Unabridged Dictionary - Letter N

Etext from the Gutenberg project, formatted by r0k
Back to contents
View © info
View fine print

   N  (?),  the  fourteenth  letter  of  English  alphabet,  is  a  vocal
   consonent,  and,  in  allusion to its mode of formation, is called the
   dentinasal  or linguanasal consonent. Its commoner sound is that heard
   in  ran,  done;  but when immediately followed in the same word by the
   sound  of  g  hard  or  k  (as  in  single, sink, conquer), it usually
   represents  the same sound as the digraph ng in sing, bring, etc. This
   is  a  simple  but  related  sound,  and  is  called the gutturo-nasal
   consonent.  See  Guide to Pronunciation, §§ 243-246. The letter N came
   into  English through the Latin and Greek from the Ph\'d2nician, which
   probably  derived  it  from the Egyptian as the ultimate origin. It is
   etymologically most closely related to M. See M.


   N, n. (Print.) A measure of space equal to half an M (or em); an en.


   Na (?), a. & adv. No, not. See No. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nab (?), n. [Cf. Knap, Knop, Knob.]

   1. The summit of an eminence. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

   2. (Firearms) The cock of a gunlock. Knight.

   3.  (Locksmithing)  The  keeper,  or  box into which the lock is shot.


   Nab,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Nabbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nabbing.] [Dan
   nappe,  or  Sw.  nappa.]  To  catch or seize suddenly or unexpectedly.
   [Colloq.] Smollett.


   Na"bit (?), n. Pulverized sugar candy. Crabb.


   Nabk  (?),  n.  [Ar.  nabiqa,nibqa.]  (Bot.) The edible berries of the
   Zizyphys  Lotus,  a  tree of Northern Africa, and Southwestern Europe.
   [Written also nubk.] See Lotus (b), and Sadr.


   Na"bob (?), n. [Hind. naw\'beb, from Ar. naw\'beb, pl. of n\'be\'8bb a
   vicegerent, governor. Cf Nawab.]

   1.  A  deputy  or  viceroy  in  India; a governor of a province of the
   ancient Mogul empire.

   2. One who returns to Europe from the East with immense riches: hence,
   any man of great wealth. " A bilious old nabob." Macaulay.


   Nac"a*rat  (?),  n. [F. nacarat, fr. Sp. or Pg. nacarado, fr. n\'a0car
   mother-of-pearl. See Nacre.]

   1. A pale red color, with a cast of orange. Ure.

   2. Fine linen or crape dyed of this color. Ure.


   Nack"er (?), n. See Nacre. Johnson.


   Na"cre  (?),  n.  [F.,  cf.  Sp.  n\'a0cara,  n\'a0car,  It. nacchera,
   naccaro,  LL.  nacara,  nacrum;  of  Oriental origin, cf. Ar. nak\'c6r
   hollowed.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A pearly substance which lines the interior of
   many shells, and is most perfect in the mother-of-pearl. [Written also
   nacker and naker.] See Pearl, and Mother-of-pearl.


   Na"cre-ous   (?),   a.  [See  Nacre.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Consisting  of,  or
   resembling, nacre; pearly.

                                  Nad, Nadde

   Nad (?), Nad"de (?). [Contr. fr. ne hadde.] Had not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nad"der (?), n. [AS.n\'91dre. See Adder.] An adder. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Na"dir  (?),  n.  [F.,  Sp., & It. nadir; all fr. Ar. nas\'c6ru's samt
   nadir,  prop.,  the  point  opposite  the  zenith  (as samt), in which
   nas\'c6r means alike, corresponding to. Cf. Azimuth, Zenith.]

   1.  That  point of the heavens, or lower hemisphere, directly opposite
   the  zenith;  the  inferior  pole  of  the  horizon;  the point of the
   celestial sphere directly under the place where we stand.

   2. The lowest point; the time of greatest depression.

     The  seventh  century  is  the  nadir  of the human mind in Europe.

   Nadir  of  the sun (Astron.), the axis of the conical shadow projected
   by the earth. Crabb.


   N\'91"ni*a (?), n. See Nenia.


   N\'91ve (?), n. [L. naevus.] A n\'91vus. [Obs.] Dryden.


   N\'91"void  (?),  a.  [N\'91vus  +  -oid.]  Resembling  a  n\'91vus or
   n\'91vi; as, n\'91void elephantiasis. Dunglison.


   N\'91"vose` (?), a. Spotted; frecled.


   Na"vus (?), n.; pl.N\'91vi (-v\'c6). [L.] (Med.) A spot or mark on the
   skin  of  children  when  born;  a  birthmark;  --  usually applied to
   vascular  tumors,  i. e., those consisting mainly of blood vessels, as
   dilated arteries, veins, or capillaries.


   Nag (?), n. [OE. nagge, D. negge; akin to E. neigh.]

   1. A small horse; a pony; hence, any horse.

   2. A paramour; -- in contempt. [Obs.] Shak.


   Nag,  v.  t.  &  i.  [imp. & p. p. Nagged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nagging
   (?).]  [Cf.  Sw. nagga to nibble, peck, Dan. nage to gnaw, Icel. naga,
   gnaga,  G.  nagen,  &  E.  gnaw.]  To  tease  in a petty way; to scold
   habitually;  to  annoy;  to  fret pertinaciously. [Colloq.] "She never
   nagged." J. Ingelow.


   Nag"ging  (?), a. Fault-finding; teasing; persistently annoying; as, a
   nagging toothache. [Colloq.]


   Nag"gy (?) a. Irritable; touchy. [Colloq.]


   Na"gor (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A West African gazelle (Gazella redunca).


   Nag"yag-ite (?), n. [So called from Nagyag, in Transylvania.] (Min.) A
   mineral  of blackish lead-gray color and metallic luster, generally of
   a foliated massive structure; foliated tellurium. It is a telluride of
   lead and gold.


   Na"iad  (?),  n.  [L.  naias, -adis, na\'8bs, -idis, a water nymph, Gr
   na\'8bade. Cf. Naid.]

   1.  (Myth.)  A water nymph; one of the lower female divinities, fabled
   to  preside over some body of fresh water, as a lake, river, brook, or

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of a tribe (Naiades) of freshwater bivalves,
   including Unio, Anodonta, and numerous allied genera; a river mussel.

   3. (Zo\'94l) One of a group of butterflies. See Nymph.

   4.  (Bot.)  Any  plant  of  the  order Naiadace\'91, such as eelgrass,
   pondweed, etc.


   Na"iant (?), a. (Her.) See Natant. Crabb.


   Na"id  (?),  n. [See Naiad.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of numerous species of
   small,  fresh-water,  ch\'91topod  annelids of the tribe Naidina. They
   belong to the Oligoch\'91ta.


   Na"\'8bf` (formerly , a. [F. na\'8bf. See Na\'8bve.]

   1.  Having  a  true  natural  luster  without being cut; -- applied by
   jewelers to a precious stone.

   2. Na\'8bve; as, a na\'8bf remark. London Spectator.


   Na"ik  (?),  n. [Hind. n\'beyak.] A chief; a leader; a Sepoy corporal.
   Balfour (Cyc. of India).


   Nail  (?),  n.  [AS.  n\'91gel,  akin to D. nagel, OS nagal, G. nagel,
   Icel. nagl, nail (in sense 1), nagli nail (in sense 3), Sw. nagel nail
   (in  senses 1 and 3), Dan. nagle, Goth. ganagljan to nail, Lith. nagas
   nail (in sense 1), Russ. nogote, L. unguis, Gr. nakha.

   1.  (Anat.)  the  horny  scale of plate of epidermis at the end of the
   fingers and toes of man and many apes.

     His nayles like a briddes claws were. Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na ils ar e st rictly ho mologous wi th hoofs and
     claws. When compressed, curved, and pointed, they are called talons
     or  claws,  and  the animal bearing them is said to be unguiculate;
     when  they  incase  the  extremities  of the digits they are called
     hoofs, and the animal is ungulate.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The basal thickened portion of the anterior wings of
   certain  hemiptera. (b) The terminal horny plate on the beak of ducks,
   and other allied birds.

   3.  A  slender,  pointed piece of metal, usually with a head, used for
   fastening  pieces  of wood or other material together, by being driven
   into or through them.

     NOTE: &hand; The different sorts of nails are named either from the
     use  to  which they are applied, from their shape, from their size,
     or   from   some   other   characteristic,   as   shingle,   floor,
     ship-carpenters',   and   horseshoe   nails,  roseheads,  diamonds,
     fourpenny,  tenpenny  (see  Penny), chiselpointed, cut, wrought, or
     wire nails, etc.

   4.  A  measure  of  length,  being  two  inches  and a quarter, or the
   sixteenth of a yard.
   Nail  ball (Ordnance), a round projectile with an iron bolt protruding
   to  prevent  it from turning in the gun. -- Nail plate, iron in plates
   from  which  cut nails are made. -- On the nail, in hand; on the spot;
   immediately;  without delay or time of credit; as, to pay money on the
   nail.  "You shall have ten thousand pounds on the nail." Beaconsfield.
   --  To hit the nail on the head, to hit most effectively; to do or say
   a thing in the right way. 


   Nail,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Nailed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nailing.] [AS.
   n\'91glian. See Nail, n.]

   1.  To  fasten with a nail or nails; to close up or secure by means of
   nails; as, to nail boards to the beams.

     He is now dead, and nailed in his chest. Chaucer.

   2. To stud or boss with nails, or as with nails.

     The rivets of your arms were nailed with gold. Dryden.

   3.  To  fasten, as with a nail; to bind or hold, as to a bargain or to
   acquiescence in an argument or assertion; hence, to catch; to trap.

     When  they  came  to  talk of places in town, you saw at once how I
     nailed them. Goldsmith.

   4. To spike, as a cannon. [Obs.] Crabb.
   To nail a lie OR an assertion, etc., to detect and expose it, so as to
   put a stop to its currency; -- an expression probably derived from the
   former  practice  of  shopkeepers,  who were accustomed to nail bad or
   counterfeit pieces of money to the counter.


   Nail"brush`, n. A brush for cleaning the nails.


   Nail"er (?), n.

   1. One whose occupation is to make nails; a nail maker.

   2. One who fastens with, or drives, nails.


   Nail"er*ess, n. A women who makes nailes.


   Nail"er*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Naileries  (. A manufactory where nails are


   Nail"-head`ed  (?), a. Having a head like that of a nail; formed so as
   to resemble the head of a nail. Nail-headed characters, arrowheaded or
   cuneiform  characters.  See  under Arrowheaded. -- Nail-headed molding
   (Arch.), an ornament consisting of a series of low four-sided pyramids
   resembling the heads of large nails; -- called also nail-head molding,
   or  nail-head.  It  is  the same as the simplest form of dogtooth. See


   Nail"less, a. Without nails; having no nails.


   Nain`sook"  (?),  n.  [Nainsukh,  a valley in Kaghan.] A thick sort of
   jaconet muslin, plain or striped, formerly made in India.


   Na"is (?), n. [L., a naiad.] (Zo\'94l.) See Naiad.


   Nais`sant"  (?),  a.  [F.,  p. pr. of na\'8ctre to be born, L. nasci.]
   (Her.) Same as Jessant.


   Na"\'8bve`  (?), a. [F. na\'8bf, fem. na\'8bve, fr. L. nativus innate,
   natural,  native.  See  Native,  and  cf.  Na\'8bf.]  Having native or
   unaffected   simplicity;   ingenuous;  artless;  frank;  as,  na\'8bve
   manners; a na\'8bve person; na\'8bve and unsophisticated remarks.


   Na"\'8bve`ly (?), adv. In a na\'8bve manner.


   Na`\'8bve`t\'82"  (?),  n. [F. See Na\'8bve, and cf. Nativity.] Native
   simplicity; unaffected plainness or ingenuousness; artlessness.

     A  story  which  pleases me by its na\'8bvet\'82 -- that is, by its
     unconscious ingenuousness. De Quincey.


   Na"\'8bve`ty (?), n. Na\'8bvet\'82. Carlyle.


   Nake (?),v.t. To make naked. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Come, be ready, nake your swords. Old Play.


   Na"ked  (?),  a. [AS. nacod; akin to D. naakt, G. nackt, OHG. nacchot,
   nahhot,  Icel. n\'94kvi, nakinn, Sw. naken, Dan. n\'94gen, Goth. naqa,
   Lith. n, Russ. nagii, L. nudus, Skr. nagna. &root;266. Cf. Nude.]

   1.  Having  no  clothes on; uncovered; nude; bare; as, a naked body; a
   naked limb; a naked sword.

   2.   Having   no  means  of  defense  or  protection;  open;  unarmed;

     Thy power is full naked. Chaucer.

     Behold my bosom naked to your swords. Addison.

   3.   Unprovided  with  needful  or  desirable  accessories,  means  of
   sustenance, etc.; destitute; unaided; bare.

     Patriots  who  had exposed themselves for the public, and whom they
     say now left naked. Milton.

   4.  Without  addition,  exaggeration,  or  excuses;  not  concealed or
   disguised; open to view; manifest; plain.

     The  truth  appears  so naked on my side, That any purblind eye may
     find it out. Shak.

     All  things  are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we
     to do. Heb. iv. 13.

   5. Mere; simple; plain.

     The very naked name of love. Shak.

   6.  (Bot.)  Without pubescence; as, a naked leaf or stem; bare, or not
   covered by the customary parts, as a flower without a perianth, a stem
   without leaves, seeds without a pericarp, buds without bud scales.

   7.  (Mus.) Not having the full complement of tones; -- said of a chord
   of only two tones, which requires a third tone to be sounded with them
   to  make  the  combination  pleasing to the ear; as, a naked fourth or
   fifth.<-- = open fourth, fifth? -->
   Naked  bed, a bed the occupant of which is naked, no night linen being
   worn  in  ancient times. Shak. -- Naked eye, the eye alone, unaided by
   glasses,  or  by  telescope,  microscope,  or  the like. -- Naked-eyed
   medusa.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  Hydromedusa.  -- Naked flooring (Carp.), the
   timberwork which supports a floor. Gwilt. -- Naked mollusk (Zo\'94l.),
   a   nudibranch.  --  Naked  wood  (Bot.),  a  large  rhamnaceous  tree
   (Colibrina  reclinata) of Southern Florida and the West Indies, having
   a  hard and heavy heartwood, which takes a fine polish. C. S. Sargent.
   Syn.  --  Nude; bare; denuded; uncovered; unclothed; exposed; unarmed;
   plain; defenseless.


   Na"ked*ly,  adv.  In  a  naked  manner;  without covering or disguise;
   manifestly; simply; barely.


   Na"ked*ness, n.

   1. The condition of being naked.

   2. (Script.) The privy parts; the genitals.

     Ham ... saw the nakedness of his father. Gen. ix. 22.


   Na"ker (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Nacre.


   Na"ker,  n.  [OE.  nakere, F. nakaire, LL. nacara, Per. naq\'beret.] A
   kind of kettledrum. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Na"koo (?), n. [From the native name.] (Zo\'94l.) The gavial. [Written
   also nako.]


   Nale  (?),  n.  [A corrupt form arising from the older "at žen ale" at
   the nale.] Ale; also, an alehouse. [Obs.]

     Great feasts at the nale. Chaucer.


   Nall  (?),  n. [Either fr. Icel. n\'bel (see Needle); or fr. awl, like
   newt fr. ewt.] An awl. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Tusser.


   Nam (?). [Contr. fr. ne am.] Am not. [Obs.]


   Nam, obs. imp. of Nim. Chaucer.


   Nam"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being named.


   Na*ma"tion  (?),  n.  [LL. namare to take; cf. AS. niman to take.] (O.
   Eng.  &  Scots  Law)  A  distraining  or  levying  of  a  distress; an
   impounding. Burrill.


   Nam"ay*cush (?), n. [Indian name.] (Zool.) A large North American lake
   trout  (Salvelinus  namaycush).  It  is  usually spotted with red, and
   sometimes  weighs  over forty pounds. Called also Mackinaw trout, lake
   trout, lake salmon, salmon trout, togue, and tuladi.


   Nam"by-pam`by  (?),  n.  [From  Ambrose  Phillips,  in ridicule of the
   extreme  simplicity  of  some of his verses.] Talk or writing which is
   weakly sentimental or affectedly pretty. Macaulay.


   Nam"by-pam`by,  a.  Affectedly  pretty;  weakly  sentimental; finical;
   insipid. Thackeray.

     Namby-pamby madrigals of love. W. Gifford.

   Page 962


   Name  (?),  n.  [AS.  nama; akin to D. naam, OS. & OHG. namo, G. name,
   Icel.  nafn,  for namn, Dan. navn, Sw. namn, Goth. nam&omac;, L. nomen
   (perh.  influenced  by  noscere,  gnoscere,  to  learn  to  know), Gr.
   'o`mona,  Scr. n\'beman. &root;267. Cf. Anonymous, Ignominy, Misnomer,
   Nominal, Noun.]

   1.  The  title  by which any person or thing is known or designated; a
   distinctive specific appellation, whether of an individual or a class.

     Whatsoever  Adam  called  every  living creature, that was the name
     thereof. Gen. ii. 19. 

     What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would
     smell as sweet. Shak.

   2. A descriptive or qualifying appellation given to a person or thing,
   on account of a character or acts.

     His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The
     everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Is. ix. 6.

   3.  Reputed  character;  reputation,  good  or  bad; estimation; fame;
   especially,  illustrious  character  or  fame;  honorable  estimation;

     What men of name resort to him? Shak.

     Far above ... every name that is named, not only in this world, but
     also in that which is to come. Eph. i. 21.

     I will get me a name and honor in the kingdom. 1 Macc. iii. 14.

     He hath brought up an evil name upon a virgin. Deut. xxii. 19.

     The king's army ...had left no good name behind. Clarendon.

   4. Those of a certain name; a race; a family.

     The  ministers  of  the  republic, mortal enemies of his name, came
     every day to pay their feigned civilities. Motley.

   5. A person, an individual. [Poetic]

     They list with women each degenerate name. Dryden.

   Christian  name.  (a)  The  name  a  person  receives  at  baptism, as
   distinguished  from surname; baptismal name. (b) A given name, whether
   received  at  baptism  or  not.  -- Given name. See under Given. -- In
   name, in profession, or by title only; not in reality; as, a friend in
   name.  --  In  the name of. (a) In behalf of; by the authority of. " I
   charge  you  in  the  duke's  name  to  obey  me."  Shak.  (b)  In the
   represented  or  assumed  character of. " I'll to him again in name of
   Brook."  Shak. -- Name plate, a plate as of metal, glass, etc., having
   a name upon it, as a sign; a doorplate. -- Pen name, a name assumed by
   an  author; a pseudonym or nom de plume. Bayard Taylor. -- Proper name
   (Gram.), a name applied to a particular person, place, or thing. -- To
   call  names,  to apply opprobrious epithets to; to call by reproachful
   appellations.  --  To  take  a  name in vain, to use a name lightly or
   profanely;  to  use  a name in making flippant or dishonest oaths. Ex.
   xx.   7.   Syn.   --   Appellation;   title;   designation;  cognomen;
   denomination; epithet. -- Name, Appellation, Title, Denomination. Name
   is  generic, denoting that combination of sounds or letters by which a
   person  or  thing  is  known  and distinguished. Appellation, although
   sometimes  put  for name simply, denotes, more properly, a descriptive
   term,   used   by  way  of  marking  some  individual  peculiarity  or
   characteristic; as, Charles the Bold, Philip the Stammerer. A title is
   a term employed to point out one's rank, office, etc.; as, the Duke of
   Bedford,  Paul  the Apostle, etc. Denomination is to particular bodies
   what  appellation  is  to  individuals;  thus, the church of Christ is
   divided   into   different   denominations,   as   Congregationalists,
   Episcopalians, Presbyterians, etc.


   Name (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Named (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Naming.] [AS.
   namian. See Name, n.]

   1.  To  give  a  distinctive  name  or  appellation to; to entitle; to
   denominate; to style; to call.

     She named the child Ichabod. 1 Sam. iv. 21.

     Thus  was  the  building  left  Ridiculous,  and the work Confusion
     named. Milton.

   2. To mention by name; to utter or publish the name of; to refer to by
   distinctive title; to mention.

     None named thee but to praise. Halleck.

     Old  Yew,  which  graspest  at  the stones That name the underlying
     dead. Tennyson.

   3.  To designate by name or specifically for any purpose; to nominate;
   to specify; to appoint; as, to name a day for the wedding.

     Whom late you have named for consul. Shak.

   4.  (House of Commons) To designate (a member) by name, as the Speaker
   does  by  way  of reprimand. Syn. -- To denominate; style; term; call;
   mention; specify; designate; nominate.


   Name"less, a.

   1.  Without a name; not having been given a name; as, a nameless star.

   2. Undistinguished; not noted or famous.

     A nameless dwelling and an unknown name. Harte.

   3.  Not  known  or  mentioned  by  name;  anonymous;  as,  a  nameless
   writer."Nameless pens." Atterbury.

   4. Unnamable; indescribable; inexpressible.

     But  what  it  is,  that  is  not  yet  known; what I can not name;
     nameless woe,I wot. Shak.

     I have a nameless horror of the man. Hawthorne.


   Name"less*ly, adv. In a nameless manner.


   Name"ly, adv.

   1.   By   name;   by  particular  mention;  specifically;  especially;
   expressly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     The  solitariness of man ...God hath namely and principally ordered
     to prevent by marriage. Milton.

   2.  That  is to say; to wit; videlicet; -- introducing a particular or
   specific designation.

     For  the  excellency  of  the  soul,  namely, its power of divining
     dreams; that several such divinations have been made, none Addison.


   Nam"er (?), n. One who names, or calls by name.


   Name"sake`  (?), n. [For name's sake; i. e., one named for the sake of
   another's  name.]  One  that has the same name as another; especially,
   one called after, or named out of regard to, another.


   Na*mo" (?), adv. No more. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nan (?), inerj. [For anan.] Anan. [Prov. Eng.]


   Nan"dine  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  African carnivore
   (Nandinia binotata), allied to the civets. It is spotted with black.

                                 Nandou, Nandu

   Nan"dou  (?),  Nan"du  (?), n. [Braz. nhandu or yandu.] (Zo\'94l.) Any
   one  of  three  species of South American ostriches of the genera Rhea
   and Pterocnemia. See Rhea. [Written also nandow.]


   Nan*keen" (?), n. [So called from its being originally manufactured at
   Nankin, in China.] [Written also nankin.]

   1.  A  species  of  cloth,  of a firm texture, originally brought from
   China,  made  of  a  species  of cotton (Gossypium religiosum) that is
   naturally   of  a  brownish  yellow  color  quite  indestructible  and

   2. An imitation of this cloth by artificial coloring.

   3. pl. Trousers made of nankeen. Ld. Lytton.
   Nankeen  bird  (Zo\'94l.),  the  Australian  night  heron  (Nycticorax
   Caledonicus); -- called also quaker.


   Nan"ny  (?),  n.  A  diminutive of Ann or Anne, the proper name. Nanny
   goat, a female goat. [Colloq.]


   Nan"ny*ber`ry (?), n. (Bot.) See Sheepberry.


   Nan"pie (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The magpie.


   Na"os   (?),   n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Arch.)  A  term  used  by  modern
   arch\'91ologists instead of cella. See Cella.


   Nap (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Napped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Napping (?).]
   [OE.  nappen,  AS. hn&ppian to take a nap, to slumber; cf. AS. hnipian
   to bend one's self, Icel. hnipna, hn\'c6pa, to droop.]

   1. To have a short sleep; to be drowsy; to doze. Chaucer.

   2. To be in a careless, secure state. Wyclif.

     I took thee napping, unprepared. Hudibras.


   Nap, n. A short sleep; a doze; a siesta. Cowper.


   Nap,  n.  [OE.  noppe,  AS.  hnoppa;  akin  to D. nop, Dan. noppe, LG.

   1. Woolly or villous surface of felt, cloth, plants, etc.; an external
   covering  of  down,  of short fine hairs or fibers forming part of the
   substance  of anything, and lying smoothly in one direction; the pile;
   -- as, the nap of cotton flannel or of broadcloth.

   2. pl. The loops which are cut to make the pile, in velvet. Knight.


   Nap, v. t. To raise, or put, a nap on.


   Nape  (?),  n. [Perh. akin to knap a knop.] The back part of the neck.


   Nape"-crest`   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  African  bird  of  the  genus
   Schizorhis, related to the plantain eaters.


   Na"per*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Naperies  (#).  [OF.  naperie,  fr.  nape  a
   tablecloth,  F. nappe, LL. napa, fr. L. mappa. See Map, and cf. Apron,
   Napkin.]  Table  linen;  also,  linen  clothing,  or linen in general.
   [Obs.] Gayton.

                                  Napha water

   Na"pha  wa`ter  (?).  [Sp.  nafa,  from  Ar.  napha  odor.]  A perfume
   distilled from orange flowers.


   Na"phew (?), n. (Bot.) See Navew.


   Naph"tha (?), n. [L. naphtha, Gr. nafth, nifth.]

   1.  (Chem.)  The  complex  mixture  of  volatile,  liquid, inflammable
   hydrocarbons, occurring naturally, and usually called crude petroleum,
   mineral oil, or rock oil. Specifically: That portion of the distillate
   obtained  in the refinement of petroleum which is intermediate between
   the  lighter  gasoline  and  the  heavier  benzine, and has a specific
   gravity  of  about  0.7,  --  used  as  a  solvent for varnishes, as a
   carburetant, illuminant, etc.

   2. (Chem.) One of several volatile inflammable liquids obtained by the
   distillation  of  certain  carbonaceous  materials  and resembling the
   naphtha  from  petroleum;  as,  Boghead  naphtha,  from  Boghead  coal
   (obtained  at  Boghead,  Scotland);  crude naphtha, or light oil, from
   coal tar; wood naphtha, from wood, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is term was applied by the earlier chemical writers
     to  a  number  of  volatile,  strong smelling, inflammable liquids,
     chiefly  belonging  to  the  ethers,  as  the sulphate, nitrate, or
     acetate of ethyl.

   Watts.  Naphtha vitrioli [NL., naphtha of vitriol] (Old Chem.), common
   ethyl ether; -- formerly called sulphuric ether. See Ether.


   Naph"tha*late  (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of naphthalic acid; a phthalate.


   Naph"tha*lene   (?),   n.   (Chem.)   A   white  crystalline  aromatic
   hydrocarbon,   C10H8,  analogous  to  benzene,  and  obtained  by  the
   distillation of certain bituminous materials, such as the heavy oil of
   coal  tar.  It  is the type and basis of a large number of derivatives
   among organic compounds. Formerly called also naphthaline. Naphthalene
   red  (Chem.),  a  dyestuff  obtained from certain diazo derivatives of
   naphthylamine,  and  called  also  magdala  red. -- Naphthalene yellow
   (Chem.),  a yellow dyestuff obtained from certain nitro derivatives of


   Naph`tha*len"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to  , or derived from,
   naphthalene;  --  used  specifically to designate a yellow crystalline
   substance,  called  naphthalenic  acid  and  also hydroxy quinone, and
   obtained from certain derivatives of naphthol.


   Naph*tha"lic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  (a)  Pertaining  to, derived from, or
   related  to,  naphthalene; -- used specifically to denote any one of a
   series  of  acids  derived  from  naphthalene,  and called naphthalene
   acids.  (b)  Formerly,  designating  an  acid  probably identical with
   phthalic acid.


   Naph*thal"i*dine  (?),  n.  [Naphthalene + toluidine.] (Chem.) Same as

                            Naphthalin, Naphthaline

   Naph"tha*lin  (?), Naph"tha*line (?), n. [F. naphthaline.] (Chem.) See


   Naph"tha*lize  (?),  v. t. (Chem.) To mingle, saturate, or impregnate,
   with naphtha.


   Naph*thaz"a*rin  (?), n. [Naphthalene + alizarin.] (Chem.) A dyestuff,
   resembling alizarin, obtained from naphthoquinone as a red crystalline
   substance  with  a  bright  green,  metallic  luster;  --  called also


   Naph"thene  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  peculiar  hydrocarbon occuring as an
   ingredient of Caucasian petroleum.


   Naph"thide  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A compound of naphthalene or its radical
   with a metallic element; as, mercuric naphthide.


   Naph*tho"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or related
   to, naphthalene; -- used specifically to designate any one of a series
   of carboxyl derivatives, called naphthoic acids.


   Naph"thol  (?), n. [Naphthalene + -ol.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of
   hydroxyl  derivatives  of naphthalene, analogous to phenol. In general
   they  are  crystalline  substances  with  a  phenol  (carbolic)  odor.
   Naphthol  blue,  Naphthol  orange,  Naphthol yellow (Chem.), brilliant
   dyestuffs  produced  from  certain  complex nitrogenous derivatives of
   naphthol or naphthoquinone.


   Naph`tho*qui"none  (?),  n.  [Naphthalene + quinone.] (Chem.) A yellow
   crystalline  substance,  C10H6O2,  analogous  to  quinone, obtained by
   oxidizing naphthalene with chromic acid.


   Naph"thyl  (?),  n. [Naphthalene + -yl.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon radical
   regarded as the essential residue of naphthalene.


   Naph`thyl*am"ine (?), n. (Chem.) One of two basic amido derivatives of
   naphthalene, C10H7.NH2, forming crystalline solids.

                              Napierian, Naperian

   Na*pie"ri*an,  Na*pe"ri*an  , (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or discovered
   by, Napier, or Naper. Naperian logarithms. See under Logarithms.

                         Napier's bones, Napier's rods

   Na"pi*er's  bones`  (?),  Na"pi*er's rods` (?). A set of rods, made of
   bone  or other material, each divided into nine spaces, and containing
   the  numbers of a column of the multiplication table; -- a contrivance
   of  Baron  Napier,  the  inventor  of logarithms, for facilitating the
   operations of multiplication and division.


   Na"pi*form  (?),  a.  [L.  napus turnip + -form: cf. F. napiforme. Cf.
   Navew.]  (Bot.)  Turnip-shaped; large and round in the upper part, and
   very slender below.


   Nap"kin  (?),  n.  [Dim. of OF. nape a tablecloth, cloth, F. nappe, L.
   mappa. See Napery.]

   1. A little towel, or small cloth, esp. one for wiping the fingers and
   mouth at table.

   2. A handkerchief. [Obs.] Shak.
   Napkin  pattern. See Linen scroll, under Linen. -- Napkin ring, a ring
   of metal, ivory, or other material, used to inclose a table napkin.<--
   paper napkin, a disposable napkin made of paper. -->


   Nap"less, a. Without nap; threadbare. Shak.

                                 Naples yellow

   Na"ples yel"low (?). See under Yellow.


   Na*po"le*on  (?), n. [From the Emperor Napoleon 1.] A French gold coin
   of twenty francs, or about $3.86.


   Na*po`le*on"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Napoleon I., or his family;
   resembling, or having the qualities of, Napoleon I. Lowell.


   Na*po"le*on*ist (?), n. A supporter of the dynasty of the Napoleons.


   Nappe  (?),  n.  [F.  nappe  cloth, sheet. See Napery.] (Geom.) Sheet;
   surface;  all  that  portion of a surface that is continuous in such a
   way  that  it is possible to pass from any one point of the portion to
   any other point of the portion without leaving the surface. Thus, some
   hyperboloids have one nappe, and some have two.


   Nap"pi*ness  (?),  n.  [From  2d  Nappy.] The quality of having a nap;
   abundance of nap, as on cloth.


   Nap"ping (?), n.

   1. The act or process of raising a nap, as on cloth.

   2. (Hat Making) A sheet of partially felted fur before it is united to
   the hat body. Knight.


   Nap"py (?), a. [From 1st Nap.]

   1. Inclined to sleep; sleepy; as, to feel nappy.

   2. Tending to cause sleepiness; serving to make sleepy; strong; heady;
   as, nappy ale. [Obs.] Wyatt.


   Nap"py,  a.  [From  3d  Nap.]  Having  a  nap  or pile; downy; shaggy.


   Nap"py,  n.;  pl.  Nappies  (#).  [OE. nap, AS. hn\'91p cup, bowl. See
   Hanaper.]  A round earthen dish, with a flat bottom and sloping sides.
   [Written also nappie.]


   Nap"-tak`ing  (?),  n.  A  taking  by surprise; an unexpected onset or
   attack. Carew.


   Na*pu"  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A very small chevrotain
   (Tragulus  Javanicus), native of Java. It is about the size of a hare,
   and  is  noted for its agility in leaping. Called also Java musk deer,
   pygmy musk deer, and deerlet.


   Na"pus (?), n. [L.] (Bot.) A kind of turnip. See Navew.


   Nar"ce*ine  (?),  n.  [L. narce numbness, torpor, Gr. narc\'82\'8bne.]
   (Chem.)  An alkaloid found in small quantities in opium, and extracted
   as a white crystalline substance of a bitter astringent taste. It is a
   narcotic. Called also narceia.


   Nar*cis"sine (?), a. Of or pertaining to Narcissus.


   Nar*cis"sus   (?),   n.;  pl.  Narcissuses  (#).  [L.  narcissus,  and
   (personified)   Narcissus,  Gr.  na`rkissos,  Na`rkissos,  fr.  na`rkh
   torpor,  in  allusion  to  the  narcotic properties of the flower. Cf.

   1.  (Bot.) A genus of endogenous bulbous plants with handsome flowers,
   having   a   cup-shaped  crown  within  the  six-lobed  perianth,  and
   comprising the daffodils and jonquils of several kinds.

   2. (Classical Myth.) A beautiful youth fabled to have been enamored of
   his own image as seen in a fountain, and to have been changed into the
   flower called Narcissus.


   Nar*co"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. na`rkwsis. See Narcotic.] (Med.)
   Privation of sense or consciousness, due to a narcotic.


   Nar*cot"ic  (?),  a.  [F.  narcotique,  Gr.  na`rkh numbness, torpor.]
   (Med.)  Having  the properties of a narcotic; operating as a narcotic.
   -- Nar*cot"ic*ness, n.

   Page 963


   Nar*cot"ic  (?), n. (Med.) A drug which, in medicinal doses, generally
   allays  morbid  susceptibility, relieves pain, and produces sleep; but
   which, in poisonous doses, produces stupor, coma, or convulsions, and,
   when given in sufficient quantity, causes death. The best examples are
   opium (with morphine), belladonna (with atropine), and conium.

     Nercotykes and opye (opium) of Thebes. Chaucer.


   Nar*cot"ic*al (?), a. Narcotic. -- Nar*cot"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Nar"co*tine  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  narcotine. Cf. Cotarnine.] (Chem.) An
   alkaloid  found  in  opium,  and  extracted  as  a  white  crystalline
   substance,  tasteless and less poisonous than morphine; -- called also


   Nar`co*tin"ic (?), a. Pertaining to narcotine.


   Nar"co*tism  (?), n. [Cf. F. narcotisme.] Narcosis; the state of being
   narcotized. G. Eliot.


   Nar"co*tize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Narcotized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Narcotizing  (?).]  To  imbue  with, or subject to the influence of, a
   narcotic; to put into a state of narcosis.


   Nard  (?),  n.  [AS.,  fr.  L.  nardus,  Gr.  n\'88rd, Per. nard, Scr.

   1.  (Bot.)  An  East  Indian  plant  (Nardostachys  Jatamansi)  of the
   Valerian family, used from remote ages in Oriental perfumery.

   2. An ointment prepared partly from this plant. See Spikenard.

   3.  (Bot.)  A kind of grass (Nardus stricta) of little value, found in
   Europe and Asia.


   Nard"ine  (?),  a.  [L. nardinus, Gr. Of or pertaining to nard; having
   the qualities of nard.


   Nar*doo"  (?), n. (Bot.) An Australian name for Marsilea Drummondii, a
   four-leaved cryptogamous plant, sometimes used for food.


   Nare (?), n. [L. naris.] A nostril. [R.] B. Jonson.


   Na"res (?), n. pl. [L., pl. of naris nostril.] (Anat.) The nostrils or
   nasal  openings,  --  the  anterior nares being the external or proper
   nostrils,  and the posterior nares, the openings of the nasal cavities
   into the mouth or pharynx.

                               Nargile, Nargileh

   Nar"gile  (?),  Nar"gi*leh  (?),  n.  [Per.  n\'bergh\'c6l,  prop.,  a
   cocoanut;  prob.  so  called  because  first  made  of a cocoanut.] An
   apparatus  for  smoking  tobacco. It has a long flexible tube, and the
   smoke is drawn through water.


   Nar"i*ca (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The brown coati. See Coati.


   Nar"i*form  (?),  a. [L. naris nostril + -form. See Nose.] Formed like
   the nose.


   Nar"ine (?), a. Of or belonging to the nostrils.


   Nar"ra*ble (?), a. [L. narrabilis, fr. narrare to narrate.] Capable of
   being narrated or told. [Obs.]


   Nar`ra*gan"setts  (?), n. pl.; sing. Narragansett (. (Ethnol.) A tribe
   of Indians who formerly inhabited the shores of Narragansett Bay.


   Nar*rate"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Narrated;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Narrating.]  [L.  narratus,  p.  p.  of  narrare to narrate, prob. for
   gnarigare,  fr.  gnarus knowing. See Ignore, Know.] To tell, rehearse,
   or  recite,  as  a  story; to relate the particulars of; to go through
   with  in detail, as an incident or transaction; to give an account of.
   Syn. -- To relate; recount; detail; describe.


   Nar*ra"tion (?), n. [L. narratio: cf. F. narration.]

   1.  The  act  of  telling  or  relating  the  particulars of an event;
   rehearsal; recital.

   2.  That  which  is  related;  the relation in words or writing of the
   particulars  of  any  transaction  or  event,  or  of  any  series  of
   transactions or events; story; history.

   3. (Rhet.) That part of a discourse which recites the time, manner, or
   consequences  of  an action, or simply states the facts connected with
   the   subject.   Syn.   --   Account;  recital;  rehearsal;  relation;
   description; explanation; detail; narrative; story; tale; history. See


   Nar"ra*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. narratif.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining to narration; relating to the particulars of an
   event or transaction.

   2.  Apt  or  inclined  to  relate  stories,  or to tell particulars of
   events; story-telling; garrulous.

     But wise through time, and narrative with age. Pope.


   Nar"ra*tive,  n.  That  which  is  narrated; the recital of a story; a
   continuous  account  of  the particulars of an event or transaction; a

     Cyntio was much taken with my narrative. Tatler.

   Syn. -- Account; recital; rehearsal; relation; narration; story; tale.
   See Account.


   Nar"ra*tive*ly, adv. In the style of narration.


   Nar*ra"tor  (?), n. [L.] One who narrates; one who relates a series of
   events or transactions.


   Nar"ra*to*ry  (?),  a.  Giving  an  account  of events; narrative; as,
   narratory letters. Howell.


   Narre (?), a.Nearer. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Nar"row (?), a. [Compar. Narrower (?); superl. Narrowest.] [OE. narwe,
   naru, AS. nearu; akin to OS. naru, naro.]

   1.  Of  little breadth; not wide or broad; having little distance from
   side to side; as, a narrow board; a narrow street; a narrow hem.

     Hath passed in safety through the narrow seas. Shak.

   2. Of little extent; very limited; circumscribed.

     The  Jews were but a small nation, and confined to a narrow compass
     in the world. Bp. Wilkins.

   3.  Having  but a little margin; having barely sufficient space, time,
   or  number, etc.; close; near; -- with special reference to some peril
   or  misfortune; as, a narrow shot; a narrow escape; a narrow majority.

   4.   Limited   as   to   means;   straitened;   pinching;  as,  narrow

   5.  Contracted;  of  limited  scope;  illiberal; bigoted; as, a narrow
   mind; narrow views. "A narrow understanding." Macaulay.

   6. Parsimonious; niggardly; covetous; selfish.

     A very narrow and stinted charity. Smalridge.

   7. Scrutinizing in detail; close; accurate; exact.

     But  first with narrow search I must walk round This garden, and no
     corner leave unspied. Milton.

   8. (Phon.) Formed (as a vowel) by a close position of some part of the
   tongue  in  relation  to the palate; or (according to Bell) by a tense
   condition of the pharynx; -- distinguished from wide; as \'c7 (\'c7ve)
   and   &oomac;   (f&oomac;d),  etc.,  from  \'cc  (\'ccll)  and  &oocr;
   (f&oocr;t), etc. See Guide to Pronunciation, § 13.

     NOTE: &hand; Na  rrow is   no t un frequently pr efixed to  wo rds,
     especially  to  participles  and  adjectives,  forming compounds of
     obvious   signification;   as,   narrow-bordered,   narrow-brimmed,
     narrow-breasted,    narrow-edged,    narrow-faced,   narrow-headed,
     narrow-leaved, narrow-pointed, narrow-souled, narrow-sphered, etc.

   Narrow gauge. (Railroad) See Note under Gauge, n., 6.


   Nar"row  (?),  n.; pl. Narrows (. A narrow passage; esp., a contracted
   part  of  a  stream,  lake,  or sea; a strait connecting two bodies of
   water; -- usually in the plural; as, The Narrows of New York harbor.

     Near  the  island  lay  on one side the jaws of a dangerous narrow.


   Nar"row, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Narrowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Narrowing.]
   [AS. nearwian.]

   1.  To  lessen  the  breadth  of;  to contract; to draw into a smaller
   compass; to reduce the width or extent of. Sir W. Temple.

   2.  To  contract  the reach or sphere of; to make less liberal or more
   selfish;  to limit; to confine; to restrict; as, to narrow one's views
   or knowledge; to narrow a question in discussion.

     Our  knowledge is much more narrowed if we confine ourselves to our
     own solitary reasonings. I. Watts.

   3.  (Knitting)  To  contract the size of, as a stocking, by taking two
   stitches into one.


   Nar"row, v. i.

   1.  To become less broad; to contract; to become narrower; as, the sea
   narrows into a strait.

   2.  (Man.)  Not to step out enough to the one hand or the other; as, a
   horse narrows. Farrier's Dict.

   3.  (Knitting)  To  contract  the  size  of  a  stocking or other knit
   article, by taking two stitches into one.


   Nar"row*er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or  that which, narrows or contracts.
   Hannah More.


   Nar"row*ing, n.

   1. The act of contracting, or of making or becoming less in breadth or

   2. The part of a stocking which is narrowed.


   Nar"row*ly, adv. [AS. nearulice.]

   1. With little breadth; in a narrow manner.

   2. Without much extent; contractedly.

   3.  With  minute  scrutiny; closely; as, to look or watch narrowly; to
   search narrowly.

   4. With a little margin or space; by a small distance; hence, closely;
   hardly;  barely;  only  just;  --  often  with reference to an avoided
   danger or misfortune; as, he narrowly escaped.

   5. Sparingly; parsimoniously. <-- construe narrowly? -->


   Nar"row-mind`ed  (?),  a.  Of narrow mental scope; illiberal; mean. --
   Nar"row-mind`ed*ness, n.


   Nar"row*ness,  n.  [AS.  nearunes.]  The condition or quality of being


   Nart (?). [For ne art.] Art not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nar"thex (?), n. [L., giant fennel, Gr.

   1.  (Bot.)  A  tall  umbelliferous  plant (Ferula communis). See Giant
   fennel, under Fennel.

   2.  (Arch.)  The  portico in front of ancient churches; sometimes, the
   atrium  or outer court surrounded by ambulatories; -- used, generally,
   for  any  vestibule,  lobby,  or outer porch, leading to the nave of a


   Nar"wal (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Narwhal.


   Nar"we (?), a. Narrow. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nar"whal  (?),  n. [Sw. or Dan. narvhal; akin to Icel. n\'behvalr, and
   E.  whale.  the first syllable is perh. from Icel. n\'ber corpse, dead
   body,  in allusion to the whitish color its skin. See Whale.] [Written
   also  narwhale.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An arctic cetacean (Monodon monocerous),
   about  twenty  feet  long.  The  male  usually  has one long, twisted,
   pointed  canine  tooth,  or tusk projecting forward from the upper jaw
   like  a  horn, whence it is called also sea unicorn, unicorn fish, and
   unicorn whale. Sometimes two horns are developed, side by side.


   Nas (?). [For ne was.] Was not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nas. [Contr. fr. ne has.] Has not. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Na"sal (?), a. [F., from L. nasus the nose. See Nose.]

   1. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the nose.

   2.  (Phon.)  Having  a  quality  imparted  by  means  of the nose; and
   specifically,  made  by  lowering  the soft palate, in some cases with
   closure  of  the  oral  passage,  the  voice  thus  issuing (wholly or
   partially)  through the nose, as in the consonants m, n, ng (see Guide
   to Pronunciation, §§ 20, 208); characterized by resonance in the nasal
   passage; as, a nasal vowel; a nasal utterance.
   Nasal bones (Anat.), two bones of the skull, in front of the frontals.
   --  Nasal index (Anat.), in the skull, the ratio of the transverse the
   base  of the aperture to the nasion, which latter distance is taken as
   the standard, equal to 100.


   Na"sal, n.

   1.  An  elementary sound which is uttered through the nose, or through
   both the nose and the mouth simultaneously.

   2.  (Med.)  A  medicine  that  operates  through the nose; an errhine.

   3.  (Anc.  Armor)  Part  of a helmet projecting to protect the nose; a
   nose guard.

   4. (Anat.) One of the nasal bones.

   5. (Zo\'94l.) A plate, or scale, on the nose of a fish, etc.


   Na*sal"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  nasalit\'82.] The quality or state of
   being nasal.


   Na`sal*i*za"tion  (?), n. The act of nasalizing, or the state of being


   Na"sal*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Nasalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nasalizing (?).] To render nasal, as sound; to insert a nasal or sound


   Na"sal*ize,  v.  t.  To  utter words or letters with a nasal sound; to
   speak through the nose.


   Na"sal*ly, adv. In a nasal manner; by the nose.


   Nas"cal  (?),  n.  [F. nascale.] (Med.) A kind of pessary of medicated
   wool or cotton, formerly used.


   Nas"cen*cy  (?),  n.  [L.  nascentia.  See  Nascent.]  State  of being
   nascent; birth; beginning; origin.


   Nas"cent  (?),  a.  [L.  nascens,  -entis, p.pr. nasci to be born. See
   Nation, and cf. Naissant.]

   1.  Commencing, or in process of development; beginning to exist or to
   grow; coming into being; as, a nascent germ.

     Nascent passions and anxieties. Berkley.

   2. (Chem.) Evolving; being evolved or produced.
   Nascent  state  (Chem.), the supposed instantaneous or momentary state
   of  an  uncombined  atom  or  radical just separated from one compound
   acid,  and  not  yet  united with another, -- a hypothetical condition
   implying  peculiarly  active  chemical properties; as, hydrogen in the
   nascent state is a strong reducer.


   Nase"ber`ry  (?),  n.  [Sp.  nispero medlar and naseberry tree, fr. L.
   mespilus.  See  Medlar.]  (Bot.)  A  tropical  fruit.  See  Sapodilla.
   [Written also nisberry.]


   Nash  (?),  a.  [Etymol.  uncertain.] Firm; stiff; hard; also, chilly.
   [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Nas`i*cor"nous (?), a. [L. nasus nose + cornu horn: cf. F. nasicorne.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Bearing a horn, or horns, on the nose, as the rhinoceros.


   Nas"i*form  (?),  a.  [L.  nasus  nose  +  -form.  See  Nose,  and cf.
   Nariform.] Having the shape of a nose.


   Na*si*on (?), n. [Nl., fr. L. nasus nose.] (Anat.) The middle point of
   the nasofrontal suture.


   Na"so-   (.  [L.  nasus  nose.]  (Anat.)  A  combining  form  denoting
   pertaining to, or connected with, the nose; as, nasofrontal.


   Na"so*buc"cal (?), a. [Naso + buccal.] (Anat.) Connected with both the
   nose and the mouth; as, the nasobuccal groove in the skate.


   Na`so*fron"tal  (?), a. [Naso- + frontal.] (Anat.) of or pertaining to
   the  nose  and  the  front  of the head; as, the embryonic nasofrontal
   process which forms the anterior boundary of the mouth.


   Na`so*lach"ry*mal  (?), a. [Naso- + lachrymal.] (Anat.) Connected with
   the  lachrymal  apparatus  and  the  nose;  as,  the nasolachrymal, or
   lachrymal duct.

                           Nasopalatal, Nasopalatine

   Na`so*pal"a*tal  (?),  Na`so*pal"a*tine  (?),  a.  [Naso-  + palatal.]
   (Anat.)  Connected  with  both  the  nose  and  the  palate;  as,  the
   nasopalatine  or  incisor,  canal  connecting  the mouth and the nasal
   chamber in some animals; the nasopalatine nerve.


   Na`so*phar`yn*ge"al  (?  OR  ,  a. [Naso- + pharyngeal.] (Anat.) Of or
   pertaining to both throat and nose; as, a nasopharyngeal polypus.


   Na`so*sep"tal  (?),  a.  [Naso- + septal.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to
   the internasal septum.


   Na`so*tur"bi*nal  (?),  a. [Naso- + turbinal.] (Anat.) Connected with,
   or  near, both the turbinal and the nasal bones; as, the nasalturbinal
   bone,  made  up  of the uppermost lammel\'91 of the ethmoturbinal, and
   sometimes united with the nasal. -- n. The nasoturbinal bone.


   Nas"sa  (?),  n.; pl. E. Nassas (#), L. Nass\'92 (#). [From L. nassa a
   kind  of  basket,  in  allusion  to the reticulation of some species.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  species  of  marine  gastropods, of the genera Nassa,
   Tritia, and other allied genera of the family Nassid\'91; a dog whelk.
   See Illust. under Gastropoda. -- nas"soid (#), a.


   Nas"ti*ly (?), adv. In a nasty manner.


   Nas"ti*ness,   n.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  nasty;  extreme
   filthness; dirtiness; also, indecency; obscenity.

     The nastiness of Plautus and Aristophanes. Dryden.


   Nas*tur"tion (?), n. [See Nasturtium.] (Bot.) Same as Nasturtium.


   Nas*tur"tium (?), n. [L. nasturtium, for nasitortium, fr. nasus nose +
   torquere, tortum, to twist, torture, in allusion to the causing one to
   make  a  wry  face  by  its  pungent  taste. See Nose of the face, and

   1.  (Bot.)  A  genus  of cruciferous plants, having white or yellowish
   flowers, including several species of cress. They are found chiefly in
   wet or damp grounds, and have a pungent biting taste.

   2.  (Bot.)  Any  plant  of the genus Trop\'91olum, geraniaceous herbs,
   having mostly climbing stems, peltate leaves, and spurred flowers, and
   including   the   common   Indian   cress  (Trop\'91olum  majus),  the
   canary-bird flower (T. peregrinum), and about thirty more species, all
   natives  of  South America. The whole plant has a warm pungent flavor,
   and  the  fleshy fruits are used as a substitute for capers, while the
   leaves and flowers are sometimes used in salads.

   Page 964


   Nas"ty  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Nastier  (;  superl. Nastiest.] [For older
   nasky; cf. dial. Sw. naskug, nasket.]

   1.  Offensively  filthy;  very  dirty,  foul,  or defiled; disgusting;

   2.   Hence,   loosely:  Offensive;  disagreeable;  unpropitious;  wet;
   drizzling; as, a nasty rain, day, sky.

   3.  Characterized  by  obcenity;  indecent; indelicate; gross; filthy.
   Syn.  --  Nasty, Filthy, Foul, Dirty. Anything nasty is usually wet or
   damp  as  well  as  filthy  or dirty, and disgusts by its stickness or
   odor; but filthy and foul imply that a thing is filled or covered with
   offensive  matter, while dirty describes it as defiled or sullied with
   dirt of any kind; as, filthy clothing, foul vapors, etc.


   Na"sute (?), a. [L. nasutus, fr. nasus the nose.]

   1. Having a nice sense of smell. [Obs.] Evelyn.

   2. Critically nice; captious. [Obs.] auden.


   Na"sut*ness,   n.   Quickness   of  scent;  hence,  nice  discernment;
   acuteness. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


   Nat (?), adv. Not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nat [For ne at.] Not at; nor at. [Obs.] haucer.


   Na"tal  (?),  a. [L. natalis, fr. natus, p.p. of nasci to be born: cf.
   F. natal. See Nation, and cf. Noel.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining to one's birth; accompying or dating from one's
   birth; native.

     Princes' children took names from their natal places. Camden.

     Propitious  star,  whose  sacred  power Presided o'er the monarch's
     natal hour. Prior.

   2.  (Actrol.) Presiding over nativity; as, natal Jove. Syn. -- Native,
   natural. See Native.

                            Natalitial, Natalitious

   Na`ta*li"tial   (?),  Na`ta*li"tious  (?),  a.  [L.  natalitius,  from
   natalis.  See  Natal.] Of or pertaining to one's birth or birthday, or
   one's  nativity.  [Obs.]  "Natalitial  poplar."  Evelyn.  "Natalitious
   fire." W. Cartwright.


   Na*tal"o*in  (?),  n. [From Natal aloes.] (Chem.) A bitter crystalline
   substance  constituting  the  essential  principle of Natal aloes. Cf.

                                  Natal plum

   Na*tal"  plum`  (?).  (Bot.) The drupaceous fruit of two South African
   shrubs of the genus Arduina (A. bispinosa and A. grandiflora).


   Na"tals  (?),  n.  pl. One's birth, or the circumstances attending it.
   [Obs.] Fitz-Geffry.


   Na"tant  (?), a. [L. natans, -antis, from swim, v. intens. fr. nare to
   swim: cf. F. natant.]

   1.  (Bot.)  Floating  in  water,  as  the  leaves  of water lilies, or
   submersed, as those of many aquatic plants.

   2.  (Her.) Placed horizontally across the field, as if swimmimg toward
   the dexter side; said of all sorts of fishes except the flying fish.


   Na"tant*ly (?), adv. In a floating manner; swimmingly.


   Na*ta"tion  (?),  n. [L. natatio, fr. natare to swim: cf. F. natation.
   See  Natant.]  The  act  of  floating  on  the water; swimming. Sir T.


   Na`ta*to"res  (?),  n.  pl.  [L.  natator  a  swimmer.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   swimming birds.

     NOTE: &hand; They were formerly united into one order, which is now
     considered an artifical group.


   Na`ta*to"rial  (?),  a.  Inclined  or  adapted  to swim; swimming; as,
   natatorial birds.


   Na`ta*to"ri*ous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.) Adapted for swimming; -- said of
   the legs of certain insects.


   Na`ta*to"rium (?), n. [L.] A swimming bath.


   Na"ta*to*ry (?), a. [L. natatorius.] Adapted for swimming or floating;
   as, natatory organs.


   Natch  (?),  n.  [OF. nache fesse, LL. natica, from L. natis the rump,
   buttocks.  Cf.  Aitchbone.] The rump of beef; esp., the lower and back
   part of the rump. Natch bone, the edgebone, or aitchbone, in beef.


   Natch"ez  (?),  n. pl. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians who formerly lived
   near  the  site of the city of Natchez, Mississippi. In 1729 they were
   subdued by the French; the survivors joined the Creek Confederacy.


   Natch"nee   (?),  n.  (Bot.)  An  annual  grass  (Eleusine  coracona),
   cultivated in India as a food plant.


   Na"tes (?), n. pl. [L., the buttocks.]

   1. (Anat.) (a) The buttocks. (b) The two anterior of the four lobes on
   the  dorsal  side  of the midbrain of most mammals; the anterior optic

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The umbones of a bivalve shell.


   Nath (?). [Contr. fr. ne hath,] hath not. [Obs.]


   Nath"less (?), adv. [OE. natheles, na the les, not the less, AS. n\'be
   never.  See  Na,  The,  conj.,  and  cf.  Nevertheless.] Nevertheless.
   [Archaic] Chaucer. Milton. E. Arnold.


   Nath"more`  (?), adv. [OE. na the more.] Not the more; never the more.
   [Obs.] penser.


   Nat"i*ca (?), n.; pl. Naticas (, L. Natic\'92 (. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of
   numerous  species  of  marine gastropods belonging to Natica, Lunatia,
   Neverita,  and  other  allied genera (family Naticid\'91.) They burrow
   beneath the sand, or mud, and drill other shells.


   Nat"i*coid  (?),  a.  [Natica + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like or belonging to
   Natica, or the family Natic\'91.


   Na"tion  (?),  n.  [F.  nation,  L. natio nation, race, orig., a being
   born,  fr.  natus,  p.p. of nasci, to be born, for gnatus, gnaci, from
   the  same  root  as  E. kin. \'fb44. See Kin kindred, and cf. Cognate,
   Natal, Native.]

   1.  (Ethnol.)  A  part,  or  division,  of  the  people  of the earth,
   distinguished   from   the   rest  by  common  descent,  language,  or
   institutions; a race; a stock.

     All nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues. Rev. vii. 9.

   2.  The  body of inhabitants of a country, united under an independent
   government of their own.

     A nation is the unity of a people. Coleridge.

     Praise  the  power  that hath made and preserved us a nation. F. S.

   3. Family; lineage. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   4. (a) One of the divisions of university students in a classification
   according   to  nativity,  formerly  common  in  Europe.  (b)  (Scotch
   Universities)  One  of  the  four  divisions  (named from the parts of
   Scotland)  in  which  students  were  classified  according  to  their

   5.  A  great number; a great deal; -- by way of emphasis; as, a nation
   of herbs. Sterne.
   Five  nations.  See  under  Five. -- Law of nations. See International
   law, under International, and Law. Syn. -- people; race. See People.


   Na"tion*al (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. national.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to a nation; common to a whole people or race;
   public;  general;  as, a national government, language, dress, custom,
   calamity, etc.

   2. Attached to one's own country or nation.
   National  anthem,  a  popular song or hymn which has become by general
   acceptance   the   recognized  musical  expression  of  the  patriotic
   sentiment  of a nation; as, "God save the King" is called the national
   anthem  of  England.  --  National bank, the official common name of a
   class of banking corporations established under the laws of the United
   States. -- National flag. See under Flag. -- National guard, a body of
   militia,  or  a  local  military  organization, as in Paris during the
   French  Revolution,  or as certain bodies of militia in other European
   countries  and  in  the  United  States.  -- National salute, a salute
   consisting of as many guns as there are States in the Union. [U.S.]


   Na"tion*al*ism (?), n.

   1. The state of being national; national attachment; nationality.

   2. An idiom, trait, or character peculiar to any nation.

   3. National independence; the principles of the Nationalists.


   Na"tion*al*ist,  n. One who advocates national unity and independence;
   one of a party favoring Irish independence.


   Na`tion*al"i*ty    (?),   n.;   pl.   Nationalities   (#).   [Cf.   F.

   1.  The  quality  of being national, or strongly attached to one's own
   nation; patriotism.

   2.  The  sum  of  the  qualities  which distinguish a nation; national

   3.  A  race or people, as determined by common language and character,
   and not by political bias or divisions; a nation.

     the fulfillment of his mission is to be looked for in the condition
     of nationalities and the character of peoples. H. W. Beecher.

   4.  Existence  as  a distinct or individual nation; national unity and

   5.  The  state  or  quality  of belonging to or being connected with a
   nation  or  government  by nativity, character, ownership, allegiance,


   Na`tion*al*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of nationalizing, or the state of
   being nationalized.


   Na"tion*al*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nationalized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Nationalizing  (?).]  [Cf.  F. nationaliser.] To make national; to
   make  a nation of; to endow with the character and habits of a nation,
   or the peculiar sentiments and attachment of citizens of a nation.


   Na"tion*al*ly,  adv.  In  a  national manner or way; as a nation. "The
   jews ... being nationally espoused to God by covenant." South.


   Na"tion*al*ness,   n.   The   quality  or  state  of  being  national;
   nationality. Johnson.


   Na"tive  (?),  a.  [F.  natif,  L. nativus, fr. nasci, p.p. natus. See
   Nation, and cf. Na\'8bve, Nelf a serf.]

   1. Arising by birth; having an origin; born. [Obs.]

     Anaximander's  opinion  is,  that  the  gods are native, rising and
     vanishing again in long periods of times. Cudworth.

