a. Matchless. [R.]


   Par"al*lel*ly,  adv.  In a parallel manner; with parallelism. [R.] Dr.
   H. More.


   Par`al*lel"o*gram  (?),  n. [Gr. parall\'82logramme. See Parallel, and
   -gram.]  (Geom.)  A  right-lined  quadrilateral figure, whose opposite
   sides are parallel, and consequently equal; -- sometimes restricted in
   popular  usage to a rectangle, or quadrilateral figure which is longer
   than  it is broad, and with right angles. Parallelogram of velocities,
   forces,  accelerations,  momenta,  etc.  (Mech.),  a parallelogram the
   diagonal  of which represents the resultant of two velocities, forces,
   accelerations, momenta, etc., both in quantity and direction, when the
   velocities,  forces,  accelerations, momenta, etc., are represented in
   quantity and direction by the two adjacent sides of the parallelogram.


   Par`al*lel`o*gram*mat"ic  (?), a. Of or pertaining to a parallelogram;

   Page 1041

                     Parallelogrammic, Parallelogrammical

   Par`al*lel`o*gram"mic (?), Par`al*lel`o*gram"mic*al (?), a. Having the
   properties of a parallelogram. [R.]


   Par`al*lel`o*pi"ped  (?),  n.  [Gr.  parall\'82lopip\'8ade.] (Geom.) A
   solid,  the  faces of which are six parallelograms, the opposite pairs
   being  parallel,  and  equal  to  each  other; a prism whose base is a


   Par`al*lel`o*pip"e*don (?), n. [NL.] A parallelopiped. Hutton.


   Par`a*log"ic*al (?), a. Containing paralogism; illogical. "Paralogical
   doubt." Sir T. Browne.


   Pa*ral"o*gism  (?), n. [Gr. paralogisme.] (Logic) A reasoning which is
   false in point of form, that is, which is contrary to logical rules or
   formul\'91;  a  formal  fallacy,  or  pseudo-syllogism,  in  which the
   conclusion does not follow from the premises.


   Pa*ral"o*gize  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paralogized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Paralogizing (?).] [Gr. To reason falsely; to draw conclusions not
   warranted by the premises. [R.]


   Pa*ral"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. False reasoning; paralogism.


   Par"a*lyse (?), v. t. Same as Paralyze.


   Pa*ral"y*sis  (?),  n.  [L., fr. Gr. Para-, and Loose, and cf. Palsy.]
   (Med.)  Abolition  of function, whether complete or partial; esp., the
   loss  of  the  power  of  voluntary  motion,  with  or without that of
   sensation,  in  any  part  of  the  body;  palsy.  See Hemiplegia, and
   Paraplegia.  Also  used  figuratively. "Utter paralysis of memory." G.

     Mischievous practices arising out of the paralysis of the powers of
     ownership. Duke of Argyll (1887).


   Par`a*lyt"ic (?), a. [L. paralyticus, Gr. paralytique.]

   1. Of or pertaining to paralysis; resembling paralysis.

   2. Affected with paralysis, or palsy.

     The cold, shaking, paralytic hand. Prior.

   3. Inclined or tending to paralysis.
   Paralytic  secretion (Physiol.), the fluid, generally thin and watery,
   secreted from a gland after section or paralysis of its nerves, as the
   pralytic saliva.


   Par`a*lyt"ic, n. A person affected with paralysis.


   Par`a*lyt"ic*al (?), a. See Paralytic.


   Par`a*ly*za"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  or process of paralyzing, or the
   state of being paralyzed.


   Par"a*lyze  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Paralyzed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Paralyzing (?).] [F. paralyser. See Paralysis.]

   1. To affect or strike with paralysis or palsy.

   2.  Fig.:  To  unnerve;  to destroy or impair the energy of; to render
   ineffective;  as,  the occurrence paralyzed the community; despondency
   paralyzed his efforts.


   Par"am  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  white  crystalline nitrogenous substance
   (C2H4N4); -- called also dicyandiamide.


   Par`a*mag*net"ic  (?),  a.  [Pref.  para-  +  magnetic.]  Magnetic, as
   opposed  to  diamagnetic.  -- n. A paramagnetic substance. Faraday. --
   Par`a*mag*net"ic*al*ly (#), adv.


   Par`a*mag"net*ism  (?),  n.  Magnetism,  as  opposed  to diamagnetism.


   Par`a*ma*le"ic  (?), a. [Pref. para- + maleic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
   or  designating,  an  acid  obtained  from  malic acid, and now called
   fumaric acid. [Obs.]


   Par`a*ma"lic  (?), a. [Pref. para- + malic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   designating, an organic acid metameric with malic acid.


   Par`a*mas"toid  (?),  a.  [Pref.  para-  +  mastoid.] (Anat.) Situated
   beside,   or   near,   the  mastoid  portion  of  the  temporal  bone;
   paroccipital;  -- applied especially to a process of the skull in some


   Par`a*mat"ta  (?), n. [So named from Paramatta, in Australia.] A light
   fabric  of  cotton  and  worsted, resembling bombazine or merino. Beck
   (Draper's Dict.)


   Par"a*ment  (?), n. [Sp. paramento, from parar to prepare, L. parare.]
   Ornamental  hangings,  furniture,  etc., as of a state apartment; rich
   and  elegant  robes  worn  by  men  of rank; -- chiefly in the plural.

     Lords in paraments on their coursers. Chaucer.

   Chamber of paraments, presence chamber of a monarch.


   Pa`ra*men"to (?), n. [Sp.] Ornament; decoration. Beau. & Fl.


   Par"a*mere  (?),  n.  [Pref.  para-  +  -mere.]  (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   symmetrical  halves  of  any  one  of  the radii, or spheromeres, of a
   radiate animal, as a starfish.


   Pa*ram"e*ter (?), n. [Pref. para- + -meter: cf. F. param\'8atre.]

   1.  (a)  (Math.) A term applied to some characteristic magnitude whose
   value,  invariable  as  long  as  one  and  the  same function, curve,
   surface,  etc.,  is  considered,  serves to distinguish that function,
   curve, surface, etc., from others of the same kind or family. Brande &
   C.  (b) Specifically (Conic Sections), in the ellipse and hyperbola, a
   third  proportional  to  any  diameter  and  its  conjugate, or in the
   parabola, to any abscissa and the corresponding ordinate.

     NOTE: &hand; The parameter of the principal axis of a conic section
     is called the latus rectum.

   2.  (Crystallog.)  The  ratio of the three crystallographic axes which
   determines  the  position  of  any  plane; also, the fundamental axial
   ratio for a given species.


   Par`a*me*tri"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Para-,  and  Metritis.]  (Med.)
   Inflammation of the cellular tissue in the vicinity of the uterus.


   Par`a*mi*og"ra*pher  (?), n. [Gr. -graph + -er.] A collector or writer
   of proverbs. [R.]


   Par`a*mi"tome  (?),  n.  [Pref.  para-  +  mitome.]  (Biol.) The fluid
   portion of the protoplasm of a cell.


   Pa"ra*mo  (?),  n.;  pl.  Paramos  (#). [Sp. p\'91ramo.] A high, bleak
   plateau or district, with stunted trees, and cold, damp atmosphere, as
   in the Andes, in South America.


   Par"a*morph  (?),  n. [Pref. para- + Gr. (Min.) A kind of pseudomorph,
   in  which  there  has  been  a  change  of physical characters without
   alteration  of  chemical  composition,  as  the change of aragonite to


   Par`a*mor"phism  (?),  n.  (Min.) The change of one mineral species to
   another,  so  as  to  involve  a change in physical characters without
   alteration of chemical composition.


   Par`a*mor"phous  (?),  a.  (Min.) Relating to paramorphism; exhibiting


   Par"a*mount  (?),  a. [OF. par amont above; par through, by (L. per) +
   amont  above.  See  Amount.]  Having the highest rank or jurisdiction;
   superior to all others; chief; supreme; pre\'89minent; as, a paramount
   duty. "A traitor paramount." Bacon. Lady paramount (Archery), the lady
   making  the  best  score.  -- Lord paramount, the king. Syn. Superior;
   principal; pre\'89minent; chief.


   Par"a*mount, n. The highest or chief. Milton.


   Par"a*mount`ly, adv. In a paramount manner.


   Par"a*mour  (?),  n. [F. par amour, lit., by or with love. See 2d Par,
   and Amour.]

   1.  A  lover, of either sex; a wooer or a mistress (formerly in a good
   sense,  now  only  in  a  bad  one);  one who takes the place, without
   possessing  the  rights,  of  a husband or wife; -- used of a man or a

     The  seducer  appeared  with  dauntless  front,  accompanied by his
     paramour Macaulay.

   2. Love; gallantry. [Obs.] "For paramour and jollity." Chaucer.

                              Paramour, Paramours

   Par"a*mour`,  Par"a*mours` (?), adv. By or with love, esp. the love of
   the sexes; -- sometimes written as two words. [Obs.]

     For par amour, I loved her first ere thou. Chaucer.


   Par*am"y*lum  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Chem.) A substance resembling
   starch,  found  in  the  green  frothy  scum  formed on the surface of
   stagnant water.


   Par`a*naph"tha*lene  (?),  n.  [Pref.  para-  +  naphthalene.] (Chem.)
   Anthracene; -- called also paranaphthaline. [Obs.]


   Par`a*noi"a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) Mental derangement; insanity.


   Par*an"thra*cene  (?), n. [Pref. para- + anthracene.] (Chem.) An inert
   isomeric modification of anthracene.


   Par`a*nu"cle*us  (?),  n.  [Pref.  para-  +  nucleus.] (Biol.) Some as

                                   Para nut

   Pa*ra" nut` (?). (Bot.) The Brazil nut.


   Par"a*nymph (?), n. [L. paranymphus, Gr. paranymphe.]

   1.  (Gr.  Antiq.)  (a) A friend of the bridegroom who went with him in
   his  chariot  to  fetch home the bride. Milton. (b) The bridesmaid who
   conducted the bride to the bridegroom.

   2. Hence: An ally; a supporter or abettor. Jer. Taylor.


   Par`a*nym"phal (?), a. Bridal; nuptial. [R.]

     At some paranymphal feast. Ford.


   Par`a*pec"tin  (?),  n.  [Pref.  para- + pectin.] (Chem.) A gelatinous
   modification of pectin.


   Par"a*pegm  (?), n. [L. parapegma, Gr. parapegme.] An engraved tablet,
   usually of brass, set up in a public place.

     NOTE: &hand; Pa rapegms we re us ed fo r th e pu blication of laws,
     proclamations, etc., and the recording of astronomical phenomena or
     calendar events.


   Par`a*pep"tone  (?),  n.  [Pref. para- + peptone.] (Phisiol. Chem.) An
   albuminous  body  formed  in small quantity by the peptic digestion of
   proteids.  It  can  be converted into peptone by pancreatic juice, but
   not by gastric juice.


   Par"a*pet  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  It. parapetto, fr. parare to ward off,
   guard  (L.  parare to prepare, provide) + petto the breast, L. pectus.
   See Parry, and Pectoral.]

   1. (Arch.) A low wall, especially one serving to protect the edge of a
   platform, roof, bridge, or the like.

   2.  (Fort.)  A  wall,  rampart,  or  elevation  of earth, for covering
   soldiers from an enemy's fire; a breastwork. See Illust. of Casemate.


   Par`a*pet"al*ous  (?), a. [Pref. para- + petal.] (Bot.) Growing by the
   side of a petal, as a stamen.


   Par"a*pet`ed, a. Having a parapet.


   Par"aph  (?),  n.  [F.  paraphe,  parafe,  contr.  fr.  paragraphe.] A
   flourish  made  with  the pen at the end of a signature. In the Middle
   Ages,  this  formed a sort of rude safeguard against forgery. Brande &


   Par"aph, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paraphed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paraphing.]
   [Cf. F. parapher, parafer.] To add a paraph to; to sign, esp. with the


   Par`a*pher"na  (?),  n.  pl.  [L.]  (Rom. Law) The property of a woman
   which, on her marriage, was not made a part of her dower, but remained
   her own.


   Par`a*pher"nal  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  paraphernal.]  Of or pertaining to
   paraphernalia; as, paraphernal property. Kent.


   Par`a*pher*na"li*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [LL.  paraphernalia  bona,  fr.  L.
   parapherna, pl., parapherna, Gr. fe`rein to bring. See 1st Bear.]

   1. (Law) Something reserved to a wife, over and above her dower, being
   chiefly apparel and ornaments suited to her degree.

   2. Appendages; ornaments; finery; equipments.


   Par`a*phi*mo"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A condition in which the
   prepuce,  after being retracted behind the glans penis, is constricted
   there, and can not be brought forward into place again.


   Par`a*phos*phor"ic   (?),  a.  [Pref.  para-  +  phosphoric.]  (Chem.)
   Pyrophosphoric. [Obs.]


   Par`a*phag"ma (?), n.; pl. Paraphragmata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.)
   One  of  the  outer  divisions  of  an  endosternite  of Crustacea. --
   Par`a*phrag"mal (#), a.


   Par"a*phrase  (?),  n. [L. paraphrasis, Gr. paraphrase. See Para-, and
   Phrase.]  A  restatement  of  a text, passage, or work, expressing the
   meaning of the original in another form, generally for the sake of its
   clearer  and fuller exposition; a setting forth the signification of a
   text  in  other  and ampler terms; a free translation or rendering; --
   opposed to metaphrase.

     In paraphrase, or translation with latitude, the author's words are
     not so strictly followed as his sense. Dryden.

     Excellent paraphrases of the Psalms of David. I. Disraeli.

     His sermons a living paraphrase upon his practice. Sowth.

     The  Targums  are  also called the Chaldaic or Aramaic Paraphrases.


   Par"a*phrase,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Paraphrased (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Paraphrasing  (?).] To express, interpret, or translate with latitude;
   to give the meaning of a passage in other language.

     We   are  put  to  construe  and  paraphrase  our  own  words.  Bp.


   Par"a*phrase, v. i. To make a paraphrase.


   Par"a*phra`ser (?), n. One who paraphrases.


   Par`a*phra"sian (?), n. A paraphraser. [R.]


   Par"a*phrast   (?),   n.   [L.   paraphrastes,   Gr.  paraphraste.]  A
   paraphraser. T. Warton.

                         Paraphrastic, Paraphrastical

   Par`a*phras"tic  (?),  Par`a*phras"tic*al (?), a. [Gr.paraphrastique.]
   Paraphrasing;  of the nature of paraphrase; explaining, or translating
   in  words  more clear and ample than those of the author; not literal;
   free. -- Par`a*phras"tic*al*ly, adv.


   Pa*raph"y*sis  (?),  n.;  pl.  Paraphyses  (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A
   minute jointed filament growing among the archegonia and antheridia of
   mosses, or with the spore cases, etc., of other flowerless plants.

                             Paraplegia, Paraplegy

   Par`a*ple"gi*a  (?),  Par"a*ple`gy  (?),  n.  [NL. paraplegia, fr. Gr.
   parapl\'82gie.]  (Med.)  Palsy  of  the lower half of the body on both
   sides,  caused usually by disease of the spinal cord. -- Par`a*pleg"ic
   (#), a.


   Par`a*pleu"ra  (?),  n.; pl. Parapleur\'91 (#). [NL. See Para-, and 2d
   Pleura.]  (Zo\'94l.) A chitinous piece between the metasternum and the
   pleuron of certain insects.


   Par`a*po"di*um  (?),  n.;  pl. Parapodia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.)
   One  of  the  lateral  appendages  of  an annelid; -- called also foot

     NOTE: &hand; Th ey ma y se rve fo r lo comotion, re spiration, an d
     sensation,   and   often  contain  spines  or  set\'91.  When  well
     developed,  a  dorsal  part,  or notopodium, and a ventral part, or
     neuropodium, are distinguished.


   Par`a*poph"y*sis  (?),  n.;  pl. Parapophyses (#). [NL. See Para-, and
   Apophysis.] (Anat.) The ventral transverse, or capitular, process of a
   vertebra. See Vertebra. -- Par*ap`o*phys"ic*al (#), a.


   Pa*rap"te*rum (?), n.; pl. Paraptera (#). [NL. See Para-, and Pteron.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A special plate situated on the sides of the mesothorax and
   metathorax of certain insects.

                              Paraquet, Paraquito

   Par`a*quet"  (?),  Par`a*qui"to (?), n. [See Paroquet.] (Zo\'94l.) See


   Par"a*sang  (?),  n. [L. parasanga, Gr. farsang.] A Persian measure of
   length, which, according to Herodotus and Xenophon, was thirty stadia,
   or  somewhat  more  than three and a half miles. The measure varied in
   different  times  and  places,  and, as now used, is estimated at from
   three and a half to four English miles.


   Par`a*sce"ni*um  (?),  n.;  pl. Parascenia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Greek &
   Rom.  Antiq.) One of two apartments adjoining the stage, probably used
   as robing rooms.


   Par`a*sce"ve (?), n. [L., from Gr.

   1.  Among the Jews, the evening before the Sabbath. [Obs.] Mark xv. 42
   (Douay ver.)

   2. A preparation. [R.] Donne.


   Par`a*sche*mat"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. Of or pertaining to a change from the
   right  form, as in the formation of a word from another by a change of
   termination, gender, etc. Max M\'81ller.


   Par`a*se*le"ne   (?),  n.;  pl.  Paraselen\'91  (#).  [NL.,  from  Gr.
   paras\'82l\'8ane.]  (Meteor.)  A mock moon; an image of the moon which
   sometimes appears at the point of intersection of two lunar halos. Cf.


   Par`a*si"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.]  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) An artificial group
   formerly made for parasitic insects, as lice, ticks, mites, etc. (b) A
   division  of  copepod  Crustacea,  having  a  sucking  mouth,  as  the
   lerneans.   They   are   mostly   parasites  on  fishes.  Called  also

   Page 1042


   Par"a*si`tal  (?), a. (Bot. & Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to parasites;


   Par"a*site (?), n. [F., fr. L. parasitus, Gr.

   1. One who frequents the tables of the rich, or who lives at another's
   expense,  and  earns  his welcome by flattery; a hanger-on; a toady; a

     Thou,  with  trembling  fear,  Or like a fawning parasite, obey'st.

     Parasites  were  called  such smell-feasts as would seek to be free
     guests at rich men's tables. Udall.

   2.  (Bot.)  (a)  A  plant obtaining nourishment immediately from other
   plants  to  which  it attaches itself, and whose juices it absorbs; --
   sometimes,  but erroneously, called epiphyte. (b) A plant living on or
   within  an  animal,  and  supported at its expense, as many species of
   fungi of the genus Torrubia.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  An animal which lives during the whole or part of
   its existence on or in the body of some other animal, feeding upon its
   food,  blood, or tissues, as lice, tapeworms, etc. (b) An animal which
   steals  the  food  of  another,  as the parasitic jager. (c) An animal
   which  habitually  uses  the  nest  of another, as the cowbird and the
   European cuckoo.

                            Parasitic, Parasitical

   Par`a*sit"ic   (?),  Par`a*sit"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L.  parasiticus,  Gr.

   1.  Of  the  nature  of  a  parasite;  fawning  for  food  or  favors;
   sycophantic. "Parasitic preachers." Milton.

   2.  (Bot.  &  Zo\'94l.)  Of  or pertaining to parasites; living on, or
   deriving  nourishment  from,  some  other  living animal or plant. See
   Parasite, 2 & 3.
   Parasitic   gull,   Parasitic   jager.   (Zo\'94l.)   See   Jager.  --
   Par`a*sit"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Par`a*sit"ic*al*ness, n.


   Par`a*sit"i*cide  (?),  n.  [Parasite  + L. caedere to kill.] Anything
   used to destroy parasites. Quain.


   Par"a*si`tism (?), n. [Cf. F. parasitisme.]

   1.  The state or behavior of a parasite; the act of a parasite. "Court
   parasitism." Milton.

   2. (Bot. & Zo\'94l.)The state of being parasitic.


   Par"a*sol`  (?),  n. [F., fr. Sp. or Pg. parasol, or It. parasole; It.
   parare  to ward off, Sp. & Pg. parar (L. parare to prepare) + It. sole
   sun,  Sp.  &  Pg.  sol  (L.  sol).  See Parry, Solar.] A kind of small
   umbrella used by women as a protection from the sun.


   Par"a*sol`, v. t. To shade as with a parasol. [R.]


   Par`a*sol*ette" (?), n. A small parasol.


   Par`a*sphe"noid  (?),  a.  [Pref.  para- + sphenoid.] (Anat.) Near the
   sphenoid  bone;  --  applied especially to a bone situated immediately
   beneath  the  sphenoid in the base of the skull in many animals. -- n.
   The parasphenoid bone.


   Pa*ras"ti*chy  (?), n. [Pref. para- + Gr. (Bot.) A secondary spiral in
   phyllotaxy, as one of the evident spirals in a pine cone.


   Par`a*syn*ax"is (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Civil Law) An unlawful meeting.


   Par`a*syn*thet"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr. Para-, and Synthetic.] Formed from a
   compound word. "Parasynthetic derivatives." Dr. Murray.


   Par`a*tac"tic  (?),  a. (Gram.) Of pertaining to, or characterized by,


   Par`a*tax"is  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Gram.)  The  mere ranging of
   propositions one after another, without indicating their connection or
   interdependence; -- opposed to syntax. Brande & C.


   Pa*rath"e*sis (?), n.; pl. Paratheses (#). [NL., from Gr.

   1.  (Gram.)  The  placing  of  two  or  more  nouns  in the same case;

   2.  (Rhet.)  A parenthetical notice, usually of matter to be afterward
   expanded. Smart.

   3. (Print.) The matter contained within brackets.

   4. (Eccl.) A commendatory prayer. Shipley.


   Par`a*thet"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to parathesis.


   Pa`ra`ton`nerre"   (?),   n.  [F.,  fr.  parer  to  parry  +  tonnerre
   thunderbolt.] A conductor of lightning; a lightning rod.


   Par*aun"ter  (?),  adv. [Par + aunter.] Peradventure. See Paraventure.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pa*rauque"  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A bird (Nyctidromus albicollis) ranging
   from  Texas  to  South  America.  It  is  allied to the night hawk and


   Par`a*vail"  (?),  a. [OF. par aval below; par through (L. per) + aval
   down;  a-  (L.  ad)  + val (L. vallis) a valley. Cf. Paramount.] (Eng.
   Law) At the bottom; lowest. Cowell.

     NOTE: &hand; In  fe udal la w, th e te nant pa ravail is the lowest
     tenant  of  the fee, or he who is immediate tenant to one who holds
     over of another.


                              Paravant, Paravant

   Par"a*vant`  (?),  Par"a*vant`  (?), adv. [OF. par avant. See Par, and
   lst Avaunt.]

   1. In front; publicly. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2. Beforehand; first. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Par`a*ven"ture  (?),  adv.  [Par + aventure.] Peradventure; perchance.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Par`a*xan"thin  (?),  n.  [Pref.  Para- + xanthin.] (Physiol. Chem.) A
   crystalline  substance  closely  related  to xanthin, present in small
   quantity in urine.


   Par*ax"i*al  (?),  a. [Pref. para- + axial.] (Anat.) On either side of
   the axis of the skeleton.


   Par`a*xy"lene  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A hydrocarbon of the aromatic series
   obtained  as  a  colorless  liquid by the distillation of camphor with
   zinc chloride. It is one of the three metamers of xylene. Cf. Metamer,
   and Xylene.


   Par"boil`  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Parboiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Parboiling.] [OE. parboilen, OF. parbouillir to cook well; par through
   (see  Par)  +  bouillir  to  boil,  L.  bullire.  The  sense  has been
   influenced by E. part. See lst Boil.]

   1. To boil or cook thoroughly. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

   2.  To boil in part; to cook partially by boiling.<-- the only def. in
   MW10.   Also,   used   figuratively   for   "do   (something)  partly,
   incompletely" -->


   Par"break`  (?),  v.  i.  &  t. [Par + break.] To throw out; to vomit.
   [Obs.] Skelton.


   Par"break`, n. Vomit. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Par"buc`kle  (?), n. (a) A kind of purchase for hoisting or lowering a
   cylindrical  burden, as a cask. The middle of a long rope is made fast
   aloft, and both parts are looped around the object, which rests in the
   loops, and rolls in them as the ends are hauled up or payed out. (b) A
   double sling made of a single rope, for slinging a cask, gun, etc.


   Par"buc`kle,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Parbuckled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Parbuckling (?).] To hoist or lower by means of a parbuckle. Totten.


   Par"c\'91 (?), n. pl. [L.] The Fates. See Fate, 4.


   Par*case"  (?),  adv.  [Par  +  case.]  Perchance;  by  chance. [Obs.]


   Par"cel  (?),  n.  [F.  parcelle  a  small  part,  fr.  (assumed)  LL.
   particella, dim. of L. pars. See Part, n., and cf. Particle.]

   1.  A  portion  of anything taken separately; a fragment of a whole; a
   part. [Archaic] "A parcel of her woe." Chaucer.

     Two parcels of the white of an egg. Arbuthnot.

     The   parcels   of   the   nation   adopted   different   forms  of
     self-government. J. A. Symonds.

   2.  (Law)  A  part; a portion; a piece; as, a certain piece of land is
   part and parcel of another piece.

   3.  An  indiscriminate  or  indefinite number, measure, or quantity; a
   collection; a group.

     This  youthful  parcel  Of  noble  bachelors stand at my disposing.

   4.  A  number  or  quantity  of  things  put  up together; a bundle; a
   package; a packet.

     'Tis like a parcel sent you by the stage. Cowper.

   Bill of parcels. See under 6th Bill. -- Parcel office, an office where
   parcels are received for keeping or forwarding and delivery. -- Parcel
   post, that department of the post office concerned with the collection
   and transmission of parcels. -- Part and parcel. See under Part.


   Par"cel,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Parceled (?) or Parcelled; p. pr. & vb.
   n. Parceling or Parcelling.]

   1. To divide and distribute by parts or portions; -- often with out or
   into. "Their woes are parceled, mine are general." Shak.

     These ghostly kings would parcel out my power. Dryden.

     The broad woodland parceled into farms. Tennyson.

   2. To add a parcel or item to; to itemize. [R.]

     That  mine  own  servant  should  Parcel the sum of my disgraces by
     Addition of his envy. Shak.

   3. To make up into a parcel; as, to parcel a customer's purchases; the
   machine parcels yarn, wool, etc.
   To  parcel  a  rope  (Naut.),  to wind strips of tarred canvas tightly
   arround  it.  Totten.  -- To parcel a seam (Naut.), to cover it with a
   strip of tarred canvas.


   Par"cel,  a. & adv. Part or half; in part; partially. Shak. [Sometimes
   hyphened with the word following.]

     The worthy dame was parcel-blind. Sir W. Scott.

     One that . . . was parcel-bearded [partially bearded]. Tennyson.

   Parcel poet, a half poet; a poor poet. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Par"cel*ing, n. [Written also parcelling.]

   1. The act of dividing and distributing in portions or parts.

   2.  (Naut.)  Long,  narrow  slips  of canvas daubed with tar and wound
   about  a  rope  like  a  bandage,  before it is served; used, also, in
   mousing on the stayes, etc.


   Par"cel-mele`  (?),  adv. [See Parcel, and Meal a part.] By parcels or
   parts. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Par"ce*na*ry  (?),  n.  [See  Parcener, partner.] (Law) The holding or
   occupation  of  an inheritable estate which descends from the ancestor
   to two or more persons; coheirship.

     NOTE: &hand; It  differs in many respects from joint tenancy, which
     is  created  by  deed  or  devise. In the United States there is no
     essential distinction between parcenary and tenancy in common.

   Wharton. Kent.


   Par"ce*ner  (?),  n.  [Of.  paronnier,  parsonnier,  fr.  parzon, par,
   parcion, part, portion, fr. L. partitio a division. See Partition, and
   cf. Partner.] (Law) A coheir, or one of two or more persons to whom an
   estate  of inheritance descends jointly, and by whom it is held as one


   Parch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parching.]
   [OE.  perchen  to  pierce,  hence used of a piercing heat or cold, OF.
   perchier, another form of percier, F. percer. See Pierce.]

   1.  To  burn the surface of; to scorch; to roast over the fire, as dry
   grain; as, to parch the skin; to parch corn.

     Ye shall eat neither bread, nor parched corn. Lev. xxiii. 14.

   2. To dry to extremity; to shrivel with heat; as, the mouth is parched
   from fever.

     The ground below is parched. Dryden.


   Parch,  v.  i.  To  become scorched or superficially burnt; to be very
   dry. "Parch in Afric sun." Shak.


   Parch"ed*ness, n. The state of being parched.


   Par*che"si (?), n. See Pachisi.


   Parch"ing  (?),  a.  Scorching;  burning;  drying.  "Summer's parching
   heat." Shak. -- Parch"ing*ly, adv.


   Parch"ment  (?),  n.  [OE.  parchemin,  perchemin,  F.  parchemin, LL.
   pergamenum, L. pergamena, pergamina, fr. L. Pergamenus of or belonging
   to  Pergamus  an  ancient city of Mysia in Asia Minor, where parchment
   was first used.]

   1.  The  skin  of  a  lamb,  sheep, goat, young calf, or other animal,
   prepared for writing on. See Vellum.

     But here's a parchment with the seal of C\'91sar. Shak.

   2. The envelope of the coffee grains, inside the pulp.
   Parchment paper. See Papyrine.


   Par"ci*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  parcitas,  fr. parcus sparing.] Sparingless.


   Par"close   (?),  n.  [OF.  See  Perclose.]  (Eccl.  Arch.)  A  screen
   separating  a  chapel  from  the  body  of  the  church. [Written also
   paraclose and perclose.] Hook.


   Pard  (?), n. [L. pardus, Gr. p tiger, panther.] (Zo\'94l.) A leopard;
   a panther.

     And more pinch-spotted make them Than pard or cat o'mountain. Shak.


   Par"dale (?), n. [L. pardalis, Gr. Pard.] (Zo\'94l.) A leopard. [Obs.]

                                 Parde, Pardie

   Par*de"  (?), Par*die" (?), adv. OR interj. [F. pardi, for par Dieu by
   God.]  Certainly;  surely;  truly;  verily;  --  originally  an  oath.
   [Written also pardee, pardieux, perdie, etc.] [Obs.]

     He was, parde, an old fellow of yours. Chaucer.


   Par"dine  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Spotted  like  a  pard.  Pardine  lynx
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  species  of  lynx  (Felis pardina) inhabiting Southern
   Europe. Its color is rufous, spotted with black.


   Par"do  (?), n. [Pg. pardao, fr. Skr. prat\'bepa splendor, majesty.] A
   money  of account in Goa, India, equivalent to about 2s. 6d. sterling.
   or 60 cts.


   Par"don (?), n. [F., fr. pardonner to pardon. See Pardon, v. t.]

   1.  The  act  of  pardoning;  forgiveness, as of an offender, or of an
   offense; release from penalty; remission of punishment; absolution.

     Pardon, my lord, for me and for my tidings. Shak.

     But infinite in pardon was my judge. Milton.

   Used in expressing courteous denial or contradiction; as, I crave your
   pardon;  or  in  indicating that one has not understood another; as, I
   beg pardon.

   2. An official warrant of remission of penalty.

     Sign me a present pardon for my brother. Shak.

   3. The state of being forgiven. South.

   4.  (Law)  A  release, by a sovereign, or officer having jurisdiction,
   from  the  penalties of an offense, being distinguished from amenesty,
   which  is a general obliteration and canceling of a particular line of
   past offenses. Syn. -- Forgiveness; remission. See Forgiveness.


   Par"don, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pardoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pardoning.]
   [Either  fr.  pardon,  n., or from F. pardonner, LL. perdonare; L. per
   through, thoroughly, perfectly + donare to give, to present. See Par-,
   and Donation.]

   1.  To  absolve  from the consequences of a fault or the punishment of
   crime; to free from penalty; -- applied to the offender.

     In this thing the Lord pardon thy servant. 2 Kings v. 18.

     I pray you, pardon me; pray heartily, pardom me. Shak.

   2.  To  remit the penalty of; to suffer to pass without punishment; to
   forgive; -- applied to offenses.

     I pray thee, pardon my sin. 1 S

     Apollo, pardon My great profaneness 'gainst thine oracle Shak.

   3. To refrain from exacting as a penalty.

     I pardon thee thy life before thou ask it. Shak.

   4. To give leave (of departure) to. [Obs.]

     Even now about it! I will pardon you. Shak.

   Pardon  me,  forgive  me;  excuse me; -- a phrase used also to express
   courteous  denial  or  contradiction.  Syn.  --  To  forgive; absolve;
   excuse; overlook; remit; asquit. See Excuse.


   Par"don*a*ble  (?),  a. [Cf. F. pardonnable.] Admitting of pardon; not
   requiring  the  excution  of penalty; venial; excusable; -- applied to
   the offense or to the offender; as, a pardonable fault, or culprit.


   Par"don*a*ble*ness,  n.  The quality or state of being pardonable; as,
   the pardonableness of sin. Bp. Hall.


   Par"don*a*bly,  adv.  In  a  manner  admitting  of  pardon; excusably.


   Par"don*er (?), n.

   1. One who pardons. Shak.

   2. A seller of indulgences. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Par"don*ing,  a. Relating to pardon; having or exercising the right to
   pardon;  willing  to  pardon;  merciful;  as,  the  pardoning power; a
   pardoning God.


   Pare  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paring.] [F.
   parer  to pare, as a horse's hoofs, to dress or curry, as, leather, to
   clear,  as  anchors  or  cables,  to parry, ward off, fr. L. parare to
   prepare. Cf. Empire, Parade, Pardon, Parry, Prepare.]

   1.  To cut off, or shave off, the superficial substance or extremities
   of; as, to pare an apple; to pare a horse's hoof.

   2.  To  remove;  to  separate;  to cut or shave, as the skin, ring, or
   outside  part,  from anything; -- followed by off or away; as; to pare
   off the ring of fruit; to pare away redundancies.

   3. Fig.: To diminish the bulk of; to reduce; to lessen.

     The king began to pare a little the privilege of clergy. Bacon.


   Par`e*gor"ic   (?)   a.   [L.  paregoricus,  Gr.  par\'82gorique.  See
   Allegory.]  Mitigating;  assuaging  or  soothing  pain;  as, paregoric


   Par`e*gor"ic,  n.  (Med.)  A medicine that mitigates pain; an anodyne;
   specifically,  camphorated tincture of opium; -- called also paregoric


   Pa*rel"con (?), n. [Gr. (Gram.) The addition of a syllable or particle
   to the end of a pronoun, verb, or adverb.


   Par`e*lec`tro*nom"ic   (?),   a.   (Physiol.)   Of   or   relating  to
   parelectronomy; as, the parelectronomic part of a muscle.


   Par*e`lec*tron"o*my (?), n. [Pref. para- + electro- + Gr. (Physiol.) A
   condition  of the muscles induced by exposure to severe cold, in which
   the electrical action of the muscle is reversed.

                               Parella, Parelle

   Pa*rel"la  (?),  Pa`relle  (?), n. [Cf. F. parelle.] (Bot.) (a) A name
   for  two  kinds  of dock (Rumex Patientia and R. Hydrolapathum). (b) A
   kind  of  lichen  (Lecanora  parella)  once  used in dyeing and in the
   preparation of litmus.


   Pa*rem"bo*le  (, n. [NL., from Gr. Para-, and Embolus.] (Rhet.) A kind
   of parenthesis.

   Page 1043


   Pare"ment (?), n. See Parament. [Obs.]


   Par`emp*to"sis (?), n. [NL., from Gr. Same as Parembole.


   Pa*ren"chy*ma  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from Gr. parenchyme.] (Biol.) The soft
   celluar  substance of the tissues of plants and animals, like the pulp
   of leaves, to soft tissue of glands, and the like.


   Pa*ren"chy*mal   (?),   a.   Of,  pertaining  to,  or  consisting  of,

                         Parenchymatous, Parenchymous

   Par`en*chym"a*tous    (?),    Pa*ren"chy*mous    (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   parenchymateux.]  Of, pertaining to, or connected with, the parenchyma
   of a tissue or an organ; as, parenchymatous degeneration.


   Pa*ren"e*sis (?), n. [L. paraenesis, Gr. Exhortation. [R.]

                            Parenetic, Parenetioal

   Par`e*net"ic  (?),  Par`e*net"io*al  (?),  a. [Gr. par\'82n\'82tique.]
   Hortatory; encouraging; persuasive. [R.] F. Potter.


   Par"ent (?), n. [L. parens, -entis; akin to parere to bring forth; cf.
   Gr. parent. Cf. Part.]

   1. One who begets, or brings forth, offspring; a father or a mother.

     Children, obey your parents in the Lord. Eph. vi. 1.

   2.  That which produces; cause; source; author; begetter; as, idleness
   is the parent of vice.

     Regular industry is the parent of sobriety. Channing.

   Parent  cell.  (Biol.)  See Mother cell, under Mother, also Cytula. --
   Parent  nucleus  (Biol.),  a nucleus which, in cell division, divides,
   and  gives  rise to two or more daughter nuclei. See Karyokinesis, and
   Cell division, under Division.


   Par"ent*age  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  parentage relationship.] Descent from
   parents  or ancestors; parents or ancestors considered with respect to
   their  rank  or  character;  extraction;  birth;  as,  a  man of noble
   parentage. "Wilt thou deny thy parentage?" Shak.

     Though men esteem thee low of parentage. Milton.


   Pa*ren"tal (?), a. [L. parentalis.]

   1. Of or pertaining to a parent or to parents; as, parental authority;
   parental obligations.

   2.  Becoming  to, or characteristic of, parents; tender; affectionate;
   devoted; as, parental care.

     The careful course and parental provision of nature. Sir T. Browne.


   Pa*ren"tal*ly, adv. In a parental manner.


   Par`en*ta"tion (?), n. [L. parentatio, fr. parentare to offer a solemn
   sacrifice in honor of deceased parents. See Parent.] Something done or
   said in honor of the dead; obsequies. [Obs.] Abp. Potter.


   Par"en`tele`   (?),  n.  [F.  parent\'8ale,  L.  parentela.]  Kinship;
   parentage. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pa*ren"the*sis (?), n.; pl. Parentheses (#). [NL., fr. Gr. Para-, En-,
   2, and Thesis.]

   1.  A  word,  phrase,  or  sentence, by way of comment or explanation,
   inserted  in,  or attached to, a sentence which would be grammatically
   complete  without  it. It is usually inclosed within curved lines (see
   def.  2  below),  or  dashes.  "Seldom  mentioned without a derogatory
   parenthesis." Sir T. Browne.

     Don't suffer every occasional thought to carry you away into a long
     parenthesis. Watts.

   2.  (Print.)  One  of  the curved lines () which inclose a parenthetic
   word or phrase.

     NOTE: &hand; Pa renthesis, in  technical grammar, is that part of a
     sentence  which  is  inclosed  within the recognized sign; but many
     phrases  and sentences which are punctuated by commas are logically
     parenthetical.  In  def.  1,  the  phrase  "by  way  of  comment or
     explanation" is inserted for explanation, and the sentence would be
     grammatically complete without it. The present tendency is to avoid
     using the distinctive marks, except when confusion would arise from
     a less conspicuous separation.


   Pa*ren"the*size (?), v. t. To make a parenthesis of; to include within
   parenthetical marks. Lowell.

                          Parenthetic, Patenthetical

   Par`en*thet"ic (?), Pat`en*thet"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. Gr.

   1.  Of the nature of a parenthesis; pertaining to, or expressed in, or
   as  in,  a  parenthesis;  as,  a  parenthetical  clause; a parenthetic

     A parenthetical observation of Moses himself. Hales.

   2. Using or containing parentheses.


   Par`en*thet"ic*al*ly,  adv.  In  a  parenthetical  manner;  by  way of
   parenthesis; by parentheses.


   Par"ent*hood (?), n. The state of a parent; the office or character of
   a parent.


   Pa*rent"ti*cide  (?),  n. [L. parenticida a parricide; parens parent +
   caedere to kill.]

   1. The act of one who kills one's own parent. [R.]

   2. One who kills one's own parent; a parricide. [R.]


   Par"ent*less (?), a. Deprived of parents.


   Par*ep`i*did"y*mis  (?), n. [NL. See Para-, and Epididymis.] (Anat.) A
   small body containing convoluted tubules, situated near the epididymis
   in  man  and  some  other animals, and supposed to be a remnant of the
   anterior part of the Wolffian body.


   Par"er  (?),  n.  [From Pare, v. t.] One who, or that which, pares; an
   instrument for paring.


   Pa*rer"gon (?), n. [L.] See Parergy.


   Par"er*gy (?), n. [L. parergon, Gr. Something unimportant, incidental,
   or superfluous. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Par"e*sis   (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  Gr.  (Med.)  Incomplete  paralysis,
   affecting motion but not sensation.


   Par*eth"moid  (?),  a. [Pref. para- + ethmoid.] (Anat.) Near or beside
   the  ethmoid  bone  or  cartilage;  -- applied especially to a pair of
   bones in the nasal region of some fishes, and to the ethmoturbinals in
   some higher animals. -- n. A parethmoid bone.


   Pa*ret"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to paresis; affected with paresis.


   Par*fay"  (?),  interj.  [Par  +  fay.]  By  my  faith; verily. [Obs.]


   Par"fit (?), a. Perfect. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Par"fit*ly, adv. Perfectly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                               Parforn, Parfourn

   Par*forn" (?), Par*fourn" (?), v. t. To perform. [Obs.] Chaucer. Piers


   Par"gas*ite (?), n. [So called from Pargas, in Finland.] (Min.) A dark
   green aluminous variety of amphibole, or hornblende.


   Parge"board` (?), n. See Bargeboard.


   Par"get (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pargeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Pargeting.]
   [OE. pargeten, also spargeten, sparchen; of uncertain origin.]

   1.  To  coat  with  parget;  to  plaster, as walls, or the interior of
   flues; as, to parget the outside of their houses. Sir T. Herbert.

     The pargeted ceiling with pendants. R. L. Stevenson.

   2. To paint; to cover over. [Obs.]


   Par"get, v. i.

   1. To lay on plaster.

   2. To paint, as the face. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Par"get, n.

   1. Gypsum or plaster stone.

   2.  Plaster,  as  for lining the interior of flues, or for stuccowork.

   3. Paint, especially for the face. [Obs.] Drayton.


   Par"get*er (?), n. A plasterer. Johnson.


   Par"get*ing,  n.  [Written  also pargetting.] Plasterwork; esp.: (a) A
   kind  of decorative plasterwork in raised ornamental figures, formerly
   used for the internal and external decoration of houses. (b) In modern
   architecture,  the plastering of the inside of flues, intended to give
   a smooth surface and help the draught.


   Par"get*o*ry  (?),  n.  Something made of, or covered with, parget, or
   plaster. [Obs.] Milton.


   Par*he"lic (?), a. Of or pertaining to parhelia.


   Par*hel"ion  (?),  n.;  pl. Parhelia (#). [L. parelion, Gr. A mock sun
   appearing  in  the form of a bright light, sometimes near the sun, and
   tinged  with  colors  like  the rainbow, and sometimes opposite to the
   sun.  The  latter  is  usually called an anthelion. Often several mock
   suns appear at the same time. Cf. Paraselene.


   Par*he"li*um (?), n. See Parhelion.


   Par"i- (?). [L. par, paris, equal.] A combining form signifying equal;
   as, paridigitate, paripinnate.


   Pa"ri*ah  (?),  n.  [From Tamil paraiyan, pl. paraiyar, one of the low
   caste,  fr. parai a large drum, because they beat the drums at certain

   1. One of an aboriginal people of Southern India, regarded by the four
   castes of the Hindoos as of very low grade. They are usually the serfs
   of the Sudra agriculturalists. See Caste. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

   2. An outcast; one despised by society.
   Pariah  dog  (Zo\'94l.), a mongrel race of half-wild dogs which act as
   scavengers in Oriental cities. -- Pariah kite (Zo\'94l.), a species of
   kite (Milvus govinda) which acts as a scavenger in India.


   Pa*ri"al (?), n. See Pair royal, under Pair, n.


   Pa"ri*an  (?), a. [L. Parius.] Of or pertaining to Paros, an island in
   the  \'92gean  Sea noted for its excellent statuary marble; as, Parian
   marble.  Parian  chronicle,  a  most  ancient chronicle of the city of
   Athens,  engraved  on  marble  in  the  Isle  of  Paros, now among the
   Arundelian marbles.


   Pa"ri*an, n.

   1. A native or inhabitant of Paros.

   2. A ceramic ware, resembling unglazed porcelain biscuit, of which are
   made statuettes, ornaments, etc.


   Par`i*dig`i*ta"ta   (?),   n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Pari-,  and  Digitate.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Same as Artiodactyla.


   Par`j*dig"i*tate (?), a. (Anat.) Having an evennumber of digits on the
   hands or the feet. Qwen.


   Pa"ri*es  (?),  n.;  pl.  Parietes (#). [See Parietes.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   triangular middle part of each segment of the shell of a barnacle.


   Pa*ri"e*tal (?), a. [L. parietalis, fr. paries, -ietis, a wall: cf. F.
   pari\'82tal. Cf. Parietary, Pellitory.]

   1.  Of  or pertaining to a wall; hence, pertaining to buildings or the
   care of them.

   2. Resident within the walls or buildings of a college.

     At  Harvard College, the officers resident within the college walls
     constitute  a  permanent  standing  committee,  called the Parietal
     Committee. B. H. Hall (1856).

   3.  (Anat.)  (a) Of pertaining to the parietes. (b) Of, pertaining to,
   or  in  the  region  of,  the parietal bones, which form the upper and
   middle part of the cranium, between the frontals and occipitals.

   4. (Bot.) Attached to the main wall of the ovary, and not to the axis;
   -- said of a placenta.


   Pa*ri"e*tal, n.

   1. (Anat.) One of the parietal bones.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) One of the special scales, or plates, covering the back
   of the head in certain reptiles and fishes.


   Pa*ri"e*ta*ry (?), a. See Parietal, 2.


   Pa*ri"e*ta*ry,  n.  [L.  parietaria,  fr.  parietarius  parietal.  Cf.
   Pellitory, Parietal.] (Bot.) Any one of several species of Parietaria.
   See 1st Pellitory.


   Pa*ri"e*tes (?), n. pl. [L. paries a wall.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The  walls  of  a  cavity  or an organ; as, the abdominal
   parietes; the parietes of the cranium.

   2. (Bot.) The sides of an ovary or of a capsule.


   Pa`ri*et"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining to, or designating, an acid
   found  in  the lichen Parmelia parietina, and called also chrysophanic


   Pa*ri"e*tine  (?),  n.  [L. parietinus parietal: cf. parietinae ruined
   walls.] A piece of a fallen wall; a ruin. [Obs.] Burton.


   Pa*ri"e*to-  (.  (Anat.)  A combining form used to indicate connection
   with,  or  relation  to, the parietal bones or the parietal segment of
   the skull; as, the parieto-mastoid suture.


   Pa*rig"e*nin  (?),  n.  [Parillin + -gen + -in.] (Chem.) A curdy white
   substance, obtained by the decomposition of parillin.


   Pa*ril"lin  (?), n. [Shortened fr. sarsaparillin.] (Chem.) A glucoside
   resembling  saponin,  found in the root of sarsaparilla, smilax, etc.,
   and  extracted as a bitter white crystalline substance; -- called also
   smilacin, sarsaparilla saponin, and sarsaparillin.


   Par"ing (?), n. [From Pare, v. t.]

   1. The act of cutting off the surface or extremites of anything.

   2. That which is pared off. Pope.

     Pare  off the surface of the earth, and with the parings raise your
     hills. Mortimer.


   Par`i*pin"nate (?), a. [Pari- + pinnate.] (Bot.) Pinnate with an equal
   number of leaflets on each side; having no odd leaflet at the end.


   Par"is  (?),  n. [From Paris, the son of Priam.] (Bot.) A plant common
   in  Europe (Paris quadrifolia); herb Paris; truelove. It has been used
   as a narcotic.

     NOTE: &hand; It much resembles the American genus Trillium, but has
     usually four leaves and a tetramerous flower.


   Par"is,  n. The chief city of France. Paris green. See under Green, n.
   --  Paris  white  (Chem.),  purified chalk used as a pigment; whiting;
   Spanish white.


   Par"ish  (?),  n.  [OE.  parishe,  paresche,  parosche,  OF. paroisse,
   parosse,  paroiche,  F. paroisse, L. parochia, corrupted fr. paroecia,
   Gr. vicus village. See Vicinity, and cf. Parochial.]

   1.  (Eccl.  &  Eng.  Law)  (a) That circuit of ground committed to the
   charge  of one parson or vicar, or other minister having cure of souls
   therein.   Cowell.   (b)  The  same  district,  constituting  a  civil
   jurisdiction,  with  its own officers and regulations, as respects the
   poor, taxes, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Populous and extensive parishes are now divided, under
     various  parliamentary  acts, into smaller ecclesiastical districts
     for spiritual purposes.

   Mozley & W.

   2.  An  ecclesiastical  society,  usually  not  bounded by territorial
   limits,  but  composed  of those persons who choose to unite under the
   charge  of a particular priest, clergyman, or minister; also, loosely,
   the territory in which the members of a congregation live. [U. S.]

   3.  In  Louisiana, a civil division corresponding to a county in other


   Par"ish,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to a parish; parochial; as, a parish
   church; parish records; a parish priest; maintained by the parish; as,
   parish  poor. Dryden. Parish clerk. (a) The clerk or recording officer
   of  a  parish.  (b)  A layman who leads in the responses and otherwise
   assists  in  the service of the Church of England. -- Parish court, in
   Louisiana, a court in each parish.


   Par"ish*en (?), n. A parishioner. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pa*rish"ion*al  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to a parish; parochial. [R.]
   Bp. Hall.


   Pa*rish"ion*er  (?),  n.  [F.  paroissien,  LL.  parochianus.] One who
   belongs to, or is connected with, a parish.


   Pa*ri"sian  (?), n. [Cf. F. parisen.] A native or inhabitant of Paris,
   the capital of France.


   Pa*ri"sian, a. Of or pertaining to Paris.


   Pa`ri`si`enne" (?), n. [F.] A female native or resident of Paris.


   Par`i*sol"o*gy  (?), n. [Gr. -logy.] The use of equivocal or ambiguous
   words. [R.]

                         Parisyllabic, Parisyllabical

   Par`i*syl*lab"ic  (?),  Par`i*syl*lab"ic*al (?), a. [Pari- + syllabic,
   -ical:  cf. F. parisyllabique.] Having the same number of syllables in
   all its inflections.


   Par"i*tor  (?),  n.  [Abbrev. fr. apparitor: cf. L. paritor a servant,
   attendant.] An apparitor. "Summoned by an host of paritors." Dryden.


   Par"i*to*ry (?), n. Pellitory. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Par"i*ty (?), n. [L. paritas, fr. par, paris, equal: cf. F. parit\'82.
   See  Pair,  Peer an equal.] The quality or condition of being equal or
   equivalent;  A  like  state or degree; equality; close correspondence;
   analogy;  as,  parity  of  reasoning.  "No  parity  of  principle." De

     Equality of length and parity of numeration. Sir T. Browne.


   Park  (?), n. [AS. pearroc, or perh. rather fr. F. parc; both being of
   the same origin; cf. LL. parcus, parricus, Ir. & Gael. pairc, W. park,
   parwg. Cf. Paddock an inclosure, Parrock.]

   1.  (Eng.  Law)  A piece of ground inclosed, and stored with beasts of
   the  chase, which a man may have by prescription, or the king's grant.
   Mozley & W.

   2. A tract of ground kept in its natural state, about or adjacent to a
   residence,  as  for  the preservation of game, for walking, riding, or
   the like. Chaucer.

     While in the park I sing, the listening deer Attend my passion, and
     forget to fear. Waller.

   3. A piece of ground, in or near a city or town, inclosed and kept for
   ornament  and recreation; as, Hyde Park in London; Central Park in New

   4.  (Mil.)  A  space  occupied  by  the animals, wagons, pontoons, and
   materials  of  all  kinds,  as  ammunition,  ordnance stores, hospital
   stores,  provisions,  etc.,  when  brought together; also, the objects
   themselves; as, a park of wagons; a park of artillery.

   5.  A  partially  inclosed  basin in which oysters are grown. [Written
   also parc.]
   Park  of artillery. See under Artillery. -- Park phaeton, a small, low
   carriage, for use in parks.


   Park, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parking.]

   1. To inclose in a park, or as in a park.

     How are we parked, and bounded in a pale. Shak.

   2.  (Mil.)  To  bring together in a park, or compact body; as, to park
   the artillery, the wagons, etc.


   Park"er (?), n, The keeper of a park. Sir M. Hale.


   Par*ke"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  So  named  from  W.  K. Parker, a British
   zo\'94logist.]   (Zo\'94l.)   A   genus  of  large  arenaceous  fossil
   Foraminifera  found in the Cretaceous rocks. The species are globular,
   or nearly so, and are of all sizes up to that of a tennis ball.

   Page 1044


   Parkes"ine  (?),  n.  [So  called  from  Mr.  Parkes, the inventor.] A
   compound,  originally  made  from gun cotton and castor oil, but later
   from  different  materials,  and  used  as a substitute for vulcanized
   India rubber and for ivory; -- called also xylotile.


   Park"leaves`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A European species of Saint John's-wort;
   the tutsan. See Tutsan.


   Par"lance  (?),  n.  [OF.,  fr.  F.  parler  to  speak.  See  Parley.]
   Conversation; discourse; talk; diction; phrase; as, in legal parlance;
   in common parlance.

     A hate of gossip parlance and of sway. Tennyson.

                              Parlando, Parlante

   Par*lan"do  (?), Par*lan"te (?), a. & adv. [It.] (Mus.) Speaking; in a
   speaking or declamatory manner; to be sung or played in the style of a


   Parle  (?),  v.  i.  [F. parler. See Parley.] To talk; to converse; to
   parley. [Obs.] Shak.

     Finding himself too weak, began to parle. Milton.


   Parle, n. Conversation; talk; parley. [Obs.]

     They ended parle, and both addressed for fight. Milton.


   Par"ley  (?), n.; pl. Parleys (#). [F. parler speech, talk, fr. parler
   to  speak,  LL.  parabolare, fr. L. parabola a comparison, parable, in
   LL.,  a  word.  See  Parable,  and  cf.  Parliament,  Parlor.]  Mutual
   discourse  or conversation; discussion; hence, an oral conference with
   an enemy, as with regard to a truce.

     We yield on parley, but are stormed in vain. Dryden.

   To  beat  a  parley  (Mil.),  to beat a drum, or sound a trumpet, as a
   signal for holding a conference with the enemy.


   Par"ley, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Parleyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parleying.]
   To  speak  with another; to confer on some point of mutual concern; to
   discuss  orally;  hence, specifically, to confer orally with an enemy;
   to  treat  with  him  by  words,  as  on  an exchange of prisoners, an
   armistice, or terms of peace.

     They are at hand, To parley or to fight; therefore prepare. Shak.


   Par"lia*ment  (?),  n.  [OE.  parlement,  F.  parlement, fr. parler to
   speak; cf. LL. parlamentum, parliamentum. See Parley.]

   1. A parleying; a discussion; a conference. [Obs.]

     But first they held their parliament. Rom. of R.

   2.  A formal conference on public affairs; a general council; esp., an
   assembly  of representatives of a nation or people having authority to
   make laws.

     They  made  request  that  it  might be lawful for them to summon a
     parliament of Gauls. Golding.

   3.  The  assembly  of the three estates of the United Kingdom of Great
   Britain  and  Ireland,  viz., the lords spiritual, lords temporal, and
   the  representatives of the commons, sitting in the House of Lords and
   the  House  of Commons, constituting the legislature, when summoned by
   the  royal  authority  to consult on the affairs of the nation, and to
   enact and repeal laws.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ought th e so vereign is  a  constituting branch of
     Parliament,  the word is generally used to denote the three estates
     named above.

   4.  In  France,  before  the  Revolution  of  1789, one of the several
   principal judicial courts.
   Parliament  heel,  the  inclination  of  a ship when made to careen by
   shifting  her  cargo  or ballast. -- Parliament hinge (Arch.), a hinge
   with  so  great a projection from the wall or frame as to allow a door
   or  shutter  to  swing back flat against the wall. -- Long Parliament,
   Rump Parliament. See under Long, and Rump.


   Par`lia*men"tal (?), a. Parliamentary. [Obs.]


   Par`lia*men*ta"ri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Parliament. Wood.


   Par`lia*men*ta"ri*an, n.

   1.  (Eng.  Hist.)  One who adhered to the Parliament, in opposition to
   King Charles I. Walpole.

   2.  One  versed  in  the  rules  and  usages  of Parliament or similar
   deliberative assemblies; as, an accomplished parliamentarian.


   Par`lia*men"ta*ri*ly (?), adv. In a parliamentary manner.


   Par`lia*men"ta*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. parlementaire.]

   1. Of or pertaining to Parliament; as, parliamentary authority. Bacon.

   2.  Enacted  or  done  by  Parliament; as, a parliamentary act. Sir M.

   3.  According to the rules and usages of Parliament or of deliberative
   bodies; as, a parliamentary motion.
   Parliamentary  agent,  a  person,  usually a solicitor, professionally
   employed  by  private  parties to explain and recommend claims, bills,
   etc.,  under  consideration  of  Parliament.  [Eng.]  -- Parliamentary
   train,  one  of  the  trains  which,  by  act  of  Parliament, railway
   companies  are  required  to  run  for  the  conveyance of third-class
   passengers at a reduced rate. [Eng.]


   Par"lor (?), n. [OE. parlour, parlur, F. parloir, LL. parlatorium. See
   Parley.]  [Written  also  parlour.]  A  room  for  business  or social
   conversation,  for the reception of guests, etc. Specifically: (a) The
   apartment in a monastery or nunnery where the inmates are permitted to
   meet  and  converse with each other, or with visitors and friends from
   without.  Piers  Plowman.  (b) In large private houses, a sitting room
   for the family and for familiar guests, -- a room for less formal uses
   than  the  drawing-room.  Esp.,  in modern times, the dining room of a
   house  having  few  apartments,  as  a  London house, where the dining
   parlor  is  usually  on  the ground floor. (c) Commonly, in the United
   States,  a  drawing-room,  or the room where visitors are received and

     NOTE: &hand; "I n En gland people who have a drawing-room no longer
     call it a parlor, as they called it of old and till recently."

   Fitzed. Hall. Parior car. See Palace car, under Car.


   Par"lous (?), a. [For perlous, a contr. fr. perilous.]

   1.  Attended  with peril; dangerous; as, a parlous cough. [Archaic] "A
   parlous snuffing." Beau. & Fl.

   2. Venturesome; bold; mischievous; keen. [Obs.] "A parlous boy." Shak.
   "A parlous wit." Dryden. -- Par"lous*ly, adv. [Obs.] -- Par"lous*ness,
   n. [Obs.]


   Par`me*san" (?), a. [F. parmesan, It. parmigiano.] Of or pertaining to
   Parma  in  Italy.  Parmesan cheese, a kind of cheese of a rich flavor,
   though from skimmed milk, made in Parma, Italy.


   Par*nas"si*a  (?),  n.  [NL.]  (Bot.)  A genus of herbs growing in wet
   places, and having white flowers; grass of Parnassus.


   Par*nas"sian (?), a. [L. Parnassius.] Of or pertaining to Parnassus.


   Par*nas"sian,  n.  [See  Parnassus.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one of numerous
   species of butterflies belonging to the genus Parnassius. They inhabit
   the mountains, both in the Old World and in America.


   Par*nas"sus  (?),  n. [L., fr. Gr. (Anc. Geog. & Gr. Myth.) A mountain
   in  Greece, sacred to Apollo and the Muses, and famous for a temple of
   Apollo  and  for  the Castalian spring. Grass of Parnassus. (Bot.) See
   under  Grass,  and  Parnassia. -- To climb Parnassus, to write poetry.


   Par`oc*cip"i*tal  (?),  a. [Pref. para- + occipital.] (Anat.) Situated
   near   or   beside  the  occipital  condyle  or  the  occipital  bone;
   paramastoid;  --  applied especially to a process of the skull in some


   Pa*ro"chi*al  (?), a. [LL. parochialis, from L. parochia. See Parish.]
   Of  or  pertaining  to a parish; restricted to a parish; as, parochial
   duties.  "Parochial  pastors."  Bp. Atterbury. Hence, limited; narrow.
   "The parochial mind." W. Black.


   Pa*ro"chi*al*ism  (?),  n.  The quality or state of being parochial in
   form or nature; a system of management peculiar to parishes.


   Pa*ro`chi*al"i*ty  (?),  n.  The state of being parochial. [R.] Sir J.


   Pa*ro"chi*al*ize  (?),  v.  t.  To  render  parochial;  to  form  into


   Pa*ro"chi*al*ly,  adv.  In  a  parochial  manner; by the parish, or by
   parishes. Bp. Stillingfleet.


   Pa*ro"chi*an  (?),  a. [See Parochial, Parishioner.] Parochial. [Obs.]
   "Parochian churches." Bacon.


   Pa*ro"chi*an,   n.   [LL.  parochianus.]  A  parishioner.  [Obs.]  Ld.

                              Parodic, Parodical

   Pa*rod"ic  (?),  Pa*rod"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  parodique.]  Having the
   character of parody.

     Very paraphrastic, and sometimes parodical. T. Warton.


   Par"o*dist  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. parodiste.] One who writes a parody; one
   who parodies. Coleridge.


   Par"o*dy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Parodies  (#). [L. parodia, Gr. parodie. See
   Para-, and Ode.]

   1.  A  writing  in  which  the  language  or sentiment of an author is
   mimicked;  especially, a kind of literary pleasantry, in which what is
   written  on  one  subject is altered, and applied to another by way of
   burlesque; travesty.

     The  lively  parody  which  he  wrote  .  . . on Dryden's "Hind and
     Panther" was received with great applause. Macaulay.

   2. A popular maxim, adage, or proverb. [Obs.]


   Par"o*dy,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Parodied  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Parodying.] [Cf. F. parodier.] To write a parody upon; to burlesque.

     I have translated, or rather parodied, a poem of Horace. Pope.


   Par"o*ket` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Paroquet.


   Pa*rol" (?), n. [See Parole, the same word.]

   1. A word; an oral utterance. [Obs.]

   2.  (Law)  Oral  declaration; word of mouth; also, a writing not under
   seal. Blackstone.


   Pa*rol",  a.  Given  or  done by word of mouth; oral; also, given by a
   writing  not  under  seal;  as, parol evidence. Parol arrest (Law), an
   arrest  in  pursuance  of  a  verbal order from a magistrate. -- Parol
   contract (Law), any contract not of record or under seal, whether oral
   or written; a simple contract. Chitty. Story.


   Pa*role" (?), n. [F. parole. See Parley, and cf. Parol.]

   1. A word; an oral utterance. [Obs.]

   2.  Word of promise; word of honor; plighted faith; especially (Mil.),
   promise,  upon one's faith and honor, to fulfill stated conditions, as
   not  to  bear arms against one's captors, to return to custody, or the

     This man had forfeited his military parole. Macaulay.

   3.   (Mil.)   A  watchword  given  only  to  officers  of  guards;  --
   distinguished from countersign, which is given to all guards.

   4. (Law) Oral declaration. See lst Parol, 2.


   Pa*role", a. See 2d Parol.


   Pa*role",  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paroled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paroling.]
   (Mil.) To set at liberty on parole; as, to parole prisoners.


   Par`o*mol"o*gy  (?),  n. [Gr. fr. Homologous.] (Rhet.) A concession to
   an adversary in order to strengthen one's own argument.


   Par`o*no*ma"si*a  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A play upon words; a
   figure  by  which  the same word is used in different senses, or words
   similar  in  sound  are set in opposition to each other, so as to give
   antithetical force to the sentence; punning. Dryden.

                         Paronomastic, Paronomastical

   Par`o*no*mas"tic  (?), Par`o*no*mas"tic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to
   paronomasia; consisting in a play upon words.


   Par`o*nom"a*sy  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  paronomasie.] Paronomasia. [R.] B.


   Par`o*nych"i*a  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr.  (Med.)  A whitlow, or felon.


   Par"o*nym (?), n. A paronymous word. [Written also paronyme.]


   Pa*ron"y*mous (?), a. [Gr.

   1. Having the same derivation; allied radically; conjugate; -- said of
   certain words, as man, mankind, manhood, etc.

   2.  Having  a  similar  sound, but different orthography and different
   meaning; -- said of certain words, as al and awl; hair and hare, etc. 


   Pa*ron"y*my,  n.  The  quality  of  being paronymous; also, the use of
   paronymous words.


   Par`o*\'94ph"o*ron  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from Gr. Para-) + (Anat.) A small
   mass of tubules near the ovary in some animals, and corresponding with
   the parepididymis of the male.


   Par"o*quet`  (?), n. [F. perroquet, or Sp. periquito; both prob. orig.
   meaning,  little  Peter.  See  Parrot.]  (Zo\'94l.) Same as Parrakeet.
   [Written  also  paroket,  parroquet,  and  perroquet.] Paroquet auk OR
   auklet (Zo\'94l.), a small auk (Cyclorrhynchus psittaculus) inhabiting
   the coast and islands of Alaska. The upper parts are dark slate, under
   parts white, bill orange red. Called also perroquet auk.


   Pa*ror"chis  (?),  n. [NL. See Para-, and Orchis.] (Anat.) The part of
   the epididymis; or the corresponding part of the excretory duct of the
   testicle, which is derived from the Wolffian body.


   Pa*ros"te*al  (?),  (Physiol.)  Of  or  pertaining  to parostosis; as,
   parosteal ossification.


   Par`os*to"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Para-,  and  Ostosis.]  (Physiol.)
   Ossification which takes place in purely fibrous tracts; the formation
   of bone outside of the periosteum.


   Par`os*tot"ic (?), a. Pertaining to parostosis.


   Pa*rot"ic  (?),  a. [See Parotid.] (Anat.) On the side of the auditory
   capsule;  near  the external ear. Parotic region (Zo\'94l.), the space
   around the ears.


   Pa*rot"id  (?),  a.  [L.  parotis,  -idis, Gr. parotide. ] (Anat.) (a)
   Situated  near  the  ear;  -- applied especially to the salivary gland
   near  the ear. (b) Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the parotid
   gland. Parotid gland (Anat.), one of the salivary glands situated just
   in front of or below the ear. It is the largest of the salivary glands
   in man, and its duct opens into the interior of the mouth opposite the
   second molar of the upper jaw.


   Pa*rot"id, n. (Anat.) The parotid gland.


   Par`o*ti"tis (?), n. [NL. See Parotid, and -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation
   of the parotid glands. Epidemic, OR Infectious, parotitis, mumps.


   Par"o*toid  (?),  a.  [Parotid + -oid.] (Anat.) Resembling the parotid
   gland;  --  applied especially to cutaneous glandular elevations above
   the ear in many toads and frogs. -- n. A parotoid gland.


   Pa*rou"si*a  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. Parusia.] (a) The nativity of our
   Lord. (b) The last day. Shipley.


   Par`o*va"ri*um  (?),  n. [NL. See Para-, and Ovarium.] (Anat.) A group
   of tubules, a remnant of the Wolffian body, often found near the ovary
   or oviduct; the epo\'94phoron.


   Par"ox*ysm (?), n. [F. paroxysme, Gr.

   1.  (Med.)  The fit, attack, or exacerbation, of a disease that occurs
   at intervals, or has decided remissions or intermissions. Arbuthnot.

   2.  Any  sudden  and  violent  emotion; spasmodic passion or action; a
   convulsion; a fit.

     The returning paroxysms of diffidence and despair. South.


   Par`ox*ys"mal  (?),  a.  Of the nature of a paroxysm; characterized or
   accompanied by paroxysms; as, a paroxysmal pain; paroxysmal temper. --
   Par`ox*ys"mal*ly, adv.


   Par*ox"y*tone  (?),  n. [Gr. a. See Para-, and Oxytone.] (Gr. Gram.) A
   word having an acute accent on the penultimate syllable.


   Par*quet" (?), n. [F. See Parquetry.]

   1. A body of seats on the floor of a music hall or theater nearest the
   orchestra; but commonly applied to the whole lower floor of a theater,
   from the orchestra to the dress circle; the pit.

   2. Same as Parquetry.


   Par"quet*age (?), n. See Parquetry.


   Par"quet*ed,  a.  Formed  in  parquetry; inlaid with wood in small and
   differently colored figures.

     One room parqueted with yew, which I liked well. Evelyn.


   Par"quet*ry  (?), n. [F. parqueterie, fr. parquet inlaid flooring, fr.
   parquet, dim. of parc an inclosure. See Park.] A species of joinery or
   cabinet-work  consisting  of  an inlay of geometric or other patterns,
   generally of different colors, -- used especially for floors.


   Par*quette" (?), n. See Parquet.


   Parr (?), n. [Cf. Gael. & Ir. bradan a salmon.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A young
   salmon  in the stage when it has dark transverse bands; -- called also
   samlet, skegger, and fingerling. (b) A young leveret.

   Page 1045

                              Parrakeet, Parakeet

   Par"ra*keet`  (?),  Par"a*keet`, n. [See Paroquet.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one
   of numerous species of small parrots having a graduated tail, which is
   frequently very long; -- called also paroquet and paraquet.

     NOTE: &hand; Ma ny of  the Asiatic and Australian species belong to
     the  genus  Paleornis;  others  belong  to  Polytelis, Platycercus,
     Psephotus,  Euphema,  and  allied  genera.  The American parrakeets
     mostly  belong  to the genus Conurus, as the Carolina parrakeet (C.

                                Parral, Parrel

   Par"ral (?), Par"rel (?), n. [F. appareil. See Apparel, n.]

   1.  (Naut.)  The rope or collar by which a yard or spar is held to the
   mast  in  such  a  way  that it may be hoisted or lowered at pleasure.

   2. A chimney-piece. Halliwell.


   Par*ra"qua (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A curassow of the genus Ortalida, allied
   to the guan.


   Par*rhe"si*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Rhet.) Boldness or freedom of


   Par"ri*ci`dal (?), a. [L. parricidalis, parricidialis. See Parricide.]
   Of or pertaining to parricide; guilty of parricide.


   Par"ri*cide  (?),  n. [F., fr. L. parricida; pater father + caedere to
   kill. See Father, Homicide, and cf. Patricide.]

   1.  Properly,  one who murders one's own father; in a wider sense, one
   who murders one's father or mother or any ancestor.

   2. [L. parricidium.] The act or crime of murdering one's own father or
   any ancestor.


   Par`ri*cid"i*ous (?), a. Parricidal. [Obs.]


   Par"rock  (?),  n. [AS. pearruc, pearroc. See Park.] A croft, or small
   field; a paddock. [Prov. Eng.]


   Par"rot  (?),  n.  [Prob.  fr.  F.  Pierrot,  dim. of Pierre Peter. F.
   pierrot  is  also  the  name  of  the  sparrow.  Cf. Paroquet, Petrel,

   1. (Zo\'94l.) In a general sense, any bird of the order Psittaci.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any species of Psittacus, Chrysotis, Pionus, and other
   genera   of  the  family  Psittacid\'91,  as  distinguished  from  the
   parrakeets,  macaws,  and  lories.  They  have a short rounded or even
   tail,  and often a naked space on the cheeks. The gray parrot, or jako
   (P.  erithacus)  of  Africa  (see Jako), and the species of Amazon, or
   green,  parrots (Chrysotis) of America, are examples. Many species, as
   cage  birds,  readily learn to imitate sounds, and to repeat words and
   Carolina  parrot (Zo\'94l.), the Carolina parrakeet. See Parrakeet. --
   Night  parrot,  OR  Owl parrot. (Zo\'94l.) See Kakapo. -- Parrot coal,
   cannel  coal;  -- so called from the crackling and chattering sound it
   makes  in  burning.  [Eng.  &  Scot.]  --  Parrot  green.  (Chem.) See
   Scheele's   green,   under   Green,   n.  --  Parrot  weed  (Bot.),  a
   suffrutescent  plant (Bocconia frutescens) of the Poppy family, native
   of the warmer parts of America. It has very large, sinuate, pinnatifid
   leaves,  and  small,  panicled,  apetalous  flowers. -- Parrot wrasse,
   Parrot  fish (Zo\'94l.), any fish of the genus Scarus. One species (S.
   Cretensis),  found  in the Mediterranean, is esteemed by epicures, and
   was highly prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans.


   Par"rot, v. t. To repeat by rote, as a parrot.


   Par"rot, v. i. To chatter like a parrot.


   Par"rot*er  (?),  n. One who simply repeats what he has heard. [R.] J.
   S. Mill.


   Par"rot*ry  (?),  n.  Servile imitation or repetition. [R.] Coleridge.
   "The supine parrotry." Fitzed. Hall.


   Par"rot's-bill`  (?), n. [So called from the resemblance of its curved
   superior  petal  to  a parrot's bill.] (Bot.) The glory pea. See under


   Par"ry  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Parried  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Parrying.] [F. par\'82, p. p. of parer. See Pare, v. t.]

   1.  To  ward  off; to stop, or to turn aside; as, to parry a thrust, a
   blow, or anything that means or threatens harm. Locke.

     Vice  parries  wide  The  undreaded  volley  with a sword of straw.

   2. To avoid; to shift or put off; to evade.

     The  French  government  has  parried the payment of our claims. E.


   Par"ry,  v. i. To ward off, evade, or turn aside something, as a blow,
   argument, etc. Locke.


   Par"ry,  n.;  pl.  Parries (. A warding off of a thrust or blow, as in
   sword  and  bayonet  exercises  or  in  boxing; hence, figuratively, a
   defensive movement in debate or other intellectual encounter.


   Parse  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Parsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Parsing.]
   [L.  pars  a  part;  pars  orationis  a  part of speech. See Part, n.]
   (Gram.)  To resolve into its elements, as a sentence, pointing out the
   several  parts  of  speech,  and  their  relation  to  each  other  by
   government or agreement; to analyze and describe grammatically.

     Let  him  construe  the  letter  into  English,  and  parse it over
     perfectly. Ascham.


   Par"see  (?),  n.  [Hind.  & Per. p\'bers\'c6 a Persian, a follower of
   Zoroaster, a fire worshiper. Cf. Persian.]

   1.  One  of  the  adherents  of  the  Zoroastrian  or  ancient Persian
   religion,  descended  from  Persian  refugees settled in India; a fire
   worshiper; a Gheber.

   2.  The  Iranian  dialect  of  much of the religious literature of the


   Par"see*ism (?), n. The religion and customs of the Parsees.


   Pars"er (?), n. One who parses.


   Par`si*mo"ni*ous   (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  parcimonieux.  See  Parsimony.]
   Exhibiting  parsimony;  sparing  in  expenditure  of  money; frugal to
   excess;  penurious; niggardly; stingy. -- Par`si*mo"ni*ous*ly, adv. --
   Par`si*mo"ni*ous*ness, n.

     A prodigal king is nearer a tyrant than a parsimonious. Bacon.

     Extraordinary  funds  for  one campaign may spare us the expense of
     many  years; whereas a long, parsimonious war will drain us of more
     men and money. Addison.

   Syn.  -- Covetous; niggardly; miserly; penurious; close; saving; mean;
   stingy; frugal. See Avaricious.


   Par"si*mo*ny (?), n. [L. parsimonia, parcimonia; cf. parcere to spare,
   parsus  sparing:  cf.  F. parcimonie.] Closeness or sparingness in the
   expenditure   of  money;  --  generally  in  a  bad  sense;  excessive
   frugality; niggardliness. Bacon.

     Awful parsimony presided generally at the table. Thackeray.

   Syn.  --  Economy;  frugality;  illiberality; covetousness; closeness;
   stinginess. See Economy.


   Pars"ley (?), n. [OE. persely, persil, F. persil, L. petroselinum rock
   parsley,  Gr.  Celery.]  (Bot.)  An aromatic umbelliferous herb (Carum
   Petroselinum),  having finely divided leaves which are used in cookery
   and as a garnish.

     As she went to the garden for parsley, to stuff a rabbit. Shak.

   Fool's  parsley. See under Fool. -- Hedge parsley, Milk parsley, Stone
   parsley,  names  given  to  various weeds of similar appearance to the
   parsley.  --  Parsley fern (Bot.), a small fern with leaves resembling
   parsley  (Cryptogramme  crispa). -- Parsley piert (Bot.), a small herb
   (Alchemilla arvensis) formerly used as a remedy for calculus.


   Pars"nip  (?), n. [OE. parsnepe, from a French form, fr. L. pastinaca;
   cf. pastinare to dig up, pastinum a kind of dibble; cf. OF. pastenade,
   pastenaque.] (Bot.) The aromatic and edible spindle-shaped root of the
   cultivated  form  of  the  Pastinaca  sativa, a biennial umbelliferous
   plant  which  is  very  poisonous  in  its wild state; also, the plant
   itself.  Cow parsnip. See Cow parsnip. -- Meadow parsnip, the European
   cow  parsnip.  --  Poison  parsnip,  the wild stock of the parsnip. --
   Water  parsnip, any plant of the umbelliferous genus Sium, the species
   of which are poisonous.


   Par"son  (?), n. [OE. persone person, parson, OF. persone, F. personne
   person,  LL.  persona  (sc.  ecclesiae),  fr. L. persona a person. See

   1.  (Eng.  Eccl.  Law)  A  person  who  represents  a  parish  in  its
   ecclesiastical   and   corporate  capacities;  hence,  the  rector  or
   incumbent  of  a  parochial church, who has full possession of all the
   rights thereof, with the cure of souls.

   2.  Any  clergyman  having  ecclesiastical  preferment;  one who is in
   orders, or is licensed to preach; a preacher.

     He hears the parson pray and preach. Longfellow.

   Parson   bird   (Zo\'94l.),   a   New   Zealand   bird  (Prosthemadera
   Nov\'91seelandi\'91)  remarkable  for  its  powers  of mimicry and its
   ability to articulate words. Its color is glossy black, with a curious
   tuft  of long, curly, white feathers on each side of the throat. It is
   often kept as a cage bird.


   Par"son*age (?), n.

   1. (Eng. Eccl. Law) A certain portion of lands, tithes, and offerings,
   for the maintenance of the parson of a parish.

   2.  The  glebe  and  house,  or  the  house only, owned by a parish or
   ecclesiastical  society, and appropriated to the maintenance or use of
   the incumbent or settled pastor.

   3. Money paid for the support of a parson. [Scot.]

     What  have I been paying stipend and teind, parsonage and vicarage,
     for? Sir W. Scott.


   Par"soned (?), a. Furnished with a parson.

                             Parsonic, Parsonical

   Par*son"ic  (?),  Par*son"ic*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to a parson;

     Vainglory glowed in his parsonic heart. Colman.

   -- Par*son"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Par"son*ish  (?),  a.  Appropriate  to,  or like, a parson; -- used in
   disparagement. [Colloq.]


   Part  (?),  n.  [F.  part,  L.  pars, gen. partis; cf. parere to bring
   forth, produce. Cf. Parent, Depart, Parcel, Partner, Party, Portion.]

   1.  One  of  the  portions,  equal  or unequal, into which anything is
   divided,  or  regarded  as  divided;  something  less  than a whole; a
   number,  quantity,  mass,  or  the like, regarded as going to make up,
   with  others,  a larger number, quantity, mass, etc., whether actually
   separate  or  not;  a  piece;  a  fragment;  a fraction; a division; a
   member; a constituent.

     And  kept  back part of the price, . . . and brought a certain part
     and laid it at the apostles'feet. Acts v. 2.

     Our  ideas  of extension and number -- do they not contain a secret
     relation of the parts ? Locke.

     I am a part of all that I have met. Tennyson.

   2.  Hence,  specifically:  (a)  An  equal  constituent portion; one of
   several or many like quantities, numbers, etc., into which anything is
   divided,  or  of  which  it  is  composed;  proportional  division  or

     An homer is the tenth part of an ephah. Ex. xvi. 36.

     A  thought  which,  quartered,  hath  but one part wisdom, And ever
     three parts coward. Shak.

   (b) A constituent portion of a living or spiritual whole; a member; an
   organ; an essential element.

     All the parts were formed . . . into one harmonious body. Locke.

     The pulse, the glow of every part. Keble.

   (c)  A constituent of character or capacity; quality; faculty; talent;
   -- usually in the plural with a collective sense. "Men of considerable
   parts." Burke. "Great quickness of parts." Macaulay.

     Which  maintained  so  politic  a state of evil, that they will not
     admit any good part to intermingle with them. Shak.

   (d)  Quarter;  region;  district;  --  usually  in  the  plural.  "The
   uttermost part of the heaven." Neh. i. 9.

     All parts resound with tumults, plaints, and fears. Dryden.

   (e)  (Math.)  Such  portion  of  any quantity, as when taken a certain
   number  of  times, will exactly make that quantity; as, 3 is a part of
   12;  --  the  opposite of multiple. Also, a line or other element of a
   geometrical figure.

   3.  That  which  belongs  to one, or which is assumed by one, or which
   falls  to  one,  in  a division or apportionment; share; portion; lot;
   interest; concern; duty; office.

     We have no part in David. 2 Sam. xx. 1.

     Accuse  not  Nature!  she  hath  done  her part; Do thou but thine.

     Let me bear My part of danger with an equal share. Dryden.

   4.  Hence, specifically: (a) One of the opposing parties or sides in a
   conflict or a controversy; a faction.

     For he that is not against us is on our part. Mark ix. 40.

     Make whole kingdoms take her brother's part. Waller.

   (b)  A  particular  character  in  a  drama  or  a  play;  an  assumed
   personification;  also,  the  language,  actions,  and  influence of a
   character  or  an actor in a play; or, figuratively, in real life. See
   To act a part, under Act.

     That part Was aptly fitted and naturally performed. Shak.

     It was a brute part of him to kill so capital a calf. Shak.

     Honor  and  shame from no condition rise; Act well your part, there
     all the honor lies. Pope.

   (c)  (Mus.)  One of the different melodies of a concerted composition,
   which  heard  in  union  compose its harmony; also, the music for each
   voice  or  instrument; as, the treble, tenor, or bass part; the violin
   part,  etc.  For  my part, so far as concerns me; for my share. -- For
   the  most  part.  See  under  Most,  a. -- In good part, as well done;
   favorably;  acceptably;  in  a  friendly  manner. Hooker. In ill part,
   unfavorably;  with displeasure. -- In part, in some degree; partly. --
   Part   and   parcel,   an  essential  or  constituent  portion;  --  a
   reduplicative  phrase. Cf. might and main, kith and kin, etc. "She was
   .  .  .  part  and  parcel  of the race and place." Howitt. -- Part of
   speech  (Gram.),  a  sort or class of words of a particular character;
   thus,  the  noun is a part of speech denoting the name of a thing; the
   verb  is  a part of speech which asserts something of the subject of a
   sentence.  --  Part  owner  (Law), one of several owners or tenants in
   common.  See  Joint  tenant,  under Joint. -- Part singing, singing in
   which  two  or  more  of the harmonic parts are taken. -- Part song, a
   song in two or more (commonly four) distinct vocal parts. "A part song
   differs  from  a  madrigal  in its exclusion of contrapuntual devices;
   from a glee, in its being sung by many voices, instead of by one only,
   to  each part." Stainer & Barrett. Syn. -- Portion; section; division;
   fraction;  fragment;  piece;  share;  constituent.  See  Portion,  and
   Part  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Parted; p. pr. & vb. n. Parting.] [F.
   partir,  L. partire, partiri, p. p. partitus, fr. pars, gen. partis, a
   part. See Part, n.] 

   1.  To  divide;  to separate into distinct parts; to break into two or
   more  parts  or pieces; to sever. "Thou shalt part it in pieces." Lev.
   ii. 6.

     There, [celestial love] parted into rainbow hues. Keble.

   2.  To  divide  into  shares;  to  divide and distribute; to allot; to
   apportion; to share.

     To part his throne, and share his heaven with thee. Pope.

     They parted my raiment among them. John xix. 24.

   3.  To  separate  or  disunite;  to  cause to go apart; to remove from
   contact or contiguity; to sunder.

     The  Lord  do so to me, and more also, if aught but death part thee
     and me. Ruth i. 17.

     While he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into
     heaven. Luke xxiv. 51.

     The narrow seas that part The French and English. Shak.

   4.  Hence:  To  hold apart; to stand between; to intervene betwixt, as

     The stumbling night did part our weary powers. Shak.

   5.  To separate by a process of extraction, elimination, or secretion;
   as, to part gold from silver.

     The  liver  minds  his  own affair, . . . And parts and strains the
     vital juices. Prior.

   6. To leave; to quit. [Obs.]

     Since presently your souls must part your bodies. Shak.

   To part a cable (Naut.), to break it. -- To part company, to separate,
   as travelers or companions.


   Part, v. i.

   1.  To  be broken or divided into parts or pieces; to break; to become
   separated;  to  go  asunder;  as,  rope  parts;  his hair parts in the

   2. To go away; to depart; to take leave; to quit each other; hence, to
   die; -- often with from.

     He wrung Bassanio's hand, and so they parted. Shak.

     He  owned that he had parted from the duke only a few hours before.

     His precious bag, which he would by no means part from. G. Eliot.

   3.  To  perform  an  act of parting; to relinquish a connection of any
   kind; -- followed by with or from.

     Celia,  for  thy  sake, I part With all that grew so near my heart.

     Powerful  hands . . . will not part Easily from possession won with
     arms. Milton.

     It  was  strange  to him that a father should feel no tenderness at
     parting with an only son. A. Trollope.

   4.  To  have  a  part  or  share;  to partake. [Obs.] "They shall part
   alike." 1 Sam. xxx. 24.


   Part, adv. Partly; in a measure. [R.] Shak.


   Part"a*ble (?), a. See Partible. Camden.


   Part"age (?), n. [F. See Part, v. & n.]

   1. Division; the act of dividing or sharing. [Obs.] Fuller.

   2. Part; portion; share. [Obs.] Ford.


   Par*take" (?), v. i. [imp. Partook (?); p. p. Partaken (; p. pr. & vb.
   n. Partaking.] [Part + take.]

   1.  To  take a part, portion, lot, or share, in common with others; to
   have  a  share  or part; to participate; to share; as, to partake of a
   feast with others. "Brutes partake in this faculty." Locke.

     When I against myself with thee partake. Shak.

   2.  To  have  something  of  the  properties, character, or office; --
   usually followed by of.

     The  attorney of the Duchy of Lancaster partakes partly of a judge,
     and partly of an attorney-general. Bacon.

   Page 1046


   Par*take" (?), v. t.

   1. To partake of; to have a part or share in; to share.

     Let every one partake the general joy. Driden.

   2.  To  admit  to a share; to cause to participate; to give a part to.
   [Obs.] Spencer.

   3. To distribute; to communicate. [Obs.] Shak.


   Par*tak"er (?), n.

   1. One who partakes; a sharer; a participator.

     Partakers of their spiritual things. Rom. xv. 27.

     Wish me partaker in my happiness. Shark.

   2. An accomplice; an associate; a partner. [Obs.]

     Partakers wish them in the blood of the prophets. Matt. xxiii. 30.


   Par"tan (?), n. [Cf. Ir. & Gael. partan.] (Zo\'94l.) An edible British
   crab. [Prov. Eng.]


   Part"ed (?), a.

