Unabridged Dictionary - Letter L

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   L (?).

   1.  L  is  the  twelfth  letter  of  the English alphabet, and a vocal
   consonant.  It  is  usually called a semivowel or liquid. Its form and
   value  are  from  the  Greek, through the Latin, the form of the Greek
   letter  being  from  the  Ph\'d2nician,  and the ultimate origin prob.
   Egyptian. Etymologically, it is most closely related to r and u; as in
   pilgrim, peregrine, couch (fr. collocare), aubura (fr. LL. alburnus).

     NOTE: At th e end of monosyllables containing a single vowel, it is
     often  doubled,  as in fall, full, bell; but not after digraphs, as
     in   foul,   fool,  prowl,  growl,  foal.  In  English  words,  the
     terminating  syllable  le  is unaccented, the e is silent, and l is
     preceded   by   a  voice  glide,  as  in  able,  eagle,  pronounced
     \'be\'b6b'l, \'b6g'l. See Guide to Pronunciation,  241.

   2.  As  a  numeral, L stands for fifty in the English, as in the Latin

     For  50  the  Romans  used  the  Chalcidian  chi,  I.  Taylor  (The


   L (?), n.

   1.  An  extension  at  right  angles to the length of a main building,
   giving  to  the  ground plan a form resembling the letter L; sometimes
   less  properly  applied  to  a  narrower,  or  lower, extension in the
   direction  of  the  length of the main building; a wing. [Written also

   2.  (Mech.)  A short right-angled pipe fitting, used in connecting two
   pipes at right angles. [Written also ell.]


   La  (?),  n.  (Mus.)  (a)  A syllable applied to the sixth tone of the
   scale  in music in solmization. (b) The tone A; -- so called among the
   French and Italians.


   La (?), interj. [Cf. Lo.]

   1. Look; see; behold; -- sometimes followed by you. [Obs.] Shak.

   2.  An exclamation of surprise; -- commonly followed by me; as, La me!


   Laas (?), n. A lace. See Lace. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lab  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf. OD. labben to babble.] To prate; to gossip; to
   babble; to blab. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lab,  n.  A  telltale;  a  prater;  a  blabber.  [Obs.] "I am no lab."


   Lab"a*dist,  n.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  A  follower  of  Jean  de  Labadie, a
   religious  teacher  of  the  17th century, who left the Roman Catholic
   Church and taught a kind of mysticism, and the obligation of community
   of property among Christians.

                             Labarraque's solution

   La`bar`raque's"   so*lu"tion   (?).   [From   Labarraque,  a  Parisian
   apothecary.]  (Med.)  An  aqueous  solution of hypochlorite of sodium,
   extensively used as a disinfectant.


   Lab"a*rum  (,  n.;  pl.  Labara  (#). [L.] The standard adopted by the
   Emperor  Constantine  after  his  conversion  to  Christianity.  It is
   described  as  a pike bearing a silk banner hanging from a crosspiece,
   and  surmounted by a golden crown. It bore a monogram of the first two
   letters  (CHR)<-- appearing as English XP --> of the name of Christ in
   its  Greek form. Later, the name was given to various modifications of
   this  standard.  <--  Illustration  of  monogram,  an  X  (Greek  CHI)
   superimposed on a lengthened P (Greek RHO) -->


   Lab"da*num (?), n. (Bot.) See Ladanum.


   Lab`e*fac"tion  (?),  n.  [See Labefy.] The act of labefying or making
   weak; the state of being weakened; decay; ruin.

     There  is  in  it  such  a  labefaction of all principles as may be
     injurious to morality. Johnson.


   Lab"e*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  labefacere;  labare to totter + facere to
   make.] To weaken or impair. [R.]


   La"bel (?), n. [OF. label sort of ribbon or fringe, label in heraldry,
   F.  lambeau  shred,  strip,  rag; of uncertain origin; cf. L.labellum,
   dim.  of  labrum lip, edge, margin, G. lappen flap, patch, rag, tatter
   (cf.  Lap of a dress), W. llab, llabed, label, flap, Gael. leab, leob,
   slice, shred, hanging lip.]

   1. A tassel. [Obs.] Huloet. Fuller.

   2.  A  slip  of  silk,  paper,  parchment,  etc., affixed to anything,
   usually by an inscription, the contents, ownership, destination, etc.;
   as, the label of a bottle or a package.

   3.  A  slip of ribbon, parchment, etc., attached to a document to hold
   the appended seal; also, the seal.

   4. A writing annexed by way of addition, as a codicil added to a will.

   5. (Her.) A barrulet, or, rarely, a bendlet, with pendants, or points,
   usually  three, especially used as a mark of cadency to distinguish an
   eldest or only son while his father is still living.

   6.  A  brass  rule  with  sights,  formerly used, in connection with a
   circumferentor, to take altitudes. Knight.

   7.  (Gothic  Arch.)  The  name  now  generally given to the projecting
   molding  by  the  sides, and over the tops, of openings in medi\'91val
   architecture. It always has a Arch. Pub. Soc.

   8.  In  medi\'91val  art,  the  representation  of  a  band  or scroll
   containing an inscription. Fairholt.


   La"bel,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Labeled (?) or Labelled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Labeling or Labelling.]

   1.  To  affix  a  label  to; to mark with a name, etc.; as, to label a
   bottle or a package.

   2. To affix in or on a label. [R.]


   La"bel*er (?), n. One who labels. [Written also labeller.]


   La*bel"lum (?), n.; pl. L. Labella (#), E. Labellums (#). [L., dim. of
   labrum lip.]

   1.  (Bot.)  The  lower or apparently anterior petal of an orchidaceous
   flower, often of a very curious shape.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  appendage beneath the upper lip or labrum of
   certain insects.


   La"bent (?), a. [L. labens, p. pr. of labi to slide, glide.] Slipping;
   sliding; gliding. [R.]


   La"bi*a (?), n. pl. See Labium.


   La"bi*al  (?), a. [LL. labialis, fr. L. labium lip: cf. F. labial. See

   1. Of or pertaining to the lips or labia; as, labial veins.

   2. (Mus.) Furnished with lips; as, a labial organ pipe.

   3. (Phonetics) (a) Articulated, as a consonant, mainly by the lips, as
   b,  p,  m,  w.  (b)  Modified,  as  a vowel, by contraction of the lip
   opening,  as  &oomac;  (f&oomac;d), &omac; (&omac;ld), etc., and as eu
   and u in French, and \'94, \'81 in German. See Guide to Pronunciation,

   4.  (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the labium; as, the labial palpi of
   insects. See Labium.


   La"bi*al, n.

   1.  (Phonetics)  A letter or character representing an articulation or
   sound formed or uttered chiefly with the lips, as b, p, w.

   2. (Mus.) An organ pipe that is furnished with lips; a flue pipe.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of the scales which border the mouth of a fish or


   La"bi*al*ism  (?), n. (Phonetics) The quality of being labial; as, the
   labialism  of an articulation; conversion into a labial, as of a sound
   which is different in another language. J. Peile.


   La`bi*al*i*za"tion   (?),   n.  (Phonetics)  The  modification  of  an
   articulation by contraction of the lip opening.


   La"bi*al*ize  (?),  v.  t. (Phonetics) To modify by contraction of the
   lip opening.


   La"bi*al*ly, adv. In a labial manner; with, or by means of, the lips.


   La"bi*ate (?), v. t. To labialize. Brewer.


   La"bi*ate (?), a. [NL. labiatus, fr. L. labium lip.] (Bot.) (a) Having
   the limb of a tubular corolla or calyx divided into two unequal parts,
   one  projecting  over  the  other  like the lips of a mouth, as in the
   snapdragon,  sage,  and  catnip.  (b)  Belonging to a natural order of
   plants (Labiat\'91), of which the mint, sage, and catnip are examples.
   They are mostly aromatic herbs.


   La"bi*ate, n. (Bot.) A plant of the order Labiat\'91.


   La"bi*a`ted (?), a. (Bot.) Same as Labiate, a. (a).

                         Labiatifloral, Labiatifloral

   La`bi*a`ti*flo"ral (?), La`bi*a`ti*flo"ral (?), a. [Labiate + L. flos,
   floris, flower.] (Bot.) Having labiate flowers, as the snapdragon.


   Lab`i*dom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.meter:  cf.  F.  labidometre.] (Med.) A
   forceps  with  a measuring attachment for ascertaining the size of the
   fetal head.


   La"bile  (?), a. [L. labilis apt to slip, fr. labi to slip.] Liable to
   slip, err, fall, or apostatize. [Obs.] Cheyne.


   La*bil"i*ty  (?), n. Liability to lapse, err, or apostatize. [Archaic]


   La*bim"e*ter (?), n. [Cf. F. labimetre.] (Med.) See Labidometer.


   La`bi*o*den"tal  (?),  a.  [Labium  +  dental.]  (Phonetics) Formed or
   pronounced by the cooperation of the lips and teeth, as f and v. -- n.
   A labiodental sound or letter.


   La`bi*o*na"sal  (?),  a.  [Labium  + nasal.] (Phonetics) Formed by the
   lips and the nose. -- n. A labionasal sound or letter.


   La"bi*ose`  (?),  a.  [From  Labium.]  (Bot.) Having the appearance of
   being labiate; -- said of certain polypetalous corollas.


   La`bi*pal"pus  (?), n.; pl. Labipalpi (. [NL. See Labium, and Palpus.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the  labial palpi of an insect. See Illust. under


   La"bi*um (?), n. ; pl. L. Labia (#), E. Labiums (#). [L.]

   1. A lip, or liplike organ.

   2. The lip of an organ pipe.

   3. pl. (Anat.) The folds of integument at the opening of the vulva.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The organ of insects which covers the mouth beneath,
   and  serves  as  an  under  lip.  It  consists  of  the second pair of
   maxill\'91,  usually  closely united in the middle line, but bearing a
   pair  of  palpi  in most insects. It often consists of a thin anterior
   part  (ligula  or palpiger) and a firmer posterior plate (mentum). (b)
   Inner margin of the aperture of a shell.


   Lab"lab  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  an  East  Indian  name  for several twining
   leguminous  plants  related  to  the bean, but commonly applied to the
   hyacinth bean (Delichos Lablab).


   La"bor  (?),  n.  [OE. labour, OF. labour, laber, labur, F. labeur, L.
   labor; cf. Gr. labh to get, seize.] [Written also labour.]

   1.  Physical  toil  or  bodily  exertion,  especially  when fatiguing,
   irksome,  or unavoidable, in distinction from sportive exercise; hard,
   muscular   effort   directed  to  some  useful  end,  as  agriculture,
   manufactures, and like; servile toil; exertion; work.

     God  hath  set Labor and rest, as day and night, to men Successive.

   2.  Intellectual exertion; mental effort; as, the labor of compiling a

   3.  That  which  requires hard work for its accomplishment; that which
   demands effort.

     Being  a  labor  of  so  great  a difficulty, the exact performance
     thereof we may rather wish than look for. Hooker.

   4. Travail; the pangs and efforts of childbirth.

     The  queen's  in  labor,  They  say, in great extremity; and feared
     She'll with the labor end. Shak.

   5. Any pang or distress. Shak.

   6.  (Naut.)  The  pitching or tossing of a vessel which results in the
   straining of timbers and rigging.

   7.  [Sp.] A measure of land in Mexico and Texas, equivalent to an area
   of  177 acres. Bartlett. Syn. -- Work; toil; drudgery; task; exertion;
   effort; industry; painstaking. See Toll.


   La"bor,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Labored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Laboring.]
   [OE.  labouren, F. labourer, L. laborare. See Labor, n.] [Written also

   1.  To  exert  muscular strength; to exert one's strength with painful
   effort, particularly in servile occupations; to work; to toil.

     Adam, well may we labor still to dress This garden. Milton.

   2.  To exert one's powers of mind in the prosecution of any design; to
   strive; to take pains.

   3.  To  be  oppressed  with  difficulties or disease; to do one's work
   under  conditions  which  make  it especially hard, wearisome; to move
   slowly,  as  against opposition, or under a burden; to be burdened; --
   often with under, and formerly with of.

     The stone that labors up the hill. Granville.

     The line too labors,and the words move slow. Pope.

     To cure the disorder under which he labored. Sir W. Scott.

     Come  unto  me,  all  ye that labor and are heavy laden, and I will
     give you rest. Matt. xi. 28

   4. To be in travail; to suffer the pangs of childbirth.

   5.  (Naut.)  To  pitch  or roll heavily, as a ship in a turbulent sea.


   La"bor, v. t. [F. labourer, L. laborare.]

   1. To work at; to work; to till; to cultivate by toil.

     The  most  excellent  lands  are  lying  fallow, or only labored by
     children. W. Tooke.

   2.  To  form or fabricate with toil, exertion, or care. "To labor arms
   for Troy." Dryden.

   3.  To  prosecute, or perfect, with effort; to urge streas, to labor a
   point or argument.

   4. To belabor; to beat. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Lab"o*rant  (?),  n.  [L.laborans,  p.  pr.  of  laborare to labor.] A
   chemist. [Obs.] Boyle.


   Lab"o*ra*to*ry   (?),   n.;   pl.  Laboratories  (#).  [Shortened  fr.
   elaboratory;  cf.  OF.  elaboratoire,  F.  laboratoire. See Elaborate,
   Labor.]  [Formerly  written  also  elaboratory.]  The  workroom  of  a
   chemist; also, a place devoted to experiments in any branch of natural
   science; as, a chemical, physical, or biological laboratory. Hence, by
   extension,  a  place where something is prepared, or some operation is
   performed; as, the liver is the laboratory of the bile.


   La"bored  (?),  a.  Bearing  marks  of  labor  and effort; elaborately
   wrought; not easy or natural; as, labored poetry; a labored style.


   La"bored*ly, adv. In a labored manner; with labor.


   La"bor*er  (?),  n.  [Written  also  labourer.]  One  who  labors in a
   toilsome  occupation;  a  person  who does work that requires strength
   rather than skill, as distinguished from that of an artisan.


   La"bor*ing, a.

   1. That labors; performing labor; esp., performing coarse, heavy work,
   not requiring skill also, set apart for labor; as, laboring days.

     The sleep of a laboring man is sweet. eccl. v. 12.

   2. Suffering pain or grief. Pope.
   Laboring oar, the oar which requires most strength and exertion; often
   used  figuratively;  as,  to  have,  or pull, the laboring oar in some
   difficult undertaking.
   La*bo"ri*ous   (?),   a.   [L.  laboriosus,fr.  labor  labor:  cf.  F.

   1. Requiring labor, perseverance, or sacrifices; toilsome; tiresome.

     Dost  thou  love  watchings, abstinence, or toil, Laborious virtues
     all ? Learn these from Cato. Addison.

   2.  Devoted to labor; diligent; industrious; as, a laborious mechanic.
   -- La*bo"ri*ous*ly, adv. -- La*bo"ri*ous*ness, n.


   La"bor*less (?), a. Not involving labor; not laborious; easy.

   Page 822


   La"bor*ous  (?),  a.  Laborious.  [Obs.] Wyatt. -- La"bor*ous*ly, adv.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.


   La"bor-sav`ing  (?), a. Saving labor; adapted to supersede or diminish
   the labor of men; as, laborsaving machinery.


   La"bor*some (?), a.

   1.  Made  with, or requiring, great labor, pains, or diligence. [Obs.]

   2.  (Naut.)  Likely or inclined to roll or pitch, as a ship in a heavy
   sea; having a tendency to labor.


   Lab`ra*dor" (?), n. A region of British America on the Atlantic coast,
   north   of   Newfoundland.   Labrador  duck  (Zo\'94l.),  a  sea  duck
   (Camtolaimus  Labradorius)  allied to the eider ducks. It was formerly
   common on the coast of New England, but is now supposed to be extinct,
   no  specimens  having  been reported since 1878. -- Labrador feldspar.
   See  Labradorite. -- Labrador tea (Bot.), a name of two low, evergreen
   shrubs  of  the  genus Ledum (L. palustre and L. latifolium), found in
   Northern  Europe and America. They are used as tea in British America,
   and in Scandinavia as a substitute for hops.


   Lab"ra*dor`ite  (,  n.  (Min.)  A  kind of feldspar commonly showing a
   beautiful play of colors, and hence much used for ornamental purposes.
   The finest specimens come from Labrador. See Feldspar.


   La"bras  (?),  n.  pl.  [L.labrum;  cf. It. labbro, pl. labbra.] Lips.
   [Obs. & R.] Shak.


   La"broid  (?),  a.  [Labrus + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like the genus Labrus;
   belonging  to  the  family  Labrid\'91,  an extensive family of marine
   fishes,  often  brilliantly  colored,  which  are very abundant in the
   Indian  and  Pacific  Oceans.  The  tautog  and  cunner  are  American


   La"brose` (?), a. [L. labrosus, fr. labrum lip.] Having thick lips.


   La"brum (?), n.; pl. L. Labra (#), E. Labrums (#). [L.]

   1. A lip or edge, as of a basin.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  An  organ in insects and crustaceans covering the
   upper  part  of the mouth, and serving as an upper lip. See Illust. of
   Hymenoptera.  (b)  The external margin of the aperture of a shell. See


   La"brus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Labri  (-br&imac;).  [L.,  a  sort  of fish.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A genus of marine fishes, including the wrasses of Europe.
   See Wrasse.


   La*bur`nic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or derived from, the laburnum.


   La-bur`nine  (?),  n. (Chem.) A poisonous alkaloid found in the unripe
   seeds of the laburnum.


   La*bur"num  (?),  n.  [L.]  (Bot.)  A  small  leguminous tree (Cytisus
   Laburnum),  native  of the Alps. The plant is reputed to be poisonous,
   esp. the bark and seeds. It has handsome racemes of yellow blossoms.

     NOTE: &hand; Sc otch laburnum (Cytisus alpinus) is similar, but has
     smooth leaves; purple laburnum is C. purpureus.


     Lab"y*rinth  (?),  n.  [L.  labyrinthus,  Gr.  laby`rinthos: cf. F.

     1.  An  edifice or place full of intricate passageways which render
     it difficult to find the way from the interior to the entrance; as,
     the Egyptian and Cretan labyrinths. <-- said to be from from the ax
     symbol of the "labyrinth" at Knossos, Crete -- a multistoried royal
     palace with labyrinthine passages between rooms. -->

     2.  Any  intricate or involved inclosure; especially, an ornamental
     maze or inclosure in a park or garden.

     3.  Any  object or arrangement of an intricate or involved form, or
     having a very complicated nature.

     The serpent . . . fast sleeping soon he found, In labyrinth of many
     a round self-rolled. Milton.

     The labyrinth of the mind. Tennyson.

     4. An inextricable or bewildering difficulty.

     I' the maze and winding labyrinths o' the world. Denham.

     5. (Anat.) The internal ear. See Note under Ear.

     6.  (Metal.)  A series of canals through which a stream of water is
     directed  for suspending, carrying off, and depositing at different
     distances, the ground ore of a metal. Ure.

     7. (Arch.) A pattern or design representing a maze, -- often inlaid
     in  the  tiled  floor  of  a  church, etc. Syn. -- Maze; confusion;
     intricacy; windings. -- Labyrinth, Maze. Labyrinth, originally; the
     name  of  an edifice or excavation, carries the idea of design, and
     construction  in  a  permanent form, while maze is used of anything
     confused  or  confusing,  whether  fixed  or shifting. Maze is less
     restricted  in  its figurative uses than labyrinth. We speak of the
     labyrinth  of  the  ear,  or  of  the  mind,  and of a labyrinth of
     difficulties; but of the mazes of the dance, the mazes of political
     intrigue, or of the mind being in a maze.


     Lab`y*rin"thal  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or resembling, a labyrinth;
     intricate; labyrinthian.


     Lab`y*rin"thi*an  (,  a.  Intricately  winding;  like  a labyrinth;
     perplexed; labyrinthal.


     Lab`y*rin"thi*branch   (?),   a.  [See  Labyrinth,  and  Branchia.]
     (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or pertaining to the Labyrinthici. -- n. One of the

                          Labyrinthic, Labyrinthical

     Lab`y*rin"thic  (?),  Lab`y*rin`thic*al  (?), a. [L. labyrinthicus:
     cf. F. labyrinthique.] Like or pertaining to a labyrinth.


     Lab`y*rin"thi*ci  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL. See Labyrinth.] (Zo\'94l.) An
     order  of  teleostean  fishes,  including  the  Anabas, or climbing
     perch, and other allied fishes.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ey have, connected with the gill chamber, a special
     cavity  in  which  a  labyrinthiform  membrane is arranged so as to
     retain  water  to  supply the gills while the fish leaves the water
     and travels about on land, or even climbs trees.


   Lab`y*rin"thi*form    (?),    a.    [Labyrinth   +   -form:   cf.   F.
   labyrinthiforme.] Having the form of a labyrinth; intricate.


   Lab`y*rin"thine   (?),   a.  Pertaining  to,  or  like,  a  labyrinth;


   Lab`y*rin"tho*don  (?), n. [Gr. (Paleon.) A genus of very large fossil
   amphibians,  of  the  Triassic period, having bony plates on the under
   side  of the body. It is the type of the order Labyrinthodonta. Called
   also Mastodonsaurus.


   Lab`y*rin"tho*dont   (?),   a.  (Paleon.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the
   Labyrinthodonta. -- n. One of the Labyrinthodonta.


   Lab`y*rin`tho*don"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Labyrinthodon.] (Paleon.) An
   extinct  order of Amphibia, including the typical genus Labyrinthodon,
   and  many  other  allied  forms,  from the Carboniferous, Permian, and
   Triassic  formations.  By  recent writers they are divided into two or
   more orders. See Stegocephala.

                                   Lac, Lakh

   Lac (?), Lakh (, n. [Hind. lak, l\'bekh, l\'beksh, Skr. laksha a mark,
   sign, lakh.] One hundred thousand; also, a vaguely great number; as, a
   lac of rupees. [Written also lack.] [East Indies]


   Lac,  n. [Per. lak; akin to Skr. l\'beksh\'be: cf. F. lague, It. & NL.
   lacca.  Cf.  Lake  a  color,  Lacquer,  Litmus.]  A resinous substance
   produced mainly on the banyan tree, but to some extent on other trees,
   by  the Coccus lacca<-- now Laccifer lacca -->, a scale-shaped insect,
   the  female  of  which  fixes herself on the bark, and exudes from the
   margin of her body this resinous substance.

     NOTE: &hand; St ick-lac is  th e su bstance in  it s natural state,
     incrusting  small  twigs.  When broken off, and the coloring matter
     partly  removed,  the  granular  residuum  is called seed-lac. When
     melted,  and  reduced  to  a  thin crust, it is called shell-lac or
     shellac.  Lac  is  an  important  ingredient  in sealing wax, dyes,
     varnishes, and lacquers.

   Ceylon  lac,  a  resinous  exudation  of  the  tree Croton lacciferum,
   resembling  lac. -- Lac dye, a scarlet dye obtained from stick-lac. --
   Lac  lake,  the  coloring matter of lac dye when precipitated from its
   solutions  by  alum.  --  Mexican lac, an exudation of the tree Croton
   Lac"cic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  laccique.]  (Chem.) Pertaining to lac, or
   produced from it; as, laccic acid. 


   Lac"cin (?), n. [Cf. F. laccine.] (Chem.) A yellow amorphous substance
   obtained from lac.

                             Laccolite, Laccolith

   Lac"co*lite  (?),  Lac"co*lith  (?),  n. [Gr. -lite, -lith.] (Geol.) A
   mass  of  igneous rock intruded between sedimentary beds and resulting
   in  a mammiform bulging of the overlying strata. -- Lac`co*lit"ic (#),


   Lace  (l\'bes),  n.  [OE.  las,  OF.  laz, F. lacs, dim. lacet, fr. L.
   laqueus  noose,  snare;  prob.  akin to lacere to entice. Cf. Delight,
   Elicit, Lasso, Latchet.]

   1.  That  which  binds  or  holds,  especially  by being interwoven; a
   string,  cord,  or  band,  usually one passing through eyelet or other
   holes, and used in drawing and holding together parts of a garment, of
   a shoe, of a machine belt, etc.

     His hat hung at his back down by a lace. Chaucer.

     For  striving  more,  the  more  in  laces  strong Himself he tied.

   2.  A  snare  or  gin, especially one made of interwoven cords; a net.
   [Obs.] Fairfax.

     Vulcanus had caught thee [Venus] in his lace. Chaucer.

   3.  A  fabric  of  fine  threads  of  linen, silk, cotton, etc., often
   ornamented  with figures; a delicate tissue of thread, much worn as an
   ornament of dress.

     Our  English  dames  are  much given to the wearing of costlylaces.

   4.  Spirits  added  to  coffee  or  some  other  beverage. [Old Slang]
   Alencon lace, a kind of point lace, entirely of needlework, first made
   at  Alencon  in France, in the 17th century. It is very durable and of
   great  beauty  and  cost.  -- Bone lace, Brussels lace, etc. See under
   Bone,  Brussels,  etc.  -- Gold lace, OR Silver lace, lace having warp
   threads  of  silk,  or  silk  and  cotton,  and a weft of silk threads
   covered  with  gold  (or silver), or with gilt. -- Lace leather, thin,
   oil-tanned  leather  suitable  for  cutting  into  lacings for machine
   belts.  -- Lace lizard (Zo\'94l.), a large, aquatic, Australian lizard
   (Hydrosaurus  giganteus), allied to the monitors. -- Lace paper, paper
   with   an  openwork  design  in  imitation  of  lace.  --  Lace  piece
   (Shipbuilding),  the  main  piece of timber which supports the beak or
   head  projecting beyond the stem of a ship. -- Lace pillow, AND Pillow
   lace. See under Pillow.


   Lace, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Laced (\'best); p. pr. & vb. n. Lacing (?).]

   1.  To fasten with a lace; to draw together with a lace passed through
   eyelet  holes;  to  unite with a lace or laces, or, figuratively. with
   anything resembling laces. Shak.

     When Jenny's stays are newly laced. Prior.

   2.  To adorn with narrow strips or braids of some decorative material;
   as, cloth laced with silver. Shak.

   3. To beat; to lash; to make stripes on. [Colloq.]

     I'll lace your coat for ye. L'Estrange.

   4. To add spirits to (a beverage). [Old Slang]


   Lace,  v.  i.  To  be  fastened with a lace, or laces; as, these boots


   Lace"-bark`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  shrub  in  the  West Indies (Lagetta
   Iintearia); -- so called from the lacelike layers of its inner bark.


   Laced (?), a.

   1.  Fastened  with  a  lace  or laces; decorated with narrow strips or
   braid. See Lace, v. t.

   2. Decorated with the fabric lace.

     A shirt with laced ruffles. Fielding.

   Laced  mutton,  a  prostitute. [Old slang] -- Laced stocking, a strong
   stocking  which  can  be tightly laced; -- used in cases of weak legs,
   varicose veins, etc. Dunglison.


   Lac`e*d\'91*mo"ni*an (?), a. [L. Lacedamonius, Gr. Lakedaimo`nios, fr.
   Lakedai`mwn Laced\'91mon.] Of or pertaining to Laced\'91mon or Sparta,
   the  chief  city  of  Laconia  in  the  Peloponnesus. -- n. A Spartan.
   [Written also Lacedemonian.]


   Lace"man (?), n.; pl. Lacemen (. A man who deals in lace.


   Lac"er*a*ble  (?),  a. [L. lacerabilis: cf. F. lac\'82rable.] That can
   be lacerated or torn.


   Lac"er*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Lacerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lacerating  ().]  [L.  laceratus,  p.  p. of lacerare to lacerate, fr.
   lacer mangled, lacerated; cf. Gr. slay.] To tear; to rend; to separate
   by  tearing;  to mangle; as, to lacerate the flesh. Hence: To afflict;
   to torture; as, to lacerate the heart.

                              Lacerate, Lacerated

   Lac"er*ate (?), Lac"er*a`ted (?), p. a. [L. laceratus, p. p.]

   1. Rent; torn; mangled; as, a lacerated wound.

     By each other's fury lacerate Southey.

   2.  (Bot.  &  Zo\'94l.) Jagged, or slashed irregularly, at the end, or
   along the edge.


   Lac`er*a"tion (?), n. [L.laceratio: cf. F. lac\'82ration.]

   1. The act of lacerating.

   2. A breach or wound made by lacerating. Arbuthnot.


   Lac"er*a*tive (?), a. Lacerating, or having the power to lacerate; as,
   lacerative humors. Harvey.


   La"cert  (?),  n.  [OE.  lacerte. See Lacertus.] A muscle of the human
   body. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   La*cer"ta  (?),  n.  [L.  lacertus the arm.] A fathom. [Obs.] Domesday


   La*cer"ta, n. [L. a lizard. See Lizard.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of lizards. See Lizard.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rmerly it included nearly all the known lizards. It
     is  now  restricted  to certain diurnal Old World species, like the
     green  lizard (Lacerta viridis) and the sand lizard (L. agilis), of

   2. (Astron.) The Lizard, a northern constellation.


   La*cer"tian  (?),  a. [Cf. F. lacertien.] (Zo\'94l.) Like a lizard; of
   or pertaining to the Lacertilia. -- n. One of the Lacertilia.


   Lac`er*til"i*a  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L.lacertus a lizard.] (Zo\'94l.)
   An order of Reptilia, which includes the lizards.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ey ar e closely related to the snakes, and life the
     latter, usually have the body covered with scales or granules. They
     usually  have  eyelids, and most of then have well-formed legs; but
     in  some  groups  (amphisb\'91na,  glass-snake,  etc.) the legs are
     wanting  and  the  body  is  serpentlike. None are venomous, unless
     Heloderma  be  an exception. The order includes the chameleons, the
     Cionocrania,  or  typical  lizards,  and  the  amphisb\'91nas.  See
     Amphisb\'91na, Gecko, Gila monster, and Lizard.


   Lac`er*til"i*an (-an), a. & n. Same as Lacertian.


   La*cer"ti*loid  (?),  a.  [Lacertilia  +  -oid.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Like  or
   belonging to the Lacertilia.


   La*cer"tine (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Lacertian.


   La*cer"tus (?), n.; pl. Lacerti (-t\'c6). [L., the upper arm.] (Anat.)
   A bundle or fascicle of muscular fibers.


   Lace"wing`   (?),   n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  several  species  of
   neuropterous  insects  of  the  genus Chrysopa and allied genera. They
   have  delicate,  lacelike wings and brilliant eyes. Their larv\'91 are
   useful   in  destroying  aphids.  Called  also  lace-winged  fly,  and
   goldeneyed fly.


   Lace"-winged`,  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  thin, transparent, reticulated
   wings; as, the lace-winged flies.

                                 Laches, Lache

   Lach"es  (?), Lache (?), n. [OF. lachesse, fr. lache lax, indolent, F.
   l\'83che, ultimately fr. L. laxus loose, lax. See Lax.] (Law) Neglect;
   negligence;  remissness;  neglect  to  do  a thing at the proper time;
   delay to assert a claim.

     It  ill  became  him  to  take  advantage of such a laches with the
     eagerness of a shrewd attorney. Macaulay.


   Lach"ry*ma*ble   (?),  a.  [L.  lacrimabilis,  fr.  lacrima  a  tear.]
   Lamentable. Martin Parker.

                              Lachrym\'91 Christi

   Lach"ry*m\'91 Chris"ti (?). [L., lit., Christ's tears.] A rich, sweet,
   red Neapolitan wine.


   Lach"ry*mal (, a. [Cf. F. lacrymal. See Lachrymose.]

   1. Of or pertaining to tears; as, lachrymal effusions.

   2.  (Anat.)  (a) Pertaining to, or secreting, tears; as, the lachrymal
   gland.  (b)  Pertaining  to  the lachrymal organs; as, lachrymal bone;
   lachrymal duct.

                              Lacrymal, Lacrymal

   Lac"ry*mal, Lac"ry*mal (?), n. See Lachrymatory.


   Lach"ry*ma*ry  (?),  a.  Containing,  or  intended  to contain, tears;
   lachrymal. Addison.


   Lach"ry*mate (-m\'bet), v. i. To weep. [R.] Blount.


   Lach`ry*ma"tion  (?), n. [L. lacrimatio, from lacrimare to shed tears,
   fr. lacrima tear.] The act of shedding tears; weeping.


   Lach"ry*ma*to*ry  (?),  n.;  pl.  -ries  (#).  [Cf.  F. lacrymatoire.]
   (Antiq.)  A  "tear-bottle;" a narrow-necked vessel found in sepulchers
   of  the  ancient  Romans;  --  so called from a former notion that the
   tears  of  the  deceased person's friends were collected in it. Called
   also lachrymal or lacrymal.


   Lach"ry*mi*form (?), a, [L.lacrima tear + -form; cf. F. lacrymiforme.]
   Having the form of a tear; tear-shaped.


   Lach"ry*mose`  (?), a. [L. lacrymosus, better lacrimosus, fr. lacrima,
   lacruma (also badly spelt lachryma) a tear, for older dacrima, akin to
   E.  tear. See Tear the secretion.] Generating or shedding tears; given
   to shedding tears; suffused with tears; tearful.

     You should have seen his lachrymose visnomy. Lamb.

   -- Lach"ry*mose`ly, adv.

   Page 823


   La"cing (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  securing,  fastening,  or tightening, with a lace or

   2.  A  lace; specifically (Mach.), a thong of thin leather for uniting
   the ends of belts.

   3.  A  rope or line passing through eyelet holes in the edge of a sail
   or an awning to attach it to a yard, gaff, etc.

   4. (Bridge Building) A system of bracing bars, not crossing each other
   in  the  middle,  connecting  the  channel  bars  of a compound strut.


   La*cin"i*a  (?), n.; pl. L. Lacini\'91 (#). [L., the lappet or flap of
   a garment.]

   1. (Bot.) (a) One of the narrow, jagged, irregular pieces or divisions
   which  form  a  sort  of  fringe  on the borders of the petals of some
   flowers.  (b)  A narrow, slender portion of the edge of a monophyllous
   calyx, or of any irregularly incised leaf.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  posterior,  inner  process  of  the stipes on the
   maxill\'91 of insects.

                             Laciniate, Laciniated

   La*cin"i*ate (?), La*cin"i*a"ted (?), a. [See Lacinia.]

   1. Fringed; having a fringed border.

   2. (Bot. & Zo\'94l.) Cut into deep, narrow, irregular lobes; slashed.


   La*cin"i*o*late  (?),  a.  [See  Lacinia.]  (Bot.)  Consisting  of, or
   abounding in, very minute lacini\'91.


   La*cin"u*la  (?),  n.;  pl.  Lacinul\'91  (#), E. Lacinulas (#). [NL.]
   (Bot.) A diminutive lacinia.


   Lack (?), n. [OE. lak; cf. D. lak slander, laken to blame, OHG. lahan,
   AS. le\'a0n.]

   1. Blame; cause of blame; fault; crime; offense. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  Deficiency;  want;  need;  destitution;  failure;  as,  a  lack of
   sufficient food.

     She swooneth now and now for lakke of blood. Chaucer.

     Let his lack of years be no impediment. Shak.


   Lack, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lacked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lacking.]

   1. To blame; to find fault with. [Obs.]

     Love them and lakke them not. Piers Plowman.

   2. To be without or destitute of; to want; to need.

     If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God. James i. 5.


   Lack, v. i.

   1.  To  be  wanting; often, impersonally, with of, meaning, to be less
   than, short, not quite, etc.

     What hour now ? I think it lacks of twelve. Shak.

     Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty. Gen. xvii. 28.

   2. To be in want.

     The young lions do lack, and suffer hunger. Ps. xxxiv. 10.


   Lack,  interj.  [Cf. Alack.] Exclamation of regret or surprise. [Prov.
   Eng.] Cowper.


   Lack`a*dai"si*cal   (?),  a.  [From  Lackadaisy,  interj.]  Affectedly
   pensive; languidly sentimental. -- Lack`a*dai"si*cal*ly, adv.


   Lack"a*dai`sy  (?),  interj. [From Lackaday, interj.] An expression of


   Lack"a*dai`sy, a. Lackadaisical.


   Lack"a*day`  (?), interj. [Abbreviated from alackaday.] Alack the day;
   alas;   --  an  expression  of  sorrow,  regret,  dissatisfaction,  or


   Lack"brain`  (?),  n. One who is deficient in understanding; a witless
   person. Shak.


   Lack"er (?), n. One who lacks or is in want.


   Lack"er, n. & v. See Lacquer.


   Lack"ey  (?),  n.; pl. Lackeys (#). [F. laquais; cf. Sp. & Pg. lacayo;
   of  uncertain  origin; perh. of German origin, and akin to E.lick, v.]
   An attending male servant; a footman; a servile follower.

     Like a Christian footboy or a gentleman's lackey. Shak.

   Lackey  caterpillar  (Zo\'94l.),  the  caterpillar,  or  larva, of any
   bombycid  moth  of  the  genus  Clisiocampa;  --  so  called  from its
   party-colored  markings.  The common European species (C. neustria) is
   striped with blue, yellow, and red, with a white line on the back. The
   American  species  (C. Americana and C. sylvatica) are commonly called
   tent  caterpillars.  See  Tent  caterpillar,under Tent. -- Lackey moth
   (Zo\'94l.), the moth which produces the lackey caterpillar.


   Lack"ey, v. t. To attend as a lackey; to wait upon.

     A thousand liveried angels lackey her. Milton.


   Lack"ey, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lackeyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lackeying.]
   To act or serve as lackey; to pay servile attendance.

                            Lackluster, Lacklustre

   Lack"lus`ter,  Lack"lus`tre  (?),  n.  A want of luster. -- a. Wanting
   luster or brightness. "Lackluster eye." Shak.


   Lac"mus (?), n. See Litmus.


   La*co"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Laconia, a division of ancient
   Greece; Spartan. -- n. An inhabitant of Laconia; esp., a Spartan.

                              Laconic, Laconical

   La*con"ic  (?),  La*con"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L.  Laconicus  Laconian, Gr.

   1.  Expressing much in few words, after the manner of the Laconians or
   Spartans;  brief  and  pithy;  brusque;  epigrammatic.  In  this sense
   laconic is the usual form.

     I  grow laconic even beyond laconicism; for sometimes I return only
     yes,  or  no, to questionary or petitionary epistles of half a yard
     long. Pope.

     His sense was strong and his style laconic. Welwood.

   2. Laconian; characteristic of, or like, the Spartans; hence, stern or
   severe; cruel; unflinching.

     His  head  had  now  felt  the  razor,  his  back the rod; all that
     laconical discipline pleased him well. Bp. Hall.

   Syn.  -- Short; brief; concise; succinct; sententious; pointed; pithy.
   --  Laconic,  Concise. Concise means without irrelevant or superfluous
   matter;  it is the opposite of diffuse. Laconic means concise with the
   additional quality of pithiness, sometimes of brusqueness.


   La*con"ic, n. Laconism. [Obs.] Addison.


   La*con"ic*al (?), a. See Laconic, a.


   La*con"ic*al*ly, adv. In a laconic manner.


   La*con"I*cism (?), n. Same as Laconism. Pope.


   Lac"o*nism (?), n. [Gr. laconisme.]

   1. A vigorous, brief manner of expression; laconic style.

   2. An instance of laconic style or expression.


   Lac"o*nize  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Laconized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Laconizing   (?).]  [Gr.  Laconic.]  To  imitate  the  manner  of  the
   Laconians,  especially  in  brief,  pithy  speech, or in frugality and


   Lac"quer  (?), n. [F. lacre a sort of sealing wax, Pg. lacte, fr. laca
   lac.  See Lac the resin.] [Written also lacker.] A varnish, consisting
   of  a  solution  of  shell-lac in alcohol, often colored with gamboge,
   saffron,  or the like; -- used for varnishing metals, papier-mach\'82,
   and  wood.  The  name  is  also  given  to  varnishes  made  of  other
   ingredients, esp. the tough, solid varnish of the Japanese, with which
   ornamental  objects are made. <-- shell-lac = shellac; it is the prime
   spelling in this dictionary, though not found in MW10! -->


   Lac"quer,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lacquered  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Lacquering.] To cover with lacquer. "Lacquer'd chair." Pope.


   Lac"quer*er  (?),  n.  One  who  lacquers,  especially one who makes a
   business of lacquering.


   Lac"quer*ing,  n. The act or business of putting on lacquer; also, the
   coat of lacquer put on.


   La`cri*mo"so (?), a. [It. See Lachrymose.] (Mus.) Plaintive; -- a term
   applied to a mournful or pathetic movement or style. Moore.


   La*crosse" (?), n. [F. la crosse, lit., the crosier, hooked stick. Cf.
   Crosier.]  A  game  of  ball,  originating  among  the  North American
   Indians,  now  the  popular  field sport of Canada, and played also in
   England  and  the  United  States.  Each player carries a long-handled
   racket, called a "crosse". The ball is not handled but caught with the
   crosse and carried on it, or tossed from it, the object being to carry
   it or throw it through one of the goals placed at opposite ends of the


   Lac"ry*mal (?), n. & a. See Lachrymatory, n., and Lachrymal, a.

                        Lacrymary, Lacrytory, Lacrymose

   Lac"ry*ma*ry,  Lac"ry*to*ry, Lac"ry*mose.See Lachrymary, Lachrymatory,


   Lac"tage  (?), n. [L. lac, lactis, milk: cf. F. laitage. See Lacteal.]
   The produce of animals yielding milk; milk and that which is made from


   Lac"tam  (?),  n.  [Lactone  +  amido.]  (Chem.)  One  of  a series of
   anhydrides of an amido type, analogous to the lactones, as oxindol.


   Lac*tam"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining to, or designating, an amido
   acid related to lactic acid, and called also amido-propionic acid.


   Lac*tam"ide  (?),  n.  [Lactic + amide.] (Chem.) An acid amide derived
   from lactic acid, and obtained as a white crystalline substance having
   a neutral reaction. It is metameric with alanine.


   Lac"tant  (?),  a.  [L.  lactans,  p. pr. of lactare to suck, fr. lac,
   lactis, milk.] Suckling; giving suck.


   Lac"ta*rene  (?),  n.  [L. lac, lactis, milk.] A preparation of casein
   from milk, used in printing calico.


   Lac"ta*ry  (?),  a.  [l.  lactarius,  fr.  lac,  lactis,  milk: cf. F.
   lactaire.]  Milky;  full  of white juice like milk. [Obs.] "Lactary or
   milky plants." Sir T. Browne.


   Lac"ta*ry, n. a dairyhouse. [R.]


   Lac"tate  (?),  n.  [L.  lac, lactis, milk: cf. F. lactate.] (Chem.) A
   salt of lactic acid.


   Lac*ta"tion  (?), n. A giving suck; the secretion and yielding of milk
   by the mammary gland.


   Lac"te*al  (?),  a.  [L.  lacteus  milky,  fr.  lac, lactis, milk. Cf.
   Galaxy, Lettuce.]

   1. Pertaining to, or resembling, milk; milky; as, the lacteal fluid.

   2.  (Anat.  &  Physiol.)  Pertaining to, or containing, chyle; as, the
   lacteal vessels.


   Lac"te*al,  n. (Anat.) One of the lymphatic vessels which convey chyle
   from the small intestine through the mesenteric glands to the thoracic
   duct; a chyliferous vessel.


   Lac"te*al*ly, adv. Milkily; in the manner of milk.


   Lac"te*an (?), a. [See Lacteal.]

   1.   Milky;   consisting   of,  or  resembling,  milk.  "This  lactean
   whiteness." Moxon.

   2. (Anat. & Physiol.) Lacteal; conveying chyle.


   Lac"te*ous (?), a. [See Lacteal.]

   1. Milky; resembling milk. "The lacteous circle." Sir T. Browne.

   2. Lacteal; conveying chyle; as, lacteous vessels.


   Lac"te*ous*ly, adv. In a lacteous manner; after the manner of milk.


   Lac*tes"cence (?), n. [Cf. F. lactescence.]

   1.  The  state  or  quality  of  producing  milk,  or  milklike juice;
   resemblance to milk; a milky color.

     This  lactescence  does  commonly  ensue  when  . . . fair water is
     suddenly poured upon the solution. Boyle.

   2. (Bot.) The latex of certain plants. See Latex.


   Lac*tes"cent  (?),  a. [L. lactescens, p. pr. of lactescere to turn to
   milk,  incho.  fr.  lactere to be milky, fr. lac, lactis, milk: cf. F.

   1. Having a milky look; becoming milky. [Obs.]

   2.  (Bot.)  Producing  milk  or  a  milklike  juice  or  fluid, as the
   milkweed. See Latex.


   Lac"tic  (?),  a. [L. lac, lactis, milk: cf. F. lactique. See Lacteal,
   and cf. Galactic.] (Physiol. Chem.) Of or pertaining to milk; procured
   from  sour  milk  or  whey; as, lactic acid; lactic fermentation, etc.
   Lactic  acid  (Physiol.  Chem.), a sirupy, colorless fluid, soluble in
   water,  with  an  intensely sour taste and strong acid reaction. There
   are  at  least  three  isomeric  modifications  all having the formula
   C3H6O3.  Sarcolactic  or paralactic acid occurs chiefly in dead muscle
   tissue,  while ordinary lactic acid results from fermentation. The two
   acids are alike in having the same constitution (expressed by the name
   ethylidene  lactic  acid), but the latter is optically inactive, while
   sarcolactic  acid  rotates the plane of polarization to the right. The
   third  acid, ethylene lactic acid, accompanies sarcolactic acid in the
   juice  of  flesh,  and  is  optically  inactive. -- Lactic ferment, an
   organized  ferment  (Bacterium  lacticum  OR  lactis),  which produces
   lactic  fermentation,  decomposing the sugar of milk into carbonic and
   lactic  acids,  the  latter,  of  which  renders  the  milk  sour, and
   precipitates the casein, thus giving rise to the so-called spontaneous
   coagulation  of  milk. -- Lactic fermentation. See under Fermentation.
   <--  the  three  are D-lactic acid, L-lactic acid, and DL-lactic acid,
   the third being merely an equimolar mixture of the first two. -->
   Lac"tide  (?),  n.  [Lactic + anhydride.] (Chem.) A white, crystalline
   substance, obtained from also, by extension, any similar substance.
   Lac*tif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [l.  lac,  lactis,  milk  +  -ferous: cf. F.
   lactif\'8are.]  Bearing  or  containing milk or a milky fluid; as, the
   lactiferous vessels, cells, or tissue of various vascular plants.
                             Lactific, Lactifical
   Lac*tif"ic  (?),  Lac*tif"ic*al (?), a. [L. lac, lactis, milk + facere
   to make.] Producing or yielding milk. 


   Lac"ti*fuge (?), n. [L. lac, lactis, milk + fugare to expel.] (Med.) A
   medicine  to  check  the  secretion  of  milk, or to dispel a supposed
   accumulation of milk in any part of the body.


   Lac"tim  (?),  n.  [Lactic  +  imido.]  (Chem.)  One  of  a  series of
   anhydrides  resembling  the lactams, but of an imido type; as, isatine
   is a lactim. Cf. Lactam.


   Lac*tim"ide  (?),  n.  [Lactic  + imide.] (Chem.) A white, crystalline
   substance  obtained  as  an  anhydride  of alanine, and regarded as an
   imido derivative of lactic acid.


   Lac"tin  (?), n. [L. lac, lactis, milk: cf. F. lactine. Cf. Galactin.]
   (Physiol. Chem.) See Lactose.


   Lac`to*a*bu"min (?), n. [L. lac, lactis, milk + E. albumin.] (Physiol.
   Chem.) The albumin present on milk, apparently identical with ordinary
   serum albumin. It is distinct from the casein of milk.


   Lac`to*bu`ty*rom"e*ter   (?),   n.   [L.   lac,   lactis,  milk  +  E.
   butyrometer.]  An  instrument for determining the amount of butter fat
   contained in a given sample of milk.


   Lac`to*den*sim"e*ter (?), n. [L. lac, lactis, milk + E. densimeter.] A
   form  of  hydrometer,  specially graduated, for finding the density of
   milk,  and  thus  discovering  whether it has been mixed with water or
   some of the cream has been removed.


   Lac*tom"e*ter   (?),  n.  [L.  lac,  lactis,  milk  +  meter:  cf.  F.
   lactom\'8atre.  Cf.  Galactometer.]  An  instrument for estimating the
   purity  or  richness of milk, as a measuring glass, a specific gravity
   bulb, or other apparatus.


   Lac"tone  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  One  of  a  series  of organic compounds,
   regarded  as anhydrides of certain hydroxy acids. In general, they are
   colorless  liquids,  having  a  weak aromatic odor. They are so called
   because the typical lactone is derived from lactic acid.


   Lac*ton"ic  (?),  a.  [From  Lactone.]  (Chem.)  Of, pertaining to, or
   derived from, lactone.


   Lac*ton"ic,  a. [From Lactose.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating,
   an acid obtained by the oxidation of milk sugar (lactose).


   Lac`to*pro"te*in  (?), n. [L.lac, lactis,milk + E. protein.] (Physiol.
   Chem.)  A  peculiar albuminous body considered a normal constituent of


   Lac"to*ry  (?),  a. Lactiferous. [Obs.] "Lactory or milky plants." Sir
   T. Browne.


   Lac"to*scope  (?),  n.  [L.  lac,  lactis  + scope.] An instrument for
   estimating  the  amount of cream contained in milk by ascertaining its
   relative opacity.


   Lac"tose` (?), n.

   1.  (Physiol.  Chem.) Sugar of milk or milk sugar; a crystalline sugar
   present  in  milk,  and  separable  from  the  whey by evaporation and
   crystallization.  It  has a slightly sweet taste, is dextrorotary, and
   is  much  less  soluble  in  water  than either cane sugar or glucose.
   Formerly called lactin.

   2. (Chem.) See Galactose.


   Lac*tu"ca  (?),  n.  [L.,  lettuce.  See  Lettuce.]  (Bot.) A genus of
   composite herbs, several of which are cultivated foe salad; lettuce.


   Lac`tu*ca"ri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. L. lactuca lettuce.] The inspissated
   juice of the common lettuce, sometimes used as a substitute for opium.


   Lac*tu"cic  (?),  a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, the juice
   of the Lactuca virosa; -- said of certain acids.


   Lac*tu"cin  (?), n. [From Lactuca: cf. F. lactucine.] (Chem.) A white,
   crystalline  substance,  having a bitter taste and a neutral reaction,
   and forming one of the essential ingredients of lactucarium.


   Lac*tu"cone  (?),  n.  [From  Lactuca.]  (Chem.) A white, crystalline,
   tasteless substance, found in the milky sap of species of Lactuca, and
   constituting an essential ingredient of lactucarium.


   Lac`tu*ram"ic  (, a. [Lactic + urea + amic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   designating,  an organic amido acid, which is regarded as a derivative
   of lactic acid and urea.


   Lac"tyl  (?), n. [Lactic + -yl.] (Chem.) An organic residue or radical
   derived from lactic acid.


   La*cu"na  (?),  n.;  pl. L. Lacun\'91 (#); E. Lacunas (#). [L., ditch,
   pit, lake, orig., anything hollow. See Lagoon.]

   1.  A small opening; a small pit or depression; a small blank space; a
   gap or vacancy; a hiatus.

   2.  (Biol.) A small opening; a small depression or cavity; a space, as
   a  vacant space between the cells of plants, or one of the spaces left
   among  the  tissues  of  the  lower  animals,  which serve in place of
   vessels  for the circulation of the body fluids, or the cavity or sac,
   usually of very small size, in a mucous membrane.

   Page 824

                               Lacunal, Lacunar

   La*cu"nal  (?), La*cu"nar (?), a. Pertaining to, or having, lacun\'91;
   as, a lacunar circulation.


   La*cu"nar, n.; pl. E. Lacunars (#), L. Lacunaria (#). [L.] (Arch.) (a)
   The  ceiling or under surface of any part, especially when it consists
   of  compartments, sunk or hollowed without spaces or bands between the
   panels. Gwilt (b) One of the sunken panels in such a ceiling.


   La*cune" (?), n. [F.] A lacuna. [R.] Landor.

                              Lacunose, Lacunous

   Lac"u*nose`  (?),  La*cu"nous  (?),  a. [L. lacunosus full of holes or
   hollows;  cf.  F.  lacuneux.  See Lacuna.] (Biol.) Furrowed or pitted;
   having shallow cavities or lacun\'91; as, a lacunose leaf.

                             Lacustral, Lacustrine

   La*cus"tral   (?),  La*cus"trine  (?),  a.  [L.  lacus  lake:  cf.  F.
   lacustral,  lacustre.]  Found in, or pertaining to, lakes or ponds, or
   growing  in them; as, lacustrine flowers. Lacustrine deposits (Geol.),
   the  deposits  which  have  been  accumulated in fresh-water areas. --
   Lacustrine dwellings. See Lake dwellings, under Lake.


   Lac"work` (?), n. Ornamentation by means of lacquer painted or carved,
   or simply colored, sprinkled with gold or the like; -- said especially
   of Oriental work of this kind.


   Lad (?), obs. p. p. of Lead, to guide Chaucer.


   Lad  (?),  n.  [OE. ladde, of Celtic origin; cf. W. , Ir. lath. (. Cf.

   1. A boy; a youth; a stripling. "Cupid is a knavish lad." Shak.

     There  is  a  lad here, which hath fire barley loaves and two small
     fishes. John vi. 9.

   2. A companion; a comrade; a mate.
   Lad's love. (Bot.) See Boy's love, under Boy.


   Lad"a*num  (?),  n. [L. ladanum, ledanum, Fr. (l\'bedan, l\'beden. Cf.
   Laudanum.]  A  gum  resin  gathered  from  certain Oriental species of
   Cistus.  It has a pungent odor and is chiefly used in making plasters,
   and for fumigation. [Written also labdanum.]


   Lad"de (?), obs. imp. of Lead, to guide. Chaucer.


   Lad"der  (?),  n.  [OE.  laddre,  AS. hl, hl; akin to OFries. hladder,
   OHG.leitara, G. leiter, and from the root of E. lean, v. (Lean, v. i.,
   and cf. Climax.]

   1.  A  frame usually portable, of wood, metal, or rope, for ascent and
   descent,  consisting  of  two  side pieces to which are fastened cross
   strips or rounds forming steps.

     Some  the  engines  play, And some, more bold, mount ladders to the
     fire. Dryden.

   2.  That which resembles a ladder in form or use; hence, that by means
   of which one attains to eminence.

     Lowliness is young ambition's ladder. Shak.

   Fish  ladder. See under Fish. -- Ladder beetle (Zo\'94l.), an American
   leaf  beetle  (Chrysomela  scalaris).  The  elytra  are silvery white,
   striped  and  spotted with green; the under wings are rose-colored. It
   feeds upon the linden tree. -- Ladder handle, an iron rail at the side
   of  a  vertical  fixed  ladder, to grasp with the hand in climbing. --
   Ladder  shell (Zo\'94l.), a spiral marine shell of the genus Scalaria.
   See Scalaria.


   Lad"die (?), n. A lad; a male sweetheart. [Scot.]