   2.  Of  or pertaining to one's birth; natal; belonging to the place or
   the  circumstances  in  which  one is born; -- opposed to foreign; as,
   native land, language, color, etc.

   3.  Born  in  the  region in which one lives; as, a native inhabitant,
   race;  grown  or  originating  in  the  region where used or sold; not
   foreign  or  imported;  as, native oysters, or strawberries.<-- latter
   sense = domestic -->

   4.  Original;  constituting  the  original  substance of anything; as,
   native dust. Milton.

   5.  Conferred  by birth; derived from origin; born with one; inherent;
   inborn;  not  acquired;  as,  native genius, cheerfulness, simplicity,
   rights, etc. <-- congenital, hereditary. -->

     Courage is native to you. Jowett (Thucyd. ).

   6. Naturally related; cognate; connected (with). [R.]

     the head is not more native to the heart, ... Than is the throne of
     Denmark to thy father. Shak.

   7.  (Min.)  (a)  Found  in  nature uncombined with other elements; as,
   native  silver.  (b) Found in nature; not artificial; as native sodium
   Native   American  party.  See  under  American,  a.  --  Native  bear
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  koala.  --  Native bread (Bot.), a large underground
   fungus,  of  Australia  (Mylitta  australis),  somewhat  resembling  a
   truffle,  but  much  larger.  --  Native  devil.  (Zo\'94l.)  Same  as
   Tasmanian  devil, under Devil. -- Native hen (Zo\'94l.), an Australian
   rail  (Tribonyx Mortierii). -- Native pheasant. (Zo\'94l.) See Leipoa.
   --  Native  rabbit  (Zo\'94l.),  an  Australian  marsupial  (Perameles
   lagotis)  resembling  a  rabbit  in  size  and  form.  -- Native sloth
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  koala.  --  Native  thrush (Zo\'94l.), an Australian
   singing  bird  (Pachycephala  olivacea);  -- called also thickhead. --
   Native   turkey   (Zo\'94l.),   the   Australian   bustard  (Choriotis
   australis);  -- called also bebilya. Syn. -- Natural; natal; original;
   congential. -- Native, Natural, Natal. natural refers to the nature of
   a  thing,  or  that which springs therefrom; native, to one's birth or
   origin;   as,   a  native  country,  language,  etc.;  natal,  to  the
   circumstances  of one's birth; as, a natal day, or star. Native talent
   is that which is inborn; natural talent is that which springs from the
   structure of the mind. Native eloquence is the result of strong innate
   emotion;  natural  eloquence  is  opposed  to that which is studied or


   Na"tive (?), n.

   1.  One who, or that which, is born in a place or country referred to;
   a  denizen  by  birth; an animal, a fruit, or vegetable, produced in a
   certain region; as, a native of France.

   2.  (Stock  Breeding)  Any  of  the  live  stock found in a region, as
   distinguished  from  such  as  belong  to  pure  and distinct imported
   breeds. [U.S.]


   Na"tive*ly,   adv.   By  natural  or  original  condition;  naturally;


   Na"tive*ness, n. The quality or state of being native.


   Na"tiv*ism (?), n.

   1.  The  disposition  to favor the native inhabitants of a country, in
   preference to immigrants from foreign countries.

   2.  (Philos.) The doctrine of innate ideas, or that the mind possesses
   forms of thought independent of sensation.


   Na"tiv*ist (?), n. An advocate of nativism.


   Na`tiv*is"tic (?), a. Relating to nativism.


   Na*tiv"i*ty  (?), n.; pl. Nativies (#). [F. nativit\'82, L. nativitas.
   See Native, and cf. Na\'8bvet\'90.]

   1.  The  coming  into  life  or  into  the  world;  birth;  also,  the
   circumstances attending birth, as time, place, manner, etc. Chaucer.

     I have served him from the hour of my nativity. Shak.

     Thou hast left ... the land of thy nativity. Ruth ii. 11.

     These in their dark nativity the deep Shall yield us, pregnant with
     infernal flame. Milton.

   2. (Fine Arts) A picture representing or symbolizing the early infancy
   of  Christ.  The  simplest  form is the babe in a rude cradle, and the
   heads of an ox and an ass to express the stable in which he was born.

   3.  (Astrol.) A representation of the positions of the heavenly bodies
   as  the  moment  of  one's  birth,  supposed  to  indicate  his future
   destinies; a horoscope.
   The  Nativity,  the  birth or birthday of Christ; Christmas day. -- To
   cast,  OR  calculate,  one's  nativity  (Astrol.),  to  find  out  and
   represent  the  position  of  the heavenly bodies at the time of one's


   Nat"ka (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) A species of shrike.


   Na"tri*um  (?),  n.  [NL.  See Natron.] (Chem.) The technical name for


   Na"tro*lite (?; 277), n. [Natron + -lite: cf. F. natrolithe.] (Min.) A
   zeolite  occuring in groups of glassy acicular crystals, and in masses
   which  often  have  a  radiated structure. It is a hydrous silicate of
   alumina and soda.


   Na"tron  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. Sp. natron, Ar. natr\'d4n, nitr\'d4n. Cf.
   Niter,   Anatron.]  (Min.)  Native  sodium  carbonate.  [Written  also


   Nat"ter (?), v. i. [Cf. Icel. knetta to grumble.] To find fault; to be
   peevish. [Prov. Eng. or Scot.]


   Nat"ter*jack`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  European toad (Bufo calamita),
   having a yellow line along its back.


   Nat"ty  (?),  a.  [Cf.  Neat  clean.] Neat; tidy; spruce. [Colloq.] --
   Nat"ti*ly, adv. -- Nat"ti*ness, n.


   Nat"u*ral (?; 135), a. [OE. naturel, F. naturel, fr. L. naturalis, fr.
   natura. See Nature.]

   1.  Fixed or determined by nature; pertaining to the constitution of a
   thing;  belonging to native character; according to nature; essential;
   characteristic;  not artifical, foreign, assumed, put on, or acquired;
   as,  the  natural growth of animals or plants; the natural motion of a
   gravitating body; natural strength or disposition; the natural heat of
   the body; natural color.

     With strong natural sense, and rare force of will. Macaulay.

   2. Conformed to the order, laws, or actual facts, of nature; consonant
   to the methods of nature; according to the stated course of things, or
   in  accordance  with the laws which govern events, feelings, etc.; not
   exceptional  or  violent; legitimate; normal; regular; as, the natural
   consequence of crime; a natural death.

     What  can be more natural than the circumstances in the behavior of
     those women who had lost their husbands on this fatal day? Addison.

   3.  Having  to  do  with  existing  system to things; dealing with, or
   derived  from, the creation, or the world of matter and mind, as known
   by   man;  within  the  scope  of  human  reason  or  experience;  not
   supernatural; as, a natural law; natural science; history, theology.

     I  call  that natural religion which men might know ... by the mere
     principles  of  reason,  improved  by consideration and experience,
     without the help of revelation. Bp. Wilkins.

   4.  Conformed  to  truth  or  reality;  as:  (a)  Springing  from true
   sentiment;  not artifical or exaggerated; -- said of action, delivery,
   etc.;  as,  a  natural  gesture,  tone, etc. (b) Resembling the object
   imitated;  true  to nature; according to the life; -- said of anything
   copied or imitated; as, a portrait is natural.

   5.  Having  the  character  or  sentiments properly belonging to one's
   position; not unnatural in feelings.

     To  leave  his  wife,  to leave his babes, ... He wants the natural
     touch. Shak.

   6.  Connected  by  the ties of consanguinity. "Natural friends." J. H.

   7.  Begotten  without  the  sanction  of  law;  born  out  of wedlock;
   illegitimate; bastard; as, a natural child.

   8.  Of or pertaining to the lower or animal nature, as contrasted with
   the  higher  or  moral  powers, or that which is spiritual; being in a
   state of nature; unregenerate.

     The  natural  man  receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God. 1
     Cor. ii. 14.

   9.  (Math.) Belonging to, to be taken in, or referred to, some system,
   in  which  the base is 1; -- said or certain functions or numbers; as,
   natural  numbers, those commencing at 1; natural sines, cosines, etc.,
   those taken in arcs whose radii are 1.

   Page 965

   10.  (Mus.)  (a)  Produced  by  natural  organs, as those of the human
   throat,  in  distinction from instrumental music. (b) of or pertaining
   to  a  key  which has neither a flat nor a sharp for its signature, as
   the  key  of  C  major. (c) Applied to an air or modulation of harmony
   which moves by easy and smooth transitions, digressing but little from
   the original key. Moore (Encyc. of Music).
   Natural day, the space of twenty-four hours. Chaucer. -- Natural fats,
   Natural  gas, etc. See under Fat, Gas. etc. -- Natural Harmony (Mus.),
   the  harmony  of the triad or common chord. -- Natural history, in its
   broadest  sense,  a  history  or  description  of  nature  as a whole,
   incuding  the  sciences  of  botany,  zo\'94logy, geology, mineralogy,
   paleontology,  chemistry,  and  physics.  In  recent usage the term is
   often   restricted   to   the   sciences   of  botany  and  zo\'94logy
   collectively,  and  sometimes  to  the  science  of  zoology alone. --
   Natural law, that instinctive sense of justice and of right and wrong,
   which  is  native  in  mankind,  as  distinguished  from  specifically
   revealed  divine  law, and formulated human law. -- Natural modulation
   (Mus.),  transition  from  one  key  to  its relative keys. -- Natural
   order.  (Nat.  Hist.)  See  under  order. -- Natural person. (Law) See
   under  person,  n.  --  Natural  philosophy,  originally, the study of
   nature  in  general; in modern usage, that branch of physical science,
   commonly  called  physics,  which  treats of the phenomena and laws of
   matter and considers those effects only which are unaccompanied by any
   change  of  a  chemical  nature;  --  contrasted with mental and moral
   philosophy.  -- Natural scale (Mus.), a scale which is written without
   flats  or  sharps. Model would be a preferable term, as less likely to
   mislead,  the  so-called  artificial scales (scales represented by the
   use  of  flats  and  sharps)  being equally natural with the so-called
   natural  scale  --  Natural  science, natural history, in its broadest
   sense;  --  used  especially  in  contradistinction to mental or moral
   science. -- Natural selection (Biol.), a supposed operation of natural
   laws analogous, in its operation and results, to designed selection in
   breeding  plants  and  animals,  and  resulting in the survival of the
   fittest.  The  theory of natural selection supposes that this has been
   brought  about mainly by gradual changes of environment which have led
   to corresponding changes of structure, and that those forms which have
   become  so  modified  as to be best adapted to the changed environment
   have  tended to survive and leave similarly adapted descendants, while
   those  less  perfectly  adapted  have tended to die out though lack of
   fitness  for  the  environment,  thus resulting in the survival of the
   fittest.  See  Darwinism.  --  Natural  system  (Bot.  &  Zo\'94l.), a
   classification  based  upon real affinities, as shown in the structure
   of all parts of the organisms, and by their embryology.

     It  should  be  borne  in mind that the natural system of botany is
     natural  only  in  the  constitution of its genera, tribes, orders,
     etc., and in its grand divisions. Gray.

   --  Natural  theology,  OR  Natural religion, that part of theological
   science   which  treats  of  those  evidences  of  the  existence  and
   attributes  of  the  Supreme  Being  which are exhibited in nature; --
   distinguished from revealed religion. See Quotation under Natural, a.,
   3.  --  Natural  vowel,  the vowel sound heard in urn, furl, sir, her,
   etc.;  --  so  called as being uttered in the easiest open position of
   the  mouth  organs.  See  Neutral  vowel,  under  Neutral and Guide to
   Pronunciation, § 17. Syn. -- See Native.


   Nat"u*ral (?; 135), n.

   1. A native; an aboriginal. [Obs.] Sir W. Raleigh.

   2. pl. Natural gifts, impulses, etc. [Obs.] Fuller.

   3.  One  born  without the usual powers of reason or understanding; an
   idiot. "The minds of naturals." Locke.

   4. (Mus.) A character [♮] used to contradict, or to remove the
   effect  of,  a sharp or flat which has preceded it, and to restore the
   unaltered note.


   Nat"u*ral*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. naturalisme.]

   1. A state of nature; conformity to nature.

   2.  (Metaph.)  The doctrine of those who deny a supernatural agency in
   the  miracles  and revelations recorded in the Bible, and in spiritual
   influences;  also, any system of philosophy which refers the phenomena
   of  nature  to a blind force or forces acting necessarily or according
   to  fixed  laws, excluding origination or direction by one intelligent


   Nat"u*ral*ist, n. [Cf. F. naturaliste.]

   1.  One  versed in natural science; a student of natural history, esp.
   of the natural history of animals.

   2.  One who holds or maintains the doctrine of naturalism in religion.
   H. Bushnell.


   Nat`u*ral*is"tic (?), a.

   1. Belonging to the doctrines of naturalism.

   2.   Closely   resembling  nature;  realistic.  "Naturalistic  bit  of
   pantomime." W. D. Howells.


   Nat`u*ral"i*ty (?), n. [L. naturalitas: cf. F. naturalit\'82.] Nature;
   naturalness. [R.]


   Nat`u*ral*i*za"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  naturalisation.]  The  act or
   process  of  naturalizing,  esp. of investing an alien with the rights
   and  privileges  of  a  native  or  citizen;  also, the state of being


   Nat"u*ral*ize  (?; 135), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Naturalized (#); p. pr. &
   vb. n. Naturalizing (#).] [Cf. F. naturaliser. See Natural.]

   1. To make natural; as, custom naturalizes labor or study.

   2.  To confer the rights and privileges of a native subject or citizen
   on;  to  make  as if native; to adopt, as a foreigner into a nation or
   state, and place in the condition of a native subject.

   3.  To  receive  or  adopt  as native, natural, or vernacular; to make
   one's own; as, to naturalize foreign words.

   4. To adapt; to accustom; to habituate; to acclimate; to cause to grow
   as under natural conditions.

     Its   wearer   suggested  that  pears  and  peaches  might  yet  be
     naturalized in the New England climate. Hawthorne.


   Nat"u*ral*ize, v. i.

   1. To become as if native.

   2.  To explain phenomena by natural agencies or laws, to the exclusion
   of the supernatural.

     Infected by this naturalizing tendency. H. Bushnell.


   Nat"u*ral*ly,  adv. In a natural manner or way; according to the usual
   course of things; spontaneously.


   Nat"u*ral*ness,  n.  The state or quality of being natural; conformity
   to nature.


   Na"ture  (?;  135),  n.  [F., fr. L. natura, fr. natus born, produced,
   p.p. of nasci to be born. See Nation.]

   1.  The  existing  system of things; the world of matter, or of matter
   and mind; the creation; the universe.

     But looks through nature up to nature's God. Pope.

     Nature has caprices which art can not imitate. Macaulay.

   2.  The  personified  sum  and order of causes and effects; the powers
   which  produce  existing phenomena, whether in the total or in detail;
   the  agencies which carry on the processes of creation or of being; --
   often  conceived  of  as  a  single and separate entity, embodying the
   total  of  all  finite  agencies  and  forces  as  disconnected from a
   creating or ordering intelligence.

     I  oft  admire  How  Nature,  wise  and  frugal,  could commit Such
     disproportions. Milton.

   3. The established or regular course of things; usual order of events;
   connection of cause and effect.

   4.  Conformity  to  that  which is natural, as distinguished from that
   which is artifical, or forced, or remote from actual experience.

     One touch of nature makes the whole world kin. Shak.

   5.  The  sum  of qualities and attributes which make a person or thing
   what  it  is,  as  distinct from others; native character; inherent or
   essential qualities or attributes; peculiar constitution or quality of

     Thou,  therefore, whom thou only canst redeem, Their nature also to
     thy nature join, And be thyself man among men on earth. Milton.

   6. Hence: Kind, sort; character; quality.

     A dispute of this nature caused mischief. Dryden.

   7.  Physical  constitution or existence; the vital powers; the natural
   life. "My days of nature." Shak.

     Oppressed nature sleeps. Shak.

   8. Natural affection or reverence.

     Have we not seen The murdering son ascend his parent's bed, Through
     violated nature foce his way? Pope.

   9. Constitution or quality of mind or character.

     A born devil, on whose nature Nurture can never stick. Shak.

     That reverence which is due to a superior nature. Addison.

   Good  nature,  Ill  nature.  see  under Good and Ill. -- In a state of
   nature.  (a)  Naked  as  when  born;  nude. (b) In a condition of sin;
   unregenerate. (c) Untamed; uncvilized. -- Nature printng, a process of
   printing  from  metallic  or  other  plates  which  have  received  an
   impression,  as  by heavy pressure, of an object such as a leaf, lace,
   or  the like. -- Nature worship, the worship of the personified powers
   of nature. -- To pay the debt of nature, to die.


   Na"ture, v. t. To endow with natural qualities. [Obs.]

     He [God] which natureth every kind. Gower.


   Na"tured  (?; 135), a. Having (such) a nature, temper, or disposition;
   disposed; -- used in composition; as, good-natured, ill-natured, etc.


   Na"ture*less  (?), a. Not in accordance with nature; unnatural. [Obs.]


   Na"tur*ism  (?),  n.  (Med.)  The  belief  or doctrine that attributes
   everything to nature as a sanative agent.


   Na"tur*ist,  n.  One  who  believes  in, or conforms to, the theory of
   naturism. Boyle.


   Na*tu"ri*ty  (?), n. The quality or state of being produced by nature.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Na"tur*ize (?), v. t. To endow with a nature or qualities; to refer to
   nature. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Nau"frage  (?;  48),  n.  [F.,  fr.  L. naufragium; navis + frangere.]
   Shipwreck; ruin. [Obs.] acon.


   Nau"fra*gous  (?), a. [L. naufragus. See Naufrage.] causing shipwreck.
   [Obs.] r. Taylor.


   Naught  (?), n. [OE. naught, nought, naht, nawiht, AS. n, n, n; ne not
   + wiht thing, whit; hence, not ever a whit. See No, adv. Whit, and cf.
   Aught, Not.]

   1. Nothing. [Written also nought.]

     Doth Job fear God for naught? Job i. 9.

   2. The arithmetical character 0; a cipher. See Cipher.
   To set at naught, to treat as of no account; to disregard; to despise;
   to  defy;  to  treat  with  ignominy.  "Ye  have  set at naught all my
   counsel." Prov. i. 25.
   Naught, adv. In no degree; not at all. Chaucer. 

     To wealth or sovereign power he naught applied. Fairfax.


   Naught, a.

   1. Of no value or account; worthless; bad; useless.

     It is naught, it is naught, saith the buyer. Prov. xx. 14.

     Go,  get  you to your house; begone, away! All will be naught else.

     Things naught and things indifferent. Hooker.

   2. Hence, vile; base; naughty. [Obs.]

     No man can be stark naught at once. Fuller.


   Naugh"ti*ly (?), adv. In a naughty manner; wickedly; perversely. Shak.


   Naugh"ti*ness, n. The quality or state of being naughty; perverseness;
   badness; wickedness.

     I  know thy pride, and the naughtiness of thine heart. 1 Sam. xvii.


   Naught"ly (?), adv. Naughtily; wrongly. [Obs.]

     because my parents naughtly brought me up. Mir. for Mag.


   Naugh"ty (?), a. [Compar. Naughtier (?); superl. Naughtiest.]

   1. Having little or nothing. [Obs.]

     [Men]  that  needy  be and naughty, help them with thy goods. Piers

   2. Worthless; bad; good for nothing. [Obs.]

     The other basket had very naughty figs. Jer. xxiv. 2.

   3. hence, corrupt; wicked. [Archaic]

     So shines a good deed in a naughty world. Shak.

   4.  Mischievous;  perverse; froward; guilty of disobedient or improper
   conduct; as, a naughty child.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd is  no w se ldom used except in the latter
     sense, as applied to children, or in sportive censure.


   Nau"ma*chy (?), n. [L. naumachia, Gr.

   1. A naval battle; esp., a mock sea fight.

   2. (Rom. Antiq.) A show or spectacle representing a sea fight; also, a
   place for such exhibitions.


   Nau"pli*us (?), n.; pl. Nauplii (#). [L., a kind of shellfish, fr. Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.)  A crustacean larva having three pairs of locomotive organs
   (corresponding to the antennules, antenn\'91, and mandibles), a median
   eye, and little or no segmentation of the body.


   Nau`ro*pom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter.]  (Naut.)  An instrument for
   measuring the amount which a ship heels at sea.


   Naus"co*py  (?),  n. [Gr. -scopy: cf. F. nauscopie.] (Naut.) The power
   or act of discovering ships or land at considerable distances.


   Nau"se*a  (?  or  ,  n. [L., fr. Gr. Nave of a church, and cf. Noise.]
   Seasickness;  hence,  any  similar sickness of the stomach accompanied
   with  a  propensity  to  vomit;  qualm;  squeamishness of the stomach;


   Nau"se*ant  (?),  n.  [L.  nauseans,  p.pr.  Of  nauseare.]  (Med.)  A
   substance which produces nausea. <-- emetic -->


   Nau"se*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Nauseated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nauseating.]  [L.  nauseare,  nauseatum,  fr.  nausea. See Nausea.] To
   become squeamish; to feel nausea; to turn away with disgust.


   Nau"se*ate, v. t.

   1.  To  affect  with  nausea;  to sicken; to cause to feel loathing or

   2. To sicken at; to reject with disgust; to loathe.

     The patient nauseates and loathes wholesome foods. Blackmore.


   Nau`se*a"tion  (?),  n.  The  act of nauseating, or the state of being


   Nau"se*a*tive (? OR , a. Causing nausea; nauseous.


   Nau"seous  (?;  277),  a. [L. nauseosus.] Causing, or fitted to cause,
   nausea;  sickening;  loathsome; disgusting; exciting abhorrence; as, a
   nauseous drug or medicine. -- Nau"seous*ly, adv. -- Nau"seous*ness, n.

     The nauseousness of such company disgusts a reasonable man. Dryden.


   Nautch  (?),  n.  [Hind.  n\'bech, fr. Skr. n dance.] An entertainment
   consisting  chiefly  of  dancing  by  professional dancing (or Nautch)
   girls. [India]


   Nau"tic (?), a. [See Nautical.] Nautical.


   Nau"tic*al  (?), a. [L. nauticus, Gr. nautique. See Nave of a church.]
   Of or pertaining to seamen, to the art of navigation, or to ships; as,
   nautical  skill.  Syn. -- Naval; marine; maritime. See Naval. Nautical
   almanac.  See  under  Almanac.  --  Nautical  distance,  the length in
   nautical miles of the rhumb line joining any two places on the earth's
   surface. -- nautical mile. see under Mile.


   Nau"tic*al*ly,  adv.  In a nautical manner; with reference to nautical


   Nau"ti*form (?), a. [Gr. -form.] Shaped like the hull of a ship.


   Nau"ti*lite (?), n. (paleon.) A fossil nautilus.


   Nau"ti*loid   (?),   a.  [Nautilus  +  -oid:  cf.  F.  nautilo\'8bde.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Like or pertaining to the nautilus; shaped like a nautilus
   shell.  --  n.  A  mollusk,  or shell, of the genus Nautilus or family


   Nau"ti*lus  (?),  n.;  pl. E. Nautiluses (#), L. Nautili (#). [L., fr.
   gr. Nave of a church.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) The only existing genus of tetrabranchiate cephalopods.
   About  four species are found living in the tropical Pacific, but many
   other  species are found fossil. The shell is spiral, symmetrical, and
   chambered,   or   divided  into  several  cavities  by  simple  curved
   partitions, which are traversed and connected together by a continuous
   and nearly central tube or siphuncle. See Tetrabranchiata.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e he ad of the animal bears numerous simple tapered
     arms,  or  tentacles,  arranged  in  groups, but not furnished with
     suckers. The siphon, unlike, that of ordinary cephalopods, is not a
     closed  tube,  and  is  not  used as a locomotive organ, but merely
     serves to conduct water to and from the gill cavity, which contains
     two  pairs  of gills. The animal occupies only the outer chamber of
     the  shell;  the  others  are  filled  with gas. It creeps over the
     bottom  of  the  sea, not coming to the surface to swim or sail, as
     was formerly imagined.

   2.  The  argonaut;  --  also called paper nautilus. See Argonauta, and
   Paper nautilus, under Paper.

   3.  A  variety of diving bell, the lateral as well as vertical motions
   of which are controlled, by the occupants.


   Na"va*joes  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Navajo (. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians
   inhabiting New Mexico and Arizona, allied to the Apaches. They are now
   largely engaged in agriculture.


   Na"val  (?), a. [L. navalis, fr. navis ship: cf. F. naval. See Nave of
   a  church.] Having to do with shipping; of or pertaining to ships or a
   navy; consisting of ships; as, naval forces, successes, stores, etc.

   Page 966

   Naval  brigade,  a  body  of  seamen or marines organized for military
   service  on  land. -- Naval officer. (a) An officer in the navy. (b) A
   high officer in some United States customhouses. -- Naval tactics, the
   science  of  managing  or  maneuvering vessels sailing in squadrons or
   fleets.  Syn. -- Nautical; marine; maritime. -- Naval, Nautical. Naval
   is  applied to vessels, or a navy, or the things which pertain to them
   or  in  which  they  participate;  nautical,  to seamen and the art of
   navigation.  Hence  we  speak  of  a  naval, as opposed to a military,
   engagement;  naval  equipments  or  stores,  a  naval triumph, a naval
   officer,  etc.,  and  of  nautical  pursuits  or instruction, nautical
   calculations, a nautical almanac, etc.


   Na"vals (?), n.pl. Naval affairs. [Obs.]


   Na"varch  (?),  n.  [L. navarchus, gr. (Gr. Antiq.) The commander of a
   fleet. Mitford.


   Na"varch*y  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Nautical skill or experience. [Obs.] ir W.


   Na`var*rese" (? OR , a. Of or pertaining to Navarre. -- n. sing. & pl.
   A native or inhabitant of Navarre; the people of Navarre.


   Nave  (?),  n.  [AS.  nafu; akin to D. naaf, G. nabe, OHG. naba, Icel.
   n\'94f,  Dan.  nav, Sw. naf, Skr. n\'bebhi nave and navel: cf. L. umbo
   boss of a shield. \'fb260. Cf. Navel.]

   1.  The block in the center of a wheel, from which the spokes radiate,
   and through which the axle passes; -- called also hub or hob.

   2. The navel. [Obs.] hak.


   Nave,  n.  [F.  nef,  fr. L. navis ship, to which the church was often
   likened;  akin  to  Gr.  naca boat, G. nachen, Icel. n\'94kkvi; cf. L.
   nare  to swim, float. Cf. Nausea, Nautical, Naval.] (Arch.) The middle
   or  body  of  a  church, extending from the transepts to the principal
   entrances,  or,  if  there  are  no  transepts,  from the choir to the
   principal entrance, but not including the aisles.


   Na"vel (?), n. [AS. nafela, fr. nafu nave; akin to D. navel, G. nabel,
   OHG.  nabolo, Icel. nafli, Dan. navle, Sw. nafle, L. umbilicus, Gr. n.
   \'fb260. See Nave hub, and cf. Omphalic, Nombril, Umbilical.]

   1.  (Anat.)  A  mark  or  depression in the middle of the abdomen; the
   umbilicus. See Umbilicus.<-- called also belly button in humans -->

   2. The central part or point of anything; the middle.

     Within the navel of this hideous wood, Immured in cypress shades, a
     sorcerer dwells. Milton.

   3. (Gun.) An eye on the under side of a carronade for securing it to a
   Navel  gall,  a bruise on the top of the chine of the back of a horse,
   behind the saddle. Johnson. -- Navel point. (Her.) Same as Nombril.


   Na"vel-string` (?), n. The umbilical cord.


   Na"vel*wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  European  perennial  succulent herb
   (Cotyledon  umbilicus),  having  round,  peltate leaves with a central
   depression; -- also called pennywort, and kidneywort.


   Na"vew  (?),  n.  [OE.  navel,  naveau, a dim. fr. L. napus navew. Cf.
   Napiform.]  (Bot.)  A  kind  of  small  turnip,  a variety of Brassica
   campestris. See Brassica. [Writen also naphew.]


   Na*vic"u*lar  (?),  a.  [L.  navicularius, fr. navicula, dim. of navis
   ship: cf. F. naviculaire.]

   1. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a boat or ship.

   2.  Shaped  like a boat; cymbiform; scaphoid; as, the navicular glumes
   of most grasses; the navicular bone.
   Navicular  bone.  (Anat.)  (a)  One of the middle bones of the tarsus,
   corresponding to the centrale; -- called also scaphoid. (b) A proximal
   bone  on  the  radial  side  of the carpus; the scaphoid. -- Navicular
   disease  (Far.),  a  disease  affecting  the  navicular  bone,  or the
   adjacent parts, in a horse's foot.


   Na*vic"u*lar, n. (Anat.) The navicular bone.


   Nav`i*ga*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. navigabilit\'82.] The quality or
   condition of being navigable; navigableness.


   Nav"i*ga*ble (?), a. [L. navigabilis: cf. F. navigable. See Navigate.]
   Capable  of  being  navigated;  deep  enough and wide enough to afford
   passage to vessels; as, a navigable river.

     NOTE: &hand; By  th e comon law, a river is considered as navigable
     only  so  far  as  the  tide ebbs and flows in it. This is also the
     doctrine  in  several  of  the  United  tates. In other States, the
     doctrine  of  thje  civil  law prevails, which is, that a navigable
     river is a river capable of being navigated, in the common sense of
     the term.

   Kent. Burrill. -- Nav"i*ga*ble*ness, n. -- Nav"i*ga*bly, adv.


   Nav"i*gate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Navigated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Navigating.]  [L. navigatus, p.p. of navigare, v.t. & i.; navis ship +
   agere  to  move, direct. See Nave, and Agent.] To joirney by water; to
   go  in  a vessel or ship; to perform the duties of a navigator; to use
   the  waters  as a highway or channel for commerce or communication; to

     The  Phenicians  navigated to the extremities of the Western Ocean.


   Nav"i*gate, v. t.

   1.  To  pass  over  in  ships; to sail over or on; as, to navigate the

   2. To steer, direct, or manage in sailing; to conduct (ships) upon the
   water by the art or skill of seamen; as, to navigate a ship.


   Nav`i*ga"tion (?), n. [L. navigatio: cf. F. navigation.]

   1.  The  act  of  navigating;  the act of passing on water in ships or
   other vessels; the state of being navigable.

   2.  (a)  the  science  or  art of conducting ships or vessels from one
   place   to   another,   including,  more  especially,  the  method  of
   determining  a ship's position, course, distance passed over, etc., on
   the surface of the globe, by the principles of geometry and astronomy.
   (b)  The management of sails, rudder, etc.; the mechanics of traveling
   by water; seamanship.

   3. Ships in general. [Poetic] Shak.
   A\'89rial  navigation,  the  act  or art of sailing or floating in the
   air,  as  by  means  of ballons; a\'89ronautic.<-- now aviation --> --
   Inland  navigation,  Internal navigation, navigation on rivers, inland
   lakes, etc.


   Nav"i*ga`tor  (?), n. One who navigates or sails; esp., one who direct
   the course of a ship, or one who is skillful in the art of navigation;
   also,  a  book  which  teaches  the  art of navigation; as, Bowditch's


   Na*vig"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  naviger;  navis  ship + gerere to bear.]
   Bearing ships; capable of floating vessels. [R.] Blount.


   Nav"vy   (?),   n.;  pl.  Navies  (#).  [Abbreviated  fr.  navigator.]
   Originally,  a  laborer  on  canals  for internal navigation; hence, a
   laborer  on other public works, as in building railroads, embankments,
   etc. [Eng.]


   Na"vy  (?);  n.;  pl.  Navies (#). [ OF. navie, fr. L. navis ship. See
   Nave of a church.]

   1.  A fleet of ships; an assemblage of merchantmen, or so many as sail
   in  company. "The navy also of Hiram, that brought gold from Ophir." 1
   kings x. 11.

   2.  The  whole  of  the  war  vessels  belonging to a nation or ruler,
   considered collectively; as, the navy of Italy.

   3.  The  officers and men attached to the war vessels of a nation; as,
   he belongs to the navy.
   Navy  bean.  see  Bean.  --  Navy  yard,  a place set apart as a shore
   station  for the use of the navy. It often contains all the mechanical
   and  other  appliences  for  building  and  equipping  war vessels and
   training their crews.


   Na*wab" (?), n. [See Nabob.] A deputy ruler or viceroy in India; also,
   a title given by courtesy to other persons of high rank in the East.


   Nawl (?), n. [See Nall.] An awl. [Obs.] usser.


   Nay (?), adv. [Icel. nei; akin to E. no. See No, adv.]

   1.  No;  --  a negative answer to a question asked, or a request made,
   now superseded by no. See Yes.

     And eke when I say "ye," ne say not "nay." Chaucer.

     I tell you nay; but except ye repent, ye shall all likewisr perish.
     Luke xiii. 3.

     And  now  do  they thrust us out privily? nay, verily; but let them
     come themselves and fetch us out. Acts xvi. 37.

     He  that will not when he may, When he would he shall have nay. Old

     NOTE: &hand; Be fore the time of Henry VIII. nay was used to answer
     simple  questions,  and  no  was used when the form of the question
     involved  a  negative  expression;  nay was the simple form, no the


   2.  Not  this  merely, but also; not only so, but; -- used to mark the
   addition or substitution of a more explicit or more emphatic phrase.

     NOTE: &hand; Na y in this sense may be interchanged with yea. "Were
     he my brother, nay, my kingdom's heir."



   Nay, n.; pl. Nays (.

   1. Denial; refusal.

   2. a negative vote; one who votes in the negative.
   It is no nay, there is no denying it. [Obs.] haucer.


   Nay, v. t. & i. To refuse. [Obs.] Holinshed.


   Na*yaur"  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A specied of wild sheep (Ovis Hodgsonii),
   native  of  Nepaul  and  Thibet. It has a dorsal mane and a white ruff
   beneath the neck.


   Nayt  (?),  v.  t. [Icel. neita.] To refuse; to deny. [Obs.] "He shall
   not nayt ne deny his sin." Chaucer.


   Nay"ward (?), n. The negative side. [R.]

     Howe'er you lean to the nayward. Shak.


   Nay"word` (?), n. A byword; a proverb; also, a watchword. [Obs.] hak.


   Naz`a*rene" (?), n. [L. Nazarenus, Gr.

   1.  A  native or inhabitant of Nazareth; -- a term of contempt applied
   to Christ and the early Christians.

   2.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  One of a sect of Judaizing Christians in the first
   and  second  centuries,  who  observed  the laws of Moses, and held to
   certain heresies.


   Naz"a*rite  (?),  n.  A  Jew bound by a vow to lave the hair uncut, to
   abstain  from  wine  and  strong  drink, and to practice extraordinary
   purity  of  life and devotion, the obligation being for life, or for a
   certain time. The word is also used adjectively.


   Naz"a*rite*ship, n. The state of a Nazarite.


   Naz`a*rit"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to a Nazarite, or to Nazarites.


   Naz"a*ri*tism (?; 277), n. The vow and practice of a Nazarite.


   Naze (?), n. [See Ness.] A promotory or headland.


   Naz"i*rite (?), n. A Nazarite.


   Ne (?), adv. [AS. ne. See No.] Not; never. [Obs.]

     He never yet no villany ne said. Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Ne  wa s fo rmerly us ed as  th e un iversal adverb of
     negation,  and  survives in certain compounds, as never (= ne ever)
     and  none  (=  ne  one).  Other combinations, now obsolete, will be
     found in the Vocabulary, as nad, nam, nil. See Negative, 2.


   Ne, conj. [See Ne, adv.] Nor. [Obs.] Shak.

     No niggard ne no fool. Chaucer.

   Ne . . . ne, neither . . . nor. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Neaf (?), n. See 2d Neif. Shak.


   Neal (?), v. t. To anneal. [R.] Chaucer.


   Neal, v. i. To be tempered by heat. [R.] Bacon.


   Neap  (?),  n.  [Cf. Neb, Nape.] The tongue or pole of a cart or other
   vehicle drawn by two animals. [U.S.]


   Neap  (?),  a. [As. n&emac;pfl&omac;d neap flood; cf. hnipian to bend,
   incline.]  Low. Neap tides, the lowest tides of the lunar month, which
   occur  in  the  second  and fourth quarters of the moon; -- opposed to
   spring tides.
   Neap, n. A neap tide. 

     High springs and dead neaps. Harkwill.


   Neaped (?), a. (Naut.) Left aground on the height of a spring tide, so
   that  it  will  not  float  till  the next spring tide; -- called also


   Ne`a*pol"i*tan  (?),  a. [L. Neapolitanus, fr. Neapolis Naples, Gr. Of
   of pertaining to Maples in Italy. -- n. A native or citizen of Naples.


   Near (?), adv. [AS. ne\'a0r, compar. of ne\'a0h nigh. See Nigh.]

   1.  At  a  little  distance,  in  place,  time, manner, or degree; not
   remote; nigh.

     My wife! my traitress! let her not come near me. Milton.

   2.  Nearly;  almost; well-nigh. "Near twenty years ago." Shak. "Near a
   fortnight ago." Addison.

     Near about the yearly value of the land. Locke.

   3. Closely; intimately. Shak.
   Far  and  near, at a distance and close by; throughout a whole region.
   --  To come near to, to want but little of; to approximate to. "Such a
   sum  he  found  would  go near to ruin him." Addison. -- Near the wind
   (Naut.), close to the wind; closehauled.


   Near (?), a. [Compar. Nearer (?); superl. Nearest.] [See Near, adv.]

   1.  Not  far  distant  in time, place, or degree; not remote; close at
   hand; adjacent; neighboring; nigh. "As one near death." Shak.

     He  served  great  Hector,  and was ever near, Not with his trumpet
     only, but his spear. Dryden.

   2. Closely connected or related.

     She is thy father's near kinswoman. Lev. xviii. 12.

   3.  Close  to one's interests, affection, etc.; touching, or affecting
   intimately; intimate; dear; as, a near friend.

   4.  Close  to  anything  followed  or  imitated;  not  free, loose, or
   rambling; as, a version near to the original.

   5.  So as barely to avoid or pass injury or loss; close; narrow; as, a
   near escape.

   6. Next to the driver, when he is on foot; in the Unted States, on the
   left  of  an  animal or a team; as, the near ox; the near leg. See Off
   side, under Off, a.

   7. Immediate; direct; close; short. "The nearest way." Milton.

   8. Close-fisted; parsimonious. [Obs. or Low, Eng.]

     NOTE: &hand; Ne ar ma y properly be followed by to before the thing
     approached';  but  more frequently to is omitted, and the adjective
     or  the  adverb is regarded as a preposition. The same is also true
     of the word nigh.

   Syn.  -- Nigh; close; adjacent; proximate; contiguous; present; ready;
   intimate; dear.


   Near,  prep.  Adjacent  to; close by; not far from; nigh; as, the ship
   sailed near the land. See the Note under near, a.


   Near,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Neared (?); p. pr. & vb. n Nearing.] [See
   Near, adv.] To approach; to come nearer; as, the ship neared the land.


   Near, v. i. To draw near; to approach.

     A  speck, a mist, a shape, I wist! And still it neared, and neared.


   Ne*arc"tic (?), a. [Neo + arctic.] Of or pertaining to a region of the
   earth's  surface  including  all of temperate and arctic North America
   and  Greenland.  In  the  geographical  distribution  of animals, this
   region is marked off as the habitat certain species.


   Near"hand` (?), a. & adv. Near; near at hand; closely. [Obs. or Scot.]


   Near"-legged`  (?),  a.  Having  the  feet  so near together that they
   interfere in traveling. Shak.


   Near"ly,  adv.  In  a  near manner; not remotely; closely; intimately;


   Near"ness,  n.  The  state  or  quality  of being near; -- used in the
   various senses of the adjective.

  Nearsighted, a. Seeing distinctly at short distances only; shortsighted. --

   Near"sight`ed  (?),  a.  Seeing  distinctly  at  short distances only;
   shortsighted.  --  Near"sight`ed*ness,  n. See Myopic, and Myopia. <--
   neither def2 nor wordforms -->


   Neat (?), n. sing. & pl. [AS. ne\'a0t; akin to OHG. n, Icel. naut, Sw.
   n\'94t,  Dan.  n\'94d,  and  to  AS.  ne\'a2tan  to  make  use  of, G.
   geniessen,  Goth.  niutan to have a share in, have joy of, Lith. nauda
   use,  profit.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Cattle  of the genus Bos, as distinguished
   from  horses,  sheep,  and  goats;  an  animal of the genus Bos; as, a
   neat's tongue; a neat's foot. Chaucer.

     Wherein the herds[men] were keeping of their neat. Spenser.

     The steer, the heifer, and the calf Are all called neat. Shak.

     A neat and a sheep of his own. Tusser.

   Neat's-foot, an oil obtained by boiling the feet of neat cattle. It is
   used to render leather soft and pliable.


   Neat,  a.  [See  neat,  n.]  Of  or pertaining to the genus Bos, or to
   cattle of that genus; as, neat cattle.


   Neat,  a.  [Compar.  Neater (?); superl. Neatest.] [OE. nett, F. nett,
   fr. L. nitidus, fr. nitere to shine. Cf. Nitid, Net, a., Natty.]

   1.  Free from that which soils, defiles, or disorders; clean; cleanly;

     If you were to see her, you would wonder what poor body it was that
     was so surprisingly neat and clean. Law.

   2.  Free from what is unbecoming, inappropriate, or tawdry; simple and
   becoming;  pleasing  with  simplicity;  tasteful;  chaste;  as, a neat
   style; a neat dress.

   3.  Free  from  admixture  or adulteration; good of its kind; as, neat
   brandy. "Our old wine neat." Chapman.

   4.   Excellent  in  character,  skill,  or  performance,  etc.;  nice;
   finished; adroit; as, a neat design; a neat thief.

   5. With all deductions or allowances made; net.

     NOTE: [In this sense usually written net. See Net, a., 3.]

   neat  line  (Civil  Engin.),  a  line  to which work is to be built or
   formed.  --  Neat  work,  work  built or formed to neat lines. Syn. --
   Nice; pure; cleanly; tidy; trim; spruce.


   'Neath (? OR , prep. & adv. An abbreviation of Beneath. [Poetic]


   Neat"herd`  (?),  n.  A  person  who  has  the  care of neat cattle; a
   cowherd. Dryden.


   Neat"house`  (?),  n. A building for the shelter of neat cattle. [Obs.
   or Prov. Eng.] Massinger.


   Neat"i*fy (?), v. t. [Neat, a. + -fy.] To make neat. [Obs.] olland.


   Neat"ly, adv. In a neat manner; tidily; tastefully.


   neat"ness, n. The state or quality of being neat.


   Neat"ress  (?),  n.  [From  neat  cattle.]  A  woman who takes care of
   cattle. [R.] Warner.


   Neb (?), n. [AS. nebb head, face; akin to D. neb, Icel. nef, beak of a
   bird,  nose,  Dan.  n\'91b  beak, bill, Sw. n\'84bb, n\'84f, and prob.
   also  to  D. sneb, snavel, bill, beak, G. schnabel, Dan. & Sw. snabel,
   and  E. snap. Cf. Nib, Snap, Snaffle.] The nose; the snout; the mouth;
   the beak of a bird; a nib, as of a pen. [Also written nib.] Shak.

   Page 967


   Ne*ba"li*a  (?),  n. [NL., of uncertain origin.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   small  marine  Crustacea,  considered  the  type  of  a distinct order
   (Nebaloidea, or Phyllocarida.)


   Neb"-neb` (?), n. Same as Bablh.


   Neb"u*la  (?),  n.;  pl.  Nebul\'91 (#). [L., mist, cloud; akin to Gr.
   nebel  mist,  OHG.  nebul,  D.  nevel,  Skr.  nabhas  cloud, mist. Cf.

   1. (Astron.) A faint, cloudlike, self-luminous mass of matter situated
   beyond  the  solar system among the stars. True nebul\'91 are gaseous;
   but  very  distant  star  clusters  often  appear  like  them  in  the
   telescope. <-- also applied now to galaxies -->

   2.  (Med.)  (a)  A white spot or a slight opacity of the cornea. (b) A
   cloudy appearance in the urine. [Obs.]


   Neb"u*lar  (?), a. Of or pertaining to nebul\'91; of the nature of, or
   resembling, a nebula. Nebular hypothesis, an hypothesis to explain the
   process  of  formation  of the stars and planets, presented in various
   forms by Kant, Herschel, Laplace, and others. As formed by Laplace, it
   supposed  the matter of the solar system to have existed originally in
   the  form  of  a  vast,  diffused,  revolving nebula, which, gradually
   cooling  and  contracting,  threw  off, in obedience to mechanical and
   physical  laws, succesive rings of matter, from which subsequently, by
   the  same  laws,  were  produced  the several planets, satellites, and
   other  bodies  of  the  system. The phrase may indicate any hypothesis
   according  to  which  the stars or the bodies of the solar system have
   been evolved from a widely diffused nebulous form of matter.


   Neb"u*la`ted  (?),  a.  Clouded  with indistinct color markings, as an


   neb`u*la"tion  (?),  n.  The  condition  of  being  nebulated; also, a
   clouded, or ill-defined, color mark.


   Neb"ule  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  n\'82bule. See nebula.] A little cloud; a
   cloud. [Obs.]

     O light without nebule. Old Ballad.

                             N\'82bul\'82, Nebuly

   N\'82`bu`l\'82"  (?),  Neb"u*ly  (?),  a.  [F.  n\'82bul\'82.]  (Her.)
   Composed  of  successive short curves supposed to resemble a cloud; --
   said  of  a  heraldic  line by which an ordinary or subordinary may be


   Neb`u*li*za"tion  (?),  n.  (Med.)  The  act or process of nebulizing;


   Neb"u*lize  (?), v. t. [See Nebula.] To reduce (as a liquid) to a fine
   spray or vapor; to atomize.


   Neb"u*li`zer (?), n. An atomizer.


   Neb"u*lose` (?), a. Nebulous; cloudy. Derham.


   Neb`u*los"i*ty (?), n. [L. nebulositas: cf. F. n\'82bulosit\'82]

   1.  The  state  or  quality  of  being nebulous; cloudiness; hazeness;
   mistiness; nebulousness.

     The nebulosity ... of the mother idiom. I. Disraeli.

   2. (Astron.) (a) The stuff of which a nebula is formed. (b) A nebula.


   Neb"u*lous (?), a. [L. nebulosus: cf. F. n\'82buleux. See Nebula.]

   1. Cloudy; hazy; misty.

   2. (Astron.) Of, pertaining to, or having the appearance of, a nebula;
   nebular; cloudlike. -- Neb"u*lous*ly, adv. -- Neb"u*lous*ness, n.


   Neb"u*ly,  n.  (Her.  &  Arch.)  A  line  or  a  direction composed of
   successive  short  curves  or  waves  supposed to resembe a cloud. See


   Nec`es*sa"ri*an  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. n\'82cessarien. See Mecessary.] An
   advocate of the doctrine of philosophical necessity; a nacessitarian.


   Nec`es*sa"ri*an, a. Of or pertaining to necessarianism.


   Nec`es*sa"ri*an*ism  (?),  n. The doctrine of philosophical necessity;
   necessitarianism. Hixley.


   Nec"es*sa*ri*ly  (?),  adv.  In  a  necessary  manner;  by  necessity;
   unavoidably; indispensably.


   Nec"es*sa*ri*ness, n. The quality of being necessary.


   Nec"es*sa*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  necessarius,  from  necesse  unavoidable,
   necessary; of uncertain origin: cf. F. n\'82cessaire.]

   1.  Such  as  must  be; impossible to be otherwise; not to be avoided;

     Death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come. Shak.

   2.  Impossible  to  be  otherwise,  or  to  be dispensed with, without
   preventing   the   attainment  of  a  desired  result;  indispensable;
   requiste; essential. "'T is necessary he should die." Shak.

     A  certain kind of temper is necessary to the pleasure and quiet of
     our minds. Tillotson.

   3.  Acting  from  necessity  or compulsion; involuntary; -- opposed to
   free;  as,  whether  man  is a necessary or a free agent is a question
   much discussed.


   Nec"es*sa*ry, n.; pl. Necessaries (.

   1.  A  thing  that  is  necessary  or  indispensable  to some purpose;
   something  that  one can not do without; a requisite; an essential; --
   used chiefly in the plural; as, the necessaries of life.

   2. A privy; a water-closet.

   3. pl. (Law) Such things, in respect to infants, lunatics, and married
   women, as are requisite for support suitable to station.


   Ne*ces`si*ta"ri*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  doctrine of
   philosophical  necessity  in  regard  to  the  origin and existence of
   things,  especially  as applied to the actings or choices of the will;
   -- opposed to libertarian.


   Ne*ces`si*ta"ri*an,   n.   One   who   holds   to   the   doctrine  of


   Ne*ces`si*ta"ri*an*ism   (?),   n.   The   doctrine  of  philosophical
   necessity;  the  doctrine  that  results follow by invariable sequence
   from  causes,  and  esp.  that  the  will  is not free, but that human
   actions  and  choices  result  inevitably from motives; deteminism. M.


   Ne*ces"si*tate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Necessitated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Necessitating (?).] [Cf. L. necessitatus, p.p. of necessitare, and
   F. n\'82cessiter. See Necessity.]

   1. To make necessary or indispensable; to render unaviolable.

     Sickness [might] necessitate his removal from the court. South.

     This fact necessitates a second line. J. Peile.

   2. To reduce to the necessity of; to force; to compel.

     The  Marquis  of  Newcastle,  being  pressed  on  both  sides,  was
     necessitated to draw all his army into York. Clarendon.


   Ne*ces`si*tat"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  n\'82cessitation.]  The act of
   making  necessary,  or  the state of being made necessary; compulsion.
   [R.] bp. Bramhall.


   Ne*ces"si*tied (?), a. In a state of want; necessitous. [Obs.] Shak.


   Ne*ces"si*tous (?), a. [Cf. F. n\'82cessiteux.]

   1. Very needy or indigent; pressed with poverty.

     Necessitous heirs and penurious parents. Arbuthnot.

   2.    Narrow;    destitute;   pinching;   pinched;   as,   necessitous
   circumstances. -- Ne*ces"si*tous*ly, adv. -- Ne*ces"si*tous*ness, n.


   Ne*ces"si*tude (?), n. [L. necessitudo, fr. necesse. See Necessray.]

   1. Necessitousness; want. Sir M. Hale.

   2. Necessary connection or relation.

     Between  kings  and their people, parents and their children, there
     is  so  great  a necessitude, propriety, and intercourse of nature.
     Jer. Taylor.


   Ne*ces"si*ty   (?),  n.;  pl.  Necessities  (#).  [OE.  necessite,  F.
   n\'82cessit\'82, L. necessitas, fr. necesse. See Necessary.]

   1. The quality or state of being necessary, unavoidable, or absolutely
   requisite; inevitableness; indispensableness.

   2.  The  condition  of  being  needy  or  necessitous;  pressing need;
   indigence; want.

     Urge the necessity and state of times. Shak.

     The extreme poverty and necessity his majesty was in. Clarendon.

   3.  That  which  is  necessary;  a  necessary;  a requisite; something
   indispensable; -- often in the plural.

     These should be hours for necessities, Not for delights. Shak.

     What  was  once  to  me Mere matter of the fancy, now has grown The
     vast necessity of heart and life. Tennyson.

   4.  That  which  makes  an  act  or an event unavoidable; irresistible
   force;   overruling   power;  compulsion,  physical  or  moral;  fate;

     So  spake the fiend, and with necessity, The tyrant's plea, excused
     his devilish deeds. Milton.

   5.  (Metaph.)  The  negation  of  freedom  in  voluntary  action;  the
   subjection  of  all  phenomena,  whether  material  or  spiritual,  to
   inevitable causation; necessitarianism.
   Of necessity, by necessary consequence; by compulsion, or irresistible
   power; perforce. Syn. -- See Need.


   Neck  (?),  n.  [OE. necke, AS. hnecca; akin to D. nek the nape of the
   neck,  G.  nacken,  OHG.  nacch, hnacch, Icel. hnakki, Sw. nacke, Dan.

   1.  The  part  of an animal which connects the head and the trunk, and
   which, in man and many other animals, is more slender than the trunk.

   2.  Any part of an inanimate object corresponding to or resembling the
   neck  of  an  animal;  as: (a) The long slender part of a vessel, as a
   retort,  or  of  a  fruit, as a gourd. (b) A long narrow tract of land
   projecting from the main body, or a narrow tract connecting two larger
   tracts.  (c)  (Mus.)  That  part  of  a  violin,  guitar,  or  similar
   instrument,  which  extends from the head to the body, and on which is
   the finger board or fret board.

   3.  (Mech.) A reduction in size near the end of an object, formed by a
   groove around it; as, a neck forming the journal of a shaft.

   4.  (Bot.) the point where the base of the stem of a plant arises from
   the root.
   Neck  and  crop,  completely; wholly; altogether; roughly and at once.
   [Colloq.]  --  Neck and neck (Racing), so nearly equal that one cannot
   be  said  to  be  before the other; very close; even; side by side. --
   Neck of a capital. (Arch.) See Gorgerin. -- Neck of a cascabel (Gun.),
   the part joining the knob to the base of the breech. -- Neck of a gun,
   the  small  part  of  the piece between the chase and the swell of the
   muzzle.  -- Neck of a tooth (Anat.), the constriction between the root
   and the crown. -- Neck or nothing (Fig.), at all risks. -- Neck verse.
   (a)  The  verse  formerly  read  to  entitle a party to the benefit of
   clergy, said to be the first verse of the fifty-first Psalm, "Miserere
   mei,"  etc.  Sir W. Scott. (b) Hence, a verse or saying, the utterance
   of which decides one's fate; a shibboleth.
     These   words,  "bread  and  cheese,"  were  their  neck  verse  or
     shibboleth  to distinguish them; all pronouncing "broad and cause,"
     being presently put to death. Fuller.
   --  Neck  yoke. (a) A bar by which the end of the tongue of a wagon or
   carriage  is suspended from the collars of the harnesses. (b) A device
   with  projecting arms for carrying things (as buckets of water or sap)
   suspended  from one's shoulders. -- On the neck of, immediately after;
   following  closely.  "Commiting  one  sin  on the neck of another." W.
   Perkins.  --  Stiff  neck,  obstinacy  in  evil  or  wrong; inflexible
   obstinacy;  contumacy.  "I  know  thy  rebellion, and thy stiff neck."
   Deut. xxxi. 27. -- To break the neck of, to destroy the main force of.
   "What  they  presume  to  borrow  from  her sage and virtuous rules...
   breaks  the  neck  of their own cause." Milton.<-- = break the back of
   -->  --  To  harden  the  neck, to grow obstinate; to be more and more
   perverse  and  rebellious. Neh. ix. 17. -- To tread on the neck of, to
   oppress; to tyrannize over.


   Neck,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Necked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Necking.]
   (Mech.)  To reduce the diameter of (an object) near its end, by making
   a  groove  around it; -- used with down; as, to neck down a shaft. <--
   2. v. t. & i. To kiss and caress amorously. n. necking -->

                                  Neckar nut

   Neck"ar nut` (?). (Bot.) See Nicker nut.


   Neck"band`  (?), n. A band which goes around the neck; often, the part
   at the top of a garment.


   Neck"cloth` (?; 115), n. A piece of any fabric worn around the neck.


   Necked (?), a.

   1.  Having  (such)  a  neck;  --  chiefly  used  in  composition;  as,

   2. (Naut.) Cracked; -- said of a treenail.


   Neck"er*chief (?), n. [For neck kerchief.] A kerchief for the neck; --
   called also neck handkerchief.


   Neck"ing, n. Same as Neckmold.


   Neck"lace (?; 48), n.

   1.  A  string  of  beads,  etc., or any continuous band or chain, worn
   around the neck as an ornament.

   2.  (Naut.) A rope or chain fitted around the masthead to hold hanging
   blocks for jibs and stays.


   neck"laced (?), a. Wearing a necklace; marked as with a necklace.

     The hooded and the necklaced snake. Sir W. Jones.


   neck"land (?), n. A neck of land. [Obs.]


   neck"let (?), n. A necklace. E. Anold.

                              Neckmold, Neckmould

   Neck"mold`,  Neck"mould`  (?),  n.  (Arch.)  A  small  convex  molding
   surrounding a column at the jinction of the shaft and capital. Weale.


   Neck"plate` (?), n. See Gorget, 1 and 2.


   Neck"tie`  (?),  n.  A scarf, band, or kerchief of silk, etc., passing
   around  the  neck  or  collar  and tied in front; a bow of silk, etc.,
   fastened in front of the neck.


   Neck"wear`  (?),  n.  A  collective  term  for  cravats, collars, etc.
   [Colloq. or trade name]


   Neck"weed`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  (a)  An  American  annual weed (veronica
   peregrina), with small white flowers and a roundish pod. (b) The hemp;
   -- so called as furnishing ropes for hanging criminals. Dr. prior.


   Nec`ro*bi*o"sis  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol. & Med.) The death of a
   part by molecular disintegration and without loss of continuity, as in
   the  processes  of  degeneration and atrophy.<-- a normal dying out of
   cells in a tissue, contrast to necrosis --> Virchow.


   Nec`ro*bi*ot"ic   (?),   a.   (Biol.  &  Med.)  Of  or  pertaining  to
   necrobiosis; as, a necrobiotic metamorphosis.


   Ne*crol"a*try  (?), n. [Gr. The worship of the dead; manes worship. H.


   Nec"ro*lite (?), n. [Gr. -lite.] (Min.) Same as Necronite.

                           Necrologic, Necrological

   Nec`ro*log"ic  (?), Nec`ro*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. n\'82crologique.]
   Of  or  pertaining  to necrology; of the nature of necrology; relating
   to, or giving, an account of the dead, or of deaths.


   Ne*crol"o*gist (?), n. One who gives an account of deaths.


   Ne*crol"o*gy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Necrologies  (#).  [Gr.  -logy:  cf.  F.
   n\'82crologie.  See Necromancy.] An account of deaths, or of the dead;
   a register of deaths; a collection of obituary notices.


   Nec"ro*man`cer  (?),  n.  One  who practices necromancy; a sorcerer; a


   Nec"ro*man`cy  (?),  n. [OE. nigromaunce, nigromancie, OF. nigromance,
   F.  n\'82cromance,  n\'82cromancie, from L. necromantia, Gr. necare to
   kill,  Skr.  na()  to  perish,  vanish)  +  mania.  See Mania, and cf.
   Internecine,  Noxious.  The  old  spelling is due to confusion with L.
   niger  black.  Hence  the name black art.] The art of revealing future
   events  by means of a pretended communication with the dead; the black
   art; hence, magic in general; conjuration; enchantment. See Black art.

     This  palace  standeth  in  the air, By necromancy plac\'8ad there.


   Nec`ro*man"tic (?), n. Conjuration. [R.]

     With all the necromantics of their art. Young.

                          Necromantic, Necromantical

   Nec`ro*man"tic  (?),  Nec`ro*man"tic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to
   necromancy; performed by necromancy. -- Nec`ro*man"tic*al*ly, adv.


   Nec"ro*nite  (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) Fetid feldspar, a mineral which, when
   struck, exhales a fetid odor.


   Ne*croph"a*gan  (?), a. [See Necrophagous.] (Zo\'94l.) Eating carrion.
   -- n. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of a tribe (Necrophaga) of beetles which,
   in the larval state, feed on carrion; a burying beetle.


   Ne*croph"a*gous   (?),   a.  [Gr.  n\'82crophage.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or
   pertaining to the Necrophaga; eating carrion. See Necrophagan.


   Nec`ro*pho"bi*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. An exaggerated fear of death or
   horror of dead bodies.


   Nec"ro*phore  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of numerous species of
   beetles  of  the  genus  Necrophorus and allied genera; -- called also
   burying beetle, carrion beetle, sexton beetle.