   1. Separated; devided.

   2. Endowed with parts or abilities. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

   3.  (Bot.) Cleft so that the divisions reach nearly, but not quite, to
   the  midrib,  or  the  base  of the blade; -- said of a leaf, and used
   chiefly in composition; as, three-parted, five-parted, etc. Gray.


   Part"er (?), n. One who, or which, parts or separates. Sir P. Sidney.


   Par*terre"  (?),  n. [F., fr. par on, by (L. per)+terre earth, ground,
   L. terra. See Terrace.]

   1. (Hort.) An ornamental and diversified arrangement of beds or plots,
   in  which flowers are cultivated, with intervening spaces of gravel or
   turf for walking on.

   2. The pit of a theater; the parquet. [France]


   Par*the"ni*ad  (?),  n.  [See Parthenic.] A poem in honor of a virgin.


   Par*then"ic (?), a. [Gr. Of or pertaining to the Spartan Partheni\'91,
   or sons of unmarried women.


   Par`the*no*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Gr. parqe`nos a virgin + E. genesis.]

   1.  (Biol.)  The  production of new individuals from virgin females by
   means   of  ova  which  have  the  power  of  developing  without  the
   intervention   of   the   male   element;   the   production,  without
   fertilization,  of  cells  capable  of  germination.  It is one of the
   phenomena of alternate generation. Cf. Heterogamy, and Metagenesis.

   2.  (Bot.)  The  production of seed without fertilization, believed to
   occur  through  the nonsexual formation of an embryo extraneous to the
   embrionic vesicle.


   Par`the*no*ge*net"ic,  a.  (Biol.)  Of, pertaining to, or produced by,
   parthenogenesis;       as,       parthenogenetic       forms.       --
   Par`the*no*ge*net"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Par`the*no*gen"i*tive (?), a. (Biol.) Parthenogenetic.


   Par`the*nog"e*ny (?), n. (Biol.) Same as Parthenogenesis.


   Par"the*non  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. Parqenw`n, fr.parqe`nos a virgin, i.
   e., Athene, the Greek goddess called also Pallas.] A celebrated marble
   temple of Athene, on the Acropolis at Athens. It was of the pure Doric
   order, and has had an important influence on art.


   Par*ten"o*pe (?), n. [L., the name of a Siren, fr. Gr.

   1.  (Gr.  Myth.) One of the Sirens, who threw herself into the sea, in
   despair at not being able to beguile Ulysses by her songs.

   2.  One of the asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, descovered by M. de
   Gasparis in 1850.


   Par"thi*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to ancient Parthia, in Asia. -- n.
   A native Parthia. Parthian arrow, an arrow discharged at an enemy when
   retreating  from  him,  as  was  the  custom of the ancient Parthians;
   hence, a parting shot.


   Par"tial  (?),  a.  [F., fr. LL. partials, fr. L. pars, gen. partis, a
   part; cf. (for sense 1) F. partiel. See Part, n.]

   1.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  affecting,  a  part only; not general or
   universal;  not  total  or  entire; as, a partial eclipse of the moon.
   "Partial dissolutions of the earth." T. Burnet.

   2.  Inclined to favor one party in a cause, or one side of a question,
   more  then  the other; baised; not indifferent; as, a judge should not
   be partial.

     Ye have been partial in the law. Mal. ii. 9.

   3.   Having  a  predelection  for;  inclined  to  favor  unreasonably;
   foolishly fond. "A partial parent." Pope.

     Not partial to an ostentatious display. Sir W. Scott.

   4. (Bot.) Pertaining to a subordinate portion; as, a compound umbel is
   made up of a several partial umbels; a leaflet is often supported by a
   partial petiole.
   Partial  differentials,  Partial  differential  coefficients,  Partial
   differentiation,  etc.  (of  a function of two or more variables), the
   differentials, differential coefficients, differentiation etc., of the
   function,  upon  the hypothesis that some of the variables are for the
   time constant. -- Partial fractions (Alg.), fractions whose sum equals
   a  given fraction. -- Partial tones (Music), the simple tones which in
   combination form an ordinary tone; the overtones, or harmonics, which,
   blending  with a fundamental tone, cause its special quality of sound,
   or timbre, or tone color. See, also, Tone.
   Par"tial*ism  (?),  n. Partiality; specifically (Theol.), the doctrine
   of the Partialists. 


   Par"tial*ist n.

   1. One who is partial. [R.]

   2.  (Theol.) One who holds that the atonement was made only for a part
   of mankind, that is, for the elect.


   Par`ti*al"i*ty (?; 277), n. [Cf. F. partialit\'82.]

   1.  The  quality  or  state of being partial; inclination to favor one
   party,  or  one side of a question, more than the other; undue bias of

   2.  A  predilection or inclination to one thing rather than to others;
   special  taste  or  liking;  as,  a partiality for poetry or painting.


   Par"tial*ize (?), v. t. & i. To make or be partial. [R.]


   Par"tial*ly adv.

   1.  In  part;  not  totally;  as,  partially  true;  the sun partially
   eclipsed. Sir T. Browne.

   2.  In a partial manner; with undue bias of mind; with unjust favor or
   dislike; as, to judge partially. Shak.


   Part`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [From Partible.] The quality or state of being
   partible;  divisibility;  separability;  as,  the  partibility  of  an


   Part"i*ble (?), a. [L. partibilis, fr. partire to part, divide, fr. L.
   pars:   cf.  F.  partible.  See  Part.]  Admitting  of  being  parted;
   divisible;  separable;  susceptible  of severance or partition; as, an
   estate  of  inheritance  may  be  partible. "Make the molds partible."


   Par*tic"i*pa*ble (?), a. Capable of being participated or shared. [R.]


   Par*tic"i*pant  (?),  a. [L. participans, p.pr. of participare: cf. F.
   participant.  See Participate.] Sharing; participating; having a share
   of part. Bacon.


   Par*tic"i*pant, n. A participator; a partaker.

     Participants in their . . . mysterious rites. Bp. Warburton.


   Par*tic"i*pant*ly, adv. In a participant manner.


   Par*tic"i*pate  (?),  a.  [L.  participatus,  p.p.  of  participare to
   participate;  pars,  partis,  part  +  capere  to  take. See Part, and
   Capacious.] Acting in common; participating. [R.] Shak.


   Par*tic"i*pate (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Participated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Participating.]  Tj  have a share in common with others; to take a
   part; to partake; -- followed by in, formely by of; as, to participate
   in a debate. Shak.

     So would he participateof their wants. Hayward.

     Mine may come when men With angels may participate. Milton.


   Par*tic"i*pate, v. t.

   1. To partake of; to share in; to receive a part of. [R.]

     Fit to participate all rational delight. Milton.

   2. To impart, or give, or share of. [Obs.] Drayton.


   Par*tic`i*pa"tion (?), n. [F. participation, L. participatio.]

   1.  The  act  or  state  of  participating,  or sharing in common with
   others; as, a participation in joy or sorrows.

     These deities are so by participation. Bp. Stillingfleet.

     What  an  honor,  that  God  should  admit  us  into such a blessed
     participation of himself! Atterbury.

   2. Distribution; division into shares. [Obs.] Raleigh.

   3. community; fellowship; association. [Obs.] Shak.


   Par*tic"i*pa*tive   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.  participatif.]  Capable  of


   Par*tic"i*pa`tor  (?),  n.  [L.]  One who participates, or shares with
   another; a partaker.


   Par`ti*cip"i*al  (?),  a.  [L.  participialis:  cf. E. participal. See
   Participle.]  Having,  or  partaking  of,  the  nature  and  use  of a
   participle; formed from a participle; as, a participial noun. Lowth.


   Par`ti*cip"i*al, n. A participial word.


   Par`ti*cip"i*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p Participialized (?); p. pr.
   &  vb.  n.  Participializing.]  To form into, or put in the form of, a
   participle. [R.]


   Par`ti*cip"i*al*ly, adv. In the sense or manner of a participle.


   Par"ti*ci*ple  (?),  n.  [F.  participe, L. participium, fr. particeps
   sharing,  participant; pars, gen. partis, a part + capere to take. See

   1.  (Gram.)  A  part  of  speech partaking of the nature both verb and
   adjective;  a  form  of a verb, or verbal adjective, modifying a noun,
   but  taking  the adjuncts of the verb from which it is derived. In the
   sentences:  a  letter  is  written;  being  asleep  he  did  not hear;
   exhausted  by  toil  he  will  sleep  soundly,  -- written, being, and
   exhaustedare participles.

     By  a  participle,  [I  understand] a verb in an adjectival aspect.

     NOTE: &hand; Pr  esent pa  rticiples, ca lled al so im perfect, or 
     incomplete, participles, end in -ing. Past participles, called also
     perfect,  or  complete,  participles, for the most part end in -ed,
     -d,  -t,  -en, or -n. A participle when used merely as an attribute
     of  a noun, without reference to time, is called an adjective, or a
     participial adjective; as, a written constitution; a rolling stone;
     the  exhausted  army.  The  verbal noun in -ing has the form of the
     present participle. See Verbal noun, under Verbal, a.

   2. Anything that partakes of the nature of different things. [Obs.]

     The  participles  or  confines between plants and living creatures.


   Par"ti*cle (?), n. [L. particula, dim of pars, gen partis, a part: cf.
   F. particule. See Part, and cf. Parcel.]

   1.  A  minute  part  or  portion of matter; a morsel; a little bit; an
   atom; a jot; as, a particle of sand, of wood, of dust.

     The  small  size of atoms which unite To make the smallest particle
     of light. Blackmore.

   2.  Any  very  small portion or part; the smallest portion; as, he has
   not a particle of patriotism or virtue.

     The houses had not given their commissioners authority in the least
     particle to recede. Clarendon.

   3.  (R.  C.  Ch.) (a) A crumb or little piece of concecrated host. (b)
   The  smaller  hosts  distributed  in  the  communion of the laity. Bp.

   4.  (Gram.) A subordinate word that is never inflected (a preposition,
   conjunction,  interjection);  or a word that can not be used except in
   compositions;  as,  ward  in  backward,  ly  in lovely. <-- elementary
   particle (Physics) -->


   Par"ti*col`ored, a. Same as Party-colored.


   Par*tic"u*lar   (?),   a.   [OE.   particuler,   F.   particulier,  L.
   particularis. See Particle.]

   1.  Relating  to  a  part  or  portion  of anything; concerning a part
   separated  from the whole or from others of the class; separate; sole;
   single;   individual;   specific;   as,  the  particular  stars  of  a
   constellation. Shak.

     [/Make]  each particular hair to stand an end, Like quills upon the
     fretful porpentine. Shak.

     Seken  in  every  halk  and  every herne Particular sciences for to
     lerne. Chaucer.

   2.  Of or pertaining to a single person, class, or thing; belonging to
   one   only;  not  general;  not  common;  hence,  personal;  peculiar;
   singular. "Thine own particular wrongs." Shak.

     Wheresoever  one  plant  draweth such a particular juice out of the
     earth. Bacon.

   3.  Separate  or  distinct  by  reason  of superiority; distinguished;
   important;  noteworthy; unusual; special; as, he brought no particular
   news; she was the particular belle of the party.

   4.  Concerned  with, or attentive to, details; minute; circumstantial;
   precise;  as,  a  full  and  particular account of an accident; hence,
   nice; fastidious; as, a man particular in his dress.

   5. (Law) (a) Containing a part only; limited; as, a particular estate,
   or  one  precedent to an estate in remainder. (b) Holding a particular
   estate; as, a particular tenant. Blackstone.

   6. (Logic) Forming a part of a genus; relatively limited in extension;
   affirmed  or  denied  of  a  part  of  a  subject;  as,  a  particular
   proposition;  --  opposed to universal: e. g. (particular affirmative)
   Some men are wise; (particular negative) Some men are not wise.
   Particular average. See under Average. -- Particular Baptist, one of a
   branch  of  the  Baptist  denomination  the  members of which hold the
   doctrine  of  a  particular or individual election and reprobation. --
   Particular  lien (Law), a lien, or a right to retain a thing, for some
   charge  or  claim  growing  out of, or connected with, that particular
   thing.  --  Particular redemption, the doctrine that the purpose, act,
   and provisions of redemption are restricted to a limited number of the
   human  race.  See  Calvinism.  Syn. -- Minute; individual; respective;
   appropriate;  peculiar;  especial; exact; specific; precise; critical;
   circumstantial. See Minute.


   Par*tic"u*lar (?), n.

   1.  A  separate  or distinct member of a class, or part of a whole; an
   individual  fact,  point,  circumstance, detail, or item, which may be
   considered separately; as, the particulars of a story.

     Particulars which it is not lawful for me to reveal. Bacon.

     It  is  the greatest interest of particulars to advance the good of
     the community. L'Estrange.

   2.   Special   or   personal   peculiarity,   trait,   or   character;
   individuality; interest, etc. [Obs.]

     For his particular I'll receive him gladly. Shak.

     If the particulars of each person be considered. Milton.

     Temporal  blessings,  whether  such  as concern the public . . . or
     such as concern our particular. Whole Duty of Man.

   3.  (Law)  One of the details or items of grounds of claim; -- usually
   in  the  pl.;  also,  a  bill  of particulars; a minute account; as, a
   particular of premises.

     The  reader  has  a  particular  of  the books wherein this law was
     written. Ayliffe.

   Bill  of  particulars.  See  under  Bill. -- In particular, specially;
   peculiarly. "This, in particular, happens to the lungs." Blackmore. --
   To go into particulars, to relate or describe in detail or minutely.


   Par*tic"u*lar*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. particularisme.]

   1. A minute description; a detailed statement. [R.]

   2. (Theol.) The doctrine of particular election.

   3. (German Politics) Devotion to the interests of one's own kingdom or
   province rather than to those of the empire.


   Par*tic"u*lar*ist,  n.  [Cf.  F.  particulariste.]  One  who  holds to
   particularism. -- Par*tic`u*lar*is"tic, a.


   Par*tic`u*lar"i*ty   (?),   n.;   pl.  Particularities  (#).  [Cf.  F.

   1.   The  state  or  quality  of  being  particular;  distinctiveness;
   circumstantiality; minuteness in detail.

   2.  That  which  is  particular;  as: (a) Peculiar quality; individual
   characteristic;   peculiarity.   "An   old  heathen  altar  with  this
   particularity."  Addison.  (b)  Special  circumstance;  minute detail;
   particular.  "Even  descending to particularities." Sir P. Sidney. (c)
   Something of special or private concern or interest.

     Let  the  general trumpet blow his blast, Particularities and petty
     sounds To cease! Shak



   Par*tic`u*lar*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of particularizing. Coleridge.


   Par*tic"u*lar*ize  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Particularized (?); p. pr.
   &  vb.  n. Particularizing (?).] [Cf. F. particulariser.] To give as a
   particular,  or  as  the particulars; to mention particularly; to give
   the particulars of; to enumerate or specify in detail.

     He   not  only  boasts  of  his  parentage  as  an  Israelite,  but
     particularizes his descent from Benjamin. Atterbury.


   Par*tic"u*lar*ize,  v. i. To mention or attend to particulars; to give
   minute  details;  to  be  circumstantial;  as,  to  particularize in a


   Par*tic"u*lar*ly, adv.

   1.  In  a  particular  manner; expressly; with a specific reference or
   interest; in particular; distinctly.

   2.  In  an  especial  manner;  in  a  high  degree; as, a particularly
   fortunate man; a particularly bad failure.

     The  exact  propriety  of Virgil I particularly regarded as a great
     part of his character. Dryden.


   Par*tic"u*lar*ment (?), n. A particular; a detail. [Obs.]


   Par*tic"u*late  (?),  v.  t.  &  i.  [See Particle.] To particularize.


   Par*tic"u*late (?), a.

   1. Having the form of a particle.

   2.  Referring  to,  or  produced  by,  particles, such as dust, minute
   germs, etc. [R.]

     The smallpox is a particulate disease. Tyndall.


   Par"ting (?), a. [From Part, v.]

   1. Serving to part; dividing; separating.

   2.  Given  when departing; as, a parting shot; a parting salute. "Give
   him that parting kiss." Shak.

   3. Departing. "Speed the parting guest." Pope.

   4. Admitting of being parted; partible.
   Parting  fellow,  a  partner.  [Obs.]  Chaucer. -- Parting pulley. See
   under  Pulley.  --  Parting  sand  (Founding),  dry, nonadhesive sand,
   sprinkled upon the partings of a mold to facilitate the separation. --
   Parting  strip  (Arch.),  in  a sash window, one of the thin strips of
   wood  let  into  the  pulley stile to keep the sashes apart; also, the
   thin  piece  inserted  in  the  window box to separate the weights. --
   Parting  tool  (Mach.),  a  thin tool, used in turning or planing, for
   cutting a piece in two.

   Page 1047


   Par"ting (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  parting  or  dividing;  the  state  of being parted;
   division; separation. "The parting of the way." Ezek. xxi. 21.

   2. A separation; a leave-taking. Shak.

     And  there  were  sudden  partings, such as press The life from out
     young hearts. Byron.

   3. A surface or line of separation where a division occurs.

   4.  (Founding)  The surface of the sand of one section of a mold where
   it meets that of another section.

   5.  (Chem.)  The  separation  and  determination  of alloys; esp., the
   separation, as by acids, of gold from silver in the assay button.

   6. (Geol.) A joint or fissure, as in a coal seam.

   7. (Naut.) The breaking, as of a cable, by violence.

   8.  (Min.)  Lamellar separation in a crystallized mineral, due to some
   other cause than cleavage, as to the presence of twinning lamell\'91.


   Par"ti*san  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  It.  partigiano.  See  Party, and cf.
   Partisan a truncheon.] [Written also partizan.]

   1.  An  adherent  to a party or faction; esp., one who is strongly and
   passionately  devoted  to  a  party or an interest. "The violence of a
   partisan." Macaulay.

     Both sides had their partisans in the colony. Jefferson.

   2. (Mil.) (a) The commander of a body of detached light troops engaged
   in  making  forays  and  harassing  an enemy. (b) Any member of such a


   Par"ti*san, a. [Written also partizan.]

   1. Adherent to a party or faction; especially, having the character of
   blind,  passionate,  or unreasonable adherence to a party; as, blinded
   by partisan zeal.

   2.  (Mil.) Serving as a partisan in a detached command; as, a partisan
   officer or corps.
   Partisan ranger (Mil.), a member of a partisan corps.


   Par"ti*san, n. [F. pertuisane, prob. fr. It. partigiana, influenced in
   French  by  OF.  pertuisier  to  pierce.  It was prob. so named as the
   weapon of some partisans, or party men. Cf. Partisan one of a corps of
   light troops.] A kind of halberd or pike; also, a truncheon; a staff.

     And make him with our pikes and partisans a grave. Shak.


   Par"ti*san*ship,  n.  The  state of being a partisan, or adherent to a
   party; feelings or conduct appropriate to a partisan.


   Par*ti"ta (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) A suite; a set of variations.


   Par"tite  (?),  a. [L. partitus, p.p. of partire to part, divide, from
   pars.  See Part, and cf. Party, a.] (Bot.) Divided nearly to the base;
   as, a partite leaf is a simple separated down nearly to the base.


   Par*ti"tion (?), n. [F. partition, L. partitio. See Part, v.]

   1.  The  act  of  parting  or  dividing;  the  state  of being parted;
   separation; division; distribution; as, the partition of a kingdom.

     And good from bad find no partition. Shak.

   2. That which divides or separates; that by which different things, or
   distinct  parts of the same thing, are separated; separating boundary;
   dividing  line  or  space; specifically, an interior wall dividing one
   part or apartment of a house, an inclosure, or the like, from another;
   as, a brick partition; lath and plaster partitions.

     No  sight  could  pass  Betwixt  the  nice partitions of the grass.

   3.  A  part  divided  off  by walls; an apartment; a compartment. [R.]
   "Lodged in a small partition." Milton.

   4.  (Law.) The servance of common or undivided interests, particularly
   in  real  estate.  It  may  be  effected  by consent of parties, or by
   compulsion of law.

   5. (Mus.) A score.
   Partition  of  numbers  (Math.), the resolution of integers into parts
   subject to given conditions. Brande & C.


   Par*ti"tion  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Partitioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  divide  into parts or shares; to divide and distribute; as, to
   partition an estate among various heirs.

   2.  To  divide  into  distinct  parts  by  lines,  walls, etc.; as, to
   partition a house.

     Uniform without, though severally partitioned within. Bacon.


   Par*ti"tion*ment (?), n. The act of partitioning.


   Par"ti*tive  (?), a. [Cf. F. partitif.] (Gram.) Denoting a part; as, a
   partitive genitive.


   Par"ti*tive,  n.  (Gram.)  A  word expressing partition, or denoting a


   Par"ti*tive*ly, adv. In a partitive manner.


   Part"let (?), n. [Dim. of part.]

   1.  A  covering  for  the  neck,  and  sometimes for the shoulders and
   breast;  originally  worn  by  both  sexes, but laterby women alone; a
   ruff. [Obs.] Fuller.

   2.  A  hen;  -- so called from the ruffing of her neck feathers. "Dame
   Partlett, the hen." Shak.


   Part"ly,  adv.  In  part;  in  some  measure of degree; not wholly. "I
   partly believe it." 1 Cor. xi. 18.


   Part"ner (?), n. [For parcener, influenced by part.]

   1.  One  who  has  a  part  in  anything with an other; a partaker; an
   associate;  a  sharer.  "Partner  of  his fortune." Shak. Hence: (a) A
   husband  or a wife. (b) Either one of a couple who dance together. (c)
   One  who  shares as a member of a partnership in the management, or in
   the gains and losses, of a business.

     My other self, the partner of my life. Milton.

   2.  (Law)  An  associate  in any business or occupation; a member of a
   partnership. See Partnership.

   3. pl. (Naut.) A framework of heavy timber surrounding an opening in a
   deck,  to  strengthen  it for the support of a mast, pump, capstan, or
   the like.
   Dormant,  OR Silent, partner. See under Dormant, a. Syn. -- Associate;
   colleague;  coadjutor; confederate; partaker; participator; companion;
   comrade; mate.


   Part"ner, v. t. To associate, to join. [Obs.] Shak.


   Part"ner*ship, n.

   1. The state or condition of being a partner; as, to be in partnership
   with  another;  to  have  partnership in the fortunes of a family or a

   2. A division or sharing among partners; joint possession or interest.

     Rome,  that  ne'er  knew  three  lordly heads before, First fell by
     fatal partnership of power. Rowe.

     He  does  possession  keep,  And is too wise to hazard partnership.

   3.  An  alliance  or  association of persons for the prosecution of an
   undertaking  or  a  business  on  joint  account; a company; a firm; a
   house; as, to form a partnership.

   4.  (Law) A contract between two or more competent persons for joining
   together  their money, goods, labor, and skill, or any or all of them,
   under  an  understanding  that  there  shall  be a communion of profit
   between  them,  and  for  the  purpose  of  carrying on a legal trade,
   business, or adventure. Kent. Story.

     NOTE: &hand; Community of profit is absolutely essential to, though
     not necessary the test of, a partnership.

   5. (Arith.) See Fellowship, n., 6.
   Limited  partnership, a form of partnership in which the firm consists
   of  one or more general partners, jointly and severally responsible as
   ordinary  partners,  and  one  or  more  special partners, who are not
   liable for the debts of the partnership beyond the amount of cash they
   contribute as capital. -- Partnership in commendam, the title given to
   the  limited  partnership  (F.  soci\'82t\'82 en commandit\'82) of the
   French  law, introduced into the code of Louisiana. Burrill. -- Silent
   partnership,  the  relation  of  partnership sustained by a person who
   furnishes capital only.


   Par*took" (?), imp. of Partake.


   Par"tridge (?), n. [OE. partriche, pertriche, OF. pertris, perdriz, F.
   perdrix, L. perdix, -icis, fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  Any  one  of  numerous  species of small gallinaceous birds of the
   genus Perdix and several related genera of the family Perdicid\'91, of
   the Old World. The partridge is noted as a game bird.

     Full many a fat partrich had he in mew. Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon Eu ropean, or  gr ay, pa rtridge (P erdix
     cinerea)  and the red-legged partridge (Caccabis rubra) of Southern
     Europe and Asia are well-known species.

   2.  Any  one  of  several  species  of  quail-like  birds belonging to
   Colinus, and allied genera. [U.S.]

     NOTE: &hand; Am ong th em are the bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus) of
     the  Eastern  States;  the plumed, or mountain, partridge (Oreortyx
     pictus)    of   California;   the   Massena   partridge   (Cyrtonyx
     Montezum\'91);    and    the   California   partridge   (Callipepla

   3. The ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). [New Eng.]
   Bamboo   partridge  (Zo\'94l.),  a  spurred  partridge  of  the  genus
   Bambusicola.  Several  species are found in China and the East Indies.
   --  Night partridge (Zo\'94l.), the woodcock. [Local, U.S.] -- Painted
   partridge   (Zo\'94l.),  a  francolin  of  South  Africa  (Francolinus
   pictus).  --  Partridge  berry.  (Bot.)  (a)  The  scarlet  berry of a
   trailing  american  plant (Mitchella repens) of the order Rubiace\'91,
   having roundish evergreen leaves, and white fragrant flowers sometimes
   tinged  with  purple,  growing  in  pairs with the ovaries united, and
   producing  the  berries  which  remain  over  winter;  also, the plant
   itself.   (b)  The  fruit  of  the  creeping  wintergreen  (Gaultheria
   procumbens); also, the plant itself. -- Partridge dove (Zo\'94l.) Same
   as  Mountain  witch,  under  Mountain.  --  Partridge  pea  (Bot.),  a
   yellow-flowered  leguminous  herb  (Cassia  Cham\'91crista), common in
   sandy  fields  in  the  Eastern  United  States.  --  Partridge  shell
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  large  marine  univalve  shell (Dolium perdix), having
   colors variegated like those of the partridge. -- Partridge wood (a) A
   variegated  wood,  much  esteemed for cabinetwork. It is obtained from
   tropical  America,  and  one source of it is said to be the leguminous
   tree  Andira  inermis. Called also pheasant wood. (b) A name sometimes
   given  to  the  dark-colored  and  striated wood of some kind of palm,
   which  is  used  for  walking  sticks  and  umbrella  handles.  -- Sea
   partridge  (Zo\'94l.), an Asiatic sand partridge (Ammoperdix Bonhami);
   --  so  called  from  its  note. -- Snow partridge (Zo\'94l.), a large
   spurred  partridge  (Lerwa nivicola) which inhabits the high mountains
   of  Asia. -- Spruce partridge. See under Spruce. -- Wood partridge, OR
   Hill  partridge  (Zo\'94l.),  any small Asiatic partridge of the genus


   Par"ture (?), n. Departure. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Par*tu"ri*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [See  Parturient.]  To bring forth young.


   Par*tu"ri*en*cy (?), n. Parturition.


   Par*tu"ri*ent  (?), a. [L. parturiens, p.pr. of parturire to desire to
   bring forth, fr. parere, partum, to bring forth. See Parent.] Bringing
   forth, or about to bring forth, young; fruitful. Jer. Tailor.


   Par*tu`ri*fa"cient  (?),  n.  [L. parturire to desire to bring forth +
   facere to make.] (Med.) A medicine tending to cause parturition, or to
   give relief in childbearing. Dunglison.


   Par*tu"ri*ous (?), a. Parturient. [Obs.] Drayton.


   Par`tu*ri"tion   (?),   n.  [L.  parturitio,  fr.  parturire:  cf.  F.
   parturition. See Parturient.]

   1. The act of bringing forth, or being delivered of, young; the act of
   giving birth; delivery; childbirth.

   2. That which is brought forth; a birth. [Obs.]


   Par*tu"ri*tive (?), a. Pertaining to parturition; obstetric. [R.]


   Par"ty  (?),  n.; pl. Parties (#). [F. parti and partie, fr. F. partir
   to part, divide, L. partire, partiri. See Part, v.]

   1. A part or portion. [Obs.] "The most party of the time." Chaucer.

   2.  A  number of persons united in opinion or action, as distinguished
   from, or opposed to, the rest of a community or association; esp., one
   of  the  parts  into  which a people is divided on questions of public

     Win the noble Brutus to our party. Shak.

     The peace both parties want is like to last. Dryden.

   3.  A  part  of  a  larger  body  of company; a detachment; especially
   (Mil.), a small body of troops dispatched on special service.

   4.  A  number  of  persons invited to a social entertainment; a select
   company;  as,  a  dinner party; also, the entertainment itself; as, to
   give a party.

   5.  One  concerned or interested in an affair; one who takes part with
   others; a participator; as, he was a party to the plot; a party to the

   6. The plaintiff or the defendant in a lawsuit, whether an individual,
   a firm, or corporation; a litigant.

     The  cause  of both parties shall come before the judges. Ex. xxii.

   7.  Hence,  any  certain  person  who  is regarded as being opposed or
   antagonistic to another.

     It  the jury found that the party slain was of English race, it had
     been adjudged felony. Sir J. Davies.

   8. Cause; side; interest.

     Have  you  nothing said Upon this Party 'gainst the Duke of Albany?

   9. A person; as, he is a queer party. [Now accounted a vulgarism.]

     NOTE: "For se veral ge nerations, ou r an cestors la rgely employed
     party  for person; but this use of the word, when it appeared to be
     reviving,  happened  to strike, more particularly, the fancy of the
     vulgar;  and  the consequence has been, that the polite have chosen
     to leave it in their undisputed possession." Fitzed. Hall.

   Party  jury  (Law), a jury composed of different parties, as one which
   is  half natives and half foreigners. -- Party man, a partisan. Swift.
   --  Party  spirit,  a factious and unreasonable temper, not uncommonly
   shown  by party men. Whately. -- Party verdict, a joint verdict. Shak.
   -- Party wall. (a) (Arch.) A wall built upon the dividing line between
   two  adjoining  properties,  usually having half its thickness on each
   property.  (b)  (Law)  A wall that separates adjoining houses, as in a
   block or row.


   Par"ty,  a. [F. parti divided, fr. partir to divide. See Part, v., and
   cf. Partite.]

   1. (Her.) Parted or divided, as in the direction or form of one of the
   ordinaries; as, an escutcheon party per pale.

   2. Partial; favoring one party.<-- partisan -->

     I will be true judge, and not party. Chaucer.

   Charter party. See under Charter.


   Par"ty, adv. Partly. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Par"ty-coat`ed (?), a. Having a motley coat, or coat of divers colors.

                         Party-colored, Parti-colored

   Par"ty-col`ored, Par"ti-col`ored (?), a. Colored with different tints;
   variegated; as, a party-colored flower. "Parti-colored lambs." Shak.


   Par"ty*ism (?), n. Devotion to party.


   Par`um*bil"ic*al  (?),  a. [Pref. para- + umbilical.] (Anat.) Near the
   umbilicus;  -- applied especially to one or more small veins which, in
   man,  connect  the  portal vein with the epigastric veins in the front
   wall of the abdomen.


   Pa*ru"si*a  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure of speech by which
   the present tense is used instead of the past or the future, as in the
   animated narration of past, or in the prediction of future, events.


   Par`va*nim"i*ty (?), n. [L. parvus little + animus mind.] The state or
   quality  of  having  a little or ignoble mind; pettiness; meanness; --
   opposed to magnanimity. De Quincey.


   Par"ve*nu`  (?),  n.  [F.,  prop.  p.p.  of  parvenir to attain to, to
   succeed, to rise to high station, L. pervenire to come to; per through
   +  venire  to come. See Par, prep., and Come.] An upstart; a man newly
   risen into notice.

                                Parvis, Parvise

   Par"vis,  Par"vise  (?),  n.  [F.  parvis,  fr.  LL. paravisus, fr. L.
   paradisus. See Paradise.] a court of entrance to, or an inclosed space
   before, a church; hence, a church porch; -- sometimes formerly used as
   place of meeting, as for lawyers. Chaucer.

                              Parvitude, Parvity

   Par"vi*tude  (?),  Par"vi*ty  (?), n. [L. parvitas, fr. parvus little:
   cf. OF. parvit\'82.] Littleness. [Obs.] Glanvill. Ray.


   Par"vo*lin (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A nonoxygenous ptomaine, formed in
   the  putrefaction  of albuminous matters, especially of horseflesh and


   Par"vo*line (?), n. (Chem.) A liquid base, C


   Pas (?), n. [F. See Pace.]

   1. A pace; a step, as in a dance. Chaucer.

   2. Right of going foremost; precedence. Arbuthnot.


   Pa"san (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The gemsbok.

                                 Pasch, Pascha

   Pasch  (?),  Pas"cha  (?),  n. [AS. pascha, L. pascha, Gr. pesach, fr.
   p\'besach  to  pass  over:  cf.  OF. pasque, F. p\'83que. Cf. Paschal,
   Paas, Paque.] The passover; the feast of Easter. Pasch egg. See Easter
   egg, under Easter. -- Pasch flower. See Pasque flower, under Pasque.


   Pas"chal  (?),  a.  [L.  paschalis:  cf.  F. pascal. See Pasch.] Of or
   pertaining  to the passover, or to Easter; as, a paschal lamb; paschal
   eggs.  Longfellow.  Paschal  candle  (R.  C. Ch.), a large wax candle,
   blessed  and  placed  on the altar on Holy Saturday, or the day before
   Easter. -- Paschal flower. See Pasque flower, under Pasque.

   Page 1048


   Pa*seng" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The wild or bezoar goat. See Goat.


   Pash (?), v. t. [Prob. of imitative origin, or possibly akin to box to
   fight  with  the  fists.]  To  strike;  to crush; to smash; to dash in
   pieces. [Obs.] P. Plowman. "I'll pash him o'er the face." Shak.


   Pash, n. [Scot., the pate. Cf. Pash, v. t.]

   1. The head; the poll. [R.] "A rough pash." Shak.

   2. A crushing blow. [Obs.]

   3. A heavy fall of rain or snow. [Prov. Eng.]


   Pa*sha" (?), n. [Turk. p\'besh\'be, b\'besh\'be; cf. Per. b\'besh\'be,
   b\'bedsh\'beh;  perh. a corruption of Per. p\'bedish\'beh. Cf. Bashaw,
   Padishah,  Shah.]  An honorary title given to officers of high rank in
   Turkey,  as  to  governers of provinces, military commanders, etc. The
   earlier form was bashaw. [Written also pacha.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e th ree cl asses of  pa shas, whose rank is
     distinguished  by  the  number  of  the  horsetails  borne on their
     standards,  being  one, two, or three, a pasha of three tails being
     the highest.


   Pa*sha"lic  (?),  n. [Written also pachalic.] [Turk.] The jurisdiction
   of a pasha.


   Pa*shaw" (?), n. See Pasha.

                          Pasigraphic, Pasigraphical

   Pas`i*graph"ic  (?),  Pas`i*graph"ic*al  (?)  a.  Of  or pertaining to


   Pa*sig"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. -graphy.] A system of universal writing, or
   a  manner  of  writing that may be understood and used by all nations.


   Pas"i*la`ly  (?),  n.  [Gr. A form of speech adapted to be used by all
   mankind; universal language.


   Pask (?), n. [See Pasque.] See Pasch.


   Pas"py  (?),  n. [F. passe-pied.] A kind of minuet, in triple time, of
   French  origin,  popular  in the reign of Queen Elizabeth and for some
   time  after;  --  called also passing measure, and passymeasure. Percy


   Pasque  (?),  n. [OF. pasque.] See Pasch. Pasque flower (Bot.), a name
   of  several  plants of the genus Anemone, section Pulsatilla. They are
   perennial  herbs  with rather large purplish blossoms, which appear in
   early  spring,  or  about  Easter, whence the common name. Called also


   Pas"quil (?), n. [It. pasquillo.] See Pasquin. [R.]


   Pas"quil, v. t. [R.] See Pasquin.


   Pas"quil*ant (?), n. A lampooner; a pasquiler. [R.] Coleridge.


   Pas"quil*er (?), n. A lampooner. [R.] Burton.


   Pas"quin  (?),  n.  [It.  pasquino  a mutilated statue at Rome, set up
   against the wall of the place of the Orsini; -- so called from a witty
   cobbler  or  tailor,  near  whose  shop the statue was dug up. On this
   statue it was customary to paste satiric papers.] A lampooner; also, a
   lampoon. See Pasquinade.

     The Grecian wits, who satire first began, Were pleasant pasquins on
     the life of man. Dryden.


   Pas"quin, v. t. To lampoon; to satiraze. [R.]

     To see himself pasquined and affronted. Dryden.


   Pas`quin*ade"  (?),  n.  [F. pasquinade, It. pasquinata.] A lampoon or
   satirical writing. Macaulay.


   Pas`quin*ade", v. t. To lampoon, to satirize.


   Pass  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Passed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Passing.]
   [F.  passer, LL. passare, fr. L. passus step, or from pandere, passum,
   to spread out, lay open. See Pace.]

   1.  To  go;  to  move; to proceed; to be moved or transferred from one
   point  to  another;  to  make  a  transit; -- usually with a following
   adverb  or  adverbal phrase defining the kind or manner of motion; as,
   to  pass  on,  by, out, in, etc.; to pass swiftly, directly, smoothly,
   etc.; to pass to the rear, under the yoke, over the bridge, across the
   field,  beyond  the  border, etc. "But now pass over [i.e., pass on]."

     On high behests his angels to and fro Passed frequent. Milton.

     Sweet  sounds  rose  slowly  through  their  mouths, And from their
     bodies passed. Coleridge.

   2.  To  move or be transferred from one state or condition to another;
   to   change   possession,  condition,  or  circumstances;  to  undergo
   transition; as, the business has passed into other hands.

     Others,  dissatisfied  with what they have, . . . pass from just to
     unjust. Sir W. Temple.

   3.  To  move  beyond  the range of the senses or of knowledge; to pass
   away;  hence,  to  disappear;  to  vanish; to depart; specifically, to
   depart from life; to die.

     Disturb him not, let him pass paceably. Shak.

     Beauty is a charm, but soon the charm will pass. Dryden.

     The  passing of the sweetest soul That ever looked with human eyes.

   4.  To  move  or to come into being or under notice; to come and go in
   consciousness;  hence, to take place; to occur; to happen; to come; to
   occur progressively or in succession; to be present transitorly.

     So death passed upon all men. Rom. v. 12.

     Our own consciousness of what passes within our own mind. I. Watts.

   5.  To  go  by or glide by, as time; to elapse; to be spent; as, their
   vacation passed pleasantly.

     Now the time is far passed. Mark vi. 35

   6.  To  go  from  one  person to another; hence, to be given and taken
   freely;  as, clipped coin will not pass; to obtain general acceptance;
   to  be  held  or regarded; to circulate; to be current; -- followed by
   for  before  a  word denoting value or estimation. "Let him pass for a
   man." Shak.

     False eloquence passeth only where true is not understood. Felton.

     This will not pass for a fault in him. Atterbury.

   7. To advance through all the steps or stages necessary to validity or
   effectiveness; to be carried through a body that has power to sanction
   or  reject;  to  receive  legislative sanction; to be enacted; as, the
   resolution passed; the bill passed both houses of Congress.

   8.  To  go through any inspection or test successfully; to be approved
   or  accepted;  as, he attempted the examination, but did not expect to

   9.  To  be  suffered to go on; to be tolerated; hence, to continue; to
   live alogn. "The play may pass." Shak.

   10.  To  go  unheeded  or  neglected;  to proceed without hindrance or
   opposition; as, we let this act pass.

   11.  To  go  beyond  bounds; to surpass; to be in excess. [Obs.] "This
   passes, Master Ford." Shak.

   12. To take heed; to care. [Obs.]

     As for these silken-coated slaves, I pass not. Shak.

   13. To go through the intestines. Arbuthnot.

   14.  (Law)  To  be  conveyed  or  transferred  by will, deed, or other
   instrument  of conveyance; as, an estate passes by a certain clause in
   a deed. Mozley & W.

   15. (Fencing) To make a lunge or pass; to thrust.

   16.  (Card  Playing)  To  decline to play in one's turn; in euchre, to
   decline to make the trump.

     She would not play, yet must not pass. Prior.

   To  bring  to  pass, To come to pass. See under Bring, and Come. -- To
   pass  away,  to  disappear; to die; to vanish. "The heavens shall pass
   away." 2 Pet. iii. 10. "I thought to pass away before, but yet alive I
   am."  Tennyson.  -- To pass by, to go near and beyond a certain person
   or  place;  as,  he  passed  by as we stood there. -- To pass into, to
   change  by  a gradual transmission; to blend or unite with. -- To pass
   on, to proceed. -- To pass on OR upon. (a) To happen to; to come upon;
   to  affect.  "So  death passed upon all men." Rom. v. 12. "Provided no
   indirect  act  pass upon our prayers to define them." Jer. Taylor. (b)
   To  determine  concerning;  to give judgment or sentence upon. "We may
   not  pass  upon his life." Shak. -- To pass off, to go away; to cease;
   to disappear; as, an agitation passes off. -- To pass over, to go from
   one side or end to the other; to cross, as a river, road, or bridge.


   Pass (?), v. t.

   1.  In  simple,  transitive  senses;  as:  (a) To go by, beyond, over,
   through, or the like; to proceed from one side to the other of; as, to
   pass  a  house,  a  stream, a boundary, etc. (b) Hence: To go from one
   limit  to  the other of; to spend; to live through; to have experience
   of; to undergo; to suffer. "To pass commodiously this life." Milton.

     She loved me for the dangers I had passed. Shak.

   (c)  To  go by without noticing; to omit attention to; to take no note
   of; to disregard.

     Please you that I may pass This doing. Shak.

     I pass their warlike pomp, their proud array. Dryden.

   (d) To transcend; to surpass; to excel; to exceed.

     And  strive  to  pass . . . Their native music by her skillful art.

     Whose  tender  power  Passes  the  strength of storms in their most
     desolate hour. Byron.

   (e)  To go successfully through, as an examination, trail, test, etc.;
   to obtain the formal sanction of, as a legislative body; as, he passed
   his examination; the bill passed the senate.

   2.  In  causative  senses: as: (a) To cause to move or go; to send; to
   transfer from one person, place, or condition to another; to transmit;
   to  deliver;  to hand; to make over; as, the waiter passed bisquit and
   cheese; the torch was passed from hand to hand.

     I had only time to pass my eye over the medals. Addison.

     Waller  passed  over  five  thousand  horse  and foot by Newbridge.

   (b)  To  cause  to  pass  the  lips; to utter; to pronounce; hence, to
   promise; to pledge; as, to pass sentence. Shak.

     Father, thy word is passed. Milton.

   (c)  To  cause  to  advance  by  stages  of progress; to carry on with
   success  through  an  ordeal, examination, or action; specifically, to
   give legal or official sanction to; to ratify; to enact; to approve as
   valid  and  just;  as,  he  passed the bill through the committee; the
   senate passed the law. (e) To put in circulation; to give currency to;
   as, to pass counterfeit money. "Pass the happy news." Tennyson. (f) To
   cause  to  obtain  entrance,  admission,  or conveyance; as, to pass a
   person into a theater, or over a railroad.

   3. To emit from the bowels; to evacuate.

   4.  (Naut.)  To  take  a turn with (a line, gasket, etc.), as around a
   sail in furling, and make secure.

   5. (Fencing) To make, as a thrust, punto, etc. Shak.
   Passed  midshipman.  See  under  Midshipman. -- To pass a dividend, to
   omit  the  declaration and payment of a dividend at the time when due.
   -- To pass away, to spend; to waste. "Lest she pass away the flower of
   her  age."  Ecclus.  xlii.  9.<-- (b) to die --> -- To pass by. (a) To
   disregard;  to  neglect.  (b)  To excuse; to spare; to overlook. -- To
   pass  off, to impose fraudulently; to palm off. "Passed himself off as
   a  bishop." Macaulay. -- To pass (something) on OR upon (some one), to
   put  upon  as  a trick or cheat; to palm off. "She passed the child on
   her  husband  for a boy." Dryden. -- To pass over, to overlook; not to
   note or resent; as, to pass over an affront.
   Pass, n. [Cf. F. pas (for sense 1), and passe, fr. passer to pass. See
   Pass, v. i.]
   1.  An opening, road, or track, available for passing; especially, one
   through  or  over some dangerous or otherwise impracticable barrier; a
   passageway; a defile; a ford; as, a mountain pass.
     "Try not the pass!" the old man said. Longfellow.

   2.  (Fencing)  A  thrust  or  push;  an  attempt  to stab or strike an
   adversary. Shak.

   3.  A movement of the hand over or along anything; the manipulation of
   a mesmerist.

   4.  (Rolling  Metals)  A  single  passage of a bar, rail, sheet, etc.,
   between the rolls.

   5. State of things; condition; predicament.

     Have his daughters brought him to this pass. Shak.

     Matters have been brought to this pass. South.

   6.  Permission  or  license  to pass, or to go and come; a psssport; a
   ticket permitting free transit or admission; as, a railroad or theater
   pass; a military pass.

     A ship sailing under the flag and pass of an enemy. Kent.

   7. Fig.: a thrust; a sally of wit. Shak.

   8. Estimation; character. [Obs.]

     Common speech gives him a worthy pass. Shak.

   9. [Cf. Passus.] A part; a division. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   Pass  boat  (Naut.), a punt, or similar boat. -- Pass book. (a) A book
   in which a trader enters articles bought on credit, and then passes or
   sends  it  to  the purchaser. (b) See Bank book. -- Pass box (Mil.), a
   wooden  or  metallic  box,  used  to carry cartridges from the service
   magazine to the piece. -- Pass check, a ticket of admission to a place
   of  entertainment,  or  of  readmission  for  one  who  goes  away  in
   expectation of returning.


   Pass"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. passable.]

   1.   Capable   of   being   passed,  traveled,  navigated,  traversed,
   penetrated, or the like; as, the roads are not passable; the stream is
   passablein boats.

     His  body's  a  passable  carcass  if  it  be  not  hurt;  it  is a
     throughfare for steel. Shak.

   2.  Capable  of  being  freely circulated or disseminated; acceptable;
   generally receivable; current.

     With  men as with false money -- one piece is more or less passable
     than another. L'Estrange.

     Could they have made this slander passable. Collier.

   3.  Such  as  may  be  allowed  to  pass  without  serious  objection;
   tolerable; admissable; moderate; mediocre.

     My  version will appear a passable beauty when the original muse is
     absent. Dryden.


   Pass"a*ble*ness, n. The quality of being passable.


   Pass"a*bly, adv. Tolerably; moderately.

                           Passacaglia, Passacaglio

   Pas`sa*ca*glia  (?),  Pas`sa*ca*glio  (?), n. [Sp. pasacalle a certain
   tune  on  the  guitar,  prop.,  a  tune  played in passing through the
   streets.]  (Mus.)  An  old  Italian  or  Spanish  dance  tune, in slow
   three-four  measure,  with  divisions  on  a ground bass, resembling a

                               Passade, Passado

   Pas*sade"  (?),  Pas*sa"do  (?),  n.  [F. passade; cf. Sp. pasada. See
   Pass, v. i.]

   1. (Fencing) A pass or thrust. Shak.

   2.  (Man.) A turn or course of a horse backward or forward on the same
   spot of ground.


   Pas"sage (?), n. [F. passage. See Pass, v. i.]

   1.  The  act  of  passing; transit from one place to another; movement
   from  point  to  point;  a going by, over, across, or through; as, the
   passage  of  a man or a carriage; the passage of a ship or a bird; the
   passage  of light; the passage of fluids through the pores or channels
   of the body.

     What! are my doors opposed against my passage! Shak.

   2.  Transit  by  means  of conveyance; journey, as by water, carriage,
   car,  or  the  like;  travel;  right,  liberty,  or means, of passing;

     The ship in which he had taken passage. Macaulay.

   3. Price paid for the liberty to pass; fare; as, to pay one's passage.

   4.  Removal  from  life;  decease;  departure; death. [R.] "Endure thy
   mortal passage." Milton.

     When he is fit and season'd for his passage. Shak.

   5.  Way; road; path; channel or course through or by which one passes;
   way  of  exit  or  entrance; way of access or transit. Hence, a common
   avenue to various apartments in a building; a hall; a corridor.

     And  with  his  pointed  dart  Explores  the nearest passage to his
     heart. Dryden.

     The  Persian  army had advanced into the . . . passages of Cilicia.

   6.   A  continuous  course,  process,  or  progress;  a  connected  or
   continuous series; as, the passage of time.

     The conduct and passage of affairs. Sir J. Davies.

     The passage and whole carriage of this action. Shak.

   7.  A separate part of a course, process, or series; an occurrence; an
   incident; an act or deed. "In thy passages of life." Shak.

     The . . . almost incredible passage of their unbelief. South.

   8.  A  particular portion constituting a part of something continuous;
   esp.,  a  portion  of  a  book,  speech,  or  musical  composition;  a
   paragraph; a clause.

     How commentators each dark passage shun. Young.

   9. Reception; currency. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.

   10. A pass or en encounter; as, a passage at arms.

     No  passages  of  love  Betwixt  us  twain  henceforward  evermore.

   11. A movement or an evacuation of the bowels.

   12.  In  parliamentary  proceedings:  (a)  The course of a proposition
   (bill,  resolution,  etc.) through the several stages of consideration
   and  action;  as,  during  its  passage  through Congress the bill was
   amended  in  both  Houses.  (b)  The  advancement  of  a bill or other
   proposition  from  one  stage to another by an affirmative vote; esp.,
   the  final  affirmative  action of the body upon a proposition; hence,
   adoption;  enactment; as, the passage of the bill to its third reading
   was delayed. "The passage of the Stamp Act." D. Hosack.

     The final question was then put upon its passage. Cushing.

   In  passage, in passing; cursorily. "These . . . have been studied but
   in  passage."  Bacon.  -- Middle passage, Northeast passage, Northwest
   passage. See under Middle, Northeast, etc. -- Of passage, passing from
   one  place,  region,  or  climate,  to  another;  migratory;  --  said
   especially of birds "Birds of passage." Longfellow. -- Passage hawk, a
   hawk  taken  on its passage or migration. -- Passage money, money paid
   for  conveyance  of a passenger, -- usually for carrying passengers by

   Page 1049

   Syn. -- Vestibule; hall; corridor. See Vestibule.


   Pas"sa*ger  (?),  n.  [See  Passenger.] A passenger; a bird or boat of
   passage. [Obs.] Ld. Berners.


   Pas"sage*way` (?), n. A way for passage; a hall. See Passage, 5.


   Pas"sant (?), a. [F., p.pr. of passer. See Pass, v. i.]

   1. Passing from one to another; in circulation; current. [Obs.]

     Many opinions are passant. Sir T. Browne.

   2. Curs [Obs.]

     On a passant rewiew of what I wrote to the bishop. Sir P. Pett.

   3. Surpassing; excelling. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   4.  (Her.)  Walking;  -- said of any animal on an escutcheon, which is
   represented as walking with the dexter paw raised.

                           Pass\'82, masc. Pass\'82e

   Pas`s\'82", masc. Pas`s\'82"e, fem. (?), a. [F.] Past; gone by; hence,
   past one's prime; worn; faded; as, a pass\'82e belle. Ld. Lytton.


   Passe"garde` (?), n. [F.] (Anc. Armor) A ridge or projecting edge on a
   shoulder  piece  to  turn the blow of a lance or other weapon from the
   joint of the armor.


   Passe"ment  (?),  n.  [F.] Lace, gimp, braid etc., sewed on a garment.
   Sir W. Scott.


   Passe*men"terie (?), n. [F.] Beaded embroidery for women's dresses.


   Pas"sen*ger  (?),  n.  [OE.  &  F.  passager.  See  Passage,  and  cf.

   1. A passer or passer-by; a wayfarer. Shak.

   2.  A  traveler by some established conveyance, as a coach, steamboat,
   railroad train, etc.
   Passenger falcon (Zo\'94l.), a migratory hawk. Ainsworth. -- Passenger
   pigeon (Zo\'94l.), the common wild pigeon of North America (Ectopistes
   migratorius), so called on account of its extensive migrations.<-- now
   extinct! -->

                                 Passe partout

   Passe"   par`tout"  (?),  n.  [F.,  from  passer  to  pass  +  partout

   1. That by which one can pass anywhere; a safe-conduct. [Obs.] Dryden.

   2. A master key; a latchkey.

   3.  A  light  picture  frame  or  mat of cardboard, wood, or the like,
   usually  put  between the picture and the glass, and sometimes serving
   for several pictures.


   Pass"er (?), n. One who passes; a passenger.


   Pass`er-by" (?), n. One who goes by; a passer.


   Pas"se*res  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. L. passer a sparrow.] (Zo\'94l.) An
   order,  or  suborder,  of  birds,  including more that half of all the
   known  species. It embraces all singing birds (Oscines), together with
   many other small perching birds.


   Pas*ser"i*form (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Like or belonging to the Passeres.


   Pas"ser*ine  (?), a. [L. passerinus, fr. passer a sparrow.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Of or pertaining to the Passeres.

     The  columbine, gallinaceous, and passerine tribes people the fruit
     trees. Sydney Smith.


   Pas"ser*ine, n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Passeres.


   Pas`si*bil"i*ty  (?), n. [L. passibilitas: cf. F. passibilit\'82.] The
   quality  or  state  of  being  passible;  aptness  to  feel or suffer;
   sensibility. Hakewill.


   Pas"si*ble  (?),  a.  [L.  passibilis,  fr.  pati,  to  suffer: cf. F.
   passible.  See  Passion.]  Susceptible  of feeling or suffering, or of
   impressions from external agents.

     Apolinarius, which held even deity itself passible. Hooker.


   Pas"si*ble*ness, n. Passibility. Brerewood.


   Pas"si*flo"ra  (?), n. [NL., from L. passio passion (fr. pati, passus,
   to  suffer)  +  flos,  floris,  flower.]  (Bot.)  A  genus  of plants,
   including   the   passion   flower.  It  is  the  type  of  the  order
   Passiflore\'91,  which  includes about nineteen genera and two hundred
   and fifty species.


   Pas"sim  (?),  adv.  [L.]  Here  and  there; everywhere; as, this word
   occurs passim in the poem.


   Pass"ing (?), n. The act of one who, or that which, passes; the act of
   going by or away. Passing bell, a tolling of a bell to announce that a
   soul is passing, or has passed, from its body (formerly done to invoke
   prayers  for  the  dying);  also,  a  tolling  during the passing of a
   funeral  procession to the grave, or during funeral ceremonies. Sir W.
   Scott. Longfellow.


   Pass"ing, a.

   1. Relating to the act of passing or going; going by, beyond, through,
   or away; departing.

   2.  Exceeding;  surpassing, eminent. Chaucer. "Her passing deformity."
   Passing  note (Mus.), a character including a passing tone. -- Passing
   tone  (Mus.),  a  tone  introduced  between  two  other  tones,  on an
   unaccented  portion of a measure, for the sake of smoother melody, but
   forming no essential part of the harmony.


   Pass"ing,  adv.  Exceedingly;  excessively;  surpassingly; as, passing
   fair; passing strange. "You apprehend passing shrewdly." Shak.


   Pass"ing*ly, adv. Exceedingly. Wyclif.


   Pas"sion  (?), n. [F., fr. L. passio, fr. pati, passus, to suffer. See

   1. A suffering or enduring of imposed or inflicted pain; any suffering
   or  distress  (as,  a cardiac passion); specifically, the suffering of
   Christ  between the time of the last supper and his death, esp. in the
   garden upon the cross. "The passions of this time." Wyclif (Rom. viii.

     To  whom  also  he  showed himself alive after his passion, by many
     infallible proofs. Acts i. 3.

   2.  The  state of being acted upon; subjection to an external agent or
   influence; a passive condition; -- opposed to action.

     A body at rest affords us no idea of any active power to move, and,
     when  set  is  motion, it is rather a passion than an action in it.

   3.  Capacity  of  being affected by external agents; susceptibility of
   impressions from external agents. [R.]

     Moldable  and  not  moldable, scissible and not scissible, and many
     other passions of matter. Bacon.

   4.  The  state  of  the  mind  when  it  is  powerfully acted upon and
   influenced   by  something  external  to  itself;  the  state  of  any
   particular  faculty  which,  under  such conditions, becomes extremely
   sensitive   or   uncontrollably  excited;  any  emotion  or  sentiment
   (specifically,  love  or  anger) in a state of abnormal or controlling
   activity;  an  extreme  or  inordinate  desire;  also, the capacity or
   susceptibility  of  being  so  affected;  as,  to be in a passion; the
   passions  of  love,  hate,  jealously, wrath, ambition, avarice, fear,
   etc.;  a  passion for war, or for drink; an orator should have passion
   as  well  as  rhetorical  skill.  "A  passion  fond even to idolatry."
   Macaulay. "Her passion is to seek roses." Lady M. W. Montagu.

     We also are men of like passions with you. Acts xiv. 15.

     The  nature  of  the human mind can not be sufficiently understood,
     without   considering   the   affections  and  passions,  or  those
     modifications   or   actions   of  the  mind  consequent  upon  the
     apprehension  of  certain  objects  or  events  in  which  the mind
     generally conceives good or evil. Hutcheson.

     The term passion, and its adverb passionately, often express a very
     strong  predilection  for any pursuit, or object of taste -- a kind
     of enthusiastic fondness for anything. Cogan.

     The bravery of his grief did put me Into a towering passion. Shak.

     The ruling passion, be it what it will, The ruling passion conquers
     reason still. Pope.

     Who  walked  in  every  path  of  human  life,  Felt every passion.

     When  statesmen are ruled by faction and interest, they can have no
     passion for the glory of their country. Addison.

   5. Disorder of the mind; madness. [Obs.] Shak.

   6. Passion week. See Passion week, below. R. of Gl.
   Passion flower (Bot.), any flower or plant of the genus Passiflora; --
   so  named  from  a  fancied  resemblance of parts of the flower to the
   instruments of our Savior's crucifixion.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fl owers ar e sh owy, an d the fruit is sometimes
     highly  esteemed (see Granadilla, and Maypop). The roots and leaves
     are  generally  more or less noxious, and are used in medicine. The
     plants are mostly tendril climbers, and are commonest in the warmer
     parts of America, though a few species are Asiatic or Australian.

   Passion music (Mus.), originally, music set to the gospel narrative of
   the  passion  of  our Lord; after the Reformation, a kind of oratorio,
   with  narrative, chorals, airs, and choruses, having for its theme the
   passion and crucifixion of Christ. -- Passion play, a mystery play, in
   which  the  scenes  connected  with  the  passion  of  our  Savior are
   represented  dramatically. -- Passion Sunday (Eccl.), the fifth Sunday
   in  Lent,  or the second before Easter. -- Passion Week, the last week
   but  one  in  Lent,  or the second week preceding Easter. "The name of
   Passion  week  is  frequently,  but improperly, applied to Holy Week."
   Shipley.  Syn.  --  Passion,  Feeling,  Emotion.  When  any feeling or
   emotion  completely  masters  the  mind,  we  call it a passion; as, a
   passion  for  music,  dress,  etc.;  especially  is  anger  (when thus
   extreme)  called  passion.  The  mind, in such cases, is considered as
   having lost its self-control, and become the passive instrument of the
   feeling in question.
   Pas"sion  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Passioned (?); p.pr & vb. n.
   Passioning.] To give a passionate character to. [R.] Keats. 


   Pas"sion,  v. i. To suffer pain or sorrow; to experience a passion; to
   be  extremely  agitated.  [Obs.] "Dumbly she passions, frantically she
   doteth." Shak.


   Pas"sion*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to passion or the passions;
   exciting,  influenced  by,  or  ministering  to, the passions. -- n. A


   Pas"sion*a*ry (?), n. [L. passionarius: cf. F. passionaire.] A book in
   which are described the sufferings of saints and martyrs. T. Warton.


   Pas"sion*ate (?), a. [LL. passionatus: cf. F. passionn\'82.]

   1. Capable or susceptible of passion, or of different passions; easily
   moved,  excited  or  agitated;  specifically,  easily  moved to anger;
   irascible; quick-tempered; as, a passionate nature.

     Homer's Achilles is haughty and passionate. Prior.

   2.  Characterized by passion; expressing passion; ardent in feeling or
   desire;  vehement;  warm; as, a passionate friendship. "The passionate
   Pilgrim." Shak.

   3. Suffering; sorrowful. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pas"sion*ate (?), v. i.

   1. To affect with passion; to impassion. [Obs.]

     Great pleasure, mixed with pitiful regard, The godly kind and queen
     did passionate. Spenser.

   2. To express feelingly or sorrowfully. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pas"sion*ate*ly (?), adv.

   1. In a passionate manner; with strong feeling; ardently.

     Sorrow expresses itself . . . loudly and passionately. South.

   2. Angrily; irascibly. Locke.


   Pas"sion*ate*ness, n. The state or quality of being passionate.


   Pas"sion*ist,  n. (R. C. Ch.) A member of a religious order founded in
   Italy  in  1737,  and  introduced  into the United States in 1852. The
   members  of  the order unite the austerities of the Trappists with the
   activity and zeal of the Jesuits and Lazarists. Called also Barefooted
   Clerks of the Most Holy Cross.


   Pas"sion*less  (?),  a. Void of passion; without anger or emotion; not
   easily excited; calm. "Self-contained and passionless." Tennyson.


   Pas"sion*tide`  (?),  n.  [Passion + tide time.] The last fortnight of


   Pas"sive (?), a. [L. passivus: cf. F. passif. See Passion.]

   1.  Not  active, but acted upon; suffering or receiving impressions or
   influences; as, they were passive spectators, not actors in the scene.

     The passive air Upbore their nimble tread. Milton.

     The  mind  is  wholly  passive  in  the reception of all its simple
     ideas. Locke.

   2.  Receiving  or  enduring  without  either active sympathy or active
   resistance;  without  emotion  or  excitement;  patient; not opposing;
   unresisting; as, passive obedience; passive submission.

     The best virtue, passive fortitude. Massinger.

   3.  (Chem.)  Inactive;  inert;  not  showing  strong affinity; as, red
   phosphorus is comparatively passive.

   4.  (Med.)  Designating  certain  morbid  conditions, as hemorrhage or
   dropsy,  characterized  by relaxation of the vessels and tissues, with
   deficient vitality and lack of reaction in the affected tissues.
   Passive congestion (Med.), congestion due to obstruction to the return
   of  the  blood  from  the affected part. -- Passive iron (Chem.), iron
   which has been subjected to the action of heat, of strong nitric acid,
   chlorine,  etc.  It is then not easily acted upon by acids. -- Passive
   movement  (Med.),  a movement of a part, in order to exercise it, made
   without  the assistance of the muscles which ordinarily move the part.
   --  Passive obedience (as used by writers on government), obedience or
   submission  of  the  subject  or citizen as a duty in all cases to the
   existing  government.  --  Passive  prayer,  among  mystic  divines, a
   suspension  of the activity of the soul or intellectual faculties, the
   soul  remaining  quiet, and yielding only to the impulses of grace. --
   Passive  verb,  OR  Passive  voice (Gram.), a verb, or form of a verb,
   which  expresses the effect of the action of some agent; as, in Latin,
   doceor,  I am taught; in English, she is loved; the picture is admired
   by all; he is assailed by slander. Syn. -- Inactive; inert; quiescent;
   unresisting; unopposing; suffering; enduring; submissive; patient.
   Pas"sive*ly, adv.
   1. In a passive manner; inertly; unresistingly.
   2. As a passive verb; in the passive voice.
   Pas"sive*ness,  n.  The quality or state of being passive; unresisting
     To  be  an  effect implies passiveness, or the being subject to the
     power and action of its cause. J. Edwards.
   Pas*siv"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. passivit\'82.]
   1. Passiveness; -- opposed to activity. Jer. Taylor.
   2. (Physics) The tendency of a body to remain in a given state, either
   of motion or rest, till disturbed by another body; inertia. Cheyne.

   3.  (Chem.)  The  quality  or  condition of any substance which has no
   inclination to chemical activity; inactivity.


   Pass"-key`  (?),  n.  A  key for opening more locks than one; a master


   Pass"less, a. Having no pass; impassable. Cowley.


   Pass"man  (?), n.; pl. Passmen (. One who passes for a degree, without
   honors. See Classman, 2. [Eng. Univ.]


   Pass"o`ver  (?),  n.  [Pass  + over. See Pasch.] (Jewish Antiq.) (a) A
   feast  of  the  Jews,  instituted  to  commemorate  the sparing of the
   Hebrews  in  Egypt,  when God, smiting the firstborn of the Egyptians,
   passed  over  the  houses of the Israelites which were marked with the
   blood  of  a  lamb.  (b)  The  sacrifice  offered  at the feast of the
   passover; the paschal lamb. Ex. xii.


   Pass`-pa*role"  (?), n. [F. passe-parole.] (Mil.) An order passed from
   front to rear by word of mouth.


   Pass"port  (, n. [F. passeport, orig., a permission to leave a port or
   to  sail  into it; passer to pass + port a port, harbor. See Pass, and
   Port a harbor.]

   1.  Permission to pass; a document given by the competent officer of a
   state,  permitting  the  person  therein  named to pass or travel from
   place to place, without molestation, by land or by water.

     Caution in granting passports to Ireland. Clarendon.

   2.  A  document carried by neutral merchant vessels in time of war, to
   certify  their  nationality  and protect them from belligerents; a sea

   3.  A  license  granted  in time of war for the removal of persons and
   effects from a hostile country; a safe-conduct. Burrill.

   4.  Figuratively:  Anything  which  secures  advancement  and  general
   acceptance. Sir P. Sidney.

     His passport is his innocence and grace. Dryden.


   Pas"sus  (?),  n.;  pl. L. Passus, E. Passuses (. [L., a step, a pace.
   See  Pace.]  A  division  or  part;  a  canto; as, the passus of Piers
   Plowman. See 2d Fit.


   Pass"word`  (?),  n.  A word to be given before a person is allowed to
   pass; a watchword; a countersign. Macaulay.


   Pas"sy*meas`ure  (?),  n.  [Corrupted  fr. It. passamezzo.] [Obs.] See
   Paspy. Shak.


   Past  (?),  a.  [From  Pass,  v.] Of or pertaining to a former time or
   state; neither present nor future; gone by; elapsed; ended; spent; as,
   past  troubles;  past  offences. "Past ages." Milton. Past master. See
   under Master.


   Past, n. A former time or state; a state of things gone by. "The past,
   at least, is secure." D. Webster.

     The  present is only intelligible in the light of the past, often a
     very remote past indeed. Trench.


   Past, prep.

   1.  Beyond,  in position, or degree; further than; beyond the reach or
   influence  of.  "Who  being  past  feeling." Eph. iv. 19. "Galled past
   endurance." Macaulay.

     Until we be past thy borders. Num. xxi. 22.

     Love,  when  once  past  government,  is  consequently  past shame.

   Page 1050

   2. Beyond, in time; after; as, past the hour.

     Is it not past two o'clock? Shak.

   3. Above; exceeding; more than. [R.]

     Not past three quarters of a mile. Shak.

     Bows not past three quarters of a yard long. Spenser.


   Past (?), adv. By; beyond; as, he ran past.

     The alarum of drums swept past. Longfellow.


   Paste  (?),  n.  [OF.  paste, F. p\'83te, L. pasta, fr. Gr. Pasty, n.,

   1. A soft composition, as of flour moistened with water or milk, or of
   earth  moistened  to  the  consistence of dough, as in making potter's

   2.  Specifically,  in  cookery, a dough prepared for the crust of pies
   and the like; pastry dough.

   3.  A kind of cement made of flour and water, starch and water, or the
   like,   --   used  for  uniting  paper  or  other  substances,  as  in
   bookbinding,  etc.,  --  also used in calico printing as a vehicle for
   mordant or color.

   4.  A  highly refractive vitreous composition, variously colored, used
   in making imitations of precious stones or gems. See Strass.

   5. A soft confection made of the inspissated juice of fruit, licorice,
   or the like, with sugar, etc.

   6. (Min.) The mineral substance in which other minerals are imbedded.
   Paste eel (Zo\'94l.), the vinegar eel. See under Vinegar.


   Paste,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Pasting.] To unite
   with paste; to fasten or join by means of paste.


   Paste"board` (?), n.

   1.  A stiff thick kind of paper board, formed of several single sheets
   pasted one upon another, or of paper macerated and pressed into molds,

   2. (Cookery) A board on which pastry dough is rolled; a molding board.


   Pas"tel (?), n. [F.; cf. It. pastello. Cf. Pastil.]

   1. A crayon made of a paste composed of a color ground with gum water.
   [Sometimes incorrectly written pastil.] "Charming heads in pastel." W.

   2.  (Bot.)  A plant affording a blue dye; the woad (Isatis tinctoria);
   also,  the  dye  itself.  <--3. a drawing using pastel, or of a pastel
   shade.  4.  the  art  or  process  of  drawing with pastels. 5. any of
   various  light  or pale colors. 6. a light literary work, as a sketch.


   Past"er (?), n.

   1. One who pastes; as, a paster in a government department.

   2.  A  slip of paper, usually bearing a name, intended to be pasted by
   the  voter,  as  a  substitute, over another name on a printed ballot.
   [Cant, U.S.]


   Pas"tern  (?),  n.  [Of.  pasturon,  F.  p\'83turon, fr. OF. pasture a
   tether, for beasts while pasturing; prop., a pasturing. See Pasture.]

   1.  The part of the foot of the horse, and allied animals, between the
   fetlock and the coffin joint. See Illust. of Horse.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e upper bone, or phalanx, of the foot is called the
     great  pastern  bone;  the  second, the small pastern bone; and the
     third, in the hoof, the coffin bone.

   Pastern joint, the joint in the hoof of the horse, and allied animals,
   between the great and small pastern bones.

   2. A shackle for horses while pasturing. Knight.

   3. A patten. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Pas*teur"ism (?), n. [Fr. Pasteur, a French scientist.]

   1.  A  method of treatment, devised by Pasteur, for preventing certain
   diseases,   as   hydrophobia,   by  successive  inoculations  with  an
   attenuated virus of gradually increasing strength.

   2. Pasteurization.


   Pas*teur`i*za"tion (?), n. A process devised by Pasteur for preventing
   or  checking  fermentation  in  fluids,  such as wines, milk, etc., by
   exposure  to a temperature of 140 F., thus destroying the vitality of
   the contained germs or ferments.


   Pas*teur"ize (?), v. t.

   1. To subject to pasteurization.

   2. To treat by pasteurizm.


   Pas*tic"ci*o (?), n. [It., fr. pasta. See Paste.]

   1. A medley; an olio. [R.] H. Swinburne.

   2.  (Fine  Arts)  (a)  A  work  of  art imitating directly the work of
   another  artist,  or of more artists than one. (b) A falsified work of
   art,  as  a  vase  or  statue made up of parts of original works, with
   missing parts supplied.

                               Pastil, Pastille

   Pas"til  (?),  Pas*tille"  (?),  n. [F. pastille, L. pastillusa pastus
   food. See Pasture, and cf. Pastel.]

   1.  (Pharmacy)  A  small  cone  or mass made of paste of gum, benzoin,
   cinnamon,  and other aromatics, -- used for fumigating or scenting the
   air of a room.

   2. An aromatic or medicated lozenge; a troche.

   3. See Pastel, a crayon.


   Pas"time` (?), n. [Pass + time: cf. F. passetemps.] That which amuses,
   and serves to make time pass agreeably; sport; amusement; diversion.


   Pas"time`, v. i. To sport; to amuse one's self. [R.]


   Pas"tor  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. pascere, pastum, to pasture, to feed. Cf.
   Pabulum, Pasture, Food.]

   1. A shepherd; one who has the care of flocks and herds.

   2.  A  guardian; a keeper; specifically (Eccl.), a minister having the
   charge of a church and parish.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  species  of starling (Pastor roseus), native of the
   plains  of  Western  Asia  and Eastern Europe. Its head is crested and
   glossy  greenish  black,  and  its back is rosy. It feeds largely upon


   Pas"tor*age  (?),  n.  The office, jurisdiction, or duty, of a pastor;


   Pas"tor*al (?), a. [L. pastoralis: cf. F. pastoral. See Pastor.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining to shepherds; hence, relating to rural life and
   scenes; as, a pastoral life.

   2.  Relating  to  the care of souls, or to the pastor of a church; as,
   pastoral duties; a pastoral letter.
   Pastoral  staff  (Eccl.), a staff, usually of the form of a shepherd's
   crook,  borne  as  an  official  emblem by a bishop, abbot, abbess, or
   other  prelate  privileged  to  carry  it.  See Crook, and Crosier. --
   Pastoral Theology, that part of theology which treats of the duties of


   Pas"tor*al (?), n.

   1.  A  poem  describing  the  life and manners of shepherds; a poem in
   which  the  speakers  assume  the  character  of shepherds; an idyl; a

     A  pastoral is a poem in which any action or passion is represented
     by its effects on a country life. Rambler.

   2.  (Mus.)  A  cantata  relating  to  rural  life;  a  composition for
   instruments  characterized  by  simplicity  and  sweetness;  a lyrical
   composition  the  subject  of  which  is  taken from rural life. Moore
   (Encyc. of Music).

   3.  (Eccl.) A letter of a pastor to his charge; specifically, a letter
   addressed by a bishop to his diocese; also (Prot. Epis. Ch.), a letter
   of the House of Bishops, to be read in each parish.


   Pas`to*ra"le (?), n. [It.]

   1.  (Mus.)  A  composition in a soft, rural style, generally in 6-8 or
   12-8 time.

   2. A kind of dance; a kind of figure used in a dance.


   Pas"tor*al*ly (?), adv.

   1. In a pastoral or rural manner.

   2. In the manner of a pastor.


   Pas"tor*ate  (?), n. [Cf. F. pastorat. See Pastor.] The office, state,
   or jurisdiction of a pastor.


   Pas"tor*less, a. Having no pastor.


   Pas"tor*ling (?), n. An insignificant pastor. [R.]


   Pas"tor*ly, a. Appropriate to a pastor. Milton.


   Pas"tor*ship, n. Pastorate. Bp. Bull.


   Pas"try (?), n.; pl. Pastries (.

   1. The place where pastry is made. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. Articles of food made of paste, or having a crust made of paste, as
   pies, tarts, etc.
   Pastry  cook,  one  whose occupation is to make pastry; as, the pastry
   cook of a hotel.


   Pas"tur*a*ble (?), a. Fit for pasture.


   Pas"tur*age (?), n. [OF. pasturage, F. p\'83turage. See Pasture.]

   1. Grazing ground; grass land used for pasturing; pasture.

   2. Grass growing for feed; grazing.

   3. The business of feeding or grazing cattle.


   Pas"ture  (?), n. [OF. pasture, F. p\'83ture, L. pastura, fr. pascere,
   pastum, to pasture, to feed. See Pastor.]

   1. Food; nourishment. [Obs.]

     Toads and frogs his pasture poisonous. Spenser.

   2.  Specifically:  Grass  growing  for the food of cattle; the food of
   cattle taken by grazing.

   3. Grass land for cattle, horses, etc.; pasturage.

     He maketh me to lie down in green pastures. Ps. xxiii. 2.

     So graze as you find pasture. Shak.


   Pas"ture,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Pastured  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Pasturing.] To feed, esp. to feed on growing grass; to supply grass as
   food  for;  as,  the farmer pastures fifty oxen; the land will pasture
   forty cows.


   Pas"ture, v. i. To feed on growing grass; to graze.


   Pas"ture*less, a. Destitute of pasture. Milton.


   Pas"tur*er  (?),  n.  One who pastures; one who takes cattle to graze.
   See Agister.


   Pas"ty  (?), a. Like paste, as in color, softness, stickness. "A pasty
   complexion." G. Eliot.


   Pas"ty,  n.; pl. Pasties (#). [OF. past\'82, F. p\'83t\'82. See Paste,
   and  cf.  Patty.]  A  pie consisting usually of meat wholly surrounded
   with a crust made of a sheet of paste, and often baked without a dish;
   a  meat  pie.  "If  ye  pinch me like a pasty." Shak. "Apple pasties."

     A large pasty baked in a pewter platter. Sir W. Scott.


   Pat  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Patted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Patting.]
   [Cf.  G.  patschen, Prov. G. patzen, to strike, tap.] To strike gently
   with the fingers or hand; to stroke lightly; to tap; as, to pat a dog.

     Gay pats my shoulder, and you vanish quite. Pope.


   Pat, n.

   1. A light, quik blow or stroke with the fingers or hand; a tap.

   2. A small mass, as of butter, shaped by pats.

     It looked like a tessellated work of pats of butter. Dickens.


   Pat, a. [Cf. pat a light blow, D. te pas convenient, pat, where pas is
   fr.  F.  passer  to  pass.] Exactly suitable; fit; convenient; timely.
   "Pat allusion." Barrow.


   Pat, adv. In a pat manner.

     I foresaw then 't would come in pat hereafter. Sterne.


   Pa*ta"ca  (?),  n.  [Sp.] The Spanish dollar; -- called also patacoon.


   Pa`tache"  (?), n. [F. & Sp. patache, P. patacho.] (Naut.) A tender to
   a  fleet, formerly used for conveying men, orders, or treasure. [Spain
   & Portugal]


   Pa`ta*coon" (?), n. [Sp.] See Pataca.


   Pa*ta"gi*um (?), n.; pl. Patagia (#). [L., an edge or border.]

   1.  (Anat.)  In  bats, an expansion of the integument uniting the fore
   limb with the body and extending between the elongated fingers to form
   the  wing;  in  birds, the similar fold of integument uniting the fore
   limb with the body.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) One of a pair of small vesicular organs situated at the
   bases  of  the anterior wings of lepidopterous insects. See Illust. of


   Pat`a*go"ni*an  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Patagonia. -- n. A native
   of Patagonia.


   Pat"a*mar  (?), n. [From the native name.] (Naut.) A vessel resembling
   a grab, used in the coasting trade of Bombay and Ceylon. [Written also


   Pa*tas"   (?),   n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  West  African  long-tailed  monkey
   (Cercopithecus ruber); the red monkey.


   Pat`a*vin"i*ty   (?),   n.  [L.  patavinitas,  fr.  Patavium:  cf.  F.
   patavinit\'82]  The  use  of  local  or  provincial  words,  as in the
   peculiar  style  or diction of Livy, the Roman historian; -- so called
   from Patavium, now Padua, the place of Livy's nativity.


   Patch (?), n. [OE. pacche; of uncertain origin, perh. for placche; cf.
   Prov. E. platch patch, LG. plakk, plakke.]

   1.  A  piece  of cloth, or other suitable material, sewed or otherwise
   fixed  upon  a  garment  to  repair or strengthen it, esp. upon an old
   garment to cover a hole.

     Patches set upon a little breach. Shak.

   2.  Hence:  A  small  piece of anything used to repair a breach; as, a
   patch on a kettle, a roof, etc.

   3.  A  small piece of black silk stuck on the face, or neck, to hide a
   defect, or to heighten beauty.

     Your black patches you wear variously. Beau. & Fl.

   4.  (Gun.)  A piece of greased cloth or leather used as wrapping for a
   rifle ball, to make it fit the bore.

   5.  Fig.:  Anything  regarded  as  a patch; a small piece of ground; a
   tract; a plot; as, scattered patches of trees or growing corn.

     Employed about this patch of ground. Bunyan.

   6.  (Mil.)  A block on the muzzle of a gun, to do away with the effect
   of dispart, in sighting.

   7.  A paltry fellow; a rogue; a ninny; a fool. [Obs. or Colloq.] "Thou
   scurvy patch." Shak.
   Patch  ice,  ice  in  overlapping  pieces in the sea. -- Soft patch, a
   patch  for  covering  a crack in a metallic vessel, as a steam boiler,
   consisting  of soft material, as putty, covered and held in place by a
   plate bolted or riveted fast.


   Patch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Patched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Patching.]

   1.  To  mend  by sewing on a piece or pieces of cloth, leather, or the
   like; as, to patch a coat.

   2.  To  mend with pieces; to repair with pieces festened on; to repair
   clumsily; as, to patch the roof of a house.

   3. To adorn, as the face, with a patch or patches.

     Ladies who patched both sides of their faces. Spectator.

   4. To make of pieces or patches; to repair as with patches; to arrange
   in  a  hasty or clumsy manner; -- generally with up; as, to patch up a
   truce. "If you'll patch a quarrel." Shak.


   Patch"er (?), n. One who patches or botches. Foxe.


   Patch"er*y (?), n. Botchery; covering of defects; bungling; hypocrisy.
   [R.] Shak.


   Patch"ing*ly (?), adv. Knavishy; deceitfully. [Obs.]

                             Patchouli, Patchouly

   Pa*tchou"li,  Pa*tchou"ly  (?),  n.  [CF.  F. patchouli; prob. of East
   Indian origin.]

   1.  (Bot.) A mintlike plant (Pogostemon Patchouli) of the East Indies,
   yielding an essential oil from which a highly valued perfume is made.

   2. The perfume made from this plant.
   Patchouly  camphor (Chem.), a substance homologous with and resembling
   borneol, found in patchouly oil.


   Patch"work`  (?),  n.  Work  composed  of  pieces sewed together, esp.
   pieces  of various colors and figures; hence, anything put together of
   incongruous  or  ill-adapted  parts;  something  irregularly  clumsily
   composed; a thing putched up. Swift.


   Patch"y  (?),  a.  Full  of,  or  covered  with, patches; abounding in


   Pa`t\'82" (?), a. (Her.) See Patt\'82.


   Pa`t\'82" (?), n. [F. p\'83t\'82.]

   1. A pie. See Patty.

   2. (Fort.) A kind of platform with a parapet, usually of an oval form,
   and generally erected in marshy grounds to cover a gate of a fortified
   place. [R.]


   Pate  (?),  n.  [Cf.  LG.  & Prov. G. pattkopf, patzkopf, scabby head;
   patt, patz, scab + kopf head.]

   1.  The  head  of  a  person;  the  top,  or  crown, of the head. [Now
   generally used in contempt or ridicule.]<-- esp., bald pate -->

     His  mischief  shall  return  upon  his  own  head, and his violent
     dealing shall come down upon his own pate. Ps. vii. 16.

     Fat paunches have lean pate. Shak.

   2. The skin of a calf's head.


   Pat"ed  (?),  a.  Having  a  pate;  --  used  only in composition; as,
   long-pated; shallow-pated.


   Pa*tee" (?), n. See Pattee.


   Pat`e*fac"tion  (?), n. [L. patefactio, fr. patefacere to open; patere
   to  lie  open  +  facere  to make.] The act of opening, disclosing, or
   manifesting; open declaration. Jer. Taylor.


   Pat"e*la (?), n. [Hind. patel\'be.] A large flat-bottomed trading boat
   peculiar to the river Ganges; -- called also puteli.


   Pa*tel"la  (?), n.; pl. Patell\'91 (#). [L., a small pan, the kneepan,
   dim. of patina, patena, a pan, dish.]

   1. A small dish, pan, or vase.

   2. (Anat.) The kneepan; the cap of the knee.<-- kneecap -->

   3.  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of marine gastropods, including many species of
   limpets.  The  shell  has  the  form  of  a flattened cone. The common
   European limpet (Patella vulgata) is largely used for food.

   4.  (Bot.)  A kind of apothecium in lichens, which is orbicular, flat,
   and sessile, and has a special rim not a part of the thallus.


   Pa*tel"lar  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the patella, or
   kneepan. <-- patellar tendon -->


   Pa*tel"li*form (?), a. [Patella + form: cf. F. pattelliforme.]

   1. Having the form of a patella.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Resembling a limpet of the genus Patella.


   Pa*tel"lu*la  (?), n.; pl. Patellul\'91 (#). [NL., dim. of L. patella.
   See  Patella.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  cuplike  sucker  on the feet of certain


   Pat"en  (?), n. [LL. patina, patena, fr. L. patina, patena, a pan; cf.
   L. patere to be open, E. patent, and Gr. pat\'8ane. Cf. Patina.]

   1. A plate. [Obs.]

   2.  (Eccl.)  The place on which the consecrated bread is placed in the
   Eucharist,  or  on  which  the  host  is placed during the Mass. It is
   usually  small,  and formed as to fit the chalice, or cup, as a cover.
   [Written also patin, patine.]


   Pat"e*na (?), n. [LL.] (Eccl.) A paten.


   Pa*te"na  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Pg. patena a paten.] A grassy expanse in the
   hill region of Ceylon.


   Pa"ten*cy (?), n. [See Patent.]

   1. The condition of being open, enlarged, or spread.

   2. The state of being patent or evident.

   Page 1051


   Pat"ent (p&acr;t"ent OR p&amac;t"ent), a. [L. patens, -entis, p.pr. of
   patere to be open: cf. F. patent. Cf. Fathom.]


     NOTE: (Oftener pronounced p&amac;t"ent in this sense)

   Open;  expanded;  evident;  apparent;  unconcealed;  manifest; public;

     He had received instructions, both patent and secret. Motley.

   2. Open to public perusal; -- said of a document conferring some right
   or privilege; as, letters patent. See Letters patent, under 3d Letter.

   3.  Appropriated  or  protected by letters patent; secured by official
   authority  to  the exclusive possession, control, and disposal of some
   person or party; patented; as, a patent right; patent medicines.

     Madder  .  .  . in King Charles the First's time, was made a patent
     commodity. Mortimer.

   4.  (Bot.)  Spreading;  forming a nearly right angle with the steam or
   branch; as, a patent leaf.
   Patent  leather,  a varnished or lacquered leather, used for boots and
   shoes,  and  in  carriage  and  harness  work.  --  Patent  office,  a
   government  bureau  for the examination of inventions and the granting
   of  patents. -- Patent right. (a) The exclusive right to an invention,
   and  the  control  of its manufacture. (b) (Law) The right, granted by
   the  sovereign,  of exclusive control of some business of manufacture,
   or  of  the  sale  of  certain  articles,  or  of  certain  offices or
   prerogatives. -- Patent rolls, the registers, or records, of patents.


   Pat"ent, n. [Cf. F. patente. See Patent, a.]

   1. A letter patent, or letters patent; an official document, issued by
   a  sovereign  power, conferring a right or privilege on some person or
   party.  Specifically:  (a)  A  writing securing to an invention. (b) A
   document making a grant and conveyance of public lands.

     Four  other gentlemen of quality remained mentioned in that patent.

     NOTE: &hand; In  the United States, by the act of 1870, patents for
     inventions are issued for seventeen years, without the privilege of
     renewal except by act of Congress.

   2.  The  right  or  privilege  conferred  by  such  a document; hence,
   figuratively,  a  right,  privilege,  or  license  of  the nature of a

     If  you  are  so fond over her iniquity, give her patent to offend.


   Pat"ent,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Patented; p. pr. & vb. n. Patenting.] To
   grant by patent; to make the subject of a patent; to secure or protect
   by patent; as, to patent an invention; to patent public lands.


   Pat"ent*a*ble  (?),  a.  Suitable  to  be  patented;  capable of being


   Pat`ent*ee"  (?),  n.  One  to  whom  a  grant is made, or a privilege
   secured, by patent. Bacon.


   Pat"ent-ham"mered  (?), a. (Stone Cutting) Having a surface dressed by
   cutting with a hammer the head of which consists of broad thin chisels
   clamped together.


   Pat"ent*ly (?; see Patent, a.), adv. Openly; evidently.


   Pat"e*ra (?), n.; pl. Pater\'91(. [ L., fr. patere to lie open.]

   1. A saucerlike vessel of earthenware or metal, used by the Greeks and
   Romans in libations and sacrificies.

   2.  (Arch.)  A  circular  ornament, resembling a dish, often worked in
   relief on friezes, and the like.


   Pat`e*re"ro (?), n. See Pederero. [Obs.]