   Lade  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. Laded; p. p. Laded, Laded (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lading.]  [AS.  hladan  to  heap,  load, draw (water); akin to D. & G.
   laden  to  load,  OHG. hladan, ladan, Icel. hla, Sw. ladda, Dan. lade,
   Goth. afhlapan. Cf. Load, Ladle, Lathe for turning, Last a load.]

   1. To load; to put a burden or freight on or in; -- generally followed
   by that which receives the load, as the direct object.

     And they laded their asses with the corn. Gen. xlii. 26.

   2.  To throw in out. with a ladle or dipper; to dip; as, to lade water
   out of a tub, or into a cistern.

     And chides the sea that sunders him from thence, Saying, he'll lade
     it dry to have his way. Shak.

   3. (Plate Glass Manuf.) To transfer (the molten glass) from the pot to
   the forming table.


   Lade, v. i. [See Lade, v. t.]

   1. To draw water. [Obs.]

   2. (Naut.) To admit water by leakage, as a ship, etc.


   Lade, n. [Prov. E., a ditch or drain. Cf. Lode, Lead to conduct.]

   1. The mouth of a river. [Obs.] Bp. Gibson. 

   2. A passage for water; a ditch or drain. [Prov. Eng.]


   Lade"man (?), n. One who leads a pack horse; a miller's servant. [Obs.
   or Local]


   Lad"en (?), p. & a. Loaded; freighted; burdened; as, a laden vessel; a
   laden heart.

     Ah sinful nation, a people laden with iniquity. Is. i. 4.

     A ship laden with gold. Shak.


   La"died  (?),  a.  Ladylike; not rough; gentle. [Obs.] "Stroked with a
   ladied land." Feltham.

                               Ladies' eardrops

   La"dies'   ear`drops`  (?).  (Bot.)  The  small-flowered  Fuchsia  (F.
   coccinea), and other closely related species.


   La"di*fy (?), v. t. [Lady + -fy.] To make a lady of; to make ladylike.
   [Obs.] Massinger.


   La*din"  (?), n. [From L. Latinus Latin. See Latin] A Romansch dialect
   spoken in some parts of Switzerland and the Tyrol.


   Lad"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of loading.

   2.  That  which lades or constitutes a load or cargo; freight; burden;
   as, the lading of a ship.
   Bill of lading. See under Bill.


   La*di"no  (?),  n.;  pl.  Ladinos  (#).  [Sp.]  One  of the half-breed
   descendants  of whites and Indians; a mestizo; -- so called throughout
   Central  America.  They  are  usually of a yellowish orange tinge. Am.


   Lad"kin (?), n. A little lad. [R.] Dr. H. More.


   La"dle  (?), n. [AS.hl\'91del, fr. hladan to load, drain. See Lade, v.

   1.  A  cuplike spoon, often of large size, with a long handle, used in
   lading or dipping.

     When  the  materials  of  glass  have been kept long in fusion, the
     mixture  casts  up the superfluous salt, which the workmen take off
     with ladles. Boyle.

   2.  (Founding)  A vessel to carry liquid metal from the furnace to the

   3. The float of a mill wheel; -- called also ladle board.

   4.  (Gun.) (a) An instrument for drawing the charge of a cannon. (b) A
   ring, with a handle or handles fitted to it, for carrying shot.
   Ladle wood (Bot.), the wood of a South African tree (Cassine Colpoon),
   used for carving.


   La"dle  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Ladled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ladling
   (?).]  To  take  up  and convey in a ladle; to dip with, or as with, a
   ladle; as, to ladle out soup; to ladle oatmeal into a kettle.


   La"dle*ful  (?),  n.; pl. Ladlefuls (. A quantity sufficient to fill a


   La*drone"  (?),  n.  [Sp.  ladron,  L.  latro servant, robber, Gr. ( A
   robber; a pirate; hence, loosely, a rogue or rascal.


   La"dy  (?),  n.;  pl. Ladies (#). [OE. ladi, l\'91fdi, AS. hl, hl; AS.
   hl\'bef  loaf + a root of uncertain origin, possibly akin to E. dairy.
   See Loaf, and cf. Lord.]

   1.  A  woman  who  looks  after  the  domestic  affairs of a family; a
   mistress; the female head of a household.

     Agar, the handmaiden of Sara, whence comest thou, and whither goest
     thou?  The  which  answered,  Fro  the face of Sara my lady. Wyclif
     (Gen. xvi. 8.).

   2.  A  woman  having  proprietary  rights or authority; mistress; -- a
   feminine correlative of lord. "Lord or lady of high degree." Lowell.

     Of  all  these  bounds,  even from this line to this, . . . We make
     thee lady. Shak.

   3. A woman to whom the particular homage of a knight was paid; a woman
   to whom one is devoted or bound; a sweetheart.

     The  soldier  here  his  wasted store supplies, And takes new valor
     from his lady's eyes. Waller.

   4.  A  woman  of  social  distinction or position. In England, a title
   prefixed  to  the name of any woman whose husband is not of lower rank
   than  a  baron, or whose father was a nobleman not lower than an earl.
   The wife of a baronet or knight has the title of Lady by courtesy, but
   not by right.

   5.  A  woman  of  refined or gentle manners; a well-bred woman; -- the
   feminine correlative of gentleman.

   6. A wife; -- not now in approved usage. Goldsmith.

   7.  (Zo\'94l.)  The triturating apparatus in the stomach of a lobster;
   --  so called from a fancied resemblance to a seated female figure. It
   consists of calcareous plates.
   Ladies'  man,  a man who affects the society of ladies. -- Lady altar,
   an altar in a lady chapel. Shipley. -- Lady chapel, a chapel dedicated
   to  the  Virgin Mary. -- Lady court, the court of a lady of the manor.
   --  Lady  court,  the  court  of  a  lady  of  the manor. -- Lady crab
   (Zo\'94l.),   a   handsomely   spotted   swimming  crab  (Platyonichus
   ocellatus)  very  common  on the sandy shores of the Atlantic coast of
   the United States. -- Lady fern. (Bot.) See Female fern, under Female,
   and  Illust.  of  Fern.  --  Lady  in  waiting,  a lady of the queen's
   household, appointed to wait upon or attend the queen. -- Lady Mass, a
   Mass  said  in honor of the Virgin Mary. Shipley. Lady of the manor, a
   lady  having  jurisdiction of a manor; also, the wife of a manor lord.
   Lady's  maid,  a  maidservant  who  dresses  and  waits  upon  a lady.
   Thackeray. -- Our Lady, the Virgin Mary.


   La"dy,  a.  Belonging  or  becoming  to  a  lady; ladylike. "Some lady
   trifles." Shak.


   La"dy*bird`  (?), n. [Equiv. to, bird of Our Lady.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one
   of  numerous  species  of  small  beetles  of the genus Coccinella and
   allied  genera  (family  Coccinellid\'91);  --  called  also  ladybug,
   ladyclock,   lady   cow,   lady   fly,  and  lady  beetle.  Coccinella
   seplempunctata in one of the common European species. See Coccinella.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e la dybirds are usually more or less hemispherical
     in  form,  with  a smooth, polished surface, and often colored red,
     brown,  or  black,  with  small  spots of brighter colors. Both the
     larv\'91  and the adult beetles of most species feed on aphids, and
     for  this  reason  they  are  very  beneficial  to  agriculture and


   La"dy*bug` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Ladybird.


   La"dy*clock` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Ladyrird.


   La"dy`  (?). The day of the annunciation of the Virgin Mary, March 25.
   See Annunciation.


   La"dy*fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A large, handsome oceanic fish
   (Albula  vulpes),  found  both  in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; --
   called  also  bonefish,  grubber,  French mullet, and macab\'82. (b) A
   labroid fish (Harpe rufa) of Florida and the West Indies.


   La"dy*hood  (?),  n.  The  state  or  quality  of  being  a  lady; the
   personality of a lady.


   La"dy-kill`er (?), n. A gallant who captivates the hearts of women. "A
   renowned dandy and lady-killer." Blackw. Mag.


   La"dy-kill`ing,  n.  The  art or practice of captivating the hearts of

     Better  for  the  sake  of womankind that this dangerous dog should
     leave off lady-killing. Thackeray.


   La"dy*kin  (?),  n.  [Lady  +  -kin.] A little lady; -- applied by the
   writers  of  Queen Elizabeth's time, in the abbreviated form Lakin, to
   the Virgin Mary.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e di minutive do es no t re fer to  si ze, bu t is 
     equivalent to "dear."



   La"dy*like` (?), a.

   1. Like a lady in appearance or manners; well-bred.

     She  was  ladylike, too, after the manner of the feminine gentility
     of those days. Hawthorne.

   2. Becoming or suitable to a lady; as, ladylike manners. "With fingers
   ladylike." Warner.

   3. Delicate; tender; feeble; effeminate.

     Too ladylike a long fatigue to bear. Dryden.


   La"dy*like`ness (?), n. The quality or state of being ladylike.


   La"dy*love` (?), n. A sweetheart or mistress.

                                Lady's bedstraw

   La"dy's  bed"straw`  (?),  (Bot.)  The common bedstraw (Galium verum);
   also,  a  slender-leaved  East Indian shrub (Pharnaceum Mollugo), with
   white flowers in umbels.

                                 Lady's bower

   La"dy's  bow"er  (?).  (Bot.)  A climbing plant with fragrant blossoms
   (Clematis vitalba).

     NOTE: &hand; Th is term is sometimes applied to other plants of the
     same genus.

                                  Lady's comb

   La"dy's   comb"   (?),   (Bot.)   An   umbelliferous   plant  (Scandix
   Pecten-Veneris),   its   clusters  of  long  slender  fruits  remotely
   resembling a comb.

                                Lady's cushion

   La"dy's  cush"ion  (?),  (Bot.)  An  herb  growing in dense tufts; the
   thrift (Armeria vulgaris).

                                 Lady's finger

   La"dy's fin"ger (?),

   1. pl. (Bot.) The kidney vetch.

   2.  (Cookery)  A  variety  of  small cake of about the dimensions of a

   3. A long, slender variety of the potato.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) One of the branchi\'91 of the lobster.

                                Lady's garters

   La"dy's gar"ters (?). (Bot.) Ribbon grass.

                                  Lady's hair

   La"dy's  hair"  (?).  (Bot.)  A plant of the genus Briza (B. media); a
   variety of quaking grass.


   La"dy*ship (?), n. The rank or position of a lady; -- given as a title
   (preceded by her or your.)

     Your ladyship shall observe their gravity. B. Jonson.

                                 Lady's laces

   La"dy's la"ces (?). (Bot.) A slender climbing plant; dodder.

                             Lady's looking-glass

   La"dy's  look"ing-glass`  (?). (Bot.) See Venus's looking-glass, under

                                 Lady's mantle

   La"dy's  man"tle  (?). (Bot.) A genus of rosaceous herbs (Alchemilla),
   esp.  the  European  A.  vulgaris,  which  has leaves with rounded and
   finely serrated lobes.

                                  Lady's seal

   La"dy's  seal" (?).(Bot.) (a) The European Solomon's seal (Polygonatum
   verticillatum). (b) The black bryony (Tamus communis).

                                Lady's slipper

   La"dy's  slip"per  (?).  (Bot.)  Any  orchidaceous  plant of the genus
   Cypripedium, the labellum of which resembles a slipper. Less commonly,
   in the United States, the garden balsam (Impatiens Balsamina).

                                 Lady's smock

   La"dy's  smock"  (?).  (Bot.)  A  plant  of  the  genus  Cardamine (C.
   pratensis); cuckoo flower.

                                Lady's thimble

   La"dy's thim"ble (?). (Bot.) The harebell.

                                 Lady's thumb

   La"dy's  thumb"  (?).  (Bot.)  An  annual weed (Polygonum Persicaria),
   having a lanceolate leaf with a dark spot in the middle.

                        Lady's traces, Ladies' tresses

   La"dy's  tra"ces  (?),  La"dies'  tress"es (?). (Bot.) A name given to
   several  species  of  the  orchidaceous genus Spiranthes, in which the
   white  flowers  are  set  in spirals about a slender axis and remotely
   resemble braided hair.


   L\'91"laps  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (  (Paleon.)  A  genus of huge,
   carnivorous, dinosaurian reptiles from the Cretaceous formation of the
   United  States.  They  had  very  large  hind  legs  and tail, and are
   supposed to have been bipedal. Some of the species were about eighteen
   feet high.


   Laem"mer*gey`er (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Lammergeir.


   L\'91*mod"i*pod (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the L\'91modipoda.


   L\'91`mo*dip"o*da  (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A division of
   amphipod  Crustacea,  in which the abdomen is small or rudimentary and
   the  legs are often reduced to five pairs. The whale louse, or Cyamus,
   and Caprella are examples.


   L\'91`mo*dip"o*dous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the

                               L\'91tere Sunday

   L\'91*te"re  Sun"day  (?). The fourth Sunday of Lent; -- so named from
   the Latin word L\'91tare (rejoice), the first word in the antiphone of
   the introit sung that day in the Roman Catholic service.


   L\'91v"i*gate (?), a. [See Levigate.] (Biol.) Having a smooth surface,
   as if polished.


   L\'91"vo- (?). A prefix. See Levo.


   L\'91"vo*ro"ta*to*ry (?), a. Same as Levorotatory. Cf. Dextrorotatory.


   L\'91v"u*lose` (?), n. (Chem.) See Levulose.


   La`fa`yette"  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The dollar fish. (b) A market
   fish,  the goody, or spot (Liostomus xanthurus), of the southern coast
   of the United States.


   Laft (?), obs. p. p. of Leave. Chaucer.


   Laf"te (?), obs. imp. of Leave. Chaucer.


   Lag (?), a. [Of Celtic origin: cf. Gael. & Ir. lagweak, feeble, faint,
   W.  llag,  llac, slack, loose, remiss, sluggish; prob. akin to E. lax,

   1. Coming tardily after or behind; slow; tardy. [Obs.]

     Came too lag to see him buried. Shak.

   2. Last; long-delayed; -- obsolete, except in the phrase lag end. "The
   lag end of my life." Shak.

   Page 825

   3.  Last  made;  hence,  made of refuse; inferior. [Obs.] "Lag souls."


   Lag (?), n.

   1.  One who lags; that which comes in last. [Obs.] "The lag of all the
   flock." Pope.

   2. The fag-end; the rump; hence, the lowest class.

     The common lag of people. Shak.

   3.  The  amount  of  retardation of anything, as of a valve in a steam
   engine, in opening or closing.

   4.  A  stave  of  a  cask,  drum, etc.; especially (Mach.), one of the
   narrow  boards or staves forming the covering of a cylindrical object,
   as a boiler, or the cylinder of a carding machine or a steam engine.

   5. (Zo\'94l.) See Graylag.
   Lag  of  the  tide, the interval by which the time of high water falls
   behind  the mean time, in the first and third quarters of the moon; --
   opposed  to  priming  of  the tide, or the acceleration of the time of
   high  water,  in  the  second  and  fourth  quarters; depending on the
   relative  positions  of  the  sun and moon. -- Lag screw, an iron bolt
   with  a  square head, a sharp-edged thread, and a sharp point, adapted
   for screwing into wood; a screw for fastening lags.


   Lag,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lagged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lagging (?).] To
   walk  or  more slowly; to stay or fall behind; to linger or loiter. "I
   shall  not  lag  behind."  Milton. Syn. -- To loiter; linger; saunter;
   delay; be tardy.


   Lag, v. t.

   1. To cause to lag; to slacken. [Obs.] "To lag his flight." Heywood.

   2. (Mach.) To cover, as the cylinder of a steam engine, with lags. See
   Lag, n., 4.


   Lag, n. One transported for a crime. [Slang, Eng.]


   Lag, v. t. To transport for crime. [Slang, Eng.]

     She lags us if we poach. De Quincey.


   La"gan (?), n. & v. See Ligan.


   La*gar"to  (?),  n.  [See  Alligator.]  An  alligator.  [Obs.]  Sir W.


   La*ge"na  (?), n.; pl. L. Lagen\'91 (#), E. Lagenas (#). [L., a flask;
   cf.  Gr.  (Anat.)  The  terminal part of the cochlea in birds and most
   reptiles;  an appendage of the sacculus, corresponding to the cochlea,
   in fishes and amphibians.


   La*ge"ni*an  (?),  a. [See Lagena.] (Zo\'94l.) Like, or pertaining to,
   Lagena, a genus of Foraminifera having a straight, chambered shell.


   La*ge"ni*form  (?),  a.  [See Lagena, and -form.] (Bot.) Shaped like a
   bottle or flask; flag-shaped.


   La"ger (?), n. Lager beer.

                                  Lager beer

   La"ger beer` (?). [G. lager bed, storehouse + bier beer. See Lair, and
   Beer.]  Originally  a  German  beer,  but  now  also  made  in immense
   quantities  in  the United States; -- so called from its being laid up
   or stored for some months before use.

                                  Lager wine

   La"ger  wine`  (?).  Wine  which  has  been  kept for some time in the
   cellar. Simmonds.


   Lag"gard (?), a. [Lag + -ard.] Slow; sluggish; backward.


   Lag"gard, n. One who lags; a loiterer.


   Lag"ger (?), n. A laggard.


   Lag"ging (?), n.

   1.  (Mach.)  The  clothing  (esp., an outer, wooden covering), as of a
   steam  cylinder,  applied to prevent the radiation of heat; a covering
   of lags; -- called also deading and cleading.

   2. Lags, collectively; narrow planks extending from one rib to another
   in the centering of arches.


   Lag"ging*ly, adv. In a lagging manner; loiteringly.


   Lag"ly (?), adv. Laggingly. [Prov. Eng.]


   Lag"o*morph (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Lagomorpha.


   Lag`e*mor"pha (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of rodents,
   including  the hares. They have four incisors in the upper jaw. Called
   also Duplicidentata.


   La*goon" (?), n. [It. or Sp. laguna, L. lacuna ditch, pool, pond,lacus
   lake. See Lake, and cf. Lacuna.] [Written also lagune.]

   1.  A shallow sound, channel, pond, or lake, especially one into which
   the sea flows; as, the lagoons of Venice.

   2.  A  lake  in a coral island, often occupying a large portion of its
   area, and usually communicating with the sea. See Atoll.
   Lagoon island, a coral island consisting of a narrow reef encircling a

                         Lagophthalmia, Lagophthalmos

   Lag`oph*thal"mi*a (?), Lag`oph*thal"mos (?), n. [NL. lagophtalmia, fr.
   Gr.  lagw`s hare + 'ofqalmo`s eye; -- so called from the notion that a
   hare  sleeps  with  his eyes open.] (Med.) A morbid condition in which
   the eye stands wide open, giving a peculiar staring appearance.


   La*go"pous  (?),  a. [Gr. (Bot.) Having a dense covering of long hair,
   like the foot of a hare.


   La*gune" (?), n. See Lagoon.

                                 Laic, Laical

   La"ic  (?),  La"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L. laicus: cf. F. la\'8bque. See Lay
   laic.] Of or pertaining to a layman or the laity. "Laical literature."

     An unprincipled, unedified, and laic rabble. Milton.


   La"ic, n. A layman. Bp. Morton.


   La"ic*al"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being laic; the state or
   condition of a layman.


   La"ic*al*ly  (?),  adv. As a layman; after the manner of a layman; as,
   to treat a matter laically.


   Laid  (?), imp. & p. p. of Lay. Laid paper, paper marked with parallel
   lines  or  water marks, as if ribbed, from parallel wires in the mold.
   It is called blue laid, cream laid, etc., according to its color.
   Laid"ly, a. Ugly; loathsome. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]
     This laidly and loathsome worm. W. Howitt.
   Lain (?), p. p. of Lie, v. i. 


   Lain"ere (?), n. See Lanier. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lair  (?),  n. [OE. leir, AS. leger; akin to D. leger, G. lager couch,
   lair,  OHG. laga, Goth. ligrs, and to E. lie. See Lie to be prostrate,
   and cf. Layer, Leaguer.]

   1.  A place in which to lie or rest; especially, the bed or couch of a
   wild beast.

   2. A burying place. [Scot.] Jamieson.

   3. A pasture; sometimes, food. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Laird  (?),  n.  [See  Lord.] A lord; a landholder, esp. one who holds
   land directly of the crown. [Scot.]


   Laird"ship, n. The state of being a laird; an estate; landed property.
   [Scot.] Ramsay.


   La"ism (?), n. See Lamaism. [R.]

                                 Laissez faire

   Lais`sez" faire" (?). [F., let alone.] Noninterference; -- an axiom of
   some  political  economists, deprecating interference of government by
   attempts to foster or regulate commerce, manufactures, etc., by bounty
   or  by  restriction;  as,  the  doctrine of laissez faire; the laissez
   faire system government.


   La"i-ty (?), n. [See Lay, a.]

   1.  The  people,  as  distinguished  from  the clergy; the body of the
   people not in orders.

     A rising up of the laity against the sacerdotal caste. Macaulay.

   2. The state of a layman. [Obs.] Ayliffe.

   3.  Those  who are not of a certain profession, as law or medicine, in
   distinction from those belonging to it.


   La*ka"o (?), n. Sap green. [China]


   Lake  (?),  n.  [F.  laque,  fr.  Per.  See  Lac.] A pigment formed by
   combining  some  coloring  matter,  usually  by  precipitation, with a
   metallic oxide or earth, esp. with aluminium hydrate; as, madder lake;
   Florentine lake; yellow lake, etc.


   Lake,  n. [Cf. G. laken.] A kind of fine white linen, formerly in use.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lake (?), v. i. [AS. l\'becan, l\'91can, to spring, jump, l\'bec play,
   sport, or fr. Icel. leika to play, sport; both akin to Goth. laikan to
   dance. &root;120. Cf. Knowledge.] To play; to sport. [Prov. Eng.]


   Lake,  n.  [AS.  lac,  L.  lacus;  akin  to  AS. lagu lake, sea, Icel.
   l\'94gr;  OIr.  loch;  cf.  Gr.  Loch,  Lough.]  A large body of water
   contained  in  a  depression of the earth's surface, and supplied from
   the drainage of a more or less extended area.

     NOTE: &hand; La kes ar e for the most part of fresh water; the salt
     lakes,  like the Great Salt Lake of Utah, have usually no outlet to
     the ocean.

   Lake dwellers (Ethnol.), people of a prehistoric race, or races, which
   inhabited  different  parts  of  Europe. Their dwellings were built on
   piles  in  lakes,  a  short  distance from the shore. Their relics are
   common  in  the lakes of Switzerland. -- Lake dwellings (Arch\'91ol.),
   dwellings built over a lake, sometimes on piles, and sometimes on rude
   foundations  kept  in  place by piles; specifically, such dwellings of
   prehistoric  times.  Lake  dwellings  are  still  used  by many savage
   tribes.  Called  also  lacustrine  dwellings. See Crannog. -- Lake fly
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  one  of  numerous  species of dipterous flies of the
   genus  Chironomus.  In  form they resemble mosquitoes, but they do not
   bite.  The  larv\'91  live  in  lakes. -- Lake herring (Zo\'94l.), the
   cisco  (Coregonus  Artedii).  -- Lake poets, Lake school, a collective
   name  originally  applied  in  contempt, but now in honor, to Southey,
   Coleridge,   and   Wordsworth,  who  lived  in  the  lake  country  of
   Cumberland,  England, Lamb and a few others were classed with these by
   hostile  critics.  Called  also  lakers  and lakists. -- Lake sturgeon
   (Zo\'94l.), a sturgeon (Acipenser rubicundus), of moderate size, found
   in  the  Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. It is used as food. --
   Lake trout (Zo\'94l.), any one of several species of trout and salmon;
   in  Europe,  esp.  Salmo  fario; in the United States, esp. Salvelinus
   namaycush  of  the  Great  Lakes,  and  of  various lakes in New York,
   Eastern  Maine,  and  Canada.  A  large  variety  of  brook  trout (S.
   fontinalis), inhabiting many lakes in New England, is also called lake
   trout.  See Namaycush. -- Lake whitefish. (Zo\'94l.) See Whitefish. --
   Lake    whiting   (Zo\'94l.),   an   American   whitefish   (Coregonus
   Labradoricus),  found  in many lakes in the Northern United States and
   Canada. It is more slender than the common whitefish.


   Lake"-dwell`er (?), n. See Lake dwellers, under Lake.


   Lake"let (?), n. A little lake. Southey.


   Lake"weed`  (?), n. (Bot.) The water pepper (Polygonum Hydropiper), an
   aquatic plant of Europe and North America.


   Lakh (?), n. Same as Lac, one hundred thousand.


   La"kin (?), n. See Ladykin.


   Lak"ke (?), n. & v. See Lack. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lak"y (?), a. Pertaining to a lake. Sir W. Scott.


   Lak"y,  a.  [From  Lake  the  pigment.]  Transparent; -- said of blood
   rendered  transparent  by  the action of some solvent agent on the red
   blood corpuscles.


   Lal*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  lallare  to sing lalla, or lullaby: cf. F.
   lallation.]  An  imperfect  enunciation  of  the letter r, in which it
   sounds like l.


   La"lo  (?),  n.  The  powdered  leaves of the baobab tree, used by the
   Africans  to  mix  in their soup, as the southern negroes use powdered
   sassafras. Cf. Couscous.


   Lam  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Lammed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lamming.]
   [Icel.  lemja  to  beat, or lama to bruise, both fr. lami, lama, lame.
   See Lame.] To beat soundly; to thrash. [Obs. or Low] Beau. & Fl.


   La"ma (?; 277), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Llama.


   La"ma,  n.  [Thibet.  blama  (pronounced  l\'84\'b6ma) a chief, a high
   priest.]  In  Thibet,  Mongolia,  etc., a priest or monk of the belief
   called  Lamaism. The Grand Lama, OR Dalai Lama [lit., Ocean Lama], the
   supreme pontiff in the lamaistic hierarchy. See Lamaism.


   La"ma*ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Lamaism.


   La"ma*ism  (?),  n.  A  modified  form  of  Buddhism which prevails in
   Thibet,  Mongolia,  and some adjacent parts of Asia; -- so called from
   the name of its priests. See 2d Lama.

                               Lamaist, Lamaite

   La"ma*ist (?), La"ma*ite (?) n. One who believes in Lamaism.


   La`ma*is"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Lamaism.


   La*man"tin  (?), n. [F. lamantin, lamentin, prob. from the name of the
   animal in the Antilles. Cf. Manater.] (Zo\'94l.) The manatee. [Written
   also lamentin, and lamantine.]


   La*marck"i*an  (?), a. Pertaining to, or involved in, the doctrines of


   La*marck"i*an*ism (?), n. (Biol.) Lamarckism.


   La"marck"ism   (?),   n.   [From   Lamarck,   a  distinguished  French
   naturalist.]   (Biol.)   The   theory   that   structural  variations,
   characteristic  of  species  and  genera,  are produced in animals and
   plants  by the direct influence of physical environments, and esp., in
   the case of animals, by effort, or by use or disuse of certain organs.


   La"ma*ser*y (?), n. [See 2d Lama.] A mo


   Lamb  (?),  n.  [AS.  lamb; akin to D. & Dan. lam, G. & Sw. lamm, OS.,
   Goth., & Icel. lamb.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) The young of the sheep.

   2. Any person who is as innocent or gentle as a lamb.

   3.  A  simple,  unsophisticated  person;  in  the  cant  of  the Stock
   Exchange, one who ignorantly speculates and is victimized.
   Lamb  of God, The Lamb (Script.), the Jesus Christ, in allusion to the
   paschal lamb.

     The twelve apostles of the Lamb. Rev. xxi. 14.

     Behold  the  Lamb  of  God, which taketh away the sin of the world.
     John i. 29.

   --  Lamb's  lettuce  (Bot.), an annual plant with small obovate leaves
   (Valerianella  olitoria),  often used as a salad; corn salad. [Written
   also  lamb lettuce.] -- Lamb's tongue, a carpenter's plane with a deep
   narrow bit, for making curved grooves. Knight. -- Lamb's wool. (a) The
   wool  of  a  lamb.  (b)  Ale mixed with the pulp of roasted apples; --
   probably  from the resemblance of the pulp of roasted apples to lamb's
   wool. [Obs.] Goldsmith.


   Lamb (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lambed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lambing.] To
   bring forth a lamb or lambs, as sheep.


   Lamb"ale` (?), n. A feast at the time of shearing lambs.


   Lam*baste"  (?),  v. t. [Lam + baste to beat.] To beat severely. [Low]


   Lam"ba*tive  (?),  a.  [L.  lambere  to  lick.  See Lambent.] Taken by
   licking  with  the  tongue.  "Sirups  and lambative medicines." Sir T.


   Lam"ba*tive,  n.  A  medicine  taken  by  licking  with  the tongue; a
   lincture. Wiseman.


   Lamb"da (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1.  The  name  of the Greek letter , l, corresponding with the English
   letter L, l.

   2.  (Anat.) The point of junction of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures
   of the skull.
   Lambda  moth  (Zo\'94l.),  a  moth so called from a mark on its wings,
   resembling the Greek letter lambda ().


   Lamb"da*cism  (?),  n. [L. lambdacismus, Gr. la`mbda the letter lambda

   1.  A  fault  in  speaking  or  in  composition, which consists in too
   frequent use of the letter l, or in doubling it erroneously.

   2.  A  defect  in  pronunciation  of  the letter l when doubled, which
   consists  in giving it a sound as if followed by y, similar to that of
   the letters lli in billion.

   3.  The  use  of  the  sound  of  l  for  that  of r in pronunciation;
   lallation; as, Amelican for American.


   Lamb"doid  (?), a. [Gr. la`mbda the letter lambda () + e"i^dos shape.]
   Shaped  like  the  Greek  letter  lambda  ();  as, the lambdoid suture
   between the occipital and parietal bones of the skull.


   Lamb*doid"al (?), a. Same as Lambdoid.


   Lam"bent  (?), a. [L. lambens, -enlis, p. pr. of lambere to lick; akin
   to lap. See Lap to drink by licking.]

   1.  Playing on the surface; touching lightly; gliding over. "A lambent
   flame." Dryden. "A lambent style." Beaconsfield.

   2.  Twinkling  or  gleaming;  fickering.  "The  lambent  purity of the
   stars." W. Irving.

                                 Lambert pine

   Lam"bert  pine`  (?).  [So  called from Lambert, an English botanist.]
   (Bot.)  The  gigantic  sugar  pine  of  California  and  Oregon (Pinus
   Lambertiana).  It  has the leaves in fives, and cones a foot long. The
   timber is soft, and like that of the white pine of the Eastern States.


   Lamb"kin (?), n. A small lamb.


   Lamb"like (?), a. Like a lamb; gentle; meek; inoffensive.


   Lam"boys (?), n. pl. [Cf. F. lambeau. Cf. Label.] (Anc. Armor) Same as
   Base, n., 19.


   Lam"bre*quin (?), n. [F. Cf. Lamboys, Label.]

   1.  A  kind  of  pendent  scarf or covering attached to the helmet, to
   protect it from wet or heat.

   2. A leather flap hanging from a cuirass. Wilhelm.

   3.  A  piece  of ornament drapery or short decorative hanging, pendent
   from  a  shelf  or  from the casing above a window, hiding the curtain
   fixtures, or the like.


   Lamb"skin` (?), n.

   1.  The  skin  of a lamb; especially, a skin dressed with the wool on,
   and used as a mat. Also used adjectively.

   2. A kind of woolen.


   Lamb"skin`net" (?), n. See Lansquenet.


   Lamb's-quar"ters  (?), n. (Bot.) A name given to several plants of the
   Goosefoot  family,  sometimes  used as pot herbs, as Chenopodium album
   and Atriplex patulsa.


   Lam*doid"al (?), a. Lambdoid. [R.]


   Lame (?), a. [Compar. Lamer (?); superl. Lamest.] [OE. lame, AS. lama;
   akin  to  D.  lam,  G.  lahm,OHG.,  Dan., & Sw. lam, Icel. lami, Russ.
   lomate to break, lomota rheumatism.]

   1. (a) Moving with pain or difficulty on account of injury, defect, or
   temporary  obstruction  of a function; as, a lame leg, arm, or muscle.
   (b)  To  some  degree  disabled by reason of the imperfect action of a
   limb; crippled; as, a lame man. "Lame of one leg." Arbuthnot. "Lame in
   both  his feet." 2 Sam. ix. 13. "He fell, and became lame." 2 Sam. iv.

   2.   Hence,   hobbling;   limping;  inefficient;  imperfect.  "A  lame
   endeavor." Barrow.

     O, most lame and impotent conclusion! Shak.

   Lame  duck  (stock  Exchange),  a  person  who  can  not  fulfill  his
   contracts. [Cant]

   Page 826


   Lame  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lamed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Laming.] To
   make lame.

     If you happen to let child fall and lame it. Swift.


   Lam"el (?), n. See Lamella.


   La*mel"la  (?),  n.;  pl.  L.  Lamell\'91  (#),  E.  Lamellas (#). [L.
   lamella,  dim.  of  lamina  plate,  leaf,  layer:  cf. F. lamelle. Cf.
   Lamina,  Omelet.]  a  thin plate or scale of anything, as a thin scale
   growing  from the petals of certain flowers; or one of the thin plates
   or scales of which certain shells are composed.

   Lamellar, a. [Cf. F. lamellaire.] Flat and thin; lamelliform; composed of
                           lamell\'91. -- Lamellarly

   Lam"el*lar  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. lamellaire.] Flat and thin; lamelliform;
   composed  of  lamell\'91.  --  Lam"el*lar*ly,  adv.  In thin plates or


   Lam"el*la*ry  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to lamella or to lamell\'91;

                             Lamellate, Lamellated

   Lam"el*late  (?), Lam"el*la`ted (?), a. [See Lamella.] Composed of, or
   furnished with, thin plates or scales. See Illust. of Antenn\'91.


   La*mel"li*branch  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Lamellibranchia. Also
   used adjectively.

                      Lamellibranchia, Lamellibranchiata

   La*mel`li*bran"chi*a (?), La*mel`li*bran`chi*a"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See
   lamella,  and  Branchia,  Branchiate.]  (Zo\'94l.) A class of Mollusca
   including  all  those that have bivalve shells, as the clams, oysters,
   mussels, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  ey us  ually ha ve tw o (r arely bu t on e) fl at,
     lamelliform   gills  on  each  side  of  the  body.  They  have  an
     imperfectly developed head, concealed within the shell, whence they
     are  called  Acephala.  Called also Conchifera, and Pelecypoda. See


   Lam`el*li*bran"chi*ate  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  lamellar  gills;
   belonging to the Lamellibranchia. -- n. One of the Lamellibranchia.


   La*mel"li*corn   (?),   a.   [Lamella  +  L.  cornu  a  horn:  cf.  F.
   lamellicorne.   See   Lamella.]   (Zo\'94l.)   (a)  Having  antenn\'91
   terminating  in  a  group  of  flat  lamell\'91;  --  said  of certain
   coleopterous  insects.  (b) Terminating in a group of flat lamell\'91;
   -- said of antenn\'91. -- n. A lamellicorn insect.


   La*mel`li*cor"ni*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL. See Lamellicorn.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   group   of   lamellicorn,   plant-eating   beetles;   --  called  also


   Lam`el*lif"er*ous  (?), a. [Lamella + -ferous: cf. F. lamellif\'8are.]
   Bearing,  or  composed  of,  lamell\'91,  or  thin  layers, plates, or
   scales; foliated.


   La*mel"li*form  (?),  a. [Lamella + -form : cf. F. lamelliforme.] Thin
   and flat; scalelike; lamellar.


   Lam`el*li*ros"tral (?), a. [Lamella + rostral : cf. F. lamellirostre.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Having a lamellate bill, as ducks and geese.


   La*mel`li*ros"tres  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Lamella,  and  Rostrum.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  group of birds embracing the Anseres and flamingoes, in
   which the bill is lamellate.


   Lam"el*lose`  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  lamelleux.]  Composed of, or having,
   lamell\'91; lamelliform.


   Lame"ly  (?),  adv.  [See  Lame.]  An  a  lame, crippled, disabled, or
   imperfect manner; as, to walk lamely; a figure lamely drawn.


   Lame"ness, n. The condition or quality of being lame; as, the lameness
   of an excuse or an argument.


   La*ment"  (?),  v.  i.  [F.  lamenter,  L.  lamentari,  fr. lamentum a
   lament.] To express or feel sorrow; to weep or wail; to mourn.

     Jeremiah lamented for Josiah. 2 Chron. xxxv. 25.

     Ye  shall  weep  and lament, but the world shall rejoice. John xvi.


   La*ment", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lamented; p. pr. & vb. n. Lamenting.] To
   mourn for; to bemoan; to bewail.

     One laughed at follies, one lamented crimes. Dryden.

   Syn. -- To deplore; mourn; bewail. See Deplore.


   La*ment", n. [L. lamentum. Cf. Lament, v.]

   1.  Grief  or  sorrow expressed in complaints or cries; lamentation; a
   wailing; a moaning; a weeping.

     Torment, and loud lament, and furious rage. Milton.

   2. An elegy or mournful ballad, or the like.


   Lam"en*ta*ble (?), a. [L. lamentabilis : cf. F. lamentable.]

   1.   Mourning;   sorrowful;   expressing   grief;   as,  a  lamentable
   countenance. "Lamentable eye." Spenser.

   2. Fitted to awaken lament; to be lamented; sorrowful; pitiable; as, a
   lamentable misfortune, or error. "Lamentable helplessness." Burke.

   3.   Miserable;   pitiful;   paltry;  --  in  a  contemptuous  or  Bp.
   Stillingfleet. -- Lam"en*ta*ble*ness, n. -- Lam"en*ta*bly, adv.


   Lam`en*ta"tion (?), n. [F. lamentation, L. lamentatio.]

   1.  The  act  of  bewailing;  audible  expression  of sorrow; wailing;

     In  Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation and weeping Matt. ii.

   2. pl. (Script.) A book of the Old Testament attributed to the prophet
   Jeremiah, and taking its name from the nature of its contents.


   La*ment"ed (?), a. Mourned for; bewailed.

     This humble praise,lamented shade ! receive. Pope.


   La*ment"er (, n. One who laments.


   La*men"tin (?), n. See Lamantin.


   La*ment"ing (?), n. Lamentation.

     Lamentings heard i' the air. Shak.


   La*ment"ing*ly, adv. In a lamenting manner.


   Lames  (?),  n.  pl.  [F. lame a thin plate, L. lamina.] (Armor) Small
   steel  plates  combined  together  so  as to slide one upon the form a
   piece of armor.


   La*met"ta (?), n. [Cf. It. lametta, dim of lama a thin plate.] Foil or
   wire made of gold, silver, or brass. De Colange.


   La"mi*a  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr.  (Class. Myth.) A monster capable of
   assuming  a  woman's form, who was said to devour human beings or suck
   their blood; a vampire; a sorceress; a with.


   Lam"i*na (?), n.; pl. L. Lamella.

   1.  A  thin  plate  or  scale;  a laying over another; -- said of thin
   plates or platelike substances, as of bone or minerals.

   2.  (Bot.) The blade of a leaf; the broad, expanded portion of a petal
   or sepal of a flower. Gray.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  thin plate or scale; specif., one of the thin, flat
   processes composing the vane of a feather.


   Lam`i*na*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being laminable.


   Lam"i*na*ble  (?),  a.  Capable  of being split into lamin\'91 or thin
   plates,  as mica; capable of being extended under pressure into a thin
   plate or strip.

     When  a  body  can  be readily extended in all directions under the
     hammer, it is said to be malleable; and when into fillets under the
     rolling press, it is said to be laminable. Ure.

                               Laminar, Laminal

     Lam"i*nar (?), Lam"i*nal (?), a. [Cf. F. laminaire. See Lamina] In,
     or  consisting of, thin plates or layers; having the form of a thin
     plate or lamina.


     Lam`i*na"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  See Lamina.] (Bot.) A genus of great
     seaweeds  with  long  and broad fronds; kelp, or devil's apron. The
     fronds  commonly grow in clusters, and are sometimes from thirty to
     fifty feet in length. See Illust. of Kelp.


     Lam`i*na"ri*an   (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  seaweeds  of  the  genus
     Laminaria,  or  to that zone of the sea (from two to ten fathoms in
     depth) where the seaweeds of this genus grow.


     Lam"i*na*rite (?), n. [See Lamina.] (Paleon.) A broad-leafed fossil


     Lam"i*na*ry (?), a. Laminar.


     Lam"i*nate  (?),  a.  [See Lamina.] Consisting of, or covered with,
     lamin\'91,  or  thin  plates,  scales, or layers, one over another;


     Lam"i*nate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Laminated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
     Laminating (?).] [See Lamina.]

     1.  To cause to separate into thin plates or layers; to divide into
     thin plates.

     2.  To  form, as metal, into a thin plate, as by rolling. <-- 3. To
     form  by  uniting two or more layers (in sheet form) of a material,
     so that the layers are bonded tightly. 4. (With material as object)
     To  unite  (layers  in  sheet  form)  by bonding, so as to create a
     single object with multiple layers. -->


     Lam"i*nate, v. i. To separate into lamin\'91.


     Lam"i*na`ted (?), a. Laminate.

   Laminated  arch  (Arch.),  a timber arch made of layers of bent planks
   secured by treenails.


   Lam"i*na`ting  (?),  a.  Forming,  or  separating into, scales or thin


   Lam`i*na"tion (?), n. The process of laminating, or the state of being


   Lam`i*nif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Lamina  +  -ferous.]  Having  a structure
   consisting of lamin\'91, or thin layers.


   Lam`i*ni*plan"tar  (?),  a.  [Lamina  +  L.  planta sole of the foot.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Having  the  tarsus  covered  behind  with  a horny sheath
   continuous on both sides, as in most singing birds, except the larks.


   Lam`i*ni"tis  (?), n. [NL. See Lamina, and -itis.] (Far.) Inflammation
   of  the  lamin\'91  or fleshy plates along the coffin bone of a horse;
   founder. Youatt.


   Lam"ish (?), a. Somewhat lame. Wood.


   Lamm (?), v. t. See Lam.


   Lam"mas  (?),  n. [AS. hl\'bemmesse, hl\'befm\'91sse, loaf mass, bread
   feast,  or  feast  of  first fruits; hl\'bef loaf + m\'91sse mass. See
   Loaf,  and Mass religious service.] The first day of August; -- called
   also Lammas day, and Lammastide.

                            Lammergeir, Lammergeier

   Lam"mer*geir (?), Lam"mer*gei`er (?), n. [G. l\'84mmergeier; lamm, pl.
   l\'84mmer,  lamb  +  geier  vulture.]  (Zo\'94l.) A very large vulture
   (Gypa\'89tus  barbatus),  which  inhabits  the  mountains  of Southern
   Europe,  Asia,  and Northern Africa. When full-grown it is nine or ten
   feet  in  extent  of wings. It is brownish black above, with the under
   parts  and  neck rusty yellow; the forehead and crown white; the sides
   of  the head and beard black. It feeds partly on carrion and partly on
   small  animals, which it kills. It has the habit of carrying tortoises
   and  marrow  bones  to  a great height, and dropping them on stones to
   obtain   the   contents,  and  is  therefore  called  bonebreaker  and
   ossifrage.  It  is  supposed  to be the ossifrage of the Bible. Called
   also bearded vulture and bearded eagle. [Written also lammergeyer.]


   Lam*nun"gui*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  L. lamina a scale + unguis a
   nail.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as Hyracoidea.


   Lamp  (?),  n.[OE.  (with  excrescent  p), fr. F. lame, L. lamina. See
   Lamina.] A thin plate or lamina. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lamp (?), n. [F. lampe, L. lampas, -adis, fr. Gr. Lampad, Lantern.]

   1.  A  light-producing  vessel, instrument or apparatus; especially, a
   vessel with a wick used for the combustion of oil or other inflammable
   liquid,  for  the  purpose  of  producing  artificial  light.<-- needs
   modernization for electric lamps! See def. 3 -->

   2.  Figuratively, anything which enlightens intellectually or morally;
   anything regarded metaphorically a performing the uses of a lamp.

     Thy  word  is  a  lamp  unto my feet, and a light unto my path. Ps.
     cxix. 105.

     Ages elapsed ere Homer's lamp appeared. Cowper.

   3.  (Elec.)  A device or mechanism for producing light by electricity.
   See Incandescent lamp, under Incandescent.
   \'92olipile  lamp, a hollow ball of copper containing alcohol which is
   converted  into  vapor  by  a  lamp  beneath, so as to make a powerful
   blowpipe  flame when the vapor is ignited. Weale. -- Arc lamp (Elec.),
   a  form  of  lamp  in  which  the voltaic arc is used as the source of
   light.  --  D\'89bereiner's  lamp,  an apparatus for the instantaneous
   production of a flame by the spontaneous ignition of a jet of hydrogen
   on  being  led over platinum sponge; -- named after the German chemist
   D\'94bereiner,  who  invented  it.  Called also philosopher's lamp. --
   Flameless  lamp,  an  aphlogistic  lamp. -- Lamp burner, the part of a
   lamp  where  the wick is exposed and ignited. Knight. -- Lamp fount, a
   reservoir  for  oil, in a lamp. -- Lamp jack. See 2d Jack, n., 4 (l) &
   (n).  --  Lamp  shade,  a  screen,  as  of  paper,  glass, or tin, for
   softening   or  obstructing  the  light  of  a  lamp.  --  Lamp  shell
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  brachiopod shell of the genus Terebratula and allied
   genera. The name refers to the shape, which is like that of an antique
   lamp.  See  Terebratula.  --  Safety lamp, a miner's lamp in which the
   flame  is  surrounded  by  fine wire gauze, preventing the kindling of
   dangerous  explosive  gases; -- called also, from Sir Humphry Davy the
   inventor,  Davy  lamp. -- To smell of the lamp, to bear marks of great
   study and labor, as a literary composition.


   Lam"pad (?), n. [Gr. Lamp.] A lamp or candlestick. [R.]

     By him who 'mid the golden lampads went. Trench.


   Lam"pa*dist  (?), n. [Gr. Lamp.] (Gr. Antiq.) One who gained the prize
   in the lampadrome.


   Lam"pa*drome  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) A race run by young men with
   lighted  torches  in  their hands. He who reached the goal first, with
   his torch unextinguished, gained the prize.


   Lam"pas  (?), n. [F. lampas.] An inflammation and swelling of the soft
   parts  of  the  roof of the mouth immediately behind the fore teeth in
   the horse; -- called also lampers.


   Lam"pate  (?),  n. [Cf. F. lampate.] (Chem.) A supposed salt of lampic
   acid. [Obs.]


   Lamp"black`  (?), n. [Lamp + black.] The fine impalpable soot obtained
   from  the smoke of carbonaceous substances which have been only partly
   burnt,  as  in  the  flame  of  a  smoking lamp. It consists of finely
   divided  carbon,  with  sometimes  a  very small proportion of various
   impurities.  It is used as an ingredient of printers' ink, and various
   black pigments and cements.

                                  Lamper eel

   Lam"per eel` (?). (Zo\'94l.) See Lamprey.


   Lam"pern   (?),   n.  [See  Lamprey.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The  river  lamprey
   (Ammoc\'d2tes, OR Lampetra, fluviatilis).

     NOTE: &hand; The name is also applied to other river lampreys.


   Lam"pers (?), n. See Lampas.


   Lam"pic  (?),  a.  [F.  lampique,  fr.  lampe lamp. See Lamp.] (Chem.)
   Pertaining  to, or produced by, a lamp; -- formerly said of a supposed


   Lamp"ing (?), a.Shining; brilliant. [Obs.] "Lamping eyes." Spenser.


   Lamp"less,  a.  Being  without  a lamp, or without light; hence, being
   without appreciation; dull.

     Your ladies' eyes are lampless to that virtue. Beau. & Fl.


   Lamp"light` (?), n. Light from a lamp.

     This world's artificial lamplights. Owen Meredith.


   Lamp"light`er (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or that which, lights a lamp; esp., a person who lights
   street lamps.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The calico bass.


   Lam*poon"  (?),  n.  [F.  lampon  a  drinking song, fr. lampons let us
   drink,  --  the  burden of such a song, fr. lamper to guzzle, to drink
   much  and  greedily;  of  German  origin, and akin to E. lap to drink.
   Prob.  so called because drinking songs often contain personal slander
   or  satire.]  A  personal  satire  in  writing; usually, malicious and
   abusive censure written only to reproach and distress.

     Like  her  who  missed  her  name in a lampoon, And grieved to find
     herself decayed so soon. Dryden.


   Lam*poon",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lampooned  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lampooning.]  To  subject to abusive ridicule expressed in writing; to
   make the subject of a lampoon.

     Ribald poets had lampooned him. Macaulay.

   Syn. -- To libel; defame; satirize; lash.


   Lam*poon"er  (?),  n.  The writer of a lampoon. "Libelers, lampooners,
   and pamphleteers." Tatler.


   Lam*poon"ry (?), n. The act of lampooning; a lampoon, or lampoons.


   Lamp"-post`  (?),  n. A post (generally a pillar of iron) supporting a
   lamp or lantern for lighting a street, park, etc.


   Lam"prel (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Lamprey.


   Lam"prey  (?),  n. ; pl. Lampreys (#). [OE. lampreie, F. lamproie, LL.
   lampreda,  lampetra,  from L. lambere to lick + petra rock, stone. The
   lampreys  are  so  called  because  they  attach themselves with their
   circular  mouths  to  rocks  and  stones,  whence they are also called
   rocksuckers.  See  Lap  to  drink,  Petrify.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An eel-like
   marsipobranch of the genus Petromyzon, and allied genera. The lampreys
   have  a  round,  sucking  mouth,  without  jaws, but set with numerous
   minute teeth, and one to three larger teeth on the palate (see Illust.
   of Cyclostomi). There are seven small branchial openings on each side.
   [Written also lamper eel, lamprel, and lampron.]

   Page 827

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon or  se a la mprey of  Am erica and Europe
     (Petromyzon  marinus),  which in spring ascends rivers to spawn, is
     considered  excellent food by many, and is sold as a market fish in
     some  localities.  The  smaller river lampreys mostly belong to the
     genus  Ammoc\'d2les, or Lampetra, as A. fluviatilis, of Europe, and
     A. \'91pypterus of America. All lampreys attach themselves to other
     fishes, as parasites, by means of the suckerlike mouth.


   Lam"pron  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OE.  lampreon.  See Lamprey.] (Zo\'94l.) See


   Lam*py"rine  (?), n. [See Lampyris.] (Zo\'94l.) An insect of the genus
   Lampyris, or family Lampyrid\'91. See Lampyris.


   Lam*py"ris  (?),  n.  [L.,  glowworm,  Gr.  (  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus of
   coleopterous insects, including the glowworms.


   Lan"ark*ite (?), n. [From Lanarkshire, a county in Scotland.] (Min.) A
   mineral consisting of sulphate of lead, occurring either massive or in
   long slender prisms, of a greenish white or gray color.


   La"na*ry  (?),  n.  [L.  lanaria, fr. lanarius belonging to wool, lana
   wool.] A place for storing wool.

                                Lanate, Lanated

   La"nate  (?),  La"na*ted (?),[L. lanatus, fr. lana wool, down.] Wooly;
   covered with fine long hair, or hairlike filaments.

                               Lacashire boiler

   La"ca*shire boil"er (?). A steam boiler having two flues which contain
   the furnaces and extend through the boiler from end to end.


   La`cas*te"ri*an  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to the monitorial system of
   instruction  followed  by  Joseph  Lancaster,  of  England,  in  which
   advanced pupils in a school teach pupils below them.


   Lance (?), n. [OE. lance, F. lance, fr. L. lancea; cf. Gr. Launch.]

   1.  A  weapon of war, consisting of a long shaft or handle and a steel
   blade or head; a spear carried by horsemen, and often decorated with a
   small flag; also, a spear or harpoon used by whalers and fishermen.

     A braver soldier never couched lance. Shak.

   2. A soldier armed with a lance; a lancer.

   3.  (Founding) A small iron rod which suspends the core of the mold in
   casting a shell.

   4.  (Mil.)  An  instrument  which  conveys  the  charge  of a piece of
   ordnance and forces it home.

   5.  (Pyrotech.)  One  of the small paper cases filled with combustible
   composition, which mark the outlines of a figure.
   Free  lance,  in the Middle Ages, and subsequently, a knight or roving
   soldier,  who  was  free  to  engage  for  any state or commander that
   purchased  his  services;  hence, a person who assails institutions or
   opinions  on  his  own responsibility without regard to party lines or
   deference  to  authority. -- Lance bucket (Cavalry), a socket attached
   to  a saddle or stirrup strap, in which to rest the but of a lance. --
   Lance corporal, same as Lancepesade. -- Lance knight, a lansquenet. B.
   Jonson.  --  Lance  snake  (Zo\'94l.), the fer-de-lance. -- Stink-fire
   lance  (Mil.),  a  kind  of fuse filled with a composition which burns
   with  a suffocating odor; -- used in the counter operations of miners.
   To break a lance, to engage in a tilt or contest.


   Lance, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lanced (; p. pr. & vb. n. Lancing (?).]

   1. To pierce with a lance, or with any similar weapon.

     Seized the due victim, and with fury lanced Her back. Dryden.

   2.  To  open  with  a  lancet;  to  pierce;  as, to lance a vein or an

   3. To throw in the manner of a lance. See Lanch.

                                  Lance fish

   Lance"  fish`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  A  slender  marine  fish of the genus
   Ammodytes,  especially  Ammodytes  tobianus  of  the English coast; --
   called also sand lance.

                              Lancegay, Lancegaye

   Lance"gay`,  Lance"gaye`  (?),  n.  [OF. lancegaie, corrupted from the
   same  source as E. assagai, under the influence of F. lance lance. See
   Assagai.]  A kind of spear anciently used. Its use was prohibited by a
   statute of Richard II. Nares.

     In his hand a launcegay, A long sword by his side. Chaucer.


   Lance"let  (?),  n. [Lance + -let.] (Zo\'94l.) A small fishlike animal
   (Amphioxus  lanceolatus),  remarkable for the rudimentary condition of
   its  organs.  It  is the type of the class Leptocardia. See Amphioxus,


   Lance"ly, a. Like a lance. [R.] Sir P. Sidney.


   Lan"ce*o*lar  (?),  a.  [L.  lanceola  a  little lance, dim. of lancea
   lance: cf. F. lanc\'82olaire.] (Bot.) Lanceolate.

                            Lanceolate, Lanceolated

   Lan"ce*o*late  (?),  Lan"ce*o*la`ted  (?)  a.  [L. lanceolatus: cf. F.
   lanc\'82ol.  See Lanceolar.] (Bot. & Zo\'94l.) Rather narrow, tapering
   to  a  point  at  the  apex,  and  sometimes  at  the base also; as, a
   lanceolate leaf.


   Lance`pe*sade"  (?), n. [F. lancepessade, lanspessade, anspessade, It.
   lancia spezzata a broken lance or demilance, a demilance roan, a light
   horseman, bodyguard.] An assistant to a corporal; a private performing
   the duties of a corporal; -- called also lance corporal.