   Ne*crop"o*lis  (?),  n.; pl. Necropolises (#). [NL., fr. Gr. A city of
   the  dead;  a  name  given  by  the  ancients to their cemeteries, and
   sometimes applied to modern burial places; a graveyard.


   Nec"rop*sy   (?),   n.   [Gr.   n\'82cropsie.]  (Med.)  A  post-mortem
   examination or inspection; an autopsy. See Autopsy.

                          Necroscopic, Necroscopical

   Nec`ro*scop"ic  (?),  Nec`ro*scop"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr. -scope.] Or or
   relating to post-mortem examinations.


   Ne*crose"  (?),  v.  t. & i. (Med.) To affect with necrosis; to unergo
   necrosis. Quain.


   Ne*crosed"  (?),  a. (Med.) Affected by necrosis; dead; as, a necrosed
   bone. Dunglison.

   Page 968


   Ne*cro"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. gr.

   1. (med.) Mortification or gangrene of bone, or the death of a bone or
   portion  of  a  bone  in  mass,  as  opposed to its death by molecular
   disintegration.  See  Caries.<--  now  used differently : modern def =
   "pathologic death of part of a tissue due to irreversible damage" i.e.
   not  just  bone.  Contrast  to necrobiosis, which is a normal death of
   cels in a tissue -->

   2.  (Bot.)  A disease of trees, in which the branches gradually dry up
   from the bark to the center.


   Ne*crot"ic (?), a. (Med.) Affected with necrosis; as, necrotic tissue;
   characterized by, or producing, necrosis; as, a necrotic process.


   Nec"tar (?), n. [L., fr. gr.

   1.  (Myth.  &  Poetic)  The  drink  of the gods (as ambrosia was their
   food); hence, any delicious or inspiring beverage.

   2. (Bot.) A sweetish secretion of blossoms from which bees make honey.


   Nec*ta"re*al (?), a.

   1. Nectareous.

   2. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a nectary.


   Nec*ta"re*an  (?),  a. [L. nectareus: cf. F. nectar\'82en.] Resembling
   nectar; very sweet and pleasant. "nectarean juice." Talfourd.


   Nec"tared  (?),  a. Imbued with nectar; mingled with nectar; abounding
   with nectar. Milton.


   Nec*ta"re"ous  (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining to, containing, or resembling
   nectar;  delicious;  nectarean.  Pope.  --  Nec*ta"re*ous*ly,  adv. --
   Nec*ta"re*ous*ness, n.


   Nec*ta"ri*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to the nectary of a plant.


   Nec"ta*ried (?), a. Having a nectary.


   Nec`tar*if"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  nectar  nectar  +  -ferous:  cf.  F.
   nectarif\'8are.] (Bot.) Secreting nectar; -- said of blossoms or their


   Nec"tar*ine (?), a. Nectareous. [R.] Milton.


   Nec"tar*ine,   n.   [Cf.   F.   nectarine.   See   Nectar.]  (Bot.)  A
   smooth-skinned variety of peach. Spanish nectarine, the plumlike fruit
   of  the  West  Indian  tree  Chrysobalanus Icaco; -- also called cocoa
   plum.  it  is made into a sweet conserve which a largely exported from


   Nec"tar*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nectarized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nectarizing  (?).] To mingle or infuse with nectar; to sweeten. [Obs.]


   Nec"tar*ous (?), a. Nectareous. Milton.


   Nec"ta*ry  (?), n.; pl. Nectaries (#). [From Nectar: cf. F. nectaire.]
   (Bot.)  That part of a blossom which secretes nectar, usually the base
   of  the  corolla  or  petals;  also,  the  spur of such flowers as the
   larkspur   and  columbine,  whether  nectariferous  or  not.  See  the
   Illustration of Nasturtium.


   Nec`to*ca"lyx  (?), n.; pl. Nectocalyces (#). [NL., fr. gr. (Zo\'94l.)
   (a) The swimming bell or umbrella of a jellyfish of medusa. (b) One of
   the  zooids of certain Siphonophora, having somewhat the form, and the
   essential  structure,  of  the  bell  of  a jellyfish, and acting as a
   swimming organ.

                              Nectosac, Nectosack

   Nec"to*sac, Nec"to*sack (?), n. [Gr. sac, sack.] (Zo\'94l.) The cavity
   of a nectocalyx.


   Nec"to*stem  (?),  n.  [Gr. stem.] (Zo\'94l.) That portion of the axis
   which bears the nectocalyces in the Siphonophora.


   Ned"der (?), n. [See Adder.] (Zo\'94l.) An adder. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]


   Ned"dy (?), n.; pl. Neddies (. (Zo\'94l.) A pet name for a donkey.


   Nee (?), p. p., fem. [F., fr. L. nata, fem. of natus, p.p. of nasci to
   be  born.  See  Nation.] Born; -- a term sometimes used in introducing
   the  name of the family to which a married woman belongs by birth; as,
   Madame de Sta\'89l, n\'82e Necker.<-- i.e. maiden name -->


   Need  (?), n. [OE. need, neod, nede, AS. ne\'a0d, n&ymac;d; akin to D.
   nood, G. not, noth, Icel. nau&edh;r, Sw. & Dan. n\'94d, Goth. naups.]

   1.  A  state  that  requires  supply  or relief; pressing occasion for
   something; necessity; urgent want.

     And the city had no need of the sun. Rev. xxi. 23.

     I have no need to beg. Shak.

     Be governed by your needs, not by your fancy. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  Want of the means of subsistence; poverty; indigence; destitution.

     Famine  is  in  thy  cheeks;  Need and oppression starveth in thine
     eyes. Shak.

   3.  That  which  is  needful;  anything  necessary  to  be done; (pl.)
   necessary things; business. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   4. Situation of need; peril; danger. [Obs.] Chaucer. Syn. -- Exigency;
   emergency;   strait;   extremity;  necessity;  distress;  destitution;
   poverty;  indigence;  want;  penury.  -- Need, Necessity. Necessity is
   stronger  than  need;  it  places us under positive compulsion. We are
   frequently under the necessity of going without that of which we stand
   very  greatly  in  need. It is also with the corresponding adjectives;
   necessitous  circumstances  imply  the  direct  pressure of suffering;
   needy circumstances, the want of aid or relief.


   Need  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Needed; p. pr. & vb. n. Needing.] [See
   Need,  n.  Cf.  AS.  n to force, Goth. nau.] To be in want of; to have
   cause or occasion for; to lack; to require, as supply or relief.

     Other  creatures  all day long Rove idle, unemployed, and less need
     rest. Milton.

     NOTE: &hand; Wi th an other ve rb, ne ed is used like an auxiliary,
     generally   in   a  negative  sentence  expressing  requirement  or
     obligation,  and  in this use it undergoes no change of termination
     in  the third person singular of the present tense. "And the lender
     need not fear he shall be injured."

   Anacharsis (Trans. ).


   Need, v. i. To be wanted; to be necessary. Chaucer.

     When  we  have  done it, we have done all that is in our power, and
     all that needs. Locke.


   Need, adv. Of necessity. See Needs. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Need"er (?), n. One who needs anything. Shak.


   Need"ful (?), a.

   1.  Full  of  need;  in  need  or  want; needy; distressing. [Archaic]

     The needful time of trouble. Bk. of Com. Prayer.

   2. Necessary for supply or relief; requisite.

     All things needful for defense abound. Dryden.

   -- Need"ful*ly, adv. -- Need"ful*ness, n.


   Need"i*ly  (?),  adv.  [From  Needy.]  In a needy condition or manner;
   necessarily. Chaucer.


   Need"i*ness,  n.  The  state or quality of being needy; want; poverty;


   Nee"dle  (?), n. [OE. nedle, AS. n; akin to D. neald, OS. n\'bedla, G.
   nadel,  OHG. n\'bedal, n\'bedala, Icel. n\'bel, Sw. n\'86l, Dan. naal,
   and  also  to  G. n\'84hen to sew, OHG. n\'bejan, L. nere to spin, Gr.
   snare:  cf.  Gael. & Ir. snathad needle, Gael. snath thread, G. schnur
   string, cord.]

   1.  A  small  instrument of steel, sharply pointed at one end, with an
   eye to receive a thread, -- used in sewing. Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; In  some needles(as for sewing machines) the eye is at
     the pointed end, but in ordinary needles it is at the blunt end.

   2. See Magnetic needle, under Magnetic.

   3.  A slender rod or wire used in knitting; a knitting needle; also, a
   hooked  instrument  which carries the thread or twine, and by means of
   which  knots  or loops are formed in the process of netting, knitting,
   or crocheting.

   4. (Bot.) One of the needle-shaped secondary leaves of pine trees. See

   5. Any slender, pointed object, like a needle, as a pointed crystal, a
   sharp pinnacle of rock, an obelisk, etc.
   Dipping  needle.  See  under Dipping. -- Needle bar, the reciprocating
   bar  to  which  the  needle of a sewing machine is attached. -- Needle
   beam  (Arch.),  to  shoring,  the  horizontal  cross timber which goes
   through  the  wall  or  a  pier, and upon which the weight of the wall
   rests,  when  a  building  is shored up to allow of alterations in the
   lower  part.  --  Needle  furze  (Bot.), a prickly leguminous plant of
   Western  Europe;  the  petty  whin (Genista Anglica). -- Needle gun, a
   firearm  loaded  at  the  breech  with  a  cartridge  carrying its own
   fulminate, which is exploded by driving a slender needle, or pin, into
   it.  --  Needle  loom  (Weaving),  a  loom in which the weft thread is
   carried  through the shed by a long eye-pointed needle instead of by a
   shuttle.  --  Needle  ore  (Min.),  acicular  bismuth;  a  sulphide of
   bismuth,  lead,  and  copper  occuring in acicular crystals; -- called
   also  aikinite.  --  Needle  shell (Zo\'94l.), a sea urchin. -- Needle
   spar  (Min.), aragonite. -- Needle telegraph, a telegraph in which the
   signals are given by the deflections of a magnetic needle to the right
   or  to  the  left of a certain position. -- Sea needle (Zo\'94l.), the


   Nee"dle,  v.  t.  To  form  in  the  shape  of a needle; as, to needle


   Nee"dle, v. i. To form needles; to crystallize in the form of needles.


   Nee"dle*book` (?), n. A book-shaped needlecase, having leaves of cloth
   into which the needles are stuck.


   Nee"dle*case` (?), n. A case to keep needles.


   Nee"dle*fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  European great pipefich
   (Siphostoma,   OR   Syngnathus,   acus);  --  called  also  earl,  and
   tanglefish. (b) The garfish.


   nee"dle*ful  (?), n.; pl. needlefuls (. As much thread as is used in a
   needle at one time.


   Nee"dle-pointed` (?), a. Pointed as needles.


   Nee"dler  (?),  n.  One  who  makes or uses needles; also, a dealer in
   needles. Piers Plowman.


   Nee"dless (?), a.

   1. Having no need. [Obs.]

     Weeping into the needless stream. Shak.

   2. Not wanted; unnecessary; not requiste; as, needless labor; needless

   3.   Without   sufficient   cause;   groundless;  cuseless.  "Needless
   jealousy." Shak. -- Need"less*ly, adv. -- Need"less*ness, n.


   Nee"dle*stone`  (?),  n.  (Min.)  Natrolite;  --  called  also  needle


   Nee"dle*wom`an   (?),   n.;  pl.  Needlewomen  (.  A  woman  who  does
   needlework; a seamstress.


   Nee"dle*work` (?), n.

   1.  Work executed with a needle; sewed work; sewing; embroidery; also,
   the business of a seamstress.

   2.  The combination of timber and plaster making the outside framework
   of some houses.


   Nee"dly  (?), a. Like a needle or needles; as, a needly horn; a needly
   beard. R. D. Blackmore.


   Need"ly (?), adv. [AS. n. See Need.] Necessarily; of necessity. [Obs.]


   Need"ment  (?),  n.  Something needed or wanted. pl. Outfit; necessary
   luggage. [Archaic] Spenser.

     Carrying each his needments. Wordsworth.


   Needs  (?),  adv. [Orig. gen. of need, used as an adverb. Cf. -wards.]
   Of  necessity;  necessarily;  indispensably;  --  often with must, and
   equivalent to of need.

     A man must needs love mauger his head. Chaucer.

     And he must needs go through Samaria. John iv. 4.

     He would needs know the cause of his reulse. Sir J. Davies.


   Needs"cost` (?), adv. Of necessity. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Needs"ly, adv. Of necessity. [Obs.] Drayton.


   Need"y (?), a. [Compar. Needer (?); superl. Neediest.]

   1.  Distressed  by  want  of  the means of living; very por; indigent;

     Thou shalt open thy hand wide unto thy brother, to thy poor, and to
     thy needy in thy land. Deut. xv. 11.

     Spare the bluches of needly merit. Dr. T. Dwight.

   2. Necessary; requiste. [Obs.]

     Corn to make your needy bread. Shak.

                                 Neeld, Neele

   Neeld (?), Neele (?), n. [See Needle.] A needle. [Obs.] Shak.


   Neel"ghau (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Nylghau.

                                   Neem tree

   Neem"  tree`  (?).  [Hind.  n\'c6m.]  (Bot.) An Asiatic name for Melia
   Azadirachta, and M. Azedarach. See Margosa.


   Neer (?), adv. & a. Nearer. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ne'er (? OR ?), adv. a contraction of Never.


   Neese  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Neesed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Neesing.]
   [OE.  nesen;  akin  to  D.  niezen,  G. niesen, Icel. hnj&omac;sa.] To
   sneeze. [Obs.] [Written also neeze.]


   Nees"ing  (?),  n.  Sneezing.  [Obs.]  "By  his  neesings a light doth
   shine." Job xli. 18.

                                   Ne exeat

   Ne`  ex"e*at  (?).  [L.  ne  exeat  regno  let  him  not go out of the
   kingdom.]  (Law) A writ to restrain a person from leaving the country,
   or  the  jurisdiction of the court. The writ was originally applicable
   to  purposes  of  state,  but  is now an ordinary process of courts of
   equity,  resorted to for the purpose of obtaining bail, or security to
   abide a decree. Kent.


   Nef (?; F. , n. [F. See Nave.] The nave of a church. Addison.

                               Nefand, Nefandous

   Ne"fand (?), Ne*fan"dous (?), a. [L. nefandus not to be spoken; ne not
   +   fari  to  speak.]  Unfit  to  speak  of;  unmentionable;  impious;
   execrable.  [Obs.]  "Nefand  adominations."  Sheldon.  "Nefandous high
   treason." Cotton Mather.


   Ne*fa"ri*ous  (?),  a.  [L. nefarius, fr. nefas crime, wrong; ne not +
   fas divine law; akin to fari to speak. See No, adv., and Fate.] Wicked
   in   the  extreme;  abominable;  iniquitous;  atrociously  villainous;
   execrable;  detestably vile. Syn. -- Iniquitous; detestable; horrible;
   heinious;   atrocious;   infamous;   impious.   See   Iniquitous.   --
   Ne*fa"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- Ne*fa"ri*ous*ness, n.


   Ne"fasch (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any fish of the genus Distichodus. Several
   large species inhabit the Nile.


   Ne"fast (?), a. [L. nefastus.] Wicked. [R.]


   Ne*ga"tion  (?), n. [L. negatio, fr. negare to say no, to deny; ne not
   +  the  root  of aio I say; cf. Gr. ah to say; cf. F. n\'82gation. See
   No, adv., and cf. Adage, Deny, Renegade.]

   1.  The  act of denying; assertion of the nonreality or untruthfulness
   of  anything;  declaration  that something is not, or has not been, or
   will not be; denial; -- the opposite of affirmation.

     Our assertions and negations should be yea and nay. Rogers.

   2.   (Logic)  Description  or  definition  by  denial,  exclusion,  or
   exception;  statement  of  what a thing is not, or has not, from which
   may be inferred what it is or has.


   Neg"a*tive  (?),  a. [F. n\'82gatif, L. negativus, fr. negare to deny.
   See Negation.]

   1.  Denying;  implying,  containing,  or asserting denial, negation or
   refusal;  returning  the  answer no to an inquiry or request; refusing
   assent;  as,  a  negative  answer;  a  negative opinion; -- opposed to

     If thou wilt confess, Or else be impudently negative. Shak.

     Denying me any power of a negative voice. Eikon Basilike.

     Something between an affirmative bow and a negative shake. Dickens.

   2.  Not  positive;  without  affirmative  statement  or demonstration;
   indirect;  consisting  in  the  absence of something; privative; as, a
   negative argument; a negative morality; negative criticism.

     There in another way of denying Christ, ... which is negative, when
     we do not acknowledge and confess him. South.

   3.  (Logic)  Asserting  absence  of connection between a subject and a
   predicate; as, a negative proposition.

   4.  (Photog.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  picture  upon glass or other
   material,  in  which  the  lights  and shades of the original, and the
   relations of right and left, are reversed.

   5.  (Chem.)  Metalloidal;  nonmetallic; -- contracted with positive or
   basic; as, the nitro group is negative.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd, de rived fr om el ectro-negative, is  now
     commonly  used  in  a  more  general sense, when acidiferous is the
     intended signification.

   Negative crystal. (a) A cavity in a mineral mass, having the form of a
   crystal.  (b)  A  crystal  which  has  the  power  of  negative double
   refraction.  See refraction. -- negative electricity (Elec.), the kind
   of  electricity  which is developed upon resin or ebonite when rubbed,
   or  which appears at that pole of a voltaic battery which is connected
   with  the  plate  most  attacked  by  the exciting liquid; -- formerly
   called   resinous   electricity.   Opposed  to  positive  electricity.
   Formerly,  according  to Franklin's theory of a single electric fluid,
   negative  electricity was supposed to be electricity in a degree below
   saturation,  or  the natural amount for a given body. see Electricity.
   --  Negative eyepiece. (Opt.) see under Eyepiece. -- Negative quantity
   (Alg.),  a  quantity preceded by the negative sign, or which stands in
   the  relation  indicated  by  this  sign  to  some other quantity. See
   Negative  sign  (below).  -- Negative rotation, right-handed rotation.
   See  Right-handed,  3. -- Negative sign, the sign -, or minus (opposed
   in signification to +, or plus), indicating that the quantity to which
   it  is prefixed is to be subtracted from the preceding quantity, or is
   to  be  reckoned from zero or cipher in the opposite direction to that
   of quanties having the sign plus either expressed or understood; thus,
   in a - b, b is to be substracted from a, or regarded as opposite to it
   in  value; and -10\'f8 on a thermometer means 10\'f8 below the zero of
   the scale.
   Page 969
   Neg"a*tive, n. [Cf. F. n\'82gative.]
   1.  A  proposition  by  which  something  is  denied  or  forbidden; a
   conception  or  term  formed by prefixing the negative particle to one
   which is positive; an opposite or contradictory term or conception.
     This  is  a  known  rule in divinity, that there is no command that
     runs in negatives but couches under it a positive duty. South.
   2. A word used in denial or refusal; as, not, no.

     NOTE: &hand; In Old England two or more negatives were often joined
     together for the sake of emphasis, whereas now such expressions are
     considered  ungrammatical, being chiefly heard in iliterate speech.
     A  double  negative  is  now  sometimes  used  as  nearly  or quite
     equivalent to an affirmative.

     No wine ne drank she, neither white nor red. Chaucer.

     These  eyes that never did nor never shall So much as frown on you.

   3. The refusal or withholding of assents; veto.

     If  a  kind without his kingdom be, in a civil sense, nothing, then
     ... his negative is as good as nothing. Milton.

   4.  That side of a question which denies or refuses, or which is taken
   by an opposing or denying party; the relation or position of denial or
   opposition; as, the question was decided in the negative.

   5.  (Photog.)  A  picture  upon  glass or other material, in which the
   light portions of the original are represented in some opaque material
   (usually  reduced  silver), and the dark portions by the uncovered and
   transparent or semitransparent ground of the picture.

     NOTE: &hand; A  ne gative is chiefly used for producing photographs
     by  means  of  the  sun's  light passing through it and acting upon
     sensitized paper, thus producing on the paper a positive picture.

   <-- now, not sun's light but artificial light is used -->

   6. (Elect.) The negative plate of a voltaic or electrolytic cell.
   Negative pregnant (Law), a negation which implies an affirmation.


   Neg"a*tive  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Negatived (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To prove unreal or intrue; to disprove.

     The  omission or infrequency of such recitals does not negative the
     existence of miracles. Paley.

   2.  To  reject by vote; to refuse to enact or sanction; as, the Senate
   negatived the bill.

   3. To neutralize the force of; to counteract.


   Neg"a*tive*ly, adv.

   1.  In a negative manner; with or by denial. "He answered negatively."

   2. In the form of speech implying the absence of something; -- opposed
   to positively.

     negatively, by showing wherein it does not consist, and positively,
     by showing wherein it does consist. South.

   Negatively charged OR electrified (Elec.), having a charge of the kind
   of electricity called negative.
                           Negativeness, Negativity
   Neg"a*tive*ness,  Neg`a*tiv"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being


   Neg"a*to*ry  (?),  a. [L. negatorius: cf. F. n\'82gatorie.] Expressing
   denial; belonging to negation; negative. Carlyle.


   Neg"i*noth (?), n. pl. [Heb. n&ecr;g\'c6n&omac;th.] (Script.) Stringed
   instruments. Dr. W. Smith.

     To the chief musician on Neginoth. Ps. iv. 9heading).


   Neg*lect"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Neglected;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Neglecting.]   [L.   neglectus,   p.p.  of  neglegere  (negligere)  to
   disregard, neglect, the literal sense prob. neing, not to pick up; nec
   not,  nor  (fr.  ne  not + -que, a particle akin to Goth. -h, -uh, and
   prob.  to  E.  who; cf. Goth. nih nor) + L. legere to pick up, gather.
   See No, adv., Legend, Who.]

   1.  Not to attend to with due care or attention; to forbear one's duty
   in regard to; to suffer to pass unimproved, unheeded, undone, etc.; to
   omit;  to  disregard;  to  slight; as, to neglect duty or business; to
   neglect to pay debts.

     I hope My absence doth neglect no great designs. Shak.

     This,  my long suffering and my day of grace, Those who neglect and
     scorn shall never taste. Milton.

   2.  To  omit to notice; to forbear to treat with attention or respect;
   to  slight;  as,  to  neglect  strangers. Syn. -- To slight; overlook;
   disregard; disesteem; contemn. See Slight.


   Neg*lect", n. [L. neglectus. See Neglect, v.]

   1.  Omission of proper attention; avoidance or disregard of duty, from
   heedlessness,  indifference,  or  willfulness;  failure to do, use, or
   heed anything; culpable disregard; as, neglect of business, of health,
   of economy.

     To  tell  thee  sadly,  shepherd, without blame, Or our neglect, we
     lost her as we came. Milton.

   2.  Omission  if  attention  or  civilities;  slight;  as,  neglect of

   3. Habitual carelessness; negligence.

     Age breeds neglect in all. Denham.

   4. The state of being disregarded, slighted, or neglected.

     Rescue my poor remains from vile neglect. Prior.

   Syn.  --  Negligence;  inattention;  disregard; disesteem; remissness;
   indifference.  See  Negligence.  <--  benign  neglect. -- A deliberate
   policy  of  minimizing  public discussion of a controversial issue [by
   the  president]  on  the theory that excessive discussion in itself is
   harmful or counterproductive -->


   Neg*lect"ed*ness, n. The state of being neglected.


   Neg*lect"er (?), n. One who neglects. South.


   Neg*lect"ful  (?),  a. Full of neglect; heedless; careless; negligent;
   inattentive; indifferent. Pope.

     A cold and neglectful countenance. Locke.

     Though  the Romans had no great genius for trade, yet they were not
     entirely neglectful of it. Arbuthnot.

   -- Neg*lect"ful*ly, adv. -- Neg*lect"ful*ness, n.


   Neg*lect"ing*ly, adv. Carelessly; heedlessly. Shak.


   Neg*lec"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  neglectio.] The state of being negligent;
   negligence. [Obs.] Shak.


   Neg*lect"ive  (?),  a.  Neglectful.  [R.]  "Neglective  of  their  own
   children." Fuller.


   Neg`li*gee"  (?), n. [F. n\'82glig\'82, fr. n\'82gliger to neglect, L.
   negligere. See Neglect.] An easy, unceremonious attire; undress; also,
   a kind of easy robe or dressing gown worn by women.


   Neg"li*gence  (?),  n. [F. n\'82gligence, L. negligentia.] The quality
   or  state  of being negligent; lack of due diligence or care; omission
   of duty; habitual neglect; heedlessness.

   2. An act or instance of negligence or carelessness.

     remarking  his  beauties, ... I must also point out his negligences
     and defects. Blair.

   3. (Law) The omission of the care usual under the circumstances, being
   convertible  with  the  Roman  culpa.  A specialist is bound to higher
   skill and diligence in his specialty than one who is not a specialist,
   and liability for negligence varies acordingly.
   Contributory  negligence.  See  under  Contributory.  Syn. -- Neglect;
   inattention;  heedlessness; disregard; slight. -- Negligence, Neglect.
   These  two  words  are freely interchanged in our older writers; but a
   distinction  has  gradually  sprung  up between them. As now generally
   used,  negligence is the habit, and neglect the act, of leaving things
   undone  or  unattended  to.  We  are  negligent  as a general trait of
   character;  we  are  guilty  of  neglect  in  particular  cases, or in
   reference to individuals who had a right to our attentions.


   Neg"li*gent (?), a. [F. n\'82gligent, L. negligens,p.pr. of negligere.
   See Neglect.] Apt to neglect; customarily neglectful; characterized by
   negligence;  careless;  heedless;  culpably  careless; showing lack of
   attention;  as,  disposed  in  negligent  order. "Be thou negligent of
   fame." Swift.

     He  that thinks he can afford to be negligent is not far from being
     poor. Rambler.

   Syn.   --  Careles;  heedless;  neglectful;  regardless;  thoughtless;
   indifferent; inattentive; remiss.


   Neg"li*gent*ly (?), adv. In a negligent manner.


   Neg"li*gi*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. n\'82gligible, n\'82gligeable.] That may
   neglicted, disregarded, or left out of consideration.

     Within very negligible limits of error. Sir J. Herschel.


   Ne*goce"  (?), n. [F. n\'82goce. See Negotiate.] Business; occupation.
   [Obs.] Bentley.


   Ne*go`ti*a*bil"i*ty  (?  OR  ?),  n. [Cf. F. n\'82gociabilit\'82.] The
   quality of being negotiable or transferable by indorsement.


   Ne*go"ti*a*ble  (?  OR  ?),  a. [Cf. F. n\'82gotiable. See Negotiate.]
   Capable  of being negotiated; transferable by assigment or indorsement
   to  another  person;  as,  a  negotiable  note  or  bill  of exchange.
   Negotiable  paper,  any  commercial  paper  transferable  by  sale  or
   delivery  and  indorsement,  as bills of exchange, drafts, checks, and
   promissory notes.


   Ne*go"ti*ant  (?),  n. [L. negotians, prop. p.pr. of negotiari: cf. F.
   n\'82gociant.] A negotiator. [R.] Sir W. Raleigh.


   Ne*go"ti*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [L.  negotiatus,  p.p.  of  negotiari, fr.
   negotium business; nec not + otium leisure. Cf. Neglect.]

   1. To transact business; to carry on trade. [Obs.] Hammond.

   2. To treat with another respecting purchase and sale or some business
   affair;  to  bargain  or  trade;  as,  to negotiate with a man for the
   purchase of goods or a farm.

   3.  To hold intercourse respecting a treaty, league, or convention; to
   treat with, respecting peace or commerce; to conduct communications or

     He that negotiates between God and man Is God's ambassador. Cowper.

   4. To intrigue; to scheme. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Ne*go"ti*ate,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Negotiated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Negotiating (?).]

   1.  To  carry on negotiations concerning; to procure or arrange for by
   negotiation; as, to negotiate peace, or an exchange.

     Constantinople  had  negotiated in the isles of the Archipelago ...
     the most indispensable supplies. Gibbon.

   2.  To transfer for a valuable consideration under rules of commercial
   law; to sell; to pass.

     The  notes  were  not  negotiated  to  them  in the usual course of
     business or trade. Kent.


   Ne*go`ti*a"tion (?), n. [L. negotiatio: cf. F. n\'82gociation.]

   1.  The  act  or  process  of  negotiating;  a  treating  with another
   respecting sale or purchase. etc.

   2. Hence, mercantile business; trading. [Obs.]

     Who  had  lost,  with  these  prizes,  forty thousand pounds, after
     twenty years' negotiation in the East Indies. Evelyn.

   3. The transaction of business between nations; the mutual intercourse
   of  governments  by  diplomatic  agents, in making treaties, composing
   difference, etc.; as, the negotiations at Ghent.

     An important negotiation with foreign powers. Macaulay.


   Ne*go"ti*a`tor   (?),   n.   [L.:  cf.  F.  n\'82gociateur.]  One  who
   negotiates;  a  person  who treats with others, either as principal or
   agent, in respect to purchase and sale, or public compacts.


   Ne*go"ti*a*to*ry (? OR ?), a. Of or pertaining to negotiation.


   Ne*go`ti*a"trix (?), n. [L.] A woman who negotiates. Miss Edgeworth.


   Ne*go`ti*os"i*ty  (?),  n. [L. negotiositas.] The state of being busy;
   multitude of business. [Obs.]


   Ne*go"tious (?), a. [L. negotiosus.] Very busy; attentive to business;
   active. [R.] D. Rogers.


   Ne*go"tious*ness,  n.  The  state  of being busily occupied; activity.
   [R.] D. Rogers.


   Ne"gress  (?),  n.;  pl.  Negresses  (.  [Cf.  F.  n\'82grese, fem. of
   n\'82gre a negro. See Negro.] A black woman; a female negro.


   Ne*gri"ta  (?),  n.  [Sp.,  blackish,  fem.  of negrito, dim. of negro
   black.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  blackish fish (Hypoplectrus nigricans), of the
   Sea-bass family. It is a native of the West Indies and Florida.


   Ne*grit"ic  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to negroes; composed of negroes.


   Ne*gri"tos  (?),  n.  pl.; sing Negrito (. [Sp., dim. of negro black.]
   (Ethnol.)  A  degraded  Papuan  race, inhabiting Luzon and some of the
   other  east  Indian Islands. They resemble negroes, but are smaller in
   size. They are mostly nomads.


   Ne"gro  (?), n.; pl. Negroes (. [Sp. or Pg. negro, fr. negro black, L.
   niger; perh. akin to E. night.] A black man; especially, one of a race
   of black or very dark persons who inhabit the greater part of tropical
   Africa,  and  are  distinguished by crisped or curly hair, flat noses,
   and  thick  protruding lips; also, any black person of unmixed African
   blood,  wherever found.<-- 2. A person of dark skin color descended at
   least  in part from African negroes; an African-American. [U.S. usage,
   sometimes considered offensive.] -->


   Ne"gro, a. of or pertaining to negroes; black. Negro bug (Zo\'94l.), a
   minute black bug common on the raspberry and blackberry. It produced a
   very  disagreeable  flavor. -- negro corn, the Indian millet or durra;
   --  so  called  in  the West Indies. see Durra. McElrath. -- Negro fly
   (Zo\'94l.), a black dipterous fly (Psila ros\'91) which, in the larval
   state,  is  injurious  to carrots; -- called also carrot fly. -- Negro
   head  (Com.),  Cavendish  tobacco.  [Cant]  McElrath.  -- Negro monkey
   (Zo\'94l.), the moor monkey.


   Ne"groid (?), a. [Negro + -oid.]

   1. Characteristic of the negro.

   2.  Resembling  the  negro  or  negroes; of or pertaining to those who
   resemble the negro.


   Ne"gro*loid (?), a. See Negroid.


   Ne"gus  (?),  n.  A  beverage  made of wine, water, sugar, nutmeg, and
   lemon  juice;  -- so called, it is said, from its first maker, Colonel


   Ne"hi*loth  (?),  n.  pl.  [Heb.]  (Script.)  A term supposed to mean,
   perforated  wind  instruments  of  music,  as  pipes or flutes. Ps. v.


   Ne*hush"tan  (?),  n. [Heb.] A thing of brass; -- the name under which
   the  Israelites  worshiped  the  brazen serpent made by Moses. 2 Kings
   xviii. 4.

                                  Neif, Neife

   Neif, Neife (?), n. [OF. ne\'8bf, na\'8bf, a born serf, fr. L. nativus
   born,  imparted  by  birth.  See Native.] A woman born in the state of
   villeinage; a female serf. Blackstone.

                                  Neif, Neaf

   Neif,  Neaf (?), n. [Icel. hnefi; akin to Dan. n\'91ve, Sw. n\'84fve.]
   The first. [Obs.] "I kiss thy neif." "Give me your neaf." Shak.


   Neigh (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Neighed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Neighing.]
   [OE.  neien,  AS.  hn,  prob.  of  imitative origin; cf. MHG. n, Icel.
   hneggja, gneggja, Sw. gn\'84gga. Cf. Nag a horse.]

   1. To utter the cry of the horse; to whinny.

   2. To scoff or sneer; to jeer. [Obs.]

     Neighed at his nakedness. Beau. & Fl.


   Neigh, n. The cry of a horse; a whinny.


   Neigh"bor (?), n. [OE. neighebour, AS. ne\'a0hgeb; ne\'a0h nigh + gebr
   a  dweller, farmer; akin to D. nabuur, G. nachbar, OHG. n\'behgib. See
   Nigh, and Boor.] [Spelt also neighbour.]

   1.  A  person  who lives near another; one whose abode is not far off.

     Masters, my good friends, mine honest neighbors. Shak.

   2. One who is near in sympathy or confidence.

     Buckingham No more shall be the neighbor to my counsel. Shak.

   3.  One entitled to, or exhibiting, neighborly kindness; hence, one of
   the human race; a fellow being.

     Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbor unto him that
     fell among the thieves? Luke x. 36.

     The  gospel  allows  no such term as "stranger;" makes every man my
     neighbor. South.


   Neigh"bor, a. Near to another; adjoining; adjacent; next; neighboring.
   "The neighbor cities." Jer. l. 40. "The neighbor room." Shak.


   neigh"bor,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Neighbored  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n

   1. To adjoin; to border on; tobe near to.

     Leisurely ascending hills that neighbor the shore. Sandys.

   2. To associate intimately with. [Obs.] Shak.


   Neigh"bor, v. i. To dwell in the vicinity; to be a neighbor, or in the
   neighborhood; to be near. [Obs.]

     A copse that neighbors by. Shak.


   Neigh"bor*hood (?), n. [Written also neighbourhood.]

   1. The quality or condition of being a neighbor; the state of being or
   dwelling near; proximity.

     Then  the  prison  and  the  palace were in awful neighborhood. Ld.

   2.   A   place  near;  vicinity;  adjoining  district;  a  region  the
   inhabitants  of  which may be counted as neighbors; as, he lives in my

   3.  The  inhabitants  who  live in the vicinity of each other; as, the
   fire alarmed all the neiborhood.

   4.  The  disposition  becoming a neighbor; neighborly kindness or good
   will.  [Obs.]  Jer.  Taylor. Syn. -- Vicinity; vicinaty; proximity. --
   Neighborhood,  Vicinity.  Neigborhood  is Anglo-Saxon, and vicinity is
   Latin.  Vicinity  does  not  commonly  denote so close a connection as
   neighborhood. A neigborhood is a more immediately vicinity. The houses
   immediately adjoining a square are in the neighborhood of that square;
   those  which  are somewhat further removed are also in the vicinity of
   the square.


   Neigh"bor*ing,  a. Living or being near; adjacent; as, the neighboring
   nations or countries.


   Neigh"bor*li*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being neighborly.


   Neigh"bor*ly,   a.  [Also  written  neighbourly.]  Apropriate  to  the
   relation  of neighbors; having frequent or familiar intercourse; kind;
   civil; social; friendly. -- adv. In a neigborly manner.

     Judge if this be neighborly dealing. Arbuthnot.


   Neigh"bor*ship, n. The state of being neighbors. [R.] J. Bailie.


   Neis"hout  (?),  n. [From D. niezen to sneeze + hout wood.] (Bot.) The
   mahogany-like  wood  of  the  South African tree Pteroxylon utile, the
   sawdust  of  which  causes  violent  sneezing  (whence the name). Also
   called sneezewood.


   Nei"ther  (?  OR ?; 277), a. [OE. neiter, nother, nouther, AS. n\'bew,
   n\'behw\'91;  n\'be never, not + hw\'91 whether. The word has followed
   the  form  of  either.  See No, and Whether, and cf. Neuter, Nor.] Not
   either; not the one or the other.

     Which  of  them shall I take? Both? one? or neither? Neither can be
     enjoyed, If both remain alive. Shak.

     He neither loves, Nor either cares for him. Shak.


   Nei"ther,  conj.  not either; generally used to introduce the first of
   two  or  more  co\'94rdinate  clauses of which those that follow begin
   with nor.

     Fight  neither  with  small  nor  great, save only with the king. 1
     Kings xxii. 31.

     Hadst  thou  been  firm  and  fixed  in  thy dissent, Neither had I
     transgressed, nor thou with me. Milton.

     When she put it on, she made me vow That I should neither sell, nor
     give, nor lose it. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Ne ither was formerly often used where we now use nor.
     "For  neither  circumcision,  neither uncircumcision is anything at
     all." Tyndale. "Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it."
     Gen. iii. 3. Neither is sometimes used colloquially at the end of a
     clause  to enforce a foregoing negative (nor, not, no). "He is very
     tall,  but not too tall neither." Addison. " \'bfI care not for his
     thrust' \'bfNo, nor I neither.'" Shak.

   Not so neither, by no means. [Obs.] Shak.


   Ne*lum"bo  (?),  n.  [Ceylonese  word.]  (Bot.) A genus of great water
   lilies.  The  North  American species is Nelumbo lutea, the Asiatic is
   the sacred lotus, N. speciosa. [Written also Nelumbium.]

   Page 970


   Nem"a*line  (?),  a.  [L.  nema  thread, gr. (Min.) Having the form of
   threads; fibrous.


   Nem"a*lite  (?),  n. [Gr. -lite: cf. F. n\'82malite.] (Min.) A fibrous
   variety of brucite.


   Nem`a*tel"mi*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as Nemathelminthes.


   Nem`a*the"ci*um (? OR , n.; pl. Nemathecia (#). [NL., fr. gr. (Bot.) A
   peculiar  kind of fructification on certain red alg\'91, consisting of
   an external mass of filaments at length separating into tetraspores.

                        Nemthelminthes, Nematelminthes

   Nem`thel*min"thes   (?),  Nem`a*tel*min"thes  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See
   Nemato-,  and  Helminthes.] (Zo\'94l.) An ordr of helminths, including
   the   Nematoidea   and   Gordiacea;   the  roundworms.  [Written  also


   Nem"a*to- (?). A combining from Gr. nh^ma, nh`matos, a thread.


   Nem"a*to*blast  (?),  n. [Nemato- + -blast.] (Biol.) A spermatocyte or


   Nem`a*to*ca"lyx  (?), n.; pl. Nematocalyces (#), E. -calyxes (#). [NL.
   See Nemato-, and Calyx.] (Zo\'94l.) One of a peculiar kind of cups, or
   calicles,  found  upon  hydroids  of  the  family Plumularid\'91. They
   contain nematocysts. See Plumularia.


   Nem`a*toc"e*ra  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A suborder of
   dipterous  insects, having long antenn\'91, as the mosquito, gnat, and
   crane fly; -- called also Nemocera.


   Nem"a*to*cyst  (?),  n.  [Nemato- + cyst.] (Zo\'94l.) A lasso cell, or
   thread cell. See Lasso cell, under Lasso.


   Nem"a*tode (?), a. & n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Nematoid.


   Nem"a*to*gene  (?),  n.  [Nemato-  + root of Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   dimorphic  forms of the species of Dicyemata, which produced vermiform
   embryos; -- opposed to rhombogene.


   Nem`a*tog"nath (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) one of the Nematognathi.


   Nem`a*tog"na*thi   (?),   n.  pl.  [NL.  See  nemato-,  and  Gnathic.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  An order of fishes having barbels on the jaws. It includes
   the catfishes, or siluroids. See Siluroid.


   Nem"a*toid  (?),  a.  [Nemato- + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) of or pertaining to
   the  Nematoidea.  --  n.  One  of  the Nematoidea. see Illustration in


   Nem`a*toi"de*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. gr. -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   worms,   having   a  long,  round,  and  generally  smooth  body;  the
   roundworms.  they  are  mostly  parasites.  Called also Nematodea, and

     NOTE: &hand; Th e trichina, stomach worm, and pinworm of man belong
     to this group. See also Vinegar eel, under Vinegar, and Gapeworm.


   Nem`a*toid"e*an (?), a. & n. (Zo\'94l.) Nematoid.


   Nem`a*toph"o*ra   (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  Same  as


   Ne"me*an  (?;  277), a. [L. Nemeus, fr. Nemea, Ge. Of or pertaining to
   Nemea,  in  Argolis,  where  the  ancient Greeks celebrated games, and
   Hercules killed a lion.


   Ne*me"te*an  (?),  a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Nemertina. --
   n. One of the Nemertina.


   Ne*mer"tes (?), n. [NL., fr. gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of nemertina.


   Ne*mer"ti*an (?), a. & n. (Zo\'94l.) Nemertean.


   Ne*mer"tid (?), a. & n. (Zo\'94l.) Nemertean.


   Ne*mer"ti*da (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) Nemertina.


   Nem`er*ti"na  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL. See Nemrtes.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   helminths usually having a long, slender, smooth, often bright-colored
   body,  covered  with  minute vibrating cilia; -- called also Nemertea,
   Nemertida, and Rhynchoc\'91la.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e mo uth is  be neath th e he ad, an d the straight
     intestine  at  the  posterior  and.  They have a very singular long
     tubular proboscis, which can be everted from a pore in the front of
     the   head.  Their  nervous  system  and  blood  vessels  are  well
     developed.  Some  of the species become over one hundred feet long.
     They  are  mostly  marine and seldom parasitic; a few inhabit fresh
     water. the two principal divisions are Anopla and Enopla.


   Nem"e*sis  (?),  n. [L., fr. gr. Nomad.] (Class. Myth.) The goddess of
   retribution  or  vengeance;  hence,  retributive  justice personified;
   divine vengeance.

     This  is  that  ancient  doctrine of nemesis who keeps watch in the
     universe, and lets no offense go unchastised. Emerson.


   Ne*moph"i*list  (?),  n. [See Nemophily.] One who is fond of forest or
   forest scenery; a haunter of the woods. [R.]


   Ne*moph"i*ly  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Fondness for forest scenery; love of the
   woods. [R.]


   Nem"o*ral  (?), a. [L. nemoralis, fr. nemus, nemoris, a wood or grove:
   cf. F. n\'82moral.] Of or pertaining to a wood or grove. [R.]


   Nem"o*rous (?), a. [L. nemorosus.] Woody. [R.]

     Paradise itself was but a kind of nemorous temple. Evelyn.


   Nemp"ne  (?), v. t. [AS. nemnan to name or call. See Name, v.] To name
   or call. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nempt (?), p. p. of Nempne. Called; named. [Obs.]


   Nems (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The ichneumon.


   Ne"ni*a (?), n. [L. nenia, naenia.] A funeral song; an elegy.


   Nen"u*phar (?), n. [F. n\'82nufar: cf. Sp. nen\'a3far, It. nenuf\'a0r;
   all fr. Per. n\'c6l.] (Bot.) The great white water lily of Europe; the
   Nymph\'91a alba.


   Ne"o-  (.  [Gr.  New.]  A  prefix  meaning  new,  recent, late; and in
   chemistry   designating   specifically   that   variety  of  metameric
   hydrocarbons  which,  when  the  name  was  applied, had been recently
   classified,  and  in  which  at  least  one  carbon  atom in connected
   directly  with  four other carbon atoms; -- contrasted with normal and
   iso-; as, neopentane; the neoparaffins. Also used adjectively.


   Ne`o*car"i*da  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. gr. (Zo\'94l.) The modern, or
   true, Crustacea, as distinguished from the Merostomata.


   Ne"o*cene  (?),  a.  [Neo-  + Gr. (Geol.) More recent than the Eocene,
   that  is,  including  both  the  Miocene and Pliocene divisions of the


   Ne`o-Chris*tian"i*ty (? OR ?), n. [Neo- + Christianity.] Rationalism.


   Ne`o*co"mi*an (?), n. [From Neocomium, the Latin name of Neuchatel, in
   Switzerland,  where  these rocks occur.] (Geol.) A term applied to the
   lowest  deposits of the Cretaceous or chalk formation of Europe, being
   the lower greensand.


   Ne`o*co"mi*an, a. (Geol.) Of or pertaining to the lower greensand.


   Ne`o*cos"mic (?), a. [Neo- + cosmic.] of or pertaining to the universe
   in  its  present  state;  specifically, pertaining to the races of men
   known to history.


   Ne*oc"ra*cy  (?),  n. [Neo-+ -cracy, as in aristocracy.] Government by
   new or inexperienced hands; upstart rule; raw or untried officials.


   Ne*od"a*mode  (?), n. [Gr. dh`mos, the people + In ancient Sparta, one
   of  those  Helots  who  were freed by the state in reward for military
   service. Milford.


   Ne`o*dym"i*um  (?),  n.  [NL.  Dee  Neo-,  and  Didymium.]  (Chem.) An
   elementary  substance which forms one of the constituents of didymium.
   Symbol Nd. Atomic weight 140.8.


   Ne`o*g\'91"an  (?),  a. [Neo- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the
   New World, or Western Hemisphere.


   Ne*og"a*mist (?), n. [Gr. A person recently married.


   Ne"o*gen  (?),  n.  [Neo- + -gen.] (Chem.) An alloy resembling silver,
   and  consisting  chiefly  of  copper,  zinc,  and  nickel,  with small
   proportions of tin, aluminium, and bismuth. Ure.


   Ne*og"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Neo-  +  -graphy.]  A new method or system of


   Ne`o-Lat"in  (?), a. [Neo- + Latin.] Applied to the Romance languages,
   as being mostly of Latin origin.


   Ne`o*lith"ic (?), a. [Neo- + -lith + -ic.] (Arch\'91ol. & Geol.) Of or
   pertaining to, or designating, an era characterized by late remains in

     The  Neolithic era includes the latter half of the "Stone age;" the
     human  relics which belong to it are associated with the remains of
     animals  not  yet extinct. The kitchen middens of Denmark, the lake
     dwellings of Switzerland, and the stockaded islands, or "crannogs,"
     of the British Isles, belong to this era. Lubbock.


   Ne`o*lo*gi*an (?), a. Neologic; neological.


   Ne`o*lo"gi*an, n. A neologist.


   Ne`o*lo"gi*an*ism (?), n. Neologism.

                             Neologic, Neological

   Ne`o*log"ic  (?), Ne`o*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. n\'82ologique.] Of or
   pertaining  to  neology;  employing  new  words;  of the nature of, or
   containing, new words or new doctrines.

     A genteel neological dictionary. Chesterfield.


   Ne`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv. In a neological manner.


   Ne*ol"o*gism (?), n. [Cf. F. n\'82ologisme.]

   1.  The  introduction  of  new words, or the use of old words in a new
   sense. Mrs. Browning.

   2. A new word, phrase, or expression.

   3. A new doctrine; specifically, rationalism.


   Ne*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. n\'82ologiste.]

   1.  One  who  introduces  new  word  or new senses of old words into a

   2.  An  innovator  in  any  doctrine or system of belif, especially in
   theology;   one   who  introduces  or  holds  doctrines  subversie  of
   supernatural or revealed religion; a rationalist, so-called.

                          Neologistic, Neologistical

   Ne*ol`o*gis"tic  (?),  Ne*ol`o*gis"tic*al  (?), a. of or pertaining to
   neology; neological.


   Ne*ol`o*gi*za"tion (?), n. The act or process of neologizing.


   Ne*ol"o*gize (?), v. i.

   1. To introduce or use new words or terms or new uses of old words.

   2. To introduce innovations in doctrine, esp. in theological doctrine.


   Ne*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Neo- + -logy: cf. F. n\'82ologie.]

   1. The introduction of a new word, or of words or significations, into
   a  language; as, the present nomenclature of chemistry is a remarkable
   instance of neology.

   2.  A  new  doctrine;  esp.  (Theol.), a doctrine at variance with the
   received interpretation of revealed truth; a new method of theological
   interpretation; rationalism.


   Ne`o*me"ni*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  The time of the new moon; the
   beginning of the month in the lunar calendar.


   Ne`o*me*noi"de*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Neomenia, a representative
   genus  (See  Neomenia)  +  -oid.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A division of vermiform
   gastropod mollusks, without a shell, belonging to the Isopleura.


   Ne"o*morph  (?),  n.  [Neo-  + Gr. (Biol.) A structure, part, or organ
   developed   independently,   that  is,  not  derived  from  a  similar
   structure, part, or organ, in a pre existing form.


   Ne"o*nism (?), n. Neologism.


   Ne`o*no"mi*an  (?),  n.  [Neo-  + gr. One who advocates adheres to new
   laws; esp. one who holds or believes that the gospel is a new law.


   Ne`o*no"mi*an, a. Of or pertaining to the Neonomians, or in accordance
   with their doctrines.


   Ne`o*no"mi*an*ism (?), n. The doctrines or belief of the neonomians.


   Ne"o*phyte (?), n. [L. neophytis, Gr. n\'82ophyte. See New, and Be.]

   1.  A  new  convert  or  proselyte;  --  a  name  given  by  the early
   Christians,  and  still  given by the Roman Catholics, to such as have
   recently  embraced  the Christian faith, and been admitted to baptism,
   esp. to converts from heathenism or Judaism.

   2. A novice; a tyro; a beginner in anything.


   Ne`o*pla"si*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  gr.  (Physiol.  & Med.) Growth or
   development of new material; neoplasty.


   Ne"o*plasm  (?), n. [See Neoplasia.] (Physiol. & Med.) A new formation
   or tissue, the product of morbid action.


   Ne`o*plas"tic (?), a. (Physiol. & Med.) of or pertaining to neoplasty,
   or neoplasia.


   Ne"o*plas`ty (?), n. [See Neoplasia.] (Physiol. & Med.) Restoration of
   a part by granulation, adhesive inflammation, or autoplasty.


   Ne`o*pla"ton"ic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or resembling, Neoplatonism
   or the Neoplatonists.


   Ne`o*pla`to*ni"cian (?), n. A neoplatonist.


   Ne`o*pla"to*nism  (?),  n.  [Neo- + Platonism.] A pantheistic eclectic
   school of philosophy, of which Plotinus was the chief (A. D. 205-270),
   and  which  sought  to reconcile the Platonic and Aristotelian systems
   with  Oriental  theosophy. It tended to mysticism and theurgy, and was
   the last product of Greek philosophy.


   Ne`o*pla"to*nist (?), n. One who held to Neoplatonism; a member of the
   Neoplatonic school.


   Ne`o*ra"ma (? OR ?), n. [Gr. A panorama of the interior of a building,
   seen from within.


   Ne*os"sine  (?),  n. [Gr. The substance constituting the edible bird's


   Ne`os*sol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -logy.]  (Zo\'94l.) The study of young

                             Neoteric, Neoterical

   Ne`o*ter"ic  (?), Ne`o*ter"ic*al (?), a. [L. neotericus, gr. Recent in
   origin; modern; new. "Our neoteric verbs." Fitzed. Hall.

     Some being ancient, others neoterical. Bacon.


   Ne`o*ter"ic, n. One of modern times; a modern.


   Neo`ter"ic*al*ly (?), adv. Recently; newly.


   Ne*ot"er*ism (?), n. [Gr. An innovation or novelty; a neoteric word or


   Ne*ot"er*ist, n. One ho introduces new word Fitzed Hall.


   Ne*ot"er*ize  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Neoterized; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Neoterized.] [Gr. To innovate; to coin or introduce new words.

     Freely as we of the nineteenth century neoterize. fized. Hall.


   Ne`o*trop"ic*al   (?),  a.  [Neo-  +  tropical.]  (Geog.  &  Zo\'94l.)
   Belonging  to,  or  designating, a region of the earth's surface which
   comprises  most  of  South  America,  the Antilles, and tropical North


   Ne`o*zo"ic (?), a. [Neo- + Gr. (Geol.) More recent than the Paleozoic,
   -- that is, including the Mesozoic and Cenozoic.


   Nep (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. Nepeta.] (Bot.) Catnip.


   Ne"pa  (?),  n.  [L.  nepa  scorpion.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A genus of aquatic
   hemipterus  insects. The species feed upon other insects and are noted
   for their voracity; -- called also scorpion bug and water scorpion.


   Nep`au*lese"  (?  OR  ?),  a. Of or pertaining to Nepaul, a kingdom in
   Northern  Hindostan.  --  n.  sing.  &  pl.  A  native  or  natives of
   Nepaul.<-- now = Nepalese -->


   Ne*pen"the (?), n. [Fr. Gr. A drug used by the ancients to give relief
   from  pain  and  sorrow;  --  by  some  supposed to have been opium or
   hasheesh. Hence, anything soothing and comforting.

     Lulled with the sweet nepenthe of a court. Pope.

     Quaff, O quaff this kind nepenthe. Poe.


   Ne*pen"thes (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Nepenthe.]

   1. Same as Nepenthe. Milton.

   2.  (Bot.)  A  genus  of climbing plants found in India, Malaya, etc.,
   which  have  the  leaves  prolonged  into  a  kind  of  stout  tendril
   terminating  in  a  pitcherlike appendage, whence the plants are often
   called pitcher plants and monkey-cups. There are about thirty species,
   of which the best known is Nepenthes distillatoria. See Pitcher plant.


   Nep"e*ta  (?), n. [L.] (Bot.) A genus of labiate plants, including the
   catnip and ground ivy.


   Neph"a*lism   (?),  n.  [Gr.  n\'82phalisme.]  Total  abstinence  from
   spirituous liquor.

   Page 971


   Neph"a*list  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  n\'82phaliste.]  One who advocates or
   practices nephalism.

                             Nepheline, Nephelite

   Neph"e*line   (?),  Neph"e*lite  (?),  n.  [gr.  n\'82ph\'82line.  Cf.
   Nebula.]  (Min.)  A  mineral  occuring  at  Vesuvius, in glassy agonal
   crystals;  also  elsewhere,  in  grayish  or  greenish masses having a
   greasy  luster,  as  the  variety  el\'91olite.  It  is  a silicate of
   aluminia, soda, and potash.


   Neph`e*lo*dom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr. -meter.] (Meteorol.) An instrument
   for reckoning the distances or velocities of clouds.


   Neph`e*lom"e*ter  (?), n. [Gr. -meter.] An instrument for measuring or
   registering the amount of cloudiness.


   Neph"ew (?; in England , n. [OE. neveu, nevou, nevu, fr. F. neveu, OF.
   also, nevou, L. nepos; akin to AS. nefa, D. neef, G. neffe, OHG. nevo,
   Icel.  nefi  a  kinsman, gr. nep\'bet grandson, descendant. &root;262.
   Cf. Niece, Nepotism.]

   1. A grandson or grandchild, or remoter lineal descendant. [Obs.]

     But   if   any   widow   have   children   or  nephews  [Rev.  Ver.
     grandchildren,]. 1 Tim. v. 4.

     If  naturalists  say  true  that  nephews  are often liker to their
     grandfathers than to their fathers. Jer. Taylor.

   2. A cousin. [Obs.] Shak.

   3.  The  son  of  a  brother  or  a  sister, or of a brother-in-law or
   sister-in-law. Chaucer.


   Neph"i*lim (?), n. pl. [Heb. n.] Giants. Gen. vi. 4. Num. xiii. 33.


   Neph"o*scope  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -scope.]  (Meteorol.)  An instrument for
   observing the clouds and their velocity.

                             Nephralgia, Nephralgy

   Ne*phral"gi*a  (?),  Ne*phral"gy  (?),  n.  [NL.  nephralgia,  fr. Gr.
   n\'82phralgie.]   (Med.)   Neuralgia   of   the   kidneys;  a  disease
   characterized  by  pain  in  the  region  of  the  kidneys without any
   structural lesion of the latter. Quain.


   Ne*phrid"i*al  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.  &  Anat.)  of  or  pertaining to a


   Ne*phrid"i*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Nephridia  (#). [NL., fr. gr. kidneys.]
   (Zo\'94l.  &  Anat.)  A  segmental  tubule;  one of the tubules of the
   primitive  urinogenital  organs;  a segmental organ. See Illust. under
   Loeven's larva.


   Neph"rite  (?;  277), n. [Cf. F. n\'82phrite. See Nephritis.] (Min.) A
   hard compact mineral, of a dark green color, formerly worn as a remedy
   for  diseases of the kidneys, whence its name; kidney stone; a kind of
   jade. See Jade.<-- varies in color from white to dark green. It is the
   more  common  and  less  valuable  variety  of  jade,  the other being
   jadeite.  [MW10]  Large  deposits  are found in Australia. Called also
   nephritic stone. -->

                            Nephritic, Nephritical

   Ne*phrit"ic   (?),   Ne*phrit"ic*al   (?),  a.  [L.  nephriticus,  gr.
   n\'82phr\'82tique. See Nephritis.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to the kidneys or urinary organs; renal; as, a
   nephritic disease.

   2.  (Med.) (a) Affected with a disease of the kidneys; as, a nephritic
   patient.  (b)  Relieving  disorders  of  the  kidneys;  affecting  the
   kidneys; as, a nephritic medicine.
   Nephritic stone (Min.), nephrite; jade. See Nephrite.


   Ne*phrit"ic,  n.  (Med.) A medicine adapted to relieve or cure disease
   of the kidneys.


   Ne*phri"tis  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  gr.  (Med.)  An  inflammation of the


   neph`ro*lith"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. -lith + ic.] (Med.) of or pertaining to
   gravel, or renal calculi. Dunglison.


   Ne*phrol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy.] A treatise on, or the science which
   treats of, the kidneys, and their structure and functions.


   Neph"ro*stome (?), n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l. & Anat.) The funnelshaped opening
   of a nephridium into the body cavity.


   Ne*phrot"o*my  (?),  n.  [Gr.  n\'82phrotomie.]  (Surg.) Extraction of
   stone from the kidney by cutting.


   Nep"o*tal (?), a. Of or relating to a nephew.


   Ne*pot"ic (?), a. [See nepotism.] Of or pertaining to npotism.

     The nepotic ambition of the ruling pontiff. Milman.


   Nep"o*tism   (?;   277),   n.  [L.  nepus,  nepotus,  nephew:  cf.  F.
   n\'82potisme.  See  Nephew.] Undue attachment to relations; favoritism
   shown   to   members   of  one's  family;  bestowal  of  patronage  in
   consideration of relationship, rather than of merit or of legal claim.

     From  nepotism Alexander V. was safe; for he was without kindred or
     relatives. But there was another perhaps more fatal nepotism, which
     turned  the  tide  of popularity against him -- the nepotism of his
     order. Milman.


   Nep"o*tist (?), n. One who practices nepotism.


   Nep"tune (?), n. [L. Neptunus.]

   1.  (Rom.  Myth.)  The  son  of Saturn and Ops, the god of the waters,
   especially  of  the  sea. He is represented as bearing a trident for a

   2. (Astron.) The remotest known planet of our system, discovered -- as
   a  result  of  the computations of Leverrier, of Paris -- by Galle, of
   Berlin,  September  23,  1846. Its mean distance from the sun is about
   2,775,000,000  miles,  and  its  period  of revolution is about 164,78
   years. <-- now Pluto is the remotest "planet", but recently (1996) the
   question  has  been  raised whether Pluto can be called a "planet", so
   this may still be correct! -->
   Neptune  powder,  an  explosive  containing  nitroglycerin, -- used in
   blasting.  --  Neptune's  cup  (Zo\'94l.),  a  very large, cup-shaped,
   marine sponge (Thalassema Neptuni).