   Pa`ter*fa*mil`i*as  (?),  n.;  pl. Pateresfamilias (#). [L., fr. pater
   father  +  familias, gen. of familia family.] (Rom. Law) The head of a
   family;  in a large sense, the proprietor of an estate; one who is his
   own master.


   Pa*ter"nal  (?), a. [L. paternus, fr. pater a father: cf. F. paternel.
   See Father.]

   1.  Of or pertaining to a father; fatherly; showing the disposition of
   a  father;  guiding  or  instructing  as  a father; as, paternal care.
   "Under paternal rule." Milton.

   2.  Received  or  derived  from  a  father; hereditary; as, a paternal

     Their small paternal field of corn. Dryden.

   Paternal  government (Polit. Science), the assumption by the governing
   power of a quasi-fatherly relation to the people, involving strict and
   intimate  supervision  of their business and social concerns, upon the
   theory that they are incapable of managing their own afffairs.


   Pa*ter"nal*ism  (?),  n.  (Polit.  Science)  The theory or practice of
   paternal  government.  See Paternal government, under Paternal. London
   Times. <-- paternalistic, = relating to paternalism -->


   Pa*ter"nal*ly, adv. In a paternal manner.


   Pa*ter"ni*ty   (?),  n.  [L.  paternitas:  cf.  F.  paternit\'82.  See

   1.  The  relation  of  a  father to his child; fathership; fatherhood;
   family headship; as, the divine paternity.

     The  world,  while  it  had  scarcity of people, underwent no other
     dominion than paternity and eldership. Sir W. Raleigh.

   2.  Derivation  or  descent  from  a  father;  male parentage; as, the
   paternity of a child.

   3. Origin; authorship.

     The paternity of these novels was . . . disputed. Sir W. Scott.


   Pa"ter*nos`ter (?), n. [L., Our Father.]

   1.  The Lord's prayer, so called from the first two words of the Latin

   2. (Arch.) A beadlike ornament in moldings.

   3. (Angling) A line with a row of hooks and bead
   Paternoster  pump,  Paternoster  wheel,  a  chain  pump;  a  noria. --
   Paternoster  while,  the  space  of  time  required  for  repeating  a
   paternoster. Udall.


   Path  (?),  n.; pl. Paths (#). [As. pad, G. pfad, of uncertain origin;
   cf. Gr. patha, path. &root;21.]

   1. A trodden way; a footway.

     The dewy paths of meadows we will tread. Dryden.

   2.  A  way,  course,  or  track, in which anything moves or has moved;
   route;  passage;  an  established  way; as, the path of a meteor, of a
   caravan,  of  a  storm,  of a pestilence. Also used figuratively, of a
   course of life or action.

     All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth. Ps. xxv. 10.

     The paths of glory lead but to the grave. Gray.


   Path  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pathed (?); pr.p. & vb. n. Pathing.] To
   make  a  path  in, or on (something), or for (some one). [R.] "Pathing
   young Henry's unadvised ways." Drayton.


   Path, v. i. To walk or go. [R.] Shak.


   Path`e*mat"ic  (?), a. [Gr. Of, pertaining to, or designating, emotion
   or suffering. [R.] Chalmers.


   Pa*thet"ic (?), a. [L. patheticus, Gr. path\'82tique. See Pathos.]

   1. Expressing or showing anger; passionate. [Obs.]

   2.  Affecting  or moving the tender emotions, esp. pity or grief; full
   of pathos; as, a pathetic song or story. "Pathetic action." Macaulay.

     No  theory  of  the  passions  can  teach  a man to be pathetic. E.

   Pathetic  muscle  (Anat.),  the superior oblique muscle of the eye. --
   Pathetic nerve (Anat.), the fourth cranial, or trochlear, nerve, which
   supplies  the superior oblique, or pathetic, muscle of the eye. -- The
   pathetic, a style or manner adapted to arouse the tender emotions.


   Pa*thet"ic*al  (?),  a.  Pathetic.  [R.]  -- Pa*thet"ic*al*ly, adv. --
   Pa*thet"ic*al*ness, n.


   Path"e*tism   (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  path\'82tisme.]  See  Mesmerism.  L.


   Path"find`er (?), n. One who discovers a way or path; one who explores
   untraversed regions.

     The cow is the true pathfinder and pathmaker. J. Burroughs.


   Path"ic  (?),  n.  [L.  pathicus,  Gr. A male who submits to the crime
   against nature; a catamite. [R.] B. Jonson.


   Path"ic, a. [Gr. Passive; suffering.


   Path"less   (?),   a.   Having  no  beaten  path  or  way;  untrodden;
   impenetrable; as, pathless woods.

     Trough the heavens' wide, pathless way. Milton.


   Path"mak`er (?), n. One who, or that which, makes a way or path.


   Path"o*gene  (?),  n.  [See  Pathogenic.]  (Biol.)  One  of a class of
   virulent micro\'94rganisms or bacteria found in the tissues and fluids
   in infectious diseases, and supposed to be the cause of the disease; a
   pathogenic organism; a pathogenic bacterium; -- opposed to zymogene.


   Path`o*gen"e*sis (?), n. (Med.) Pathogeny.


   Path`o*ge*net"ic (?), a. (Med.) Pathogenic.


   Path`o*gen"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Med.  &  Biol.)  Of  or  pertaining to
   pathogeny; producting disease; as, a pathogenic organism; a pathogenic


   Pa*thog"e*ny  (?),  n.  (Med.)  (a)  The  generation,  and  method  of
   development,  of  disease;  as,  the  pathogeny  of  yellow  fever  is
   unsettled. (b) That branch of pathology which treats of the generation
   and development of disease.


   Pa*thog`no*mon"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr. pathognomonique. See Gnomic.] (Med.)
   Specially  or  decisively characteristic of a disease; indicating with
   certainty a disease; as, a pathognomonic symptom.

     The true pathognomonic sign of love jealousy. Arbuthnot.


   Pa*thog"no*my  (?), n. [Gr. Expression of the passions; the science of
   the signs by which human passions are indicated.

                           Pathologic, Pathological

   Path`o*log"ic  (?), Path`o*log"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. pathologique.] Of or
   pertaining  to  pathology.  -- Path`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv. <-- caused by
   disease -->


   Pa*thol"o*gist   (?),   n.  [Cf.  F.  pathologiste.]  One  skilled  in
   pathology;  an  investigator  in  pathology;  as, the pathologist of a
   hospital, whose duty it is to determine the causes of the diseases.


   Pa*thol"o*gy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Pathologies  (#).  [Gr.  -logy:  cf.  F.
   pathologie.]  (Med.)  The  science  which  treats  of  diseases, their
   nature, causes, progress, symptoms, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Pa thology is  ge neral or  sp ecial, ac cording as it
     treats  of disease or morbid processes in general, or of particular
     diseases;  it  is  also  subdivided  into internal and external, or
     medical  and  surgical  pathology.  Its  departments  are nosology,
     \'91tiology,  morbid  anatomy,  symptomatology,  and  therapeutics,
     which  treat respectively of the classification, causation, organic
     changes, symptoms, and cure of diseases.

   Celluar  pathology, a theory that gives prominence to the vital action
   of cells in the healthy and diseased function of the body. Virchow.


   Path`o*p\'d2"la  (?),  n.;  pl.  -ias  (#).  [NL.,  from Gr. (Rhet.) A
   speech, or figure of speech, designed to move the passion. Smart.


   Pa"thos  (?),  n.  [L.,  from  Gr.  pati  to suffer, E. patient.] That
   quality  or property of anything which touches the feelings or excites
   emotions  and passions, esp., that which awakens tender emotions, such
   as  pity,  sorrow, and the like; contagious warmth of feeling, action,
   or  expression;  pathetic  quality;  as, the pathos of a picture, of a
   poem, or of a cry.

     The  combination  of  incident,  and  the pathos of catastrophe. T.


   Path"way  (?)  n. A footpath; a beaten track; any path or course. Also
   used figuratively. Shak.

     In  the way of righteousness is life; and in the pathway thereof is
     no death. Prov. xii. 28.

     We tread the pathway arm in arm. Sir W. Scott.


   Pat"i*ble  (?),  a.  [L.  patibilis,  fr. pati to suffer.] Sufferable;
   tolerable; endurable. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Pa*tib"u*la*ry  (?),  a. [L. patibulum a gallows: cf. F. patibulaire.]
   Of or pertaining to the gallows, or to execution. [R.] Carlyle.


   Pa*tib"u*la`ted, a. Hanged on a gallows. [R.]


   Pa"tience (?), n. [F. patience, fr. L. patientia. See Patient.]

   1.  The state or quality of being patient; the power of suffering with
   fortitude;  uncomplaining endurance of evils or wrongs, as toil, pain,
   poverty, insult, oppression, calamity, etc.

     Strenthened   with   all  might,  .  .  .  unto  all  patience  and
     long-suffering. Col. i. 11.

     I must have patience to endure the load. Shak.

     Who  hath  learned  lowliness From his Lord's cradle, patience from
     his cross. Keble.

   2. The act or power of calmly or contentedly waiting for something due
   or hoped for; forbearance.

     Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. Matt. xviii. 29.

   3. Constancy in labor or application; perseverance.

     He learned with patience, and with meekness taught. Harte.

   4. Sufferance; permission. [Obs.] Hooker.

     They stay upon your patience. Shak.

   5.  (Bot.)  A  kind  of dock (Rumex Patientia), less common in America
   than in Europe; monk's rhubarb.

   6.  (Card  Playing) Solitaire. Syn. -- Patience, Resignation. Patience
   implies  the  quietness  or  self-possession of one's own spirit under
   sufferings,  provocations, etc.; resignation implies submission to the
   will  of  another.  The  Stoic may have patience; the Christian should
   have both patience and resignation.


   Pa"tient (?), a. [F., fr. L. patiens, -entis, p.pr. of pati to suffer.
   Cf. Pathos, Passion.]

   1. Having the quality of enduring; physically able to suffer or bear.

     Patient of severest toil and hardship. Bp. Fell.

   2.  Undergoing  pains,  trails,  or  the  like,  without  murmuring or
   fretfulness;    bearing    up   with   equanimity   against   trouble;

   3.  Constant in pursuit or exertion; persevering; calmly diligent; as,
   patient endeavor.

     Whatever I have done is due to patient thought. Sir I. Newton.

   4.  Expectant  with  calmness,  or  without discontent; not hasty; not
   overeager; composed.

     Not patient to expect the turns of fate. Prior.

   5. Forbearing; long-suffering.

     Be patient toward all men. 1 Thess. v. 14.


   Pa"tient, n.

   1. ONe who, or that which, is passively affected; a passive recipient.

     Malice  is  a  passion  so  impetuous  and  precipitate  that often
     involves the agent and the patient. Gov. of Tongue.

   2.  A  person  under  medical or surgical treatment; -- correlative to
   physician or nurse.

     Like  a  physician,  . . . seeing his patient in a pestilent fever.
     Sir P. Sidney.

   In  patient, a patient who receives lodging and food, as treatment, in
   a  hospital  or  an infirmary. -- Out patient, one who receives advice
   and medicine, or treatment, from an infirmary.


   Pa"tient, v. t. To compose, to calm. [Obs.] "Patient yourself, madam."


   Pa"tient*ly, adv. In a patient manner. Cowper.

                                 Patin, Patine

   Pat"in  (?),  Pat"ine,  n. A plate. See Paten. "Inlaid with patines of
   bright gold." Shak.


   Pat"ina (?), n. [It., fr. L. patina a dish, a pan, a kind of cake. Cf.

   1. A dish or plate of metal or earthenware; a patella.

   2.  (Fine  Arts) The color or incrustation which age gives to works of
   art;  especially,  the green rust which covers ancient bronzes, coins,
   and medals. Fairholt.


   Pa"ti*o  (?),  n.  [Sp.,  a court] (Metal) A paved yard or floor where
   ores  are  cleaned  and sorted, or where ore, salt, mercury, etc., are
   trampled by horses, to effect intermixture and amalgamation.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e pa tioprocess is  us ed to  reduce silver ores by


   Pat"ly (?), adv. Fitly; seasonably. Barrow.


   Pat"ness,   n.  Fitness  or  appropriateness;  striking  suitableness;

     The description with equal patness may suit both. Barrow.


   Pa`tois"  (?), n. [F.] A dialect peculiar to the illiterate classes; a
   provincial form of speech.

     The jargon and patois of several provinces. Sir T. Browne.


   Pa*tonce" (?), a. [Cf. F. patte d'once paw of an ounce.] (Her.) Having
   the  arms  growing  broader and floriated toward the end; -- said of a
   cross. See Illust. 9 of Cross.


   Pa"tri*al  (?),  a. [L. patria fatherland, country, fr. pater father.]
   (Lat.  Gram.)  Derived  from the name of a country, and designating an
   inhabitant of the country; gentile; -- said of a noun. -- n. A patrial
   noun.  Thus  Romanus, a Roman, and Troas, a woman of Troy, are patrial
   nouns, or patrials. Andrews.


   Pa"tri*arch  (?),  n.  [F.  patriarche,  L.  patriarcha,  Gr.  Father,

   1.  The  father  and  ruler of a family; one who governs his family or
   descendants by paternal right; -- usually applied to heads of families
   in ancient history, especially in Biblical and Jewish history to those
   who lived before the time of Moses.

   2.  (R.  C.  Ch.  &  Gr.  Ch.)  A  dignitary  superior to the order of
   archbishops; as, the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of

   3. A venerable old man; an elder. Also used figuratively.

     The  patriarch  hoary,  the  sage  of  his  kith  and  the  hamlet.

     The monarch oak, the partiarch of trees. Dryde.


   Pa`tri*ar"chal (?), a. [Cf. F. patriarcal.]

   1.  Of or pertaining to a patriarch or to patriarchs; possessed by, or
   subject  to,  patriarchs; as, patriarchal authority or jurisdiction; a
   patriarchal see; a patriarchal church.

   2. Characteristic of a patriarch; venerable.

     About  whose  patriarchal  knee  Late  the  little  children clung.

   3. (Ethnol.) Having an organization of society and government in which
   the head of the family exercises authority over all its generations.
   Patriarchal  cross  (Her.), a cross, the shaft of which is intersected
   by  two transverse beams, the upper one being the smaller. See Illust.
   (2)  of  Cross.  --  Patriarchal dispensation, the divine dispensation
   under which the patriarchs lived before the law given by Moses.


   Pa`tri*ar"chate (?), n. [Cf. F. patriarcat.]

   1. The office, dignity, or jurisdiction of a patriarch. Jer. Taylor.

   2. The residence of an ecclesiastic patriarch.

   3.  (Ethnol.)  A  patriarchal  form  of  government  or  society.  See
   Patriarchal, a., 3.


   Pa"tri*arch*dom  (?),  n.  The  office or jurisdiction of a patriarch;
   patriarchate. [R.]


   Pa`tri*ar"chic (?), a. [L. patriarchicus, Gr. Patriarchal.


   Pa"tri*arch*ism  (?),  n.  Government by a patriarch, or the head of a


   Pa"tri*arch*ship, n. A patriarchate. Ayliffe.


   Pa"tri*arch`y (?), n. [Gr.

   1. The jurisdiction of a patriarch; patriarchship. Brerewood.

   2. Government by a patriarch; patriarchism.


   Pa*tri"cian (?), a. [L. patricius, fr. patres fathers or senators, pl.
   of pater: cf. F. patricien. See Paternal.]

   1.  (Rom.  Antiq.)  Of  or pertaining to the Roman patres (fathers) or
   senators, or patricians.

   2.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  appropriate  to, a person of high birth;
   noble; not plebeian.

     Born in the patrician file of society. Sir W. Scott.

     His horse's hoofs wet with patrician blood. Addison.


   Pa*tri"cian, n. [L. patricius: cf. F. patricien.]

   1.  (Rom.  Antiq.)  Originally,  a  member  of  any  of  the  families
   constituting  the  populus  Romanus, or body of Roman citizens, before
   the  development  of  the  plebeian order; later, one who, by right of
   birth or by special privilege conferred, belonged to the nobility.

   2. A person of high birth; a nobleman.

   3. One familiar with the works of the Christian Fathers; one versed in
   patristic lore. [R.] Colridge.


   Pa*tri"cian*ism (?), n. The rank or character of patricians.


   Pa*tri"ci*ate  (?), n. The patrician class; the aristocracy; also, the
   office of patriarch. Milman.


   Pat*ri"ci`dal (?), a. Of or pertaining to patricide; parricidal.


   Pat*ri"cide   (?),  n.  [L.  pater  father  +  caedere  to  kill.  Cf.

   1. The murderer of his father.

   2. The crime of one who murders his father. Same as Parricide.


   Pat`ri*mo"ni*al  (?),  a. [L.patrimonialis: cf. F. patrimonial.] Of or
   pertaining to a patrimony; inherited from ancestors; as, a patrimonial


   Pat`ri*mo"ni*al*ly, adv. By inheritance.


   Pat"ri*mo*ny  (?), n.; pl. Patrimonies (#). [L. patrimonium, fr. pater
   father: cf. F. patrimoine. See Paternal.]

   1.  A  right  or  estate  inherited from one's father; or, in a larger
   sense, from any ancestor. "'Reave the orphan of his patrimony." Shak.

   2. Formerly, a church estate or endowment. Shipley.


   Pa"tri*ot  (?),  n. [F. patriote; cf. Sp. patriota, It. patriotto; all
   fr. Gr. Father.] One who loves his country, and zealously supports its
   authority and interests. Bp. Hall.

     Such tears as patriots shaed for dying laws. Pope.


   Pa"tri*ot, a. Becoming to a patriot; patriotic.


   Pa`tri*ot"ic  (?), a. [Cf. F. patriotique, Gr. Inspired by patriotism;
   actuated  by  love of one's country; zealously and unselfishly devoted
   to the service of one's country; as, a patriotic statesman, vigilance.


   Pa`tri*ot"ic*al  (?),  a.  Patriotic;  that  pertains to a patriot. --
   Pa`tri*ot"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Pa"tri*ot*ism  (?), n. [Cf. F. patriotisme.] Love of country; devotion
   to the welfare of one's country; the virtues and actions of a patriot;
   the passion which inspires one to serve one's country. Berkley.


   Pa`tri*pas"sian  (?),  n.  [LL.  Patripassiani, pl.; L. pater father +
   pati, passus, to suffer: cf. F. patripassiens.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a
   body  of  believers  in  the  early  church who denied the independent
   pre\'89xistent  personality of Christ, and who, accordingly, held that
   the  Father  suffered in the Son; a monarchian. -- Pa`tri*pas"sian*ism
   (#), n.


   Pa"trist (?), n. One versed in patristics.

                            Patristic, Patristical

   Pa*tris"tic   (?),   Pa*tris"tic*al   (?),  a.  [F.  patristique.  See
   Paternal.] Of or pertaining to the Fathers of the Christian church.

     The  voluminous editor of Jerome anf of tons of patristic theology.
     I. Taylor.


   Pa*tris"tics  (?),  n.  That  departnent  of historical theology which
   treats of the lives and doctrines of the Fathers of the church.


   Pa"tri*zate  (?),  v.  i. [L. patrissare, patrizare;cf. Gr. To imitate
   one's father. [R.]


   Pa*troc"i*nate  (?),  v.  t.  [L. patrocinatus, p.p. of patrocinari to
   patronize,  fr.  patronus  patron.]  To  support; to patronize. [Obs.]


   Pa*troc`i*na"tion  (?),  n.  The  act of patrocinating or patronizing.
   [Obs.] "Patrocinations of treason." Bp. Hall.


   Pa*troc"i*ny (?), n. [L. patrocinium.] [Obs.] See Patrocination.


   Pa*trol"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Patrolled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Patrolling.] [F. patrouiller, O. & Prov. F. patrouiller to paddle, paw
   about, patrol, fr. patte a paw; cf. D. poot paw, G. pfote, and E. pat,
   v.]  To go the rounds along a chain of sentinels; to traverse a police
   district or beat.


   Pa*trol"  (?),  v.t  To  go  the  rounds  of,  as  a sentry, guard, or
   policeman; as, to patrol a frontier; to patrol a beat.


   Pa*trol", n. [F. patrouille, OF. patouille. See Patrol, v. i.]

   1.  (Mil.)  (a) A going of the rounds along the chain of sentinels and
   between  the  posts,  by  a guard, usually consisting of three or four
   men,  to  insure  greater security from attacks on the outposts. (b) A
   movement,  by  a  small body of troops beyond the line of outposts, to
   explore  the country and gain intelligence of the enemy's whereabouts.
   (c)  The  guard or men who go the rounds for observation; a detachment
   whose duty it is to patrol.

   2.  Any  perambulation  of  a particular line or district to guard it;
   also, the men thus guarding; as, a customs patrol; a fire patrol.

     In  France  there  is  an  army  of  patrols  to  secure her fiscal
     regulations. A. Hamilton.


   Pa*trole" (?), n. & v. See Patrol, n. & v.


   Pa*trol"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Patrolmen (. One who patrols; a watchman;
   especially, a policeman who patrols a particular precinct of a town or


   Pa"tron  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  L.  patronus,  fr.  pater  a father. See
   Paternal, and cf. Patroon, Padrone, Pattern.]

   1. One who protects, supports, or countenances; a defender. "Patron of
   my life and liberty." Shak. "The patron of true holiness." Spenser.

   2.  (Rom.  Antiq.)  (a)  A  master  who had freed his slave, but still
   retained some paternal rights over him. (b) A man of distinction under
   whose  protection  another  person  placed himself. (c) An advocate or

     Let  him  who  works  the  client  wrong  Beware  the patron's ire.

   3.  One  who  encourages  or  helps  a  person,  a cause, or a work; a
   furtherer; a promoter; as, a patron of art.

   4. (Eccl. Law) One who has gift and disposition of a benefice. [Eng.]

   5. A guardian saint. -- called also patron saint.

   6. (Naut.) See Padrone, 2.
   Patrons of Husbandry, the grangers. See Granger, 2.


   Pa"tron,  v.  t. To be a patron of; to patronize; to favor. [Obs.] Sir
   T. Browne.


   Pa"tron,  a.  Doing  the  duty  of a patron; giving aid or protection;
   tutelary.  Dryden.  Patron  saint (R. C. Ch.), a saint regarded as the
   peculiar  protector of a country, community, church, profession, etc.,
   or of an individual.


   Pa"tron*age  (?),  n.  [F.  patronage.  Cf.  LL.  patronaticum, and L.

   1.  Special  countenance  or  support;  favor,  encouragement, or aid,
   afforded  to  a  person  or  a  work;  as,  the  patronage of letters;
   patronage given to an author.

   2. Business custom. [Commercial Cant]

   3. Guardianship, as of a saint; tutelary care. Addison.

   4.  The  right  of  nomination to political office; also, the offices,
   contracts, honors, etc., which a public officer may bestow by favor.

   5.  (Eng.  Law)  The right of presentation to church or ecclesiastical
   benefice; advowson. Blackstone.


   Pa"tron*age,  v.  t.  To  act  as a patron of; to maintain; to defend.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Pa"tron*al   (?),   a.  [L.  patronalis;  cf.  F.  patronal.]  Patron;
   protecting; favoring. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Pa"tron*ate  (?),  n.  [L. patronatus.] The right or duty of a patron;
   patronage. [R.] Westm. Rev.


   Pa"tron*ess  (?),  n. [Cf. F. patronnesse.] A female patron or helper.

     Night, best patroness of grief. Milton.


   Pa`tron*i*za"tion  (?), n. The act of patronizing; patronage; support.


   Pa"tron*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Patronized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Patronizing (?).]

   1.  To  act as patron toward; to support; to countenance; to favor; to

     The idea has been patronized by two States only. A. Hamilton.

   2.  To  trade with customarily; to frequent as a customer. [Commercial

   3.  To  assume  the  air  of a patron, or of a superior and protector,
   toward;  --  used  in  an  unfavorable  sense;  as, to patronize one's


   Pa"tron*i`zer (?), n. One who patronizes.


   Pa"tron*i`zing  (?),  a.  Showing  condescending  favor;  assuming the
   manner  of  airs  of  a superior toward another. -- Pat"ron*i`zing*ly,
   adv. Thackeray.


   Pa"tron*less (?), a. Destitute of a patron.


   Pa`tro*nom`a*yol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  onomatology.]  That  branch  of
   knowledge  which deals with personal names and their origin; the study
   of patronymics.


   Pa`tro*nym"ic  (?),  a.  [L.  patronymicus, Gr. patronymique.] Derived
   from ancestors; as, a patronymic denomination.


   Pa`tro*nym"ic,  n.  [Gr.  A modification of the father's name borne by
   the  son;  a  name  derived  from  that  of  a parent or ancestor; as,
   Pelides,  the  son of Peleus; Johnson, the son of John; Macdonald, the
   son  of  Donald;  Paulowitz,  the  son of Paul; also, the surname of a
   family; the family name. M. A. Lower.


   Pa`tro*nym"ic*al (?), a. Same as Patronymic.


   Pa*troon"  (?), n. [D. patroon a patron, a protector. See Patron.] One
   of  the proprietors of certain tracts of land with manorial privileges
   and  right  of entail, under the old Dutch governments of New York and
   New Jersey.


   Pa*troon"ship, n. The office of a patroon. Irving.

                               Patt\'82, Pattee

   Pat`t\'82"  (?),  Pat*tee"  (?),  a. [F. patt\'82, fem. patt\'82e, fr.
   patte  paw,  foot.  Cf.  Patten.] (Her.) Narrow at the inner, and very
   broad  at the other, end, or having its arms of that shape; -- said of
   a cross. See Illust. (8) of Cross. [Written also pat\'82, patee.]


   Pat"te*mar (?), n. See Patamar.


   Pat"ten (?), n. [F. patin a high-heeled shoe, fr. patte paw, foot. Cf.
   Panton, Patt\'82.]

   1.  A clog or sole of wood, usually supported by an iron ring, worn to
   raise the feet from the wet or the mud.

     The patten now supports each frugal dame. Gay.

   2. A stilt. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Pat"ten*ed (?), a. Wearing pattens. "Some pattened girl." Jane Austen.


   Pat"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Pattered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Pattering.] [Freq. of pat to strike gently.]

   1.  To  strike  with  a  quick succession of slight, sharp sounds; as,
   pattering rain or hail; pattering feet.

     The stealing shower is scarce to patter heard. Thomson.

   2.  To  mutter;  to  mumble; as, to patter with the lips. Tyndale. [In
   this sense, and in the following, perh. from paternoster.]

   3. To talk glibly; to chatter; to harangue. [Colloq.]

     I've gone out and pattered to get money. Mayhew.


   Pat"ter, v. t.

   1.  To  spatter;  to  sprinkle.  [R.]  "And patter the water about the
   boat." J. R. Drake.

   2. [See Patter, v. i., 2.] To mutter; as prayers.

     [The hooded clouds] patter their doleful prayers. Longfellow.

   To patter flash, to talk in thieves' cant. [Slang]


   Pat"ter, n.

   1.  A  quick  succession of slight sounds; as, the patter of rain; the
   patter of little feet.

   2. Glib and rapid speech; a voluble harangue.

   3. The cant of a class; patois; as, thieves's patter; gypsies' patter.


   Pat"ter*er  (?),  n. One who patters, or talks glibly; specifically, a
   street peddler. [Cant, Eng.]


   Pat"tern  (?),  n.  [OE. patron, F. patron, a patron, also, a pattern.
   See Patron.]

   1.  Anything  proposed  for imitation; an archetype; an exemplar; that
   which  is to be, or is worthy to be, copied or imitated; as, a pattern
   of a machine.

     I will be the pattern of all patience. Shak.

   2.  A  part  showing the figure or quality of the whole; a specimen; a
   sample; an example; an instance.

     He compares the pattern with the whole piece. Swift.

   3. Stuff sufficient for a garment; as, a dress pattern.

   4.  Figure  or  style  of  decoration;  design;  as,  wall  paper of a
   beautiful pattern.

   5. Something made after a model; a copy. Shak.

     The patterns of things in the heavens. Heb. ix. 23.

   6.  Anything  cut  or formed to serve as a guide to cutting or forming
   objects; as, a dressmaker's pattern.

   7.  (Founding) A full-sized model around which a mold of sand is made,
   to receive the melted metal. It is usually made of wood and in several
   parts,  so  as  to be removed from the mold without injuring it. <-- a
   definable  characteristic  relationship between the members of any set
   of  objects  or actions; also, the set having a definable relationship
   between  its  members. Thus: the distribution of bomb or shell impacts
   on  a  target area, or of bullet holes in a target; a set of traits or
   actions that appear to be consistent throughout the members of a group
   or  over  time within a group, as behavioral pattern, traffic pattern,
   dress pattern -->
   Pattern  box, chain, OR cylinder (Figure Weaving), devices, in a loom,
   for presenting several shuttles to the picker in the proper succession
   for  forming  the  figure.  -- Pattern card. (a) A set of samples on a
   card.  (b)  (Weaving)  One  of  the  perforated  cards  in  a Jacquard
   apparatus.  --  Pattern  reader, one who arranges textile patterns. --
   Pattern wheel (Horology), a count-wheel.


   Pat"tern,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Patterned  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  make  or  design (anything) by, from, or after, something that
   serves as a pattern; to copy; to model; to imitate. Milton.

     [A  temple]  patterned from that which Adam reared in Paradise. Sir
     T. Herbert.

   2. To serve as an example for; also, to parallel.
   To pattern after, to imitate; to follow.


   Pat"ty  (?), n.; pl. Patties (#). [F. p\'83t\'82. See Pasty.] A little


   Pat"ty*pan` (?), n.

   1. A pan for baking patties.

   2. A patty. [Obs.]


   Pat"u*lous  (?), a. [L. patulus, fr. patere to be open, extend.] Open;
   expanded; slightly spreading; having the parts loose or dispersed; as,
   a patulous calyx; a patulous cluster of flowers.

     The eyes are large and patulous. Sir J. Hill.


   Pau (?), n. See Pah.


   Pau*cil"o*quent (?), a. Uttering few words; brief in speech. [R.]


   Pau*cil"o*quy  (?),  n.  [L.  pauciloquium;  paucus  little + loqui to
   speak.] Brevity in speech. [R.]


   Pau`ci*spi"ral  (?), a. [L. paucus few + E. spiral.] (Zo\'94l.) Having
   few spirals, or whorls; as, a paucispiral operculum or shell.


   Pau"ci*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  paucitas,  fr.  paucus  few,  little: cf. F.
   paucit\'82 See Few.]

   1. Fewness; smallness of number; scarcity. Hooker.

     Revelation  denies  it  by  the stern reserve, the paucity, and the
     incompleteness, of its communications. I. Taylor.

   2.  Smallnes  of  quantity;  exiguity;  insufficiency;  as, paucity of
   blood. Sir T. Browne.

                                 Paugie, Paugy

   Pau"gie, Pau"gy (?), n.; pl. Paugies (#). [Corrupted from Amer. Indian
   mishcuppauog. See Scup.] (Zo\'94l.) The scup. See Porgy, and Scup.


   Pau*hau"gen  (?), n. [North Amer. Indian.] (Zo\'94l.) The menhaden; --
   called also poghaden.


   Paul (?), n. See Pawl.


   Paul, n. An Italian silver coin. See Paolo.


   Paul"dron  (?),  n.  [See  Powldron.]  (Mil.  Antiq.) A piece of armor
   covering the shoulder at the junction of the body piece and arm piece.

                              Paulian, Paulianist

   Pau"li*an  (?), Pau"li*an*ist (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Paul
   of Samosata, a bishop of Antioch in the third century, who was deposed
   for denying the divinity of Christ.


   Pau"li*cian  (?),  n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of a sect
   of  Christian  dualists originating in Armenia in the seventh century.
   They rejected the Old Testament and the part of the New.

   Page 1053


   Pau"lin (?), n. (Naut.) See Tarpaulin.


   Pau"line  (?),  a. [L. Paulinus, fr. Paulus Paul.] Of or pertaining to
   the  apostle  Paul, or his writings; resembling, or conforming to, the
   writings of Paul; as, the Pauline epistles; Pauline doctrine.

     My religion had always been Pauline. J. H. Newman.


   Paul"ist  (?),  n.  (R.  C.  Ch.)  A  member  of  The Institute of the
   Missionary  Priests  of  St.  Paul the Apostle, founded in 1858 by the
   Rev.  I.  T.  Hecker  of  New  York.  The majority of the members were
   formerly Protestants.


   Pau*low"ni*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  So  named from the Russian princess Anna
   Pavlovna.]  (Bot.)  A  genus of trees of the order Scrophulariace\'91,
   consisting of one species, Paulownia imperialis.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e tr ee is  na tive to  Ja pan, an d ha s im mense
     heart-shaped  leaves,  and  large purplish flowers in panicles. The
     capsules  contain  many  little  winged  seeds, which are beautiful
     microscopic  objects.  The tree is hardy in America as far north as


   Paum  (?),  v.  t.  & i. [See Palm to cheat.] To palm off by fraud; to
   cheat at cards. [Obs.] Swift.


   Paunce  (?),  n.  [See  Pansy.] (Bot.) The pansy. "The pretty paunce."


   Paunch (?), n. [OF. panch, pance, F. panse, L. pantex, panticis.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The  belly and its contents; the abdomen; also, the first
   stomach, or rumen, of ruminants. See Rumen.

   2. (Naut.) A paunch mat; -- called also panch.

   3. The thickened rim of a bell, struck by the clapper.
   Paunch  mat  (Naut.),  a  thick  mat  made of strands of rope, used to
   prevent the yard or rigging from chafing.


   Paunch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paunched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paunching.]

   1. To pierce or rip the belly of; to eviscerate; to disembowel. Shak.

   2. To stuff with food. [Obs.] Udall.


   Paunch"y (?), a. Pot-bellied. [R.] Dickens.


   Paune (?), n. A kind of bread. See Pone.


   Pau"per  (?),  n.  [L.  See  Poor.]  A  poor  person;  especially, one
   development  on  private or public charity. Also used adjectively; as,
   pouper immigrants, pouper labor.


   Pau"per*ism  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  paup\'82risme.]  The state of being a
   pauper;  the  state  of  indigent  persons  requiring support from the
   community.  Whatly.  Syn.  --  Poverty; indigence; penury; want; need;
   destitution. See Poverty.


   Pau`per*i*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of reducing to pauperism.
   C. Kingsley.


   Pau"per*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pauperized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Pauperizing  (?).]  To  reduce  to  pauperism;  as,  to  pauperize the


   Pau*rop"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   small  myriapods  having  only  nine  pairs  of  legs and destitute of


   Pause (?), n. [F., fr. L. pausa. See Pose.]

   1.  A temporary stop or rest; an intermission of action; interruption;
   suspension; cessation.

   2. Temporary inaction or waiting; hesitation; suspence; doubt.

     I stand in pause where I shall first begin. Shak.

   3.  In  speaking  or  reading  aloud,  a brief arrest or suspension of
   voice,  to  indicate  the  limits and relations of sentences and their

   4.  In writing and printing, a mark indicating the place and nature of
   an  arrest  of  voice  in  reading; a punctuation point; as, teach the
   pupil to mind the pauses.

   5. A break or paragraph in writing.

     He  writes  with  warmth,  which usually neglects method, and those
     partitions and pauses which men educated in schools observe. Locke.

   6.  (Mus.)  A  hold.  See  4th  Hold,  7.  Syn.  --  Stop;  cessation;


   Pause,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Paused (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pausing.] [Cf.
   F. pauser, L. pausare. See Pause, n., Pose.]

   1.  To make a short stop; to cease for a time; to intermit speaking or
   acting; to stop; to wait; to rest. "Tarry, pause a day or two." Shak.

     Pausing while, thus to herself she mused. Milton.

   2. To be intermitted; to cease; as, the music pauses.

   3. To hesitate; to hold back; to delay. [R.]

     Why doth the Jew pause? Take thy forfeiture. Shak.

   <-- is this anti-semitic or what? -->

   4.  To stop in order to consider; hence, to consider; to reflect. [R.]
   "Take time to pause." Shak.
   To  pause  upon,  to deliberate concerning. Shak. Syn. -- To intermit;
   stop; stay; wait; delay; tarry; hesitate; demur.


   Pause, v. t. To cause to stop or rest; -- used reflexively. [R.] Shak.


   Paus"er (?), n. One who pauses. Shak.


   Paus"ing*ly, adv. With pauses; haltingly. Shak.


   Paux"i  (?),  n.  [From  the native name: cf. Sp. pauji.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   curassow   (Ourax   pauxi),   which,   in   South  America,  is  often


   Pav"age (?), n. [Cf. F. pavage.] See Pavage. [R.]


   Pav"an  (?), n. [F. pavane; cf. It. & Sp. pavana, and Sp. pavon, pavo,
   a peacock, L. pavo.] A stately and formal Spanish dance for which full
   state  costume  is  worn;  --  so  called  from the resemblance of its
   movements  to  those  of  the  peacock.  [Written  also pavane, paven,
   pavian, and pavin.]


   Pa`v\'82"  (?),  n.  [F., from paver to pave. See Pave.] The pavement.
   Nymphe du pav\'82 ([A low euphemism.]


   Pave  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Paved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paving.] [F.
   paver to pave, LL. pavare, from L. pavire to beat, ram, or tread down;
   cf. Gr.

   1. To lay or cover with stone, brick, or other material, so as to make
   a firm, level, or convenient surface for horses, carriages, or persons
   on  foot,  to  travel  on;  to floor with brick, stone, or other solid
   material; as, to pave a street; to pave a court.<-- for vehicles -->

     With silver paved, and all divine with gold. Dryden.

     To pave thy realm, and smooth the broken ways. Gay.

   2. Fig.: To make smooth, easy, and safe; to prepare, as a path or way;
   as, to pave the way to promotion; to pave the way for an enterprise.

     It might open and pave a prepared way to his own title. Bacon.


   Pave"ment  (?),  n. [F., fr. LL. pavamentum, L. pavimentum. See Pave.]
   That  with  which  anythingis  paved;  a  floor  or  covering of solid
   material, laid so as to make a hard and convenient surface for travel;
   a  paved  road  or  sidewalk;  a decorative interior floor of tiles or
   colored bricks.

     The riches of heaven's pavement, trodden gold. Milton.

   Pavement teeth (Zo\'94l.), flattened teeth which in certain fishes, as
   the  skates and cestracionts, are arranged side by side, like tiles in
   a pavement.


   Pave"ment,  v.  t.  To  furnish  with a pavement; to pave. [Obs.] "How
   richly pavemented!" Bp. Hall.


   Pav"en (?), n. See Pavan.


   Pav"er  (?),  n. One who paves; one who lays a pavement. [Written also
   pavier and pavior.]


   Pav`e*sade"  (?),  n.  [F.  See  Pavise.]  A  canvas  screen, formerly
   sometimes  extended  along the side of a vessel in a naval engagement,
   to conceal from the enemy the operations on board.

                                Pavese, Pavesse

   Pa*vese" (?), Pa*vesse" (?), n. Pavise. [Obs.]


   Pa"vi*age  (?), n. (Law) A contribution or a tax for paving streets or
   highways. Bouvier.


   Pav"i*an (?), n. See Pavan.


   Pav"id (?), a. [L. pavidus, from pavere to be afraid.] Timid; fearful.
   [R.] Thackeray.


   Pa*vid"i*ty (?), n. Timidity. [R.]


   Pav"ier (?), n. A paver.


   Pa"vi*iv  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A glucoside found in species of the genus
   Pavia of the Horse-chestnut family.


   Pa*vil"ion  (?),  n. [F. pavillon, fr. L. pavilio a butterfly, also, a
   tent, because spread out like a butterfly's wings.]

   1.  A  temporary  movable habitation; a large tent; a marquee; esp., a
   tent  raised  on posts. "[The] Greeks do pitch their brave pavilions."

   2.  (Arch.) A single body or mass of building, contained within simple
   walls  and  a single roof, whether insulated, as in the park or garden
   of  a larger edifice, or united with other parts, and forming an angle
   or central feature of a large pile.

   3. (Mil.) A flag, colors, ensign, or banner.

   4. (Her.) Same as Tent (Her.)

   5.  That part of a brilliant which lies between the girdle and collet.
   See Illust. of Brilliant.

   6.  (Anat.)  The auricle of the ear; also, the fimbriated extremity of
   the Fallopian tube.

   7. A covering; a canopy; figuratively, the sky.

     The pavilion of heaven is bare. Shelley.


   Pa*vil"ion,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Pavilioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Pavilioning.]  To  furnish  or  cover  with,  or shelter in, a tent or

     The field pavilioned with his guardians bright. Milton.


   Pav"in (?), n. See Pavan.


   Pav"ing (?), n.

   1.  The  act  or  process of laying a pavement, or covering some place
   with a pavement.

   2. A pavement.


   Pav"ior (?), n.

   1. One who paves; a paver.

   2. A rammer for driving paving stones.

   3. A brick or slab used for paving.


   Pa*vise  (?),  n. [OF. pavaix, F. pavois; cf. It. pavese, LL. pavense;
   perh.  named  from  Pavia  in  Italy.]  (Mil.  Antiq.)  A large shield
   covering  the whole body, carried by a pavisor, who sometimes screened
   also  an  archer  with it. [Written also pavais, pavese, and pavesse.]


   Pa*vis"or (?), n. (Mil. Antiq.) A soldier who carried a pavise.


   Pa"vo (?), n. [L., a peacock. See Peacock.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of birds, including the peacocks.

   2. (Astron.) The Peacock, a constellation of the southern hemisphere.


   Pa"von  (?),  n.  A  small  triangular  flag,  esp.  one attached to a
   knight's lance; a pennon.


   Pa*vone"  (?), n. [Cf. It. pavone, Sp. pavon, fr. L. pavo.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A peacock. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Pa*vo"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to a peacock. [R.] Southey.


   Pav"o*nine (?), a. [L. pavoninus, fr. pavo a peacock. See Peacock.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Like, or pertaining to, the genus Pavo.

   2.  Characteristic  of a peacock; resembling the tail of a peacock, as
   in colors; iridescent. P. Cleaveland.


   Paw (?), n. [OE. pawe, poue, OF. poe: cf. patte, LG. pote, D. poot, G.

   1. The foot of a quadruped having claws, as the lion, dog, cat, etc.

   2. The hand. [Jocose] Dryden.
   Paw clam (Zo\'94l.), the tridacna; -- so called because shaped like an
   animal's paw.
   Paw,  v.  i.  To draw the forefoot along the ground; to beat or scrape
   with the forefoot. Job xxxix. 21. 


   Paw, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pawing.]

   1.  To pass the paw over; to stroke or handle with the paws; hence, to
   handle fondly or rudely.

   2. To scrape or beat with the forefoot.

     His hot courser pawed the Hungarian plane. Tickell.


   Pawk (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A small lobster. Travis.


   Paw"ky  (?),  a.  [Cf.  AS. p\'91cean to deceive.] Arch; cunning; sly.
   [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Pawl  (?),  n.  [W. pawl a pole, a stake. Cf. Pole a stake.] (Mach.) A
   pivoted  tongue, or sliding bolt, on one part of a machine, adapted to
   fall  into  notches,  or  interdental  spaces,  on  another part, as a
   ratchet  wheel,  in such a manner as to permit motion in one direction
   and  prevent  it  in the reverse, as in a windlass; a catch, click, or
   detent.  See  Illust.  of Ratchet Wheel. [Written also paul, or pall.]
   Pawl  bitt (Naut.), a heavy timber, set abaft the windlass, to receive
   the  strain  of  the  pawls. -- Pawl rim OR ring (Naut.), a stationary
   metallic  ring  surrounding  the base of a capstan, having notches for
   the pawls to catch in.


   Pawl,  v.  t.  To stop with a pawl; to drop the pawls off. To pawl the
   capstan. See under Capstan.


   Pawn (?), n. See Pan, the masticatory.


   Pawn,  n.  [OE.  paune, poun, OF. peon, poon, F. pion, LL. pedo a foot
   soldier,  fr.  L.  pes, pedis, foot. See Foot, and cf. Pioneer, Peon.]
   (Chess) A man or piece of the lowest rank.


   Pawn,  n.  [OF.  pan  pledge,  assurance,  skirt, piece, F. pan skirt,
   lappet, piece, from L. pannus. See Pane.]

   1.  Anything delivered or deposited as security, as for the payment of
   money borrowed, or of a debt; a pledge. See Pledge, n., 1.

     As for mortgaging or pawning, . . . men will not take pawns without
     use [i.e., interest]. Bacon.

   2.  State of being pledged; a pledge for the fulfillment of a promise.

     Redeem from broking pawn the blemish'd crown. Shak.

     As the morning dew is a pawn of the evening fatness. Donne.

   3. A stake hazarded in a wager. [Poetic]

     My  life  I  never  held but as a pawn To wage against thy enemies.

   In pawn, At pawn, in the state of being pledged. "Sweet wife, my honor
   is  at  pawn." Shak. -- Pawn ticket, a receipt given by the pawnbroker
   for an article pledged.


   Pawn, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pawned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pawning.]

   1.  To  give  or  deposit in pledge, or as security for the payment of
   money borrowed; to put in pawn; to pledge; as, to pawn one's watch.<--
   = to hock (colloq.) -->

     And pawned the last remaining piece of plate. Dryden.

   2.  To  pledge for the fulfillment of a promise; to stake; to risk; to
   wager; to hazard.

     Pawning his honor to obtain his lust. Shak.


   Pawna*ble (?), a. Capable of being pawned.


   Pawn"bro`ker  (?), n. One who makes a business of lending money on the
   security of personal property pledged or deposited in his keeping.


   Pawn"bro`king, n. The business of a pawnbroker.


   Pawn*ee"  (?),  n.  (Law)  One  or  two  whom a pledge is delivered as
   security; one who takes anything in pawn.


   Paw`nees"  (?),  n.  pl.; sing. Pawnee (. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians
   (called  also  Loups)  who  formerly occupied the region of the Platte
   river,  but now live mostly in the Indian Territory. The term is often
   used  in a wider sense to include also the related tribes of Rickarees
   and Wichitas. Called also Pani.

                                Pawner, Pawnor

   Pawn"er  (?), Pawn*or" (?), n. (Law) One who pawns or pledges anything
   as security for the payment of borrowed money or of a debt.


   Paw`paw" (?), n. (Bot.) See Papaw.


   Pax (?), n. [L. pax peace. See Peace.]

   1.  (Eccl.)  The kiss of peace; also, the embrace in the sanctuary now
   substituted for it at High Mass in Roman Catholic churches.

   2.  (R.  C.  Ch.)  A  tablet or board, on which is a representation of
   Christ,  of  the Virgin Mary, or of some saint and which, in the Mass,
   was kissed by the priest and then by the people, in medi\'91val times;
   an osculatory. It is still used in communities, confraternities, etc.

     Kiss the pax, and be quiet like your neighbors. Chapman.


   Pax"il*lose` (?), a. [L. paxillus a small stake.] (Geol.) Resembling a
   little stake.


   Pax*il"lus  (?), n.; pl. Paxilli (#). [L., a peg.] (Zo\'94l.) One of a
   peculiar  kind  of  spines covering the surface of certain starfishes.
   They  are  pillarlike,  with  a flattened summit which is covered with
   minute spinules or granules. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Pax"wax`  (?),  n. [For faxvax, fr. AS. fea hair (akin to OHG. fahs) +
   weaxan  to  grow.  See Wax to grow, and cf. Faxed, Pectinate.] (Anat.)
   The strong ligament of the back of the neck in quadrupeds. It connects
   the  back of the skull with dorsal spines of the cervical vertebr\'91,
   and helps to support the head. Called also paxywaxy and packwax.


   Pax"y*wax`y (?), n. (Anat.) See Paxwax.


   Pay  (?),  v.  t. [OF. peier, fr. L. picare to pitch, i pitch: cf. OF.
   peiz  pitch,  F. poix. See Pitch a black substance.] (Naut.) To cover,
   as  bottom  of  a  vessel, a seam, a spar, etc., with tar or pitch, or
   waterproof composition of tallow, resin, etc.; to smear.


   Pay,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Paid (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Paying.] [OE.
   paien,  F.  payer,  fr.  L. pacare to pacify, appease, fr. pax, pacis,
   peace. See Peace.]

   1.  To  satisfy, or content; specifically, to satisfy (another person)
   for  service  rendered,  property  delivered, etc.; to discharge one's
   obligation to; to make due return to; to compensate; to remunerate; to
   recompense; to requite; as, to pay workmen or servants.

     May no penny ale them pay [i. e., satisfy]. P. Plowman.

     [She] pays me with disdain. Dryden.

   2.  Hence, figuratively: To compensate justly; to requite according to
   merit; to reward; to punish; to retort or retaliate upon.

     For which, or pay me quickly, or I'll pay you. B. Jonson.

   3.  To discharge, as a debt, demand, or obligation, by giving or doing
   what  is  due  or  required;  to deliver the amount or value of to the
   person  to  whom it is owing; to discharge a debt by delivering (money
   owed). "Pay me that thou owest." Matt. xviii. 28.

     Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all. Matt. xviii. 26.

     If they pay this tax, they starve. Tennyson.

   4.  To  discharge  or fulfill, as a duy; to perform or render duty, as
   that which has been promised.

     This day have I paid my vows. Prov. vii. 14.

   5.  To  give  or  offer,  without  an  implied  obligation; as, to pay
   attention; to pay a visit.

     Not paying me a welcome. Shak.

   To  pay off. (a) To make compensation to and discharge; as, to pay off
   the crew of a ship. (b) To allow (a thread, cord, etc.) to run off; to
   unwind.  --  To pay one's duty, to render homage, as to a sovereign or
   other superior. -- To pay out (Naut.), to pass out; hence, to slacken;
   to allow to run out; as, to pay out more cable. See under Cable. -- To
   pay the piper, to bear the cost, expense, or trouble. [Colloq.]


   Pay  (?),  v.  i.  To give a recompense; to make payment, requital, or
   satisfaction; to discharge a debt.

     The wicked borroweth, and payeth not again. Ps. xxxvii. 21.

   2. Hence, to make or secure suitable return for expense or trouble; to
   be  remunerative  or  profitable;  to  be  worth  the  effort or pains
   required;  as,  it  will  pay to ride; it will pay to wait; politeness
   always pays.
   To  pay  for.  (a) To make amends for; to atone for; as, men often pay
   for their mistakes with loss of property or reputation, sometimes with
   life.  (b)  To  give  an equivalent for; to bear the expense of; to be
   mulcted on account of.

     'T was I paid for your sleeps; I watched your wakings. Beau. & Fl.

   -- To pay off. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Naut.) To fall to leeward, as the
   head  of  a  vessel  under sail. -- To pay on. [Etymol. uncertain.] To
   beat with vigor; to redouble blows. [Colloq.] -- To pay round [Etymol.
   uncertain.] (Naut.) To turn the ship's head.


   Pay, n.

   1. Satisfaction; content. Chaucer.

   2. An equivalent or return for money due, goods purchased, or services
   performed;   salary  or  wages  for  work  or  service;  compensation;
   recompense;  payment;  hire;  as,  the  pay  of  a clerk; the pay of a

     Where only merit constant pay receives. Pope.

     There is neither pay nor plunder to be got. L'Estrange.

   Full   pay,  the  whole  amount  of  wages  or  salary;  maximum  pay;
   especially, the highest pay or allowance to civil or military officers
   of a certain rank, without deductions. -- Half pay. See under Half. --
   Pay  day,  the  day  of  settlement of accounts. -- Pay dirt (Mining),
   earth  which  yields  a  profit  to  the  miner. [Western U.S.] -- Pay
   office,  a place where payment is made. -- Pay roll, a roll or list of
   persons  entitled  to  payment, with the amounts due.<-- (b) the total
   sum of money which is paid to all employees on payday -->


   Pay"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. payable. Cf. Pacable.]

   1.  That may, can, or should be paid; suitable to be paid; justly due.

     Thanks are a tribute payable by the poorest. South.

   2.  (Law)  (a) That may be discharged or settled by delivery of value.
   (b) Matured; now due.


   Pay*ee"  (?), n. The person to whom money is to be, or has been, paid;
   the  person  named  in a bill or note, to whom, or to whose order, the
   amount is promised or directed to be paid. See Bill of exchange, under


   Pay"en (?), n. & a. Pagan. [F.] [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pay"er  (?),  n. One who pays; specifically, the person by whom a bill
   or note has been, or should be, paid.


   Pay"mas`ter  (?),  n.  One  who pays; one who compensates, rewards, or
   requites;  specifically,  an  officer  or  agent  of  a  government, a
   corporation,  or an employer, whose duty it is to pay salaries, wages,
   etc., and keep account of the same.


   Pay"ment (?), n. [F. payment, paiement. See Pay to requite.]

   1.  The act of paying, or giving compensation; the discharge of a debt
   or an obligation.

     No man envieth the payment of a debt. Bacon.

   2.  That  which is paid; the thing given in discharge of a debt, or an
   obligation,  or  in  fulfillment  of  a  promise;  reward; recompense;
   requital; return. Shak.

   3. Punishment; chastisement. [R.]


   Payn  (?), n. [OF. & F. pain, fr. L. panis bread.] Bread. Having Piers


   Payn`de*main" (?), n. [OF. pain bread + demaine manorial, lordly, own,
   private.  See  Payn, and Demesne. Said to be so called from the figure
   of  our  Lord impressed upon it.] The finest and whitest bread made in
   the Middle Ages; -- called also paynemain, payman. [Obs.]


   Pay"nim (?), n & a. See Painim.


   Payn"ize  (?),  v.  t.  [From  Mr.  Payne,  the inventor.] To treat or
   preserve, as wood, by a process resembling kyanizing.


   Pay*or" (?), n. (Law) See Payer. [R.]


   Payse (?), v. t. To poise. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Pay"tine  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  An  alkaloid  obtained  from a white bark
   resembling that of the cinchona, first brought from Payta, in Peru.


   Pea  (?), n. [OF. peis. See Poise.] The sliding weight on a steelyard.
   [Written also pee.]


   Pea, n. (Naut.) See Peak, n., 3.


   Pea,  n.;  pl.  Peas (#) or Pease (#). [OE. pese, fr. AS. pisa, or OF.
   peis,  F.  pois;  both  fr.  L.  pisum; cf. Gr. s was misunderstood in
   English as a plural ending. Cf. Pease.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  plant,  and  its  fruit,  of  the  genus Pisum, of many
   varieties,  much  cultivated for food. It has a papilionaceous flower,
   and the pericarp is a legume, popularly called a pod.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en a  definite number, more than one, is spoken of,
     the plural form peas is used; as, the pod contained nine peas; but,
     in a collective sense, the form pease is preferred; as, a bushel of
     pease;  they  had  pease  at dinner. This distinction is not always
     preserved, the form peas being used in both senses.

   2.  A  name  given,  especially in the Southern States, to the seed of
   several  leguminous  plants  (species of Dolichos, Cicer, Abrus, etc.)
   esp. those having a scar (hilum) of a different color from the rest of
   the seed.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me pea is given to many leguminous plants more
     or less closely related to the common pea. See the Phrases, below.

   Beach  pea (Bot.), a seashore plant, Lathyrus maritimus. -- Black-eyed
   pea, a West Indian name for Dolichos sph\'91rospermus and its seed. --
   Butterfly  pea,  the  American  plant  Clitoria  Mariana, having showy
   blossoms.  --  Chick  pea.  See  Chick-pea.  --  Egyptian pea. Same as
   Chick-pea.  --  Everlasting  pea. See under Everlasting. -- Glory pea.
   See  under  Glory,  n. -- Hoary pea, any plant of the genus Tephrosia;
   goat's  rue.  --  Issue  pea,  Orris  pea. (Med.) See under Issue, and
   Orris.  --  Milk pea. (Bot.) See under Milk. -- Pea berry, a kind of a
   coffee  bean  or grain which grows single, and is round or pea-shaped;
   often  used  adjectively; as, pea-berry coffee. -- Pea bug. (Zo\'94l.)
   Same as Pea weevil. -- Pea coal, a size of coal smaller than nut coal.
   --  Pea  crab  (Zo\'94l.),  any  small  crab of the genus Pinnotheres,
   living  as  a  commensal  in  bivalves; esp., the European species (P.
   pisum)  which  lives  in the common mussel and the cockle. -- Pea dove
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  American  ground dove. -- Pea-flower tribe (Bot.), a
   suborder   (Papilionace\'91)  of  leguminous  plants  having  blossoms
   essentially   like  that  of  the  pea.  G.  Bentham.  --  Pea  maggot
   (Zo\'94l.), the larva of a European moth (Tortrix pisi), which is very
   destructive  to  peas.  -- Pea ore (Min.), argillaceous oxide of iron,
   occurring  in  round  grains of a size of a pea; pisolitic ore. -- Pea
   starch, the starch or flour of the common pea, which is sometimes used
   in adulterating wheat flour, pepper, etc. -- Pea tree (Bot.), the name
   of several leguminous shrubs of the genus Caragana, natives of Siberia
   and  China.  -- Pea vine. (Bot.) (a) Any plant which bears peas. (b) A
   kind  of  vetch  or  tare,  common  in  the  United  States  (Lathyrus
   Americana,  and  other  similar  species). -- Pea weevil (Zo\'94l.), a
   small  weevil  (Bruchus  pisi)  which  destroys peas by eating out the
   interior.  --  Pigeon pea. (Bot.) See Pigeon pea. -- Sweet pea (Bot.),
   the   annual   plant   Lathyrus   odoratus;  also,  its  many-colored,
   sweet-scented blossoms.


   Pea"bird`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The wryneck; -- so called from its note.
   [Prov. Eng.]

                                 Peabody bird

   Pea"bod*y  bird`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  An  American  sparrow (Zonotrichia
   albicollis)  having  a conspicuous white throat. The name is imitative
   of its note. Called also White-throated sparrow.


   Peace  (?),  n. [OE. pees, pais, OF. pais, paiz, pes, F. paix, L. pax,
   pacis,  akin  to pacere, paciscere, pacisci, to make an agreement, and
   prob.  also  pangere  to fasten. Cf. Appease, Fair, a., Fay, v., Fang,
   Pacify,  Pact,  Pay  to  requite.]  A  state of quiet or tranquillity;
   freedom from disturbance or agitation; calm; repose; specifically: (a)
   Exemption  from,  or cessation of, war with public enemies. (b) Public
   quiet, order, and contentment in obedience to law. (c) Exemption from,
   or   subjection  of,  agitating  passions;  tranquillity  of  mind  or
   conscience.  (d)  Reconciliation;  agreement  after variance; harmony;
   concord. "The eternal love and pees." Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Pe  ace is   so metimes us ed as  an  ex clamation in 
     commanding silence, quiet, or order. "Peace! foolish woman."

   Shak. At peace, in a state of peace. -- Breach of the peace. See under
   Breach.  --  Justice of the peace. See under Justice. -- Peace of God.
   (Law) (a) A term used in wills, indictments, etc., as denoting a state
   of  peace  and  good conduct. (b) (Theol.) The peace of heart which is
   the  gift  of  God. -- Peace offering. (a) (Jewish Antiq.) A voluntary
   offering  to  God in token of devout homage and of a sense of friendly
   communion  with  Him. (b) A gift or service offered as satisfaction to
   an offended person. -- Peace officer, a civil officer whose duty it is
   to  preserve the public peace, to prevent riots, etc., as a sheriff or
   constable.  --  To  hold  one's  peace,  to be silent; to refrain from
   speaking. -- To make one's peace with, to reconcile one with, to plead
   one's  cause with, or to become reconciled with, another. "I will make
   your peace with him." Shak.
   Peace, v. t. & i. To make or become quiet; to be silent; to stop. [R.]
   "Peace your tattlings." Shak. 

     When the thunder would not peace at my bidding. Shak.


   Peace"a*ble (?), a. [OE. peisible, F. paisible.] Begin in or at peace;
   tranquil;  quiet;  free  from,  or  not disposed to, war, disorder, or
   excitement;  not  quarrelsome. -- Peace"a*ble*ness, n. -- Peace"a*bly,
   adv.  Syn.  --  Peaceful; pacific; tranquil; quiet; mild; undisturbed;
   serene;  still.  -- Peaceable, Peaceful. Peaceable describes the state
   of  an  individual,  nation, etc., in reference to external hostility,
   attack, etc.; peaceful, in respect to internal disturbance. The former
   denotes  "in  the  spirit  of  peace;"  latter;  "in the possession or
   enjoyment  of  peace."  A  peaceable  adjustment  of  difficulties;  a
   peaceful life, scene.


   Peace"break`er   (?),  n.  One  who  disturbs  the  public  peace.  --
   Peace"break`ing, n.


   Peace"ful (?), a.

   1.  Possessing  or  enjoying  peace;  not  disturbed  by  war, tumult,
   agitation,  anxiety,  or  commotion;  quiet;  tranquil; as, a peaceful
   time; a peaceful country; a peaceful end.

   2. Not disposed or tending to war, tumult or agitation; pacific; mild;
   calm;   peaceable;   as,   peaceful  words.  Syn.  --  See  Peaceable.
   --Peace"ful*ly, adv.. -- Peace"ful*ness, n.


   Peace"less, a. Without peace; disturbed. Sandys.


   Peace"mak`er  (?),  n. One who makes peace by reconciling parties that
   are at variance. Matt. v. 9. --Peace"mak`ing, n.


   Peach (?), v. t. [See Appeach, Impeach.] To accuse of crime; to inform
   against. [Obs.] Foxe.


   Peach,  v.  i.  To turn informer; to betray one's accomplice. [Obs. or

     If I be ta'en, I'll peach for this. Shak.


   Peach  (?),  n.  [OE.  peche,  peshe, OF. pesche, F. p\'88che, fr. LL.
   persia, L. Persicum (sc. malum) a Persian apple, a peach. Cf. Persian,
   and Parsee.] (Bot.) A well-known high-flavored juicy fruit, containing
   one  or  two  seeds in a hard almond-like endocarp or stone; also, the
   tree  which bears it (Prunus, OR Amygdalus Persica). In the wild stock
   the  fruit  is  hard and inedible. Guinea, OR Sierra Leone, peach, the
   large  edible  berry  of  the  Sarcocephalus  esculentus, a rubiaceous
   climbing  shrub of west tropical Africa. -- Palm peach, the fruit of a
   Venezuelan  palm tree (Bactris speciosa). -- Peach color, the pale red
   color  of the peach blossom. -- Peach-tree borer (Zo\'94l.), the larva
   of  a  clearwing  moth (\'92geria, OR Sannina, exitiosa) of the family
   \'92geriid\'91,  which is very destructive to peach trees by boring in
   the  wood, usually near the ground; also, the moth itself. See Illust.
   under Borer.


   Peach"-col`ored   (?),   a.   Of   the   color  of  a  peach  blossom.
   "Peach-colored satin." Shak.


   Peach"er (?), n. One who peaches. [Low] Foxe.


   Pea"chick` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The chicken of the peacock.


   Peach"y (?), a. Resembling a peach or peaches.


   Pea"cock`  (?),  n.  [OE. pecok. Pea- in this word is from AS. pe\'a0,
   p\'bewa,  peacock,  fr.  L.  pavo,  prob.  of Oriental origin; cf. Gr.
   t\'beus, t\'bewus, Ar. t\'bewu. See Cock the bird.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) The male of any pheasant of the genus Pavo, of which at
   least  two  species  are  known,  native of Southern Asia and the East

     NOTE: &hand; Th e upper tail coverts, which are long and capable of
     erection,  are each marked with a black spot bordered by concentric
     bands  of  brilliant  blue,  green,  and  golden colors. The common
     domesticated  species  is  Pavo  cristatus.  The  Javan peacock (P.
     muticus) is more brilliantly colored than the common species.

   2. In common usage, the species in general or collectively; a peafowl.
   Peacock butterfly (Zo\'94l.), a handsome European butterfly (Hamadryas
   Io)  having  ocelli like those of peacock. -- Peacock fish (Zo\'94l.),
   the  European blue-striped wrasse (Labrus variegatus); -- so called on
   account  of its brilliant colors. Called also cook wrasse and cook. --
   Peacock  pheasant  (Zo\'94l.),  any one of several species of handsome
   Asiatic pheasants of the genus Polyplectron. They resemble the peacock
   in color.


   Pea"fowl` (?), n. [See Peacock.] (Zo\'94l.) The peacock or peahen; any
   species of Pavo.


   Pe"age (?), n. See Paage.


   Pea"grit` (?), n. (Min.) A coarse pisolitic limestone. See Pisolite.


   Pea"hen` (?), n. [See Peacock.] (Zo\'94l.) The hen or female peafowl.


   Pea"-jack`et  (?),  n.  [Prob.  fr.  D.  pij, pije, a coat of a coarse
   woolen  stuff.]  A  thick  loose  woolen jacket, or coat, much worn by
   sailors in cold weather.


   Peak (?), n. [OE. pek, AS. peac, perh of Celtic origin; cf. Ir. peac a
   sharp-pointed thing. Cf. Pike.]

   1.  A  point;  the  sharp  end or top of anything that terminates in a
   point; as, the peak, or front, of a cap. "Run your beard into a peak."
   Beau. & Fl.

   2.  The top, or one of the tops, of a hill, mountain, or range, ending
   in a point; often, the whole hill or mountain, esp. when isolated; as,
   the Peak of Teneriffe.

     Silent upon a peak in Darien. Keats.

   3.  (Naut.)  (a) The upper aftermost corner of a fore-and-aft sail; --
   used  in  many  combinations; as, peak-halyards, peak-brails, etc. (b)
   The  narrow  part  of  a  vessel's bow, or the hold within it. (c) The
   extremity  of  an  anchor  fluke; the bill. [In the last sense written
   also pea and pee.]
   Fore peak. (Naut.) See under Fore.


   Peak, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Peaked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peaking.]

   1.  To  rise  or extend into a peak or point; to form, or appear as, a

     There peaketh up a mighty high mount. Holand.

   2.  To acquire sharpness of figure or features; hence, to look thin or
   sicky. "Dwindle, peak, and pine." Shak.

   3. [Cf. Peek.] To pry; to peep slyly. Shak.
   Peak arch (Arch.), a pointed or Gothic arch.


   Peak,  v.  t.  (Naut.)  To  raise to a position perpendicular, or more
   nearly  so;  as, to peak oars, to hold them upright; to peak a gaff or
   yard, to set it nearer the perpendicular.


   Peaked (?), a.

   1. Pointed; ending in a point; as, a peaked roof.

   2. (Oftener Sickly; not robust. [Colloq.]

   Page 1055


   Peak"ing (?), a.

   1. Mean; sneaking. [Vulgar]

   2. Pining; sickly; peakish. [Colloq.]


   Peak"ish, a.

   1.  Of  or relating to a peak; or to peaks; belonging to a mountainous
   region.  "Her  peakish  spring."  Drayton.  "His peakish dialect." Bp.

   2. Having peaks; peaked.

   3.  Having  features  thin  or sharp, as from sickness; hence, sickly.


   Peak"y (?), a.

   1. Having a peak or peaks. Tennyson.

   2. Sickly; peaked. [Colloq.]


   Peal (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) A small salmon; a grilse;
   a sewin. [Prov. Eng.]


   Peal, v. i. To appeal. [Obs.] Spencer.


   Peal, n. [An abbrev. of F. appel a call, appeal, ruffle of a drum, fr.
   appeller to call, L. appellare. See Appeal.]

   1. A loud sound, or a succession of loud sounds, as of bells, thunder,
   cannon,  shouts,  of  a  multitude,  etc.  "A fair peal of artillery."

     Whether those peals of praise be his or no. Shak.

     And a deep thunder, peal on peal, afar. Byron.

   2. A set of bells tuned to each other according to the diatonic scale;
   also, the changes rung on a set of bells.
   To ring a peal. See under Ring.


   Peal, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pealed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pealing.]

   1. To utter or give out loud sounds.

     There let the pealing organ blow. Milton.

   2. To resound; to echo.

     And the whole air pealed With the cheers of our men. Longfellow.


   Peal, v. t.

   1. To utter or give forth loudly; to cause to give out loud sounds; to
   noise abroad.

     The  warrior's name, Though pealed and chimed on all the tongues of
     fame. J. Barlow.

   2. To assail with noise or loud sounds.

     Nor was his ear less pealed. Milton.

   3. To pour out. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Pean  (?), n. [OF. pene, F. panne.] (Her.) One of the furs, the ground
   being sable, and the spots or tufts or.


   Pe"an (?), n. A song of praise and triumph. See P\'91an.


   Pe"an*ism  (?),  n. [Gr. The song or shout of praise, of battle, or of
   triumph. [R.]


   Pea"nut  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  fruit  of  a trailing leguminous plant
   (Arachis   hypog\'91a);  also,  the  plant  itself,  which  is  widely
   cultivated for its fruit.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fr uit is  a  hard pod, usually containing two or
     three  seeds,  sometimes  but  one,  which  ripen beneath the soil.
     Called also earthnut, groundnut, and goober.


   Pear  (?), n. [OE. pere, AS. peru, L. pirum: cf. F. poire. Cf. Perry.]
   (Bot.)  The  fleshy  pome,  or  fruit,  of  a  rosaceous  tree  (Pyrus
   communis),  cultivated  in many varieties in temperate climates; also,
   the  tree which bears this fruit. See Pear family, below. Pear blight.
   (a) (Bot.) A name of two distinct diseases of pear trees, both causing
   a  destruction  of  the branches, viz., that caused by a minute insect
   (Xyleborus  pyri),  and  that  caused  by  the  freezing of the sap in
   winter.  A.  J. Downing. (b) (Zo\'94l.) A very small beetle (Xyleborus
   pyri) whose larv\'91 bore in the twigs of pear trees and cause them to
   wither.  --  Pear  family  (Bot.),  a  suborder  of  rosaceous  plants
   (Pome\'91),  characterized by the calyx tube becoming fleshy in fruit,
   and, combined with the ovaries, forming a pome. It includes the apple,
   pear,  quince, service berry, and hewthorn. -- Pear gauge (Physics), a
   kind of gauge for measuring the exhaustion of an air-pump receiver; --
   so  called  because  consisting in part of a pear-shaped glass vessel.
   Pear shell (Zo\'94l.), any marine gastropod shell of the genus Pyrula,
   native  of  tropical  seas;  -- so called from the shape. -- Pear slug
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  larva  of  a  sawfly  which is very injurious to the
   foliage of the pear tree. <-- Illustr. of pear slug (Celandria cerasi)


   Pearch (?), n. [Obs.] See Perch.


   Pearl  (?),  n.  A  fringe  or  border.  [Obs.] -- v. t. To fringe; to
   border. [Obs.] See Purl. Pearl stitch. See Purl stitch, under Purl.


   Pearl,  n.  [OE.  perle,  F.  perle,  LL.  perla, perula, probably fr.
   (assumed)  L.  pirulo, dim. of L. pirum a pear. See Pear, and cf. Purl
   to mantle.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  shelly  concretion,  usually  rounded, and having a
   brilliant  luster, with varying tints, found in the mantle, or between
   the  mantle  and shell, of certain bivalve mollusks, especially in the
   pearl  oysters  and river mussels, and sometimes in certain univalves.
   It  is  usually  due  to  a  secretion of shelly substance around some
   irritating  foreign  particle.  Its substance is the same as nacre, or
   mother-of-pearl.  Pearls which are round, or nearly round, and of fine
   luster,  are  highly esteemed as jewels, and compare in value with the
   precious stones.

   2.  Hence,  figuratively, something resembling a pearl; something very

     I see thee compassed with thy kingdom's pearl. Shak.

     And those pearls of dew she wears. Milton.

   3. Nacre, or mother-of-pearl.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) A fish allied to the turbot; the brill.

   5. (Zo\'94l.) A light-colored tern.

   6.  (Zo\'94l.)  One of the circle of tubercles which form the bur on a
   deer's antler.

   7. A whitish speck or film on the eye. [Obs.] Milton.

   8.  A  capsule  of gelatin or similar substance containing some liquid
   for medicinal application, as ether.

   9.  (Print.) A size of type, between agate and diamond. \'b5 This line
   is printed in the type called pearl.
   Ground pearl. (Zo\'94l.) See under Ground. -- Pearl barley, kernels of
   barley,  ground so as to form small, round grains. -- Pearl diver, one
   who  dives for pearl oysters. -- Pearl edge, an edge of small loops on
   the side of some kinds of ribbon; also, a narrow kind of thread edging
   to  be  sewed  on  lace. -- Pearl eye, cataract. [R.] -- Pearl gray, a
   very  pale  and  delicate  blue-gray  color. -- Pearl millet, Egyptian
   millet  (Penicillaria spicata). -- Pearl moss. See Carrageen. -- Pearl
   moth  (Zo\'94l.),  any  moth  of the genus Margaritia; -- so called on
   account  of  its  pearly color. -- Pearl oyster (Zo\'94l.), any one of
   several species of large tropical marine bivalve mollusks of the genus
   Meleagrina,  or Margaritifera, found in the East Indies (especially at
   Ceylon),  in  the  Persian Gulf, on the coast of Australia, and on the
   Pacific  coast  of America. Called also pearl shell, and pearl mussel.
   --  Pearl  powder.  See Pearl white, below. -- Pearl sago, sago in the
   form of small pearly grains. -- Pearl sinter (Min.), fiorite. -- Pearl
   spar  (Min.),  a  crystallized  variety  of  dolomite, having a pearly
   luster.  --  Pearl  white.  (a)  Basic  bismuth  nitrate,  or  bismuth
   subchloride;  --  used  chiefly  as a cosmetic. (b) A variety of white
   lead  blued  with  indigo  or  Berlin blue.<-- cultured pearl, a pearl
   grown  by a pearl oyster into which a round pellet has been placed, to
   serve as the seed for more predictable growth of the pearl. The pellet
   is  usually  made from mother-of-pearl, and additional layers of nacre
   are  deposited  onto  the  seed by the oyster. Such pearls, being more
   easily obtained than natural pearls, are less expensive. -->


   Pearl  (?), a. Of or pertaining to pearl or pearls; made of pearls, or
   of mother-of-pearl.


   Pearl, v. t.

   1.  To  set  or  adorn with pearls, or with mother-of-pearl. Used also

   2.  To  cause to resemble pearls; to make into small round grains; as,
   to pearl barley.


   Pearl, v. i.

   1. To resemble pearl or pearls.

   2. To give or hunt for pearls; as, to go pearling.


   Pearl*a"ceous  (?),  a. Resembling pearl or mother-of-pearl; pearly in
   quality or appearance.


   Pearl"ash`  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A white amorphous or granular substance
   which  consists  principally  of potassium carbonate, and has a strong
   alkaline  reaction.  It  is  obtained  by  lixiviating wood ashes, and
   evaporating  the  lye,  and  has been an important source of potassium
   compounds. It is used in making soap, glass, etc.


   Pearl"-eyed`  (?), a. Having a pearly speck in the eye; afflicted with
   the cataract.


   Pearl"fish`   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  fish  whose  scales  yield  a
   pearl-like  pigment  used  in  manufacturing artificial pearls, as the
   bleak, and whitebait.

                              Pearlins, Pearlings

   Pearl"ins   (?),  Pearl"ings  (?),  n.  pl.  [Prob.  a  corruption  of
   purflings.  See Purfle.] A kind of lace of silk or thread. [Scot.] Sir
   W. Scott.

                             Pearlite, Pearlstone

   Pearl"ite (?), Pearl"stone` (?), n. (Min.) A glassy volcanic rock of a
   grayish   color   and   pearly  luster,  often  having  a  spherulitic
   concretionary   structure   due  to  the  curved  cracks  produced  by
   contraction in cooling. See Illust. under Perlitic.


   Pearl"wort`  (?), n. (Bot.) A name given to several species of Sagina,
   low and inconspicuous herbs of the Chickweed family.


   Pearl"y (?), a.

   1.  Containing pearls; abounding with, or yielding, pearls; as, pearly
   shells. Milton.

   2.  Resembling  pearl or pearls; clear; pure; transparent; iridescent;
   as, the pearly dew or flood.


   Pear"main  (?), n. (Bot.) The name of several kinds of apples; as, the
   blue pearmain, winter pearmain, and red pearmain.


   Pear"-shaped` (?), a. Of the form of a pear.


   Peart (?), a. [A variant of pert, a.] Active; lively; brisk; smart; --
   often  applied  to  convalescents;  as, she is quite peart to-day. [O.
   Eng. & Colloq. U. S.]

     There  was  a tricksy girl, I wot, albeit clad in gray, As peart as
     bird,  as  straight  as  bolt,  as  fresh as flowers in May. Warner


   Peas"ant  (?),  n. [OF. pa\'8bsant (the i being perh. due to confusion
   with  the  p.pr.  of  verbs),  pa\'8bsan, F. paysan, fr. OF. & F. pays
   country, fr. L. pagus the country. See Pagan.] A countryman; a rustic;
   especially, one of the lowest class of tillers of the soil in European
   countries. Syn. -- Countryman; rustic; swain; hind.


   Peas"ant, a. Rustic, rural. Spenser.


   Peas"ant*like` (?), a. Rude; clownish; illiterate.


   Peas"ant*ly, a. Peasantlike. [Obs.] Milton.


   Peas"ant*ry (?), n.

   1.  Peasants,  collectively;  the body of rustics. "A bold peasantry."

   2. Rusticity; coarseness. [Obs.] p. Butler.


   Peas"cod` (?), n. The legume or pericarp, or the pod, of the pea.


   Pease (?), n.; obs.pl. Peases (#), Peasen (#). [See Pea.]

   1. A pea. [Obs.] "A peose." "Bread . . . of beans and of peses." Piers

   2. A plural form of Pea. See the Note under Pea.


   Pea"stone` (?), n. (Min.) Pisolite.


   Peas"weep`  (?), n. [So called from its note.] [Prov. Eng.] (Zo\'94l.)
   (a) The pewit, or lapwing. (b) The greenfinch.


   Peat (?), n. [Cf. Pet a fondling.] A small person; a pet; -- sometimes
   used contemptuously. [Obs.] Shak.


   Peat,  n.  [Prob. for beat, prop., material used to make the fire burn
   better,  fr.  AS. b to better, mend (a fire), b advantage. See Better,
   Boot  advantage.] A substance of vegetable origin, consisting of roots
   and fibers, moss, etc., in various stages of decomposition, and found,
   as  a  kind  of  turf  or  bog, usually in low situations, where it is
   always  more  or less saturated with water. It is often dried and used
   for  fuel. Peat bog, a bog containing peat; also, peat as it occurs in
   such  places;  peat  moss.  --  Peat  moss. (a) The plants which, when
   decomposed,  become peat. (b) A fen producing peat. (c) (Bot.) Moss of
   the  genus  Sphagnum,  which  often grows abundantly in boggy or peaty
   places.  --  Peat  reek,  the  reek or smoke of peat; hence, also, the
   peculiar  flavor given to whisky by being distilled with peat as fuel.


   Peat"y (?), a. Composed of peat; abounding in peat; resembling peat.


   Pe"ba  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Pg.  peba.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  armadillo (Tatusia
   novemcincta)  which  is  found  from Texas to Paraguay; -- called also


   Peb"ble  (?),  n.  [AS.  papolst\'ben; cf. L. papula pimple, mote. See

   1.  A  small  roundish  stone or bowlder; especially, a stone worn and
   rounded  by  the  action  of water; a pebblestone. "The pebbles on the
   hungry beach." Shak.

     As children gathering pebbles on the shore. Milton.

   2. Transparent and colorless rock crystal; as, Brazilian pebble; -- so
   called by opticians.
   Pebble  powder,  slow-burning  gunpowder,  in large cubical grains. --
   Scotch  pebble,  varieties  of  quartz,  as  agate,  chalcedony, etc.,
   obtained from cavities in amygdaloid.


   Peb"ble,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Pebbled; p. pr. & vb. n. Pebbling.] To
   grain  (leather) so as to produce a surface covered with small rounded


   Peb"bled (?), a. Abounding in pebbles. Thomson.


   Peb"ble*stone`  (?).  A pebble; also, pebbles collectively. "Chains of
   pebblestone." Marlowe.


   Peb"bly  (?),  a.  Full  of pebbles; pebbled. "A hard, pebbly bottom."


   Pe`brine"   (?),   n.  [F.]  An  epidemic  disease  of  the  silkworm,
   characterized  by  the  presence of minute vibratory corpuscles in the


   Pe*can"  (?),  n. [Cf. F. pacane the nut.] (Bot.) A species of hickory
   (Carya  oliv\'91formis),  growing  in  North  America,  chiefly in the
   Mississippi  valley  and  in  Texas, where it is one of the largest of
   forest  trees;  also,  its  fruit, a smooth, oblong nut, an inch or an
   inch  and  a  half  long,  with  a  thin shell and well-flavored meat.
   [Written also pacane.]


   Pec"a*ry (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Peccary.


   Pec`ca*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  The  state  or  quality  of being peccable;
   lability to sin.

     The common peccability of mankind. Dr. H. More.


   Pec"ca*ble  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  peccable. See Peccant.] Liable to sin;
   subject  to  transgress the divine law. "A frail and peccable mortal."
   Sir W. Scott.


   Pec`ca*dil"lo  (?),  n;  pl.  Peccadillos (#). [Sp. pecadillo, dim. of
   pecado  a  sin,  fr.  L.  peccatum. See Peccant.] A slight trespass or
   offense; a petty crime or fault. Sir W. Scott.


   Pec"can*cy (?), n. [L. peccantia.]

   1. The quality or state of being peccant.

   2. A sin; an offense. W. Montagu.


   Pec"cant  (?), a. [L. peccans, -antis, p.pr. of peccare to sin: cf. F.

   1.  Sinning;  guilty  of  transgression; criminal; as, peccant angels.

   2. Morbid; corrupt; as, peccant humors. Bacon.

   3. Wrong; defective; faulty. [R.] Ayliffe.


   Pec"cant, n. An offender. [Obs.] Whitlock.


   Pec"cant*ly, adv. In a peccant manner.


   Pec"ca*ry  (?), n.; pl. Peccaries (#). [From the native South American
   name:  cf.  F.  p\'82cari,  Sp.  pecar.] (Zo\'94l.) A pachyderm of the
   genus Dicotyles.

     NOTE: &hand; The collared peccary, or tajacu (Dicotyles torquatus),
     is  about  the  size and shape of a small hog, and has a white ring
     aroung  the  neck.  It  ranges  from  Arkansas  to Brazil. A larger
     species  (D.  labiatus),  with  white  cheeks,  is  found  in South


   Pec*ca"vi  (?).  [L.]  I  have sinned; -- used colloquially to express
   confession or acknowledgment of an offense. Aubrey. <-- seldom used --
   same purpose served by mea culpa -->


   Pec"co (?), n. See Pekoe.


   Peck,  n.  [Perh. akin to pack; or, orig., an indefinite quantity, and
   fr. peck, v. (below): cf. also F. picotin a peak.]

   1.  The  fourth part of a bushel; a dry measure of eight quarts; as, a
   peck of wheat. "A peck of provender." Shak.

   2.   A  great  deal;  a  large  or  excessive  quantity.  "A  peck  of
   uncertainties and doubts." Milton.


   Peck,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Pecked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pecking.] [See
   Pick, v.]

   1.  To strike with the beak; to thrust the beak into; as, a bird pecks
   a tree.

   2. Hence: To strike, pick, thrust against, or dig into, with a pointed
   instrument;  especially,  to  strike,  pick, etc., with repeated quick

   3.  To  seize and pick up with the beak, or as with the beak; to bite;
   to eat; -- often with up. Addison.

     This fellow pecks up wit as pigeons peas. Shak.

   4.  To make, by striking with the beak or a pointed instrument; as, to
   peck a hole in a tree.


   Peck, v. i.

   1. To make strokes with the beak, or with a pointed instrument. Carew.

   2. To pick up food with the beak; hence, to eat.

     [The hen] went pecking by his side. Dryden.

   To  peck  at,  to attack with petty and repeated blows; to carp at; to
   nag; to tease.

   Page 1056


   Peck  (?),  n.  A quick, sharp stroke, as with the beak of a bird or a
   pointed instrument.


   Peck"er (?), n.

   1.  One who, or that which, pecks; specif., a bird that pecks holes in
   trees; a woodpecker.

   2. An instrument for pecking; a pick. Garth.
   Flower pecker. (Zo\'94l.) See under Flower.


   Peck"ish,  a.  Inclined  to  eat; hungry. [Colloq.] "When shall I feel
   peckish again?" Beaconsfield.


   Pec"kled (?), a. Speckled; spotted. [Obs.]


   Pe*cop"te*ris  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.) An extensive genus of
   fossil ferns; -- so named from the regular comblike arrangement of the


   Pec"o*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. pecus. See Pecuniary.] (Zo\'94l.) An
   extensive  division  of  ruminants, including the antelopes, deer, and


   Pec"tate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of pectic acid.


   Pec"ten  (?),  n.  [L. pecten, -inis, a comb, a kind of shellfish. See

   1.  (Anat.)  (a)  A  vascular  pigmented  membrane projecting into the
   vitreous  humor  within  the  globe  of  the eye in birds, and in many
   reptiles and fishes; -- also called marsupium. (b) The pubic bone.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of bivalve mollusks of the genus Pecten, and
   numerous allied genera (family Pectinid\'91); a scallop. See Scallop.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) The comb of a scorpion. See Comb, 4 (b).


   Pec"tic (?), a. [Gr. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to pectin; specifically,
   designating an acid obtained from ordinary vegetable jelly (pectin) as
   an  amorphous substance, tough and horny when dry, but gelatinous when


   Pec"tin   (?),   n.   [Gr.  pectine.]  (Chem.)  One  of  a  series  of
   carbohydrates,  commonly  called  vegetable  jelly,  found very widely
   distributed  in  the  vegetable  kingdom,  especially  in  ripe fleshy
   fruits,  as  apples,  cranberries,  etc.  It is extracted as variously
   colored,  translucent  substances,  which are soluble in hot water but
   become viscous on cooling.


   Pec"ti*nal  (?),  a. [L. pecten comb. See Pectinate.] Of or pertaining
   to a comb; resembling a comb.


   Pec"ti*nal, n. A fish whose bone Sir T. Browne.

                             Pectinate, Pectinated

   Pec"ti*na`te  (?),  Pec"ti*na`ted  (?),  a.  [L.  pectinatus, p.pr. of
   pectinare to comb, from pecten, -inis, a comb; cf. Gr. feax hair, OHG.
   fahs, E. paxwax.]

   1. Resembling the teeth of a comb.

   2.  (Nat.  Hist.)  Having very narrow, close divisions, in arrangement
   and  regularity  resembling those of a comb; comblike; as, a pectinate
   leaf; pectinated muscles. See Illust. (e) of Antenn\'91.

   3.  Interlaced,  like two combs. [R.] "Our fingers pectinated, or shut
   together." Sir T. Browne.
   Pectinate claw (Zo\'94l.), a claw having a serrate edge, found in some
   birds, and supposed to be used in cleaning the feathers.


   Pec"ti*nate*ly (?), adv. In a pectinate manner.


   Pec`ti*na"tion (?), n.

   1.  The  state  of  being pectinated; that which is pectinated. Sir T.

   2. The act of combing; the combing of the head.

   3. (Nat. Hist.) Comblike toothing.


   Pec*tin"e*al (?), a. [See Pecten.] (Anat.) (a) Of or pertaining to the
   pecten. (b) Relating to, or connected with, the pubic bone.


   Pec*tin"i*branch (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Pectinibranchiata. Also
   used adjectively.