   Lan"cer (?), n. [Cf. F. lancier.]

   1.  One who lances; one who carries a lance; especially, a member of a
   mounted body of men armed with lances, attached to the cavalry service
   of some nations. Wilhelm.

   2. A lancet. [Obs.]

   3.  pl.  (Dancing)  A  set  of  quadrilles  of  a certain arrangement.
   [Written also lanciers.]


   Lan"cet (?), n. [F. lancette, dim. of lance lance. See Lance.]

   1.  A surgical instrument of various forms, commonly sharp-pointed and
   two-edged, used in venesection, and in opening abscesses, etc.

   2. (Metal.) An iron bar used for tapping a melting furnace. Knight.
   Lancet  arch  (Arch.), a pointed arch, of which the width, or span, is
   narrow  compared with the height. -- Lancet architecture, a name given
   to  a  style  of  architecture,  in which lancet arches are common; --
   peculiar to England and 13th century. -- Lancet fish. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A
   large,  voracious,  deep-sea  fish (Alepidosaurus ferox), having long,
   sharp, lancetlike teeth. (b) The doctor, or surgeon fish.


   Lance"wood`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A tough, elastic wood, often used for the
   shafts  of  gigs,  archery bows, fishing rods, and the like. Also, the
   tree  which  produces  this  wood,  Duguetia  Quitarensis (a native of
   Guiana  and  Cuba),  and  several  other  trees  of  the  same  family
   (Anonase\'91).  Australian  lancewood,  a  myrtaceous tree (Backhousia


   Lanch  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lanched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lanching.
   See Lanching. See Launch, Lance.] To throw, as a lance; to let fly; to

     See Whose arm can lanch the surer bolt. Dryden & Lee.


   Lan*cif"er*ous (?), a [Lance + -ferous.] Bearing a lance.


   Lan"ci*form (?), a [Lance + -form: cf. F. lanciforme.] Having the form
   of a lance.


   Lan"ci*name  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lancinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lancinating  (?).]  [L.  lancinatus,  p.  p. of lancinare to fear.] To
   tear; to lacerate; to pierce or stab. De Quincey.


   Lan"ci*na`ting,   a.   Piercing;   seeming  to  pierce  or  stab;  as,
   lancinating pains (i.e., severe, darting pains).


   Lan`ci*na"tion  (?),  n.  A  tearing; laceration. "Lancinations of the
   spirit." Jer. Taylor.


   Land (?), n. Urine. See Lant. [Obs.]


   Land,  n. [AS. land, lond; akin to D., G., Icel., Sw., Dan., and Goth.
   land. ]

   1.  The solid part of the surface of the earth; -- opposed to water as
   constituting  a  part  of such surface, especially to oceans and seas;
   as, to sight land after a long voyage.

     They turn their heads to sea, their sterns to land. Dryden.

   2.  Any  portion,  large  or  small,  of  the  surface  of  the earth,
   considered by itself, or as belonging to an individual or a people, as
   a country, estate, farm, or tract.

     Go view the land, even Jericho. Josh. ii. 1.

     Ill  fares  the  land,  to  hastening  ills  a  prey,  Where wealth
     accumulates and men decay. Goldsmith.

   <--  See  also,  Goldsmith: Where wealth and freedom reign contentment
   fails,  And  honor sinks where commerce long prevails. (THe captivity,
   an Oratorio. Act II line 91) -->

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e expressions "to be, or dwell, upon land," "to
     go, or fare, on land," as used by Chaucer, land denotes the country
     as distinguished from the town.

     A poor parson dwelling upon land [i.e., in the country]. Chaucer.

   3.  Ground,  in  respect to its nature or quality; soil; as, wet land;
   good or bad land.

   4. The inhabitants of a nation or people.

     These  answers,  in  the  silent  night  received, The kind himself
     divulged, the land believed. Dryden.

   5. The mainland, in distinction from islands.

   6. The ground or floor. [Obs.]

     Herself upon the land she did prostrate. Spenser.

   7.  (Agric.)  The  ground  left  unplowed  between furrows; any one of
   several  portions  into  which  a  field is divided for convenience in

   8.  (Law) Any ground, soil, or earth whatsoever, as meadows, pastures,
   woods,  etc.,  and  everything  annexed  to  it, whether by nature, as
   trees, water, etc., or by the hand of man, as buildings, fences, etc.;
   real estate. Kent. Bouvier. Burrill.

   9.  (Naut.) The lap of the strakes in a clinker-built boat; the lap of
   plates in an iron vessel; -- called also landing. Knight.

   10.  In  any  surface  prepared  with  indentations,  perforations, or
   grooves,  that  part  of  the  surface which is not so treated, as the
   level  part  of a millstone between the furrows, or the surface of the
   bore of a rifled gun between the grooves.
   Land  agent,  a person employed to sell or let land, to collect rents,
   and  to  attend  to  other  money matters connected with land. -- Land
   boat,  a  vehicle  on  wheels  propelled  by  sails.  -- Land blink, a
   peculiar   atmospheric   brightness   seen   from   sea  over  distant
   snow-covered  land  in  arctic regions. See Ice blink. -- Land breeze.
   See  under  Breeze.  --  Land  chain. See Gunter's chain. -- Land crab
   (Zo\'94l.), any one of various species of crabs which live much on the
   land,  and  resort  to  the water chiefly for the purpose of breeding.
   They  are  abundant in the West Indies and South America. Some of them
   grow  to a large size. -- Land fish a fish on land; a person quite out
   of  place.Shak.  --  Land  force, a military force serving on land, as
   distinguished from a naval force. -- Land, ho! (Naut.), a sailor's cry
   in  announcing  sight of land. -- Land ice, a field of ice adhering to
   the  coast,  in distinction from a floe. -- Land leech (Zo\'94l.), any
   one  of  several  species  of  blood-sucking leeches, which, in moist,
   tropical  regions,  live on land, and are often troublesome to man and
   beast.  -- Land measure, the system of measurement used in determining
   the  area of land; also, a table of areas used in such measurement. --
   Land,  OR  House, of bondage, in Bible history, Egypt; by extension, a
   place  or condition of special oppression. -- Land o' cakes, Scotland.
   --  Land  of Nod, sleep. -- Land of promise, in Bible history, Canaan:
   by  extension,  a  better  country  or  condition  of  which  one  has
   expectation.  --  Land of steady habits, a nickname sometimes given to
   the State of Connecticut. -- Land office, a government office in which
   the  entries upon, and sales of, public land are registered, and other
   business  respecting  the  public  lands is transacted. [U.S.] -- Land
   pike.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) The gray pike, or sauger. (b) The Menobranchus.
   -- Land service, military service as distinguished from naval service.
   --  Land  rail.  (Zo\'94l)  (a)  The crake or corncrake of Europe. See
   Crake. (b) An Australian rail (Hypot\'91nidia Phillipensis); -- called
   also  pectoral  rail.  --  Land scrip, a certificate that the purchase
   money  for  a  certain portion of the public land has been paid to the
   officer  entitled  to  receive it. [U.S.] -- Land shark, a swindler of
   sailors  on  shore.  [Sailors'  Cant]  --  Land  side (a) That side of
   anything  in  or  on the sea, as of an island or ship, which is turned
   toward  the  land.  (b)  The  side  of a plow which is opposite to the
   moldboard  and  which presses against the unplowed land. -- Land snail
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  snail which lives on land, as distinguished from the
   aquatic  snails  are  Pulmonifera, and belong to the Geophila; but the
   operculated land snails of warm countries are Di\'d2cia, and belong to
   the  T\'91nioglossa. See Geophila, and Helix. -- Land spout, a descent
   of  cloud  and  water  in  a  conical  form during the occurrence of a
   tornado and heavy rainfall on land. -- Land steward, a person who acts
   for  another  in  the management of land, collection of rents, etc. --
   Land  tortoise,  Land  turtle (Zo\'94l.), any tortoise that habitually
   lives on dry land, as the box tortoise. See Tortoise. -- Land warrant,
   a  certificate  from  the  Land Office, authorizing a person to assume
   ownership  of  a public land. [U.S.] -- Land wind. Same as Land breeze
   (above).  --  To make land (Naut.), to sight land. To set the land, to
   see by the compass how the land bears from the ship. -- To shut in the
   land,  to  hide  the  land,  as  when  fog,  or an intervening island,
   obstructs the view.


   Land (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Landed; p. pr. & vb. n. Landing.]

   1.  To  set  or  put  on  shore  from  a ship or other water craft; to
   disembark; to debark.

     I 'll undertake top land them on our coast. Shak.

   2. To catch and bring to shore; to capture; as, to land a fish.

   3. To set down after conveying; to cause to fall, alight, or reach; to
   bring  to the end of a course; as, he landed the quoit near the stake;
   to  be  thrown  from  a  horse  and  landed in the mud; to land one in
   difficulties or mistakes.


   Land,  v. i. To go on shore from a ship or boat; to disembark; to come
   to the end of a course.


   Lan"dam*man  (?),  n.  [G.  Landamman;  land  land,  country + amimann
   bailiff. See Land, and Ambassador.]

   1. A chief magistrate in some of the Swiss cantons.

   2. The president of the diet of the Helvetic republic.


   Lan"dau  (?),  n.  [From the town Ladau in Germany; cf. F. landau. See
   Land,  Island.]  A  four-wheeled  covered vehicle, the top of which is
   divided  into  two  sections which can be let down, or thrown back, in
   such a manner as to make an open carriage. [Written also landaw.]


   Lan`dau*let" (?), n. [Cf. F. landaulet, dim, of landau. See Landau.] A
   small landau.


   Land"ed (?), a.

   1. Having an estate in land.

     The  House  of  Commons  must consist, for the most part, of landed
     men. Addison.

   2.  Consisting  in  real  estate  or land; as, landed property; landed


   Land"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who lands, or makes a landing. "The lander in a lonely isle."

   2.  (Mining)  A  person who waits at the mouth of the shaft to receive
   the kibble of ore.


   Land"fall (?), n.

   1.  A  sudden  transference  of  property  in land by the death of its

   2. (Naut.) Sighting or making land when at sea.
   A  good  landfall (Naut.), the sighting of land in conformity with the
   navigator's reckoning and expectation.


   Land"flood`  (?), n. An overflowing of land by river; an inundation; a
   freshet. Clarendon.


   Land"grave` (?), n. [G. landgraf; land land + graf earl, count; cf. D.
   landgraaf, F. landgrave.] A German nobleman of a rank corresponding to
   that of an earl in England and of a count in France.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ti tle was first adopted by some German counts in
     the  twelfth  century,  to distinguish themselves from the inferior
     counts  under their jurisdiction. Three of them were princes of the


   Land*gra"vi*ate (?), n. [Cf. F. landgraviat.]

   1. The territory held by a landgrave.

   2. The office, jurisdiction, or authority of a landgrave.


   Land"gra*vine  (?), n. [G. landgr\'84fin; cf. D. landgravin.] The wife
   of a landgrave.


   Land"hold`er  (?),  n.  A  holder,  owner,  or  proprietor of land. --
   Land"hold`ing, n. & a.


   Land"ing,  a.  Of,  pertaining  to  or used for, setting, bringing, or
   going,  on  shore.  Landing  charges,  charges  or  fees paid on goods
   unloaded  from a vessel. -- Landing net, a small, bag-shaped net, used
   in  fishing  to  take  the  fish from the water after being hooked. --
   Landing  stage,  a floating platform attached at one end to a wharf in
   such  a  manner as to rise and fall with the tide, and thus facilitate
   passage  between  the  wharf  and  a vessel lying beside the stage. --
   Landing  waiter,  a  customhouse  officer  who oversees the landing of
   goods, etc., from vessels; a landwaiter.


   Land"ing, n.

   1. A going or bringing on shore.

   2. A place for landing, as from a ship, a carriage. etc.

   3.  (Arch.)  The  level part of a staircase, at the top of a flight of
   stairs, or connecting one flight with another.
   Landing place. me as Landing, n., 2 and 3.


   Land"la`dy (?), n.; pl. Landladies (#). [Cf. Landlord.]

   1. A woman having real estate which she leases to a tenant or tenants.

   2. The mistress of an inn or lodging house.

   Page 828


   Land"leap`er (?), n. See Landlouper.


   Land"less (?), a. Having no property in land.


   Land"lock`  (?), v. t. To inclose, or nearly inclose, as a harbor or a
   vessel, with land.


   Land"locked` (?), a.

   1. Inclosed, or nearly inclosed, by land.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Confined to a fresh-water lake by reason of waterfalls
   or  dams;  --  said of fishes that would naturally seek the sea, after
   spawning; as, the landlocked salmon.


   Land"lo`per (?), n. Same as Landlouper.


   Land"lord` (?), n. [See Land, and Lord.]

   1.  The lord of a manor, or of land; the owner of land or houses which
   he leases to a tenant or tenants.

   2. The master of an inn or of a lodging house.

     Upon  our  arrival  at  the inn, my companion fetched out the jolly
     landlord. Addison.


   Land"lord`ism   (?),   n.   The   state   of  being  a  landlord;  the
   characteristics  of  a  landlord;  specifically, in Great Britain, the
   relation  of  landlords  to  tenants,  especially  as  regards  leased
   agricultural lands. J. S. Mill.


   Land"lord`ry (?), n. The state of a landlord. [Obs.]


   Land"loup`er  (?),  n.  [D.  landlooper, lit., landrunner; land land +
   loopen  to  run.  See Land, and Leap.] A vagabond; a vagrant. [Written
   also landleaper and landloper.] "Bands of landloupers." Moltey.


   Land"loup`ing, a. Vagrant; wandering about.


   Land"lub`ber  (?),  n. [Prop. fr. land + lubber, or possibly corrupted
   fr. laudlouper.] (Naut.) One who passes his life on land; -- so called
   among seamen in contempt or ridicule.


   Land"man (?), n.; pl. Landmen (.

   1. A man who lives or serves on land; -- opposed to seaman.

   2. (Eng.) An occupier of land. Cowell.


   Land"mark` (?), n. [AS. landmearc. See Land, and Mark a sign.]

   1.  A  mark  to  designate  the  boundary of land; any , mark or fixed
   object  (as  a  marked tree, a stone, a ditch, or a heap of stones) by
   which  the limits of a farm, a town, or other portion of territory may
   be known and preserved.

   2.  Any  conspicuous  object  on  land  that  serves  as a guide; some
   prominent object, as a hill or steeple.
   Landmarks of history, important events by which eras or conditions are


   Land"own`er (?), n. An owner of land.


   Land"own`ing, n. The owning of land. -- a. Having property in land; of
   or pertaining to landowners.


   Land"-poor`  (?),  a.  Pecuniarily  embarrassed  through  owning  much
   unprofitable land. [Colloq.]


   Land"reeve`  (?),  n. [Land + reeve an officer.] A subordinate officer
   on an extensive estate, who acts as an assistant to the steward.


   Land"scape  (?),  n.  [Formerly written also landskip.] [D. landschap;
   land  land  +  -schap, equiv. to E. -schip; akin to G. landschaft, Sw.
   landskap, Dan. landskab. See Land, and -schip.]

   1.  A  portion  of land or territory which the eye can comprehend in a
   single view, including all the objects it contains.

   2.  A  picture representing a scene by land or sea, actual or fancied,
   the  chief  subject  being  the  general  aspect of nature, as fields,
   hills, forests, water. etc.

   3. The pictorial aspect of a country.

     The  landscape  of  his native country had taken hold on his heart.

   Landscape  gardening,  The  art  of  laying  out grounds and arranging
   trees,  shrubbery,  etc., in such a manner as to produce a picturesque


   Land"scap`ist (?), n. A painter of landscapes.


   Land"skip  (?),  n.  [See  Landscape.]  A  landscape.  [Obs. except in

     Straight  my  eye  hath  caught  new pleasures, Whilst the landskip
     round it measures. Milton.

                              Landslip, Landslide

   Land"slip` (?), Land"slide` (?), n.

   1. The slipping down of a mass of land from a mountain, hill, etc.

   2. The land which slips down.


   Lands"man (?), n.; pl. Landsmen (#).

   1. One who lives on the land; -- opposed to seaman.

   2. (Naut.) A sailor on his first voyage.


   Land"streight` (?), n. [See Strait.] A narrow strip of land. [Obs.]


   Land"sturm` (?), n. [G. See Land, and Storm.] That part of the reserve
   force in Germany which is called out last.


   Land"tag`  (?),  n.  [G.  See  Land, and Day.] The diet or legislative
   body; as, the Landtag of Prussia.


   Land"wait`er (?), n. See Landing waiter, under Landing, a.


   Land"ward (?), adv. & a. Toward the land.


   Land"wehr`  (?),  n. [G., fr. land land, country + wehr defense.] That
   part  of  the  army,  in  Germany and Austria, which has completed the
   usual  military  service  and  is  exempt  from duty in time of peace,
   except that it is called out occasionally for drill.


   Lane  (?),  a. [See Lone.] Alone [Scot.] His lane, by himself; himself


   Lane (?), n. [OE. lane, lone, AS. lone, lone; akin to D. laan, OFries.
   lana,  lona.]  A  passageway  between  fences  or  hedges which is not
   traveled as a highroad; an alley between buildings; a narrow way among
   trees, ras, a lane between lines of men, or through a field of ice.

     It  is  become  a  turn-again  lane unto them which they can not go
     through. Tyndale.


   Lang (?), a. & adv. Long. [Obs. or Scot.]


   Lan"ga*ha  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A curious colubriform snake of the genus
   Xyphorhynchus,  from  Madagascar.  It is brownish red, and its hose is
   prolonged in the form of a sharp blade.


   Lan`ga*rey" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of numerous species of long-winged,
   shrikelike  birds  of  Australia  and  the  East  Indies, of the genus
   Artamus, and allied genera; called also wood swallow.


   Lan"gate (?), n. (Surg.) A linen roller used in dressing wounds.


   Lang"dak`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A wolf (Canis pallipes), found in India,
   allied to the jackal.

                               Langrage, Langrel

   Lan"grage  (?),  Lan"grel  (?), n. A kind of shot formerly used at sea
   for tearing sails and rigging. It consisted of bolts, nails, and other
   pieces of iron fastened together or inclosed in a canister.


   Lan"gret (?), n. A kind of loaded die. [Obs.]


   Lan"gridge (?), n. See Langrage.

     NOTE: [Sometimes compounded with shot.]


   Lang`syne"  (?), adv. & n. [Scot. lang long + syne since.] Long since;
   long ago. [Scot.]


   Lang`ter*a*loo"  (?),  n. [See Loo.] An old game at cards. See Loo (a)


   Lan"guage  (?), n. [OE. langage, F. langage, fr. L. lingua the tongue,
   hence speech, language; akin to E. tongue. See Tongue, cf. Lingual.]

   1.  Any means of conveying or communicating ideas; specifically, human
   speech;  the  expression  of ideas by the voice; sounds, expressive of
   thought, articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth.

     NOTE: &hand; La nguage co nsists in  th e or al utterance of sounds
     which usage has made the representatives of ideas. When two or more
     persons  customarily  annex  the same sounds to the same ideas, the
     expression  of these sounds by one person communicates his ideas to
     another. This is the primary sense of language, the use of which is
     to  communicate  the  thoughts of one person to another through the
     organs  of hearing. Articulate sounds are represented to the eye by
     letters, marks, or characters, which form words.

   2. The expression of ideas by writing, or any other instrumentality.

   3.  The  forms of speech, or the methods of expressing ideas, peculiar
   to a particular nation.

   4.  The  characteristic  mode  of  arranging  words,  peculiar  to  an
   individual speaker or writer; manner of expression; style.

     Others for language all their care express. Pope.

   5.  The  inarticulate  sounds by which animals inferior to man express
   their feelings or their wants.

   6.  The  suggestion,  by  objects,  actions,  or  conditions, of ideas
   associated therewith; as, the language of flowers.

     There was . . . language in their very gesture. Shak.

   7. The vocabulary and phraseology belonging to an art or department of
   knowledge;   as,  medical  language;  the  language  of  chemistry  or

   8. A race, as distinguished by its speech. [R.]

     All  the  people,  the  nations,  and  the languages, fell down and
     worshiped the golden image. Dan. iii. 7.

   Language master, a teacher of languages.[Obs.] Syn. -- Speech; tongue;
   idiom;  dialect;  phraseology; diction; discourse; conversation; talk.
   --  Language,  Speech,  Tongue,  Idiom,  Dialect. Language is generic,
   denoting,  in  its  most  extended  use,  any mode of conveying ideas;
   speech is the language of articulate sounds; tongue is the Anglo-Saxon
   tern  for  language, esp. for spoken language; as, the English tongue.
   Idiom  denotes  the  forms  of  construction  peculiar to a particular
   language;  dialects  are  varieties  if  expression which spring up in
   different  parts  of a country among people speaking substantially the
   same language.


   Lan"guage,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Languaged  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Languaging (?).] To communicate by language; to express in language.

     Others were languaged in such doubtful expressions that they have a
     double sense. Fuller.


   Lan"guaged  (?), a. Having a language; skilled in language; -- chiefly
   used in composition. " Manylanguaged nations." Pope.


   Lan"guage*less  (?),  a.  Lacking  or  wanting  language;  speechless;
   silent. Shak.


   Langued  (?),  a.  [F.  langue  tongue. See Language.] (Her.) Tongued;
   having the tongue visible.

     Lions . . . represented as armed and langued gules. Cussans.

                                  Langue d'oc

   Langue` d'oc" (?). [F., language of oc yes.] The dialect, closely akin
   to  French,  formerly spoken south of the Loire (in which the word for
   "yes" was oc); Provencal.

                                Langue d'o\'8bl

   Langue`  d'o\'8bl"  (?).  [F.,  language  of  o\'8bl yes.] The dialect
   formerly  spoken  north  of the Loire (in which the word for "yes" was
   o\'8bl, F. oui).


   Lan*guen"te  (?), adv. [It., p. pr. of languire. See Languish.] (Mus.)
   In a languishing manner; pathetically.


   Lan"guet, n. [F. languette, dim. of langue tongue, L. lingua.]

   1. Anything resembling the tongue in form or office; specif., the slip
   of  metal  in  an organ pipe which turns the current of air toward its

   2.  That  part of the hilt, in certain kinds of swords, which overlaps
   the scabbard.


   Lan"guid  (?),  a. [L. languidus, fr. languere to be faint or languid:
   cf. F. languide. See Languish.]

   1.  Drooping  or  flagging  from  exhaustion;  indisposed to exertion;
   without  animation;  weak;  weary;  heavy;  dull. " Languid, powerless
   limbs. " Armstrong.

     Fire their languid souls with Cato's virtue. Addison.

   2. Slow in progress; tardy. " No motion so swift or languid." Bentley.

   3. Promoting or indicating weakness or heaviness; as, a languid day.

     Feebly she laugheth in the languid moon. Keats.

     Their idleness, aimless and languid airs. W. Black.

   Syn.  --  Feeble;  weak;  faint;  sickly;  pining;  exhausted;  weary;
   listless;   heavy;   dull;   heartless.   --   Lan"guid*ly,   adv.  --
   Lan"guid*ness, n.


   Lan"guish  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Languished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Languishing.]  [OE.  languishen,  languissen, F. languir, L. languere;
   cf.  Gr.  lakra to lag behind; prob. akin to E. lag, lax, and perh. to
   E. slack.See -ish.]

   1.  To become languid or weak; to lose strength or animation; to be or
   become dull, feeble or spiritless; to pine away; to wither or fade.

     We . . . do languish of such diseases. 2 Esdras viii. 31.

     Cease,  fond  nature,  cease  thy strife, And let me landguish into
     life. Pope.

     For the fields of Heshbon languish. Is. xvi. 8. 

   2. To assume an expression of weariness or tender grief, appealing for
   sympathy. Tennyson. Syn. -- To pine; wither; fade; droop; faint.


   Lan"guish (?), v. i. To cause to dr [Obs.] Shak. Dryden.


   Lan"guish, n. See Languishiment. [Obs. or Poetic]

     What, of death, too, That rids our dogs of languish ? Shak.

     And the blue languish of soft Allia's eye. Pope.


   Lan"guish*er (?), n. One who languishes.


   Lan"guish*ing, a.

   1. Becoming languid and weak; pining; losing health and strength.

   2. Amorously pensive; as, languishing eyes, or look.


   Lan"guish*ing*ly, adv. In a languishing manner.


   Lan"guish*ment (?), n.

   1. The state of languishing. " Lingering languishment." Shak.

   2. Tenderness of look or mien; amorous pensiveness.


   Lan"guish*ness, n. Languishment. [Obs.]


   Lan"guor  (?),  n. [OE. langour, OF. langour, F. langueur, L. languor.
   See Languish.]

   1.  A  state  of  the  body  or  mind which is caused by exhaustion of
   strength   and   characterized   by  a  languid  feeling;  feebleness;
   lassitude; laxity.

   2. Any enfeebling disease. [Obs.]

     Sick men with divers languors. Wyclif (Luke iv. 40).

   3.  Listless  indolence;  dreaminess.  Pope.  " German dreams, Italian
   languors."  The  Century.  Syn.  --  Feebleness;  weakness; faintness;
   weariness; dullness; heaviness; lassitude; listlessness.


   Lan"guor*ous  (?), a. [From Languor: cf. F. langoureux.] Producing, or
   tending  to  produce,  languor;  characterized  by  languor.  [Obs. or

     Whom late I left in languorous constraint. Spenser.

     To  wile  the length from languorous hours, and draw The sting from
     pain. Tennyson.


   Lan"gure (?), v. i. To languish. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lan"gya  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) [Native name Anglicized.] One of several
   species  of  East  Indian  and Asiatic fresh-water fishes of the genus
   Ophiocephalus,  remarkable for their power of living out of water, and
   for their tenacity of life; -- called also walking fishes.


   Lan"iard (?), n. See Lanyard.


   La`ni*ar"i*form  (?),  a.  [Laniary  +  -form.]  (Anat.) Shaped like a
   laniary, or canine, tooth. Owen.


   La"ni*a*ry  (?), a. [L. laniarius, fr. lanius butcher, laniare to tear
   in  pieces:  cf.  F. laniaire.] (Anat.) Lacerating or tearing; as, the
   laniary canine teeth.


   La"ni*a*ry, n. [L. Laniary, a.]

   1. The shambles; a place of slaughter. [R.]

   2. (Anat.) A laniary, or canine, tooth.


   La"ni*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  laniatus,  p. p. of laniare.] To tear in
   pieces. [R.]


   La`ni*a"tion (?), n. [L. laniatio.] A tearing in pieces. [R.]


   Lan"ier  (?),  n.  [F. lani\'8are. See Lanyard.] [Written also lanner,

   1. A thong of leather; a whip lash. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

   2.  A strap used to fasten together parts of armor, to hold the shield
   by, and the like. Fairholt.


   La*nif"er*ous  (?),  n. [L. lanifer; lana wool + ferre to bear: cf. F.
   lanif\'8are.] Bearing or producing wool.


   La*nif"i*cal  (?),  a.  [L.  lanificus;  lana  wool + facere to make.]
   Working in wool.


   Lan"i*fice (?), n. [L. lanificium: cf. OF. lanifice.] Anything made of
   wool. [Obs.] Bacon.


   La*nig"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  laniger;  lano  wool  + gerere to hear.]
   Bearing or producing wool.


   La"ni*oid  (?),  a. [NL. Lanius (fr. L. lanius a butcher), the typical
   genus  +  -oid.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or pertaining to the shrikes (family


   Lank (?), a. [Compar. Lanker (?); superl. Lankest.] [AS. hlanc; cf. G.
   lenken  to  turn,  gelenk  joint, OHG. hlanca hip, side, flank, and E.
   link of a chain.]

   1. Slender and thin; not well filled out; not plump; shrunken; lean.

     Meager and lank with fasting grown. Swift.

     Who  would  not  choose  .  . . to have rather a lank purse than an
     empty brain? Barrow.

   2. Languid; drooping.[Obs.]

     Who, piteous of her woes, reared her lank head. Milton.

   Lank hair, long, thin hair. Macaulay.


   Lank,  v.  i.  &  t.  To  become  lank;  to make lank. [Obs.] Shak. G.


   Lank"i*ness (?), n. The condition or quality or being lanky.


   Lank"ly, adv. In a lank manner.


   Lank"ness, n. The state or quality of being lank.


   Lank"y, a. Somewhat lank. Thackeray.

     The lanky Dinka, nearly seven feet in height. The Century.

                            Lanner, n. f. Lanneret

   Lan"ner  (?),  n.  f.  Lan"ner*et  (?),  n.  m.  [F. lanier, OF. also,
   lasnier.   Cf.   Lanyard.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  long-tailed  falcon  (Falco
   lanarius),  of  Southern Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa, resembling
   the American prairie falcon.


   Lan"o*lin  (?),  n.  [L.  lana  wool  + oleum oil.] (Physiol. Chem.) A
   peculiar fatlike body, made up of cholesterin and certain fatty acids,
   found in feathers, hair, wool, and keratin tissues generally.

     NOTE: &hand; Un der th e sa me na me, it  is prepared from wool for
     commercial  purposes,  and  forms an admirable basis for ointments,
     being readily absorbed by the skin.

   Page 829


   Lan"seh  (?), n. The small, whitish brown fruit of an East Indian tree
   (Lansium  domesticum). It has a fleshy pulp, with an agreeable subacid
   taste. Balfour.


   Lans"que*net  (?),  n.  [F., fr. G. landsknecht a foot soldier, also a
   game of cards introduced by these foot soldiers; land country + knecht
   boy, servant. See Land, and Knight.]

   1.  A  German  foot  soldier  in  foreign service in the 15th and 16th
   centuries;  a soldier of fortune; -- a term used in France and Western

   2. A game at cards, vulgarly called lambskinnet.

     [They play] their little game of lansquenet. Longfellow.


   Lant (?), n. Urine. [Prov. Eng.] Nares.


   Lant,  n. [Cf. Lance.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several species of small,
   slender,  marine  fishes  of  the genus Ammedytes. The common European
   species (A. tobianus) and the American species (A. Americanus) live on
   sandy  shores,  buried in the sand, and are caught in large quantities
   for bait. Called also launce, and sand eel.


   Lant, n. See Lanterloo. [Obs.] Halliwell.

                              Lantanium, Lantanum

   Lan*ta"ni*um (?), Lan"ta*num (?), n. (Chem.) See Lanthanum.


   Lan`ta*nu"ric  (?),  a.  [Formed  by  transposition  of the letters of
   allantoin  and  -uric.]  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or  designating,  a
   nitrogenous  organic  acid  of  the  uric  acid group, obtained by the
   decomposition of allantoin, and usually called allanturic acid.


   Lan"ter*loo` (?), n. An old name of loo (a).


   Lan"tern (?), n. [F. lanterne, L. lanterna, laterna, from Gr. Lamp.]

   1.  Something  inclosing  a  light, and protecting it from wind, rain,
   etc.  ;  --  sometimes  portable,  as a closed vessel or case of horn,
   perforated  tin,  glass, oiled paper, or other material, having a lamp
   or candle within; sometimes fixed, as the glazed inclosure of a street
   light, or of a lighthouse light.

   2. (Arch.) (a) An open structure of light material set upon a roof, to
   give light and air to the interior. (b) A cage or open chamber of rich
   architecture,  open  below into the building or tower which it crowns.
   (c)  A  smaller  and  secondary  cupola  crowning  a  larger  one, for
   ornament,  or to admit light; such as the lantern of the cupola of the
   Capitol at Washington, or that of the Florence cathedral.

   3.  (Mach.)  A  lantern  pinion  or  trundle wheel. See Lantern pinion

   4.  (Steam  Engine)  A  kind  of  cage  inserted in a stuffing box and
   surrounding  a  piston rod, to separate the packing into two parts and
   form  a  chamber  between for the reception of steam, etc. ; -- called
   also lantern brass.

   5. (Founding) A perforated barrel to form a core upon.

   6. (Zo\'94l.) See Aristotle's lantern.

     NOTE: &hand; Fi g. 1  re presents a  ha nd la ntern; fig. 2, an arm
     lantern;  fig.  3, a breast lantern; -- so named from the positions
     in which they are carried.

   Dark  lantern, a lantern with a single opening, which may be closed so
   as  to  conceal  the light; -- called also bull's-eye. -- Lantern fly,
   Lantern  carrier  (Zo\'94l.),  any  one  of  several species of large,
   handsome,  hemipterous  insects of the genera Laternaria, Fulgora, and
   allies,  of the family Fulgorid\'91. The largest species is Laternaria
   phosphorea of Brazil. The head of some species has been supposed to be
   phosphorescent.  --  Lantern  jaws,  long,  thin  jaws;  hence, a thin
   visage.  -- Lantern pinion, Lantern wheel (Mach.), a kind of pinion or
   wheel  having cylindrical bars or trundles, instead of teeth, inserted
   at  their  ends  in  two  parallel  disks  or  plates; -- so called as
   resembling a lantern in shape; -- called also wallower, or trundle. --
   Lantern  shell  (Zo\'94l.),  any translucent, marine, bivalve shell of
   the  genus  Anatina,  and  allied genera. -- Magic lantern, an optical
   instrument consisting of a case inclosing a light, and having suitable
   lenses  in  a  lateral tube, for throwing upon a screen, in a darkened
   room or the like, greatly magnified pictures from slides placed in the
   focus of the outer lens.


   Lan"tern,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lanterned  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Lanterning.] [Cf. F. lanterner to hang at the lamp post, fr. lanterne.
   See Lantern.] To furnish with a lantern; as, to lantern a lighthouse.


   Lan"tern-jawed`  (?), a. Having lantern jaws or long, thin jaws; as, a
   lantern-jawed person.


   Lan"tha*nite  (?),  n. (Min.) Hydrous carbonate of lanthanum, found in
   tabular while crystals.


   Lan"tha*num  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Chem.) A rare element of the group
   of  the  earth  metals, allied to aluminium. It occurs in certain rare
   minerals,  as cerite, gadolinite, orthite, etc., and was so named from
   the  difficulty of separating it from cerium, didymium, and other rare
   elements  with  which  it  is usually associated. Atomic weight 138.5.
   Symbol La. [Formerly written also lanthanium.]


   Lan"tho*pine  (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) An alkaloid found in opium in small
   quantities, and extracted as a white crystalline substance.


   Lan"thorn (?), n. See Lantern. [Obs.]

                            Lanuginose, Lanuginous

   La*nu"gi*nose` (?), La*nu"gi*nous (?), a. [L. lanuginosus, fr. lanugo,
   -ginis,  woolly  substance,  down,  fr. lana wool: cf. F. lanugineux.]
   Covered with down, or fine soft hair; downy.


   La*nu"go  (?), n. [See Lanuginose.] (Anat.) The soft woolly hair which
   covers  most  parts  of the mammal fetus, and in man is shed before or
   soon after birth.


   Lan"yard  (?),  n. [F.lani\'8are thong, strap, OF. lasniere, fr. lasne
   strap, thong, L. lacinia lappet. flap, edge of a garment. Cf. Lanier.]
   [Written also laniard.]

   1.  (Naut.)  A  short piece of rope or line for fastening something in
   ships;  as,  the lanyards of the gun ports, of the buoy, and the like;
   esp.,  pieces  passing  through  the  dead-eyes,  and  used  to extend
   shrouds, stays, etc.

   2.  (Mil.) A strong cord, about twelve feet long, with an iron hook at
   one  end  a handle at the other, used in firing cannon with a friction


   Lan"yer (?), n. See Lanier.


   La*oc"o*\'94n (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1. (Class. Myth.) A priest of Apollo, during the Trojan war. (See 2.)

   2.  (Sculp.)  A  marble group in the Vatican at Rome, representing the
   priest  Laoco\'94n,  with  his  sons,  infolded  in  the  coils of two
   serpents, as described by Virgil.


   La*od`i*ce"an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Laodicea, a city in Phrygia
   Major;  like  the  Christians  of Laodicea; lukewarm in religion. Rev.
   iii. 14-16.


   Lap  (?), n. [OE. lappe, AS. l\'91ppa; akin to D. lap patch, piece, G.
   lappen, OHG. lappa, Dan. lap, Sw. lapp.]

   1.  The  loose  part of a coat; the lower part of a garment that plays
   loosely; a skirt; an apron. Chaucer.

   2. An edge; a border; a hem, as of cloth. Chaucer.

     If  he cuts off but a lap of truth's garment, his heart smites him.

   3.  The part of the clothing that lies on the knees or thighs when one
   sits down; that part of the person thus covered; figuratively, a place
   of rearing and fostering; as, to be reared in the lap of luxury.

     Men expect that happiness should drop into their laps. Tillotson.

   4.  That  part of any substance or fixture which extends over, or lies
   upon,  or  by  the side of, a part of another; as, the lap of a board;
   also, the measure of such extension over or upon another thing.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e la p of  sh ingles or  sl ates in  roofing is the
     distance  one  course  extends  over  the  second course below, the
     distance over the course immediately below being called the cover.

   5. (Steam Engine) The amount by which a slide valve at its half stroke
   overlaps  a  port  in  the seat, being equal to the distance the valve
   must  move  from its mid stroke position in order to begin to open the
   port. Used alone, lap refers to outside lap. See Outside lap (below).

   6.  The  state  or  condition of being in part extended over or by the
   side  of  something  else;  or  the extent of the overlapping; as, the
   second boat got a lap of half its length on the leader.

   7.  One circuit around a race track, esp. when the distance is a small
   fraction  of a mile; as, to run twenty laps; to win by three laps. See
   Lap, to fold, 2.

   8.  In  card  playing and other games, the points won in excess of the
   number  necessary  to  complete  a  game;  --  so called when they are
   counted in the score of the following game.

   9.  (Cotton  Manuf.)  A sheet, layer, or bat, of cotton fiber prepared
   for the carding machine.

   10.  (Mach.) A piece of brass, lead, or other soft metal, used to hold
   a cutting or polishing powder in cutting glass, gems, and the like, or
   in polishing cutlery, etc. It is usually in the form of wheel or disk,
   which revolves on a vertical axis.
   Lap  joint,  a  joint  made  by one layer, part, or piece, overlapping
   another,  as in the scarfing of timbers. -- Lap weld, a lap joint made
   by  welding  together  overlapping edges or ends. -- Inside lap (Steam
   Engine), lap of the valve with respect to the exhaust port. -- Outside
   lap, lap with respect to the admission, or steam, port.


   Lap, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lapped (; p. pr. & vb. n. Lapping.]

   1. To rest or recline in a lap, or as in a lap.

     To lap his head on lady's breast. Praed.

   2.  To cut or polish with a lap, as glass, gems, cutlery, etc. See 1st
   Lap, 10.


   Lap,  v.  t.  [OE. lappen to fold (see Lap, n.); cf. also OE. wlappen,
   perh. another form of wrappen, E, wrap.]

   1.  To  fold; to bend and lay over or on something; as, to lap a piece
   of cloth.

   2. To wrap or wind around something.

     About  the  paper  . . . I lapped several times a slender thread of
     very black silk. Sir I. Newton.

   3. To infold; to hold as in one's lap; to cherish.

     Her garment spreads, and laps him in the folds. Dryden.

   4.  To  lay or place over anything so as to partly or wholly cover it;
   as,  to  lap one shingle over another; to lay together one partly over
   another; as, to lap weather-boards; also, to be partly over, or by the
   side of (something); as, the hinder boat lapped the foremost one.

   5.  (Carding  & Spinning) To lay together one over another, as fleeces
   or slivers for further working.
   To  lap  boards, shingles, etc., to lay one partly over another. -- To
   lap  timbers,  to  unite  them  in  such a way as to preserve the same
   breadth and depth throughout, as by scarfing. Weale.


   Lap,  v.  i. To be turned or folded; to lie partly upon or by the side
   of  something,  or  of one another; as, the cloth laps back; the boats
   lap; the edges lap.

     The  upper  wings are opacous; at their hinder ends, where they lap
     over, transparent, like the wing of a flay. Grew.


   Lap  (?),  v.  i.  [OE. lappen, lapen, AS. lapian; akin to LG. lappen,
   OHG.  laffan,  Icel.  lepja, Dan. lade, Sw. l\'84ppja, L. lambere; cf.
   Gr. llepio. Cf. Lambent.]

   1.  To  take  up  drink  or  food with the tongue; to drink or feed by
   licking up something.

     The  dogs  by the River Nilus's side, being thirsty, lap hastily as
     they run along the shore. Sir K. Digby.

   2.  To  make  a  sound  like that produced by taking up drink with the

     I heard the ripple washing in the reeds, And the wild water lapping
     on the crag. Tennyson.


   Lap,  v.  t. To take into the mouth with the tongue; to lick up with a
   quick motion of the tongue.

     They 'II take suggestion as a cat laps milk. Shak.


   Lap, n.

   1.  The  act  of  lapping  with,  or  as with, the tongue; as, to take
   anything into the mouth with a lap.

   2. The sound of lapping.


   Lap"a*ro*cele`  (?),  n. [Gr. (Med.) A rupture or hernia in the lumbar


   Lap`a*rot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. (Surg.) A cutting through the walls of the
   abdomen, as in the C\'91sarean section.


   Lap"board`  (?),  n.  A  board  used  on the lap as a substitute for a
   table, as by tailors.


   Lap"dog` (?), n. A small dog fondled in the lap.


   La*pel"  (?), n. [Dim. of lap a fold.] That part of a garment which is
   turned back; specifically, the lap, or fold, of the front of a coat in
   continuation of collar. [Written also lappel and lapelle.]


   La*pelled" (?), a. Furnished with lapels.


   Lap"ful (?), n.; pl. Lapfuls (. As much as the lap can contain.


   Lap"i*cide  (?), n. [L. lapicida, fr. lapis stone + caedere to cut.] A
   stonecutter. [Obs.]


   Lap`i*da"ri*an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to stone; inscribed on stone;
   as, a lapidarian record.


   Lap`i*da"ri*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  lapidarius,  fr. lapis, -idis, stone.]
   Consisting of stones.


   Lap"i*da*ry  (?),  n.  ;  pl.  Lapidaries  (#).  [L.  lapidarius,  fr.
   lapidarius pertaining to stone: cf. F. lapidaire.]

   1.  An  artificer  who  cuts,  polishes, and engraves precious stones;
   hence, a dealer in precious stones.

   2.  A  virtuoso  skilled  in gems or precious stones; a connoisseur of
   lapidary work.
   Lapidary's  lathe, mill, or wheel, a machine consisting essentially of
   a revolving lap on a vertical spindle, used by a lapidary for grinding
   and polishing.


   Lap"i*da*ry, a. [L. lapidarius pertaining to stone: cf. F. lapidaire.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the art of cutting stones, or engraving on
   stones, either gems or monuments; as, lapidary ornamentation.

   2.   Of   or  pertaining  to  monumental  inscriptions;  as,  lapidary
   Lapidary  style,  that  style which is proper for monumental and other
   inscriptions; terse; sententious.


   Lap"i*date  (?),  v.  t.  [L.lapidatus,  p.  p. of lapidare, fr. lapis
   stone.] To stone. [Obs.]


   Lap`i*da"tion  (?),  n.  [L. lapidatio: cf. F. lapidation.] The act of
   stoning. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   La*pid"e*ous  (?), a. [L. lapideus, fr. lapis stone.] Of the nature of
   stone; [Obs.] Ray.


   Lap`i*des"cence (?), n.

   1. The state or quality of being lapidescent.

   2. A hardening into a stone substance.

   3. A stony concretion. Sir T. Browne.


   Lap`i*des"cent  (?),  a.  [L.  lapidescens,  p.  pr. of lapidescere to
   become stone, fr. lapis, -idis, stone: cf. F. lapidescent.] Undergoing
   the  process of becoming stone; having the capacity of being converted
   into stone; having the quality of petrifying bodies.


   Lap"i*des"cent,  n.  Any substance which has the quality of petrifying
   other bodies, or of converting or being converted into stone.

                            Lapidific, Lapidifical

   Lap`i*dif"ic  (?),  Lap`i*dif"ic*al  (?), a. [L. lapis, -idis, stone +
   facere to make: cf. F. lapidifique.] Forming or converting into stone.


   La*pid`i*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  lapidification.]  The  act or
   process of lapidifying; fossilization; petrifaction.


   La*pid"i*fy  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lapidified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lapidifying  (?).]  [Cf.  f.  lapidifier.  See Lapidific, and -fy.] To
   convert into stone or stony material; to petrify.


   La*pid"i*fy, v. i. To become stone or stony


   Lap"i*dist (?), n. [L. lapis, -idis, a stone.] A lapidary. Ray.


   Lap"il*la"tion (?), n.[See Lapilli.] The state of being, or the act of
   making, stony.


   La*pil"li  (?),  n.  pl.  [L.  lapillus  a little stone, dim. of lapis
   stone.]  (Min.)  Volcanic  ashes,  consisting of small, angular, stony
   fragments or particles.


   La"pis  (?),  n.;  pl. Lapides (#). [L.] A stone. Lapis calaminaris (.
   [NL.]  (Min.)  Calamine.  -- Lapis infernalis (. [L.] Fused nitrate of
   silver; lunar caustic.

                                 Lapis lazuli

   La"pis  laz"u*li  (?).  (Min.)  An  albuminous  mineral of a rich blue
   color. Same as Lazuli, which see.<-- lapis, for short -->


   Lap"-joint`ed  (?), a.Having a lap joint, or lap joints, as many kinds
   of woodwork and metal work.


   Lap"land*er  (?), n. A native or inhabitant of Lapland; -- called also


   Lap"land*ish, a. Of or pertaining to Lapland.


   Lap"ling  (?),  n. [Lap of a garment + ling.] One who has been fondled
   to  excess;  one  fond  of  ease  and  sensual  delights; -- a term of


   Lapp (?), n. Same as Laplander. Cf. Lapps.

   Page 830


   Lap*pa"ceous  (?),  a. [L. lappaceus burlike, fr. lappa a bur.] (Bot.)
   Resembling the capitulum of burdock; covered with forked points.


   Lap"per  (?),  n. [From Lap to drink.] One who takes up food or liquid
   with his tongue.


   Lap"pet (?), n. [Dim. of lap a fold.] A small decorative fold or flap,
   esp,  of lace or muslin, in a garment or headdress. Swift. Lappet moth
   (Zo\'94l.),  one  of  several  species  of  bombycid moths, which have
   stout,  hairy  caterpillars, flat beneath. Two common American species
   (Gastropacha Americana, and Tolype velleda) feed upon the apple tree.


   Lap"pet,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lappeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Lappeting.] To
   decorate with, or as with, a lappet. [R.] Landor.


   Lap"pic  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Lapland, or the Lapps. -- n. The
   language of the Lapps. See Lappish.


   Lap"ping  (?),  n. A kind of machine blanket or wrapping material used
   by  calico  printers.  Ure.  Lapping  engine, Lapping machine (Textile
   Manuf.), A machine for forming fiber info a lap. See its Lap, 9.


   Lap"pish  (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Lapps; Laplandish. -- n. The
   language  spoken by the Lapps in Lapland. It is related to the Finnish
   and Hungarian, and is not an Aryan language.

                              Lapponian, Lapponic

   Lap*po"ni*an (?), Lap*pon"ic (?), a. Laplandish; Lappish.


   Lapps  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Lapp (. (Ethnol.) A branch of the Mongolian
   race,  now  living  in  the  northern parts of Norway, Sweden, and the
   adjacent parts of Russia.


   Laps"a*ble (?), a. Lapsible. Cudworth.


   Lapse  (?),  n. [L. lapsus, fr. labi, p. p. lapsus, to slide, to fall:
   cf. F. laps. See Sleep.]

   1.   A  gliding,  slipping,  or  gradual  falling;  an  unobserved  or
   imperceptible  progress  or  passing  away,;  -- restricted usually to
   immaterial things, or to figurative uses.

     The lapse to indolence is soft and imperceptible. Rambler.

     Bacon  was  content  to  wait  the  lapse of long centuries for his
     expected revenue of fame. I. Taylor.

   2.  A  slip;  an error; a fault; a failing in duty; a slight deviation
   from truth or rectitude.

     To guard against those lapses and failings to which our infirmities
     daily expose us. Rogers.

   3.  (Law)  The  termination of a right or privilege through neglect to
   exercise  it  within  the  limited  time,  or  through failure of some
   contingency; hence, the devolution of a right or privilege.

   4. (Theol.) A fall or apostasy.


   Lapse, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lapsed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Lapsing.]

   1.  To  pass  slowly and smoothly downward, backward, or away; to slip
   downward,  backward,  or  away;  to  glide;  --  mostly  restricted to
   figurative uses.

     A  tendency  to  lapse into the barbarity of those northern nations
     from whom we are descended. Swift.

     Homer,  in  his characters of Vulcan and Thersites, has lapsed into
     the burlesque character. Addison.

   2.  To  slide  or slip in moral conduct; to fail in duty; to fall from
   virtue;  to  deviate from rectitude; to commit a fault by inadvertence
   or mistake.

     To lapse in fullness Is sorer than to lie for need. Shak.

   3.  (Law)  (a) To fall or pass from one proprietor to another, or from
   the  original  destination, by the omission, negligence, or failure of
   some  one,  as  a patron, a legatee, etc. (b) To become ineffectual or
   void; to fall.

     If  the  archbishop shall not fill it up within six months ensuing,
     it lapses to the king. Ayliffe.


   Lapse, v. t.

   1. To let slip; to permit to devolve on another; to allow to pass.

     An  appeal  may  be deserted by the appellant's lapsing the term of
     law. Ayliffe.

   2. To surprise in a fault or error; hence, to surprise or catch, as an
   offender. [Obs.]

     For which, if be lapsed in this place, I shall pay dear. Shak.


   Lapsed (?), a.

   1.  Having  slipped downward, backward, or away; having lost position,
   privilege, etc., by neglect; -- restricted to figurative uses.

     Once more I will renew His lapsed powers, though forfeit. Milton.

   2.  Ineffectual, void, or forfeited; as, a lapsed policy of insurance;
   a lapsed legacy.
   Lapsed  devise,  Lapsed legacy (Law), a devise, or legacy, which fails
   to take effect in consequence of the death of the devisee, or legatee,
   before that of the testator, or for ether cause. Wharton (Law Dict.). 


   Laps"i*ble (?), a. Liable to lapse.


   Lap"sid`ed (?), a. See Lopsided.


   Lap"stone`  (?),  n.  A  stone  for  the lap, on which shoemakers beat

                             Lapstreak, Lapstrake

   Lap"streak`  (?), Lap"strake` (?), a. Made with boards whose edges lap
   one over another; clinker-built; -- said of boats.


   La*pu"tan  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Laputa, an imaginary flying
   island  described  in  Gulliver's  Travels  as  the home of chimerical
   philosophers.  Hence,  fanciful;  preposterous;  absurd  in science or
   philosophy. "Laputan ideas." G. Eliot.


   Lap"-weld`ed  (?),  a Having edges or ends united by a lap weld; as, a
   lap-welded pipe.


   Lap"wing`   (?),   n.  [OE.lapwynke,  leepwynke,  AS.  hle\'a0pewince;
   hle\'a0pan to leap, jump + (prob.) a word akin to AS. wincian to wink,
   E.  wink,  AS.  wancol  wavering; cf. G. wanken to stagger, waver. See
   Leap, and Wink.] (Zo\'94l.) A small European bird of the Plover family
   (Vanellus cristatus, or V. vanellus). It has long and broad wings, and
   is  noted  for  its rapid, irregular fight, upwards, downwards, and in
   circles.  Its  back  is  coppery  or greenish bronze. Its eggs are the
   "plover's  eggs"  of  the  London  market,  esteemed a delicacy. It is
   called  also peewit, dastard plover, and wype. The gray lapwing is the
   Squatarola cinerea.


   Lap"work` (?), n. Work in which one part laps over another. Grew.


   Lag"uay (?), n. A lackey. [Obs.] Evelyn.


   La"que*ar (?), n.; pl. Laquearia (#). [L.] (Arch.) A lacunar.


   Laq"ue*a*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  laqueus  a  noose.]  Using  a  noose, as a
   gladiator. [Obs. or R.]

     Retiary and laqueary combatants. Sir T. Browne.


   Lar  (?),  n.;  pl. Lares (#), sometimes Lars (#). [L.] (Rom. Myth.) A
   tutelary  deity;  a  deceased  ancestor regarded as a protector of the
   family.  The  domestic  Lares  were  the  tutelar  deities of a house;
   household gods. Hence, Eng.: Hearth or dwelling house.

     Nor  will  she  her  dear  Lar  forget,  Victorious by his benefit.

     The Lars and Lemures moan with midnight plaint. Milton.

     Looking backward in vain toward their Lares and lands. Longfellow.


   Lar  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A species of gibbon (Hylobates lar), found in
   Burmah. Called also white-handed gibbon.

                                 Laramie group

   Lar"a*mie   group`   (?).  (Geol.)  An  extensive  series  of  strata,
   principally  developed in the Rocky Mountain region, as in the Laramie
   Mountains,  and  formerly  supposed to be of the Tertiary age, but now
   generally  regarded as Cretaceous, or of intermediate and transitional
   character.  It  contains beds of lignite, often valuable for coal, and
   is hence also called the lignitic group. See Chart of Geology.


   Lar"board`  (?), n. [Lar- is of uncertain origin, possibly the same as
   lower,  i.  e.,  humbler  in  rank,  because  the  starboard  side  is
   considered  by mariners as higher in rank; cf. D. laag low, akin to E.
   low. See Board, n., 8.] (Naut.) The left-hand side of a ship to one on
   board facing toward the bow; port; -- opposed to starboard.

     NOTE: &hand; La rboard is  a  ne arly ob solete te rm, ha ving been
     superseded  by port to avoid liability of confusion with starboard,
     owing to similarity of sound.


   Lar"board`,  a.  On  or  pertaining to the left-hand side of a vessel;
   port; as, the larboard quarter.

                              Larcener, Larcenist

   Lar"ce*ner (?), Lar"ce*nist (?), n. One who commits larceny.


   Lar"ce*nous  (?),  a.  [Cf.  OE.  larrecinos. See Larceny.] Having the
   character  of  larceny;  as, a larcenous act; committing larceny. "The
   larcenous  and  burglarious  world."  Sydney Smith. -- Lar"ce*nous*ly,


   Lar"ce*ny  (?),  n.;  pl.  Larcenies (#). [F. larcin, OE. larrecin, L.
   latrocinium,  fr.  latro  robber,  mercenary,  hired  servant; cf. Gr.
   (Latrociny.]  (Law)  The  unlawful  taking and carrying away of things
   personal  with  intent  to deprive the right owner of the same; theft.
   Cf.  Embezzlement.  Grand  larceny  AND Petit larceny are distinctions
   having  reference  to the nature or value of the property stolen. They
   are  abolished in England. -- Mixed, OR Compound, larceny, that which,
   under  statute,  includes  in  it  the  aggravation of a taking from a
   building  or  the  person.  --  Simple  larceny,  that  which  is  not
   accompanied with any aggravating circumstances.