   Nep*tu"ni*an  (?),  a.  [L.  Neptunius  belonging  to  Neptune: cf. F.

   1. Of or pertaining to the ocean or sea.

   2. (Geol.) Formed by water or aqueous solution; as, Neptunian rocks.
   Neptunian   races  (Ethnol.),  the  Malay  and  Polynesian  races.  --
   Neptunian  theory  (Geol.),  the  theory of Werner, which referred the
   formation  of  all rocks and strata to the agency of water; -- opposed
   to the Plutonic theory.
                             Neptunian, Neptunist
   Nep*tu"ni*an  (?), Nep"tu*nist (?), n. [Cf. F. neptinien, neptuniste.]
   (Geol.) One who adopts the neptunian theory. 


   Nep*tu`ni*cen"tric (?), a. [Neptune + centric.] (Astron.) As seen from
   Neptune,  or  having Neptune as a center; as, Neptunicentric longitude
   or force.


   Nep*tu"ni*um  (?),  n.  [NL.]  A  new  metallic  element,  of doubtful
   genuineness  and  uncertain  indentification, said to exist in certain
   minerals, as columbite.<-- a radioactive element, produced in reactors
   from  Pt  or  U;  At.  num. = 93, Sym. Np, At. Wt. 237.0482 [MW10] -->


   Ner (?), adv. & a. nearer. [Obs.] See Nerre.


   Nere (?). [Contr. fr. ne were.] Were not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ne"re*id  (?),  n.;  pl.  E. Nereids (#), L. Nereides (#). [L. Nereis,
   -idis, gr. n\'bera water, cf. Gr.

   1.  (Class.  Myth.)  A  sea nymph, one of the daughters of Nereus, who
   were  attendants  upon  Neptune, and were represented as riding on sea
   horses,  sometimes  with the human form entire, and sometimes with the
   tail of a fish.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  species of Nereis. The word is sometimes used for
   similar annelids of other families.


   Ne`re*id"i*an  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any annelid resembling Nereis, or of
   the family Lycorid\'91 or allied families.


   Ne"re*is (? OR ?), n.; pl. Nereides (#). [L.]

   1. (Class. Myth.) A Nereid. See Nereid.

   2.   (Zo\'94l.)   A  genus,  including  numerous  species,  of  marine
   ch\'91topod  annelids,  having  a  well-formed head, with two pairs of
   eyes,  antenn\'91,  four pairs of tentacles, and a protrusile pharynx,
   armed  with  a  pair  of  hooked  jaws. <-- Illustr. of Nereis (Nereis
   Pelagica) -->


   Ne"re*ites (?), n. pl. (Paleon.) Fossil tracks of annelids.


   Ne`re*o*cys"tis  (?), n. [NL. See Nereid, and Cyst.] (Bot.) A genus of
   gigantic seaweeds.

     NOTE: &hand; Nereocystis Lutkeana, of the North Pacific, has a stem
     many fathoms long, terminating in a great vesicle, which is crowned
     with  a  tuft  of long leaves. The stem is used by the Alaskans for
     fishing lines.


   Nerf"ling (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The id.


   Ne*ri"ta  (?), n. [L., a sort of sea mussel, gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   marine gastropods, mostly natives of warm climates.


   Ner"ite (? OR ?; 277), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any mollusk of the genus Nerita.


   Ner`i*ti"na  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A genus including numerous species of
   shells  resembling Nerita in form. They mostly inhabit brackish water,
   and are often delicately tinted.


   Ne"ro  (?),  n.  A Roman emperor notorius for debauchery and barbarous
   cruelty; hence, any profligate and cruel ruler or merciless tyrant. --
   Ne*ro"ni*an (#), a.


   Ner"o*li (?), n. [F. n\'82roli, said to be from the name of an Italian
   princess.]  (Chem.) An essential oil obtained by distillation from the
   flowers of the orange. It has a strong odor, and is used in perfumery,
   etc.  Neroli  camphor  (Chem.),  a  white  crystalline waxy substance,
   tasteless  and  odorless,  obtained  from  beroli  oil; -- called also


   Ner"re  (?),  adv. & a. [See Near.] Nearer. [Obs.] [Written also neer,
   ner.] Chaucer. Never the neer, never the nearer; no nearer. [Obs.]


   Nerv"ate (?), a. (Bot.) Nerved.


   Ner*va"tion  (?),  n.  The arrangement of nerves and veins, especially
   those of leaves; neuration.

     The outlines of the fronds of ferns, and their nervation, are frail
     characters  if  employed  alone  for  the determination of existing
     genera. J. D. Hooker.


   Nerve  (?), n. [OE. nerfe, F. nerf, L. nervus, akin to Gr. needle. Cf.

   1.  (Anat.) One of the whitish and elastic bundles of fibers, with the
   accompanying  tissues,  which  transmit nervous impulses between nerve
   centers and various parts of the animal body.

     NOTE: &hand; An  or dinary ne rve is  made up of several bundles of
     nerve  fibers,  each  bundle  inclosed  in  a  special  sheath (the
     perineurium)  and  all bound together in a connective tissue sheath
     and   framework  (the  epineurium)  containing  blood  vessels  and

   2. A sinew or a tendon. Pope.

   3.   Physical   force  or  steadiness;  muscular  power  and  control;
   constitutional vigor.

     he  led  me  on  to mightiest deeds, Above the nerve of mortal arm.

   4.  Steadiness  and firmness of mind; self-command in personal danger,
   or  under  suffering; unshaken courage and endurance; coolness; pluck;

   5. Audacity; assurance. [Slang]

   6.  (Bot.)  One  of  the  principal fibrovascular bundles or ribs of a
   leaf,  especially  when  these  extend  straight  from the base or the
   midrib of the leaf.

   7. (Zo\'94l.) One of the nervures, or veins, in the wings of insects.
   Nerve cell (Anat.), one of the nucleated cells with which nerve fibers
   are  connected;  a ganglion cell.<-- = neuron, a word listed only in a
   different  sens in W1913 --> -- Nerve fiber (Anat.), one of the fibers
   of  which  nerves  are  made up. These fibers are either medullated or
   nonmedullated.  in  both  kinds  the essential part is the translucent
   threadlike  axis  cylinder which is continuous the whole length of the
   fiber. -- Nerve stretching (Med.), the operation of stretching a nerve
   in  order to remedy diseases such as tetanus, which are supposed to be
   influenced  by  the  condition of the nerve or its connections.<-- #!?


   Nerve  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nerved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nerving.]
   To  give  strength  or vigor to; to supply with force; as, fear nerved
   his arm.


   Nerved (?), a.

   1. Having nerves of a special character; as, weak-nerved.

   2. (Bot.) Having nerves, or simple and parallel ribs or veins. Gray.


   Nerve"less (?), a.

   1. Destitute of nerves.

   2.   Destitute  of  strength  or  of  courage;  wanting  vigor;  weak;

     A kingless people for a nerveless state. Byron.

     Awaking, all nerveless, from an ugly dream. Hawthorne.


   Nerve"less*ness, n. The state of being nerveless.


   Nerve"-shak`en  (?), a. Affected by a tremor, or by a nervous disease;
   weakened; overcome by some violent influence or sensation; shoked.


   Ner`vi*mo"tion  (?),  n.  [Nerve  +  motion.]  (Physiol.) The movement
   caused in the sensory organs by external agents and transmitted to the
   muscles by the nerves. Dunglison.


   Ner`vi*mo"tor (?), n. [Nerve + motor.] (Physiol.) Any agent capable of
   causing nervimotion. Dunglison.


   Nerv"ine  (?;  277)  a. [L. nervinus made of sinews: cf.F. nervin. See
   Nerve.]  (Med.)  Having  the  quality  of acting upon or affecting the
   nerves; quieting nervous excitement. -- n. A nervine agent.


   Ner`vo*mus"cu*lar  (?),  a.  [Nerve  +  muscular.]  (Physiol.)  Of  or
   pertaining  to  both  nerves  and muscles; of the nature of nerves and
   muscles; as, nervomuscular energy.


   Ner*vose" (?), a. [See Nervous.] (Bot.) Same as Nerved.


   Ner*vos"i*ty (?), n. [L. nervositas strength.] Nervousness. [R.]


   Nerv"ous  (?),  a.  [L. nervosus sinewy, vigorous: cf. F. nerveux. See

   1. possessing nerve; sinewy; strong; vigorous. "Nervous arms." Pope.

   2.  Possessing or manifesting vigor of mind; characterized by strength
   in sentiment or style; forcible; spirited; as, a nervous writer.

   3.  Of  or pertaining to the nerves; seated in the nerves; as, nervous
   excitement; a nervous fever.

   4. Having the nerves weak, diseased, or easily excited; subject to, or
   suffering  from,  undue  excitement  of the nerves; easily agitated or

     Poor, weak, nervous creatures. Cheyne.

   5.  Sensitive; excitable; timid. <-- This corresponds to two senses in
   MW10: easily excited = jumpy; timid, apprehensive -->

     Our  aristocratic  class does not firmly protest against the unfair
     treatment of Irish Catholics, because it is nervous about the land.
     M. Arnold.

   Nervous  fever  (Med.),  a  low  form  of fever characterized by great
   disturbance  of the nervous system, as evinced by delirium, or stupor,
   disordered   sensibility,   etc.   --   Nervous  system  (Anat.),  the
   specialized   co\'94rdinating  apparatus  which  endows  animals  with
   sensation  and volition. In vertebrates it is often divided into three
   systems:  the  central, brain and spinal cord; the peripheral, cranial
   and spinal nerves; and the sympathetic. See Brain, Nerve, Spinal cord,
   under  Spinal,  and Sympathetic system, under Sympathetic, and Illust.
   in Appendix. -- Nervous temperament, a condition of body characterized
   by a general predominance of mental manifestations. Mayne.
   Nerv"ous*ly, adv. In a nervous manner.
   Nerv"ous*ness, n. State or quality of being nervous.
   Nerv"ure (?), n. [F. See Nerve.]
   1. (Bot.) One of the nerves of leaves.
   2. (Zo\'94l.) One of the chitinous supports, or veins, in the wings of


   Nerv"y  (?), a. [Compar. Nervier (?); superl. - iest.] Strong; sinewy.
   "His nervy knees." Keats.


   Nes"cience  (?), n. [L. nescientia, fr. nesciens, p.pr. of nescire not
   to  know;  ne  not  +  scire  to  know.] Want of knowledge; ignorance;

     God fetched it about for me, in that absence and nescience of mine.
     Bp. Hall.


   Nese (?), n. Nose. [Obs.] Piers plowman.


   Nesh  (?),  a.  [AS.  hnesc,  hn\'91sc,  akin to Goth. hnasqus.] Soft;
   tender; delicate. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]


   Ness  (?),  n.  [AS.  n\'91s,  ns; akin to Icel. nes, Sw. n\'84s, Dan.
   n\'91s,  and  E.  nose. &root; 261. See Nose.] A promontory; a cape; a
   headland. Hakluyt.

     NOTE: &hand; Ne ss is  fr equently used as a suffix in the names of
     places and promontories; as, Sheerness.


   -ness  (. [AS. -ness, -nyss, -nys; akin to OS. -nissi, nussi, D. -nis,
   OHG.  -nissa,  -nass\'c6, -nuss\'c6, G. -nis, -niss, Goth. -inasus.] A
   suffix used to form abstract nouns expressive of quality or state; as,
   goodness, greatness.


   Ness"ler*ize  (?), v. t. [From Nessler, the chemist.] (Chem.) To treat
   or  test, as a liquid, with a solution of mercuric iodide in potassium
   iodide  and potassium hydroxide, which is called Nessler's solution or
   Nessler's test, and is used to detect the presence of ammonia.

   Page 972


   Nest  (?), n. [AS. nest; akin to D. & G. nest, Sw. n\'84ste, L. nidus,
   for  nisdus,  Skr.  n\'c6  resting place, nest; cf. Lith. lizdas, Arm.
   neiz, Gael. & Ir. nead. Prob. from the particle ni down, Skr. ni + the
   root  of  E.  sit, and thus orig., a place to sit down in. &root; 264.
   See Nether, and Sit, and cf. Eyas, Nidification, Nye.]

   1.  The  bed or receptacle prepared by a fowl for holding her eggs and
   for hatching and rearing her young.

     The birds of the air have nests. Matt. viii. 20.

   2.  Hence:  the  place in which the eggs of other animals, as insects,
   turtles,  etc.,  are  laid  and  hatched;  a snug place in which young
   animals are reared. Bentley.

   3.  A snug, comfortable, or cozy residence or situation; a retreat, or
   place  of  habitual resort; hence, those who occupy a nest, frequent a
   haunt,  or are associated in the same pursuit; as, a nest of traitors;
   a nest of bugs.

     A little cottage, like some poor man's nest. Spenser.

   4.  (Geol.)  An  aggregated mass of any ore or mineral, in an isolated
   state, within a rock.

   5.  A collection of boxes, cases, or the like, of graduated size, each
   put within the one next larger.

   6.  (Mech.)  A compact group of pulleys, gears, springs, etc., working
   together or collectively.
   Nest  egg,  an  egg left in the nest to prevent the hen from forsaking
   it,  and  to  induce  her  to  lay  more  in  the  same  place; hence,
   figuratively,  something  laid  up  as  the  beginning  of  a  fund or
   collection. Hudibras.


   Nest (?), v. i. To build and occupy a nest.

     The king of birds nested within his leaves. Howell.


   Nest, v. t. To put into a nest; to form a nest for.

     From him who nested himself into the chief power. South.


   Nest"ful (?), n.; pl. Nestfuls (. As much or many as will fill a nest.


   Nes"tle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Nestled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nestling
   (?).] [AS. nestlian.]

   1. To make and occupy a nest; to nest. [Obs.]

     The kingfisher ... nestles in hollow banks. L'Estrange.

   2.  To  lie  close  and  snug, as a bird in her nest; to cuddle up; to
   settle, as in a nest; to harbor; to take shelter.

     Their  purpose  was  to  fortify  in  some strong place of the wild
     country, and there nestle till succors came. Bacon.

   3. To move about in one's place, like a bird when shaping the interior
   of  her  nest or a young bird getting close to the parent; as, a child


   Nes"tle, v. t. To house, as in a nest.

   2. To cherish, as a bird her young.


   Nes"tling (?). n.

   1. A young bird which has not abandoned the nest. Piers Plowman.

   2. A nest; a receptacle. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Nes"tling, a. Newly hatched; being yet in the nest.


   Nes"tor  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of parrots with gray heads. of New
   Zeland and papua, allied to the cockatoos. See Kaka.


   Nes*to"ri*an (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) An adherent of Nestorius, patriarch
   of Constantinople to the fifth century, who has condemned as a heretic
   for  maintaining that the divine and the human natures were not merged
   into  one  nature  in Christ (who was God in man), and, hence, that it
   was  improper to call Mary the mother of Christ; also, one of the sect
   established  by the followers of Nestorius in Persia, india, and other
   Oriental countries, and still in existence. opposed to Eutychian.


   Nes*to"ri*an, a.

   1. Of or relating to the Nestorians.

   2.  relating  to, or resembling, Nestor, the aged warior and counselor
   mentioned  by  Homer;  hence,  wise;  experienced; aged; as, Nestorian


   Nes*to"ri*an*ism (?), n. The doctrines of the nestorian Christians, or
   of Nestorius.


   Ney  (?),  n. [AS. net; akin to D. net, OS. net, netti, OHG. nezzi, G.
   netz, Icel. & Dan. net, Sw. n\'84t, Goth. nati; of uncertain origin.]

   1.  A  fabric  of  twine,  thread,  or the like, wrought or woven into
   meshes, and used for catching fish, birds, butterflies, etc.

   2. Anything designed or fitted to entrap or catch; a snare; any device
   for catching and holding.

     A  man  that  flattereth his neighbor spreadeth a net for his feet.
     Prov. xxix. 5.

     In the church's net there are fishes good or bad. Jer. Taylor.

   3.  Anything  wrought  or  woven  in meshes; as, a net for the hair; a
   mosquito net; a tennis net.

   4.  (Geom.)  A  figure  made up of a large number of straight lines or
   curves,  which  are  connected  at  certain points and related to each
   other by some specified law.


   Net, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Netted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Netting.]

   1.  To  make  into  a  net; to make n the style of network; as, to net

   2. To take in a net; to capture by stratagem or wile.

     And now I am here, netted and in the toils. Sir W. Scott.

   3. To inclose or cover with a net; as, to net a tree.


   Net, v. i. To form network or netting; to knit.


   Net, a. [F. See Neat clean.]

   1. Without spot; pure; shining. [Obs.]

     Her breast all naked as net ivory. Spenser.

   2. Free from extraneous substances; pure; unadulterated; neat; as, net
   wine, etc. [R.]

   3. Not including superfluous, incidental, or foreign matter, as boxes,
   coverings,  wraps,  etc.;  free from charges, deductions, etc; as, net
   profit; net income; net weight, etc. [Less properly written nett.]
   Net  tonnage  (Naut.),  the tonnage of a vessel after a deduction from
   the  gross  tonnage has been made, to allow space for crew, machinery,


   Net,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Netted; p. pr. & vb. n. Netting.] To produce
   or  gain  as  clear  profit;  as,  he netted a thousand dollars by the


   Net"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) An astrophyton.


   Neth"er  (?),  a.  [OE.  nethere,  neithere,  AS.  ni, fr. the adv. ni
   downward;  akin  to  neo below, beneath, D. neder down, G. nieder, Sw.
   nedre  below,  nether, a. & adv., and also to Skr. ni down. &root;201.
   Cf.  Beneath.]  Situated down or below; lying beneath, or in the lower
   part;  having  a lower position; belonging to the region below; lower;
   under; -- opposed to upper.

     'Twixt upper, nether, and surrounding fires. Milton.

     This  darksome  nether  world  her  light  Doth dim with horror and
     deformity. Spenser.

     All my nether shape thus grew transformed. Milton.


   Neith"er*more` (?), a. Lower, nether. [Obs.] Holland.


   Neth"er*most`  (?), a. [AS. ni(Nether, and cf. Aftermost.] Lowest; as,
   the nethermost abyss. Milton.


   Neth"i*nim  (?),  n.  pl. [Heb., pl. of n\'beth\'c6n given, granted, a
   slave  of the temple, fr. n\'bethan to give.] (jewish Antiq.) Servants
   of the priests and Levites in the menial services about the tabernacle
   and temple.


   Net"i*fy  (?), v. t. [Net, a. + -fy.] To render neat; to clean; to put
   in order. [R.] Chapman.


   Net"ting (?), n. [From Net, n.]

   1. The act or process of making nets or network, or of forming meshes,
   as for fancywork, fishing nets, etc.

   2.  A  piece of network; any fabric, made of cords, threads, wires, or
   the like, crossing one another with open spaces between.

   3.  (Naut.)  A  network  of  ropes  used  for various purposes, as for
   holding  the hammocks when not in use, also for stowing sails, and for
   hoisting  from  the  gunwale  to  the  rigging to hinder an enemy from
   boarding. Totten.
   Netting needle, a kind of slender shuttle used in netting. See Needle,
   n., 3.


   Net"ting, n. Urine. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Net"tle  (?),  n.  [AS.  netele;  akin  to  D.  netel, G. nessel, OHG.
   nezz\'8bla,  nazza,  Dan.  nelde,  n\'84lde,  Sw. n\'84ssla; cf, Lith.
   notere.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Urtica, covered with minute sharp
   hairs  containing  a poison that produces a stinging sensation. Urtica
   gracitis  is  common  in  the Northern, and U. cham\'91dryoides in the
   Southern,  United States. the common European species, U. urens and U.
   dioica,  are also found in the Eastern united States. U. pilulifera is
   the Roman nettle of England.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e term nettle has been given to many plants related
     to, or to some way resembling, the true nettle; as:

   Australian  nettle, a stinging tree or shrub of the genus Laportea (as
   L.  gigas and L. moroides); -- also called nettle tree. -- Bee nettle,
   Hemp  nettle, a species of Galeopsis. See under Hemp. -- Blind nettle,
   Dead   nettle,   a   harmless  species  of  Lamium.  --  False  nettle
   (B\'91hmeria  cylindrica),  a  plant  common in the United States, and
   related  to  the  true nettles. -- Hedge nettle, a species of Stachys.
   See  under  Hedge.  --  Horse  nettle (Solanum Carolinense). See under
   Horse.  --  nettle  tree.  (a)  Same  as Hackberry. (b) See Australian
   nettle  (above).  --  Spurge  nettle,  a stinging American herb of the
   Spurge  family  (Jatropha  urens).  --  Wood nettle, a plant (Laportea
   Canadensis) which stings severely, and is related to the true nettles.
   Nettle  cloth,  a  kind of thick cotton stuff, japanned, and used as a
   substitute for leather for various purposes. -- Nettle rash (Med.), an
   eruptive  disease  resembling the effects of whipping with nettles. --
   Sea nettle (Zo\'94l.), a medusa.


   Net"tle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Nettled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nettling
   (?).]  To  fret  or  sting; to irritate or vex; to cause to experience
   sensations  of  displeasure  or  uneasiness  not  amounting to violent

     The  princes  were  so nettled at the scandal of this affront, that
     every man took it to himself. L'Estrange.


   Net"tle*bird`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  the  European whitethroat. [Prov.


   Net"tler (?), n. One who nettles. [R.] Milton.


   Net"tles (?), n. pl. [See Knittle.] (Naut.) (a) The halves of yarns in
   the  unlaid  end of a rope twisted for pointing or grafting. (b) Small
   lines used to sling hammocks under the deck beams. (c) Reef points.


   Net"tling (?), n. (Rope Making) (a) A process (resembling splicing) by
   which  two  ropes  are  jointed  end  so  as to form one rope. (b) The
   process  of  tying  together  the  ends  of yarns in pairs, to prevent


   Net"tling, p. pr. & a. Stinging; irritating. Nettling cell (Zo\'94l.),
   a lasso cell. See under Lasso.


   Net"ty (?), a. Like a net, or network; netted. [R.]


   Net"-veined`  (?),  a. Having veins, or nerves, reticulated or netted;
   as, a net-veined wing or leaf.


   Net"work` (?), n.

   1. A fabric of threads, cords, or wires crossing each other at certain
   intervals,  and  knotted  or  secured  at  the crossings, thus leaving
   spaces or meshes between them.

   2.  Any  system  of lines or channels interlacing or crossing like the
   fabric of a net; as, a network of veins; a network of railroads.


   Neu"rad  (?),  adv.  [Gr.  ad  to.] (Anat.) Toward the neural side; --
   opposed to h\'91mad.


   Neu"ral  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Anat.  & Zo\'94l.) relating to the nerves or
   nervous  system; taining to, situated in the region of, or on the side
   with,  the  neural,  or  cerebro-spinal, axis; -- opposed to hemal. As
   applied  to  vertebrates,  neural is the same as dorsal; as applied to
   invertebrates  it  is  usually  the same as ventral. Cf. Hemal. Neural
   arch (Anat.), the cartilaginous or bony arch on the dorsal side of the
   centrum  of  the vertebra in a segment of the spinal skeleton, usually
   inclosing a segment of the spinal cord.


   Neu*ral"gi*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  gr. nerve.] (Med.) A disease, the
   chief  symptom  of  which  is  a  very  acute  pain,  exacerbating  or
   intermitting, which follows the course of a nervous branch, extends to
   its  ramifications,  and seems therefore to be seated in the nerve. It
   seems to be independent of any structural lesion. Dunglison.


   Neu*ral"gic  (?),  a. of or pertaining to, or having the character of,
   neuralgia; as, a neuralgic headache.


   Neu*ral"gy (?), n. Neuralgia.


   Neu*rap`o*phys"i*al   (?),   a.   (Anat.)   of   or  pertaining  to  a


   Neu`ra*poph"y*sis (?), n.; pl. Neurapophyses (#). [NL. See Neuro-, and
   Apophysis.]  (Anat.)  (a) One of the two lateral processes or elements
   which form the neural arch. (b) The dorsal process of the neural arch;
   neural spine; spinous process.


   Neu*ras`the*ni"a  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A condition of nervous
   debility  supposed to be dependent upon impairment in the functions of
   the spinal cord.


   Neu*ra"tion (?), n. (Biol.) The arrangement or distribution of nerves,
   as in the leaves of a plant or the wings of an insect; nervation.


   Neu*rax"is  (?),  n. [Neuro- + axis.] (Anat.) See Axis cylinder, under


   Neu`ren*ter"ic (?), a. [Neuro- + enteric.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to
   both  the neuron and the enteron; as, the neurenteric canal, which, in
   embroys  of  many  vertebrates,  connects  the  medullary tube and the
   primitive intestine. See Illust. of Ectoderm.


   Neu"ri*din  (?),  n. [From Neurine.] (Physiol. Chem.) a nontoxic base,
   C5H14N2,  found  in  the  putrescent  matters of flesh, fish, decaying
   cheese, etc.


   Neu`ri*lem"ma  (?),  n.  [NL., from gr. (Anat.) (a) The delicate outer
   sheath of a nerve fiber; the primitive sheath. (b) The perineurium.


   Neu*ril"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Physiol.)  The  special  properties and
   functions  of  the  nerves;  that capacity for transmitting a stimulus
   which belongs to nerves. G. H. Lewes.


   Neu"rine  (?  OR ?), n. [Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) A poisonous organic base
   (a  ptomaine)  formed  in  the  decomposition of protagon with boiling
   baryta water, and in the putrefraction of proteid matter. It was for a
   long  time  considered  identical  with  choline,  a  crystalline body
   originally   obtained  from  bile.  Chemically,  however,  choline  is
   oxyethyl-trimethyl-ammonium     hydroxide,     while     neurine    is
   vinyl-trimethyl-ammonium hydroxide. [Written also neurin.]


   Neu"rism  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Biol.)  Nerve force. See Vital force, under


   Neu*ri"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  gr. -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of a


   Neu"ro- (. [Gr. (Anat.) A combining denoting a nerve, of OR pertaining
   to a nerve OR the nervous system.


   Neu`ro-cen"tral (?), a. [Neuro- + central.] (Anat.) Between the neural
   arch  and  the  centrum  of  a  vertebra; as, the neurocentral suture.

                         Neurochord, n., Neurochordal

   Neu"ro*chord (?), n., Neu`ro*chor"dal (, a. (Zo\'94l.) See Neurocord.


   Neu*roc"i*ty (?), n. (Physiol.) Nerve force.


   Neu"ro*c\'91le  (?),  n.  [Neuro-  + Ge. (Anat.) The central canal and
   ventricles of the spinal cord and brain; the myelencephalic cavity.


   Neu"ro*cord  (?),  n.  [Neuro-  +  cord.]  (Zo\'94l.) A cordlike organ
   composed  of elastic fibers situated above the ventral nervous cord of
   annelids, like the earthworm. -- Neu`ro*cor"dal (#), a.


   Neu`ro-ep`i*der"mal  (?),  a. [Neuro- + epidermal.] (Anat.) Pertaining
   to,  or  giving  rise to, the central nervous system and epiderms; as,
   the neuroepidermal, or epiblastic, layer of the blastoderm.


   Neu*rog"li*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. gr. (Anat.) The delicate connective
   tissue  framework  which supports the nervous matter and blood vessels
   of the brain and spinal cord.


   Neu*rog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Neuro- + -graphy.] (Anat.) A description of
   the nerves. Dunglison.


   Neu`ro*ker"a*tin  (?),  n.  [Neuro-  +  keratin.]  (Physiol.  Chem.) A
   substance,  resembling  keratin,  present  in  nerve tissue, as in the
   sheath  of  the axis cylinder of medullated nerve fibers. Like keratin
   it  resists  the  action of most chemical agents, and by decomposition
   with sulphuric acid yields leucin and tyrosin.


   Neu`ro*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to neurolgy.


   Neu*rol"o*gist  (?),  n.  One  who  is  versed in neurology; also, one
   skilled in the treatment of nervous diseases.


   Neu*rol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Neuro-  + -logy.] The branch of science which
   treats of the nervous system.


   Neu*ro"ma (?), n. [NL. See Neuro-, and -oma.] (Med.) A tumor developed
   on,  or  connected  with,  a  nerve, esp. one consisting of new-formed
   nerve fibers.


   Neu"ro*mere  (?),  n. [Neuro- + -mere.] (Anat.) A metameric segment of
   the cerebro-spinal nervous system.


   Neu`ro*mus"cu*lar    (?),   a.   [Neuro-   +   muscular.]   (Physiol.)


   Neu"ron (?), n.; pl. Neura (#). [NL., from Gr. ney^ron nerve.] (Anat.)
   The brain and spinal cord; the cerebro-spinal axis; myelencephalon.<--
   Now = a nerve cell (older def not included in MW10 --> B. G. Wilder.


   Neu`ro*path"ic  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to neuropathy; of the nature
   of, or suffering from, nervous disease.


   Neu*rop"a*thy (?), n. [Neuro- + Gr. (Med.) An affection of the nervous
   system or of a nerve.


   Neu"ro*pod  (?),  n. [Neuro- + -pod.] (Zo\'94l.) A neuropodous animal.
   G. Rolleston.


   Neu`ro*po"di*um  (?), n. [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The ventral lobe or
   branch of a parapodium.


   Neu*rop"o*dous  (?),  a. [Neuro- + -pod + -ous.] (Zo\'94l.) Having the
   limbs   on,   or   directed  toward,  the  neural  side,  as  in  most
   invertebrates; -- opposed to h\'91mapodous. G. Rolleston.


   Neu"ro*pore  (?), n. [Neuro- + pore.] (Anat.) An opening at either end
   of the embryonic neural canal.


   Neu*rop"ter (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Neuroptera.


   Neu*rop"te*ra (?), n. pl. [Nl., fr. gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of hexapod
   insects  having  two pairs of large, membranous, net-veined wings. The
   mouth  organs  are  adapted for chewing. They feed upon other insects,
   and  undergo  a  complete metamorphosis. The ant-lion, hellgamite, and
   lacewing fly are examples. Formerly, the name was given to a much more
   extensive    group,    including   the   true   Neuroptera   and   the

   Page 973


   Nerop"ter*al (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Neuroptera.


   Neu*rop"ter*an (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A neuropter.


   Neu*rop"te*ris  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.) An extensive genus of
   fossil  ferns,  of  which species have been found from the Devonian to
   the Triassic formation.


   Neu*rop"ter*ous (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Neuropteral.


   Neu`ro*sen*sif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [neuro-  +  sensiferous.]  (Zo\'94l.)
   Pertaining to, or forming, both nerves and sense organs.


   Neu*ro"sis  (?),  n.;  pl.  Neuroses  (#).  [NL.,  fr.  gr.  (Med.)  A
   functional  nervous  affection  or  disease, that is, a disease of the
   nerves   without   any   appreciable  change  of  nerve  structure.<--
   (psychiatry)  a mental or emotional disorder that affects only part of
   the  personality,  and  involves less distorted perceptions of reality
   than  a  psychosis.  It includes certain anxieties and phobias. [MW10]


   Neu`ro*skel"e*tal  (?), a. Of or pertaining to the neuroskeleton. [R.]


   Neu`ro*skel"e*ton (?), n. [Neuro- + skeleton.] (Anat.) The deep-seated
   parts  of  the vertebrate skeleton which are relation with the nervous
   axis and locomation. Owen.


   Neu"ro*spast (?), n. [L. neurospaston, Gr. A puppet. [R.] Dr. H. More.


   Neu*rot"ic (?), a. [Gr.

   1.  Of or pertaining to the nerves; seated in the nerves; nervous; as,
   a neurotic disease.

   2. Uself in disorders of, or affecting, the nerves.


   Neu*rot"ic, n.

   1. A disease seated in the nerves.

   2. (Med.) Any toxic agent whose action is mainly directed to the great
   nerve centers.

     NOTE: &hand; Ne urotic as  a  class include all those poisons whose
     mains action is upon the brain and spinal cord. They may be divided
     three  orders:  (a)  Cerebral  neurotics, or those which affect the
     brain  only.  (b) Spinal neurotics, or tetanics, those which affect
     the  spinal  cord.  (c)  Cerebro-spinal  neurotics,  or those which
     affect both brain and spinal cord.


   Neu"ro*tome (?), n. [See Neurotomy.]

   1. An instrument for cutting or dissecting nerves.

   2. (Anat.) A neuromere.


   Neu`ro*tom"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to neurotomy.


   Neu*rot"o*mist (?), n. One who skilled in or practices neurotomy.


   Neu*rot"o*my (?), n. [Neuro- + Gr.

   1. The dissection, or anatomy, of the nervous system.

   2. (Med.) The division of a nerve, for the relief of neuralgia, or for
   other purposes. Dunglison.


   Neu"ru*la  (?),  n.  [NL., dim. of Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An embryo or certain
   invertebrates in the stage when the primitive band is first developed.


   Neu"ter  (?),  a.  [L., fr. ne not + uter whether; akin to E. whether.
   See No, and Whether, and cf. Neither.]

   1.  Neither  the  one thing nor the other; on neither side; impartial;
   neutral. [Archaic]

     In all our undertakings God will be either our friend or our enemy;
     for Providence never stands neuter. South.

   2.  (Gram.) (a) Having a form belonging more especially to words which
   are  not  appellations  of males or females; expressing or designating
   that which is of neither sex; as, a neuter noun; a neuter termination;
   the neuter gender. (b) Intransitive; as, a neuter verb.

   3. (Biol.) Having no generative organs, or imperfectly developed ones;
   sexless. See Neuter, n., 3.


   Neu"ter, n.

   1.  A  person  who  takes  no  part  in  a  contest; one who is either
   indifferent to a cause or forbears to interfere; a neutral.

     The world's no neuter; it will wound or save. Young.

   2.  (Gram.)  (a)  A  noun of the neuter gender; any one of those words
   which  have  the  terminations  usually  found in neuter words. (b) An
   intransitive verb.

   3.  (Biol.)  An  organism,  either  vegetable  or animal, which at its
   maturity  has no generative organs, or but imperfectly developed ones,
   as  a plant without stamens or pistils, as the garden Hydrangea; esp.,
   one of the imperfectly developed females of certain social insects, as
   of  the  ant  and the common honeybee, which perform the labors of the
   community, and are called workers.


   Neu"tral (?), a. [L. neutralis, fr. neuter. See Neuter.]

   1.  Not  engaged  on  either  side;  not taking part with or assisting
   either of two or more contending parties; neuter; indifferent.

     The  heart  can  not  possibly remain neutral, but constantly takes
     part one way or the other. Shaftesbury.

   2.  Neither  good nor bad; of medium quality; middling; not decided or

     Some  things  good, and some things ill, do seem, And neutral some,
     in her fantastic eye. Sir J. Davies.

   3. (Biol.) Neuter. See Neuter, a., 3.

   4.  (Chem.)  Having  neither acid nor basic properties; unable to turn
   red  litmus blue or blue litmus red; -- said of certain salts or other
   compounds. Contrasted with acid, and alkaline.
   Neutral  axis,  Neutral surface (Mech.), that line or plane, in a beam
   under  transverse  pressure, at which the fibers are neither stretched
   nor compressed, or where the longitudinal stress is zero. See Axis. --
   Neutral  equilibrium  (Mech.),  the  kind  of equilibrium of a body so
   placed  that  when  moved  slighty  it  neither tends to return to its
   former position not depart more widely from it, as a perfect sphere or
   cylinder on a horizontal plane. -- Neutral salt (Chem.), a salt formed
   by the complete replacement of the hydrogen in an acid or base; in the
   former  case  by  a  positive or basic, in the latter by a negative or
   acid, element or radical. -- Neutral tint, a bluish gray pigment, used
   in  water colors, made by mixing indigo or other blue some warm color.
   the shades vary greatly. -- Neutral vowel, the vowel element having an
   obscure and indefinite quality, such as is commonly taken by the vowel
   in many unaccented syllables. It is regarded by some as identical with
   the  &ucr; in up, and is called also the natural vowel, as unformed by
   art  and  effort. See Guide to Pronunciation, § 17.<-- also called the
   indefinite  vowel,  and also represented in phonetic transcriptions by
   the schwa &schwa; -->
   Neu"tral  (?), n. A person or a nation that takes no part in a contest
   between others; one who is neutral.
     The  neutral,  as  far  as commerce extends, becomes a party in the
     war. R. G. Harper.
   Neu"tral*ist, n. A neutral; one who professes or practices neutrality.


   Neu*tral"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. neutralit\'82.]

   1.  The  state  or  quality  of  being neutral; the condition of being
   unengaged  in  contests  between  others;  state  of taking no part on
   either side; indifference.

     Men  who  possess  a state of neutrality in times of public danger,
     desert the interest of their fellow subjects. Addison.

   2.  Indifference in quality; a state neither very good nor bad. [Obs.]

   3. (Chem.) The quality or state of being neutral. See Neutral, a., 4.

   4.  (International  Law) The condition of a nation or government which
   refrains  from  taking  part, directly or indirectly, in a war between
   other powers.

   5. Those who are neutral; a combination of neutral powers or states.
   Armed  neutrality,  the  condition of a neutral power, in time of war,
   which  holds  itself ready to resist by force any aggression of either


   Neu`tral*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. neutralisation.]

   1.  The  act  or  process  of  neutralizing,  or  the  state  of being

   2. (Chem.) The act or process by which an acid and a base are combined
   in  such  proportions  that  the  resulting  compound  is neutral. See
   Neutral, a., 4.


   Neu"tral*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Neutralized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Neutralizing (?).] [Cf. F. neutraliser.]

   1. To render neutral; to reduce to a state of neutrality.

     So here I am neutralized again. Sir W. Scott.

   2.  (Chem.)  To  render inert or imperceptible the peculiar affinities
   of,  as  a  chemical  substance;  to  destroy  the  effect  of; as, to
   neutralize an acid with a base.

   3. To destroy the peculiar or opposite dispositions of; to reduce to a
   state  of  indifference inefficience; to counteract; as, to neutralize
   parties in government; to neutralize efforts, opposition, etc.

     Counter citations that neutralize each other. E. Everett.


   Neu"tral*i`zer (?), n. One who, or that which, neutralizes; that which
   destroys,  disguises,  or  renders  inert the peculiar properties of a


   Neu"tral*ly, adv. In a neutral manner; without taking part with either
   side; indifferently.


   Neu`vaines"  (?),  n.  pl. [F. neuvaine, fr. LL. novena, fr. L. novem.
   See Noon.] (R.C.Ch.) Prayers offered up for nine successive days.


   Ne*va"dite  (?), n. (Min.) A grantitoid variety of rhyolite, common in


   N\'82`v\'82"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. nix, nivis, snow.] (Geol.) The upper
   part of a glacier, above the limit or perpetual snow. See Galcier.


   Nev"en (?), v. t. [Icel. nefna. To name; to mention; to utter. [Obs.]

     As oft I heard my lord them neven. Chaucer.


   Nev"er (?), adv. [AS. n; ne not, no + ever.]

   1.  Not  ever;  not at any time; at no time, whether past, present, or
   future. Shak.

     Death still draws nearer, never seeming near. Pope.

   2. In no degree; not in the least; not.

     Whosoever  has a friend to guide him, may carry his eyes in another
     man's head, and yet see never the worse. South.

     And he answered him to never a word. Matt. xxvii. 14.

     NOTE: &hand; Ne ver is  mu ch us ed in  co mposition wi th pr esent
     participles  to  form adjectives, as in never-ceasing, never-dying,
     never-ending,  never-fading,  never-failing,  etc.,  retaining  its
     usual signification.

   Never a deal, not a bit. [Obs.] Chaucer. -- Never so, as never before;
   more   than  at  any  other  time,  or  in  any  other  circumstances;
   especially;  particularly;  -- now often expressed or replaced by ever

     Ask me never so much dower and gift. Gen. xxxiv. 12.

     A fear of battery, ... though never so well grounded, is no duress.


   Nev"er*more` (?), adv. Never again; at no time hereafter. Testament of
   Love. Tyndale.

     Where  springtime  of  the Hesperides Begins, but endeth nevermore.


   Nev`er*the*lat"er (?), adv. OR conj. Nevertheless. [Obs.]


   Nev`er*the*less"  (?),  adv. OR conj. [Never + the (see The by that) +
   less.] Not the less; notwithstanding; in spite of that; yet.

     No  chastening  for the present seemeth to be joyous, but grievous;
     nevertheless,   afterward   it  yieldeth  the  peaceable  fruit  of
     righteousness. Heb. xii. 11.

   Syn. -- However; at least; yet; still. See However.


   Nev"ew (?), n. Nephew. [Obs.] haucer.


   New  (?),  a.  [Compar. Newer (?); superl. Newest.] [OE. OE. newe, AS.
   niwe,  neowe; akin to D. nieuw, OS. niwi, OHG. niuwi, G. neu, Icel. n,
   Dan.  &  Sw.  ny,  Goth.  niujis, Lith. naujas, Russ. novuii, Ir. nua,
   nuadh,  Gael.  nuadh, W. newydd, Armor. nevez, L. novus, gr. nava, and
   prob. to E. now. Now, and cf. Announce, Innovate, Neophyte, Novel.]

   1.  Having  existed,  or  having  been  made, but a short time; having
   originated  or occured lately; having recently come into existence, or
   into  one's  possession;  not  early or long in being; of late origin;
   recent; fresh; modern; -- opposed to old, as, a new coat; a new house;
   a new book; a new fashion. "Your new wife." Chaucer.

   2.  Not  before  seen  or  known,  although  existing  before;  lately
   manifested;  recently  discovered;  as, a new metal; a new planet; new

   3.  Newly  beginning  or  recurring;  starting  anew;  now commencing;
   different from has been; as, a new year; a new course or direction.

   4. As if lately begun or made; having the state or quality of original
   freshness;  also,  changed for the better; renovated; unworn; untried;
   unspent; as, rest and travel made him a new man.

     Steadfasty purposing to lead a new life. Bk. of Com. Prayer.

     Men after long emaciating diets, fat, and almost new. Bacon.

   5.  Not  of ancient extraction, or of a family of ancient descent; not
   previously kniwn or famous. Addison.

   6. Not habituated; not familiar; unaccustomed.

     New to the plow, unpracticed in the trace. Pope.

   7. Fresh from anything; newly come.

     New from her sickness to that northern air. Dryden.

   New  birth.  See  under Birth. -- New Church, OR New Jerusalem Church,
   the  church  holding  the  doctrines taught by Emanuel Swedenborg. See
   Swedenborgian.  -- New heart (Theol.), a heart or character changed by
   the power of God, so as to be governed by new and holy motives. -- New
   land,  land  ckeared  and cultivated for the first time. -- New light.
   (Zo\'94l.)  See  Crappie.  --  New  moon.  (a)  The  moon in its first
   quarter,  or  when it first appears after being invisible. (b) The day
   when  the  new  moon  is first seen; the first day of the lunar month,
   which  was  a  holy  day  among  the  Jews. 2 Kings iv. 23. -- New Red
   Sandstone (Geol.), an old name for the formation immediately above the
   coal  measures  or strata, now divided into the Permian and Trias. See
   Sandstone.  --  New  style.  See  Style.  --  New testament. See under
   Testament.  --  New  world,  the land of the Western Hemisphere; -- so
   called  because not known to the inhabitants of the Eastern Hemisphere
   until recent times. Syn. -- Novel; recent; fresh; modern. See Novel.


   New (?), adv. Newly; recently. Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Ne w is  much used in composition, adverbially, in the
     sense  of  newly, recently, to quality other words, as in new-born,
     new-formed, new-found, new-mown.

   Of new, anew. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   New, v. t. & i. To make new; to renew. [Obs.]


   New"born` (?), a. Recently born. Shak.


   New"come` (?), a. Recently come.


   New"com`er (?), n. One who has lately come.


   New"el  (?),  n. [From New. Cf. Novel.] A novelty; a new thing. [Obs.]


   New"el  (?),  n.  [OF.  nual, F. noyau sone, of fruit, noyau d'escaler
   newel,  fr.  L.  nucalis like a nut, fr. nux, nucis, nut. Cf Nowel the
   inner  wall of a mold, Nucleus..] (Arch.) The upright post about which
   the  steps  of  a  circular  staircase  wind;  hence, in stairs having
   straight  flights,  the  principal post at the foot of a staircase, or
   the secondary ones at the landings. See Hollow newel, under Hollow.


   New"fan`gle  (?),  a. [New + fangle.] Eager for novelties; desirous of
   changing. [Obs.]

     So newfangel be they of their meat. Chaucer.


   New"fan`gle, v. t. To change by introducing novelties. [Obs.]


   New"fan`gled (?), a.

   1.  Newmade;  formed  with  the  affectation of novelty. "A newfangled
   nomenclature." Sir W. Hamilton.

   2. Disposed to change; inclined to novelties; given to new theories or
   fashions.  "Newfangled  teachers."  1  Tim. vi. (heading). "Newfangled
   men." Latimer.


   New"fan`gled*ness,  n.  Affectation of, or fondness for, novelty; vain
   or affected fashion or form.


   New"fan`gle*ness    (?),   n.   [OE.   newefanglenes.   See   Fangle.]
   Newfangledness. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Proud newfangleness in their apparel. Robynson (More's Utopia).


   New"fan`glist  (?),  n.  One who is eager for novelties or desirous of
   change. [Obs.] Tooker.


   New"fan`gly  (?),  adv.  In  a  newfangled  manner; with eagerness for
   novelty. [Obs.] Sir T. More.


   New`fash"ioned  (?),  a.  Made  in  a  new  form,  or lately come into


   New"found*land` (?, often , n.

   1.  An  island  on  the  coast of British North America, famed for the
   fishing grounds in its vicinity.

   2. A Newfoundland dog. Tennyson.
   Newfoundland  dog (Zo\'94l.), a breed of large dogs, with shaggy hair,
   which  originated  in  Newfoundland, noted for intelligence, docility,
   and swimming powers.


   New"ing (?), n. [From New, v. t.] Yeast; barm. [prov. Eng.]


   New"ish, a. Somewhat new; nearly new. Bacon.


   New"ly, adv.

   1. Lately; recently.

     He rubbed it o'er with newly gathered mint. Dryden.

   2. Anew; afresh; freshly.

     And  the  refined  mind  doth  newly  fashion  Into  a fairer form.


   New"mar`ket (?), n. [From Newmarket, England.] A long, closely fitting


   New`-mod"el (?), v. t. To remodel.


   New"ness (?), n. The quality or state of being new; as, the newness of
   a system; the newness of a scene; newness of life.

   Page 974


   News (?), n [From New; cf. F. nounelles. News

   1.  A  report  of recent occurences; information of something that has
   lately  taken  place,  or of something before unknown; fresh tindings;
   recent intelligence.

     Evil news rides post, while good news baits. Milton.

   2. Something strange or newly happened.

     It  is no news for the weak and poor to be a prey to the strong and
     rich. L'Estrange.

   3. A bearer of news; a courier; a newspaper. [Obs.]

     There cometh a news thither with his horse. Pepys.


   News"-book` (?), n. A newspaper. [Obs.]


   news"boy` (?), n. A boy who distributes or sells newspaper.


   News"-let`ter  (?),  n.  A circular letter, written or printed for the
   purpose of disseminating news. This was the name given to the earliest
   English newspapers.


   News"man (?), n.; pl. Newsmen (.

   1. One who brings news. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2. A man who distributes or sells newspapers.


   News"mon`ger  (?),  n.  One  who  deals  in news; one who is active in
   hearing and telling news.


   News"pa`per  (?),  n.  A  sheet  of  paper printed and distributed, at
   stated  intervals,  for  conveying  intelligence  of  passing  events,
   advocating  opinions,  etc.;  a  public  print  that  circulates news,
   advertisements,    proceedings    of    legislative   bodies,   public
   announcements, etc.


   News"room` (?), n. A room where news is collected and disseminated, or
   periodicals  sold; a reading room supplied with newspapers, magazines,


   News"-vnd`er (?), n. A seller of newspapers.


   News"-writ`er   (?),   n.  One  who  gathered  news  for,  and  wrote,
   news-letters. Macaulay.


   News"y  (?),  a.  Full of news; abounding in information as to current
   events. [Colloq.]


   Newt (?), n. [OE. ewt, evete, AS. efete, with n prefixed, an ewt being
   understood  as a newt. Cf. Eft.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several species
   of  small  aquatic  salamanders.  The  common  British species are the
   crested   newt  (Triton  cristatus)  and  the  smooth  newt  (Lophinus
   punctatus).  In  America,  Diemictylus  viridescens is one of the most
   abundant species.


   New*to"ni*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Sir Isaac Newton, or his
   discoveries. Newtonian philosophy, the philosophy of Sir Isaac Newton;
   --  applied  to  the doctrine of the universe as expounded in Newton's
   "Principia,"  to  the modern or experimental philosophy (as opposed to
   the  theories  of  Descartes and others), and, most frequently, to the
   mathematical  theory  of universal gravitation. -- Newtonian telescope
   (Astron.),  a  reflecting  telescope,  in  which  rays  from the large
   speculum are received by a plane mirror placed diagonally in the axis,
   and  near  the open end of the tube, and thrown at right angles toward
   one side of the tube, where the image is formed and viewed through the
   eyeplace. -- Newtonian theory of light. See Note under Light.


   New*to"ni*an, n. A follower of Newton.


   New"-year`  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to,  or  suitable  for,  the
   commencement of the year; as, New-year gifts or odes.

                                New Year's Day

   New" Year's` Day" (?). the first day of a calendar year; the first day
   of January. Often colloquially abbreviated to New year's or new year.

                                  New Zealand

   New`  Zea"land (?). A group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. New
   Zealand  flax.  (a)  (Bot.)  A tall, liliaceous herb (Phormium tenax),
   having  very  long,  sword-shaped,  distichous  leaves which furnish a
   fine,  strong  fiber  very  valuable for cordage and the like. (b) The
   fiber   itself.   --  New  Zealand  tea  (Bot.),  a  myrtaceous  shrub
   (Leptospermum  scoparium)  of New Zealand and Australia, the leaves of
   which are used as a substitute for tea.


   Nex"i*ble  (?),  a. [L. nexibilis, from nectere, nexum, to bind.] That
   may be knit together. [R.]


   Next  (?),  a.,  superl.  of  Nigh.  [AS.  n, ni\'82hst, n, superl. of
   ne\'a0h nigh. See Nigh.]

   1. Nearest in place; having no similar object intervening. Chaucer.

     Her  princely  guest  Was  next  her  side;  in order sat the rest.

     Fear followed me so hard, that I fled the next way. Bunyan.

   2. Nearest in time; as, the next day or hour.

   3. Adjoining in a series; immediately preceding or following in order.

     None could tell whose turn should be the next. Gay.

   4.  Nearest in degree, quality, rank, right, or relation; as, the next
   heir was an infant.

     The  man  is near of kin unto us, one of our next kinsmen. Ruth ii.

     NOTE: &hand; Ne xt is  usually followed by to before an object, but
     to  is  sometimes omitted. In such cases next in considered by many
     grammarians as a preposition.

   Next  friend  (Law), one who represents an infant, a married woman, or
   any person who can not appear sui juris, in a suit at law.
   Next,  adv.  In  the  time,  place,  or  order  nearest or immediately
   suceeding; as, this man follows next. 


   Nex"us (?), n. [L.] Connection; tie.

     Man  is  doubtless one by some subtile nexus ... extending from the
     new-born infant to the superannuated dotard. De Quincey.

                                 Nez Perc\'82s

   Nez"  Per`c\'82s" (?), pl.; sing. Nez Perc\'90 (. [F., pierced noses.]
   (Ethnol.)  A  tribe  of Indians, mostly inhabiting Idaho. <-- involved
   under  Chief  Joseph,  in  the  last  major battle of the Indian wars,
   attempting to resist being moved to a reservation. -->


   Ngi"na (?), n. [Native name.] The gorilla.

                                Niagara period

   Ni*ag"a*ra  pe"ri*od  (?). (Geol.) A subdivision or the American Upper
   Silurian system, embracing the Medina, Clinton, and Niagara epoch. The
   rocks  of  the  Niagara  epoch,  mostly  limestones,  are  extensively
   distributed,  and  at  Niagara  Falls  consist of about eighty feet of
   shale  supporting a greater thickness of limestone, which is gradually
   undermined by the removal of the shale. See Chart of Geology.


   Ni"as  (?),  n. [F. niais. See Eyas.] A young hawk; an eyas; hence, an
   unsophisticated person. [Obs.]


   Nib (?), n. [A variabt of neb.]

   1.  A  small  and pointed thing or part; a point; a prong. "The little
   nib or fructifying principle." Sir T. Browne.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The bill or beak of a bird; the neb.

   3.  The  points of a pen; also, the pointed part of a pen; a short pen
   adapted for insertion in a holder.

   4.  One of the handles which project from a scythe snath; also, [Prov.
   Eng.], the shaft of a wagon.


   Nib,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Nebbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nibbing.] To
   furnish with a nib; to point; to mend the point of; as, to nib a pen.


   Nibbed (?), a. Having a nib or point.


   Nib"ble (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nibbled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nibbling
   (?).] [Cf. Nip.] To bite by little at a time; to seize gently with the
   mouth; to eat slowly or in small bits.

     Thy turfy mountains, where live nibbling sheep. Shak.


   Nib"ble,  v.  t. To bite upon something gently or cautiously; to eat a
   little  of  a  thing,  as  by taking small bits cautiously; as, fishes
   nibble at the bait.

     Instead  of returning a full answer to my book, he manifestly falls
     a-nibbling at one single passage. Tillotson.


   Nib"ble,  n. A small or cautious bite.<-- 2. a tentative expression of
   interest [MW10]. -->


   Nib"bler (?), n. One who, or that which, nibbles.


   Nib"bling*ly (?), adv. In a nibbling manner; cautiously.


   Nib"lick  (?),  n.  A  kind of golf stick used to lift the ball out of
   holes, ruts, etc.


   Ni*ca"gua (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The laughing falcon. See under laughing.

                                Nicaragua wood

   Nic`a*ra"gua wood` (?). Brazil wood.


   Nic"co*lite  (?), n. [from NL. niccolum nickel.] (Min.) A mineral of a
   copper-red color and metallic luster; an arsenide of nickel; -- called
   also coppernickel, kupfernickel.


   Nice  (?),  a. [Compar. Nicer (?); superl. Nicest.] [OE., foolish, fr.
   OF.  nice  ignorant,  fool,  fr.  L.  nescius ignorant; ne not + scius
   knowing,  scire to know. perhaps influenced by E. nesh delicate, soft.
   See No, and Science.]

   1.  Foolish;  silly;  simple; ignorant; also, weak; effeminate. [Obs.]

     But say that we ben wise and nothing nice. Chaucer.

   2. Of trifling moment; nimportant; trivial. [Obs.]

     The letter was not nice, but full of charge Of dear import. Shak.

   3.  Overscrupulous  or exacting; hard to please or satisfy; fastidious
   in small matters.

     Curious not knowing, not exact but nice. Pope.

     And to taste Think not I shall be nice. Milton.

   4. Delicate; refined; dainty; pure.

     Dear love, continue nice and chaste. Donne.

     A nice and subtile happiness. Milton.

   5.   Apprehending   slight   diffferences  or  delicate  distinctions;
   distinguishing accurately or minutely; carefully discriminating; as, a
   nice  taste  or judgment. "Our author happy in a judge so nice." Pope.
   "Nice verbal criticism." Coleridge.

   6.  Done  or  made  with careful labor; suited to excite admiration on
   account  of  exactness; evidencing great skill; exact; fine; finished;
   as, nice proportions, nice workmanship, a nice application; exactly or
   fastidiously discriminated; requiring close discrimination; as, a nice
   point of law, a nice distinction in philosophy.

     The  difference  is  too  nice Where ends the virtue, or begins the
     vice. Pope.

   7.  Pleasing;  agreeable;  gratifying;  delightful;  good;  as, a nice
   party; a nice excursion; a nice person; a nice day; a nice sauce, etc.
   [Loosely & Colloquially]
   To  make nice of, to be scrupulous about. [Obs.] Shak. Syn. -- Dainty;
   delicate;   exquisite;   fine;   accurate;  exact;  correct;  precise;
   particular;  scrupulous;  punctilious; fastidious; squeamish; finical;
   effeminate; silly.


   Nice"ly adv. In a nice manner.


   Ni"cene (?), a. [L. Nicaenus, fr. Nicaea Nice, Gr. Of or pertaining to
   Nice,  a town of Asia Minor, or to the ecumenial council held there A.
   D.  325.  Nicene  Creed  (, a summary of Christian faith, composed and
   adopted  by  the Council of Nice, against Arianism, A. D. 325, altered
   and  confirmed  by  the  Council  of Constantinople, A. D. 381, and by
   subsequent councils.


   Nice"ness (?), n. Quality or state of being nice.


   Ni"cer*y (?), n. Nicety. [Colloq.] Chapman.


   Ni"ce*ty (?), n.; pl. Niceties (#). [OE. nicet\'82 foolishness.]

   1.  The  quality  or state of being nice (in any of the senses of that

     The miller smiled of her nicety. Chaucer.

   2.  Delicacy  or exactness of perception; minuteness of observation or
   of discrimination; precision.

   3.  A delicate expression, act, mode of treatment, distinction, or the
   like; a minute distinction.

     The fineness and niceties of words. Locke.

   To a nicety, with great exactness or accuracy.


   Niche  (?),  n.  [F., fr. It. nicchia, prop., a shell-like recess in a
   wall,  fr.  nicchio  a  shellfish,  mussel, fr. L. mytilus.] A cavity,
   hollow,  or  recess,  generally  within the thickness of a wall, for a
   statue,  bust,  or  other erect ornament. hence, any similar position,
   literal or figurative.

     Images defended from the injuries of the weather by niches of stone
     wherein they are placed. Evelun.


   Niched.  (, a. Placed in a niche. "Those niched shapes of noble mold."


   Nick  (,  n.  [AS.  nicor  a marine monster; akin to D. nikker a water
   spite, Icel. nykr, ONG. nihhus a crocodile, G. nix a water sprite; cf.
   Gr.  nij. Cf. Nix.] (Northern Myth.) An evil spirit of the waters. Old
   Nick, the evil one; the devil. [Colloq.]


   Nick, n. [Akin to Nock.]

   1. A notch cut into something; as: (a) A score for keeping an account;
   a reckoning. [Obs.] (b) (Print.) A notch cut crosswise in the shank of
   a  type,  to  assist a compositor in placing it properly in the stick,
   and  in distribution. W. Savage. (c) A broken or indented place in any
   edge or surface; nicks in china.

   2.  A  particular  point  or place considered as marked by a nick; the
   exact point or critical moment.

     To cut it off in the very nick. Howell.

     This  nick  of  time  is the critical occasion for the gainger of a
     point. L'Estrange.


   Nick, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nicked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nicking.]

   1.  To  make a nick or nicks in; to notch; to keep count of or upon by
   nicks; as, to nick a stick, tally, etc.

   2.  To  mar; to deface; to make ragged, as by cutting nicks or notches

     And thence proceed to nicking sashes. Prior.

     The  itch  of  his  affection  should  not  then  Have  nicked  his
     captainship. Shak.

   3.  To  suit  or  fit  into, as by a correspondence of nicks; to tally

     Words   nicking  and  resembling  one  another  are  applicable  to
     different significations. Camden.

   4.  To  hit  at,  or  in, the nick; to touch rightly; to strike at the
   precise point or time.

     The  just  season of doing things must be nicked, and all accidents
     improved. L'Estrange.

   5.  To  make  a  cross cut or cuts on the under side of (the tail of a
   horse, in order to make him carry ir higher).


   Nick, v. t. To nickname; to style. [Obs.]

     For Warbeck, as you nick him, came to me. Ford.

                            Nickar nut, Nickar tree

   Nick"ar nut` (?), Nick"ar tree` (?). (Bot.) Same as Nicker nut, Nicker


   Nick"el  (?),  n.  [G.,  fr. Sw. nickel, abbrev. from Sw. kopparnickel
   copper-nickel,  a  name  given  in derision, as it was thought to be a
   base  ore  of  copper.  The  origin  of the second part of the word is
   uncertain. Cf. Kupfer-nickel, Copper-nickel.]