   Pec`ti*ni*bran`chi*a"ta  (?),  n.  pl. [NL. See Pecten, and Branchia.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  division  of  Gastropoda,  including  those that have a
   comblike gill upon the neck.


   Pec`ti*ni*bran"chi*ate  (?),  a.  [L.  pecten,  -inis,  a  comb  +  E.
   branchiate.] (Zo\'94l.) Having pectinated gills.


   Pec*tin"i*form (?), a. Comblike in form.


   Pec*tize"  (?),  v.  i.  [Gr.  To congeal; to change into a gelatinous
   mass. [R.] H. Spencer.


   Pec"to*lite  (?),  n.  [L.  pecten  a  comb + -lite.] (Min.) A whitish
   mineral  occurring  in radiated or fibrous crystalline masses. It is a
   hydrous silicate of lime and soda.


   Pec"to*ral  (?),  a. [L. pectoralis, fr. pectus, -oris the breast; cf.
   F. pectoral.]

   1. Of or pertaining to the breast, or chest; as, the pectoral muscles.

   2.  Relating  to,  or  good for, diseases of the chest or lungs; as, a
   pectoral remedy.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  the  breast  conspicuously  colored;  as,  the
   pectoral sandpiper.
   Pectoral  arch,  OR  Pectoral  girdle (Anat.), the two or more bony or
   cartilaginous  pieces  of  the  vertebrate  skeleton to which the fore
   limbs  are articulated; the shoulder girdle. In man it consists of two
   bones,  the  scapula  and  clavicle,  on each side. -- Pectorial cross
   (Eccl.),  a  cross  worn  on  the  breast  by  bishops and abbots, and
   sometimes also by canons. -- Pectorial fins, OR Pectorials (Zo\'94l.),
   fins  situated  on the sides, behind the gills. See Illust. under Fin.
   --  Pectorial  rail.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  Land  rail  (b)  under Land. --
   Pectorial sandpiper (Zo\'94l.), the jacksnipe (b).


   Pec"to*ral (?), n. [L. pectorale a breastplate, neut. of pectorials.]

   1. A covering or protecting for the breast.

   2.  (Eccl.)  (a)  A  breastplate,  esp.  that  worn by the Jewish high
   person. (b) A clasp or a cross worn on the breast.

   3. A medicine for diseases of the chest organs, especially the lungs.


   Pec"to*ral*ly (?), adv. As connected with the breast.


   Pec`to*ri*lo"qui*al  (?),  a. [Cf. F. pectoriloque.] Pertaining to, or
   of the nature of, pectoriloquy.


   Pec`to*ril"o*quism (?), n. Pectoriloquy.


   Pec`to*ril"o*quous (?), a. Pectoriloquial.


   Pec`to*ril"o*quy  (?),  n.  [L.  pectus,  -oris, the breast + loqui to
   speak:  cf. F. pectoriloquie.] (Med.) The distinct articulation of the
   sounds of a patient's voice, heard on applying the ear to the chest in
   auscultation.  It usually indicates some morbid change in the lungs or
   pleural cavity.


   Pec"tose`   (?),   n.  [Pectic  +  cellulose.]  (Chem.)  An  amorphous
   carbohydrate found in the vegetable kingdom, esp. in unripe fruits. It
   is  associated with cellulose, and is converted into substances of the
   pectin group.


   Pec*to"sic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)Of, pertaining to, resembling, or derived
   from,   pectose;   specifically,   designating  an  acid  supposed  to
   constitute largely ordinary pectin or vegetable jelly.


   Pec*tos"tra*ca (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A degenerate order
   of Crustacea, including the Rhizocephala and Cirripedia.


   Pec"tous (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of, pectose.


   Pec"tus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Pectora (#). [L., the breast.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   breast of a bird.


   Pec"ul (?), n. See Picul.


   Pec"u*late  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Peculated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Peculating.]  [L.  peculatus,  p.p.  of  peculari to peculate, akin to
   peculium  private property. See Peculiar.] To appropriate to one's own
   use  the  property  of the public; to steal public moneys intrusted to
   one's care; to embezzle.

     An oppressive, . . . rapacious, and peculating despotism. Burke.


   Pec`u*la"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  or  practice  of  peculating, or of
   defrauding  the  public by appropriating to one's own use the money or
   goods   intrusted  to  one's  care  for  management  or  disbursement;

     Every  British subject . . . active in the discovery of peculations
     has been ruined. Burke.


   Pec"u*la`tor (?), n. [L.] One who peculates. "Peculators of the public
   gold." Cowper.


   Pe*cul"iar (?), a. [L. peculiaris, fr. peculium private property, akin
   to pecunia money: cf. OF. peculier. See Pecuniary.]

   1.  One's  own;  belonging  solely or especially to an individual; not
   possessed   by   others;   of  private,  personal,  or  characteristic
   possession and use; not owned in common or in participation.

     And purify unto himself a peculiar people. Titus ii. 14.

     Hymns . . . that Christianity hath peculiar unto itself. Hooker.

   2. Particular; individual; special; appropriate.

     While each peculiar power forgoes his wonted seat. Milton.

     My fate is Juno's most peculiar care. Dryden.

   3.   Unusual;   singular;   rare;   strange;   as,   the   sky  had  a
   peculiarappearance.  Syn.  -- Peculiar, Special, Especial. Peculiar is
   from   the   Roman  peculium,  which  was  a  thing  emphatically  and
   distinctively  one's  own, and hence was dear. The former sense always
   belongs  to  peculiar  (as, a peculiar style, peculiar manners, etc.),
   and  usually so much of the latter as to involve feelings of interest;
   as,  peculiar  care,  watchfulness, satisfaction, etc. Nothing of this
   kind belongs to special and especial. They mark simply the relation of
   species to genus, and denote that there is something in this case more
   than ordinary; as, a special act of Congress; especial pains, etc.

     Beauty,  which,  either  walking  or  asleep,  Shot  forth peculiar
     graces. Milton.

     For  naught  so  vile that on the earth doth live, But to the earth
     some special good doth give. Shak.


   Pe*cul"iar, n.

   1.   That   which  is  peculiar;  a  sole  or  exclusive  property;  a
   prerogative; a characteristic.

     Revenge is . . . the peculiar of Heaven. South.

   2. (Eng. Canon Law) A particular parish or church which is exempt from
   the jurisdiction of the ordinary.
   Court  of Peculiars (Eng. Law), a branch of the Court of Arches having
   cognizance  of  the  affairs  of  peculiars.  Blackstone.  --  Dean of
   peculiars. See under Dean, 1.


   Pe*cul`iar"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Peculiarities (.

   1. The quality or state of being peculiar; individuality; singularity.

   2. That which is peculiar; a special and distinctive characteristic or
   habit; particularity.

     The smallest peculiarity of temper on manner. Macaulay.

   3. Exclusive possession or right. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Pe*cul"iar*ize  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pecularized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Pecularizing (?).] To make peculiar; to set appart or assign, as an
   exclusive possession. [R.] Dr. John Smith.


   Pe*cul"iar*ly,  adv.  In a peculiar manner; particulary; in a rare and
   striking degree; unusually.


   Pe*cul"iar*ness,   n.   The   quality  or  state  of  being  peculiar;
   peculiarity. Mede.


   Pe*cu"li*um (?), n. [L. See Peculiar.]

   1.  (Rom.  Law)  The  saving  of a son or a slave with the father's or
   master's  consent;  a  little  property  or  stock  of  one's own; any
   exclusive personal or separate property. Burrill.

   2. A special fund for private and personal uses.

     A  slight  peculium  only  subtracted  to  supply his snuff box and
     tobacco pouch. Sir W. Scott.


   Pe*cu"ni*al (?), a. Pecuniary. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pe*cun"ia*ri*ly (?), adv. In a pecuniary manner; as regards money.


   Pe*cun"ia*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  pecuniarius,  fr.  pecunia  money, orig.,
   property  in  cattle, fr. pecus cattle: cf. F. p\'82cuniaire. See Fee,
   and cf. Peculiar.]

   1.  Relating  to money; monetary; as, a pecuniary penalty; a pecuniary
   reward. Burke.


   Pe*cu"ni*ous   (?),   a.   [L.   pecuniosus,   fr.   pecunia:  cf.  F.
   p\'82cunieux.] Abounding in money; wealthy; rich. [Obs.] Sherwood.


   Ped  (?),  n. [OE. See Peddler.] A basket; a hammer; a pannier. [Obs.]


   Ped"age  (?),  n.  [LL. pedagium, for pedaticum. See Paage.] A toll or
   tax paid by passengers, entitling them to safe-conduct and protection.
   [Obs.] Spelman.


   Ped"a*gog (?), n. Pedagogue.


   Ped`a*gog"ic  (?),  n.  [From  Pedagogic,  a.;  cf. G. pedagogik.] See

                            Pedagogic, Pedagogical

   Ped`a*gog"ic  (?),  Ped`a*gog"ic*al  (?),  a. [Gr. p\'82dagogique. See
   Pedagogue.]   Of   or   pertaining  to  a  pedagogue;  suited  to,  or
   characteristic of, a pedagogue.


   Ped`a*gog"ics  (?),  n. The science or art of teaching; the principles
   and rules of teaching; pedagogy.


   Ped"a*gog*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. p\'82dagogisme.] The system, occupation,
   character, or manner of pedagogues. Milton.

     Avocation of pedantry and pedagogism. De Foe.


   Ped"a*gogue  (?),  n.  [F.  p\'82dagogue,  L.  paedagogus,  Gr. Page a
   servant, Agent.]

   1.  (Gr.  Antiq.) A slave who led his master's children to school, and
   had the charge of them generally.

   2.  A teacher of children; one whose occupation is to teach the young;
   a schoolmaster.

   3. One who by teaching has become formal, positive, or pedantic in his
   ways; one who has the manner of a schoolmaster; a pedant. Goldsmith.


   Ped"a*gogue,  v.  t.  [Cf.  L.  paedagogare  to instruct.] To play the
   pedagogue toward. [Obs.] Prior.


   Ped"a*go`gy (?), n. [Gr. p\'82dagogie.] Pedagogics; pedagogism. South.


   Pe"dal  (?),  a.  [L. pedalis, fr. pes, pedis, foot. See Foot, and cf.

   1.   Of   or  pertaining  to  the  foot,  or  to  feet,  literally  or
   figuratively;  specifically  (Zo\'94l.),  pertaining  to the foot of a
   mollusk; as, the pedal ganglion.

   2. ( Of or pertaining to a pedal; having pedals. Pedal curve
   OR  surface  (Geom.),  the  curve or surface which is the locus of the
   feet  of  perpendiculars let fall from a fixed point upon the straight
   lines  tangent to a given curve, or upon the planes tangent to a given
   surface.  --  Pedal  note  (Mus.), the note which is held or sustained
   through  an  organ point. See Organ point, under Organ. -- Pedal organ
   (Mus.),  an  organ  which  has  pedals or a range of keys moved by the
   feet; that portion of a full organ which is played with the feet.


   Pe"dal (?), n. [Cf. F. p\'82dale, It. pedale. See Pedal, a.]

   1.  (Mech.)  A lever or key acted on by the foot, as in the pianoforte
   to raise the dampers, or in the organ to open and close certain pipes;
   a treadle, as in a lathe or a bicycle.

   2. (Geom.) A pedal curve or surface.


   Pe*da"li*an  (?),  a.  Relating  to  the  foot, or to a metrical foot;
   pedal. [R.] Maunder.


   Pe*dal"i*ty (?), n. The act of measuring by paces. [R.] Ash.


   Pe*da"ne*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  pedaneus of the size of a foot.] Going on
   foot; pedestrian. [R.]


   Ped"ant  (?),  n.  [F.  p\'82dant, It. pedante, fr. Gr. pai^s boy. See

   1. A schoolmaster; a pedagogue. [Obs.] Dryden.

     A pedant that keeps a school i'th' church. Shak.

   2. One who puts on an air of learning; one who makes a vain display of
   learning; a pretender to superior knowledge. Addison.

     A scholar, yet surely no pedant, was he. Goldsmith.

                             Pedantic, Pedantical

   Pe*dan"tic  (?),  Pe*dan"tic*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to a pedant;
   characteristic  of, or resembling, a pedant; ostentatious of learning;
   as,   a   pedantic   writer;  a  pedantic  description;  a  pedantical
   affectation. "Figures pedantical." Shak.


   Pe*dan"tic*al*ly, adv. In a pedantic manner.


   Pe*dan"tic*ly (?), adv. Pedantically. [R.]


   Ped"ant*ism  (?),  n.  The  office,  disposition,  or act of a pedant;
   pedantry. [Obs.]


   Ped"ant*ize  (?), v. i. [Cf. F. p\'82dantiser.] To play the pedant; to
   use pedantic expressions. [R.]


   Ped`an*toc"ra*cy  (?),  n.  [Pedant + democracy.] The sway of pedants.
   [R.] J. S. Mill.


   Ped"ant*ry  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  p\'82danterie.] The act, character, or
   manners  of  a pedant; vain ostentation of learning. "This pedantry of
   quotation." Cowley.

     'T is a practice that savors much of pedantry. Sir T. Browne.


   Ped"ant*y (?), n. An assembly or clique of pedants. [Obs.] Milton.


   Pe*da"ri*an  (?), n. [L. pedarius, fr. pedarius belonging to the foot,
   fr.  pes,  pedis,  foot.] (Rom. Antiq.) One of a class eligible to the
   office  of senator, but not yet chosen, who could sit and speak in the
   senate, but could not vote; -- so called because he might indicate his
   opinion  by  walking  over  to the side of the party he favored when a
   vote was taken.


   Ped"a*ry  (?),  n.;  pl.  Pedaries  (#).  [L. pedarius of the foot.] A
   sandal. [Obs.] Latimer.


   Pe*da"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Pedate.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  order of
   holothurians,  including  those that have ambulacral suckers, or feet,
   and an internal gill.

   Page 1057


   Ped"ate  (?), a. [L. pedatus, p.p. of pedare to furnish with feet, fr.
   pes, pedis, a foot.] (Bot.) Palmate, with the lateral lobes cleft into
   two or more segments; -- said of a leaf. -- Ped"ate*ly, adv.


   Pe*dat"i*fid (?), a. [Pedate + root of L. findere to split.] [Colloq.]
   Cleft in a pedate manner, but having the lobes distinctly connected at
   the base; -- said of a leaf.


   Ped"dle (?), v. i. [From Peddler.]

   1.  To travel about with wares for sale; to go from place to place, or
   from house to house, for the purpose of retailing goods; as, to peddle
   without a license.

   2. To do a small business; to be busy about trifles; to piddle.


   Ped"dle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Peddled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peddling
   (?).]  To  sell from place to place; to retail by carrying around from
   customer  to  customer;  to  hawk;  hence,  to  retail  in  very small
   quantities; as, to peddle vegetables or tinware.


   Ped"dler  (?),  n.  [OE. pedlere, pedlare, also peddare, peoddare, fr.
   OE.  ped  a  basket,  of unknown origin.] One who peddles; a traveling
   trader;  one  who  travels  about,  retailing  small  wares; a hawker.
   [Written also pedlar and pedler.] "Some vagabond huckster or peddler."


   Ped"dler*y (?), n. [Written also pedlary and pedlery.]

   1.  The  trade,  or  the  goods,  of  a peddler; hawking; small retail
   business, like that of a peddler.

   2.  Trifling;  trickery. [Obs.] "Look . . . into these their deceitful
   peddleries." Milton.


   Ped"dling, a.

   1. Hawking; acting as a peddler.

   2.   Petty;  insignificant.  "The  miserable  remains  of  a  peddling
   commerce." Burke.


   Ped"er*ast  (?),  n. [Gr. paiderasth`s; pai^s, paido`s, a boy + 'era^n
   to love: cf. F. p\'82d\'82raste.] One guilty of pederasty; a sodomite.


   Ped`er*as"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  paiderastiko`s.]  Of  or  pertaining to


   Ped"er*as`ty  (?), n. [Gr. paiderasti`a: cf. F. p\'82d\'82rastie.] The
   crime against nature; sodomy.<-- esp. with a boy -->


   Ped`e*re"ro (?), n. [Sp. pedrero, fr. OSp. pedra, Sp. piedra, a stone,
   L.  petra,  fr. Gr. (Mil.) A term formerly applied to a short piece of
   chambered ordnance. [Written also paterero and peterero.]


   Pe*de"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  Gr. Same as Brownian movement, under


   Ped"es*tal   (?),   n.   [Sp.   pedestal;  cf.  F.  pi\'82destal,  It.
   piedestallo;  fr.  L.  es,  pedis,  foot  +  OHG. stal standing place,
   station, place, akin to E. stall. See Foot, and Stall, and Footstall.]

   1.  (Arch.)  The  base or foot of a column, statue, vase, lamp, or the
   like;  the  part on which an upright work stands. It consists of three
   parts,  the base, the die or dado, and the cornice or surbase molding.
   See Illust. of Column.

     Build him a pedestal, and say, "Stand there!" Cowper.

   2.  (a)  (Railroad Cars) A casting secured to the frame of a truck and
   forming a jaw for holding a journal box. (b) (Mach.) A pillow block; a
   low housing. (c) (Bridge Building) An iron socket, or support, for the
   foot of a brace at the end of a truss where it rests on a pier.
   Pedestal  coil  (steam  Heating),  a group of connected straight pipes
   arranged side by side and one above another, -- used in a radiator.


   Ped"es*taled   (?),  a.  Placed  on,  or  supported  by,  a  pedestal;
   figuratively, exalted. Hawthorne.

     Pedestaled haply in a palace court. Keats.


   Pe*des"tri*al  (?), a. [L. pedester, -esteris, fr. pes, pedis, a foot:
   cf.  F.  p\'82destere.  See  Pedal.]  Of  or  pertaining  to the feet;
   employing the foot or feet.


   Pe*des"tri*al*ly, adv. In a pedestrial manner.


   Pe*des"tri*an  (?),  a.  Going  on  foot;  performed  on  foot;  as, a
   pedestrian journey.


   Pe*des"tri*an, n. A walker; one who journeys on foot; a foot traveler;
   specif., a professional walker or runner.


   Pe*des"tri*an*ism  (?),  n. The act, art, or practice of a pedestrian;
   walking or running; traveling or racing on foot.


   Pe*des"tri*an*ize  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pedestrianized (?); p. pr.
   & vb. n. Pedestrianizing.] To practice walking; to travel on foot.


   Pe*des"tri*ous  (?), a. Going on foot; not winged. [Obs.] "Pedestrious
   animals." Sir T. Browne.


   Ped`e*ten"tous  (?), a. [L. pes, pedis, foot + tendere to stretch out:
   cf.  L.  tentim  by  degrees.]  Proceeding  step  by  step;  advancing
   cautiously. [R.]

     That pedetentous pace and pedetentous mind in which it behooves the
     wise and virtuous improver to walk. Sydney Smith.

                                 Pedi-, Pedo-

   Ped"i-  (?),  Ped"o-  (?).  [See  Foot.]  Combining forms from L. pes,
   pedis, foot, as pedipalp, pedireme, pedometer.


   Pe"di*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  the foot, or to any organ called a
   foot; pedal. Dana.


   Ped"i*cel (?), n. [F. p\'82dicelle. See Pedicle.]

   1.  (Bot.)  (a)  A  stalk  which supports one flower or fruit, whether
   solitary  or  one of many ultimate divisions of a common peduncle. See
   Peduncle,  and Illust. of Flower. (b) A slender support of any special
   organ, as that of a capsule in mosses, an air vesicle in alg\'91, or a
   sporangium in ferns.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) A slender stem by which certain of the lower animals or
   their eggs are attached. See Illust. of Aphis lion.

   3.  (Anat.)  (a)  The  ventral  part  of  each side of the neural arch
   connecting  with  the  centrum  of a vertebra. (b) An outgrowth of the
   frontal  bones, which supports the antlers or horns in deer and allied


   Ped"i*celed (?), a. Pedicellate.


   Ped`i*cel*la"ri*a (?), n.; pl. Pedicellari\'91 (#). [NL. See Pedicel.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A peculiar forcepslike organ which occurs in large numbers
   upon starfishes and echini. Those of starfishes have two movable jaws,
   or  blades, and are usually nearly, or quite, sessile; those of echini
   usually have three jaws and a pedicel. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Ped"i*cel`late (?), a. Having a pedicel; supported by a pedicel.


   Ped`i*cel*li"na  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Pedicel.]  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   Bryozoa,  of the order Entoprocta, having a bell-shaped body supported
   on a slender pedicel. See Illust. under Entoprocta.


   Ped"i*cle  (?),  n. [L. pediculus a little foot, dim. of pes foot: cf.
   F. p\'82dicule. See edal, and cf. Pedicel.] Same as Pedicel.


   Pe*dic"u*lar  (?),  a.  [L. pedicularis, fr. pediculus a louse: cf. F.
   p\'82diculaire.]  Of or pertaining to lice; having the lousy distemper
   (phthiriasis); lousy. Southey.


   Pe*dic"u*late (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Pediculati.


   Pe*dic`u*la"ti  (?),  n. pl. [NL. See Pedicle.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   fishes including the anglers. See Illust. of Angler and Batfish.


   Pe*dic`u*la"tion (?), n. (Med.) Phthiriasis.


   Ped"i*cule (?), n. [See Pedicle.] A pedicel.


   Pe*dic`u*li"na  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Pediculus.] (Zo\'94l.) A division
   of parasitic hemipterous insects, including the true lice. See Illust.
   in Appendix.


   Pe*dic"u*lous (?), a. [L. pediculosus.] Pedicular.


   Pe*dic"u*lus  (?),  n.;  pl. Pediculi (#). [L., a louse.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   genus  of  wingless  parasitic Hemiptera, including the common lice of
   man. See Louse.


   Ped"i*form (?), a. [Pedi- + -form.] Shaped like a foot.


   Pe*dig"er*ous  (?), a. [Pedi- + -gerous.] (Zo\'94l.) Bearing or having
   feet or legs.


   Ped"i*gree  (?),  n. [Of unknown origin; possibly fr. F. par degr\'82s
   by  degrees,  -- for a pedigree is properly a genealogical table which
   records  the  relationship  of  families by degrees; or, perh., fr. F.
   pied de grue crane's foot, from the shape of the heraldic genealogical

   1.  A  line  of  ancestors; descent; lineage; genealogy; a register or
   record of a line of ancestors.

     Alterations  of  surnames  .  .  .  have  obscured the truth of our
     pedigrees. Camden.

     His vanity labored to contrive us a pedigree. Milton.

     I am no herald to inquire of men's pedigrees. Sir P. Sidney.

     The Jews preserved the pedigrees of their tribes. Atterbury.

   2. (Stock Breeding) A record of the lineage or strain of an animal, as
   of a horse.


   Ped"i*lu`vy  (?),  n.  [Pedi-  +  L.  luere  to  wash:  cf.  It. & Sp.
   pediluvio,  F.  p\'82diluve.]  The bathing of the feet, a bath for the
   feet. [Obs.]


   Pe*dim"a*na  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. L. pes, pedis, foot + manus hand.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A division of marsupials, including the opossums.


   Ped"i*mane  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  p\'82dimane.]  (Zo\'94l.) A pedimanous
   marsupial; an opossum.


   Pe*dim"a*nous   (?),   a.   [See  Pedimana.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  feet
   resembling hands, or with the first toe opposable, as the opossums and


   Ped"i*ment  (?),  n.  [L.  pes,  pedis,  a  foot.  See  Foot.] (Arch.)
   Originally,  in  classical  architecture, the triangular space forming
   the gable of a simple roof; hence, a similar form used as a decoration
   over  porticoes,  doors,  windows,  etc.;  also,  a  rounded or broken
   frontal having a similar position and use. See Temple.


   Ped`i*men"tal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a pediment.


   Ped"i*palp  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  p\'82dipalpe.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One of the


   Ped`i*pal"pi (?), n pl. [NL. See Pedipalpus.] (Zo\'94l.) A division of
   Arachnida,  including  the  whip  scorpions  (Thelyphonus)  and allied
   forms.  Sometimes  used  in  a  wider  sense  to include also the true


   Ped`i*pal"pous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to, or resembling, the


   Ped`i*pal"pus  (?),  n.; pl. Pedipalpi (#). [NL. See Pes, and Palpus.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the  second pair of mouth organs of arachnids. In
   some  they are leglike, but in others, as the scorpion, they terminate
   in a claw.


   Ped"i*reme  (?),  n.  [Pedi- + L. remus oar.] (Zo\'94l.) A crustacean,
   some of whose feet serve as oars.

                                Pedlar, Pedler

   Ped"lar, Ped"ler (?), n. See Peddler.


   Pe`do*bap"tism  (?),  n.  [Gr.  baptism.] The baptism of infants or of
   small children. [Written also p\'91dobaptism.]


   Pe`do*bap"tist  (?), n. One who advocates or practices infant baptism.
   [Written also p\'91dobaptist.]


   Ped"o*man`cy  (?),  n.  [Pedi-  + -mancy.] Divination by examining the
   soles of the feet.


   Pe*dom"e*ter  (?), n. [Pedi-, pedo- + -meter: cf. F. p\'82dom\'8atre.]
   (Mech.)  An  instrument  for including the number of steps in walking,
   and  so  ascertaining  the  distance passed over. It is usually in the
   form  of  a  watch;  an  oscillating  weight by the motion of the body
   causes the index to advance a certain distance at each step.

                           Pedometric, Pedometrical

   Ped`o*met"ric (?), Ped`o*met"ric*al (?), a. Pertaining to, or measured
   by, a pedometer.


   Ped`o*mo"tive (?), a. [Pedi-, pedo- + -motive.] Moved or worked by the
   action of the foot or feet on a pedal or treadle.


   Pe*dot"ro*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  p\'82dotrophie.]  The art of nourishing
   children properly.


   Pe`dre*gal"  (?),  n.  [Sp.,  a stony place, fr. piedra stone.] A lava
   field. [Mexico & Western U.S.]


   Pe*dun"cle  (?),  n. [Formed fr. (assumed) L. pedunculus, dim. of pes,
   pedis, a foot: cf. F. p\'82doncule.]

   1.  (Bot.)  The  stem  or stalk that supports the flower or fruit of a
   plant, or a cluster of flowers or fruits.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ul timate divisions or branches of a peduncle are
     called  pedicels. In the case of a solitary flower, the stalk would
     be called a peduncle if the flower is large, and a pedicel if it is
     small or delicate.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A sort of stem by which certain shells and barnacles are
   attached to other objects. See Illust. of Barnacle.

   3.  (Anat.)  A  band of nervous or fibrous matter connecting different
   parts of the brain; as, the peduncles of the cerebellum; the peduncles
   of the pineal gland.


   Pe*dun"cled  (?),  a.  Having  a  peduncle;  supported  on a peduncle;


   Pe*dun"cu*lar  (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82donculaire.] Of or pertaining to a
   peduncle; growing from a peduncle; as, a peduncular tendril.


   Pe*dun`cu*la"ta  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Peduncle.] (Zo\'94l.) A division
   of Cirripedia, including the stalked or goose barnacles.

                           Pedunculate, Pedunculated

   Pe*dun"cu*late   (?),   Pe*dun"cu*la`ted  (?),  a.  (Biol.)  Having  a
   peduncle;   growing  on  a  peduncle;  as,  a  pedunculate  flower;  a
   pedunculate eye, as in a lobster.


   Pee (?), n. See 1st Pea.


   Pee, n. (Naut.) Bill of an anchor. See Peak, 3 (c).


   Peece (?), n. & v. [Obs.] See Piece.


   Pee"chi (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The dauw.


   Peek  (?), v. i. [OE. piken: cf. F. piquer to pierce, prick, E. pique.
   Cf.  Peak.]  To look slyly, or with the eyes half closed, or through a
   crevice; to peep. [Colloq.]


   Peek"a*boo (?), n. A child's game; bopeep.


   Peel  (?),  n.  [OE.  pel.  Cf.  Pile a heap.] A small tower, fort, or
   castle; a keep. [Scot.]


   Peel,  n.  [F. pelle, L. pala.] A spadelike implement, variously used,
   as  for removing loaves of bread from a baker's oven; also, a T-shaped
   implement  used  by printers and bookbinders for hanging wet sheets of
   paper on lines or poles to dry. Also, the blade of an oar.


   Peel,  v.  t.  [Confused  with  peel  to  strip,  but fr. F. piller to
   pillage.  See  Pill  to rob, Pillage.] To plunder; to pillage; to rob.

     But  govern  ill  the  nations under yoke, Peeling their provinces.


   Peel,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Peeled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peeling.] [F.
   peler  to  pull  out  the  hair,  to  strip, to peel, fr. L. pilare to
   deprive  of  hair,  fr.  pilus a hair; or perh. partly fr. F. peler to
   peel  off  the  skin,  perh.  fr.  L. pellis skin (cf. Fell skin). Cf.

   1.  To  strip  off  the skin, bark, or rind of; to strip by drawing or
   tearing  off the skin, bark, husks, etc.; to flay; to decorticate; as,
   to peel an orange.

     The skillful shepherd peeled me certain wands. Shak.

   2.  To  strip  or  tear off; to remove by stripping, as the skin of an
   animal, the bark of a tree, etc.


   Peel, v. i. To lose the skin, bark, or rind; to come off, as the skin,
   bark,  or  rind does; -- often used with an adverb; as, the bark peels
   easily or readily.


   Peel, n. The skin or rind; as, the peel of an orange.


   Pee"le  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A graceful and swift South African antelope
   (Pelea  capreola).  The  hair  is woolly, and ash-gray on the back and
   sides.  The  horns  are black, long, slender, straight, nearly smooth,
   and very sharp. Called also rheeboc, and rehboc.


   Peel"er (?), n. One who peels or strips.


   Peel"er, n. [See Peel to plunder.] A pillager.


   Peel"er,  n.  A nickname for a policeman; -- so called from Sir Robert
   Peel. [British Slang] See Bobby.


   Peel"house` (?), n. See 1st Peel. Sir W. Scott.


   Peen  (?),  n.  [Cf. G. pinne pane of a hammer.] (a) A round-edged, or
   hemispherical,  end to the head of a hammer or sledge, used to stretch
   or bend metal by indentation. (b) The sharp-edged end of the head of a
   mason's hammer. [Spelt also pane, pein, and piend.]


   Peen,  v. t. To draw, bend, or straighten, as metal, by blows with the
   peen of a hammer or sledge.


   Peenge (?), v. i. To complain. [Scot.]


   Peep  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Peeped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peeping.]
   [Of  imitative  origin; cf. OE. pipen, F. piper, p\'82pier, L. pipire,
   pipare,  pipiare,  D.  & G. piepen. Senses 2 and 3 perhaps come from a
   transfer  of  sense  from the sound which chickens make upon the first
   breaking  of the shell to the act accompanying it; or perhaps from the
   influence of peek, or peak. Cf. Pipe.]

   1. To cry, as a chicken hatching or newly hatched; to chirp; to cheep.

     There was none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped.
     Is. x. 14.

   2.  To  begin  to  appear; to look forth from concealment; to make the
   first appearance.

     When flowers first peeped, and trees did blossoms bear. Dryden.

   Page 1058

   3. To look cautiously or slyly; to peer, as through a crevice; to pry.

     eep through the blanket of the dark. Shak.

     From her cabined loophole peep. Milton.

   Peep  sight,  an  adjustable  piece, pierced with a small hole to peep
   through  in  aiming,  attached  to  a  rifle or other firearm near the


   Peep (?), n.

   1. The cry of a young chicken; a chirp.

   2. First outlook or appearance.

     Oft have we seen him at the peep of dawn. Gray.

   3.  A  sly  look;  a  look  as  through  a crevice, or from a place of

     To take t' other peep at the stars. Swift.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) Any small sandpiper, as the least sandpiper (Trigna
   minutilla). (b) The European meadow pipit (Anthus pratensis).
   Peep  show, a small show, or object exhibited, which is viewed through
   an  orifice  or  a  magnifying  glass.  -- Peep-o'-day boys, the Irish
   insurgents  of 1784; -- so called from their visiting the house of the
   loyal Irish at day break in search of arms. [Cant]


   Peep"er (?), n.

   1. A chicken just breaking the shell; a young bird.

   2. One who peeps; a prying person; a spy.

     Who's there? peepers, . . . eavesdroppers? J. Webster.

   3. The eye; as, to close the peepers. [Colloq.]


   Peep"hole`  (?),  n.  A  hole,  or crevice, through which one may peep
   without being discovered.

                                 Peeping hole

   Peep"ing hole`. See Peephole.

                                  Peepul tree

   Pee"pul  tree`  (?).  [Hind.  p\'c6pal, Skr. pippala.] (Bot.) A sacred
   tree  (Ficus  religiosa)  of  the  Buddhists, a kind of fig tree which
   attains  great  size  and  venerable  age.  See Bo tree. [Written also
   pippul tree, and pipal tree.]


   Peer (?), v. i. [imp. & p.p Peered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peering.] [OF.
   parir,  pareir  equiv.  to  F.  para\'8ctre  to appear, L. parere. Cf.

   1. To come in sight; to appear. [Poetic]

     So honor peereth in the meanest habit. Shak.

     See how his gorget peers above his gown! B. Jonson.

   2.  [Perh.  a  different  word;  cf.  OE. piren, LG. piren. Cf. Pry to
   peep.]  To  look  narrowly  or curiously or intently; to peep; as, the
   peering day. Milton.

     Peering in maps for ports, and piers, and roads. Shak.

     As if through a dungeon grate he peered. Coleridge.


   Peer,  n.  [OE.  per, OF. per, F. pair, fr. L. par equal. Cf. Apparel,
   Pair, Par, n., Umpire.]

   1.  One  of  the  same  rank, quality, endowments, character, etc.; an
   equal; a match; a mate.

     In song he never had his peer. Dryden.

     Shall they consort only with their peers? I. Taylor.

   2. A comrade; a companion; a fellow; an associate.

     He all his peers in beauty did surpass. Spenser.

   3.  A  nobleman;  a  member  of one of the five degrees of the British
   nobility,  namely, duke, marquis, earl, viscount, baron; as, a peer of
   the realm.

     A noble peer of mickle trust and power. Milton.

   House of Peers, The Peers, the British House of Lords. See Parliament.
   --  Spiritual peers, the bishops and archibishops, or lords spiritual,
   who sit in the House of Lords.


   Peer v. t. To make equal in rank. [R.] Heylin.


   Peer v. t. To be, or to assume to be, equal. [R.]


   Peer"age (?), n. [See Peer an equal, and cf. Parage.]

   1. The rank or dignity of a peer. Blackstone.

   2. The body of peers; the nobility, collectively.

     When Charlemain with all his peerage fell. Milton.


   Peer"dom (?), n. Peerage; also, a lordship. [Obs.]


   Peer"ess, n. The wife of a peer; a woman ennobled in her own right, or
   by right of marriage.

                                 Peerie, Peery

   Peer"ie,  Peer"y  (?),  a. [See 1st Peer, 2.] Inquisitive; suspicious;
   sharp. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] "Two peery gray eyes." Sir W. Scott.


   Peer"less  (?),  a.  Having  no peer or equal; matchless; superlative.
   "Her peerless feature." Shak.

     Unvailed her peerless light. Milton.

   --Peer"less*ly, adv. -- Peer"less*ness, n.


   Peert (?), a. Same as Peart.


   Peer"weet (?), n. Same as Pewit (a & b).


   Pee"vish (?), a. [OE. pevische; of uncertain origin, perh. from a word
   imitative of the noise made by fretful children + -ish.]

   1. Habitually fretful; easily vexed or fretted; hard to please; apt to
   complain; querulous; petulant. "Her peevish babe." Wordsworth.

     She is peevish, sullen, froward. Shak.

   2.   Expressing   fretfulness   and   discontent,   or   unjustifiable
   dissatisfaction; as, a peevish answer.

   3. Silly; childish; trifling. [Obs.]

     To send such peevish tokens to a king. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Querulous;  petulant;  cross; ill-tempered; testy; captious;
   discontented. See Fretful.


   Pee"vish*ly, adv. In a peevish manner. Shak.


   Pee"vish*ness, n. The quality of being peevish; disposition to murmur;
   sourness of temper. Syn. -- See Petulance.

                                Peevit, Peewit

   Pee"vit (?), Pee"wit (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Pewit.


   Peg  (?),  n. [OE. pegge; cf. Sw. pigg, Dan. pig a point, prickle, and
   E. peak.]

   1.  A small, pointed piece of wood, used in fastening boards together,
   in attaching the soles of boots or shoes, etc.; as, a shoe peg.

   2.  A  wooden  pin,  or  nail, on which to hang things, as coats, etc.
   Hence,  colloquially and figuratively: A support; a reason; a pretext;
   as, a peg to hang a claim upon.

   3.  One  of the pins of a musical instrument, on which the strings are
   strained. Shak.

   4. One of the pins used for marking points on a cribbage board.

   5. A step; a degree; esp. in the slang phrase "To take one down peg."

     To screw papal authority to the highest peg. Barrow.

     And took your grandess down a peg. Hudibras.

   Peg  ladder,  a  ladder with but one standard, into which cross pieces
   are  inserted. -- Peg tankard, an ancient tankard marked with pegs, so
   as  divide  the  liquor into equal portions. "Drink down to your peg."
   Longfellow.  --  Peg tooth. See Fleam tooth under Fleam. -- Peg top, a
   boy's  top  which  is spun by throwing it. -- Screw peg, a small screw
   without a head, for fastening soles.


   Peg (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pegged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Pegging (?).]

   1.  To  put  pegs  into;  to fasten the parts of with pegs; as, to peg
   shoes; to confine with pegs; to restrict or limit closely.

     I will rend an oak And peg thee in his knotty entrails. Shak.

   2.  (Cribbage)  To  score  with  a peg, as points in the game; as, she
   pegged twelwe points. [Colloq.]


   Peg,  v. i. To work diligently, as one who pegs shoes; -- usually with
   on, at, or away; as, to peg away at a task.


   Pe`ga*dor"  (?),  n.  [Sp., a sticker.] (Zo\'94l.) A species of remora
   (Echeneis naucrates). See Remora.


   Pe*ga"se*an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Pegasus, or, figuratively, to


   Peg"a*soid  (?), a. [Pegasus + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like or pertaining to


   Peg"a*sus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Gr.  Myth.) A winged horse fabled to have sprung from the body of
   Medusa when she was slain. He is noted for causing, with a blow of his
   hoof,  Hippocrene, the inspiring fountain of the Muses, to spring from
   Mount Helicon. On this account he is, in modern times, associated with
   the Muses, and with ideas of poetic inspiration.

     Each spurs his jaded Pegasus apace. Byron.

   2.  (Astron.)  A  northen  constellation  near  the vernal equinoctial
   point.   Its  three  brightest  stars,  with  the  brightest  star  of
   Andromeda, form the square of Pegasus.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of small fishes, having large pectoral fins, and
   the  body  covered  with  hard, bony plates. Several species are known
   from the East Indies and China.


   Peg"ger (?), n. One who fastens with pegs.


   Peg"ging (?), n. The act or process of fastening with pegs.


   Pegm  (?),  n. [L. pegma a movable stage, Gr. A sort of moving machine
   employed in the old pageants. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Peg"ma*tite (?), n. [From Gr. pegmatite. See Pegm.] (Min.) (a) Graphic
   granite.  See  under  Granite.  (b)  More  generally, a coarse granite
   occurring as vein material in other rocks.


   Peg`ma*tit"ic  (?),  a.  (Min.)  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  resembling,
   pegmatite;  as,  the  pegmatic  structure  of certain rocks resembling
   graphic granite.


   Peg"ta*toid  (?),  a. [Pegmatite + -oid.] (Min.) Resembling pegmatite;


   Peg"o*man`cy (?), n. [Gr. -macy.] Divination by fountains. [R.]


   Peg"roots` (?), n. Same as Setterwort.


   Peh"le*vi`  (?),  n.  [Parsee  Pahlavi.] An ancient Persian dialect in
   which  words  were partly represented by their Semitic equivalents. It
   was  in use from the 3d century (and perhaps earlier) to the middle of
   the  7th  century,  and  later  in  religious  writings. [Written also


   Pein (?), n. See Peen.


   Pei*ram"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr. -meter.] A dynamometer for measuring the
   force   required  to  draw  wheel  carriages  on  roads  of  different
   constructions. G. Francis.


   Pei*ras"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Fitted  for  trail or test; experimental;
   tentative; treating of attempts.


   Peise  (?),  n. [See Poise.] A weight; a poise. [Obs.] "To weigh pence
   with a peise." Piers Plowman.


   Peise, v. t. To poise or weight. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Lest leaden slumber peise me down. Shak.


   Pei"trel (?), n. (Anc. Armor) See Peytrel.


   Pe*jor"a*tive  (?), a. [F. p\'82joratif, fr. L. pejor, used as compar.
   of  malus evil.] Implying or imputing evil; depreciatory; disparaging;


   Pek"an (?), n. [F. pekan.] (Zo\'94l.) See Fisher, 2.


   Pek"oe  (?), n. [Chin. pih-hoau: cf. F. peko\'89] A kind of black tea.
   [Written also pecco.]


   Pe"la (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Wax insect, under Wax.


   Pel"age  (?),  n.  [F.  pelage,  fr.  L.  pilus  hair.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   covering, or coat, of a mammal, whether of wool, fur, or hair.


   Pe*la"gi*an  (?),  a. [L. pelagius, Gr. p\'82lagien.] Of or pertaining
   to the sea; marine; pelagic; as, pelagian shells.


   Pe*la"gi*an,  n.  [L. Pelagianus: cf. F. p\'82lagien.] (Eccl. Hist.) A
   follower  of  Pelagius,  a British monk, born in the later part of the
   4th  century,  who  denied  the  doctrines  of  hereditary sin, of the
   connection between sin and death, and of conversion through grace.


   Pe*la"gi*an, a. [Cf. F. p\'82lagien.] Of or pertaining to Pelagius, or
   to his doctrines.


   Pe*la"gi*an*ism  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. p\'82lagianisme.] The doctrines of


   Pe*lag"ic  (?),  a.  [L. pelagicus.] Of or pertaining to the ocean; --
   applied  especially  to animals that live at the surface of the ocean,
   away from the coast.


   Pel`ar*gon"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or  designating, an
   organic  acid  (called  also  nonoic  acid) found in the leaves of the
   geranium (Pelargonium) and allied plants.


   Pel`ar*go"ni*um  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A large genus of plants
   of  the  order  Geraniace\'91,  differing  from  Geranium  in having a
   spurred calyx and an irregular corolla.

     NOTE: &hand; Ab out on e hu ndred an d se venty sp ecies are known,
     nearly  all  of  them natives of South Africa, and many having very
     beautiful blossoms. See the Note under Geranium.

                              Pelasgian, Pelasgic

   Pe*las"gi*an (?), Pe*las"gic (?), a. [L. Pelasgus, Gr.

   1. Of or pertaining to the Pelasgians, an ancient people of Greece, of
   roving habits.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Wandering.


   Pel"e*can (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Pelican.


   Pel`e*can`i*for"mes   (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Pelican,  and  -form.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Those birds that are related to the pelican; the Totipalmi.


   Pel"e*coid   (?),   n.   [Gr.   -oid.]   (Geom.)  A  figure,  somewhat
   hatched-shaped,  bounded  by  a semicircle and two inverted quadrants,
   and  equal  in  area  to the square ABCD inclosed by the chords of the
   four quadrants. [Written also pelicoid.] Math. Dict.


   Pel`e*cyp"o*da  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Pel"e*grine (?), a. See Peregrine. [Obs.]


   Pel"er*ine (?), n. [F. p\'8alerine a tippet, fr. p\'8alerin a pilgrim,
   fr.  L.  peregrinus  foreign,  alien.  See  Pilgrim.]  A woman's cape;
   especially, a fur cape that is longer in front than behind.


   Pelf  (?),  n.  [OE.  pelfir  booty,  OF.  pelfre,  akin to pelfrer to
   plunder,  and  perh. to E. pillage. Cf. Pilfer.] Money; riches; lucre;
   gain;  --  generally  conveying  the  idea  of something ill-gotten or
   worthless.  It  has  no  plural. "Mucky pelf." Spenser. "Paltry pelf."

     Can their pelf prosper, not got by valor or industry? Fuller.


   Pelf"ish, a. Of or pertaining to pelf. Stanyhurst.

                                Pelfray, Pelfry

   Pel"fray  (?),  Pel"fry  (?),  n.  Pelf;  also, figuratively, rubbish;
   trash. [Obs.] Cranmer.


   Pel"i*can  (?),  n.  [F.  p\'82lican,  L.  pelicanus,  pelecanus,  Gr.
   para&cced;u.] [Written also pelecan.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any large webfooted bird of the genus of Pelecanus, of
   which  about a dozen species are known. They have an enormous bill, to
   the  lower  edge of which is attached a pouch in which captured fishes
   are temporarily stored.

     NOTE: &hand; The American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)
     and the brown species (P. fuscus) are abundant on the Florida coast
     in  winter,  but  breed  about the lakes in the Rocky Mountains and
     British America.

   2. (Old Chem.) A retort or still having a curved tube or tubes leading
   back  from  the  head  to  the  body  for  continuous condensation and

     NOTE: &hand; Th e pr inciple is  st ill em ployed in certain modern
     forms of distilling apparatus.

   Frigate  pelican  (Zo\'94l.),  the frigate bird. See under Frigate. --
   Pelican  fish  (Zo\'94l.), deep-sea fish (Eurypharynx pelecanoides) of
   the  order  Lyomeri,  remarkable  for  the enormous development of the
   jaws, which support a large gular pouch. -- Pelican flower (Bot.), the
   very   large   and  curiously  shaped  blossom  of  a  climbing  plant
   (Aristolochia grandiflora) of the West Indies; also, the plant itself.
   --  Pelican  ibis  (Zo\'94l.),  a  large  Asiatic  wood ibis (Tantalus
   leucocephalus).  The  head  and  throat are destitute of feathers; the
   plumage  is  white,  with  the  quills and the tail greenish black. --
   Pelican   in   her   piety   (in   heraldry  and  symbolical  art),  a
   representation of a pelican in the act of wounding her breast in order
   to  nourish  her  young  with  her  blood;  --  a  practice fabulously
   attributed to the bird, on account of which it was adopted as a symbol
   of  the  Redeemer,  and  of  charity.  -- Pelican's foot (Zo\'94l.), a
   marine   gastropod  shell  of  the  genus  Aporrhais,  esp.  Aporrhais
   pes-pelicani of Europe.


   Pel"ick (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The American coot (Fulica).


   Pel"i*coid (?), n. See Pelecoid.


   Pel`i*co*sau"ri*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.) A suborder of
   Theromorpha,   including   terrestrial   reptiles   from  the  Permian


   Pe"li*om (?), n. [See Pelioma.] (Min.) A variety of iolite, of a smoky
   blue color; pelioma.


   Pe`li*o"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1. (Med.) A livid ecchymosis.

   2. (Min.) See Peliom.


   Pe*lisse" (?), n. [F., fr. L. pelliceus, pellicius, made of skins, fr.
   pellis  a  skin.  Cf.  Pelt  skin,  Pilch,  and see 2d Pell.] An outer
   garment  for  men  or  women,  originally of fur, or lined with fur; a
   lady's outer garment, made of silk or other fabric.


   Pell  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  Pelt, v. t.] To pelt; to knock about. [Obs.]


   Pell, n. [OF. pel, F. peau, L. pellis a skin. See Fell a skin.]

   1. A skin or hide; a pelt.

   2. A roll of parchment; a parchment record.
   Clerk  of the pells, formerly, an officer of the exchequer who entered
   accounts on certain parchment rolls, called pell rolls. [Eng.]
   Pel"lack (?), n. [Cf. Gael. Peileag.] (Zo\'94l.) A porpoise. 


   Pell"age (?), n. [See 2d Pell.] A customs duty on skins of leather.

   Page 1059


   Pel"la*grin  (?),  n.  One  who  is afficted with pellagra. Chambers's


   Pel"let  (?),  n.  [F. pelote, LL. pelota, pilota, fr. L. pila a ball.
   Cf. Platoon.]

   1. A little ball; as, a pellet of wax .

   2. A bullet; a ball for firearms. [Obs.] Bacon.

     As swift as a pellet out of a gun. Chaucer.

   Pellet  molding  (Arch.),  a  narrow  band ornamented with smalt, flat


   Pel"let, v. To form into small balls. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pel"let*ed, a. Made of, or like, pellets; furnished with pellets. [R.]
   "This pelleted storm." Shak.


   Pel`li*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. pellis garment + branchia a
   gill.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  division of Nudibranchiata, in which the mantle
   itself serves as a gill.


   Pel"li*cle   (?),  n.  [L.  pellicu,  dim.  of  pellis  skin:  cf.  F.

   1. A thin skin or film.

   2.  (Chem.)  A  thin  film  formed  on  the  surface of an evaporating


   Pel*lic"u*lar (?), a. Of or pertaining to a pellicle. Henslow.


   Pel*li"le (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The redshank; -- so called from its note.
   [Prov. Eng.]


   Pel"li*to*ry  (?), n. [OE. paritorie, OF. paritoire, F. pari\'82taire;
   (cf. It. & Sp. parietaria), L. parietaria the parietary, or pellitory,
   the  wall  plant,  fr.  parietarus belonging to the walls, fr. paries,
   parietis a wall. Cf. Parietary.] (Bot.) The common name of the several
   species  of  the  genus  Parietaria, low, harmless weeds of the Nettle
   family; -- also called wall pellitory, and lichwort.

     NOTE: &hand; Pa rietaria of ficinalis is  co mmon on  ol d walls in
     Europe;  P.Pennsylvanica  is found in the United States; and six or
     seven  more  species  are  found  near the Mediterranean, or in the


   Pel"li*to*ry,  n. [Sp. pelitre, fr. L. pyrethrum. See Bertram.] (Bot.)
   (a)  A  composite  plant  (Anacyclus  Pyrethrum)  of the Mediterranean
   region,  having finely divided leaves and whitish flowers. The root is
   the  officinal  pellitory,  and is used as an irritant and sialogogue.
   Called  also  bertram,  and  pellitory  of  Spain.  (b)  The  feverfew
   (Chrysanthemum  Parthenium);  --  so  called  because it resembles the


   Pell`-mell" (, n. See Pall-mall.


   Pell`mell",  adv.  [F.  p\'88le-m\'88le,  prob.  fr.  pelle a shovel +
   m\'88ler  to  mix,  as when different kinds of grain are heaped up and
   mixed  with  a  shovel.  See Pell shovel, Medley.] In utter confusion;
   with  confused  violence.  "Men,  horses, chariots, crowded pellmell."


   Pel*lu"cid  (?),  a.  [L.  pellucidus; per (see Per-) + lucidus clear,
   bright:  cf.  F.  pellucide.] Transparent; clear; limpid; translucent;
   not  opaque.  "Pellucid  crystal."  Dr.  H.  More. "Pellucid streams."

                           Pellucidity, Pellucidness

   Pel`lu*cid"i*ty  (?),  Pel*lu"cid*ness  (?), n. [L. pelluciditas.] The
   quality  or  state  of  being  pellucid;  transparency;  translucency;
   clearness; as, the pellucidity of the air. Locke.


   Pel*lu"cid*ly, adv. In a pellucid manner.


   Pel"ma  (?),  n.;  pl. Pelmata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The under
   surface of the foot.<-- = sole? -->


   Pe*lo"pi*um (?), n. [NL., fr. L. Pelops, brother of Niobe, Gr. (Chem.)
   A  supposed  new  metal  found  in  columbite,  afterwards shown to be
   identical with columbium, or niobium.


   Pel`o*pon*ne"sian  (?), a. [L. Peloponnesius, fr. Peloponnesus, Gr. Of
   or pertaining to the Peloponnesus, or southern peninsula of Greece. --
   n. A native or an inhabitant of the Peloponnesus.


   Pe*lo"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  Gr. (Bot.) Abnormal regularity; the
   state  of  certain  flowers,  which,  being  naturally irregular, have
   become  regular  through  a  symmetrical  repetition  of  the  special


   Pe*lo"ric (?), a. (Bot.) Abnormally regular or symmetrical. Darwin.


   Pel"o*tage (?), n. [F.] Packs or bales of Spanish wool.


   Pelt (?), n. [Cf. G. pelz a pelt, fur, fr. OF. pelice, F. pelisse (see
   Pelisse); or perh. shortened fr. peltry.]

   1.  The  skin  of a beast with the hair on; a raw or undressed hide; a
   skin  preserved with the hairy or woolly covering on it. See 4th Fell.
   Sir T. Browne.

     Raw pelts clapped about them for their clothes. Fuller.

   2. The human skin. [Jocose] Dryden.

   3. (Falconry) The body of any quarry killed by the hawk.
   Pelt rot, a disease affecting the hair or wool of a beast.


   Pelt,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Pelted; p. pr. & vb. n. Pelting.] [OE.
   pelten,  pulten,  pilten,  to  thrust,  throw, strike; cf. L. pultare,
   equiv.  to  pulsare  (v.  freq.  fr. pellere to drive), and E. pulse a

   1.  To  strike with something thrown or driven; to assail with pellets
   or missiles, as, to pelt with stones; pelted with hail.

     The children billows seem to pelt the clouds. Shak.

   2. To throw; to use as a missile.

     My Phillis me with pelted apples plies. Dryden.


   Pelt, v. i.

   1. To throw missiles. Shak.

   2. To throw out words. [Obs.]

     Another smothered seems to peltand swear. Shak.


   Pelt, n. A blow or stroke from something thrown.


   Pel"ta (?), n.; pl. Pelt\'91. [L., a shield, fr. Gr.

   1.  (Antiq.)  A  small  shield,  especially  one  of  an approximately
   elliptic form, or crescent-shaped.

   2. (Bot.) A flat apothecium having no rim.

                               Peltate, Peltated

   Pel"tate  (?),  Pel"ta*ted  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  pelt\'82.  See Pelta.]
   Shield-shaped;  scutiform;  (Bot.) having the stem or support attached
   to  the  lower surface, instead of at the base or margin; -- said of a
   leaf or other organ. -- Pel"tate*ly (#), adv.


   Pelt"er (?), n. One who pelts.


   Pel"ter  (?),  n.  A  pinchpenny;  a  mean,  sordid person; a miser; a
   skinflint. [Obs.] "Let such pelters prate." Gascoigne.


   Pel"ti*form  (?),  a.  [Pelta  +  -form.] Shieldlike, with the outline
   nearly circular; peltate. <-- #! original has "pellate", but should be
   "peltate" --> Henslow.


   Pel"ting (?), a. Mean; paltry. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pelt"ry  (?),  n.  [F.  pelleterie  peltry,  furriery, fr. pelletier a
   furrier,  fr.  OF. pel skin, F. peau, L. pelis. See Pelt a skin, Pell,
   n.,  Fell a skin.] Pelts or skins, collectively; skins with the fur on
   them; furs.


   Pelt"ry*ware` (?), n. Peltry. [Obs.]


   Pe*lu"do  (?),  n.  [Sp.  peludo hairy.] (Zo\'94l.) The South American
   hairy armadillo (Dasypus villosus).


   Pe*lu"si*ac  (?), a. [L. Pelusiacus.] Of or pertaining to Pelusium, an
   ancient  city of Egypt; as, the Pelusiac (or former eastern) outlet of
   the Nile.


   Pel"vic  (?),  a.  Of, pertaining to, or in the region of, the pelvis;
   as,  pelvic cellulitis. Pelvic arch, OR Pelvic girdle (Anat.), the two
   or  more  bony  or  cartilaginous pieces of the vertebrate skeleton to
   which  the  hind  limbs are articulated. When fully ossified, the arch
   usually  consists  of  three  principal bones on each side, the ilium,
   ischium,  and  pubis,  which  are  often  closely united in the adult,
   forming the innominate bone. See Innominate bone, under Innominate.


   Pel*vim"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Pelvis  + -meter.: cf. F. pelvim\'8atre.] An
   instrument for measuring the dimensions of the pelvis. Coxe.


   Pel"vis (?), n. [L., a basin, laver; cf. Gr.

   1.  (Anat.)  The  pelvic  arch,  or  the pelvic arch together with the
   sacrum. See Pelvic arch, under Pelvic, and Sacrum.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The calyx of a crinoid.
   Pelvis  of  the  kidney  (Anat.),  the basinlike cavity into which the
   ureter expands as it joins the kidney.


   Pem"mi*can (?), n. [Written also pemican.]

   1. Among the North American Indians, meat cut in thin slices, divested
   of fat, and dried in the sun.

     Then on pemican they feasted. Longfellow.

   2.  Meat,  without  the  fat,  cut  in  thin slices, dried in the sun,
   pounded,  then  mixed  with  melted fat and sometimes dried fruit, and
   compressed  into cakes or in bags. It contains much nutriment in small
   compass, and is of great use in long voyages of exploration.


   Pem*phi"gus (?), n. [Nl., fr. Gr. (Med.) A somewhat rare skin disease,
   characterized  by  the development of blebs upon different part of the
   body. Quain.


   Pen (?), n. [OE. penne, OF. penne, pene, F. penne, fr. L. penna.]

   1. A feather. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2. A wing. [Obs.] Milton.

   3.  An  instrument used for writing with ink, formerly made of a reed,
   or  of  the  quill  of  a  goose  or other bird, but now also of other
   materials, as of steel, gold, etc. Also, originally, a stylus or other
   instrument for scratching or graving.

     Graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock. Job xix. 24.

   4.  Fig.:  A  writer,  or  his  style;  as, he has a sharp pen. "Those
   learned pens." Fuller.

   5. (Zo\'94l.) The internal shell of a squid.

   6.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  female swan. [Prov. Eng.]<--
   contrast cob, the male swan -->
   Bow  pen. See Bow-pen. -- Dotting pen, a pen for drawing dotted lines.
   --  Drawing,  OR  Ruling, pen, a pen for ruling lines having a pair of
   blades  between which the ink is contained. -- Fountain pen, Geometric
   pen.  See  under  Fountain,  and Geometric. -- Music pen, a pen having
   five  points  for drawing the five lines of the staff. -- Pen and ink,
   OR pen-and-ink, executed or done with a pen and ink; as, a pen and ink
   sketch.  --  Pen feather. A pin feather. [Obs.] -- Pen name. See under
   Name. -- Sea pen (Zo\'94l.), a pennatula. [Usually written sea-pen.]


   Pen,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Penned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Penning (?).] To
   write;  to  compose and commit to paper; to indite; to compose; as, to
   pen a sonnet. "A prayer elaborately penned." Milton.


   Pen, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Penned (?) or Pent (p. pr. & vb. n. Penning.]
   [OE.  pennen, AS. pennan in on-pennan to unfasten, prob. from the same
   source  as  pin, and orig. meaning, to fasten with a peg.See Pin, n. &
   v.]  To  shut up, as in a pen or cage; to confine in a small inclosure
   or  narrow  space; to coop up, or shut in; to inclose. "Away with her,
   and pen her up." Shak.

     Watching where shepherds pen their flocks at eve. Milton.


   Pen,  n. [From Pen to shut in.] A small inclosure; as, a pen for sheep
   or for pigs.

     My father stole two geese out of a pen. Shak.


   Pe"nal  (?),  a.  [L. poenalis, fr. poena punishment: cf. F. p\'82nal.
   See  Pain.] Of or pertaining to punishment, to penalties, or to crimes
   and  offenses;  pertaining to criminal jurisprudence: as: (a) Enacting
   or  threatening  punishment;  as,  a penal statue; the penal code. (b)
   Incurring punishment; subject to a penalty; as, a penalact of offense.
   (c)  Inflicted  as  punishment;  used  as a means of punishment; as, a
   penal  colony  or  settlement.  "Adamantine  chains  and  penal fire."
   Milton.  Penal  code  (Law),  a  code  of  laws  concerning crimes and
   offenses  and  their  punishment. -- Penal laws, Penal statutes (Law),
   laws  prohibited  certain  acts, and imposing penalties for committing
   them.  --  Penal servitude, imprisonment with hard labor, in a prison,
   in  lieu  of transportation. [Great Brit.] -- Penal suit, Penal action
   (Law), a suit for penalties.


   Pe*nal"i*ty  (?), n. [Cf. LL. poenalitas. See Penalty.] The quality or
   state of being penal; lability to punishment. Sir T. Browne.


   Pe"nal*ize (?), v. t.

   1. To make penal.

   2. (Sport.) To put a penalty on. See Penalty, 3. [Eng.]


   Pe"nal*ly (?), adv. In a penal manner.


   Pe"nal*ty (?), n.; pl. Penalties (#). [F. p\'82nalit\'82. See Penal.]

   1.  Penal  retribution; punishment for crime or offense; the suffering
   in  person or property which is annexed by law or judicial decision to
   the commission of a crime, offense, or trespass.

     Death is the penalty imposed. Milton.

   2.  The  suffering,  or  the  sum  to  be forfeited, to which a person
   subjects  himself  by covenant or agreement, in case of nonfulfillment
   of stipulations; forfeiture; fine.

     The penalty and forfeit of my bond. Shak.

   3. A handicap. [Sporting Cant]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm pe nalty is  in  la w mo stly ap plied to a
     pecuniary punishment.

   Bill  of pains and penalties. See under Bill. -- On, OR Under, penalty
   of,  on  pain  of;  with  exposure  to  the  penalty  of,  in  case of


   Pen"ance  (?),  n.  [OF. penance, peneance, L. paenitentia repentance.
   See Penitence.]

   1. Repentance. [Obs.] Wyclif (Luke xv. 7).

   2.  Pain;  sorrow; suffering. [Obs.] "Joy or penance he feeleth none."

   3.  (Eccl.) A means of repairing a sin committed, and obtaining pardon
   for  it,  consisting  partly  in  the  performance of expiatory rites,
   partly  in  voluntary  submission to a punishment corresponding to the
   transgression.  Penance is the fourth of seven sacraments in the Roman
   Catholic Church. Schaff-Herzog Encyc.

     And bitter penance, with an iron whip. Spenser.

     Quoth  he,  "The  man hath penance done, And penance more will do."


   Pen"ance,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Penanced (?).] To impose penance; to
   punish. "Some penanced lady elf." Keats.


   Pen"ance*less, a. Free from penance. [R.]

                                  Penang nut

   Pe*nang"  nut`  (?).  [From  the  native  name.] (Bot.) The betel nut.
   Balfour (Cyc. of India).


   Pen*an"nu*lar  (?),  a.  [L. pene, paene, almost + E. annular.] Nearly
   annular;  having  nearly  the  form of a ring. "Penannular relics." D.


   Pe"na*ry (?), a. Penal. [Obs.] Gauden.


   Pe*na"tes  (?),  n.  pl.  [L.] (Rom. Antiq.) The household gods of the
   ancient Romans. They presided over the home and the family hearth. See


   Pen"aunt  (?),  n.  [OF.  penant,  peneant. See Penitent.] A penitent.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pence (?), n., pl. of Penny. See Penny. <-- chiefly Brit. -->


   Pen"cel  (?),  n.  [See  Pennoncel.]  A small, narrow flag or streamer
   borne  at  the  top of a lance; -- called also pennoncel. [Obs.] Piers
   Plowman. Chaucer.


   Pen`chant"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  pencher  to  bend,  fr. (assumed) LL.
   pendicare, L. pendere. See Pendant.] Inclination; decided taste; bias;
   as, a penchant for art.


   Pen"chute` (?), n. See Penstock.


   Pen"cil  (?),  n.  [OF. pincel, F. pinceau, L. penicillum, penicillus,
   equiv. to peniculus, dim. of penis a tail. Cf. Penicil.]

   1. A small, fine brush of hair or bristles used by painters for laying
   on colors.

     With subtile pencil depainted was this storie. Chaucer.

   2.  A  slender  cylinder  or strip of black lead, colored chalk, slate
   etc.,  or  such  a  cylinder  or  strip inserted in a small wooden rod
   intended  to  be  pointed, or in a case, which forms a handle, -- used
   for drawing or writing. See Graphite.

   3.  Hence, figuratively, an artist's ability or peculiar manner; also,
   in  general,  the act or occupation of the artist, descriptive writer,

   4. (Opt.) An aggregate or collection of rays of light, especially when
   diverging from, or converging to, a point.

   5. (Geom.) A number of lines that intersect in one point, the point of
   intersection being called the pencil point.

   6. (Med.) A small medicated bougie.
   Pencil  case,  a  holder  for pencil lead. -- Pencil flower (Bot.), an
   American  perennial  leguminous herb (Stylosanthes elatior). -- Pencil
   lead,  a slender rod of black lead, or the like, adapted for insertion
   in a holder.


   Pen"cil,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Penciled (?) or Pencilled; p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Penciling or Pencilling.] To write or mark with a pencil; to paint
   or to draw. Cowper.

     Where nature pencils butterflies on flowers. Harte.


   Pen"ciled (?), a. [Written also pencilled.]

   1. Painted, drawn, sketched, or marked with a pencil.

   2. Radiated; having pencils of rays.

   3. (Nat. Hist.) Marked with parallel or radiating lines.


   Pen"cil*ing (?), n. [Written also pencilling.]

   1.  The  work  of  the  pencil  or  bruch; as, delicate penciling in a

   2.  (Brickwork)  Lines  of  white  or black paint drawn along a mortar
   joint in a brick wall. Knight.

                            Pencillate, Pencillated

   Pen"cil*late  (?),  Pen"cil*la`ted  (?),  a.  Shaped  like  a  pencil;


   Pen"craft (?), n.

   1. Penmanship; skill in writing; chirography.

   2. The art of composing or writing; authorship.

     I would not give a groat for that person's knowledge in pencraft. S

   Page 1060

   Page 1060


   Pend (?), n. Oil cake; penock. [India]


   Pend,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Pended; p. pr. & vb. n. Pending.] [L.

   1. To hang; to depend. [R.]

     Pending upon certain powerful motions. I. Taylor.

   2. To be undecided, or in process of adjustment.


   Pend,  v.  t.  [Cf.  pen  to  shut  in,  or  AS.  pyndan,  E. pound an
   inclosure.] To pen; to confine. [R.]

     ended within the limits . . . of Greece. Udall.


   Pend"ant  (?),  n. [F., orig. p.pr. of pendre to hang, L. pendere. Cf.
   Pendent, Pansy, Pensive, Poise, Ponder.]

   1.  Something  which  hangs or depends; something suspended; a hanging
   appendage,  especially  one  of  an  ornamental  character;  as  to  a
   chandelier or an eardrop; also, an appendix or addition, as to a book.

     Some hang upon the pendants of her ear. Pope.

     Many  .  .  . have been pleased with this work and its pendant, the
     Tales and Popular Fictions. Keightley.

   2.  (Arch.)  A hanging ornament on roofs, ceilings, etc., much used in
   the  later styles of Gothic architecture, where it is of stone, and an
   important  part  of  the construction. There are imitations in plaster
   and  wood,  which are mere decorative features. "[A bridge] with . . .
   pendants graven fair." Spenser.

   3.  (Fine  Arts)  One  of  a  pair; a counterpart; as, one vase is the
   pendant to the other vase.

   4. A pendulum. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby.

   5.  The  stem  and  ring  of a watch, by which it is suspended. [U.S.]
   Pendant  post (Arch.), a part of the framing of an open timber roof; a
   post  set  close  against the wall, and resting upon a corbel or other
   solid support, and supporting the ends of a collar beam or any part of
   the roof.


   Pend"ence  (?),  n.  [See  Pendent.] Slope; inclination. [Obs.] Sir H.


   Pend"en*cy (?), n.

   1. The quality or state of being pendent or suspended.

   2.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  undecided,  or in continuance;
   suspense; as, the pendency of a suit. Ayliffe.


   Pend"ent  (?), a. [L. pendens, -entis, p.pr. of pendere to hang, to be
   suspended. Cf. Pendant.]

   1. Supported from above; suspended; depending; pendulous; hanging; as,
   a pendent leaf. "The pendent world." Shak.

     Often  their  tresses,  when  shaken,  with pendent icicles tinkle.

   2. Jutting over; projecting; overhanging. "A vapor sometime like a . .
   . pendent rock." Shak.


   Pen*den"tive  (?),  n. [F. pendentif, fr. L. pendere to hang.] (Arch.)
   (a)  The  portion of a vault by means of which the square space in the
   middle  of  a building is brought to an octagon or circle to receive a
   cupola.  (b)  The  part  of a groined vault which is supported by, and
   springs from, one pier or corbel.


   Pend"ent*ly, adv. In a pendent manner.


   Pen"dice  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Pentice.]  A  sloping  roof;  a  lean-to;  a
   penthouse. [Obs.] Fairfax.


   Pen"di*cle (?), n. [Cf. Appendicle.] An appendage; something dependent
   on another; an appurtenance; a pendant. Sir W. Scott.


   Pen*di*cler  (?),  n.  An inferior tenant; one who rents a pendicle or
   croft. [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Pend"ing  (?),  a. [L. pendere to hang, to be suspended. Cf. Pendent.]
   Not yet decided; in continuance; in suspense; as, a pending suit.


   Pend"ing, prep. During; as, pending the trail.


   Pen"drag*on (?), n. A chief leader or a king; a head; a dictator; -- a
   title  assumed by the ancient British chiefs when called to lead other

     The dread Pendragon, Britain's king of kings. Tennyson.


   Pen"du*lar (?), a. Pendulous.


   Pen"du*late (?), v. i. To swing as a pendulum. [R.]


   Pen"dule (?), n. [F.] A pendulum. [R.] Evelyn.


   Pen"du`line  (?), n. [F. See Pendulum.] (Zo\'94l.) A European titmouse
   (Parus,  OR  \'92githalus,  pendulinus).  It  is noted for its elegant
   pendulous  purselike  nest, made of the down of willow trees and lined
   with feathers.


   Pen`du*los"i*ty (?), n. [See Pendulous.] The state or quality of being
   pendulous. Sir T. Browne.


   Pen"du*lous  (?),  a.  [L. pendulus, fr. pendere to hang. Cf. Pendant,
   and cf. Pendulum.]

   1. Depending; pendent loosely; hanging; swinging. Shak. "The pendulous
   round earth. Milton.

   2.  Wavering;  unstable;  doubtful.  [R.] "A pendulous state of mind."

   3.  (Bot.)  Inclined  or  hanging downwards, as a flower on a recurved
   stalk, or an ovule which hangs from the upper part of the ovary.


   Pen"du*lous*ly, adv. In a pendulous manner.


   Pen"du*lous*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state of being pendulous; the
   state of hanging loosely; pendulosity.


   Pen"du*lum  (?), n.; pl. Pendulums (#). [NL., fr. L. pendulus hanging,
   swinging. See Pendulous.] A body so suspended from a fixed point as to
   swing  freely  to  and  fro  by  the  alternate  action of gravity and
   momentum.  It is used to regulate the movements of clockwork and other

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ti me of oscillation of a pendulum is independent
     of the arc of vibration, provided this arc be small.

   Ballistic  pendulum.  See under Ballistic. -- Compensation pendulum, a
   clock  pendulum  in  which the effect of changes of temperature of the
   length  of  the  rod  is  so  counteracted,  usually  by  the opposite
   expansion  of  differene  metals,  that  the distance of the center of
   oscillation  from the center of suspension remains invariable; as, the
   mercurial  compensation pendulum, in which the expansion of the rod is
   compensated by the opposite expansion of mercury in a jar constituting
   the  bob;  the gridiron pendulum, in which compensation is effected by
   the opposite expansion of sets of rodsof different metals. -- Compound
   pendulum,  an  ordinary  pendulum;  --  so called, as being made up of
   different  parts,  and  contrasted with simple pendulum. -- Conical OR
   Revolving,  pendulum,  a weight connected by a rod with a fixed point;
   and  revolving  in  a  horizontal  cyrcle about the vertical from that
   point.  -- Pendulum bob, the weight at the lower end of a pendulum. --
   Pendulum level, a plumb level. See under Level. -- Pendulum wheel, the
   balance  of  a watch. -- Simple OR Theoretical, pendulum, an imaginary
   pendulum  having  no dimensions except length, and no weight except at
   the  center of oscillation; in other words, a material point suspended
   by an ideal line.


   Pe*nel"o*pe  (?), n. [From. L. Penelope, the wife of Ulysses, the hero
   of  the  Odyssey,  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of curassows, including the


   Pen`e*tra*bil"i*ty   (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  p\'82n\'82trabilit\'82.]  The
   quality  of  being  penetrable;  susceptibility  of  being penetrated,
   entered, or pierced. Cheyne.


   Pen"e*tra*ble  (?),  a.  [L.  penetrabilus:  cf. F. p\'82n\'82trable.]
   Capable   of   being   penetrated,  entered,  or  pierced.  Used  also

     And pierce his only penetrable part. Dryden.

     I  am  not  made  of  stones, But penetrable to your kind entreats.

   -- Pen"e*tra*ble*ness, n. -- Pen"e*tra*bly, adv.


   Pen"e*trail (?), n. Penetralia. [Obs.] Harvey.


   Pen`e*tra"li*a  (?), n. pl. [L., fr. penetralis penetrating, internal.
   See Penetrate.]

   1. The recesses, or innermost parts, of any thing or place, especially
   of a temple or palace.

   2.  Hidden  things  or  secrets;  privacy;  sanctuary;  as, the sacred
   penetralia of the home.

                            Penetrance, Penetrancy

   Pen"e*trance  (?), Pen"e*tran*cy (?), n. The quality or state of being
   penetrant;  power  of  entering  or  piercing;  penetrating  power  of
   quality; as, the penetrancy of subtile effluvia.


   Pen"e*trant  (?),  a.  [L.  penetrans,  p.pr.  of  penetrare:  cf.  F.
   p\'82n\'82trant.] Having power to enter or pierce; penetrating; sharp;
   subtile;  as,  penetrant  cold.  "Penetrant  and  powerful arguments."


   Pen"e*trate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Penetrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Penetrating.]  [L. penetratus, p.p. of penetrare to penetrate; akin to
   penitus  inward,  inwardly,  and  perh. to pens with, in the power of,
   penus store of food, innermost part of a temple.]

   1.  To  enter  into;  to  make  way into the interior of; to effect an
   entrance into; to pierce; as, light penetrates darkness.

   2.  To affect profoundly through the senses or feelings; to touch with
   feeling;  to  make  sensible;  to  move deeply; as, to penetrate one's
   heart with pity. Shak.

     The  translator  of  Homer should penetrate himself with a sense of
     the plainness and directness of Homer's style. M. Arnold.

   3.  To  pierce  into  by  the mind; to arrive at the inner contents or
   meaning of, as of a mysterious or difficult subject; to comprehend; to

     Things which here were too subtile for us to penetrate. Ray.


   Pen"e*trate,  v.  i.  To  pass;  to  make  way;  to  pierce. Also used

     Preparing to penetrate to the north and west. J. R. Green.

     Born where Heaven's influence scarce can penetrate. Pope.

     The sweet of life that penetrates so near. Daniel.


   Pen"e*tra`ting (?), a.

   1.  Having  the  power  of  entering,  piercing,  or pervading; sharp;
   subtile; penetrative; as, a penetrating odor.

   2.  Acute; discerning; sagacious; quick to discover; as, a penetrating


   Pen"e*tra`ting*ly, adv. In a penetrating manner.


   Pen"e*tra`tion (?), n. [L. penetratio: cf. F. p\'82n\'82tration.]

   1. The act or process of penetrating, piercing, or entering; also, the
   act   of   mentally   penetrating  into,  or  comprehending,  anything

     And  to  each in ward part, With gentle penetration, though unseen,
     Shoots invisible virtue even to the deep. Milton.

     A penetration into the difficulties of algebra. Watts.

   2.  Acuteness;  insight; sharp discoverment; sagacity; as, a person of
   singular   penetration.   Walpole.   Syn.  --  Discernment;  sagacity;
   acuteness; sharpness; discrimination. See Discernment, and Sagacity.


   Pen"e*tra*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82n\'82tratif.]

   1.  Tending  to penetrate; of a penetrating quality; piercing; as, the
   penetrative sun.

     His look became keen and penetrative. Hawthorne.

   2.  Having  the  power  to  affect  or  impress  the  mind  or  heart;
   impressive; as, penetrative shame. Shak.

   3.   Acute;   discerning;  sagacious;  as,  penetrative  wisdom.  "The
   penetrative eye." Wordsworth.

     Led on by skill of penetrative soul. Grainger.


   Pen"e*tra*tive*ness, n. The quality of being penetrative.


   Pen"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A squid.


   Pen"fold` (?), n. See Pinfold.


   Pen"go*lin (?), n. (Zo\'94l.)The pangolin.


   Pen"guin (?), n. [Perh. orig. the name of another bird, and fr. W. pen
   head + gwyn white; or perh. from a native South American name.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) Any bird of the order Impennes, or Ptilopteri. They are
   covered  with  short,  thick  feathers, almost scalelike on the wings,
   which  are  without true quills. They are unable to fly, but use their
   wings  to  aid  in  diving,  in  which  they are very expert. See King
   penguin, under Jackass.

     NOTE: &hand; Pe  nguins ar e fo und in  th e so uth te mperate an d
     antarctic  regions. The king penguins (Aptenodytes Patachonica, and
     A. longirostris) are the largest; the jackass penguins (Spheniscus)
     and  the  rock hoppers (Catarractes) congregate in large numbers at
     their breeding grounds.

   2. (Bot.) The egg-shaped fleshy fruit of a West Indian plant (Bromelia
   Pinguin)  of  the  Pineapple family; also, the plant itself, which has
   rigid,  pointed,  and  spiny-toothed  leaves,  and is used for hedges.
   [Written also pinguin.]
   Arctic penguin (Zo\'94l.), the great auk. See Auk.


   Pen"guin*er*y  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  breeding place, or rookery, of


   Pen"hold`er (?), n. A handle for a pen.


   Pen"house` (?), n. A penthouse. [Obs.]


   Pen*i"ble  (?), a. [OF. penible. Cf. Painable.] Painstaking; assidous.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pen"i*cil  (?),  n.  [L.  penicillum, penicillus, a painter's brush, a
   roil  of  lint,  a  tent  for wounds.] (mented.) A tent or pledget for
   wounds or ulcers.


   Pen`i*cil"late  (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82nicill\'82. See Penicil.] (Biol.)
   Having  the  form  of a pencil; furnished with a pencil of fine hairs;
   ending in a tuft of hairs like a camel's-hair brush, as the stigmas of
   some grasses.


   Pen`i*cil"li*form (?), a. (Bot.) Penicillate.


   Pen*in"su*la  (?),  n.  [L.  peninsula  or  paeninsula; paene almost +
   insula  an  island.  See Isle.] A portion of land nearly surrounded by
   water, and connected with a larger body by a neck, or isthmus.


   Pen*in"su*lar  (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82ninsulaire.] Of or pertaining to a
   peninsula;  as,  a  peninsular form; peninsular people; the peninsular


   Pen*in"su*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peninsulated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Peninsulating.] To form into a peninsula.

     South River . . . peninsulates Castle Hill farm. W. Bentley.


   Pe"nis (?), n. [L.] (Anat.) The male member, or organ of generation.


   Pen"i*tence  (?),  n.  [F. p\'82nitence, L. paenitentia. See Penitent,
   and  cf.  Penance.]  The  quality  or condition of being penitent; the
   disposition  of  a  penitent;  sorrow  for sins or faults; repentance;
   contrition. "Penitence of his old guilt." Chaucer.

     Death  is  deferred,  and  penitenance has room To mitigate, if not
     reverse, the doom. Dryden.

   Syn. -- Repentance; contrition; compunction.


   Pen"i*ten*cer   (?),  n.  [F.  p\'82nitencier.]  A  priest  who  heard
   confession  and enjoined penance in extraordinary cases. [Written also
   penitenser.] [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pen"i*ten*cy (?), n. Penitence. [Obs.]


   Pen"i*tent  (?),  a. [F. p\'82nitent, L. paenitens, -entis, poenitens,
   p.pr.  of  paenitere,  poenitere, to cause to repent, to repent; prob.
   akin to poena punishment. See Pain.]

   1.  Feeling  pain or sorrow on account of sins or offenses; repentant;
   contrite;  sincerely  affected  by  a  sense of guilt, and resolved on
   amendment of life.

     Be penitent, and for thy fault contrite. Milton.

     The pound he tamed, the penitent he cheered. Dryden.

   2. Doing penance. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pen"i*tent, n.

   1.   One  who  repents  of  sin;  one  sorrowful  on  account  of  his

   2.  One  under church censure, but admitted to penance; one undergoing

   3. One under the direction of a confessor.

     NOTE: &hand; Pe  nitents is   an   ap pellation gi ven to  ce rtain
     fraternities  in  Roman  Catholic countries, distinguished by their
     habit, and employed in charitable acts.


   Pen`i*ten"tial  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. p\'82nitentiel.] Of or pertaining to
   penitence,  or  to  penance;  expressing  penitence;  of the nature of
   penance;  as,  the  penitential  book; penitential tears. "Penitential
   stripes." Cowper.

     Guilt  that all the penitential fires of hereafter can not cleanse.
     Sir W. Scott.


   Pen`i*ten"tial, n. (R. C. Ch.) A book formerly used by priests hearing
   confessions,  containing  rules  for  the  imposition  of penances; --
   called also penitential book.


   Pen`i*ten"tial*ly, adv. In a penitential manner.


   Pen`i*ten"tia*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82nitentiaire.]

   1.  Relating  to  penance, or to the rules and measures of penance. "A
   penitentiary tax." Abp. Bramhall.

   2. Expressive of penitence; as, a penitentiary letter.

   3.  Used  for  punishment,  discipline, and reformation. "Penitentiary
   houses." Blackstone.


   Pen`i*ten"tia*ry,  n.; pl. Penitentiaries (#). [Cf. F. p\'82nitencier.
   See Penitent.]

   1. One who prescribes the rules and measures of penance. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2. One who does penance. [Obs.] Hammond.

   3. A small building in a monastery where penitents confessed. Shpiley.

   4. That part of a church to which penitents were admitted. Shipley.

   5.  (R.  C. Ch.) (a) An office of the papal court which examines cases
   of  conscience,  confession,  absolution from vows, etc., and delivers
   decisions,  dispensations,  etc.  Its  chief is a cardinal, called the
   Grand  Penitentiary,  appointed  by  the  pope. (b) An officer in some
   dioceses  since  A.  D.  1215,  vested  with  power from the bishop to
   absolve in cases reserved to him.

   6.  A  house  of  correction,  in  which  offenders  are  confined for
   punishment,  discipline,  and  reformation,  and  in  which  they  are
   generally compelled to labor.


   Pen`i*ten"tia*ry*ship, n. The office or condition of a penitentiary of
   the papal court. [R.] Wood.


   Pen"i*tent*ly, adv. In a penitent manner.

   Page 1061


   Penk (?), n. A minnow. See Pink, n., 4. [Prov. Eng.] Walton.


   Pen"knife`  (?),  n.;  pl.  Penknives  (#).  [Pen  +  knife.]  A small
   pocketknife; formerly, a knife used for making and mending quill pens.


   Pen"man (?), n.; pl. Penmen (.

   1. One who uses the pen; a writer; esp., one skilled in the use of the
   pen; a calligrapher; a writing master.

   2. An author; a composer. South.


   Pen"man*ship,  n.  The  use of the pen in writing; the art of writing;
   style or manner of writing; chirography; as, good or bad penmanship.


   Pen"na  (?),  n.;  pl.  Penn\'91  (#).  [L.]  (Zo\'94l.) A perfect, or
   normal, feather.


   Pen"na"ceous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Like  or  pertaining  to  a normal


   Pen"nach  (?),  n. [OF. pennache. See Panache.] A bunch of feathers; a
   plume. [Obs.] Holland.


   Pen"nached  (?),  a.  [Cf.  OF. pennach\'82. See Panache.] Variegated;
   striped. [Obs.] Evelyn.


   Pen"nage  (?),  n.  [L.  penna  feather.]  Feathery covering; plumage.
   [Obs.] Holland.


   Pen"nant (?), n. [OE. penon, penoun, pynoun, OF. penon, F. pennon, fr.
   L.  penna feather. See Pen a feather, and cf. Pennon, Pinion.] (Naut.)
   (a)  A small flag; a pennon. The narrow, OR long, pennant (called also
   whip or coach whip) is a long, narrow piece of bunting, carried at the
   masthead of a government vessel in commission. The board pennant is an
   oblong,  nearly  square flag, carried at the masthead of a commodore's
   vessel.  "With  flags  and  pennants  trimmed." Drayton. (b) A rope or
   strap to which a purchase is hooked.

                               Pennate, Pennated

   Pen"nate  (?), Pen"na*ted (?), a. [L. pennatus feathered, winged, from
   penna feather, wing.]

   1. Winged; plume-shaped.

   2. (Bot.) Same as Pinnate.


   Pen*nat"u*la  (?),  n.;  pl.  L.  Pennatul\'91 (#), E. Pennatulas (#).
   [NL.,  fr. L. penna a feather.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of numerous species
   of  Pennatula,  Pteroides,  and  allied genera of Alcyonaria, having a
   featherlike form; a sea-pen. The zooids are situated along one edge of
   the side branches.


   Pen*nat`u*la"ce*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Pennatula.]  (Zo\'94l.) A
   division of alcyonoid corals, including the seapens and related kinds.
   They  are able to move about by means of the hollow muscular peduncle,
   which  also  serves to support them upright in the mud. See Pennatula,
   and Illust. under Alcyonaria.


   Penned (?), a.

   1. Winged; having plumes. [Obs.]

   2. Written with a pen; composed. "Their penned speech." Shak.


   Pen"ner (?), n.

   1. One who pens; a writer. Sir T. North.

   2. A case for holding pens. [Obs.]


   Pen"ni*form  (?),  a.  [L.  penna feather + -form: cf. F. penniforme.]
   Having the form of a feather or plume.


   Pen*nig"er*ous  (?), a. [L. penniger; penna feather + gerere to bear.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Bearing feathers or quills.


   Pen"ni*less  (?),  a.  [From  Penny.] Destitute of money; impecunious;
   poor. -- Pen"ni*less*ness, n.


   Pen"ni*nerved` (?), a. [L. penna feather + E. nerve.] Pinnately veined
   or nerved.


   Pen*nip"o*tent  (?),  a. [L. pennipotens; penna wing + potens strong.]
   Strong of wing; strong on the wing. [Poetic] Davies (Holy Roode).


   Pen"non (?), n. [Cf. Pinion.] A wing; a pinion. Milton.


   Pen"non, n. [See Pennant.] A pennant; a flag or streamer. Longfellow.

                            Pennoncel, Pennoncelle

   Pen"non*cel`,  Pen"non*celle` (?), n. [OF. penoncel. See Pennant.] See


   Pen"ny  (?), a. [Perh. a corruption of pun, for pound.] Denoting pound
   weight  for  one  thousand;  --  used  in combination, with respect to
   nails;  as,  tenpenny  nails,  nails  of which one thousand weight ten


   Pen*ny,  n.; pl. Pennies (#) or Pence (. Pennies denotes the number of
   coins;  pence  the  amount  of pennies in value. [OE. peni, AS. penig,
   pening,  pending;  akin  to  D.  penning,  OHG. pfenning, pfenting, G.
   pfennig, Icel. penningr; of uncertain origin.]

   1.  An  English  coin,  formerly of copper, now of bronze, the twelfth
   part  of  an  English  shilling  in  account  value, and equal to four
   farthings,   or   about   two  cents;  --  usually  indicated  by  the
   abbreviation d. (the initial of denarius).