   Larch  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OE.  larege  (Cotgrave), It.larice, Sp. larice,
   alerce, G. l\'84rche; all fr. L. larix, -icis, Gr. ( (Bot.) A genus of
   coniferous  trees,  having deciduous leaves, in fascicles (see Illust.
   of Fascicle).

     NOTE: The European larch is Larix Europ\'91a. The American or black
     larch  is  L.  Americana, the hackmatack or tamarack. The trees are
     generally of a drooping, graceful appearance.


   Larch"en (?), a. Of or pertaining to the larch. Keats.


   Lard (?), n. [F., bacon, pig's fat, L. lardum, laridum; cf. Gr. (

   1. Bacon; the flesh of swine. [Obs.] Dryden.

   2.  The fat of swine, esp. the internal fat of the abdomen; also, this
   fat melted and strained.
   Lard  oil, an illuminating and lubricating oil expressed from lard. --
   Leaf  lard, the internal fat of the hog, separated in leaves or masses
   from the kidneys, etc.; also, the same melted.


   Lard,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Larded; p. pr. & vb. n. Larding.] [F.
   larder. See Lard, n.]

   1.  To stuff with bacon; to dress or enrich with lard; esp., to insert
   lardons  of  bacon  or pork in the surface of, before roasting; as, to
   lard poultry.

     And larded thighs on loaded altars laid. Dryden.

   2. To fatten; to enrich.

     [The oak] with his nuts larded many a swine. Spenser.

     Falstaff  sweats  to  death.  And  lards the lean earth as he walks
     along. Shak.

   3. To smear with lard or fat.

     In  his  buff  doublet  larded o'er with fat Of slaughtered brutes.

   4.  To  mix  or  garnish  with something, as by way of improvement; to
   interlard. Shak.

     Let  no  alien  Sedley  interpose To lard with wit thy hungry Epsom
     prose. Dryden.


   Lard (?), v. i. To grow fat. [Obs.]


   Lar`da*ce"in  (?),  n.  [See  Lardaceous.] (Physiol. Chem.) A peculiar
   amyloid   substance,  colored  blue  by  iodine  and  sulphuric  acid,
   occurring  mainly  as an abnormal infiltration into the spleen, liver,


   Lar*da"ceous   (?),   a.   [Cf.  F.  lardac\'82.]  Consisting  of,  or
   resembling,    lard.    Lardaceous    degeneration   (Med.),   amyloid


   Lard"er (?), n. [OF. lardier. See Lard, n.] A room or place where meat
   and other articles of food are kept before they are cooked. Shak.


   Lard"er*er (?), n. One in charge of the larder.


   Lard"er*y, n. [Cf. OE. larderie.] A larder. [Obs.]

                                Lardon, Lardoon

   Lar"don  (?),  Lar*doon"  (?), n. [F. lardon, fr. lard lard.] A bit of
   fat pork or bacon used in larding.


   Lard"ry (?), n. [See Lardery.] A larder. [Obs.]


   Lard"y  (?),  a.  Containing, or resembling, lard; of the character or
   consistency of lard.


   Lare (?), n. [See Lore.] Lore; learning. [Obs.]


   Lare, n. Pasture; feed. See Lair. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Lare, v. t. To feed; to fatten. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl. 


   La"res (?), n. pl. See 1st Lar.


   Large  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Larger  (?);  superl. Largest.] [F., fr. L.
   largus. Cf. Largo.]

   1.  Exceeding  most  other things of like in bulk, capacity, quantity,
   superficial  dimensions,  or  number of constituent units; big; great;
   capacious; extensive; -- opposed to small; as, a nlarge horse; a large
   house  or  room;  a  large lake or pool; a large jug or spoon; a large
   vineyard; a large army; a large city.

     NOTE: &hand; For linear dimensions, and mere extent, great, and not
     large,  is  used  as  a qualifying word; as, great length, breadth,
     depth; a great distance; a great height.

   2. Abundant; ample; as, a large supply of provisions.

     We hare yet large day. Milton.

   3. Full in statement; diffuse; full; profuse.

     I  might  be  very  large  upon  the  importance  and advantages of
     education. Felton.

   4.  Having  more than usual power or capacity; having broad sympathies
   and generous impulses; comprehensive; -- said of the mind and heart.

   5. Free; unembarrassed. [Obs.]

     Of burdens all he set the Paynims large. Fairfax.

   6.  Unrestrained  by  decorum; -- said of language. [Obs.] "Some large
   jests he will make." Shak.

   7. Prodigal in expending; lavish. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   8.  (Naut.)  Crossing  the  line  of  a  ship's  course in a favorable
   direction;  --  said of the wind when it is abeam, or between the beam
   and the quarter.
   At large. (a) Without restraint or confinement; as, to go at large; to
   be  left  at  large.  (b) Diffusely; fully; in the full extent; as, to
   discourse on a subject at large. -- Common at large. See under Common,
   n.  --  Electors  at  large,  Representative  at large, electors, or a
   representative,  as  in  Congress,  chosen to represent the whole of a
   State,  in  distinction  from  those  chosen  to  represent particular
   districts  in  a  State.  [U.  S.]  -- To give, go, run, OR sail large
   (Naut.),  to have the wind crossing the direction of a vessel's course
   in such a way that the sails feel its full force, and the vessel gains
   its  highest  speed.  See  Large,  a.,  8.  Syn.  -- Big; bulky; huge;
   capacious;   comprehensive;   ample;  abundant;  plentiful;  populous;
   copious; diffusive; liberal.


   Large, adv. Freely; licentiously. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Large,  n. (Mus.) A musical note, formerly in use, equal to two longs,
   four breves, or eight semibreves.


   Large"-a`cred (?), a. Possessing much land.


   Large"-hand`ed (?), a. Having large hands, Fig.: Taking, or giving, in
   large quantities; rapacious or bountiful.


   Large"-heart`ed   (?),   a.  Having  a  large  or  generous  heart  or
   disposition; noble; liberal. -- Large"-heart`ed*ness, n.


   Large"ly, adv. In a large manner. Dryden. Milton.


   Large"ness, n. The quality or state of being large.

                               Largess, Largesse

   Lar"gess, Lar"gesse (?), n. [F. largesse, fr. large. See Large, a.]

   1. Liberality; generosity; bounty. [Obs.]

     Fulfilled of largesse and of all grace. Chaucer.

   2. A present; a gift; a bounty bestowed.

     The  heralds  finished  their  proclamation with their usual cry of
     "Largesse,  largesse,  gallant knights!" and gold and silver pieces
     were showered on them from the galleries. Sir W. Scott.


   Lar"get (?), n. [Cf. F. larget.] A sport piece of bar iron for rolling
   into a sheet; a small billet.


   Lar*ghet"to (?), a. & adv. [It., dim. of largo largo.] (Mus.) Somewhat
   slow  or  slowly,  but not so slowly as largo, and rather more so than


   Lar*gif"i*cal   (?),  a.  [L.  largificus;  largus  large  +  facere.]
   Generous; ample; liberal. [Obs.]


   Lar*gif"lu*ous  (?),  a.  [L. largifiuus; large abundantly + fluere to
   flow.] Flowing copiously. [Obs.]


   Lar*gil"o*quent (?), a. [Cf. L. largiloquus.] Grandiloquent. [Obs.]


   Lar"gish (?), a. Somewhat large. [Colloq.]


   Lar*gi"tion  (?),  [L.  largitio, fr. largiri, p. p. largitus, to give
   bountifully.] The bestowment of a largess or gift. [Obs.]


   Lar"go  (?), a. & adv. [It., large, L. largus, See Large.] (Mus.) Slow
   or slowly; -- more so than adagio; next in slowness to grave, which is
   also weighty and solemn. -- n. A movement or piece in largo time.


   Lar"i*at  (?),  n.  [Sp.  la  reata the rope; la the + reata rope. Cf.
   Reata.]  A long, slender rope made of hemp or strips of hide, esp. one
   with  a  noose;  -- used as a lasso for catching cattle, horses, etc.,
   and  for  picketing  a  horse  so that he can graze without wandering.
   [Mexico & Western U.S.]

   Page 831


   Lar"i*at  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lariated;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Lariating.] To secure with a lariat fastened to a stake, as a horse or
   mule  for  grazing;  also,  to  lasso or catch with a lariat. [Western


   La"rine  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the Gull family


   Lar`ix*in"ic  (?),  a. (Chem.) Of, or derived from, the larch (Larix);
   as, larixinic acid.


   Lark  (?),  n.  [Perh  fr.  AS. l\'bec play, sport. Cf. Lake, v. i.] A
   frolic; a jolly time. [Colloq.] Dickens.


   Lark,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Larked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Larking.] To
   sport; to frolic. [Colloq.]


   Lark,  n.  [OE. larke, laverock, AS. l\'bewerce; akin to D. leeuwerik,
   LG.  lewerke,  OHG.  l,  G.  lerche,  Sw.  l\'84rka, Dan. lerke, Icel.
   l\'91virki.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Any one numerous species of singing birds of
   the  genus  Alauda and allied genera (family Alaudid\'91). They mostly
   belong  to  Europe,  Asia,  and  Northern  Africa. In America they are
   represented  by  the  shore  larks,  or  horned by the shore larks, or
   horned  larks,  of the genus Otocoris. The true larks have holaspidean
   tarsi, very long hind claws, and usually, dull, sandy brown colors.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Eu ropean sk ylark, or  lark of the poets (Alauda
     arvensis),  is of a brown mottled color, and is noted for its clear
     and   sweet   song,   uttered  as  it  rises  and  descends  almost
     perpendicularly  in the air. It is considered a table delicacy, and
     immense  numbers  are  killed  for  the  markets.  Other well-known
     European   species   are  the  crested,  or  tufted,  lark  (Alauda
     cristata), and the wood lark (A. arborea). The pipits, or titlarks,
     of the genus Anthus (family Motacillid\'91) are often called larks.
     See  Pipit.  The American meadow larks, of the genus Sturnella, are
     allied  to the starlings. See Meadow Lark. The Australian bush lark
     is Mirafra Horsfieldii. See Shore lark.

   Lark  bunting (Zo\'94l.), a fringilline bird (Calamospiza melanocorys)
   found  on  the  plains  of  the Western United States. -- Lark sparrow
   (Zo\'94l.), a sparrow (Chondestes grammacus), found in the Mississippi
   Valley and the Western United States.


   Lark, v. i. To catch larks; as, to go larking.


   Lark"-col`ored  (?),  a.  Having the sandy brown color of the European


   Lark"er (?), n. [See 3d Lark, for sense 1, and 1st Lark, for sense 2.]

   1. A catcher of larks.

   2. One who indulges in a lark or frolic. [Colloq.]


   Lark's"-heel` (?), n. (Bot.) Indian cress.


   Lark"spur   (?),   n.   (Bot.)   A   genus  of  ranunculaceous  plants
   (Delphinium),  having  showy  flowers,  and  a spurred calyx. They are
   natives  of  the  North  Temperate zone. The commonest larkspur of the
   gardens  is  D.  Consolida. The flower of the bee larkspur (D. elatum)
   has two petals bearded with yellow hairs, and looks not unlike a bee.


   Lar"mi*er  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  larme  tear,  drop,  L.  lacrima.  See
   Lachrymose.] (Anat.) See Tearpit.


   La"roid  (?),  a.  [Larus + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like or belonging to the
   Gull family (Larid\'91).


   Lar"rup  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Larruped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Larruping.]  [Perh, a corrupt. of lee rope, used by sailors in beating
   the  boys; but cf. D. larpen to thresh, larp a whip, blow.] To beat or
   flog soundly. [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U.S.] Forby.


   Lar"ry (?), n. Same as Lorry, or Lorrie.


   Lar"um (?), See Alarum, and Alarm.


   Lar"va  (?),  n.; pl. L. Larv\'91 (#), E. Larvas (#). [L. larva ghost,
   specter, mask.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) Any young insect from the time that it hatches from the
   egg until it becomes a pupa, or chrysalis. During this time it usually
   molts  several  times, and may change its form or color each time. The
   larv\'91  of many insects are much like the adults in form and habits,
   but  have  no  trace of wings, the rudimentary wings appearing only in
   the  pupa  stage.  In other groups of insects the larv\'91 are totally
   unlike   the   parents   in  structure  and  habits,  and  are  called
   caterpillars, grubs, maggots, etc.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The early, immature form of any animal when more or less
   of  a  metamorphosis  takes place, before the assumption of the mature


   Lar"val  (?),  a.  [L.  larvalis ghostly. See Larva.] (Zo\'94l.) Of or
   pertaining to a larva.


   Lar*va"li*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Larval.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   Tunicata,  including  Appendicularia,  and allied genera; -- so called
   because  certain  larval  features  are retained by them through life.
   Called also Copelata. See Appendicularia.


   Lar"va*ted  (?), a. [L.larvatus bewitched. See Larva.] Masked; clothed
   as with a mask.


   Larve (?), n.; pl.Larves (#). [F.] A larva.


   Lar"vi*form  (?),  a.  [Larva  + -form.] (Zo\'94l.) Having the form or
   structure of a larva.


   Lar*vip"a*rous  (?), a. [Larva + L. parete to bring forth.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Depositing  living  larv\'91,  instead  of  eggs;  --  said of certain


   La"ry  (?), n. [Cf. F. lare sea gull, L. larus a sort of sea bird, Gr.
   ( A guillemot; -- called also lavy. [Prov. Eng.]


   Lar`yn*ge"al  (?),  a.  [From Larynx.] Of or pertaining to the larynx;
   adapted to operations on the larynx; as, laryngeal forceps.


   Lar`yn*ge"an (?), a. See Laryngeal.


   Lar`yp*gis"mus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Larynx.] (Med.) A spasmodic
   state  of  the  glottis,  giving rise to contraction or closure of the


   Lar`yn*gi"tis  (?), n. [NL. See Larynx, and -tis.] (Med.) Inflammation
   of the larynx.


   La*ryn`go*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to laryngology.


   Lar`yn*gol"o*gist (?), n. One who applies himself to laryngology.


   Lar`yn*gol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Larynx + -logy.] Systematized knowledge of
   the  action  and functions of the larynx; in pathology, the department
   which treats of the diseases of the larynx.


   Lar`yn*goph"o*ny  (?),  n.  [Larynx  + Gr. ( The sound of the voice as
   heard through a stethoscope when the latter is placed upon the larynx.


   La*run"go*scope  (?),  n.  [Larynx  +  -scope.] (Surg.) An instrument,
   consisting of an arrangement of two mirrors, for reflecting light upon
   the larynx, and for examining its image.


   La*ryn`go*scop"ic  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to the inspection of the


   Lar`yn*gos"co*pist (?), n. One skilled in laryngoscopy.


   Lar`yn*gos"co*py   (?),   n.   The  art  of  using  the  laryngoscope;
   investigations made with the laryngoscope.


   La*ryn"go*tome   (?),   n.   (Surg.)   An  instrument  for  performing


   Lar`yn*got"o*my  (?), n. [Gr. (laryngotomie.] (Surg.) The operation of
   cutting  into  the larynx, from the outside of the neck, for assisting
   respiration when obstructed, or for removing foreign bodies.


   La*ryn`go*tra"che*al  (?),  a. [Larynx + tracheal.] (Anat.) Pertaining
   to  both  larynx and trachea; as, the laryngotracheal cartilage in the


   La*ryn`go*tra`che*ot"o*my  (?), n. [Larynx + tracheotomy.] (Surg.) The
   operation  of  cutting  into  the  larynx  and  the  upper part of the
   trachea, -- a frequent operation for obstruction to breathing.


   Lar"ynx  (?),  n.  [ (Anat.) The expanded upper end of the windpipe or
   trachea,  connected  with the hyoid bone or cartilage. It contains the
   vocal  cords,  which  produce the voice by their vibrations, when they
   are  stretched and a current of air passes between them. The larynx is
   connected  with  the  pharynx  by  an  opening, the glottis, which, in
   mammals, is protected by a lidlike epiglottis.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e fr amework of  th e human larynx, the thyroid
     cartilage,  attached  to  the hyoid bone, makes the protuberance on
     the  front  of  the  neck known as Adam's apple, and is articulated
     below  to  the  ringlike cricoid cartilage. This is narrow in front
     and high behind, where, within the thyroid, it is surmounted by the
     two  arytenoid  cartilages, from which the vocal cords pass forward
     to be attached together to the front of the thyroid. See Syrinx.


   Las (?), n. A lace. See Lace. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Las, a. & adv. Less. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Las"car  (?),  n. [Per. & Hind. lashkar an army, an inferior artillery
   man,  a cooly, a native sailor.] A native sailor, employed in European
   vessels; also, a menial employed about arsenals, camps, camps, etc.; a
   camp follower. [East Indies]


   Las"ci*ous  (?),  a.  Loose;  lascivious.  [Obs.] "To depaint lascious
   wantonness." Holland.


   Las*civ"i*en*cy  (?), n. [See Lascivient.] Lasciviousness; wantonness.


   Las*civ"i*ent  (?),  a. [L. lasciviens, pr. of lascivire to be wanton,
   fr. lascivus. See Lascivious.] Lascivious. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


   Las*civ"i*ous  (?),  a.  [L. lascivia wantonness, fr. lascivus wanton;
   cf. Gr. (lash to desire.]

   1.  Wanton;  lewd;  lustful;  as,  lascivious men; lascivious desires.

   2. Tending to produce voluptuous or lewd emotions.

     He  capers nimbly in a lady's chamber To the lascivious pleasing of
     a lute. Shak.

   -- Las*civ"i*ous*ly, adv. -- Las*civ"i*ous*ness, n.


   La"ser*wort`  (?), n. [L.laser the juice of the laserwort.] (Bot.) Any
   plant  of  the umbelliferous genus Laserpitium, of several species (as
   L.  glabrum,  and  L.  siler),  the  root  of  which yields a resinous
   substance of a bitter taste. The genus is mostly European.


   Lash  (?),  n. [OE. lasche; cf. D. lasch piece set in, joint, seam, G.
   lashe  latchet,  a  bit of leather, gusset, stripe, laschen to furnish
   with  flaps,  to  lash  or  slap,  Icel.  laski gusset, flap, laska to

   1. The thong or braided cord of a whip, with which the blow is given.

     I observed that your whip wanted a lash to it. Addison.

   2.  A  leash  in  which  an  animal is caught or held; hence, a snare.

   3. A stroke with a whip, or anything pliant and tough; as, the culprit
   received thirty-nine lashes.

   4. A stroke of satire or sarcasm; an expression or retort that cuts or
   gives pain; a cut.

     The  moral  is a lash at the vanity of arrogating that to ourselves
     which succeeds well. L'Estrange.

   5. A hair growing from the edge of the eyelid; an eyelash.

   6.  In  carpet  weaving, a group of strings for lifting simultaneously
   certain yarns, to form the figure.


   Lash (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lashng.]

   1.  To  strike  with  a lash ; to whip or scourge with a lash, or with
   something like one.

     We lash the pupil, and defraud the ward. Dryden.

   2.  To  strike  forcibly and quickly, as with a lash; to beat, or beat
   upon,  with  a  motion like that of a lash; as, a whale lashes the sea
   with his tail.

     And big waves lash the frighted shores. Dryden.

   3. To throw out with a jerk or quickly.

     He falls, and lashing up his heels, his rider throws. Dryden.

   4.  To scold; to berate; to satirize; to censure with severity; as, to
   lash vice.


   Lash,.  v. i. To ply the whip; to strike; to uttercensure or sarcastic

     To laugh at follies, or to lash at vice. Dryden.

   To lash out, to strike out wildly or furiously.


   Lash,  v.  t. [Cf. D. lasschen to fasten together, lasch piece, joint,
   Sw.  laska to stitch, Dan. laske stitch. See Lash, n. ] To bind with a
   rope, cord, thong, or chain, so as to fasten; as, to lash something to
   a spar; to lash a pack on a horse's back.


   Lash"er (?), n. One who whips or lashes.


   Lash"er, n.

   1. A piece of rope for binding or making fast one thing to another; --
   called also lashing.

   2. A weir in a river. [Eng.] Halliwell.


   Lash"ing,  n.  The act of one who, or that which, lashes; castigation;
   chastisement. South. Lashing out, a striking out; also, extravagance.


   Lash"ing, n. See 2d Lasher.


   Lask (?), n. A diarrhea or flux. [Obs.] Holland.


   Las"ket (?), n. [Cf. Lash, Latching.] (Naut.) latching.


   Lass  (?),  n. [OE. lasse; prob. of Celtic origin; cf. W. llodes girl,
   fem. of llawd lad. (Lad a youth.] A youth woman; a girl; a sweetheart.


   Lasse (?), a. & adv. Less. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Las"sie (?), n. A young girl; a lass. [Scot.]


   Las"si*tude (?), n. [L. lassitudo, fr. lassus faint, weary; akin to E.
   late:  cf.  F. lassitude. See Late.] A condition of the body, or mind,
   when  its  voluntary functions are performed with difficulty, and only
   by a strong exertion of the will; languor; debility; weariness.

     The  corporeal instruments of action being strained to a high pitch
     . . . will soon feel a lassitude. Barrow.


   Lass"lorn` (?), a. Forsaken by a lass. Shak.


   Lass"o  (l&acr;s"s&osl;)  n.;  pl.  Lassos  (-s&omac;z). [Sp. lazo, L.
   laqueus.  See  Lace.]  A rope or long thong of leather with, a running
   noose,  used  for catching horses, cattle, etc. Lasso cell (Zo\'94l.),
   one  of  a  peculiar  kind  of defensive and offensive stinging cells,
   found in great numbers in all c\'d2lenterates, and in a few animals of
   other  groups.  They  are  most  highly  developed in the tentacles of
   jellyfishes,  hydroids,  and Actini\'91. Each of these cells is filled
   with, fluid, and contains a long, slender, often barbed, hollow thread
   coiled  up  within  it.  When the cell contracts the thread is quickly
   ejected,  being at the same time turned inside out. The thread is able
   to  penetrate  the  flesh  of  various small, soft-bodied animals, and
   carries  a  subtle  poison  by  which  they are speedily paralyzed and
   killed.  The  threads,  at  the  same time, hold the prey in position,
   attached  to the tentacles. Some of the jellyfishes, as the Portuguese
   man-of-war,  and  Cyanea,  are  able  to penetrate the human skin, and
   inflict  painful  stings  in  the same way. Called also nettling cell,
   cnida, cnidocell.


   Las"so, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lassoed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lassoing.] To
   catch with a lasso.


   Last  (?),  3d  pers.  sing. pres. of Last, to endure, contracted from
   lasteth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Last  (,  a. [OE. last, latst, contr. of latest, superl. of late; akin
   to  OS.  lezt,  lazt,  last,  D.  laatst,  G. letzt. See Late, and cf.

   1.  Being  after  all  the others, similarly classed or considered, in
   time,  place,  or  order of succession; following all the rest; final;
   hindmost;  farthest; as, the last year of a century; the last man in a
   line of soldiers; the last page in a book; his last chance.

     Also  day  by day, from the first day unto the last day, he read in
     the book of the law of God. Neh. viii. 18.

     Fairest of stars, last in the train of night. Milton.

   2. Next before the present; as, I saw him last week.

   3. Supreme; highest in degree; utmost.

     Contending for principles of the last importance. R. Hall


   4. Lowest in rank or degree; as, the last prize. Pope.

   5. Farthest of all from a given quality, character, or condition; most
   unlikely;  having  least  fitness;  as,  he  is  the last person to be
   accused of theft.

   Page 832

   At  last,  at  the  end of a certain period; after delay. "The duke of
   Savoy felt that the time had at last arrived." Motley. -- At the last.
   [Prob. fr. AS. on l\'beste behind, following behind, fr. l\'best race,
   track,  footstep.  See  Last  mold  of  the  foot.] At the end; in the
   conclusion.  [Obs.]  "Gad,  a  troop  shall overcome him; but he shall
   overcome at the last." Gen. xlix. 19. -- Last heir, the person to whom
   lands  escheat  for  want  of an heir. [Eng.] Abbott. -- On one's last
   legs,  at, or near, the end of one's resources; hence, on the verge of
   failure  or  ruin,  especially  in  a financial sense. [Colloq.] -- To
   breathe  one's  last,  to  die.  --  To the last, to the end; till the

     And blunder on in business to the last. Pope.

   Syn.  --  At  Last,  At  Length.  These  phrases both denote that some
   delayed  end or result has been reached. At length implies that a long
   period  was  spent  in so doing; as, after a voyage of more than three
   months,  we  at  Length  arrived  safe.  At last commonly implies that
   something has occurred (as interruptions, disappointments, etc.) which
   leads us to emphasize the idea of having reached the end; as, in spite
   of  every  obstacle,  we  have  at  last arrived.<-- "eventually" also
   suggests a (relatively) long interval, but does not specifically imply
   any interruptions -->


   Last (?), adv. [See Last, a.]

   1. At a time or on an occasion which is the latest of all those spoken
   of  or  which  have occurred; the last time; as, I saw him last in New

   2. In conclusion; finally.<-- = lastly -->

     Pleased with his idol, he commends, admires, Adores; and, last, the
     thing adored desires. Dryden.

   3. At a time next preceding the present time.

     How long is't now since last yourself and I Were in a mask ? Shak.


   Last,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Lasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Lasting.] [OE.
   lasten, As. l\'91stan to perform, execute, follow, last, continue, fr.
   l\'best,  l,  trace,  footstep, course; akin to G. leisten to perform,
   Goth. laistjan to follow. See Last mold of the foot.]

   1. To continue in time; to endure; to remain in existence.

     [I]  proffered me to be slave in all that she me would ordain while
     my life lasted. Testament of Love.

   2.  To  endure  use,  or  continue in existence, without impairment or
   exhaustion;  as, this cloth lasts better than that; the fuel will last
   through the winter.


   Last,  n. [AS. l\'besttrace, track, footstep; akin to D. leest a last,
   G. leisten, Sw. l\'84st, Dan. l\'91st, Icel. leistr the foot below the
   ankle,  Goth.  laists  track,  way; from a root signifying, to go. Cf.
   Last,  v.  i.,  Learn, Delirium.] A wooden block shaped like the human
   foot, on which boots and shoes are formed.

     The cobbler is not to go beyond his last. L'Estrange.

   Darning  last,  a  smooth,  hard  body,  often  egg-shaped, put into a
   stocking to preserve its shape in darning.


   Last, v. t. To shape with a last; to fasten or fit to a last; to place
   smoothly on a last; as, to last a boot.


   Last,  n.  [As.  hl\'91st, fr. hladan to lade; akin to OHG. hlast, G.,
   D.,  Dan.,  & Sw. last: cf. F. laste, last, a last, of German or Dutch
   origin. See Lade.]

   1.  A  load;  a  heavy  burden;  hence,  a  certain weight or measure,
   generally  estimated at 4,000 lbs., but varying for different articles
   and  in  different  countries.  In  England,  a last of codfish, white
   herrings,  meal,  or  ashes,  is  twelve  barrels; a last of corn, ten
   quarters,  or  eighty  bushels,  in  some parts of England, twenty-one
   quarters;  of gunpowder, twenty-four barrels, each containing 100 lbs;
   of  red  herrings, twenty cades, or 20,000; of hides, twelve dozen; of
   leather,  twenty dickers; of pitch and tar, fourteen barrels; of wool,
   twelve sacks; of flax or feathers, 1,700 lbs.

   2. The burden of a ship; a cargo.


   Last"age  (?)  n.  [E.  lestage  ballasting,  fr. lest ballast, or LL.
   lastagium, lestagium. See Last a load.]

   1.  A  duty  exacted, in some fairs or markets, for the right to carry
   things where one will. [Obs.]

   2. A tax on wares sold by the last. [Obs.] Cowell.

   3. The lading of a ship; also, ballast. Spelman.

   4. Room for stowing goods, as in a ship.


   Last"e (?), obs. imp. of Last, to endure. Chaucer.


   Last"er, n. A workman whose business it is to shape boots or shoes, or
   place  leather  smoothly, on lasts; a tool for stretching leather on a


   Last"er-y (?), n. A red color.[Obs.] Spenser.


   Last"ing,  a.  Existing  or  continuing  a long while; enduring; as, a
   lasting  good  or  evil;  a lasting color. Syn. -- Durable; permanent;
   undecaying;  perpetual;  unending.  --  Lasting,  Permanent,  Durable.
   Lasting  commonly  means  merely  continuing  in  existence; permanent
   carries the idea of continuing in the same state, position, or course;
   durable means lasting in spite of agencies which tend to destroy.


   Last"ing, n.

   1. Continuance; endurance. Locke.

   2.  A  species  of  very durable woolen stuff, used for women's shoes;

   3. The act or process of shaping on a last.


   Last"ing, adv. In a lasting manner.


   Last"ly, adv.

   1. In the last place; in conclusion.

   2. at last; finally.


   Lat (?), v. t. To let; to allow. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lat`a*ki"a  (?),  n.  [Turk.]  A  superior  quality of Turkish smoking
   tobacco,  so  called  from  the  place  where  produced,  the  ancient


   Latch  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf. F. l\'82cher to lick (of German origin). Cf.
   Lick.] To smear; to anoint. [Obs.] Shak.


   Latch, n. [OE. lacche, fr. lacchen to seize, As. l\'91ccan.]

   1. That which fastens or holds; a lace; a snare. [Obs.] Rom. of R.

   2.  A  movable piece which holds anything in place by entering a notch
   or  cavity;  specifically,  the  catch which holds a door or gate when
   closed, though it be not bolted.

   3. (Naut.) A latching.

   4. A crossbow. [Obs.] Wright.


   Latch,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Latched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Latching.]
   [OE.lacchen. See Latch. n.]

   1. To catch so as to hold. [Obs.]

     Those that remained threw darts at our men, and latching our darts,
     sent them again at us. Golding.

   2. To catch or fasten by means of a latch.

     The door was only latched. Locke.


   Latch"et  (?),  n.  [OE.  lachet, from an OF. dialect form of F. lacet
   plaited  string, lace dim. of lacs. See Lace.] The string that fastens
   a shoe; a shoestring.


   Latch"ing,  n.  (Naut.)  A  loop  or  eye formed on the head rope of a
   bonnet,  by which it is attached to the foot of a sail; -- called also
   latch and lasket. [Usually in pl.]


   Latch"key`  (?), n. A key used to raise, or throw back, the latch of a
   door, esp. a night latch.


   Latch"string`  (?),  n.  A string for raising the latch of a door by a
   person  outside. It is fastened to the latch and passed through a hole
   above  it  in  the  door.  To  find  the latchstring out, to meet with
   hospitality;  to be welcome. (Intrusion is prevented by drawing in the
   latchstring.) [Colloq. U.S.]


   Late  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Later (?), or latter (; superl. Latest (?).]
   [OE.  lat  slow,  slack,  As.l\'91t; akin to Os. lat, D. laat late, G.
   lass  weary,  lazy,  slack, Icel. latr, Sw. lat, Dan. lad, Goth. lats,
   and to E. let, v. See Let to permit, and cf. Alas, Lassitude.]

   1.  Coming after the time when due, or after the usual or proper time;
   not early; slow; tardy; long delayed; as, a late spring.

   2. Far advanced toward the end or close; as, a late hour of the day; a
   late period of life.

   3. Existing or holding some position not long ago, but not now; lately
   deceased,  departed,  or  gone  out  of office; as, the late bishop of
   London; the late administration.

   4.  Not long past; happening not long ago; recent; as, the late rains;
   we have received late intelligence.

   5.  Continuing  or doing until an advanced hour of the night; as, late
   revels; a late watcher.


   Late, adv. [AS. late. See Late, a.]

   1. After the usual or proper time, or the time appointed; after delay;
   as, he arrived late; -- opposed to early.

   2. Not long ago; lately.

   3. Far in the night, day, week, or other particular period; as, to lie
   abed late; to sit up late at night.
   Of  late,  in time not long past, or near the present; lately; as, the
   practice  is  of  late  uncommon.  --  Too  late,  after the proper or
   available time; when the time or opportunity is past.


   Lat"ed (?), a. Belated; too late. [Obs.] Shak.


   La-teen"  (?),  a.  (Naut.) Of or pertaining to a peculiar rig used in
   the  Mediterranean  and adjacent waters, esp. on the northern coast of
   Africa.  See  below. Lateen sail. [F. voile latine a sail in the shape
   of  a right-angled triangle; cf. It. & Sp. vela latina; properly Latin
   sail.  See Latin.] (Naut.) A triangular sail, extended by a long yard,
   which  is  slung at about one fourth of its length from the lower end,
   to  a  low  mast,  this  end being brought down at the tack, while the
   other end is elevated at an angle or about forty-five degrees; -- used
   in   small   boats,   feluccas,   xebecs,   etc.,  especially  in  the
   Mediterranean  and adjacent waters. Some lateen sails have also a boom
   on the lower side.


   Late"ly  (?),  adv.  Not long ago; recently; as, he has lately arrived
   from Italy.


   La"tence (?), n. Latency. Coleridge.


   La"ten*cy (?), n. [See Latent.] The state or quality of being latent.

     To  simplify  the  discussion, I shall distinguish three degrees of
     this latency. Sir W. Hamilton.


   Late"ness (?), n. The state, condition, or quality, of being late; as,
   the lateness of his arrival; the lateness of the hour; the lateness of
   the season.


   La"tent  (?),  a.  [L.  latens, -entis, p. pr. of latere to lie hid or
   concealed;  cf.  Gr. lethargy: cf. F.latent.] Not visible or apparent;
   hidden; springs of action.

     The  evils  latent  in the most promising contrivances are provided
     for as they arise. Burke.

   Latent  buds  (bot.),  buds  which remain undeveloped or dormant for a
   long  time,  but  may  at  length  grow.  Latent  heat (Physics), that
   quantity of heat which disappears or becomes concealed in a body while
   producing some change in it other than rise of temperature, as fusion,
   evaporation,  or  expansion,  the  quantity  being  constant  for each
   particular  body and for each species of change. -- Latent period. (a)
   (Med.)  The regular time in which a disease is supposed to be existing
   without  manifesting  itself.  (b)  (Physiol.)  One of the phases in a
   simple  muscular  contraction,  in which invisible preparatory changes
   are  taking  place  in  the nerve and muscle. (c) (Biol.) One of those
   periods  or  resting  stages  in the development of the ovum, in which
   development is arrested prior to renewed activity.


   La"tent*ly, adv. In a secret or concealed manner; invisibly.


   La"ter (?), n.; pl. Lateres (#). [L.] A brick or tile. Knight.


   Lat"er (?), a. Compar. of Late, a. & adv.


   Lat"er*ad  (?), adv. [L. latus, lateris, side + ad to.] (Anat.) Toward
   the side; away from the mesial plane; -- opposed to mesiad.


   Lat"er*al  (?),  a.  [L.  lateralis,  fr.  latus,  lateris,  side: cf.

   1.  Of  or  pertaining to the sides; as, the lateral walls of a house;
   the lateral branches of a tree.

   2.  (Anat.)  Lying  at,  or  extending toward, the side; away from the
   mesial plane; external; -- opposed to mesial.

   3. Directed to the side; as, a lateral view of a thing.
   Lateral  cleavage  (Crystallog.),  cleavage  parallel  to  the lateral
   planes.  -- Lateral equation (Math.), an equation of the first degree.
   [Obs.]  --  Lateral  line (Anat.), in fishes, a line of sensory organs
   along  either  side  of  the  body, often marked by a distinct line of
   color.  -- Lateral pressure or stress (Mech.), a pressure or stress at
   right  angles  to the length, as of a beam or bridge; -- distinguished
   from  longitudinal  pressure  or  stress. -- Lateral strength (Mech.),
   strength  which  resists  a  tendency to fracture arising from lateral
   pressure.   --   Lateral  system  (Bridge  Building),  the  system  of
   horizontal  braces  (as between two vertical trusses) by which lateral
   stiffness is secured.


   Lat`er*al"i*ty (?), n. The state or condition of being lateral.


   Lat"er*al*ly  (?),  adv.  By  the side; sidewise; toward, or from, the


   Lat"er*an  (?),  n.  The  church  and  palace of St. John Lateran, the
   church  being the cathedral church of Rome, and the highest in rank of
   all churches in the Catholic world.

     NOTE: &hand; The name is said to have been derived from that of the
     Laterani  family,  who possessed a palace on or near the spot where
     the  church  now  stands.  In  this  church  several ecclesiastical
     councils, hence called Lateran councils, have been held.


   Lat"ered  (?),  a.  Inclined to delay; dilatory. [Obs.] "When a man is
   too latered." Chaucer.


   Lat`er*i*fo"li*ous (?), a. [L. latus, lateris, side + folium leaf: cf.
   F.  lat\'82rifoli\'82.]  (Bot.) Growing from the stem by the side of a
   leaf; as, a laterifolious flower.


   Lat"er*ite  (?),  n.  [L.  later  brick,  tile:  cf.  F. lat\'82rite.]
   (Geol.)An  argillaceous sandstone, of a red color, and much seamed; --
   found in India.


   Lat`er-it"ic  (?),  a. consisting of, containing, or characterized by,
   laterite; as, lateritic formations.


   Lat`er*it"ic  (?),  a. Consisting of, containing, or characterized by,
   laterite; as, lateritic formations.


   Lat"er*i"tious (?), a. [L.lateritius, fr. later a brick.] Like bricks;
   of the color of red bricks. Lateritious sediment (Med.), a sediment in
   urine  resembling brick dust, observed after the crises of fevers, and
   at  the  termination  of  gouty paroxysms. It usually consists of uric
   acid or urates with some coloring matter.


   La"tes  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of large percoid
   fishes,  of which one species (Lates Niloticus) inhabits the Nile, and
   another   (L.  calcariferLatescence  La*tes"cence  (?),  n.  A  slight
   withdrawal from view or knowledge. Sir W. Hamilton.


   La*tes"cent  (?),  a. [L. latescens, -entis, p. pr. of latescere to be
   concealed,  fr.  latere  to  be  hid.] Slightly withdrawn from view or
   knowledge; as, a latescent meaning. Sir W. Hamilton.


   Late"wake` (?), n. See Lich wake, under Lich.


   Late"ward  (?),  a.  &  adv. Somewhat late; backward. [Obs.] "Lateward
   lands." Holland.


   La"tex  (?), n. [L.] (Bot.) A milky or colored juice in certain plants
   in  cavities  (called  latex  cells  or  latex tubes). It contains the
   peculiar  principles of the plants, whether aromatic, bitter, or acid,
   and   in  many  instances  yields  caoutchouc  upon  coagulation.  <--
   produced_by AND contained_in latex cells, -->


   Lath  (?),  n.;  pl.  Laths  (#).  [OE.  laththe,  latthe,  latte, AS.
   l\'91tta;  akin  to  D. lat, G. latte, OHG. latta; cf. W. llath a rod,
   staff,  yard.  Cf.  Lattice,  Latten.]  A  thin, narrow strip of wood,
   nailed  to  the  rafters, studs, or floor beams of a building, for the
   purpose  of  supporting  the  tiles,  plastering,  etc.  A  corrugated
   metallic strip or plate is sometimes used. Lath brick, a long, slender
   brick,  used in making the floor on which malt is placed in the drying
   kiln. Lath nail a slender nail for fastening laths.


   Lath (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lathed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lathing.] To
   cover or line with laths.


   Lathe  (?),  n.  [AS.l&aemac;&edh;. Of. uncertain origin.] Formerly, a
   part  or  division  of  a county among the Anglo-Saxons. At present it
   consists  of  four  or five hundreds, and is confined to the county of
   Kent. [Written also lath.] Brande & C.


   Lathe  (?),  n.  [OE.  lathe a granary; akin to G. lade a chest, Icel.
   hla&edh;a  a storehouse, barn; but cf. also Icel. l\'94&edh; a smith's
   lathe. Senses 2 and 3 are perh. of the same origin as lathe a granary,
   the original meaning being, a frame to hold something. If so, the word
   is from an older form of E. lade to load. See Lade to load.]

   1. A granary; a barn. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  (Mach.)  A  machine  for turning, that is, for shaping articles of
   wood, metal, or other material, by causing them to revolve while acted
   upon  by a cutting tool. <-- "turning" here is in the sense of cutting
   while turning. turn 6 and turning 4, in this dict. -->

   3. The movable swing frame of a loom, carrying the reed for separating
   the  warp  threads  and  beating  up  the weft; -- called also lay and
   Blanchard  lathe,  a  lathe  for turning irregular forms after a given
   pattern,  as  lasts, gunstocks, and the like. -- Drill lathe, OR Speed
   lathe,  a  small  lathe  which,  from  its  high speed, is adapted for
   drilling;  a hand lathe. -- Engine lathe, a turning lathe in which the
   cutting  tool  has  an automatic feed; -- used chiefly for turning and
   boring  metals,  cutting  screws, etc. -- Foot lathe, a lathe which is
   driven  by a treadle worked by the foot. -- Geometric lathe. See under
   Geometric  --  Hand  lathe,  a lathe operated by hand; a power turning
   lathe  without  an  automatic  feed  for  the tool. -- Slide lathe, an
   engine  lathe. -- Throw lathe, a small lathe worked by one hand, while
   the cutting tool is held in the other.

   Page 833


   Lath"er   (?),  n.  [AS.  le\'a0&edh;or  niter,  in  le\'a0&edh;orwyrt
   soapwort; cf. Icel. lau; perh. akin to E. lye.]

   1. Foam or froth made by soap moistened with water.

   2. Foam from profuse sweating, as of a horse.


   Lath"er, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lathered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lathering.]
   [AS.  l&emac;&edh;rian  to  lather, anoint. See Lather, n. ] To spread
   over with lather; as, to lather the face.


   Lath"er,  v.  i. To form lather, or a froth like lather; to accumulate
   foam from profuse sweating, as a horse.


   Lath"er, v. t. [Cf. Leather.] To beat severely with a thong, strap, or
   the like; to flog. [Low]

                             Lathereeve, Lathreeve

   Lathe"reeve`  (?), Lath"reeve` (?), n. Formerly, the head officer of a
   lathe. See 1st Lathe.


   Lath"ing  (?),  n.  The  act or process of covering with laths; laths,
   collectively; a covering of laths.


   Lath"-shaped` (?), a. Having a slender elongated form, like a lath; --
   said  of the feldspar of certain igneous rocks, as diabase, as seen in
   microscopic sections.


   Lath"work` (?), n. Same as Lathing.


   Lath"y (?), a. Like a lath; long and slender.

     A lathy horse, all legs and length. R. Browning.


   La"tian  (?),  a.  Belonging,  or  relating,  to  Latium, a country of
   ancient Italy. See Latin.


   La*tib"u*lize  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Latibulized (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Latibulizing (?).] [L. latibulum hiding place, fr. latere to lie hid.]
   To  retire  into a den, or hole, and lie dormant in winter; to retreat
   and lie hid. [R.] G. Shaw.


   La*tib"u*lum  (?), n; pl. Latibula (#). [L.] A concealed hiding place;
   a burrow; a lair; a hole.


   Lat`i*cif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  latex,  laticis, a liquid + -ferous.]
   (Bot.)  Containing  the  latex;  --  applied  to the tissue or tubular
   vessels in which the latex of the plant is found.


   Lat"i*clave  (?), n. [L. laticlavus, laticlavium; latus broad + clavus
   nail,  a purple stripe on the tunica: cf. F. laticlave.] (Rom. Antiq.)
   A  broad  stripe  of  purple  on  the  fore part of the tunic, worn by
   senators in ancient Rome as an emblem of office.


   Lat`i*cos"tate (?), a. [L. latus broad + E. costate.] Broad-ribbed.


   Lat`i*den"tate (?), a. [L. latus broad + E. dentate.] Broad-toothed.

                           Latifoliate, Latifolious

   Lat`i*fo"li*ate  (?),  Lat`i*fo"li*ous  (?),  a. [L. latifolius; latus
   broad + folium leaf: cf. F. latifoli\'82.] (Bot.) Having broad leaves.


   Lat"i*mer  (?), n. [OF. latinier, latimier, prop., one knowing Latin.]
   An interpreter. [Obs.] Coke.


   Lat"in  (?),  a.  [F.,  fr. L. Latinus belonging to Latium, Latin, fr.
   Latium  a  country  of  Italy,  in which Rome was situated. Cf. Ladin,
   Lateen sail, under Lateen.]

   1.  Of  or pertaining to Latium, or to the Latins, a people of Latium;
   Roman; as, the Latin language.

   2.  Of, pertaining to, or composed in, the language used by the Romans
   or Latins; as, a Latin grammar; a Latin composition or idiom.
   Latin  Church  (Eccl. Hist.), the Western or Roman Catholic Church, as
   distinct from the Greek or Eastern Church. -- Latin cross. See Illust.
   1  of  Cross. -- Latin races, a designation sometimes loosely given to
   certain  nations,  esp.  the  French, Spanish, and Italians, who speak
   languages  principally derived from Latin. Latin Union, an association
   of  states,  originally  comprising  France, Belgium, Switzerland, and
   Italy,  which,  in  1865, entered into a monetary agreement, providing
   for  an  identity  in  the  weight and fineness of the gold and silver
   coins  of those countries, and for the amounts of each kind of coinage
   by  each.  Greece, Servia, Roumania, and Spain subsequently joined the


   Lat"in, n.

   1. A native or inhabitant of Latium; a Roman.

   2. The language of the ancient Romans.

   3.  An  exercise in schools, consisting in turning English into Latin.
   [Obs.] Ascham.

   4. (Eccl.) A member of the Roman Catholic Church. (
   Dog  Latin,  barbarous  Latin; a jargon in imitation of Latin; as, the
   log  Latin  of  schoolboys.  --  Late  Latin,  Low  Latin,  terms used
   indifferently  to  designate  the latest stages of the Latin language;
   low  Latin  (and,  perhaps,  late Latin also), including the barbarous
   coinages  from  the  French,  German, and other languages into a Latin
   form  made  after the Latin had become a dead language for the people.
   --  Law  Latin, that kind of late, or low, Latin, used in statutes and
   legal instruments; -- often barbarous.


   Lat"in,  v.  t.  To  write  or  speak in Latin; to turn or render into
   Latin. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Lat"in*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. latinisme.] A Latin idiom; a mode of speech
   peculiar  to  Latin;  also,  a  mode of speech in another language, as
   English, formed on a Latin model.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm is also sometimes used by Biblical scholars
     to designate a Latin word in Greek letters, or the Latin sense of a
     Greek word in the Greek Testament.


   Lat"in*ist,  n.  [Cf.  F.  latiniste.]  One  skilled in Latin; a Latin
   scholar. Cowper.

     He left school a good Latinist. Macaulay.


   Lat`in*is"tic  (?),  a.  Of, pertaining to, or derived from, Latin; in
   the Latin style or idiom. "Latinistic words." Fitzed. Hall.


   La*tin"i*tas`ter (?), n. [Cf. Poetaster.] One who has but a smattering
   of Latin. Walker.


   La*tin"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  latinitas:  cf. F. latinit\'82.] The Latin
   tongue,  style,  or idiom, or the use thereof; specifically, purity of
   Latin style or idiom. "His eleLatinity." Motley.


   Lat`in*i*za"tion  (?), n. The act or process of Latinizing, as a word,
   language, or country.

     The  Germanization of Britain went far deeper than the Latinization
     of France. M. Arnold.


   Lat"in*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Latinized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Latinizing (?).] [L. latinizare: cf. F.latiniser.]

   1.  To  give  Latin  terminations or forms to, as to foreign words, in
   writing Latin.

   2.  To  bring under the power or influence of the Romans or Latins; to
   affect with the usages of the Latins, especially in speech. "Latinized
   races." Lowell.

   3. To make like the Roman Catholic Church or diffuse its ideas in; as,
   to Latinize the Church of England.


   Lat"in*ize,  v.  i.  To  use words or phrases borrowed from the Latin.

   2. To come under the influence of the Romans, or of the Roman Catholic


   Lat"in*ly, adv. In the manner of the Latin language; in correct Latin.
   [Obs.] Heylin.


   La"tion   (?),   n.   [L.  latio,  fr.  latus  borne.  See  Tolerate.]
   Transportation; conveyance. [Obs.]

                           Latirostral, Latirostrous

   Lat`i*ros"tral  (?),  Lat`i*ros"trous  (?), a. [Cf. F. latirostre. See
   Latirostres.] (Zo\'94l.) Having a broad beak. Sir T. Browne.


   Lat`i*ros"tres  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. L. latus broad + rostrum beak.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  The  broad-billed singing birds, such as the swallows, and
   their allies.


   Lat"ish (?), a. Somewhat late. [Colloq.]


   Lat`i*ster"nal  (?),  a.  [L.  latus  broad  + E. sternal.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Having a broad breastbone, or sternum; -- said of anthropoid apes.


   Lat"i*tan*cy  (?),  n.  [See  Latitant.] Act or state of lying hid, or
   lurking. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Lat"i*tant  (?), a. [L. latitans, pr. of latitare to lie hid, to lurk,
   v.  intens.  fr.  latere  to  be  hid:  cf.  F.  latitant.] Lying hid;
   concealed; latent. [R.]


   Lat"i*tat  (?),  n. [L., he lies hid.] (O. Eng. Law) A writ based upon
   the presumption that the person summoned was hiding. Blackstone.


   Lat`i*ta"tion  (?), n. [L. latitatio.] A lying in concealment; hiding.


   Lat"i*tude  (?),  n. [F. latitude, L. latitudo, fr. latus broad, wide,
   for older stlatus; perh. akin to E. strew.]

   1.  Extent  from side to side, or distance sidewise from a given point
   or line; breadth; width.

     Provided  the  length  do  not  exceed the latitude above one third
     part. Sir H. Wotton.

   2.   Room;  space;  freedom  from  confinement  or  restraint;  hence,
   looseness; laxity; independence.

     In  human  actions  there are no degrees and precise natural limits
     described, but a latitude is indulged. Jer. Taylor.

   3.  Extent  or  breadth of signification, application, etc.; extent of
   deviation from a standard, as truth, style, etc.

     No  discreet man will believe Augustine's miracles, in the latitude
     of monkish relations. Fuller.

   4. Extent; size; amplitude; scope.

     I pretend not to treat of them in their full latitude. Locke.

   5.  (Geog.)  Distance  north  or  south  of the equator, measured on a

   6.  (Astron.)  The  angular  distance  of  a  heavenly  body  from the
   Ascending  latitude,  Circle  of latitude, Geographical latitude, etc.
   See  under  Ascending. Circle, etc. -- High latitude, that part of the
   earth's  surface  near  either  pole, esp. that part within either the
   arctic  or  the  antarctic  circle.  -- Low latitude, that part of the
   earth's surface which is near the equator.


   Lat`i*tu"di*nal (?), a. Of or pertaining to latitude; in the direction
   of latitude.


   Lat`i*tu`di*na"ri*an (?), a. [Cf. F. latitudinaire.]

   1. Not restrained; not confined by precise limits.

   2.  Indifferent  to  a strict application of any standard of belief or
   opinion;  hence, deviating more or less widely from such standard; lax
   in doctrine; as, latitudinarian divines; latitudinarian theology.

     Latitudinarian sentiments upon religious subjects. Allibone.

   3. Lax in moral or religious principles.


   Lat`i*tu`di*na"ri*an, n.

   1.  One  who  is moderate in his notions, or not restrained by precise
   settled limits in opinion; one who indulges freedom in thinking.

   2.  (Eng.  Eccl. Hist.) A member of the Church of England, in the time
   of  Charles  II.,  who  adopted more liberal notions in respect to the
   authority,  government,  and  doctrines  of  the church than generally

     They  were  called  "men of latitude;" and upon this, men of narrow
     thoughts  fastened  upon  them  the  name  of  latitudinarians. Bp.

   3.  (Theol.)  One who departs in opinion from the strict principles of


   Lat`i*tu`di*na"ri*an*ism (?), n. A latitudinarian system or condition;
   freedom of opinion in matters pertaining to religious belief.

     Fierce sectarianism bred fierce latitudinarianism. De Quincey.

     He  [Ammonius Saccas] plunged into the wildest latitudinarianism of
     opinion. J. S. Harford.


   Lat`i*tu"di*nous (?), a. Having latitude, or wide extent.

                                 Laton, Latoun

   Lat"on (?), Lat"oun (?), n. Latten, 1. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   La"trant  (?),  a.  [L.  latrans,  p.  pr.  of  latrare. See Latrate.]
   Barking. [Obs.] Tickell.


   La"trate  (?),  v. i. [L. latratus, p. p. of latrare to bark.] To bark
   as a dog. [Obs.]


   La*tra"tion (?), n. A barking. [Obs.]


   La*treu"tic*al (?), a. [Gr.

   1. Acting as a hired servant; serving; ministering; assisting. [Obs.]

   2. Of or pertaining to latria. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   La*tri"a  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. Gr. The highest kind of worship, or that
   paid  to  God;  -- distinguished by the Roman Catholics from dulia, or
   the inferior worship paid to saints.


   La*trine"  (?),  n.  [L.  latrina:  cf.  F.  latrines.]  A  privy,  or
   water-closet, esp. in a camp, hospital, etc.


   Lat"ro*cin`y  (?),  n.  [L. latrocinium. Cf. Larceny.] Theft; larceny.


   Lat"ten  (?),  n.  [OE. latoun, laton, OF. laton, F. laiton, prob. fr.
   OF. late lath, F. latte; -- because made in thin plates; cf. It. latta
   a  sheet  of tinned iron, tin plate. F. latte is of German origin. See
   Lath a thin board.]

   1.  A  kind of brass hammered into thin sheets, formerly much used for
   making church utensils, as candlesticks, crosses, etc.; -- called also
   latten brass.

     He had a cross of latoun full of stones. Chaucer.

   2.  Sheet  tin;  iron plate, covered with tin; also, any metal in thin
   sheets; as, gold latten.
   Black  latten,  brass  in  milled sheets, composed of copper and zinc,
   used  by  braziers,  and for drawing into wire. -- Roll latten, latten
   polished on both sides ready for use. -- Shaven latten, a thinner kind
   than black latten. -- White latten, a mixture of brass and tin.


   Lat"ter  (?), a. [OE. later, l\'91tter, compar. of lat late. See Late,
   and cf. Later.]

   1.  Later;  more  recent; coming or happening after something else; --
   opposed to former; as, the former and latter rain.

   2. Of two things, the one mentioned second.

     The difference between reason and revelation, and in what sense the
     latter is superior. I. Watts.

   3. Recent; modern.

     Hath  not navigation discovered in these latter ages, whole nations
     at the bay of Soldania? Locke.

   4. Last; latest; final. [R.] "My latter gasp." Shak.
   Latter  harvest,  the  last part of the harvest. -- Latter spring, the
   last part of the spring of the year. Shak.

                               Latter-day saint

   Lat"ter-day`  saint"  (?).  A Mormon; -- the Church of Jesus Christ of
   Latter-day Saints being the name assumed by the whole body of Mormons.


   Lat"ter*kin  (?),  n.  A  pointed  wooden  tool used in glazing leaden


   Lat"ter*ly,   adv.   Lately;   of  late;  recently;  at  a  later,  as
   distinguished from a former, period.

     Latterly Milton was short and thick. Richardson.