   1.  (Chem.)  A bright silver-white metallic element. It is of the iron
   group,  and  is  hard, malleable, and ductile. It occurs combined with
   sulphur  in millerite, with arsenic in the mineral niccolite, and with
   arsenic and sulphur in nickel glance. Symbol Ni. Atomic weight 58.6.

     NOTE: &hand; On  ac count of its permanence in air and inertness to
     oxidation,  it  is  used  in  the  smaller coins, for plating iron,
     brass,  etc.,  for  chemical  apparatus,  and in certain alloys, as
     german  silver.  It is magnetic, and is very frequently accompanied
     by cobalt, both being found in meteoric iron.

   2. A small coin made of or containing nickel; esp., a five-cent piece.
   [Colloq. U.S.]
   Nickel silver, an alloy of nickel, copper, and zinc; -- usually called
   german silver; called also argentan.


   Nick*el"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or containing, nickel;
   specifically,  designating  compounds in which, as contrasted with the
   nickelous  compounds,  the  metal  has  a  higher valence; as nickelic


   Nick`el*if"er*ous  (?),  a. [Nickel + -ferous.] Containing nickel; as,
   nickelferous iron.


   Nick"el*ine (? OR ?), n.

   1. (Chem.) An alloy of nickel, a variety of German silver.

   2. (Min.) Niccolite.


   Nick"el*ous  (?),  a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, those
   compounds  of  nickel  in  which,  as  contrasted  with  the  nickelic
   compounds,  the  metal  has  a  lower  valence;  as,  nickelous oxide.


   Nick"er (?), n. [From Nick, v.t.]

   1.  One  of  the  night brawlers of London formerly noted for breaking
   windows with half-pence. [Cant] Arbuthnot.

   2. The cutting lip which projects downward at the edge of a boring bit
   and  cuts  a circular groove in the wood to limit the size of the hole
   that is bored.

                                  Nicker nut

   Nick"er nut` (?). A rounded seed, rather smaller than a nutmeg, having
   a  hard  smooth shell, and a yellowish or bluish color. The seeds grow
   in  the  prickly  pods  of  tropical,  woody  climbers  of  the  genus
   C\'91salpinia.  C.  Bonduc  has  yellowish seeds; C.Bonducella, bluish
   gray. [Spelt also neckar nut, nickar nut.]

                                  Nicker tree

   Nick"er  tree`  (?).  (Bot.) The plant producing nicker nuts. [Written
   also neckar tree and nickar tree.]


   Nick"ing,  n. [From Nick, v. t.] (Coal Mining) (a) The cutting made by
   the  hewer  at  the  side  of the face. (b) pl. Small coal produced in
   making the nicking.


   Nic"kle  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  European woodpecker, or yaffle; --
   called also nicker pecker.


   Nick"nack` (?), n. See Knickknack.


   Nick"nack`er*y (?), n. See Knickknackery.


   Nick"name` (?), n. [OE. ekename surname, hence, a nickname, an ekename
   being  understood  as  a  nekename, influenced also by E. nick, v. See
   Eke,  and  Name.]  A  name  given  in  contempt, derision, or sportive
   familiarity; a familiar or an opprobrious appellation.


   Nick"name`,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Nicknamed  (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nicknaming.] To give a nickname to; to call by a nickname.

     You nickname virtue; vice you should have spoke. Shak.

     I  altogether  disclaim  what  has  been  nicknamed the doctrine of
     finality. Macaulay.

   Page 975


   Ni`co*la"i*tan  (?),  n. [So called from Nicolas of Antioch, mentioned
   in  Acts  vi.  5.] (Eccl. Hist.) One of certain corrupt persons in the
   early church at Ephesus, who are censured in rev. ii. 6, 15.


   Ni*co"tian  (?),  n.  [F.  nicotiane;  --  so  called  from Nicot, who
   introduced it into France, a.d. 15 Tobacco. [R.] B. Jonson.


   Ni*co"tian, a. Pertaining to, or derived from, tobacco. [R.] Bp. Hall.


   Ni*co"ti*an (?), n. [NL. See Nicotian.] (Bot.) A genus of American and
   Asiatic  solanaceous  herbs,  with  viscid  foliage  and funnel-shaped
   blossoms. Several species yield tobacco. See Tobacco.


   Ni*co"ti*a*nine (? OR ?), n. [F. nicotianine. See Nicotian.] (Chem.) A
   white  waxy  substance  having  a  hot,  bitter  taste, extracted from
   tobacco leaves and called also tobacco camphor.


   Ni*cot"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Nicotinic.


   Ni*cot"i*dine  (?  OR ?), n. [Nicotine + pyridine.] (Chem.) A complex,
   oily,  nitrogenous  base,  isomeric with nicotine, and obtained by the
   reduction of certain derivatives of the pyridine group.


   Nic"o*tine  (?  OR  ?),  n.  [F.  nicotine.  See Nicotian.] (Chem.) An
   alkaloid  which is the active principle of tobacco. It is a colorless,
   transparent,  oily  liquid, having an acrid odor, and an acrid burning
   taste. It is intensely poisonous. Ure.


   Nic`o*tin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, nicotine;
   nicotic;  --  used  specifically  to  designate  an  acid  related  to
   pyridine,  obtained by the oxidation of nicotine, and called nicotinic


   Nic"tate  (?), v. i. [L. nictare, nictatum, from nicere to beckon.] To
   wink; to nictitate.


   Nic*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  nictatio  nictation.]  the act of winking;


   Nic"ti*tate (?), v. i. [See Nictate.] To wink; to nictate. Nictitating
   membrance  (Anat.),  a  thin  membrance,  found in many animals at the
   inner  angle,  or  beneath  the  lower lid, of the eye, and capable of
   being drawn across the eyeball; the third eyelid; the haw.


   Nic`ti*ta"tion (?), n. The act of winking.


   Nid`a*men"tal  (?),  a. [L. nidamentum materials for a nest, fr. nidus
   nest.  See Nest.] (Zo\'94l.) of, pertaining to, or baring, eggs or egg
   capsules;  as, the nidament capsules of certain gastropods; nidamental
   glands. See Illust. of Dibranchiata.


   Ni"da*ry (?), n. [L. nidus a nest.] A collection of nests. [R.] velyn.


   Nide  (?), n. [L. nidus a nest: cf. F. nid.] A nestful; a brood; as, a
   nide of pheasants. [Obs.]


   Ni"der*ing  (?),  a.  [See Niding.] Infamous; dastardly. [Obs.] Sir W.


   Nidg"er*y  (?),  n. [See Nidget.] A trifle; a piece of foolery. [Obs.]


   Nidg"et (?), n. [Written also nigget, nigeot.] [Cf. F. nigaud a boody,
   fool,  OF. niger to play the fool.] A fool; an idiot, a coward. [Obs.]


   Nid"i*fi*cate  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Nidificated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Nidificating.]  [L.  nidificare, nidificatum; nidus nest + -ficare
   (in comp.) to make. See -fy, and cf. nest.] To make a nest.

     Where are the fishes which nidificated in trees? Lowell.


   Nid`i*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [Cf. F. nidification.] The act or process of
   building a nest.


   Ni"ding   (n&imac;"d&icr;ng),   n.   [Written   also   nithing.]  [AS.
   n&imac;&edh;ing, fr. n&imac;&edh; wickness, malice, hatred.] A coward;
   a dastard; -- a term of utmost opprobrium. [Obs.]

     He is worthy to be called a niding. Howell.


   Ni"dor (?), n. [L.] Scent or savor of meat or food, cooked or cooking.
   [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.


   Ni"dor*ose` (?), a. Nidorous. [R.] Arbuthnot.


   Ni"dor*ous  (?),  a. [L. nidorosus steaming, reeking: cf. F. nidoreux.
   See Nidor.] Resembling the smell or taste of roast meat, or of corrupt
   animal matter. [R.]


   Nid"u*lant (?), a. [L. nidulans, p.pr.: cf. F. Nidulant.]

   1. Nestling, as a bird in itss nest.

   2. (Bot.) Lying loose in pulp or cotton within a berry or pericarp, as
   in a nest.


   Nid"u*late  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Nidulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nidulating.] [L. nidulari, fr. nidulus, dim. of nidus a nest.] To make
   a nest, as a bird. [R.] Cockeram.


   Nid`u*la"tion  (?),  n. The time of remaining in the nest. [R.] Sir T.


   Nid"u*lite  (?),  n.  [L. nidulus a little nest.] (Paleon.) A Silurian
   fossil, formerly supposed to consist of eggs.


   Ni"dus  (?),  n.;  pl.  nidi  (#).  [L.  See  Nidi,  Nest.]  A nest: a
   repository  for  the  eggs  of birds, insects, etc.; a breeding place;
   esp., the place or substance where parasites or the germs of a disease
   effect lodgment or are developed.


   Niece  (?),  n.  [OE.  nece,  F. ni\'8ace, LL. neptia, for L. neptis a
   granddaughter, niece, akin to nepos. See Nephew.]

   1.  A  relative, in general; especially, a descendant, whether male or
   female; a granddaughter or a grandson. [Obs.] B. Jonson. Wyclif. Shak.

   2.  A  daughter of one's brother or sister, or of one's brother-in-law
   or sister-in-law.<-- primary usage -->


   Nief (?), n. See Neif, the fist.


   Ni*el"list (?), n. One who practices the style of ornamentation called


   Ni*el"lo (?), n. [It. niello, LL. nigellum a black of blackish enamel,
   fr. L. nigellus, dim. of niger black. See Negro, and cf. Anneal.]

   1. A metallic alloy of a deep black color.

   2.  The  art,  process,  or  method  of  decorating metal with incised
   designs filled with the black alloy.

   3. A piece of metal, or any other object, so decorated.

   4.  An impression on paper taken from an ancient incised decoration or
   metal plate.


   Ni"fle (?), n. [OF.] A trifle. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nig"gard  (?),  n.  [Icel. hn\'94ggr niggardly, stingy + -ard; cf. Sw.
   njugg,  AS.  hne\'a0w.]  A  person  meanly close and covetous; one who
   spends grudgingly; a stingy, parsimonous fellow; a miser. Chaucer.

     A penurious niggard of his wealth. Milton.

     Be niggards of advice on no pretense. Pope.


   Nig"gard,   a.  Like  a  niggard;  meanly  covetous  or  parsimonious;
   niggardly; miserly; stingy.


   Nig"gard,  v. t. & i. To act the niggard toward; to be niggardly. [R.]


   Nig"gard*ise (?), n. Niggardliness. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Nig"gard*ish, a. Somewhat niggard.


   Nig"gard*li*ness  (?),  n.  The  quality  or  state  of being niggard;
   meanness in giving or spending; parsimony; stinginess.

     Niggardliness is not good husbandry. Addison.


   Nig"gard*ly,  a.  Meanly covetous or avarcious in dealing with others;
   stingy; niggard.

     Where  the  owner of the house will be bountiful, it is not for the
     steward to be niggardly. Bp. Hall.

   Syn. -- Avarcious; covetous; parsimonious; sparing; miserly; penurios;
   sordid; stingy. See Avaricious.


   Nig"gard*ly, adv. In a niggard manner.


   Nig"gard*ness, n. Niggardliness. Sir P. Sidney.


   Nig"gard*ous (?), a. Niggardly. [Obs.]

     Covetous gathering and niggardous keeping. Sir T. More.


   Nag"gard*ship, n. Niggardliness. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.


   Nig"gard*y (?), n. Niggardliness. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   nigged (?), n. [Prov. E. nig to clip money.] (Masonry) Hammer-dressed;
   -- said of building stone.


   Nig"ger (?), n. A negro; -- in vulgar derision or depreciation.


   Nig"gish (?), a. [See Niggard.] Niggardly. [Obs.]


   Nig"gle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Niggled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Niggling
   (?).]  [Dim.  of  Prov.  E. nig to clip money; cf. also Prov. E. nig a
   small piece.] To trifle with; to deceive; to mock. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Nig"gle, v. t.

   1. To trifle or play.

     Take  heed,  daughter,  You  niggle  not  with  your conscience and
     religion. Massinger.

   2. To act or walk mincingly. [Prov. Eng.]

   3. To fret and snarl about trifles. [Prov. Eng.]


   Nig"gler (?), n. One who niggles.


   Nigh  (?),  a.  [Compar. Nigher (?); superl. Nighest, or Next (.] [OE.
   nigh,  neigh,  neih,  AS. ne\'a0h, n; akin to D. na, adv., OS. n\'beh,
   a.,  OHG.  n\'beh,  G. nah, a., nach to, after, Icel. n\'be (in comp.)
   nigh, Goth. n, n, adv., nigh. Cf. Near, Neighbor, Next.]

   1. Not distant or remote in place or time; near.

     The loud tumult shows the battle nigh. Prior.

   2. Not remote in degree, kindred, circumstances, etc.; closely allied;
   intimate. "Nigh kinsmen." Knolles.

     Ye ... are made nigh by the blood of Christ. Eph. ii. 13.

   Syn. -- Near; close; adjacent; contiguous; present; neighboring.


   Nigh, adv. [AS. ne\'a0h, n. See Nigh, a.]

   1.  In  a situation near in place or time, or in the course of events;

     He was sick, nigh unto death. Phil. ii. 27.

     He  drew  not nigh unheard; the angel bright, Ere he drew nigh, his
     radiant visage turned. Milton.

   2. Almost; nearly; as, he was nigh dead.


   Nigh,  v. t. & i. To draw nigh (to); to approach; to come near. [Obs.]
   Wyclif (Matt. iii. 2).


   Nigh,  prep.  Near  to; not remote or distant from. "was not this nigh
   shore?" Shak.


   Nigh"ly,  adv. In a near relation in place, time, degree, etc.; within
   a little; almost. [Obs.]

     A cube and a sphere ... nighly of the same bigness. Locke.


   Nigh"ness,  n.  The  quality or state of being nigh. [R.] "Nighness of
   blood." Holished.


   Night (?), n. [OE. night, niht, AS. neaht, niht; akin to D. nacht, OS.
   &  OHG.  naht,  G.  nacht,  Icel. n, Sw. natt, Dan. nat, Goth. nachts,
   Lith.  naktis,  Russ.  noche,  W.  nos, Ir. nochd, L. nox, noctis, gr.
   nakta, nakti. &root; 265. Cf. Equinox, Nocturnal.]

   1.  That  part of the natural day when the sun is beneath the horizon,
   or  the  time  from sunset to sunrise; esp., the time between dusk and
   dawn,  when  there  is  no  light  of  the  sun,  but  only moonlight,
   starlight, or artificial light.

     And  God  called  the  light Day, and the darkness he called Night.
     Gen. i. 5.

   2. Hence: (a) Darkness; obscurity; concealment.

     Nature and nature's laws lay hid in night. Pope.

   (b)  Intellectual  and  moral  darkness;  ignorance.  (c)  A  state of
   affliction;  adversity;  as,  a dreary night of sorrow. (d) The period
   after the close of life; death.

     She closed her eyes in everlasting night. Dryden.

   (e)  A  lifeless or unenlivened period, as when nature seems to sleep.
   "Sad winter's night". Spenser.

     NOTE: &hand; Night is sometimes used, esp. with participles, in the
     formation   of   self-explaining   compounds;  as,  night-blooming,
     night-born, night-warbling, etc.

   Night by night, Night after night, nightly; many nights.

     So help me God, as I have watched the night, Ay, night by night, in
     studying good for England. Shak.

   --  Night bird. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The moor hen (Gallinula chloropus). (b)
   The  Manx  shearwater  (Puffinus Anglorum). -- Night blindness. (Med.)
   See  Hemeralopia. -- Night cart, a cart used to remove the contents of
   privies  by  night. -- Night churr, (Zo\'94l.), the nightjar. -- Night
   crow,  a  bird that cries in the night. -- Night dog, a dog that hunts
   in  the night, -- used by poachers. -- Night fire. (a) Fire burning in
   the night. (b) Ignis fatuus; Will-o'-the-wisp; Jask-with-a-lantern. --
   Night  flyer (Zo\'94l.), any creature that flies in the night, as some
   birds   and  insects.  --  night  glass,  a  spyglass  constructed  to
   concentrate  a  large amount of light, so as see objects distinctly at
   night.  Totten.  --  Night  green, iodine green. -- Night hag, a witch
   supposed to wander in the night. -- Night hawk (Zo\'94l.), an American
   bird  (Chordeiles Virginianus), allied to the goatsucker. It hunts the
   insects  on  which  it  feeds  toward evening, on the wing, and often,
   diving down perpendicularly, produces a loud whirring sound, like that
   of   a   spinning  wheel.  Also  sometimes  applied  to  the  European
   goatsuckers.  It  is  called also bull bat. -- Night heron (Zo\'94l.),
   any one of several species of herons of the genus Nycticorax, found in
   various  parts  of  the  world.  The  best known species is Nycticorax
   griseus,  or  N. nycticorax, of Europe, and the American variety (var.
   n\'91vius).  The  yellow-crowned  night  heron  (Nycticorax violaceus)
   inhabits  the  Southern  States.  Called also qua-bird, and squawk. --
   Night  house, a public house, or inn, which is open at night. -- Night
   key,  a  key  for unfastening a night latch. -- Night latch, a kind of
   latch  for  a  door,  which  is operated from the outside by a key. --
   Night  monkey (Zo\'94l.), an owl monkey. -- night moth (Zo\'94l.), any
   one  of the noctuids. -- Night parrot (Zo\'94l.), the kakapo. -- Night
   piece,  a  painting  representing  some  night  scene,  as a moonlight
   effect,  or  the  like.  -- Night rail, a loose robe, or garment, worn
   either  as  a  nightgown,  or over the dress at night, or in sickness.
   [Obs.] -- Night raven (Zo\'94l.), a bird of ill omen that cries in the
   night;  esp.,  the bittern. -- Night rule. (a) A tumult, or frolic, in
   the  night;  --  as  if  a corruption, of night revel. [Obs.] (b) Such
   conduct as generally rules, or prevails, at night.

     What night rule now about this haunted grove? Shak.

   --  Night  sight. (Med.) See Nyctolopia. -- Night snap, a night thief.
   [Cant]  Beau.  &  Fl.  --  Night  soil,  human excrement; -- so called
   because  in  cities  it  is  collected  by  night and carried away for
   manure.  --  Night spell, a charm against accidents at night. -- Night
   swallow (Zo\'94l.), the nightjar. -- Night walk, a walk in the evening
   or  night.  --  Night  walker.  (a)  One  who  walks  in  his sleep; a
   somnambulist; a noctambulist. (b) One who roves about in the night for
   evil  purposes;  specifically,  a prostitute who walks the streets. --
   Night walking. (a) Walking in one's sleep; somnambulism; noctambulism.
   (b)  Walking  the streets at night with evil designs. -- Night warbler
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  sedge  warbler  (Acrocephalus phragmitis); -- called
   also  night  singer.  [prov. Eng.] -- Night watch. (a) A period in the
   night, as distinguished by the change of watch. (b) A watch, or guard,
   to aford protection in the night. -- Night watcher, one who watches in
   the  night;  especially,  one  who watches with evil designs. -- Night
   witch. Same as Night hag, above.


   Night"-bloom`ing (?), a. Blooming in the night. Night-blooming cereus.
   (Bot.) See Note under Cereus.


   Night"cap` (?), n.

   1. A cap worn in bed to protect the head, or in undress.

   2. A potion of spirit drank at bedtime. [Cant] Wright.


   Night"dress` (?), n. A nightgown.


   Night"ed, a.

   1. Darkness; clouded. [R.] Shak.

   2. Overtaken by night; belated. Beau. & Fl.


   Night"er*tale  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Icel.  n\'bettarpel.]  period of night;
   nighttime. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Night"-eyed`  (?),  a.  Capable  of seeing at night; sharp-eyed. "Your
   night-eyed Tiberius." B. Jonson.


   Night"fall` (?), n. The close of the day. Swift.


   Night"-far`ing (?), a. Going or traveling in the night. Gay.


   Night"gown`  (?),  n. A loose gown used for undress; also, a gown used
   for a sleeping garnment.


   Night"in*gale  (?), n. [OE. nihtegale,nightingale, AS. nihtegale; niht
   night  +  galan  to  sing,  akin  to  E.  yell; cf. D. nachtegaal, OS.
   nahtigala,  OHG.  nahtigala,  G.  nachtigall,  Sw.  n\'84ktergal, Dan.
   nattergal. See Night, and Yell.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small,  plain,  brown  and  gray European song bird
   (Luscinia  luscinia).  It  sings  at  night, and is celebrated for the
   sweetness of its song.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A larger species (Lucinia philomela), of Eastern Europe,
   having  similar  habits;  the  thrush  nightingale.  The  name is also
   applied to other allied species.
   Mock nightingale. (Zo\'94l.) See Blackcap, n., 1 (a).


   Night"ish, a. Of or pertaining to night.


   Night"jar`  (?),  n.  A  goatsucker,  esp.  the  European species. See
   Illust. of Goatsucker.


   Night"less, a. Having no night.


   Night"long` (?; 115), a. Lasting all night.


   Night"ly,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  night,  or to every night;
   happening  or  done  by  night, or every night; as, nightly shades; he
   kept nightly vigils.


   Night"ly, adv. At night; every night.


   Night"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Nightmen  (. One whose business is emptying
   privies by night.

   Page 976


   Night"mare` (?), n. [Night + mare incubus. See Mare incubus.]

   1. A fiend or incubus formerly supposed to cause trouble in sleep.

   2.  A  condition  in  sleep  usually  caused  by improper eating or by
   digestive or nervous troubles, and characterized by a sense of extreme
   uneasiness  or  discomfort  (as  of  weight  on  the chest or stomach,
   impossibility   of  motion  or  speech,  etc.),  or  by  frightful  or
   oppressive  dreams,  from  which one wakes after extreme anxiety, in a
   troubled state of mind; incubus. Dunglison.

   3. Hence, any overwhelming, oppressive, or stupefying influence.


   Night"shade`  (?),  n.  [AS. nichtscadu.] (Bot.) A common name of many
   species  of  the  genus  Solanum, given esp. to the Solanum nigrum, or
   black  nightshade,  a low, branching weed with small white flowers and
   black  berries  reputed  to  be  poisonous. Deadly nightshade. Same as
   Belladonna  (a).  --  Enchanter's  nightshade. See under Enchanter. --
   Stinking  nightshade.  See  Henbane.  --  Three-leaved nightshade. See


   Night"shirt` (?), n. A kind of nightgown for men.


   Night"time` (?), n. The time from dusk to dawn; -- opposed to daytime.


   Night"ward (?), a. Approaching toward night.


   Ni*gran"i*line (? OR ?), n. [L. niger black + E. aniline.] (Chem.) The
   complex,  nitrogenous,  organic  base and dyestuff called also aniline


   Ni*gres"cent  (?),  a.  [L.  nigrescens,  p.pr.  of nigrescere to grow
   black, fr. niger black. See Negro.] Growing black; changing to a black
   color; approaching to blackness. Johnson.


   Nig`ri*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [L. nigrificare to blacken; niger black +
   -ficare  (in  comp.)  to  make. See -fy.] The act or process of making
   black. [R.] Johnson.


   Ni"grine   (?),  n.  [L.  niger  black:  cf.  F.  nigrine.]  (Min.)  A
   ferruginous variety of rutile.


   Nig"ri*tude  (?),  n.  [L. nigritudo, fr. niger black.] Blackness; the
   state of being black. Lamb.


   Nig"ro*man`cie (?), n. Necromancy. [Obs.]


   Nig"ro*man`cien (?), n. A necromancer. [Obs.]

     These false enchanters or nigromanciens. Chaucer.


   Ni"gro*sine  (?  OR  ?), n. [From L. niger black.] (Chem.) A dark blue
   dyestuff, of the induline group; -- called also azodiphenyl blue.


   Ni"gua (?), n. [Sp.] (Zo\'94l.) The chigoe.


   Ni"hil  (?), n. [L.] Nothing. Nihil album [L., white nothing] (Chem.),
   oxide  of  zinc.  See under Zinc. -- Nihil debet [L., he owes nothing]
   (Law),  the  general  issue in certain actions of debt. -- Nihil dicit
   [L.,  he  says nothing] (Law), a declinature by the defendant to plead
   or answer. Tomlins.


   Ni"hil*ism   (?),   n.  [L.  nihil  nothing:  cf.  F.  nihilisme.  See

   1. Nothingness; nihility.

   2.  The  doctrine  that  nothing  can  be  known; scepticism as to all
   knowledge and all reality.

   3. (Politics) The theories and practices of the Nihilists.


   Ni"hil*ist, n. [Cf. F. nihiliste. See Nihilism.]

   1.  One  who  advocates  the doctrine of nihilism; one who believes or
   teaches that nothing can be known, or asserted to exist.

   2. (Politics) A member of a secret association (esp. in Russia), which
   is devoted to the destruction of the present political, religious, and
   social institutions.


   Ni`hil*is"tic   (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  characterized  by,


   Ni*hil"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. nihilit\'82. See Nihilism.] Nothingness; a
   state of being nothing.


   Nil (?). [See Nill, v. t.] Will not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nil,  n.  &  a.  [L.,  a  contr.  of  nihil.]  Nothing; of no account;
   worthless;  --  a  term  often  used  for  canceling,  in  accounts or
   bookkeeping.  A.  J.  Ellis.  <--  (computers) A special value used in
   certain  computer  languages  to  mean "no value", to be distinguished
   from the value zero. -->


   Nile  (?),  n.  [L.  Nilus,  gr.  The great river of Egypt. Nile bird.
   (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  wryneck. [Prov. Eng.] (b) The crocodile bird. --
   Nile goose (Zo\'94l.), the Egyptian goose. See Note under Goose, 2.


   Nil"gau (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) see Nylghau.


   Nill  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Nilled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nilling.]
   [AS. nilan, nyllan; ne not + willan to will. See No, and Will.] Not to
   will; to refuse; to reject. [Obs.]

     Certes, said he, I nill thine offered grace. Spenser.


   Nill, v. i. To be unwilling; to refuse to act.

     The  actions of the will are "velle" and "nolle," to will and nill.

   Will  he,  nill  he,  whether  he  wills  it  or not.<-- contracted to
   willy-nilly -->


   Nill, n. [Cf. Ir. & Gael. neul star, light. Cf. Nebula.]

   1. Shining sparks thrown off from melted brass.

   2. Scales of hot iron from the forge. Knight.


   Ni*lom"e*ter  (?),  n. [Gr. nilom\'8atre.] An instrument for measuring
   the rise of water in the Nile during its periodical flood.


   Ni"lo*scope (?), n. [Gr. A Nilometer.


   Ni*lot"ic (?), a. [L. Niloticus, fr. Nilus th Nile, Gr. nilotique.] Of
   or pertaining to the river Nile; as, the Nilotic crocodile.


   Nilt (?). [Contr. fr. ne wilt.] Wilt not. [Obs.]


   Nim  (?), v. t. [imp. Nam (?) or Nimmed (; p. p. Nomen (?) or Nome (.]
   [AS. niman. &root; 7. Cf. Nimble.] To take; to steal; to filch. [Obs.]

     This canon it in his hand nam. Chaucer.


   Nim*bif"er*ous  (?), a. [L. nimbifer; nimbus a cloud + ferre to bear.]
   Serving to bring clouds or stormy weather.


   Nim"ble  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Nimbler  (?); superl. Nimblest (?).] [OE.
   nimel,  prob.  orig.,  quick at seizing, fr. nimen to take, AS. niman;
   akin  to  D. nemen, G. nehmen, OHG. neman, Icel. nema, Goth. nima, and
   prob.  to  Gr.  Nomand,  Numb.] Light and quick in motion; moving with
   ease and celerity; lively; swift.

     Through the mid seas the nimble pinnace sails. Pope.

     NOTE: &hand; Ni  mble is   so metimes us ed in  th e fo rmation of 
     self-explaining   compounds;  as,  nimble-footed,  nimble-pinioned,
     nimble-winged, etc.

   Nimble Will (Bot.), a slender, branching, American grass (Muhlenbergia
   diffusa),  of  some  repute  for  grazing  purposes in the Mississippi
   valley. Syn. -- Agile; quick; active; brisk; lively; prompt.


   Nim"ble*ness,  n. The quality of being nimble; lightness and quickness
   in motion; agility; swiftness.


   Nim"bless (?), n. Nimbleness. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Nim"bly,  adv.  In  a  nimble  manner; with agility; with light, quick


   Nim*bose"  (?),  a.  [L.  nimbosus, fr. nimbus cloud.] Cloudy; stormy;


   Nim"bus (?), n.; pl. L. Nimbi (#), E. Nimbuses (#). [L., a rain storm,
   a  rain  cloud,  the  cloudshaped  which  enveloped the gods when they
   appeared on earth.]

   1.  (Fine  Arts) A circle, or disk, or any indication of radiant light
   around  the  heads of divinities, saints, and sovereigns, upon medals,
   pictures, etc.; a halo. See Aureola, and Glory, n., 5.

     NOTE: &hand; "T he ni mbus is  of pagan origin." "As an atribute of
     power,  the  nimbus  is  often  seen  attached to the heads of evil
     spirits." Fairholl.

   2.  (Meteor.)  A  rain  cloud;  one of the four principal varieties of
   clouds. See Cloud.


   Ni*mi"e*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  nimietas,  fr. nimius, a., nimis, adv., too
   much.] State of being in excess. [R.]

     There is a nimiety, a too-muchess, in all Germans. Coleridge.


   Nim"i*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  nimius.] Excessive; extravagant; inordinate.


   Nim"mer (?), n. [From Nim.] A thief. [Obs.]


   Nin (?). [Fr. ne in.] Not in. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nin"com*poop  (?), n. [A corruption of non compos.] A fool; a silly or
   stupid person. [Law]

     An  old  ninnyhammer,  a dotard, a nincompoop, is the best language
     she can afford me. Addison.


   Nine  (?),  a.  [OE.  nine,  nihen, AS. nigon, nigan; akin to D. & LG.
   negen, OS. & OFries. nigun, OHG. niun, G. neun, Icel. n\'c6u, sw. nio,
   Dan. ni, Goth. niun, Ir. & Gael. naoi, W. naw, L. novem, gr. navan; of
   unknown origin. Novembeer.] Eight and one more; one less than ten; as,
   nine  miles.  Nine  men's  morris.  See  Morris. -- Nine points circle
   (Geom.),  a circle so related to any given triangle as to pass through
   the  three  points  in which the perpendiculars from the angles of the
   triangle  upon  the  opposite  sides  (or the sides produced) meet the
   sides.  It also passes through the three middle points of the sides of
   the triangle and through the three middle points of those parts of the
   perpendiculars  that are between their common point of meeting and the
   angles  of the triangle. The circle is hence called the nine points OR
   six points circle.


   Nine, n.

   1. The number greater than eight by a unit; nine units or objects.

   2. A symbol representing nine units, as 9 or ix.
   The Nine, the nine Muses.


   Nine"-bark`  (?), n. (Bot.) A white-flowered rosaceous shrub (Neillia,
   OR  Spir\'91a,  opulifolia), common in the Northern United States. The
   bark separates into many thin layers, whence the name.


   Nine"-eyes` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The lamprey.


   Nine"fold` (?), a. Nine times repeated.


   Nine"holes`  (?),  n.  pl.  A game in which nine holes are made in the
   ground, into which a ball is bowled.


   Nine"-kill`er  (?),  n.  [So called because it is believed to kill and
   impale  on  thorns  nine  birds,  etc., in succession.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   northern butcher bird.


   Nine"pence (?), n.; pl. Ninepences (.

   1. An old English silver coin, worth nine pence.

   2. A New England name for the Spanish real, a coin formerly current in
   the United States, as valued at twelve and a half cents.


   Nine"pins (?), n. pl. A game played with nine pins, or pieces of wood,
   set  on  end,  at  which  a  wooden ball is bowled to knock them down;

     NOTE: &hand; In the United States, ten pins are used for this game,
     which is therefore often called tenpins.


   Nine"score`  (?),  a. Nine times twenty, or one hundred and eighty. --
   n. The product of nine times twenty; ninescore units or objects.


   Nine"teen`  (?),  a. [AS. nigont, nigont. See Nine, and Ten.] Nine and
   ten; eighteen and one more; one less than twenty; as, nineteen months.


   Nine"teen`, n.

   1.  The  number  greater  than  eighteen by a unit; the sum of ten and
   nine; nineteen units or objects.

   2. A symbol for nineteen units, as 19 or xix.


   Nine"teenth` (?), a. [Cf. AS. nigonte\'a2.]

   1.  Following the eighteenth and preceding the twentieth; coming after
   eighteen others.

   2.  Constituting  or  being  one  of  nineteen  equal parts into which
   anything is divided.


   Nine"teenth`, n.

   1.  The  quotient of a unit divided by nineteen; one of nineteen equal
   parts of anything.

   2. The next in order after the eighteenth.

   3. (Mus.) An interval of two octaves and a fifth.


   Nine"ti*eth (?), a.

   1. Next in order after the eighty-ninth.

   2. Constituting or being one of ninety equal parts.


   Nine"ti*eth, n.

   1. The quotient of a unit divided by ninety; one of ninety equal parts
   of anything.

   2. The next in order after the eighty-ninth.


   Nine"ty (?), a. [See Nine, and cf. Forty.] Nine times ten; eighty-nine
   and one more; as, ninety men.


   Nine"ty, n.; pl. Nineties (.

   1.  The  sum  of  nine  times  ten;  the number greater by a unit than
   eighty-nine; ninety units or objects.

   2. A symbol representing ninety units, as 90 or xc.


   Nin"ny  (?),  n.;  pl. Ninnies (#). [Cf. It. ninno, ninna, a baby, Sp.
   ni\'a4o,  ni\'a4a,  child,  infant,  It. ninna, ninna nanna, lullably,
   prob.  fr.  ni,  na,  as  used in singing a child to sleep.] A fool; a
   simpleton. Shak.


   Nin"ny*ham`mer (?), n. A simpleton; a silly person. [Colloq.] Addison.


   Ninth (?), a. [From Nine; cf. AS. nigo&edh;a.]

   1.  Following  the  eight  and preceding the tenth; coming after eight

   2.  Constituting  or being one of nine equal parts into which anything
   is divided.


   Ninth, n.

   1.  The  quotient of one divided by nine; one of nine equal parts of a
   thing; the next after the eighth.

   2.  (Mus.)  (a)  An  interval containing an octave and a second. (b) A
   chord of the dominant seventh with the ninth added.


   Ninth"ly, adv. In the ninth place.


   Nin"ut (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The magpie. [Prov. Eng.]


   Ni"o*bate (?), n. [See Niobium.] (Chem.) Same as Columbate.


   Ni"o*be  (?),  n. [L. Nioba, Niobe, gr. (Class, Myth.) The daughter of
   Tantalus,  and  wife  of  Amphion,  king  of  Thebes. Her pride in her
   children  provoked  Apollo and Diana, who slew them all. Niobe herself
   was changed by the gods into stone.


   Ni*ob"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Same as Columbic.


   Ni"o*bite (?), n. (Min.) Same as Columbite.


   Ni*o"bi*um  (?),  n. [NL., fr. L. & E. Niobe.] (Chem.) A later name of
   columbium. See Columbium.


   Ni*o"po  (?),  n. A kind of snuff prepared by the natives of Venezuela
   from  the  roasted  seeds of a leguminous tree (Piptadenia peregrina),
   thence called niopo tree.


   Nip (?), n. [LG. & D. nippen to sip; akin to Dan. nippe, G. nippen.] A
   sip or small draught; esp., a draught of intoxicating liquor; a dram.


   Nip,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nipped (?), less properly Nipt; p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Nipping  (?).] [OE. nipen; cf. D. niipen to pinch, also knippen to
   nip,  clip,  pinch,  snap,  knijpen  to pinch, LG. knipen, G. kneipen,
   kneifen, to pinch, cut off, nip, Lith. knebti.]

   1.  To  catch and inclose or compress tightly between two surfaces, or
   points  which  are  brought  together or closed; to pinch; to close in

     May this hard earth cleave to the Nadir hell, Down, down, and close
     again, and nip me flat, If I be such a traitress. Tennyson.

   2. To remove by pinching, biting, or cutting with two meeting edges of
   anything; to clip.

     The small shoots ... must be nipped off. Mortimer.

   3.  Hence:  To blast, as by frost; to check the growth or vigor of; to

   4. To vex or pain, as by nipping; hence, to taunt.

     And sharp remorse his heart did prick and nip. Spenser.

   To  nip  in  the bud, to cut off at the verycommencement of growth; to
   kill in the incipient stage.


   Nip, n.

   1. A seizing or closing in upon; a pinching; as, in the northern seas,
   the nip of masses of ice.

   2. A pinch with the nails or teeth.

   3. A small cut, or a cutting off the end.

   4. A blast; a killing of the ends of plants by frost.

   5. A biting sarcasm; a taunt. Latimer.

   6. (Naut.) A short turn in a rope.
   Nip and tuck, a phrase signifying equality in a contest. [Low, U.S.]


   Nip"per (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, nips.

   2. A fore tooth of a horse. The nippers are four in number.

   3. A satirist. [Obs.] Ascham.

   4. A pickpocket; a young or petty thief. [Old Cant]

   5.   (Zo\'94l.)   (a)  The  cunner.  (b)  A  European  crab  (Polybius


   Nip"per*kin, n. [See 1st Nip.] A small cup. [Obs.]


   Nip"pers (?), n. pl. [From 2d Nip.]

   1. Small pinchers for holding, breaking, or cutting.

   2.  (Mach.)  A  device  with fingers or jaws for seizing an object and
   holding or conveying it; as, in a printing press, a clasp for catching
   a sheet and conveying it to the form.

   3.  (Naut.)  A  number  of rope-yarns wound together, used to secure a
   cable to the messenger.


   Nip"ping (?), a. Biting; pinching; painful; destructive; as, a nipping
   frost; a nipping wind.


   Nip"ping*ly, adv. In a nipping manner.


   Nip"pi*tate  (?), a. [Cf. 1st Nip.] Peculiary strong and good; -- said
   of ale or liquor. [Old Cant]

     'T will make a cup of wine taste nippitate. Chapman.


   Nip`pi*ta"to (?), n. Strong liquor. [Old Cant] Beau. & Fl.


   Nip"ple (?), n. [Formerly neble, a dim. of neb. See Neb, Nib.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The  protuberance  through  which  milk is drawn from the
   breast or mamma; the mammilla; a teat; a pap.

   2. The orifice at which any animal liquid, as the oil from an oil bag,
   is discharged. [R.] Derham.

   3.  Any  small  projection or article in which there is an orifice for
   discharging  a  fluid,  or  for  other  purposes;  as, the nipple of a
   nursing bottle; the nipple of a percussion lock, or that part on which
   the cap is put and through which the fire passes to the charge.

   4.  (Mech.)  A  pipe  fitting,  consisting  of  a short piece of pipe,
   usually  provided  with a screw thread at each end, for connecting two
   other fittings.
   Solder  nipple,  a  short  pipe, usually of brass, one end of which is
   tapered  and  adapted  for  attachment  to  the  end of a lead pipe by

   Page 977


   Nip"ple*wort`   (?),   n.  (Bot.)  A  yellow-flowered  composite  herb
   (Lampsana  communis),  formerly used as an external application to the
   nipples of women; -- called also dock-cress.


   Nir*va"na  (?),  n. [Skr. nirv\'be&nsdot;a.] In the Buddhist system of
   religion,  the final emancipation of the soul from transmigration, and
   consequently  a  beatific  enfrachisement  from  the  evils  of wordly
   existence,  as  by  annihilation  or  absorption  into the divine. See


   Nis (?). [From ne is.] Is not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ni"san  (?),  n.  [Heb.  n\'c6s\'ben.]  The  first month of the jewish
   ecclesiastical  year, formerly answering nearly to the month of April,
   now to March, of the Christian calendar. See Abib.


   Ni"sey (?), n.; pl. Nyseys. A simpleton. [Obs.]


   Ni"si (?), conj. [L.] Unless; if not.<-- Law -->

     NOTE: &hand; In  le gal pr oceedings, this word is used to indicate
     that  any  order,  etc.,  shall take effect at a given time, unless
     before that time the order, etc., in modified, or something else is
     done   to   prevent  its  taking  effect.  Continuance  nisi  is  a
     conditional  continuance  of  the  case  till  the next term of the
     court, unless otherwise disposed of in the mean time.

   Nisi  prius  (Law),  unless  before;  --  a phrase applied to terms of
   court, held generally by a single judge, with a jury, for the trial of
   civil causes. The term originated in a legal fiction. An issue of fact
   being  made up, it is, according to the English practice, appointed by
   the entry on the record, or written proceedings, to be tried by a jury
   from  the  county  of which the proceedings are dated, at Westminster,
   unless  before  the  day  appointed (nisi prius) the judges shall have
   come  to  the  county in question (which they always do) and there try
   the cause. See In banc, under Banc.
   Nis"te  (?).  [Contr.  from  ne  wiste.]  Wist  not;  knew not. [Obs.]
   Ni"sus  (?),  n. [L., fr. niti, p.p. nisus, to strive.] A striving; an
   effort; a conatus.
     A nisus or energizing towards a presented object. Hickok.

   Nit  (?),  n.  [AS. hnitu; akin to D. neet, G. niss, OHG. niz; cf. gr.
   gnit, Sw. gnet, Dan. gnid, Russ. & Pol. gnida, Bohem. hnida, W. nedd.]
   (Zo\'94l.) The egg of a louse or other small insect. Nit grass (Bot.),
   a  pretty  annual  European  grass (Gastridium lendigerum), with small
   spikelets  somewhat  resembling  a nit. It is also found in California
   and Chili.


   Ni"ten*cy  (?),  n. [L. nitens, p.pr. of nitere to shine.] Brightness;
   luster. [R.]


   Ni"ten*cy,  n.  [From  :.  nitens, p.pr. pf niti to strive.] Endeavor;
   rffort; tendency. [R.] Boyle.

                                 Niter, Nitre

   Ni"ter,  Ni"tre  (?), n. [F. nitre, L. nitrum native soda, natron, Gr.
   nit, natr natron. Cf. Natron.]

   1.   (Chem.)  A  white  crystalline  semitransparent  salt;  potassium
   nitrate; saltpeter. See Saltpeter.

   2. (Chem.) Native sodium carbonate; natron. [Obs.]

     For  though thou wash thee with niter, and take thee much soap, yet
     thine iniquity is marked before me. Jer. ii. 22.

   Cubic  niter,  a  deliquescent salt, sodium nitrate, found as a native
   incrustation,  like  niter, in Peru and Chili, whence it is known also
   as Chili saltpeter. -- Niter bush (Bot.), a genus (Nitraria) of thorny
   shrubs  bearing  edible  berries,  and growing in the saline plains of
   Asia and Northern Africa.


   Nith"ing (?), n. [Obs.] See Niding.


   Nit"id (?), a. [L. nitidus, fr. nitere. See 3d Neat.]

   1. Bright; lustrous; shining. [R.] Boyle.

   2. Gay; spruce; fine; -- said of persons. [R.] T. Reeve.


   Ni`tra*nil"ic  (?),  a.  [Nitro-  +  chloranil  +  -ic.]  (Chem.)  Of,
   pertaining  to,  or  designating, a complex organic acid produced as a
   white   crystalline  substance  by  the  action  of  nitrous  acid  on


   Ni*tran"i*line  (?  OR ?), n. [Nitro- + aniline.] (Chem.) Any one of a
   series  of  nitro  derivatives  of aniline. In general they are yellow
   crystalline substances.


   Ni"trate  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  nitrate.] (Chem.) A salt of nitric acid.
   Nitrate   of  silver,  a  white  crystalline  salt  (AgNO3),  used  in
   photography   and  as  a  cauterizing  agent;  --  called  also  lunar
   caustic.<-- usu. called silver nitrate -->


   Ni"tra*ted (?), a.

   1.  (Chem.) Combined, or impregnated, with nitric acid, or some of its

   2. (Photog.) Prepared with nitrate of silver.


   Ni"tra*tine   (?),  n.  (Min.)  A  mineral  occurring  in  transparent
   crystals,  usually  of  a  white,  sometimes  of  a  reddish  gray, or
   lemon-yellow,  color;  native  sodium  nitrate.  It  is used in making
   nitric acid and for manure. Called also soda niter.


   Ni"tre (?), n. (Chem.) See Niter.


   Ni"tri*a*ry  (?),  n.  [See Niter.] An artificial bed of animal matter
   for the manufacture of niter by nitrification. See Nitrification, 2.


   Ni"tric  (?),  a. [Cf. F. nitrique. See Niter.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining
   to,  or  containing,  nitrogen;  specifically,  designating any one of
   those  compounds  in  which, as contrasted with nitrous compounds, the
   element  has  a  higher valence; as, nitric oxide; nitric acid. Nitric
   acid, a colorless or yellowish liquid obtained by distilling a nitrate
   with  sulphuric acid. It is powerfully corrosive, being a strong acid,
   and  in  decomposition a strong oxidizer. -- Nitric anhydride, a white
   crystalline  oxide  of  nitrogen  (N2O5), called nitric pentoxide, and
   regarded as the anhydride of nitric acid. -- Nitric oxide, a colorless
   poisous  gas  (NO)  obtained  by  treating nitric acid with copper. On
   contact with the air or with oxygen, it becomes reddish brown from the
   formation  of  nitric dioxide or peroxide.<-- nitric dioxide (nitrogen
   dioxide) is not defined! = NO2-->


   Ni"tride  (?  OR  ?),  n. [fromNitrogen.] (Chem.) A binary compound of
   nitrogen with a more metallic element or radical; as, boric nitride.


   Ni*trif"er*ous  (?), a. [Niter + -ferous.] Bearing niter; yielding, or
   containing, niter.


   Ni`tri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. nitrification. see Nitrify.]

   1.  (Chem.) (a) The act, process, or result of combining with nitrogen
   or some of its compounds. (b) The act or process of oxidizing nitrogen
   or its compounds so as to form nitrous or nitric acid.

   2.  A  process of oxidation, in which nitrogenous vegetable and animal
   matter in the presence of air, moisture, and some basic substances, as
   lime or alkali carbonate, is converted into nitrates.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e pr ocess is going on at all times in porous soils
     and  in water contaminated with nitrogenous matter, and is supposed
     to  be  due  to  the  presence of an organized ferment or ferments,
     called  nitrification  ferments.  In  former  times the process was
     extensively made use of in the production of saltpeter.


   Ni"tri*fi`er (?), n. (Chem.) An agent employed in nitrification.


   Ni"tri*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Nitrified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nitrifying (?).] [Niter + -fy: cf. F. nitrifer. See Niter.] (Chem.) To
   combine  or  impregnate  with nitrogen; to convert, by oxidation, into
   nitrous or nitric acid; to subject to, or produce by, nitrification.


   Ni"trile  (?  OR  ?),  n. [See Nitro-.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of
   cyanogen  compounds;  particularly,  one  of those cyanides of alcohol
   radicals  which, by boiling with acids or alkalies, produce a carboxyl
   acid, with the elimination of the nitrogen as ammonia.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ni triles ar e na med with reference to the acids
     produced  by  their decomposition, thus, hydrocyanic acid is formic
     nitrile, and methyl cyanide is acetic nitrile.

   <-- usu. acetonitrile -->


   Ni"trite  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  nitrite.  See  Niter.] (Chem.) A salt of
   nitrous  acid.  Amyl  nitrite,  a yellow oily volatile liquid, used in
   medicine  as  a depressant and a vaso-dilator. Its inhalation produces
   an instantaneous flushing of the face.


   Ni"tro- (.

   1. A combining form or an adjective denoting the presence of niter.

   2.  (Chem.)  A  combining  form  (used  also  adjectively) designating
   certain  compounds  of nitrogen or of its acids, as nitrohydrochloric,
   nitrocalcite;  also,  designating  the  group  or  radical NO2, or its
   compounds, as nitrobenzene.
   Nitro group, the radical NO2; -- called also nitroxyl.


   Ni`tro*ben"zene  (?  OR  ?),  n.  [Nitro- + benzene.] (Chem.) A yellow
   aromatic  liquid  (C6H5.NO2), produced by the action of nitric acid on
   benzene,  and called from its odor imitation oil of bitter almonds, or
   essence  of  mirbane.  It is used in perfumery, and is manufactured in
   large  quantities  in the preparation of aniline. Fornerly called also

                           Nitrobenzol, Nitrobenzole

   Ni`tro*ben"zol, Ni`tro*ben"zole, (, n. See Nitrobenzene.


   Ni`tro*cal"cite (?), n. [Nitro- + calcite.] (Min.) Nitrate of calcium,
   a substance having a grayish white color, occuring in efforescences on
   old  walls,  and  in  limestone  caves,  especially where there exists
   decaying animal matter.


   Ni`tro*car"bol  (?),  n. [Nitro- + carbon + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) See


   Ni`tro*cel"lu*lose`  (?),  n.  [Nitro-  +  cellulose.] (Chem.) See Gun
   cotton, under Gun.


   Ni`tro-chlo"ro*form  (?),  n.  [Nitro-  + chloroform.] (Chem.) Same as


   Ni"tro*form  (?),  n. [Nitro- + formyl.] (Chem.) A nitro derivative of
   methane,  analogous  to  chloroform,  obtained  as a colorless oily or
   crystalline   substance,   CH.(NO2)3,   quite  explosive,  and  having
   well-defined acid properties.


   Ni`tro*gel"a*tin  (?),  n. [Nitro- + gelatin.] An explosive consisting
   of  gun  cotton  and camphor dissolved in nitroglycerin. [Written also


   Ni`tro*gen  (?), n. [L. nitrum natron + -gen: cf. F. nitrog\'8ane. See
   Niter.]   (Chem.)  A  colorless  nonmetallic  element,  tasteless  and
   odorless,  comprising  four  fifths of the atmosphere by volume. It is
   chemically  very  inert in the free state, and as such is incapable of
   supporting  life (hence the name azote still used by French chemists);
   but  it  forms  many important compounds, as ammonia, nitric acid, the
   cyanides,  etc,  and is a constituent of all organized living tissues,
   animal  or  vegetable.  Symbol  N.  Atomic  weight 14. It was formerly
   regarded  as a permanent noncondensible gas, but was liquefied in 1877
   by Cailletet of Paris, and Pictet of Geneva.


   Ni"tro*gen*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nitrogenized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Nitrogenizing.] (Chem.) To combine, or impregnate, with nitrogen or
   its compounds.


   Ni*trog"e*nous  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  of,  pertaining  to, or resembling,
   nitrogen;   as,   a   nitrogenous  principle;  nitrogenous  compounds.
   Nitrogenous foods. See 2d Note under Food, n., 1.


   Ni`tro*glyc"er*in  (?),  n.  [Nitro-  +  glycerinn.]  (Chem.) A liquid
   appearing  like a heavy oil, colorless or yellowish, and consisting of
   a  mixture  of  several  glycerin salts of nitric acid, and hence more
   properly  called  glycerin nitrate. It is made by the action of nitric
   acid  on  glycerin  in the presence of sulphuric acid. It is extremely
   unstable  and  terribly  explosive.  A very dilute solution is used in
   medicine  as  a  neurotic  under  the  name  of glonion. [Written also

     NOTE: &hand; A  gr eat nu mber of  ex plosive co mpounds ha ve been
     produced  by  mixing  nitroglycerin  with different substances; as,
     dynamite,  or  giant  powder,  nitroglycerin  mixed  with siliceous
     earth; lithofracteur, nitroglycerin with gunpowder, or with sawdust
     and  nitrate  of  sodium  or barium; Colonia powder, gunpowder with
     nitroglycerin;  dualin, nitroglycerin with sawdust, or with sawdust
     and  nitrate  of potassium and some other substances; lignose, wood
     fiber and nitroglycerin.


   Ni`tro*hy`dro*chlo"ric  (?),  a.  [Nitro- + hydrochloric.] (Chem.) Of,
   pertaining   to,   or   containing,  nitric  and  hydrochloric  acids.
   Nitrohydrochloric  acid,  a  mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids,
   usually  in  the  proportion of one part of the former to three of the
   latter, and remarkable for its solvent action on gold and platinum; --
   called also nitromuriatic acid, and aqua regia.


   Ni"trol (?), n. (Chem.) Any one of a series of hydrocarbons containing
   the  nitro  and  the  nitroso  or  isonitroso group united to the same
   carbon atom.


   Ni*tro"le*um  (?), n. [NL., fr. L. nitrum natron + oleum oil.] (Chem.)


   Ni*trol"ic (?), a. (Chem.) of, derived from, or designating, a nitrol;
   as, a nitrolic acid.


   Ni`tro*mag"ne*site  (?),  n.  [Nitro- + magnesite.] (Chem.) Nitrate of
   magnesium,  a  saline  efflorescence  closely  resembling  nitrate  of


   Ni*trom"e*ter (?), n. [Nitro- + -meter: cf. F. nitrom\'8atre.] (Chem.)
   An  apparatus  for  determining  the amount of nitrogen or some of its
   compounds in any substance subjected to analysis; an azotometer.


   Ni`tro*meth"ane (?), n. [Nitro- + methane.] (Chem.) A nitro derivative
   of methane obtained as a mobile liquid; -- called also nitrocarbol.


   Ni`tro*mu`ri*at"ic  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. nitromuriatique. See Nitro-, and
   Muriatic.]  (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or composed of, nitric acid and
   muriatic acid; nitrohydrochloric. See Nitrohydrochloric.


   Ni`tro*ph"nol  (?),  n. [Nitro- + phenol.] (Chem.) Any one of a series
   of  nitro  derivatives  of phenol. They are yellow oily or crystalline
   substances and have well-defined acid properties, as picric acid.


   Ni`tro*prus"sic  (? OR , a. [Nitro- + prussic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
   derived from, or designating, a complex acid called nitroprussic acid,
   obtained  indirectly  by  the  action  of  nitric  acid  on  potassium
   ferrocyanide   (yellow  prussiate),  as  a  red  crystalline  unstable
   substance.  It  forms  salts  called nitroprussides, which give a rich
   purple color with alkaline subphides.


   Ni`tro*prus"side (?), n. See Nitroprussic.


   Ni`tro*qui"nol  (?), n. [Nitro- + quine + -ol.] (Chem.) A hypothetical
   nitro  derivative  of  quinol  or  hydroquinone, not known in the free
   state, but forming a well defined series of derivatives.


   Ni`teo*sac"cha*rin  (?), n. [Nitro- + saccharin.] (Chem.) An explosive
   nitro  derivative  of  certain sugars, analogous to nitroglycerin, gun
   cotton, etc.


   Ni`tro*sal`i*cyl"ic   (?),   a.  [Nitro-  +  salicylic.]  (Chem.)  Of,
   pertaining  to,  or designating, a nitro derivative of salicylic acid,
   called also anilic acid.


   Ni*trose" (?), a. (Chem.) See Nitrous.


   Ni*tro"so- (. (Chem.) A prefix (also used adjectively) designating the
   group or radical NO, called the nitroso group, or its compounds.


   Ni*tro"syl  (?),  n.  [Nitroso- + -yl.] (Chem.) the radical NO, called
   also  the  nitroso  group.  The  term  is  sometimes  loosely  used to
   designate  certain  nitro compounds; as, nitrosyl sulphuric acid. Used
   also adjectively.


   Ni`tro*syl"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Of,  pertaining  to,  or containing,
   nitrosyl; as, nitrosylic acid.


   Ni"trous  (?),  a.  [L.  nitrosus  full of natron: cf. F. nitreux. See

   1.  Of,  pertaining to, or containing, niter; of the quality of niter,
   or resembling it.

   2.  (Chem.)  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  designating,  any  one of those
   compounds  in  which  nitrogen  has  a  relatively  lower  valence  as
   contrasted with nitric compounds.
   Nitrous  acid (Chem.), a hypothetical acid of nitrogen HNO2, not known
   in the free state, but forming a well known series of salts, viz., the
   nitrites. -- Nitrous oxide. See Laughing gas.


   Ni*trox"yl  (?),  n.  [Nitro-  + oxygen + -yl.] (Chem.) The group NO2,
   usually called the nitro group.


   Ni"trum  (?),  n.  [L.,  natron. See Niter.] (Old Chem.) Niter. Nitrum
   flammans  [L.,  flaming  niter]  (Old  Chem.),  ammonium  nitrate;  --
   probably so called because it deflagerates when suddenly heated.


   Ni"try (?), a. (Chem.) Nitrous. [Obs.]


   Ni"tryl  (?), n. [Nitro- + -yl.] (Chem.) A name sometimes given to the
   nitro group or radical.


   Nit"ter  (?), n. [From Nit.] (Zo\'94l.) The horselouse; an insect that
   deposits nits on horses.


   Nit"ti*ly (?), adv. Lousily. [Obs.] Haywar 


   Nit"tings  (?),  n.  pl. [Prob. from Nit.] (Mining) The refuse of good
   ore. Raymond.


   Nit"ty (?), a. Full of nits. B. Jonson.


   Nit"ty,  a.  [L. nitidus. See Nitid.] Shining; elegant; spruce. [Obs.]
   "O sweet, nitty youth." Marston.


   Ni"val  (?),  a.  [L.  nivalis,  fr. nix, nivis, snow.] Abounding with
   snow; snowy. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Niv"e*ous (?), a. [L. niveus, fr. nix, nivis, snow.] Snowy; resembling
   snow; partaking of the qualities of snow. Sir T. Browne.


   Ni`vose"  (?),  n.  [F., fr. L. nix. nivis, snow.] The fourth month of
   the  French republican calendar [1792-1806]. It commenced December 21,
   and ended January 19. See Vend\'90miaire.


   Nix  (?),  n.;  fem. Nixe (. [G. Cf. 1st Nick.] (Teut. Myth.) One of a
   class  of  water  spirits,  commonly  described  as  of  a mischievous

     The treacherous nixes who entice men to a watery death. Tylor.


   Nix"ie (?), n. See Nix.


   Ni*zam"  (?),  n. [Hind. & Ar. niz\'bem order, a ruler, fr. Ar. nazama
   arrange,  govern.] The title of the native sovereigns of Hyderabad, in
   India, since 1719.


   No  (?),  a. [OE. no, non, the same word as E. none; cf. E. a, an. See
   None.] Not any; not one; none.

     Let there be no strife ... between me and thee. Gen. xiii. 8.

     That goodness is no name, and happiness no dream. Byron.

     NOTE: &hand; In Old England before a vowel the form non or noon was
     used. "No man." "Noon apothercary."


   Page 978


   No, adv. [OE. no, na, AS. n\'be; ne not + \'be ever. AS. ne is akin to
   OHG.  ni,  Goth.  ni,  Russ. ne, Ir., Gael. & W. ni, L. ne, gr. nh (in
   comp.),  Skr.  na, and also to E. prefix un-. &root; 193. See Aye, and
   cf.  Nay,  Not,  Nice,  Nefarious.]  Nay;  not; not at all; not in any
   respect  or degree; -- a word expressing negation, denial, or refusal.
   Before or after another negative, no is emphatic.

     We do no otherwise than we are willed. Shak.

     I  am  perplx'd  and doubtful whether or no I dare accept this your
     congratulation. Coleridge.

     There is none righteous, no, not one. Rom. iii. 10.

     No! Nay, Heaven forbid. Coleridge.


   No (?), n.; pl. Noes (.

   1. A refusal by use of the wordd no; a denial.

   2. A negative vote; one who votes in the negative; as, to call for the
   ayes and noes; the noes have it.


   No*a"chi*an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to the patriarch Noah, or to his


   No"ah (?), n. [Heb. N&omac;akh rest.] A patriarch of Biblical history,
   in the time of the Deluge. Noah's ark. (a) (Zo\'94l.) A marine bivalve
   shell  (Arca  No\'91),  which  somewhat  resembles an ark, or ship, in
   form.  (b)  A  child's toy, consisting of an ark-shaped box containing
   many different wooden animals.