     NOTE: &hand; "The chief Anglo-Saxon coin, and for a long period the
     only  one, corresponded to the denarius of the Continent . . . [and
     was]  called  penny, denarius, or denier." R. S. Poole. The ancient
     silver   penny   was   worth   about   three  pence  sterling  (see
     Pennyweight).  The  old Scotch penny was only one twelfth the value
     of  the  English  coin.  In  the  United  States  the word penny is
     popularly used for cent.

   2. Any small sum or coin; a groat; a stiver. Shak.

   3. Money, in general; as, to turn an honest penny.

     What  penny hath Rome borne, What men provided, what munition sent?

   4. (Script.) See Denarius.
   Penny  cress  (Bot.),  an  annual  herb  of the Mustard family, having
   round,  flat pods like silver pennies (Thlaspi arvense). Dr. Prior. --
   Penny  dog  (Zo\'94l.),  a  kind  of shark found on the South coast of
   Britain:  the  tope.  --  Penny father, a penurious person; a niggard.
   [Obs.]  Robinson  (More's  Utopia). -- Penny grass (Bot.), pennyroyal.
   [R.] -- Penny post, a post carrying a letter for a penny; also, a mail
   carrier.  -- Penny wise, wise or prudent only in small matters; saving
   small  sums  while losing larger; -- used chiefly in the phrase, penny
   wise and pound foolish.
   Pen"ny (?), a. Worth or costing one penny. 


   Pen"ny-a-lin"er (?), n. One who furnishes matter to public journals at
   so much a line; a poor writer for hire; a hack writer. Thackeray.


   Pen`ny*roy"al  (?), n. [A corruption of OE. puliall royal. OE. puliall
   is ultimately derived fr. L. puleium, or pulegium regium (so called as
   being  good  against  fleas),  fr.  pulex  a  flea;  and  royal  is  a
   translation  of L. regium, in puleium regium.] (Bot.) An aromatic herb
   (Mentha  Pulegium)  of  Europe;  also, a North American plant (Hedeoma
   pulegioides)  resembling  it  in flavor. Bastard pennyroyal (Bot.) See
   Blue curls, under Blue.


   Pen"ny*weight` (?), n. A troy weight containing twenty-four grains, or
   the  twentieth  part  of  an  ounce;  as,  a pennyweight of gold or of
   arsenic.  It  was  anciently  the weight of a silver penny, whence the


   Pen"ny*wort`   (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  European  trailing  herb  (Linaria
   Cymbalaria)  with roundish, reniform leaves. It is often cultivated in
   hanging baskets. March, OR Water, pennywort. (Bot.) See under March.


   Pen"ny*worth` (?), n.

   1.  A  penny's  worth;  as  much as may be bought for a penny. "A dear
   pennyworth." Evelyn.

   2. Hence: The full value of one's penny expended; due return for money
   laid out; a good bargain; a bargain.

     The priests sold the better pennyworths. Locke.

   3. A small quantity; a trifle. Bacon.


   Pen"ock (?), n. See Pend.


   Pen`o*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to penology.


   Pe*nol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in, or a student of, penology.


   Pe*nol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr. poena, punishment + -logy.] The science or
   art of punishment. [Written also p&oe;nology.]


   Pen"rack` (?), n. A rack for pens not in use.


   Pens (?), n., pl. of Penny. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pen"sa*tive (?), a. Pensive. [Obs.] Shelton.


   Pen"sel (?), n. A pencel. Chaucer.


   Pen"si*ble (?), a. Held aloft. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Pen"sile  (?),  a.  [L. pensilis, fr. pendere to hang: cf. OE. pensil.
   See Pendant.] Hanging; suspended; pendent; pendulous. Bacon.

     The long, pensile branches of the birches. W. Howitt.


   Pen"sile*ness, n. State or quality of being pensile; pendulousness.


   Pen"sion  (?),  n.  [F., fr. L. pensio a paying, payment, fr. pendere,
   pensum,  to weight, to pay; akin to pend to hang. See Pendant, and cf.

   1. A payment; a tribute; something paid or given. [Obs.]

     The stomach's pension, and the time's expense. Sylvester.

   2.  A  stated allowance to a person in consideration of past services;
   payment  made  to  one  retired  from  service,  on  account  of  age,
   disability,  or  other  cause; especially, a regular stipend paid by a
   government to retired public officers, disabled soldiers, the families
   of soldiers killed in service, or to meritorious authors, or the like.

     To all that kept the city pensions and wages. 1 Esd. iv. 56.

   3.  A  certain  sum  of  money  paid to a clergyman in lieu of tithes.
   [Eng.] Mozley & W.

   4.  [F.,  pronounced .] A boarding house or boarding school in France,
   Belgium, Switzerland, etc.


   Pen"sion,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Pensioned  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Pensioning.]  To  grant  a pension to; to pay a regular stipend to; in
   consideration  of  service already performed; -- sometimes followed by
   off; as, to pension off a servant.

     One knighted Blackmore, and one pensioned Quarles. Pope.


   Pen"sion*a*ry (?), a.

   1. Maintained by a pension; receiving a pension; as, pensionary spies.

   2.   Consisting   of   a  pension;  as,  a  pensionary  provision  for


   Pen"sion*a*ry (?), n.; pl. Pensionaries (#). [Cf. F. pensionnaire. Cf.

   1. One who receives a pension; a pensioner. E. Hall.

   2. One of the chief magistrates of towns in Holland.
   Grand  pensionary, the title of the prime minister, or or president of
   the Council, of Holland when a republic.


   Pen"sion*er (?), n.

   1. One in receipt of a pension; hence, figuratively, a dependent.

     The fickle pensioners of Morpheus' train. Milton.

     Old pensioners . . . of Chelsea Hospital. Macaulay.

   2.  One  of an honorable band of gentlemen who attend the sovereign of
   England  on  state  occasions,  and  receive  an  annual  pension,  or
   allowance, of \'9c150 and two horses.

   3.  [Cf.  F.  pensionnaire one who pays for his board. Cf. Pensionary,
   n.]  In  the  university  of  Cambridge, England, one who pays for his
   living in commons; -- corresponding to commoner at Oxford. Ld. Lytton.


   Pen"sive  (?),  a.  [F. pensif, fr. penser to think, fr. L. pensare to
   weigh, ponder, consider, v. intens. fr. pendere to weigh. See Pension,

   1.  Thoughtful,  sober,  or sad; employed in serious reflection; given
   to, or favorable to, earnest or melancholy musing.

     The pensive secrecy of desert cell. Milton.

     Anxious cares the pensive nymph oppressed. Pope.

   2.  Expressing  or suggesting thoughtfulness with sadness; as, pensive
   numbers. Prior.


   Pen"sived (?), a. Made pensive. [R.] Shak.


   Pen"sive*ly (?), adv. In a pensive manner.


   Pen"sive*ness,  n. The state of being pensive; serious thoughtfulness;
   seriousness. Hooker.


   Pen"stock  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain; perh. fr. pen an inclosure +

   1. A close conduit or pipe for conducting water, as, to a water wheel,
   or for emptying a pond, or for domestic uses.

   2. The barrel of a wooden pump.


   Pent  (?),  p. p. OR a. [From Pen, v. t.] Penned or shut up; confined;
   -- often with up.

     Here in the body pent. J. Montgomery.

     No pent-up Utica contracts your powers. J. M. Sewall.


   Pen"ta- (?). [Gr. Five.]

   1. A combining form denoting five; as, pentacapsular; pentagon.

   2.  (Chem.)  Denoting  the  degree of five, either as regards quality,
   property, or composition; as, pentasulphide; pentoxide, etc. Also used


   Pen`ta*ba"sic  (?),  a.  [Penta-  + basic.] (Chem.) Capable of uniting
   with five molecules of a monacid base; having five acid hydrogen atoms
   capable of substitution by a basic radical; -- said of certain acids.


   Pen`ta*cap"su*lar  (?),  a.  [Penta-  +  capsular.] (Bot.) Having five


   Pen`ta*che"ni*um  (?), n. [NL. See Penta-, and Achenium.] (Bot.) A dry
   fruit  composed  of  five  carpels,  which are covered by an epigynous
   calyx and separate at maturity.


   Pen`ta*chlo"ride  (?),  n.  [Penta-  +  chloride.]  (Chem.) A chloride
   having five atoms of chlorine in each molecule.


   Pen"ta*chord (?), n. [L. pentachordus five-stringed, Gr.

   1. An ancient instrument of music with five strings.

   2. An order or system of five sounds. Busby.


   Pen*tac"id  (  [Penta-  +  acid.]  (Chem.) Capable of neutralizing, or
   combining  with,  five  molecules  of  a  monobasic  acid; having five
   hydrogen  atoms  capable  of substitution by acid residues; -- said of
   certain complex bases.


   Pen"ta*cle (?), n. [Gr. A figure composed of two equilateral triangles
   intersecting  so  as  to  form  a  six-pointed  star, -- used in early
   ornamental  art, and also with superstitious import by the astrologers
   and  mystics  of  the Middle Ages.<-- ?? Usually, it is a five-pointed
   star,  also  called  a  pentagram  or  pentalpha.  See  illustr. under
   pentalpha. The six-pointed is also called Solomon's seal; it resembles
   the star of David (Magen David) [not listed in the W1913] -->


   Pen`ta*coc"cous  (?), a. [See Penta-, Coccus.] (Bot.) Composed of five
   united carpels with one seed in each, as certain fruits.


   Pen"ta*con`ter (?), n. (Gr. Antiq.) See Penteconter.


   Pen*tac"ri*nin (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A red and purple pigment found
   in certain crinoids of the genus Pentacrinus.


   Pen*tac"ri*nite  (?),  n.  [Penta-  +  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any species of


   Pen*tac"ri*noid  (?),  n. [Pentacrinus + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) An immature
   comatula  when  it  is  still attached by a stem, and thus resembles a


   Pen*tac"ri*nus  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Penta-, and Crinum.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   genus  of  large,  stalked crinoids, of which several species occur in
   deep water among the West Indies and elsewhere.


   Pen*ta"cron (?), n.; pl. L. Pentacra (#), E. Pentacrons (#). [NL., fr.
   Gr. (Geom.) A solid having five summits or angular points.


   Pen`ta*cros"tic  (?),  n.  [Penta-  +  acrostic.]  A  set of verses so
   disposed that the name forming the subject of the acrostic occurs five
   times  --  the  whole  set of verses being divided into five different
   parts from top to bottom.


   Pen"tad  (?),  n. [Gr. (Chem.) Any element, atom, or radical, having a
   valence  of  five,  or which can be combined with, substituted for, or
   compared  with, five atoms of hydrogen or other monad; as, nitrogen is
   a pentad in the ammonium compounds.


   Pen"tad, a. (Chem.) Having the valence of a pentad.

                           Pentadactyl, Pentadactyle

   Pen`ta*dac"tyl, Pen`ta*dac"tyle (?), a. [Gr. Penta-, and Dactyl.]

   1. (Anat.) Having five digits to the hand or foot.

   2. Having five appendages resembling fingers or toes.


   Pen`ta*dac"tyl*oid  (?),  a.  [Pentadactyl + -oid.] (Anat.) Having the
   form of, or a structure modified from, a pentadactyl limb.


   Pen`ta*dec"ane  (?),  n.  [Penta-  +  Gr. (Chem.) A hydrocarbon of the
   paraffin  series,  (C15H32)  found  in  petroleum,  tar oil, etc., and
   obtained  as  a colorless liquid; -- so called from the fifteen carbon
   atoms in the molecule.


   Pen`ta*dec`a*to"ic (?), a. [Penta- + decatoic.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining
   to,  or  derived  from, pentadecane, or designating an acid related to


   Pen`ta*decyl"ic   (?),   a.   [Penta-  +  decylic.]  (Chem.)  Same  as
   Quindecylic<-- = pentadecyl? -->.


   Pen`ta*del"phous  (?),  a.  [Penta-  +  Gr.  (Bot.) Having the stamens
   arranged  in  five  clusters,  those  of  each  cluster  having  their
   filaments more or less united, as the flowers of the linden.

   Page 1062


   Pen"ta*fid  (?),  a.  [Penta-  +  root of L. findere to split.] (Bot.)
   Divided or cleft into five parts.


   Pen"ta*glot  (?),  n. [Penta- + -glot, as in polyglot.] A work in five
   different tongues.


   Pen"ta*gon (?), n. [Gr. Penta-) + gwni`a angle: cf. L. pentagonium, F.
   pentagone.]   (Geom.)   A   plane  figure  having  five  angles,  and,
   consequently,  five  sides;  any  figure  having  five angles. Regular
   pentagon,  a pentagon in which the angles are all equal, and the sides
   all equal.


   Pen*tag"o*nal  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. pentagonal, pentagone, L. pentagonus,
   pentagonius,   Gr.   Having   five   corners   or  angles.  Pentagonal
   dodecahedron. See Dodecahedron, and Pyritohedron.


   Pen*tag"o*nal*ly,  adv.  In  the form of a pentagon; with five angles.
   Sir T. Browne.


   Pen*tag"o*nous (?), a. Pentagonal.


   Pen"ta*gram  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Penta-,  and  -gram.]  A  pentacle  or  a
   pentalpha. "Like a wizard pentagram." Tennyson.

                         Pentagraphic, Pentagraphical

   Pen`ta*graph"ic   (?),   Pen`ta*graph"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Corrupted  fr.
   pantographic, -ical.] Pantographic. See Pantograph.


   Pen`ta*gyn"i*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. Penta-) + (Bot.) A Linn\'91an
   order of plants, having five styles or pistils.

                           Pentagynian, Pentagynous

   Pen`ta*gyn"i*an (?), Pen*tag"y*nous (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to
   plants of the order Pentagyna; having five styles.


   Pen`ta*he"dral (?), a. Having five sides; as, a pentahedral figure.


   Pen`ta*hed"ric*al (?), a. Pentahedral. [R.]


   Pen`ta*he"dron  (?),  n.  [Penta-  +  Gr.  "e`dra seat, base.] A solid
   figure having five sides.


   Pen`ta*he"drous (?), a. Pentahedral. Woodward.


   Pen"tail`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  peculiar  insectivore (Ptilocercus
   Lowii)  of Borneo; -- so called from its very long, quill-shaped tail,
   which is scaly at the base and plumose at the tip.


   Pen*tal"pha (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. pentalpha. See Penta-, and Alpha.] A
   five-pointed  star,  resembling  five alphas joined at their bases; --
   used as a symbol. <-- also called pentagram and pentacle? -->


   Pen*tam"e*ra   (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Pentamerous.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An
   extensive  division  of Coleoptera, including those that normally have
   five-jointed tarsi. It embraces about half of all the known species of
   the Coleoptera.


   Pen*tam"er*an (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Pentamera.


   Pen*tam"er*ous (?), a. [Penta- + Gr.

   1.  (Biol.) Divided into, or consisting of, five parts; also, arranged
   in  sets,  with  five parts in each set, as a flower with five sepals,
   five petals, five, or twice five, stamens, and five pistils.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Belonging to the Pentamera.


   Pen*tam"e*rus  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Pentamerous.] (Paleon.) A genus of
   extinct  Paleozoic  brachiopods,  often  very  abundant  in  the Upper
   Silurian.  Pentamerus limestone (Geol.), a Silurian limestone composed
   largely of the shells of Pentamerus.


   Pen*tam"e*ter  (?),  n. [L., fr. Gr. Penta-) + (Gr. & L.Pros.) A verse
   of five feet.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e da  ctylic pe ntameter co nsists of  tw o pa rts
     separated by a di\'91resis. Each part consists of two dactyls and a
     long  syllable. The spondee may take the place of the dactyl in the
     first  part, but not in the second. The elegiac distich consists of
     the hexameter followed by the pentameter.



   Pen*tam"e*ter, a. Having five metrical feet.


   Pen`ta*meth"yl*ene   (?),   n.   [Penta-   +   methylene.]  (Chem.)  A
   hypothetical  hydrocarbon, C5H10, metameric with the amylenes, and the
   nucleus of a large number of derivatives; -- so named because regarded
   as   composed  of  five  methylene  residues.  Cf.  Trimethylene,  and


   Pen*tan"dri*a  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. Penta-) + (Bot.) A Linn\'91an
   class of plants having five separate stamens.

                           Pentandrian, Pentandrous

   Pen*tan"dri*an  (?),  Pen*tan"drous (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to
   the class Pentadria; having five stamens.


   Pen"tane  (?), n. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) Any one of the three metameric
   hydrocarbons,  C5H12,  of  the  methane  or  paraffin series. They are
   colorless,  volatile  liquids,  two  of  which  occur in petroleum. So
   called because of the five carbon atoms in the molecule.


   Pen"tan`gle (?), n. [Penta- + angle.] A pentagon. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Pen*tan"gu*lar  (?),  a.  [Penta-  +  angular.] Having five corners or
   angles. [R.]


   Pen`ta*pet"al*ous (?), a. [Penta- + petal.] (Bot.) Having five petals,
   or flower leaves.


   Pen*taph"yl*lous  (?),  a.  [Penta- + Gr. (Bot.) Having five leaves or


   Pen*tap"o*dy  (?),  n.  [Penta-  +  Gr.  (Pros.)  A  measure or series
   consisting of five feet.


   Pen"tap*tote  (?),  n.  [L.  (pl.) pentaptota. Gr. Penta-) + (Gram.) A
   noun having five cases.


   Pen"tap*tych  (?),  n.  [Penta-  +  Gr.  (Fine  Arts)  A  picture,  or
   combination  of  pictures,  consisting  of  a  centerpiece  and double
   folding doors or wings, as for an altarpiece.


   Pen"tar*chy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  pentarchie.  See  Penta-,  and -archy.] A
   government  in  the  hands  of  five  persons;  five  joint rulers. P.
   Fletcher. "The pentarchy of the senses." A. Brewer.


   Pen"ta*spast  (?),  n. [L. pentaspaston, Gr. Penta-) + pentaspaste.] A
   purchase with five pulleys. [R.]


   Pen`ta*sper"mous (?), a. [Penta- + Gr. (Bot.) Containing five seeds.


   Pen"ta*stich  (?),  n. [Gr. Penta-) + A composition consisting of five


   Pen*tas"ti*chous  (?), a. [Penta- + Gr. (Bot.) Having, or arranged in,
   five vertical ranks, as the leaves of an apple tree or a cherry tree.


   Pen`ta*stom"i*da  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. Penta-) + (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Pen"ta*style  (?),  a.  [Penta-  +  Gr. (Arch.) Having five columns in
   front; -- said of a temple or portico in classical architecture. -- n.
   A portico having five columns.


   Pen"ta*teuch  (?),  n. [L. pentateuchus, Gr. Penta-) + text. See Five,
   and Text.] The first five books of the Old Testament, collectively; --
   called also the Law of Moses, Book of the Law of Moses, etc.


   Pen`ta*teu"chal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Pentateuch.


   Pen`ta*thi*on"ic (?), a. [Penta- + thionic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   designating,  an acid of sulphur obtained by leading hydrogen sulphide
   into  a  solution of sulphur dioxide; -- so called because it contains
   five atoms of sulphur.


   Pen*tath"lon  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) A fivefold athletic
   performance  peculiar  to  the  great  national  games  of the Greeks,
   including  leaping,  foot  racing, wrestling, throwing the discus, and
   throwing the spear.


   Pen`ta*tom"ic (?), a. [Penta- + atomic.] (Chem.) (a) Having five atoms
   in   the   molecule.   (b)  Having  five  hydrogen  atoms  capable  of


   Pen*tav"a*lent  (?),  a.  [Penta-  +  L.  valens, p. pr. See Valence.]
   (Chem.)  Having  a  valence  of  five;  --  said  of certain atoms and


   Pen"te*con`ter  (?),  n. [Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) A Grecian vessel with fifty
   oars. [Written also pentaconter.]


   Pen"te*cost (?), n. [L. pentecoste, Gr. Five, and cf. Pingster.]

   1.  A  solemn festival of the Jews; -- so called because celebrated on
   the  fiftieth  day  (seven weeks) after the second day of the Passover
   (which  fell  on  the  sixteenth  of the Jewish month Nisan); -- hence
   called,  also, the Feast of Weeks. At this festival an offering of the
   first  fruits  of  the  harvest was made. By the Jews it was generally
   regarded  as  commemorative of the gift of the law on the fiftieth day
   after the departure from Egypt.

   2.   A   festival   of  the  Roman  Catholic  and  other  churches  in
   commemoration of the descent of the Holy Spirit on the apostles; which
   occurred on the day of Pentecost; -- called also Whitsunday. Shak.


   Pen`te*cos"tal   (?),   a.   Of  or  pertaining  to  Pentecost  or  to


   Pen`te*cos"tals  (?),  n.  pl.  Offerings  formerly made to the parish
   priest, or to the mother church, at Pentecost. Shipley.


   Pen`te*cos"ter  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) An officer in the
   Spartan army commanding fifty men. Mitford.


   Pen`te*cos"ty (?), n.; pl. Pentecosties (#). [Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) A troop
   of  fifty  soldiers  in  the Spartan army; -- called also pentecostys.
   Jowett (Thucyd. ).

                             Pentelic, Pentelican

   Pen*tel"ic  (?),  Pen*tel"i*can  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Mount
   Pentelicus,  near  Athens,  famous for its fine white marble quarries;
   obtained  from  Mount Pentelicus; as, the Pentelic marble of which the
   Parthenon is built.


   Pen"tene (?), n. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) Same as Amylene.


   Pent"house`  (?), n. [A corruption of pentice.] A shed or roof sloping
   from  the  main wall or building, as over a door or window; a lean-to.
   Also  figuratively.  "The penthouse of his eyes." Sir W. Scott. <-- 2.
   An  apartment  at  the  top  of  a  building.  It  is  often  the most
   luxuriously  appointed  apartment,  and is thus used as a metaphor for
   luxurious living. -->


   Pent"house`,  a.  Leaning;  overhanging.  "Penthouse  lid."  Shak. "My
   penthouse eyebrows." Dryden.


   Pen"tice  (?),  n. [F. appentis a penthouse. See Append.] A penthouse.
   [Obs.] Sir H. Wotton.


   Pen"tile` (?), n. See Pantile.


   Pen"tine  (?),  n.  [See  Penta-.] (Chem.) An unsaturated hydrocarbon,
   C5H8, of the acetylene series. Same as Valerylene.


   Pen*to"ic (?), a. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or desingating,
   an acid (called also valeric acid) derived from pentane.


   Pen"tone (?), n. [See Penta-.] (Chem.) Same as Valylene.


   Pen*tox"ide (?), n. [Penta- + oxide.] (Chem.) An oxide containing five
   atoms of oxygen in each molecule; as, phosphorus pentoxide, P2O5.


   Pen"tre*mite (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of Pentremites.


   Pen`tre*mi"tes  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  Gr. remus an oar.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   genus  of  crinoids  belonging  to  the  Blastoidea.  They  have  five
   petal-like ambulacra.


   Pent"roof` (?), n. [F. pente slope + E. roof, or from penthouse roof.]
   See Lean-to.


   Pen"trough` (?), n. A penstock.


   Pen"tyl  (?),  n.  [Penta  +  -yl.]  (Chem.) The hypothetical radical,
   C5H11, of pentane and certain of its derivatives. Same as Amyl.


   Pen*tyl"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, derived from, or containing, pentyl;
   as, pentylic alcohol

                               Penuchle, Pinocle

   Pe"nu*chle  (?),  Pin"o*cle  (?),  n.  A  game  at  cards, played with
   forty-eight  cards,  being  all the cards above the eight spots in two


   Pe"nult  (?), n. [Abbreviated fr. penultima.] (Gram. & Pros.) The last
   syllable but one of a word; the syllable preceding the final one.


   Pe*nul"ti*ma  (?),  n. [L. (sc. syllaba), fr. penultimus, paenultimus,
   the last but one; paene almost + ultimus the last.] Same as Penult.


   Pe*nul"ti*mate (?), a. Last but one; as, the penultimate syllable, the
   last syllable but one of a word.


   Pe*nul"ti*mate, n. The penult.


   Pe*num"bra (?), n. [NL., fr. L. paene almost + umbra shade.]

   1. An incomplete or partial shadow.

   2.  (Astron.)  The  shadow  cast,  in  an  eclipse, where the light is
   partly,  but not wholly, cut off by the intervening body; the space of
   partial  illumination  between  the  umbra,  or perfect shadow, on all
   sides, and the full light. Sir I. Newton.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fa int shade surrounding the dark central portion
     of a solar spot is also called the penumbra, and sometimes umbra.

   3. (Paint.) The part of a picture where the shade imperceptibly blends
   with the light.


   Pe*num"brala.  Of  or pertaining to a penumbra; resembling a penumbra;
   partially illuminated.


   Pe*nu"ri*ous (?), a. [From Penury.]

   1.  Excessively  sparing in the use of money; sordid; stingy; miserly.
   "A penurious niggard of his wealth." Milton.

   2. Not bountiful or liberal; scanty.

     Here creeps along a poor, penurious stream. C. Pitt.

   3.  Destitute  of  money; suffering extreme want. [Obs.] "My penurious
   band."  Shak.  Syn.  --  Avaricious;  covetous; parsimonious; miserly;
   niggardly;   stingy.   See   Avaricious.  --Pe*nu"ri*ous*ly,  adv.  --
   Pe*nu"ri*ous*ness, n.


   Pen"u*ry (?), n. [L. penuria; cf. Gr. p\'82nurie.]

   1.  Absence of resources; want; privation; indigence; extreme poverty;
   destitution. "A penury of military forces." Bacon.

     They were exposed to hardship and penury. Sprat.

     It arises in neither from penury of thought. Landor.

   2. Penuriousness; miserliness. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.


   Pen"wip`er  (?),  n.  A  cloth,  or  other material, for wiping off or
   cleaning ink from a pen.


   Pen"wom`an  (?),  n.;  pl.  Penwomen (. A female writer; an authoress.


   Pe"on (?), n. See Poon.


   Pe"on,  n.  [Sp.  peon,  or  Pg.  pe,  one who travels on foot, a foot
   soldier, a pawn in chess. See Pawn in chess.]

   1.  A  foot  soldier;  a  policeman;  also,  an  office  attendant;  a
   messenger. [India]

   2.  A  day  laborer;  a  servant;  especially,  in some of the Spanish
   American countries, debtor held by his creditor in a form of qualified
   servitude, to work out a debt.

   3. (Chess) See 2d Pawn.


   Pe"on*age (?), n. The condition of a peon.


   Pe"on*ism (?), n. Same as Peonage. D. Webster.


   Pe"o*ny  (?),  n.;  pl.  Peonies  (#).  [OE. pione, pioine, pioni, OF.
   pione,  F.  pivoine, L. paeonia, Gr. P\'91an.] (Bot.) A plant, and its
   flower,  of  the  ranunculaceous  genus P\'91onia. Of the four or five
   species,  one  is  a  shrub;  the  rest are perennial herbs with showy
   flowers,  often  double  in  cultivation.  [Written also p\'91ony, and

   Page 1063


   Peo"ple  (?),  n.  [OE.  peple,  people, OF. pueple, F. peuple, fr. L.
   populus. Cf. Populage, Public, Pueblo.]

   1.  The  body  of  persons  who compose a community, tribe, nation, or
   race;  an  aggregate  of  individuals  forming a whole; a community; a

     Unto him shall the gathering of the people be. Gen. xlix. 10.

     The ants are a people not strong. Prov. xxx. 25.

     Before many peoples, and nations, and tongues. Rev. x. 11.

     Earth's monarchs are her peoples. Whitter


     A  government  of  all  the  people, by all the people, for all the
     people. T. Parker.

     NOTE: &hand; Peopleis a collective noun, generally construed with a
     plural  verb,  and  only  occasionally  used  in  the  plural  form
     (peoples), in the sense of nations or races.

   2.  Persons,  generally; an indefinite number of men and women; folks;
   population,  or  part  of population; as, country people; -- sometimes
   used  as  an indefinite subject or verb, like on in French, and man in
   German; as, people in adversity.

     People were tempted to lend by great premiums. Swift


     People   have  lived  twenty-four  days  upon  nothing  but  water.


   3.  The  mass  of  comunity as distinguished from a special class; the
   commonalty; the populace; the vulgar; the common crowd; as, nobles and

     And strive to gain his pardon from the people. Addison


   4.  With a possessive pronoun: (a) One's ancestors or family; kindred;
   relations;  as,  my  people  were  English. (b) One's subjects; fellow
   citizens;  companions;  followers.  "You  slew  great  number  of  his
   people."  Shak.  Syn.  -- People, Nation. When speaking of a state, we
   use  people for the mass of the community, as distinguished from their
   rulers,  and  nation  for  the  entire  political  body, including the
   rulers.  In  another sense of the term, nation describes those who are
   descended  from  the  same stock; and in this sense the Germans regard
   themselves  as  one  nation,  though  politically subject to different
   forms of government.


   Peo"ple  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peopled p. pr. & vb. n. Peopling (.]
   [Cf.  OF.  popler,  puepler,  F. puepler. Cf. Populate.] To stock with
   people  or  inhabitants; to fill as with people; to populate. "Peopled
   heaven with angels." Dryden.

     As the gay motes that people the sunbeams. Milton



   Peo"pled  (?),  a.  Stocked  with, or as with, people; inhabited. "The
   peopled air." Gray.


   Peo"ple*less, a. Destitute of people. Poe.


   Peo"pler  (?),  n. A settler; an inhabitant. "Peoplers of the peaceful
   glen." J. S. Blackie.


   Peo"plish (?), a. Vulgar. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pe*o"ri*as  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Peoria (. (Ethnol.) An Algonquin tribe
   of Indians who formerly inhabited a part of Illinois.


   Pe*pas"tic   (?),   a.  &  n.  [Gr.  p\'82pastique.]  (Med.)  Same  as

                              Peperine, Peperino

   Pep"e*rine (?), Pep`e*ri"no (?), n. [It. peperino, L. piper pepper. So
   called  on  account  of its color.] (Geol.) A volcanic rock, formed by
   the cementing together of sand, scoria, cinders, etc.


   Pep"lis  (?),  n.  [L.,  a kind of plant, Gr. (Bot.) A genus of plants
   including water purslane.


   Pep"lus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1. An upper garment worn by Grecian and Roman women.

   2. A kind of kerchief formerly worn by Englishwomen. [Obs.] Fairholt.


   Pe"po  (?),  n. [L., a kind of melon, from Gr. (Bot.) Any fleshy fruit
   with a firm rind, as a pumpkin, melon, or gourd. See Gourd.


   Pep"per  (?),  n.  [OE.  peper,  AS. pipor, L. piper, fr. Gr. pippala,

   1. A well-known, pungently aromatic condiment, the dried berry, either
   whole or powdered, of the Piper nigrum.

     NOTE: &hand; Common, or black, pepper is made from the whole berry,
     dried  just  before  maturity;  white  pepper is made from the ripe
     berry  after  the  outer  skin  has  been removed by maceration and
     friction.  It has less of the peculiar properties of the plant than
     the  black  pepper.  Pepper  is  used  in medicine as a carminative

   2.  (Bot.) The plant which yields pepper, an East Indian woody climber
   (Piper  nigrum),  with  ovate  leaves  and apetalous flowers in spikes
   opposite  the  leaves.  The  berries  are  red  when  ripe.  Also,  by
   extension,  any one of the several hundred species of the genus Piper,
   widely  dispersed  throughout  the tropical and subtropical regions of
   the earth.

   3. Any plant of the genus Capsicum, and its fruit; red pepper; as, the
   bell pepper.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm pe pper ha s been extended to various other
     fruits and plants, more or less closely resembling the true pepper,
     esp.  to  the  common  varieties of Capsicum. See Capsicum, and the
     Phrases, below.

   African  pepper,  the  Guinea  pepper.  See  under  Guinea. -- Cayenne
   pepper. See under Cayenne. -- Chinese pepper, the spicy berries of the
   Xanthoxylum  piperitum,  a  species  of prickly ash found in China and
   Japan.  --  Guinea  pepper. See under Guinea, and Capsicum. -- Jamaica
   pepper.  See  Allspice.  --  Long  pepper. (a) The spike of berries of
   Piper  longum,  an  East  Indian  shrub.  (b)  The  root  of Piper, OR
   Macropiper,  methysticum.  See  Kava.  --  Malaguetta,  OR Meleguetta,
   pepper,  the  aromatic seeds of the Amomum Melegueta, an African plant
   of  the  Ginger  family. They are sometimes used to flavor beer, etc.,
   under  the name of grains of Paradise. -- Red pepper. See Capsicum. --
   Sweet  pepper bush (Bot.), an American shrub (Clethra alnifolia), with
   racemes  of  fragrant  white  flowers;  -- called also white alder. --
   Pepper  box  OR  caster, a small box or bottle, with a perforated lid,
   used for sprinkling ground pepper on food, etc. -- Pepper corn. See in
   the  Vocabulary. -- Pepper elder (Bot.), a West Indian name of several
   plants of the Pepper family, species of Piper and Peperomia. -- Pepper
   moth (Zo\'94l.), a European moth (Biston betularia) having white wings
   covered with small black specks. -- Pepper pot, a mucilaginous soup or
   stew of vegetables and cassareep, much esteemed in the West Indies. --
   Pepper  root.  (Bot.). See Coralwort. -- pepper sauce, a condiment for
   the  table,  made  of  small red peppers steeped in vinegar. -- Pepper
   tree  (Bot.),  an  aromatic  tree  (Drimys  axillaris) of the Magnolia
   family, common in New Zealand. See Peruvian mastic tree, under Mastic.


   Pep"per, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peppered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Peppering.]

   1. To sprinkle or season with pepper.

   2.  Figuratively: To shower shot or other missiles, or blows, upon; to
   pelt;  to  fill  with  shot,  or cover with bruises or wounds. "I have
   peppered  two  of  them."  "I am peppered, I warrant, for this world."


   Pep"per, v. i. To fire numerous shots (at).


   Pep"per*brand` (?), n. (Bot.) See 1st Bunt.


   Pep"per*corn` (?), n.

   1. A dried berry of the black pepper (Piper nigrum).

   2. Anything insignificant; a particle.

                                 Pepper dulse

   Pep"per  dulse`  (?).  (Bot.)  A  variety of edible seaweed (Laurencia
   pinnatifida) distinguished for its pungency. [Scot.] Lindley.


   Pep"per*er  (?),  n.  A  grocer; -- formerly so called because he sold
   pepper. [Obs.]


   Pep"per*grass`  (?),  n.  (Bot.) (a) Any herb of the cruciferous genus
   Lepidium, especially the garden peppergrass, or garden cress, Lepidium
   sativum;  --  called  also  pepperwort. All the species have a pungent
   flavor. (b) The common pillwort of Europe (Pilularia globulifera). See


   Pep"per*idge  (?),  n. [Cf. NL. berberis, E. barberry.] (Bot.) A North
   American  tree  (Nyssa multiflora) with very tough wood, handsome oval
   polished  leaves,  and  very  acid berries, -- the sour gum, or common
   tupelo.   See   Tupelo.   [Written  also  piperidge  and  pipperidge.]
   Pepperidge bush (Bot.), the barberry.


   Pep"per*ing, a. Hot; pungent; peppery. Swift.


   Pep"per*mint (?), n. [Pepper + mint.]

   1.  (Bot.)  An  aromatic  and  pungent  plant  of the genus Mentha (M.
   piperita), much used in medicine and confectionery.

   2.  A  volatile oil (oil of peppermint) distilled from the fresh herb;
   also,  a well-known essence or spirit (essence of peppermint) obtained
   from it.

   3. A lozenge of sugar flavored with peppermint.
   Peppermint  camphor.  (Chem.)  Same  as  Menthol.  --  Peppermint tree
   (Bot.),  a  name  given  to  several  Australian  species  of gum tree
   (Eucalyptus amygdalina, E. piperita, E. odorata, etc.) which have hard
   and durable wood, and yield an essential oil.


   Pep"per*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) See Peppergrass.


   Pep"per*y (?), a.

   1.  Of  or  pertaining to pepper; having the qualities of pepper; hot;

   2. Fig.: Hot-tempered; passionate; choleric.


   Pep"sin  (?),  n.  [Gr.  pepsine.  Cf. Dyspepsia.] (Physiol. Chem.) An
   unorganized  proteolytic  ferment or enzyme contained in the secretory
   glands  of  the stomach. In the gastric juice it is united with dilute
   hydrochloric  acid  (0.2 per cent, approximately) and the two together
   constitute the active portion of the digestive fluid. It is the active
   agent in the gastric juice of all animals.

     NOTE: &hand; As  pr epared fr om th e gl andular la yer of pigs' or
     calves' stomachs it constitutes an important article of pharmacy.


   Pep`sin*hy`dro*chlo"ric    (?),    a.   (Physiol.   Chem.)   Same   as


   Pep*sin"o*gen (?), n. [Pepsin + -gen.] (Physiol. Chem.) The antecedent
   of  the  ferment pepsin. A substance contained in the form of granules
   in  the  peptic cells of the gastric glands. It is readily convertible
   into pepsin. Also called propepsin.


   Pep"tic (?), a. [L. pepticus, Gr. Pepsin.]

   1.  Relating  to digestion; promoting digestion; digestive; as, peptic

   2. Able to digest. [R.]

     Tolerably nutritive for a mind as yet so peptic. Carlyle.

   3.  (Physiol.  Chem.)  Pertaining  to pepsin; resembling pepsin in its
   power  of  digesting  or  dissolving  albuminous matter; containing or
   yielding pepsin, or a body of like properties; as, the peptic glands.


   Pep"tic, n.

   1. An agent that promotes digestion.

   2. pl. The digestive organs.

     Is  there  some  magic  in  the  place,  Or  do  my peptics differ?


   Pep"tics (?), n. The science of digestion.


   Pep"to*gen   (?),   n.   [Peptone  +  -gen.]  (Physiol.)  A  substance
   convertible into peptone.


   Pep`to*gen"ic (?), a. Same as Peptogenous.


   Pep*tog"e*nous  (?), a. (Physiol. Chem.) Capable of yielding, or being
   converted into, peptone.


   Pep`to*hy`dro*chlo"ric   (?),  a.  [See  Peptone,  and  Hydrochloric.]
   (Physiol.    Chem.)    Designating   a   hypothetical   acid   (called
   peptohydrochloric  acid,  pepsinhydrochloric  acid,  and  chloropeptic
   acid)  which  is supposed to be formed when pepsin and dilute (0.1-0.4
   per cent) hydrochloric acid are mixed together.


   Pep"tone  (?), n. [Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) (a) The soluble and diffusible
   substance or substances into which albuminous portions of the food are
   transformed  by  the  action  of  the  gastric  and pancreatic juices.
   Peptones  are  also  formed  from  albuminous  matter by the action of
   boiling water and boiling dilute acids. (b) Collectively, in a broader
   sense,  all  the  products  resulting  from the solution of albuminous
   matter  in  either gastric or pancreatic juice. In this case, however,
   intermediate   products   (albumose  bodies),  such  as  antialbumose,
   hemialbumose,  etc.,  are  mixed  with  the true peptones. Also termed
   albuminose. <-- soluble polypeptides produced by hydrolysis of protein

     NOTE: &hand; Pu re pe ptones ar e of  th ree ki nds, am phopeptone,
     antipeptone,  and hemipeptone, and, unlike the albumose bodies, are
     not  precipitated  by  saturating  their  solutions  with  ammonium


   Pep"to*nize  (?),  v. t. (Physiol.) To convert into peptone; to digest
   or dissolve by means of a proteolytic ferment; as, peptonized food.


   Pep"to*noid  (?),  n.  [Peptone  + -oid.] (Physiol. Chem.) A substance
   related to peptone.


   Pep`to*nu"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Peptone,  and  Urine.] (Med.) The
   presence  of  peptone,  or a peptonelike body, in the urine.<-- not in
   Stedman's. Superseded by proteinuria? -->


   Pep`to*tox"ine  (?),  n.  [Peptone + toxic + -ine.] (Physiol. Chem.) A
   toxic  alkaloid found occasionally associated with the peptones formed
   from fibrin by pepsinhydrochloric acid.


   Pe"quots (?), n. pl.; sing. Pequot (. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians who
   formerly inhabited Eastern Connecticut. [Written also Pequods.]


   Per- (?). [See Per.]

   1.  A  prefix  used  to signify through, throughout, by, for, or as an
   intensive  as  perhaps,  by  hap  or  chance;  perennial,  that  lasts
   throughout  the  year;  perforce,  through  or  by  force; perfoliate,
   perforate;  perspicuous,  evident throughout or very evident; perplex,
   literally, to entangle very much.

   2.  (Chem.) Originally, denoting that the element to the name of which
   it  is  prefixed  in  the  respective  compounds exercised its highest
   valence; now, only that the element has a higher valence than in other
   similar  compounds;  thus,  barium  peroxide  is  the highest oxide of
   barium; while nitrogen and manganese peroxides, so-called, are not the
   highest oxides of those elements.


   Per (?), prep. [L. Cf. Far, For-, Pardon, and cf. Par, prep.] Through;
   by  means of; through the agency of; by; for; for each; as, per annum;
   per  capita, by heads, or according to individuals; per curiam, by the
   court;  per  se, by itself, of itself. Per is also sometimes used with
   English  words.  Per  annum,  by  the  year;  in each successive year;
   annually.  -- Per cent, Per centum, by the hundred; in the hundred; --
   used  esp.  of proportions of ingredients, rate or amount of interest,
   and  the  like;  commonly  used  in  the  shortened  form per cent.<--
   commonly  symbolized with the per cent sign, % --> -- Per diem, by the
   day. [For other phrases from the Latin, see Quotations, Phrases, etc.,
   from Foreign Languages, in the Supplement.]


   Per*act"  (?),  v.  t.  [L. peractus, p.p. of peragere.] To go through
   with; to perform. [Obs.] Sylvester.


   Per`a*cute"  (?),  a. [L. peracutus. See Per-, and Acute.] Very sharp;
   very violent; as, a peracute fever. [R.] Harvey.


   Per`ad*ven"ture  (?), adv. & conj. [OE. per aventure, F. par aventure.
   See Per, and Adventure.] By chance; perhaps; it may be; if; supposing.
   "If peradventure he speak against me." Shak.

     Peradventure  there be fifty righteous within the city. Gen. xviii.


   Per`ad*ven"ture,  n.  Chance;  hap; hence, doubt; question; as, proved
   beyond peradventure. South.


   Pe*r\'91"o*pod (?), n. [Gr. -pod.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the thoracic legs
   of a crustacean. See Illust. of Crustacea.


   Per"a*grate  (?),  v. t. [L. peragratus, p.p. of peragrate.] To travel
   over or through. [Obs.]


   Per`agra"tion  (?), n. [L. peragratio: cf. F. peragration.] The act or
   state of passing through any space; as, the peragration of the moon in
   her monthly revolution. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Per*am"bu*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perambulated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.   Perambulating.]   [L.   perambulatus,   p.p.  of  perambulare  to
   perambulate;  per through + ambulare to walk. See Per-, and Amble.] To
   walk  through  or  over; especially, to travel over for the purpose of
   surveying  or  examining;  to  inspect by traversing; specifically, to
   inspect  officially  the  boundaries  of,  as  of a town or parish, by
   walking over the whole line.


   Per*am"bu*late,  v.  i.  To  walk  about; to ramble; to stroll; as, he
   perambulated in the park.


   Per*am`bu*la"tion (?), n.

   1. The act of perambulating; traversing. Bacon.

   2.  An  annual  survey  of boundaries, as of town, a parish, a forest,

   3.  A  district  within  which  one  is  authorized  to make a tour of
   inspection.  "The  .  .  .  bounds  of  his own perambulation." [Obs.]


   Per*am"bu*la`tor (?), n.

   1. One who perambulates.

   2.  A  surveyor's instrument for measuring distances. It consists of a
   wheel  arranged  to  roll  along over the ground, with an apparatus of
   clockwork,  and a dial plate upon which the distance traveled is shown
   by an index. See Odometer.

   3. A low carriage for a child, propelled by pushing.


   Per`a*me"les  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. meles a badger.] (Zo\'94l.) Any
   marsupial  of  the  genus  Perameles,  which includes numerous species
   found  in  Australia. They somewhat resemble rabbits in size and form.
   See Illust. under Bandicoot.


   Per"bend (?), n. See Perpender.


   Per"break` (?), n. [Obs.] See Parbreak.


   Per*bro"mate (?), n. (Chem.)A salt of perbromic acid.


   Per*bro"mic  (?),  a. [Pref. per- + bromic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   designating, the highest oxygen acid, HBrO4, of bromine.


   Per*bro"mide  (?),  n. (Chem.) A bromide having a higher proportion of
   bromine than any other bromide of the same substance or series.


   Per"ca  (?), n. [L., a perch.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of fishes, including
   the fresh-water perch.


   Per`cale"  (?),  n.  [F.] A fine cotton fabric, having a linen finish,
   and  often  printed  on  one  side, -- used for women's and children's


   Per`ca`line"  (?), n. [F.] A fine kind of French cotton goods, usually
   of one color.


   Per*car"bide  (?),  n.  [Pref.  per-  +  carbide.]  (Chem.)A  compound
   containing a relatively large amount of carbon. [R.]


   Per*car"bu*ret  (?), n. [Pref. per- + carburet.] (Chem.) A percarbide.


   Per*car"bu*ret`ed,  a. (Chem.) Combined with a relatively large amount
   of carbon.


   Per*case"  (?),  adv.  [OE. per cas. See Parcase.] Perhaps; perchance.
   [Obs.] Bacon.


   Perce (?), v. t. To pierce. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Per*ceiv"a*ble  (?),  a.  Capable  of being perceived; perceptible. --
   Per*ceiv"a*bly, adv.


   Per*ceiv"ance  (?),  n.  Power  of  perceiving. [Obs.] "The senses and
   common perceivance." Milton.


   Per*ceive"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Perceived (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perceiving.]  [OF.  percevoir, perceveir, L. percipere, perceptum; per
   (see  Per-)  +  capere  to  take,  receive.  See  Capacious,  and  cf.

   1.  To  obtain knowledge of through the senses; to receive impressions
   from  by  means  of  the  bodily  organs;  to  take  cognizance of the
   existence,  character, or identity of, by means of the senses; to see,
   hear,  or feel; as, to perceive a distant ship; to perceive a discord.

   2. To take intellectual cognizance of; to apprehend by the mind; to be
   convinced  of  by direct intuition; to note; to remark; to discern; to
   see; to understand.

     Jesus perceived their wickedness. Matt. xxii. 18.

     You may, fair lady, Perceive I speak sincerely. Shak.

     Till  we ourselves see it with our own eyes, and perceive it by our
     own understandings, we are still in the dark. Locke.

   3. To be affected of influented by. [R.]

     The  upper regions of the air perceive the collection of the matter
     of tempests before the air here below. Bacon.

   Syn. -- To discern; distinguish; observe; see; feel; know; understand.
   --  To  Perceive,  Discern.  To perceive a thing is to apprehend it as
   presented  to  the  senses  or  the  intellect;  to discern is to mark
   differences, or to see a thing as distinguished from others around it.
   We  may  perceive  two  persons afar off without being able to discern
   whether  they are men or women. Hence, discern is often used of an act
   of  the senses or the mind involving close, discriminating, analytical
   attention. We perceive that which is clear or obvious; we discern that
   which  requires  much  attention  to  get  an idea of it. "We perceive
   light,  darkness,  colors,  or  the truth or falsehood of anything. We
   discern characters, motives, the tendency and consequences of actions,
   etc." Crabb.

   Page 1064


   Per*ceiv"er  (?),  n.  One  who perceives (in any of the senses of the
   verb). Milton.


   Perce"ly (?), n. Parsley. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Per*cent"age  (?),  n.  [Per  cent + -age, as in average. See Per, and
   Cent.]  (Com.)  A  certain rate per cent; the allowance, duty, rate of
   interest, discount, or commission, on a hundred.


   Per"cept  (?),  n.  [From  L.  percipere,  perceptum.]  That  which is
   perceived. Sir W. Hamilton.

     The   modern  discussion  between  percept  and  concept,  the  one
     sensuous, the other intellectual. Max M\'81ller.


   Per*cep`ti*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. perceptibilit\'82.]

   1.  The  quality or state of being perceptible; as, the perceptibility
   of light or color.

   2. Perception. [R.] Dr. H. More.


   Per*cep"ti*ble  (?),  a.  [L.  perceptibilis:  cf. F. perceptible. See
   Perceive.]   Capable  of  being  perceived;  cognizable;  discernible;

     With a perceptible blast of the air. Bacon.

   -- Per*cep"ti*ble*ness, n. -- Per*cep"ti*bly, adv.


   Per*cep"tion (?), n. [L. perceptio: cf. F. perception. See Perceive.]

   1.  The  act  of  perceiving;  cognizance  by the senses or intellect;
   apperhension  by  the  bodily  organs,  or  by  the  mind,  of what is
   presented to them; discernment; apperhension; cognition.

   2. (Metaph.) The faculty of perceiving; the faculty, or peculiar part,
   of  man's constitution by which he has knowledge through the medium or
   instrumentality of the bodily organs; the act of apperhending material
   objects  or  qualities  through  the  senses;  --  distinguished  from
   conception. Sir W. Hamilton.

     Matter hath no life nor perception, and is not conscious of its own
     existence. Bentley.

   3.  The  quality, state, or capability, of being affected by something
   external; sensation; sensibility. [Obs.]

     This experiment discovereth perception in plants. Bacon.

   4. An idea; a notion. [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.

     NOTE: &hand; "T  he wo  rd pe  rception is , in  th e la nguage of 
     philosophers   previous   to   Reid,   used  in  a  very  extensive
     signification.  By  Descartes,  Malebranche,  Locke,  Leibnitz, and
     others,  it  is  employed  in  a  sense  almost  as  unexclusive as
     consciousness,  in  its widest signification. By Reid this word was
     limited to our faculty acquisitive of knowledge, and to that branch
     of  this faculty whereby, through the senses, we obtain a knowledge
     of the external world. But his limitation did not stop here. In the
     act  of external perception he distinguished two elements, to which
     he  gave the names of perception and sensation. He ought perhaps to
     have  called  these  perception  proper  and sensation proper, when
     employed in his special meaning."

   Sir W. Hamilton.


   Per*cep"tive  (?),  a. [Cf. F. perceptif.] Of or pertaining to the act
   or  power  of  perceiving;  having the faculty or power of perceiving;
   used in perception. "His perceptive and reflective faculties." Motley.


   Per`cep*tiv"i*ty  (?),  n.  The  quality or state of being perceptive;
   power of perception. Locke.


   Per*ces"o*ces  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. perca a perch + esox, -ocis, a
   pike.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  order  of  fishes  including  the gray mullets
   (Mugil), the barracudas, the silversides, and other related fishes. So
   called from their relation both to perches and to pikes.


   Perch (?), n. [Written also pearch.] [OE. perche, F. perche, L. perca,
   fr. Gr. p spotted, speckled, and E. freckle.] (Zo\'94l.)

   1. Any fresh-water fish of the genus Perca and of several other allied
   genera  of  the  family  Percid\'91,  as the common American or yellow
   perch  (Perca  flavescens,  OR  Americana), and the European perch (P.

   2. Any one of numerous species of spiny-finned fishes belonging to the
   Percid\'91,  Serranid\'91,  and related families, and resembling, more
   or less, the true perches.
   Black perch. (a) The black bass. (b) The flasher. (c) The sea bass. --
   Blue  perch,  the  cunner. -- Gray perch, the fresh-water drum. -- Red
   perch, the rosefish. -- Red-bellied perch, the long-eared pondfish. --
   Perch  pest,  a small crustacean, parasitic in the mouth of the perch.
   --  Silver  perch,  the  yellowtail.  -- Stone, OR Striped, perch, the
   pope.  --  White  perch,  the  Roccus,  OR Morone, Americanus, a small
   silvery serranoid market fish of the Atlantic coast.


   Perch (?), n. [F. perche, L. pertica.]

   1.  A  pole;  a  long  staff; a rod; esp., a pole or other support for
   fowls  to  roost on or to rest on; a roost; figuratively, any elevated
   resting place or seat.

     As  chauntecleer among his wives all Sat on his perche, that was in
     his hall. Chaucer.

     Not  making  his  high place the lawless perch Of winged ambitions.

   2. (a) A measure of length containing five and a half yards; a rod, or
   pole.  (b)  In land or square measure: A square rod; the 160th part of
   an  acre. (c) In solid measure: A mass 16 feet long, 1 foot in height,
   and  1  feet in breadth, or 24 cubic feet (in local use, from 22 to 25
   cubic feet); -- used in measuring stonework.

   3. A pole connecting the fore gear and hind gear of a spring carriage;
   a reach.


   Perch, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Perched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perching.] [F.
   percher.  See Perch a pole.] To alight or settle, as a bird; to sit or

     Wrens make prey where eagles dare not perch. Shak.


   Perch, v. t.

   1. To place or to set on, or as on, a perch.

   2. To occupy as a perch. Milton.


   Per*chance"  (?),  adv.  [F.  par  by  (L. per) + chance. See Par, and
   Chance.] By chance; perhaps; peradventure.


   Perch"ant  (?),  n. [F.] A bird tied by the foot, to serve as decoy to
   other birds by its fluttering.


   Perch"er (?), n. [From Perch, v. i.]

   1. One who, or that which, perches. J. Burroughs.

   2. One of the Insessores.

   3.  [From  Perch  a  pole.]  A Paris candle anciently used in England;
   also, a large wax candle formerly set upon the altar. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Per"che*ron  (?), n. [F.] One of a breed of draught horses originating
   in Perche, an old district of France; -- called also Percheron-Norman.


   Per*chlo"rate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of perchloric acid.


   Per*chlo"ric (?), a. [Pref. per- + chloric.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   designating,  the  highest oxygen acid (HClO4), of chlorine; -- called
   also hyperchloric.


   Per*chlo"ride (?), n. (Chem.) A chloride having a higher proportion of
   chlorine than any other chloride of the same substance or series.


   Per*chro"mic (?), a. [Pref. per- + chromic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   designating,  a  certain  one  of  the  highly  oxidized  compounds of
   chromium,  which  has a deep blue color, and is produced by the action
   of hydrogen peroxide.


   Per"ci*form  (?),  a.  [NL.,  &  L. perca a perch + -form.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Pertaining to the Perciformes.


   Per`ci*for"mes  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.]  (Zo\'94l.) An extensive tribe or
   suborder  of  fishes,  including  the  true  perches (Percid\'91); the
   pondfishes  (Centrarchid\'91);  the sci\'91noids (Sci\'91nid\'91); the
   sparoids  (Sparid\'91);  the serranoids (Serranid\'91), and some other
   related families.

                           Percipience, Percipiency

   Per*cip"i*ence  (?), Per*cip"i*en*cy (?), n. The faculty, act or power
   of perceiving; perception. Mrs. Browning.


   Per*cip"i*ent  (?), a. [L. percipiens, -entis, p.pr. of percipere. See
   Perceive.]  Having  the  faculty  of  perception;  perceiving;  as,  a
   percipient   being.  Bentley.  --  n.  One  who,  or  that  which,  is
   percipient. Glanvill.


   Per*close"  (?),  n. [OF. parclose an inclosed place; L. per through +
   claudere, clausum, to shut.]

   1. (Eccl. Arch.) Same as Parclose.

   2. Conclusion; end. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.


   Per"coid  (?),  a.  [L.  perca  a  perch  + -oid: cf. F. perco\'8bde.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Belonging  to,  or  resembling,  the  perches,  or  family
   Percid\'91. -- n. Any fish of the genus Perca, or allied genera of the
   family Percid\'91.


   Per*coi"de*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as Perciformes.


   Per"co*late  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Percolated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Percolating.]  [L.  percolatus,  p.p.  of  percolare to percolate; per
   through   +   colare  to  strain.]  To  cause  to  pass  through  fine
   interstices, as a liquor; to filter; to strain. Sir M. Hale.


   Per"co*late,  v.  i.  To pass through fine interstices; to filter; as,
   water percolates through porous stone.


   Per`co*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  percolatio.]  The  act  or  process  of
   percolating,   or   filtering;   filtration;  straining.  Specifically
   (Pharm.),  the process of exhausting the virtues of a powdered drug by
   letting a liquid filter slowly through it.


   Per"co*la`tor  (?), n. One who, or that which, filters. "[Tissues] act
   as   percolators."  Henfrey.  <--  a  device  for  brewing  coffee  by
   percoation -->


   Per`co*mor"phi (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. perca perch + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A
   division of fishes including the perches and related kinds.


   Per"cu*laced   (?),  a.  [Prob.  corrupt.  fr.  portcullised.]  (Her.)
   Latticed. See Lattice, n., 2.


   Per*cur"rent  (?),  a.  [L.  percurrens,  p.pr.  of  percurrere to run
   through;  per  through  +  currere to run.] Running through the entire


   Per*cur"so*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  percursor  one  who  runs  through,  fr.
   percurrere.  See  Percurrent.]  Running  over  slightly  or  in haste;
   cursory. [R.]


   Per*cuss"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Percussed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Percussing.] [L. percussus, p.p. of percutere; per + quatere to shake,
   strike.  See Quash.] To strike smartly; to strike upon or against; as,
   to percuss the chest in medical examination.

     Flame percussed by air giveth a noise. Bacon.


   Per*cuss",  v.  i.  (Med.)  To  strike  or  tap  in  an examination by
   percussion. See Percussion, 3. Quain.


   Per*cus"sion (?), n. [L. percussio: cf. F. percussion. See Percuss.]

   1.  The  act  of  percussing,  or  striking  one body against another;
   forcible  collision,  esp.  such  as  gives  a sound or report. Sir I.

   2. Hence: The effect of violent collision; vibratory shock; impression
   of sound on the ear.

     The thunderlike percussion of thy sounds. Shak.

   3.  (Med.)  The  act of tapping or striking the surface of the body in
   order to learn the condition of the parts beneath by the sound emitted
   or  the  sensation  imparted  to the fingers. Percussion is said to be
   immediate  if the blow is directly upon the body; if some interventing
   substance, as a pleximeter, is, used, it is called mediate.
   Center of percussion. See under Center. -- Percussion bullet, a bullet
   containing  a  substance which is exploded by percussion; an explosive
   bullet.  --  Percussion  cap,  a  small  copper cap or cup, containing
   fulminating  powder,  and  used  with  a  percussion  lock  to explode
   gunpowder. -- Percussion fuze. See under Fuze. -- Percussion lock, the
   lock  of a gun that is fired by percussion upon fulminating powder. --
   Percussion  match,  a match which ignites by percussion. -- Percussion
   powder,  powder  so  composed  as  to  ignite  by  slight  percussion;
   fulminating  powder.  -- Percussion sieve, Percussion table, a machine
   for sorting ores by agitation in running water.


   Per*cuss"ive  (?),  a.  Striking  against;  percutient; as, percussive


   Per*cu"tient (?), a. [L. percutiens, p.pr. of percutere. See Percuss.]
   Striking;  having  the power of striking. -- n. That which strikes, or
   has power to strike. Bacon.


   Per"di*cine  (?),  a. [See Perdix.] (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the
   family Perdicid\'91, or partridges.


   Per*die" (?), adv. See Parde. Spenser.


   Per"di*foil  (?),  n.  [L.  perdere  to  lose + folium leaf.] (Bot.) A
   deciduous plant; -- opposed to evergreen. J. Barton.


   Per*di"tion  (?),  n.  [F., fr. L. perditio, fr. perdere, perditum, to
   ruin,  to lose; per (cf. Skr. par\'be away) + -dere (only in comp.) to
   put; akin to Gr. do. See Do.]

   1.  Entire  loss; utter destruction; ruin; esp., the utter loss of the
   soul,  or  of  final  happiness  in  a  future state; future misery or
   eternal death.

     The mere perdition of the Turkish fleet. Shak.

     If we reject the truth, we seal our own perdition. J. M. Mason.

   2. Loss of diminution. [Obs.] Shak.


   Per*di"tion*a*ble   (?),   a.  Capable  of  being  ruined;  worthy  of
   perdition. [R.] Pollok.


   Per"dix  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  partridge, Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of birds
   including the common European partridge. Formerly the word was used in
   a much wider sense to include many allied genera.


   Per*du" (?), n. [See Perdu, a.]

   1. One placed on watch, or in ambush.

   2. A soldier sent on a forlorn hope. Shak.

                                 Perdu, Perdue

   Per*du",  Per*due"  (?), a. [F. perdu, f. perdue, lost, p.p. of perdre
   to lose, L. perdere. See Perdition.]

   1. Lost to view; in concealment or ambush; close.

     He should lie perdue who is to walk the round. Fuller.

   2.  Accustomed  to,  or  employed  in,  desperate  enterprises; hence,
   reckless; hopeless. "A perdue captain." Beau. & Fl.


   Per`du*el"lion  (?),  n.  [L. perduellio; per + duellum, bellum, war.]
   (Civil Law) Treason.


   Per"du*lous  (?),  a.  [See  Perdu, a.] Lost; thrown away. [Obs.] Abp.


   Per*dur`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Durability; lastingness. [Archaic] Chaucer.


   Per*dur"a*ble   (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  perdurable,  OE.  pardurable.  See
   Perdure.]  Very  durable; lasting; continuing long. [Archaic] Chaucer.
   Shak. -- Per*dur"a*bly, adv. [Archaic]

                            Perdurance, Perduration

   Per*dur"ance (?), Per`du*ra"tion (?), n. Long continuance. [Archaic]


   Per*dure"  (?),  v. i. [L. perdurare; per trough + durare to last.] To
   last or endure for a long time; to be perdurable or lasting. [Archaic]

     The  mind  perdures  while  its energizing may construct a thousand
     lines. Hickok.


   Per*dy" (?), adv. Truly. See Parde. [Obs.]

     Ah, dame! perdy ye have not done me right. Spenser.


   Pere (?), n. A peer. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Per*e"gal  (?),  a. [OF. par very (L. per) + egal equal, L. aequalis.]
   Fully equal. [Obs.] Chaucer. "Peregal to the best." Spenser.


   Per"e*gri*nate  (?),  v.  i.  [L. peregrinatus, p.p. of peregrinari to
   travel.  See  Pilgrim.]  To  travel  from  place to place, or from one
   country to another; hence, to sojourn in foreign countries.


   Per"e*gri*nate  (?),  a.  [L.  peregrinatus,  p.p.]  Having  traveled;
   foreign. [Obs.] Shak.


   Per`e*gri*na"tion     (?),     n.    [L.    peregrinatio:    cf.    F.
   p\'82r\'82grination.]  A  traveling  from  one  country  to another; a
   wandering;  sojourn  in foreign countries. "His peregrination abroad."


   Per"e*gri*na`tor  (?),  n.  [L.] One who peregrinates; one who travels


   Per"e*grine (?), a. [L. peregrinus. See Pilgrim.] Foreign; not native;
   extrinsic  or from without; exotic. [Spelt also pelegrine.] "Peregrine
   and   preternatural  heat."  Bacon.  Peregrine  falcon  (Zo\'94l.),  a
   courageous  and  swift  falcon  (Falco peregrinus), remarkable for its
   wide  distribution  over all the continents. The adult plumage is dark
   bluish  ash  on  the  back, nearly black on the head and cheeks, white
   beneath,  barred  with  black  below the throat. Called also peregrine
   hawk, duck hawk, game hawk, and great-footed hawk.


   Per"e*grine (?), n. The peregrine falcon.


   Per`e*grin"i*ty     (?),     n.     [L.     peregrinitas:    cf.    F.

   1.  Foreignness;  strangeness.  [Obs.]  "Somewhat  of a peregrinity in
   their dialect." Johnson.

   2. Travel; wandering. [R.] Carlyle.

   Page 1065


   Per"el (?), n. Apparel. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Per*empt"  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  peremptus, p.p. of perimere to take away
   entirely, to destroy; per (see Per-) + OL. emere to take. See Redeem.]
   (Law) To destroy; to defeat. [R.] Ayliffe.


   Per*emp"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  peremptio: cf. F. p\'82remption.] (Law) A
   quashing; a defeating. [Obs.]


   Per"emp*to*ri*ly   (?),  adv.  In  a  peremptory  manner;  absolutely;
   positively. Bacon.


   Per"emp*to*ri*ness, n. The quality of being peremptory; positiveness.


   Per"emp*to*ry  (?), a. [L. peremptorius destructive, deadly, decisive,
   final: cf. F. p\'82remptorie. See Perempt.]

   1.  Precluding  debate  or expostulation; not admitting of question or
   appeal; positive; absolute; decisive; conclusive; final.

     Think  of heaven with hearty purposes and peremptory designs to get
     thither. Jer. Taylor.

   2. Positive in opinion or judgment; decided; dictatorial; dogmatical.

     Be not too positive and peremptory. Bacon.

     Briefly, then, for we are peremptory. Shak.

   3. Firmly determined; unawed. [Poetic] Shak.
   Peremptory   challenge   (Law)  See  under  Challenge.  --  Peremptory
   mandamus, a final and absolute mandamus. -- Peremptory plea, a plea by
   a defendant tending to impeach the plaintiff's right of action; a plea
   in  bar. Syn. -- Decisive; positive; absolute; authoritative; express;
   arbitrary; dogmatical.


   Per*en"ni*al  (?),  a. [L. perennis that lasts the whole year through;
   per through + annus year. See Per-, and Annual.]

   1. ing or continuing through the year; as, perennial fountains.

   2. Continuing without cessation or intermission; perpetual; unceasing;
   never failing.

     The perennial existence of bodies corporate. Burke.

   3.  (Bot.)  Continuing  more than two years; as, a perennial steam, or
   root, or plant. Syn. -- Perpetual; unceasing; never failing; enduring;
   continual; permanent; uninterrupted.


   Per*en"ni*al,  n.  (Bot.)  A  perennial  plant; a plant which lives or
   continues more than two years, whether it retains its leaves in winter
   or not.


   Per*en"ni*al*ly, adv. In a perennial manner.


   Per*en`ni*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Perennial, and Branchia.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Those  Batrachia which retain their gills through life, as
   the menobranchus.


   Per*en`ni*bran"chi*ate (?), a. [See Perennial, and Branchiate.]

   1.  (Anat.)  Having  branch\'91,  or  gills,  through  life;  --  said
   especially  of  certain  Amphibia,  like  the menobranchus. Opposed to

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Belonging to the Perennibranchiata.


   Per*en"ni*ty  (?), n. [L. perennitas.] The quality of being perennial.
   [R.] Derham.


   Per`er*ra"tion  (?), n. [L. pererrare, pererratum, to wander through.]
   A wandering, or rambling, through various places. [R.] Howell.


   Per"fect (?), a. [OE. parfit, OF. parfit, parfet, parfait, F. parfait,
   L.  perfectus,  p.p.  of  perficere  to  carry to the end, to perform,
   finish, perfect; per (see Per-) + facere to make, do. See Fact.]

   1.  Brought  to consummation or completeness; completed; not defective
   nor redundant; having all the properties or qualities requisite to its
   nature  and  kind;  without  flaw,  fault,  or blemish; without error;
   mature; whole; pure; sound; right; correct.

     My strength is made perfect in weakness. 2 Cor. xii. 9.

     Three glorious suns, each one a perfect sun. Shak.

     I fear I am not in my perfect mind. Shak.

     O most entire perfect sacrifice! Keble.

     God made thee perfect, not immutable. Milton.

   2. Well informed; certain; sure.

     I am perfect that the Pannonains are now in arms. Shak.

   3.  (Bot.)  Hermaphrodite; having both stamens and pistils; -- said of
   Perfect  cadence (Mus.), a complete and satisfactory close in harmony,
   as upon the tonic preceded by the dominant. -- Perfect chord (Mus.), a
   concord or union of sounds which is perfectly coalescent and agreeable
   to  the  ear,  as  the  unison,  octave,  fifth, and fourth; a perfect
   consonance; a common chord in its original position of keynote, third,
   fifth,  and  octave. -- Perfect number (Arith.), a number equal to the
   sum of all its divisors; as, 28, whose aliquot parts, or divisors, are
   14,  7,  4,  2, 1. See Abundant number, under Abundant. Brande & C. --
   Perfect  tense  (Gram.),  a  tense  which  expresses  an  act or state
   completed.<-- = perfective --> Syn. -- Finished; consummate; complete;
   entire; faultless; blameless; unblemished.


   Per"fect (?), n. The perfect tense, or a form in that tense.


   Per"fect  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Perfected;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Perfecting.]  [L.  perfectus,  p.p.  of perficere. See Perfect, a.] To
   make  perfect;  to finish or complete, so as to leave nothing wanting;
   to give to anything all that is requisite to its nature and kind.

     God dwelleth in us, and his love is perfect in us. 1 John iv. 12.

     Inquire  into  the  nature  and properties of the things, . . . and
     thereby perfect our ideas of their distinct species. Locke.

   Perfecting press (Print.), a press in which the printing on both sides
   of  the paper is completed in one passage through the machine. Syn. --
   To finish; accomplish; complete; consummate.


   Per"fect*er  (?), n. One who, or that which, makes perfect. "The . . .
   perfecter of our faith." Barrow.


   Per*fect`i*bil"i*an (?), n. A perfectionist. [R.] Ed. Rev.


   Per`fec*tib"i*list  (?),  n.  A perfectionist. See also Illuminati, 2.


   Per*fect`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. perfectibilit\'82.] The quality or
   state of being perfectible.


   Per*fect"i*ble  (?),  a. [Cf. F. perfectible.] Capable of becoming, or
   being made, perfect.


   Per*fec"tion (?), n. [F. perfection, L. perfectio.]

   1.  The quality or state of being perfect or complete, so that nothing
   requisite  is  wanting; entire development; consummate culture, skill,
   or  moral  excellence;  the  highest  attainable  state  or  degree of
   excellence;  maturity; as, perfection in an art, in a science, or in a
   system; perfection in form or degree; fruits in perfection.

   2. A quality, endowment, or acquirement completely excellent; an ideal
   faultlessness;   especially,   the   divine   attribute   of  complete
   excellence. Shak.

     What tongue can her perfections tell? Sir P. Sidney.

   To  perfection, in the highest degree of excellence; perfectly; as, to
   imitate a model to perfection.
   Per*fec"tion, v. t. To perfect. [Obs.] Foote. 


   Per*fec"tion*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to perfection; characterized
   by perfection. [R.] Bp. Pearson.


   Per*fec"tion*ate (?), v. t. To perfect. Dryden.


   Per*fec"tion*ism (?), n. The doctrine of the Perfectionists.


   Per*fec"tion*ist,   n.   One   pretending  to  perfection;  esp.,  one
   pretending  to moral perfection; one who believes that persons may and
   do attain to moral perfection and sinlessness in this life. South.


   Per*fec"tion*ment  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  perfectionnement.]  The  act of
   bringing to perfection, or the state of having attained to perfection.
   [R.] I. Taylor.


   Per*fect"ive (?), a. Tending or conducing to make perfect, or to bring
   to  perfection;  -- usually followed by of. "A perfective alteration."

     Actions perfective of their natures. Ray.


   Per*fec"tive*ly, adv. In a perfective manner.


   Per"fect*ly  (?),  adv.  In  a  perfect  manner  or  degree;  in or to
   perfection;  completely;  wholly;  throughly;  faultlessly. "Perfectly
   divine." Milton.

     As many as touched were made perfectly whole. Matt. xiv. 36.


   Per"fect*ness,  n.  The quality or state of being perfect; perfection.
   "Charity, which is the bond of perfectness." Col. iii. 14.


   Per*fer"vid  (?),  a.  [Pref. per- + fervid.] Very fervid; too fervid;
   glowing; ardent.


   Per*fi"cient  (?),  a.  [L. perficiens, p.pr. of perficere to perform.
   See  Perfect.]  Making  or doing throughly; efficient; effectual. [R.]


   Per*fi"cient,  n. One who performs or perfects a work; especially, one
   who endows a charity. [R.]


   Per*fid"i*ous (?), a. [L. perfidious.]

   1.  Guilty of perfidy; violating good faith or vows; false to trust or
   confidence  reposed;  teacherous;  faithless; as, a perfidious friend.

   2.   Involving,  or  characterized  by,  perfidy.  "Involved  in  this
   perfidious fraud." Milton.


   Per*fid"i*ous*ly, adv. In a perfidious manner.


   Per*fid"i*ous*ness,  n.  The  quality  of  being  perfidious; perfidy.


   Per"fi*dy  (?),  n.;  pl. Perfidies (#). [L. perfidia, fr. L. perfidus
   faithless; per (cf. Skr. par\'be away) + fides faith: cf. F. perfidie.
   See  Faith.]  The act of violating faith or allegiance; violation of a
   promise or vow, or of trust reposed; faithlessness; teachery.

     The ambition and perfidy of tyrants. Macaulay.

     His perfidy to this sacred engagement. DeQuincey.


   Per"fit (?), a. Perfect. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Per*fix"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref. per- + fix.] To fix surely; to appoint.


   Per"fla*ble  (?),  a. [L. perflabilis. See Perflate.] Capable of being
   blown through. [Obs.]


   Per*flate"  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  perflatus,  p.p.  of  perflare  to blow
   through.] To blow through. [Obs.] Harvey.


   Per*fla"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  perflatio.] The act of perflating. [Obs.]


   Per*fo"li*ate (?), a. [Pref. per- + L. folium leaf.]

   1.  (Bot.)  Having the basal part produced around the stem; -- said of
   leaves which the stem apparently passes directory through.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Surrounded by a circle of hairs, or projections of any


   Per`fo*ra"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Perforate.]  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) A
   division  of  corals  including  those  that have a porous texture, as
   Porites  and  Madrepora;  --  opposed  to  Aporosa.  (b) A division of
   Foraminifera, including those having perforated shells.


   Per"fo*rate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perforated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perforating.]  [L.  perforatus,  p.p.  of  perforare to perforate; per
   through  +  forare  to  bore. See Bore, v.] To bore through; to pierce
   through  with a pointed instrument; to make a hole or holes through by
   boring or piercing; to pierce or penetrate the surface of. Bacon.

                             Perforate, Perforated

   Per"fo*rate  (?),  Per"fo*ra`ted (?), a. Pierced with a hole or holes,
   or with pores; having transparent dots resembling holes.


   Per`fo*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. perforation.]

   1. The act of perforating, or of boring or piercing through. Bacon.

   2.   A  hole  made  by  boring  or  piercing;  an  aperture.  "Slender
   perforations." Sir T. Browne.


   Per"fo*ra*tive  (?), a. [Cf. F. perforatif.] Having power to perforate
   or pierce.


   Per"fo*ra`tor  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. perforateur.] One who, or that which,
   perforates; esp., a cephalotome.


   Per*force"  (?),  adv.  [F.  par  (L.  per)  +  force.]  By  force; of
   necessary; at any rate. Shak.


   Per*force", v. t. To force; to compel. [Obs.]


   Per*form"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Performed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Performing.]  [OE.  performen,  parfourmen, parfournen, OF. parfornir,
   parfournir,  to  finish, complete; OF. & F. par (see Par) + fournir to
   finish,  complete.  The  word  has  been  influenced  by  form; cf. L.
   performare to form thoroughly. See Furnish.]

   1.   To  carry  through;  to  bring  to  completion;  to  achieve;  to
   accomplish; to execute; to do.

     I  will cry unto God most high, unto God that performeth all things
     for me. Ps. lvii. 2.

     Great force to perform what they did attempt. Sir P. Sidney.

   2.  To  discharge; to fulfill; to act up to; as, to perform a duty; to
   perform a promise or a vow.

     To perform your father's will. Shak.

   3. To represent; to act; to play; as in drama.

     Perform a part thou hast not done before. Shak.

   Syn. -- To accomplish; do; act; transact; achieve; execute; discharge;
   fulfill; effect; complete; consummate. See Accomplish.


   Per*form",  v.  i.  To do, execute, or accomplish something; to acquit
   one's self in any business; esp., to represent sometimes by action; to
   act  a  part; to play on a musical instrument; as, the players perform
   poorly; the musician performs on the organ.


   Per*form"a*ble   (?),  a.  Admitting  of  being  performed,  done,  or
   executed; practicable.


   Per*form"ance  (?),  n.  The  act  of  performing;  the  carrying into
   execution   or   action;   execution;   achievement;   accomplishment;
   representation  by  action; as, the performance of an undertaking of a

     Promises  are  not  binding  where  the  performance is impossible.

   2.  That  which  is performed or accomplished; a thing done or carried
   through; an achievement; a deed; an act; a feat; esp., an action of an
   elaborate   or   public  character.  "Her  walking  and  other  actual
   performances."  Shak.  "His  musical  performances." Macaulay. Syn. --
   Completion;   consummation;  execution;  accomplishment;  achievement;
   production; work; act; action; deed; exploit; feat.


   Per*form"er (?), n. One who performs, accomplishes, or fulfills; as, a
   good  promiser,  but  a bad performer; especially, one who shows skill
   and  training in any art; as, a performer of the drama; a performer on
   the harp.


   Per"fri*cate  (?),  v. t. [L. perfricatus, p.p. of perfricare.] To rub
   over. Bailey.


   Per*fu"ma*to*ry  (?),  a.  Emitting  perfume;  perfuming.  [R.] Sir E.


   Per*fume"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Perfumed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perfuming.]  [F. parfumer (cf. Sp. perfumar); par (see Par) + fumer to
   smoke,  L.  fumare,  fr. fumus smoke. See Fume.] To fill or impregnate
   with a perfume; to scent.

     And Carmel's flowery top perfumes the skies. Pope.


   Per"fume (?), n. [F. parfum; cf. Sp. perfume. See Perfume, v.]

   1.   The   scent,  odor,  or  odoriferous  particles  emitted  from  a
   sweet-smelling substance; a pleasant odor; fragrance; aroma.

     No rich perfumes refresh the fruitful field. Pope.

   2. A substance that emits an agreeable odor.

     And thou shalt make it a perfume. Ex. xxx. 35.


   Per*fum"er (?), n.

   1. One who, oe that which, perfumes.

   2. One whose trade is to make or sell perfumes.


   Per*fum"er*y (?), n.

   1. Perfumes, in general.

   2. [Cf. F. parfumerie.] The art of preparing perfumes.


   Per*func"to*ri*ly   (?),  adv.  In  a  perfunctory  manner;  formally;
   carelessly. Boyle.


   Per*func"to*ri*ness, n. The quality or state of being perfunctory.


   Per*func"to*ry  (?),  a. [L. perfunctorius, fr. perfunctus dispatched,
   p.p.  of  perfungi  to  discharge,  dispatch; per (see Per) + fungi to
   perform. See Function.]

   1.  Done  merely to get rid of a duty; performed mechanically and as a
   thing   of   rote;   done   in  a  careless  and  superficial  manner;
   characterized by indifference; as, perfunctory admonitions. Macaulay.

   2. Hence: Mechanical; indifferent; listless; careless. "Perfunctory in
   his devotions." Sharp.


   Per*func"tu*rate  (?), v. t. To perform in a perfunctory manner; to do
   negligently. [R.]


   Per*fuse"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Perfused (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perfusing.]  [L.  perfusus,  p.p.  of  perfundere  to pour over; per +
   fundere to pour.] To suffuse; to fill full or to excess. Harvey.


   Per*fu"sion (?), n. [L. perfusio.] The act of perfusing.


   Per*fu"sive (?), a. Of a nature to flow over, or to spread through.

                         Pergamenous, Pergamentaceous

   Per`ga*me"no*us   (?),   Per`ga*men*ta"ceous  (?),  a.  [L.  pergamena
   parchment. See Parchment.] Like parchment.


   Per*haps"  (?),  adv.  [Per  +  hap  chance.] By chance; peradventure;
   perchance; it may be.

     And pray God, if perhaps the thought of thine heart may be forgiven
     thee. Acts viii. 22.


   Per"i-  (?).  [Gr.  A  prefix  used to signify around, by, near, over,
   beyond,  or  to  give  an  intensive sense; as, perimeter, the measure
   around;  perigee,  point near the earth; periergy, work beyond what is
   needed; perispherical, quite spherical.


   Pe"ri  (?), n.; pl. Peris (#). [Per. per\'c6 a female genus, a fairy.]
   (Persian  Myth.)  An  imaginary  being, male or female, like an elf or
   fairy,  represented  as  a  descendant of fallen angels, excluded from
   paradise till penance is accomplished. Moore.

   Page 1066


   Per`i*a"gua (?), n. See Pirogue.


   Per"i*anth  (?),  n.  [Pref. peri- + Gr. p\'82rianthe.] (Bot.) (a) The
   leaves  of  a  flower generally, especially when the calyx and corolla
   are  not readily distinguished. (b) A saclike involucre which incloses
   the young fruit in most hepatic mosses. See Illust. of Hepatica.


   Per`i*an"thi*um (?), n. [NL.] (Bot.) The perianth.


   Per"i*apt  (?),  n.  [Gr.  p\'82riapte.]  A charm worn as a protection
   against disease or mischief; an amulet. Coleridge.

     Now help, ye charming spells and periapts. Shak.


   Per`i*as"tral (?), a. Among or around the stars. "Comets in periastral
   passage." R. A. Proctor.


   Per`i*as"tron  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Astron.) That point, in the real
   or  apparent  orbit of one star revolving around another, at which the
   former is nearest to the latter.


   Per"i*au"ger (?), n. See Pirogue. W. Irving.


   Per"i*blast  (?), a. [Gr. Peri-, and -blast.] (Biol.) The protoplasmic
   matter  which  surrounds the entoblast, or cell nucleus, and undergoes
   segmentation. -- Per`i*blas"tic, a.


   Per"i*blem  (?),  n. [Pref. peri- + root of Gr. (Bot.) Nascent cortex,
   or immature cellular bark.


   Pe*rib"o*los   (?),   n.   [Nl.,   fr.   Gr.  peribolus.]  In  ancient
   architecture, an inclosed court, esp., one surrounding a temple.


   Per`i*bran"chi*al  (?),  a. (Anat.) Surrounding the branchi\'91; as, a
   peribranchial cavity.


   Per`i*bran"chi*al  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Around  the bronchi or bronchial
   tubes; as, the peribronchial lymphatics.


   Per`i*cam"bi*um  (?), n. [NL. See Peri-, and Cambium.] (Biol.) A layer
   of  thin-walled  young cells in a growing stem, in which layer certain
   new vessels originate.

                           Pericardiac, Pericardial

   Per`i*car"di*ac  (?), Per`i*car"di*al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining
   to   pericardium;   situated   around  the  heart.  Pericardial  fluid
   (Physiol.),  a  serous  fluid  of a pale yellow color contained in the


   Per`i*car"di*an (?), a. Pericardiac.


   Per`i*car"dic (?), a. Pericardiac.


   Per`i*car*di"tus  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Pericardium, and -itis.] (Med.)
   Inflammation of the pericardium. Dunglison.


   Per`i*car"di*um  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The double baglike fold
   of serous membrane which incloses the heart.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e in ner la yer is  cl osely ad herent to the outer
     surface  of  the  heart, and is called the cardiac pericardium. The
     outer  layer  loosely  incloses  the  heart  and the adherent inner
     layer,  and  is called the parietal pericardium. At the base of the
     heart  the  two  layers  are  continuous,  and form a narrow closed
     cavity  filled  with  fluid,  in  which the pulsations of the heart
     cause little friction.


   Per"i*carp  (?),  n. [Gr. p\'82ricarpe.] (Bot.) The ripened ovary; the
   walls of the fruit. See Illusts. of Capsule, Drupe, and Legume.

                            Pericarpial, Pericarpic

   Per`i*car"pi*al  (?), Per`i*car"pic (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to
   a pericarp.


   Per`i*cel"lu*lar   (?),   a.  (Anat.)  Surrounding  a  cell;  as,  the
   pericellular lymph spaces surrounding ganglion cells.


   Per"i*ch\'91th   (?),   n.  [See  Perich\'91tium.]  (Bot.)  The  leafy
   involucre  surrounding  the  fruit  stalk  of  mosses; perich\'91tium;


   Per`i*ch\'91"ti*al   (?),   a.   (Bot.)   Of   or  pertaining  to  the


   Per`i*ch\'91"ti*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Perich\'91tia  (#).  [NL., fr. Gr.
   (Bot.) Same as Perich\'91th.


   Per`i*ch\'91"tous  (?), a. [See Perich\'91tium.] (Zo\'94l.) Surrounded
   by set\'91; -- said of certain earthworms (genus Perich\'91tus).


   Per"i*chete (?), n. Same as Perich\'91th.


   Per`i*chon"dri*al   (?),   a.   (Anat.)   Of   or  pertaining  to  the
   perichondrium; situated around cartilage.


   Per`i*chon*dri"tis  (?), n. [NL. See Perichondrium, and -itis.] (Med.)
   Inflammation of the perichondrium.


   Per`i*chon"dri*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Anat.)  The membrane of
   fibrous  connective  tissue  which  closely  invests cartilage, except
   where covering articular surfaces.


   Per`i*chor"dal (?), a. Around the notochord; as, a perichordal column.
   See Epichordal.

                            Periclase, Periclasite

   Per"i*clase  (?),  Per`i*cla"site  (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. (Min.) A
   grayish  or  dark  green  mineral,  consisting essentially of magnesia
   (magnesium  oxide),  occurring  in  granular  forms  or  in  isometric


   Per`i*clin"i*um  (?), n.; pl. Periclinia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) The
   involucre which surrounds the common receptacle in composite flowers.


   Pe*ric"li*tate  (?),  v. t. [L. periclitatus, p.p. of periclitari, fr.
   periculum.] To endanger. [Obs.]

     Periclitating, pardi! the whole family. Sterne.


   Pe*ric`li*ta"tion (?), n. [L. periclitatio: cf. F. p\'82riclitation.]

   1. Trial; experiment. [Obs.]

   2. The state of being in peril. [Obs.]


   Pe*ric"o*pe (?), n. [L., section of a book, Gr. A selection or extract
   from  a  book;  especially  (Theol.),  a  selection  from  the  Bible,
   appointed to be read in the churches or used as a text for a sermon.


   Per`i*cra"ni*al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the pericranium.


   Per`i*cra"ni*um  (?), n. [NL.] (Anat.) The periosteum which covers the
   cranium externally; the region around the cranium.


   Pe*ric"u*lous  (?), a. [L. periculosus. See Perilous.] Dangerous; full
   of peril. [Obs.]


   Pe*ric"u*lum (?), n.; pl. Pericula (#). [L.] (Rom. & O.Eng. Law)

   1. Danger; risk.

   2.  In a narrower, judicial sense: Accident or casus, as distinguished
   from  dolus  and  culpa,  and  hence  relieving  one  from the duty of
   performing an obligation.


   Per"i*derm (?), n.

   1. (Bot.) The outer layer of bark.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  hard  outer covering of hydroids and other marine
   animals; the perisarc.


   Per`i*di*as"to*le  (?),  n.  (Physiol.)  The almost inappreciable time
   which elapses between the systole and the diastole of the heart.


   Pe*rid"i*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Peridia  (#).  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Bot.) The
   envelope  or  coat  of  certain  fungi,  such  as  the  puffballs  and


   Per"i*dot (?), n. [F. p\'82ridot.] (Min.) Chrysolite.


   Per"i*do*tite  (?), n. [Cf. F. p\'82ridotite.] (Min.) An eruptive rock
   characterized by the presence of chrysolite (peridot). It also usually
   contains  pyroxene,  enstatite,  chromite, etc. It is often altered to

     NOTE: &hand; Th e chief diamond deposits in South Africa occur in a
     more or less altered peridotite.