   Lat"ter*math  (?),  n. [Cf. Aftermath.] The latter, or second, mowing;
   the aftermath.


   Lat"tice  (?),  n. [OE. latis, F. lattis lathwork, fr. latte lath. See
   Latten, 1st Lath.]

   1.  Any work of wood or metal, made by crossing laths, or thin strips,
   and  forming  a  network;  as, the lattice of a window; -- called also

     The  mother of Sisera looked out at a window, and cried through the
     lattice. Judg. v. 28. 

   2.  (Her.)  The  representation  of  a  piece of latticework used as a
   bearing, the bands being vertical and horizontal.
   Lattice  bridge, a bridge supported by lattice girders, or latticework
   trusses. -- Lattice girder (Arch.), a girder of which the wed consists
   of  diagonal  pieces crossing each other in the manner of latticework.
   --  Lattice  plant  (Bot.), an aquatic plant of Madagascar (Ouvirandra
   fenestralis),  whose  leaves  have  interstices between their ribs and
   cross  veins,  so  as  to resemble latticework. A second species is O.
   Berneriana. The genus is merged in Aponogeton by recent authors.


   Lat"tice,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Latticed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Latticing

   1. To make a lattice of; as, to lattice timbers.

   2.  To  close,  as  an  opening,  with  latticework; to furnish with a
   lattice; as, to lattice a window.
   To lattice up, to cover or inclose with a lattice.

     Therein it seemeth he [Alexander] hath latticed up C\'91sar. Sir T.


   Lat"tice*work` (?), n. Same as Lattice, n., 1.


   Lat"ti*cing (?), n.

   1.  The act or process of making a lattice of, or of fitting a lattice

   2.  (Bridge  Building) A system of bars crossing in the middle to form
   braces between principal longitudinal members, as of a strut.

                                 Latus rectum

   La"tus  rec"tum  (?).  [L., the right side.] (Conic Sections) The line
   drawn through a focus of a conic section parallel to the directrix and
   terminated  both  ways  by  the  curve.  It  is  the  parameter of the
   principal axis. See Focus, and Parameter.


   Laud (?), n. [L. laus, laudis. See Laud, v. i.]

   1.  High  commendation;  praise; honor; exaltation; glory. "Laud be to
   God." Shak.

     So do well and thou shalt have laud of the same. Tyndals.

   2.  A part of divine worship, consisting chiefly of praise; -- usually
   in the pl.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e Ro man Ca tholic Ch urch, the prayers used at
     daybreak, between those of matins and prime, are called lauds.

   3. Music or singing in honor of any one.


   Laud,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lauded;  p.  pr.  &  vb. n. Lauding.]
   [L.laudare,  fr.  laus, laudis, praise. Cf. Allow.] To praise in words
   alone, or with words and singing; to celebrate; to extol.

     With  all  the  company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious
     name. Book of Common Prayer.


   Laud`a*bil"i*ty    (?),    n.    [L.    laudabilitas.]   Laudableness;


   Laud"a*ble (?), a. [L. laudabilis: cf. OE. laudable. See Laud, v. i.]

   1.  Worthy  of  being  lauded; praiseworthy; commendable; as, laudable
   motives; laudable actions; laudable ambition.

   2. (Med.) Healthy; salubrious; normal; having a disposition to promote
   healing;  not  noxious; as, laudable juices of the body; laudable pus.

   Page 834


   Laud"a*ble*ness    (?),    n.   The   quality   of   being   laudable;
   praiseworthiness; commendableness.


   Laud"a*bly (?), adv. In a laudable manner.


   Lau"da*nine  (?),  n.  [From  Laudanum.] (Chem.) A white organic base,
   resembling morphine, and obtained from certain varieties of opium.


   Lau"da*num  (?), n. [Orig. the same wort as ladanum, ladbdanum: cf. F.
   laudanum,  It.  laudano, ladano. See Ladanum.] Tincture of opium, used
   for various medical purposes.

     NOTE: &hand; A  fluid ounce of American laudanum should contain the
     soluble  matter  of  one  tenth of an ounce avoirdupois of powdered
     opium  with  equal  parts  of  alcohol  and water. English laudanum
     should  have  ten  grains  less  of opium in the fluid ounce. U. S.

   Dutchman's laudanum (Bot.) See under Dutchman.


   Lau*da"tion  (?), n. [L. laudatio: cf. OE. taudation. See Land, v. t.]
   The act of lauding; praise; high commendation.


   Laud"a*tive  (?),  a.  [L.  laudativus  laudatory:  cf.  F. laudatif.]


   Laud"a*tive, n. A panegyric; a eulogy. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Lau*da"tor (?), n. [L.]

   1. One who lauds.

   2. (Law) An arbitrator. [Obs.] Cowell.


   Laud"a*to*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  laudatorius:  cf.  OF. laudatoire.] Of or
   pertaining  praise,  or  to  the  expression  of praise; as, laudatory
   verses; the laudatory powers of Dryden. Sir J. Stephen. 


   Laud"er (?), n. One who lauds.


   Laugh (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Laughed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Laughing.]
   [OE. laughen, laghen, lauhen, AS. hlehhan, hlihhan, hlyhhan, hliehhan;
   akin  to  OS. hlahan, D. & G.lachen, OHG. hlahhan, lahhan, lahh, Icel.
   hl\'91ja. Dan. lee, Sw. le, Goth. hlahjan; perh. of imitative origin.]

   1.  To  show mirth, satisfaction, or derision, by peculiar movement of
   the muscles of the face, particularly of the mouth, causing a lighting
   up  of  the  face and eyes, and usually accompanied by the emission of
   explosive or chuckling sounds from the chest and throat; to indulge in

     Queen Hecuba laughed that her eyes ran o'er. Shak.

     He laugheth that winneth. Heywood's Prov.

   2. Fig.: To be or appear gay, cheerful, pleasant, mirthful, lively, or
   brilliant; to sparkle; to sport.

     Then laughs the childish year, with flowerets crowned. Dryden.

     In Folly's cup still laughs the bubble Joy. Pope.

   To  laugh  at,  to make an object of laughter or ridicule; to make fun
   of; to deride.

     No wit to flatter left of all his store, No fool to laugh at, which
     he valued more. Pope.

   -- To laugh in the sleeve<-- or to laugh up one's sleeve -->, to laugh
   secretly,  or  so  as  not to be observed, especially while apparently
   preserving  a  grave  or serious demeanor toward the person or persons
   laughed  at.  --  To  laugh out, to laugh in spite of some restraining
   influence;  to  laugh  aloud.  -- To laugh out of the other corner (OR
   side)  of  the  mouth,  to  weep  or cry; to feel regret, vexation, or
   disappointment after hilarity or exaltation. [Slang]


   Laugh, v. t.

   1. To affect or influence by means of laughter or ridicule.

     Will you laugh me asleep, for I am very heavy? Shak.

     I shall laugh myself to death. Shak.

   2. To express by, or utter with, laughter; -- with out.

     From his deep chest laughs out a loud applause. Shak.

   To  laugh  away.  (a)  To  drive  away  by laughter; as, to laugh away
   regret. (b) To waste in hilarity. "Pompey doth this day laugh away his
   fortune."  Shak.  -- To laugh down. (a) To cause to cease or desist by
   laughter;  as, to laugh down a speaker. (b) To cause to be given up on
   account  of  ridicule; as, to laugh down a reform. -- To laugh one out
   of, to cause one by laughter or ridicule to abandon or give up; as, to
   laugh  one  out of a plan or purpose. -- To laugh to scorn, to deride;
   to treat with mockery, contempt, and scorn; to despise.


   Laugh  (?),  n.  An expression of mirth peculiar to the human species;
   the sound heard in laughing; laughter. See Laugh, v. i.

     And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind. Goldsmith.

     That  man is a bad man who has not within him the power of a hearty
     laugh. F. W. Robertson.


   Laugh"a*ble  (?), a. Fitted to excite laughter; as, a laughable story;
   a  laughable  scene.  Syn. -- Droll; ludicrous; mirthful; comical. See
   Droll, and Ludicrous. -- Laugh"a*ble*ness, n. -- Laugh"a*bly, adv.


   Laugh"er (?), n.

   1. One who laughs.

   2. A variety of the domestic pigeon.


   Laugh"ing (?), a. & n. from Laugh, v. i. Laughing falcon (Zo\'94l.), a
   South  American hawk (Herpetotheres cachinnans); -- so called from its
   notes,  which  resemble  a  shrill  laughing. -- Laughing gas (Chem.),
   hyponitrous oxide, or protoxide of nitrogen<-- = nitrous oxide -->; --
   so  called  from  the  exhilaration  and  laughing  which it sometimes
   produces  when  inhaled. It is much used as an an\'91sthetic agent.<--
   now  primarily  in  dentistry  -->  --  Laughing goose (Zo\'94l.), the
   European  white-fronted  goose.  --  Laughing  gull.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) A
   common  European  gull  (Xema ridibundus); -- called also pewit, black
   cap,  red-legged  gull,  and  sea  crow.  (b)  An American gull (Larus
   atricilla).  In summer the head is nearly black, the back slate color,
   and  the five outer primaries black. -- Laughing hyena (Zo\'94l.), the
   spotted  hyena.  See  Hyena. -- Laughing jackass (Zo\'94l.), the great
   brown  kingfisher  (Dacelo  gigas), of Australia; -- called also giant
   kingfisher,  and  gogobera. -- Laughing owl (Zo\'94l.), a peculiar owl
   (Sceloglaux  albifacies)  of  New  Zealand, said to be on the verge of
   extinction. The name alludes to its notes.


   Laugh"ing*ly (?), adv. With laughter or merriment.


   Laugh"ing*stock` (?), n. An object of ridicule; a butt of sport. Shak.

     When   he   talked,  he  talked  nonsense,  and  made  himself  the
     laughingstock of his hearers. Macaulay.


   Laugh"some  (?),  a.  Exciting  laughter;  also, addicted to laughter;
   merry. [R.]


   Laugh"ter   (?),   n.   [AS.   hleahtor;  akin  to  OHG.  hlahtar,  G.
   gel\'84chter,  Icel.  hl\'betr,  Dan.  latter.  See  Laugh,  v. i. ] A
   movement   (usually   involuntary)   of   the  muscles  of  the  face,
   particularly  of  the  lips,  with  a peculiar expression of the eyes,
   indicating  merriment, satisfaction, or derision, and usually attended
   by  a  sonorous  and  interrupted expulsion of air from the lungs. See
   Laugh, v. i.

     The act of laughter, which is a sweet contraction of the muscles of
     the  face,  and  a  pleasant  agitation of the vocal organs, is not
     merely,  or  totally  within  the jurisdiction of ourselves. Sir T.

     Archly  the maiden smiled, and with eyes overrunning with laughter.


   Laugh"ter*less, a. Not laughing; without laughter.


   Laugh"wor`thy (?), a. Deserving to be laughed at. [R.] B. Jonson.


   Lau"mont*ite  (?),  n.  [From  Dr.  Laumont, the discoverer.] (Min.) A
   mineral,  of  a  white  color  and  vitreous  luster.  It is a hydrous
   silicate  of  alumina  and  lime.  Exposed to the air, it loses water,
   becomes opaque, and crumbles. [Written also laumonite.]


   Launce (?), n. A lance. [Obs.]


   Launce, n. [It. lance, L. lanx, lancis, plate, scale of a balance. Cf.
   Balance.] A balance. [Obs.]

     Fortune all in equal launce doth sway. Spenser.


   Launce, n. (Zo\'94l.) See Lant, the fish.


   Launce"gaye` (?), n. See Langegaye. [Obs.]


   Launch  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Launched  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Launching.]  [OE.  launchen to throw as a lance, OF. lanchier, another
   form of lancier, F. lancer, fr. lance lance. See Lance.] [Written also

   1. To throw, as a lance or dart; to hurl; to let fly.

   2. To strike with, or as with, a lance; to pierce. [Obs.]

     Launch your hearts with lamentable wounds. Spenser.

   3.  To  cause  to  move  or slide from the land into the water; to set
   afloat; as, to launch a ship.

     With  stays  and  cordage  last  he  rigged the ship, And rolled on
     levers, launched her in the deep. Pope.

   4.  To  send  out; to start (one) on a career; to set going; to give a
   start  to (something); to put in operation; as, to launch a son in the
   world; to launch a business project or enterprise.

     All  art  is  used  to  sink  episcopacy,  and launch presbytery in
     England. Eikon Basilike.


   Launch, v. i. To move with force and swiftness like a sliding from the
   stocks  into  the water; to plunge; to make a beginning; as, to launch
   into  the  current  of  a  stream;  to  launch  into  an  argument  or
   discussion; to launch into lavish expenditures; -- often with out.

     Launch  out  into  the  deep, and let down your nets for a draught.
     Luke v. 4.

     He [Spenser] launches out into very flowery paths. Prior.


   Launch, n.

   1. The act of launching.

   2.  The movement of a vessel from land into the water; especially, the
   sliding on ways from the stocks on which it is built.

   3. [Cf. Sp. lancha.] (Naut.) The boat of the largest size belonging to
   a  ship  of  war;  also,  an  open  boat  of any size driven by steam,
   naphtha, electricity, or the like.
   Launching ways. (Naut.) See Way, n. (Naut.).


   Laund (l&add;nd), n. [See Lawn of grass.] A plain sprinkled with trees
   or underbrush; a glade. [Obs.]

     In a laund upon an hill of flowers. Chaucer.

     Through this laund anon the deer will come. Shak.


   Laun"der  (?),  n. [Contracted fr. OE. lavender, F. lavandi\'8are, LL.
   lavandena, from L. lavare to wash. See Lave.]

   1. A washerwoman. [Obs.]

   2.  (Mining)  A trough used by miners to receive the powdered ore from
   the  box  where  it is beaten, or for carrying water to the stamps, or
   other apparatus, for comminuting, or sorting, the ore.


   Laun"der,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Laundered  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  wash,  as  clothes;  to wash, and to smooth with a flatiron or
   mangle; to wash and iron; as, to launder shirts.

   2. To lave; to wet. [Obs.] Shak.


   Laun"der*er (?), n. One who follows the business of laundering.


   Laun"der*ing,  n. The act, or occupation, of one who launders; washing
   and ironing.


   Laun"dress (?), n. A woman whose employment is laundering.


   Laun"dress, v. i. To act as a laundress.[Obs.]


   Laun"dry  (?),  n.; pl. Laundries (#). [OE. lavendrie, OF. lavanderie.
   See Launder.]

   1. A laundering; a washing.

   2. A place or room where laundering is done.


   Laun"dry*man (?), n.; pl. Laundrymen (. A man who follows the business
   of laundering.


   Lau"ra  (?),  n. [LL., fr. Gr. ( (R. C. Ch.) A number of hermitages or
   cells  in  the same neighborhood occupied by anchorites who were under
   the same superior. C. Kingsley.


   Lau*ra"ceous   (?),   a.   [From  Laurus.]  (Bot.)  Belonging  to,  or
   resembling,  a  natural order (Laurace\'91) of trees and shrubs having
   aromatic  bark  and  foliage,  and  including  the  laurel, sassafras,
   cinnamon tree, true camphor tree, etc.


   Lau"rate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of lauric acid.


   Lau"re*ate  (?), a. [L. laureatus, fr. laurea laurel tree, fr. laureus
   of laurel, fr. laurus laurel: cf. F. laur\'82at. Cf. Laurel.] Crowned,
   or decked, with laurel. Chaucer.

     To strew the laureate hearse where Lycid lies. Milton.

     Soft on her lap her laureate son reclines. Pope.

   Poet  laureate.  (b)  One who received an honorable degree in grammar,
   including  poetry  and  rhetoric,  at  the English universities; -- so
   called  as  being  presented  with  a  wreath  of  laurel.  [Obs.] (b)
   Formerly,  an  officer  of the king's household, whose business was to
   compose  an  ode  annually for the king's birthday, and other suitable
   occasions;  now,  a  poet  officially  distinguished  by such honorary
   title,  the  office  being a sinecure. It is said this title was first
   given in the time of Edward IV. [Eng.]


   Lau"re*ate,  n.  One  crowned with laurel; a poet laureate. "A learned
   laureate." Cleveland.


   Lau"re*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Laureated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Laureating  (?).]  To  honor  with a wreath of laurel, as formerly was
   done in bestowing a degree at the English universities.


   Lau"re*ate*ship, n. State, or office, of a laureate.


   Lau`re*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. laur\'82ation.] The act of crowning with
   laurel; the act of conferring an academic degree, or honorary title.


   Lau"rel  (?),  n.  [OE.  lorel, laurer, lorer, OF. lorier, laurier, F.
   laurier, (assumed) LL. Laurarius, fr. L. laurus.]

   1. (Bot.) An evergreen shrub, of the genus Laurus (L. nobilis), having
   aromatic  leaves  of  a  lanceolate  shape,  with  clusters  of small,
   yellowish white flowers in their axils; -- called also sweet bay.

     NOTE: The fr  uit is  a  pu rple be rry. It  is  fo und ab out th e
     Mediterranean,  and  was  early used by the ancient Greeks to crown
     the  victor  in  the  games  of Apollo. At a later period, academic
     honors  were  indicated  by  a crown of laurel, with the fruit. The
     leaves and tree yield an aromatic oil, used to flavor the bay water
     of commerce.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  ex tended to other plants which in some
     respect resemble the true laurel. See Phrases, below.

   2.  A  crown of laurel; hence, honor; distinction; fame; -- especially
   in the plural; as, to win laurels.

   3. An English gold coin made in 1619, and so called because the king's
   head on it was crowned with laurel.
   Laurel  water,  water  distilled  from  the fresh leaves of the cherry
   laurel, and containing prussic acid and other products carried over in
   the  process.  American  laurel, OR Mountain laurel, Kalmia latifolia.
   See under Mountain. -- California laurel, Umbellularia Californica. --
   Cherry  laurel  (in England called laurel). See under Cherry. -- Great
   laurel, the rosebay (Rhododendron maximum). -- Ground laurel, trailing
   arbutus.  --  New  Zealand  laurel,  Laurelia  Nov\'91 Zelandi\'91. --
   Portugal  laurel, the Prunus Lusitanica. -- Rose laurel, the oleander.
   See Oleander. -- Sheep laurel, a poisonous shrub, Kalmia angustifolia,
   smaller than the mountain laurel, and with smaller and redder flowers.
   --  Spurge  laurel,  Daphne  Laureola.  --  West Indian laurel, Prunus


   Lau"reled  (?),  a.  Crowned  with  laurel,  or  with a laurel wreath;
   laureate. [Written also laurelled.]


   Lau*ren"tian  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or near, the St. Lawrence River;
   as,  the Laurentian hills. Laurentian period (Geol.), the lower of the
   two divisions of the Arch\'91an age; -- called also the Laurentian.


   Lau"rer (?), n. Laurel. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lau"res*tine  (?),  n.  [NL.  lautus tinus, fr. L. laurus the laurel +
   tinus laurestine. See Laurel.] (Bot.) The Viburnum Tinus, an evergreen
   shrub  or tree of the south of Europe, which flowers during the winter
   mouths. [Written also laurustine and laurestina.]


   Lau"ric  (?),  a.  Pertaining to, or derived from, the European bay or
   laurel  (Laurus  nobilis).  Lauric  acid (Chem.), a white, crystalline
   substance,  C12H24O2,  resembling palmitic acid, and obtained from the
   fruit  of  the  bay  tree,  and  other  sources.  <-- CH3(CH2)10COOH =
   dodecanoic  acid,  laurostearic  acid,  dodecoic  acid.  Obtained from
   various vegetable sources. Sodium salt used as a detergent. -->


   Lau*rif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  laurifer;  laurus  +  ferre  to  bear.]
   Producing, or bringing, laurel.


   Lau"rin  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  laurine.]  (Chem.)  A  white  crystalline
   substance  extracted  from  the fruit of the bay (Laurus nobilis), and
   consisting  of a complex mixture of glycerin ethers of several organic


   Lau"ri*nol  (?),  n.  [Laurin  + -ol.] (Chem.) Ordinary camphor; -- so
   called  in  allusion  to  the family name (Laurace\'91) of the camphor
   trees. See Camphor.


   Lau"ri*ol (?), n. Spurge laurel. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lau"rite (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Min.) A rare sulphide of osmium
   and ruthenium found with platinum in Borneo and Oregon.


   Lau"rone (?), n. [Lauric + -one.] (Chem.) The ketone of lauric acid.


   Lau"rus  (?),  n.  [L.,  laurel.]  (Bot.)  A genus of trees including,
   according  to  modern  authors, only the true laurel (Laurus nobilis),
   and  the  larger  L.  Canariensis  of  Madeira and the Canary Islands.
   Formerly  the  sassafras,  the  camphor  tree,  the cinnamon tree, and
   several  other  aromatic  trees  and shrubs, were also referred to the
   genus Laurus.


   Laus (?), a. Loose. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   La"va  (?),  n.  [It.  lava  lava,  orig. in Naples, a torrent of rain
   overflowing  the  streets, fr. It. & L. lavare to wash. See Lave.] The
   melted  rock  ejected  by a volcano from its top or fissured sides. It
   flows  out  in  streams sometimes miles in length. It also issues from
   fissures  in  the earth's surface, and forms beds covering many square
   miles, as in the Northwestern United States.

     NOTE: &hand; La vas ar e cl assed, according to their structure, as
     scoriaceous  or cellular, glassy, stony, etc., and according to the
     material of which they consist, as doleritic, trachytic, etc.

   Lava  millstone,  a  hard  and  coarse  basaltic  millstone  from  the
   neighborhood  of the Rhine. -- Lava ware, a kind of cheap pottery made
   of  iron slag cast into tiles, urns, table tops, etc., resembling lava
   in appearance.


   Lav"a*ret  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A European whitefish (Coregonus
   laveretus),  found  in  the  mountain  lakes  of  Sweden, Germany, and

   Page 835


   La*vat"ic (?), a. Like lava, or composed of lava; lavic.


   La*va"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  lavatio:  cf.  OF.  lavation.] A washing or
   cleansing. [Obs. or R.]


   Lav"a*to*ry (?), a. Washing, or cleansing by washing.


   Lav"a*to*ry,  n.;  pl.  Lavatories (#). [L. lavatorium: cf. lavatoire.
   See Lave to wash, and cf. Laver.]

   1. A place for washing.

   2. A basin or other vessel for washing in.

   3. A wash or lotion for a diseased part.

   4. A place where gold is obtained by washing. <-- 5. a room containing
   one  or  more  sinks  for  washing,  as  well  as  one or more toilets
   (fixtures).  also bathroom, toilet, and sometimes commode. Commode may
   refer to a room with a toilet (fixture) but without a sink. Toilet may
   refer to a small room with only a toilet fixture. -->


   Lav"a*ture (?; 135), n. A wash or lotion. [Obs.]


   Lave  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Laved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Laving.] [F.
   laver,  L.  lavare,  akin  to  luere  to  wash,  Gr. Ablution, Deluge,
   Lavender, Lava, Lotion.] To wash; to bathe; as, to lave a bruise.

     His feet the foremost breakers lave. Byron.


   Lave, v. i. To bathe; to wash one's self.

     In her chaste current oft the goddess laves. Pope.


   Lave, v. t. [OE. laven. See Lavish.] To lade, dip, or pour out. [Obs.]


   Lave,  n.  [AS.  l\'bef  the  remainder,  what  is  left.  Leave.] The
   remainder; others. [Scot.] Bp. Hall.


   Lave"-eared`  (?),  a. [Cf. W. llaf that extends round, llipa flaccid,
   flapping,  G.  lapp  flabby,  lappohr flap ear.] Having large, pendent
   ears. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   La*veer" (?), v. i. [D. laveren.] (Naut.) To beat against the wind; to
   tack. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Lave"ment  (?),  n.  [F.  lavement,  fr.  laver to wash.] A washing or
   bathing; also, a clyster.


   Lav"en*der  (?), n. [OE. lavendre, F. lavande, It. lavanda lavender, a
   washing,  fr. L. lavare to wash; cf. It. lsavendola, LL. lavendula. So
   called  because it was used in bathing and washing. See Lave. to wash,
   and cf. Lavender.]

   1.  (Bot.)  An aromatic plant of the genus Lavandula (L. vera), common
   in  the  south  of  Europe.  It  yields  and  oil used in medicine and
   perfumery.  The Spike lavender (L. Spica) yields a coarser oil (oil of
   spike), used in the arts.

   2.  The  pale,  purplish  color  of  lavender  flowers, paler and more
   delicate than lilac.
   Lavender  cotton  (Bot.),  a  low,  twiggy,  aromatic shrub (Santolina
   Cham\'91cyparissus)  of  the  Mediterranean region, formerly used as a
   vermifuge,  etc.,  and  still  used to keep moths from wardrobes. Also
   called  ground  cypress.  --  Lavender  water,  a  perfume composed of
   alcohol,  essential  oil  of  lavender, essential oil of bergamot, and
   essence  of  ambergris. -- Sea lavender. (Bot.) See Marsh rosemary. --
   To  lay  in  lavender.  (a)  To  lay away, as clothing, with sprigs of
   lavender. (b) To pawn. [Obs.]


   Lav"er  (?), n. [OE. lavour, F. lavoir, L. lavatorium a washing place.
   See Lavatory.]

   1. A vessel for washing; a large basin.

   2.  (Script.  Hist.)  (a) A large brazen vessel placed in the court of
   the Jewish tabernacle where the officiating priests washed their hands
   and  feet. (b) One of several vessels in Solomon's Temple in which the
   offerings for burnt sacrifices were washed.

   3. That which washes or cleanses. J. H. Newman.


   Lav"er, n. [From Lave to wash.] One who laves; a washer. [Obs.]


   La"ver  (?), n. The fronds of certain marine alg\'91 used as food, and
   for  making  a  sauce  called  laver  sauce.  Green  laver is the Ulva
   latissima;  purlpe  laver,  Porphyra  laciniata and P. vulgaris. It is
   prepared  by  stewing, either alone or with other vegetables, and with
   various  condiments;  -- called also sloke, or sloakan. Mountain laver
   (Bot.),  a reddish gelatinous alga of the genus Palmella, found on the
   sides of mountains


   La"ver*ock  (?),  n. [See Lark the bird.] The lark. [Old Eng. & Scot.]
   [Written also lavrock.] Gower.


   La"vic (?), a. See Lavatic.


   Lav"ish  (?),  a.  [Akin  to  E. lave to lade out; cf. AS. gelafian to
   refresh, G. laben.]

   1.  Expending or bestowing profusely; profuse; prodigal; as, lavish of
   money; lavish of praise.

   2. Superabundant; excessive; as, lavish spirits.

     Let her have needful, but not lavish, means. Shak.

   Syn.   --   Profuse;   prodigal;   wasteful;  extravagant;  exuberant;
   immoderate. See Profuse.


   Lav"ish, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lavished (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lavishing.]
   To  expend  or  bestow  with  profusion;  to  use with prodigality; to
   squander; as, to lavish money or praise.


   Lav"ish*er (?), n. One who lavishes.


   Lav"ish*ly, adv. In a lavish manner.


   Lav"ish*ment (?), n. The act of lavishing.


   Lav"ish*ness, n. The quality or state of being lavish.

Lav La*v (?), n. [NL., fr. Lavoisier, the celebrated French chemist.] (Chem.) A
 supposed new metallic element. It is said to have been discovered in pyrites,
  and some other minerals, and to be of a silver-white color, and malleable.

                                Lavolt, Lavolta

   La*volt" (?), La*vol"ta (?), n. [It.la volta the turn, turning, whirl.
   Cf.  Volt  of  a horse, Volta.] An old dance, for two persons, being a
   kind of waltz, in which the woman made a high spring or bound. Shak.


   La*vol`ta*teer" (?), n. A dancer of the lavolta.


   Lav"our (?), n. A laver. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   La"vrock (?), n. Same as Laverock.


   Law  (?), n. [OE. lawe, laghe, AS. lagu, from the root of E. lie: akin
   to  OS.  lag, Icel. l\'94g, Sw. lag, Dan. lov; cf. L. lex, E. legal. A
   law  is  that  which  is  laid,  set,  or  fixed; like statute, fr. L.
   statuere to make to stand. See Lie to be prostrate.]

   1.  In  general,  a  rule  of  being  or of conduct, established by an
   authority able to enforce its will; a controlling regulation; the mode
   or order according to which an agent or a power acts.

     NOTE: &hand; A  la w ma y be  un iversal or  particular, written or
     unwritten, published or secret. From the nature of the highest laws
     a  degree  of  permanency  or  stability is always implied; but the
     power  which  makes a law, or a superior power, may annul or change

     These  are the statutes and judgments and law, which the Lord made.
     Lev. xxvi. 46.

     The law of thy God, and the law of the King. Ezra vii. 26.

     As  if  they would confine the Interminable . . . Who made our laws
     to bind us, not himself. Milton.

     His mind his kingdom, and his will his law. Cowper.

   2.  In  morals:  The  will  of God as the rule for the disposition and
   conduct  of all responsible beings toward him and toward each other; a
   rule  of  living,  conformable to righteousness; the rule of action as
   obligatory on the conscience or moral nature.

   3.  The  Jewish or Mosaic code, and that part of Scripture where it is
   written,  in  distinction  from  the  gospel;  hence,  also,  the  Old

     What  things  soever  the law saith, it saith to them who are under
     the  law  . . . But now the righteousness of God without the law is
     manifested,  being witnessed by the law and the prophets. Rom. iii.
     19, 21. 

   4.  In  human  government:  (a)  An organic rule, as a constitution or
   charter,  establishing and defining the conditions of the existence of
   a  state  or  other organized community. (b) Any edict, decree, order,
   ordinance,  statute,  resolution,  judicial, decision, usage, etc., or
   recognized, and enforced, by the controlling authority.

   5.  In  philosophy and physics: A rule of being, operation, or change,
   so certain and constant that it is conceived of as imposed by the will
   of  God  or by some controlling authority; as, the law of gravitation;
   the laws of motion; the law heredity; the laws of thought; the laws of
   cause and effect; law of self-preservation.

   6.  In matematics: The rule according to which anything, as the change
   of  value  of  a  variable,  or  the  value  of the terms of a series,
   proceeds; mode or order of sequence.

   7.  In  arts,  works,  games,  etc.:  The rules of construction, or of
   procedure,  conforming  to  the  conditions  of  success; a principle,
   maxim; or usage; as, the laws of poetry, of architecture, of courtesy,
   or of whist.

   8.  Collectively,  the whole body of rules relating to one subject, or
   emanating   from   one  source;  --  including  usually  the  writings
   pertaining  to  them,  and judicial proceedings under them; as, divine
   law; English law; Roman law; the law of real property; insurance law.

   9.  Legal  science;  jurisprudence;  the principles of equity; applied

     Reason  is  the  life  of  the  law;  nay, the common law itself is
     nothing else but reason. Coke.

     Law is beneficence acting by rule. Burke.

     And  sovereign  Law,  that  state's collected will O'er thrones and
     globes  elate,  Sits empress, crowning good, repressing ill. Sir W.

   10. Trial by the laws of the land; judicial remedy; litigation; as, to
   go law.

     When every case in law is right. Shak.

     He found law dear and left it cheap. Brougham.

   11.  An  oath, as in the presence of a court. [Obs.] See Wager of law,
   under Wager.
   Avogadro's  law (Chem.), a fundamental conception, according to which,
   under  similar  conditions  of temperature and pressure, all gases and
   vapors  contain  in  the  same  volume  the  same  number  of ultimate
   molecules; -- so named after Avogadro, an Italian scientist. Sometimes
   called  Amp\'8are's  law.  --  Bode's  law (Astron.), an approximative
   empirical  expression of the distances of the planets from the sun, as
   follows: -- 

   Mer. Ven. Earth. Mars. Aste. Jup. Sat. Uran. Nep. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0
   3 6 12 24 48 96 192 384 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --- --- 4 7 10 16 28 52
   100 196 388 5.9 7.3 10 15.2 27.4 52 95.4 192 300

   where  each  distance (line third) is the sum of 4 and a multiple of 3
   by  the  series 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, etc., the true distances being given in
   the  lower  line. -- Boyle's law (Physics), an expression of the fact,
   that  when an elastic fluid is subjected to compression, and kept at a
   constant  temperature,  the  product  of  the pressure and volume is a
   constant  quantity, i. e., the volume is inversely proportioned to the
   pressure;  --  known  also as Mariotte's law, and the law of Boyle and
   Mariotte.  -- Brehon laws. See under Brehon. -- Canon law, the body of
   ecclesiastical  law  adopted in the Christian Church, certain portions
   of  which  (for  example,  the  law of marriage as existing before the
   Council  of  Tent) were brought to America by the English colonists as
   part of the common law of the land. Wharton. -- Civil law, a term used
   by  writers  to  designate Roman law, with modifications thereof which
   have been made in the different countries into which that law has been
   introduced.  The civil law, instead of the common law, prevails in the
   State  of  Louisiana.  Wharton.  --  Commercial  law. See Law merchant
   (below). -- Common law. See under Common. -- Criminal law, that branch
   of  jurisprudence  which relates to crimes. -- Ecclesiastical law. See
   under   Ecclesiastical.   --   Grimm's   law  (Philol.),  a  statement
   (propounded  by the German philologist Jacob Grimm) of certain regular
   changes  which  the primitive Indo-European mute consonants, so-called
   (most  plainly  seen  in Sanskrit and, with some changes, in Greek and
   Latin),  have  undergone  in  the  Teutonic  languages. Examples: Skr.
   bh\'betr,  L.  frater,  E.  brother,  G. bruder; L. tres, E. three, G.
   drei,  Skr. go, E. cow, G. kuh; Skr. dh\'be to put, Gr. ti-qe`-nai, E.
   do,  OHG,  tuon,  G. thun. -- Kepler's laws (Astron.), three important
   laws  or expressions of the order of the planetary motions, discovered
   by John Kepler. They are these: (1) The orbit of a planet with respect
   to  the  sun  is an ellipse, the sun being in one of the foci. (2) The
   areas  swept  over  by  a  vector  drawn  from the sun to a planet are
   proportioned  to  the times of describing them. (3) The squares of the
   times  of  revolution  of two planets are in the ratio of the cubes of
   their  mean  distances.  --  Law  binding,  a  plain  style of leather
   binding,  used  for law books; -- called also law calf. -- Law book, a
   book  containing,  or  treating of, laws. -- Law calf. See Law binding
   (above).  --  Law  day.  (a)  Formerly, a day of holding court, esp. a
   court-leet.  (b)  The  day  named in a mortgage for the payment of the
   money to secure which it was given. [U. S.] -- Law French, the dialect
   of  Norman,  which  was  used in judicial proceedings and law books in
   England  from  the  days  of William the Conqueror to the thirty-sixth
   year  of  Edward  III.  --  Law  language,  the language used in legal
   writings and forms. -- Law Latin. See under Latin. -- Law lords, peers
   in  the British Parliament who have held high judicial office, or have
   been  noted  in  the  legal profession. -- Law merchant, OR Commercial
   law,  a  system of rules by which trade and commerce are regulated; --
   deduced  from  the  custom  of  merchants,  and  regulated by judicial
   decisions, as also by enactments of legislatures.<-- now in most state
   superseded  by  the  Uniform  Commercial  Code  -->  -- Law of Charles
   (Physics), the law that the volume of a given mass of gas increases or
   decreases,  by  a  definite  fraction of its value for a given rise or
   fall  of  temperature; -- sometimes less correctly styled Gay Lussac's
   law,  or Dalton's law. -- Law of nations. See International law, under
   International. -- Law of nature. (a) A broad generalization expressive
   of the constant action, or effect, of natural conditions; as, death is
   a  law  of  nature; self-defense is a law of nature. See Law, 4. (b) A
   term  denoting  the  standard, or system, of morality deducible from a
   study  of the nature and natural relations of human beings independent
   of  supernatural  revelation or of municipal and social usages. -- Law
   of  the land, due process of law; the general law of the land. -- Laws
   of  honor.  See  under  Honor. -- Laws of motion (Physics), three laws
   defined by Sir Isaac Newton: (1) Every body perseveres in its state of
   rest or of moving uniformly in a straight line, except so far as it is
   made  to  change that state by external force. (2) Change of motion is
   proportional  to the impressed force, and takes place in the direction
   in  which  the  force  is  impressed. (3) Reaction is always equal and
   opposite  to  action,  that  is to say, the actions of two bodies upon
   each other are always equal and in opposite directions. -- Marine law,
   OR  Maritime  law,  the  law  of the sea; a branch of the law merchant
   relating  to  the affairs of the sea, such as seamen, ships, shipping,
   navigation,  and the like. Bouvier. -- Mariotte's law. See Boyle's law
   (above).  --  Martial law.See under Martial. -- Military law, a branch
   of  the  general  municipal  law, consisting of rules ordained for the
   government  of  the  military  force  of a state in peace and war, and
   administered  in  courts  martial. Kent. Warren's Blackstone. -- Moral
   law,the law of duty as regards what is right and wrong in the sight of
   God; specifically, the ten commandments given by Moses. See Law, 2. --
   Mosaic,  OR  Ceremonial,  law.  (Script.) See Law, 3. -- Municipal, OR
   Positive,  law,  a  rule  prescribed  by the supreme power of a state,
   declaring some right, enforcing some duty, or prohibiting some act; --
   distinguished  from  international and constitutional law. See Law, 1.
   --  Periodic law. (Chem.) See under Periodic. -- Roman law, the system
   of  principles  and  laws  found  in  the  codes  and treatises of the
   lawmakers  and  jurists of ancient Rome, and incorporated more or less
   into  the  laws of the several European countries and colonies founded
   by  them.  See Civil law (above). -- Statute law, the law as stated in
   statutes  or positive enactments of the legislative body. -- Sumptuary
   law. See under Sumptuary. -- To go to law, to seek a settlement of any
   matter  by  bringing  it before the courts of law; to sue or prosecute
   some  one.  --  To take, OR have, the law of, to bring the law to bear
   upon; as, to take the law of one's neighbor. Addison. -- Wager of law.
   See under Wager. Syn. -- Justice; equity. -- Law, Statute, Common law,
   Regulation,  Edict,  Decree.  Law  is  generic,  and,  when  used with
   reference  to, or in connection with, the other words here considered,
   denotes  whatever  is  commanded  by  one  who  has a right to require
   obedience.  A  statute  is  a  particular  law  drawn out in form, and
   distinctly  enacted  and  proclaimed.  Common  law is a rule of action
   founded  on  long  usage  and  the  decisions  of courts of justice. A
   regulation  is  a limited and often, temporary law, intended to secure
   some  particular end or object. An edict is a command or law issued by
   a  sovereign,  and is peculiar to a despotic government. A decree is a
   permanent  order either of a court or of the executive government. See


   Law (?), v. t. Same as Lawe, v. t. [Obs.]


   Law,  interj.  [Cf.  La.] An exclamation of mild surprise. [Archaic or


   Law"-a*bid`ing  (?),  a. Abiding the law; waiting for the operation of
   law  for the enforcement of rights; also, abiding by the law; obedient
   to the law; as, law-abiding people.


   Law"break`er  (?),  n.  One  who  disobeys  the  law;  a  criminal. --
   Law"break`ing, n. & a.


   Lawe (?), v. t. [See 2d Lawing.] To cut off the claws and balls of, as
   of a dog's fore feet. Wright.


   Law"er (?), n. A lawyer. [Obs.] Bale.


   Law"ful (?), a.

   1. Conformable to law; allowed by law; legitimate; competent.

   2. Constituted or authorized by law; rightful; as, the lawful owner of
   Lawful age, the age when the law recognizes one's right of independent
   action; majority; -- generally the age of twenty-one years.<-- = legal
   age -->

     NOTE: &hand; In  some of the States, and for some purposes, a woman
     attains lawful age at eighteen. Abbott.

   Syn.  --  Legal;  constitutional;  allowable;  regular;  rightful.  --
   Lawful,  Legal.  Lawful means conformable to the principle, spirit, or
   essence  of  the  law, and is applicable to moral as well as juridical
   law.  Legal  means conformable to the letter or rules of the law as it
   is  administered in the courts; conformable to juridical law. Legal is
   often  used as antithetical to equitable, but lawful is seldom used in
   that sense. -- Law"ful*ly, adv. -- Law"ful*ness, n.


   Law"giv`er  (?), n. One who makes or enacts a law or system of laws; a


   Law"giv`ing, a. Enacting laws; legislative.


   Law"ing, n. Going to law; litigation. Holinshed.


   Law"ing,  n.  [So  called  because  done in compliance with an English
   forest law.] Expeditation. Blackstone.


   Law"less, a.

   1. Contrary to, or unauthorized by, law; illegal; as, a lawless claim.

     He needs no indirect nor lawless course. Shak.

   2.  Not  subject  to,  or  restrained  by,  the  law of morality or of
   society; as, lawless men or behavior.

   3. Not subject to the laws of nature; uncontrolled.

     Or, meteorlike, flame lawless through the void. Pope.

   -- Law"less*ly, adv. -- Law"less*ness, n.


   Law"mak`er (?), n. A legislator; a lawgiver.

   Page 836


   Lam"mak`ing  (?), a. Enacting laws; legislative. -- n. The enacting of
   laws; legislation.


   Law"mon`ger  (?),  n.  A trader in law; one who practices law as if it
   were a trade. Milton.


   Lawn  (?),  n.  [OE.  laund,  launde,  F. lande heath, moor; of Celtic
   origin; cf. W. llan an open, clear place, llawnt a smooth rising hill,
   lawn, Armor. lann or lan territory, country, lann a prickly plant, pl.
   lannou heath, moor.]

   1. An open space between woods. Milton.

     "Orchard lawns and bowery hollows." Tennyson.

   2. Ground (generally in front of or around a house) covered with grass
   kept closely mown.
   Lawn  mower,  a machine for clipping the short grass of lawns. -- Lawn
   tennis,  a  variety  of  the  game  of tennis, played in the open air,
   sometimes upon a lawn, instead of in a tennis court. See Tennis.


   Lawm,  n. [Earlier laune lynen, i. e., lawn linen; prob. from the town
   Laon in France.] A very fine linen (or sometimes cotton) fabric with a
   rather  open  texture.  Lawn  is  used  for  the sleeves of a bishop's
   official  dress  in  the English Church, and, figuratively, stands for
   the office itself.

     A saint in crape is twice in lawn. Pope.


   Lawnd (?), n. [Obs.] See Laund.


   Lawn"y  (?),  a.  Having  a lawn; characterized by a lawn or by lawns;
   like a lawn.

     Musing through the lawny park. T. Warton.


   Lawn"y, a. Made of lawn or fine linen. Bp. Hall.


   Law*so"ni*a  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  An  Asiatic  and  North  African  shrub
   (Lawsonia  inermis),  with  smooth  oval  leaves,  and  fragrant white
   flowers.  Henna  is prepared from the leaves and twigs. In England the
   shrub  is  called  Egyptian  privet,  and  in the West Indies, Jamaica


   Law"suit` (?), n. An action at law; a suit in equity or admiralty; any
   legal proceeding before a court for the enforcement of a claim.


   Law"yer (?), n. [From Law, like bowyer, fr.bow.]

   1.  One  versed  in  the  laws,  or  a  practitioner of law; one whose
   profession  is  to  conduct  lawsuits  for clients, or to advise as to
   prosecution  or  defence  of  lawsuits,  or  as  to  legal  rights and
   obligations  in  other  matters.  It  is a general term, comprehending
   attorneys,   counselors,   solicitors,   barristers,   sergeants,  and

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The black-necked stilt. See Stilt. (b) The bowfin
   (Amia calva). (c) The burbot (Lota maculosa).

                             Lawyerlike, Lawyerly

   Law"yer*like` (?), Law"yer*ly (?), a. Like, or becoming, a lawyer; as,
   lawyerlike sagacity. "Lawyerly mooting of this point." Milton.


   Lax (?), a. [Compar. Laxer (?); superl. Laxest.] [L. laxus Cf. Laches,
   Languish, Lease, v. t., Leash.]

   1.  Not  tense,  firm,  or rigid; loose; slack; as, a lax bandage; lax

     The flesh of that sort of fish being lax and spongy. Ray.

   2. Not strict or stringent; not exact; loose; weak; vague; equivocal.

     The discipline was lax. Macaulay.

     Society  at  that  epoch was lenient, if not lax, in matters of the
     passions. J. A. Symonds.

     The  word  "\'91ternus" itself is sometimes of a lax signification.

   3.  Having a looseness of the bowels; diarrheal. Syn. -- Loose; slack;
   vague; unconfined; unrestrained; dissolute; licentious.


   Lax, n. A looseness; diarrhea.


   Lax*a"tion (?), n. [L. laxatio, fr. laxare to loosen, fr. laxus loose,
   slack.]  The  act  of  loosening  or slackening, or the state of being
   loosened or slackened.


   Lax"a*tive  (?),  a.  [L.  laxativus  mitigating,  assuaging:  cf.  F.
   laxatif. See Lax, a.]

   1. Having a tendency to loosen or relax. Milton.

   2.  (Med.)  Having  the effect of loosening or opening the intestines,
   and  relieving  from  constipation;  --  opposed  to astringent. -- n.
   (Med.) A laxative medicine. See the Note under Cathartic.


   Lax"a*tive*ness, n. The quality of being laxative.


   Lax*a"tor  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. L. laxare, laxatum, to loosen.] (Anat.)
   That which loosens; -- esp., a muscle which by its contraction loosens
   some part.


   Lax"i-ty  (?),  n.  [L.  laxitas,  fr.  laxus  loose,  slack:  cf.  F.
   laxit\'82,  See  Lax,  a.]  The state or quality of being lax; want of
   tenseness, strictness, or exactness.


   Lax"ly, adv. In a lax manner.


   Lax"ness, n. The state of being lax; laxity.


   Lay (?), imp. of Lie, to recline.


   Lay, a. [F. lai, L. laicus, Gr. Laic.]

   1.  Of  or pertaining to the laity, as distinct from the clergy; as, a
   lay person; a lay preacher; a lay brother.

   2. Not educated or cultivated; ignorant.[Obs.]

   3.  Not  belonging  to,  or  emanating  from, a particular profession;
   unprofessional; as, a lay opinion regarding the nature of a disease.
   Lay  baptism (Eccl.), baptism administered by a lay person. F. G. Lee.
   -- Lay brother (R. C. Ch.), one received into a convent of monks under
   the three vows, but not in holy orders. -- Lay clerk (Eccl.), a layman
   who  leads  the  responses  of  the  congregation, etc., in the church
   service. Hook. -- Lay days (Com.), time allowed in a charter party for
   taking in and discharging cargo. McElrath. -- Lay elder. See 2d Elder,
   3, note.


   Lay (?), n. The laity; the common people. [Obs.]

     The learned have no more privilege than the lay. B. Jonson.


   Lay, n. A meadow. See Lea. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Lay, n. [OF.lei faith, law, F. loi law. See Legal.]

   1. Faith; creed; religious profession. [Obs.]

     Of  the  sect  to  which that he was born He kept his lay, to which
     that he was sworn. Chaucer.

   2. A law. [Obs.] "Many goodly lays." Spenser.

   3. An obligation; a vow. [Obs.]

     They bound themselves by a sacred lay and oath. Holland.


   Lay  (?),  a.  [OF.  lai,  lais, prob. of Celtic origin; cf. Ir. laoi,
   laoidh,  song,  poem,  OIr.laoidh poem, verse; but cf. also AS. l\'bec
   play, sport, G. leich a sort of poem (cf. Lake to sport).

   1. A song; a simple lyrical poem; a ballad. Spenser. Sir W. Scott.

   2. A melody; any musical utterance.

     The throstle cock made eke his lay. Chaucer.


   Lay  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Laid (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Laying.] [OE.
   leggen, AS. lecgan, causative, fr. licgan to lie; akin to D.leggen, G.
   legen, Icel. leggja, Goth. lagjan. See Lie to be prostrate.]

   1. To cause to lie down, to be prostrate, or to lie against something;
   to put or set down; to deposit; as, to lay a book on the table; to lay
   a body in the grave; a shower lays the dust.

     A  stone  was brought, and laid upon the mouth of the den. Dan. vi.

     Soft on the flowery herb I found me laid. Milton.

   2.  To  place  in  position;  to  establish  firmly;  to  arrange with
   regularity;  to  dispose in ranks or tiers; as, to lay a corner stone;
   to lay bricks in a wall; to lay the covers on a table.

   3.  To  prepare;  to make ready; to contrive; to provide; as, to lay a
   snare, an ambush, or a plan.

   4. To spread on a surface; as, to lay plaster or paint.

   5.  To cause to be still; to calm; to allay; to suppress; to exorcise,
   as an evil spirit.

     After a tempest when the winds are laid. Waller.

   6. To cause to lie dead or dying.

     Brave  C\'91neus  laid  Ortygius on the plain, The victor C\'91neus
     was by Turnus slain. Dryden.

   7. To deposit, as a wager; to stake; to risk.

     I dare lay mine honor He will remain so. Shak.

   8. To bring forth and deposit; as, to lay eggs.

   9. To apply; to put.

     She layeth her hands to the spindle. Prov. xxxi. 19.

   10.  To impose, as a burden, suffering, or punishment; to assess, as a
   tax; as, to lay a tax on land.

     The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all. Is. Iiii. 6.

   11. To impute; to charge; to allege.

     God layeth not folly to them. Job xxiv. 12.

     Lay the fault on us. Shak.

   12. To impose, as a command or a duty; as, to lay commands on one.

   13.  To  present  or  offer;  as, to lay an indictment in a particular
   county; to lay a scheme before one.

   14. (Law) To state; to allege; as, to lay the venue. Bouvier.

   15. (Mil.) To point; to aim; as, to lay a gun.

   16.  (Rope  Making)  To  put the strands of (a rope, a cable, etc.) in
   their  proper  places  and  twist or unite them; as, to lay a cable or

   17.  (Print.)  (a)  To  place  and arrange (pages) for a form upon the
   imposing stone. (b) To place (new type) properly in the cases.
   To  lay  asleep, to put sleep; to make unobservant or careless. Bacon.
   -- To lay bare, to make bare; to strip.

     And laid those proud roofs bare to summer's rain. Byron.

   --  To lay before, to present to; to submit for consideration; as, the
   papers  are  laid  before  Congress. -- To lay by. (a) To save. (b) To

     Let brave spirits . . . not be laid by. Bacon.

   --  To  lay  by the heels, to put in the stocks. Shak. -- To lay down.
   (a)  To  stake  as a wager. (b) To yield; to relinquish; to surrender;
   as,  to  lay down one's life; to lay down one's arms. (c) To assert or
   advance, as a proposition or principle. -- To lay forth. (a) To extend
   at length; (reflexively) to exert one's self; to expatiate. [Obs.] (b)
   To  lay  out (as a corpse). [Obs.] Shak. -- To lay hands on, to seize.
   --  To lay hands on one's self, or To lay violent hands on one's self,
   to  injure  one's  self;  specif.,  to commit suicide. -- To lay heads
   together,  to consult. -- To lay hold of, OR To lay hold on, to seize;
   to  catch.  --  To  lay  in, to store; to provide. -- To lay it on, to
   apply  without  stint.  Shak.  --  To  lay on, to apply with force; to
   inflict;  as,  to lay on blows. -- To lay on load, to lay on blows; to
   strike  violently.  [Obs.  OR  Archaic]  --  To lay one's self out, to
   strive earnestly.

     No selfish man will be concerned to lay out himself for the good of
     his country. Smalridge.

   --  To  lay  one's  self  open  to,  to expose one's self to, as to an
   accusation. -- To lay open, to open; to uncover; to expose; to reveal.
   --  To  lay  over,  to  spread  over;  to cover. -- To lay out. (a) To
   expend.  Macaulay. (b) To display; to discover. (c) To plan in detail;
   to arrange; as, to lay out a garden. (d) To prepare for burial; as, to
   lay  out a corpse. (e) To exert; as, to lay out all one's strength. --
   To  lay  siege  to.  (a) To besiege; to encompass with an army. (b) To
   beset pertinaciously. -- To lay the course (Naut.), to sail toward the
   port  intended without jibing. -- To lay the land (Naut.), to cause it
   to  disappear below the horizon, by sailing away from it. -- To lay to
   (a)  To charge upon; to impute. (b) To apply with vigor. (c) To attack
   or  harass.  [Obs.]  Knolles.  (d)  (Naut.)  To check the motion of (a
   vessel)  and  cause  it  to be stationary. -- To lay to heart, to feel
   deeply;  to consider earnestly. -- To lay under, to subject to; as, to
   lay  under obligation or restraint. -- To lay unto. (a) Same as To lay
   to (above). (b) To put before. Hos. xi. 4. -- To lay up. (a) To store;
   to  reposit  for  future  use.  (b)  To  confine;  to  disable. (c) To
   dismantle,  and  retire from active service, as a ship. -- To lay wait
   for,  to  lie  in  ambush  for.  --  To lay waste, to destroy; to make
   desolate;  as,  to lay waste the land. Syn. -- See Put, v. t., and the
   Note under 4th Lie.


   Lay, v. i.

   1. To produce and deposit eggs.

   2.  (Naut.)  To take a position; to come or go; as, to lay forward; to
   lay aloft.

   3. To lay a wager; to bet.
   To  lay  about,  OR  To  lay  about  one,  to strike vigorously in all
   directions.  J.  H.  Newman.  --  To  lay  at, to strike or strike at.
   Spenser.  -- To lay for, to prepare to capture or assault; to lay wait
   for.  [Colloq.]  Bp  Hall. -- To lay in for, to make overtures for; to
   engage or secure the possession of. [Obs.] "I have laid in for these."
   Dryden.  --  To lay on, to strike; to beat; to attack. Shak. -- To lay
   out, to purpose; to plan; as, he lays out to make a journey.


   Lay (?), n.

   1.  That  which lies or is laid or is conceived of as having been laid
   or  placed  in  its  position; a row; a stratum; a layer; as, a lay of
   stone or wood. Addison.

     A viol should have a lay of wire strings below. Bacon.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e la y of  a  ro pe is  right-handed or left-handed
     according  to  the hemp or strands are laid up. See Lay, v. t., 16.
     The  lay of land is its topographical situation, esp. its slope and
     its surface features.

   2. A wager. "My fortunes against any lay worth naming."

   3.  (a)  A  job, price, or profit. [Prov. Eng.] Wright. (b) A share of
   the  proceeds  or profits of an enterprise; as, when a man ships for a
   whaling voyage, he agrees for a certain lay. [U. S.]

   4. (Textile Manuf.) (a) A measure of yarn; a les. See 1st Lea (a). (b)
   The lathe of a loom. See Lathe, 8.

   5. A plan; a scheme. [Slang] Dickens.
   Lay  figure.  (a) A jointed model of the human body that may be put in
   any attitude; -- used for showing the disposition of drapery, etc. (b)
   A  mere  puppet; one who serves the will of others without independent
   volition. -- Lay race, that part of a lay on which the shuttle travels
   in weaving; -- called also shuttle race.


   Lay"er (?), n. [See Lay to cause to lie flat.]