   Nob (?), n. [Cf. Knob.] The head. [Low]


   Nob,  n. [Abbrev. fr. noble.] A person in a superior position in life;
   a nobleman. [Slang]


   Nob"bi*ly (?), adv. In a nobby manner. [Slang]


   Nob"bler (?), n. A dram of spirits. [Australia]


   Nob"by  (?),  a.  [From  2d  Nob.]  Stylish;  modish;  elegant; showy;
   aristocratic; fashionable. [Slang]


   No*bil"ia*ry  (?),  a.  [F. nobiliare. See Noble.] Of or pertaining to
   the nobility. Fitzed. Hall.


   No*bil"ia*ry, n. A history of noble families.


   No*bil"i*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [L. nobilis noble + -fy.] To make noble; to
   nobiliate. [Obs.]


   No*bil"i*tate (?), v. t. [L. nobilitatus, p.p. of nobilitare.] To make
   noble; to ennoble; to exalt. [Obs.]


   No*bil`i*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF. nobilitation.] The act of making
   noble. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


   No*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. nobilitas: cf. OF. nobilit\'82. See Noble.]

   1.  The  quality  or  state  of being noble; superiority of mind or of
   character; commanding excellence; eminence.

     Though  she  hated  Amphialus,  yet  the  nobility  of  her courage
     prevailed over it. Sir P. Sidney.

     They  thought  it great their sovereign to control, And named their
     pride nobility of soul. Dryden.

   2.  The state of being of high rank or noble birth; patrician dignity;
   antiquity  of  family; distinction by rank, station, or title, whether
   inherited or conferred.

     I  fell  on  the  same argument of preferring virtue to nobility of
     blood and titles, in the story of Sigismunda. Dryden.

   3.  Those  who  are  noble;  the  collictive  body of nobles or titled
   persons in a stste; the aristocratic and patrician class; the peerage;
   as, the English nobility.


   No"ble  (?),  a. [Compar. Nobler (?); superl. Noblest (?).] [F. noble,
   fr.  L. nobilis that can be or is known, well known, famous, highborn,
   noble, fr.noscere to know. See know.]

   1.  Possessing  eminence,  elevation, dignity, etc.; above whatever is
   low, mean, degrading, or dishonorable; magnanimous; as, a noble nature
   or action; a noble heart.

     Statues,  with  winding  ivy  crowned, belong To nobler poets for a
     nobler song. Dryden.

   2. Grand; stately; magnificent; splendid; as, a noble edifice.

   3.  Of  exalted  rank; of or pertaining to the nobility; distinguished
   from  the  masses  by  birth,  station,  or title; highborn; as, noble
   blood; a noble personage.

     NOTE: &hand; No ble is  us ed in  th e formation of self-explaining
     compounds; as, noble-born, noble-hearted, noble-minded.

   Noble  metals  (Chem.),  silver, gold, and platinum; -- so called from
   their  freedom  from oxidation and permanence in air. Copper, mercury,
   aluminium,  palladium,  rhodium,  iridium,  and  osmium  are sometimes
   included.  Syn.  --  Honorable;  worthy; dignified; elevated; exalted;
   superior;  sublime;  great;  eminent;  illustrious; renowned; stately;
   splendid; magnificent; grand; magnanimous; generous; liberal; free.


   No"ble, n.

   1. A person of rank above a commoner; a nobleman; a peer.

   2.  An  English  money  of account, and, formerly, a gold coin, of the
   value of 6 s. 8 d. sterling, or about $1.61.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) A European fish; the lyrie.


   No"ble, v. t. To make noble; to ennoble. [Obs.]

     Thou nobledest so far forth our nature. Chaucer.


   No"ble*man  (?),  n.;  pl. Noblemen (. One of the nobility; a noble; a
   peer; one who enjoys rank above a commoner, either by virtue of birth,
   by office, or by patent.


   No"ble-mind`ed (?), a. Having a noble mind; honorable; magnanimous. --
   No"ble-mind`ed*ness, n.


   No"ble*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state  of  being noble; greatness;
   dignity;  magnanimity;  elevation  of  mind,  character,  or  station;
   nobility; grandeur; stateliness.

     His  purposes  are  full  honesty,  nobleness,  and integrity. Jer.

                               Nobless, Noblesse

   No*bless", No*blesse" (?; 277), n. [F. noblesse. See Noble.]

   1.  Dignity;  greatness;  noble  birth  or  condition. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   Spenser. B. Jonson.

   2.  The  nobility; persons of noble rank collectively, including males
   and females. Dryden.


   No"ble*wom`an  (?),  n.;  pl.  Noblewomen (. A female of noble rank; a


   No"bley (?), n. [OF. nobleie.]

   1. The body of nobles; the nobility. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. Noble birth; nobility; dignity. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   No"bly (?), adv.

   1. Of noble extraction; as, nobly born or descended.

   2.  In  a  noble  manner;  with  greatness  of  soul; heroically; with
   magnanimity; as, a deed nobly done.

   3.   Splendidly;  magnificently.  Syn.  --  Illustriously;  honorably;
   magnanimously; heroically; worthly; eminently; grandly.


   No"bod*y (?), n.; pl. Nobodies (#). [No, a. + body.]

   1. No person; no one; not anybody.

   2.  Hence: A person of no influence or importance; an insignificant or
   contemptible person. [Colloq.]


   No"cake  (?),  n. [Corrupted fr. Indian nookhik meal. Palfrey.] Indian
   corn  parched,  and beaten to powder, -- used for food by the Northern
   American Indians.


   No"cent  (?),  a.  [L.  nocens, p.pr. of nocere to hurt. See Nuisance,

   1.  Doing  hurt,  or  having a tendency to hurt; hurtful; mischievous;
   noxious; as, nocent qualities. I. Watts.

   2. Guilty; -- the opposite of innocent. [Obs.] Foxe.


   No"cent, n. A criminal. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   No"cent*ly, adv. Hurtfully; injuriosly. [R.]


   No"cive  (?), a. [L. nocivus, fr. nocere to hurt.] Hurtful; injurious.
   [R.] Hooker.


   Nock (?), n. [See Notch.]

   1. A notch.

     He took his arrow by the nock. Chapman.

   2. (Naut.) The upper fore corner of a boom sail or of a trysail.


   Nock, v. t. To notch; to fit to the string, as an arrow; to string, as
   a bow. Chapman.


   Noc*tam`bu*la"tion  (?), n. [L. nox, noctis, night + ambulare to walk:
   cf. F. noctambulation.] Somnambulism; walking in sleep. Quain.


   Noc*tam"bu*lism (?), n. Somnambulism.


   Noc*tam"bu*list (?), n. A somnambulist.


   Noc*tam"bu*lo (?), n. A noctambulist. [Obs.]


   Noc*tid"i*al  (?), a. [L. nox, noctos, night + dies day.] Comprising a
   night and a day; a noctidial day. [R.] Holder.


   Noc*tif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L. noctifer; nox, noctis + ferre to bring.]
   Bringing night. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Noc*til"i*o*nid  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South
   American  bat  of  the  genus Noctilio, having cheek pouches and large
   incisor teeth.


   Noc`ti*lu"ca  (?),  n.;  pl. Noctiluc\'92 (#). [L. noctiluca something
   that  shines  by  night, fr. nox, noctis, night + lucere to shine, lux

   1.  (Old  Chem.)  That  which  shines at night; -- a fanciful name for

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A genus of marine flagellate Infusoria, remarkable for
   their unusually large size and complex structure, as well as for their
   phosphorescence.  The  brilliant diffuse phosphorescence of the sea is
   often due to myriads of Noctiluc\'91.


   Noc*ti*lu"cin (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A fatlike substance in certain marine
   animals, to which they owe their phosphorescent properties.


   Noc`ti*lu"cine (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to Noctiluca.


   Noc`ti*lu"cous (?), a. Shining in the night.


   Noc*tiv"a*gant  (?),  a.  [L.  nox,  noctis,  night + vagans, p.pr. of
   vagari  to  wander  about.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Going  about  in  the  night;


   Noc*tiv`a*ga"tion  (?),  n.  A  roving  or  going  about in the night.


   Noc*tiv"a*gous (?), a. [L. noctivagus; nox, noctis + vagus wandering.]


   Noc"to*graph (?), n. [L. nox, noctis, night + -graph.]

   1. A kind of writing frame for the blind.

   2. An instrument or register which records the presence of watchmen on
   their beats. Knight.


   Noc"tu*a*ry  (?; 135), n. [L. noctu by night.] A record of what passes
   in  the  night;  a  nightly journal; -- distinguished from diary. [R.]


   Noc"tu*id  (?), n. [From L. nox, noctis, night.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of
   numerous  moths of the family Noctuid\'91, or Noctu\'91lit\'91, as the
   cutworm  moths,  and  armyworm moths; -- so called because they fly at
   night. -- a. Of or pertaining to the noctuids, or family Noctuid\'91.


   Noc"tule (?; 135), n. [F., fr. L. noctua a night owl, fr. nox, noctis,
   night.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large European bat (Vespertilio, OR Noctulina,


   Noc"turn  (?),  n.  [F. nocturne, fr. L. nocturnus. See Nocturnal, and
   cf. Nocturne.]

   1. An office of devotion, or act of religious service, by night.

   2.  One  of  the  portions  into  which  the Psalter was divided, each
   consisting  of  nine  psalms,  designed to be used at a night service.


   Noc*tur"nal  (?),  a.  [L.  nocturnalis,  nocturnus,  fr. nox, noctis,
   night. See Night, and cf. Nocturn.]

   1.  Of,  pertaining  to, done or occuring in, the night; as, nocturnal
   darkness, cries, expedition, etc.; -- opposed to diurnal. Dryden.

   2.  Having  a  habit  of  seeking  food  or moving about at night; as,
   nocturnal birds and insects.


   Noc*tur"nal, n. An instrument formerly used for taking the altitude of
   the stars, etc., at sea. I. Watts.


   Noc*tur"nal*ly, adv. By night; nightly.


   Noc*turne"  (?),  n.  [F.  See  Nocturn.]  (Mus.)  A  night  piece, or
   serenade.  The  name is now used for a certain graceful and expressive
   form  of  instrumental  composition,  as the nocturne for orchestra in
   Mendelsohn's "Midsummer-Night's Dream" music.


   Noc"u*ment  (?),  n.  [LL.  nocumentum,  fr. L. nocere to hurt.] Harm;
   injury; detriment. [Obs.]


   Noc"u*ous  (?),  a. [L. nocuus, fr. nocere to hurt.] Hurtful; noxious.
   [R.] -- Noc"u*ous*ly, adv. [R.]


   Nod  (?),  v.  i.  [OE.  nodden; cf. OHG. kn, genuot, to shake, and E.

   1. To bend or incline the upper part, with a quick motion; as, nodding

   2.  To  incline the head with a quick motion; to make a slight bow; to
   make  a  motion  of  assent, of salutation, or of drowsiness, with the
   head; as, to nod at one.

   3. To be drowsy or dull; to be careless.

     Nor is it Homer nods, but we that dream. Pope.


   Nod, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nodded (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nodding.]

   1. To incline or bend, as the head or top; to make a motion of assent,
   of salutation, or of drowsiness with; as, to nod the head.

   2. To signify by a nod; as, to nod approbation.

   3. To cause to bend. [Poetic]

     By every wind that nods the mountain pine. Keats.


   Nod (?), n.

   1. A dropping or bending forward of the upper oart or top of anything.

     Like  a  drunken  sailor  on a mast, Ready with every nod to tumble
     down. Shak.

   2.  A  quick  or  slight  downward  or  forward motion of the head, in
   assent,  in familiar salutation, in drowsiness, or in giving a signal,
   or a command.

     A look or a nod only ought to correct them [the children] when they
     do amiss. Locke.

     Nations obey my word and wait my nod. Prior.

   The land of Nod, sleep.


   Nod"al  (?),  a. Of the nature of, or relating to, a node; as, a nodal
   point.  Nodal  line,  Nodal  point, in a vibrating plate or cord, that
   line  or point which remains at rest while the other parts of the body
   are in a state of vibration.


   No"da*ted  (?),  a.  [L.  nodatus,  p.p. of nodare to make knotty, fr.
   nodus  knot.  See Node.] Knotted. Nodated hyperbola (Geom.), a certain
   curve  of  the third order having two branches which cross each other,
   forming a node.


   No*da"tion  (?),  n. [L. nodatio knottiness.] Act of making a knot, or
   state of being knotted. [R.]


   Nod"der (?), n. One who nods; a drowsy person.


   Nod"ding  (?),  a.  Curved so that the apex hangs down; having the top
   bent downward.


   Nod"dle  (?), n. [OE. nodil, nodle; perh. fr. nod, because the head is
   the  nodding  part of the body, or perh. akin to E. knot; cf. Prov. E.
   nod the nape of the neck.]

   1.  The  head;  -- used jocosely or contemptuously.<-- now usu. noodle
   (not in W1913) or noggin -->

     Come, master, I have a project in my noddle. L'Estrange.

   2. The back part of the head or neck. [Obs.]

     For  occasion  ...  turneth a bald noddle, after she hath presented
     her locks in front, and no hold taken. Bacon.


   Nod"dy  (?),  n.; pl. Noddies (#). [Prob. fr. nod to incline the head,
   either as in assent, or from drowsiness.]

   1. A simpleton; a fool. L'Estrange.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) Any tern of the genus Anous, as A. stolidus. (b) The
   arctic  fulmar  (Fulmarus  glacialis). Sometimes also applied to other
   sea birds.

   3. An old game at cards. Halliwell.

   4. A small two-wheeled one-horse vehicle.

   5.  An  inverted  pendulum  consisting of a short vertical flat spring
   which  supports  a  rod having a bob at the top; -- used for detecting
   and  measuring  slight  horizontal vibrations of a body to which it is


   Node (?), n. [L. nodus; perh. akin to E. knot. Cf. Noose, Nowed.]

   1. A knot, a knob; a protuberance; a swelling.

   2.  Specifically:  (a) (Astron.) One of the two points where the orbit
   of  a  planet,  or  comet,  intersects the ecliptic, or the orbit of a
   satellite intersects the plane of the orbit of its primary. (b) (Bot.)
   The  joint  of  a stem, or the part where a leaf or several leaves are
   inserted.  (c) (Dialing) A hole in the gnomon of a dial, through which
   passes the ray of light which marks the hour of the day, the parallels
   of  the sun's declination, his place in the ecliptic, etc. (d) (Geom.)
   The point at which a curve crosses itself, being a double point of the
   curve.  See  Crunode,  and  Acnode. (e) (Mech.) The point at which the
   lines  of  a funicular machine meet from different angular directions;
   -- called also knot. W. R. Johnson. (f) (poet.) The knot, intrigue, or
   plot  of  a  piece. (g) (Med.) A hard concretion or incrustation which
   forms   upon  bones  attacked  with  rheumatism,  gout,  or  syphilis;
   sometimes  also, a swelling in the neighborhood of a joint. Dunglison.
   (h)  (Mus)  One  of  the  fixed  points  of a sonorous string, when it
   vibrates by aliquot parts, and produces the harmonic tones; nodal line
   or point. (i) (Zo\'94l.) A swelling.
   Ascending  node  (Astron.),  the  node  at  which  the body is passing
   northerly,  marked with the symbol &astascending;, called the Dragon's
   head. Called also northern node. -- Descending node, the node at which
   the  body  is  moving southwardly, marked thus &astdescending;, called
   Dragon's tail. -- Line of nodes, a straight line joining the two nodes
   of an orbit.


   Nod"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to the nodes; from a node to the
   same  node  again;  as,  the  nodical revolutions of the moon. Nodical
   month. See Lunar month, under Month.


   No`do*sa"rine  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Resembling in form or structure a
   foraminiferous  shell  of  the  genus  Nodosaria.  --  n. (Zo\'94l.) A
   foraminifer of the genus Nodosaria or of an allied genus.


   No*dose" (?), a. [L. nodosus, fr. nodus knot.]

   1. Knotty; having numerous or conspicuous nodes.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Having nodes or prominences; having the alternate joints
   enlarged, as the antenn\'91 of certain insects.


   No*dos"i*ty (, n. [L. nodositas.]

   1.  The  quality  of  being knotty or nodose; resemblance to a node or
   swelling; knottiness. Holland.

   2. A knot; a node.

                               Nodosous, Nodous

   No*do"sous (?), No"dous (?), a. Nodose; knotty; knotted. [Obs.]


   Nod"u*lar  (?;  135),  a. [Cf. F. nodulaire.] Of, pertaining to, or in
   the form of, a nodule or knot.


   Nod"ule  (?),  n.  [L.  nodulus, dim. of nodus knot: cf. F. nodule.] A
   rounded mass or irregular shape; a little knot or lump.

   Page 979


   Nod"uled (?), a. Having little knots or lumps.

                              Nodulose, Nodulous

   Nod"u*lose`  (?),  Nod"u*lous  (?),  a.  (Biol.) Having small nodes or
   knots; diminutively nodose.


   No"el (?), n. [F. no\'89l, L. natalis birthday, fr. natalis natal. See
   Natal.] Same as Nowel.


   No*e`ma*tach"o*graph   (?),   n.   [Gr.  -graph.]  An  instrument  for
   determining  and  registering  the  duration  of  more or less complex
   operations of the mind. Dunglison.

                             Noematic, Noematical

   No`e*mat"ic (?), No`e*mat"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Noetic.] Of or pertaining
   to the understanding. [Obs.] Cudworth.


   No*e"mics  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Noetic.]  The science of the understanding;
   intellectual science.


   No*e"tian  (?),  n.  (Eccl. Hist.) One of the followers of Noetus, who
   lived  in the third century. He denied the distinct personality of the
   Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

                               Noetic, Noetical

   No*et"ic  (?),  No*et"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Of  or  pertaining to the
   intellect; intellectual.

     I  would  employ  the  word  noetic to express all those cognitions
     which originate in the mind itself. Sir W. Hamilton.


   Nof (?). [Contr. fr. ne of.] Not of; nor of. [Obs.]


   Nog (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. noggin.]

   1. A noggin.

   2. A kind of strong ale. Halliwell.


   Nog, n. [Etymol. uncertain.]

   1.  A  wooden  block,  of the size of a brick, built into a wall, as a
   hold for the nails of woodwork.

   2.  One  of the square logs of wood used in a pile to support the roof
   of a mine.

   3. (Shipbuilding) A treenail to fasten the shores.


   Nog, v. t. [From 2d Nog.]

   1. To fill in, as between scantling, with brickwork.

   2. (Shipbuilding) To fasten, as shores, with treenails.


   Nog"gen (?), a. [Prop., made of hemp, fr. Prov. E. nogs hemp.] Made of
   hemp; hence, hard; rough; harsh. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Nog"gin (?), n. [Ir. noigin, or Gael. noigean. Cf. lst Nog.]

   1. A small mug or cup.

   2. A measure equivalent to a gill. [Prov. Eng.]


   Nog"ging (?), n. [From Nog, v. t.] Rough brick masonry used to fill in
   the interstices of a wooden frame, in building.


   Noght (?), adv. Not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Noi"ance  (?),  n. [Abbrev. fr. OE. anoiance.] [Written also noyance.]
   Annoyance. [Obs.] Tusser.


   Noie (?), v. t. To annoy. See Noy. [Obs.]


   Noi"er (?), n. An annoyer. [Obs.] Tusser.


   Noils (?), n. pl. [Etymol. uncertain.] Waste and knots of wool removed
   by the comb; combings.


   Noint (?), v. t. To anoint. [Obs.] Sir T. North.


   Noi"ous (?), a. Annoying; troublesome. [Obs.]


   Noise  (?),  n.  [F. noise noisy strife, quarrel, brawl, fr. L. nausea
   seasickness, sickness, disgust. See Nausea.]

   1. Sound of any kind.

     The  heavens  turn about in a most rapid motion without noise to us
     perceived. Bacon.

     NOTE: &hand; No ise is either a sound of too short a duration to be
     determined,  like  the report of a cannon; or else it is a confused
     mixture  of  many discordant sounds, like the rolling of thunder or
     the  noise of the waves. Nevertheless, the difference between sound
     and noise is by no means precise.


   2. Especially, loud, confused, or senseless sound; clamor; din.

   3. Loud or continuous talk; general talk or discussion; rumor; report.
   "The noise goes." Shak.

     What  noise  have  we  had  about  transplantation  of diseases and
     transfusion of blood! T. Baker.

     Soerates  lived in Athens during the great plague which has made so
     much noise in all ages. Spectator.

   4. Music, in general; a concert; also, a company of musicians; a band.
   [Obs.] Milton.

     The king has his noise of gypsies. B. Jonson.

   Syn. -- Cry; outcry; clamor; din; clatter; uproar.


   Noise, v. i. To sound; to make a noise. Milton.


   Noise, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Noised (?); p pr. & vb. n. Noising.]

   1. To spread by rumor or report.

     All these sayings were noised abroad. Luke i. 65.

   2. To disturb with noise. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Noise"ful (?), a. Loud; clamorous. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Noise"less,  a. Making, or causing, no noise or bustle; without noise;
   silent; as, the noiseless foot of time.

     So noiseless would I live. Dryden.

   -- Noise"less*ly, adv. -- Noise"less*ness, n.


   Noi*sette"  (?), n. (Bot.) A hybrid rose produced in 1817, by a French
   gardener, Noisette, of Charleston, South Carolina, from the China rose
   and  the  musk  rose. It has given rise to many fine varieties, as the
   Lamarque,  the Marechal (or Marshal) Niel, and the Cloth of gold. Most
   roses of this class have clustered flowers and are of vigorous growth.
   P. Henderson.


   Nois"i*ly (?), adv. In a noisy manner.


   Nois"i*ness, n. The state or quality of being noisy.


   Noi"some (?), a. [For noysome, fr. noy for annoy. See Annoy.]

   1. Noxious to health; hurtful; mischievous; unwholesome; insalubrious;
   destructive; as, noisome effluvia. "Noisome pestilence." Ps. xci. 3.

   2.  Offensive  to  the smell or other senses; disgusting; fetid. "Foul
   breath  is  noisome."  Shak. -- Noi"some*ly, adv. -- Noi"some*ness, n.
   Syn.  -- Noxious; unwholesome; insalubrious; mischievous; destructive.
   --  Noisome,  Noxious.  These  words  have  to  a  great  extent  been
   interchanged;  but  there  is a tendency to make a distinction between
   them,  applying  noxious  to  things that inflict evil directly; as, a
   noxious  plant,  noxious  practices,  etc., and noisome to things that
   operate  with  a  remoter  influence;  as,  noisome  vapors, a noisome
   pestilence,  etc.  Noisome  has  the additional sense of disqusting. A
   garden  may  be  free  from noxious weeds or animals; but, if recently
   covered with manure, it may be filled with a noisome smell.


   Nois"y (?), a. [Compar. Noisier (?); superl. Noisiest.] [From Noise.]

   1.   Making  a  noise,  esp.  a  loud  sound;  clamorous;  vociferous;
   turbulent; boisterous; as, the noisy crowd.

   2. Full of noise. "The noisy town." Dryden.


   Nol"de (?). [Contr. fr. ne wolde.] Would not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nole (?), n. [See Noll.] The head. [Obs.] Shak.


   No"li-me-tan"ge*re (?), n. [L., touch me not.]

   1.  (Bot.)  (a)  Any  plant  of  a  genus  of herbs (Impatiens) having
   capsules  which,  if  touched when ripe, discharge their seeds. -- See
   Impatiens. (b) The squirting cucumber. See under Cucumber.

   2.  (Med.)  A  name  formerly applied to several varieties of ulcerous
   cutaneous diseases, but now restricted to Lupus exedens, an ulcerative
   affection of the nose.


   No*li"tion  (?), n. [L. nolle not to will, to be unwilling; ne + velle
   to  will,  to  be  willing.] Adverse action of will; unwillingness; --
   opposed to volition.

     A nolition and a direct enmity against the lust. Jer. Taylor.


   Noll  (?),  n.  [OE. nol, AS. hnoll top; akin to OHG. hnol top, head.]
   The head; the noddle. [Obs.]


   Nol*le"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  nolle to be unwilling.] The state of being
   unwilling; nolition. [R.]

                                Nolle prosequi

   Nol"le  pros"e*qui (?). [L., to be unwilling to prosecute.] (Law) Will
   not  prosecute;  --  an entry on the record, denoting that a plaintiff
   discontinues  his  suit, or the attorney for the public a prosecution;
   either  wholly,  or  as  to  some  count,  or  as  to  some of several

                                Nolo contendere

   No"lo con*ten"de*re (?). [L., I do not wish to contend.] (Law) A plea,
   by  the defendant, in a criminal prosecution, which, without admitting
   guilt, subjects him to all the consequences of a plea of quilty.

                                  Nol. pros.

   Nol. pros. An abbrev. of Nolle prosequi.


   Nol`-pros"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. -prossed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   -prossing.] To discontinue by entering a nolle prosequi; to decline to


   Nolt (?), n. sing. & pl. Neat cattle. [Prov. Eng.]


   Nom (?), n. [F. See Noun.] Name. Nom de guerre (, literally, war name;
   hence,  a  fictitious name, or one assumed for a time. -- Nom de plume
   (,  literally,  pen name; hence, a name assumed by an author as his or
   her signature.


   No"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Name.] (Med.) See Canker, n., 1.


   Nom"ad (?), n. [L. nomas, -adis, Gr. niman to take, and E. nimble: cf.
   F. nomade. Cf. Astronomy, Economy, Nimble, Nemesis, Numb, Number.] One
   of  a race or tribe that has no fixed location, but wanders from place
   to place in search of pasture or game.


   Nom"ad, a. Roving; nomadic.


   Nom"ade (?), n. [F.] See Nomad, n.


   No*ma"di*an (?), n. A nomad. [R.]


   No*mad"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr. Nomad.] Of or pertaining to nomads, or their
   way  of  life;  wandering; moving from place to place for subsistence;
   as, a nomadic tribe. -- No*mad"ic*al*ly (#), adv.


   Nom"ad*ism (?), n. The state of being a nomad.


   Nom"ad*ize  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Nomadized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nomadizing  (?).]  To  lead the life of a nomad; to wander with flocks
   and herds for the sake of finding pasturage.

     The  Vogules  nomadize  chiefly about the Rivers Irtish, Obi, Kama,
     and Volga. W. Tooke.


   No"man*cy  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. nomancie, nomance, abbrev. fr. onomancie.
   See  Onomancy.] The art or practice of divining the destiny of persons
   by the letters which form their names.

                                 No-man's land

   No"-man's` land` (?).

   1. (Naut.) A space amidships used to keep blocks, ropes, etc.; a space
   on a ship belonging to no one in particular to care for.

   2. Fig.: An unclaimed space or time.

     That no-man's land of twilight. W. Black.


   Nom"arch  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -arch.]  The  chief  magistrate of a nome or


   Nom"arch*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Nomarchies  (.  A  province or territorial
   division  of  a  kingdom,  under  the  rule of a nomarch, as in modern
   Greece; a nome.


   Nom"bles  (?),  n.  pl. [F. nombles, fr. L. lumbulus, dim. of lumbus a
   loin.  Cf.  Numbles,  Umbles,  Humbles.]  The  entrails of a deer; the
   umbles. [Written also numbles.] Johnson.


   Nom"bril (?), n. [F. nombril, for OF. lombril, i. e., ombril, with the
   article, a dim. fr. L. umbilicus the navel. See Navel.] (Her.) A point
   halfway  between  the  fess  point  and  the  middle  base point of an
   escutcheon; -- called also navel point. See Escutcheon.


   Nome (?), n. [Gr.

   1.  A  province  or political division, as of modern Greece or ancient
   Egypt; a nomarchy.

   2. Any melody determined by inviolable rules. [Obs.]


   Nome, n. [Cf. Binomial.] (Alg.) [Obs.] See Term.

                                  Nome, Nomen

   Nome, No"men (?), obs. p. p. of Nim. Chaucer.


   No"men*cla`tor (?), n. [L., fr. nomen name + calare to call. See Name,
   and Calendar.]

   1. One who calls persons or things by their names.

     NOTE: &hand; In Rome, candidates for office were attended each by a
     nomenclator, who informed the candidate of the names of the persons
     whom they met and whose votes it was desirable to solicit.

   2.  One  who  gives  names  to  things, or who settles and adjusts the
   nomenclature  of  any  art  or  science; also, a list or vocabulary of
   technical names.


   No"men*cla`tress (?), n. A female nomenclator.


   No`men*cla"tur*al (?), a. Pertaining or according to a nomenclature.


   No"men*cla`ture  (?),  n.  [L.  nomenclatura: cf. F. nomenclature. See

   1. A name. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2. A vocabulary, dictionary, or glossary. [R.]

   3.  The  technical  names  used in any particular branch of science or
   art, or by any school or individual; as, the nomenclature of botany or
   of chemistry; the nomenclature of Lavoisier and his associates.


   No"mi*al (?), n. [Cf. Binomial.] (Alg.) A name or term.


   Nom"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Customary;  ordinary;  -- applied to the usual
   English  spelling,  in  distinction  from strictly phonetic methods. H
   Sweet. -- n. Nomic spelling. A. J. Ellis.


   Nom"i*nal (?), a. [L. nominalis, fr. nomen, nominis, name. See Name.]

   1.  Of or pertaining to a name or names; having to do with the literal
   meaning of a word; verbal; as, a nominal definition. Bp. Pearson.

   2. Existing in name only; not real; as, a nominal difference. "Nominal
   attendance on lectures." Macaulay.


   Nom"i*nal, n.

   1. A nominalist. [Obs.] Camden.

   2. (Gram.) A verb formed from a noun.

   3. A name; an appellation.

     A  is  the nominal of the sixth note in the natural diatonic scale.
     Moore (Encyc. of Music. )


   Nom"i*nal*ism (?), n. The principles or philosophy of the Nominalists.


   Nom"i*nal*ist,  n.  (Metaph.)  One  of  a  sect of philosophers in the
   Middle  Ages,  who  adopted  the  opinion  of  Roscelin,  that general
   conceptions, or universals, exist in name only. Reid.


   Nom`i*nal*is"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Nominalists.


   Nom"i*nal*ize (?), v. t. To convert into a noun. [Obs.]


   Nom"i*nal*ly,  adv. In a nominal manner; by name; in name only; not in
   reality. Burke.


   Nom"i*nate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Nominated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nominating  (?).]  [L.  nominatus,  p. p. of nominare to nominate, fr.
   nomen name. See Name.]

   1. To mention by name; to name. [Obs.]

     To nominate them all, it is impossible. Shak.

   2. To call; to entitle; to denominate. [Obs.] Spenser.

   3. To set down in express terms; to state. [Obs.]

     Is it so noiminated in the bond? Shak.

   4.  To name, or designate by name, for an office or place; to appoint;
   esp.,  to name as a candidate for an election, choice, or appointment;
   to propose by name, or offer the name of, as a candidate for an office
   or place.


   Nom"i*nate*ly (?), adv. By name; particularly; namely. [Obs.] Spelman.


   Nom`i*na"tion (?), n. [L. nominatio: cf. F. nomination.]

   1.  The  act  of  naming  or  nominating; designation of a person as a
   candidate  for  office;  the  power  of nominating; the state of being

     The  nomination  of  persons  to places being . . . a flower of his
     crown, he would reserve to himself. Clarendon.

   2. The denomination, or name. [Obs.] Bp. Pearson.


   Nom`i*na*ti"val  (?),  a.  (Gram.)  Of or pertaining to the nominative


   Nom"i*na*tive   (?),   a.   [L.   nominativus  belonging  to  a  name,
   nominative.]  (Gram.)  Giving  a name; naming; designating; -- said of
   that  case  or  form of a noun which stands as the subject of a finite
   verb. -- n. The nominative case.


   Nom"i*na*tive*ly, adv. In the manner of a nominative; as a nominative.


   Nom"i*na`tor (?), n. [L.] One who nominates.


   Nom`i*nee"  (?),  n.  [See  Nominate,  and  -ee.]  A  person named, or
   designated,  by  another,  to  any  office,  duty,  or  position;  one
   nominated,  or  proposed,  by  others  for  office  or for election to


   Nom"i*nor`  (?),  n.  [See  Nominate,  and  -or.]  A nominator. [Obs.]


   No*moc"ra*cy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -cracy,  as in democracy.] Government in
   accordance with a system of law. Milman.


   No*mog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr. A treatise on laws; an exposition of the
   form proper for laws.


   No*mol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy.]

   1. The science of law; legislation.

   2.  The  science  of the laws of the mind; rational psychology. Sir W.


   Nom`o*pel"mous  (?),  a.  [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Having a separate and simple
   tendon to flex the first toe, or hallux, as do passerine birds.


   Nom"o*thete (?), n. [Gr. nomoth\'8ate.] A lawgiver. [R.]

                           Nomothetic, Nomothetical

   Nom`o*thet"ic (?), Nom`o*thet"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Legislative; enacting
   laws; as, a nomothetical power. [R.] Bp. Barlow.


   Non (?), a. No; not. See No, a. Chaucer.


   Non-  (?). [L. non, OL. noenu, noenum, fr. neoenum, lit., not one. See
   None.]   A  prefix  used  in  the  sense  of  not;  un-;  in-;  as  in
   nonattention, or non-attention, nonconformity, nonmetallic, nonsuit.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e pr efix non- may be joined to the leading word by
     means  of  a hyphen, or, in most cases, the hyphen may be dispensed
     with.  The  list  of  words  having the prefix non- could easily be


   Non`a*bil"i*ty (?), n.

   1. Want of ability.

   2. (Law) An exception taken against a plaintiff in a cause, when he is
   unable legally to commence a suit.


   Non`ac*cept"ance (?), n. A neglect or refusal to accept.

   Page 980


   Non*ac"id  (?), a. (Chem.) Destitute of acid properties; hence, basic;
   metallic; positive; -- said of certain atoms and radicals.


   Non`ac*quaint"ance  (?),  n.  Want of acquaintance; the state of being


   Non*ac`qui*es"cence  (?), n. Refusal of acquiescence; failure to yield
   or comply.


   Non`ad*mis"sion (?), n. Failure to be admitted.


   Non`a*dult" (?), a. Not adult; immature.


   Non*a`\'89r*o*bi*ot"ic  (?),  a.  (Biol.)  Capable  of  living without
   atmospheric oxygen; ana\'89robiotic.


   Non"age  (?),  n.  [LL.  nonagium,  from  L. nonus ninth, novem nine.]
   (Eccl.)  The  ninth  part  of  movable  goods, formerly payable to the
   clergy on the death of persons in their parishes. Mozley & W.


   Non"age,  n.  [Pref. non- + age.] Time of life before a person becomes
   of age; legal immaturity; minority.

     The human mind . . . was still in its nonage. Coleridge.


   Non"aged  (?),  a.  Having  the  quality  of  nonage;  being  a minor;
   immature. W. Browne.


   Non`a*ge*na"ri*an  (?),  n. [L. nonagenarius containing, or consisting
   of,  ninety,  fr.  nonageni ninety each; akin to novem nine.] A person
   ninety years old.


   Non`a*ges"i*mal   (?),   a.   [L.   nonagesimus   the  ninetieth.  See
   Nonagenarian.]  (Astron.)  Of or pertaining to the ninetieth degree or
   to a nonagesimal.


   Non`a*ges"i*mal,  n. (Astron.) The middle or highest point of the part
   of  the ecliptic which is at any given moment above the horizon. It is
   the  ninetieth  degree  of  the  ecliptic, reckoned from the points in
   which it is intersected by the horizon.


   Non"a*gon  (?),  n.  [L. nonus ninth + Gr. (Math.) A figure or polygon
   having nine sides and nine angles.


   Non*a"gri*an  (?),  n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) Any moth of the
   genus Nonagria and allied genera, as the spindleworm and stalk borer.


   Non*al`ien*a"tion  (?), n. Failure to alienate; also, the state of not
   being alienated.


   Non"ane  (?), n. [L. nonus ninth.] (Chem.) One of a group of metameric
   hydrocarbons C9H20 of the paraffin series; -- so called because of the
   nine  carbon  atoms  in  the  molecule.  Normal  nonane is a colorless
   volatile liquid, an ingredient of ordinary kerosene.


   Non`ap*pear"ance  (?),  n.  Default  of  apperance,  as  in  court, to
   prosecute or defend; failure to appear.


   Non`ap*point"ment  (?),  n.  Neglect of making appointment; failure to
   receive an appointment.


   Non`ar*riv"al (?), n. Failure to arrive.

                                 Non assumpsit

   Non`  as*sump"sit  (?).  [L., he did not undertake.] (Law) The general
   plea or denial in an action of assumpsit.


   Non`at*tend"ance  (?), n. A failure to attend; omission of attendance;


   Non`at*ten"tion (?), n. Inattention.


   Non`bi*tu"mi*nous (?), a. Containing no bitumen; not bituminous.


   Nonce  (?),  n. [For the nonce, OE. for the nones, a corruption of for
   then  ones,  where  n.  in  then  is a relic of AS. m in , dat. of the
   article  and  demonstrative  pronoun, E. the. See For, Once, and The.]
   The  one  or  single occasion; the present call or purpose; -- chiefly
   used in the phrase for the nonce.

     The miller was a stout carl for the nones. Chaucer.

     And  that he calls for drink, I 'll have prepared him A chalice for
     the nonce. Shak.

   Nonce  word,  "a  word apparently employed only for the nonce". Murray
   (New English Dict. ).
   Non`cha`lance"    (?),   n.   [F.   See   Nonchalant.]   Indifference;
   carelessness; coolness. 


   Non`cha`lant"  (?),  a. [F., fr. non not (L. non) + chaloir to concern
   one's  self for, fr. L. calere to be warm, to be inflamed with desire,
   to be troubled. See Non-, and Caldron.] Indifferent; careless; cool.


   Non"cha*lant`ly  (?),  adv.  In a nonchalant, indifferent, or careless
   manner; coolly.


   Non"claim`  (?), n. A failure to make claim within the time limited by
   law; omission of claim.


   Non`co*he"sion (?), n. Want of cohesion.


   Non`co*in"ci*dence, n. Lack of coincidence.


   Non`co*in"ci*dent (?), a. Not coincident.


   Non*com"bat*ant  (?),  n. (Mil.) Any person connected with an army, or
   within  the  lines  of  an  army, who does not make it his business to
   fight,  as  any  one  of  the  medical  officers and their assistants,
   chaplains,  and  others; also, any of the citizens of a place occupied
   by  an  army; also, any one holding a similar position with respect to
   the navy.


   Non`com*mis"sioned  (?),  a.  Not having a commission. Noncommissioned
   officer  (Mil.),  a  subordinate officer not appointed by a commission
   from the chief executive or supreme authority of the State; but by the
   Secretary of War or by the commanding officer of the regiment.


   Non`com*mit"tal  (?),  n.  A  state of not being committed or pledged;
   forbearance or refusal to commit one's self. Also used adjectively.


   Non`com*mun"ion (?), n. Neglect or failure of communion.


   Non`com*ple"tion (?), n. Lack of completion; failure to complete.


   Non`com*pli"ance (?), n. Neglect of compliance; failure to comply.


   Non`com*ply"ing (?), a. Neglecting or refusing to comply.

                         Non compos. Non compos mentis

   Non  com"pos  (?). Non com"pos men"tis (?).[L.] Not of sound mind; not
   having  the regular use of reason; hence, also, as a noun, an idiot; a


   Non"con. (, n. See Noncontent.


   Non`con*clud"ing (?), a. Not concluding.


   Non`con*cur" (?), v. i. To dissent or refuse to concur.


   Non`con*cur"rence (?), n. Refusal to concur.


   Non`con*den"si*ble   (?),  a.  Not  condensible;  incapable  of  being
   liquefied; -- said of gases.


   Non`con*dens"ing,  a.  (Steam  Engine) Not condensing; discharging the
   steam from the cylinder at a pressure nearly equal to or above that of
   the atmosphere and not into a condenser.


   Non`con*duct"ing  (?),  a. Not conducting; not transmitting a fluid or
   force;  thus,  in  electricity, wax is a nonconducting substance.<-- =
   nonconductive -->


   Non`con*duc"tion  (?),  n. The quality of not being able to conduct or
   transmit; failure to conduct.


   Non`con*duct"or  (?), n. (Physics) A substance which does not conduct,
   that  is,  convey or transmit, heat, electricity, sound, vibration, or
   the  like,  or which transmits them with difficulty; an insulator; as,
   wool  is  a nonconductor of heat; glass and dry wood are nonconductors
   of electricity.


   Non`con*form"ing   (?),   a.  Not  conforming;  declining  conformity;
   especially, not conforming to the established church of a country.


   Non`con*form"ist,  n.  One  who  does  not  conform  to an established
   church; especially, one who does not conform to the established church
   of England; a dissenter.


   Non*con*form"i*ty   (?),   n.   Neglect   or  failure  of  conformity;
   especially,  in  England,  the  neglect  or  refusal to unite with the
   established church in its rites and modes of worship.


   Non`con"stat  (?),  n. [Law L.] It does not appear; it is not plain or
   clear; it does not follow.


   Non`con*ta"gious   (?),   a.   Not   contagious;   not  catching;  not
   communicable by contact. -- Non`con*ta"gious*ness, n.


   Non`con*tent"  (?),  n.  (British  House  of  Lords)  One  who gives a
   negative vote; -- sometimes abridged into noncon. or non con.

                       Noncontributing, Noncontributory

   Non`con*trib"u*ting    (?),    Non`con*trib"u*to*ry    (?),   a.   Not


   Non"da  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  edible plumlike fruit of the Australian
   tree, Parinarium Nonda.


   Non*dec"ane   (?),  n.  [L.  nonus  ninth  +  decem  ten.]  (Chem.)  A
   hydrocarbon of the paraffin series, a white waxy substance, C19H40; --
   so called from the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.


   Non`de*cid"u*ate  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Characterized by the absence of a
   decidua; indeciduate.


   Non`de*liv"er*y  (?), n. A neglect or failure of delivery; omission of


   Non*dep`o*si"tion (?), n. A failure to deposit or throw down.


   Non"de*script  (?),  a.  [Pref.  non-  + L. descriptus described.] Not
   hitherto described; novel; hence, odd; abnormal; unclassifiable.


   Non"de*script,  n. A thing not yet described; that of which no account
   or   explanation   has  been  given;  something  abnormal,  or  hardly


   Non`de*vel"op*ment (?), n. Failure or lack of development.


   Non`dis*cov"er*y (?), n. Want or failure of discovery.


   Non"do  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  coarse  umbelliferous  plant  (Ligusticum
   act\'91ifolium) with a large aromatic root. It is found chiefly in the
   Alleghany region. Also called Angelico.


   None  (?),  a. & pron. [OE. none, non, nan, no, na, AS. n\'ben, fr. ne
   not + \'ben one. No, a. & adv., One, and cf. Non-, Null, a.]

   1. No one; not one; not anything; -- frequently used also partitively,
   or as a plural, not any.

     There is none that doeth good; no, not one. Ps. xiv. 3.

     Six  days  ye shall gather it, but on the seventh day, which is the
     Sabbath, in it there shall be none. Ex. xvi. 26.

     Terms of peace yet none Vouchsafed or sought. Milton.

     None of their productions are extant. Blair.

   2.  No; not any; -- used adjectively before a vowel, in old style; as,
   thou shalt have none assurance of thy life.
   None of, not at all; not; nothing of; -- used emphatically. "They knew
   that  I  was none of the register that entered their admissions in the
   universities."   Fuller.   --  None-so-pretty  (Bot.),  the  Saxifraga
   umbrosa. See London pride (a), under London.


   None, n. [F.] Same as Nones, 2.


   Non`ef*fect"ive (?), a.

   1. Not effective.

   2. (Mil.) Not fit or available for duty.


   Non-e"go  (?),  n.  [L.,  not  I.]  (Metaph.)  The  union of being and
   relation as distinguished from, and contrasted with, the ego. See Ego.


   Non`e*las"tic (?), a. Not having elasticity.


   Non`e*lect"  (?),  n.  sing.  &  pl.  (Theol.) A person or persons not
   elected, or chosen, to salvation.


   Non`e*lec"tion (?), n. Failure of election.

                          Nonelectric, Nonelectrical

   Non`e*lec"tric (?), Non`e*lec"tric*al (?), a. Not electric; conducting


   Non`e*lec"tric, n. (Physics) A substance that is not an electric; that
   which transmits electricity, as a metal.

                          Nonemphatic, Nonemphatical

   Non`em*phat"ic  (?),  Non`em*phat"ic*al  (?),  a.  Having no emphasis;


   Non*en"ti*ty (?), n.; pl. Nonentities (.

   1. Nonexistence; the negation of being.

   2. A thing not existing. South.

   3. A person or thing of little or no account. [Colloq.]


   Non`-E*pis"co*pal  (?),  a.  Not  Episcopal;  not  pertaining  to  the
   Episcopal church or system.


   Nones  (?),  n.  pl. [L. nonae, so called because it was the ninth day
   before the ides, fr. nonus ninth, from novem nine. See Nine, Nones, 2,
   Noon .]

   1.  (Roman Cal.) The fifth day of the months January, February, April,
   June,  August,  September, November, and December, and the seventh day
   of  March, May, July, and October. The nones were nine days before the
   ides, reckoning inclusively, according to the Roman method.

   2.  [F.  none, fr. L. See Noon.] The canonical office, being a part of
   the Breviary, recited at noon (formerly at the ninth hour, 3 P. M.) in
   the Roman Catholic Church.

   3. The hour of dinner; the noonday meal. [Obs.]

     At my supper and sometimes at nones. P. Plowman.


   Non`es*sen"tial (?), a. Not essential.


   Non`es*sen"tial, n. A thing not essential.

                                Non est factum

   Non`  est`  fac"tum (?). [Law L. it is not (his) deed.] (Law) The plea
   of the general issue in an action of debt on bond.

                               Non est inventus

   Non` est` in*ven"tus (?). [L., he is not found.] (Law) The return of a
   sheriff  on  a  writ,  when  the defendant is not found in his county.


   None"such`  (?), n. A person or thing of a sort that there is no other
   such;  something  extraordinary; a thing that has not its equal. It is
   given as a name to various objects, as to a choice variety of apple, a
   species of medic (Medicago lupulina), a variety of pottery clay, etc.

                                Nonet, Nonetto

   No*net" (?), No*net"to (?), n. [From L. nonus ninth, like E. duet, fr.
   L.  duo.]  (Mus.)  A composition for nine instruments, rarely for nine


   Non"ett (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The titmouse. [Obs.]


   Non*ex`e*cu"tion   (?),   n.   Neglect   or   failure   of  execution;


   Non`ex*ist"ence (?), n.

   1. Absence of existence; the negation of being; nonentity. A. Baxter.

   2. A thing that has no existence. Sir T. Browne.


   Non`ex*ist"ent (?), a. Not having existence.


   Non*ex`por*ta"tion  (?),  n. A failure of exportation; a not exporting
   of commodities.


   Non`ex*ten"sile (?), a. Not extensile; incapable of being stretched.


   Non-fea"sance (?), n. [Pref. non- + OF. faisance a doing, fr. faire to
   do.]  (Law)  An  omission  or neglect to do something, esp. that which
   ought to have been done. Cf. Malfeasance.


   Non`ful*fill"ment, n. Neglect or failure to fulfill.


   No*nil"lion  (?),  n.  [L.  nonus  ninth + -illion, as in E. million.]
   According  to the French and American notation, a thousand octillions,
   or  a  unit  with  thirty  ciphers  annexed;  according to the English
   notation,  a  million  octillions,  or  a unit with fifty-four ciphers
   annexed. See the Note under Numeration.


   Non*im`por*ta"tion  (?),  n.  Want  or  failure  of importation; a not
   importing of commodities.


   Non`im*port"ing  (?),  a.  Not  importing;  not  bringing from foreign


   Non`in*flec"tion*al  (?),  a.  Not  admitting of, or characterized by,


   Non`in*hab"it*ant  (?), n. One who is not an inhabitant; a stranger; a
   foreigner; a nonresident.


   Non*in`ter*ven"tion  (?),  n. The state or habit of not intervening or
   interfering;  as,  the  nonintervention of one state in the affairs of


   No"ni*us  (?),  n.  [Latinized form of Nunez, the name of a Portuguese
   mathematician.] A vernier.


   Non*join"der  (?),  n.  (Law) The omission of some person who ought to
   have been made a plaintiff or defendant in a suit, or of some cause of
   action which ought to be joined.


   Non*ju"rant (?), a. Nonjuring.


   Non*ju"ring  (?),  a.  [F.  jurer  to  swear, or L. jurare, jurari, to
   swear, fr. L. jus, juris, right, law, justice. See Jury.] Not swearing
   allegiance;  --  applied  to the party in Great Britain that would not
   swear allegiance to William and Mary, or their successors.


   Non*ju"ror  (?),  n.  (Eng. Hist.) One of those adherents of James II.
   who  refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary, or to
   their successors, after the revolution of 1688; a Jacobite.


   Non*ju"ror*ism  (?),  n. (Eng. Hist.) The doctrines, or action, of the


   Non*lim`i*ta"tion (?), n. Want of limitation; failure to limit.

                                  Non liquet

   Non`  li"quet  (?). [L.] It is not clear; -- a verdict given by a jury
   when a matter is to be deferred to another day of trial.


   Non`ma*lig"nant (?), a. Not malignant, as a disease.


   Non*man`u*fac"tur*ing (?), a. Not carrying on manufactures.


   Non*med"ul*la`ted (?), a. Not medullated; (Anat.) without a medulla or
   marrow,  or  without  a  medullary  sheath;  as, a nonmedullated nerve


   Non*mem"ber, n. One who is not a member.


   Non*mem"ber*ship, n. State of not being a member.


   Non"met`al  (?),  n.  (Chem.) Any one of the set of elements which, as
   contrasted  with the metals, possess, produce, or receive, acid rather
   than  basic properties; a metalloid; as, oxygen, sulphur, and chlorine
   are nonmetals.


   Non`me*tal"lic (?), a.

   1. Not metallic.

   2.  (Chem.) Resembling, or possessing the properties of, a nonmetal or
   metalloid; as, sulphur is a nonmetallic element.


   Non*nat"u*ral, a. Not natural; unnatural.


   Nonne (?), n. A nun. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Non`ne*ces"si*ty (?), n. Absence of necessity; the quality or state of
   being unnecessary.


   Non`ni*trog"nous  (?),  a.  Devoid  of  nitrogen; as, a nonnitrogenous
   principle; a nonnitrogenous food. See the Note under Food, n., 1.


   Non*nu"cle*a`ted (?), a. Without a nucleus.<-- = anucleate -->


   Non"ny (?), n. A silly fellow; a ninny.


   Non`o*be"di*ence (?), n. Neglect of obedience; failure to obey.


   Non`ob*serv"ance (?), n. Neglect or failure to observe or fulfill.

   Page 981

                                 Non obstante

   Non` ob*stan"te (?). [L.]

   1.  Notwithstanding;  in  opposition to, or in spite of, what has been
   stated, or is to be stated or admitted.

   2.  (Law)  A  clause  in  old  English  statutes  and  letters patent,
   importing  a  license from the crown to do a thing notwithstanding any
   statute  to  the  contrary. This dispensing power was abolished by the
   Bill of Rights.

     In  this  very  reign  [Henry III.] the practice of dispensing with
     statutes by a non obstante was introduced. Hallam.

   Non  obstante  veredicto  [LL.] (Law), a judgment sometimes entered by
   order  of  the court, for the plaintiff, notwithstanding a verdict for
   the defendant. Stephen.
   No*no"ic  (?),  a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or resembling,
   nonane;  as,  nonoic  acid,  which is also called pelargonic acid. Cf.


   Non"one  (?),  n.  [Nonane + -one, suffix denoting the third degree of
   unsaturation.]  (Chem.)  Any  one  of  several  metameric  unsaturated
   hydrocarbons (C9H14) of the valylene series.


   Non`ox*yg"e*nous  (?), a. (Chem.) Without oxygen; characterized by the
   absence of oxygen; as, a nonoxygenous alkaloid.


   Non`pa*reil" (?), n. [See Nonpareil, a. ]

   1.  Something  of  unequaled excellence; a peerless thing or person; a
   nonesuch; -- often used as a name.

   2.  [F. nonpareille.] (Print.) A size of type next smaller than minion
   and next larger than agate (or ruby).

     NOTE: &hand; This line is printed in the type called nonpareil.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A  beautifully  colored  finch (Passerina ciris),
   native  of  the Southern United States. The male has the head and neck
   deep  blue,  rump  and  under  parts bright red, back and wings golden
   green,  and the tail bluish purple. Called also painted finch. (b) Any
   other similar bird of the same genus.


   Non`pa*reil",  a. [F., from non not + pareil equal, fr. LL. pariculus,
   dim.  of  L.  par  equal.  See  Non, and Pair, Peer.] Having no equal;


   Non*pay"ment, n. Neglect or failure to pay.


   Non`per*form"ance, n. Neglect or failure to perform.


   Non*pho`to*bi*ot"ic  (?),  a. (Biol.) Capable of living without light;
   as,  nonphotobiotic  plant  cells,  or  cells which habitually live in


   Non`plane"  (?), a. (Math.) Not lying in one plane; -- said of certain


   Non"plus  (?),  n.  [L.  non  not + plus more, further. See Plural.] A
   state  or  condition  which  daffles  reason  or  confounds  judgment;
   insuperable  difficalty;  inability  to  proceed  or  decide;  puzzle;

     Both  of  them  are  a  perfect  nonplus  and  baffle  to all human
     understanding. South.


   Non"plus` (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nonplused (?) or Nonplussed; p. pr.
   &  vb.  n.  Nonplusing  or  Nonplussing.]  To  puzzle; to confound; to
   perplex; to cause to stop by embarrassment.

     He has been nonplused by Mr. Dry's desiring him to tell what it was
     that he endeavored to prove. Spectator.


   Non*prep`a*ra"tion  (?),  n.  Neglect  or  failure to prepare; want of


   Non*pres`en*ta"tion  (?),  n.  Neglect or failure to present; state of
   not being presented.


   Non`pro*duc"tion, n. A failure to produce or exhibit.


   Non`pro*fes"sion*al  (?),  a.  Not belonging to a profession; not done
   by,  or  proceeding  from,  professional men; contrary to professional


   Non`pro*fi"cien*cy  (?),  n.  Want  of  proficiency;  failure  to make


   Non`pro*fi"cient (?), n. One who has failed to become proficient.

                                   Non pros.

   Non" pros.` (. An abbreviation of Non prosequitur.


   Non`-pros"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Nonprossed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Non-prossing  (?).]  To  decline  or fail to prosecute; to allow to be
   dropped  (said  of a suit); to enter judgment against (a plaintiff who
   fails to prosecute); as, the plaintiff was non-prossed.

                                Non prosequitur

   Non"  pro*seq"ui*tur (?). [L. he does not prosecute.] (Law) A judgment
   entered  against  the  plaintiff in a suit where he does not appear to
   prosecute. See Nolle prosequi.


   Non`re*cur"rent (?), a. Not recurring.


   Non`re*cur"ring (?), a. Nonrecurrent.


   Non`re*gard"ance (?), n. Want of due regard; disregard; slight. [Obs.]


   Non`re"gent (?), n. (Eng. Universities) A master of arts whose regency
   has ceased. See Regent.


   Non`ren*di"tion  (?),  n. Neglect of rendition; the not rendering what
   is due.

     The nonrendition of a service which is due. S. E. Dwight.


   Non`re*sem"blance   (?),   n.   Want   of   resemblance;   unlikeness;


   Non*res"i*dence  (?),  n. The state or condition of being nonresident,


   Non*res"i*dent  (?),  a.  Not residing in a particular place, on one's
   own  estate,  or in one's proper place; as, a nonresident clergyman or
   proprietor of lands.


   Non*res"i*dent,  n.  A  nonresident person; one who does not reside in
   the State or jurisdiction.


   Non`re*sist"ance (?), n. The principles or practice of a nonresistant;
   passive  obedience;  submission  to  authority,  power, oppression, or
   violence without opposition.


   Non`re*sist"ant (?), a. Making no resistance.


   Non`re*sist"ant,  n.  One  who  maintains that no resistance should be
   made  to  constituted  authority,  even  when unjustly or oppressively
   exercised;  one  who advocates or practices absolute submission; also,
   one who holds that violence should never be resisted by force.


   Non`re*sist"ing, a. Not making resistance.


   Non*ru"mi*nant (?), a. Not ruminating; as, a nonruminant animal.


   Non`sane"  (?),  a.  Unsound;  not  perfect;  as,  a person of nonsane
   memory. Blackstone.


   Non"sense (?), n. [Pref. non- + sense: cf. F. nonsens.]

   1. That which is not sense, or has no sense; words, or language, which
   have no meaning, or which convey no intelligible ideas; absurdity.

   2. Trifles; things of no importance.
   Nonsense  verses,  lines  made  by  taking  any words which occur, but
   especially  certain  words  which  it  is  desired  to  recollect, and
   arranging  them without reference to anything but the measure, so that
   the  rhythm  of  the lines may aid in recalling the remembrance of the
   words. Syn. -- Folly; silliness; absurdity; trash; balderdash.


   Non*sen"si*cal  (?),  a.  Without  sense;  unmeaning; absurb; foolish;
   irrational;    preposterous.    --    Non*sen"si*cal*ly,    adv.    --
   Non*sen"si*cal*ness, n.


   Non*sen"si*tive  (?),  a.  Not sensitive; wanting sense or perception;
   not easily affected.

                                 Non sequitur

   Non  seq"ui*tur  (?).  [L.,  it does not follow.] (Logic) An inference
   which does not follow from the premises.


   Non*sex"u*al (?), a. Having no distinction of sex; sexless; neuter.


   Non*slave"hold`ing  (?),  a.  Not  possessing or holding slaves; as, a
   nonslaveholding State.


   Non`so*lu"tion (?), n. Failure of solution or explanation.


   Non*sol"ven*cy (?), n. Inability to pay debts; insolvency.


   Non*sol"vent (?), a. Not solvent; insolvent.


   Non*sol"vent, n. An insolvent.


   Non*so"nant  (?),  a.  Not  sonant.  --  n.  A  nonsonant  or nonvocal


   Non*spar"ing (?), a. Sparing none.


   Non*stri"a*ted (?), a. (Nat. Hist.) Without striations; unstriped; as,
   nonstriated muscle fibers.


   Non`sub*mis"sion  (?),  n.  Want  of submission; failure or refusal to


   Non`sub*mis"sive (?), a. Not submissive.


   Non"such (?), n. See Nonesuch.


   Non"suit`  (?),  n.  (Law)  A  neglect  or failure by the plaintiff to
   follow  up  his  suit;  a  stopping  of  the  suit;  a renunciation or
   withdrawal  of  the  cause  by  the  plaintiff,  either  because he is
   satisfied  that  he can not support it, or upon the judge's expressing
   his opinion. A compulsory nonsuit is a nonsuit ordered by the court on
   the  ground that the plaintiff on his own showing has not made out his


   Non"suit`, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nonsuited; p. pr. & vb. n. Nonsuiting.]
   (Law) To determine, adjudge, or record (a plaintiff) as having dropped
   his  suit,  upon  his withdrawal or failure to follow it up. "When two
   are joined in a writ, and one is nonsuited." Z. Swift.


   Non"suit`, a. Nonsuited. D. A. Tyng.


   Non*sure"ty (?), n. Insecurity. [Obs.]


   Non*ten"ure  (?),  n. (Law) A plea of a defendant that he did not hold
   the land, as affirmed.


   Non"term` (?), n. (Law) A vacation between two terms of a court.


   Non*tox"ic (?), a. Not toxic.


   Non"tro*nite (?), n. [So called because found in the arrondissement of
   Notron, France.] (Min.) A greenish yellow or green mineral, consisting
   chiefly of the hydrous silicate of iron.