   Per"i*drome  (?),  n.  [Gr.  p\'82ridrome.]  (Arch\'91ol.)  The  space
   between  the  columns and the wall of the cella, in a Greek or a Roman


   Per`i*e"cians (?), n. pl. See Peri\'d2cians.


   Per`i*en"te*ron  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Peri-, and Enteron.] (Anat.) The
   primitive perivisceral cavity.


   Per"i*er`gy (?), n. [Gr.

   1. Excessive care or diligence. [Obs.]

   2. (Rhet.) A bombastic or labored style. [R.]


   Per`i*gan`gli*on"ic  (?),  a.  (Anat.) Surrounding a ganglion; as, the
   periganglionic glands of the frog.


   Per`i*gas"tric  (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Surrounding the stomach; -- applied
   to the body cavity of Bryozoa and various other Invertebrata.


   Per`i*ge"an  (?),  a. Pertaining to the perigee. Perigean tides, those
   spring tides which occur soon after the moon passes her perigee.

                               Perigee, Perigeum

   Per"i*gee   (?),   Per`i*ge"um   (?),   n.   [NL.  perigeum,  fr.  Gr.
   p\'82rig\'82e.] (Astron.) That point in the orbit of the moon which is
   nearest  to  the  earth;  --  opposed  to apogee. It is sometimes, but
   rarely,  used  of the nearest points of other orbits, as of a comet, a
   planet, etc. Called also epigee, epigeum.


   Per`i*gen"e*sis (?), n. (Biol.) A theory which explains inheritance by
   the  transmission  of  the  type  of  growth  force  possessed  by one
   generation to another.


   Per`i*gen"e*tic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to perigenesis.


   Per"i*gone (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr.

   1.  (Bot.) (a) Any organ inclosing the essential organs of a flower; a
   perianth. (b) In mosses, the involucral bracts of a male flower.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  sac  which  surrounds  the generative bodies in the
   gonophore of a hydroid.


   Per`i*go"ni*um (?), n.; pl. Perigonia (#). [NL.] Same as Perigone.

                                 Perigord pie

   Per"i*gord  pie` (?). [From P\'82rigord, a former province of France.]
   A pie made of truffles, much esteemed by epicures.


   Per"i*graph  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  careless  or inaccurate delineation of
   anything. [R.]


   Per`i*gyn"i*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Perigynia  (#).  [NL. See Perigynous.]
   (Bot.)  Some  unusual appendage about the pistil, as the bottle-shaped
   body in the sedges, and the bristles or scales in some other genera of
   the Sedge family, or Cyperace\'91.


   Pe*rig"y*nous (?), a. [Pref. peri- + Gr. (Bot.) Having the ovary free,
   but  the petals and stamens borne on the calyx; -- said of flower such
   as that of the cherry or peach.

                            Perihelion, Perihelium

   Per`i*hel"ion  (?),  Per`i*he"li*um  (?), n.; pl. Perihelia (#). [NL.,
   fr.  Gr.  (Astron.) That point of the orbit of a planet or comet which
   is nearest to the sun; -- opposed to aphelion.


   Per"il  (?),  n.  [F.  p\'82ril,  fr.  L. periculum, periclum, akin to
   peritus   experienced,  skilled,  and  E.  fare.  See  Fare,  and  cf.
   Experience.]  Danger;  risk;  hazard;  jeopardy; exposure of person or
   property to injury, loss, or destruction.

     In perils of waters, in perils of robbers. 2 Cor. xi. 26.

     Adventure hard With peril great achieved. Milton.

   At,  OR On, one's peril, with risk or danger to one; at the hazard of.
   "On  thy  soul's  peril."  Shak.  Syn.  -- Hazard; risk; jeopardy. See
   Per"il,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Periled (?) or Perilled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Periling  or  Perilling.] To expose to danger; to hazard; to risk; as,
   to peril one's life.
   Per"il (?), v. i. To be in danger. [Obs.] Milton.
   Pe*ril"la  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  (Bot.)  A genus of labiate
   herbs,  of which one species (Perilla ocimoides, or P. Nankinensis) is
   often cultivated for its purple or variegated foliage. 


   Per"il*ous  (?),  a.  [OF.  perillous,  perilleus, F. p\'82rilleux, L.
   periculosus. See Peril.] [Written also perillous.]

   1.  Full of, attended with, or involving, peril; dangerous; hazardous;
   as, a perilous undertaking.

     Infamous hills, and sandy, perilous wilds. Milton.

   2. Daring; reckless; dangerous. [Obs.] Latimer.

     For I am perilous with knife in hand. Chaucer.

   -- Per"il*ous*ly, adv. -- Per"il*ous*ness, n.


   Per"i*lymph  (?),  n. (Anat.) The fluid which surrounds the membranous
   labyrinth  of the internal ear, and separates it from the walls of the
   chambers in which the labyrinth lies.


   Per`i*lym*phan"gi*al  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Around,  or at the side of, a
   lymphatic vessel.


   Per`i*lym*phat"ic  (?),  a.  (Anat.) (a) Pertaining to, or containing,
   perilymph. (b) Perilymphangial.


   Per*im"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. p\'82rim\'8atre.]

   1.  (Geom.)  The outer boundary of a body or figure, or the sum of all
   the sides.

   2.  An instrument for determining the extent and shape of the field of

                           Perimetric, Perimetrical

   Per`i*met"ric  (?),  Per`i*met"ric*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to the
   perimeter, or to perimetry; as, a perimetric chart of the eye.


   Per*im"e*try  (?),  n.  The art of using the perimeter; measurement of
   the field of vision.


   Per"i*morph (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. (Min.) A crystal of one species
   inclosing one of another species. See Endomorph.


   Per`i*my"sial (?), a. (Anat.) (a) Surrounding a muscle or muscles. (b)
   Of or pertaining to the perimysium.


   Per`i*my"si*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Anat.) The connective tissue
   sheath  which surrounds a muscle, and sends partitions inwards between
   the bundles of muscular fibers.


   Per`i*n\'91"um (?), n. See Perineum.


   Per`i*ne"al (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the perineum.


   Per`i*ne"o*plas`ty  (?),  n.  [Perineum  + -plasty.] (Med.) The act or
   process of restoring an injured perineum.


   Per`i*ne*or"rha*phy  (?),  n.  [Perineum + Gr. (Med.) The operation of
   sewing up a ruptured perineum.


   Per`i*ne*phri"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Peri-,  and Nephritis.] (Med.)
   Inflammation   of   the   cellular   tissue   around  the  kidney.  --
   Per`i*ne*phrit"ic, a.


   Per`i*ne"um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The region which is included
   within  the outlet of the pelvis, and is traversed by the urinogenital
   canal and the rectum.


   Per`i*neu"ri*al (?), a. (Anat.) Surrounding nerves or nerve fibers; of
   or pertaining to the perineurium.


   Per`i*neu"ri*um  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The connective tissue
   sheath  which  surrounds a bundle of nerve fibers. See Epineurium, and


   Per`i*nu"cle*ar  (?),  a.  (Biol.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  a nucleus;
   situated around a nucleus; as, the perinuclear protoplasm.


   Pe"ri*od (?), n. [L. periodus, Gr. p\'82riode.]

   1.  A  portion  of  time  as  limited and determined by some recurring
   phenomenon,  as  by  the  completion  of  a  revolution  of one of the
   heavenly  bodies; a division of time, as a series of years, months, or
   days,  in which something is completed, and ready to recommence and go
   on  in  the  same order; as, the period of the sun, or the earth, or a

   2.  Hence: A stated and recurring interval of time; more generally, an
   interval  of  time  specified  or left indefinite; a certain series of
   years,  months,  days, or the like; a time; a cycle; an age; an epoch;
   as, the period of the Roman republic.

     How  by art to make plants more lasting than their ordinary period.

   3.  (Geol.)  One  of  the  great divisions of geological time; as, the
   Tertiary period; the Glacial period. See the Chart of Geology.

   4.  The  termination  or  completion of a revolution, cycle, series of
   events,  single  event,  or  act;  hence,  a limit; a bound; an end; a
   conclusion. Bacon.

     So  spake  the  archangel  Michael;  then paused, As at the world's
     great period. Milton.

     Evils  which  shall  never  end  till  eternity hath a period. Jer.

     This is the period of my ambition. Shak.

   5. (Rhet.) A complete sentence, from one full stop to another; esp., a
   well-proportioned,   harmonious   sentence.   "Devolved   his  rounded
   periods." Tennyson.

     Periods are beautiful when they are not too long. B. Johnson.

     NOTE: &hand; The period, according to Heyse, is a compound sentence
     consisting  of  a protasis and apodosis; according to Becker, it is
     the  appropriate form for the co\'94rdinate propositions related by
     antithesis or causality.


   6. (Print.) The punctuation point [.] that marks the end of a complete
   sentence, or of an abbreviated word.

   7.  (Math.)  One  of  several similar sets of figures or terms usually
   marked  by  points  or  commas  placed  at  regular  intervals,  as in
   numeration, in the extraction of roots, and in circulating decimals.

   Page 1067

   8.  (Med.) The time of the exacerbation and remission of a disease, or
   of the paroxysm and intermission.

   9. (Mus.) A complete musical sentence.
   The  period,  the  present  or current time, as distinguished from all
   other  times.  Syn.  --  Time; date; epoch; era; age; duration; limit;
   bound; end; conclusion; determination.


   Pe"ri*od (?), v. t. To put an end to. [Obs.] Shak.


   Pe"ri*od,  v.  i.  To  come  to a period; to conclude. [Obs.] "You may
   period upon this, that," etc. Felthman.


   Per*i"o*date (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of periodic acid.


   Per`i*od"ic  (?),  a.  [Pref.  per-  +  iodic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
   derived from, or designating, the highest oxygen acid (HIO

                             Periodic, Periodical

   Pe`ri*od"ic   (?),   Pe`ri*od"ic*al   (?),   a.  [L.  periodicus,  Gr.

   1. Of or pertaining to a period or periods, or to division by periods.

     The periodicaltimes of all the satellites. Sir J. Herschel.

   2.  Performed  in  a  period,  or  regular revolution; proceeding in a
   series  of  successive  circuits;  as,  the  periodical  motion of the
   planets round the sun.

   3.  Happening,  by  revolution, at a stated time; returning regularly,
   after  a  certain  period of time; acting, happening, or appearing, at
   fixed intervals; recurring; as, periodical epidemics.

     The periodic return of a plant's flowering. Henslow.

     To influence opinion through the periodical press. Courthope.

   4.  (Rhet.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  a period; constituting a complete
   Periodic  comet  (Astron.),  a  comet  that  moves about the sun in an
   elliptic orbit; a comet that has been seen at two of its approaches to
   the  sun.  -- Periodic function (Math.), a function whose values recur
   at   fixed   intervals   as  the  variable  uniformly  increases.  The
   trigonomertic   functions,  as  sin  x,  tan  x,  etc.,  are  periodic
   functions.   Exponential   functions  are  also  periodic,  having  an
   imaginary  period, and the elliptic functions have not only a real but
   an imaginary period, and are hence called doubly periodic. -- Periodic
   law  (Chem.),  the  generalization that the properties of the chemical
   elements  are  periodic  functions  of their atomic wieghts. "In other
   words,  if  the  elements  are  grouped  in  the order of their atomic
   weights,  it  will  be  found  that  nearly  the same properties recur
   periodically  throughout  the  entire  series."  The following tabular
   arrangement  of  the  atomic  weights  shows the regular recurrence of
   groups (under I., II., III., IV., etc.), each consisting of members of
   the  same  natural family. The gaps in the table indicate the probable
   existence  of unknown elements. <-- only the first column of the table
   is entered here, remainder needs to be entered -->

   columns contain the periodic groups) Series1{ 2{ 3{ 4{ 5{ 6{ 7{ 8{ 9{
   10{ 11{ 12{
   -------------------------------------------------------------- |I. II.
   III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. | RH4 RH3 RH3 RH |R2O RO R3O3 RO2 R2O5 RO3
   R2O7 RO4
   -------------------------------------------------------------- H 1 Li
   7 Na 23 K 39 (Cu) 63 Rb 85.2 (Ag) (108) Cs 133 (-) (-) (Au) (197) (-)

     NOTE: &hand; A  similar relation had been enunciated in a crude way
     by  Newlands;  but  the law in its effective form was developed and
     elaborated   by   Mendelejeff,   whence   it  is  sometimes  called
     Mendelejeff's  law. Important extensions of it were also made by L.
     Meyer. By this means Mendelejeff predicted with remarkable accuracy
     the  hypothetical  elements  ekaboron, ekaluminium, and ekasilicon,
     afterwards discovered and named respectively scandium, gallium, and

   --   Periodic  star  (Astron.),  a  variable  star  whose  changes  of
   brightness recur at fixed periods. -- Periodic time of a heavenly body
   (Astron.),  the  time  of  a complete revolution of the body about the
   sun, or of a satellite about its primary.


   Pe`ri*od"ic*al,  n.  A  magazine or other publication which appears at
   stated or regular intervals.


   Pe`ri*od"ic*al*ist, n. One who publishes, or writes for, a periodical.


   Pe`ri*od"ic*al*ly, adv. In a periodical manner.


   Pe`ri*od"ic*al*ness, n. Periodicity.


   Pe`ri*o*dic"i*ty   (?),   n.;   pl.   Periodicities   (#).   [Cf.   F.
   p\'82riodicit\'82.]  The  quality  or  state  of  being periodical, or
   regularly  recurrent;  as,  the  periodicity in the vital phenomena of
   plants. Henfrey.


   Per*i"o*dide  (?),  n.  [Pref.  per- + iodide.] An iodide containing a
   higher  proportion  of  iodine  than  any  other  iodide  of  the same
   substance or series.


   Per`i*o*don"tal  (?),  a.  [Pref.  peri- + Gr. (Anat.) Surrounding the


   Pe`ri*od"o*scope  (?),  n.  [Period + -scope.] (Med.) A table or other
   means for calculating the periodical functions of women. Dunglison.

                           Peri\'d2ci, Peri\'d2cians

   Per`i*\'d2"ci,  Per`i*\'d2"cians,  n. pl. [NL. perioeci, fr. Gr. Those
   who  live  on the same parallel of latitude but on opposite meridians,
   so  that  it  is  noon  in one place when it is midnight in the other.
   Compare Ant\'d2ci.


   Per"i*o*ple  (?),  n.  [F.  p\'82riople, from Gr. (Anat.) The external
   smooth horny layer of the hoof of the horse and allied animals.


   Per`i*op"lic  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the periople;
   connected with the periople.


   Per`i*os"te*al  (?), a. (Anat.) Situated around bone; of or pertaining
   to the periosteum.


   Per`i*os"te*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. periosteon.] (Anat.) The membrane
   of fibrous connective tissue which closely invests all bones except at
   the articular surfaces.


   Per`i*os*ti"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Periosteum,  and  -itis.] (Med.)
   Inflammation of the periosteum.


   Per`i*os"tra*cum   (?),   n.;  pl.  Periostraca  (#).  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.)  A chitinous membrane covering the exterior of many shells;
   -- called also epidermis.


   Per`i*o"tic  (?),  a.  [Pref.  peri-  +  Gr.  (Anat.)  Surrounding, or
   pertaining  to  the  region  surrounding,  the  internal  ear; as, the
   periotic capsule. -- n. A periotic bone.


   Per`i*pa*te"cian (?), n. A peripatetic. [Obs.]


   Per`i*pa*tet"ic (?), a. [L. peripateticus, Gr. p\'82ripat\'82tique.]

   1. Walking about; itinerant.

   2.  Of  or  pertaining to the philosophy taught by Aristotle (who gave
   his  instructions  while  walking  in the Lyceum at Athens), or to his
   followers. "The true peripatetic school." Howell.


   Per`i*pa*tet"ic, n.

   1. One who walks about; a pedestrian; an itinerant. Tatler.

   2. A disciple of Aristotle; an Aristotelian.


   Per`i*pa*tet"ic*al (?), a. Peripatetic. [R.] Hales.


   Per`i*pa*tet"i*cism   (?),   n.   [Cf.  F.  p\'82ripat\'82tisme.]  The
   doctrines   or   philosophical   system   of   the  peripatetics.  See
   Peripatetic, n., 2. Lond. Sat. Rev.


   Pe*rip"a*tus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus of lowly
   organized  arthropods,  found in South Africa, Australia, and tropical
   America. It constitutes the order Malacopoda.


   Per`i*pet"al*ous  (?),  a.  (Bot.) Surrounding, or situated about, the


   Pe*riph"er*al (?), a.

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  periphery;  constituting  a  periphery;

   2.  (Anat.) External; away from the center; as, the peripheral portion
   of the nervous system.

                           Peripheric, Peripherical

   Per`i*pher"ic     (?),    Per`i*pher"ic*al    (?),    a.    [Cf.    F.
   p\'82riph\'82rique. See Periphery.] See Peripheral.


   Pe*riph"er*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Peripheries  (#).  [L.  peripheria,  Gr.

   1. The outside or superficial portions of a body; the surface.

   2. (Geom.) The circumference of a circle, ellipse, or other figure.


   Per"i*phrase  (?), n. [L. periphrasis, Gr. p\'82riphrase. See Phrase.]
   (Rhet.)  The use of more words than are necessary to express the idea;
   a  roundabout,  or  indirect,  way  of  speaking;  circumlocution. "To
   describe by enigmatic periphrases." De Quincey.


   Per"i*phrase,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Periphrased (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Periphrasing.]  [Cf.  F.  p\'82riphraser.] To express by periphrase or


   Per"i*phrase, v. i. To use circumlocution.


   Pe*riph"ra*sis (?), n.; pl. Periphrases (#). [L.] See Periphrase.

                         Periphrastic, Periphrastical

   Per`i*phras"tic     (?),     Per`i*phras"tic*al     (?),    a.    [Gr.
   p\'82riphrastique.]  Expressing,  or expressed, in more words than are
   necessary;  characterized  by periphrase; circumlocutory. Periphrastic
   conjugation  (Gram.),  a  conjugation  formed by the use of the simple
   verb with one or more auxiliaries.


   Per`i*phras"tic*al*ly, adv. With circumlocution.


   Per"i*plast  (?),  n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. (Biol.) Same as Periblast. --
   Per`i*plas"tic (#), a. Huxley.

                          Peripneumonia, Peripneumony

   Per`ip*neu*mo"ni*a  (?),  Per`ip*neu"mo*ny  (?), n. [L. peripneumonia,
   Gr.   p\'82ripneumonie.   See  Peri-,  Pneumonia.]  (Med.)  Pneumonia.
   (Obsoles.)  <--  sic.  why  is  this  mark  in parentheses rather than
   brackets? -->


   Per`ip*neu*mon"ic     (?),     a.     [L.     peripneumonicus,     Gr.
   p\'82ripneumonique.] (Med.) Of or pertaining to peripneumonia.


   Per"i*proct   (?),  n.  [Pref.  peri-  +  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  region
   surrounding the anus, particularly of echinoderms.


   Per`i*proc*ti"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Peri-,  and Proctitus.] (Med.)
   Inflammation of the tissues about the rectum.


   Pe*rip"ter*al  (?),  a. [Gr., fr. (Arch.) Having columns on all sides;
   -- said of an edifice. See Apteral.


   Pe*rip"ter*ous (?), a.

   1. (Arch.) Peripteral.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Feathered all around.


   Per"i*sarc  (?),  n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The outer, hardened
   integument which covers most hydroids.


   Pe*ris"cian  (?),  a. [Gr. p\'82riscien.] Having the shadow moving all

                             Periscians, Periscii

   Pe*ris"cians  (?),  Pe*ris"ci*i (?), n. pl. [NL. See Periscian.] Those
   who  live  within  a  polar  circle, whose shadows, during some summer
   days,  will  move  entirely  round,  falling toward every point of the


   Per"i*scope (?), n. [Pref. peri- + -scope.] A general or comprehensive
   view. [R.]


   Per`i*scop"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82riscopique.] Viewing all around, or
   on   all   sides.  Periscopic  spectacles  (Opt.),  spectacles  having
   concavo-convex or convexo-concave lenses with a considerable curvature
   corresponding  to  that  of  the  eye, to increase the distinctness of
   objects viewed obliquely.


   Per"ish  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Perished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perishing.] [OE. perissen, perisshen, F. p\'82rir, p.pr. p\'82rissant,
   L. perire to go or run through, come to nothing, perish; per through +
   ire to go. Cf. Issue, and see -ish.] To be destroyed; to pass away; to
   become nothing; to be lost; to die; hence, to wither; to waste away.

     I perish with hunger! Luke xv. 17.

     Grow up and perish, as the summer fly. Milton.

     The thoughts of a soul that perish in thinking. Locke.


   Per"ish, v. t. To cause perish. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Per`ish*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Perishableness.


   Per"ish*a*ble (?), a. [F. p\'82rissable.] Liable to perish; subject to
   decay,  destruction,  or  death;  as, perishable goods; our perishable


   Per"ish*a*ble*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state  of being perishable;
   liability to decay or destruction. Locke.


   Per"ish*a*bly, adv. In a perishable degree or manner.


   Per"ish*ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. perissement.] The act of perishing. [R.]


   Per`i*so"ma  (?),  n.;  pl.  Perisomata  (#). [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Per"i*some  (?),  n. [Pref. peri- + -some body.] (Zo\'94l.) The entire
   covering  of  an invertebrate animal, as echinoderm or c\'d2lenterate;
   the integument.


   Per"i*sperm  (?),  n. [F. p\'82risperme. See Peri-, and Sperm.] (Bot.)
   The albumen of a seed, especially that portion which is formed outside
   of the embryo sac. -- Per`i*sper"mic (#), a.

                          Perispheric, Perispherical

   Per`i*spher"ic  (?),  Per`i*spher"ic*al  (?),  a.  Exactly  spherical;


   Per`i*spom"e*non  (?),  n.;  pl.  Perispomena (#). [NL., from Gr. (Gr.
   Gram.)  A  word  which has the circumflex accent on the last syllable.


   Per"i*spore (?), n. (Bot.) The outer covering of a spore.


   Per"is*sad  (?),  a. [Gr. (Chem.) Odd; not even; -- said of elementary
   substances  and  of  radicals  whose  valence  is not divisible by two
   without  a remainder. Contrasted with artiad.<-- ? not in modern usage


   Per"isse (?), v. i. To perish. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Per`is*so*dac"tyl (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Perissodactyla.


   Per`is*so*dac"ty*la  (?),  n. pl. [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A division
   of  ungulate mammals, including those that have an odd number of toes,
   as the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros; -- opposed to Artiodactyla.


   Per`is*so*log"ic*al  (?),  a. [Cf. F. p\'82rissologique.] Redundant or
   excessive in words. [R.]


   Per`is*sol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [L. perissologia, Gr. Superfluity of words.
   [R.] G. Campbell.


   Per`i*stal"sis  (?),  n. [NL. See Peristaltic.] (Physiol.) Peristaltic
   contraction or action.


   Per`i*stal"tic  (?),  a. [Gr. p\'82ristaltique.] (Physiol.) Applied to
   the  peculiar wormlike wave motion of the intestines and other similar
   structures,  produced  by  the  successive contraction of the muscular
   fibers of their walls, forcing their contents onwards; as, peristaltic
   movement. -- Per`i*stal"tic*al*ly (#), adv.


   Per`is*te"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Peristerion.]  (Bot.)  A genus of
   orchidaceous plants. See Dove plant.


   Per`is*te"ri*on  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. peristereon.] (Bot.) The herb
   vervain (Verbena officinalis).


   Pe*ris"ter*ite  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Min.) A variety of albite, whitish and
   slightly iridescent like a pigeon's neck.


   Pe*ris`ter*o*mor"phous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -morphous.] (Zo\'94l.) Like or
   pertaining to the pigeons or Columb\'91.


   Pe*ris`ter*op"o*dous  (?),  a. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Having pigeonlike feet;
   -- said of those gallinaceous birds that rest on all four toes, as the
   curassows and megapods.


   Pe*ris"to*le  (?),  n.  [NL.:  cf.  F. p\'82ristole. See Peristaltic.]
   (Physiol.) Peristaltic action, especially of the intestines.


   Pe*ris"to*ma (?), n.; pl. Peristomata (#). [NL.] Same as Peristome.

   Page 1068


   Per"i*stome (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr.

   1.  (Bot.)  The  fringe  of teeth around the orifice of the capsule of
   mosses.  It  consists  of 4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 teeth, and may be either
   single or double.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The lip, or edge of the aperture, of a spiral shell.
   (b) The membrane surrounding the mouth of an invertebrate animal.


   Per`i*sto"mi*al (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to a peristome.


   Per`i*sto"mi*um (?), n. [NL.] Same as Peristome.


   Per`i*streph"ic  (?), a. [Gr. Turning around; rotatory; revolving; as,
   a peristrephic painting (of a panorama).


   Per"i*style (?), n. [L. peristylum, Gr. p\'82ristyle.] (Arch.) A range
   of  columns  with  their  entablature,  etc.; specifically, a complete
   system  of  columns, whether on all sides of a court, or surrounding a
   building,  such as the cella of a temple. Used in the former sense, it
   gives  name  to  the  larger  and inner court of a Roman dwelling, the
   peristyle. See Colonnade.


   Per`i*sys"to*le   (?),   n.   [Pref.   peri-   +   systole:   cf.   F.
   p\'82risystole.]  (Physiol.)  The  interval  between  the diastole and
   systole of the heart. It is perceptible only in the dying.


   Pe*rite" (?), a. [L. peritus.] Skilled. [Obs.]


   Per`i*the"ci*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) An organ in certain fungi
   and  lichens, surrounding and enveloping the masses of fructification.


   Pe*rit"o*mous  (?),  a. [Gr. Peri-, and Tome.] (Min.) Cleaving in more
   directions than one, parallel to the axis.


   Per`i*to*n\'91"um (?), n. (Anat.) Same as Peritoneum.


   Per`i*to*ne"al  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  p\'82riton\'82al.]  (Anat.)  Of or
   pertaining to the peritoneum.


   Per`i*to*ne"um  (?),  n.  [L. peritoneum, peritonaeum, Gr. (Anat.) The
   smooth  serous  membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen, or the
   whole  body  cavity  when  there  is  no diaphragm, and, turning back,
   surrounds  the  viscera,  forming  a  closed,  or  nearly closed, sac.
   [Written also periton\'91um.]


   Per`i*to*ni"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Peritoneum,  and  -itis.] (Med.)
   Inflammation of the peritoneum.


   Per`i*tra"che*al (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Surrounding the trache\'91.


   Per"i*treme (?), n. [Pref. peri- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) (a) That part of the
   integument of an insect which surrounds the spiracles. (b) The edge of
   the aperture of a univalve shell.


   Pe*rit"ri*cha  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A division of
   ciliated  Infusoria  having a circle of cilia around the oral disk and
   sometimes  another  around  the body. It includes the vorticellas. See


   Per`i*tro"chi*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Mech.)  The wheel which,
   together with the axle, forms the axis in peritrochio, which see under


   Per*it"ro*pal (?), a. [Gr. p\'82ritrope.]

   1. Rotatory; circuitous. [R.]

   2.  Having  the  axis  of  the  seed  perpendicular to the axis of the
   pericarp to which it is attached.


   Per*it"ro*pous (?), a. Peritropal.


   Per`i*typh*li"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Peri-,  and Typhlitis.] (Med.)
   Inflammation of the connective tissue about the c\'91cum.


   Per`i*u"ter*ine (?), a. (Med.) Surrounding the uterus.


   Per`i*vas"cu*lar  (?),  a.  Around the blood vessels; as, perivascular


   Per`i*ver"te*bral (?), a. (Anat.) Surrounding the vertebr\'91.


   Per`i*vis"cer*al   (?),   a.  (Anat.)  Around  the  viscera;  as,  the
   perivisceral cavity.


   Per`i*vi*tel"line  (?), a. [Pref. peri- + vitelline.] (Biol.) Situated
   around  the vitellus, or between the vitellus and zona pellucida of an


   Per"i*wig  (?),  n. [OE. perrwige, perwicke, corrupt. fr. F. perruque;
   cf.  OD. peruyk, from French. See Peruke, and cf. Wig.] A headdress of
   false  hair,  usually  covering  the  whole head, and representing the
   natural hair; a wig. Shak.


   Per"i*wig,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Perwigged  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perwigging (?).] To dress with a periwig, or with false hair. Swift.


   Per"i*win`kle (?), n. [From AS. pinewincla a shellfish, in which pine-
   is  fr.  L.  pina,  pinna,  a  kind  of  mussel,  akin to Gr. Winkle.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  small  marine gastropod shell of the genus Littorina.
   The   common   European   species   (Littorina  littorea),  in  Europe
   extensively  used  as food, has recently become naturalized abundantly
   on the American coast. See Littorina.

     NOTE: &hand; In  America the name is often applied to several large
     univalves, as Fulgur carica, and F. canaliculata.


   Per"i*win`kle,  n.  [OE.  pervenke,  AS.  pervince,  fr. L. pervinca.]
   (Bot.) A trailing herb of the genus Vinca.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon pe rwinkle (V inca mi nor) ha s op posite
     evergreen leaves and solitary blue or white flowers in their axils.
     In America it is often miscalled myrtle. See under Myrtle.


   Per"jen*et  (?),  n. [Cf. Pear, and Jenneting.] A kind of pear. [Obs.]


   Per"jure  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Perjured (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perjuring.] [F. parjurer, L. perjurare, perjerare; per through, over +
   jurare to swear. See Jury.]

   1.  To  cause  to  violate  an  oath  or  a vow; to cause to make oath
   knowingly  to  what is untrue; to make guilty of perjury; to forswear;
   to corrupt; -- often used reflexively; as, he perjured himself.

     Want will perjure The ne'er-touched vestal. Shak.

   2.  To  make  a  false oath to; to deceive by oaths and protestations.

     And  with a virgin innocence did pray For me, that perjured her. J.

   Syn.   --   To   Perjure,   Forswear.   These  words  have  been  used
   interchangeably;  but  there is a tendency to restrict perjure to that
   species  of forswearing which constitutes the crime of perjury at law,
   namely,  the willful violation of an oath administered by a magistrate
   or according to law.


   Per"jure,  n.  [L.  perjurus:  cf. OF. parjur, F. parjure.] A perjured
   person. [Obs.] Shak.


   Per"jured  (?),  a. Guilty of perjury; having sworn falsely; forsworn.
   Shak.  "Perjured  persons."  1  Tim.  i.  10.  "Their  perjured oath."


   Per"jur*er  (?),  n. One who is guilty of perjury; one who perjures or
   forswears, in any sense.

                             Perjurious, Perjurous

   Per*ju"ri*ous  (?),  Per"ju*rous  (?),  a. [L. perjuriosus, perjurus.]
   Guilty of perjury; containing perjury. [Obs.] Quarles. B. Johnson.


   Per"ju*ry (?), n.; pl. Perjuries (#). [L. perjurium. See Perjure, v.]

   1. False swearing.

   2. (Law) At common law, a willfully false statement in a fact material
   to  the  issue,  made  by a witness under oath in a competent judicial
   proceeding.  By  statute  the  penalties of perjury are imposed on the
   making of willfully false affirmations.

     NOTE: &hand; If  a  man swear falsely in nonjudicial affidavits, it
     is  made  perjury  by  statute  in some jurisdictions in the United


   Perk  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Perked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Perking.]
   [Cf.  W.  percu  to  trim,  to  make smart.] To make trim or smart; to
   straighten  up; to erect; to make a jaunty or saucy display of; as, to
   perk the ears; to perk up one's head. Cowper. Sherburne.


   Perk,  v. i. To exalt one's self; to bear one's self loftily. "To perk
   over  them."  Barrow.  To  perk  it,  to  carry  one's self proudly or
   saucily. Pope.


   Perk,  a.  Smart;  trim;  spruce;  jaunty;  vain. "Perk as a peacock."


   Perk, v. i. To peer; to look inquisitively. Dickens.


   Per"kin (?), n. A kind of weak perry.


   Per"kin*ism  (?),  n.  (Med.)  A  remedial  treatment,  by drawing the
   pointed  extremities  of two rods, each of a different metal, over the
   affected  part;  tractoration, -- first employed by Dr. Elisha Perkins
   of Norwich, Conn. See Metallotherapy.


   Perk"y (?), a. Perk; pert; jaunty; trim.

     There amid perky larches and pines. Tennyson.


   Per*la"ceous (?), a. [See Pearl.] Pearly; resembling pearl.


   Per"lid  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) Any insect of the genus Perla, or family
   Perlid\'91. See Stone fly, under Stone.


   Per"lite (?), n. (Min.) Same as Pearlite.


   Per*lit"ic  (?),  a.  (Min.)  Relating  to  or  resembling perlite, or
   pearlstone; as, the perlitic structure of certain rocks. See Pearlite.


   Per"lous (?), a. Perilous. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Per`lus*tra"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  perlustrare to wander all through, to
   survey. See 3d Luster.] The act of viewing all over. [Archaic] Howell.


   Per"ma*na*ble (?), a. Permanent; durable. [Obs.] Lydgate.

                            Permanence, Permanency

   Per"ma*nence  (?),  Per"ma*nen*cy  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. permanence.] The
   quality  or state of being permanent; continuance in the same state or
   place;  duration;  fixedness;  as, the permanence of institutions; the
   permanence of nature.


   Per"ma*nent  (?), a. [L. permanens, -entis, p.pr. of permanere to stay
   or  remain  to  the  end,  to  last;  per  +  manere to remain: cf. F.
   permanent.  See  Per-,  and Mansion.] Continuing in the same state, or
   without   any  change  that  destroys  form  or  character;  remaining
   unaltered  or unremoved; abiding; durable; fixed; stable; lasting; as,
   a permanent impression.

     Eternity stands permanent and fixed. Dryden.

   Permanent  gases  (Chem.  &  Physics), hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and
   carbon  monoxide;  --  also called incondensible OR incoercible gases,
   before  their  liquefaction  in 1877.<-- archaic --> -- Permanent way,
   the  roadbed and superstructure of a finished railway; -- so called in
   distinction  from  the  contractor's temporary way. -- Permanent white
   (Chem.),  barium  sulphate  (heavy  spar),  used as a white pigment or
   paint,  in  distinction  from  white lead, which tarnishes and darkens
   from  the  formation  of  the  sulphide.  Syn.  --  Lasting;  durable;
   constant. See Lasting.
   Per"ma*nent*ly, adv. In a permanent manner. 


   Per*man"ga*nate  (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of permanganic acid. Potassium
   permanganate. (Chem.) See Potassium permanganate, under Potassium.


   Per`man*gan"ic  (?),  a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, one of
   the  higher  acids  of  manganese,  HMnO4,  which  forms  salts called


   Per*man"sion  (?),  n.  [L.  permansio.  See  Permanent.] Continuance.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Per`me*a*bil"i*ty  (?), n. [Cf. F. perm\'82abilit\'82.] The quality or
   state   of  being  permeable.  Magnetic  permeability  (Physics),  the
   specific  capacity of a body for magnetic induction, or its conducting
   power for lines of magnetic force. Sir W. Thomson.


   Per"me*a*ble  (?),  a.  [L.  permeabilis:  cf.  F.  perm\'82able.  See
   Permeate.]  Capable  of  being  permeated, or passed through; yielding
   passage;  passable; penetrable; -- used especially of substances which
   allow  the  passage  of fluids; as, wood is permeable to oil; glass is
   permeable to light. I. Taylor.


   Per"me*a*bly, adv. In a permeable manner.


   Per"me*ant  (?),  a. [L. permeans, p.pr.] Passing through; permeating.
   [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Per"me*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Permeated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Permeating.]  [L. permeatus, p.p. of permeare to permeate; per + meare
   to go, pass.]

   1.  To pass through the pores or interstices of; to penetrate and pass
   through without causing rupture or displacement; -- applied especially
   to  fluids  which  pass through substances of loose texture; as, water
   permeates sand. Woodward.

   2. To enter and spread through; to pervade.

     God  was  conceived  to  be diffused throughout the whole world, to
     permeate and pervade all things. Cudworth.


   Per`me*a"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of  permeating, passing through, or
   spreading throughout, the pores or interstices of any substance.

     Here  is not a mere involution only, but a spiritual permeation and
     inexistence. Bp. Hall.


   Per"mi*an  (?),  a.  [From  the  ancient  kingdom of Permia, where the
   Permian  formation  exists.]  (Geol.)  Belonging  or  relating  to the
   period,  and  also to the formation, next following the Carboniferous,
   and regarded as closing the Carboniferous age and Paleozoic era. -- n.
   The Permian period. See Chart of Geology.


   Per"mi*ans  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Permian (. (Ethnol.) A tribe belonging
   to the Finnic race, and inhabiting a portion of Russia.


   Per*mis"ci*ble  (?),  a.  [L.  permiscere  to mingle; per + miscere to
   mix.] Capable of being mixed.


   Per*miss"  (?),  n.  [See  Permit.]  A  permitted choice; a rhetorical
   figure  in  which  a  thing  is  committed  to  the  decision of one's
   opponent. [Obs.] Milton.


   Per*mis`si*bil"i*ty   (?),   n.  The  quality  of  being  permissible;
   permissibleness; allowableness.


   Per*mis"si*ble  (?),  a. That may be permitted; allowable; admissible.
   -- Per*mis"si*ble*ness, n. -- Per*mis"si*bly, adv.


   Per*mis"sion  (?),  n.  [L. permissio: cf. F. permission. See Permit.]
   The  act  of  permitting  or  allowing; formal consent; authorization;
   leave; license or liberty granted.

     High permission of all-ruling Heaven. Milton.

     You have given me your permission for this address. Dryden.

   Syn.  --  Leave; liberty; license. -- Leave, Permission. Leave implies
   that  the  recipient  may decide whether to use the license granted or
   not.  Permission  is  the  absence  on the part of another of anything
   preventive,  and  in  general,  at  least  by  implication,  signifies


   Per*mis"sive (?), a.

   1.  Permitting;  granting  leave or liberty. "By his permissive will."

   2. Permitted; tolerated; suffered. Milton.


   Per*mis"sive*ly, adv. In a permissive manner.


   Per*mis"tion   (?),  n.  [L.  permistio,  permixtio,  fr.  permiscere,
   permistum,  and  permixtum.  See  Permiscible.] The act of mixing; the
   state of being mingled; mixture. [Written also permixtion.]


   Per*mit"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Permitted;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Permitting.]  [L.  permittere,  permissum,  to  let through, to allow,
   permit; per + mittere to let go, send. See Per-, and Mission.]

   1.  To  consent to; to allow or suffer to be done; to tolerate; to put
   up with.

     What things God doth neither command nor forbid . . . he permitteth
     with approbation either to be done or left undone. Hooker.

   2.  To  grant  (one)  express  license  or  liberty  to  do an act; to
   authorize; to give leave; -- followed by an infinitive.

     Thou art permitted to speak for thyself. Acis xxvi. 1.

   3. To give over; to resign; to leave; to commit.

     Let  us not aggravate our sorrows, But to the gods permit the event
     of things. Addison.

   Syn. -- To allow; let; grant; admit; suffer; tolerate; endure; consent
   to.  -- To Allow, Permit, Suffer, Tolerate. To allow is more positive,
   denoting  (at  least  originally and etymologically) a decided assent,
   either  directly  or  by  implication. To permit is more negative, and
   imports  only  acquiescence  or  an  abstinence  from  prevention. The
   distinction,  however, is often disregarded by good writers. To suffer
   has  a  stronger  passive  or negative sense than to permit, sometimes
   implying against the will, sometimes mere indifference. To tolerate is
   to  endure  what  is  contrary  to  will  or  desire. To suffer and to
   tolerate are sometimes used without discrimination.


   Per*mit", v. i. To grant permission; to allow.


   Per"mit  (?),  n. Warrant; license; leave; permission; specifically, a
   written  license  or  permission  given  to a person or persons having
   authority; as, a permit to land goods subject to duty.


   Per*mit"tance  (?),  n.  The act of permitting; allowance; permission;
   leave. Milton.


   Per`mit*tee" (?), n. One to whom a permission or permit is given.


   Per*mit"ter (?), n. One who permits.

     A permitter, or not a hinderer, of sin. J. Edwards.


   Per*mix" (?), v. t. To mix; to mingle. [Obs.]


   Per*mix"tion (?), n. See Permission.


   Per*mut"a*ble  (?), a. [Cf. F. permutable.] Capable of being permuted;
   exchangeable. -- Per*mut"a*ble*ness, n. -- Per*mut"a*bly, adv.


   Per`mu*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  permutatio:  cf.  F.  permutation.  See

   1.  The  act  of  permuting; exchange of the thing for another; mutual
   transference; interchange.

     The  violent  convulsions  and  permutations that have been made in
     property. Burke.

   2. (Math.) (a) The arrangement of any determinate number of things, as
   units,  objects,  letters, etc., in all possible orders, one after the
   other; -- called also alternation. Cf. Combination, n., 4. (b) Any one
   of such possible arrangements.

   3. (Law) Barter; exchange.
   Permutation  lock,  a  lock  in  which  the parts can be transposed or
   shifted,  so  as  to require different arrangements of the tumblers on
   different occasions of unlocking.

   Page 1069


   Per*mute"  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  permutare,  permutatum;  per + mutare to
   change: cf. F. permuter.]

   1. To interchange; to transfer reciprocally.

   2. To exchange; to barter; to traffic. [Obs.]

     Bought, trucked, permuted, or given. Hakluyt.


   Per*mut"er (?), n. One who permutes.


   Pern (?), v. t. [See Pernancy.] To take profit of; to make profitable.
   [Obs.] Sylvester.


   Pern, n. (Zo\'94l.) The honey buzzard.


   Per"nan*cy (?), n. [OF. prenance, fr. prendre, prenre, penre, to take,
   L.  prendere,  prehendere.]  (Law)  A  taking  or  reception,  as  the
   receiving  of  rents  or  tithes  in  kind,  the receiving of profits.


   Per"nel (?), n. See Pimpernel. [Obs.]


   Per*ni"cion  (?),  n.  [See  2d  Pernicious.]  Destruction; perdition.
   [Obs.] hudibras.


   Per*ni"cious  (?), a. [L. pernix, -icis.] Quick; swift (to burn). [R.]


   Per*ni"cious,  a.  [L.  perniciosus,  from pernicies destruction, from
   pernecare to kill or slay outright; per + necare to kill, slay: cf. F.
   pernicieux.  Cf. Nuisance, Necromancy.] Having the quality of injuring
   or killing; destructive; very mischievous; baleful; malicious; wicked.

     Let this pernicious hour Stand aye accursed in the calendar. Shak.

     Pernicious to his health. Prescott.

   Syn.  --  Destructive;  ruinous;  deadly; noxious; injurious; baneful;
   deleterious;   hurtful;  mischievous.  --  Per*ni"cious*ly,  adv.,  --
   Per*ni"cious*ness, n.


   Per*nic"i*ty  (?),  n. [L. pernicitas. See 1st Pernicious.] Swiftness;
   celerity. [R.] Ray.


   Per"ni*o (?), n. [L.] (Med.) A chilblain.


   Per`noc*ta"li*an (?), n. One who watches or keeps awake all night.


   Per`noc*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L. pernoctatio, fr. pernoctare to stay all
   night;  per  +  nox,  noctis,  night.] The act or state of passing the
   whole  night;  a  remaining  all night. "Pernoctation in prayer." Jer.


   Per"nor  (?), n. [See Pern, v.] (Law) One who receives the profits, as
   of an estate.

                                Pernot furnace

   Per"not fur"nace (?). [So called from Charles Pernot, its inventor.] A
   reverberatory  furnace  with  a  circular revolving hearth, -- used in
   making steel.

                                  Pernyi moth

   Per"ny*i  moth" (?). (Zo\'94l.) A silk-producing moth (Attacus Pernyi)
   which  feeds  upon  the  oak.  It  has been introduced into Europe and
   America from China.


   Per*of"skite  (?),  n. [From von Perovski, of St.Petersburg.] (Min.) A
   titanate  of  lime occurring in octahedral or cubic crystals. [Written
   also Perovskite.]


   Pe*rogue (?), n. See Pirogue.


   Per"o*nate  (?),  a.  [L.  peronatus roughpero, -onis, a kind of rough
   boot.]  (Bot.) A term applied to the stipes or stalks of certain fungi
   which  are  covered  with  a  woolly substance which at length becomes
   powdery. Henslow.


   Per`o*ne"al  (?),  a.  [Gr. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the fibula; in
   the region of the fibula.


   Per"o*rate  (?),  v.  i.  [See  Peroration.]  To make a peroration; to
   harangue. [Colloq.]


   Per`o*ra"tion (?), n. [L. peroratio, fr. perorate, peroratum, to speak
   from  beginning  to end; per + orate to speak. See Per-, and Oration.]
   (Rhet.) The concluding part of an oration; especially, a final summing
   up and enforcement of an argument. Burke.


   Per*ox`i*da"tion  (?),  n.  Act,  process,  or result of peroxidizing;
   oxidation to a peroxide.


   Per*ox"ide  (?),  n. (Chem.) An oxide containing more oxygen than some
   other  oxide  of the same element. Formerly peroxides were regarded as
   the highest oxides. Cf. Per-, 2.


   Per*ox"i*dize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Peroxidized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Peroxidizing.]  (Chem.)  To oxidize to the utmost degree, so as to
   form a peroxide.


   Per*pend"  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  perpendere,  perpensum; per + pendere to
   weight.]  To  weight  carefully  in the mind. [R.] "Perpend my words."


   Per*pend", v. i. To attend; to be attentive. [R.] Shak.


   Per*pend"er  (?),  n.  [F.  parpaing,  pierre  parpaigne; of uncertain
   origin.]  (Masonry)  A  large  stone  reaching through a wall so as to
   appear  on  both  sides  of it, and acting as a binder; -- called also
   perbend, perpend stone, and perpent stone.


   Per*pen"di*cle  (?),  n. [L. perpendiculum; per + pendere to hang: cf.
   F.  perpendicule.]  Something  hanging  straight  down;  a plumb line.


   Per`pen*dic"u*lar  (?),  a. [L. perpendicularis, perpendicularius: cf.
   F. perpendiculaire. See Perpendicle, Pension.]

   1.  Exactly  upright  or  vertical;  pointing  to the zenith; at right
   angles to the plane of the horizon; extending in a right line from any
   point toward the center of the earth.

   2. (Geom.) At right angles to a given line or surface; as, the line ad
   is perpendicular to the line bc.
   Perpendicular  style  (Arch.),  a  name given to the latest variety of
   English  Gothic  architecture,  which  prevailed from the close of the
   14th century to the early part of the 16th; -- probably so called from
   the vertical style of its window mullions.


   Per`pen*dic"u*lar (?), n.

   1. A line at right angles to the plane of the horizon; a vertical line
   or direction.

   2.  (Geom.) A line or plane falling at right angles on another line or
   surface, or making equal angles with it on each side.


   Per`pen*dic`u*lar"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  perpendicularit\'82.]  The
   quality or state of being perpendicular.


   Per`pen*dic"u*lar*ly (?), adv. In a perpendicular manner; vertically.

                                 Perpend stone

   Per"pend stone` (?). See Perpender.


   Per*pen"sion  (?), n. [See Perpend.] Careful consideration; pondering.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Per*pen"si*ty (?), n. Perpension. [Obs.]

                                 Perpent stone

   Per"pent stone` (?). See Perpender.


   Per*pes"sion  (?),  n.  [L. perpessio, fr. perpeti, perpessus, to bear
   steadfastly;  per  +  pati  to bear.] Suffering; endurance. [Obs.] Bp.


   Per"pe*tra"ble (?), a. Capable of being perpetrated. R. North.


   Per"pe*trate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perpetrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perpetrating.]   [L.   perpetratus,  p.p.  of  perpetrare  to  effect,
   perpetrare;  per  +  patrare  to  perform.] To do or perform; to carry
   through;  to  execute, commonly in a bad sense; to commit (as a crime,
   an offense); to be guilty of; as, to perpetrate a foul deed.

     What the worst perpetrate, or best endure. Young.


   Per`pe*tra"tion (?), n. [L. perpetratio: cf. F. perp\'82tration.]

   1.  The  act  of  perpetrating;  a  doing;  --  commonly used of doing
   something wrong, as a crime.

   2. The thing perpetrated; an evil action.


   Per"pe*tra`tor (?), n. [L.] One who perpetrates; esp., one who commits
   an offense or crime.


   Per*pet"u*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being perpetuated or continued.

     Varieties are perpetuable, like species. Gray.


   Per*pet"u*al   (?),   a.  [OE.  perpetuel,  F.  perp\'82tuel,  fr.  L.
   perpetualis,  fr.  perpetuus  continuing  throughout,  continuous, fr.
   perpes,  -etis,  lasting throughout.] Neverceasing; continuing forever
   or for an unlimited time; unfailing; everlasting; continuous.

     Unto the kingdom of perpetual night. Shak.

     Perpetual feast of nectared sweets. Milton.

   Circle  of  perpetual apparition, OR occultation. See under Circle. --
   Perpetual  calendar, a calendar so devised that it may be adjusted for
   any  month  or  year.  --  Perpetual curacy (Ch. of Eng.), a curacy in
   which  all  the  tithes  are appropriated, and no vicarage is endowed.
   Blackstone. -- Perpetual motion. See under Motion. -- Perpetual screw.
   See Endless screw, under Screw. Syn. -- Continual; unceasing; endless;
   everlasting; incessant; constant; eternal. See Constant.


   Per*pet"u*al*ly, adv. In a perpetual manner; constantly; continually.

     The  Bible  and  Common  Prayer  Book  in  the vulgar tongue, being
     perpetually  read  in  churches, have proved a kind of standard for
     language. Swift.


     Per*pet"u*al*ty  (?), n. The state or condition of being perpetual.
     [Obs.] Testament of Love.


     Per*pet"u*ance (?), n. Perpetuity. [Obs.]


     Per*pet"u*ate  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Perpetuated (?); p. pr. &
     vb.  n.  Perpetuating.]  [L.  perpetuatus,  p.p.  of  perpetuare to
     perpetuate.  See Perpetual.] To make perpetual; to cause to endure,
     or  to  be  continued, indefinitely; to preserve from extinction or
     oblivion; to eternize. Addison. Burke.


     Per*pet"u*ate  (?),  a.  [L.  perpetuatus,  p.p.]  Made  perpetual;
     perpetuated. [R.] Southey.


     Per*pet`u*a"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  perp\'82tuation.]  The act of
     making  perpetual,  or  of  preserving  from  extinction through an
     endless   existence,   or   for   an  indefinite  period  of  time;
     continuance. Sir T. Browne.


     Per`pe*tu"i*ty (?), n. [L. perpetuitas: cf. F. perp\'82tuit\'82.]

     1.  The  quality or state of being perpetual; as, the perpetuity of
     laws. Bacon.

     A path to perpetuity of fame. Byron.

     The perpetuity of single emotion is insanity. I. Taylor.

     2. Something that is perpetual. South.

     3.  Endless  time.  "And yet we should, for perpetuity, go hence in
     debt." Shak.

     4. (Annuities) (a) The number of years in which the simple interest
     of any sum becomes equal to the principal. (b) The number of years'
     purchase  to  be  given  for  an annuity to continue forever. (c) A
     perpetual annuity.

     5.  (Law)  (a)  Duration  without  limitations  as to time. (b) The
     quality  or condition of an estate by which it becomes inalienable,
     either  perpetually  or  for  a  very long period; also, the estate
     itself so modified or perpetuated.


     Per*plex"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Perplexed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
     Perplexing.] [L. perplexari. See Perplex, a.]

     1.  To  involve; to entangle; to make intricate or complicated, and
     difficult  to  be  unraveled or understood; as, to perplex one with

     No artful wildness to perplex the scene. Pope.

     What  was  thought  obscure,  perplexed,  and too hard for our weak
     parts, will lie open to the understanding in a fair view. Locke.

     2.  To  embarrass; to puzzle; to distract; to bewilder; to confuse;
     to  trouble  with ambiguity, suspense, or anxiety. "Perplexd beyond
     self-explication." Shak.

     We are perplexed, but not in despair. 2 Cor. iv. 8.

     We  can  distinguish no general truths, or at least shall be apt to
     perplex the mind. Locke.

     3.  To  plague;  to  vex; to tormen. Glanvill. Syn. -- To entangle;
     involve;   complicate;   embarrass;   puzzle;   bewilder;  confuse;
     distract. See Embarrass.


     Per*plex",  a.  [L. perplexus entangled, intricate; per + plectere,
     plexum,  to  plait,  braid:  cf. F. perplexe. See Per-, and Plait.]
     Intricate; difficult. [Obs.] Glanvill.


     Per*plexed"  (?),  a.  Entangled,  involved,  or  confused;  hence,
     embarrassd; puzzled; doubtful; anxious. -- Per*plex"ed*ly (#), adv.
     -- Per*plex"ed*ness, n.


     Per*plex"ing   (?),   a.   Embarrassing;   puzzling;   troublesome.
     "Perplexing thoughts." Milton.


     Per*plex"i*ty  (?),  n.; pl. Perplexities (#). [L. perplexitas: cf.
     F.  perplexit\'82.]  The  quality  or  state  of being perplexed or
     puzzled; complication; intricacy; entanglement; distraction of mind
     through doubt or difficulty; embarrassment; bewilderment; doubt.

     By their own perplexities involved, They ravel more. Milton.


     Per*plex"ive*ness (?), n. The quality of being perplexing; tendency
     to perplex. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


     Per*plex"ly, adv. Perplexedly. [Obs.] Milton.


     Per`po*ta"tion (?), n. [L. perpotatio, fr. perpotate. See Per-, and
     Potation.] The act of drinking excessively; a drinking bout. [Obs.]


     Per"qui*site  (?),  n.  [L.  perquisitum,  fr. perquisitus, p.p. of
     perquirere to ask for diligently; per + quaerere to seek. See Per-,
     and Quest.]

     1.  Something  gained from a place or employment over and above the
     ordinary salary or fixed wages for services rendered; especially, a
     fee allowed by law to an officer for a specific service.

     The  pillage  of  a  place  taken  by  storm  was  regarded  as the
     perquisite of the soldiers. Prescott.

     The  best  perquisites of a place are the advantages it gaves a man
     of doing good. Addison.

     2.  pl.  (Law)  Things gotten by a man's own industry, or purchased
     with  his  own  money,  as  opposed  to things which come to him by
     descent. Mozley & W.


     Per"qui*sit*ed,  a.  Supplied with perquisites. [Obs.] "Perquisited
     varlets frequent stand." Savage.


     Per`qui*si"tion  (?),  n. [Cf. F. perquisition.] A thorough inquiry
     of search. [R.] Berkeley.


     Per*ra"di*al  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Situated  around  the radii, or
     radial tubes, of a radiate.


     Per"rie  (?),  n. [F. pierreries, pl., fr. pierre stone, L. petra.]
     Precious  stones; jewels. [Obs.] [Written also perre, perrye, etc.]


     Per"ri*er   (?),   n.  [OF.  perriere,  perrier,  F.  perrier.  Cf.
     Pederero.]  (Mil.)  A short mortar used formerly for throwing stone
     shot. Hakluyt.


     Per`ro*quet" (?), n. [F.] (Zo\'94l.) See Paroquet, Parakeet.


     Per`ruque" (?), n. [F.] See Peruke.


     Per*ru"qui*er (?), n. [F.] A marker of perukes or wigs.


     Per"ry  (?),  n.  [OF.  per\'82,  F. poir\'82, fr. poire a pear, L.
     pirum.  See  Pear  the  fruit.] A fermented liquor made from pears;
     pear cider. Mortimer.


     Per"ry, n. A suddent squall. See Pirry. [Obs.]


     Pers (?), a. [F. pers.] Light blue; grayish blue; -- a term applied
     to different shades at different periods. -- n. A cloth of sky-blue
     color. [Obs.] "A long surcoat of pers." Chaucer.


     Per"salt`  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  term  formerly  given to the salts
     supposed  to  be  formed  respectively  by  neutralizing acids with
     certain peroxides. [Obsoles.]


     Per"sant  (?),  a.  [F.  per\'87ant,  p.pr.  of  percer to pierce.]
     Piercing. [Obs.] Spenser.


     Per`scru*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  perscrutatio,  fr.  perscrutari to
     search   through.]  A  thorough  searching;  a  minute  inquiry  or
     scrutiny. Carlyle


     Per"se*cot (?), n. See Persicot.


     Per"se*cute  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Persecuted (?); p. pr. & vb.
     n.  Persecuting.]  [F.  pers\'82cueter, L. persequi, persecutus, to
     pursue,  prosecute;  per  +  sequi to follow, pursue. See Per-, and

     1.  To  pursue  in a manner to injure, grieve, or afflict; to beset
     with  cruelty  or  malignity;  to  harass;  especially, to afflict,
     harass,  punish,  or  put  to  death, for adherence to a particular
     religious creed or mode of worship.

     Do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully
     use you, and persecute you. Matt. v. 44.

     2.   To   harass   with  importunity;  to  pursue  with  persistent
     solicitations;  to  annoy.  Johnson.  Syn.  --  To oppress; harass;
     distress; worry; annoy.


     Per`se*cu"tion (?), n. [F. pers\'82cution, L. persecutio.]

     1.  The  act or practice of persecuting; especially, the infliction
     of loss, pain, or death for adherence to a particular creed or mode
     of worship.

     Persecution produces no sincere conviction. Paley.

     2. The state or condition of being persecuted. Locke.

     3. A carrying on; prosecution. [Obs.]


     Per"se*cu`tor   (?),  n.  [L.:  cf.  F.  pers\'82cuteur.]  One  who
     persecutes, or harasses. Shak.


     Per"se*cu`trix (?), n. [L.] A woman who persecutes.


     Per"se*id  (?), n. (Astron.) One of a group of shooting stars which
     appear  yearly  about  the 10th of August, and cross the heavens in
     paths apparently radiating from the constellation Perseus. They are
     beleived  to  be  fragments  once connected with a comet visible in


     Per"se*us (?), n. [L., from Gr.

     1.  (Class.  Myth.)  A  Grecian  legendary hero, son of Jupiter and
     Dana\'89, who slew the Gorgon Medusa.

     2. (Astron.) A consellation of the northern hemisphere, near Taurus
     and  Cassiopea. It contains a star cluster visible to the naked eye
     as a nebula.


     Per*sev"er (?), v. i. To persevere. [Obs.]


     Per`se*ver"ance (?), n. [F. pers\'82v\'82rance, L. perseverantia.]

     1.  The  act  of  persevering;  persistence in anything undertaken;
     continued  pursuit  or  prosecution  of any business, or enterprise
     begun.  "The  king-becoming  graces  .  .  .  perseverance,  mercy,
     lowliness." Shak.

     Whose  constant  perseverance  overcame  Whate'er  his cruel malice
     could invent. Milton.

     2. Discrimination. [Obs.] Sir J. Harrington.

     3.  (Theol.)  Continuance in a state of grace until it is succeeded
     by  a  state of glory; sometimes called final perseverance, and the
     perseverance  of  the  saints.  See Calvinism. Syn. -- Persistence;
     steadfastness; constancy; steadiness; pertinacity.

     Page 1070


     Per`se*ver"ant  (?),  a.  [L.  perseverans,  -antis,  p.pr.: cf. F.
     pers\'82v\'82rant.]  Persevering. [R.] "Perseverant faith." Whitby.
     -- Per`se*ver"ant*ly, adv. [R.]


     Per`se*vere"  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Persevered (?); p. pr. & vb.
     n.   Persevering.]   [F.   pers\'82v\'82rer,  L.  perseverare,  fr.
     perseverus very strict; per + severus strict, severe. See Per-, and
     Severe.]  To  persist  in any business or enterprise undertaken; to
     pursue  steadily any project or course begun; to maintain a purpose
     in  spite of counter influences, opposition, or discouragement; not
     to give or abandon what is undertaken.

     Thrice  happy, if they know Their happiness, and persevere upright.

     Syn.  --  To  Persevere,  Continue, Persist. The idea of not laying
     aside  is  common  to  these  words.  Continue is the generic term,
     denoting  simply to do as one has done hitherto. To persevere is to
     continue  in a given course in spite of discouragements, etc., from
     a  desire  to  obtain  our  end.  To  persist is to continue from a
     determination of will not to give up. Persist is frequently used in
     a bad sense, implying obstinacy in pursuing an unworthy aim.


     Per`se*ver"ing  (?),  a. Characterized by perseverance; persistent.
     -- Per`se*ver"ing*ly, adv.


     Per"sian (?), a. [From Persia: cf. It. Persiano. Cf. Parsee, Peach,
     Persic.]  Of  or pertaining to Persia, to the Persians, or to their

   Persian  berry, the fruit of Rhamnus infectorius, a kind of buckthorn,
   used  for  dyeing  yellow,  and  imported  chiefly  from Trebizond. --
   Persian  cat.  (Zo\'94l.) Same as Angora cat, under Angora. -- Persian
   columns  (Arch.),  columns  of  which  the  shaft represents a Persian
   slave;  --  called  also  Persians.  See  Atlantes.  --  Persian drill
   (Mech.), a drill which is turned by pushing a nut back and forth along
   a  spirally  grooved  drill  holder. -- Persian fire (Med.), malignant
   pustule.  --  Persian  powder.  See  Insect  powder,  under Insect. --
   Persian  red.  See  Indian  red (a), under Indian. -- Persian wheel, a
   noria; a tympanum. See Noria.


   Per"sian, n.

   1. A native or inhabitant of Persia.

   2. The language spoken in Persia.

   3. A thin silk fabric, used formerly for linings. Beck.

   4. pl. (Arch.) See Persian columns, under Persian, a.


   Per"sic  (?), a. [L. Persicus. Cf. Persian.] Of or relating to Persia.
   -- n. The Persian language.


   Per`si*ca"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL., from LL. persicarius a peach tree. See
   Peach.] (Bot.) See Lady's thumb.


   Per"si*cot  (?),  n.  [F. See Peach.] A cordial made of the kernels of
   apricots, nectarines, etc., with refined spirit.


   Per`si`flage" (?), n. [F., fr. persifler to quiz, fr. L. per + siffler
   to whistle, hiss, L. sibilare, sifilare.] Frivolous or bantering talk;
   a  frivolous  manner  of  treating  any  subject,  whether  serious or
   otherwise; light raillery. Hannah More.


   Per`si`fleur  (?), n. [F.] One who indulges in persiflage; a banterer;
   a quiz. Carlyle.


   Per*sim"mon  (?),  n.  [Virginia  Indian.]  (Bot.)  An  American  tree
   (Diospyros  Virginiana)  and its fruit, found from New York southward.
   The  fruit  is  like  a  plum  in  appearance,  but  is very harsh and
   astringent  until  it  has  been  exposed  to  frost,  when it becomes
   palatable  and  nutritious. Japanese persimmon, Diospyros Kaki and its
   red  or  yellow  edible fruit, which outwardly resembles a tomato, but
   contains a few large seeds.
   Per"sis  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  A  kind  of  coloring matter
   obtained from lichens. 


   Per"sism (?), n. A Persian idiom.


   Per*sist"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Persisted;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Persisting.]  [L.  persistere; per + sistere to stand or be fixed, fr.
   stare to stand: cf. F. persister. See Per-, and Stand.] To stand firm;
   to be fixed and unmoved; to stay; to continue steadfastly; especially,
   to  continue fixed in a course of conduct against opposing motives; to
   persevere;  --  sometimes  conveying  an  unfavorable  notion,  as  of
   doggedness or obstinacy.

     If  they  persist  in  pointing  their batteries against particular
     persons, no laws of war forbid the making reprisals. Addison.

     Some  positive,  persisting  fops we know, Who, if once wrong, will
     needs be always so. Pope.

     That  face  persists.  It floats up; it turns over in my mind. Mrs.

   Syn. -- See Persevere, and Insist.

                           Persistence, Persistency

   Per*sist"ence (?), Per*sist"en*cy (?), n. [See Persistent.]

   1.  The  quality  or  state of being persistent; staying or continuing
   quality; hence, in an unfavorable sense, doggedness; obstinacy.

   2.  The continuance of an effect after the cause which first gave rise
   to  it  is  removed;  as: (a) (Physics) The persistence of motion. (b)
   (Physiol.)   Visual   persistence,   or   persistence  of  the  visual
   impression; auditory persistence, etc.


   Per*sist"ent  (?), a. [L. persistens, -entis, p.pr. of persistere. See

   1.  Inclined  to  persist;  having  staying  qualities;  tenacious  of
   position or purpose.

   2.  (Biol.)  Remaining  beyond  the period when parts of the same kind
   sometimes fall off or are absorbed; permanent; as, persistent teeth or
   gills; a persistent calyx; -- opposed to deciduous, and caducous.


   Per*sist"ent*ly, adv. In a persistent manner.


   Per*sist"ing,   a.   Inclined   to   persist;  tenacious  of  purpose;
   persistent. -- Per*sist"ing*ly, adv.


   Per*sist"ive (?), a. See Persistent. Shak.


   Per*solve" (?), v. t. [L. persolvere.] To pay wholly, or fully. [Obs.]
   E. Hall.


   Per"son (?), n. [OE. persone, persoun, person, parson, OF. persone, F.
   personne,  L.  persona  a  mask (used by actors), a personage, part, a
   person,  fr.  personare  to  sound through; per + sonare to sound. See
   Per-, and cf. Parson.]

   1. A character or part, as in a play; a specific kind or manifestation
   of  individual  character,  whether  in  real  life, or in literary or
   dramatic representation; an assumed character. [Archaic]

     His  first  appearance  upon  the  stage  in  his  new  person of a
     sycophant or juggler. Bacon.

     No man can long put on a person and act a part. Jer. Taylor.

     To  bear  rule,  which  was  thy  part And person, hadst thou known
     thyself aright. Milton.

     How  different  is  the  same  man from himself, as he sustains the
     person of a magistrate and that of a friend! South.

   2.  The bodily form of a human being; body; outward appearance; as, of
   comely person.

     A fair persone, and strong, and young of age. Chaucer.

     If it assume my noble father's person. Shak.

     Love, sweetness, goodness, in her person shined. Milton.

   3.  ,  self-conscious  being, as distinct from an animal or a thing; a
   moral agent; a human being; a man, woman, or child.

     Consider  what  person  stands  for; which, I think, is a thinking,
     intelligent being, that has reason and reflection. Locke.

   4.  A  human  being spoken of indefinitely; one; a man; as, any person

   5. A parson; the parish priest. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   6.  (Theol.)  Among Trinitarians, one of the three subdivisions of the
   Godhead  (the  Father,  the  Son,  and the Holy Ghost); an hypostasis.
   "Three persons and one God." Bk. of Com. Prayer.

   7.  (Gram.)  One  of  three relations or conditions (that of speaking,
   that  of being spoken to, and that of being spoken of) pertaining to a
   noun  or a pronoun, and thence also to the verb of which it may be the

     NOTE: &hand; A  no un or pronoun, when representing the speaker, is
     said  to  be  in the first person; when representing what is spoken
     to,  in  the second person; when representing what is spoken of, in
     the third person.

   8. (Biol.) A shoot or bud of a plant; a polyp or zooid of the compound
   Hydrozoa  Anthozoa, etc.; also, an individual, in the narrowest sense,
   among the higher animals. Haeckel.

     True  corms,  composed  of united person\'91 . . . usually arise by
     gemmation,  .  . . yet in sponges and corals occasionally by fusion
     of several originally distinct persons. Encyc. Brit.

   Artificial,  OR  Fictitious,  person  (Law),  a  corporation  or  body
   politic.  blackstone.<-- = legal person --> -- Natural person (Law), a
   man, woman, or child, in distinction from a corporation. -- In person,
   by  one's self; with bodily presence; not by representative. "The king
   himself  in  person  is  set forth." Shak. -- In the person of, in the
   place of; acting for. Shak.


   Per"son  (?),  v.  t.  To  represent  as  a  person;  to personify; to
   impersonate. [Obs.] Milton.


   Per*so"na  (?),  n.;  pl. Person\'91 (#). [L.] (Biol.) Same as Person,
   n., 8.


   Per"son*a*ble (?), a.

   1.  Having  a  well-formed  body, or person; graceful; comely; of good
   appearance; presentable; as, a personable man or woman.

     Wise, warlike, personable, courteous, and kind. Spenser.

     The  king,  .  . . so visited with sickness, was not personable. E.

   2.  (Law)  (a)  Enabled to maintain pleas in court. Cowell. (b) Having
   capacity to take anything granted.


   Per"son*age (?), n. [F. personnage.]

   1.   Form,  appearance,  or  belongings  of  a  person;  the  external
   appearance,  stature,  figure,  air,  and  the  like, of a person. "In
   personage stately." Hayward.

     The damsel well did view his personage. Spenser.

   2.  Character  assumed  or  represented. "The actors and personages of
   this fable." Broome. "Disguised in a false personage." Addison.

   3.  A  notable  or  distinguished  person;  a  conspicious or peculiar
   character; as, an illustrious personage; a comely personage of stature
   tall. Spenser.


   Per"son*al (?), a. [L. personalis: cf. F. personnel.]

   1. Pertaining to human beings as distinct from things.

     Every man so termed by way of personal difference. Hooker.

   2. Of or pertaining to a particular person; relating to, or affecting,
   an  individual,  or  each  of  many individuals; peculiar or proper to
   private  concerns;  not  public  or  general;  as,  personal  comfort;
   personal desire.

     The  words  are  conditional,  --  If  thou  doest  well, -- and so
     personal to Cain. Locke.

   3.  Pertaining  to  the  external or bodily appearance; corporeal; as,
   personal charms. Addison.

   4.  Done  in  person;  without  the intervention of another. "Personal
   communication." Fabyan.

     The immediate and personal speaking of God. White.

   5.  Relating  to  an  individual,  his character, conduct, motives, or
   private  affairs,  in  an invidious and offensive manner; as, personal
   reflections or remarks.

   6. (Gram.) Denoting person; as, a personal pronoun.
   Personal  action  (Law), a suit or action by which a man claims a debt
   or  personal  duty,  or  damages  in  lieu of it; or wherein he claims
   satisfaction  in  damages  for an injury to his person or property, or
   the specific recovery of goods or chattels; -- opposed to real action.
   -- Personal equation. (Astron.) See under Equation. -- Personal estate
   OR  property  (Law),  movables; chattels; -- opposed to real estate or
   property.  It  usually  consists  of  things  temporary  and  movable,
   including  all  subjects  of  property  not  of  a freehold nature. --
   Personal  identity  (Metaph.),  the persistent and continuous unity of
   the individual person, which is attested by consciousness. -- Personal
   pronoun  (Gram.),  one of the pronouns I, thou, he, she, it, and their
   plurals.   --   Personal   representatives  (Law),  the  executors  or
   administrators  of  a  person  deceased.  --  Personal  rights, rights
   appertaining  to  the  person;  as, the rights of a personal security,
   personal  liberty, and private property. -- Personal tithes. See under
   Tithe. -- Personal verb (Gram.), a verb which is modified or inflected
   to correspond with the three persons.


   Per"son*al, n. (Law) A movable; a chattel.


   Per"son*al*ism  (?),  n.  The  quality  or  state  of  being personal;
   personality. [R.]


   Per`son*al"i*ty    (?),   n.;   pl.   Personalities   (#).   [Cf.   F.
   personnalit\'82. Cf. Personality.]

   1. That which constitutes distinction of person; individuality.

     Personality  is individuality existing in itself, but with a nature
     as a ground. Coleridge.

   2.  Something  said  or  written  which refers to the person, conduct,
   etc.,  of  some  individual,  especially something of a disparaging or
   offensive nature; personal remarks; as, indulgence in personalities.

     Sharp personalities were exchanged. Macaulay.

   3.  (Law)  That  quality of a law which concerns the condition, state,
   and capacity of persons. Burrill.


   Per"son*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Personalized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Personalizing (?).] To make personal. "They personalize death." H.


   Per"son*al*ly, adv.

   1.  In  a  personal  manner;  by  bodily  presence;  in person; not by
   representative or substitute; as, to deliver a letter personally.

     He, being cited, personally came not. Grafton.

   2. With respect to an individual; as regards the person; individually;

     She  bore a mortal hatred to the house of Lancaster, and personally
     to the king. Bacon.

   3.  With  respect  to  one's individuality; as regards one's self; as,
   personally I have no feeling in the matter.


   Per"son*al*ty (?), n.

   1. The state of being a person; personality. [R.]

   2.  (Law)  Personal  property,  as  distinguished  from realty or real


   Per"son*ate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Personated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Personating  (?).]  [L.  personare  to  cry  out,  LL.,  to extol. See
   Person.] To celebrate loudly; to extol; to praise. [Obs.]

     In  fable,  hymn,  or  song  so  personating Their gods ridiculous.


   Per"son*ate,  v.  t.  [L.  personatus masked, assumed, fictitious, fr.
   persona a mask. See Person.]

   1.   To  assume  the  character  of;  to  represent  by  a  fictitious
   appearance;  to  act the part of; hence, to counterfeit; to feign; as,
   he tried to personate his brother; a personated devotion. Hammond.

   2.  To set forth in an unreal character; to disguise; to mask. [R.] "A
   personated mate." Milton.

   3. To personify; to typify; to describe. Shak.


   Per"son*ate, v. i. To play or assume a character.


   Per"son*ate  (?),  a. [L. personatus masked.] (Bot.) Having the throat
   of  a  bilabiate  corolla nearly closed by a projection of the base of
   the lower lip; masked, as in the flower of the snapdragon.


   Per`son*a"tion  (?),  n.  The act of personating, or conterfeiting the
   person or character of another.


   Per"son*a`tor  (?),  n.  One who personates. "The personators of these
   actions." B. Jonson.


   Per`son*e"i*ty (?), n. Personality. [R.] Coleridge.


   Per*son`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. personnification.]

   1. The act of personifying; impersonation; embodiment. C. Knight.

   2. (Rhet.) A figure of speech in which an inanimate object or abstract
   idea   is  represented  as  animated,  or  endowed  with  personality;
   prosopopas, the floods clap their hands. "Confusion heards his voice."


   Per*son"i*fi`er (?), n. One who personifies.


   Per*son"i*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Personified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Personifying (?).] [Person + -fy: cf. F. personnifier.]

   1.  To  regard,  treat,  or  represent  as a person; to represent as a
   rational being.

     The  poets  take  the  liberty  of  personifying  inanimate things.

   2.  To be the embodiment or personification of; to impersonate; as, he
   personifies the law.


   Per"son*ize (?), v. t. To personify. [R.]

     Milton has personized them. J. Richardson.


   Per`son`nel"  (?),  n. [F. See Personal.] The body of persons employed
   in some public service, as the army, navy, etc.; -- distinguished from


   Per*spec"tive (?), a. [L. perspicere, perspectum, to look through; per
   +   spicere,   specere,  to  look:  cf.  F.  perspectif;  or  from  E.
   perspective, n. See Spy, n.]

   1. Of or pertaining to the science of vision; optical. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2.  Pertaining  to  the  art,  or  in  accordance  with  the  laws, of
   Perspective  plane,  the  plane  or  surface  on which the objects are
   delineated,  or  the  picture  drawn;  the  plane  of  projection;  --
   distinguished  from  the  ground  plane,  which  is  that on which the
   objects are represented as standing. When this plane is oblique to the
   principal  face  of  the  object,  the  perspective  is called oblique
   perspective;  when  parallel  to  that  face, parallel perspective. --
   Perspective  shell  (Zo\'94l.),  any  shell  of the genus Solarium and
   allied genera. See Solarium.
   Per*spec"tive,   n.   [F.   perspective,   fr.   perspectif:  cf.  It.
   perspettiva. See Perspective, a.]
   1.   A   glass  through  which  objects  are  viewed.  [Obs.]  "Not  a
   perspective, but a mirror." Sir T. Browne.
   2.  That  which  is  seen  through  an  opening; a view; a vista. "The
   perspective of life." Goldsmith.

   3.  The effect of distance upon the appearance of objects, by means of
   which  the  eye  recognized them as being at a more or less measurable
   distance.  Hence, a\'89rial perspective, the assumed greater vagueness
   or uncertainty of outline in distant objects.

     A\'89rial  perspective  is  the  expression  of  space by any means
     whatsoever, sharpness of edge, vividness of color, etc. Ruskin.

   4.  The  art and the science of so delineating objects that they shall
   seem  to  grow  smaller  as  they  recede from the eye; -- called also
   linear perspective.

   5. A drawing in linear perspective.
   Isometrical  perspective,  an  inaccurate term for a mechanical way of
   representing  objects  in  the direction of the diagonal of a cube. --
   Perspective  glass,  a  telescope  which  shows  objects  in the right

   Page 1071


   Per*spec"tive*ly (?), adv.

   1. Optically; as through a glass. [R.]

     You see them perspectively. Shak.

   2. According to the rules of perspective.


   Per*spec"to*graph  (?),  n. [L. perspectus (p.p. of perspicere to look
   through) + -graph.] An instrument for obtaining, and transferring to a
   picture,  the  points and outlines of objects, so as to represent them
   in their proper geometrical relations as viewed from some one point.


   Per`spec*tog"ra*phy  (?), n. The science or art of delineating objects
   according to the laws of perspective; the theory of perspective.


   Per"spi*ca*ble   (?),   a.   [L.   perspicabilis,   fr.   perspicere.]
   Discernible. [Obs.] Herbert.


   Per`spi*ca"cious  (?), a. [L. perspicax, -acis, fr. perspicere to look
   through: cf. F. perspicace. See Perspective.]

   1. Having the power of seeing clearly; quick-sighted; sharp of sight.

   2.  Fig.:  Of acute discernment; keen. -- Per`spi*ca"cious*ly, adv. --
   Per`spi*ca"cious*ness, n.


   Per`spi*cac"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L. perspicacitas: cf. F. perspicacit\'82.
   See  Perspicacious.]  The  state  of being perspicacious; acuteness of
   sight or of intelligence; acute discernment. Sir T. Browne.


   Per"spi*ca*cy (?), n. Perspicacity. [Obs.]


   Per*spi"cience  (?),  n.  [L.  perspicientia, fr. perspiciens, p.p. of
   perspicere.  See  Perspective.]  The  act  of  looking sharply. [Obs.]


   Per"spi*cil  (?),  n.  [LL.  perspicilla,  fr.  L.  perspicere to look
   through.] An optical glass; a telescope. [Obs.] Crashaw.


   Per`spi*cu"i*ty (?), n. [L. perspicuitas: cf. F. perspicuit\'82.]

   1.  The  quality  or state of being transparent or translucent. [Obs.]
   Sir T. Browne.

   2. The quality of being perspicuous to the understanding; clearness of
   expression or thought.

   3.   Sagacity;   perspicacity.  Syn.  --  Clearness;  perspicuousness;
   plainness; distinctness; lucidity; transparency. See Clearness.


   Per*spic"u*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  perspicuus,  from  perspicere  to  look
   through. See Perspective.]

   1.  Capable  of  being  through; transparent; translucent; not opaque.
   [Obs.] Peacham.

   2.  Clear  to  the understanding; capable of being clearly understood;
   clear  in  thought  or  in expression; not obscure or ambiguous; as, a
   perspicuous   writer;   perspicuous   statements.   "The   purpose  is
   perspicuous." Shak. -- Per*spic"u*ous*ly, adv. -- Per*spic"u*ous*ness,


   Per*spir`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being perspirable.


   Per*spir"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. perspirable.]

   1. Capable of being perspired. Sir T. Browne.

   2. Emitting perspiration; perspiring. [R.] Bacon.


   Per`spi*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. perspiration.]

   1. The act or process of perspiring.

   2. That which is excreted through the skin; sweat.

     NOTE: &hand; A  ma n of  average weight throws off through the skin
     during  24  hours  about  18  ounces  of water, 300 grains of solid
     matter,  and  400  grains  of  carbonic  acid gas. Ordinarily, this
     constant  exhalation  is  not  apparent,  and the excretion is then
     termed insensible perspiration.


   Per*spir"a*tive   (?),   a.   Performing   the  act  of  perspiration;


   Per*spir"a*to*ry   (?),   a.   Of,   pertaining   to,   or  producing,
   perspiration; as, the perspiratory ducts.


   Per*spire"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Perspired (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perspiring.]  [L.  perspirare  to  breathe through; per + spirare. See
   Per-, and Spirit.]

   1.  (Physiol.)  To  excrete  matter through the skin; esp., to excrete
   fluids through the pores of the skin; to sweat.

   2.  To be evacuated or excreted, or to exude, through the pores of the
   skin; as, a fluid perspires.


   Per*spire",  v.  t. To emit or evacuate through the pores of the skin;
   to sweat; to excrete through pores.

     Firs . . . perspire a fine balsam of turpentine. Smollett.


   Per*strep"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  perstrepere  to  make a great noise.]
   Noisy; obstreperous. [Obs.] Ford.


   Per*stringe"  (?), v. t. [L. perstringere; per + stringere to bind up,
   to touch upon.]

   1. To touch; to graze; to glance on. [Obs.]

   2. To criticise; to touch upon. [R.] Evelyn.


   Per*suad"a*ble  (?), a. That may be persuaded. -- Per*suad"a*ble*ness,
   n. -- Per*suad"a*bly, adv.


   Per*suade"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Persuaded; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Persuading.]  [L.  persuadere,  persuasum;  per  +  suadere to advise,
   persuade: cf. F. persuader. See Per-, and Suasion.]

   1.   To   influence  or  gain  over  by  argument,  advice,  entreaty,
   expostulation,  etc.;  to  draw  or  incline  to  a  determination  by
   presenting sufficient motives.<-- "gain over" = win over, win to one's
   side -->

     Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. Acts xxvi. 28.

     We will persuade him, be it possible. Shak.

   2. To try to influence. [Obsolescent]

     Hearken  not  unto Hezekiah, when he persuadeth you. 2 Kings xviii.

   3.  To  convince  by argument, or by reasons offered or suggested from
   reflection, etc.; to cause to believe.

     Beloved, we are persuaded better things of you. Heb. vi. 9.

   4. To inculcate by argument or expostulation; to advise; to recommend.
   Jer.  Taylor.  Syn.  --  To  convince;  induce;  prevail on; win over;
   allure; entice. See Convince.


   Per*suade"  (?),  v.  i.  To  use  persuasion; to plead; to prevail by
   persuasion. Shak.


   Per*suade", n. Persuasion. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Per*suad"ed,  p.  p.  &  a.  Prevailed upon; influenced by argument or
   entreaty; convinced. -- Per*suad"ed*ly, adv. -- Per*suad"ed*ness, n.


   Per*suad"er  (?),  n. One who, or that which, persuades or influences.
   "Powerful persuaders." Milton.


   Per*sua`si*bil"i*ty (?), n. Capability of being persuaded. Hawthorne.


   Per*sua"si*ble   (?),   a.   [Cf.   L.  persuasibilis  persuasive,  F.
   persuasible persuasible.]

   1. Capable of being persuaded; persuadable.

   2.   Persuasive.   [Obs.]   Bale.   --   Per*sua"si*ble*ness,   n.  --
   Per*sua"si*bly, adv.


   Per*sua"sion (?), n. [L. persuasio; Cf. F. persuasion.]

   1. The act of persuading; the act of influencing the mind by arguments
   or reasons offered, or by anything that moves the mind or passions, or
   inclines the will to a determination.

     For thou hast all the arts of fine persuasion. Otway.

   2.  The  state  of  being  persuaded  or convinced; settled opinion or
   conviction, which has been induced.

     If the general persuasion of all men does so account it. Hooker.

     My  firm  persuasion is, at least sometimes, That Heaven will weigh
     man's virtues and his crimes With nice attention. Cowper.

   3.  A  creed or belief; a sect or party adhering to a certain creed or
   system  of  opinions;  as, of the same persuasion; all persuasions are

     Of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political. Jefferson.

   4. The power or quality of persuading; persuasiveness.

     Is 't possible that my deserts to you Can lack persuasion? Shak.

   5. That which persuades; a persuasive. [R.] Syn. -- See Conviction.


   Per*sua"sive  (?),  a. [Cf. F. persuasif.] Tending to persuade; having
   the power of persuading; as, persuasive eloquence. "Persuasive words."


   Per*sua"sive,  n.  That which persuades; an inducement; an incitement;
   an exhortation. -- Per*sua"sive*ly, adv. -- Per*sua"sive*ness, n.


   Per*sua"so*ry (?), a. Persuasive. Sir T. Browne.


   Per*sul"phate  (?), n. (Chem.) A sulphate of the peroxide of any base.


   Per*sul"phide  (?), n. (Chem.) A sulphide containing more sulphur than
   some  other  compound  of  the  same  elements;  as, iron pyrites is a
   persulphide; -- formerly called persulphuret.


   Per*sul`pho*cy"a*nate  (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of persulphocyanic acid.


   Per*sul`pho*cy*an"ic  (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, a
   yellow   crystalline   substance  (called  also  perthiocyanic  acid),
   analogous to sulphocyanic acid, but containing more sulphur.


   Per*sul`pho*cy*an"o*gen  (?),  n.  (Chem.) An orange-yellow substance,
   produced  by  the action of chlorine or boiling dilute nitric acid and
   sulphocyanate  of  potassium;  --  called  also  pseudosulphocyanogen,
   perthiocyanogen, and formerly sulphocyanogen.


   Per*sul"phu*ret (?), n. (Chem.) A persulphide. [Obs.]


   Pert  (?),  a.  [An aphetic form of OE. & OF. apert open, known, true,
   free, or impudent. See Apert.]

   1. Open; evident; apert. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

   2. Lively; brisk; sprightly; smart. [Obs.] Shak.

   3.  Indecorously free, or presuming; saucy; bold; impertinent. "A very
   pert manner." Addison.

     The squirrel, flippant, pert, and full of play. Cowper.


   Pert, v. i. To behave with pertness. [Obs.] Gauden.


   Per*tain"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Pertained (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Pertaining.]  [OE. partenen, OF. partenir, fr. L. pertinere to stretch
   out,  reach,  pertain;  per  +  tenere  to  hold,  keep. See Per-, and
   Tenable, and cf. Appertain, Pertinent.]

   1. To belong; to have connection with, or dependence on, something, as
   an  appurtenance, attribute, etc.; to appertain; as, saltness pertains
   to the ocean; flowers pertain to plant life.

     Men  hate  those who affect that honor by ambition which pertaineth
     not to them. Hayward.

   2. To have relation or reference to something.

     These  words pertain unto us at this time as they pertained to them
     at their time. Latimer.


   Per*ter`e*bra"tion  (?), n. [L. perterebratus, p.p. of perterebrare to
   bore through.] The act of boring through. [Obs.] Ainsworth.


   Per*thi`o*cy*an"o*gen (?), n. (Chem.) Same as Persulphocyanogen.


   Perth"ite  (?), n. [So called from Perth, in canada.] (Min.) A kind of
   feldspar   consisting  of  a  laminated  intertexture  of  albite  and
   orthoclase, usually of different colors. -- Per*thit"ic (#), a.


   Per`ti*na"cious (?), a.[L. pertinax, -acis; per + tenax tenacious. See
   Per-, and Tenacious.]

   1.  Holding  or  adhering  to  any  opinion,  purpose, or design, with
   obstinacy;   perversely   persistent;   obstinate;   as,  pertinacious
   plotters; a pertinacious beggar.

   2. Resolute; persevering; constant; steady.

     Diligence is a steady, constant, and pertinacious study. South.

   Syn.   --   Obstinate;  stubborn;  inflexible;  unyielding;  resolute;
   determined;  firm;  constant;  steady.  -- Per`ti*na"cious*ly, adv. --
   Per`ti*na"cious*ness, n.