   1. One who, or that which, lays.

   2. [Prob. a corruption of lair.] That which is laid; a stratum; a bed;
   one  thickness, course, or fold laid over another; as, a layer of clay
   or  of sand in the earth; a layer of bricks, or of plaster; the layers
   of an onion.

   3. A shoot or twig of a plant, not detached from the stock, laid under
   ground for growth or propagation.

   4. An artificial oyster bed.


   Lay"er*ing, n. A propagating by layers. Gardner.


   Lay"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of one who, or that which, lays.

   2. The act or period of laying eggs; the eggs laid for one incubation;
   a clutch.

   3. The first coat on laths of plasterer's two-coat work.


   Lay"land`  (?),  n. [Lay a meadow + land.] Land lying untilled; fallow
   ground. [Obs.] Blount.


   Lay"man (?) n.; pl. Laymen (. [Lay, adj. + man.]

   1.  One  of  the  people,  in  distinction from the clergy; one of the
   laity;  sometimes,  a man not belonging to some particular profession,
   in  distinction from those who do.<-- used esp. by physicians of those
   w/o medical training -->

     Being  a  layman,  I  ought  not  to  have  concerned  myself  with
     speculations which belong to the profession. Dryden.

   2. A lay figure. See under Lay, n. (above). Dryden


   Lay"ner (?), n.[See Lanier.] A whiplash. [Obs.]


   Lay"ship (?), n. The condition of being a layman. [Obs.] Milton.


   Lay"stall` (?), n.

   1.  A place where rubbish, dung, etc., are laid or deposited.[Obs.] B.

     Smithfield was a laystall of all ordure and filth. Bacon.

   2.  A  place where milch cows are kept, or cattle on the way to market
   are lodged. [Obs.]


   La"zar  (?),  n. [OF. lazare, fr. Lazarus the beggar. Luke xvi. 20.] A
   person  infected  with  a  filthy  or  pestilential  disease; a leper.

     Like loathsome lazars, by the hedges lay. Spenser.

   Lazar house a lazaretto; also, a hospital for quarantine.

                              Lazaret, Lazaretto

   Laz`a*ret"  (?),  Laz`a*ret"to (?), n. [F. lazaret, or It. lazzeretto,
   fr. Lazarus. See Lazar.] A public building, hospital, or pesthouse for
   the  reception  of  diseased persons, particularly those affected with
   contagious diseases.

                              Lazarist, Lazarite

   Laz"a*rist (?), Laz"a*rite (?), n. (R. C. Ch.) One of the Congregation
   of  the  Priests  of  the  Mission,  a  religious institute founded by
   Vincent  de  Paul in 1624, and popularly called Lazarists or Lazarites
   from  the  College  of St. Lazare in Paris, which was occupied by them
   until 1792.

                              Lazarlike, Lazarly

   La"zar*like`  (?), La"zar*ly (?), a. Full of sores; leprous. Shak. Bp.


   Laz`a*ro"ni (?), n. pl. See Lazzaroni.


   La"zar*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) Laserwort.


   Laze (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lazed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lazing.] [See
   Lazy.] To be lazy or idle. [Colloq.] Middleton.


   Laze,  v. t. To waste in sloth; to spend, as time, in idleness; as, to
   laze away whole days. [Colloq.]


   La"zi*ly (?), adv. In a lazy manner. Locke.


   La"zi*ness, n. The state or quality of being lazy.

     Laziness  travels  so  slowly,  that  Poverty  soon  overtakes him.


   Laz"u*li  (?),  n.[F. & NL. lapis lazuli, LL. lazulus, lazurius, lazur
   from  the  same  Oriental  source  as  E.  azure. See Azure.] (Min.) A
   mineral  of  a fine azure-blue color, usually in small rounded masses.
   It  is  essentially  a  silicate of alumina, lime, and soda, with some
   sodium  sulphide, is often marked by yellow spots or veins of sulphide
   of  iron,  and  is  much valued for ornamental work. Called also lapis
   lazuli, and Armenian stone. <-- and lapis. -->


   Laz"u*lite  (?),  n.  [From  lazuli  :  cf. F. lazulite, G. lazulith.]
   (Min.)  A  mineral  of  a  light indigo-blue color, occurring in small
   masses,  or  in  monoclinic  crystals;  blue  spar.  It  is  a hydrous
   phosphate of alumina and magnesia.


   La"zy  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Lazier  (?);  superl. Laziest.] [OE. lasie,
   laesic,  of  uncertain origin; cf. F. las tired, L. lassus, akin to E.
   late; or cf. LG. losig, lesig.]

   1.  Disinclined to action or exertion; averse to labor; idle; shirking
   work. Bacon.

   2.  Inactive;  slothful; slow; sluggish; as, a lazy stream. "The night
   owl's lazy flight." Shak.

   3. Wicked; vicious. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] B. Jonson.

   Page 837

   Lazy  tongs,  a  system  of  jointed  bars capable of great extension,
   originally  made for picking up something at a distance, now variously
   applied  in machinery. Syn. -- Idle; indolent; sluggish; slothful. See


   La"zy*back`  (?), n. A support for the back, attached to the seat of a
   carriage. [Colloq.]


   La"zy*bones` (?), n. A lazy person. [Colloq.]


   Laz`za*ro"ni  (?;  It.  ,  n.  pl. [It. lazzarone, pl. lazzaroni.] The
   homeless  idlers  of  Naples who live by chance work or begging; -- so
   called from the Hospital of St. Lazarus, which serves as their refuge.
   [Written also, but improperly, lazaroni.]


   Lea,  n. [Cf. Lay, n. (that which is laid), 4.] (Textile Manuf.) (a) A
   measure  of  yarn; for linen, 300 yards; for cotton, 120 yards; a lay.
   (b) A set of warp threads carried by a loop of the heddle.


   Lea,  n. [OE. ley, lay, As. le\'a0h, le\'a0; akin to Prov. G. lon bog,
   morass,  grove, and perh. to L. lucus grove, E. light, n.] A meadow or
   sward land; a grassy field. "Plow-torn leas." Shak.

     The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea. Gray.


   Leach (?), n. (Naut.) See 3d Leech.


   Leach,  n.  [Written  also letch.] [Cf. As. le\'a0h lye, G. lauge. See

   1.  A  quantity  of  wood  ashes, through which water passes, and thus
   imbibes the alkali.

   2. A tub or vat for leaching ashes, bark, etc.
   Leach tub, a wooden tub in which ashes are leached.


   Leach,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Leached (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leaching.]
   [Written also leech and letch.]

   1. To remove the soluble constituents from by subjecting to the action
   of percolating water or other liquid; as, to leach ashes or coffee.

   2.  To  dissolve  out; -- often used with out; as, to leach out alkali
   from ashes.


   Leach, v. i. To part with soluble constituents by percolation.


   Leach, n. See Leech, a physician. [Obs.]


   Leach"y (?), a. Permitting liquids to pass by percolation; not capable
   of  retaining  water;  porous;  pervious; -- said of gravelly or sandy
   soils, and the like.


   Lead (l&ecr;d), n. [OE. led, leed, lead, AS. le\'a0d; akin to D. lood,
   MHG.  l&omac;t,  G.  loth  plummet, sounding lead, small weight, Sw. &
   Dan. lod. &root;123]

   1.  (Chem.)  One  of  the elements, a heavy, pliable, inelastic metal,
   having  a  bright,  bluish  color,  but  easily  tarnished. It is both
   malleable  and  ductile,  though with little tenacity, and is used for
   tubes,  sheets,  bullets,  etc.  Its  specific gravity is 11.37. It is
   easily  fusible,  forms alloys with other metals, and is an ingredient
   of  solder  and  type  metal.  Atomic  weight,  206.4.  Symbol  Pb (L.
   Plumbum).  It  is  chiefly  obtained  from  the  mineral  galena, lead

   2.  An  article made of lead or an alloy of lead; as: (a) A plummet or
   mass  of  lead,  used in sounding at sea. (b) (Print.) A thin strip of
   type  metal, used to separate lines of type in printing. (c) Sheets or
   plates  of  lead  used  as  a  covering  for roofs; hence, pl., a roof
   covered with lead sheets or terne plates.

     I  would have the tower two stories, and goodly leads upon the top.

   3. A small cylinder of black lead or plumbago, used in pencils.
   Black  lead,  graphite  or  plumbago, ; -- so called from its leadlike
   appearance  and  streak.  [Colloq.]  -- Coasting lead, a sounding lead
   intermediate  in  weight  between  a  hand  lead and deep-sea lead. --
   Deep-sea lead, the heaviest of sounding leads, used in water exceeding
   a  hundred  fathoms  in  depth. Ham. Nav. Encyc. -- Hand lead, a small
   lead  use  for sounding in shallow water. -- Krems lead, Kremnitz lead
   [so  called  from  Krems  or  Kremnitz, in Austria], a pure variety of
   white  lead,  formed into tablets, and called also Krems, or Kremnitz,
   white, and Vienna white. -- Lead arming, tallow put in the hollow of a
   sounding  lead.  See To arm the lead (below). -- Lead colic. See under
   Colic.  --  Lead color, a deep bluish gray color, like tarnished lead.
   --  Lead glance. (Min.) Same as Galena. -- Lead line (a) (Med.) A dark
   line  along  the  gums  produced by a deposit of metallic lead, due to
   lead  poisoning.  (b)  (Naut.) A sounding line. -- Lead mill, a leaden
   polishing  wheel,  used by lapidaries. -- Lead ocher (Min.), a massive
   sulphur-yellow  oxide  of  lead.  Same  as Massicot. -- Lead pencil, a
   pencil of which the marking material is graphite (black lead). -- Lead
   plant  (Bot.),  a  low leguminous plant, genus Amorpha (A. canescens),
   found  in  the  Northwestern  United  States,  where  its  presence is
   supposed  to  indicate lead ore. Gray. -- Lead tree. (a) (Bot.) A West
   Indian  name  for the tropical, leguminous tree, Leuc\'91na glauca; --
   probably so called from the glaucous color of the foliage. (b) (Chem.)
   Lead  crystallized  in  arborescent forms from a solution of some lead
   salt,  as by suspending a strip of zinc in lead acetate. -- Mock lead,
   a  miner's  term  for  blende.  --  Red  lead, a scarlet, crystalline,
   granular   powder,  consisting  of  minium  when  pure,  but  commonly
   containing  several  of  the  oxides of lead. It is used as a paint or
   cement  and  also  as  an  ingredient  of flint glass. -- Red lead ore
   (Min.),  crocoite.  --  Sugar  of lead, acetate of lead. -- To arm the
   lead,  to fill the hollow in the bottom of a sounding lead with tallow
   in  order  to  discover  the  nature  of  the bottom by the substances
   adhering. Ham. Nav. Encyc. -- To cast, OR heave, the lead, to cast the
   sounding  lead  for  ascertaining  the  depth of water. -- White lead,
   hydrated carbonate of lead, obtained as a white, amorphous powder, and
   much used as an ingredient of white paint.


   Lead, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Leaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Leading.]

   1.  To  cover,  fill, or affect with lead; as, continuous firing leads
   the grooves of a rifle.

   2.  (Print.)  To place leads between the lines of; as, to lead a page;
   leaded matter.


   Lead  (l&emac;d),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Led  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Leading.] [OE. leden, AS. l (akin to OS. l, D. leiden, G. leiten,Icel.
   le,  Sw.  leda, Dan.lede), properly a causative fr. AS. li to go; akin
   to OHG. l, Icel. l,Goth. leipan (in comp.). Cf. Lode, Loath.]

   1.  To  guide  or  conduct with the hand, or by means of some physical
   contact connection; as, a father leads a child; a jockey leads a horse
   with a halter; a dog leads a blind man.

     If  a  blind  man  lead  a  blind man, both fall down in the ditch.
     Wyclif (Matt. xv. 14.)

     They  thrust  him out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the
     hill. Luke iv. 29.

     In thy right hand lead with thee The mountain nymph, sweet Liberty.

   2.  To  guide or conduct in a certain course, or to a certain place or
   end,  by  making the way known; to show the way, esp. by going with or
   going  in  advance  of. Hence, figuratively: To direct; to counsel; to
   instruct; as, to lead a traveler; to lead a pupil.

     The  Lord  went  before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead
     them the way. Ex. xiii. 21.

     He leadeth me beside the still waters. Ps. xxiii. 2.

     This  thought might lead me through the world's vain mask. Content,
     though blind, had I no better guide. Milton.

   3.  To  conduct  or direct with authority; to have direction or charge
   of;  as,  to  lead an army, an exploring party, or a search; to lead a
   political party.

     Christ  took not upon him flesh and blood that he might conquer and
     rule nations, lead armies, or possess places. South.

   4.  To go or to be in advance of; to precede; hence, to be foremost or
   chief among; as, the big sloop led the fleet of yachts; the Guards led
   the attack; Demosthenes leads the orators of all ages.

     As Hesperus, that leads the sun his way. Fairfax.

     And lo ! Ben Adhem's name led all the rest. Leigh Hunt.

   5. To draw or direct by influence, whether good or bad; to prevail on;
   to  induce;  to  entice;  to  allure;  as,  to  lead  one to espouse a
   righteous cause.

     He was driven by the necessities of the times, more than led by his
     own disposition, to any rigor of actions. Eikon Basilike.

     Silly  women, laden with sins,led away by divers lusts. 2 Tim. iii.
     6 (Rev. Ver.).

   6.  To  guide  or  conduct one's self in, through, or along (a certain
   course); hence, to proceed in the way of; to follow the path or course
   of; to pass; to spend. Also, to cause (one) to proceed or follow in (a
   certain course).

     That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life. 1 Tim. ii. 2.

     Nor  thou  with  shadowed  hint confuse A life that leads melodious
     days. Tennyson.

     You  remember . . . the life he used to lead his wife and daughter.

   7.  (Cards  & Dominoes) To begin a game, round, or trick, with; as, to
   lead trumps; the double five was led.
   To lead astray, to guide in a wrong way, or into error; to seduce from
   truth  or  rectitude.  --  To  lead  captive,  to  carry or bring into
   captivity.  --  To lead the way, to show the way by going in front; to
   act as guide. Goldsmith.


   Lead (?), v. i.

   1.  To  guide  or  conduct, as by accompanying, going before, showing,
   influencing,  directing  with  authority,  etc.; to have precedence or
   pre\'89minence; to be first or chief; -- used in most of the senses of
   lead, v. t.

   2. To tend or reach in a certain direction, or to a certain place; as,
   the path leads to the mill; gambling leads to other vices.

     The mountain foot that leads towards Mantua. Shak.

   To lead off OR out, to go first; to begin.


   Lead, n.

   1.  The act of leading or conducting; guidance; direction; as, to take
   the lead; to be under the lead of another.

     At  the  time  I  speak of, and having a momentary lead, . . . I am
     sure I did my country important service. Burke.

   2.  precedence; advance position; also, the measure of precedence; as,
   the  white horse had the lead; a lead of a boat's length, or of half a

   3.  (Cards  & Dominoes) The act or right of playing first in a game or
   round;  the  card  suit, or piece, so played; as, your partner has the

   4. An open way in an ice field. Kane.

   5. (Mining) A lode.

   6. (Naut.) The course of a rope from end to end.

   7.  (Steam Engine) The width of port opening which is uncovered by the
   valve,  for the admission or release of steam, at the instant when the
   piston is at end of its stroke.

     NOTE: &hand; When used alone it means outside lead, or lead for the
     admission of steam. Inside lead refers to the release or exhaust.

   8.  (Civil  Engineering) the distance of haul, as from a cutting to an

   9.  (Horology)  The  action  of  a  tooth,  as  a tooth of a wheel, in
   impelling another tooth or a pallet. Saunier.
   Lead  angle  (Steam  Engine), the angle which the crank maker with the
   line  of  centers,  in  approaching  it, at the instant when the valve
   opens  to  admit  steam.  -- Lead screw (Mach.), the main longitudinal
   screw of a lathe, which gives the feed motion to the carriage.


   Lead"ed (?), a.

   1. Fitted with lead; set in lead; as, leaded windows.

   2. (Print.) Separated by leads, as the lines of a page.


   Lead"en (?), a.

   1. Made of lead; of the nature of lead; as, a leaden ball.

   2. Like lead in color, etc. ; as, a leaden sky.

   3. Heavy; dull; sluggish. "Leaden slumber." Shak.


   Lead"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or that which, leads or conducts; a guide; a conductor.
   Especially:  (a)  One  who  goes  first.  (b)  One having authority to
   direct;  a chief; a commander. (c) (Mus.) A performer who leads a band
   or choir in music; also, in an orchestra, the principal violinist; the
   one who plays at the head of the first violins. (d) (Naut.) A block of
   hard  wood  pierced  with  suitable  holes  for leading ropes in their
   proper  places.  (e)  (Mach.)  The  principal  wheel  in  any  kind of
   machinery.  [Obs.  or R.] G. Francis. (f) A horse placed in advance of
   others; one of the forward pair of horses.

     He  forgot to pull in his leaders, and they gallop away with him at
     times. Hare.

   (g)  A  pipe  for conducting rain water from a roof to a cistern or to
   the  ground;  a conductor. (h) (Fishing) A net for leading fish into a
   pound,  weir,  etc. ; also, a line of gut, to which the snell of a fly
   hook  is  attached. (i) (Mining) A branch or small vein, not important
   in itself, but indicating the proximity of a better one.

   2.  The  first,  or the principal, editorial article in a newspaper; a
   leading or main editorial article.

   3.  (Print.)  (a)  A  type  having a dot or short row of dots upon its
   face.  (b)  pl.  a row of dots, periods, or hyphens, used in tables of
   contents,  etc.,  to  lead the eye across a space to the right word or
   number. Syn. -- chief; chieftain; commander. See Chief.


   Lead"er*ship (?), n. The office of a leader.


   Lead"hill*ite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A  mineral of a yellowish or greenish
   white  color,  consisting of the sulphate and carbonate of lead; -- so
   called from having been first found at Leadhills, Scotland.


   Lead"ing  (?),  a.  Guiding;  directing;  controlling; foremost; as, a
   leading motive; a leading man; a leading example. -- Lead"ing*ly, adv.
   Leading  case (Law), a reported decision which has come to be regarded
   as  settling  the  law  of  the  question involved. Abbott. -- Leading
   motive [a translation of G. leitmotif] (Mus.), a guiding theme; in the
   modern music drama of Wagner, a marked melodic phrase or short passage
   which  always  accompanies  the  reappearance  of  a  certain  person,
   situation,  abstract  idea,  or  allusion in the course of the play; a
   sort  of  musical  label.  -- Leading note (Mus.), the seventh note or
   tone  in  the  ascending  major  scale;  the sensible note. -- Leading
   question,  a  question  so framed as to guide the person questioned in
   making  his  reply.  -- Leading strings, strings by which children are
   supported  when  beginning to walk. -- To be in leading strings, to be
   in  a state of infancy or dependence, or under the guidance of others.
   --  Leading  wheel,  a  wheel  situated before the driving wheels of a
   locomotive engine.


   Lead"ing, n.

   1.  The  act  of guiding, directing, governing, or enticing; guidance.

   2. Suggestion; hint; example. [Archaic] Bacon.


   Lead"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Leadmen  (.  One who leads a dance.[Obs.] B.


   Leads"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Leadsmen  (. (Naut.) The man who heaves the
   lead. Totten.


   Lead"wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A genus of maritime herbs (Plumbago). P.
   Europ\'91a   has   lead-colored   spots  on  the  leaves,  and  nearly
   lead-colored flowers.


   Lead"y (?), a. Resembling lead. Sir T. Elyot.


   Leaf  (?), n.; pl. Leaves (#). [OE. leef, lef, leaf, AS. le\'a0f; akin
   to  S.  l,  OFries.  laf,  D.  loof  foliage,  G. laub,OHG. loub leaf,
   foliage,  Icel.  lauf, Sw. l\'94f, Dan. l\'94v, Goth. laufs; cf. Lith.
   lapas. Cf. Lodge.]

   1. (Bot.) A colored, usually green, expansion growing from the side of
   a  stem  or  rootstock,  in  which the sap for the use of the plant is
   elaborated  under  the influence of light; one of the parts of a plant
   which collectively constitute its foliage.

     NOTE: &hand; Su ch le aves us ually consist of a blade, or lamina ,
     supported upon a leafstalk or petiole, which, continued through the
     blade  as  the  midrib, gives off woody ribs and veins that support
     the  cellular  texture.  The  petiole  has  usually some sort of an
     appendage  on  each  side of its base, which is called the stipule.
     The  green  parenchyma  of  the leaf is covered with a thin epiderm
     pierced with closable microscopic openings, known as stomata.

   2.  (Bot.)  A  special  organ  of  vegetation in the form of a lateral
   outgrowth  from  the stem, whether appearing as a part of the foliage,
   or as a cotyledon, a scale, a bract, a spine, or a tendril.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th is vi ew every part of a plant, except the root
     and  the  stem,  is either a leaf, or is composed of leaves more or
     less modified and transformed.

   3.  Something which is like a leaf in being wide and thin and having a
   flat  surface,  or  in  being attached to a larger body by one edge or
   end;  as  :  (a) A part of a book or folded sheet containing two pages
   upon its opposite sides. (b) A side, division, or part, that slides or
   is  hinged, as of window shutters, folding doors, etc. (c) The movable
   side  of  a table. (d) A very thin plate; as, gold leaf. (e) A portion
   of  fat  lying  in a separate fold or layer. (f) One of the teeth of a
   pinion, especially when small.
   Leaf  beetle (Zo\'94l.), any beetle which feeds upon leaves; esp., any
   species of the family Chrysomelid\'91, as the potato beetle and helmet
   beetle.  -- Leaf bridge, a draw-bridge having a platform or leaf which
   swings  vertically on hinges. -- Leaf bud (Bot.), a bud which develops
   into  leaves  or  a  leafy  branch.  -- Leaf butterfly (Zo\'94l.), any
   butterfly  which,  in  the form and colors of its wings, resembles the
   leaves  of  plants upon which it rests; esp., butterflies of the genus
   Kallima,  found in Southern Asia and the East Indies. -- Leaf crumpler
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  small  moth  (Phycis  indigenella), the larva of which
   feeds  upon  leaves of the apple tree, and forms its nest by crumpling
   and fastening leaves together in clusters. -- Leaf cutter (Zo\'94l.) ,
   any  one of various species of wild bees of the genus Megachile, which
   cut rounded pieces from the edges of leaves, or the petals of flowers,
   to be used in the construction of their nests, which are made in holes
   and crevices, or in a leaf rolled up for the purpose. Among the common
   American  species  are  M.  brevis  and  M. centuncularis. Called also
   rose-cutting  bee. -- Leaf fat, the fat which lies in leaves or layers
   within the body of an animal. -- Leaf flea (Zo\'94l.), a jumping plant
   louse  of  the  family  Psyllid\'91. -- Leaf frog (Zo\'94l.), any tree
   frog  of the genus Phyllomedusa. -- Leaf green.(Bot.) See Chlorophyll.
   -- Leaf hopper (Zo\'94l.), any small jumping hemipterous insect of the
   genus  Tettigonia,  and  allied  genera. They live upon the leaves and
   twigs  of  plants. See Live hopper. -- Leaf insect (Zo\'94l.), any one
   of  several  genera  and  species of orthopterous insects, esp. of the
   genus  Phyllium,  in which the wings, and sometimes the legs, resemble
   leaves  in  color  and  form. They are common in Southern Asia and the
   East Indies. -- Leaf lard, lard from leaf fat. See under Lard. -- Leaf
   louse  (Zo\'94l.),  an  aphid. -- Leaf metal, metal in thin leaves, as
   gold,  silver,  or  tin.  -- Leaf miner (Zo\'94l.), any one of various
   small  lepidopterous  and  dipterous  insects,  which,  in  the larval
   stages,  burrow in and eat the parenchyma of leaves; as, the pear-tree
   leaf  miner (Lithocolletis geminatella). -- Leaf notcher (Zo\'94l.), a
   pale bluish green beetle (Artipus Floridanus), which, in Florida, eats
   the  edges  of  the leaves of orange trees. -- Leaf roller (Zo\'94l.),
   the  larva  of any tortricid moth which makes a nest by rolling up the
   leaves  of plants. See Tortrix. -- Leaf scar (Bot.), the cicatrix on a
   stem  whence  a leaf has fallen. -- Leaf sewer (Zo\'94l.), a tortricid
   moth,  whose  caterpillar  makes  a  nest  by  rolling  up  a leaf and
   fastening  the edges together with silk, as if sewn; esp., Phoxopteris
   nubeculana,  which  feeds upon the apple tree. -- Leaf sight, a hinges
   sight  on a firearm, which can be raised or folded down. -- Leaf trace
   (Bot.), one or more fibrovascular bundles, which may be traced down an
   endogenous  stem  from  the base of a leaf. -- Leaf tier (Zo\'94l.), a
   tortricid  moth  whose  larva makes a nest by fastening the edges of a
   leaf  together  with  silk; esp., Teras cinderella, found on the apple
   tree.  --  Leaf  valve,  a  valve which moves on a hinge. -- Leaf wasp
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  sawfiy.  -- To turn over a new leaf, to make a radical
   change for the better in one's way of living or doing. [Colloq.]

     They were both determined to turn over a new leaf. Richardson.

   Page 838


   Leaf (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Leafed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leafing.] To
   shoot  out  leaves; to produce leaves; to leave; as, the trees leaf in
   May.<-- = leaf out --> Sir T. Browne.


   Leaf"age (?), n. Leaves, collectively; foliage.


   Leaf"cup`  (?),  n.  (Bot.) A coarse American composite weed (Polymnia


   Leafed  (?),  a.  Having (such) a leaf or (so many) leaves; -- used in
   composition; as, broad-leafed; four-leafed.


   Leaf"et (?), n. (Bot.) A leaflet.


   Leaf"-foot`ed  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having leaflike expansions on the
   legs;   --   said   of   certain  insects;  as,  the  leaf-footed  bug
   (Leptoglossus phyllopus).


   Leaf"i*ness (?), n. The state of being leafy.


   Leaf"less,  a.  Having  no  leaves  or  foliage;  bearing  no foliage.
   "Leafless  groves."  Cowper.  --  Leaf"less*ness,  n. Leafless plants,
   plants  having no foliage, though leaves may be present in the form of
   scales and bracts. See Leaf, n., 1 and 2.


   Leaf"let (?), n.

   1. A little leaf; also, a little printed leaf or a tract.

   2. (Bot.) One of the divisions of a compound leaf; a foliole.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.) A leaflike organ or part; as, a leaflet of the gills of


   Leaf"-nosed`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  a leaflike membrane on the
   nose;  --  said  of  certain  bats, esp. of the genera Phyllostoma and
   Rhinonycteris. See Vampire.


   Leaf"stalk` (?), n. (Bot.) The stalk or petiole which supports a leaf.


   Leaf"y (?), a. [Compar. Leafier (?); superl. Leafiest.]

   1.  Full  of  leaves;  abounding in leaves; as, the leafy forest. "The
   leafy month of June." Coleridge.

   2. Consisting of leaves. "A leafy bed." Byron.


   League  (?),  n. [Cf. OE. legue, lieue, a measure of length, F. lieue,
   Pr.  lega, legua, It. & LL. lega, Sp. legua, Pg. legoa, legua; all fr.
   LL.  leuca,  of  Celtic origin: cf. Arm. leo, lev (perh. from French),
   Ir.leige  (perh. from English); also Ir. & Gael. leac a flag, a broad,
   flat  stone, W. llech, -- such stones having perh. served as a sort of
   milestone (cf. Cromlech).]

   1.  A  measure  of  length or distance, varying in different countries
   from  about  2.4  to 4.6 English statute miles of 5.280 feet each, and
   used  (as  a  land measure) chiefly on the continent of Europe, and in
   the  Spanish  parts  of  America. The marine league of England and the
   United States is equal to three marine, or geographical, miles of 6080
   feet each.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e En glish la nd le ague is  equal to three English
     statute  miles. The Spanish and French leagues vary in each country
     according  to  usage  and the kind of measurement to which they are
     applied.   The   Dutch   and  German  leagues  contain  about  four
     geographical miles, or about 4.6 English statute miles.

   2.  A  stone  erected  near  a  public  road to mark the distance of a
   league. [Obs.]


   League  (?),  n.  [F.ligue,  LL.  liga, fr. L. ligare to bind; cf. Sp.
   liga. Cf. Ally a confederate, Ligature.] An alliance or combination of
   two  or more nations, parties, or persons, for the accomplishment of a
   purpose  which  requires  a  continued course of action, as for mutual
   defense,  or  for  furtherance  of commercial, religious, or political
   interests, etc.

     And let there be 'Twixt us and them no league, nor amity. Denham.

     NOTE: &hand; A  le ague ma y be  of fensive or  defensive, or both;
     offensive,  when  the  parties agree to unite in attacking a common
     enemy; defensive, when they agree to a mutual defense of each other
     against an enemy.

   The  Holy  League,  an  alliance  of Roman Catholics formed in 1576 by
   influence  of  the Duke of Guise for the exclusion of Protestants from
   the  throne  of France. -- Solemn League and Covenant. See Covenant,2.
   --  The  land  league, an association, organized in Dublin in 1879, to
   promote  the interests of the Irish tenantry, its avowed objects being
   to  secure  fixity  of tenure fair rent, and free sale of the tenants'
   interest.   It  was  declared  illegal  by  Parliament,  but  vigorous
   prosecutions   have   failed   to   suppress  it.  Syn.  --  Alliance;
   confederacy;    confederation;    coalition;   combination;   compact;


   League  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Leagued (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leaguing
   (?).]  [Cf.  F.  se  liguer.  See  2d League.] To unite in a league or
   confederacy; to combine for mutual support; to confederate South.


   League,  v.  t.  To  join in a league; to cause to combine for a joint
   purpose;  to  combine;  to  unite;  as,  common  interests will league
   heterogeneous elements.


   Lea"guer,   n.   [D.leger  camp,  bed,  couch,  lair.  See  Lair,  and

   1. The camp of a besieging army; a camp in general. b. Jonson.

   2. A siege or beleaguering. [R.] Sir W. Scott.


   Lea"guer, v. t.To besiege; to beleaguer. [Obs.]


   Lea"guer*er (?), n. A besieger. [R.] J. Webster.


   Leak  (?), n. [Akin to D. lek leaky, a leak, G.leck, Icel. lekr leaky,
   Dan. l\'91k leaky, a leak, Sw. l\'84ck; cf. AS. hlec full of cracks or
   leaky. Cf. Leak, v.]

   1.  A  crack,  crevice,  fissure,  or hole which admits water or other
   fluid,  or  lets  it escape; as, a leak in a roof; a leak in a boat; a
   leak in a gas pipe. "One leak will sink a ship." Bunyan.

   2.  The  entrance  or  escape  of a fluid through a crack, fissure, or
   other aperture; as, the leak gained on the ship's pumps.
   To  spring a leak, to open or crack so as to let in water; to begin to
   let in water; as, the ship sprung a leak.


   Leak, a. Leaky. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Leak,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Leaked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leaking.] [Akin
   to  D.  lekken,  G.  lecken,  lechen,  Icel.  leka, Dan. l\'91kke, Sw.
   l\'84cka, AS. leccan to wet, moisten. See Leak, n.]

   1.  To  let  water  or  other fluid in or out through a hole, crevice,
   etc.; as, the cask leaks; the roof leaks; the boat leaks.

   2.  To enter or escape, as a fluid, through a hole, crevice, etc. ; to
   pass gradually into, or out of, something; -- usually with in or out.
   To  leak  out,  to  be  divulged gradually or clandestinely; to become
   public; as, the facts leaked out.


   Leak"age (, n. [Cf. D. lekkage, for sense 1.]

   1. A leaking; also, the quantity that enters or issues by leaking.

   2.  (Com.)  An allowance of a certain rate per cent for the leaking of
   casks, or waste of liquors by leaking.


   Leak"i*ness (?), n. The quality of being leaky.


   Leak"y (?), a. [Compar. Leakier (?); superl. Leakiest.]

   1. Permitting water or other fluid to leak in or out; as, a leaky roof
   or cask.

   2. Apt to disclose secrets; tattling; not close. [Colloq.]


   Leal  (?), a. [OE. leial, another form of loial, F. loyal. See Loyal.]
   Faithful; loyal; true.

     All men true and leal, all women pure. Tennyson.

   Land of the leal, the place of the faithful; heaven.


   Leam (?), n. & v. i. See Leme. [Obs.] Holland.


   Leam, n. [See Leamer, Lien.] A cord or strap for leading a dog. Sir W.


   Leam"er (?), n. [F. limier, OF. liemier, fr. L. ligamen band, bandage.
   See Lien.] A dog held by a leam.


   Lean  (?),  v.  t. [Icel. leyna; akin to G. l\'84ugnen to deny, AS. l,
   also E. lie to speak falsely.] To conceal. [Obs.] Ray.


   Lean  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Leaned (?), sometimes Leant (p. pr. &
   vb. n. Leaning.] [OE. lenen, AS. hlinian, hleonian, v. i.; akin to OS.
   hlin\'d3n,   D.  leunen,  OHG.  hlin\'c7n,  lin\'c7n,  G.  lehnen,  L.
   inclinare,  Gr.  clivus  hill, slope. &root;40. Cf. Declivity, Climax,
   Incline, Ladder.]

   1.  To incline, deviate, or bend, from a vertical position; to be in a
   position  thus  inclining  or  deviating;  as,  she  leaned out at the
   window; a leaning column. "He leant forward." Dickens.

   2. To incline in opinion or desire; to conform in conduct; -- with to,
   toward, etc.

     They delight rather to lean to their old customs. Spenser.

   3.  To  rest  or rely, for support, comfort, and the like; -- with on,
   upon, or against.

     He leaned not on his fathers but himself. Tennyson.


   Lean,  v. t. [From Lean, v. i. ; AS. hl, v. t., fr. hleonian, hlinian,
   v.  i.]  To  cause  to  lean;  to  incline;  to  support or rest. Mrs.

     His fainting limbs against an oak he leant. Dryden.


   Lean (?), a. [Compar. Leaner (?); superl. Leanest.] [OE. lene, AS. hl;
   prob. akin to E. lean to incline. See Lean, v. i. ]

   1. Wanting flesh; destitute of or deficient in fat; not plump; meager;
   thin; lank; as, a lean body; a lean cattle.

   2.   Wanting   fullness,  richness,  sufficiency,  or  productiveness;
   deficient  in quality or contents; slender; scant; barren; bare; mean;
   --  used  literally  and  figuratively;  as,  the lean harvest; a lean
   purse; a lean discourse; lean wages. "No lean wardrobe." Shak.

     Their lean and fiashy songs. Milton.

     What the land is, whether it be fat or lean. Num. xiii. 20.

     Out of my lean and low ability I'll lend you something. Shak.

   3.  (Typog.) Of a character which prevents the compositor from earning
   the  usual  wages;  --  opposed to fat; as lean copy, matter, or type.
   Syn. -- slender; spare; thin; meager; lank; skinny; gaunt.


   Lean (?), n.

   1.  That part of flesh which consist principally of muscle without the

     The fat was so white and the lean was so ruddy. Goldsmith.

   2. (Typog.) Unremunerative copy or work.


   Lean"-faced` (?), a.

   1. Having a thin face.

   2.  (Typog.)  slender  or narrow; -- said of type the letters of which
   have  thin  lines,  or  are  unusually  narrow  in proportion to their
   height. W. Savage.


   Lean"ing,  n.  The act, or state, of inclining; inclination; tendency;
   as, a leaning towards Calvinism.


   Lean"ly, adv. Meagerly; without fat or plumpness.


   Lean"ness,  n.  [AS. hl&aemac;nnes.] The condition or quality of being


   Lean"-to` (?), a. (Arch.) Having only one slope or pitch; -- said of a
   roof.  --  n.  A  shed or slight building placed against the wall of a
   larger  structure  and  having  a  single-pitched roof; -- called also
   penthouse,   and   to-fall.<--  a  crude,  usually  temporary  shelter
   comprising  a lean-to roof braced against any convenient support, as a
   wall, a tree or a pole. The roof may extend all the way to the ground.

     The  outer  circuit  was covered as a lean-to, all round this inner
     apartment. De Foe.


   Lean"-wit`ted (?), a. Having but little sense or shrewdness.


   Lean"y (?), a. Lean. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Leap (?), n. [AS. le\'a0p.]

   1. A basket. [Obs.] Wyclif.

   2. A weel or wicker trap for fish. [Prov. Eng.]


   Leap  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Leaped (?), rarely Leapt; p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Leaping.]  [OE.  lepen, leapen, AS. hle\'a0pan to leap, jump, run;
   akin to OS. \'behl, OFries. hlapa, D. loopen, G. laufen, OHG. louffan,
   hlauffan,  Icel.  hlaupa,  Sw. l\'94pa, Dan. l\'94be, Goth. ushlaupan.
   Cf. Elope, Lope, Lapwing, Loaf to loiter.]

   1.  To  spring  clear of the ground, with the feet; to jump; to vault;
   as, a man leaps over a fence, or leaps upon a horse. Bacon.

     Leap in with me into this angry flood. Shak.

   2.  To spring or move suddenly, as by a jump or by jumps; to bound; to
   move swiftly. Also Fig.

     My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky. Wordsworth.


   Leap, v. t.

   1. To pass over by a leap or jump; as, to leap a wall, or a ditch.

   2. To copulate with (a female beast); to cover.

   3. To cause to leap; as, to leap a horse across a ditch.


   Leap, n.

   1.  The  act  of  leaping,  or  the space passed by leaping; a jump; a
   spring; a bound.

     Wickedness  comes  on  by  degrees, . . . and sudden leaps from one
     extreme to another are unnatural. L'Estrange.

     Changes of tone may proceed either by leaps or glides. H. Sweet.

   2. Copulation with, or coverture of, a female beast.

   3. (Mining) A fault.

   4.  (Mus.)  A  passing  from  one  note  to  another  by  an interval,
   especially  by  a  long  one,  or  by  one including several other and
   intermediate intervals.


   Leap"er (?), n. [AS. hle\'a0pere.] One who, or that which, leaps.


   Leap"er, n. [See 1st Leap.] A kind of hooked instrument for untwisting
   old cordage.


   Leap"frog`  (?),  n.  A  play among boys, in which one stoops down and
   another  leaps  over  him by placing his hands on the shoulders of the


   Leap"ful (?), n. [See 1st Leap.] A basketful. [Obs.]


   Leap"ing, a. & n. from Leap, to jump. Leaping house, a brothel. [Obs.]
   Shak.  --  Leaping  pole,  a  pole  used  in some games of leaping. --
   Leaping spider (Zo\'94l.), a jumping spider; one of the Saltigrad\'91.


   Leap"ing*ly, adv. By leaps.

                                   Leap year

   Leap"  year` (?). Bissextile; a year containing 366 days; every fourth
   year  which  leaps  over  a  day  more  than  a common year, giving to
   February twenty-nine days. See Bissextile.

     NOTE: &hand; Every year whose number is divisible by four without a
     remainder  is  a leap year, excepting the full centuries, which, to
     be leap years, must be divisible by 400 without a remainder. If not
     so  divisible they are common years. 1900, therefore, is not a leap


   Lear (?), v. t. To learn. See Lere, to learn. [Obs.]


   Lear, n. Lore; lesson. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Lear, a. See Leer, a. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Lear, n. An annealing oven. See Leer, n.


   Learn (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Learned (?), or Learnt (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Learning.]  [OE.  lernen, leornen, AS. leornian; akin to OS. lin\'d3n,
   for  lirn\'d3n,  OHG. lirn\'c7n, lern\'c7n, G. lernen, fr. the root of
   AS. l to teach, OS. l\'c7rian, OHG.l\'c7ran, G. lehren, Goth. laisjan,
   also  Goth  lais  I know, leis acquainted (in comp.); all prob. from a
   root  meaning,  to go, go over, and hence, to learn; cf. AS. leoran to
   go . Cf. Last a mold of the foot, lore.]

   1.  To  gain  knowledge  or  information  of; to ascertain by inquiry,
   study,  or investigation; to receive instruction concerning; to fix in
   the mind; to acquire understanding of, or skill; as, to learn the way;
   to  learn  a lesson; to learn dancing; to learn to skate; to learn the
   violin; to learn the truth about something. "Learn to do well." Is. i.

     Now learn a parable of the fig tree. Matt. xxiv. 32.

   2. To communicate knowledge to; to teach. [Obs.]

     Hast thou not learned me how To make perfumes ? Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Le arn fo rmerly ha d al so th e se nse of  te ach, in
     accordance  with the analogy of the French and other languages, and
     hence we find it with this sense in Shakespeare, Spenser, and other
     old writers. This usage has now passed away. To learn is to receive
     instruction,  and to teach is to give instruction. He who is taught
     learns, not he who teaches.


   Learn,  v.  i.  To  acquire  knowledge  or  skill; to make progress in
   acquiring  knowledge  or skill; to receive information or instruction;
   as, this child learns quickly.

     Take my yoke upon you and learn of me. Matt. xi. 29.

   To  learn by heart. See By heart, under Heart. -- To learn by rote, to
   memorize by repetition without exercise of the understanding.

   Page 839


   Learn"a*ble (?), a. Such as can be learned.


   Learn"ed  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  learning;  possessing,  or
   characterized   by,   learning,  esp.  scholastic  learning;  erudite;
   well-informed;  as,  a  learned  scholar, writer, or lawyer; a learned
   book; a learned theory.

     The learnedlover lost no time. Spenser.

     Men of much reading are greatly learned, but may be little knowing.

     Words of learned length and thundering sound. Goldsmith.

   The  learned, learned men; men of erudition; scholars. -- Learn"ed*ly,
   adv. Learn"ed*ness, n.

     Every coxcomb swears as learnedly as they. Swift.


   Learn"er (?), n. One who learns; a scholar.


   Learn"ing, n. [AS. leornung.]

   1.  The  acquisition  of  knowledge  or  skill;  as,  the  learning of
   languages; the learning of telegraphy.

   2.  The  knowledge or skill received by instruction or study; acquired
   knowledge  or ideas in any branch of science or literature; erudition;
   literature; science; as, he is a man of great learning.
   Book  learning.  See  under Book. Syn. -- Literature; erudition; lore;
   scholarship; science; letters. See Literature.


   Leas"a*ble (?), a. [From 2d Lease.] Such as can be leased.


   Lease  (?),  v.  i.  [AS. lesan to gather; akin to D. lezen to gather,
   read,  G.  lesen,  Goth.  lisan to gather; cf. Lith lesti to peck.] To
   gather what harvesters have left behind; to glean. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Lease  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Leased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leasing.]
   [F.laisser,  OF.  laissier,  lessier, to leave, transmit, L. laxare to
   loose, slacken, from laxus loose, wide. See Lax, and cf. Lesser.]

   1.  To  grant  to  another  by  lease  the possession of, as of lands,
   tenements,  and  hereditaments;  to  let;  to  demise; as, a landowner
   leases a farm to a tenant; -- sometimes with out.

     There  were  some  [houses]  that  were leased out for three lives.

   2.  To  hold  under a lease; to take lease of; as, a tenant leases his
   land from the owner.


   Lease (?), n. [Cf. OF. lais. See Lease, v. t.]

   1.  A  demise  or  letting  of  lands,  tenements, or hereditaments to
   another  for  life,  for  a term of years, or at will, or for any less
   interest than that which the lessor has in the property, usually for a
   specified rent or compensation.

   2. The contract for such letting.

   3. Any tenure by grant or permission; the time for which such a tenure
   holds good; allotted time.

     Our high-placed Macbeth Shall live the lease of nature. Shak.

   Lease  and  release a mode of conveyance of freehold estates, formerly
   common  in  England  and  in  New York. its place is now supplied by a
   simple deed of grant. Burrill. Warren's Blackstone.


   Lease"hold` (?), a. Held by lease.


   Lease"hold`,  n.  A  tenure  by  lease;  specifically,  land  held  as
   personalty under a lease for years.


   Lease"hold`er  (?), n. A tenant under a lease. -- Lease"hold`ing, a. &


   Leas"er  (?),  n.  [From  1st Lease.] One who leases or gleans. [Obs.]


   Leas"er, n. A liar. [Obs.] See Leasing.


   Leash  (?),  n. [OE. lese, lees, leece, OF. lesse, F. laisse, LL.laxa,
   fr. L. laxus loose. See Lax.]

   1.  A  thong of leather, or a long cord, by which a falconer holds his
   hawk, or a courser his dog.

     Even like a fawning greyhound in the leash. Shak.

   2.  (Sporting) A brace and a half; a tierce; three; three creatures of
   any  kind,  especially greyhounds, foxes, bucks, and hares; hence, the
   number three in general.

     [I] kept my chamber a leash of days. B. Jonson.

     Then were I wealthier than a leash of kings. Tennyson.

   3. (Weaving) A string with a loop at the end for lifting warp threads,
   in a loom.


   Leash,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Leashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leashing.] To
   tie together, or hold, with a leash.


   Leas"ing (?), n. [AS. le\'a0sung, fr. le\'a0s loose, false, deceitful.
   See  -less,  Loose,  a.]  The  act of lying; falsehood; a lie or lies.
   [Archaic] Spenser.

     Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing. Ps. v. 6.

     Blessed be the lips that such a leasing told. Fairfax.

   Leasing  making  (Scots  Law), the uttering of lies or libels upon the
   personal  character  of  the  sovereign, his court, or his family. Bp.


   Lea"sow (?), n. [AS. lesu, l\'91su.] A pasture. [Obs.]


   Least  (?), a. [OE. last, lest, AS. l, l, superl. of l less. See Less,
   a.]  [Used  as the superlative of little.] Smallest, either in size or
   degree;  shortest; lowest; most unimportant; as, the least insect; the
   least mercy; the least space.

     NOTE: &hand; Least is often used with the, as if a noun.

     I am the least of the apostles. 1 Cor. xv. 9.

   At  least,  OR  At  the  least,  at the least estimate, consideration,
   chance, etc.; hence, at any rate; at all events; even. See However.

     He  who  tempts, though in vain, at least asperses The tempted with
     dishonor. Milton.

     Upon  the mast they saw a young man, at least if he were a man, who
     sat as on horseback. Sir P. Sidney.

   --  In  least,  OR In the least, in the least degree, manner, etc. "He
   that  is unjust in the least is unjust also in much." Luke xvi. 10. --
   Least squares (Math.), a method of deducing from a number of carefully
   made  yet  slightly  discordant  observations of a phenomenon the most
   probable values of the unknown quantities.

     NOTE: It ta kes as its fundamental principle that the most probable
     values  are those which make the sum of the squares of the residual
     errors of the observation a minimum.


   Least,  adv.  In  the smallest or lowest degree; in a degree below all
   others; as, to reward those who least deserve it.


   Least, conj. See Lest, conj. [Obs.] Spenser.

                             Leastways, Leastwise

   Least"ways`  (?),  Least"wise`  (?),  adv.  At  least;  at all events.
   [Colloq.] At leastways, OR At leastwise, at least. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Lea"sy  (?), a. [AS. le\'a0s void, loose, false. Cf. Leasing.] Flimsy;
   vague; deceptive. [Obs.] Ascham.


   Leat  (?),  n. [Cf. Lead to conduct.] An artificial water trench, esp.
   one to or from a mill. C. Kingsley.


   Leath"er  (?),  n.  [OE. lether, AS. le; akin to D. leder, le\'88r, G.
   leder, OHG. ledar, Icel. le, Sw. l\'84der, Dan. l\'91der.]

   1. The skin of an animal, or some part of such skin, tanned, tawed, or
   otherwise dressed for use; also, dressed hides, collectively.

   2. The skin. [Ironical or Sportive]

     NOTE: &hand; Le ather is much used adjectively in the sense of made
     of, relating to, or like, leather.

   Leather  board,  an imitation of sole leather, made of leather scraps,
   rags,  paper,  etc.  -- Leather carp (Zo\'94l.) , a variety of carp in
   which  the  scales  are  all, or nearly all, absent. See Illust. under
   Carp.  --  Leather  jacket. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A California carangoid fish
   (Oligoplites  saurus).  (b) A trigger fish (Balistes Carolinensis). --
   Leather  flower  (Bot.),  a  climbing  plant  (Clematis Viorna) of the
   Middle and Southern States having thick, leathery sepals of a purplish
   color.  --  Leather  leaf  (Bot.), a low shrub (Cassandra calyculata),
   growing  in  Northern swamps, and having evergreen, coriaceous, scurfy
   leaves. -- Leather plant (Bot.), one or more New Zealand plants of the
   composite  genus  Celmisia, which have white or buff tomentose leaves.
   --  Leather  turtle. (Zo\'94l.) See Leatherback. -- Vegetable leather.
   (a)  An  imitation  of  leather  made of cotton waste. (b) Linen cloth
   coated with India rubber. Ure.


   Leath"er,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Leathered  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Leathering.] To beat, as with a thong of leather. [Obs. or Colloq.] G.


   Leath"er*back`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  sea  turtle  (Sphargis
   coriacea),  having no bony shell on its back. It is common in the warm
   and  temperate  parts  of  the  Atlantic,  and sometimes weighs over a
   thousand  pounds;  --  called  also  leather  turtle, leathery turtle,
   leather-backed tortoise, etc.

                            Leatheret, Leatherette

   Leath"er*et  (?),  Leath`er*ette" (?), n. [Leather + et, F. -ette.] An
   imitation of leather, made of paper and cloth.


   Leath"er*head` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The friar bird.


   Leath"ern  (?),  a.  Made  of  leather;  consisting of. leather; as, a
   leathern purse. "A leathern girdle about his loins." Matt. iii. 4.


   Leath"er*neck`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) The sordid friar bird of Australia
   (Tropidorhynchus sordidus).


   Leath"er*wood`,  n.  (Bot.) A small branching shrub (Dirca palustris),
   with  a  white,  soft wood, and a tough, leathery bark, common in damp
   woods  in  the  Northern  United States; -- called also moosewood, and
   wicopy. Gray.


   Leath"er*y  (?),  a.  Resembling leather in appearance or consistence;
   tough. "A leathery skin." Grew.


   Leave (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Leaved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leaving] To
   send out leaves; to leaf; -- often with out. G. Fletcher.


   Leave, v. t. [See Levy.] To raise; to levy. [Obs.]

     An army strong she leaved. Spenser.


   Leave,  n.  [OE.  leve,  leave, AS. le\'a0f; akin to le\'a2f pleasing,
   dear,  E.  lief,  D.  oorlof leave, G. arlaub, and erlauben to permit,
   Icel. leyfi. Lief.]

   1.  Liberty  granted  by  which  restraint  or  illegality is removed;
   permission; allowance; license.

     David earnestly asked leave of me. 1 Sam. xx. 6.

     No friend has leave to bear away the dead. Dryden.

   2.  The  act  of  leaving  or  departing; a formal parting; a leaving;
   farewell;  adieu; -- used chiefly in the phrase, to take leave, i. e.,
   literally, to take permission to go.

     A  double blessing is a'double grace; Occasion smiles upon a second
     leave. Shak.

     And  Paul  after this tarried there yet a good while, and then took
     his leave of the brethren. Acts xviii. 18.

   French leave. See under French. Syn. -- See Liberty.


   Leave,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Left (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leaving.] [OE.
   leven, AS. l, fr. l\'bef remnant, heritage; akin to lifian, libban, to
   live,  orig.,  to  remain; cf. bel\'c6fan to remain, G. bleiben, Goth.
   bileiban. Live, v.]

   1.  To  withdraw one's self from; to go away from; to depart from; as,
   to leave the house.

     Therefore  shall  a  man leave his father and his mother, and shall
     cleave unto his wife. Gen. ii. 24.

   2.  To  let  remain  unremoved  or undone; to let stay or continue, in
   distinction from what is removed or changed.

     If grape gatherers come to thee, would they not leave some gleaning
     grapes ? Jer. xlix. 9. 

     These  ought  ye  to  have done, and not to leave the other undone.
     Matt. xxiii. 23. 

     Besides  it  leaveth  a suspicion, as if more might be said than is
     expressed. Bacon.

   3. To cease from; to desist from; to abstain from.

     Now leave complaining and begin your tea. Pope.

   4.  To  desert;  to  abandon;  to  forsake;  hence,  to  give  up;  to

     Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee. Mark x. 28.

     The heresies that men do leave. Shak.

   5.  To  let  be  or  do  without  interference;  as, I left him to his
   reflections; I leave my hearers to judge.

     I will leave you now to your gossiplike humor. Shak.

   6.  To  put; to place; to deposit; to deliver; to commit; to submit --
   with a sense of withdrawing one's self from; as, leave your hat in the
   hall; we left our cards; to leave the matter to arbitrators.

     Leave there thy gift before the altar and go thy way. Matt. v. 24.

     The foot That leaves the print of blood where'er it walks. Shak.

   7. To have remaining at death; hence, to bequeath; as, he left a large
   estate; he left a good name; he left a legacy to his niece.
   To  leave  alone.  (a)  To leave in solitude. (b) To desist or refrain
   from  having to do with; as, to leave dangerous chemicals alone. -- To
   leave  off.  (a) To desist from; to forbear; to stop; as, to leave off
   work  at six o'clock. (b) To cease wearing or using; to omit to put in
   the  usual  position;  as,  to  leave  off a garment; to leave off the
   tablecloth.  (c) To forsake; as, to leave off a bad habit. -- To leave
   out,  to omit; as, to leave out a word or name in writing. -- To leave
   to one's self, to let (one) be alone; to cease caring for (one). Syn>-
   To quit; depart from; forsake; abandon; relinquish; deliver; bequeath;
   give up; forego; resign; surrender; forbear. See Quit.


   Leave (?), v. i.

   1. To depart; to set out. [Colloq.]

     By the time I left for Scotland. Carlyle.

   2.  To  cease; to desist; to leave off. "He . . . began at the eldest,
   and left at the youngest." Gen. xliv. 12.
   To leave off, to cease; to desist; to stop.

     Leave off, and for another summons wait. Roscommon.


   Leaved  (?),  a.  [From  Leaf.]  Bearing, or having, a leaf or leaves;
   having  folds;  --  used  in  combination; as, a four-leaved clover; a
   two-leaved gate; long-leaved.


   Leave"less (?), a. Leafless. [Obs.] Carew.


   Leav"en   (?),   n.   [OE.  levain,  levein,  F.  levain,  L.  levamen
   alleviation,  mitigation;  but  taken in the sense of, a raising, that
   which raises, fr. levare to raise. See Lever, n.]

   1.   Any   substance   that  produces,  or  is  designed  to  produce,
   fermentation,  as  in  dough or liquids; esp., a portion of fermenting
   dough,  which,  mixed  with  a  larger  quantity  of dough, produces a
   general change in the mass, and renders it light; yeast; barm.

   2.   Anything   which  makes  a  general  assimilating  (especially  a
   corrupting) change in the mass.

     Beware  of  the  leaven  of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. Luke
     xii. 1.


   Leav"en,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Leavened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leavening

   1. To make light by the action of leaven; to cause to ferment.

     A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. 1 Cor. v. 6.