   Non*u"ni*form`ist  (?),  n.  One who believes that past changes in the
   structure  of  the earth have proceeded from cataclysms or causes more
   violent than are now operating; -- called also nonuniformitarian.


   Non*un"ion*ist  (?), n. One who does not belong, or refuses to belong,
   to a trades union.


   Non*us"ance  (?),  n.  Neglect  of  using; failure to use. [R.] Sir T.


   Non*us"er (?),

   1. A not using; failure to use.

     An office may be forfeited by misuser or nonuser. Blackstone.

   2.  (Law)  Neglect  or  omission to use an easement or franchise or to
   assert a right. Kent.


   Non*vas"cu*lar (?), a. (Anat.) Destitute of vessels; extravascular.


   Non`ver*nac"u*lar (?), a. Not vernacular.

     A nonvernacular expression. Sir W. Hamilton.


   Non*vo"cal  (?),  a.  Not  vocal;  destitute of tone. -- n. A nonvocal


   Non"yl (?), n. [Nonane + -yl.] (Chem.) The hydrocarbon radical, C9H19,
   derived from nonane and forming many compounds. Used also adjectively;
   as, nonyl alcohol.


   Non"y*lene (?), n. [Nonane + ethylene.] (Chem.) Any one of a series of
   metameric, unsaturated hydrocarbons C9H18 of the ethylene series.


   Non`y*len"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Of,  pertaining  to,  related  to, or
   designating, nonylene or its compounds; as, nonylenic acid.


   No*nyl"ic  (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or designating, nonyl or
   its compounds; as, nonylic acid.


   Noo"dle  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Noddle,  Noddy.]  A simpleton; a blockhead; a
   stupid person; a ninny. [Low]

     The chuckling grin of noodles. Sydney Smith.


   Noo"dle,  n.  [G.  nudel vermicelli.] A thin strip of dough, made with
   eggs, rolled up, cut into small pieces, and used in soup.


   Nook (?), n. [OE. nok; cf. Gael. & Ir. niuc.] A narrow place formed by
   an  angle  in bodies or between bodies; a corner; a recess; a secluded

     How couldst thou find this dark, sequestered nook? Milton.


   Nook"-shot`ten  (?),  a.  Full  of nooks, angles, or corners. [Obs. or
   Prov. Eng.]

     That nook-shotten isle of Albion. Shak.


   No`\'94*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to no\'94logy.


   No*\'94l"o*gist (?), n. One versed in no\'94logy.


   No*\'94l"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -logy.]  The  science  of  intellectual


   Noon (?), a. No. See the Note under No. [Obs.]


   Noon  (?), n. [AS. n, orig., the ninth hour, fr. L.nona (sc. hora) the
   ninth hour, then applied to the church services (called nones) at that
   hour,  the time of which was afterwards changed to noon. See Nine, and
   cf. Nones, Nunchion.]

   1.  The  middle  of  the  day; midday; the time when the sun is in the
   meridian; twelve o'clock in the daytime.

   2. Hence, the highest point; culmination.

     In the very noon of that brilliant life which was destined to be so
     soon, and so fatally, overshadowed. Motley.

   High  noon,  the  exact  meridian; midday. -- Noon of night, midnight.
   [Poetic] Dryden.


   Noon  (?),  a.  Belonging  to midday; occurring at midday; meridional.


   Noon, v. i. To take rest and refreshment at noon.


   Noon"day` (?), n. Midday; twelve o'clock in the day; noon.


   Noon"day`  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to midday; meridional; as, the
   noonday heat. "Noonday walks." Addison.


   Noon"-flow`er  (?), n. (Bot.) The goat's beard, whose flowers close at


   Noon"ing, n. A rest at noon; a repast at noon.


   Noon"shun (?), n. [Obs.] See Nunchion. Nares.


   Noon"stead (?), n. The position of the sun at noon. [Obs.] Drayton.


   Noon"tide`  (?), n. [From noon + tide time; cf. AS. n the ninth hour.]
   The time of noon; midday.


   Noose (?), n. [Prob. fr. OF. nous, nom. sing. or acc. pl. of nou knot,
   F.  n,  L.  nodus. Cf. Node.] A running knot, or loop, which binds the
   closer the more it is drawn.


   Noose  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Noosed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Noosing.]
   To tie in a noose; to catch in a noose; to entrap; to insnare.


   Noot (?). See lst Not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   No"pal  (?),  n. [Mexican nopalli.] (Bot.) A cactaceous plant (Nopalea
   cochinellifera),  originally  Mexican,  on  which the cochineal insect
   feeds,  and from which it is collected. The name is sometimes given to
   other species of Cactace\'91.


   No"pal*ry  (?),  n.;  pl.  Nopalries  (. A plantation of the nopal for
   raising the cochineal insect.


   Nope (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A bullfinch. [Prov. Eng.]


   Nor  (?), conj. [OE. nor, contr. from nother. See Neither.] A negative
   connective  or  particle, introducing the second member or clause of a
   negative  proposition,  following neither, or not, in the first member
   or  clause  (as or in affirmative propositions follows either). Nor is
   also used sometimes in the first member for neither, and sometimes the
   neither is omitted and implied by the use of nor.

     Provide  neither  gold  nor  silver, nor brass, in your purses, nor
     scrip for your journey. Matt. x. 9, 10.

     Where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt. Matt. vi. 20.

     I love him not, nor fear him. Shak.

     Where neither party is nor true, nor kind. Shak.

     Simois nor Xanthus shall be wanting there. Dryden.


   Nor"bert*ine  (?),  n.  See  Premonstrant.  <--  nori.  (Jap.) a dried
   seaweed used as a seasoning or as a wrapper for sushi -->


   No"ri*a (?), n. [Sp., from Ar. n\'be'.] A large water wheel, turned by
   the  action  of  a  stream  against  its  floats,  and carrying at its
   circumference  buckets, by which water is raised and discharged into a
   trough;  used  in  Arabia, China, and elsewhere for irrigating land; a
   Persian wheel.


   No"ri*an  (?),  a.  [From  norite.]  (Geol.)  Pertaining  to the upper
   portion of the Laurentian rocks. T. S. Hunt.


   Nor"ice (?), n. Nurse. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   No"rie  (?),  n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) The cormorant. [Prov.


   Nor"i*mon  (?), n.; pl. Norimons (. A Japanese covered litter, carried
   by men. B. Taylor.


   No"rite  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  Norv\'8age  Norway  .] (Min.) A granular
   crystalline  rock  consisting  essentially of a triclinic feldspar (as
   labradorite) and hypersthene.


   No"ri*um  (?),  n. [NL.] (Chem.) A supposed metal alleged to have been
   discovered in zircon.


   Norm (?), n. [L. norma a rule. See Normal, a.]

   1. A rule or authoritative standard; a model; a type.

   2. (Biol.) A typical, structural unit; a type. Agassiz.


   Nor"ma (?), n. [L.]

   1. A norm; a principle or rule; a model; a standard. J. S. Mill.

   2. A mason's or a carpenter's square or rule.

   3. A templet or gauge.


   Nor"mal  (?),  a.  [L.  normalis, fr. norma rule, pattern, carpenter's
   square;  prob. akin to noscere to know; cf. Gr. normal. See Known, and
   cf. Abnormal, Enormous.]

   1.  According to an established norm, rule, or principle; conformed to
   a  type,  standard,  or regular form; performing the proper functions;
   not abnormal; regular; natural; analogical.

     Deviations from the normal type. Hallam.

   2.  (Geom.)  According  to  a square or rule; perpendicular; forming a
   right angle. Specifically: Of or pertaining to a normal.

   3.  (Chem.)  Standard;  original;  exact;  typical.  Specifically: (a)
   (Quantitative  Analysis)  Denoting  a  solution  of such strength that
   every  cubic  centimeter contains the same number of milligrams of the
   element in question as the number of its molecular weight. (b) (Chem.)
   Denoting  certain hypothetical compounds, as acids from which the real
   acids  are  obtained  by  dehydration; thus, normal sulphuric acid and
   normal  nitric  acid  are respectively S(OH)6, and N(OH)5. (c) (Organ.
   Chem.) Denoting that series of hydrocarbons in which no carbon atom is
   united  with  more  than  two  other carbon atoms; as, normal pentane,
   hexane, etc. Cf. Iso-.
   Normal  equations (Method of Least Squares), a set of equations of the
   first  degree equal in number to the number of unknown quantities, and
   derived  from the observations by a specified process. The solution of
   the  normal  equations  gives  the most probable values of the unknown
   quantities.  --  Normal  group  (Geol.),  a  group of rocks taken as a
   standard. Lyell. -- Normal place (of a planet or comet) (Astron.), the
   apparent  place  in  the  heavens  of a planet or comet at a specified
   time,  the  place  having  been determined by a considerable number of
   observations,  extending  perhaps over many days, and so combined that
   the accidental errors of observation have largely balanced each other.
   --  Normal  school, a school whose methods of instruction are to serve
   as a model for imitation; an institution for the training of teachers.

   Page 982

   Syn.  --  Normal,  Regular, Ordinary. Regular and ordinary are popular
   terms  of  well-known  signification;  normal  has now a more specific
   sense, arising out of its use in science. A thing is normal, or in its
   normal  state,  when  strictly  conformed  to  those principles of its
   constitution  which  mark  its species or to the standard of a healthy
   and  natural  condition.  It  is  abnormal  when it departs from those


   Nor"mal (?), n. [Cf. F. normale, ligne normale. See Normal, a.]

   1. (Geom.) Any perpendicular.

   2. (Geom.) A straight line or plane drawn from any point of a curve or
   surface  so  as  to  be  perpendicular to the curve or surface at that

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm no rmal is also used to denote the distance
     along the normal line from the curve to the axis of abscissas or to
     the center of curvature.


   Nor"mal*cy  (?),  n.  The quality, state, or fact of being normal; as,
   the point of normalcy. [R.]


   Nor`mal*i*za"tion (?), n. Reduction to a standard or normal state.


   Nor"mal*ly, adv. In a normal manner. Darwin.


   Nor"man (?), n. [F. normand.] (Naut.) A wooden bar, or iron pin. W. C.


   Nor"man,  a.  [F.  normand,  of  Scand.  origin. See Northman, and cf.
   Norse.] Of or pertaining to Normandy or to the Normans; as, the Norman
   language;  the  Norman  conquest.  Norman  style  (Arch.),  a style of
   architecture  which arose in the tenth century, characterized by great
   massiveness,   simplicity,   and   strength,   with  the  use  of  the
   semicircular  arch,  heavy  round  columns,  and  a  great  variety of
   ornaments, among which the zigzag and spiral or cable-formed ornaments
   were prominent.


   Nor"man, n. A native or inhabitant of Normandy; originally, one of the
   Northmen  or Scandinavians who conquered Normandy in the 10th century;
   afterwards,  one  of  the  mixed  (Norman-French) race which conquered
   England, under William the Conqueror.


   Nor"man*ism (?), n. A Norman idiom; a custom or expression peculiar to
   the Normans. M. Arnold.

                                  Norn, Norna

   Norn (?), Nor"na (?), n. [Icel. norn, pl. nornir.]

   1.  (Scandinavian  Myth.)  One  of the three Fates, Past, Present, and
   Future. Their names were Urd, Verdandi, and Skuld.

   2. A tutelary deity; a genius.


   No*ro`pi*an"ic  (?),  a. [Etymology uncertain.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining
   to,  or  designating,  an  acid  of  the aromatic series obtained from
   opianic acid.


   Nor"roy  (?),  n.  [Lit.,  north  king, fr. F. nord north + roi king.]
   (Her.)   The   most   northern   of  the  English  Kings-at-arms.  See
   King-at-arms, under King.


   Norse  (?),  a.  [Dan.  Norsk,  fr.  nord  north.  See  North.]  Of or
   pertaining  to  ancient  Scandinavia, or to the language spoken by its


   Norse, n. The Norse language.


   Norse"man (?), n.; pl. Norsemen (. One of the ancient Scandinavians; a


   Nor"tel*ry   (?),  n.  [Cf.  Nurture.]  Nurture;  education;  culture;
   bringing up. [Obs.]

     Nortelry . . . learned at the nunnery. Chaucer.


   North  (?),  n. [AS. nor&edh;; akin to D. noord, G., Sw., & Dan. nord,
   Icel. nor&edh;r. Cf. Norman, Norse.]

   1.  That one of the four cardinal points of the compass, at any place,
   which lies in the direction of the true meridian, and to the left hand
   of a person facing the east; the direction opposite to the south.

   2.  Any  country or region situated farther to the north than another;
   the northern section of a country.

   3.  Specifically:  That part of the United States lying north of Mason
   and Dixon's line. See under Line.


   North,  a.  Lying  toward  the  north;  situated at the north, or in a
   northern  direction  from  the  point  of  observation  or  reckoning;
   proceeding   toward  the  north,  or  coming  from  the  north.  North
   following.  See  Following,  a.,  2.  -- North pole, that point in the
   heavens,  or  on the earth, ninety degrees from the equator toward the
   north.  --  North  preceding. See Following, a., 2. -- North star, the
   star  toward which the north pole of the earth very nearly points, and
   which  accordingly  seems  fixed  and immovable in the sky. The star a
   (alpha)  of  the Little Bear, is our present north star, being distant
   from  the  pole  about  1°  25\'b7,  and from year to year approaching
   slowly  nearer  to  it.  It  is called also Cynosura, polestar, and by
   astronomers, Polaris.


   North,  v.  i. To turn or move toward the north; to veer from the east
   or west toward the north.


   North, adv. Northward.


   North`east"  (?), n. The point between the north and east, at an equal
   distance from each; the northeast part or region.


   North`east",  a.  Of or pertaining to the northeast; proceeding toward
   the  northeast,  or  coming from that point; as, a northeast course; a
   northeast  wind.  Northeast passage, a passage or communication by sea
   between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans along the north coast of Asia.


   North`east", adv. Toward the northeast.


   North`east"er  (?),  n. A storm, strong wind, or gale, coming from the


   North`east"er*ly,   a.   Pertaining   to  the  northeast;  toward  the
   northeast, or coming from the northeast.


   North`east"er*ly, adv. Toward the northeast.


   North`east"ern   (?),   a.   Of   or   pertaining  to  the  northeast;

                        Northeastward, Northeastwardly

   North`east"ward   (?),   North`east"ward*ly   (?),   adv.  Toward  the


   North"er  (?), n. A wind from the north; esp., a strong and cold north
   wind in Texas and the vicinity of the Gulf of Mexico.


   North"er*li*ness  (?),  n.  The  quality  or state of being northerly;
   direction toward the north.


   North"er*ly,  a.  Of  or pertaining to the north; toward the north, or
   from the north; northern.


   North"er*ly, adv. Toward the north.


   North"ern (?), a. [AS. nor&edh;erne.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to the north; being in the north, or nearer to
   that point than to the east or west.

   2.  In  a  direction toward the north; as, to steer a northern course;
   coming from the north; as, a northern wind.
   Northern  diver.  (Zo\'94l.)  See Loon. -- Northern lights. See Aurora
   borealis,  under Aurora. -- Northern spy (Bot.), an excellent American
   apple, of a yellowish color, marked with red.


   North"ern*er (?), n.

   1. One born or living in the north.

   2.   A   native   or   inhabitant   of   the   Northern   States;   --
   contradistinguished from Southerner. [U. S.]


   North"ern*ly, adv. Northerly. [Obs.] Hakewill.


   North"ern*most` (?), a. [Cf. Northmost.] Farthest north.


   North"ing, n.

   1. (Surv. & Navigation) Distance northward from any point of departure
   or of reckoning, measured on a meridian; -- opposed to southing.

   2.  (Astron.)  The  distance  of  any  heavenly  body from the equator
   northward; north declination.


   North"man  (?), n.; pl. Northmen (#). [AS. nor&edh;man. See North, and
   Man,  and  cf. Norman.] One of the inhabitants of the north of Europe;
   esp., one of the ancient Scandinavians; a Norseman.


   North"most`  (?),  a.  [AS.  nor. Cf.Aftermost.] Lying farthest north;

     Northmost part of the coast of Mozambique. De Foe.


   North"ness,  n. A tendency in the end of a magnetic needle to point to
   the north. Faraday.


   North*um"bri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Northumberland in England.
   -- n. A native or inhabitant of Northumberland.


   North"ward  (?),  a.  [AS. nor&edh;weard.] Toward the north; nearer to
   the north than to the east or west point.

                             Northward, Northwards

   North"ward  (?),  North"wards  (?), adv. Toward the north, or toward a
   point nearer to the north than to the east or west point.


   North"ward*ly, a. Having a northern direction.


   North"ward*ly, adv. In a northern direction.


   North`west"  (?),  n.  [AS.  nor&edh;west.]  The  point in the horizon
   between  the  north  and  west,  and  equally  distant  from each; the
   northwest part or region.


   North`west", a.

   1.  Pertaining to, or in the direction of, the point between the north
   and west; being in the northwest; toward the northwest, or coming from
   the northwest; as, the northwest coast.

   2. Coming from the northwest; as, a northwest wind.
   Northwest  passage,  a  passage  or  communication  by sea between the
   Atlantic  and  Pacific  oceans  along the north coast of America, long
   sought for by navigators.


   North`west", adv. Toward the northwest.


   North`west"er  (?),  n.  A  storm or gale from the northwest; a strong
   northwest wind.


   North`west"er*ly, a. Toward the northwest, or from the northwest.


   North`west"ern  (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or being in, the northwest;
   in  a  direction  toward  the  northwest;  coming  from the northwest;
   northwesterly; as, a northwestern course.

                        Northwestward, Northwestwardly

   North`west"ward   (?),   North`west"ward*ly   (?),   adv.  Toward  the


   Nor*we"gi*an  (?),  a.  [Cf. Icel. Noregr, Norvegr, Norway. See North,
   and  Way.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  Norway,  its  inhabitants,  or its


   Nor*we"gi*an, n.

   1. A native of Norway.

   2. That branch of the Scandinavian language spoken in Norway.


   Nor*we"gi*um  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Norwegian.] (Chem.) A rare metallic
   element,   of   doubtful   identification,   said   to  occur  in  the
   copper-nickel of Norway.


   Nor*we"yan (?), a. Norwegian. [Obs.] Shak.


   Nose  (?),  n.  [AS.  nosu; akin to D. neus, G. nase, OHG. nasa, Icel.
   n\'94s,  Sw. n\'84sa, Dan. n\'84se, Lith. nosis, Russ. nos', L. nasus,
   nares,  Skr.  n\'bes\'be,  n\'bes.  Nasal,  Nasturtium, Naze, Nostril,

   1. (Anat.) The prominent part of the face or anterior extremity of the
   head  containing  the  nostrils  and olfactory cavities; the olfactory
   organ. See Nostril, and Olfactory organ under Olfactory.

   2. The power of smelling; hence, scent.

     We  are  not offended with a dog for a better nose than his master.

   3.  A  projecting  end  or  beak at the front of an object; a snout; a
   nozzle; a spout; as, the nose of a bellows; the nose of a teakettle.
   Nose  bit  (Carp.), a bit similar to a gouge bit, but having a cutting
   edge  on one side of its boring end. -- Nose hammer (Mach.), a frontal
   hammer.  --  Nose  hole  (Glass Making), a small opening in a furnace,
   before  which  a  globe  of  crown  glass is held and kept soft at the
   beginning of the flattening process. -- Nose key (Carp.), a fox wedge.
   -- Nose leaf (Zo\'94l.), a thin, broad, membranous fold of skin on the
   nose  of  many species of bats. It varies greatly in size and form. --
   Nose  of  wax,  fig., a person who is pliant and easily influenced. "A
   nose  of  wax  to  be  turned every way." Massinger -- Nose piece, the
   nozzle  of  a pipe, hose, bellows, etc.; the end piece of a microscope
   body,  to  which  an  objective is attached. -- To hold, put, OR bring
   one's  nose to the grindstone. See under Grindstone. -- To lead by the
   nose, to lead at pleasure, or to cause to follow submissively; to lead
   blindly,  as a person leads a beast. Shak. -- To put one's nose out of
   joint,  to  humiliate  one's  pride,  esp.  by  supplanting one in the
   affections of another. [Slang] -- To thrust one's nose into, to meddle
   officiously  in.  --  To  wipe  one's  nose of, to deprive of; to rob.
   [Slang]<--  on the nose, (a) exactly, accurately; (b) (racing) to win,
   opposed to "to place" or "to show" -->


   Nose, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nosed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nosing.]

   1. To smell; to scent; hence, to track, or trace out.

   2. To touch with the nose; to push the nose into or against; hence, to
   interfere with; to treat insolently.

     Lambs . . . nosing the mother's udder. Tennyson.

     A  sort  of  national convention, dubious in its nature . . . nosed
     Parliament in the very seat of its authority. Burke.

   3. To utter in a nasal manner; to pronounce with a nasal twang; as, to
   nose  a  prayer.  [R.] Cowley. <-- nose around, to look around, search


   Nose (n&omac;z), v. i.

   1. To smell; to sniff; to scent. Audubon.

   2. To pry officiously into what does not concern one.


   Nose"bag`  (?),  n.  A bag in which feed for a horse, ox, or the like,
   may be fastened under the nose by a string passing over the head.


   Nose"band` (?), n. That part of the headstall of a bridle which passes
   over a horse's nose.


   Nose"bleed` (?), n.

   1. A bleeding at the nose.

   2. (Bot.) The yarrow. See Yarrow.


   Nosed  (?),  a.  Having  a  nose,  or such a nose; -- chieflay used in
   composition; as, pug-nosed.


   Nose"gay` (?), n. [Nose + gay in the sense of a gay or showy thing.] A
   bunch of odorous and showy flowers; a bouquet; a posy. Pope.


   Nos"el  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Noursle.]  To  nurse; to lead or teach; to
   foster; to nuzzle. [Obs.]

     If  any  man use the Scripture . . . to nosel thee in anything save
     in Christ, he is a false prophet. Tyndale.


   Nose"less (?), a. Destitute of a nose.


   Nose"smart`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  kind of cress, a pungent cruciferous
   plant, including several species of the genus Nasturtium.

                             Nosethirl, Nosethril

   Nose"thirl  (?),  Nose"thril  (?),  n.  Nostril.  [Obs.] [Written also
   nosethurl, nosthrill.] Chaucer.


   Nos"ing  (?),  n. (Arch.) That part of the treadboard of a stair which
   projects over the riser; hence, any like projection, as the projecting
   edge of a molding.


   No"sle (?), n. [See Nozzle, Nose.] Nozzle. [Obs.]


   Nos`o*co"mi*al (?), a. [L. nosocomium a hospital, Gr. Of or pertaining
   to a hospital; as, nosocomial atmosphere. Dunglison.


   No*sog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. -graphy: cf. F. nosographie.] A description
   or classification of diseases.


   Nos`o*log"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  nosologique.] Of or pertaining to


   No*sol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. nosologiste.] One versed in nosology.


   No*sol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. nosologie.]

   1. A systematic arrangement, or classification, of diseases.

   2.  That branch of medical science which treats of diseases, or of the
   classification of diseases.


   Nos`o*po*et"ic (?), a. [Gr. Producing diseases. [R.] Arbuthnot.


   Nost  (?).  [Contr.  from  ne  wost.] Wottest not; knowest not. [Obs.]


   Nos*tal"gi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) Homesickness; esp., a severe
   and sometimes fatal form of melancholia, due to homesickness.


   Nos*tal"gic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  nostalgique.]  Of  or  pertaining  to
   nostalgia; affected with nostalgia.


   Nos*tal"gy (?), n. Same as Nostalgia.


   Nos"toc  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Bot.)  A  genus  of  alg\'91. The plants are
   composed of moniliform cells imbedded in a gelatinous substance.

     NOTE: &hand; No stoc co mmune is  fo und on  th e gr ound, an d is 
     ordinarily  not  seen;  but  after  a  rain  it  swells  up  into a
     conspicuous  jellylike  mass,  whish  was formerly supposed to have
     fallen from the sky, whence the popular names, fallen star and star
     jelly. Also called witches' butter.


   Nos"tril  (?), n. [OE. nosethril, nosethirl, AS. nospyrl; nos for nosu
   nose  +  pyrel opening, hole, from pyrel pierced, for pyrhel, fr. purh
   through. Nose, and Through, and cf. Thrill.]

   1.  (Anat.)  One  of  the  external  openings  of the nose, which give
   passage  to the air breathed and to secretions from the nose and eyes;
   one of the anterior nares.

     NOTE: &hand; In  sperm whales, porpoises, and allied animals, there
     is  only  one nostril, which is situated on the top of the head and
     called a spiracle.

   2. Perception; insight; acuteness. [Obs.]

     Methinks  a man Of your sagacity and clear nostril should Have made
     another choice. B. Jonson.


   Nos"trum (?) n.; pl. Nostrums (#). [Neut. sing. of L. noster ours, fr.
   nos we. See Us.]

   1.  A  medicine,  the  ingredients  of  which  are kept secret for the
   purpose  of  restricting  the  profits  of  sale  to  the  inventor or
   proprietor; a quack medicine.

   2. Any scheme or device proposed by a quack.

     The incentives of agitators, the arts of impostors and the nostrums
     of quacks. Brougham.

   <--  3.  any scheme asserted to solve a problem, but with no objective
   basis  for  belief  in  its effectiveness; esp., in politics, a scheme
   likely to prove popular with voters. -->


   Not  (?).  [Contr. from ne wot. See 2d Note.] Wot not; know not; knows
   not. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Not, a. Shorn; shaven. [Obs.] See Nott.


   Not,  adv. [OE. not, noht, nought, naught, the same word as E. naught.
   See  Naught.] A word used to express negation, prohibition, denial, or

     Not one word spake he more than was need. Chaucer.

     Thou shalt not steal. Ex. xx. 15.

     Thine eyes are upon me, and I am not. Job vii. 8.

     The question is, may I do it, or may I not do it? Bp. Sanderson.

   Not . . . but, OR Not but, only. [Obs. or Colloq.] Chaucer.


   No`ta*bil"i*a  (?), n. pl. [Neut. pl. of L. notabilis notable.] Things
   worthy of notice.


   Not`a*bil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Notabilities (#). [Cf. F. notabilit\'82 .]

   1. Quality of being notable.

   2.  A  notable,  or  remarkable,  person  or  thing; a person of note.
   "Parisian notabilities" Carlyle.

   3. A notable saying. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Not"a*ble  (?), a. [F. notable, L. notabilis, fr. notare to mark, nota
   mark, note. See 5th Note.]

   1. Capable of being noted; noticeable; plan; evident.

   Page 983

   2.  Worthy  of  notice; remarkable; memorable; noted or distinguished;
   as, a notable event, person.

     NOTE: &hand; No  table in   th  e se  nse of   ca  reful, th rifty,
     characterized by thrift and capacity (as, a notable housekeeper) is
     pronounced  by  many  good  ortho\'89pists, n&ocr;t"&adot;*b'l, the
     derivatives   notableness,   and   notably,  being  also  similarly
     pronounced with short o in the first syllable.

   3. Well-known; notorious. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Not"a*ble (?), n.

   1. A person, or thing, of distinction.

   2. (French Hist.) One of a number of persons, before the revolution of
   1789,  chiefly  of  the  higher  orders,  appointed  by  the  king  to
   constitute a representative body.


   Not"a*ble*ness, n. The quality of being notable.


   Not"a*bly, adv. In a notable manner.


   No*t\'91"um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  back or upper
   surface, as of a bird.


   No"tal (?), a. [Gr. Of or pertaining to the back; dorsal.


   No*tan"dum  (?),  n.;  pl. Notanda (#). [L., fr. notare to observe.] A
   thing  to be noted or observed; a notable fact; -- chiefly used in the


   No*ta"ri*al  (?),  a. [Cf. F. notarial.] Of or pertaining to a notary;
   done  or  taken by a notary; as, a notarial seal; notarial evidence or


   No*ta"ri*al*ly, adv. In a notarial manner.


   No"ta*ry  (?),  n.;  pl. Notaries (#). [F. notaire, L. notarius notary
   (in sense 1), fr. nota mark. See 5th Note.]

   1.  One  who records in shorthand what is said or done; as, the notary
   of an ecclesiastical body.

   2.  (Eng.  &  Am. Law) A public officer who attests or certifies deeds
   and  other  writings,  or  copies  of them, usually under his official
   seal,  to  make  them  authentic, especially in foreign countries. His
   duties  chiefly relate to instruments used in commercial transactions,
   such  as protests of negotiable paper, ship's papers in cases of loss,
   damage, etc. He is generally called a notary public.


   No"tate  (?),  a. [L. notatus marked, p. p. of notare to mark. See 5th
   Note.]  (Bot.)  Marked  with  spots or lines, which are often colored.


   No*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L. notatio a marking, observing, etymology, fr.
   notare to mark, nota a mark: cf. F. notation. See 5th Note.]

   1.  The  act  or  practice of recording anything by marks, figures, or

   2.  Any  particular  system  of  characters,  symbols,  or abbreviated
   expressions  used  in  art  or  science,  to express briefly technical
   facts,  quantities,  etc.  Esp.,  the  system of figures, letters, and
   signs  used  in arithmetic and algebra to express number, quantity, or

   3. Literal or etymological signification. [Obs.]

     "Conscience"  is  a Latin word, and, according to the very notation
     of it, imports a double or joint knowledge. South.


   Notch  (?),  n.  [Akin  to  nock; cf. OD. nock, OSw. nocka. Cf. Nick a

   1. A hollow cut in anything; a nick; an indentation.

     And on the stick ten equal notches makes. Swift.

   2.  A  narrow  passage  between  two  elevation; a deep, close pass; a
   defile; as, the notch of a mountain.


   Notch, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Notched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Notching.]

   1.  To  cut or make notches in ; to indent; also, to score by notches;
   as, to notch a stick.

   2. To fit the notch of (an arrow) to the string.

     God  is  all sufferance; here he doth show No arrow notched, only a
     stringless bow. Herrick.


   Notch"board`  (?), n. (Carp.) The board which receives the ends of the
   steps in a staircase.


   Notch"ing, n.

   1. The act of making notches; the act of cutting into small hollows.

   2. The small hollow, or hollows, cut; a notch or notches.

   3.  (Carp.)  A method of joining timbers, scantling, etc., by notching
   them,  as  at  the  ends,  and overlapping or interlocking the notched

   4.  (Engin.)  A  method  of  excavating,  as in a bank, by a series of
   cuttings side by side. See also Gulleting.


   Notch"weed`   (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  foul-smelling  weed,  the  stinking
   goosefoot (Chenopodium Vulvaria).


   Note  (?),  v.  t. [AS. hn\'c6tan to strike against, imp. hn\'bet.] To
   butt; to push with the horns. [Prov. Eng.]


   Note  (?).  [AS.  n\'bet; ne not + w\'bet wot. See Not, and Wot.] Know
   not; knows not. [Obs.]


   Note, n. Nut. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Note,  n.  [AS.  notu  use,  profit.]  Need;  needful business. [Obs.]


   Note,  n.  [F.  note,  L.  nota;  akin to noscere, notum, to know. See

   1.  A  mark  or token by which a thing may be known; a visible sign; a
   character; a distinctive mark or feature; a characteristic quality.

     Whosoever  appertain  to  the visible body of the church, they have
     also the notes of external profession. Hooker.

     She  [the  Anglican church] has the note of possession, the note of
     freedom  from  party  titles,the note of life -- a tough life and a
     vigorous. J. H. Newman.

     What a note of youth, of imagination, of impulsive eagerness, there
     was through it all ! Mrs. Humphry Ward.

   2.  A mark, or sign, made to call attention, to point out something to
   notice, or the like; a sign, or token, proving or giving evidence.

   3.  A  brief  remark;  a  marginal  comment  or explanation; hence, an
   annotation on a text or author; a comment; a critical, explanatory, or
   illustrative observation.

     The  best writers have been perplexed with notes, and obscured with
     illustrations. Felton.

   4.  A  brief  writing  intended  to assist the memory; a memorandum; a

   5.  pl. Hence, a writing intended to be used in speaking; memoranda to
   assist a speaker, being either a synopsis, or the full text of what is
   to  be  said;  as, to preach from notes; also, a reporter's memoranda;
   the original report of a speech or of proceedings.

   6. A short informal letter; a billet.

   7. A diplomatic missive or written communication.

   8.  A  written  or  printed  paper acknowledging a debt, and promising
   payment; as, a promissory note; a note of hand; a negotiable note.

   9. A list of items or of charges; an account. [Obs.]

     Here is now the smith's note for shoeing. Shak.

   10.  (Mus.)  (a) A character, variously formed, to indicate the length
   of  a tone, and variously placed upon the staff to indicate its pitch.
   Hence: (b) A musical sound; a tone; an utterance; a tune. (c) A key of
   the piano or organ.

     The wakeful bird . . . tunes her nocturnal note. Milton.

     That note of revolt against the eighteenth century, which we detect
     in Goethe, was struck by Winckelmann. W. Pater.

   11. Observation; notice; heed.

     Give  orders  to  my  servants that they take No note at all of our
     being absent hence. Shak.

   12. Notification; information; intelligence. [Obs.]

     The king . . . shall have note of this. Shak.

   13. State of being under observation. [Obs.]

     Small matters . . . continually in use and in note. Bacon.

   14. Reputation; distinction; as, a poet of note.

     There  was  scarce  a  family  of note which had not poured out its
     blood on the field or the scaffold. Prescott.

   15. Stigma; brand; reproach. [Obs.] Shak.
   Note of hand, a promissory note.


   Note  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Noted; p. pr. & vb. n. Noting.] [F.
   noter, L. notare, fr. nota. See Note, n.]

   1.  To notice with care; to observe; to remark; to heed; to attend to.

     No more of that; I have noted it well. Shak.

   2. To record in writing; to make a memorandum of.

     Every unguarded word . . . was noted down. Maccaulay.

   3. To charge, as with crime (with of or for before the thing charged);
   to brand. [Obs.]

     They were both noted of incontinency. Dryden.

   4. To denote; to designate. Johnson.

   5. To annotate. [R.] W. H. Dixon.

   6. To set down in musical characters.
   To  note  a  bill  OR  draft, to record on the back of it a refusal of
   acceptance,  as the ground of a protest, which is done officially by a


   Note"book` (?), n.

   1. A book in which notes or memorandums are written.

   2. A book in which notes of hand are registered.


   Not"ed   (?),   a.  Well  known  by  reputation  or  report;  eminent;
   celebrated;  as,  a  noted  author, or traveler. -- Not"ed*ly, adv. --
   Not"ed*ness, n.


   Note"ful (?), a. Useful. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Note"less, a. Not attracting notice; not conspicuous.

     Noteless as the race from which he sprung. Sir W. Scott.


   Note"less*ness, n. A state of being noteless.


   Note"let (?), n. A little or short note; a billet.

                                  Note paper

   Note"  pa`per  (?).  Writing paper, not exceeding in size, when folded
   once, five by eight inches.


   Not"er (?), n.

   1. One who takes notice.

   2. An annotator. [Obs.]


   Note"wor`thy (?), a. Worthy of observation or notice; remarkable.


   Noth"er (?), conj. Neither; nor. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Noth"ing (?), n. [From no, a. + thing.]

   1.  Not anything; no thing (in the widest sense of the word thing); --
   opposed to anything and something.

     Yet had his aspect nothing of severe. Dryden.

   2.  Nonexistence;  nonentity; absence of being; nihility; nothingness.

   3.  A  thing  of  no account, value, or note; something irrelevant and
   impertinent;    something    of    comparative   unimportance;   utter
   insignificance; a trifle.

     Behold, ye are of nothing, and your work of nought. Is. xli. 24.

     'T  is  nothing, says the fool; but, says the friend, This nothing,
     sir, will bring you to your end. Dryden.

   4. (Arith.) A cipher; naught.
   Nothing  but,  only; no more than. Chaucer. -- To make nothing of. (a)
   To  make  no  difficulty of; to consider as trifling or important. "We
   are  industrious  to  preserve  our  bodies  from slavery, but we make
   nothing  of  suffering  our souls to be slaves to our lusts." Ray. (b)
   Not to understand; as, I could make nothing of what he said.
   Noth"ing, adv. In no degree; not at all; in no wise. 

     Adam, with such counsel nothing swayed. Milton.

     The  influence  of reason in producing our passions is nothing near
     so extensive as is commonly believed. Burke.

   Nothing  off  (Naut.),  an  order  to the steersman to keep the vessel
   close to the wind.


   Noth`ing*a"ri*an (?), n. One of no certain belief; one belonging to no
   particular sect.


   Noth"ing*ism (?), n. Nihility; nothingness. [R.]


   Noth"ing*ness, n.

   1. Nihility; nonexistence.

   2. The state of being of no value; a thing of no value.


   No"tice  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  L. notitia a being known, knowledge, fr.
   noscere, notum, to know. See Know.]

   1.  The  act  of  noting,  remarking, or observing; observation by the
   senses or intellect; cognizance; note.

     How  ready  is  envy  to  mingle  with the notices we take of other
     persons ! I. Watts.

   2.  Intelligence,  by  whatever means communicated; knowledge given or
   received;  means  of  knowledge;  express  notification; announcement;

     I  .  . . have given him notice that the Duke of Cornwall and Regan
     his duchess will be here. Shak.

   3. An announcement, often accompanied by comments or remarks; as, book
   notices; theatrical notices.

   4. A writing communicating information or warning.

   5. Attention; respectful treatment; civility.
   To  take  notice  of, to perceive especially; to observe or treat with
   particular  attention.  Syn. -- Attention; regard; remark; note; heed;
   consideration; respect; civility; intelligence; advice; news.


   No"tice,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Noticed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Noticing

   1.  To  observe;  to  see  to  mark;  to take note of; to heed; to pay
   attention to.

   2. To show that one has observed; to take public note of; remark upon;
   to make comments on; to refer to; as, to notice a book.

     This plant deserves to be noticed in this place. Tooke.

     Another  circumstance was noticed in connection with the suggestion
     last discussed. Sir W. Hamilton.

   3. To treat with attention and civility; as, to notice strangers. Syn.
   --  To remark; observe; perceive; see; mark; note; mind; regard; heed;
   mention. See Remark.


   No"tice*a*ble  (?),  a.  Capable  of being observed; worthy of notice;
   likely to attract observation; conspicous.

     A noticeable man, with large gray eyes. Wordsworth.


   No"tice*a*bly, adv. In a noticeable manner.


   No"ti*cer (?), n. One who notices.


   No`ti*da"ni*an  (?),  n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several species of
   sharks  of the family Notidanid\'91, or Hexanchid\'91. Called also cow
   sharks. See Shark.


   No`ti*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. notification. See Notify.]

   1.  The  act  of notifying, or giving notice; the act of making known;
   especially,  the  act  of giving official notice or information to the
   public  or  to  individuals, corporations, companies, or societies, by
   words, by writing, or by other means.

   2. Notice given in words or writing, or by signs.

   3.  The  writing  which communicates information; an advertisement, or
   citation, etc.


   No"ti*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Notified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Notifying  (?).]  [F.  notifier,  L. notificare; notus known (p. p. of
   noscere to known) + -ficare (in comp.) to make. See Know, and -fy.]

   1.  To  make  known; to declare; to publish; as, to notify a fact to a

     No law can bind till it be notified or promulged. Sowth.

   2.  To  give  notice  to;  to  inform  by  notice; to apprise; as, the
   constable has notified the citizens to meet at the city hall; the bell
   notifies us of the time of meeting.

     The  President  of  the  United  States  has  notified the House of
     Representatives that he has approved and signed the act. Journal of
     the Senate, U. S.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is application of notify has been condemned; but it
     is  in  constant  good  use  in  the  United States, and in perfect
     accordance with the use of certify.


   No"tion (?), [L. notio, fr. noscere to know: cf. F. notion. See Know.]

   1.  Mental apprehension of whatever may be known or imagined; an idea;
   a  conception;  more  properly,  a general or universal conception, as
   distinguishable or definable by marks or not\'91.

     What  hath  been  generally  agreed  on, I content myself to assume
     under the notion of principles. Sir I. Newton.

     Few agree in their notions about these words. Cheyne.

     That  notion  of hunger, cold, sound, color, thought, wish, or fear
     which is in the mind, is called the "idea" of hunger, cold, etc. I.

     Notion,   again,   signifies   either   the  act  of  apprehending,
     signalizing,  that is, the remarking or taking note of, the various
     notes,  marks,  or  characters  of  an  object  which its qualities
     afford, or the result of that act. Sir W. Hamilton.

   2. A sentiment; an opinion.

     The extravagant notion they entertain of themselves. Addison.

     A  perverse  will  easily  collects together a system of notions to
     justify itself in its obliquity. J. H. Newman.

   3. Sense; mind. [Obs.] Shak.

   4.  An  invention;  an  ingenious  device;  a  knickknack;  as, Yankee
   notions. [Colloq.]

   5.  Inclination; intention; disposition; as, I have a notion to do it.


   No"tion*al (?), a.

   1.  Consisting of, or conveying, notions or ideas; expressing abstract

   2. Existing in idea only; visionary; whimsical.

     Discourses of speculative and notional things. Evelyn.

   3.  Given  to  foolish or visionary expectations; whimsical; fanciful;
   as, a notional man.


   No`tion*al"i*ty  (?),  n.  A  notional  or  groundless  opinion.  [R.]


   No"tion*al*ly  (?), adv. In mental apprehension; in conception; not in

     Two faculties . . . notionally or really distinct. Norris.


   No"tion*ate (?), a. Notional. [R.]


   No"tion*ist,  n.  One  whose opinions are ungrounded notions. [R.] Bp.


   No"tist (?), n. An annotator. [Obs.]


   No`to*bran`chi*a*ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Notum,  and  Branchia.]
   (Zo\'94l.) (a) A division of nudibranchiate mollusks having gills upon
   the back. (b) The Dorsibranchiata.


   No`to*bran"chi*ate   (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the


   No"to*chord  (?), n. [Gr. chord.] (Anat.) An elastic cartilagelike rod
   which  is  developed  beneath  the  medullary groove in the vertebrate
   embryo,  and constitutes the primitive axial skeleton around which the
   centra  of  the  vertebr\'91 and the posterior part of the base of the
   skull are developed; the chorda dorsalis. See Illust. of Ectoderm.


   No`to*chor"dal  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Of  or pertaining to the notochord;
   having a notochord.


   No`to*don"tian  (?),  n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several species of
   bombycid  moths belonging to Notodonta, Nerice, and allied genera. The
   caterpillar of these moths has a hump, or spine, on its back.


   No`to*po"di*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  L.  Notopodia (#), E. Notopodiums (#).
   [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) The dorsal lobe or branch of a parapodium.
   See Parapodium.


   No`to*rhi"zal  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Bot.) Having the radicle of the embryo
   lying against the back of one of the cotyledons; incumbent.

   Page 984


   No`to*ri"e*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. notori\'82t\'82. See Notorious.] The
   quality  or condition of being notorious; the state of being generally
   or  publicly  known; -- commonly used in an unfavorable sense; as, the
   notoriety of a crime.

     They  were  not  subjects  in their own nature so exposed to public
     notoriety. Addison.


   No*to"ri*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  notorius  pointing out, making known, fr.
   noscere,  notum,  to known: cf. F. notoire. See Know.] Generally known
   and talked of by the public; universally believed to be true; manifest
   to  the  world;  evident;  --  usually  in an unfavorable sense; as, a
   notorious thief; a notorious crime or vice.

     Your goodness, Since you provoke me, shall be most notorious. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Distinguished;  remarkable;  conspicuous; celebrated; noted;
   famous;   renowned.<--   infamous   is   an   extreme   sense  -->  --
   No*to"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- No*to"ri*ous*ness, n.


   No*tor"nis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of birds allied to
   the  gallinules, but having rudimentary wings and incapable of flight.
   Notornis Mantelli was first known as a fossil bird of New Zealand, but
   subsequently  a  few  individuals  were  found  living on the southern
   island. It is supposed to be now nearly or quite extinct.


   No`to*the"ri*um  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An extinct genus of
   gigantic  herbivorous  marsupials,  found in the Pliocene formation of


   No`to*tre"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  pouched,  or
   marsupial, frog of South America.

                             Not-pated, Nott-pated

   Not"-pat`ed (?), Nott"-pat`ed, a. Same as Nott-headed. [Obs.] Shak.


   Not"self`  (?),  n.  (Metaph.)  The negative of self. "A cognizance of
   notself." Sir. W. Hamilton.


   Nott (?), a. [AS. hnot shorn.] Shorn. [Obs.]


   Nott, v. t. To shear. [Obs.] Stow.


   Nott"-head`ed (?), a. Having the hair cut close. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Not*tur"no (?), n. [It.] (Mus.) Same as Nocturne.


   No"tum (?), n.; pl. Nota (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The back.


   No"tus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. The south wind.


   Not"wheat` (?), n. [Nott + wheat.] Wheat not bearded. Carew.


   Not`with*stand"ing  (?), prep. Without prevention, or obstruction from
   or by; in spite of.

     We  gentil  women  bee Loth to displease any wight, Notwithstanding
     our great right. Chaucer's Dream.

     Those  on whom Christ bestowed miraculous cures were so transported
     that  their  gratitude  made them, notwithstanding his prohibition,
     proclaim the wonders he had done. Dr. H. More.

     NOTE: &hand; Notwithstanding was, by Johnson and Webster, viewed as
     a  participle  absolute,  an  English  equivalent  of the Latin non
     obstante.  Its  several meanings, either as preposition, adverb, or
     conjunction,  are  capable  of  being explained in this view. Later
     grammarians,  while  admitting  that  the  word  was  originally  a
     participle,  and  can  be  treated as such, prefer to class it as a
     preposition or disjunctive conjunction.

   Syn.  --  In  spite  of;  despite.  --  Notwithstanding,  In spite of,
   Despite.  These words and phrases are often interchanged, but there is
   a difference between them, chiefly in strength. Notwithstanding is the
   weaker  term, and simply points to some obstacle that may exist; as, I
   shall  go,  notwithstanding  the  rain.  In  spite  or  despite of has
   reference  primarily  to  active  opposition  to  be  encountered from
   others;  as,  "I'll be, in man's despite, a monarch; " "I'll keep mine
   own, despite of all the world." Shak. Hence, these words, when applied
   to  things, suppose greater opposition than notwithstanding. We should
   say.  "He  was thrust rudely out of doors in spite of his entreaties,"
   rather  than  "notwithstanding".  On  the other hand, it would be more
   civil  to say, "Notwithstanding all you have said, I must still differ
   with you."<-- only notwithstanding can be used postpositively -->


   Not`with*stand"ing,  adv.  OR  conj.  [Originally  the  participle  of
   withstand,  with not prefixed.] Nevertheless; however; although; as, I
   shall go, notwithstanding it rains.

     I  will  surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy
     servant. Notwithstanding, in thy days I will not do it. 1 Kings xi.
     11, 12.

     They  which honor the law as an image of the wisdom of God himself,
     are,  notwithstanding,  to know that the same had an end in Christ.

     You  did  wisely  and  honestly  too,  notwithstanding  She  is the
     greatest beauty in the parish. Fielding.

   Notwithstanding that, notwithstanding; although.

     These days were ages to him, notwithstanding that he was basking in
     the smiles of the pretty Mary. W. Irving.


   Nouch (?), n. [See Ouch.] An ouch; a jewel. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nou`gat"  (?),  n.  [F.] A cake, sweetmeat, or confecti\'a2n made with
   almonds or other nuts.


   Nought (?), n. & adv. See Naught. Chaucer.


   Nould  (?).  [Contr.  fr.  ne  would.] Would not. [Obs.] "By those who
   nould repent." Fairfax.


   Noule  (?),  n.  [See  Noll.]  The  top of the head; the head or noll.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Nou"me*nal  (?),  a. (Metaph.) Of or pertaining to the noumenon; real;
   -- opposed to phenomenal. G. H. Lewes.


   Nou"me*non  (?),  n.  [NL. fr. Gr. (Metaph.) The of itself unknown and
   unknowable rational object, or thing in itself, which is distinguished
   from the phenomenon through which it is apprehended by the senses, and
   by  which  it  is  interpreted  and  understood;  --  so  used  in the
   philosophy of Kant and his followers.


   Noun (?), n. [OF. noun, nun, num, non, nom, F. nom, fr. L. nomen name.
   See  Name.] (Gram.) A word used as the designation or appellation of a
   creature or thing, existing in fact or in thought; a substantive.

     NOTE: &hand; By  so me gr ammarians th e term noun is so used as to
     include  adjectives,  as  being  descriptive;  but in general it is
     limited to substantives.


   Noun"al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a noun.

     Verbs  which  in  whole or in part have shed their old nounal coat.


   Noun"ize  (?), v. t. To change (an adjective, verb, etc.) into a noun.
   Earle.<-- = nominalize -->


   Nour"ice (?), n. A nurse. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Nour"ish  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Nourished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nourishing.]  [OE.  norisen,  norischen,  OF. nurir, nurrir, norir, F.
   norrir, fr. L. nutrire. Cf. Nurse, Nutriment, and see -ish.]

   1.  To  feed  and cause to grow; to supply with matter which increases
   bulk   or  supplies  waste,  and  promotes  health;  to  furnish  with

     He planteth an ash, and the rain doth nourish it. Is. xliv. 14.

   2. To support; to maintain.

     Whiles I in Ireland nourish a mighty band. Shak.

   3.  To  supply  the means of support and increase to; to encourage; to
   foster;  as,  to  nourish  rebellion; to nourish the virtues. "Nourish
   their contentions." Hooker.

   4. To cherish; to comfort.

     Ye have nourished your hearts. James v. 5.

   5.  To  educate;  to instruct; to bring up; to nurture; to promote the
   growth of in attainments. Chaucer.

     Nourished up in the words of faith. 1 Tim. iv. 6.

   Syn. -- To cherish; feed; supply. See Nurture.


   Nour"ish, v. i.

   1. To promote growth; to furnish nutriment.

     Grains and roots nourish more than their leaves. Bacon.

   2. To gain nourishment. [R.] Bacon.


   Nour"ish, n. A nurse. [Obs.] Hoolland.


   Nour"ish*a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. nourrissable.]

   1.  Capable of being nourished; as, the nourishable parts of the body.

   2. Capable of giving nourishment. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Nour"ish*er (?), n. One who, or that which, nourishes. Milton.


   Nour"ish*ing, a. Promoting growth; nutritious,


   Nour"ish*ing*ly, adv. Nutritively; cherishingly.


   Nour"ish*ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. norrissement.]

   1. The act of nourishing, or the state of being nourished; nutrition.

   2. That which serves to nourish; nutriment; food.

     Learn to seek the nourishment of their souls. Hooker.


   Nour"i*ture (?), n. Nurture. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Nour"sle  (?),  v. t. [Freq., fr. OE. nourse. See Nurse.] To nurse; to
   rear; to bring up. [Obs.] [Written also nosel, nousel, nousle, nowsle,
   nusle, nuzzle, etc.]

     She noursled him till years he raught. Spenser.


   Nous  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. Intellect; understanding; talent; -- used

                                Nousel, Nousle

   Nous"el, Nou"sle (?), v. t. [See Noose.] To insnare; to entrap. [Obs.]

                                Nouthe, Nowthe

   Nou"the, Now"the (?), adv. [Now + the.] Just now; at present. [Obs.]

     But thereof needeth not to speak as nouthe. Chaucer.


   No*vac"u*lite  (?),  n.  [L.  novacula  a  sharp  knife, razor: cf. F.
   novaculite.]  (Min.)  A variety of siliceous slate, of which hones are
   made; razor stone; Turkey stone; hone stone; whet slate.


   No*va"tian  (?),  n.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  One  of the sect of Novatius, or
   Novatianus,  who held that the lapsed might not be received again into
   communion with the church, and that second marriages are unlawful.


   No*va"tian*ism  (?),  n. The doctrines or principles of the Novatians.


   No*va"tion (?), n. [L. novatio; novus new: cf. F. novation.]

   1. Innovation. [Obs.]

     I shall easily grant that novations in religion are a main cause of
     distempers in commonwealths. Laud.

   2.  (Law)  A  substitution  of  a  new  debt for an old one; also, the
   remodeling of an old obligation.


   No*va"tor (?), n. An innovator. [Obs.]


   Nov"el  (?),  a.  [OF.  novel, nuvel, F. nouvel, nouveau, L. novellus,
   dim.  of  novus  new.  See New.] Of recent origin or introduction; not
   ancient;  new;  hence,  out  of the ordinary course; unusual; strange;

     NOTE: &hand; In civil law, the novel or new constitutions are those
     which  are  supplemental  to the code, and posterior in time to the
     other books. These contained new decrees of successive emperors.

   Novel  assignment  (Law), a new assignment or specification of a suit.
   Syn.  -- New; recent; modern; fresh; strange; uncommon; rare; unusual.
   --  Novel,  New  .  Everything at its first occurrence is new; that is
   novel which is so much out of the ordinary course as to strike us with
   surprise. That is a new sight which is beheld for the first time; that
   is  a  novel  sight  which either was never seen before or is seen but
   seldom.  We  have  daily new inventions, but a novel one supposes some
   very  peculiar means of attaining its end. Novel theories are regarded
   with distrust, as likely to prove more ingenious than sound.


   Nov"el, n. [F. nouvelle. See Novel, a.]

   1. That which is new or unusual; a novelty.

   2. pl. News; fresh tidings. [Obs.]

     Some came of curiosity to hear some novels. Latimer.

   3.  A fictitious tale or narrative, professing to be conformed to real
   life; esp., one intended to exhibit the operation of the passions, and
   particularly of love. Dryden.

   4. [L. novellae (sc. constitutiones): cf. F. novelles.] (Law) A new or
   supplemental constitution. See the Note under Novel, a.


   Nov`el*ette" (?), n. [Dim. of novel, n. See Novel.] A short novel.


   Nov"el*ism (?), n. Innovation. [Obs.]


   Nov"el*ist, n.

   1. An innovator; an asserter of novelty. [Obs.] Cudworth.

   2.  [Cf.  F.  nouvelliste,  It.  novellista.] A writer of news. [Obs.]
   Tatler (178).

   3. [Cf. F. nouvelliste.] A writer of a novel or novels.


   Nov"el*ize (?), v. i. To innovate. [Obs.]


   Nov"el*ize,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Novelized  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Novelizing (?).]

   1. To innovate. [Obs.]

   2.  To  put  into  the  form  of  novels; to represent by fiction. "To
   novelize history." Sir J. Herschel.


   Nov"el*ry  (?),  n.  [OF.  novelerie.]  Novelty;  new  things.  [Obs.]


   Nov"el*ty   (?),   n.;   pl.   Novelties   (#).  [OF.  novelt\'82,  F.
   nouveaut\'82, L. novellitas.]

   1. The quality or state of being novel; newness; freshness; recentness
   of origin or introduction.

     Novelty is the great parent of pleasure. South.

   2. Something novel; a new or strange thing.


   No*vem"ber  (?), n. [L. November, or Novembris (sc. mensis), the ninth
   month  of  the old Roman year, which began with March, fr. novem nine:
   cf. F. Novembre. See Nine.] The eleventh month of the year, containing
   thirty days.


   Nov"e*na*ry (?), a. [L. novenarius, from novem nine.] Of or pertaining
   to the number nine.


   Nov"e*na*ry, n. The number of nine units; nine, collectively.


   No"vene  (?),  a.  [L.  novenus nine each, in LL., ninth, fr. L. novem
   nine.] Relating to, or dependent on, the number nine; novenary. [R.]

     The triple and novene division ran throughout. Milman.


   No*ven"ni*al  (?),  a.  [L. novennis of nine years; novem nine + annus
   year.] Done or recurring every ninth year.


   No*ver"cal  (?),  a.  [L.  novennis  of nine years; novem nine + annus
   year.] Done or recurring every ninth year.


   No*ver"cal  (?),  a. [L. novercalis, from noverca a stepmother.] Of or
   pertaining  to  a  stepmother;  suitable  to,  or  in the manner of, a
   stepmother. Derham.


   Nov"ice  (?), n. [F., from L. novicius, novitius, new, from novus new.
   See New, and cf. Novitious.]

   1.  One  who  is  new  in  any  business,  profession, or calling; one
   unacquainted  or  unskilled;  one  yet in the rudiments; a beginner; a

     I am young; a novice in the trade. Dryden.

   2.  One  newly received into the church, or one newly converted to the
   Christian faith. 1 Tim. iii. 6.

   3. (Eccl.) One who enters a religious house, whether of monks or nuns,
   as a probationist. Shipley.

     No poore cloisterer, nor no novys. Chaucer.


   Nov"ice, a. Like a novice; becoming a novice. [Obs.]


   Nov"ice*ship (?), n. The state of being a novice; novitiate.


   No`vi*lu"nar  (?), a. [L. novus new + luna the moon.] Of or pertaining
   to the new moon. [R.]


   No*vi"ti*ate (?), n. [LL. novitiatus: cf. F. noviciat.]

   1.  The  state of being a novice; time of initiation or instruction in

   2.  Hence:  Time  of  probation in a religious house before taking the

   3.  One  who  is  going through a novitiate, or period of probation; a
   novice. Addison.

   4. The place where novices live or are trained. [R.]


   No*vi"tious  (?),  a. [L. novitius, novicius.] Newly invented; recent;
   new. [Obs.] Bp. Pearson.


   Nov"i*ty (?), n. [L. novitas, fr. novus new.] Newness; novelty. [Obs.]
   Sir T. Browne.


   No"vum (?), n. A game at dice, properly called novem quinque (L., nine
   five), the two principal throws being nine and five. [Obs.] Shak.


   Now (?), adv. [OE. nou, nu, AS. n\'d4, nu; akin to D., OS., & OHG. nu,
   G.  nu,  nun,  Icel.,  n\'d4,  Dan., Sw., & Goth. nu, L. nunc, Gr. nu,
   n\'d4. \'fb193. Cf. New.]

   1.  At  the  present  time;  at  this moment; at the time of speaking;
   instantly; as, I will write now.

     I  have  a  patient  now living, at an advanced age, who discharged
     blood from his lungs thirty years ago. Arbuthnot.

   2. Very lately; not long ago.

     They that but now, for honor and for plate, Made the sea blush with
     blood, resign their hate. Waller.

   3. At a time contemporaneous with something spoken of or contemplated;
   at a particular time referred to.

     The ship was now in the midst of the sea. Matt. xiv. 24.

   4.  In present circumstances; things being as they are; -- hence, used
   as a connective particle, to introduce an inference or an explanation.

     How  shall  any man distinguish now betwixt a parasite and a man of
     honor ? L'Estrange.

     Why should he live, now nature bankrupt is ? Shak.

     Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now,
     Barabbas was a robber. John xviii. 40.

     The other great and undoing mischief which befalls men is, by their
     being   misrepresented.  Now,  by  calling  evil  good,  a  man  is
     misrepresented to others in the way of slander. South.

   Now  and  again, now and then; occasionally. -- Now and now, again and
   again;  repeatedly.  [Obs.]  Chaucer. -- Now and then, at one time and
   another;  indefinitely; occasionally; not often; at intervals. "A mead
   here, there a heath, and now and then a wood." Drayton. -- Now now, at
   this  very  instant;  precisely  now.  [Obs.]  "Why,  even now now, at
   holding  up  of  this finger, and before the turning down of this." J.
   Webster  (1607).  --  Now . . . now, alternately; at one time . . . at
   another time. "Now high, now low, now master up, now miss." Pope.
   Now,  a.  Existing  at  the  present  time;  present.  [R.]  "Our  now
   happiness." Glanvill.
   Now, n. The present time or moment; the present.
     Nothing is there to come, and nothing past; But an eternal now does
     ever last. Cowley.
   Page 985
   Now"a*days`  (?), adv. [For now on (OE. an) days. See A-, 1.] In these
   days; at the present time.
     What  men  of  spirit, nowadays, Come to give sober judgment of new
     plays ? Garrick.
                                 Noway, Noways

   No"way`  (?),  No"ways`  (?),  adv.  [No, a. + way. Cf. -wards.] In no
   manner or degree; not at all; nowise.