   Per`ti*nac"i*ty  (?), n. [Cf. F. pertinacit\'82.] The quality or state
   of being pertinacious; obstinacy; perseverance; persistency. Macaulay.
   Syn. -- See Obstinacy.


   Per"ti*na*cy  (?),  n.  [L. pertinere to pertain. See Pertinence.] The
   quality or state of being pertinent; pertinence. [Obs.]


   Per"ti*na*cy,  n.  [L.  pertinacia,  fr.  pertinax. See Pertinacious.]
   Pertinacity. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Per"ti*nate (?), a. Pertinacious. [Obs.]


   Per"ti*nate*ly, adv. Pertinaciously. [Obs.]

                            Pertinence, Pertinency

   Per"ti*nence  (?),  Per"ti*nen*cy  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  pertinence. See
   Pertinent.]  The  quality  or  state  of  being pertinent; justness of
   relation  to  the  subject  or  matter in hand; fitness; appositeness;
   relevancy; suitableness.

     The fitness and pertinency of the apostle's discourse. Bentley.


   Per"ti*nent  (?), a. [L. pertinens, -entis, p.pr. of pertinere: cf. F.
   pertinent. See Pertain.]

   1.  Belonging  or  related  to  the  subject or matter in hand; fit or
   appropriate  in  any  way;  adapted  to  the  end  proposed; apposite;
   material;   relevant;   as,   pertinent  illustrations  or  arguments;
   pertinent evidence.

   2.  Regarding; concerning; belonging; pertaining. [R.] "Pertinent unto
   faith."  Hooker.  Syn.  --  Apposite; relevant; suitable; appropriate;
   fit. -- Per"ti*nent*ly, adv. -- Per"ti*nent*ness, n.


   Pert"ly (?), adv. In a pert manner.


   Pert"ness, n. The quality or state of being pert.


   Per*tran"sient  (?),  a.  [L.  pertransiens,  p.pr.  of  pertransire.]
   Passing through or over. [R.]


   Per*turb"  (?),  v.  t.  [L. perturbare, perturbatum; per + turbare to
   disturb,  fr.  turba  a  disorder:  cf.  OF.  perturber. See Per-, and

   1. To disturb; to agitate; to vex; to trouble; to disquiet.

     Ye that . . . perturb so my feast with crying. Chaucer.

   2. To disorder; to confuse. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Per*turb`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being perturbable.


   Per*turb"a*ble  (?),  a. Liable to be perturbed or agitated; liable to
   be disturbed or disquieted.


   Per*turb"ance  (?), n. Disturbance; perturbation. [R.] "Perturbance of
   the mind." Sharp.


   Per"tur*bate (?), v. t. [From L. perturbatus, p.p.] To perturb. [Obs.]
   Dr. H. More.


   Per"tur*bate (?), a. Perturbed; agitated. [R.]


   Per`tur*ba"tion (?), n. [L. perturbatio: cf. F. perturbation.]

   1.  The  act  of  perturbing,  or  the state of being perturbed; esp.,
   agitation of mind.

   2.  (Astron.) A disturbance in the regular elliptic or other motion of
   a  heavenly  body,  produced  by  some  force additional to that which
   causes  its  regular  motion; as, the perturbations of the planets are
   caused by their attraction on each other. Newcomb.


   Per`tur*ba"tion*al  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to perturbation, esp. to
   the  perturbations of the planets. "The perturbational theory." Sir J.


   Per"tur*ba*tive (?), a. Tending to cause perturbation; disturbing. Sir
   J. Herschel.


   Per"tur*ba`tor (?), n. A perturber. [R.]


   Per*turbed"   (?),   a.   Agitated;   disturbed;  troubled.  Shak.  --
   Per*turb"ed*ly, adv.


   Per*turb"er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or  that  which,  perturbs, or cause


   Per*tus"ate (?), a. [See Pertuse.] (Bot.) Pierced at the apex.

                               Pertuse, Pertused

   Per*tuse"  (?), Per*tused" (?), a. [L. pertusus, p.p. of pertundere to
   beat or thrust through, to bore through; per + tundere to beat: cf. F.
   pertus. Cf. Pierce.] Punched; pierced with, or having, holes.


   Per*tu"sion  (?),  n.  [L.  pertusio.] The act of punching or piercing
   with a pointed instrument; as, pertusion of a vein. [R.] Arbuthnot.

   2. A punched hole; a perforation. Bacon.


   Per*tus"sis  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. L. per through, very + tussis cough.]
   (Med.) The whooping cough.


   Per"uke  (?),  n.  [F.  perruque, It. perrucca, parrucca, fr. L. pilus
   hair. Cf. Periwig, Wig, Peel to strip off, Plush, Pile a hair.] A wig;
   a periwig.


   Per"uke, v. t. To dress with a peruke. [R.]


   Per"u*la  (?),  n.;  pl.  Perul\'91 (#). [L., dim. of pera wallet, Gr.

   1. (Bot.) One of the scales of a leaf bud.

   2. (Bot.) A pouchlike portion of the perianth in certain orchides.


   Per"ule (?), n. Same as Perula.


   Pe*rus"al (?), n. [From Peruse.]

   1. The act of carefully viewing or examining. [R.] Tatler.

   2.  The  act  of  reading, especially of reading through or with care.


   Pe*ruse"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Perused (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perusing.] [Pref. per- + use.]

   1. To observe; to examine with care. [R.]

     Myself I then perused, and limb by limb Surveyed. Milton.

   2. To read through; to read carefully. Shak.


   Pe*rus"er (?), n. One who peruses.


   Pe*ru"vi*an  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  p\'82ruvien,  Sp.  peruviano.]  Of or
   pertaining  to Peru, in South America. -- n. A native or an inhabitant
   of  Peru.  Peruvian  balsam.  See  Balsam  of  Peru,  under Balsam. --
   Peruvian  bark,  the  bitter  bark  of  trees  of  various  species of
   Cinchona.  It  acts  as a powerful tonic, and is a remedy for malarial
   diseases.  This  property  is  due  to  several alkaloids, as quinine,
   cinchonine,  etc.,  and their compounds; -- called also Jesuit's bark,
   and cinchona. See Cinchona.


   Per*vade"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Pervaded;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Pervading.]  [L. pervadere, pervasum; per + vadere to go, to walk. See
   Per-, and Wade.]

   1.  To  pass  or flow through, as an aperture, pore, or interstice; to

     That labyrinth is easily pervaded. Blackstone.

   2.  To  pass  or  spread  through  the whole extent of; to be diffused

     A  spirit  of  cabal,  intrigue, and proselytism pervaded all their
     thoughts, words, and actions. Burke.


   Per*va"sion  (?), n. [L. pervasio. See Pervade.] The act of pervading,
   passing, or spreading through the whole extent of a thing. Boyle.


   Per*va"sive  (?),  a.  Tending  to  pervade, or having power to spread
   throughout;  of  a  pervading  quality.  "Civilization  pervasive  and
   general." M. Arnold.

   Page 1072


   Per*verse" (?), a. [L. perversus turned the wrong way, not right, p.p.
   of  pervertereto  turn  around,  to  overturn:  cf.  F.  pervers.  See

   1.  Turned  aside;  hence,  specifically,  turned away from the right;
   willfully erring; wicked; perverted.

     The only righteous in a word perverse. Milton.

   2.  Obstinate  in  the  wrong;  stubborn; intractable; hence, wayward;
   vexing; contrary.

     To so perverse a sex all grace is vain. Dryden.

   Syn.   --   Froward;   untoward;   wayward;   stubborn;  ungovernable;
   intractable; cross; petulant; vexatious. -- Perverse, Froward. One who
   is  froward  is capricious, and reluctant to obey. One who is perverse
   has  a settled obstinacy of will, and likes or dislikes by the rule of
   contradiction to the will of others.


   Per*versed" (?), a. Turned aside. [Obs.]


   Per*vers"ed*ly (?), adv. Perversely. [Obs.]


   Per*verse"ly, adv. In a perverse manner.


   Per*verse"ness,  n.  The  quality  or state of being perverse. "Virtue
   hath some perverseness." Donne.


   Per*ver"sion  (?),  n. [L. perversio: cf. F. perversion. See Pervert.]
   The act of perverting, or the state of being perverted; a turning from
   truth  or  right; a diverting from the true intent or object; a change
   to  something  worse;  a  turning  or  applying to a wrong end or use.
   "Violations and perversions of the laws." Bacon.


   Per*ver"si*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  perversitas:  cf. F. perversit\'82.] The
   quality or state of being perverse; perverseness.


   Per*ver"sive (?), a.Tending to pervert.


   Per*vert"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Perverted;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Perverting.] [F. pervertir, L. pervertere, perversum; per + vertere to
   turn. See Per-, and Verse.]

   1. To turnanother way; to divert. [Obs.]

     Let's follow him, and pervert the present wrath. Shak.

   2. To turn from truth, rectitude, or propriety; to divert from a right
   use,  end,  or  way; to lead astray; to corrupt; also, to misapply; to
   misinterpret designedly; as, to pervert one's words. Dryden.

     He, in the serpent, had perverted Eve. Milton.


   Per*vert",  v.  i. To become perverted; to take the wrong course. [R.]
   Testament of Love.


   Per"vert  (?),  n.  One  who has been perverted; one who has turned to
   error,  especially in religion; -- opposed to convert. See the Synonym
   of Convert.

     That notorious pervert, Henry of Navarre. Thackeray.


   Per*vert"er  (?),  n.  One  who perverts (a person or thing). "His own
   parents  his  perverters."  South.  "A  perverter  of  his  law."  Bp.


   Per*vert"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being perverted.


   Per*ves"ti*gate  (?),  v. t. [L. pervestigatus, p.p. of pervestigare.]
   To investigate thoroughly. [Obs.]


   Per*ves`ti*ga"tion (?), n. [L. pervestigatio.] Thorough investigation.
   [Obs.] Chillingworth.


   Per"vi*al  (?),  a.  [See Pervious.] Pervious. [Obs.] -- Per"vi*al*ly,
   adv. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Per`vi*ca"cious  (?),  a.  [L.  pervicax,  -acis.] Obstinate; willful;
   refractory.      [Obs.]     --     Per`vi*ca"cious*ly,     adv.     --
   Per`vi*ca"cious*ness, n. [Obs.]


   Per`vi*cac"i*ty (?), n. Obstinacy; pervicaciousness. [Obs.] Bentley.


   Per"vi*ca*cy (?), n. [L. pervicacia.] Pervicacity. [Obs.]


   Per*vig`i*la"tion  (?), n. [L. pervigilatio, fr. pervigilare.] Careful
   watching. [Obs.]


   Per"vi*ous (?), a. [L. pervis; per + via a way. See Per-, and Voyage.]

   1.  Admitting  passage; capable of being penetrated by another body or
   substance; permeable; as, a pervious soil.

     [Doors] . . . pervious to winds, and open every way. Pope.

   2. Capable of being penetrated, or seen through, by physical or mental
   vision. [R.]

     God, whose secrets are pervious to no eye. Jer. Taylor.

   3. Capable of penetrating or pervading. [Obs.] Prior.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) Open; -- used synonymously with perforate, as applied to
   the nostrils or birds.


   Per"vi*ous*ness,  n.  The  quality or state of being pervious; as, the
   perviousness of glass. Boyle.


   Per"vis (?), n. See Parvis.


   Per"y (?), n. A pear tree. See Pirie. [Obs.]


   Pes (?), n.; pl. Pedes . [L., the foot.] (Anat.) The distal segment of
   the hind limb of vertebrates, including the tarsus and foot.


   Pe*sade"  (?),  n. [F.] (Man.) The motion of a horse when, raising his
   fore quarters, he keeps his hind feet on the ground without advancing;


   Pes"age (?), n. [F., fr. peser to weigh.] A fee, or toll, paid for the
   weighing of merchandise.


   Pes"ane (?), n. (Anc. Armor.) See Pusane.


   Pes"ant*ed  (?),  a.  [F.  pesant heavy.] Made heavy or dull; debased.
   [Obs.] "Pesanted to each lewd thought's control." Marston.


   Pe*schit"o (?), n. See Peshito.


   Pese (?), n. [See Pea.] A pea. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pe*se"ta  (?),  n.  [Sp.] A Spanish silver coin, and money of account,
   equal to about nineteen cents, and divided into 100 centesimos.

                               Peshito, Peshitto

   Pe*shit"o  (?),  Pe*shit"to (?), n. [Syriac pesh\'8ct\'83 simple.] The
   earliest  Syriac version of the Old Testament, translated from Hebrew;
   also,  the  incomplete  Syriac  version of the New Testament. [Written
   also peschito.]


   Pes"ky (?), a. [Etymol. uncertain.] Pestering; vexatious; troublesome.
   Used also as an intensive. [Colloq. & Low, U.S.] Judd.


   Pe"so  (?),  n.  [Sp.]  A Spanish dollar; also, an Argentine, Chilian,
   Colombian,  etc.,  coin,  equal  to from 75 cents to a dollar; also, a
   pound weight.


   Pes"sa*ry  (?),  n.; pl. Pessaries (#). [L. pessarium, pessum, pessus,
   Gr.  pessaire.]  (Med.)  (a)  An instrument or device to be introduced
   into  and  worn  in  the  vagina,  to  support the uterus, or remedy a
   malposition. (b) A medicinal substance in the form of a bolus or mass,
   designed for introduction into the vagina; a vaginal suppository.


   Pes"si*mism (?), n. [L. pessimus worst, superl. of pejor worse: cf. F.
   pessimisme. Cf. Impair.]

   1.  (Metaph.)  The  opinion  or  doctrine that everything in nature is
   ordered  for  or tends to the worst, or that the world is wholly evil;
   -- opposed to optimism.

   2. A disposition to take the least hopeful view of things.


   Pes"si*mist (?), n. [L. pessimus worst: cf. F. pessimiste.]

   1.  (Metaph.)  One who advocates the doctrine of pessimism; -- opposed
   to optimist.

   2. One who looks on the dark side of things.

                            Pessimist, Pessimistic

   Pes"si*mist  (?), Pes`si*mis"tic (?), a. (Metaph.) Of or pertaining to
   pessimism;  characterized  by  pessimism;  gloomy; foreboding. "Giving
   utterance to pessimistic doubt." Encyc. Brit.


   Pes`si*mis"tic*al (?), a. Pessimistic.


   Pes"si*mize  (?), v. i. To hold or advocate the doctrine of pessimism.
   London Sat. Rev.


   Pes"su*lus  (?), n.; pl. Pessuli (#). [L., a bolt.] (Anat.) A delicate
   bar  of cartilage connecting the dorsal and ventral extremities of the
   first pair of bronchial cartilages in the syrinx of birds.


   Pest (?), n. [L. pestis: cf. F. peste.]

   1. A fatal epidemic disease; a pestilence; specif., the plague.

     England's sufferings by that scourge, the pest. Cowper.

   2.  Anything  which  resembles  a  pest;  one  who,  or that which, is
   troublesome, noxious, mischievous, or destructive; a nuisance. "A pest
   and public enemy." South.


   Pes`ta*loz"zi*an  (?), a. Belonging to, or characteristic of, a system
   of  elementary  education  which  combined  manual training with other
   instruction,   advocated   and  practiced  by  Jean  Henri  Pestalozzi
   (1746-1827),  a  Swiss  teacher.  -- n. An advocate or follower of the
   system of Pestalozzi.


   Pes`ta*loz"zi*an*ism  (?),  n.  The  system of education introduced by


   Pes"ter  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Pestered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Pestering.]  [Abbrev. fr. impester, fr. OF. empaistrier, empestrer, to
   entangle  the  feet  or legs, to embarrass, F. emp\'88trer; pref. em-,
   en- (L. in in) + LL. pastorium, pastoria, a fetter by which horses are
   prevented  from  wandering in the pastures, fr. L. pastorius belonging
   to  a  herdsman  or  shepherd, pastor a herdsman. See In, and Pasture,

   1. To trouble; to disturb; to annoy; to harass with petty vexations.

     We are pestered with mice and rats. Dr. H. More.

     A multitude of scribblers daily pester the world. Dryden.

   2.  To  crowd  together  in  an annoying way; to overcrowd; to infest.
   [Obs.] Milton.

     All rivers and pools . . . pestered full with fishes. Holland.


   Pes"ter*er (?), n. One who pesters or harasses.


   Pes"ter*ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of  pestering, or the state of being
   pestered;  vexation;  worry. "The trouble and pesterment of children."
   B. Franklin.


   Pes"ter*ous  (?),  a.Inclined to pester. Also, vexatious; encumbering;
   burdensome. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Pest"ful   (?),  a.  Pestiferous.  "After  long  and  pestful  calms."


   Pest`house"  (?),  n. A house or hospital for persons who are infected
   with any pestilential disease.


   Pes"ti*duct  (?), n. [L. pestis pest + ductus a leading, fr. ducere to
   lead.] That which conveys contagion or infection. [Obs.] Donne.


   Pes*tif"er*ous  (?),  a. [L. pestiferus, pestifer; pestis pest + ferre
   to bear: cf. F. pestif\'8are.]

   1.   Pest-bearing;   pestilential;   noxious   to  health;  malignant;
   infectious;  contagious;  as,  pestiferous  bodies. "Poor, pestiferous
   creatures   begging   alms."   Evelyn.  "Unwholesome  and  pestiferous
   occupations." Burke.

   2.  Noxious  to  peace,  to  morals,  or to society; vicious; hurtful;
   destructive; as, a pestiferous demagogue.

     Pestiferous reports of men very nobly held. Shak.


   Pes*tif"er*ous*ly, adv. In a pestiferuos manner.


   Pes"ti*lence (?), n. [F. pestilence, L. pestilentia. See Pestilent.]

   1.   Specifically,  the  disease  known  as  the  plague;  hence,  any
   contagious  or  infectious  epidemic  disease  that  is  virulent  and

     The pestilence That walketh in darkness. Ps. xci. 6.

   2.  Fig.: That which is pestilent, noxious, or pernicious to the moral
   character of great numbers.

     I'll pour this pestilence into his ear. Shak.

   Pestilence  weed (Bot.), the butterbur coltsfoot (Petasites vulgaris),
   so  called  because  formerly  considered a remedy for the plague. Dr.


   Pes"ti*lent  (?),  a.  [L.  pestilens, -entis, fr. pestis pest: cf. F.
   pestilent.]  Pestilential;  noxious; pernicious; mischievous. "Corrupt
   and pestilent." Milton. "What a pestilent knave is this same!" Shak.


   Pes`ti*len"tial (?), a. [Cf. F. pestilentiel.]

   1.  Having  the  nature  or  qualities  of  a  pestilence.  "Sends the
   pestilential vapors." Longfellow.

   2. Hence: Mischievous; noxious; pernicious; morally destructive.

     So pestilential, so infectious a thing is sin. Jer. Taylor.


   Pes`ti*len"tial*ly, adv. Pestilently.


   Pes`ti*len"tious (?), a. Pestilential. [Obs.]


   Pes"ti*lent*ly   (?),  adv.  In  a  pestilent  manner;  mischievously;
   destructively. "Above all measure pestilently noisome." Dr. H. More.


   Pes"ti*lent*ness, n. The quality of being pestilent.


   Pes`ti*la"tion  (?), n. [LL. pestillum, L. pistillum. See Pestle.] The
   act of pounding and bruising with a pestle in a mortar. Sir T. Browne.


   Pes"tle  (?), n. [OE. pestel, OF. pestel, LL. pestellum, L. pistillum,
   pistillus,  a  pounder,  pestle, fr. pisere, pinsere, to pound, crush,
   akin to Gr. pish. Cf. Pistil.]

   1.  An  implement for pounding and breaking or braying substances in a

   2.  A  constable's  or  bailiff's  staff; -- so called from its shape.
   [Obs.] Chapman.

   3.  The  leg  and  leg  bone  of an animal, especially of a pig; as, a
   pestle of pork.


   Pes"tle  (?),  v.  t.  & i. [imp. & p. p. Pestled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Pestling  (?).] To pound, pulverize, bray, or mix with a pestle, or as
   with a pestle; to use a pestle.


   Pet  (?),  n.  [Formerly  peat,  perhaps  from Ir. peat, akin to Gael.

   1. A cade lamb; a lamb brought up by hand.

   2. Any person or animal especially cherished and indulged; a fondling;
   a darling; often, a favorite child.

     The love of cronies, pets, and favorites. Tatler.

   3.  [Prob.  fr.  Pet  a  fondling,  hence,  the behavior or humor of a
   spoiled  child.] A slight fit of peevishness or fretfulness. "In a pet
   she started up." Tennyson.


   Pet,  a.  Petted; indulged; admired; cherished; as, a pet child; a pet
   lamb; a pet theory.

     Some young lady's pet curate. F. Harrison.

   Pet  cock.  [Perh. for petty cock.] (Mach.) A little faucet in a water
   pipe  or  pump,  to let air out, or at the end of a steam cylinder, to
   drain it.<-- also petcock -->


   Pet, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Petted; p. pr. & vb. n. Petting.] To treat as
   a pet; to fondle; to indulge; as, she was petted and spoiled.


   Pet, v. i. To be a pet. Feltham.


   Pet"al (?), n. [Gr. p\'82tale. See Fathom.]

   1. (Bot.) One of the leaves of the corolla, or the colored leaves of a
   flower. See Corolla, and Illust. of Flower.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of the expanded ambulacra which form a rosette on
   the black of certain Echini.


   Pet"aled  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Having  petals;  as,  a petaled flower; --
   opposed  to  apetalous,  and  much used in compounds; as, one-petaled,
   three-petaled, etc.


   Pet`al*if"er*ous (?), a. [Petal + -ferous.] Bearing petals.


   Pe*tal"i*form  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Having the form of a petal; petaloid;


   Pet"al*ine  (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82talin.] (Bot.) Pertaining to a petal;
   attached to, or resembling, a petal.


   Pet"al*ism (?), n. [Gr. p\'82talisme.] (Gr. Antiq.) A form of sentence
   among  the  ancient Syracusans by which they banished for five years a
   citizen  suspected  of  having dangerous influence or ambition. It was
   similar to the ostracism in Athens; but olive leaves were used instead
   of shells for ballots.


   Pet"al*ite  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  p\'82talite.]  (Min.)  A rare mineral,
   occurring  crystallized  and  in  cleavable  masses, usually white, or
   nearly so, in color. It is a silicate of aluminia and lithia.


   Pe*tal"o*dy  (?),  n. [Petal + Gr. (Bot.) The metamorphosis of various
   floral organs, usually stamens, into petals.


   Pet"al*oid  (?),  a.  [Petal  +  -oid: cf. F. p\'82talo\'8bde.] (Bot.)


   Pet`al*oid"e*ous  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Having  the  whole  or part of the
   perianth  petaline. Petaloideous division, that division of endogenous
   plants  in  which the perianth is wholly or partly petaline, embracing
   the Liliace\'91, Orchidace\'91, Amaryllide\'91, etc.


   Pet`a*los"ti*cha  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   Echini,  including  the irregular sea urchins, as the spatangoids. See


   Pet"al*ous (?), a. Having petals; petaled; -- opposed to apetalous.


   Pet"a*lum (?), n.; pl. Petala (#). [NL.] A petal.


   Pe*tar" (?), n. See Petard. [Obs.] "Hoist with his own petar." Shak.


   Pe*tard"  (?), n. [F. p\'82tard, fr. p\'82ter to break wind, to crack,
   to explode, L. pedere, peditum.] (Mil.) A case containing powder to be
   exploded,  esp.  a  conical  or  cylindrical case of metal filled with
   powder  and attached to a plank, to be exploded against and break down
   gates, barricades, drawbridges, etc. It has been superseded.

                             Petardeer, Petardier

   Pet`ar*deer",  Pet`ar*dier"  (?), n. [F. p\'82tardier.] (Mil.) One who
   managed a petard.


   Pet"a*sus  (?), n. [L., from Gr. (Gr. & Rom. Antiq.) The winged cap of
   Mercury;  also,  a  broad-brimmed,  low-crowned hat worn by Greeks and


   Pe*tau"rist  (?),  n. [L. petaurista a ropedancer, Gr. p\'82tauriste.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  flying marsupial of the genera Petaurus, Phalangista,
   Acrobata,  and  allied  genera.  See  Flying  mouse, under Flying, and


   Pe*tech"i*\'91  (?), n. pl.; sing. Petechia (. [NL., fr. LL. peteccia;
   cf.  F.  p\'82t\'82chie, It. petecchia, Sp. petequia, Gr. (Med.) Small
   crimson, purple, or livid spots, like flea-bites, due to extravasation
   of blood, which appear on the skin in malignant fevers, etc.


   Pe*tech"i*al  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  p\'82t\'82chial,  LL. petecchialis.]
   (Med.)  Characterized  by,  or  pertaining  to,  petechi\'91; spotted.
   Petechial  fever,  a  malignant fever, accompanied with livid spots on
   the skin.


   Pe"ter  (?),  n. A common baptismal name for a man. The name of one of
   the  apostles,  Peter  boat,  a  fishing  boat,  sharp  at  both ends,
   originally  of  the  Baltic  Sea,  but  now  common in certain English
   rivers.  -- Peter Funk, the auctioneer in a mock auction. [Cant, U.S.]
   --  Peter  pence,  OR  Peter's  pence.  (a)  An annual tax or tribute,
   formerly  paid  by  the  English people to the pope, being a penny for
   every  house, payable on Lammas or St.Peter's day; -- called also Rome
   scot,  and hearth money. (b) In modern times, a voluntary contribution
   made  by  Roman Catholics to the private purse of the pope. -- Peter's
   fish  (Zo\'94l.), a haddock; -- so called because the black spots, one
   on  each  side,  behind the gills, are traditionally said to have been
   caused by the fingers of St. Peter, when he caught the fish to pay the
   tribute.  The  name  is  applied, also, to other fishes having similar

   Page 1073


   Pet"er  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Petered  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Petering.]  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  To become exhausted; to run out; to
   fail;  --  used  generally  with  out;  as, that mine has petered out.
   [Slang, U.S.]


   Pet"er*el (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Petrel.


   Pet`e*re"ro (?), n. (Mil.) See Pederero.


   Pe"ter*man  (?),  n.;  pl. Petermen (. A fisherman; -- so called after
   the apostle Peter. [An obs. local term in Eng.] Chapman.


   Pe"ter*sham  (?),  n.  [Named  after Lord Petersham.] A rough, knotted
   woolen  cloth,  used chiefly for men's overcoats; also, a coat of that


   Pe"ter*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) See Saint Peter's-wort, under Saint.

                              Petiolar, Petiolary

   Pet"i*o*lar  (?), Pet"i*o*la*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82tiolarie.] (Bot.)
   Of  or  pertaining  to  petiole, or proceeding from it; as, a petiolar
   tendril;  growing or supported upon a petiole; as, a petiolar gland; a
   petiolar bud.

                             Petiolate, Petiolated

   Pet"i*o*late  (?),  Pet"i*o*la`ted  (?), a. (Bot. & Zo\'94l.) Having a
   stalk  or  petiole;  as,  a petioleate leaf; the petiolated abdomen of
   certain Hymenoptera.


   Pet"i*ole  (?),  n.  [F.  p\'82tiole, fr. L. petiolus a little foot, a
   fruit stalk; cf. pes, pedis, a foot.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A leafstalk; the footstalk of a leaf, connecting the blade
   with the stem. See Illust. of Leaf.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A stalk or peduncle.


   Pet"i*oled (?), a. Petiolate.


   Pet`i*ol"u*late (?), a. (Bot.) Supported by its own petiolule. Gray.


   Pet"i*o*lule (?), n. [Cf. F. p\'82tiolule.] (Bot.) A small petiole, or
   the petiole of a leaflet.


   Pet"it  (?), a. [F. See Petty.] Small; little; insignificant; mean; --
   Same as Petty. [Obs., except in legal language.]

     By  what small, petit hints does the mind catch hold of and recover
     a vanishing notion. South.

   Petit  constable,  an  inferior civil officer, subordinate to the high
   constable.  --  Petit  jury,  a  jury  of twelve men, impaneled to try
   causes  at  the  bar  of a court; -- so called in distinction from the
   grand  jury.  --  Petit larceny, the stealing of goods of, or under, a
   certain  specified  small  value;  --  opposed  to  grand larceny. The
   distinction  is abolished in England. -- Petit ma\'8ctre (. [F., lit.,
   little  master.]  A fop; a coxcomb; a ladies' man. Goldsmith. -- Petit
   serjeanty (Eng. Law), the tenure of lands of the crown, by the service
   of  rendering  annually  some  implement of war, as a bow, an arrow, a
   sword,  a flag, etc. -- Petit treason, formerly, in England, the crime
   of  killing  a person to whom the offender owed duty or subjection, as
   one's   husband,   master,   mistress,  etc.  The  crime  is  now  not
   distinguished from murder.


   Pe*ti"tion  (?),  n. [F. p\'82tition, L. petitio, fr. petere, petitum,
   to beg, ask, seek; perh. akin to E. feather, or find.]

   1.  A prayer; a supplication; an imploration; an entreaty; especially,
   a  request  of a solemn or formal kind; a prayer to the Supreme Being,
   or  to  a person of superior power, rank, or authority; also, a single
   clause in such a prayer.

     A house of prayer and petition for thy people. 1 Macc. vii. 37.

     This last petition heard of all her prayer. Dryden.

   2.  A formal written request addressed to an official person, or to an
   organized  body,  having  power  to  grant  it;  specifically (Law), a
   supplication  to  government,  in  either  of  its  branches,  for the
   granting  of  a  particular  grace  or right; -- in distinction from a
   memorial,  which  calls  certain  facts  to  mind;  also,  the written
   Petition   of   right  (Law),  a  petition  to  obtain  possession  or
   restitution  of  property,  either  real  or personal, from the Crown,
   which  suggests  such  a  title as controverts the title of the Crown,
   grounded on facts disclosed in the petition itself. Mozley & W. -- The
   Petition  of  Right (Eng. Hist.), the parliamentary declaration of the
   rights of the people, assented to by Charles I.


   Pe*ti"tion,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Petitioned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Petitioning.] To make a prayer or request to; to ask from; to solicit;
   to  entreat;  especially,  to  make  a formal written supplication, or
   application  to,  as  to any branch of the government; as, to petition
   the court; to petition the governor.

     You have . . . petitioned all the gods for my prosperity. Shak.


   Pe*ti"tion, v. i. To make a petition or solicitation.


   Pe*ti"tion*a*ri*ly  (?),  adv.  By  way of begging the question; by an
   assumption. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Pe*ti"tion*a*ry (?), a.

   1. Supplicatory; making a petition.

     Pardon Rome, and any petitionary countrymen. Shak.

   2.  Containing  a  petition;  of  the  nature  of  a  petition;  as, a
   petitionary epistle. Swift.


   Pe*ti`tion*ee"  (?), n. A person cited to answer, or defend against, a


   Pe*ti"tion*er (?), n. One who presents a petition.


   Pe*ti"tion*ing, n. The act of presenting apetition; a supplication.


   Pet"i*tor  (?),  n. [L., fr. petere to seek.] One who seeks or asks; a
   seeker; an applicant. [R.] Fuller.


   Pet"i*to*ry  (?), a. [L. petitorius, fr. petere, petitum, to beg, ask:
   cf.  F.  p\'82titore.]  Petitioning;  soliciting; supplicating. Sir W.
   Hamilton. Petitory suit OR action (Admiralty Law), a suit in which the
   mere  title  to  property  is  litigated and sought to be enforced, as
   distinguished from a possessory suit; also (Scots Law), a suit wherein
   the plaintiff claims something as due him by the defendant. Burrill.
   Pe*tong" (?), n. (Metal.) See Packfong. 


   Pe*tral"o*gy (?), n. See Petrology.


   Pet"ra*ry (?), n. [L. petra stone. Cf. Sp. petraria, and E. Pederero.]
   An ancient war engine for hurling stones.


   Pe*tre"an (?), a. [L. petraeus, Gr. Of or pertaining to to rock. G. S.


   Pe"tre (?), n. See Saltpeter.


   Pe"trel  (?),  n.  [F. p\'82trel; a dim. of the name Peter, L. Petrus,
   Gr.  John  i.42);  --  probably  so  called  in allusion to St.Peter's
   walking  on  the  sea.  See  Petrify.]  (Zo\'94l.) Any one of numerous
   species   of   longwinged   sea   birds   belonging   to   the  family
   Procellarid\'91. The small petrels, or Mother Carey's chickens, belong
   to  Oceanites,  Oceanodroma,  Procellaria,  and several allied genera.
   Diving  petrel,  any  bird  of  the  genus  Pelecanoides. They chiefly
   inhabit  the  southern hemisphere. -- Fulmar petrel, Giant petrel. See
   Fulmar. -- Pintado petrel, the Cape pigeon. See under Cape. -- Pintado
   petrel,  any  one  of  several  small  petrels, especially Procellaria
   pelagica,  or  Mother  Carey's  chicken,  common  on both sides of the


   Pe*tres"cence   (?),   n.   The   process   of  changing  into  stone;


   Pe*tres"cent (?), a. [L. petra rock, stone, Gr. Petrifying; converting
   into stone; as, petrescent water. Boyle.


   Pet`ri*fac"tion (?), n. [See Petrify.]

   1.  The  process  of petrifying, or changing into stone; conversion of
   any organic matter (animal or vegetable) into stone, or a substance of
   stony hardness.

   2. The state or condition of being petrified.

   3.  That  which  is  petrified; popularly, a body incrusted with stony
   matter; an incrustation.

   4.  Fig.: Hardness; callousness; obduracy. "Petrifaction of the soul."


   Pet`ri*fac"tive (?), a.

   1.  Having  the  quality  of  converting  organic  matter  into stone;

   2. Pertaining to, or characterized by, petrifaction.

     The . . . petrifactive mutations of hard bodies. Sir T. Browne.


   Pe*trif"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. p\'82trifique.] Petrifying; petrifactive.

     Death with his mace petrific, cold and dry. Milton.


   Pet"ri*fi*cate (?), v. t. To petrify. [Obs.]

     Our hearts petrificated were. J. Hall (1646).


   Pet`ri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. p\'82trification. See Petrify.]

   1. See Petrifaction.

   2. Fig.: Obduracy; callousness. Hallywell.


   Pet"ri*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Petrified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Petrifying  (?).]  [L.  petra  rock, Gr. -fy: cf. F. p\'82trifier. Cf.
   Parrot, Petrel, Pier.]

   1.  To convert, as any animal or vegetable matter, into stone or stony

     A river that petrifies any sort of wood or leaves. Kirwan.

   2. To make callous or obdurate; to stupefy; to paralyze; to transform;
   as  by  petrifaction;  as,  to  petrify  the heart. Young. "Petrifying
   accuracy." Sir W. Scott.

     And petrify a genius to a dunce. Pope.

     The  poor,  petrified  journeyman, quite unconscious of what he was
     doing. De Quincey.

     A  hideous  fatalism,  which  ought,  logically,  to  petrify  your
     volition. G. Eliot.


   Pet"ri*fy, v. i.

   1.  To  become  stone,  or  of  a stony hardness, as organic matter by
   calcareous deposits.

   2. Fig.: To become stony, callous, or obdurate.

     Like Niobe we marble grow, And petrify with grief. Dryden.


   Pe"trine  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  St.Peter;  as, the Petrine


   Pet"ro-  (?).  A  combining  form from Gr. rock, stone; as, petrology,


   Pe*trog"a*le  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any Australian kangaroo
   of the genus Petrogale, as the rock wallaby (P. penicillata).


   Pet`ro*glyph"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to petroglyphy.


   Pe*trog"ly*phy  (?),  n.  [Petro + Gr. The art or operation of carving
   figures or inscriptions on rock or stone.

                         Petrographic, Petrographical

   Pet`ro*graph"ic   (?),   Pet`ro*graph"ic*al   (?),  a.  Pertaining  to


   Pe*trog"ra*phy (?), n. [Petro + -graphy.]

   1. The art of writing on stone.

   2.  The  scientific  description  of rocks; that department of science
   which investigates the constitution of rocks; petrology.


   Pet`ro*hy"oid  (?), a. [Petro + hyoid.] (Anat.) Pertaining to petrous,
   oe  periotic,  portion  of  the  skull  and  the  hyoid  arch; as, the
   petrohyoid muscles of the frog.


   Pe*trol" (?), n. Petroleum. [R.]


   Pet`ro*la"tum (?), n. (Chem. & Pharm.) A semisolid unctuous substance,
   neutral,  and  without  taste  or  odor,  derived  from  petroleum  by
   distilling off the lighter portions and purifying the residue. It is a
   yellowish,  fatlike  mass,  transparent  in  thin layers, and somewhat
   fluorescent.  It  is  used  as  a  bland protective dressing, and as a
   substitute for fatty materials in ointments. U. S. Pharm.

     NOTE: &hand; Pe trolatum is  th e of ficial na me fo r the purified
     product. Cosmoline and vaseline are commercial names for substances
     essentially  the  same,  but  differing  slightly in appearance and
     consistency or fusibility.


   Pe*tro"le*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. L. petra a rock + oleum oil: cf. F.
   p\'82trole.  Cf.  Petrify, and Oil.] Rock oil, mineral oil, or natural
   oil,  a  dark  brown or greenish inflammable liquid, which, at certain
   points,  exists  in  the  upper strata of the earth, from whence it is
   pumped,  or forced by pressure of the gas attending it. It consists of
   a  complex  mixture  of  various  hydrocarbons, largely of the methane
   series,  but may vary much in appearance, composition, and properties.
   It  is  refined  by  distillation,  and the products include kerosene,
   benzine,  gasoline, paraffin, etc. Petroleum spirit, a volatile liquid
   obtained  in  the  distillation of crude petroleum at a temperature of
   170\'f8  Fahr.,  or  below.  The  term  is rather loosely applied to a
   considerable  range  of  products,  including benzine and ligroin. The
   terms petroleum ether, and naphtha, are sometimes applied to the still
   more volatile products, including rhigolene, gasoline, cymogene, etc.
                       P\'82troleur, n. m. P\'82troleuse
   P\'82`tro`leur"  (?),  n.  m.  P\'82`tro`leuse" (?), n. f.[F.] One who
   makes use of petroleum for incendiary purposes.
   Pet"ro*line  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A paraffin obtained from petroleum from
   Rangoon in India, and practically identical with ordinary paraffin.
                           Petrologic, Petrological
   Pet`ro*log"ic  (?),  Pet`ro*log"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to


   Pet`ro*log"ic*al*ly, adv. According to petrology.


   Pe*trol"o*gist (?), n. One who is versed in petrology.


   Pe*trol"o*gy (?), n. [Petro + -logy.]

   1. The department of science which is concerned with the mineralogical
   and  chemical  composition  of  rocks,  and with their classification:

   2. A treatise on petrology.


   Pet`ro*mas"toid (?), a. [Petro + mastoid.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to
   the petrous and mastoid parts of the temporal bone, periotic.


   Pet`ro*my"zont (?), n. [Petro + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A lamprey.


   Pet`ro*nel  (?),  n. [OF. petrinal, fr. peitrine, petrine, the breast,
   F.  poitrine;  so  called  because it was placed against the breast in
   order  to  fire.  See  Poitrel.]  A  sort  of hand cannon, or portable
   firearm, used in France in the 15th century.


   Pe*tro"sal  (?),  a.  [See Petrous.] (Anat.) (a) Hard; stony; petrous;
   as,  the  petrosal  bone;  petrosal part of the temporal bone. (b) Of,
   pertaining to, or in the region of, the petrous, or petrosal, bone, or
   the  corresponding part of the temporal bone. Petrosal bone (Anat.), a
   bone corresponding to the petrous portion of the temporal bone of man;
   or one forming more or less of the periotic capsule.


   Pe*tro"sal,  n. (Anat.) (a) A petrosal bone. (b) The auditory capsule.


   Pet`ro*si"lex (?), n. [Petro + silex.] (Min.) Felsite.


   Pet`ro*si*li"cious (?), a. Containing, or consisting of, petrosilex.


   Pet`ro*ste"a*rine  (?),  n.  [Petro  +  stearine.]  A  solid  unctuous
   material, of which candles are made.


   Pe"trous (?), a. [L. petrosus, fr. petra a stone.]

   1.  Like  stone;  hard;  stony;  rocky;  as,  the  petrous part of the
   temporal bone. Hooper.

   2. (Anat.) Same as Petrosal.


   Pet"ti*chaps (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Pettychaps.


   Pet"ti*coat  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) [Petty + coat.] A loose under-garment
   worn  by  women,  and  covering  the  body  below the waist. Petticoat
   government,  government  by  women,  whether  in  politics or domestic
   affairs.  [Colloq.]  -- Petticoat pipe (Locomotives), a short, flaring
   pipe  surrounding  the  blast nozzle in the smoke box, to equalize the


   Pet"ti*fog  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Pettifogged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Pettifogging  (?).]  [Petty + fog to pettifog.] To do a petty business
   as  a  lawyer;  also, to do law business in a petty or tricky way. "He
   takes no money, but pettifogs gratis." S. Butler.


   Pet"ti*fog,  v.  t. To advocate like a pettifogger; to argue trickily;
   as, to pettifog a claim. [Colloq.]


   Pet"ti*fog`ger  (?), n. A lawyer who deals in petty cases; an attorney
   whose methods are mean and tricky; an inferior lawyer.

     A pettifogger was lord chancellor. Macaulay.


   Pet"ti*fog`ger*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  -ies  (.  The  practice or arts of a
   pettifogger; disreputable tricks; quibbles.

     Quirks of law, and pettifoggeries. Barrow.


   Pet"ti*fog`ging (?), a. Paltry; quibbling; mean.


   Pet"ti*fog`ging, n. Pettifoggery.


   Pet`ti*fog"u*lize  (?),  v.  i.  To  act  as  a  pettifogger;  to  use
   contemptible tricks. De Quincey.


   Pet"ti*ly, adv. In a petty manner; frivolously.


   Pet"ti*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  petty or paltry;
   littleness; meanness.


   Pet"tish  (?),  a.  [From  Pet.]  Fretful; peevish; moody; capricious;
   inclined  to  ill  temper.  "A  pettish  kind  of  humor."  Sterne. --
   Pet"tish*ly, adv. -- Pet"tish*ness, n.


   Pet"ti*toes  (?), n. pl. [Petty + toes.] The toes or feet of a pig, --
   often used as food; sometimes, in contempt, the human feet. Shak.


   Pet"to  (?),  n.  [It.,  fr.  L. pectus.] The breast. In petto, in the
   breast; hence, in secrecy; in reserve.


   Pet"ty (?), a. [Compar. Pettier (?); superl. Pettiest.] [OE. petit, F.
   petit;  probably  of  Celtic origin, and akin to E. piece. Cf. Petit.]
   Little;  trifling;  inconsiderable; also, inferior; subordinate; as, a
   petty fault; a petty prince. Denham.

     Like a petty god I walked about, admired of all. Milton.

   Petty  averages.  See  under Average. -- Petty cash, money expended or
   received  in small items or amounts. -- Petty officer, a subofficer in
   the  navy,  as  a  gunner,  etc.,  corresponding to a noncommissionned
   officer in the army.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo r petty constable, petty jury, petty larceny, petty
     treason, See Petit.

   Syn.   --  Little;  diminutive;  inconsiderable;  inferior;  trifling;
   trivial; unimportant; frivolous.

   Page 1074


   Pet"ty*chaps  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several species of small
   European  singing  birds  of  the subfamily Sylviin\'91, as the willow
   warbler, the chiff-chaff, and the golden warbler (Sylvia hortensis).


   Pet"ty*whin (?), n. [Petty + whin.] (Bot.) The needle furze. See under

                             Petulance, Petulancy

   Pet"u*lance   (?),   Pet"u*lan*cy   (?),  n.  [L.  petulania:  cf.  F.
   p\'82tulance.  See  Petulant.] The quality or state of being petulant;
   temporary   peevishness;   pettishness;  capricious  ill  humor.  "The
   petulancy of our words." B. Jonson.

     Like pride in some, and like petulance in others. Clarendon.

     The lowering eye, the petulance, the frown. Cowper.

   Syn.  -- Petulance, Peevishness. -- Peevishness implies the permanence
   of  a  sour, fretful temper; petulance implies temporary or capricious


   Pet"u*lant  (?), a. [L. petulans, -antis, prop., making slight attacks
   upon,  from  a  lost  dim.  of  petere to fall upon, to attack: cf. F.
   p\'82tulant. See Petition.]

   1. Forward; pert; insolent; wanton. [Obs.] Burton.

   2.  Capriciously  fretful;  characterized by ill-natured freakishness;
   irritable. "Petulant moods." Macaulay. Syn. -- Irritable; ill-humored;
   peevish; cross; fretful; querulous.


   Pet"u*lant*ly, adv. In a petulant manner.


   Pe*tul"ci*ty  (?),  n. [See Petulcous.] Wantonness; friskiness. [Obs.]
   Bp. Hall.


   Pe*tul"cous  (?),  a.  [L.  petulcus.  Cf.  Petulant.] Wanton; frisky;
   lustful. [Obs.] J. V. Cane.


   Pe*tu"ni*a  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Braz. petun tobacco.] (Bot.) A genus of
   solanaceous  herbs  with  funnelform  or  salver-shaped  corollas. Two
   species  are  common  in  cultivation, Petunia violacera, with reddish
   purple  flowers,  and P. nyctaginiflora, with white flowers. There are
   also many hybrid forms with variegated corollas.

                          Petunse, Petuntse, Petuntze

   Pe*tunse",  Pe*tuntse",  Pe*tuntze"  (?),  n. [From Chinese.] Powdered
   fledspar, kaolin, or quartz, used in the manufacture of porcelain.

                                Petworth marble

   Pet"worth mar"ble (?). A kind of shell marble occurring in the Wealden
   clay at Petworth, in Sussex, England; -- called also Sussex marble.


   Petz"ite  (?),  n. [From Petz, who analyzed it.] (Min.) A telluride of
   silver and gold, related to hessite.


   Peu*ced"a*nin (?), n. (Chem.) A tasteless white crystalline substance,
   extracted  from  the roots of the sulphurwort (Peucedanum), masterwort
   (Imperatoria), and other related plants; -- called also imperatorin.


   Peu"cil (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) A liquid resembling camphene, obtained by
   treating turpentine hydrochloride with lime. [Written also peucyl.]


   Pew  (?),  n. [OE. pewe, OF. puie parapet, balustrade, balcony, fr. L.
   podium  an  elevated  place, a jutty, balcony, a parapet or balcony in
   the circus, where the emperor and other distinguished persons sat, Gr.
   Foot, and cf. Podium, Poy.]

   1.  One  of  the  compartments  in a church which are separated by low
   partitions, and have long seats upon which several persons may sit; --
   sometimes  called  slip. Pews were originally made square, but are now
   usually long and narrow.

   2.  Any  structure shaped like a church pew, as a stall, formerly used
   by  money  lenders, etc.; a box in theater; a pen; a sheepfold. [Obs.]
   Pepys. Milton.
   Pew opener, an usher in a church. [Eng.] Dickens.


   Pew, v. t. To furnish with pews. [R.] Ash.


   Pe"wee (?), n. [So called from its note.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) A common American tyrant flycatcher (Sayornis ph\'d2be,
   or S. fuscus). Called also pewit, and ph\'d2be.

   2. The woodcock. [Local, U.S.]
   Wood  pewee  (Zo\'94l.), a bird (Contopus virens) similar to the pewee
   (See Pewee, 1), but of smaller size.


   Pe"wet (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Pewit.


   Pew"fel`low (?), n.

   1. One who occupies the same pew with another.

   2. An intimate associate; a companion. Shak.


   Pe"wit  (?), n. [Prob. of imitative origin; cf. OD. piewit, D. kievit,
   G. kibitz.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) The lapwing. (b) The European black-headed,
   or  laughing,  gull  (Xema  ridibundus).  See  under Laughing. (c) The
   pewee. [Written also peevit, peewit, pewet.]


   Pew"ter  (?),  n.  [OE.  pewtyr,  OF. peutre, peautre, piautre: cf. D.
   peauter, piauter, It. peltro, Sp. & Pg. peltre, LL. peutreum, pestrum.
   Cf. Spelter.]

   1.  A hard, tough, but easily fusible, alloy, originally consisting of
   tin  with  a  little  lead, but afterwards modified by the addition of
   copper, antimony, or bismuth.

   2. Utensils or vessels made of pewter, as dishes, porringers, drinking
   vessels, tankards, pots.

     NOTE: &hand; Pe wter wa s formerly much used for domestic utensils.
     Inferior sorts contain a large proportion of lead.


   Pew"ter*er (?), n. One whose occupation is to make utensils of pewter;
   a pewtersmith. Shak.


   Pew"ter*y  (?),  a. Belonging to, or resembling, pewter; as, a pewtery


   Pex"i*ty (?), n. [L. pexitas, fr. pexus woolly, nappy, p.p. of pectere
   to comb.] Nap of cloth. [Obs.]

                                Peyer's glands

   Pey"er's glands` (?). [So called from J.K.Peyer, who described them in
   1677.] (Anat.) Pathches of lymphoid nodules, in the walls of the small
   intestiness;  agminated  glands;  --  called  also Peyer's patches. In
   typhoid fever they become the seat of ulcers which are regarded as the
   characteristic organic lesion of that disease.


   Pey"trel  (?),  n.  [OF.  peitral.  See  Poitrel.]  (Anc.  Armor)  The
   breastplate  of  a horse's armor or harness. [Spelt also peitrel.] See
   Poitrel. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Pe*zi"za (?), n. [NL., corrupt. from L. pezica a sessile mushroom, fr.
   Gr.  (Bot.) A genus of fungi embracing a great number of species, some
   of  which  are  remarkable  for  their  regular  cuplike form and deep


   Pez"i*zoid  (?), a. [Peziza + -oid.] (Bot.) Resembling a fungus of the
   genus Peziza; having a cuplike form.


   Pfen"nig (?), n.; pl. Pfennigs (#), G. Pfennige (#). [G. See Penny.] A
   small  copper  coin of Germany. It is the hundredth part of a mark, or
   about a quarter of a cent in United States currency.


   Pha*cel"lus (?), n.; pl. Phacelli (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of
   the  filaments  on  the inner surface of the gastric cavity of certain


   Phac"o*chere (?), n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The wart hog.


   Pha"coid (?), a. [Gr. -oid.] Resembling a lentil; lenticular.


   Phac"o*lite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -lite.]  (Min.)  A  colorless  variety of
   chabazite; the original was from Leipa, in Bohemia.


   Pha"cops  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.) A genus of trilobites found
   in  the  Silurian  and Devonian formations. Phacops bufo is one of the
   most common species.


   Ph\'91*a"cian (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Ph\'91acians, a fabulous
   seafaring people fond of the feast, the lyre, and the dance, mentioned
   by Homer.


   Ph\'91"no*gam (?), n. (Bot.) Any plant of the class Ph\'91nogamia.


   Ph\'91`no*ga"mi*a  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. (Bot.) The class of flowering
   plants  including  all  which  have  true flowers with distinct floral
   organs; phanerogamia.

                         Ph\'91nogamian, Ph\'91nogamic

   Ph\'91`no*ga"mi*an    (?),    Ph\'91`no*gam"ic   (?),   a.   Same   as


   Ph\'91*nog"a*mous  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Having  true  flowers  with  with
   distinct floral organs; flowering.


   Ph\'91*nom"e*non (?), n. [L.] See Phenomenon.


   Ph\'91"o*spore  (?),  n.  [Gr.  spore.] (Bot.) A brownish zo\'94spore,
   characteristic  of  an  order  (Ph\'91ospore\'91)  of  dark  green  or
   olive-colored alg\'91. -- Ph\'91`o*spor"ic (#), a.


   Pha"\'89*thon (?), n. [L., Pha\'89thon (in sense 1), fr. Gr. Phantom.]

   1.  (Class.  Myth.) The son of Helios (Ph\'d2bus), that is, the son of
   light,  or  of  the  sun.  He is fabled to have obtained permission to
   drive  the  chariot of the sun, in doing which his want of skill would
   have  set the world on fire, had he not been struck with a thunderbolt
   by Jupiter, and hurled headlong into the river Po.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of oceanic birds including the tropic birds.


   Pha"\'89*ton   (?),   n.  [F.  pha\'82ton  a  kind  of  carriage,  fr.
   Pha\'82thon Pha\'89thon, the son of Helios. See Pha\'89thon.]

   1. A four-wheeled carriage (with or without a top), open, or having no
   side pieces, in front of the seat. It is drawn by one or two horses.

   2. See Pha\'89thon.

   3.   (Zo\'94l.)   A   handsome   American  butterfly  (Euphydryas,  OR
   Melit\'91a,  Pha\'89ton).  The  upper side of the wings is black, with
   orange-red   spots   and  marginal  crescents,  and  several  rows  of
   cream-colored spots; -- called also Baltimore.


   Phag`e*de"na (?), n. [L. phagedaena, Gr. (Med.) (a) A canine appetite;
   bulimia. [Obs.] (b) Spreading, obstinate ulceration.

                           Phagedenic, PhagedenicAL

   Phag`e*den"ic  (?),  Phag`e*den"ic*AL  (?),  a. [L. phagedaenicus, Gr.
   phag\'82d\'82nique.]  (Med.)  Of,  like,  or pertaining to, phagedena;
   used  in  the  treatment  of  phagedena;  as,  a  phagedenic  ulcer or
   medicine. -- n. A phagedenic medicine.


   Phag`e*de"nous (?), a. (Med.) Phagedenic.


   Phag"o*cyte  (?), n. [Gr. (Physiol.) A leucocyte which plays a part in
   retrogressive  processes  by  taking  up (eating), in the form of fine
   granules, the parts to be removed.


   Pha*i`no*pep"la  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) A small crested
   passerine  bird  (Pha\'8bnopepla  nitens),  native  of  Mexico and the
   Southern  United  States.  The  adult  male  is  of  a  uniform glossy
   blue-black; the female is brownish. Called also black flycatcher.


   Phak"o*scope  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -scope.]  (Physiol.)  An  instrument for
   studying the mechanism of accommodation.


   Pha*l\'91"na (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A linn\'91an genus which
   included the moths in general.


   Pha*l\'91"nid   (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  moth  of  the  family
   Phal\'91nid\'91, of which the cankerworms are examples; a geometrid.

                             Phalangeal, Phalangal

   Pha*lan"ge*al  (?),  Pha*lan"gal  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to the
   phalanges. See Phalanx, 2.


   Pha*lan"ger  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. phalanger. See Phalanx.] (Zo\'94l.) Any
   marsupial belonging to Phalangista, Cuscus, Petaurus, and other genera
   of  the family Phalangistid\'91. They are arboreal, and the species of
   Petaurus  are furnished with lateral parachutes. See Flying phalanger,
   under Flying.


   Pha*lan"ges (?), n., pl. of Phalanx.

                            Phalangial, Phalangian

   Pha*lan"gi*al (?), Pha*lan"gi*an (?), a. (Anat.) Phalangeal.


   Pha*lan"gid  (?),  n.;  pl.  Phalangides  (.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the


   Pha*lan"gi*ous  (?),  a. [L. phalangium a kind of venomous spider, Gr.
   Phalanx.] (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to Phalangoidea.


   Pha*lan"gist  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) Any arboreal marsupial of the genus
   Phalangista.  The  vulpine  phalangist  (P.  vulpina)  is  the largest
   species,  the full grown male being about two and a half feet long. It
   has  a large bushy tail. <-- Spanish history -- member of the Phalange

                          Phalangister, Phalangistine

   Phal`an*gis"ter  (?),  Phal`an*gis"tine  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Same as


   Phal"an*gite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  phalangite.]  A  soldier  belonging to a
   phalanx. [Obs.]


   Phal`an*goi"de*a  (?), n. pl. [NL., from Phalangium the daddy longlegs
   (see   Phalangious)  +  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  division  of  Arachnoidea,
   including  the  daddy  longlegs  or  harvestman  (Phalangium) and many
   similar  kinds.  They have long, slender, many-jointed legs; usually a
   rounded,   segmented  abdomen;  and  chelate  jaws.  They  breathe  by
   trache\'91.  Called  also  Phalangides,  Phalangidea, Phalangiida, and


   Pha`lan`st\'82re" (?), n. [F.] A phalanstery.


   Phal`an*ste"ri*an  (?),  a.  [F.  phalanst\'82rien,  a.  &  n.]  Of or
   pertaining to phalansterianism.


   Phal`an*ste"ri*an,  n.  One  who  favors  the  system of phalansteries
   proposed by Fourier.

                        Phalansterism, Phalansterianism

   Pha*lan"ster*ism  (?),  Phal`an*ste"ri*an*ism  (?),  n.  A  system  of
   phalansteries proposed by Fourier; Fourierism.


   Phal"an*ster*y (?), n.; pl. -ies (#). [F. phalanst\'8are, fr. Gr.

   1.  An  association or community organized on the plan of Fourier. See

   2. The dwelling house of a Fourierite community.


   Pha"lanx (?), n.; pl. Phalanxes (#), L. Phalanges (#). [L., from Gr.

   1.  (Gr.  Antiq.)  A  body of heavy-armed infantry formed in ranks and
   files  close  and deep. There were several different arrangements, the
   phalanx  varying  in  depth  from four to twenty-five or more ranks of
   men. "In cubic phalanx firm advanced." Milton.

     The Grecian phalanx, moveless as a tower. Pope.

   2. Any body of troops or men formed in close array, or any combination
   of people distinguished for firmness and solidity of a union.

     At present they formed a united phalanx. Macaulay.

     The  sheep  recumbent, and the sheep that grazed, All huddling into
     phalanx, stood and gazed. Cowper.

   3. A Fourierite community; a phalanstery.

   4.  (Anat.)  One  of the digital bones of the hand or foot, beyond the
   metacarpus or metatarsus; an internode.

   5.  [pl.  Phalanges.]  (Bot.)  A  group  or  bundle  of stamens, as in
   polyadelphous flowers.


   Phal"a*rope  (?),  n.  [Gr.  phalarope.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  species  of
   Phalaropus and allied genera of small wading birds (Grall\'91), having
   lobate  toes.  They  are  often  seen far from land, swimming in large
   flocks. Called also sea goose.


   Phal"lic (?), a. [Gr. Of or pertaining to the phallus, or to phallism.


   Phal"li*cism (?), n. See Phallism.


   Phal"lism  (?),  n. The worship of the generative principle in nature,
   symbolized by the phallus.


   Phal"lus (?), n.; pl. Phalli (. [L., a phallus (in sense 1), Gr.

   1. The emblem of the generative power in nature, carried in procession
   in the Bacchic orgies, or worshiped in various ways.

   2.  (Anat.) The penis or clitoris, or the embryonic or primitive organ
   from which either may be derived.

   3. (Bot.) A genus of fungi which have a fetid and disgusting odor; the

   Page 1075


   Phane (?), n. See Fane. [Obs.] Joye.


   Phan"er*ite  (?),  a. [Gr. Evident; visible. Phanerite series (Geol.),
   the  uppermost  part  of  the  earth's  crust,  consisting of deposits
   produced by causes in obvious operation.


   Phan`er*o*car"p\'91  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Phan`er*o*co*don"ic  (?), a. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Having an umbrella-shaped
   or  bell-shaped  body,  with  a  wide, open cavity beneath; -- said of
   certain jellyfishes.


   Phan`er*o*crys"tal*line  (?), a. [Gr. crystalline.] (Geol.) Distinctly
   crystalline; -- used of rocks. Opposed to cryptocrystalline.


   Phan`er*o*dac"ty*la  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Phan`er*o*ga"mi*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) That one of the two
   primary   divisions  of  the  vegetable  kingdom  which  contains  the
   phanerogamic, or flowering, plants.


   Phan`er*o*ga"mi*an (?), a. (Bot.) Phanerogamous.

                          Phanerogamic, Phanerogamous

   Phan`er*o*gam"ic (?), Phan`er*og"a*mous (?), a. Having visible flowers
   containing distinct stamens and pistils; -- said of plants.


   Phan`er*o*glos"sal (?), a. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.)Having a conspicious tongue;
   -- said of certain reptiles and insects.


   Phan"ta*scope  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -scope.]  An optical instrument or toy,
   resembling  the  phenakistoscope, and illustrating the same principle;
   -- called also phantasmascope.


   Phan"tasm (?), n. [L. phantasma. See Phantom, and cf. Fantasm.] [Spelt
   also fantasm.]

   1. An image formed by the mind, and supposed to be real or material; a
   shadowy or airy appearance; sometimes, an optical illusion; a phantom;
   a dream.

     They be but phantasms or apparitions. Sir W. Raleigh.

   2.  A  mental  image  or  representation  of a real object; a fancy; a
   notion. Cudworth.

     Figures  or  little features, of which the description had produced
     in you no phantasm or expectation. Jer. Taylor.


   Phan"tas"ma (?), n. [L.] A phantasm.


   Phan*tas`ma*go"ri*a (?), n. [NL., from Gr. phantasmagorie.]

   1.  An  optical  effect  produced  by a magic lantern. The figures are
   painted in transparent colors, and all the rest of the glass is opaque
   black.  The  screen  is between the spectators and the instrument, and
   the  figures  are  often made to appear as in motion, or to merge into
   one another.

   2. The apparatus by which such an effect is produced.

   3.   Fig.:   A  medley  of  figures;  illusive  images.  "This  mental
   phantasmagoria." Sir W. Scott.


   Phan*tas`ma*go"ri*al   (?),   a.   Of,   relating  to,  or  resembling
   phantasmagoria; phantasmagoric.


   Phan*tas`ma*gor"ic   (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  phantasmagoria;
   phantasmagorial. Hawthorne.


   Phan*tas"ma*go*ry (?), n. See Phantasmagoria.


   Phan*tas"mal (?), a. Pertaining to, of the nature of, or resembling, a
   phantasm; spectral; illusive.


   Phan*tas"ma*scope (?), n. See Phantascope.


   Phan`tas*mat"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L.  phantasmaticus.] Phantasmal. Dr. H.


   Phan*tas`ma*tog"ra*phy   (?),  n.  [Gr.  -graphy.]  A  description  of
   celestial phenomena, as rainbows, etc.

                           Phantastic, Phantastical

   Phan*tas"tic (?), Phan*tas"tic*al (?), a. See Fantastic.


   Phan"ta*sy (?), n. See Fantasy, and Fancy.


   Phan"tom (?), n. [OE. fantome, fantosme, fantesme, OF. fant\'93me, fr.
   L.  phantasma,  Gr.  Fancy, and cf. Pha\'89ton, Phantasm, Phase.] That
   which  has  only  an  apparent  existence; an apparition; a specter; a
   phantasm; a sprite; an airy spirit; an ideal image.

     Strange phantoms rising as the mists arise. Pope.

     She was a phantom of delight. Wordsworth.

   Phantom  ship.  See  Flying  Dutchman,  under Flying. -- Phantom tumor
   (Med.),  a swelling, especially of the abdomen, due to muscular spasm,
   accumulation   of   flatus,   etc.,  simulating  an  actual  tumor  in
   appearance,   but   disappearing   upon   the   administration  of  an


   Phan`tom*at"ic, a. Phantasmal. [R.] Coleridge.


   Pha"raoh  (?),  n.  [Heb. par\'d3h; of Egyptian origin: cf. L. pharao,
   Gr. Faro.]

   1. A title by which the sovereigns of ancient Egypt were designated.

   2. See Faro.
   Pharaoh's  chicken (Zo\'94l.), the gier-eagle, or Egyptian vulture; --
   so  called because often sculpured on Egyptian monuments. It is nearly
   white in color. -- Pharaoh's rat (Zo\'94l.), the common ichneumon.


   Pha"ra*on (?), n. See Pharaoh, 2.


   Phar`a*on"ic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. pharaonique.] Of or pertaining to the
   Pharaohs, or kings of ancient Egypt.


   Phare (?), n. [See Pharos.]

   1. A beacon tower; a lighthouse. [Obs.]

   2. Hence, a harbor. Howell.

                            Pharisaic, Pharisaical

   Phar`i*sa"ic   (?),  Phar`i*sa"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L.  Pharisaicus,  Gr.
   pharisa\'8bque. See Pharisee.]

   1.  Of  or pertaining to the Pharisees; resembling the Pharisees. "The
   Pharisaic sect among the Jews." Cudworth.

   2.  Hence: Addicted to external forms and ceremonies; making a show of
   religion  without  the spirit of it; ceremonial; formal; hypocritical;
   self-righteous.  "Excess of outward and pharisaical holiness. " Bacon.
   "Pharisaical  ostentation."  Macaulay.  -- Phar`i*sa"ic*al*ly, adv. --
   Phar`i*sa"ic*al*ness, n.


   Phar`i*sa"ism (?), n. [Cf. F. pharisaisme.]

   1.  The  notions,  doctrines, and conduct of the Pharisees, as a sect.

   2.  Rigid  observance  of  external forms of religion, without genuine
   piety;  hypocrisy  in religion; a censorious, self-righteous spirit in
   matters of morals or manners. "A piece of pharisaism." Hammond.


   Phar`i*se"an  (?),  a.  [L.  Pharisaeus, Gr. Following the practice of
   Pharisees; Pharisaic. [Obs.] "Pharisean disciples." Milton.


   Phar"i*see  (?), n. [L. Pharisaeus, Gr. p\'berash to separate.] One of
   a  sect  or  party  among  the  Jews,  noted  for  a strict and formal
   observance  of  rites  and  ceremonies  and  of  the traditions of the
   elders,  and  whose  pretensions  to  superior  sanctity  led  them to
   separate themselves from the other Jews.


   Phar"i*see*ism (?), n. See Pharisaism.

                         Pharmacuetic, Pharmacuetical

   Phar`ma*cue"tic  (?),  Phar`ma*cue"tic*al  (?), a. [L. pharmaceuticus,
   Gr.  pharmaceutique.  See Pharmacy.] Of or pertaining to the knowledge
   or  art of pharmacy, or to the art of preparing medicines according to
   the rules or formulas of pharmacy; as, pharmaceutical preparations. --
   Phar`ma*cue"tic*al*ly,  adv. Pharmaceutical chemistry, that department
   of   chemistry  which  ascertains  or  regulates  the  composition  of
   medicinal substances.


   Phar`ma*cue"tics (?), n. The science of preparing medicines.


   Phar`ma*cue"tist  (?), n. One skilled in pharmacy; a druggist. See the
   Note under Apothecary.


   Phar"ma*cist  (?),  n.  One  skilled  in  pharmacy; a pharmaceutist; a


   Phar`ma*co*dy*nam"ics   (?),   n.   [Gr.  dynamics.]  That  branch  of
   pharmacology  which  considers the mode of action, and the effects, of
   medicines. Dunglison.


   Phar`ma*cog*no"sis  (?),  n.  [Gr.  That  branch of pharmacology which
   treats   of   unprepared   medicines   or   simples;  --  called  also
   pharmacography, and pharmacomathy.


   Phar`ma*cog"no*sy   (?),   n.  Pharmacognosis.<--  now  also  used  to
   designate  the  study  of  the distribution of and methods for finding
   medically useful agents in natural sources, primarily plants. -->


   Phar`ma*cog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. -graphy.] See Pharmacognosis.


   Phar*mac"o*lite  (?),  n.  [Gr. -lite: cf. F. pharmacolithe.] (Min.) A
   hydrous arsenate of lime, usually occurring in silky fibers of a white
   or grayish color.


   Phar`ma*col"o*gist  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. pharmacologiste.] One skilled in


   Phar`ma*col"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. pharmacologie.]

   1. Knowledge of drugs or medicines; the art of preparing medicines.

   2. A treatise on the art of preparing medicines.


   Phar`ma*com"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. See Pharmacognosis.


   Phar"ma*con  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. A medicine or drug; also, a poison.


   Phar`ma*co*p\'d2"ia (?), n. [NL., from Gr.

   1.  A  book or treatise describing the drugs, preparations, etc., used
   in  medicine; especially, one that is issued by official authority and
   considered as an authoritative standard.

   2. A chemical laboratory. [Obs.] Dunglison.


   Phar`ma*cop"o*list  (?),  n.  [L.  pharmacopola,  Gr.  One  who  sells
   medicines; an apothecary.


   Phar`ma*co*sid"er*ite   (?),  n.  [Gr.  siderite.]  (Min.)  A  hydrous
   arsenate of iron occurring in green or yellowish green cubic crystals;
   cube ore.


   Phar"ma*cy   (?),  n.  [OE.  fermacie,  OF.  farmacie,  pharmacie,  F.
   pharmacie, Gr.

   1.  The  art  or  practice  of  preparing and preserving drugs, and of
   compounding  and  dispensing  medicines  according to prescriptions of
   physicians;  the  occupation  of  an  apothecary  or  a pharmaceutical

   2.   A  place  where  medicines  are  compounded;  a  drug  store;  an
   apothecary's shop.


   Pha"ro (?), n.

   1. A pharos; a lighthouse. [Obs.]

   2. See Faro.


   Pha*rol"o*gy  (?),  n. [Gr. -logy.] The art or science which treats of
   lighthouses and signal lights.


   Pha"ros  (?),  n. [L., fr. Gr. A lighthouse or beacon for the guidance
   of seamen.

     He . . . built a pharos, or lighthouse. Arbuthnot.


   Pha*ryn"gal (?), a. Pharyngeal. H. Sweet.


   Phar`yn*ge"al  (?),  a. [See Pharynx.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the
   pharynx; in the region of the pharynx.


   Phar`yn*ge"al,  n. (Anat.) A pharyngeal bone or cartilage; especially,
   one  of  the  lower pharyngeals, which belong to the rudimentary fifth
   branchial  arch  in  many  fishes, or one of the upper pharyngeals, or
   pharyngobranchials,  which  are  the  dorsal  elements in the complete
   branchial arches.


   Phar`yn*gi"tis   (?),   n.   [NL.  See  Pharynx,  and  -itis.]  (Med.)
   Inflammation of the pharynx.


   Pha*ryn`go*bran"chi*al  (?),  a.  [Pharynx + branchial.] (Anat.) Of or
   pertaining  to  the pharynx and the branchi\'91; -- applied especially
   to  the  dorsal  elements  in  the  branchial  arches  of  fishes. See
   Pharyngeal.  --  n.  A pharyngobranchial, or upper pharyngeal, bone or


   Pha*ryn`go*bran"chi*i  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL. See Pharynx, and Branchia.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Same as Leptocardia.


   Phar`yn*gog"na*thi  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Pharynx,  and  Gnathic.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  division  of fishes in which the lower pharyngeal bones
   are united. It includes the scaroid, labroid, and embioticoid fishes.


   Pha*ryn`go*lar`yn*ge"al   (?),   a.   [Pharynx  +  laryngeal.]  Of  or
   pertaining both to pharynx and the larynx.


   Pha*ryn`gop*neus"ta  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of
   invertebrates   including   the   Tunicata   and   Enteropneusta.   --
   Pha*ryn`gop*neus"tal (#), a.


   Pha*ryn"go*tome   (?),  n.  (Surg.)  An  instrument  for  incising  or
   scarifying the tonsils, etc.


   Phar`yn*got"o*my  (?),  n.  [Pharynx  +  Gr.  : cf. F. pharyngotomie.]
   (Surg.)  (a)  The operation of making an incision into the pharynx, to
   remove   a   tumor   or  anything  that  obstructs  the  passage.  (b)
   Scarification or incision of the tonsils.


   Phar"ynx  (?),  n.; pl. pharynges (#). [NL., fr. Gr. pharynx.] (Anat.)
   The  part  of the alimentary canal between the cavity of the mouth and
   the esophagus. It has one or two external openings through the nose in
   the  higher  vertebrates, and lateral branchial openings in fishes and
   some amphibias.


   Phas"co*lome  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  marsupial  of  the  genus
   Phascolomys; a wombat.


   Phase (?), n.; pl. Phases (#). [NL. phasis, Gr. phase. See Phenomenon,
   Phantom, and Emphasis.]

   1.  That  which is exhibited to the eye; the appearance which anything
   manifests,  especially any one among different and varying appearances
   of the same object.

   2.  Any  appearance  or  aspect of an object of mental apprehension or
   view; as, the problem has many phases.

   3. (Astron.) A particular appearance or state in a regularly recurring
   cycle  of  changes with respect to quantity of illumination or form of
   enlightened  disk;  as, the phases of the moon or planets. See Illust.
   under Moon.

   4.  (Physics)  Any  one  point  or  portion  in  a recurring series of
   changes,  as  in  the  changes  of  motion  of  one  of  the particles
   constituting  a  wave  or  vibration;  one portion of a series of such
   changes,  in  distinction from a contrasted portion, as the portion on
   one  side  of  a position of equilibrium, in contrast with that on the
   opposite side.


   Pha"sel  (?), n. [L. phaselus, phaseolus, Gr. phas\'82ole, fas\'82ole.
   Cf. Fesels.] The French bean, or kidney bean.


   Phase"less (?), a. Without a phase, or visible form. [R.] "A phaseless
   and increasing gloom." Poe.


   Pha*se"o*lus  (?),  n.  [L.]  (Bot.)  A  genus  of  leguminous plants,
   including the Lima bean, the kidney bean, the scarlet runner, etc. See


   Pha`se*o*man"nite (?), n. [So called because found in the unripe fruit
   of the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).] (Chem.) Same as Inosite.


   Pha"sis (?), n.; pl. Phases (#). [NL.] See Phase. Creech.

                                 Phasm, Phasma

   Phasm  (?),  Phas"ma  (?), n. [L. phasma, Gr. Phase.] An apparition; a
   phantom; an appearance. [R.] Hammond. Sir T. Herbert.


   Phas"mid (?), n. [See Phasm. Probably so called from its mimicking, or
   appearing like, inanimate objects.] (Zo\'94l.) Any orthopterous insect
   of the family Phasmid\'91, as a leaf insect or a stick insect.


   Phas"sa*chate (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) The lead-colored agate; -- so called
   in reference to its color.


   Phat"a*gin (?), n. [Cf. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The long-tailed pangolin (Manis
   tetradactyla); -- called also ipi.


   Pheas"ant  (?),  n.  [OE.  fesant,  fesaunt,  OF.  faisant, faisan, F.
   faisan, L. phasianus, Gr.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) Any one of numerous species of large gallinaceous birds
   of   the  genus  Phasianus,  and  many  other  genera  of  the  family
   Phasianid\'91, found chiefly in Asia. <-- # note collocations in notes
   have italic font in WEB1913 -->

     NOTE: &hand; The

   common,  OR  English, pheasant (Phasianus Colchicus) is now found over
   most   of   temperate  Europe,  but  was  introduced  from  Asia.  The
   ring-necked  pheasant  (P.  torquatus)  and  the  green  pheasant  (P.
   versicolor)  have  been  introduced  into  Oregon. The golden pheasant
   (Thaumalea  picta)  is  one  of the most beautiful species. The silver
   pheasant  (Euplocamus  nychthemerus)  of  China,  and  several related
   species from Southern Asia, are very beautiful.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The ruffed grouse. [Southern U.S.]

     NOTE: &hand; Va rious ot her birds are locally called pheasants, as
     the lyre bird, the leipoa, etc.

   Fireback   pheasant.  See  Fireback.  --  Gold,  OR  Golden,  pheasant
   (Zo\'94l.),  a Chinese pheasant (Thaumalea picta), having rich, varied
   colors. The crest is amber-colored, the rump is golden yellow, and the
   under  parts  are scarlet. -- Mountain pheasant (Zo\'94l.), the ruffed
   grouse.   [Local,   U.S.]  --  Pheasant  coucal  (Zo\'94l.),  a  large
   Australian  cuckoo  (Centropus phasianus). The general color is black,
   with  chestnut  wings and brown tail. Called also pheasant cuckoo. The
   name  is  also  applied  to  other  allied  species. -- Pheasant duck.
   (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  pintail.  (b)  The hooded merganser. -- Pheasant
   parrot   (Zo\'94l.),   a  large  and  beautiful  Australian  parrakeet
   (Platycercus  Adelaidensis). The male has the back black, the feathers
   margined  with  yellowish  blue and scarlet, the quills deep blue, the
   wing  coverts  and  cheeks  light  blue, the crown, sides of the neck,
   breast, and middle of the belly scarlet. -- Pheasant's eye. (Bot.) (a)
   A  red-flowered  herb  (Adonis  autumnalis) of the Crowfoot family; --
   called  also  pheasant's-eye  Adonis.  (b)  The  garden pink (Dianthus
   plumarius);  --  called  also  Pheasant's-eye  pink. -- Pheasant shell
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  marine  univalve  shell of the genus Phasianella, of
   which numerous species are found in tropical seas. The shell is smooth
   and  usually  richly  colored,  the colors often forming blotches like
   those  of  a pheasant. -- Pheasant wood. (Bot.) Same as Partridge wood
   (a),  under  Partridge.  --  Sea  pheasant (Zo\'94l.), the pintail. --
   Water   pheasant.   (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  sheldrake.  (b)  The  hooded

   Page 1076


   Pheas"ant*ry  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. faisanderie.] A place for keeping and
   rearing pheasants. Gwilt.


   Phe"be (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Ph\'d2be.


   Pheer, n. See 1st Fere. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Pheese  (?),  v.  t. To comb; also, to beat; to worry. [Obs. or Local]
   See Feaze, v.


   Pheese, n. Fretful excitement. [Obs. or Local] See Feaze, n.


   Phel"lo*derm   (?),   n.   [Gr.   -derm.]  (Bot.)  A  layer  of  green
   parenchimatous cells formed on the inner side of the phellogen.


   Phel"lo*gen (?), n. [Gr. -gen.] (Bot.) The tissue of young cells which
   produces cork cells.


   Phel`lo*plas"tics (?), n. [Gr. Art of modeling in cork.


   Phen"a*cite  (?),  n. [Gr. (Min.) A glassy colorless mineral occurring
   in rhombohedral crystals, sometimes used as a gem. It is a silicate of
   glucina,  and  receives  its  name  from  its  deceptive similarity to


   Phen`a*kis"to*scope  (?),  n.  [Gr. -scope.] A revolving disk on which
   figures  drawn  in different relative attitudes are seen successively,
   so  as  to produce the appearance of an object in actual motion, as an
   animal  leaping,  etc.,  in  consequence  of  the  persistence  of the
   successive  visual  impressions of the retina. It is often arranged so
   that the figures may be projected upon a screen.


   Phe*nan"threne  (?),  n.  [Phenyl  +  antracene.]  (Chem.)  A  complex
   hydrocarbon,  C14H10,  found  in  coal  tar,  and  obtained as a white
   crystalline substance with a bluish fluorescence.


   Phe*nan"thri*dine   (?),  n.  [Phenanthrene  +  pyridine.]  (Chem.)  A
   nitrogenous  hydrocarbon  base,  C13H9N, analogous to phenanthrene and


   Phe*nan"thro*line  (?),  n. [Phenanthrene + quinoline.] (Chem.) Either
   of  two metameric nitrogenous hydrocarbon bases, C12H8N2, analogous to
   phenanthridine, but more highly nitrogenized.


   Phene (?), n. (Chem.) Benzene. [Obs.]


   Phe"ne*tol  (?), n. [Phenyl + ethyl + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) The ethyl
   ether of phenol, obtained as an aromatic liquid, C6H5.O.C2H5.


   Phe"nic   (?),   a.  (Chem.)  Of,  pertaining  to,  derived  from,  or
   resembling,   phenyl   or  phenol.  Phenic  acid  (Chem.),  a  phenol.


   Phe*ni"cian (?), a. & n. See Ph\'d2nician.


   Phen"i*cine  (?),  n.  [Gr.  foi^nix purple red: cf. F. ph\'82nicine.]
   (Chem.)  (a) A purple powder precipitated when a sulphuric solution of
   indigo  is  diluted  with water. (b) A coloring matter produced by the
   action  of  a mixture of strong nitric and sulphuric acids on phenylic
   alcohol. Watts.


   Phe*ni"cious  (?),  a.  [L.  phoeniceus, Gr. foini`keos, from Of a red
   color with a slight mixture of gray. Dana.


   Phen`i*cop"ter  (?),  n. [L. phoenicopterus, Gr. foiniko`pteros, i.e.,
   red-feathered;  foi^nix,  foi`nikos, purple red + ptero`n feather: cf.
   F. ph\'82nicopt\'8are.] (Zo\'94l.) A flamingo.


   Phe"nix (?), n.; pl. Phenixes (#). [L. phoenix, Gr. foi^nix.] [Written
   also ph\'d2nix.]

   1.  (Gr.  Myth.) A bird fabled to exist single, to be consumed by fire
   by  its own act, and to rise again from its ashes. Hence, an emblem of

   2. (Astron.) A southern constellation.

   3. A marvelous person or thing. [R.] Latimer. <-- rise like a phoenix,
   to resume an endeavor after an apparently final defeat -->


   Phen`o*ga"mi*a (?), n. pl. (Bot.) Same as Ph\'91nogamia.

                     Phenogamian, Phenogamic, Phenogamous

   Phen`o*ga"mi*an (?), Phen`o*gam"ic (?), Phe*nog"a*mous (?), a. Same as
   Ph\'91nogamian, Ph\'91nogamic, etc.


   Phe"nol (?), n. [Gr. -ol: cf. F. ph\'82nol.] (Chem.)

   1.  A  white or pinkish crystalline substance, C6H5OH, produced by the
   destructive  distillation of many organic bodies, as wood, coal, etc.,
   and obtained from the heavy oil from coal tar.

     NOTE: &hand; It  has a peculiar odor, somewhat resembling creosote,
     which is a complex mixture of phenol derivatives. It is of the type
     of  alcohols,  and  is  called  also  phenyl  alcohol, but has acid
     properties,  and  hence  is popularly called carbolic acid, and was
     formerly  called  phenic acid. It is a powerful caustic poison, and
     in dilute solution has been used as an antiseptic.

   2.  Any  one  of  the  series  of hydroxyl derivatives of which phenol
   proper is the type.
   Glacial  phenol (Chem.), pure crystallized phenol or carbolic acid. --
   Phenol  acid  (Chem.),  any  one of a series of compounds which are at
   once  derivatives  of  both  phenol  and some member of the fatty acid
   series;  thus, salicylic acid is a phenol acid.<-- s.a. is not a fatty
   acid,  but  a benzoic acid derivative. IT should say "carboxylic acid"
   -->  --  Phenol  alcohol  (Chem.), any one of series of derivatives of
   phenol  and carbinol which have the properties of both combined; thus,
   saligenin  is a phenol alcohol. -- Phenol aldehyde (Chem.), any one of
   a  series  of compounds having both phenol and aldehyde properties. --
   Phenol phthalein. See under Phthalein.


   Phe"no*late  (?),  n.  [Phenol  +  -ate.] (Chem.) A compound of phenol
   analogous to a salt.


   Phe*nom"e*nal  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. ph\'82nom\'82nal.] Relating to, or of
   the  nature  of,  a phenomenon; hence, extraordinary; wonderful; as, a
   phenomenal memory. -- Phe*nom"e*nal*ly, adv.


   Phe*nom"e*nal*ism  (?), n. (Metaph.) That theory which limits positive
   or  scientific  knowledge  to  phenomena  only,  whether  material  or


   Phe*nom"e*nist   (?),   n.   One   who   believes  in  the  theory  of


   Phe*nom`e*nol"o*gy    (?),    n.   [Phenomenon   +   -logy:   cf.   F.
   ph\'82nom\'82nologie.]  A  description,  history,  or  explanation  of
   phenomena. "The phenomenology of the mind." Sir W. Hamilton.


   Phe*nom"e*non  (?),  n.;  pl.  Phenomena  (#).  [L.  phaenomenon,  Gr.
   faino`menon, fr. fai`nesqai to appear, fai`nein to show. See Phantom.]

   1.  An appearance; anything visible; whatever, in matter or spirit, is
   apparent  to,  or is apprehended by, observation; as, the phenomena of
   heat, light, or electricity; phenomena of imagination or memory.

     In  the  phenomena  of  the  material  world,  and  in  many of the
     phenomena of mind. Stewart.

   2.  That  which  strikes one as strange, unusual, or unaccountable; an
   extraordinary  or  very remarkable person, thing, or occurrence; as, a
   musical phenomenon.


   Phe"nose`  (?),  n.  [Phenyl  +  dextrose.]  (Chem.) A sweet amorphous
   deliquescent substance obtained indirectly from benzene, and isometric
   with, and resembling, dextrose.


   Phe"nyl (?), n. [Gr. -yl: cf. F. ph\'82nyle. So called because it is a
   by-product  of illuminating gas.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon radical (C6H5)
   regarded  as  the  essential  residue  of benzene, and the basis of an
   immense number of aromatic derivatives. Phenyl hydrate (Chem.), phenol
   or  carbolic  acid.  --  Phenyl  hydrazine (Chem.), a nitrogenous base
   (C6H5.N2H3) produced artificially as a colorless oil which unites with
   acids, ketones, etc., to form well-crystallized compounds.


   Phe`nyl*am"ine  (?),  n.  [Phenyl + amine.] (Chem.) Any one of certain
   class  of  organic  bases  regarded  as  formed  from  ammonia  by the
   substitution of phenyl for hydrogen.


   Phe"nyl*ene  (?),  n. (Chem.) A hypothetic radical (C6H4) occurring in
   certain derivatives of benzene; as, phenylene diamine.


   Phe*nyl"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing,
   phenyl. Phenylic alcohol (Chem.), phenol.


   Phe"on  (?), n. [Prob. from Old French.] (Her.) A bearing representing
   the  head of a dart or javelin, with long barbs which are engrailed on
   the inner edge.


   Phi"al  (?),  n.  [F.  fiole,  L. phiala a broad, flat, shallow cup or
   bowl,  Gr.  Vial.] A glass vessel or bottle, especially a small bottle
   for medicines; a vial.


   Phi"al, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Phialed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Phialing.] To
   put or keep in, or as in, a phial.

     Its phial'd wrath may fate exhaust. Shenstone.


   Phil"a*beg (?), n. See Filibeg.


   Phil`a*del"phi*an   (?),  a.  [Gr.  filadelfia  brotherly  love,  from
   fila`delfos  brotherly;  fi`los  loved,  loving,  friendly + 'adelfo`s
   brother.]  Of  or pertaining to Ptolemy Philadelphus, or to one of the
   cities named Philadelphia, esp. the modern city in Pennsylvania.


   Phil`a*del"phi*an, n.

   1. A native or an inhabitant of Philadelphia.

   2.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  One  of  a  society  of mystics of the seventeenth
   century, -- called also the Family of Love. Tatler.


   Phil`a*le"thist  (?),  n.  [Philo-  + Gr. A lover of the truth. [Obs.]


   Phi*lan"der  (?),  v.  i. [Gr. To make love to women; to play the male

     You can't go philandering after her again. G. Eliot.


   Phi*lan"der, n. A lover. [R.] Congreve.


   Phi*lan"der,  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A South American opossum (Didelphys
   philander). (b) An Australian bandicoot (Perameles lagotis).


   Phi*lan"der*er  (?),  n. One who hangs about women; a male flirt. [R.]
   C. Kingsley.


   Phil"an*thrope (?), n. [F.] A philanthropist. [Obs.] R. North.

                        Philanthropic, Philanthropical

   Phil`an*throp"ic    (?),   Phil`an*throp"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   philanthropique.]  Of  or pertaining to philanthropy; characterized by
   philanthropy;   loving   or   helping  mankind;  as,  a  philanthropic
   enterprise. -- Phil`an*throp"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Phil`an*throp"i*nism  (?),  n.  A  system  of  education  on so-called
   natural  principles,  attempted  in  Germany  in  the  last century by
   Basedow, of Dessau.