   2. To imbue; to infect; to vitiate.

     With  these  and the like deceivable doctrines, he leavens also his
     prayer. Milton.


   Leav"en*ing (?), n.

   1. The act of making light, or causing to ferment, by means of leaven.

   2. That which leavens or makes light. Bacon.


   Leav"en*ous (?), a. Containing leaven. Milton.


   Leav"er (?), n. One who leaves, or withdraws.


   Leaves (?), n., pl. of Leaf.


   Leave"-tak`ing (?), n. Taking of leave; parting compliments. Shak.


   Leav"i*ness (?), n. [Fr. Leaf.] Leafiness.[Obs.]


   Leav"ings, n. pl.

   1. Things left; remnants; relics.

   2. Refuse; offal.


   Leav"y (?), a. Leafy. [Obs.] Chapman.

                                 Leban, Lebban

   Leb"an,  Leb"ban (?), n. Coagulated sour milk diluted with water; -- a
   common  beverage among the Arabs. Also, a fermented liquor made of the


   Le*ca"ma (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The hartbeest.


   Le*can"o*man`cy  (?), n. [Gr. -mancy.] divination practiced with water
   in  a  basin, by throwing three stones into it, and invoking the demon
   whose aid was sought.


   Lec`a*no"ric (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating, an organic
   acid  which  is  obtained  from several varieties of lichen (Lecanora,
   Roccella, etc.), as a white, crystalline substance, and is called also
   orsellic, OR diorsellinic acid, lecanorin, etc.


   Lec`a*no"rin (?), n. (Chem.) See Lecanoric.


   Lech (?), v. t. [F. l\'82cher. See Lick.] To lick. [Obs.]


   Le*che" (?), n. See water buck, under 3d Buck.


   Lech"er  (?),  n.  [OE.lechur,  lechour, OF.lecheor, lecheur, gormand,
   glutton,  libertine,  parasite,  fr. lechier to lick, F. l\'82cher; of
   Teutonic  origin. See Lick.] A man given to lewdness; one addicted, in
   an excessive degree, to the indulgence of sexual desire, or to illicit
   commerce with women.


   Lech"er, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lechered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lechering.]
   To practice lewdness.


   Lech"er*er (?), n. See Lecher, n. Marston.


   Lech"er*ous  (?),  a.  Like  a  lecher; addicted to lewdness; lustful;
   also,  lust-provoking.  "A  lecherous  thing  is  wine."  Chaucer.  --
   Lech"er*ous*ly, adv. -- Lech"er*ous*ness, n.


   Lech"er*y (?), n. [OE. lecherie, OF. lecherie. See Lecher.]

   1. Free indulgence of lust; lewdness.

   2. Selfish pleasure; delight. [Obs.] Massinger.


   Lec"i*thin  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Physiol.  Chem.)  A  complex, nitrogenous
   phosphorized substance widely distributed through the animal body, and
   especially conspicuous in the brain and nerve tissue, in yolk of eggs,
   and in the white blood corpuscles.


   lec"tern (?), n. See Lecturn.


   Lec*ti"ca  (?),  n.;  pl. Lectic\'91 (#). [L.] (Rom. Antiq.) A kind of
   litter or portable couch.


   Lec"tion  (?), n. [L. lectio, fr. legere, lectum, to read. See lesson,

   1.  (Eccl.)  A  lesson or selection, esp. of Scripture, read in divine

   2. A reading; a variation in the text.

     We ourselves are offended by the obtrusion of the new lections into
     the text. De Quincey.


   Lec"tion*a*ry  (?), n.; pl. -ries (#). [LL. lectionarium, lectionarius
   :  cf.  F.  lectionnaire.] (Eccl.) A book, or a list, of lections, for
   reading in divine service.

   Page 840


   Lec"tor  (?),  n.  [L.  See  Lection.]  (Eccl.)  A reader of lections;
   formerly, a person designated to read lessons to the illiterate.


   Lec"tu*al (?), a. [LL. lectualis, fr. L. lectus bed.] (Med.) Confining
   to the bed; as, a lectual disease.


   Lec"ture  (?),  n. [F. lecture, LL. lectura, fr. L. legere, lectum, to
   read. See Legend.]

   1. The act of reading; as, the lecture of Holy Scripture. [Obs.]

   2.  A  discourse  on  any  subject; especially, a formal or methodical
   discourse,  intended for instruction; sometimes, a familiar discourse,
   in contrast with a sermon.

   3. A reprimand or formal reproof from one having authority.

   4. (Eng. Universities) A rehearsal of a lesson.


   Lec"ture,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lectured  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.

   1. To read or deliver a lecture to.

   2. To reprove formally and with authority.


   Lec"ture, v. i. To deliver a lecture or lectures.


   Lec"tur*er (?), n. One who lectures; an assistant preacher.


   Lec"ture*ship, n. The office of a lecturer.


   Lec"turn  (?),  n. [LL. lectrinum, fr. lectrum; cf. L. legere, lectum,
   to  read.] A choir desk, or reading desk, in some churches, from which
   the  lections,  or  Scripture  lessons,  are chanted or read; hence, a
   reading desk. [Written also lectern and lettern]. Fairholt.


   Lec"y*this  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. 3 an oil flask.] (Bot.) A genus of
   gigantic  trees,  chiefly  Brazilian, of the order Myrtace\'91, having
   woody  capsules opening by an apical lid. Lecythis Zabucajo yields the
   delicious  sapucaia  nuts.  L.  Ollaria  produces the monkey-pots, its
   capsules. Its bark separates into thin sheets, like paper, used by the
   natives for cigarette wrappers.


   Led  (?), imp. & p. p. of Lead. Led captain. An obsequious follower or
   attendant.  [Obs.]  Swift.  --  Led horse, a sumpter horse, or a spare
   horse, that is led along.

                                 Leden, Ledden

   Led"en  (?),  Led"den  (?)  n. [AS. l, l, language, speech. Cf. Leod.]
   Language; speech; voice; cry. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.


   Ledge  (?),  n.  [Akin  to  AS. licgan to lie, Icel. liggja; cf. Icel.
   l\'94gg  the  ledge  or  rim  at  the  bottom of a cask. See Lie to be
   prostrate.] [Formerly written lidge.]

   1.  A  shelf on which articles may be laid; also, that which resembles
   such  a  shelf  in  form  or  use, as a projecting ridge or part, or a
   molding or edge in joinery.

   2. A shelf, ridge, or reef, of rocks.

   3. A layer or stratum.

     The lowest ledge or row should be of stone. Sir H. Wotton.

   4. (Mining) A lode; a limited mass of rock bearing valuable mineral.

   5.  (Shipbuilding)  A  piece  of  timber  to  support the deck, placed
   athwartship between beams.


   Ledge"ment (?), n. See Ledgment.


   Ledg"er,  n.  [Akin  to  D.  legger layer, daybook (fr. leggen to lay,
   liggen to lie), E. ledge, lie. See Lie to be prostrate.]

   1.  A book in which a summary of accounts is laid up or preserved; the
   final book of record in business transactions, in which all debits and
   credits  from  the  journal, etc., are placed under appropriate heads.
   [Written also leger.]

   2.  (Arch.)  (a)  A  large flat stone, esp. one laid over a tomb. Oxf.
   Gloss.  (b)  A  horizontal piece of timber secured to the uprights and
   supporting  floor  timbers,  a staircase, scaffolding, or the like. It
   differs  from  an intertie in being intended to carry weight. [Written
   also ligger.]
   Ledger  bait, fishing bait attached to a floating line fastened to the
   bank  of a stream, pond, etc. Walton. J. H. Walsh. -- Ledger line. See
   Leger line, under 3d Leger, a. -- Ledger wall (Mining), the wall under
   a vein; the foot wall. Raymond.


   Ledg"ment  (?),  n.  (Arch.) (a) A string-course or horizontal suit of
   moldings, such as the base moldings of a building. Oxf. Gloss. (b) The
   development  of  the  surface  of  a  body  on  a  plane,  so that the
   dimensions  of  the  different sides may be easily ascertained. Gwilt.
   [Written also ledgement, legement, and ligement.]


   Ledg"y (?), a. Abounding in ledges; consisting of a ledge or reef; as,
   a ledgy island.


   Lee (?), v, i, To lie; to speak falsely. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lee, n.; pl. Lees (#). [F. lie, perh. fr. L. levare to lift up, raise.
   Cf.  Lever.] That which settles at the bottom, as, of a cask of liquor
   (esp.  wine);  sediment;  dregs; -- used now only in the plural. [Lees
   occurs also as a form of the singular.] "The lees of wine." Holland.

     A thousand demons lurk within the lee. Young.

     The  wine of life is drawn, and the mere lees Is left this vault to
     brag of. Shak.


   Lee,  n.  [OE.  lee  shelter, Icel. hl, akin to AS. hle\'a2, hle\'a2w,
   shelter, protection, OS. hl\'8ao, D. lij lee, Sw. l\'84, Dan. l\'91.]

   1.  A  sheltered place; esp., a place; protected from the wind by some
   object; the side sheltered from the wind; shelter; protection; as, the
   lee of a mountain, an island, or a ship.

     We lurked under lee. Morte d'Arthure.

     Desiring me to take shelter in his lee. Tyndall.

   2.  (Naut.)  That  part of the hemisphere, as one stands on shipboard,
   toward which the wind blows. See Lee, a.
   By the lee, To bring by the lee. See under By, and Bring. -- Under the
   lee of, on that side which is sheltered from the wind; as, to be under
   the lee of a ship.


   Lee,  a. (Naut.) Of or pertaining to the part or side opposite to that
   against  which the wind blows; -- opposed to weather; as, the lee side
   or  lee  rail  of  a  vessel.  Lee gauge. See Gauge, n. (Naut.) -- Lee
   shore,  the  shore  on  the  lee side of a vessel. -- Lee tide, a tide
   running in the same direction that the wind blows. -- On the lee beam,
   directly  to  the  leeward; in a line at right angles to the length of
   the vessel and to the leeward.


   Lee"board`  (?), n. A board, or frame of planks, lowered over the side
   of  a  vessel  to  lessen  her  leeway when closehauled, by giving her
   greater draught.


   Leech (?), n. See 2d Leach.


   Leech, v. t. See Leach, v. t.


   Leech,  n.  [Cf. LG. leik, Icel. l\'c6k, Sw. lik boltrope, stliken the
   leeches.]  (Naut.)  The border or edge at the side of a sail. [Written
   also  leach.] Leech line, a line attached to the leech ropes of sails,
   passing  up  through  blocks  on  the  yards,  to haul the leeches by.
   Totten.  -- Leech rope, that part of the boltrope to which the side of
   a sail is sewed.


   Leech,  n.  [OE.  leche, l\'91che, physician, AS. l; akin to Fries. l,
   OHG. l\'behh\'c6, Icel. l\'91knari, Sw. l\'84kare, Dan. l\'91ge, Goth.
   l,  AS.  l\'becnian to heal, Sw. l\'84ka, Dan.l\'91ge, Icel. l\'91kna,
   Goth. l.]

   1.  physician  or surgeon; a professor of the art of healing. [Written
   also leach.] [Archaic] Spenser.

     Leech, heal thyself. Wyclif (Luke iv. 23).

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  numerous  genera and species of annulose
   worms,  belonging  to  the  order Hirudinea, or Bdelloidea, esp. those
   species  <--  formerly!  -->used in medicine, as Hirudo medicinalis of
   Europe, and allied species.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e mo uth of  bl oodsucking le eches ar e th ree
     convergent,  serrated  jaws, moved by strong muscles. By the motion
     of  these  jaws  a  stellate  incision is made in the skin, through
     which  the leech sucks blood till it is gorged, and then drops off.
     The  stomach  has large pouches on each side to hold the blood. The
     common  large bloodsucking leech of America (Macrobdella decora) is
     dark  olive  above,  and red below, with black spots. Many kinds of
     leeches  are  parasitic  on  fishes;  others  feed  upon  worms and
     mollusks,  and  have  no  jaws  for  drawing blood. See Bdelloidea.
     Hirudinea, and Clepsine.

   3.  (Surg.) A glass tube of peculiar construction, adapted for drawing
   blood from a scarified part by means of a vacuum.
   Horse  leech,  a  less  powerful  European  leech  (H\'91mopis vorax),
   commonly attacking the membrane that lines the inside of the mouth and
   nostrils of animals that drink at pools where it lives.


   Leech, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Leeched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leeching.]

   1. To treat as a surgeon; to doctor; as, to leech wounds. [Archaic]

   2. To bleed by the use of leeches.


   Leech"craft`  (?),  n.  The  art  of  healing;  skill  of a physician.
   [Archaic] Chaucer.

                                  Leed, Leede

   Leed,  Leede  (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A caldron; a copper kettle.
   [Obs.] "A furnace of a leed." Chaucer.


   Leef (?), a. & adv. See Lief. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Leek  (?), n. [AS.le\'a0c; akin to D. look, G. lauch, OHG. louh, Icel.
   laukr,  Sw.  l\'94k,  Dan  l\'94g.  Cf. Garlic.] (Bot.) A plant of the
   genus  Allium  (A.  Porrum),  having  broadly  linear succulent leaves
   rising  from  a  loose oblong cylindrical bulb. The flavor is stronger
   than that of the common onion. Wild leek , in America, a plant (Allium
   tricoccum)  with  a cluster of ovoid bulbs and large oblong elliptical


   Leeme (?), v. & n. See Leme. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Leep (?), obs. strong imp. of Leap. leaped.


   Leer (?), v. t. To learn. [Obs.] See Lere, to learn.


   Leer,  a.  [OE.  lere;  akin to G. leer, OHG. & OS. l\'beri.] [Obs. or
   Prov.  Eng.]  Empty; destitute; wanting; as: (a) Empty of contents. "A
   leer  stomach." Gifford. (b) Destitute of a rider; and hence, led, not
   ridden; as, a leer horse. B. Jonson. (c) Wanting sense or seriousness;
   trifling; trivolous; as, leer words.


   Leer, n. An oven in which glassware is annealed.


   Leer, n. [OE.lere cheek, face, look, AS. hle\'a2r cheek, face; akin to
   OS. hlear, hlior, OD. lier, Icel. hl.]

   1. The cheek. [Obs.] Holinshed.

   2. complexion; aspect; appearance. [Obs.]

     A Rosalind of a better leer than you. Shak.

   3.  A  distorted  expression of the face, or an indirect glance of the
   eye, conveying a sinister or immodest suggestion.

     With jealous leer malign Eyed them askance. Milton.

     She gives the leer of invitation. Shak.

     Damn with faint praise, assent with civil leer. Pope.


   Leer,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Leered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Leering.] To
   look  with a leer; to look askance with a suggestive expression, as of
   hatred,  contempt,  lust,  etc. ; to cast a sidelong lustful or malign

     I will leer him as a'comes by. Shak.

     The  priest,  above  his  book,  Leering  at  his  neighbor's wife.


   Leer,  v.  t.  To  entice  with a leer, or leers; as, to leer a man to
   ruin. Dryden.


   Leere  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  Tape  or  braid;  an ornament.
   Halliwell.  Leere  side,  the  left  side, as that on which a leere or
   ornament was worn. B. Jonson.


   Leer"ing*ly, adv. In a leering manner.


   Lees (?), n. pl. Dregs. See 2d Lee.


   Lees (?), n. A leash. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Leese (?), v. t. [See Lose.] To lose. [Obs.]

     They  would  rather  leese  their  friend  than  their  jest.  Lord


   Leese,  v.  t. [Cf. f. l\'82ser, L.laesus, p. p. of laedere.] To hurt.
   [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Leet (?), obs. imp. of Let, to allow. Chaucer.


   Leet  n.  [Cf.  AS.  hl share, lot.] A portion; a list, esp. a list of
   candidates for an office. [Scot.]


   Leet,  n. [LL.leta. Cf. F. lit de justice a solemn sitting of the king
   in  Parliament, L. lis, litis, a lawsuit, It., Sp., & Pg. lite.] (Eng.
   Hist.)  A  court-leet;  the  district  within  the  jurisdiction  of a
   court-leet; the day on which a court-leet is held. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e original intent of the court-leet was to view the
     frankpledges  or  freemen within the liberty; hence called the view
     of frankpledge. Latterly it has fallen into almost entire disuse.

   Burrill. Warren's Blackstone. Leet ale, a feast or merrymaking in time
   of leet. [Obs.]


   Leet, n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) The European pollock.


   Leet"man  (?), n.; pl. Leetmen (. One subject to the jurisdiction of a


   Lee"ward  (?),  a.  (Naut.) Pertaining to, or in the direction of, the
   part  or side toward which the wind blows; -- opposed to windward; as,
   a  leeward berth; a leeward ship. -- n. The lee side; the lee. -- adv.
   Toward the lee.


   Lee"way` (?), n. (Naut.) The lateral movement of a ship to the leeward
   of her course; drift.


   Left (?), imp. & p. p. of Leave.


   Left,  a. [OE. left, lift, luft; akin to Fries. leeft, OD.lucht, luft;
   cf.  AS.left  (equiv.  to  L.  inanis),  lyft\'bedl palsy; or cf. AS.l
   weak.]  Of  or pertaining to that side of the body in man on which the
   muscular action of the limbs is usually weaker than on the other side;
   -- opposed to right, when used in reference to a part of the body; as,
   the  left  ear.  Also  said  of  the  corresponding  side of the lower
   animals.  Left  bank  of  a river, that which is on the left hand of a
   person  whose  face  is turned downstream. -- Left bower. See under 2d
   Bower.  -- Left center, the members whose sympathies are, in the main,
   with  the  members  of the Left, but who do not favor extreme courses,
   and on occasions vote with the government. They sit between the Center
   and  the extreme Left. -- Over the left shoulder, OR Over the left, an
   old  but  still current colloquialism, or slang expression, used as an
   aside to indicate insincerity, negation, or disbelief; as, he said it,
   and it is true, -- over the left.


   Left, n.

   1.  that part of surrounding space toward which the left side of one's
   body is turned; as, the house is on the left when you face North.

     Put that rose a little more to the left. Ld. Lytton.

   2.  those  members of a legislative assembly (as in France) who are in
   the  opposition;  the  advanced republicans and extreme radicals. They
   have  their  seats at the left-hand side of the presiding officer. See
   Center,  and  Right.<--  now  used  of  any group advocating a leftist
   policy  --  which  is  variously  interpeted,  as  meaning  "radical",
   "liberal", "reformist", "anti-establishment" "advocating change in the
   name  of  greater  freedom  or  well-being of the common man[MW10]" --
   opposed  to  rightist, and in the "liberal" interpretation, opposed to
   "conservative". -->


   Left"-hand`  (?),  a.  Situated on the left; nearer the left hand than
   the right; as, the left-hand side; the left-hand road. Left-hand rope,
   rope  laid up and twisted over from right to left, or against the sun;
   -- called also water-laid rope.


   Left"-hand`ed, a.

   1.  Having  the  left hand or arm stronger and more dexterous than the
   right; using the left hand and arm with more dexterity than the right.

   2.  Clumsy;  awkward;  unlucky;  insincere; sinister; malicious; as, a
   left-handed compliment.

     The  commendations  of  this  people are not always left-handed and
     detractive. Landor.

   3.  Having  a  direction contrary to that of the hands of a watch when
   seen  in  front;  -- said of a twist, a rotary motion, etc., looked at
   from a given direction.
   Left-handed  marriage,  a  morganatic  marriage.  See  Morganatic.  --
   Left-handed  screw,  a  screw  constructed  to  advance  away from the
   observer,  when  turned,  as in a nut, with a left-handed rotation. An
   ordinary wood screw is right-handed.

                        Left-handedness, Left-handiness

   Left"-hand`ed*ness,  Left"-hand`i*ness (?), n. The state or quality of
   being left-handed; awkwardness.

     An awkward address, ungraceful attitudes and actions, and a certain
     left-handiness   (if   I  may  use  the  expression)  proclaim  low
     education. Chesterfield.


   Left"-off" (?), a. Laid a side; cast-off.


   Left"ward (?), adv. Toward or on the left side.

     Rightward and leftward rise the rocks. Southey.


   Le"ful (?), a. See Leveful. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Leg  (?),  n.  [Icel.  leggr; akin to Dan. l\'91g calf of the leg, Sw.

   1.  A limb or member of an animal used for supporting the body, and in
   running,  climbing,  and swimming; esp., that part of the limb between
   the knee and foot.

   2. That which resembles a leg in form or use; especially, any long and
   slender support on which any object rests; as, the leg of a table; the
   leg of pair of compasses or dividers.

   3.  The  part of any article of clothing which covers the leg; as, the
   leg of a stocking or of a pair of trousers.

   4.  A bow, esp. in the phrase to make a leg; probably from drawing the
   leg backward in bowing. [Obs.]

     He  that  will  give  a cap and make a leg in thanks for a favor he
     never received. Fuller.

   5. A disreputable sporting character; a blackleg. [Slang, Eng.]

   6.  (Naut.)  The  course  and distance made by a vessel on one tack or
   between tacks.

   7.  (Steam Boiler) An extension of the boiler downward, in the form of
   a  narrow  space between vertical plates, sometimes nearly surrounding
   the  furnace and ash pit, and serving to support the boiler; -- called
   also water leg.

   8.  (Grain  Elevator)  The  case containing the lower part of the belt
   which carries the buckets.

   9.  (Cricket)  A fielder whose position is on the outside, a little in
   rear of the batter.
   A  good  leg  (Naut.),  a  course  sailed  on a tack which is near the
   desired course. -- Leg bail, escape from custody by flight. [Slang] --
   Legs  of  an  hyperbola  (or other curve) (Geom.), the branches of the
   curve  which  extend  outward indefinitely. -- Legs of a triangle, the
   sides  of a triangle; -- a name seldom used unless one of the sides is
   first  distinguished by some appropriate term; as, the hypothenuse and
   two legs of a right-angled triangle. On one's legs, standing to speak.
   --  One's  last legs. See under Last. -- To have legs (Naut.), to have
   speed.<--  also, to have endurance, to continue longer than usual, -->
   --  To  stand  on  one's  own  legs,  to  support  one's  self;  to be

   Page 841


   Leg  (?), v. t. To use as a leg, with it as object: (a) To bow. [Obs.]
   (b) To run [Low]


   Leg"a*cy (?), n.; pl.Legacies (#). [L. (assumed) legatia, for legatum,
   from  legare  to  appoint  by  last  will, to bequeath as a legacy, to
   depute: cf. OF. legat legacy. See Legate.]

   1.  A  gift of property by will, esp. of money or personal property; a
   bequest. Also Fig.; as, a legacy of dishonor or disease.

   2. A business with which one is intrusted by another; a commission; --
   obsolete,  except  in  the  phrases last legacy, dying legacy, and the

     My legacy and message wherefore I am sent into the world. Tyndale.

     He came and told his legacy. Chapman.

   Legacy  duty, a tax paid to government on legacies. Wharton. -- Legacy
   hunter,  one  who  flatters  and  courts  any  one  for  the sake of a
   legacy.<--  related  to gold-digger (latter for any riches, not just a
   legacy) -->


   Le"gal  (?),  a.  [L.  legalis, fr. lex, legis, law; prob. orig., that
   which  lies or is fixed (cf. L. lectus bed), and if so akin to E. lie,
   law: cf. F. l\'82gal. Cf. Lie to be prostrate, Loyal, Leal.]

   1.  Created by, permitted by, in conformity with, or relating to, law;
   as, a legal obligation; a legal standard or test; a legal procedure; a
   legal  claim;  a  legal trade; anything is legal which the laws do not

   2.  (Theol.)  (a) According to the law of works, as distinguished from
   free  grace;  or  resting on works for salvation. (b) According to the
   old or Mosaic dispensation; in accordance with the law of Moses

   3.  (Law) Governed by the rules of law as distinguished from the rules
   of equity; as, legal estate; legal assets. Bouvier. Burrill.
   Legal cap. See under Cap. -- Legal tender. (a) The act of tendering in
   the  performance  of  a contract or satisfaction of a claim that which
   the  law  prescribes or permits, and at such time and place as the law
   prescribes  or  permits.  (b)  That  currency, or money, which the law
   authorizes  a  debtor to tender and requires a creditor to receive. It
   differs  in  different  countries.  Syn.  --  Lawful;  constitutional;
   legitimate; licit; authorized. See Lawful.


   Le"gal*ism  (?),  n.  Strictness,  or  the  doctrine of strictness, in
   conforming to law.


   Le"gal*ist,  n.  One  who  practices or advocates strict conformity to
   law; in theology, one who holds to the law of works. See Legal, 2 (a).


   Le*gal"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  LL.  legalitas,  F.  l\'82galit\'82.  Cf.

   1. The state or quality of being letter of the law.


   Le`gal*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of making legal.


   Le"gal*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Legalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Legalizing (?).] [Cf. F. l\'82galiser.]

   1. To make legal.

   2. (Theol.) To interpret or apply in a legal spirit.


   Le"gal*ly, adv. In a legal manner.


   Le*gan"tine (?), a. [Obs.] See Legatine.


   Leg"a*ta*ry  (?), n. [L. legatarius, fr. legaturius enjoined by a last
   will: cf. F. l\'82gataire. See Legacy.] A legatee. [R.] Ayliffe.


   Leg"ate  (?),  n.  [OE.  legal,  L. legatus, fr. legare to sent with a
   commission or charge, to depute, fr. lex, legis, law: cf. F. l\'82gat,
   It. legato. See Legal.]

   1. An ambassador or envoy.

   2.  An  ecclesiastic  representing  the  pope  and  invested  with the
   authority of the Holy See.

     NOTE: &hand; Le gates are of three kinds: (a) Legates a latere, now
     always   cardinals.  They  are  called  ordinary  or  extraordinary
     legates, the former governing provinces, and the latter class being
     sent  to  foreign  countries on extraordinary occasions. (b) Legati
     missi,  who  correspond to the ambassadors of temporal governments.
     (c)  Legati  nati,  or  legates  by  virtue of their office, as the
     archbishops of Salzburg and Prague.

   3. (Rom. Hist.) (a) An official assistant given to a general or to the
   governor  of  a province. (b) Under the emperors, a governor sent to a


   Leg`a*tee"  (?),  n.  [See  Legacy.]  (Law)  One  to  whom a legacy is


   Leg"ate*ship (?), n. The office of a legate.


   Leg"a*tine  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to a legate; as, legatine power.

   2. Made by, proceeding from, or under the sanction of, a legate; as, a
   legatine constitution. Ayliffe.


   Le*ga"tion (?), n. [L. legatio: cf. F. l\'82gation, It. legazione. See

   1.  The  sending forth or commissioning one person to act for another.
   "The Divine legation of Moses." Bp. Warburton. 

   2.  A  legate,  or  envoy,  and the persons associated with him in his
   mission;  an embassy; or, in stricter usage, a diplomatic minister and
   his suite; a deputation.

   3.  The  place  of  business  or  official  residence  of a diplomatic
   minister at a foreign court or seat of government.

   4. A district under the jurisdiction of a legate.


   Le*ga"to  (?),  a.  [It.,  tied,  joined,  fr. legare to tie, bind, L.
   ligare.]  (Mus.) Connected; tied; -- a term used when successive tones
   are to be produced in a closely connected, smoothly gliding manner. It
   is often indicated by a tie, thus staccato.


   Leg`a*tor"  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. legare: cf. OF. legateur. See Legacy.]
   (Law) A testator; one who bequeaths a legacy. Dryden.


   Le`ga*tu"ra  (?),  n.  [It.  See  Ligature.]  (Mus.) A tie or brace; a


   Leg"a*ture (?), n. Legateship. [Obs.]


   Lege  (?), v. t. [Abbrev. fr. allege to assert.] To allege; to assert.
   [Obs.] Bp. Fisher.


   Lege"ment (?), n. See Ledgment.


   Leg"end (?), n. [OE. legende, OF. legende, F. l\'82gende, LL. legenda,
   fr.  L.  legendus  to be read, fr. legere to read, gather; akin to Gr.
   Collect, Dialogue, Lesson, Logic.]

   1.  That  which  is  appointed  to be read; especially, a chronicle or
   register  of  the lives of saints, formerly read at matins, and in the
   refectories of religious houses.

   2.  A  story respecting saints; especially, one of a marvelous nature.

   3.  Any  wonderful story coming down from the past, but not verifiable
   by historical record; a myth; a fable.

     And  in  this  legend  all that glorious deed. Read, whilst you arm
     you. Fairfax.

   4.  An inscription, motto, or title, esp. one surrounding the field in
   a  medal  or  coin,  or  placed  upon an heraldic shield or beneath an
   engraving or illustration.
   Golden legend. See under Golden.


   Leg"end, v. t. To tell or narrate, as a legend. Bp. Hall.


   Leg"end*a*ry  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to a legend or to legends;
   consisting  of  legends; like a legend; fabulous. "Legendary writers."
   Bp. Lloyd.

     Legendary stories of nurses and old women. Bourne.


   Leg"end*a*ry, n. [Cf. OF. legendaire, LL. legendarius.]

   1. A book of legends; a tale or parrative.

     Read the Countess of Pembroke's "Arcadia," a gallant legendary full
     of pleasurable accidents. James I.

   2. One who relates legends. Bp. Lavington.


   Leg"er (?), n. [See Ledger.]

   1. Anything that lies in a place; that which, or one who, remains in a
   place. [Obs.]

   2. A minister or ambassador resident at a court or seat of government.
   [Written also lieger, leiger.] [Obs.]

     Sir Edward Carne, the queen's leger at Rome. Fuller.

   3. A ledger.


   Leg"er,  a.  Lying or remaining in a place; hence, resident; as, leger


   Leg"er,  a.  [F.  l\'82ger,  fr. LL. (assumed) leviarius, fr. L. levis
   light  in  weight.  See  Levity.] Light; slender; slim; trivial. [Obs.
   except  in  special  phrases.]  Bacon. Leger line (Mus.), a line added
   above  or  below the staff to extend its compass; -- called also added


   Leg`er*de*main"  (?),  n.  [F.  l\'82ger  light, nimble + de of + main
   hand, L. manus. See 3d Leger, and Manual.] Sleight of hand; a trick of
   sleight of hand; hence, any artful deception or trick.

     He of legierdemayne the mysteries did know. Spenser.

     The  tricks  and  legerdemain  by  which  men impose upon their own
     souls. South.


   Leg`er*de*main"its,   n.   One   who  practices  sleight  of  hand;  a


   Le*ger"i*ty  (?),  n. [F. l\'82g\'8aret\'82. See 3d Leger.] Lightness;
   nimbleness [Archaic] Shak.


   Legge (?), v. t. [See Lay, v. t. ] To lay. [Obs.]


   Legge,  v.  t. [Abbrev. fr. alegge.] To lighten; to allay. [Obs.] Rom.
   of R.


   Legged  (?),  a. [From Leg.] Having (such or so many) legs; -- used in
   composition; as, a long-legged man; a two-legged animal.

                              Leggiadro, Leggiero

   Leg`gi*a"dro  (?),  Leg`gi*e"ro  (?),  a. & adv. [It.] (Mus.) Light or
   graceful; in a light, delicate, and brick style.

                               Legging, Legging

   Leg"ging  (?),  Leg"ging,  n.  [From Leg.] A cover for the leg, like a
   long gaiter.


   Leg"ging, a. & vb. n., from Leg, v. t.


   Leg"horn (?), n. A straw plaiting used for bonnets and hats, made from
   the  straw  of  a  particular  kind of wheat, grown for the purpose in
   Tuscany, Italy; -- so called from Leghorn, the place of exportation.


   Leg`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being legible; legibleness. Sir.
   D. Brewster.


   Leg"i*ble  (?), a. [L. legibilis, fr. legere to read: cf. OF. legible.
   See Legend.]

   1. Capable of being read or deciphered; distinct to the eye; plain; --
   used of writing or printing; as, a fair, legible manuscript.

     The  stone  with moss and lichens so overspread, Nothing is legible
     but the name alone. Longfellow.

   2.  Capable  of  being  discovered  or understood by apparent marks or
   indications;  as,  the  thoughts  of  men  are  often legible in their


   Leg"i*ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being legible.


   Leg"i*bly, adv. In a legible manner.


   Le*gif"ic  (?),  a.  [L. lex, legis, law + -ficare (in comp.) to make.
   See -fy.] Of or pertaining to making laws.

     Practically,  in  many  cases,  authority or legific competence has
     begun in bare power. J. Grote.


   Le"gion  (?), n. [OE. legioun, OF. legion, F. l\'82gion, fr. L. legio,
   fr. legere to gather, collect. See Legend.]

   1.  (Rom.  Antiq.)  A  body of foot soldiers and cavalry consisting of
   different numbers at different periods, -- from about four thousand to
   about six thousand men, -- the cavalry being about one tenth.

   2. A military force; an army; military bands.

   3. A great number; a multitude.

     Where  one sin has entered,legions will force their way through the
     same breach. Rogers.

   4. (Taxonomy) A group of orders inferior to a class.
   Legion of honor, an order instituted by the French government in 1802,
   when Bonaparte was First Consul, as a reward for merit, both civil and


   Le"gion*a*ry (?), a. [L.legionarius: cf. F. l\'82gionnaire.] Belonging
   to  a legion; consisting of a legion or legions, or of an indefinitely
   great   number;  as,  legionary  soldiers;  a  legionary  force.  "The
   legionary body of error." Sir T. Browne.


   Le"gion*a*ry (?), n.; pl. Legionaries (. A member of a legion. Milton.


   Le"gioned (?), a. Formed into a legion or legions; legionary. Shelley.


   Le"gion*ry  (?),  n.  A  body  of legions; legions, collectively. [R.]


   Leg"is*late  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Legislated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Legislating (?).] [See Legislator.] To make or enact a law or laws.

     Solon,  in  legislating  for  the  Athenians, had an idea of a more
     perfect constitution than he gave them. Bp. Watson (1805).


   Leg`is*la"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. l\'82gislation, L. legis latio. See
   Legislator.]  The  act  of  legislating;  preparation and enactment of
   laws; the laws enacted.

     Pythagoras joined legislation to his philosophy. Lyttelton.


   Leg"is*la*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. l\'82gislatij.]

   1.  Making,  or having the power to make, a law or laws; lawmaking; --
   distinguished  from  executive;  as,  a legislative act; a legislative

     The supreme legislative power of England was lodged in the king and
     great council, or what was afterwards called the Parliament. Hume.

   2.  Of  or  pertaining to the making of laws; suitable to legislation;
   as, the transaction of legislative business; the legislative style.


   Leg"is*la*tive*ly, adv. In a legislative manner.


   Leg"is*la`tor  (?),  n.  [L.  legis lator, prop., a proposer of a law;
   lex,  legis,  law + lator a proposer, bearer, fr. latus, used as p. p.
   of  ferre  to bear: cf. F. l\'82gislateur. See Legal, and Tolerate.] A
   lawgiver;  one  who makes laws for a state or community; a member of a
   legislative body.

     The legislators in ancient and heroical times. Bacon.

     Many  of the legislators themselves had taken an oath of abjuration
     of his Majesty's person and family. E. Phillips.


   Leg`is*la*to"ri*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  legislator or


   Leg"is*la`tor*ship (?), n. The office of a legislator. Halifax.

                           Legislatress, Legislatrix

   Leg"is*la`tress  (?),  Leg"is*la`trix  (?), n. A woman who makes laws.


   Leg"is*la`ture (?), n. [Cf. F. l\'82gislature.] The body of persons in
   a  state  or  kingdom  invested  with power to make and repeal laws; a
   legislative body.

     Without   the   concurrent  consent  of  all  three  parts  of  the
     legislature, no law is, or can be, made. Sir M. Hale.

     NOTE: &hand; The legislature of Great Britain consists of the Lords
     and Commons, with the king or queen, whose sanction is necessary to
     every bill before it becomes a law. The legislatures of most of the
     United  States  consist of two houses or branches; but the sanction
     or consent of the governor is required to give their acts the force
     of  law,  or a concurrence of two thirds of the two houses after he
     has refused his sanction and assigned his objections.


   Le"gist  (?),  n. [F. l\'82giste, LL. legista, fr. L. lex, legis, law.
   See  Legal.]  One  skilled  in  the  laws; a writer on law. Milman. J.


   Le*git"im  (?),  n.  [See  Legitimate,  a.] (Scots Law) The portion of
   movable  estate  to  which the children are entitled upon the death of
   the father.


   Le*git"i*ma*cy  (?), n. [See Legitimate, a.] The state, or quality, of
   being  legitimate,  or in conformity with law; hence, the condition of
   having been lawfully begotten, or born in wedlock.

     The doctrine of Divine Right, which has now come back to us, like a
     thief from transportation, under the alias of Legitimacy. Macaulay.


   Le*git"i*mate  (?),  a.  [LL.  legitimatus,  p.  p.  of  legitimare to
   legitimate, fr. L. legitimus legitimate. See Legal.]

   1.   Accordant   with   law   or  with  established  legal  forms  and
   requirements;  lawful;  as,  legitimate government; legitimate rights;
   the legitimate succession to the throne; a legitimate proceeding of an
   officer; a legitimate heir.

   2. Lawfully begotten; born in wedlock.

   3. Authorized; real; genuine; not false, counterfeit, or spurious; as,
   legitimate poems of Chaucer; legitimate inscriptions.

   4.  Conforming  to known principles, or accepted rules; as, legitimate
   reasoning;  a legitimate standard, or method; a legitimate combination
   of colors.

     Tillotson  still  keeps  his place as a legitimate English classic.

   5. Following by logical sequence; reasonable; as, a legitimate result;
   a legitimate inference.


   Le*git"i*mate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Legitimated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Legitimating  (?).] To make legitimate, lawful, or valid; esp., to
   put in the position or state of a legitimate person before the law, by
   legal means; as, to legitimate a bastard child.

     To enact a statute of that which he dares not seem to approve, even
     to legitimate vice. Milton.


   Le*git"i*mate*ly   (?),   adv.   In  a  legitimate  manner;  lawfully;


   Le*git"i*mate*ness,  n.  The  state  or  quality  of being legitimate;
   lawfulness; genuineness.


   Le*git`i*ma"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. l\'82gitimation.]

   1. The act of making legitimate.

     The coining or legitimation of money. East.

   2. Lawful birth. [R.] Shak.


   Le*git"i*ma*tist (?), n. See Legitimist.


   Le*git"i*ma*tize (?), v. t. To legitimate.


   Le*git"i*mism (?), n. The principles or plans of legitimists.


   Le*git"i*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. l\'82gitimiste.]

   1.  One  who  supports legitimate authority; esp., one who believes in
   hereditary monarchy, as a divine right.

   2.  Specifically, a supporter of the claims of the elder branch of the
   Bourbon dynasty to the crown of France.

   Page 842


   Le*git"i*mize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Legitimized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Legitimizing.] To legitimate.


   Leg"less (?), a. Not having a leg.


   Le"go-lit"er*a*ry (?), a. [See Legal, and Literary.] Pertaining to the
   literature of law.


   Le`gu*le"ian  (?), a. [L. leguleius pettifogger, fr. lex, legis, law.]
   Lawyerlike;  legal.  [R.]  "Leguleian  barbarism." De Quincey. -- n. A


   Leg"ume  (?),  n.  [F. l\'82gume, L. legumen, fr. legere to gather. So
   called because they may be gathered without cutting. See Legend.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  pod dehiscent into two pieces or valves, and having the
   seed attached at one suture, as that of the pea.

     NOTE: &hand; In the latter circumstance, it differs from a siliqua,
     in  which the seeds are attached to both sutures. In popular use, a
     legume is called a pod, or cod; as, pea pod, or peas cod.

   2. pl. The fruit of leguminous plants, as peas, beans, lupines; pulse.


   Le*gu"men  (?), n.; pl> L. Legumina (#), E. Legumens (#). [L.] Same as


   Le*gu"min (?), n. [Cf. F. l\'82gumine.] (Physiol. Chem.) An albuminous
   substance  resembling  casein, found as a characteristic ingredient of
   the seeds of leguminous and grain-bearing plants.


   Le*gu"mi*nous (?), a. [Cf. F. l\'82gumineux.]

   1. Pertaining to pulse; consisting of pulse.

   2.  (Bot.)  Belonging to, or resembling, a very large natural order of
   plants  (Leguminos\'91),  which  bear  legumes, including peas, beans,
   clover, locust trees, acacias, and mimosas.


   Lei"ger  (?),  n.  [See  Leger,  and Ledger.] See Leger, n., 2. [Obs.]


   Lei*ot"ri*chan  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to the Leiotrichi. -- n. One
   of the Leiotrichi.


   Lei*ot"ri*chi  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anthropol.) The division of
   mankind which embraces the smooth-haired races.


   Lei*ot"ri*chous  (?), a. [See Leiotrichi.] (Anthropol.) Having smooth,
   or nearly smooth, hair.


   Lei*po"a  (?),  n. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of Australian gallinaceous
   birds including but a single species (Leipoa ocellata), about the size
   of  a  turkey. Its color is variegated, drown, black, white, and gray.
   Called also native pheasant.

     NOTE: &hand; It  makes large mounds of sand and vegetable material,
     in  which  its  eggs  are  laid  to  be  hatched by the heat of the
     decomposing mass.


   Lei`po*thym"ic (?), a. See Lipothymic.

                                Leister, Lister

   Leis"ter, Lis"ter (?), n. A spear armed with three or more prongs, for
   striking fish. [Scotland]


   Lei"sur*a*ble (?), a. [See Leisure.]

   1. Leisurely. [Obs.] Hooker.

   2.  Vacant  of  employment; not occupied; idle; leisure; as leisurable
   hours. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Lei"sur*a*bly, adv. At leisure. [Obs.]


   Lei"sure  (?)  n.  [OE.  leisere, leiser, OF.leisir, F. loisir, orig.,
   permission, fr. L. licere to be permitted. See License.]

   1.  Freedom  from  occupation or business; vacant time; time free from

     The  desire  of  leisure  is much more natural than of business and
     care. Sir W. Temple.

   2.   Time   at   one's   command,  free  from  engagement;  convenient
   opportunity; hence, convenience; ease.

     He sighed, and had no leisure more to say. Dryden.

   At  leisure.  (a)  Free  from occupation; not busy. (b) In a leisurely
   manner; at a convenient time.


   Lei"sure, a. Unemployed; as, leisure hours.


   Lei"sured (?), a.Having leisure. "The leisured classes." Gladstone.


   Lei"sure*ly  (?),  a.  Characterized by leisure; taking abundant tome;
   not hurried; as, a leisurely manner; a leisurely walk.


   Lei"sure*ly, adv. In a leisurely manner. Addison.


   Leit"mo*tif" (?), n. [G.] (Mus.) See Leading motive, under Leading, a.


   Le"man  (?),  n.  [OE. lemman, legman; AS.le\'a2f dear + mann man. See
   Lief, and Man.] A sweetheart, of either sex; a gallant, or a mistress;
   -- usually in a bad sense. [Archaic] Chaucer. Spenser. Shak.


   Leme  (?),  n.  [OE. leem, leme, leam, AS. le\'a2ma light, brightness;
   akin  to  E. light, n. &root;122.] A ray or glimmer of light; a gleam.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lame, v. i. To shine. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.


   Lem"ma  (?),  n.;  pl.  L.  Lemmata (#), E. Lemmas (#). [L. lemma, Gr.
   Syllable.]  A  preliminary  or  auxiliary  proposition demonstrated or
   accepted  for  immediate  use  in  the  demonstration  of  some  other
   proposition, as in mathematics or logic.


   Lem"man (?), n. A leman. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lem"ming (?), n. [Nor. lemming, lemende; cf. Sw. lemel, Lapp. lummik.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one of several species of small arctic rodents of the
   genera  Myodes and Cuniculus, resembling the meadow mice in form. They
   are found in both hemispheres.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon Northern European lemming (Myodes lemmus)
     is  remarkable  for  making  occasional  devastating  migrations in
     enormous numbers from the mountains into the lowlands.


   Lem"ni*an (?), a. [L. Lemnius, fr. Lemnus, Gr. Of or pertaining to the
   isle  of  Lemnos. Lemnian bole, Lemnian earth, an aluminous earth of a
   grayish  yellow color; sphragide; -- formerly sold as medicine, having
   astringent properties. -- Lemnian reddle, a reddle of firm consistence
   and deep red color; -- used by artificers in coloring.

                            Lemniscata, Lemniscate

   Lem`nis*ca"ta  (?),  Lem*nis"cate (?), n. [L. lemniscatus adorned with
   ribbons,  fr.  lemniscus  a ribbon having down, Gr. (Geom.) A curve in
   the  form  of  the figure 8, with both parts symmetrical, generated by
   the  point  in  which  a tangent to an equilateral hyperbola meets the
   perpendicular on it drawn from the center.


   Lem*nis"cus  (?),  n.; pl. Lemnisci () [L. See Lemniscata.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One  of two oval bodies hanging from the interior walls of the body in
   the Acanthocephala.


   Lem"on  (?),  n.  [F.  limon,  Per.  lim;  cf. Ar.laim, Sp. limon, It.
   limone. Cf. Lime a fruit.]

   1.  (Bot.)  An  oval  or  roundish  fruit  resembling  the orange, and
   containing a pulp usually intensely acid. It is produced by a tropical
   tree of the genus Citrus,the common fruit known in commerce being that
   of  the species C. Limonum or C. Medica (var. Limonum). There are many
   varieties of the fruit, some of which are sweet.

   2. The tree which bears lemons; the lemon tree.
   Lemon   grass   (Bot.),  a  fragrant  East  Indian  grass  (Andropogon
   Sh\'d2nanthus,  and  perhaps  other  allied species), which yields the
   grass  oil  used  in  perfumery.  --  Lemon  sole (Zo\'94l.), a yellow
   European  sole  (Solea aurantiaca). -- Salts of lemon (Chem.), a white
   crystalline  substance,  inappropriately  named,  as it consists of an
   acid  potassium  oxalate  and  contains  no  citric acid, which is the
   characteristic  acid  of  lemon; -- called also salis of sorrel. It is
   used  in removing ink stains. See Oxalic acid, under Oxalic. [Colloq.]
   <--  Lemon  adj.  1.  of  the color lemon-yellow. 2. of or relating to
   lemons, as lemon pie. -->


   Lem`on*ade"  (?), n. [F. limonade; cf. Sp. limonada, It. limonata. See
   Lemon.]  A  beverage  consisting  of  lemon juice mixed with water and


   Le"mur  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  ghost, specter. So called on account of its
   habit   of  going  abroad  by  night.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  a  family
   (Lemurid\'91) of nocturnal mammals allied to the monkeys, but of small
   size, and having a sharp and foxlike muzzle, and large eyes. They feed
   upon  birds,  insects, and fruit, and are mostly natives of Madagascar
   and  the  neighboring islands, one genus (Galago) occurring in Africa.
   The slow lemur or kukang of the East Indies is Nycticebus tardigradus.
   See Galago, Indris, and Colugo.


   Lem"u*res  (?),  n.  pl.  [L.  See  Lemur.]  Spirits  or ghosts of the
   departed; specters.

     The Lars and Lemures moan with midnight plaint. Milton.


   Le*mu"ri*a  (?),  n.  [So  named  from the supposition that it was the
   original  home  of  the  lemurs.]  A  hypothetical land, or continent,
   supposed  by  some  to  have  existed formerly in the Indian Ocean, of
   which Madagascar is a remnant. Herschel.


   Lem"u*rid (?), a. & n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Lemuroid.

                             Lemuridous, Lemurine

   Le*mu"ri*dous (?), Lem"u*rine (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Lemuroid.


   Lem"u*roid  (?),  a.  [Lemur + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like or pertaining to
   the lemurs or the Lemuroidea. -- n. One of the Lemuroidea.


   Lem`u*roi"de*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL. See Lemur, and -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   suborder  of  primates,  including the lemurs, the aye-aye, and allied
   species. [Written also Lemuroida.]


   Le"na (?), n. [L.] A procuress. J. Webster.


   Lend  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lent ; p. pr. & vb. n. Lending.]
   [OE.lenen, AS. l, fr. l loan; akin to G. lehnen to lend. See Loan.]

   1.  To allow the custody and use of, on condition of the return of the
   same; to grant the temporary use of; as, to lend a book; -- opposed to

     Give me that ring. I'll lend it thee, my dear, but have no power To
     give it from me. Shak.

   2.  To  allow the possession and use of, on condition of the return of
   an equivalent in kind; as, to lend money or some article of food.

     Thou  shalt  not  give  him  thy money upon usury, nor lend him thy
     victuals for increase. Levit. xxv. 37.

   3.  To afford; to grant or furnish in general; as, to lend assistance;
   to lend one's name or influence.

     Cato, lend me for a while thy patience. Addison.

     Mountain lines and distant horizons lend space and largeness to his
     compositions. J. A. Symonds.

   4. To let for hire or compensation; as, to lend a horse or gig.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is us e of  th e word is rare in the United States,
     except with reference to money.

   To  lend  a hand, to give assistance; to help. [Colloq.] -- To lend an
   ear OR one's ears, to give attention.


   Lend"a*ble (?), a. Such as can be lent. Sherwood.


   Lend"er (?), n. One who lends.

     The borrower is servant to the lender. Prov. xxii. 7.


   Lend"es (?), n. pl. See Lends. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lend"ing, n.

   1. The act of one who lends.

   2. That which is lent or furnished.


   Lends  (?),  n.  pl.  [AS.  lend,  lenden; akin to D. & G. lende, OHG.
   lenti, Icel. lend, and perh to E. loin.] Loins. [Obs.] Wyclif.


   Lene  (?),  v.  i.  [See  Lend.]  To lend; to grant; to permit. [Obs.]


   Le"ne  (?), a. [L. lenis smooth.] (Phonetics) (a) Smooth; as, the lene
   breathing. (b) Applied to certain mute consonants, as p, k, and t. (or
   Gr. p, k, t.). W. E. Jelf.


   Le"ne,  n.  (Phonetics) (a) The smooth breathing (spiritus lenis). (b)
   Any one of the lene consonants, as p, k, or i (or Gr. p, k, t.). W. E.

                                Lenger, Lengest

   Leng"er  (?),  Leng"est,  a.  Longer; longest; -- obsolete compar. and
   superl. of long. Chaucer.


   Length  (?),  n. [OE. lengthe, AS. leng, fr. land, long, long; akin to
   D. lengte, Dan. l\'91ngde, Sw. l\'84ngd, Icel. lengd. See Long, a. ]

   1.  The  longest,  or  longer, dimension of any object, in distinction
   from breadth or width; extent of anything from end to end; the longest
   line which can be drawn through a body, parallel to its sides; as, the
   length of a church, or of a ship; the length of a rope or line.

   2. A portion of space or of time considered as measured by its length;
   -- often in the plural.

     Large lengths of seas and shores. Shak.

     The future but a length behind the past. Dryden.

   3.  The  quality  or  state  of  being long, in space or time; extent;
   duration;  as,  some  sea birds are remarkable for the length of their
   wings; he was tired by the length of the sermon, and the length of his

   4.  A  single piece or subdivision of a series, or of a number of long
   pieces which may be connected together; as, a length of pipe; a length
   of fence.

   5.  Detail  or  amplification;  unfolding; continuance as, to pursue a
   subject to a great length.

     May Heaven, great monarch, still augment your bliss. With length of
     days and every day like this. Dryden.

   6. Distance.[Obs.]

     He had marched to the length of Exeter. Clarendon.

   At length. (a) At or in the full extent; without abbreviation; as, let
   the  name be inserted at length. (b) At the end or conclusion; after a
   long  period. See Syn. of At last, under Last. -- At arm's length. See
   under Arm. 


   Length, v. i. To lengthen. [Obs.] Shak.


   Length"en  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Lengthenel (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lengthening  (?).]  To  extent  in length; to make longer in extent or
   duration;  as,  to  lengthen  a  line  or a road; to lengthen life; --
   sometimes followed by out.

     What if I please to lengthen out his date. Dryden.


   Length"en, v. i. To become longer. Locke.


   Length"ful (?), a. Long. [Obs.] Pope.


   Length"i*ly (?), adv. In a lengthy manner; at great length or extent.


   Length"i*ness, n. The state or quality of being lengthy; prolixity.

                            Lengthways, Lengthwise

   Length"ways`  (?),  Length"wise`  (?),  adv.  In  the direction of the
   length; in a longitudinal direction.


   Length"y  (?),  a. [Compar. Lengthier (?); superl. Lengthiest.] Having
   length; rather long or too long; prolix; not brief; -- said chiefly of
   discourses,  writings,  and  the  like. "Lengthy periods." Washington.
   "Some lengthy additions." Byron. "These would be details too lengthy."
   Jefferson. "To cut short lengthy explanations." Trench.

                              Lenience, Leniency

   Le"ni*ence (?), Le"ni*en*cy, n. The quality or state of being lenient;
   lenity; clemency.


   Le"ni*ont (?), a. [L. leniens, -entis, p. pr. of lenire to soften, fr.
   lenis soft, mild. Cf. Lithe.]

   1.  Relaxing;  emollient;  softening;  assuasive;  -- some "Lenient of
   grief." Milton.

     Of relax the fibers, are lenient, balsamic. Arbuthnot.

     Time, that on all things lays his lenient hand. Pope.

   2.  Mild;  clement;  merciful;  not  rigorous or severe; as, a lenient
   disposition; a lenient judge or sentence.


   Le"ni*ent, n. (Med.) A lenitive; an emollient.


   Le"ni*ent*ly, adv. In a lenient manner.


   Len"i*fy (?), v. t. [L. lenis soft, mild + -fy: cf. F.l\'82nifier.] To
   assuage; to soften; to Bacon. Dryden.


   Len"i*ment  (?), n. [L. lenimentum: cf. OF. leniment. See Lenient.] An
   assuasive. [Obs.]


   Len"i*tive  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  l\'82nitif.  See  Lenient.] Having the
   quality  of  softening  or mitigating, as pain or acrimony; assuasive;


   Len"i*tive, n. [Cf. F. l\'82nitif.]

   1. (Med.) (a) A medicine or application that has the quality of easing
   pain or protecting from the action of irritants. (b) A mild purgative;
   a laxative.

   2. That which softens or mitigates; that which tends to allay passion,
   excitement, or pain; a palliative.

     There  is one sweet Lenitive at least for evils, which Nature holds
     out; so I took it kindly at her hands, and fell asleep. Sterne.


   Len"i*tive*ness, n. The quality of being lenitive.


   Len"i*tude  (?),  n.  [L.  lenitudo.]  The  quality  or habit of being
   lenient; lenity. [Obs.] Blount.


   Len"i*ty (?), n. [L. lenitas, fr. lenis soft, mild: cf. OF. lenit\'82.
   See  Lenient.]  The  state  or  quality  of being lenient; mildness of
   temper  or disposition; gentleness of treatment; softness; tenderness;
   clemency; -- opposed to severity and rigor.

     His  exceeding  lenity  disposes  us  to  be  somewhat  too severe.

   Syn.   --   Gentleness;   kindness;  tenderness;  softness;  humanity;
   clemency; mercy.