     But Ireland will noways allow that name unto it. Fuller.


   Nowch (?), n. See Nouch. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nowd  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European gray gurnard (Trigla gurnardus).
   [Written also knoud.]


   Now"ed (?), a. [F. nou\'82, p. p. of nouer to knot, fr. L. nodare. See
   Nodated.] (Her.) Knotted; tied in a knot, as a serpent.


   Now"el (?), n. [See Noel.] [Written also no\'89l.]

   1.  Christmas;  also, a shout of joy at Christmas for the birth of the
   Savior. [Obs.]

   2.  (Mus.) A kind of hymn, or canticle, of medi\'91val origin, sung in
   honor of the Nativity of our Lord; a Christmas carol. Grove.


   Now"el,  n.  [F.  noyau,  prop.,  a  kernel. See Noyau, Newel a post.]
   (Founding)  (a)  The  core, or the inner part, of a mold for casting a
   large  hollow  object. (b) The bottom part of a mold or of a flask, in
   distinction from the cope; the drag.


   Nowes (?), n. pl. [From OF. nous. See Noose, Node.] The marriage knot.
   [Obs.] Crashaw.


   No"where`  (?),  adv.  [AS.  n\'behw\'d6r.  See  No,  and  Where.] Not
   anywhere;  not  in  any  place or state; as, the book is nowhere to be


   No"whith`er (?), adv. [No + whither.] Not anywhither; in no direction;
   nowhere. [Archaic] "Thy servant went nowhither." 2 Kings v. 25.


   No"wise` (?), adv. [For in no wise. See Wise, n.] Not in any manner or
   degree; in no way; noways.

     Others whose case is nowise different. Earle.


   Nowt (?), n. pl. (Zo\'94l.) Neat cattle.


   Now"the (?). See Nouthe. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Nox"ious  (?),  a.  [L. noxius, fr. noxa harm; akin to nocere to harm,
   hurt. Cf. Nuisance, Necromancy.]

   1.  Hurtful;  harmful;  baneful;  pernicious;  injurious; destructive;
   unwholesome;   insalubrious;   as,  noxious  air,  food,  or  climate;
   pernicious; corrupting to morals; as, noxious practices or examples.

     Too frequent an appearance in places of public resort is noxious to
     spiritual promotions. Swift.

   2. Guilty; criminal. [R.]

     Those who are noxious in the eye of the law. Abp. Bramhall.

   Syn. -- Noisome; hurtful; harmful; injurious; destructive; pernicious;
   mischievous;   corrupting;  baneful;  unwholesome;  insalubrious.  See
   Noisome. -- Nox"ious*ly, adv. -- Nox"ious*ness, n.


   Noy  (?),  v.  t.  [See Annoy.] To annoy; to vex. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
   Piers Plowman.

     All that noyed his heavy spright. Spenser.


   Noy, n. That which annoys. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.


   Noy"ance (?), Annoyance. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Noy`au"  (?),  n.  [F.,  prop.,  the  stone  or nut of a fruit, fr. L.
   nucalis  like  a  nut.  See  Newel a post.] A cordial of brandy, etc.,
   flavored  with the kernel of the bitter almond, or of the peach stone,


   Noy"er (?), n. An annoyer. [Obs.] Tusser.


   Noy"ful (?), a. Full of annoyance. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Noyls (?), n. pl. See Noils.


   Noy"ous (?), a. Annoying; disagreeable. [Obs.]

     Watch the noyous night, and wait for Spenser.


   No"zle (?), n. Nozzle. [Obs.]


   Noz"zle (?), n. [A dim. of nose. &root;261] [Written also nosle.]

   1.  The  nose;  the snout; hence, the projecting vent of anything; as,
   the nozzle of a bellows.

   2.  Specifically: (a) A short tube, usually tapering, forming the vent
   of  a hose or pipe. (b) A short outlet, or inlet, pipe projecting from
   the  end  or  side of a hollow vessel, as a steam-engine cylinder or a
   steam boiler.


   Nu`ance" (?), n. [F.] A shade of difference; a delicate gradation.


   Nub  (?), v. t. [Cf. Knob.] To push; to nudge; also, to beckon. [Prov.


   Nub,  n.  A  jag,  or snag; a knob; a protuberance; also, the point or
   gist, as of a story. [Colloq.]


   Nub"bin (?), n. A small or imperfect ear of maize. [Colloq. U. S.]


   Nub"ble  (?), v. t. [Cf. LG. nubben to knock, cuff.] To beat or bruise
   with the fist. [Obs.] Ainsworth.


   Nu*bec"u*la  (?),  n.;  pl. Nubecul\'91 (-l&emac;). [L., dim. of nubes

   1.  (Astron.)  (a)  A  nebula.  (b)  pl.  Specifically, the Magellanic

   2.  (Med.)  (a)  A  slight  spot on the cornea. (b) A cloudy object or
   appearance in urine. Dunglison.


   Nu"bi*a (?), n. [From L. nubes cloud.] A light fabric of wool, worn on
   the head by women; a cloud.


   Nu"bi*an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Nubia in Eastern Africa. -- n. A
   native of Nubia.


   Nu*bif"er*ous (?), a. [L. nubifer; nubes cloud + ferre to bear: cf. F.
   nubif\'8are.] Bringing, or producing, clouds.


   Nu*big"e*nous (?), a. [L. nubes cloud + -genous.] Born of, or produced
   from, clouds. [R.]


   Nu"bi*late  (?),  v. t. [L. nubilatus, p. p. of nubilare to cloud, fr.
   nubes cloud.] To cloud. [Obs.]


   Nu"bile  (?),  a. [L. nubilis, fr. nubere to marry: cf. F. nubile. See
   Nuptial.] Of an age suitable for marriage; marriageable. Prior. <-- 2.
   [of  a  young  woman] Sexually attractive, sometimes used as a genteel
   euphemism for "having well-developed breasts". -->


   Nu*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  nubilit\'82  .]  The  state  of being
   marriageable. [R.]

                              Nubilose, Nubilous

   Nu"bi*lose`  (?), Nu"bi*lous (?), a. [L. nubilosus, nubilus, fr. nubes
   cloud.] Cloudy. [R.]


   Nu"ca*ment  (?),  n.  [L. nucamenta fir cones, fr. nux, nucis, a nut.]
   (Bot.)  A  catkin  or  ament;  the  flower cluster of the hazel, pine,
   willow, and the like.


   Nu`ca*men*ta"ceous (?), a. [See Nucament.] (Bot.) Like a nut either in
   structure  or in being indehiscent; bearing one-seeded nutlike fruits.
   [Written also nucumentaceous.]


   Nu*cel"lus (?), n.; pl. Nucelli (#). [NL., dim. of nux, nucis, a nut.]
   (Bot.) See Nucleus, 3 (a).


   Nu"cha  (?), n.; pl. Nuch (#). [LL.] (Zo\'94l.) The back or upper part
   of the neck; the nape.


   Nu"chal  (?),  a. [Cf. F. nucal.] (Anat.) Of, pertaining to, or in the
   region  of,  the  back, or nape, of the neck; -- applied especially to
   the anterior median plate in the carapace of turtles.


   Nu*cif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  nux,  nucis, nut + -ferous.] Bearing, or
   producing, nuts.


   Nu"ci*form  (?), a. [L. nux, nucis, nut + -form.] (Bot.) Shaped like a
   nut; nut-shaped.


   Nu"cin (?), n. [L. nux, nucis, a nut.] (Chem.) See Juglone.

                               Nucleal, Nuclear

   Nu"cle*al  (?),  Nu"cle*ar  (?), a. Of or pertaining to a nucleus; as,
   the  nuclear  spindle  (see  Illust.  of  Karyokinesis) or the nuclear
   fibrils of a cell; the nuclear part of a comet, etc.


   Nu"cle*ate  (?),  a. [L. nucleatus having a kernel.] Having a nucleus;


   Nu"cle*ate (?), v. t. [Cf. L. nucleare to become kernelly.] To gather,
   as about a nucleus or center.


   Nu"cle*a`ted (?), a. Having a nucleus; nucleate; as, nucleated cells.


   Nu*cle"i*form  (?),  a.  [L.  nucleus  kernel  + -form.] Formed like a
   nucleus or kernel.


   Nu"cle*in  (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A constituent of the nuclei of all
   cells.  It  is  a  colorless  amorphous  substance, readily soluble in
   alkaline  fluids  and  especially  characterized  by its comparatively
   large   content   of   phosphorus.   It  also  contains  nitrogen  and
   sulphur.\'3c--containing protein and nucleic acid--\'3e


   Nu"cle*o*branch  (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Belonging to the Nucleobranchiata.
   -- n. One of the Nucleobranchiata.


   Nu`cle*o*bran`chi*a"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL. See Nucleus, and Branchia]
   (Zo\'94l.) See Heteropoda.


   Nu`cle*o*id`i*o*plas"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.  See Nucleus, and Idioplasma.]
   (Biol.) Hyaline plasma contained in the nucleus of vegetable cells.


   Nu*cle"o*lar  (?),  a.  (Biol.) Of or pertaining to the nucleolus of a


   Nu"cle*o*la`ted (?), a. Having a nucleole, or second inner nucleus.


   Nu"cle*ole  (?),  n.  [See  Nucleolus.]  The nucleus within a nucleus;


   Nu*cle"o*lus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Nucleoli (#). [L., a little nut, dim. of

   1. A little nucleus.

   2.  (Biol.) A small rounded body contained in the nucleus of a cell or
   a protozoan.

     NOTE: &hand; It  wa s te rmed by  Ag assiz th e en toblast. In  the
     protozoa,  where  it may be situated on one side of the nucleus, it
     is  sometimes  called  the  endoplastule,  and  is  supposed  to be
     concerned  in  the  male  part  of  the  reproductive  process. See


   Nu"cle*o*plasm   (?),  n.  [Nucleus  +  -plasm.]  (Biol.)  The  matter
   composing  the  nucleus  of  a  cell;  the  protoplasm of the nucleus;


   Nu`cle*o*plas"mic  (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to nucleoplasm; --
   esp.  applied  to a body formed in the developing ovum from the plasma
   of the nucleus of the germinal vesicle.


   Nu"cle*us (?), n.; pl. E. Nucleuses (#), L. Nuclei (#). [L., a kernel,
   dim. fr. nux, nucis, nut. Cf. Newel post.]

   1.  A  kernel;  hence,  a  central mass or point about which matter is
   gathered,  or  to  which  accretion  is  made; the central or material
   portion; -- used both literally and figuratively.

     It must contain within itself a nucleus of truth. I. Taylor.

   2. (Astron.) The body or the head of a comet.

   3.  (Bot.) (a) An incipient ovule of soft cellular tissue. (b) A whole
   seed, as contained within the seed coats.

   4.  (Biol.)  A  body,  usually  spheroidal,  in a cell or a protozoan,
   distinguished  from  the  surrounding  protoplasm  by  a difference in
   refrangibility  and  in behavior towards chemical reagents. It is more
   or  less  protoplasmic,  and  consists  of  a clear fluid (achromatin)
   through  which extends a network of fibers (chromatin) in which may be
   suspended  a second rounded body, the nucleolus (see Nucleoplasm). See
   Cell  division,  under Division. <-- it contains the genetic material,
   DNA -->

     NOTE: &hand; Th e nu cleus is  so metimes te rmed th e endoplast or
     endoblast,  and  in the protozoa is supposed to be concerned in the
     female part of the reproductive process. See Karyokinesis.

   5.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) The tip, or earliest part, of a univalve or bivalve
   shell. (b) The central part around which additional growths are added,
   as  of  an  operculum. (c) A visceral mass, containing the stomach and
   other organs, in Tunicata and some mollusks.


   Nu"cu*la  (?),  n.  [L.,  little  nut,  dim.  of  nux,  nucis, a nut.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus  of  small marine bivalve shells, having a pearly


   Nu"cle (?), n. [L. nucula a small nut.] (Bot.) Same as Nutlet.


   Nu`cu*men*ta"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) See Nucamentaceous.


   Nu*da"tion  (?),  n.  [L. nudatio, fr. nudare to make naked, fr. nudus
   naked. See Nude.] The act of stripping, or making bare or naked.


   Nud"dle  (?),  v.  i.  To  walk quickly with the head bent forward; --
   often with along. [Prov. Eng.]


   Nude (?), a. [L. nudus. See Naked.]

   1. Bare; naked; unclothed; undraped; as, a nude statue.

   2.  (Law) Naked; without consideration; void; as, a nude contract. See
   Nudum pactum. Blackstone.
   The  nude,  the  undraped  human  figure  in  art.  --  Nude"ly, adv.-
   Nude"ness, n.


   Nudge  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Nudge (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nudging.]
   [Cf.  Prov.  G.  kn\'81tschen  to  squeeze, pinch, E. Knock.] To touch
   gently,  as  with  the  elbow,  in  order  to call attention or convey


   Nudge (?), n. A gentle push, or jog, as with the elbow.


   Nu`di*brach"i*ate  (?),  a.  [L.  nudus  naked  +  brachium  an  arm.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Having tentacles without vibratile cilia. Carpenter.


   Nu"di*branch   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Of   or   pertaining   to  the
   Nudibranchiata. -- n. One of the Nudibranchiata.


   Nu`di*bran`chi*a"ta   (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Nude,  and  Branchia.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  division of opisthobranchiate mollusks, having no shell
   except  while  very  young.  The gills are naked and situated upon the
   back or sides. See Ceratobranchia.


   Nu`di*bran"chi*ate (?), a. & n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Nudibranch.


   Nu"di*caul  (?),  a. [L. nudus naked + caulis stem.] (Bot.) Having the
   stems leafless.


   Nu`di*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. nudus naked + -ficare (in comp.) to make.
   See -fy.] The act of making nude.


   Nu"di*ty (?), n.; pl. Nudities (#). [Cf. F. nudit\'82 .]

   1. The quality or state of being nude; nakedness.

   2.  That  which  is  nude  or naked; naked part; undraped or unclothed
   portion; esp. (Fine Arts), the human figure represented unclothed; any
   representation  of  nakedness;  -- chiefly used in the plural and in a
   bad sense.

     There  are  no  such  licenses permitted in poetry any more than in
     painting, to design and color obscene nudities. Dryden.

                                 Nudum pactum

   Nu"dum  pac"tum  (?). [L., a nude pact.] (Law) A bare, naked contract,
   without any consideration. Tomlins.<-- = naked promise? -->


   Nu*gac"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  nugacitas,  fr.  nugax,  -acis, trifling.]
   Futility; trifling talk or behavior; drollery. [R.] Dr. H. More.


   Nu"g\'91 (?), n. pl. [L.] Trifles; jests.


   Nu*ga"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF.  nugation.]  The  act  or  practice of
   trifling. [R.] Bacon.


   Nu"ga*to*ry (?), a. [L. nugatorius, fr. nugari to trifle, nugae jests,

   1. Trifling; vain; futile; insignificant.

   2. Of no force; inoperative; ineffectual.

     If  all  are  pardoned, and pardoned as a mere act of clemency, the
     very substance of government is made nugatory. I. Taylor.


   Nug"get  (?),  n.  [Earlier  niggot,  prob.  for  nigot, an ingot. See
   Ingot.]  A lump; a mass, esp. a native lump of a precious metal; as, a
   nugget of gold.


   Nu"gi*fy  (?),  v. t. [L. nuggae trifles + -fy.] To render trifling or
   futile; to make silly. [R.] Coleridge.


   Nui"sance  (?),  n.  [OE.  noisance,  OF.  noisance,  nuisance, fr. L.
   nocentia  guilt,  fr. nocere to hurt, harm; akin to necare to kill. Cf
   Necromancy,  Nocent,  Noxious, Pernicious.] That which annoys or gives
   trouble and vexation; that which is offensive or noxious.

     NOTE: &hand; Nu isances ar e pu blic wh en th ey an noy citizens in
     general; private, when they affect individuals only.


   Nui"san*cer (?), n. (Law) One who makes or causes a nuisance.


   Nul  (?),  a.  [F. See Null, a.] (Law) No; not any; as, nul disseizin;
   nul tort.


   Null  (?),  a. [L. nullus not any, none; ne not + ullus any, a dim. of
   unus  one;  cf. F. nul. See No, and One, and cf. None.] Of no legal or
   binding  force  or  validity; of no efficacy; invalid; void; nugatory;

     Faultily   faultless,   icily   regular,   splendidly   null,  Dead
     perfection; no more. Tennyson.


   Null, n.

   1. Something that has no force or meaning.

   2. That which has no value; a cipher; zero. Bacon.
   Null method (Physics.), a zero method. See under Zero.


   Null,  v.  t.  [From null, a., or perh. abbrev. from annul.] To annul.
   [Obs.] Milton.


   Null, n. [Etymol. uncertain.] One of the beads in nulled work.


   Nulled   (?),   a.  Turned  so  as  to  resemble  nulls.  Nulled  work
   (Cabinetwork), ornamental turned work resembling nulls or beads strung
   on a rod.


   Nul`li*bi"e*ty (?), n. [L. nullibi nowhere.] The state or condition of
   being nowhere. [Obs.]


   Nul`li*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. nullificatio contempt. See Nullify.] The
   act  of  nullifying; a rendering void and of no effect, or of no legal
   effect.  Right  of  nullification  (U. S. Hist.), the right claimed in
   behalf  of  a  State  to nullify or make void, by its sovereign act or
   decree,  an  enactment  of  the  general  government  which  it  deems


   Nul`li*fid"i*an  (?),  a.  [L. nullus none + fide faith.] Of no faith;
   also,  not  trusting to faith for salvation; -- opposed to solifidian.


   Nul`li*fid"i*an, n. An unbeliever. B. Jonson.


   Nul"li*fi`er  (?),  n.  One  who  nullifies  or  makes  void;  one who
   maintains the right to nullify a contract by one of the parties.


   Nul"li*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Nullified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Nullifying  (?).] [L. nullificare; nullus none + -ficare (in comp.) to
   make.  See  Null,  a.,  and  -fy.] To make void; to render invalid; to
   deprive of legal force or efficacy.

     Such  correspondence  would  at  once nullify the conditions of the
     probationary system. I. Taylor.

   Syn.  --  To  abrogate; revoke; annul; repeal; invalidate; cancel. See


   Nul"li*pore  (?),  n. [L. nullus none + porus pope.] (Bot.) A name for
   certain  crustaceous marine alg\'91 which secrete carbonate of lime on
   their  surface, and were formerly thought to be of animal nature. They
   are   now   considered   corallines   of   the  genera  Melobesia  and

   Page 986


   Nul"li*ty  (?), n.; pl. Nullities. [LL. nullitias, fr. L. nullus none:
   cf. F. nullit\'82 . See Null.]

   1.  The  quality or state of being null; nothingness; want of efficacy
   or force.

   2. (Law) Nonexistence; as, a decree of nullity of marriage is a decree
   that no legal marriage exists.

   3. That which is null.

     Was  it  not  absurd  to say that the convention was supreme in the
     state, and yet a nullity ? Macaulay.


   Numb  (?), a. [OE. nume, nome, prop., seized, taken, p. p. of nimen to
   take,  AS.  niman,  p.  p.  numen.  \'fb7.  See Nimble, Nomad, and cf.

   1.  Enfeebled  in, or destitute of, the power of sensation and motion;
   rendered  torpid;  benumbed;  insensible; as, the fingers or limbs are
   numb with cold. "A stony image, cold and numb." Shak.

   2.  Producing  numbness;  benumbing;  as, the numb, cold night. [Obs.]


   Numb, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Numbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Numbing (?).] To
   make  numb;  to deprive of the power of sensation or motion; to render
   senseless or inert; to deaden; to benumb; to stupefy.

     For lazy winter numbs the laboring hand. Dryden.

     Like dull narcotics, numbing pain. Tennyson.


   Numb"ed*ness (?), n. Numbness. [Obs.] Wiseman.


   Num"ber  (?), n. [OE. nombre, F. nombre, L. numerus; akin to Gr. Numb,
   Nomad, and cf. Numerate, Numero, Numerous.]

   1.  That  which  admits  of  being  counted or reckoned; a unit, or an
   aggregate   of   units;   a   numerable  aggregate  or  collection  of
   individuals;  an  assemblage made up of distinct things expressible by

   2.  A  collection  of  many  individuals;  a  numerous  assemblage;  a
   multitude; many.

     Ladies are always of great use to the party they espouse, and never
     fail to win over numbers. Addison.

   3.  A  numeral;  a  word  or character denoting a number; as, to put a
   number on a door.

   4. Numerousness; multitude.

     Number  itself importeth not much in armies where the people are of
     weak courage. Bacon.

   5. The state or quality of being numerable or countable.

     Of whom came nations, tribes, people, and kindreds out of number. 2
     Esdras iii. 7.

   6. Quantity, regarded as made up of an aggregate of separate things.

   7.  That  which is regulated by count; poetic measure, as divisions of
   time  or number of syllables; hence, poetry, verse; -- chiefly used in
   the plural.

     I lisped in numbers, for the numbers came. Pope.

   8.  (Gram.)  The  distinction of objects, as one, or more than one (in
   some languages, as one, or two, or more than two), expressed (usually)
   by  a  difference in the form of a word; thus, the singular number and
   the  plural number are the names of the forms of a word indicating the
   objects  denoted  or  referred  to by the word as one, or as more than

   9. (Math.) The measure of the relation between quantities or things of
   the  same  kind; that abstract species of quantity which is capable of
   being expressed by figures; numerical value.
   Abstract  number,  Abundant  number,  Cardinal  number, etc. See under
   Abstract,  Abundant, etc. -- In numbers, in numbered parts; as, a book
   published in numbers.
   Num"ber,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Numbered (?); p. pr & vb. n. Numbering.]
   [OE.  nombren,  noumbren,  F. nombrer, fr. L. numerare, numeratum. See
   Number, n.] 

   1. To count; to reckon; to ascertain the units of; to enumerate.

     If a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also
     be numbered. Gen. xiii. 16.

   2. To reckon as one of a collection or multitude.

     He was numbered with the transgressors. Is. liii. 12.

   3.  To give or apply a number or numbers to; to assign the place of in
   a  series by order of number; to designate the place of by a number or
   numeral;  as, to number the houses in a street, or the apartments in a

   4.  To  amount; to equal in number; to contain; to consist of; as, the
   army numbers fifty thousand.

     Thy tears can not number the dead. Campbell.

   Numbering  machine,  a machine for printing consecutive numbers, as on
   railway  tickets,  bank  bills,  etc.  Syn.  --  To  count; enumerate;
   calculate; tell.


   Num"ber*er (?), n. One who numbers.


   Num"ber*ful (?), a. Numerous. [Obs.]


   Num"ber*less, a. Innumerable; countless.


   Num"ber*ous (?), a. Numerous. [Obs.] Drant.


   Num"bers  (?),  n.  pl.  of Number. The fourth book of the Pentateuch,
   containing the census of the Hebrews.


   Numb"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The torpedo, which numbs by the electric
   shocks which it gives.


   Num"bless (?), n. pl. See Nombles.


   Numb"ness  (?), n. The condition of being numb; that state of a living
   body  in  which  it  loses, wholly or in part, the power of feeling or


   Nu"mer*a*ble  (?),  a.  [L. numerabilis. See Number, v. t.] Capable of
   being numbered or counted.


   Nu"mer*al   (?),   a.  [L.  numeralis,  fr.  numerus  number:  cf.  F.
   num\'82ral. See Number, n.]

   1. Of or pertaining to number; consisting of number or numerals.

     A long train of numeral progressions. Locke.

   2.  Expressing  number;  representing  number;  as, numeral letters or
   characters, as X or 10 for ten.


   Nu"mer*al, n.

   1.  A  figure  or  character  used to express a number; as, the Arabic
   numerals, 1, 2, 3, etc.; the Roman numerals, I, V, X, L, etc.

   2. A word expressing a number.


   Nu"mer*al*ly, adv. According to number; in number; numerically.


   Nu"mer*a*ry  (?),  a. [LL. numerarius: cf. F. num\'82raire.] Belonging
   to a certain number; counting as one of a collection or body.

     A  supernumerary  canon,  when  he  obtains  a  prebend,  becomes a
     numerary canon. Ayliffe.


   Nu"mer*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Numerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Numerating  (?).]  [L.  numeratus,  p.  p.  of  numerare to count. See
   Number,  v.] (Arith.) To divide off and read according to the rules of
   numeration; as, to numerate a row of figures.


   Nu`mer*a"tion   (?),   n.   [L.  numeratio  a  counting  out:  cf.  F.

   1. The act or art of numbering.

     Numeration  is but still the adding of one unit more, and giving to
     the whole a new name or sign. Locke.

   2.  The  act  or  art  of  reading  numbers when expressed by means of
   numerals. The term is almost exclusively applied to the art of reading
   numbers  written  in the scale of tens, by the Arabic method. Davies &

     NOTE: &hand; Fo r co nvenience in  re ading, nu mbers ar e us ually
     separated  by  commas  into  periods  of  three  figures  each,  as
     1,155,465.  According  to  what is called the "English" system, the
     billion is a million of millions, a trillion a million of billions,
     and  each higher denomination is a million times the one preceding.
     According to the system of the French and other Continental nations
     and  also  that  of  the  United  States, the billion is a thousand
     millions,  and  each  higher  denomination  is a thousand times the


   Nu"mer*a*tive (?), a. Of or pertaining to numeration; as, a numerative
   system. Eng. Cyc.


   Nu"mer*a"tor (?), n. [L. numerator: cf. F. num\'82rateur.]

   1. One who numbers.

   2.  (Math.)  The  term  in  a  fraction  which indicates the number of
   fractional units that are taken.

     NOTE: &hand; In  a vulgar fraction the numerator is written above a
     line;  thus,  in the fraction 5/9 (five ninths) 5 is the numerator;
     in  a  decimal  fraction it is the number which follows the decimal
     point. See Fraction.

                              Numeric, Numerical

   Nu*mer"ic  (?), Nu*mer"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. num\'82rique. See Number,

   1.  Belonging  to  number;  denoting  number;  consisting  in numbers;
   expressed  by  numbers,  and  not letters; as, numerical characters; a
   numerical equation; a numerical statement.

     NOTE: &hand; Nu merical, as  op posed to  al gebraical, is  used to
     denote  a  value  irrespective of its sign; thus, -5 is numerically
     greater than -3, though algebraically less.


   2. The same in number; hence, identically the same; identical; as, the
   same numerical body. [Obs.] South.

     Would  to God that all my fellow brethren, which with me bemoan the
     loss  of their books, . . . might rejoice for the recovery thereof,
     though not the same numerical volumes. Fuller.

   Numerical  equation  (Alg.),  an equation which has all the quantities
   except the unknown expressed in numbers; -- distinguished from literal
   equation.  --  Numerical  value  of  an  equation  or expression, that
   deduced by substituting numbers for the letters, and reducing.


   Nu*mer"ic,  n.  (Math.)  Any  number,  proper or improper fraction, or
   incommensurable ratio. The term also includes any imaginary expression
   like m + n&root;-1, where m and n are real numerics.


   Nu*mer"ic*al*ly,  adv. In a numerical manner; in numbers; with respect
   to number, or sameness in number; as, a thing is numerically the same,
   or numerically different.


   Nu"mer*ist (?), n. One who deals in numbers. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Nu"me*ro  (?), n. [It., or F. num\'82ro ; both fr. L. numerus number.]
   Number; -- often abbrev. No.


   Nu`mer*os"i*ty (?), n. [L. numerositas.]

   1. The state of being numerous; numerousness. [Obs.]

   2. Rhythm; harmony; flow. [Obs.]

     The numerosity of the sentence pleased the ear. S. Parr.


   Nu"mer*ous (?), a. [L. numerosus. See Number.]

   1.  Consisting of a great number of units or individual objects; being
   many; as, a numerous army.

     Such and so numerous was their chivalry. Milton.

   2.  Consisting  of  poetic  numbers; rhythmical; measured and counted;
   melodious; musical. [Obs.]

     Such  prompt eloquence Flowed from their lips, in prose or numerous
     verse. Milton.

   -- Nu"mer*ous*ly, adv. -- Nu"mer*ous*ness, n.


   Nu*mid"i*an  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to ancient Numidia in Northern
   Africa. Numidian crane. (Zo\'94l.) See Demoiselle, 2.

                           Numismatic, Numismatical

   Nu`mis*mat"ic  (?),  Nu`mis*mat"ic*al  (?), a. [L. numisma, nomisma, a
   piece  of  money,  coin,  fr.  Gr.  numismatique.  See  Nomad.]  Of or
   pertaining to coins; relating to the science of coins or medals.


   Nu`mis*mat"ics (?), n. [Cf. F. numismatique.] The science of coins and


   Nu*mis"ma*tist (?), n. One skilled in numismatics; a numismatologist.


   Nu*mis`ma*tog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [L.  numisma,  -atis  (Gr. -graphy.] A
   treatise on, or description of, coins and medals.


   Nu*mis`ma*tol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in numismatology. <-- now usu.
   numismatist -->


   Nu*mis`ma*tol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [L. numisma, -atis + -logy.] The science
   which  treats  of  coins  and  medals,  in  their relation to history;


   Num"ma*ry  (?),  a. [L. nummarius, from nummus a coin.] Of or relating
   to coins or money.

                              Nummular, Nummulary

   Num"mu*lar  (?),  Num"mu*la*ry  (?), a. [L. nummularius, fr. nummulus,
   dim. of nummus a coin: cf. F. nummulaire.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to coin or money; pecuniary; as, the nummulary

   2.  (Pathol.)  Having  the  appearance  or  form  of a coin. "Nummular
   sputa." Sir T. Watson.


   Num`mu*la"tion  (?),  n.  (Physiol.)  The arrangement of the red blood
   corpuscles  in  rouleaux, like piles of coins, as when a drop of human
   blood is examined under the microscope.


   Num"mu*lite  (?),  n.  [L.  nummus  a coin + -lite: cf. F. nummulite.]
   (Paleon.) A fossil of the genus Nummulites and allied genera.


   Num`mu*li"tes  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Nummulite.]  (Paleon.)  A genus of
   extinct  Tertiary  Foraminifera,  having  a  thin,  flat, round shell,
   containing a large number of small chambers arranged spirally.


   Num`mu*lit"ic  (?),  a. Of, like, composed of, containing, nummulites;
   as, nummulitic beds.


   Numps (?), n. [Cf. Numb.] A dolt; a blockhead. [Obs.] Bp. Parker.


   Num"skull`  (?),  n. [Numb + skull.] A dunce; a dolt; a stupid fellow.

     They have talked like numskulls. Arbuthnot.


   Num"skulled` (?), a. Stupid; doltish. [Colloq.]


   Nun  (?), n. [OE. nunne, AS. nunne, fr. L. nonna nun, nonnus monk; cf.
   Gr. Nunnery.]

   1.  A woman devoted to a religious life, who lives in a convent, under
   the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

     They  holy  time  is  quiet  as  a  nun  Breathless with adoration.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A white variety of domestic pigeons having a veil of
   feathers  covering  the  head.  (b)  The  smew.  (c) The European blue
   Gray nuns (R. C. Ch.), the members of a religious order established in
   Montreal  in  1745,  whence  branches  were introduced into the United
   States  in  1853; -- so called from the color or their robe, and known
   in  religion as Sisters of Charity of Montreal. -- Nun buoy. See under


   Nun"chion  (?),  n.  [OE. nonechenche, for noneschenche, prop., a noon
   drink; none noon + schenchen, schenken, skinken, to pour, AS. scencan.
   See  Noon, and Skink, v. i.] A portion of food taken at or after noon,
   usually  between  full  meals;  a  luncheon.  [Written also noonshun.]


   Nun"ci*ate  (?),  n.  One who announces; a messenger; a nuncio. [Obs.]


   Nun"ci*a*ture (?), n. [L. nunciare, nuntiare, to announce, report, fr.
   nuncius,  nuntius,  messenger:  cf. F. nonciature, It. nunziatura. See
   Nuncio.] The office of a nuncio. Clarendon.


   Nun"ci*o  (?),  n.;  pl.  Nuncios  (#).  [It.  nunzio,  nuncio, fr. L.
   nuncius,  nuntius,  messenger;  perh.  akin  to novus new, E. new, and
   thus, one who brings news. Cf. Announce.]

   1. A messenger. [Obs.] Shak.

   2.  The  permanent  official  representative  of the pope at a foreign
   court  or  seat  of  government. Distinguished from a legate a latere,
   whose mission is temporary in its nature, or for some special purpose.
   Nuncios are of higher rank than internuncios.


   Nun"ci*us  (?),  n.; pl. Nuncii (#). [L.] (Roman & Old Eng. Law) (a) A
   messenger. (b) The information communicated.


   Nun"cu*pate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  nuncupatus,  p.  p.  of  nuncupare  to
   nuncupate, prob. fr. nomen name + capere to take.]

   1. To declare publicly or solemnly; to proclaim formally. [Obs.]

     In whose presence did St. Peter nuncupate it ? Barrow.

   2.  To  dedicate by declaration; to inscribe; as, to nuncupate a book.
   [Obs.] Evelyn.


   Nun`cu*pa"tion (?), n. [L. nuncupatio.] The act of nuncupating. [Obs.]


   Nun*cu"pa*tive (?), a. [L. nuncupativus nominal: cf. F. nuncupatif.]

   1. Publicly or solemnly declaratory. [Obs.]

   2. Nominal; existing only in name. [Obs.]

   3. Oral; not written.
   Nuncupative  will  OR  testament,  a will or testament made by word of
   mouth only, before witnesses, as by a soldier or seaman, and depending
   on oral testimony for proof. Blackstone.


   Nun*cu"pa*to*ry (?), a. Nuncupative; oral.


   Nun"di*nal (?), n. A nundinal letter.

                              Nundinal, Nundinary

   Nun"di*nal  (?), Nun"di*na*ry (?), a. [L. nundinalis, nundinarius, fr.
   nundinae  the market day, the weekly market, prop., the ninth day, fr.
   nundinus  belonging  to  nine  days;  novem  nine  +  dies day: cf. F.
   nundinal.]  Of  or  pertaining to a fair, or to a market day. Nundinal
   letter,  among  the  Romans,  one  of  the  first eight letters of the
   alphabet,  which were repeated successively from the first to the last
   day  of  the year. One of these always expressed the market day, which
   returned every nine days (every eight days by our reckoning).


   Nun"di*nate  (?),  v.  i. [L. nundinatus, p. p. of nundinary to attend
   fairs,  to  traffic.  See  Nundinal,  a.]  To buy and sell at fairs or
   markets. [Obs.]


   Nun`di*na"tion  (?),  n. [L. nundinatio.] Traffic at fairs; marketing;
   buying and selling. [Obs.]

     Common nundination of pardons. Abp. Bramhall.


   Nun*na"tion  (?),  n.  [From nun, the Arabic name of the letter n: cf.
   NL.  nunnatio, F. nunnation.] (Arabic Gram.) The pronunciation of n at
   the end of words.


   Nun"ner*y  (?),  n.; pl. Nunneries (#). [OE. nonnerie, OF. nonerie, F.
   nonnerie,  fr.  nonne  nun,  L. nonna. See Nun.] A house in which nuns
   reside;  a  cloister  or convent in which women reside for life, under
   religious vows. See Cloister, and Convent.


   Nun"nish   (?),   a.   Of,   pertaining   to,  or  resembling  a  nun;
   characteristic of a nun. -- Nun"nish*ness, n.


   Nup (?), n. Same as Nupson. [Obs.]


   Nu"phar  (?),  n.  [Per.  n.]  (Bot.)  A  genus of plants found in the
   fresh-water  ponds  or  lakes  of Europe, Asia, and North America; the
   yellow water lily. Cf. Nymphaea.

   Page 987


   Nup"son  (?),  n. [Of doubtful origin.] A simpleton; a fool. [Obs.] B.


   Nup"tial  (?),  a.  [L.  nuptialis, fr. nuptiae marriage, wedding, fr.
   nubere, nuptum, prop., to cover, to veil, hence, to marry, as the head
   of  the  bride  was  covered  with  a  veil;  cf.  Gr. nuptial.] Of or
   pertaining  to  marriage; done or used at a wedding; as, nuptial rites
   and ceremonies.

     Then, all in heat, They light the nuptial torch. Milton.


   Nup"tial,  n.; pl. Nuptials (. Marriage; wedding; nuptial ceremony; --
   now only in the plural.

     Celebration  of  that  nuptial, which We two have sworn shall come.

     Preparations . . . for the approaching nuptials. Prescott.


   Nur (?), n. [Cf. Knur.] A hard knot in wood; also, a hard knob of wood
   used by boys in playing hockey.

     I  think  I'm  as  hard  as  a nur, and as tough as whitleather. W.


   Nurl  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Nurled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nurling.]
   [Cf.  Knurl.] To cut with reeding or fluting on the edge of, as coins,
   the heads of screws, etc.; to knurl.


   Nurse  (?),  n.  [OE.  nourse,  nurice,  norice, OF. nurrice, norrice,
   nourrice, F. nourrice, fr. L. nutricia nurse, prop., fem. of nutricius
   that  nourishes; akin to nutrix, -icis, nurse, fr. nutrire to nourish.
   See Nourish, and cf. Nutritious.]

   1. One who nourishes; a person who supplies food, tends, or brings up;
   as:  (a)  A  woman who has the care of young children; especially, one
   who  suckles  an infant not her own. (b) A person, especially a woman,
   who has the care of the sick or infirm.

   2.  One  who, or that which, brings up, rears, causes to grow, trains,
   fosters, or the like.

     The nurse of manly sentiment and heroic enterprise. Burke.

   3.  (Naut.)  A  lieutenant or first officer, who is the real commander
   when the captain is unfit for his place.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A  peculiar  larva  of  certain  trematodes which
   produces cercari\'91 by asexual reproduction. See Cercaria, and Redia.
   (b) Either one of the nurse sharks.
   Nurse   shark.   (Zo\'94l.)   (a)  A  large  arctic  shark  (Somniosus
   microcephalus),  having  small  teeth  and feeble jaws; -- called also
   sleeper  shark,  and  ground  shark.  (b) A large shark (Ginglymostoma
   cirratum),  native  of  the West Indies and Gulf of Mexico, having the
   dorsal  fins  situated behind the ventral fins. -- To put to nurse, OR
   To  put  out to nurse, to send away to be nursed; to place in the care
   of  a nurse. -- Wet nurse, Dry nurse. See Wet nurse, and Dry nurse, in
   the Vocabulary.


   Nurse, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nursed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nursing.]

   1.  To  nourish;  to  cherish;  to  foster;  as: (a) To nourish at the
   breast; to suckle; to feed and tend, as an infant. (b) To take care of
   or tend, as a sick person or an invalid; to attend upon.

     Sons wont to nurse their parents in old age. Milton.

     Him  in  Egerian groves Aricia bore, And nursed his youth along the
     marshy shore. Dryden.

   2.  To  bring up; to raise, by care, from a weak or invalid condition;
   to  foster;  to  cherish;  --  applied  to plants, animals, and to any
   object  that  needs,  or thrives by, attention. "To nurse the saplings
   tall." Milton.

     By  what  hands  [has  vice]  been  nursed  into  so uncontrolled a
     dominion? Locke.

   3.  To  manage  with care and economy, with a view to increase; as, to
   nurse our national resources.

   4. To caress; to fondle, as a nurse does. A. Trollope.
   To  nurse billiard balls, to strike them gently and so as to keep them
   in good position during a series of caroms.


   Nurse"hound` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Houndfish.


   Nurse"maid` (?), n. A girl employed to attend children.


   Nurse"pond`, n. A pond where fish are fed. Walton.


   Nurs"er  (?),  n.  One  who  nurses;  a  nurse;  one  who cherishes or
   encourages growth.


   Nurs"er*y (?), n.; pl. Nurseries (#). [Cf. F. nourricerie.]

   1. The act of nursing. [Obs.] "Her kind nursery." Shak.

   2.  The  place  where  nursing  is  carried  on; as: (a) The place, or
   apartment,  in  a  house,  appropriated to the care of children. (b) A
   place  where  young trees, shrubs, vines, etc., are propagated for the
   purpose  of  transplanting; a plantation of young trees. (c) The place
   where  anything  is fostered and growth promoted. "Fair Padua, nursery
   of arts." Shak.

     Christian families are the nurseries of the church on earth, as she
     is the nursery of the church in heaven. J. M. Mason.

   (d)  That  which  forms  and  educates; as, commerce is the nursery of

   3. That which is nursed. [R.] Milton.


   Nurs"er*y*man (?), n.; pl. Nurserymen (. One who cultivates or keeps a
   nursery, or place for rearing trees, etc.


   Nurs"ing,  a.  Supplying  or  taking nourishment from, or as from, the
   breast; as, a nursing mother; a nursing infant.


   Nurs"ling  (?), n. [Nurse + -ling.] One who, or that which, is nursed;
   an infant; a fondling.

     I was his nursling once, and choice delight. Milton.


   Nurs"tle (?), v. t. To nurse. See Noursle. [Obs.]


   Nur"ture  (?), n. [OE. norture, noriture, OF. norriture, norreture, F.
   nourriture, fr. L. nutritura a nursing, suckling. See Nourish.]

   1.  The  act  of  nourishing  or  nursing;  thender  care;  education;

     A man neither by nature nor by nurture wise. Milton.

   2. That which nourishes; food; diet. Spenser.


   Nur"ture  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Nurtured (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To feed; to nourish.

   2. To educate; to bring or train up.

     He was nurtured where he had been born. Sir H. Wotton.

   Syn.  --  To  nourish;  nurse; cherish; bring up; educate; tend. -- To
   Nurture,  Nourish,  Cherish.  Nourish  denotes to supply with food, or
   cause  to  grow;  as,  to  nourish  a  plant, to nourish rebellion. To
   nurture  is  to train up with a fostering care, like that of a mother;
   as,  to  nurture  into  strength;  to  nurture in sound principles. To
   cherish  is  to  hold  and  treat  as  dear;  as,  to cherish hopes or


   Nus"tle (?), v. t. [Cf. Nuzzle.] To fondle; to cherish. [Obs.]


   Nut (?), n. [OE. nute, note, AS. hnutu; akin to D. noot, G. nuss, OHG.
   nuz, Icel. hnot, Sw. n\'94t, Dan. n\'94d.]

   1.  (Bot.)  The  fruit  of certain trees and shrubs (as of the almond,
   walnut,  hickory,  beech,  filbert,  etc.),  consisting  of a hard and
   indehiscent shell inclosing a kernel.

   2.  A perforated block (usually a small piece of metal), provided with
   an  internal  or  female  screw  thread, used on a bolt, or screw, for
   tightening  or  holding  something,  or  for  transmitting motion. See
   Illust. of lst Bolt.

   3. The tumbler of a gunlock. Knight.

   4.  (Naut.)  A  projection  on each side of the shank of an anchor, to
   secure the stock in place.
   Check  nut,  Jam  nut,  Lock  nut,  a  nut which is screwed up tightly
   against  another  nut  on  the same bolt or screw, in order to prevent
   accidental  unscrewing  of the first nut. -- Nut buoy. See under Buoy.
   --  Nut  coal,  screened  coal  of  a size smaller than stove coal and
   larger  than  pea  coal;  --  called  also  chestnut coal. -- Nut crab
   (Zo\'94l.), any leucosoid crab of the genus Ebalia as, Ebalia tuberosa
   of  Europe.  -- Nut grass (Bot.), a plant of the Sedge family (Cyperus
   rotundus,  var.  Hydra),  which  has slender rootstocks bearing small,
   nutlike  tubers, by which the plant multiplies exceedingly, especially
   in  cotton  fields. -- Nut lock, a device, as a metal plate bent up at
   the  corners,  to  prevent  a  nut  from  becoming  unscrewed,  as  by
   jarring.<--  = lock nut --> -- Nut pine. (Bot.) See under Pine. -- Nut
   rush  (Bot.),  a  genus  of cyperaceous plants (Scleria) having a hard
   bony  achene.  Several species are found in the United States and many
   more  in tropical regions. -- Nut tree, a tree that bears nuts. -- Nut
   weevil  (Zo\'94l.),  any species of weevils of the genus Balaninus and
   other allied genera, which in the larval state live in nuts.


   Nut,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Nutted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Nutting.] To
   gather nuts.


   Nu"tant  (?),  a.  [L. nutans, p. pr. of nutare to nod, v. intens. fr.
   nuere  (in  comp.)  to  nod;  cf.  Gr.  Nodding;  having  the top bent


   Nu*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L. nutatio a nodding, fr. nutare to nod: cf. F.

   1. The act of nodding.

     So  from  the  midmost  the nutation spreads, Round and more round,
     o'er all the sea of heads. Pope.

   2.  (Astron.)  A  very  small libratory motion of the earth's axis, by
   which  its  inclination  to  the  plane  of the ecliptic is constantly
   varying by a small amount.

   3.  (Bot.)  (a)  The  motion  of  a  flower  in following the apparent
   movement  of  the sun, from the east in the morning to the west in the
   evening. (b) Circumnutation.


   Nut"break`er  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) The European nuthatch. (b) The


   Nut"-brown`  (?),  a.  Brown  as a nut long kept and dried. "The spicy
   nutbrown ale." Milton.


   Nut"crack`er (?), n.

   1. An instrument for cracking nuts.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A European bird (Nucifraga caryocatactes), allied to
   the  magpie  and crow. Its color is dark brown, spotted with white. It
   feeds  on  nuts,  seeds,  and  insects. (b) The American, or Clarke's,
   nutcracker (Picicorvus Columbianus) of Western North America.


   Nut"gall` (?), n. A more or less round gall resembling a nut, esp. one
   of those produced on the oak and used in the arts. See Gall, Gallnut.


   Nut"hatch`  (?),  n. [OE. nuthake. See 2d Hack.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of
   several  species  of birds of the genus Sitta, as the European species
   (Sitta Europ\'91a). The white-breasted nuthatch (S. Carolinensis), the
   red-breasted   nuthatch   (S.  Canadensis),  the  pygmy  nuthatch  (S.
   pygm\'91a), and others, are American.


   Nut"hook` (?), n.

   1.  A  hook at the end of a pole to pull down boughs for gathering the

   2. A thief who steals by means of a hook; also, a bailiff who hooks or
   seizes malefactors. Shak.


   Nut"job`ber (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The nuthatch. [Prov. Eng.]


   Nut"let (?), n. (Bot.) A small nut; also, the stone of a drupe.


   Nut"meg  (?),  n. [OE. notemuge; note nut + OF. muge musk, of the same
   origin  as E. musk; cf. OF. noix muguette nutmeg, F. noix muscade. See
   Nut,  and  Musk.]  (Bot.)  The  kernel of the fruit of the nutmeg tree
   (Myristica  fragrans), a native of the Molucca Islands, but cultivated
   elsewhere in the tropics.

     NOTE: &hand; This fruit is a nearly spherical drupe, of the size of
     a  pear, of a yellowish color without and almost white within. This
     opens  into two nearly equal longitudinal valves, inclosing the nut
     surrounded  by  its  aril, which is mace The nutmeg is an aromatic,
     very  grateful  to  the  taste and smell, and much used in cookery.
     Other species of Myristica yield nutmegs of inferior quality.

   American,  Calabash, OR Jamaica, nutmeg, the fruit of a tropical shrub
   (Monodora  Myristica). It is about the size of an orange, and contains
   many  aromatic  seeds imbedded in pulp. -- Brazilian nutmeg, the fruit
   of a lauraceous tree, Cryptocarya moschata. -- California nutmeg, tree
   of the Yew family (Torreya Californica), growing in the Western United
   States,  and having a seed which resembles a nutmeg in appearance, but
   is   strongly  impregnated  with  turpentine.  --  Clove  nutmeg,  the
   Ravensara  aromatica, a laura ceous tree of Madagascar. The foliage is
   used as a spice, but the seed is acrid and caustic. -- Jamaica nutmeg.
   See  American  nutmeg  (above).  --  Nutmeg bird (Zo\'94l.), an Indian
   finch  (Munia  punctularia).  --  Nutmeg butter, a solid oil extracted
   from   the   nutmeg   by   expression.  --  Nutmeg  flower  (Bot.),  a
   ranunculaceous  herb (Nigella sativa) with small black aromatic seeds,
   which  are  used  medicinally  and  for  excluding moths from furs and
   clothing.  --  Nutmeg liver (Med.), a name applied to the liver, when,
   as  the  result  of heart or lung disease, it undergoes congestion and
   pigmentation  about  the  central  veins  of its lobules, giving it an
   appearance  resembling  that  of  a  nutmeg. -- Nutmeg melon (Bot.), a
   small  variety  of  muskmelon  of  a  rich  flavor.  --  Nutmeg pigeon
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  one  of  several  species  of  pigeons  of the genus
   Myristicivora,  native  of the East Indies and Australia. The color is
   usually  white,  or  cream-white, with black on the wings and tail. --
   Nutmeg  wood (Bot.), the wood of the Palmyra palm. -- Peruvian nutmeg,
   the aromatic seed of a South American tree (Laurelia sempervirens). --
   Plume   nutmeg   (Bot.),  a  spicy  tree  of  Australia  (Atherosperma


   Nut"megged (?), a. Seasoned with nutmeg.


   Nut"peck`er (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The nuthatch.


   Nu"tri*a  (?),  n. [Sp. nutria an otter, fr. L. lutra, lytra.] The fur
   of the coypu. See Coypu.


   Nu`tri*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [L. nutricatio, fr. nutricare, nutricari, to
   suckle,  nourish,  fr.  nutrix a nurse.] The act or manner of feeding.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Nu"tri*ent  (?),  a.  [L.  nutriens,  p. pr. of nutrire. See Nourish.]
   Nutritious;  nourishing;  promoting  growth. -- n. Any substance which
   has nutritious qualities, i. e., which nourishes or promotes growth.


   Nu"tri*ment  (?),  n.  [L.  nutrimentum,  fr.  nutrire to nourish. See

   1.  That  which  nourishes; anything which promotes growth and repairs
   the natural waste of animal or vegetable life; food; aliment.

     The stomach returns what it has received, in strength and nutriment
     diffused into all parts of the body. South.

   2. That which promotes development or growth.

     Is not virtue in mankind The nutriment that feeds the mind ? Swift.


   Nu`tri*men"tal (?), a. Nutritious.


   Nu*tri"tial  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or  connected with, nutrition;
   nutritious. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Nu*tri"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. nutrition. See Nutritious.]

   1.  (Physiol.) In the broadest sense, a process or series of processes
   by  which  the  living  organism as a whole (or its component parts or
   organs) is maintained in its normal condition of life and growth.

     NOTE: &hand; In   th  is wi  de se nse it  co mprehends di gestion,
     absorption,  circulation,  assimilation,  etc.,  in fact all of the
     steps  by  which  the  nutritive  matter  of the food is fitted for
     incorporation  with the different tissues, and the changes which it
     undergoes  after  its  assimilation,  prior  to  its excretion. See

   2. (Physiol.) In a more limited sense, the process by which the living
   tissues  take  up,  from the blood, matters necessary either for their
   repair or for the performance of their healthy functions.

   3. That which nourishes; nutriment.

     Fixed  like  a  plant,  on  his  peculiar  spot, To draw nutrition,
     propagate, and rot. Pope.


   Nu*tri"tion*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to nutrition; as, nutritional


   Nu*tri"tious  (?),  a. [L. nutricius, nutritius, from nutrix, -icis, a
   nurse,  nutrire to nourish. See Nurse, Nourish.] Nourishing; promoting
   growth,  or  preventing  decay; alimental. -- Nu*tri"tious*ly, adv. --
   Nu*tri"tious*ness, n.


   Nu"tri*tive  (?), a. [Cf. F. nutritif.] Of or pertaining to nutrition;
   as,  the  nutritive  functions;  having  the  quality  of  nourishing;
   nutritious;  nutrimental;  alimental;  as,  nutritive food or berries.
   Nutritive   plasma.   (Biol.)   See  Idioplasma.  --  Nutritive  polyp
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  one  of  the zooids of a compound hydroid, or coral,
   which  has  a  mouth  and digestive cavity. -- Nu"tri*tive*ly, adv. --
   Nu"tri*tive*ness, n.


   Nu"tri*ture  (?), n. [L. nutritura, fr. nutrir to nourish.] Nutrition;
   nourishment. [Obs.] Harvey.


   Nut"shell` (?), n.

   1. The shell or hard external covering in which the kernel of a nut is

   2. Hence, a thing of little compass, or of little value.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) A shell of the genus Nucula.
   To  be,  OR lie, in a nutshell, to be within a small compass; to admit
   of very brief or simple determination or statement. "The remedy lay in
   a nutshell." Macaulay.
   Nut"ter (?), n. A gatherer of nuts. 


   Nut"ting (?), n. The act of gathering nuts.


   Nut"ty (?), a.

   1. Abounding in nuts.

   2. Having a flavor like that of nuts; as, nutty wine.

                                  Nux vomica

   Nux`  vom"i*ca  (?).  [NL.,  fr.  L. nux vomere to vomit.] The seed of
   Strychnos   Nuxvomica,  a  tree  which  abounds  on  the  Malabar  and
   Coromandel  coasts  of  the  East  Indies.  From  this seed the deadly
   poisons  known  as  strychnine and brucine are obtained. The seeds are
   sometimes called Quaker buttons.


   Nuz"zle  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Nuzzied (?);p. pr. & vb. n. Nuzzling
   (?).] [See Noursle.]

   1. To noursle or nurse; to foster; to bring up. [Obs.]

     The people had been nuzzled in idolatry. Milton.

   2. [Perh. a corruption of nestle. Cf. Nustle.] To nestle; to house, as
   in a nest.

   Page 988


   Nuz"zle (?), v. i. [Dim. fr. nose. See Nozzle.]

   1. To work with the nose, like a swine in the mud.

     And  nuzzling in his flank, the loving swine Sheathed, unaware, the
     tusk in his soft groin. Shak.

     He  charged  through  an  army of lawyers, sometimes . . . nuzzling
     like an eel in the mud. Arbuthnot.

   2. To go with head poised like a swine, with nose down.

     Sir Roger shook his ears, and nuzzled along. Arbuthnot.

   3.  [Cf.  Nuzzle,  v.  t.,  2.]  To  hide  the head, as a child in the
   mother's bosom; to nestle.

   4. To loiter; to idle. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Ny (?). [Contr. fr. ne I.] Not I; nor I. [Obs.]

                                    Ny, Nye

   Ny, Nye (?), a. & adv. Nigh. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ny"as (?), n. See Nias.


   Nyc`ta*lo"pi*a  (?), n. [L. nyctalopia, fr. nyctalops a nyctalops, Gr.
   (Med.)  (a)  A disease of the eye, in consequence of which the patient
   can  see  well  in  a faint light or at twilight, but is unable to see
   during the day or in a strong light; day blindness. (b) See Moonblink.

     NOTE: &hand; So me wr iters (as Quain) use the word in the opposite
     sense, night blindness. See Hemeralopia.


   Nyc"ta*lops (?), n. [L., from Gr. One afflicted with nyctalopia.


   Nyc"ta*lo`py (?), n. Same as Nyctalopia.


   Nyc*the"me*ron  (?),  n.  [Gr.  The natural day and night, or space of
   twenty-four hours.


   Nyc"ti*bune  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South American bird of the genus
   Nyctibius, allied to the goatsuckers.


   Nyc`ti*trop"ic  (?),  a.  [From Gr. (Bot.) Turning or bending at night
   into special positions.

     NOTE: &hand; Ny ctitropic mo vements of plants usually consist in a
     folding or drooping of the leaves, the advantage being in lessening
     the radiation of heat.


   Nyc"to*phile  (?),  n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any Australian bat of the genus
   Nyctophilus, having a very simple nasal appendage.


   Nye  (?),  n.  [Prob. fr. F. nid nest, brood, L. nidus nest. See Nest,
   and cf. Eye brood, Nide.] A brood or flock of pheasants.


   Ny*en"tek (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A carnivorous mannual (Helictis moscatus,
   or  H.  orientalis),  native  of Eastern Asia and the Indies. It has a
   dorsal  white  stripe,  and another one across the shoulders. It has a
   strong musky odor.

                                Nylghau, Nylgau

   Nyl"ghau,  Nyl"gau  (?),  n. [Hind. & Per. n\'c6lg\'bew, prop., a blue
   cow;  Per.  n\'c6l  blue + g\'bew cow. See Lilac, and Cow the animal.]
   (Zo\'94l.)   A   large   Asiatic   antelope  (Boselaphus,  OR  Portax,
   tragocamelus),  found  in  Northern India. It has short horns, a black
   mane,  and  a  bunch  of long hair on the throat. The general color is
   grayish brown. [Written also neelghau, nilgau, and nylghaie.]


   Nymph  (?),  n.  [L. nympha nymph, bride, young woman, Gr. nymphe. Cf.

   1.  (Class.  Myth.)  A  goddess of the mountains, forests, meadows, or

     Where  were  ye,  nymphs, when the remorseless deep Closed o'er the
     head of your loved Lycidas ? Milton.

   2. Hence: A lovely young girl; a maiden; a damsel.

     Nymph, in thy orisons Be all my sins remembered. Shak.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) The pupa of an insect; a chrysalis.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  a  subfamily  (Najades)  of  butterflies
   including  the purples, the fritillaries, the peacock butterfly, etc.;
   -- called also naiad.


   Nym"pha (?), n.; pl. Nymph (#). [L. See Nymph a goddess.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Nymph, 3.

   2.  pl. (Anat.) Two folds of mucous membrane, within the labia, at the
   opening of the vulva.


   Nym*ph\'91"a  (?),  n.  [L.,  the  water  lily,  Gr. (Bot.) A genus of
   aquatic  plants  having  showy  flowers (white, blue, pink, or yellow,
   often fragrant), including the white water lily and the Egyptia lotus.

     NOTE: &hand; Recent critics have endeavored to show that this genus
     should  be  called Castalia, and the name Nymph\'91a transferred to
     what is now known as Nuphar.


   Nymph"al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a nymph or nymphs; nymphean.


   Nym*pha"les  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  extensive family of
   butterflies  including  the  nymphs,  the  satyrs,  the  monarchs, the
   heliconias, and others; -- called also brush-footed butterflies.


   Nym*phe"an  (?), a. [Gr. Nymph.] Of, pertaining to, or appropriate to,
   nymphs; inhabited by nymphs; as, a nymphean cave.


   Nymph"et  (?),  n.  A  little  or  young nymph. [Poetic] "The nymphets
   sporting there." Drayton.

                              Nymphic, Nymphical

   Nymph"ic (?), Nymph"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Of or pertaining to nymphs.


   Nym*phip"a*rous  (?),  a.  [Nymph  + L. parere to produce.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Producing pupas or nymphs.


   Nymph"ish  (?),  a.  Relating  to  nymphs;  ladylike.  "Nymphish war."

                              Nymphlike, Nymphly

   Nymph"like`  (?), Nymph"ly (?), a. Resembling, or characteristic of, a


   Nym"pho*lep`sy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  species  of  demoniac enthusiasm or
   possession  coming  upon one who had accidentally looked upon a nymph;
   ecstasy. [R.] De Quincey.

     The nympholepsy of some fond despair. Byron.


   Nym`pho*lep"tic  (?), a. Under the influence of nympholepsy; ecstatic;
   frenzied. [Poetic]


   Nym`pho*ma"ni*a  (?),  n. [Gr. (Med.) Morbid and uncontrollable sexual
   desire in women, constituting a true disease.


   Nym"pho*ma`ny   (?),   n.   [Cf.   F.  nymphomanie.]  (Med.)  Same  as


   Nym*phot"o*my (?), n. [Nympha + Gr. (Med.) Excision of the nymph\'91.


   Nys (?). Is not. See Nis. Chaucer. Spenser.


   Nys*tag"mus   (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Med.)  A  rapid  involuntary
   oscillation of the eyeballs.


   Ny*u"la  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A species of ichneumon (Herpestes nyula).
   Its fur is beautifully variegated by closely set zigzag markings. O.