   Phil`an*throp"i*nist   (?),   n.  An  advocate  of,  or  believer  in,


   Phi*lan"thro*pist  (?),  n.  [Gr.  philanthrope.]  One  who  practices
   philanthropy;  one who loves mankind, and seeks to promote the good of
   others.  <--  esp.  a  wealthy individual who donates large amounts of
   money to charitable or philanthropic causes -->


   Phi*lan`thro*pis"tic  (?),  a.  Pertaining to, or characteristic of, a
   philanthropist. [R.] Carlyle.


   Phi*lan"thro*py (?), n. [L. philanthropia, Gr. philanthropie.] Love to
   mankind;  benevolence  toward  the  whole human family; universal good
   will;  desire  and  readiness  to  do  good  to all men; -- opposed to
   misanthropy.  Jer.  Taylor.  <--  (2)  active  effort to promote human
   welfare;  humanitarian  activity. [i.e., an action, not merely a state
   of  mind]  -->  <--  2.  an organization whose purpose is to engage in
   philanthropy(2),  and is supported by funds from one or a small number
   of  wealthy  individuals; a type of charity, the source of whose funds
   is  typically  from  a wealthy individual or a corporation, or a trust
   fund  established  by  a  wealthy individual. It is distinguished from
   other  charitable  organizations  in that the source of funds of other
   charities  may  come  from  a  large number of sources, or from public
   solicitation. -->


   Phil`a*tel"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to philately.


   Phi*lat"e*list  (?),  n.  One  versed  in  philately; one who collects
   postage stamps.


   Phi*lat"e*ly (?), n. [Philo- + Gr. frank to send free.] The collection
   of postage stamps of various issues.


   Phil"a*to*ry  (?),  n.  [OF.  filatiere,  philatiere. See Phylactery.]
   (Eccl.) A kind of transparent reliquary with an ornamental top.


   Phil"au*ty (?), n. [Gr. Self-love; selfishness. [Obs.] Beaumont.


   Phil`har*mon"ic  (?), a. [Philo- + Gr. philharmonique.] Loving harmony
   or music.


   Phil*hel"lene  (?),  n.  A  friend  of  Greece,  or  of  the Greeks; a
   philhellenist. Emerson.


   Phil`hel*len"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to philhellenism.


   Phil*hel"len*ism (?), n. Love of Greece.


   Phil*hel"len*ist,  n.  [Philo-  +  Gr.  philhell\'8ane.]  A  friend of
   Greece;  one  who  supports the cause of the Greeks; particularly, one
   who  supported  them  in  their  struggle for independence against the
   Turks; a philhellene.


   Phil"i*beg (?), n. See Filibeg. [Scot.]


   Phil"ip  (?),  n.  [So  called  from  their notes.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) The
   European  hedge  sparrow.  (b)  The  house  sparrow. Called also phip.
   [Prov. Eng.]


   Phi*lip"pi*an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Philippi, a city of ancient
   Macedonia. -- n. A native or an inhabitant of Philippi.


   Phi*lip"pic  (?),  n.  [L. Philippicus belonging to Philip, Philippic,
   Gr. philippique.]

   1.  Any  one  of  the  series  of  famous orations of Demosthenes, the
   Grecian orator, denouncing Philip, king of Macedon.

   2.  Hence:  Any  discourse  or  declamation  abounding  in acrimonious


   Phi*lip"pi*um  (?),  n.  [NL.  So  named  from Philippe Plantamour, of
   Geneva,  Switzerland.]  (Chem.)  A  rare and doubtful metallic element
   said  to  have  been  discovered in the mineral samarskite.<-- no such
   element -->


   Phil"ip*pize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Philippized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Philippizing.] [Gr.

   1. To support or advocate the cause of Philip of Macedon.

   2. [See Philippic.] To write or speak in the style of a philippic.


   Phi*lis"ter  (?),  n.  [G.]  A  Philistine;  --  a  cant name given to
   townsmen by students in German universities.<-- in sense 3 -->


   Phi*lis"tine   (?),   n.   [L.  Philistinus,  Heb.  Phlishth\'c6,  pl.

   1.  A  native or an inhabitant of ancient Philistia, a coast region of
   southern Palestine.

   2. A bailiff. [Cant, Eng.] [Obs.] Swift.

   3.  A  person deficient in liberal culture and refinement; one without
   appreciation of the nobler aspirations and sentiments of humanity; one
   whose  scope is limited to selfish and material interests. [Recent] M.


   Phi*lis"tine, a.

   1. Of or pertaining to the Philistines.

   2. Uncultured; commonplace.


   Phi*lis"tin*ism  (?), n. The condition, character, aims, and habits of
   the class called Philistines. See Philistine, 3. [Recent] Carlyle.

     On  the  side of beauty and taste, vulgarity; on the side of morals
     and   feeling,   coarseness;  on  the  side  of  mind  and  spirit,
     unintelligence, -- this is Philistinism. M. Arnold.


   Phil"lips*ite  (?),  n.  [So  named  after  John  Phillips, an English
   mineralogist.]  (Min.)  (a)  A hydrous silicate of aluminia, lime, and
   soda,  a zeolitic mineral commonly occurring in complex twin crystals,
   often cruciform in shape; -- called also christianite. <-- sic. no (b)
   in original! -->


   Phil*lyg"e*nin  (?),  n.  [Phillyrin  +  -gen + -in.] (Chem.) A pearly
   crystalline substance obtained by the decomposition of phillyrin.


   Phil*lyr"e*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of evergreen plants
   growing  along  the  shores of the Mediterranean, and breading a fruit
   resembling that of the olive.


   Phil"ly*rin  (?), n. (Chem.) A glucoside extracted from Phillyrea as a
   bitter  white  crystalline  substance.  It  is  sometimes  used  as  a


   Philo-. A combining form from Gr. fi`los loving, fond of, attached to;
   as, philosophy, philotechnic.


   Phi*log"y*nist  (?),  n.  [See Philogyny.] A lover or friend of women;
   one  who  esteems  woman as the higher type of humanity; -- opposed to


   Phi*log"y*ny (?), n. [Gr. Fondness for women; uxoriousness; -- opposed
   to misogyny. [R.] Byron.


   Phil`o*hel*le"ni*an (?), n. A philhellenist.


   Phi*lol"o*ger  (?),  n.  [Cf.  L.  philologus  a man of letters, Gr. A
   philologist. Burton.


   Phil`o*lo"gi*an (?), n. A philologist. [R.]

                           Philological, Philologic

   Phil`o*log"ic*al  (?), Phil`o*log"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. philologique.] Of
   or pertaining to philology. -- Phil`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Phi*lol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in philology.


   Phi*lol"o*gize  (?),  v.  i.  To  study, or make critical comments on,
   language. Evelyn.


   Phil"o*logue (?), n. [Cf. F. philologue.] A philologist. [R.] Carlyle.


   Phi*lol"o*gy  (?), n. [L. philologia love of learning, interpretation,
   philology, Gr. philologie. See Philologer.]

   1. Criticism; grammatical learning. [R.] Johnson.

   2.  The study of language, especially in a philosophical manner and as
   a science; the investigation of the laws of human speech, the relation
   of  different  tongues  to  one another, and historical development of
   languages; linguistic science.

     NOTE: &hand; Philology comprehends a knowledge of the etymology, or
     origin  and  combination  of  words;  grammar,  the construction of
     sentences,   or   use   of   words   in  language;  criticism,  the
     interpretation  of  authors, the affinities of different languages,
     and  whatever relates to the history or present state of languages.
     It sometimes includes rhetoric, poetry, history, and antiquities.

   3. A treatise on the science of language.

   Page 1077


   Phil"o*math (?), n. [Gr. fi`los loving, a friend + ma`qh learning, fr.
   A lover of learning; a scholar. Chesterfield.


   Phil`o*math`e*mat"ic (?), n. A philomath.


   Phil`o*math"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. philomathique.]

   1. Of or pertaining to philomathy.

   2. Having love of learning or letters.


   Phi*lom"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. The love of learning or letters.


   Phil"o*mel  (?),  n.  Same  as  Philomela,  the  nightingale. [Poetic]
   Milton. Cowper.


   Phil`o*me"la (?), n. [L. philomela, Gr.

   1. The nightingale; philomel. Shak.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of birds including the nightingales.


   Phil"o*mene (?), n. The nightingale. [Obs.]


   Phil"o*mot  (?), a. [See Filemot.] Of the color of a dead leaf. [Obs.]


   Phil`o*mu"sic*al (?), a. [Philo- + musical.] Loving music. [R.]Busby.


   Phil`o*pe"na  (?),  n. [Probably a corruption fr. G. vielliebchen, LG.
   vielliebken,  or  D.  veelliebken, a philopena, literally, much loved;
   but  influenced by Gr. poena penalty, from an idea that the gift was a
   penalty  of  friendship or love.] A present or gift which is made as a
   forfeit  in  a  social  game that is played in various ways; also, the
   game itself. [Written also fillipeen and phillippine.]

     NOTE: &hand; On e of  th e wa ys may be stated as follows: A person
     finding  a  nut with two kernels eats one, and gives the other to a
     person of the opposite sex, and then whichever says philopena first
     at  the  next meeting wins the present. The name is also applied to
     the kernels eaten.

                         Philopolemic, Philopolemical

   Phil`o*po*lem"ic   (?),  Phil`o*po*lem"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Fond  of
   polemics or controversy. [R.]


   Phil`o*pro*gen"i*tive  (?),  a.  Having the love of offspring; fond of


   Phil`o*pro*gen"i*tive*ness,  n.  [Philo-  +  L.  progenies offspring.]
   (Phren.) The love of offspring; fondness for children.


   Phi*los"o*phas`ter  (?),  n.  [L., a bad philosopher, fr. philosophus:
   cf.  OF.  philosophastre.]  A  pretender  to philosophy. [Obs.] Dr. H.


   Phi*los"o*phate  (?), v. i. [L. philosophatus, p.p. of philosophari to
   philosophize.] To play the philosopher; to moralize. [Obs.] Barrow.


   Phi*los`o*pha"tion  (?),  n. Philosophical speculation and discussion.
   [Obs.] Sir W. Petty.


   Phil"o*sophe   (?),  n.  [F.,  a  philosopher.]  A  philosophaster;  a
   philosopher. [R.] Carlyle.


   Phi*los"o*pheme (?), n. [Gr. A philosophical proposition, doctrine, or
   principle of reasoning. [R.]

     This,  the most venerable, and perhaps the most ancient, of Grecian
     myths, is a philosopheme. Coleridge.


   Phi*los"o*pher   (?),   n.   [OE.   philosophre,   F.  philosophe,  L.
   philosophus, Gr. Philosophy.]

   1. One who philosophizes; one versed in, or devoted to, philosophy.

     Then  certain  philosophers  of  the Epicureans, and of the Stoics,
     encountered him. Acts xvii. 18.

   2.  One  who  reduces  the principles of philosophy to practice in the
   conduct  of  life;  one  who lives according to the rules of practical
   wisdom; one who meets or regards all vicissitudes with calmness.

   3. An alchemist. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   Philosopher's  stone, an imaginary stone which the alchemists formerly
   sought as instrument of converting the baser metals into gold.

                          Philosophic, Philosophical

   Phil`o*soph"ic  (?),  Phil`o*soph"ic*al (?), a. [L. philosophicus: cf.
   F.  philosophique.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  philosophy; versed in, or
   imbued  with,  the  principles  of philosophy; hence, characterizing a
   philosopher;    rational;    wise;    temperate;    calm;   cool.   --
   Phil`o*soph"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Phi*los"o*phism  (?),  n. [Cf. F. philosophisme.] Spurious philosophy;
   the love or practice of sophistry. Carlyle.


   Phi*los"o*phist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  philosophiste.]  A  pretender  in

                       Philosophistic, Philosophistical

   Phi*los`o*phis"tic (?), Phi*los`o*phis"tic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining
   to the love or practice of sophistry. [R.]


   Phi*los"o*phize  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Philosophized (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Philosophizing  (?).] To reason like a philosopher; to search
   into  the  reason  and nature of things; to investigate phenomena, and
   assign rational causes for their existence.

     Man philosophizes as he lives. He may philosophize well or ill, but
     philosophize he must. Sir W. Hamilton.


   Phi*los"o*phi`zer (?), n. One who philosophizes.


   Phi*los"o*phy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Philosophies  (#). [OE. philosophie, F.
   philosophie, L. philosophia, from Gr. Philosopher.]

   1.  Literally,  the  love  of,  including the search after, wisdom; in
   actual usage, the knowledge of phenomena as explained by, and resolved
   into, causes and reasons, powers and laws.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh  en ap  plied to   an y pa rticular de partment of 
     knowledge,  philosophy denotes the general laws or principles under
     which  all  the  subordinate  phenomena  or  facts relating to that
     subject  are comprehended. Thus philosophy, when applied to God and
     the divine government, is called theology; when applied to material
     objects,  it is called physics; when it treats of man, it is called
     anthropology  and  psychology,  with  which are connected logic and
     ethics;  when  it treats of the necessary conceptions and relations
     by which philosophy is possible, it is called metaphysics.

     NOTE: &hand; "P hilosophy ha s be en defined: tionscience of things
     divine  and  human,  and the causes in which they are contained; --
     the  science  of  effects  by  their  causes;  --  the  science  of
     sufficient  reasons; -- the science of things possible, inasmuch as
     they  are possible; -- the science of things evidently deduced from
     first  principles;  -- the science of truths sensible and abstract;
     --  the  application  of  reason  to its legitimate objects; -- the
     science  of the relations of all knowledge to the necessary ends of
     human  reason;  --  the science of the original form of the ego, or
     mental  self;  --  the  science  of  science; -- the science of the
     absolute;  --  the scienceof the absolute indifference of the ideal
     and real."

   Sir W. Hamilton.

   2.  A  particular  philosophical  system  or theory; the hypothesis by
   which particular phenomena are explained.

     [Books] of Aristotle and his philosophie. Chaucer.

     We  shall  in  vain  interpret  their  words  by the notions of our
     philosophy and the doctrines in our school. Locke.

   3.  Practical  wisdom;  calmness  of  temper and judgment; equanimity;
   fortitude; stoicism; as, to meet misfortune with philosophy.

     Then had he spent all his philosophy. Chaucer.

   4. Reasoning; argumentation.

     Of  good and evil much they argued then, . . . Vain wisdom all, and
     false philosophy. Milton.

   5. The course of sciences read in the schools. Johnson.

   6. A treatise on philosophy.
   Philosophy  of the Academy, that of Plato, who taught his disciples in
   a  grove  in  Athens  called the Academy. -- Philosophy of the Garden,
   that  of  Epicurus, who taught in a garden in Athens. -- Philosophy of
   the  Lyceum, that of Aristotle, the founder of the Peripatetic school,
   who  delivered  his lectures in the Lyceum at Athens. -- Philosophy of
   the  Porch,  that of Zeno and the Stoics; -- so called because Zeno of
   Citium  and his successors taught in the porch of the Poicile, a great
   hall in Athens.


   Phil`o*stor"gy (?), n. [Gr. Natural affection, as of parents for their
   children. [R.]

                         Philotechnic, Philotechnical

   Phil`o*tech"nic   (?),   Phil`o*tech"nic*al  (?),  a.  [Philo-  +  Gr.
   philotechnique.] Fond of the arts. [R.]


   Phil"ter  (?),  n.  [F.  philtre,  L.  philtrum, Gr. A potion or charm
   intended  to  excite  the  passion  of  love.  [Written also philtre.]


   Phil"ter,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Philtered  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.

   1. To impregnate or mix with a love potion; as, to philter a draught.

   2.  To  charm to love; to excite to love or sexual desire by a potion.
   Gov. of Tongue.


   Phi*mo"sis  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A condition of the penis in
   which  the  prepuce  can  not be drawn back so as to uncover the glans


   Phi"ton*ess (?), n. Pythoness; witch. [Obs.]


   Phiz  (?),  n.;  pl. Phizes (#). [Contr. fr. physiognomy.] The face or
   visage. [Colloq.] Cowper.


   Phle*bi"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of a


   Phleb"o*gram  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -gram.]  (Physiol.)  A tracing (with the
   sphygmograph) of the movements of a vein, or of the venous pulse.

                            Phlebolite, Phlebolith

   Phleb"o*lite  (?),  Phleb"o*lith  (?), n. [Gr. -lite, -lith.] (Med.) A
   small calcareous concretion formed in a vein; a vein stone.


   Phle*bol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy.] A branch of anatomy which treats of
   the veins.


   Phle*bot"o*mist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  phl\'82botomiste.] (Med.) One who
   practiced phlebotomy.


   Phle*bot"o*mize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Phlebotomized (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Phlebotomizing  (?).] [Cf. F. phl\'82botomiser.] To let blood
   from by opening a vein; to bleed. [R.] Howell.


   Phle*bot"o*my (?), n. [L. phlebotomia, Gr. phl\'82botomie. Cf. Fleam.]
   (Med.) The act or practice of opening a vein for letting blood, in the
   treatment of disease; venesection; bloodletting.


   Phlegm  (?),  n.  [F.  phlegme,  flegme,  L.  phlegma,  fr. Gr. Phlox,
   Flagrant, Flame, Bleak, a., and Fluminate.]

   1.  One of the four humors of which the ancients supposed the blood to
   be composed. See Humor. Arbuthnot.

   2.  (Physiol.)  Viscid  mucus  secreted  in  abnormal  quantity in the
   respiratory and digestive passages.

   3.  (Old  Chem.)  A  watery  distilled  liquor,  in distinction from a
   spirituous liquor. Crabb.

   4.   Sluggishness   of   temperament;   dullness;  want  of  interest;
   indifference; coldness.

     They judge with fury, but they write with phlegm. Pope.


   Phleg"ma*gogue  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Old Med.) A medicine supposed to expel


   Phleg*ma"si*a  (?), n. [NL., from Gr. Phlegm.] (Med.) An inflammation;
   more  particularly, an inflammation of the internal organs. Phlegmasia
   dolens ( [NL.], milk leg.


   Phleg*mat"ic (?), a. [L. phlegmaticus, Gr. phlegmatique.]

   1. Watery. [Obs.] "Aqueous and phlegmatic." Sir I. Newton.

   2.   Abounding   in   phlegm;  as,  phlegmatic  humors;  a  phlegmatic
   constitution. Harvey.

   3.  Generating  or  causing phlegm. "Cold and phlegmatic habitations."
   Sir T. Browne.

   4.  Not  easily  excited  to  action or passion; cold; dull; sluggish;
   heavy; as, a phlegmatic person. Addison.
   Phlegmatic  temperament  (Old  Physiol.),  lymphatic  temperament. See
   under Lymphatic.


   Phleg*mat"ic*al (?), a. Phlegmatic. Ash.


   Phleg*mat"ic*al*ly, adv. In a phlegmatic manner.


   Phleg*mat"ic*ly (?), a. Phlegmatically. [Obs.]


   Phleg"mon  (?),  n.  [L. phlegmone, phlegmon, inflammation beneath the
   skin,  Gr.  phlegmon.] (Med.) Purulent inflammation of the cellular or
   areolar tissue.


   Phleg"mon*ous  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  phlegmoneux.]  Having the nature or
   properties of phlegmon; as, phlegmonous pneumonia. Harvey.


   Phleme (?), n. (Surg. & Far.) See Fleam.


   Phle"um (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of grasses, including the
   timothy  (Phleum pratense), which is highly valued for hay; cat's-tail
   grass. Gray.


   Phlo"\'89m  (?),  n. [Gr. (Bot.) That portion of fibrovascular bundles
   which   corresponds   to   the   inner  bark;  the  liber  tissue;  --
   distinguished from xylem.


   Phlo*gis"tian (?), n. A believer in the existence of phlogiston.


   Phlo*gis"tic (?), a.

   1.  (Old  Chem.)  Of  or pertaining to phlogiston, or to belief in its

   2. (Med.) Inflammatory; belonging to inflammations and fevers.


   Phlo*gis"tic*al (?), a. (Old Chem.) Phlogistic.


   Phlo*gis"ti*cate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Phlogisticated (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Phlogisticating.]  (Old Chem.) To combine phlogiston with; --
   usually  in  the  form  and sense of the p. p. or the adj.; as, highly
   phlogisticated substances.


   Phlo*gis`ti*ca"tion  (?),  n.  (Old  Chem.)  The  act  or  process  of
   combining with phlogiston.


   Phlo*gis"ton   (?),   n.   [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  Phlox.]  (Old  Chem.)  The
   hypothetical  principle  of fire, or inflammability, regarded by Stahl
   as a chemical element.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wa s su pposed to  be  un ited wi th combustible
     (phlogisticated)  bodies  and  to  be  separated from incombustible
     (dephlogisticated) bodies, the phenomena of flame and burning being
     the  escape of phlogiston. Soot and sulphur were regarded as nearly
     pure  phlogiston.  The essential principle of this theory was, that
     combustion   was   a   decomposition  rather  than  the  union  and
     combination which it has since been shown to be.

   <--  this  theory  is  now discredited and superseded by the theory of
   chemical  reaction  between  oxidizable  substances and oxidants as an
   explanation of combustion -->


   Phlo*gog"e*nous (?), a. [Gr. -genous.] (Med.) Causing inflammation.


   Phlog"o*pite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Min.) A kind of mica having generally a
   peculiar  bronze-red  or copperlike color and a pearly luster. It is a
   silicate  of aluminia, with magnesia, potash, and some fluorine. It is
   characteristic  of  crystalline  limestone or dolomite and serpentine.
   See Mica.


   Phlo*go"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Med.) Inflammation of external
   parts of the body; erysipelatous inflammation.


   Phlo*got"ic (?), n. (Med.) Of or pertaining to phlogisis.


   Phlo*ram"ine  (?),  n.  [Phlorlucin  +  amine.]  (Chem.) A basic amido
   derivative of phloroglucin, having an astringent taste.


   Phlo*ret"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or  derived  from, or
   designating,   an  organic  acid  obtained  by  the  decomposition  of


   Phlor"e*tin   (?),   n.  [From  Phlorizin.]  (Chem.)  A  bitter  white
   crystalline  substance obtained by the decomposition of phlorizin, and
   formerly used to some extent as a substitute for quinine.


   Phlor"i*zin  (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) A bitter white crystalline glucoside
   extracted  from  the  root bark of the apple, pear, cherry, plum, etc.
   [Formerly also written phloridzin.]


   Phlor`o*glu"cin  (?),  n.  [Phloretin  +  Gr.  (Chem.)  A  sweet white
   crystalline  substance, metameric with pyrogallol, and obtained by the
   decomposition  of  phloretin, and from certain gums, as catechu, kino,
   etc. It belongs to the class of phenols. [Called also phloroglucinol.]


   Phlo"rol  (?),  n.  [Phloretic + -ol.] (Chem.) A liquid metameric with
   xylenol, belonging to the class of phenols, and obtained by distilling
   certain salts of phloretic acid.


   Phlo"rone  (?),  n.  [Phlorol + quinone.] (Chem.) A yellow crystalline
   substance  having a peculiar unpleasant odor, resembling the quinones,
   and obtained from beechwood tar and coal tar, as also by the oxidation
   of xylidine; -- called also xyloquinone.


   Phlox  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  kind  of  flower,  fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of
   American herbs, having showy red, white, or purple flowers. Phlox worm
   (Zo\'94l.),  the larva of an American moth (Heliothis phloxiphaga). It
   is destructive to phloxes. -- Phlox subulata, the moss pink. See under


   Phlyc*ten"u*lar  (?),  a. [Gr. (Med.) Characterized by the presence of
   small   pustules,  or  whitish  elevations  resembling  pustules;  as,
   phlyctenular ophthalmia.


   Pho"ca  (?),  n.  [L., a seal, fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of seals. It
   includes the common harbor seal and allied species. See Seal.


   Pho*ca"cean (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of Phoca; a seal.


   Pho"cal (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to seals.


   Pho*cen"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Chem.) Of or pertaining to dolphin oil or
   porpoise  oil;  --  said  of  an  acid  (called  also  delphinic acid)
   subsequently found to be identical with valeric acid. Watts.


   Pho*ce"nin (?), n. [Cf. F. phoc\'82nine.] (Chem.) See Delphin.

   Page 1078


   Pho"cine (?), a. [L. phoca a seal.] (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the
   seal tribe; phocal.


   Pho"co*dont (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Phocodontia.


   Pho`co*don"ti*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) A group of
   extinct  carnivorous  whales.  Their teeth had compressed and serrated
   crowns. It includes Squalodon and allied genera.


   Ph\'d2"be (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The pewee, or pewit.


   Ph\'d2"bus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1. (Class. Myth.) Apollo; the sun god.

   2. The sun. "Ph\'d2bus 'gins arise." Shak.


   Ph\'d2*ni"cian  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Ph\'d2nica. -- n. A native
   or inhabitant of Ph\'d2nica.


   Ph\'d2*ni"cious (?), a. See Phenicious.


   Ph\'d2`ni*cop"te*rus (?), n. [NL. See Phenicopter.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus
   of birds which includes the flamingoes.


   Ph\'d2"nix (?), n. [L., a fabulous bird. See Phenix.]

   1. Same as Phenix. Shak.

   2. (Bot.) A genus of palms including the date tree.


   Pho"lad (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of Pholas.


   Pho*la"de*an (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Pholad.


   Pho"las (?), n.; pl. Pholades (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of
   numerous  species  of  marine bivalve mollusks of the genus Pholas, or
   family Pholadid\'91. They bore holes for themselves in clay, peat, and
   soft rocks.


   Pho"nal (?), a.[Gr. Of or relating to the voice; as, phonal structure.
   Max M\'81ller.


   Pho`nas*cet"ics  (?), n. [Gr. Treatment for restoring or improving the


   Pho*na"tion (?), n. [Gr. The act or process by which articulate sounds
   are uttered; the utterance of articulate sounds; articulate speech.


   Pho*nau"to*graph   (?),   n.  [Phono-  +  Gr.  -graph.]  (Physics)  An
   instrument  by means of which a sound can be made to produce a visible
   trace  or  record  of  itself.  It  consists essentially of a resonant
   vessel,  usually of paraboloidal form, closed at one end by a flexible
   membrane.  A stylus attached to some point of the membrane records the
   movements  of  the  latter,  as it vibrates, upon a moving cylinder or


   Pho*nei"do*scope   (?),   n.  [Phono-  +  Gr.  -scope.]  (Physics)  An
   instrument  for  studying  the  motions  of sounding bodies by optical
   means.  It  consists  of a tube across the end of which is stretched a
   film  of soap solution thin enough to give colored bands, the form and
   position of which are affected by sonorous vibrations.


   Pho*net"ic (?), a. [Gr. phon\'82tique. See Ban a proclamation.]

   1. Of or pertaining to the voice, or its use.

   2.  Representing  sounds;  as,  phonetic  characters;  --  opposed  to
   ideographic; as, a phonetic notation.
   Phonetic  spelling, spelling in phonetic characters, each representing
   one  sound  only;  -- contrasted with Romanic spelling, or that by the
   use of the Roman alphabet.
   Pho*net"ic*al*ly, adv. In a phonetic manner. 


   Pho`ne*ti"cian (?), n. One versed in phonetics; a phonetist.


   Pho*net"ics (?), n.

   1.  The  doctrine  or science of sounds; especially those of the human
   voice; phonology.

   2.  The  art  of  representing  vocal  sounds  by  signs  and  written


   Pho"ne*tism  (?),  n.  The  science  which  treats of vocal sounds. J.


   Pho"ne*tist (?), n.

   1. One versed in phonetics; a phonologist.

   2. One who advocates a phonetic spelling.


   Pho`ne*ti*za"tion  (?),  n.  The  act, art, or process of representing
   sounds by phonetic signs.


   Pho"ne*tize (?), v. t. To represent by phonetic signs. Lowell.


   Phon"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  phonique.]  Of or pertaining to sound; of the
   nature of sound; acoustic. Tyndall.


   Phon"ics (?), n. See Phonetics.


   Pho"no-  (?).  A  combining form from Gr. sound, tone; as, phonograph,


   Phono  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A South American butterfly (Ithonia phono)
   having nearly transparent wings.


   Pho`no*camp"tic  (?),  a.  [Phono-  +  Gr. phonocamptique.] Reflecting
   sound. [R.] "Phonocamptic objects." Derham.


   Pho"no*gram (?), n. [Phono- + -gram.]

   1. A letter, character, or mark used to represent a particular sound.

     Phonograms  are  of  three kinds: (1) Verbal signs, which stand for
     entire words; (2) Syllabic signs, which stand for the articulations
     of  which  words  are  composed;  (3) Alphabetic signs, or letters,
     which  represent  the elementary sounds into which the syllable can
     be resolved. I. Taylor (The Alphabet).

   2. A record of sounds made by a phonograph.


   Pho"no*graph (?), n. [Phono- + -graph.]

   1.  A  character or symbol used to represent a sound, esp. one used in

   2.  (Physics)  An  instrument  for  the  mechanical  registration  and
   reproduction of audible sounds, as articulate speech, etc. It consists
   of  a  rotating  cylinder  or  disk  covered with some material easily
   indented, as tinfoil, wax, paraffin, etc., above which is a thin plate
   carrying  a  stylus.  As  the  plate vibrates under the influence of a
   sound, the stylus makes minute indentations or undulations in the soft
   material,  and  these,  when the cylinder or disk is again turned, set
   the plate in vibration, and reproduce the sound.


   Pho*nog"ra*pher (?), n.

   1. One versed or skilled in phonography.

   2.  One  who  uses,  or  is skilled in the use of, the phonograph. See
   Phonograph, 2.

                         Phonographic, Phonographical

   Pho`no*graph"ic    (?),    Pho`no*graph"ic*al    (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.

   1. Of or pertaining to phonography; based upon phonography.

   2. Of or pertaining to phonograph; done by the phonograph.


   Pho`no*graph"ic*al*ly,  adv.  In  a  phonographic  manner; by means of


   Pho*nog"ra*phist (?), n. Phonographer.


   Pho*nog"ra*phy (?), n. [Phono- + -graphy.]

   1.  A description of the laws of the human voice, or sounds uttered by
   the organs of speech.

   2.  A  representation of sounds by distinctive characters; commonly, a
   system   of   shorthand   writing  invented  by  Isaac  Pitman,  or  a
   modification of his system, much used by reporters.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co nsonants are represented by straight lines and
     curves;  the  vowels  by  dots  and  short  dashes;  but by skilled
     phonographers,  in  rapid  work,  most vowel marks are omitted, and
     brief  symbols  for  common  words  and  combinations  of words are
     extensively   employed.   The  following  line  is  an  example  of
     phonography, in which all the sounds are indicated: -- <-- illustr.
     of phonetic transcription of the line below -->

     They also serve who only stand and wait. Milton.

   3. The art of constructing, or using, the phonograph.


   Pho"no*lite  (?),  n.  [Phono-  +  -lite: cf. F. phonolithe.] (Min.) A
   compact,  feldspathic, igneous rock containing nephelite, ha\'81ynite,
   etc.  Thin  slabs  give  a  ringing  sound when struck; -- called also


   Pho*nol"o*ger (?), n. A phonologist.

                           Phonologic, Phonological

   Pho`no*log"ic  (?),  Pho`no*log"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to


   Pho*nol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in phonology.


   Pho*nol"o*gy  (?), n. [Phono- + -logy.] The science or doctrine of the
   elementary  sounds uttered by the human voice in speech, including the
   various   distinctions,  modifications,  and  combinations  of  tones;
   phonetics. Also, a treatise on sounds.


   Pho*nom"e*ter  (?),  n. [Phono- + -meter.] (Physics) An instrument for
   measuring  sounds,  as  to  their  intensity,  or the frequency of the


   Pho`no*mo"tor  (?),  n.  [Phono- + -motor.] (Physics) An instrument in
   which motion is produced by the vibrations of a sounding body.


   Pho*nor"ga*non  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Phono-,  and Organon.] A speaking


   Pho"no*scope  (?),  n.  [Phono- + -scope.] (Physics) (a) An instrument
   for  observing  or  exhibiting  the  motions or properties of sounding
   bodies;  especially, an apparatus invented by K\'94nig for testing the
   quality  of  musical strings. (b) An instrument for producing luminous
   figures by the vibrations of sounding bodies.


   Pho"no*typr  (?),  n.  [Phono-  +  -type.] A type or character used in

                           Phonotypic, Phonotypical

   Pho`no*typ"ic  (?),  Pho`no*typ"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to
   phonotypy; as, a phonotypic alphabet.


   Pho*not"y*pist (?), n. One versed in phonotypy.


   Pho*not"y*py  (?),  n.  A  method  of phonetic printing of the English
   language,  as  devised by Mr. Pitman, in which nearly all the ordinary
   letters  and  many  new  forms  are employed in order to indicate each
   elementary sound by a separate character.


   Phor"minx  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. A kind of lyre used by the Greeks.
   Mrs. Browning.


   Phor"mi*um  (?),  n. [NL. fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of liliaceous plants,
   consisting of one species (Phormium tenax). See Flax-plant.


   Phor"one  (?),  n.  [Camphor  + acetone.] (Chem.) A yellow crystalline
   substance,   having   a  geraniumlike  odor,  regarded  as  a  complex
   derivative of acetone, and obtained from certain camphor compounds.


   Pho*ro"nis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  L.  Phoronis,  a  surname of Io, Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.)  A remarkable genus of marine worms having tentacles around
   the  mouth.  It  is  usually  classed  with  the gephyreans. Its larva
   (Actinotrocha) undergoes a peculiar metamorphosis.


   Phor`o*no"mi*a (?), n. [NL.] See Phoronomics.


   Phor`o*nom"ics  (?),  n.  [Gr. The science of motion; kinematics. [R.]


   Phos"gene  (?),  a.  [Gr.  phosg\'8ane.]  (Old  Chem.)  Producing,  or
   produced  by,  the  action  of light; -- formerly used specifically to
   designate  a  gas now called carbonyl chloride. See Carbonyl.<-- still
   called phosgene. It was used as a poison gas in World War I. -->


   Phos"gen*ite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A rare mineral occurring in tetragonal
   crystals  of  a white, yellow, or grayish color and adamantine luster.
   It is a chlorocarbonate of lead.


   Phos"pham  (?),  n. [Phosphorus + ammonia.] (Chem.) An inert amorphous
   white   powder,   PN2H,   obtained  by  passing  ammonia  over  heated
   phosphorus. [Spelt also phosphame.] -- Phos"pham"ic (#), a.


   Phos"phate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of phosphoric acid.


   Phos*phat"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or containing, phosphorus,
   phosphoric  acid,  or  phosphates;  as, phosphatic nodules. Phosphatic
   diathesis  (Med.),  a habit of body which leads to the undue excretion
   of phosphates with the urine.


   Phos`pha*tu"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL. See Phosphate, and Urine.] (Med.) The
   excessive discharge of phosphates in the urine.


   Phos"phene  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Physiol.)  A luminous impression produced
   through  excitation  of  the  retina  by  some  cause  other  than the
   impingement  upon it of rays of light, as by pressure upon the eyeball
   when the lids are closed. Cf. After-image.


   Phos"phide (?), n. (Chem.) A binary compound of phosphorus.


   Phos"phine (?), n. (Chem.) A colorless gas, PH3, analogous to ammonia,
   and  having a disagreeable odor resembling that of garlic. Called also
   hydrogen phosphide, and formerly, phosphureted hydrogen.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  th e most important compound of phosphorus and
     hydrogen,  and  is  produced  by  the  action  of caustic potash on
     phosphorus.  It  is spontaneously inflammable, owing to impurities,
     and in burning produces peculiar vortical rings of smoke.


   Phos*phin"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, certain
   acids   analogous   to   the  phosphonic  acids,  but  containing  two
   hydrocarbon  radicals,  and  derived  from the secondary phosphines by


   Phos"phite (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of phosphorous acid.


   Phos*phon"ic  (?), a. [Phosphoric + sulphonic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
   or  designating,  certain derivatives of phosphorous acid containing a
   hydrocarbon radical, and analogous to the sulphonic acid.


   Phos*pho"ni*um   (?),   n.   [Phosphorus   +  ammonium.]  (Chem.)  The
   hypothetical  radical  PH4, analogous to ammonium, and regarded as the
   nucleus of certain derivatives of phosphine.


   Phos"phor (?), n. [Cf. G. phosphor. See Phosphorus.]

   1. Phosphorus. [Obs.] Addison.

   2.  The  planet  Venus,  when  appearing as the morning star; Lucifer.
   [Poetic] Pope. Tennyson.


   Phos"phor*ate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Phosphorated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Phosphorating.] (Chem.) To impregnate, or combine, with phosphorus
   or its compounds; as, phosphorated oil.


   Phos"phor-bronze`  (?),  n. [Phosphor + bronze.] (Metal.) A variety of
   bronze  possessing great hardness, elasticity, and toughness, obtained
   by  melting copper with tin phosphide. It contains one or two per cent
   of phosphorus and from five to fifteen per cent of tin.


   Phos*pho"re*ous (?), a. Phosphorescent. [Obs.]


   Phos`phor*esce"  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Phosphoresced (?); p. pr. &
   vb.   n.   Phosphorescing   (?).]   To  shine  as  phosphorus;  to  be
   phosphorescent; to emit a phosphoric light.


   Phos`phor*es"cence (?), n. [Cf. F. phosphorescence.]

   1.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  phosphorescent;  or the act of

   2. A phosphoric light.


   Phos`phor*es"cent  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  phosphorescent.] Shining with a
   phosphoric   light;   luminous   without   sensible   heat.  --  n.  A
   phosphorescent substance.


   Phos*phor"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. phosphorique.]

   1.  (Chem.) Of or pertaining to phosphorus; resembling, or containing,
   from us; specifically, designating those compounds in which phosphorus
   has a higher valence as contrasted with the phosphorous compounds.

   2. Phosphorescent. "A phosphoric sea." Byron.
   Glacial  phosphoric  acid. (Chem.) (a) Metaphosphoric acid in the form
   of glassy semitransparent masses or sticks. (b) Pure normal phosphoric
   acid.  --  Phosphoric  acid  (Chem.),  a  white crystalline substance,
   H3PO4, which is the most highly oxidized acid of phosphorus, and forms
   an  important and extensive series of compounds, viz., the phosphates.
   --  Soluble phosphoric acid, Insoluble phosphoric acid (Agric. Chem.),
   phosphoric  acid combined in acid salts, or in neutral or basic salts,
   which  are  respectively  soluble  and  insoluble in water or in plant
   juices.  --  Reverted  phosphoric acid (Agric. Chem.), phosphoric acid
   changed from acid (soluble) salts back to neutral or basic (insoluble)


   Phos*phor"ic*al (?), a. (Old Chem.) Phosphoric.


   Phos"phor*ite (?), n. (min.) A massive variety of apatite.


   Phos`phor*it"ic  (?), a. (Min.) Pertaining to phosphorite; resembling,
   or of the nature of, phosphorite.


   Phos"phor*ize (?), v. t. To phosphorate.


   Phos"phor*ized (?), a. Containing, or impregnated with, phosphorus.


   Phos`phor*o*gen"ic  (?),  a.  [Phosphorus  +  -gen  + -ic.] Generating
   phosphorescence; as, phosphorogenic rays.


   Phos*phor"o*scope   (?),   n.  [Phosphorus  +  -scope.]  (Physics)  An
   apparatus  for  observing  the  phosphorescence  produced in different
   bodies by the action of light, and for measuring its duration.


   Phos"phor*ous  (?),  a. [Cf. F. phosphoreux.] (Chem.) Of or pertaining
   to  phosphorus;  resembling  or  containing  phosphorus; specifically,
   designating those compounds in which phosphorus has a lower valence as
   contrasted with phosphoric compounds; as, phosphorous acid, H3PO3.


   Phos"phor*us (?), n.; pl. Phosphori (#). [L., the morning star, Gr.

   1. The morning star; Phosphor.

   2.  (Chem.)  A  poisonous  nonmetallic  element of the nitrogen group,
   obtained  as a white, or yellowish, translucent waxy substance, having
   a  characteristic  disagreeable  smell.  It is very active chemically,
   must be preserved under water, and unites with oxygen even at ordinary
   temperatures,  giving  a  faint  glow,  --  whence its name. It always
   occurs  compined, usually in phosphates, as in the mineral apatite, in
   bones,  etc.  It  is  used  in the composition on the tips of friction
   matches,  and  for  many  other  purposes.  The molecule contains four
   atoms. Symbol P. Atomic weight 31.0.

   3.  (Chem.)  Hence,  any  substance  which  shines  in  the  dark like
   phosphorus, as certain phosphorescent bodies.
   Bologna  phosphorus  (Chem.),  sulphide of barium, which shines in the
   dark  after  exposure to light; -- so called because this property was
   discovered  by a resident of Bologna. The term is sometimes applied to
   other  compounds  having  similar  properties.  -- Metallic phosphorus
   (Chem.),  an allotropic modification of phosphorus, obtained as a gray
   metallic crystalline substance, having very inert chemical properties.
   It  is obtained by heating ordinary phosphorus in a closed vessel at a
   high temperature. -- Phosphorus disease (Med.), a disease common among
   workers  in  phosphorus,  giving  rise to necrosis of the jawbone, and
   other   symptoms.   --  Red,  OR  Amorphous,  phosphorus  (Chem.),  an
   allotropic  modification  of phosphorus, obtained as a dark red powder
   by heating ordinary phosphorus in closed vessels. It is not poisonous,
   is not phosphorescent, and is only moderately active chemically. It is
   valuable  as a chemical reagent, and is used in the composition of the
   friction  surface  on  which  safety  matches  are  ignited.  -- Solar
   phosphori  (Chem.),  phosphorescent substances which shine in the dark
   after exposure to the sunlight or other intense light.

   Page 1079


   Phos"phor*yl  (?),  n.  [Phosphorus  +  -yl.]  (Chem.) The radical PO,
   regarded as the typical nucleus of certain compounds.


   Phos"phu*ret (?), n. (Chem.) A phosphide. [Obsoles.]


   Phos"phu*ret`ed   (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Impregnated,  or  combined,  with
   phosphorus.  [Obsoles.]  [Written  also  phosphuretted.]  Phosphureted
   hydrogen. (Chem.) See Phosphine.


   Pho"tic (?), a. [Gr. (Physiol.) Relating to the production of light by
   the lower animals.


   Pho"tics  (?),  n.  (Physics)  The science of light; -- a general term
   sometimes  employed  when optics is restricted to light as a producing
   vision. Knight.


   Pho"to (?), n.; pl. Photos (. A contraction of Photograph. [Colloq.]


   Pho"to-  (?).  A  combining  form  from  Gr.  fw^s, fwto`s, light; as,
   photography, phototype, photometer.


   Pho`to*bi*ot"ic  (?), a. [Photo- + biotic.] (Biol.) Requiring light to
   live; incapable of living without light; as, photobiotic plant cells.


   Pho`to*chem"ic*al   (?),   a.  [Photo-  +  chemical.]  (Chem.)  Of  or
   pertaining  to  chemical  action  of light, or produced by it; as, the
   photochemical changes of the visual purple of the retina.


   Pho`to*chem"is*try (?), n. [Photo- + chemistry.] (Chem.) The branch of
   chemistry  which  relates to the effect of light in producing chemical
   changes, as in photography.

                         Photochromic, Photochromatic

   Pho`to*chro"mic  (?),  Pho`to*chro*mat"ic  (?), a. Of or pertaining to
   photochromy; produced by photochromy.


   Pho*toch"ro*my (?), n. [Photo- + Gr. The art or process of reproducing
   colors by photography.


   Pho"to*drome  (?),  n. [Photo- + Gr. (Physics) An apparatus consisting
   of  a  large  wheel  with  spokes,  which when turning very rapidly is
   illuminated  by  momentary flashes of light passing through slits in a
   rotating  disk. By properly timing the succession of flashes the wheel
   is  made  to appear to be motionless, or to rotate more or less slowly
   in either direction.


   Pho`to-e*lec"tric (?), a. [Photo- + electric.] Acting by the operation
   of  both  light  and  electricity;  -- said of apparatus for producing
   pictures by electric light.


   Pho`to-e*lec"tro*type  (?), n. (Print.) An electrotype plate formed in
   a mold made by photographing on prepared gelatine, etc.


   Pho`to-en*grav"ing  (?),  n.  [Photo-  +  engraving.]  The  process of
   obtaining  an etched or engraved plate from the photographic image, to
   be used in printing; also, a picture produced by such a process.


   Pho`to-ep"i*nas`ty  (?),  n.  [See  Photo-,  and  Epinastic.] (Bot.) A
   disproportionately  rapid  growth of the upper surface of dorsiventral
   organs,  such  as  leaves,  through the stimulus of exposure to light.
   Encyc. Brit.


   Pho`to*gal`va*nog"ra*phy  (?), n. [Photo- + galvanography.] The art or
   process of making photo-electrotypes. Sir D. Brewster.


   Pho"to*gen  (?),  n.  [Photo- + -gen.] (Chem.) A light hydrocarbon oil
   resembling  kerosene.  It  is  obtained  by distilling coal, paraffin,
   etc.,  and  is  used  as  a  lubricant, illuminant, etc. [Written also


   Pho"to*gene (?), n. [See Photogen.]

   1. A photograph. [Obsoles.]

   2.  A  more  or  less  continued impression or image on the retina. H.


   Pho`to*gen"ic  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to photogeny; producing or
   generating light.


   Pho*tog"e*ny (?), n. [See Photogen.] See Photography. [Obsoles.]


   Pho`to*glyph"ic  (?),  a.  [Photo-  +  Gr.  Pertaining  to  the art of
   engraving  by  the  action  of  light.  [Written  also  photoglyptic.]
   Photoglyphic  engraving,  a  process  of  etching on copper, steel, or
   zinc,  by  means of the action of light and certain chemicals, so that
   from the plate impressions may be taken. Sir D. Brewster.


   Pho*tog"ly*phy (?), n. Photoglyphic engraving. See under Photoglyphic.


   Pho`to*glyp"tic (?), a. Same as Photoglyphic.


   Pho"to*gram (?), n. [Photo- + -gram.] A photograph. [R.]


   Pho"to*graph (?), n. [Photo- + -graph.] A picture or likeness obtained
   by photography.


   Pho"to*graph,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Photographed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Photographing  (?).]  To  take  a  picture  or likeness of by means of
   photography; as, to photograph a view; to photograph a group.

     He  makes  his  pen drawing on white paper, and they are afterwards
     photographed on wood. Hamerton.

     NOTE: Also used figuratively.

     He is photographed on my mind. Lady D. Hardy.


   Pho"to*graph, v. i. To practice photography; to take photographs.


   Pho*tog"ra*pher   (?),  n.  One  who  practices,  or  is  skilled  in,

                         Photographic, Photographical

   Pho`to*graph"ic    (?),    Pho`to*graph"ic*al    (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   photographique.]   Of   or  pertaining  to  photography;  obtained  by
   photography;  used  ib  photography;  as  a  photographic  picture;  a
   photographic   camera.  --  Pho`to*graph"ic*al*ly,  adv.  Photographic
   printing, the process of obtaining pictures, as on chemically prepared
   paper, from photographic negatives, by exposure to light.


   Pho*tog"ra*phist (?), n. A photographer.


   Pho*tog"ra*phom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Photograph  +  -meter.] (Photog.) An
   instrument  for  determining the sensibility of the plates employed in
   photographic processes to luminous rays.


   Pho*tog"ra*phy (?), n. [Photo- + -graphy: cf. F. photographie.]

   1.  The  science  which  relates  to  the action of light on sensitive
   bodies  in the production of pictures, the fixation of images, and the

   2. The art or process of producing pictures by this action of light.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e well-focused optical image is thrown on a surface
     of  metal,  glass,  paper, or other suitable substance, coated with
     collodion  or gelatin, and sensitized with the chlorides, bromides,
     or  iodides  of  silver,  or  other  salts  sensitive to light. The
     exposed  plate  is then treated with reducing agents, as pyrogallic
     acid,  ferrous  sulphate,  etc.,  to  develop the latent image. The
     image  is  then  fixed  by  washing  off  the  excess  of unchanged
     sensitive  salt  with  sodium  hyposulphite (thiosulphate) or other
     suitable reagents.

   <--   color  photography,  the  production  of  colored  images  by  a
   photographic  process.  A  variety  of  dyes  are used to produced the
   colored  images.  Processes  may  or may not use silver to produce the
   colored image. -->


   Pho`to*grav"ure  (?),  n.  [F.] A photoengraving; also, the process by
   which such a picture is produced.


   Pho`to*he"li*o*graph  (?),  n.  [Photo-  +  heliograph.]  (Physics)  A
   modified kind of telescope adapted to taking photographs of the sun.


   Pho`to*lith"o*graph  (?),  n.  [Photo-  +  lithograph.] A lithographic
   picture or copy from a stone prepared by the aid of photography.


   Pho`to*lith"o*graph,  v.  t.  To  produce  (a  picture, a copy) by the
   process of photolithography.


   Pho`to*li*thog"ra*pher  (?), n. One who practices, or one who employs,


   Pho`to*lith`o*graph"ic  (?),  n. Of or pertaining to photolithography;
   produced by photolithography.


   Pho`to*li*thog"ra*phy   (?),  n.  The  art  or  process  of  producing
   photolithographs.  <--  The process by which the image of a pattern is
   transferred  photographically  to a sensitive surface, and the surface
   subsequently  etched;  used  for  printing  or  in  the  production of
   integrated circuits. -->

                           Photologic, Photological

   Pho`to*log"ic  (?),  Pho`to*log"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to photology,
   or the doctrine of light.


   Pho*tol"o*gist (?), n. One who studies or expounds the laws of light.


   Pho*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Photo- + -logy: cf. F. photologie.] The doctrine
   or science of light, explaining its nature and phenomena; optics.


   Pho`to*mag*net"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to photomagnetism.


   Pho`to*mag"net*ism  (?),  n. The branch of science which treats of the
   relation of magnetism to light.


   Pho`to*me*chan"ic*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or  designating,  any
   photographic  process  in which a printing surface is obtained without
   the intervention of hand engraving.


   Pho*tom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Photo-  +  -meter:  cf.  F.  photom\'8atre.]
   (Physics) An instrument for measuring the intensity of light, or, more
   especially,  for  comparing  the  relative  intensities  of  different
   lights, or their relative illuminating power.

                          Photometric, Photometrical

   Pho`to*met"ric    (?),    Pho`to*met"ric*al    (?),    a.    [Cf.   F.
   photom\'82trique.] Of or pertaining to photometry, or to a photometer.


   Pho*tom`e*tri"cian  (?),  n. One engaged in the scientific measurement
   of light.


   Pho*tom"e*try  (?), n. [Cf. F. photom\'82trie.] That branch of science
   which treats of the measurement of the intensity of light.


   Pho`to*mi"cro*graph (?), n. [Photo- + micro + -graph.]

   1.  An enlarged or macroscopic photograph of a microscopic object. See

   2. A microscopically small photograph of an object.


   Pho`to*mi*crog"ra*phy (?), n. The art of producing photomicrographs.


   Pho`to*pho"bi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A dread or intolerance of
   light. Sir T. Watson.


   Pho"to*phone  (?),  n.  [Photo-  +  Gr. (Physics) An apparatus for the
   production of sound by the action of rays of light. A. G. Bell.


   Pho`to*phon"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to photophone.


   Pho*toph"o*ny (?), n. The art or practice of using the photophone.


   Pho*top"si*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) An affection of the eye, in
   which the patient perceives luminous rays, flashes, coruscations, etc.
   See phosphene.


   Pho*top"sy (?), n. Same as Photopsia.


   Pho`to*re*lief"  (?),  n.  A  printing  surface in relief, obtained by
   photographic means and subsequent manipulations. Knight.


   Pho"to*scope  (?),  n.  [Photo- + -scope.] (Physics) Anything employed
   for the observation of light or luminous effects.


   Pho`to*scop"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the photoscope or its uses.


   Pho`to*sculp"ture (?), n. [Photo- + sculpture.] A process in which, by
   means  of  a number of photographs simultaneously taken from different
   points  of  view on the same level, rough models of the figure or bust
   of a person or animal may be made with great expedition.


   Pho"to*sphere  (?), n. [Photo- + sphere.] A sphere of light; esp., the
   luminous envelope of the sun.


   Pho`to*spher"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the photosphere.


   Pho*tot"o*nus  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Photo-, and Tone.] (Bot.) A motile
   condition in plants resulting from exposure to light. -- Pho`to*ton"ic
   (#), a.


   Pho`to*trop"ic (?), a. [Photo- + Gr. (Bot.) Same as Heliotropic.


   Pho"to*type (?), n. [Photo- + -type.] A plate or block with a printing
   surface  (usually in relief) obtained from a photograph; also, any one
   of  the  many methods of processes by which such a printing surface is


   Pho`to*typ"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a phototype or phototypy.


   Pho`to*ty*pog"ra*phy (?), n. [Photo- + typography.] Same as Phototypy.


   Pho*tot"y*py (?), n. The art or process of producing phototypes.


   Pho`to*xy*log"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Photo-  + xylography.] The process of
   producing  a  representation of an object on wood, by photography, for
   the use of the wood engraver.


   Pho`to*zin"co*graph  (?),  n.  A  print  made  by photozincography. --
   Pho`to*zin`co*graph"ic, a.


   Pho`to*zin*cog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Photo-  +  zincography.]  A process,
   analogous    to   photolithography,   for   reproducing   photographed
   impressions transferred to zinc plate.


   Phrag"mo*cone  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  thin  chambered  shell
   attached   to   the   anterior  end  of  a  belemnite.  [Written  also


   Phrag`mo*si"phon (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The siphon of a phragmocone.


   Phras"al  (?),  a.  Of the nature of a phrase; consisting of a phrase;
   as, a phrasal adverb. Earlc.


   Phrase (?), n. [F., fr. L. phrasis diction, phraseology, Gr.

   1.  A  brief  expression,  sometimes a single word, but usually two or
   more  words forming an expression by themselves, or being a portion of
   a sentence; as, an adverbial phrase.

     "Convey"  the  wise  it  call. "Steal!" foh! a fico for the phrase.

   2. A short, pithy expression; especially, one which is often employed;
   a peculiar or idiomatic turn of speech; as, to err is human.

   3.  A  mode  or  form  of speech; the manner or style in which any one
   expreses  himself;  diction;  expression.  "Phrases  of  the  hearth."

     Thou speak'st In better phrase and matter than thou didst. Shak.

   4. (Mus.) A short clause or portion of a period.

     NOTE: &hand; A composition consists first of sentences, or periods;
     these are subdivided into sections, and these into phrases.

   Phrase book, a book of idiomatic phrases. J. S. Blackie.


   Phrase,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Phrased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Phrasing.]
   [Cf.  F. phraser.] To express in words, or in peculiar words; to call;
   to style. "These suns -- for so they phrase 'em." Shak.


   Phrase, v. i.

   1. To use proper or fine phrases. [R.]

   2.  (Mus.)  To  group  notes  into  phrases;  as, he phrases well. See
   Phrase, n., 4.


   Phrase"less, a. Indescribable. Shak.


   Phra"se*o*gram  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -gram.]  (Phonography)  A symbol for a

                         Phraseologic, Phraseological

   Phra`se*o*log"ic  (?), Phra`se*o*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to
   phraseology;  consisting  of a peculiar form of words. "This verbal or
   phraseological answer." Bp. Pearson.


   Phra`se*ol"o*gist (?), n. A collector or coiner of phrases.


   Phra`se*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. phras\'82ologie.]

   1. Manner of expression; peculiarity of diction; style.

     Most completely national in his . . . phraseology. I. Taylor.

   2.  A  collection  of  phrases;  a  phrase book. [R.] Syn. -- Diction;
   style. See Diction.


   Phras"ing (?), n.

   1. Method of expression; association of words.

   2.  (Mus.)  The  act  or  method  of  grouping the notes so as to form
   distinct musical phrases.


   Phra"try  (?),  n.; pl. Phratries (#). [Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) A subdivision
   of a phyle, or tribe, in Athens.


   Phre*at"ic  (?),  a. [F. phr\'82atique, from Gr. (Geol.) Subterranean;
   -- applied to sources supplying wells.

                            Phrenetic, Phrenetical

   Phre*net"ic   (?),   Phre*net"ic*al   (?),  a.  [L.  phreneticus,  Gr.
   phr\'82n\'82tique.   See  Frantic,  and  cf.  Frenetic.]  Relating  to
   phrenitis;  suffering  from frenzy; delirious; mad; frantic; frenetic.
   -- Phre*net"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Phre*net"ic, n. One who is phrenetic. Harvey.

   Page 1080

   Page 1080


   Phren"ic  (?),  a.[Gr.  phr\'82nique.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the
   diaphragm; diaphragmatic; as, the phrenic nerve.


   Phren"ics  (?),  n.  That branch of science which relates to the mind;
   mental philosophy. [R.]


   Phre"nism (?), n. [See Phrenic.] (Biol.) See Vital force, under Vital.


   Phre*ni"tis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Med.) Inflammation of the brain, or of the meninges of the brain,
   attended with acute fever and delirium; -- called also cephalitis.

   2. See Frenzy.


   Phre"no*graph  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -graph.]  (Physiol.)  An instrument for
   registering   the   movements   of   the  diaphragm,  or  midriff,  in


   Phre*nol"o*ger (?), n. A phrenologist.


   Phren`o*log"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. phr\'82nologique.] Phrenological.


   Phren`o*log"ic*al   (?),   a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  phrenology.  --
   Phren`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Phre*nol"o*gist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  phr\'82nologiste.]  One versed in
   phrenology; a craniologist.


   Phre*nol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. phr\'82nologie.]

   1.  The  science  of the special functions of the several parts of the
   brain,  or of the supposed connection between the various faculties of
   the mind and particular organs in the brain.

   2.  In  popular  usage, the physiological hypothesis of Gall, that the
   mental faculties, and traits of character, are shown on the surface of
   the  head  or  skull; craniology. <-- considered pseudo-science by all
   reputable medical personnel, but still believed by -->

     NOTE: &hand; Gall marked out on his model of the head the places of
     twenty-six  organs,  as  round  inclosures with vacant interspaces.
     Spurzheim  and  Combe  divided  the  whole  scalp  into  oblong and
     conterminous patches.

   Encyc.  Brit. <-- Illustr. of a chart of phrenology, showing the areas
   of the skull as "mapped" by Gall. -->


   Phre`no*mag"net*ism (?), n. [Gr. magnetism.] The power of exciting the
   organs of the brain by magnetic or mesmeric influence.


   Phre"no*sin  (?),  n.  [See  Phrenic.]  (Physiol. Chem.) A nitrogenous
   body, related to cerebrin, supposed to exist in the brain.


   Phren"sied (?), p. p. & a. See Frenzied.


   Phren"sy  (?),  n.  Violent  and  irrational excitement; delirium. See


   Phren"sy, v. t. To render frantic.


   Phren"tic (?), n. & a. See Phrenetic. [Obs.]


   Phry*ga"ne*id   (?),   n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  insect  belonging  to  the


   Phryg`a*ne"i*des  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Phryganea, the typical genus,
   fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A tribe of neuropterous insects which includes the
   caddice  flies;  -- called also Trichoptera. See Trichoptera. [Written
   also Phryganides.]


   Phryg"i*an  (?),  a. [L. Phrygius, Gr. Of or pertaining to Phrygia, or
   to  its  inhabitants.  Phrygian  mode (Mus.), one of the ancient Greek
   modes, very bold and vehement in style; -- so called because fabled to
   have  been  invented by the Phrygian Marsyas. Moore (Encyc. of Music).
   -- Phrygian stone, a light, spongy stone, resembling a pumice, -- used
   by the ancients in dyeing, and said to be drying and astringent.


   Phryg"i*an, n.

   1. A native or inhabitant of Phrygia.

   2. (Eccl. Hist.) A Montanist.


   Phthal"ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of phthalic acid.


   Phthal"e*in  (?),  n.  [See  Phthalic.]  (Chem.)  One  of  a series of
   artificial  organic  dyes made as condensation products of the phenols
   with phthalic acid, and well represented by phenol phthale\'8bn. Their
   alkaline  solutions  are  fluorescent.  Phenol  phthalein,  a white or
   yellowish  white  crystalline  substance  made  from phthalic acid and
   phenol.  Its solution in alkalies is brilliant red, but is decolorized
   by  acids,  and as this reaction is exceedingly delicate it is used as
   an indicator.


   Phthal"ic  (?),  a.  [Naphthalene  +  -ic.]  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   designating,  a  dibasic acid obtained by the oxidation of naphthalene
   and  allied  substances.  Phthalic  acid  (Chem.), a white crystalline
   substance,  C6H4.(CO2H)2,  analogous  to benzoic acid, and employed in
   the brilliant dyestuffs called the phthaleins.


   Phthal"ide  (?), n. [Phthalyl + anhydride.] (Chem.) A lactone obtained
   by  reduction  of phthalyl chloride, as a white crystalline substance;
   hence,  by  extension, any one of the series of which phthalide proper
   is the type. [Written also phthalid.] <-- phthalic anhydride? would be
   classed  as  an  acid  anhydride,  rather  than  a  lactone.  Obtained
   commercially by a different process. -->


   Phthal"i*mide  (?), n. [Phthalic + imide.] (Chem.) An imido derivative
   of   phthalic   acid,  obtained  as  a  white  crystalline  substance,
   C6H4.(CO)2NH, which has itself (like succinimide) acid properties, and
   forms a series of salts. Cf. Imido acid, under Imido.


   Phthal"in  (?),  n. (Chem.) A colorless crystalline substance obtained
   by  reduction  from phthale\'8bn, into which it is easily converted by
   oxidation;  hence,  any  one of the series of which phthalin proper is
   the type.


   Phthal"yl  (?),  n. [Phthalic + -yl.] (Chem.) The hypothetical radical
   of phthalic acid.<-- now usu. pthaloyl -->


   Phthi*ri"a*sis   (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr.  (Med.)  A  disease  (morbus
   pediculous)  consisting in the excessive multiplication of lice on the
   human body.


   Phthis"ic (?), n. Same as Phthisis.


   Phthis"ic*al (?), a. [L. phthisicus, Gr. phthisique. See Phthisis.] Of
   or   pertaining   to   phthisis;   affected  with  phthisis;  wasting;


   Phthis"ick*y  (?),  a.  Having  phthisis,  or  some  symptom of it, as
   difficulty in breathing.


   Phthis`i*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Phthisis  +  -logy.] (Med.) A treatise on
   phthisis. Dunglison.

                       Phthisipneumonia, Phthisipneumony

   Phthis`ip*neu*mo"ni*a   (?),  Phthis`ip*neu"mo*ny  (?),  n.  [NL.  See
   Phthisis, Pneumonia.] (Med.) Pulmonary consumption.


   Phthi"sis  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr.  phthisie.]  (Med.)  A  wasting or
   consumption  of  the  tissues.  The  term was formerly applied to many
   wasting diseases, but is now usually restricted to pulmonary phthisis,
   or consumption. See Consumption. Fibroid phthisis. See under Fibroid.


   Phthon"gal  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Formed  into,  or characterized by, voice;
   vocalized;  --  said of all the vowels and the semivowels, also of the
   vocal or sonant consonants g, d, b, l, r, v, z, etc.


   Phthon"gal, n. A vocalized element or letter.


   Phthon*gom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter.] An instrument for measuring
   vocal sounds. Whewell.


   Phthor  (?),  n.  [F. phthore, Gr. (Old Chem.) Fluorine. [Written also


   Phy"cite (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) See Erythrite, 1.


   Phy"co*chrome  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Bot.) A bluish green coloring matter of
   certain alg\'91.

                           Phycocyanin, Phycocyanine

   Phy`co*cy"a*nin  (?),  Phy`co*cy"a*nine  (?),  n. [Gr. cyanin.] A blue
   coloring matter found in certain alg\'91.

                         Phycoerythrin, Phycoerythrine

   Phy`co*e*ryth"rin  (?),  Phy`co*e*ryth"rine  (?),  n.  [Gr.  erythrin,
   -ine.]  A  red  coloring  matter  found  in  alg\'91  of  the subclass


   Phy*cog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. -graphy.] A description of seaweeds.


   Phy*col"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy.] The science of alg\'91, or seaweeds;


   Phy`co*ma"ter (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. mater mother.] (Bot.) A gelatin in
   which the alg\'91 spores have been supposed to vegetate.


   Phy`co*ph\'91"ine  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  brown  coloring  matter found in
   certain alg\'91.

                          Phycoxanthin, Phycoxanthine

   Phy`co*xan"thin   (?),  Phy`co*xan"thine  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  yellowish
   coloring matter found in certain alg\'91.


   Phy*lac"ter (?), n. A phylactery. Sandys.


   Phy*lac"tered (?), a. Wearing a phylactery.

                          Phylacteric, Phylacterical

   Phyl`ac*ter"ic  (?),  Phyl`ac*ter"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to


   Phy*lac"ter*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Phylacteries  (#).  [OE.  filateri, OF.
   filatire,   filatiere,   F.   phylact\'8are,   L.   phylacterium,  Gr.

   1. Any charm or amulet worn as a preservative from danger or disease.

   2.  A small square box, made either of parchment or of black calfskin,
   containing  slips  of  parchment  or  vellum  on which are written the
   scriptural  passages  Exodus  xiii.  2-10,  and  11-17, Deut. vi. 4-9,
   13-22.  They  are  worn  by Jews on the head and left arm, on week-day
   mornings, during the time of prayer. Schaff-Herzog Encyc.

   3.  Among  the primitive Christians, a case in which the relics of the
   dead were inclosed.


   Phy*lac"to*carp  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A branch of a plumularian
   hydroid  specially  modified  in  structure  for the protection of the

                      Phylactol\'91ma, Phylactol\'91mata

   Phy*lac`to*l\'91"ma  (?), Phy*lac`to*l\'91"ma*ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr.
   Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) An order of fresh-water Bryozoa in which the tentacles
   are  arranged  on  a  horseshoe-shaped  lophophore,  and  the mouth is
   covered by an epistome. Called also Lophopoda, and hippocrepians.


   Phy*lac`to*l\'91"ma*tous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the

                         Phylactolema, Phylactolemata

   Phy*lac`to*le"ma (?), Phy*lac`to*le"ma*ta (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Same as Phylactol\'91ma.


   Phy"larch  (?), n. [L. phylarchus, Gr. Phyle, and -arch.] (Gr. Antiq.)
   The chief of a phyle, or tribe.


   Phy"larch*y  (?),  n.  [Gr.  The office of a phylarch; government of a
   class or tribe.


   Phy"le  (?),  n.;  pl. Phyl\'91 (#). [NL., fr. Gr. A local division of
   the people in ancient Athens; a clan; a tribe.


   Phyl"lite  (?),  n.  [See  Phylo-.]  (Min.)  (a)  A mineral related to
   ottrelite. (b) Clay slate; argillaceous schist.


   Phyl"lo-  (?).  A  combining  form  from  Gr.  a  leaf; as, phyllopod,


   Phyl`lo*bran"chi*a   (?),  n.;  pl.  Phyllobranci\'91  (#).  [NL.  See
   Phyllo-,  and  Branchia.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  crustacean  gill composed of


   Phyl`lo*cla"di*um  (?), n.; pl. Phyllocladia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.)
   A  flattened  stem  or branch which more or less resembles a leaf, and
   performs   the   function   of  a  leaf  as  regards  respiration  and


   Phyl`lo*cy"a*nin  (?),  n. [Phyllo- + cyanin.] (Chem.) A blue coloring
   matter extracted from chlorophyll. [Written also phyllocyanine.]


   Phyl"lo*cyst  (?),  n.  [Phyllo-  +  cyst.] (Zo\'94l.) The cavity of a


   Phyl"lode (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Phyllodium.


   Phyl`lo*din"eous   (?),   a.  (Bot.)  Having  phyllodia;  relating  to


   Phyl*lo"di*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Phyllodia  (#).  [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A
   petiole  dilated  into  the form of a blade, and usually with vertical
   edges, as in the Australian acacias.


   Phyl"lo*dy (?), n. [See Phyllodium.] (Bot.) A retrograde metamorphosis
   of the floral organs to the condition of leaves.


   Phyl"loid (?), a. [Phyllo- + -oid.] Resembling a leaf.


   Phyl`lo*ma"ni*a  (?),  n.  [Phyllo-  +  mania.]  (Bot.) An abnormal or
   excessive production of leaves.


   Phyl"lome  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Bot.)  A foliar part of a plant; any organ
   homologous with a leaf, or produced by metamorphosis of a leaf.


   Phyl`lo*mor*pho"sis  (?),  n. [NL. See Phyllo-, Morphosis.] (Bot.) The
   succession and variation of leaves during different seasons. R. Brown.


   Phyl*loph"a*gan  (?),  n. [Phyllo- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) (a) One of a group
   of marsupials including the phalangists. (b) One of a tribe of beetles
   which feed upon the leaves of plants, as the chafers.


   Phyl*loph"a*gous   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Substituting   on  leaves;


   Phyl*loph"o*rous (?), a. [Phyllo- + Gr. (Bot.) Leaf-bearing; producing


   Phyl"lo*pod (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Phyllopoda.

     NOTE: [Also used adjectively.]


   Phyl*lop"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   Entomostraca  including  a large number of species, most of which live
   in  fresh  water.  They  have  flattened  or leaflike legs, often very
   numerous, which they use in swimming. Called also Branchiopoda.

     NOTE: &hand; In  so me, th e bo dy is  covered with a bivalve shell
     (Holostraca);  in  others,  as  Apus,  by  a shield-shaped carapace
     (Monostraca);  in  others,  like Artemia, there is no carapace, and
     the  body  is  regularly  segmented. Sometimes the group is made to
     include also the Cladocera.


   Phyl*lop"o*dous (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Phyllopoda.


   Phyl"lo*rhine  (?),  a.  [Phyllo- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to
   Phyllorhina  and  other  related  genera  of bats that have a leaflike
   membrane around the nostrils.


   Phyl`lo*so"ma  (?),  n.  [NL. See Phyllo-, and -some body.] (Zo\'94l.)
   The  larva  of  the  spiny lobsters (Palinurus and allied genera). Its
   body  is  remarkably  thin,  flat,  and transparent; the legs are very
   long. Called also glass-crab, and glass-shrimp.

   Page 1081


   Phyl"lo*stome  (?),  n. [Phyllo- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any bat of the genus
   Phyllostoma, or allied genera, having large membranes around the mouth
   and nose; a nose-leaf bat.


   Phyl*lol"to*mid (?), n. A phyllostome.


   Phyl`lo*tac"tic (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to phyllotaxy.

                            Phyllotaxy, Phyllotaxis

   Phyl"lo*tax`y  (?),  Phyl"lo*tax`is  (?), n. [Phyllo- + Gr. (Bot.) The
   order  or  arrangement  of  leaves  on  the  stem;  the science of the
   relative position of leaves.


   Phyl"lous  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Homologous  with  a leaf; as, the sepals,
   petals, stamens, and pistils are phyllous organs.


   Phyl`lo*xan"thin  (?),  n.  [Phyllo-  +  Gr.  (Bot.) A yellow coloring
   matter extracted from chlorophyll.


   Phyl`lox*e"ra (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A small hemipterous insect (Phylloxera vastatrix) allied
   to the aphids. It attacks the roots and leaves of the grapevine, doing
   great damage, especially in Europe.

     NOTE: &hand; It  exists in several forms, some of which are winged,
     other  wingless.  One  form produces galls on the leaves and twigs,
     another  affects  the  roots, causing galls or swellings, and often
     killing the vine.

   2.  The  diseased  condition  of  a  vine  caused  by  the insect just

                            Phylogenesis, Phylogeny

   Phy`lo*gen"e*sis  (?),  Phy*log"e*ny  (?), n. [Gr. genesis, or root of
   Gr.  The  history  of genealogical development; the race history of an
   animal  or  vegetable  type;  the  historic exolution of the phylon or
   tribe,  in  distinction  from  ontogeny,  or  the  development  of the
   individual   organism,   and  from  biogenesis,  or  life  development


   Phy*lo*ge*net"ic (?), a. Relating to phylogenesis, or the race history
   of a type of organism. -- Phy*lo*ge*net"ic*al*ly (#), adv.


   Phy"lon (?), n.; pl. Phyla (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.) A tribe.


   Phy"lum  (?),  n.;  pl. Phyla (#). [NL. See Phylon.] (Zo\'94l.) One of
   the  larger  divisions  of  the  animal  kingdom;  a  branch;  a grand


   Phy"ma  (?),  n.;  pl. Phymata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A tubercle on
   any external part of the body.


   Phy"sa  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus of fresh-water
   Pulmonifera,  having  reversed  spiral  shells.  See Pond snail, under


   Phy*sa"li*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of large oceanic
   Siphonophora which includes the Portuguese man-of-war.

     NOTE: &hand; It  ha s a  la rge air sac, or float, with a sail-like
     crest  on  its  upper  side. Numerous zooids of different kinds are
     attached  to  the  under side of the float. Some of the zooids have
     very  long  tentacles;  some  have  a mouth and digest food; others
     produce  gonophores.  The  American  species (Physalia arethusa) is
     brilliantly  colored,  the  float  being pink or purple, and bright
     blue;  the  zooids  blue.  It  is  noted  for its virulent stinging
     powers,  as well as for its beautiful colors, graceful motions, and
     its ability to sail to windward.


   Phy*sa"li*\'91  (?),  n. pl. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of Siphonophora
   which includes Physalia.


   Phys`e*ma"ri*a (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of simple
   marine  organisms,  usually classed as the lowest of the sponges. They
   have inflated hollow bodies.


   Phy*se"ter (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. phys\'82t\'8are.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) The genus that includes the sperm whale.

   2. A filtering machine operated by air pressure.


   Phys`i*an"thro*py  (?),  n.  [Gr. The philosophy of human life, or the
   doctrine of the constitution and diseases of man, and their remedies.


   Phys"ic  (?),  n.  [OE.  phisike,  fisike,  OF.  phisique, F. physique
   knowledge of nature, physics, L. physica, physice, fr. Gr. be. See Be,
   and cf. Physics, Physique.]

   1. The art of healing diseases; the science of medicine; the theory or
   practice  of  medicine.<--  obsolete  -- superseded by medicine --> "A
   doctor of physik." Chaucer.

   2. A specific internal application for the cure or relief of sickness;
   a remedy for disease; a medicine.

   3. Specifically, a medicine that purges; a cathartic.

   4. A physician. [R.] Shak.
   Physic  nut  (Bot.),  a  small  tropical  American euphorbiaceous tree
   (Jatropha Curcas), and its seeds, which are well flavored, but contain
   a  drastic  oil  which  renders  them  dangerous  if  eaten  in  large


   Phys"ic  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Physiced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Physicking (?).]

   1. To treat with physic or medicine; to administer medicine to, esp. a
   cathartic; to operate on as a cathartic; to purge.

   2. To work on as a remedy; to heal; to cure.

     The labor we delight in physics pain. Shak.

     A mind diseased no remedy can physic. Byron.


   Phys"ic*al (?), a.

   1.  Of  or pertaining to nature (as including all created existences);
   in accordance with the laws of nature; also, of or relating to natural
   or  material  things, or to the bodily structure, as opposed to things
   mental,  moral, spiritual, or imaginary; material; natural; as, armies
   and  navies  are  the  physical  force  of  a  nation; the body is the
   physical part of man.

     Labor,  in the physical world, is . . . employed in putting objects
     in motion. J. S. Mill.

     A  society  sunk  in  ignorance,  and ruled by mere physical force.

   2. Of or pertaining to physics, or natural philosophy; treating of, or
   relating  to,  the  causes  and  connections of natural phenomena; as,
   physical science; physical laws. "Physical philosophy." Pope.

   3.  Perceptible  through a bodily or material organization; cognizable
   by  the  senses;  external;  as,  the  physical,  opposed to chemical,
   characters of a mineral.

   4.  Of  or  pertaining  to  physic, or the art of medicine; medicinal;
   curative;   healing;  also,  cathartic;  purgative.  [Obs.]  "Physical
   herbs." Sir T. North.

     Is  Brutus  sick?  and is it physical To walk unbraced, and suck up
     the humors Of the dank morning? Shak.

   Physical  astronomy, that part of astronomy which treats of the causes
   of  the  celestial  motions;  specifically,  that  which treats of the
   motions  resulting  from universal gravitation. -- Physical education,
   training  of the bodily organs and powers with a view to the promotion
   of health and vigor. -- Physical examination (Med.), an examination of
   the  bodily  condition  of  a person. -- Physical geography. See under
   Geography. -- Physical point, an indefinitely small portion of matter;
   a  point  conceived  as  being  without extension, yet having physical
   properties,  as  weight, inertia, momentum, etc.; a material point. --
   Physical  signs  (Med.),  the  objective  signs  of  the  bodily state
   afforded by a physical examination.


   Phys"ic*al*ly,  adv.  In  a  physical manner; according to the laws of
   nature or physics; by physical force; not morally.

     I am not now treating physically of light or colors. Locke.

   2. According to the rules of medicine. [Obs.]

     He that lives physically must live miserably. Cheyne.


   Phy*si"cian   (?),  n.  [OE.  fisician,  fisicien,  OF.  physucien,  a
   physician,  in  F.,  a  natural  philosopher,  an  experimentalist  in
   physics. See Physic.]

   1.  A  person  skilled  in  physic,  or  the  art of healing; one duty
   authorized to prescribe remedies for, and treat, diseases; a doctor of
   medicine.<--  one  trained and licensed to treat illness and prescribe
   medicines. -->

   2.  Hence,  figuratively,  one  who ministers to moral diseases; as, a
   physician of the soul.


   Phy*si"cianed  (?),  a. Licensed as a physician. [Obs.] "A physicianed
   apothecary." Walpole.


   Phys"i*cism   (?),  n.  The  tendency  of  the  mind  toward,  or  its
   preoccupation  with, physical phenomena; materialism in philosophy and

     Anthropomorphism  grows into theology, while physicism (if I may so
     call it) develops into science. Huxley.


   Phys"i*cist (?), n. One versed in physics.

   2.  (Biol.) A believer in the theory that the fundamental phenomena of
   life are to be explained upon purely chemical and physical principles;
   -- opposed to vitalist.


   Phys"ick*ing (?), p. pr. & vb. n. fr. Physic, v. t.


   Phys"i*co-  (?).  [Fr.  Gr. A combining form, denoting relation to, or
   dependence upon, natural causes, or the science of physics.


   Phys`i*co*chem"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Physico-  +  chemical.] Involving the
   principles  of  both  physics and chemistry; dependent on, or produced
   by, the joint action of physical and chemical agencies. Huxley.


   Phys`i*co*log"ic  (?),  n.  [Physico-  +  logic.] Logic illustrated by


   Phys`i*co*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to physicologic. Swift.


   Phys`i*col"o*gy   (?),   n.  [Physico-  +  -logy.]  Physics.  [R.]  --
   Phys`i*col"o*gist (#), n. [R.]


   Phys`i*co-math`e*mat"ics  (?),  n.  [Physico-  +  mathematics.]  Mixed


   Phys`i*co-phi*los"o*phy   (?),   n.   [Physico-   +  philosophy.]  The
   philosophy of nature.


   Phys`i*co-the*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Physico-  +  theology.]  Theology or
   divinity illustrated or enforced by physics or natural philosophy.


   Phys"ics  (?),  n.  [See Physic.] The science of nature, or of natural
   objects;  that  branch  of  science  which  treats  of  the  laws  and
   properties  of matter, and the forces acting upon it; especially, that
   department   of  natural  science  which  treats  of  the  causes  (as
   gravitation,  heat,  light,  magnetism, electricity, etc.) that modify
   the general properties of bodies; natural philosophy.

     NOTE: &hand; Ch emistry, th ough a  br anch of  general physics, is
     commonly  treated  as  a  science by itself, and the application of
     physical  principles  which  it involves constitute a branch called
     chemical  physics,  which  treats more especially of those physical
     properties  of  matter  which  are used by chemists in defining and
     distinguishing substances.


   Phys"i*o*crat  (?), n. [Gr. One of the followers of Quesnay of France,
   who,  in the 18th century, founded a system of political economy based
   upon the supremacy of natural order. F. A. Walker. -- Phys`i*o*crat"ic
   (#), a.


   Phys`i*og"e*ny (?), n. [Gr. (Biol.) The germ history of the functions,
   or  the  history  of  the  development  of  vital  activities,  in the
   individual,  being  one  of  the branches of ontogeny. See Morphogeny.


   Phys`i*og"no*mer (?), n. Physiognomist.

                         Physiognomic, Physiognomical

   Phys`i*og*nom"ic     (?),    Phys`i*og*nom"ic*al    (?),    a.    [Gr.
   physiognomonique.] Of or pertaining to physiognomy; according with the
   principles of physiognomy. -- Phys`i*og*nom"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Phys`i*og*nom"ist (?), n. Same as Physiognomy, 1.


   Phys`i*og"no*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. physiognomiste.]

   1. One skilled in physiognomy. Dryden.

   2. One who tells fortunes by physiognomy. Holland.


   Phys`i*og"no*mize  (?), v. t. To observe and study the physiognomy of.
   [R.] Southey.


   Phys`i*og`no*mmon"ic (?), a. Physiognomic.


   Phys`i*og"no*my  (?),  n.;  pl.  Physiognomies  (#).  [OE.  fisonomie,
   phisonomie, fisnamie, OF. phisonomie, F. physiognomie, physiognomonie,
   from Gr. Physic, and Know, and cf. Phiz.]

   1.  The  art  and  science  of discovering the predominant temper, and
   other characteristic qualities of the mind, by the outward appearance,
   especially by the features of the face.

   2.  The  face  or countenance, with respect to the temper of the mind;
   particular  configuration,  cast,  or  expression  of  countenance, as
   denoting character.

   3.  The  art  telling  fortunes  by inspection of the features. [Obs.]

   4.  The  general appearance or aspect of a thing, without reference to
   its  scientific characteristics; as, the physiognomy of a plant, or of
   a meteor.


   Phys`i*og"o*ny (?), n. [Gr. The birth of nature. [R.] Coleridge.

                        Physiographic, Physiographical

   Phys`i*o*graph"ic   (?),   Phys`i*o*graph"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.  F.
   physiographique.] Of or pertaining to physiography.


   Phys`i*og"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -graphy:  cf. F. physiographie.] The
   science  which  treats  of  the  earth's  exterior  physical features,
   climate,  life,  etc., and of the physical movements or changes on the
   earth's  surface,  as  the  currents  of the atmosphere and ocean, the
   secular  variations  in  heat,  moisture,  magnetism,  etc.;  physical


   Phys`i*ol"a*try  (?), n. [Gr. The worship of the powers or agencies of
   nature;  materialism  in religion; nature worship. "The physiolatry of
   the Vedas." M. Williams.


   Phys`i*ol"o*ger (?), n. A physiologist.


   Phys`i*o*log"ic   (?),   a.  [L.  physiologicus,  Gr.  physiologique.]


   Phys`i*o*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to physiology; relating to
   the  science  of  the  functions of living organism; as, physiological
   botany or chemistry.


   Phys`i*o*log"ic*al*ly, adv. In a physiological manner.


   Phys`i*ol"o*gist  (?), n. [Cf. F. physiologiste.] One who is versed in
   the  science  of physiology; a student of the properties and functions
   of animal and vegetable organs and tissues.


   Phys`i*ol"o*gize  (?),  v.  i.  To  speculate  in  physiology; to make
   physiological investigations. Cudworth.


   Phys`i*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Physiologies (#). [L. physiologia, Gr.

   1.  The science which treats of the phenomena of living organisms; the
   study of the processes incidental to, and characteristic of, life.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  di vided into animal and vegetable physiology,
     dealing  with  animal and vegetable life respectively. When applied
     especially to a study of the functions of the organs and tissues in
     man, it is called human physiology.

   2. A treatise on physiology.
   Mental  physiology,  the science of the functions and phenomena of the
   mind, as distinguished from a philosophical explanation of the same.


   Phys`i*oph"y*ly  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Biol.)  The  tribal  history  of the
   functions,  or the history of the paleontological development of vital
   activities, -- being a branch of phylogeny. See Morphophyly. Haeckel.


   Phy*sique"  (?),  n.  [F.  See  Physic.]  The natural constitution, or
   physical structure, of a person.

     With his white hair and splendid physique. Mrs. Stowe.


   Phys"no*my (?), n. Physiogmony. [Obs.]


   Phys"o*clist, n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Physoclisti.


   Phys`o*clis"ti  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   teleost in which the air bladder has no opening.


   Phys"o*grade   (?),  n.  [Gr.  gradi  to  walk,  go.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Any
   siphonophore which has an air sac for a float, as the Physalia.


   Phy*soph"o*r\'91  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   Siphonophora,  furnished  with  an  air sac, or float, and a series of
   nectocalyces. See Illust. under Nectocalyx.


   Phy"so*pod (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Physopoda; a thrips.


   Phy*sop"o*da  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Phy`so*stig"mine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid found in the Calabar bean
   (the  seed  of  Physostigma  venenosum),  and  extracted  as  a white,
   tasteless,  substance,  amorphous  or  crystalline; -- formerly called
   eserine, with which it was regarded as identical.


   Phy*sos"to*mi  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of fishes
   in  which  the  air  bladder  is provided with a duct, and the ventral
   fins,  when present, are abdominal. It includes the salmons, herrings,
   carps, catfishes, and others.

   Page 1082


   Phy*sos"to*mous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  Having  a  duct to the air
   bladder. (b) Pertaining to the Physostomi.


   Phy*tel"e*phas  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of South American
   palm  trees, the seeds of which furnish the substance called vegetable


   Phy*tiv"o*rous  (?),  a. [Phyto- + L. vorare to eat greedily.] Feeding
   on plants or herbage; phytophagous; as, phytivorous animals. Ray.


   Phy"to-  (?).  [See Physic.] A combining form from Gr. fyto`n a plant;
   as, phytochemistry, phytography.


   Phy`to*chem"ic*al (?), a. Relating to phytochemistry. R. Hunt.


   Phy"to*chem"is*try  (?),  n.  [Phyto-  +  chemistry.] Chemistry in its
   relation to vegetable bodies; vegetable chemistry. R. Hunt.


   Phy*toch"i*my   (?),   n.  [F.  phytochimie;  Gr.  chimie  chemistry.]
   Phytochemistry. [Obsoles.]

                            Phytogenesis, Phytogeny

   Phy`to*gen"e*sis  (?), Phy*tog"e*ny (?), n. [Phyto- + genesis, or root
   of Gr. The doctrine of the generation of plants.


   Phy`to*ge"o*graph"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to phytogeography.


   Phy`to*ge*og"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Phyto-  + geography.] The geographical
   distribution of plants.


   Phy`to*glyph"ic (?), a. Relating to phytoglyphy.


   Phy*tog"ly*phy  (?),  n.  [Phyto-  +  Gr.  See  Nature printing, under


   Phy`to*graph"ic*al  (?),  a. [Cf. F. phytographique.] Of or pertaining
   to phytography.


   Phy*tog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Phyto- + -graphy: cf. F. phytographie.] The
   science   of  describing  plants  in  a  systematic  manner;  also,  a
   description of plants.


   Phy"toid (?), a. [Phyto- + -oid.] Resembling a plant; plantlike.


   Phy`to*lac"ca  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. lacca lac.] (Bot.) A genus of
   herbaceous  plants,  some  of  th