   Len`ni-Len*a"pe  (?),  n.  pl. (Ethnol.) A general name for a group of
   Algonquin  tribes  which  formerly  occupied the coast region of North
   America  from  Connecticut  to  Virginia.  They included the Mohicans,
   Delawares, Shawnees, and several other tribes.

   Page 843


   Le"no  (?),  n.  [Cf.  It.  leno  weak, flexible.] A light open cotton
   fabric used for window curtains.


   Le*noc"i*nant  (?), a. [L. lenocinans, p. pr. of lenocinari to pander,
   cajole; akin to leno pimp.] Given to lewdness. [Obs.]


   Lens  (?),  n.; pl. Lenses (-&ecr;z). [L. lens a lentil. So named from
   the  resemblance  in  shape  of  a double convex lens to the seed of a
   lentil.  Cf.  Lentil.]  (Opt.)  A piece of glass, or other transparent
   substance,  ground  with  two  opposite  regular surfaces, either both
   curved,  or  one curved and the other plane, and commonly used, either
   singly or combined, in optical instruments, for changing the direction
   of  rays of light, and thus magnifying objects, or otherwise modifying
   vision. In practice, the curved surfaces are usually spherical, though
   rarely cylindrical, or of some other figure. Lenses

     NOTE: &hand; Of spherical lenses, there are six varieties, as shown
     in  section in the figures herewith given: viz., a plano-concave; b
     double-concave;   c   plano-convex;   d  double-convex;  converging
     concavo-convex, or converging meniscus; f diverging concavo-convex,
     or diverging meniscus.

   Crossed lens (Opt.), a double-convex lens with one radius equal to six
   times the other. -- Crystalline lens. (Anat.) See Eye. -- Fresnel lens
   (Opt.), a compound lens formed by placing around a central convex lens
   rings  of  glass so curved as to have the same focus; used, especially
   in  lighthouses, for concentrating light in a particular direction; --
   so  called  from  the inventor. -- Multiplying lens OR glass (Opt.), a
   lens one side of which is plane and the other convex, but made up of a
   number  of plane faces inclined to one another, each of which presents
   a  separate  image of the object viewed through it, so that the object
   is, as it were, multiplied. -- Polyzonal lens. See Polyzonal.


   Lent (?), imp. & p. p. of Lend.


   Lent,  n.  [OE.  lente,  lenten, leynte, AS. lengten, lencten, spring,
   lent,  akin  to  D. lente, OHG. lenzin, langiz, G. lenz, and perh. fr.
   AS.  lang  long,  E. long, because at this season of the year the days
   lengthen.]  (Eccl.) A fast of forty days, beginning with Ash Wednesday
   and  continuing  till  Easter,  observed by some Christian churches as
   commemorative of the fast of our Savior.

                                   Lent lily

   Lent  lily  (Bot.),  the  daffodil; -- so named from its blossoming in


   Lent,  a.  [L.  lentus;  akin  to  lenis  soft, mild: cf. F. lent. See

   1. Slow; mild; gentle; as, lenter heats. [Obs.] B.Jonson.

   2. (Mus.) See Lento.


   Len`ta*men"te (?); adv. [It.] (Mus.) Slowly; in slow time.


   Len*tan"do (?), a. [It., p. pr. of lentare to make slow. See Lent, a.]
   (Mus.) Slackening; retarding. Same as Rallentando.


   Lent"en (?), n. Lent. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.


   Lent"en, a. [From OE. lenten lent. See Lent, n. ]

   1.  Of or pertaining to the fast called Lent; used in, or suitable to,
   Lent; as, the Lenten season.

     She  quenched her fury at the flood. And with a Lenten salad cooled
     her blood. Dryden.

   2.  Spare,  meager;  plain;  somber;  unostentatious;  not abundant or
   showy. "Lenten entertainment." " Lenten answer." Shak. " Lenten suit."
   Beau. & Fl.

     Lenten color, black or violet. F. G. Lee.


   Lent"en*tide` (?), n. The season of Lenten or Lent.


   Len"ti*cel (?), n. [F. lenticelle, dim. fr. L. lens, lentis, a lentil.
   Cf. Lentil.] (Bot.) (a) One of the small, oval, rounded spots upon the
   stem  or  branch  of  a  plant,  from which the underlying tissues may
   protrude  or roots may issue, either in the air, or more commonly when
   the  stem  or  branch  is  covered  with  water or earth. (b) A small,
   lens-shaped gland on the under side of some leaves.


   Len`ti*cel"lame  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Producing  lenticels;  dotted  with


   Len`ti*celle" (?), n. [F.] (Bot.) Lenticel.


   Len*tic"u*la  (?), n.; pl. E. Lenticulas (#), L. Lenticul\'91 (#). [L.
   See Lenticel.]

   1. (Med.) A kind of eruption upon the skin; lentigo; freckle.

   2. (Opt.) A lens of small size.

   3. (Bot.) A lenticel.


   Len*tic"u*lar  (?),  a.  [L.  lenticularis:  cf.  F. lenticulaire. See
   Lenticel.]  Resembling  a lentil in size or form; having the form of a
   double-convex lens.


   Len*tic"u*lar*ly, adv. In the manner of a lens; with a curve.


   Len"ti*form  (?),  a.  [L.  lens,  lentis,  lentil  +  -form:  cf.  F.
   lentifarme,] Lenticular.


   Len*tig"i*nose`  (?),  a.  [See  Lentiginous.] (Bot.) Bearing numerous
   dots resembling freckles.


   Len*tig"i*nous   (?),   a.  [L.  lentiginosus.  See  Lentigo.]  Of  or
   pertaining to lentigo; freckly; scurfy; furfuraceous.


   Len*ti"go  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. lens, lentis, lentil.] (Med.) A freckly
   eruption on the skin; freckles.


   Len"til  (?), n. [F. lentille, fr. L. lenticula, dim. of lens, lentis,
   lentil. Cf. Lens.] (Bot.) A leguminous plant of the genus Ervum (Ervum
   Lens),  of small size, common in the fields in Europe. Also, its seed,
   which is used for food on the continent.

     NOTE: &hand; The lentil of the Scriptures probably included several
     other vetchlike plants.

   Lentil  shell (Zo\'94l.), a small bivalve shell of the genus Ervillia,
   family Tellinid\'91.

                              Lentiscus, Lentisk

   Len*tis"cus  (?),  Len"tisk  (?),, n. [L. lentiscus, lentiscum: cf. F.
   lentisque.] (Bot.) A tree; the mastic. See Mastic.


   Len"ti*tude (?), n. [L. lentitudo, fr. lentus slow: cf. OF. lentitude.
   See Lent, a.] Slowness; sluggishness. [Obs.]


   Len"to  (?),  a.  &  adv.  [It.] (Mus.) Slow; in slow time; slowly; --
   rarely written lente.


   Len"toid   (?),  a.  [Lens  +  -oid.]  Having  the  form  of  a  lens;


   Len"tor (?), n. [L. fr. lentus pliant, tough, slow. See Lent, a.]

   1. Tenacity; viscidity; viscidity, as of fluids.

   2. Slowness; delay; sluggishness. Arbuthnot.


   Len"tous (?), a. [L. lentus. See Lentor.] Viscid; viscous; tenacious.

     Spawn of a lentous and transparent body. Sir T. Browne.

                              L'envoi, OR L'envoy

   L'en`voi",  OR  L'en`voy"  (,  n.  [F.  le  the + envei a sending. See

   1.  One  or more detached verses at the end of a literary composition,
   serving  to  convey  the moral, or to address the poem to a particular
   person; -- orig. employed in old French poetry. Shak.

   2. A conclusion; a result. Massinger.


   Le"o (?), n. [L. See Lion.] (Astron.)

   1. The Lion, the fifth sign of the zodiac, marked thus

   2. A northern constellation east of Cancer, containing the bright star
   Regulus at the end of the handle of the Sickle.
   Leo Minor, a small constellation between Leo and the Great Bear.


   Le"od  (?),  n.  [AS.le\'a2d  people,  nation, man, chief; akin to OS.
   liud,  OHG.  liut,  pl. liuti, G.leute, pl., fr. AS.le\'a2dan to grow,
   akin to Goth. liudan, OS. liodan, OHG. liotan to grow; cf. Skr. ruh. ]
   People; a nation; a man. [Obs.] Piers Plowman. Bp. Gibson.


   Le"on (?), n. A lion. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Le"onced (?), a. (Her.) See Lionced.


   Le`o*nese"  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Leon, in Spain. -- n. sing. &
   pl. A native or natives of Leon.


   Le"o*nid,  n. [From Leo: cf. F. l\'82onides, pl.] (Astron.) One of the
   shooting  stars  which constitute the star shower that recurs near the
   fourteenth  of  November  at intervals of about thirty-three years; so
   called  because  shooting stars appear on the heavens to move in lines
   directed from the constellation Leo.


   Le"o*nine  (?),  a.  [L.  leoninus,  fr.  leo,  leonis,  lion:  cf. F.
   l\'82onin.  See  Lion.] Pertaining to, or characteristic of, the lion;
   as,  a  leonine  look; leonine repacity. -- Le"o*nine*ly, adv. Leonine
   verse,  a  kind of verse, in which the end of the line rhymes with the
   middle;  -- so named from Leo, or Leoninus, a Benedictine and canon of
   Paris  in  the  twelfth  century,  who  wrote largely in this measure,
   though he was not the inventor. The following line is an example:
     Gloria factorum temere conceditur horum.
     Le*on"to*don  (?), n. [Gr. Lion's-tooth, Dandelion.] (Bot.) A genus
     of liguliflorous composite plants, including the fall dandelion (L.
     autumnale),  and formerly the true dandelion; -- called also lion's
     Leop"ard  (?),  n.  [OE.  leopart,  leparde,  lebarde, libbard, OF.
     leopard,  liepart,  F.  l\'82opard, L. leopardus, fr. Gr. Lion, and
     Pard.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large,  savage,  carnivorous  mammal  (Felis
     leopardus). It is of a yellow or fawn color, with rings or roselike
     clusters  of  black  spots along the back and sides. It is found in
     Southern  Asia  and  Africa.  By some the panther (Felis pardus) is
     regarded as a variety of leopard.
   Hunting  leopard.  See  Cheetah.  Leopard  cat  (Zo\'94l.)  any one of
   several  species  or varieties of small, spotted cats found in Africa,
   Southern  Asia,  and  the  East  Indies;  esp.,  Felis Bengalensis. --
   Leopard marmot. See Gopher, 2.

                                Leopard's bane

   Leop"ard's  bane`  (?).  (Bot.)  A name of several harmless plants, as
   Arnica montana, Senecio Doronicum, and Paris quadrifolia.


   Leop"ard*wood`, n. (Bot.) See Letterwood.


   Lep (?), obs. strong imp. of Leap. Leaped. Chaucer.

                                  Lepadite 2

   Lep"a*dite  2,  n.  [L. lepas, lepadis, limpet, Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Lep"a*doid  (?),  n.  [Lepas + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) A stalked barnacle of
   the  genus  Lepas,  or family Lepadid\'91; a goose barnacle. Also used


   Lep"al (?), n. [Gr. l\'82pale.] (Bot.) A sterile transformed stamen.


   Le"pas  (?),  n.  [L., a limpet, fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of various
   species  of Lepas, a genus of pedunculated barnacles found attached to
   floating  timber,  bottoms  of  ships, Gulf weed, etc.; -- called also
   goose barnacle. See Barnacle.


   Lep"er  (?), n. [OE. lepre leprosy, F. l\'8apre, L. leprae, lepra, fr.
   Gr. A person affected with leprosy.


   Lep"ered (?), a. Affected or tainted with leprosy.


   Lep"er*ize (?), v. t. To affect with leprosy.


   Lep"er*ous  (?),  a.  Leprous; infectious; corrupting; poisonous. "The
   leperous distillment." Shak.


   Lep"id (?), a. [L. lepidus.] Pleasant; jocose. [R.]

     The joyous and lepid consul. Sydney Smith.


   Lep"i*dine (?), n. (Chem.) An organic base, C9H6.N.CH3, metameric with
   quinaldine, and obtained by the distillation of cinchonine.


   Lep`i*do*den"drid  (?), n. (Paleon.) One of an extinct family of trees
   allied  to the modern club mosses, and including Lepidodendron and its


   Lep`i*do*den"droid   (?),  a.  (Paleon.)  Allied  to,  or  resembling,
   Lepidodendron. -- n. A lepidodendrid.


   Lep`i*do*den"dron  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.) A genus of fossil
   trees  of  the  Devonian  and  Carboniferous ages, having the exterior
   marked   with  scars,  mostly  in  quincunx  order,  produced  by  the
   separation of the leafstalks.


   Lep`i*do*ga"noid  (?),  n.  [Gr.  ganoid.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of a
   division  (Lepidoganoidei) of ganoid fishes, including those that have
   scales forming a coat of mail. Also used adjectively.


   Le*pid"o*lite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -lite: cf. F. l\'82pidolithe.] (Min.) A
   species  of  mica, of a lilac or rose-violet color, containing lithia.
   It usually occurs in masses consisting of small scales. See Mica.


   Lep`i*dom"e*lane  (?),  n.  [Fr.  (Min.)  An  iron-potash  mica,  of a
   raven-black  color, usually found in granitic rocks in small six-sided
   tables, or as an aggregation of minute opaque scales. See Mica.


   Lep`i*dop"ter  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. l\'82pidopt\'8are.] (Zo\'94l.) One of
   the Lepidoptera.


   Lep`i*dop"te*ra  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   insects,  which  includes  the  butterflies and moths. They have broad
   wings,  covered  with  minute  overlapping  scales,  usually  brightly

     NOTE: &hand; Th ey ha ve a tubular proboscis, or haustellum, formed
     by  the two slender maxill\'91. The labial palpi are usually large,
     and  the  proboscis,  when  not  in  use, can be coiled up spirally
     between  them.  The mandibles are rudimentary. The larv\'91, called
     caterpillars, are often brightly colored, and they commonly feed on
     leaves. The adults feed chiefly on the honey of flowers.

                          Lepidopteral, Lepidopterous

   Lep`i*dop"ter*al  (?),  Lep`i*dop"ter*ous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of or
   pertaining to the Lepidoptera.


   Lep`i*dop"ter*its, n. (Zo\'94l.) One who studies the Lepidoptera.


   Lep`i*do*sau"ri*a  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A division of
   reptiles, including the serpents and lizards; the Plagiotremata.


   Lep`i*do*si"ren  (?),  n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An eel-shaped ganoid fish of
   the  order Dipnoi, having both gills and lungs. It inhabits the rivers
   of  South  America.  The  name  is  also  applied to a related African
   species  (Protopterus annectens). The lepidosirens grow to a length of
   from four to six feet. Called also doko.

                              Lepidote, Lepidoted

   Lep"i*dote  (?),  Lep"i*do`ted  (?),  a.  [Gr. (Bot.) Having a coat of
   scurfy scales, as the leaves of the oleaster.


   Le*pis"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus of wingless
   thysanurous  insects  having an elongated flattened body, covered with
   shining  scales  and  terminated  by  seven unequal bristles. A common
   species  (Lepisma  saccharina)  is  found in houses, and often injures
   books  and  furniture.  Called also shiner, silver witch, silver moth,
   and  furniture  bug.<--  also  called silverfish. Eats sized paper and
   starched clothes -->


   Le*pis"moid (?), a. [Lepisma + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like or pertaining to
   the Lepisma.


   Lep"o*rine  (?),  a.  [L.  leporinus,  fr.  lepus,  leporis, hare. See
   Leveret.]   (Zo\'94l.)   Of   or   pertaining   to  a  hare;  like  or
   characteristic of, a hare.


   Le"pra (?), n. [L. See Leper.] (Med.) Leprosy.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm le pra wa s fo rmerly given to various skin
     diseases,  the  leprosy  of  modern authors being Lepra Arabum. See

   Page 844


   Lep"re (?), n. Leprosy.[Obs.] Wyclif.


   Lep"rose`  (?),  a.  [See  Leprous.]  (Nat.  Hist.) Covered with thin,
   scurfy scales.


   Le*pros"i*ty  (?),  n. The state or quality of being leprous or scaly;
   also, a scale. Bacon.


   Lep"ro*sy  (?),  n.  [See  Leprous.]  (Med.) A cutaneous disease which
   first  appears  as  blebs  or  as reddish, shining, slightly prominent
   spots,  with  spreading edges. These are often followed by an eruption
   of  dark  or  yellowish  prominent nodules, frequently producing great
   deformity. In one variety of the disease, an\'91sthesia of the skin is
   a  prominent symptom. In addition there may be wasting of the muscles,
   falling  out  of  the  hair and nails, and distortion of the hands and
   feet with destruction of the bones and joints. It is incurable, and is
   probably  contagious.<-- caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae,
   curable  in  most  cases by therapy with a combination of antibiotics,
   but cases resistant to therapy are increasing. -->

     NOTE: &hand; Th e di sease no w ca lled leprosy, also designated as
     Lepra  or  Lepra  Arabum, and Elephantiasis Gr\'91corum, is not the
     same  as  the  leprosy  of  the ancients. The latter was, indeed, a
     generic  name  for  many  varieties  of skin disease (including our
     modern leprosy, psoriasis, etc.), some of which, among the Hebrews,
     rendered a person ceremonially unclean. A variety of leprosy of the
     Hebrews  (probably identical with modern leprosy) was characterized
     by  the  presence  of  smooth,  shining, depressed white patches or
     scales,  the  hair on which participated in the whiteness while the
     skin  and  adjacent  flesh  became  insensible.  It  was  incurable


   Lep"rous (?), a. [OF. leprous, lepros, F. l\'82preux, fr. L. leprosus,
   fr. lepra, leprae, leprosy. See Leper.]

   1.  Infected  with  leprosy; pertaining to or resembling leprosy. "His
   hand was leprous as snow." Ex. iv. 6.

   2. (Nat. Hist.) Leprose. -- Lep"rous*ly, adv. -- Lep"rous*ness, n.


   Lep"ry (?), n. Leprosy. [Obs.] Holland.


   Lep"ti*form  (?),  a.  [Leptus  +  -form.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  a form
   somewhat  like  leptus; -- said of active insect larv\'91 having three
   pairs of legs. See Larva.


   Lep`to*car"di*a  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The lowest class
   of  Vertebrata, including only the Amphioxus. The heart is represented
   only  by a simple pulsating vessel. The blood is colorless; the brain,
   renal  organs,  and limbs are wanting, and the backbone is represented
   only  by a simple, unsegmented notochord. See Amphioxus. [Written also


   Lep`to*car"di*an   (?)   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Of  or  pertaining  to  the
   Leptocardia. -- n. One of the Leptocardia.


   Lep`to*dac"tyl  (?),  n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A bird or other animal having
   slender toes. [Written also lepodactyle.]


   Lep`to*dac"tyl*ous (?), Having slender toes.


   Lep*tol"o*gy  (?),  n. [Gr. A minute and tedious discourse on trifling


   Lep`to*men`in*gi"tis   (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  meningitis.]  (Med.)
   Inflammation of the pia mater or of the arachnoid membrane.


   Lep"to*rhine  (?),  a.  [Gr.  ,  ,  the nose.] (Anat.) Having the nose
   narrow; -- said esp. of the skull. Opposed to platyrhine.


   Lep*tos"tra*ca  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   Crustacea, including Nebalia and allied forms.


   Lep"to*thrix  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Biol.)  A genus of bacteria,
   characterized  by  having  their  filaments  very  long,  slender, and
   indistinctly articulated.


   Lep"to*thrix,  a.  [See  Leptothrix, n. ] (Biol.) Having the form of a
   little  chain;  --  applied  to bacteria when, as in multiplication by
   fission, they form chain of filiform individuals.


   Lep"tus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The six-legged young, or
   larva,  of  certain  mites;  --  sometimes used as a generic name. See
   Harvest mite, under Harvest.


   Lep"ty*nite (?), n. (Min.) See Granulite.


   Lere  (?),  n.  [See  Lore  knowledge.] Learning; lesson; lore. [Obs.]


   Lere,  v.  t.  &  i.  [OE.  leeren, leren, AS. l. See Lore, Learn.] To
   learn; to teach. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lere, a. Empty. [Obs.] See Lere, a.


   Lere,  n. [AS. lira flesh; cf. Icel l\'91r thigh.] Flesh; skin. [Obs.]
   "His white leer." Chaucer.


   Ler"ed  (?),  a.  [From  lere,  v.  t.] Learned. [Obs.] " Lewed man or
   lered." Chaucer.


   Ler*n\'91"a  (?),  n. [NL., fr. L. Lernaeus Lern\'91an, fr. Lerna, Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  Linn\'91an genus of parasitic Entomostraca, -- the same
   as the family Lern\'91id\'91.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ge nus is restricted by modern zo\'94logists to a
     limited number of species similar to Lern\'91a branchialis found on
     the gills of the cod.


   Ler`n\'91*a"ce*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Lern\'91a.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A
   suborder  of copepod Crustacea, including a large number of remarkable
   forms,  mostly parasitic on fishes. The young, however, are active and
   swim freely. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Ler*ne"an  (?),  n.  [See  Lern\'91a.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  a  family
   (Lern\'91id\'91)  of  parasitic Crustacea found attached to fishes and
   other  marine  animals. Some species penetrate the skin and flesh with
   the elongated head, and feed on the viscera. See Illust. in Appendix.


   L\'82`rot"  (?),  n.  [F.] (Zo\'94l.) A small European rodent (Eliomys
   nitela), allied to the dormouse.


   Les (?), n. A leash. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Les"bi*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to the island anciently called
   Lesbos, now Mitylene, in the Grecian Archipelago.


   Lese (?), v. t. To lose. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lese`-maj"es*ty (?), n. See Leze majesty.


   Le"sion  (?),  n. [F. lesion, L. laesio, fr. laedere, laesum, to hurt,
   injure.]  A  hurt;  an  injury.  Specifically:  (a)  (Civil  Law) Loss
   sustained  from failure to fulfill a bargain or contract. Burrill. (b)
   (Med.)  Any  morbid change in the exercise of functions or the texture
   of organs. Dunglison.


   -less  (?).  [AS. le\'a0s loose, false; akin to OS. l loose, false, D.
   los  loose,  loos false, sly, G. los loose, Icel. lauss loose, vacant,
   Goth.  laus  empty,  vain,  and also to E. loose, lose. &root;127. See
   Lose,  and cf. Loose, Leasing.] A privative adjective suffix, denoting
   without, destitute of, not having; as witless, childless, fatherless.


   Less (l&ecr;s), conj. Unless. [Obs.] B. Jonson. 


   Less,  a.  [OE.  lesse, AS. l&aemac;ssa; akin to OFries. l&emac;ssa; a
   compar.  from  a lost positive form. Cf. Lesser, Lest, Least. Less has
   the  sense of the comparative degree of little.] Smaller; not so large
   or  great;  not  so  much;  shorter;  inferior; as, a less quantity or
   number; a horse of less size or value; in less time than before.

     NOTE: &hand; The substantive which less qualifies is often omitted;
     as, the purse contained less (money) than ten dollars. See Less, n.

     Thus  in  less  [time]  than  a  hundred  years  from the coming of
     Augustine, all England became Christian. E. A. Freeman.


   Less,  adv.  [AS.  l. See Less, adj., and cf. Lest.] Not so much; in a
   smaller or lower degree; as, less bright or loud; less beautiful.


   Less, n.

   1. A smaller portion or quantity.

     The  children of Israel did so, and gathered, some more, some less.
     Ex. xvi. 17.

   2. The inferior, younger, or smaller.

     The less is blessed of the better. Heb. vii. 7. 


   Less, v. t. To make less; to lessen. [Obs.] Gower.


   Les*see"  (?),  n.  [F. laiss\'82, p. p. of laisser. See Lease, v. t.]
   (Law)  The  person to whom a lease is given, or who takes an estate by
   lease. Blackstone.


   Less"en  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lessened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lessening.] [From Less, a. ] To make less; to reduce; to make smaller,
   or  fewer; to diminish; to lower; to degrade; as, to lessen a kingdom,
   or a population; to lessen speed, rank, fortune.

     Charity . . . shall lessen his punishment. Calamy.

     St.  Paul  chose  to  magnify  his office when ill men conspired to
     lessen it. Atterbury.

   Syn.  --  To diminish; reduce; abate; decrease; lower; impair; weaken;


   Less"en, v. i. To become less; to shrink; to contract; to decrease; to
   be  diminished;  as,  the  apparent magnitude of objects lessens as we
   recede from them; his care, or his wealth, lessened.

     The  objection  lessens much, and comes to no more than this: there
     was one witness of no good reputation. Atterbury.


   Less"en*er (?), n. One who, or that which, lessens.

     His  wife  .  . . is the lessener of his pain, and the augmenter of
     his pleasure. J. Rogers (1839). 


   Less"er (?), a. [This word is formed by adding anew the compar. suffix
   -er  (in  which  r is from an original s) to less. See Less, a.] Less;
   smaller; inferior.

     God made . . . the lesser light to rule the night. Gen. i. 15.

     NOTE: &hand; Lesser is used for less, now the compar. of little, in
     certain  special  instances  in  which  its  employment  has become
     established  by  custom;  as,  Lesser Asia (i. e., Asia Minor), the
     lesser  light, and some others; also in poetry, for the sake of the
     meter,  and  in  prose  where  its  use  renders  the  passage more

     The more my prayer, the lesser is my grace. Shak.

     The larger here, and there the lesser lambs. Pope.

     By  the  same  reason may a man, in the state of nature, punish the
     lesser breaches of the law. Locke.


   Less"er, adv. Less. [Obs.] Shak.


   Les"ses (?), n. pl. [F. laiss\'82es, from laisser to leave. See Lease,
   v. t.] The leavings or dung of beasts.


   Les"son  (?),  n. [OE. lessoun, F. le lesson, reading, fr. L. lectio a
   reading, fr. legere to read, collect. See Legend, and cf. Lection.]

   1.  Anything  read  or  recited  to  a  teacher by a pupil or learner;
   something,  as  a portion of a book, assigned to a pupil to be studied
   or learned at one time.

   2.  That  which is learned or taught by an express effort; instruction
   derived   from  precept,  experience,  observation,  or  deduction;  a
   precept;  a  doctrine;  as,  to  take  or give a lesson in drawing." A
   smooth and pleasing lesson." Milton.

     Emprinteth well this lesson in your mind. Chaucer.

   3.  A portion of Scripture read in divine service for instruction; as,
   here endeth the first lesson.

   4. A severe lecture; reproof; rebuke; warning.

     She would give her a lesson for walking so late. Sir. P. Sidney.

   5. (Mus.) An exercise; a composition serving an educational purpose; a


   Les"son, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lessoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lessoning.]
   To teach; to instruct. Shak.

     To  rest the weary, and to soothe the sad, Doth lesson happier men,
     and shame at least the bad. Byron.


   Les"sor  (?), n. [See Lessee, Lease, v. t. ] (Law) One who leases; the
   person who lets to farm, or gives a lease. Blackstone.


   Lest (?), v. i. To listen. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.


   Lest, n. [See List to choose.] Lust; desire; pleasure. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lest, a. Last; least. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lest,  conj.  [OE.leste,  fr.  AS.  l  the less that, where that, who,
   which. See The, Less, a.]

   1. For

     Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty. Prov. xx. 18.

     Wherefore  let  him that thinketh he standeth he standeth take heed
     lest he fall. I Cor. x. 12.

   2.  That (without the negative particle); -- after certain expressions
   denoting fear or apprehension.

     I feared Lest I might anger thee. Shak.


   -let  (?).[From two French dim. endings -el (L. -ellus) and -et, as in
   bracelet.]  A  noun suffix having a diminutive force; as in streamlet,


   Let  (?), v. t. [OE.letten, AS. lettan to delay, to hinder, fr. l\'91t
   slow;  akin  to D. letten to hinder, G. verletzen to hurt, Icel. letja
   to  hold  back,  Goth.  latjan.  See  Late.]  To retard; to hinder; to
   impede; to oppose. [Archaic]

     He was so strong that no man might him let. Chaucer.

     He  who  now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way. 2.
     Thess. ii. 7.

     Mine  ancient  wound  is hardly whole, And lets me from the saddle.


   Let, n.

   1.  A  retarding; hindrance; obstacle; impediment; delay; -- common in
   the phrase without let or hindrance, but elsewhere archaic. Keats.

     Consider  whether  your  doings  be to the let of your salvation or
     not. Latimer.

   2.  (Lawn  Tennis) A stroke in which a ball touches the top of the net
   in passing over.


   Let,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Let (Letted (?), [Obs].); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Letting.]  [OE.  leten,  l\'91ten  (past  tense lat, let, p. p. laten,
   leten,   lete),   AS.   l&aemac;tan   (past   tense  l&emac;t,  p.  p.
   l&aemac;ten);  akin  to  OFries. l&emac;ta, OS. l\'betan, D. laten, G.
   lessen,  OHG.  l\'bezzan, Icel. l\'beta, Sw. l\'86ta, Dan. lade, Goth.
   l&emac;tan,  and  L.  lassus weary. The original meaning seems to have
   been,  to  let loose, let go, let drop. Cf. Alas, Late, Lassitude, Let
   to hinder.]

   1.  To leave; to relinquish; to abandon. [Obs. or Archaic, except when
   followed by alone or be.]

     He . . . prayed him his voyage for to let Chaucer.

     Yet  neither spins nor cards, ne cares nor frets, But to her mother
     Nature all her care she lets. Spenser.

     Let me alone in choosing of my wife. Chaucer.

   2. To consider; to think; to esteem. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   3.  To  cause; to make; -- used with the infinitive in the active form
   but  in  the passive sense; as, let make, i. e., cause to be made; let
   bring, i. e., cause to be brought. [Obs.]

     This  irous,  cursed  wretch  Let this knight's son anon before him
     fetch. Chaucer.

     He . . . thus let do slay hem all three. Chaucer.

     Anon he let two coffers make. Gower.

   4.  To  permit;  to  allow;  to  suffer;  --  either affirmatively, by
   positive act, or negatively, by neglecting to restrain or prevent.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th is se nse, wh en followed by an infinitive, the
     latter  is  commonly without the sign to; as to let us walk, i. e.,
     to  permit or suffer us to walk. Sometimes there is entire omission
     of the verb; as, to let [to be or to go] loose.

     Pharaoh said, I will let you go Ex. viii. 28.

     If your name be Horatio, as I am let to know it is. Shak.

   5.  To  allow  to be used or occupied for a compensation; to lease; to
   rent;  to  hire  out;  --  often with out; as, to let a farm; to let a
   house; to let out horses.

   6.  To  give,  grant, or assign, as a work, privilege, or contract; --
   often  with  out;  as, to let the building of a bridge; to let out the
   lathing and the plastering.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ac tive form of the infinitive of let, as of many
     other  English verbs, is often used in a passive sense; as, a house
     to  let (i. e., for letting, or to be let). This form of expression
     conforms  to  the  use  of  the  Anglo-Saxon gerund with to (dative
     infinitive)  which  was commonly so employed. See Gerund, 2. " Your
     elegant  house  in  Harley  Street  is  to  let." Thackeray. In the
     imperative  mood,  before  the  first  person  plural,  let  has  a
     hortative force. " Rise up, let us go." Mark xiv. 42. " Let us seek
     out some desolate shade." Shak.

   To  let alone, to leave; to withdraw from; to refrain from interfering
   with.  --  To  let  blood, to cause blood to flow; to bleed. -- To let
   down.  (a) To lower. (b) To soften in tempering; as to let down tools,
   cutlery,  and  the  like.<--  to  let  (someone)  down.  to disappoint
   (someone)  by  filing  to  perform as expected. --> -- To let drive OR
   fly,  to  discharge  with violence, as a blow, an arrow, or stone. See
   under Drive, and Fly. -- To let in OR into. (a) To permit or suffer to
   enter;  to  admit.  (b)  To insert, or imbed, as a piece of wood, in a
   recess  formed  in  a surface for the purpose. To let loose, to remove
   restraint  from;  to  permit  to wander at large. -- To let off (a) To
   discharge;  to  let fly, as an arrow; to fire the charge of, as a gun.
   (b)  To release, as from an engagement or obligation. [Colloq.] To let
   out.  (a)  To  allow  to  go  forth; as, to let out a prisoner. (b) To
   extend  or loosen, as the folds of a garment; to enlarge; to suffer to
   run  out,  as  a  cord.  (c)  To lease; to give out for performance by
   contract,  as  a  job.  (d) To divulge. -- To let slide, to let go; to
   cease to care for. [Colloq.] " Let the world slide." Shak.
   Let, v. i.
   1. To forbear. [Obs.] Bacon.
   2.  To  be  let or leased; as, the farm lets for $500 a year. See note
   under Left, v. i.
   To  let  on, to tell; to tattle; to divulge something. [Low] -- To let
   up,  to  become less severe; to diminish; to cease; as, when the storm
   lets up. [Colloq.]


   Let"-a*lone" (?), a. Letting alone. The let-alone principle, doctrine,
   OR policy. (Polit. Econ.) See Laissez faire.


   Letch (?), v. & n. See Leach.


   Letch, n. [See Lech, Lecher.] Strong desire; passion. (Archaic.)

     Some  people  have a letch for unmasking impostors, or for avenging
     the wrongs of others. De Quincey.


   Letch"y (?), a. See Leachy.


   Lete (?), v. t. To let; to leave. [Obs.]


   Let"en (?), obs. p. p. of Lete. Chaucer.


   Leth"al  (?), n. [Lauric + ether + alcohol.] (Chem.) One of the higher
   alcohols  of  the paraffine series obtained from spermaceti as a white
   crystalline  solid.  It is so called because it occurs in the ethereal
   salt of lauric acid.

   Page 845


   Le"thal  (?),  a. [L. lethalis, letalis, fr. lethum, letum, death: cf.
   F.   l\'82thal.]   Deadly;   mortal;  fatal.  "The  lethal  blow."  W.
   Richardson. -- Le"thal*ly, adv.


   Le*thal"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. l\'82thalit\'82.] The quality of being
   lethal; mortality.

                            Lethargic, Lethargical

   Le*thar"gic   (?),   Le*thar"gic*al   (?),  a.  [L.  lethargicus,  Gr.
   l\'82thargique.  See  Lethargy.]  Pertaining  to,  affected  with,  or
   resembling,    lethargy;    morbidly    drowsy;    dull;   heavy.   --
   Le*thar"gic*al*ly,  v. -- Le*thar"gic*al*ness, n. -- Le*thar"gic*ness,


   Leth"ar*gize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lethargized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lethargizing (?).] To make lethargic.

     All  bitters  are  poison, and act by stilling, and depressing, and
     lethargizing the irritability. Coleridge.


   Leth"ar*gy (?), n.; pl. -gies (#). [F. l\'82thargie, L. letgargia, Gr.

   1. Morbid drowsiness; continued or profound sleep, from which a person
   can scarcely be awaked.

   2. A state of inaction or indifference.

     Europe lay then under a deep lethargy. Atterbury.


   Leth"ar*gy, v. t. To lethargize. [Obs.] Shak.


   Le"the (?), n. [See Lethal.] Death.[Obs.] Shak.


   Le"the (l&emac;"th&esl;), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Class.  Myth.)  A  river  of Hades whose waters when drunk caused
   forgetfulness of the past.

   2. Oblivion; a draught of oblivion; forgetfulness.


   Le*the"an (?), a. [L. Letha, Gr. Of or pertaining to Lethe; resembling
   in effect the water of Lethe. Milton. Barrow.


   Le"theed (?), a. Caused by Lethe. " Letheed dullness." [Obs.] Shak.


   Le"the*on  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Med.) Sulphuric ether used as an
   an\'91sthetic agent. [R.]


   Le"the*on*ize  (?),  v. t. To subject to the influence of letheon. [R.
   or Obs.]


   Le*thif"er*ous (?), a. [L. lethifer, letifer, fr. lethum, letum, death
   +  ferre  to bear, to bring: cf. F. l\'82thif\'8are.] Deadly; bringing
   death or destruction.


   Le"thy (?), a. Lethean. [Obs.] Marston.


   Let"-off`  (?),  n.  (Mach.)  A  device for letting off, releasing, or
   giving forth, as the warp from the cylinder of a loom.


   Let"te  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Letted.] To let; to hinder. See Let,
   to hinder. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Let"ter (?), n. [From Let to permit.] One who lets or permits; one who
   lets anything for hire.


   Let"ter,  n.  [From  Let  to  hinder.]  One  who  retards  or hinders.


   Let"ter,  n. [OE. lettre, F. lettre, OF. letre, fr. L.littera, litera,
   a  letter;  pl., an epistle, a writing, literature, fr. linere, litum,
   to  besmear,  to spread or rub over; because one of the earliest modes
   of  writing was by graving the characters upon tablets smeared over or
   covered with wax. Pliny, xiii. 11. See Leniment, and cf. Literal.]

   1. A mark or character used as the representative of a sound, or of an
   articulation of the human organs of speech; a first element of written

     And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek,
     and Latin, and Hebrew. Luke xxiii. 38.

   2.  A  written  or  printed  communication;  a  message  expressed  in
   intelligible  characters on something adapted to conveyance, as paper,
   parchment, etc.; an epistle.

     The style of letters ought to be free, easy, and natural. Walsh.

   3. A writing; an inscription. [Obs.]

     None could expound what this letter meant. Chaucer.

   4.   Verbal   expression;   literal   statement   or   meaning;  exact
   signification or requirement.

     We  must  observe  the letter of the law, without doing violence to
     the  reason  of  the  law  and  the intention of the lawgiver. Jer.

     I broke the letter of it to keep the sense. Tennyson.

   5. (Print.) A single type; type, collectively; a style of type.

     Under these buildings . . . was the king's printing house, and that
     famous letter so much esteemed. Evelyn.

   6. pl. Learning; erudition; as, a man of letters.

   7. pl. A letter; an epistle. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   Dead  letter,  Drop  letter, etc. See under Dead, Drop, etc. -- Letter
   book, a book in which copies of letters are kept. -- Letter box, a box
   for  the  reception  of  letters  to be mailed or delivered. -- Letter
   carrier,  a person who carries letters; a postman; specif., an officer
   of the post office who carries letters to the persons to whom they are
   addressed,  and  collects  letters to be mailed. -- Letter cutter, one
   who  engraves  letters  or letter punches. -- Letter lock, a lock that
   can not be opened when fastened, unless certain movable lettered rings
   or  disks  forming a part of in are in such a position (indicated by a
   particular  combination  of  the  letters) as to permit the bolt to be

     A strange lock that opens with AMEN. Beau. & Fl.

   --  Letter  paper, paper for writing letters on; especially, a size of
   paper  intermediate  between  note  paper  and foolscap. See Paper. --
   Letter punch, a steel punch with a letter engraved on the end, used in
   making  the matrices for type. -- Letters of administration (Law), the
   instrument  by  which an administrator or administratrix is authorized
   to  administer the goods and estate of a deceased person. -- Letter of
   attorney,  Letter  of credit, etc. See under Attorney, Credit, etc. --
   Letter  of  license, a paper by which creditors extend a debtor's time
   for  paying his debts. -- Letters close OR clause (Eng. Law.), letters
   or  writs  directed to particular persons for particular purposes, and
   hence  closed  or sealed on the outside; -- distinguished from letters
   patent.  Burrill. -- Letters of orders (Eccl.), a document duly signed
   and  sealed,  by  which  a bishop makes it known that he has regularly
   ordained  a  certain person as priest, deacon, etc. -- Letters patent,
   overt,  OR  open  (Eng.  Law), a writing executed and sealed, by which
   power  and  authority are granted to a person to do some act, or enjoy
   some  right;  as,  letters  patent  under  the  seal  of  England.  --
   Letter-sheet  envelope,  a stamped sheet of letter paper issued by the
   government,  prepared to be folded and sealed for transmission by mail
   without  an  envelope.  --  Letters  testamentary (Law), an instrument
   granted  by the proper officer to an executor after probate of a will,
   authorizing  him  to  act  as  executor. -- Letter writer. (a) One who
   writes  letters.  (b) A machine for copying letters. (c) A book giving
   directions and forms for the writing of letters.


   Let"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lettered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lettering.]  To  impress  with letters; to mark with letters or words;
   as, a book gilt and lettered.


   Let"tered (?), a.

   1.  Literate; educated; versed in literature. " Are you not lettered?"

     The  unlettered  barbarians  willingly  accepted  the  aid  of  the
     lettered clergy, still chiefly of Roman birth, to reduce to writing
     the institutes of their forefathers. Milman.

   2.  Of  or pertaining to learning or literature; learned. " A lettered
   education." Collier.

   3. Inscribed or stamped with letters. Addison.


   Let"ter*er (?), n. One who makes, inscribes, or engraves, alphabetical


   Let"ter*ing, n.

   1.  The  act  or  business  of making, or marking with, letters, as by
   cutting or painting.

   2. The letters made; as, the lettering of a sign.


   Let"ter*less (?), a.

   1. Not having a letter.

   2. Illiterate. [Obs.] E. Waterhouse.


   Let"tern (?), n. See Lecturn.


   Let"ter*press"  (?), n. Print; letters and words impressed on paper or
   other  material  by  types;  --  often  used  of the reading matter in
   distinction from the illustrations.

     Letterpress  printing,  printing directly from type, in distinction
     from printing from plates.


     Let"ter*ure  (?),  n.  Letters;  literature.  [Obs.]  "To teach him
     letterure and courtesy." Chaucer.


     Let"ter*wood`  (?), n. (Bot.) The beautiful and highly elastic wood
     of  a tree of the genus Brosimum (B. Aubletii), found in Guiana; --
     so  called  from  black  spots in it which bear some resemblance to
     hieroglyphics;  also  called snakewood, and leopardwood. It is much
     used for bows and for walking sticks.


     Let"tic  (?), a. (a) Of or pertaining to the Letts; Lettish. (b) Of
     or  pertaining  to  a  branch of the Slavic family, subdivided into
     Lettish,  Lithuanian,  and  Old Prussian. -- n. (a) The language of
     the  Letts; Lettish. (b) The language of the Lettic race, including
     Lettish, Lithuanian, and Old Prussian.


     Let"tish  (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Letts. -- n. The language
     spoken by the Letts. See Lettic.


     Let"trure (?), n. See Letterure. [Obs.] Chaucer.


     Letts (?), n. pl.; sing. Lett (. (Ethnol.) An Indo-European people,
     allied  to the Lithuanians and Old Prussians, and inhabiting a part
     of the Baltic provinces of Russia.


     Let"tuce  (?),  n.  [OE. letuce, prob. through Old French from some
     Late  Latin  derivative  of L. lactuca lettuce, which, according to
     Varro,  is  fr.  lac,  lactis,  milk, on account of the milky white
     juice  which  flows  from  it  when  it  is cut: cf. F. laitue. Cf.
     Lacteal,  Lactucic.]  (Bot.) A composite plant of the genus Lactuca
     (L.  sativa), the leaves of which are used as salad. Plants of this
     genus  yield a milky juice, from which lactucarium is obtained. The
     commonest wild lettuce of the United States is L. Canadensis.

   Hare's  lettuce,  Lamb's lettuce. See under Hare, and Lamb. -- Lettuce
   opium.  See Lactucarium. -- Sea lettuce, certain papery green seaweeds
   of the genus Ulva.


   Let"u*a*ry (?), n. Electuary. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Let"*up` (?). n. [See Let to forbear.] Abatement; also, cessation; as,
   it blew a gale for three days without any let-up. [Colloq.]


   Leuc- (?). Same as Leuco-.


   Leu`ca*den"dron  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Bot.) A genus of evergreen
   shrubs   from   the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  having  handsome  foliage.
   Leucadendron argenteum is the silverboom of the colonists.


   Leu*can"i*line  (?),  n.  [Leuc-  +  aniline.]  (Chem.)  A  colorless,
   crystalline,  organic base, obtained from rosaniline by reduction, and
   also from other sources. It forms colorless salts.


   Leu*ch\'91"mi*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) See Leucocyth\'91mia. --
   Leu*ch\'91m"ic  (#),  a.  [Written also leuk\'91mia, leuk\'91mic.] <--
   now (1990) mainly leukemia -->

                               Leucic, Leucinic

   Leu"cic (?), Leu*cin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or designating,
   an acid obtained from leucin, and called also oxycaproic acid.


   Leu"cin   (?),   n.   [Gr.  (Physiol.  Chem.)  A  white,  crystalline,
   nitrogenous substance formed in the decomposition of albuminous matter
   by  pancreatic  digestion,  by  the action of boiling dilute sulphuric
   acid,  and  by  putrefaction.  It  is  also  found as a constituent of
   various  tissues  and  organs,  as  the  spleen,  pancreas,  etc., and
   likewise  in  the vegetable kingdom. Chemically it is to be considered
   as  amido-caproic acid. <-- now called "leucine", one of the essential
   amino acids (not synthesized by the human body, required component for
   proper  nutrition).  (CH3)2CH.CH2.CH(NH2)-COOH. L-leucine, the natural
   form, is present in most proteins. -->


   Leu"cite (?), n. [Gr.leucite.]

   1. (Min.) A mineral having a glassy fracture, occurring in translucent
   trapezohedral  crystals. It is a silicate of alumina and potash. It is
   found in the volcanic rocks of Italy, especially at Vesuvius.

   2. (Bot.) A leucoplast.


   Leu*cit"ic (?), a. (Min.) Containing leucite; as, leucitic rocks.


   Leu"ci*toid  (?), n. [Leucite + -oid.] (Crystallog.) The trapezohedron
   or  tetragonal  trisoctahedron;  -- so called as being the form of the
   mineral leucite.

                                 Leuco-, Leuc-

   Leu"co-  (?),  Leuc-  (?).[Gr.  A  combining  form  signifying  white,
   colorless;  specif. (Chem.), denoting an extensive series of colorless
   organic  compounds,  obtained  by reduction from certain other colored
   compounds; as, leucaniline, leucaurin, etc.


   Leu"co*cyte (?), n. [Leuco- + Cr. (Physiol.) A colorless corpuscle, as
   one  of the white blood corpuscles, or those found in lymph, marrow of
   hone, connective tissue, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ey al l consist of more or less spherical masses of
     protoplasm,  without  any  surrounding  membrane  or  wall, and are
     capable of motion.

                        Leucocyth\'91mia, Leucocythemia

   Leu`co*cy*th\'91"mi*a, Leu`co*cy*the"mi*a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.)
   A  disease  in  which  the  white  corpuscles of the blood are largely
   increased  in  number,  and there is enlargement of the spleen, or the
   lymphatic glands; leuch\'91mia.


   Leu`co*cy`to*gen"e*sis  (?),  n. [Leucocyte + genesis.] (Physiol.) The
   formation of leucocytes.


   Leu`co*e`thi*op"ic  (?),  a.  [Leuco- + Ethiopic.] White and black; --
   said  of a white animal of a black species, or the albino of the negro


   Leu`co*e"thi*ops (?), n. [Leuco- + Aethiops.] An albino. [Also written


   Leu"co*line  (?),  n.  [Leuc-  +  L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) A nitrogenous
   organic  base  from  coal  tar,  and  identical  with  quinoline.  Cf.


   Leu*co"ma  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A white opacity in the cornea
   of the eye; -- called also albugo.


   Leu*co"ma*ine  (?),  n.  [Leuco-  + -maine, as in ptomaine.] (Physiol.
   Chem.)  An  animal  base  or  alkaloid, appearing in the tissue during
   life;  hence,  a  vital  alkaloid, as distinguished from a ptomaine or
   cadaveric poison.


   Leu*con"ic  (?),  a.  [Leuc-  +  croconic.]  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   designating, a complex organic acid, obtained as a yellowish white gum
   by the oxidation of croconic acid.


   Leu*cop"a*thy  (?),  n.  [Leuco- + Gr. The state of an albino, or of a
   white child of black parents.


   Leu"co*phane  (?),  n. [Gr. leukophan.] (Min.) A mineral of a greenish
   yellow  color;  it  is  a  silicate  of  glucina,  lime, and soda with
   fluorine. Called also leucophanite.


   Leu`co*phleg"ma*cy  (?),  n. [Gr. leucophlegmasie.] (Med.) A dropsical
   habit  of body, or the commencement of anasarca; paleness, with viscid
   juices and cold sweats.


   Leu`co*phleg*mat"ic  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. leucophlegmatique, Gr. Having a
   dropsical habit of body, with a white bloated skin.


   Leu"co*phyll  (?),  n.  [Leuco-  +  Gr.  (Chem.) A colorless substance
   isomeric  with  chlorophyll,  contained  in parts of plants capable of
   becoming green. Watts.


   Leu*coph"yl*lous (?), a. [Gr. (Bot.) Having white or silvery foliage.

                           Leucoplast, Leucoplastid

   Leu"co*plast  (?), Leu`co*plas"tid (?), n. [Leuco- + Gr. (Bot.) One of
   certain  very  minute  whitish  or colorless granules occurring in the
   protoplasm of plants and supposed to be the nuclei around which starch
   granules will form.


   Leu*cop"y*rite (?), n. [Leuco- + pyrites.] (Min.) A mineral of a color
   between  white  and steel-gray, with a metallic luster, and consisting
   chiefly of arsenic and iron.


   Leu`cor*rh\'d2"a  (?),  n.  [Leuco-  +  Gr.  "rei^n to flow.] (Med.) A
   discharge  of a white, yellowish, or greenish, viscid mucus, resulting
   from  inflammation  or  irritation  of the membrane lining the genital
   organs  of  the  female;  the  whites.<-- leukorrhea, leukorrhagia -->


   Leu"co*ryx (?), n. [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A large antelope of North
   Africa (Oryx leucoryx), allied to the gemsbok.


   Leu"co*scope  (?),  n.  [Leuco-  +  -scope.]  (Physics) An instrument,
   devised  by  Professor  Helmholtz, for testing the color perception of
   the  eye,  or  for comparing different lights, as to their constituent
   color or their relative whiteness.


   Leu"co*soid  (?),  a. [NL. Leucosia, the typical genus (fr. Gr. -oid.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Like  or  pertaining to the Leucosoidea, a tribe of marine
   crabs including the box crab or Calappa.


   Leu"co*sphere  (?),  n. [Leuco- + sphere.] (Astron.) The inner corona.


   Leu`co*tu"ric  (?), a. [Leuco- + allantoic + uric.] (Chem.) Pertaining
   to,  or  designating, a nitrogenous organic substance of the uric acid
   group, called leucoturic acid or oxalantin. See Oxalantin.


   Leu"cous (?), a. [Gr. White; -- applied to albinos, from the whiteness
   of their skin and hair.


   Leu*cox"ene  (?),  n.  [Leuco- + Gr. xe`nos stranger.] (Min.) A nearly
   opaque  white  mineral,  in  part identical with titanite, observed in
   some igneous rocks as the result of the alteration of titanic iron.


   Leu*k\'91"mi*a (?), n. Leucocyth\'91mia.

                             Leuke, a., Leukeness

   Leuke (?), a., Leuke"ness, n. See Luke, etc.


   Leu"co*plast (?), n. (Bot.) See Leucoplast.


   Le*va"na (?), n. [L., fr. levare to raise.] (Rom. Myth.) A goddess who
   protected newborn infants.


   Le"vant (?), a. [F., p. pr. of lever to raise.] (Law) Rising or having
   risen  from  rest;  --  said of cattle. See Couchant and levant, under


   Le*vant" (?), n. [It. levante the point where the sum rises, the east,
   the  Levant,  fr.levare  to raise, levarsi to rise: cf. F. levant. See

   1.  The  countries washed by the eastern part of the Mediterranean and
   its contiguous waters.

   2. A levanter (the wind so called).


   Le"vant (?), a. Eastern. [Obs.]

     Forth rush the levant and the ponent winds. Milton.


   Le*vant"  (?),  v. i. [Cf. Sp. levantar to raise, go from one place to
   another.]  To  run  away  from  one's debts; to decamp. [Colloq. Eng.]

   Page 846


   Le*vant"er  (?),  n.  [From  Levant,  v.] One who levants, or decamps.
   [Colloq. Eng.]


   Le*vant"er,  n.  [From  Levant, n.] A strong easterly wind peculiar to
   the Mediterranean. W. H. Russell.


   Le*vant"ine (?), a. [F. levantin, or It. levantino. See Levant, n.] Of
   or pertaining to the Levant. J. Spencer.


   Le*vant"ine, n.

   1. A native or inhabitant of the Levant.

   2.  [F.  levantine,  or  It.  levantina.] A stout twilled silk fabric,
   formerly made in the Levant.

                                 Levari facias

   Le*va`ri  fa"ci*as  (?).  [Law  L.,  cause  to  be  levied.] A writ of
   execution at common law.


   Le*va"tion (?), n. [L. levatio.] The act of raising; elevation; upward
   motion, as that produced by the action of a levator muscle.


   Le*va"tor (?), n. [NL., fr. L. levare to raise. See Lever, n.]

   1.  (Anat.) A muscle that serves to raise some part, as the lip or the

   2. (Surg.) A surgical instrument used to raise a depressed part of the


   Leve (?), a. Dear. See Lief. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Leve, n. & v. Same as 3d & 4th Leave. [Obs.]


   Leve, v. i. To live. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Leve,  v.  t.  [OE.,  fr.  AS.  l,  abbrev.  fr. gel. See Believe.] To
   believe. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Leve,  v. t. [OE. leven, AS. l, l. See Leave permission.] To grant; --
   used  esp.  in exclamations or prayers followed by a dependent clause.

     God leve all be well. Chaucer.


   Lev"ee  (?),  n.  [F. lever, fr. lever to raise, se lever to rise. See
   Lever, n.]

   1. The act of rising. " The sun's levee." Gray.

   2. A morning assembly or reception of visitors, -- in distinction from
   a  soir\'82e,  or  evening  assembly;  a  matin\'82e; hence, also, any
   general  or somewhat miscellaneous gathering of guests, whether in the
   daytime or evening; as, the president's levee.

     NOTE: &hand; In  England a ceremonious day reception, when attended
     by both ladies and gentlemen, is called a drawing-room.


   Lev"ee, v. t. To attend the levee or levees of.

     He levees all the great. Young.


   Lev"ee, n. [F. lev\'82e, fr. lever to raise. See Lever, and cf. Levy.]
   An  embankment  to  prevent  inundation;  as,  the  levees  along  the
   Mississippi; sometimes, the steep bank of a river. [U. S. ]


   Lev"ee,  v.  t.  To  keep  within a channel by means of levees; as, to
   levee a river. [U. S.]

                               Lev\'82e en masse

   Le*v\'82e" en` masse" (?). [F.] See Levy in mass, under Levy, n.


   Leve"ful  (?),  a.  [Leve, n. + -ful.] Allowable; permissible; lawful.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lev"el (?), n. [OE. level, livel, OF. livel, F. niveau, fr. L. libella
   level,  water  level,  a plumb level, dim. of libra pound, measure for
   liquids, balance, water poise, level. Cf. Librate, Libella.]

   1.  A  line  or  surface to which, at every point, a vertical or plumb
   line  is perpendicular; a line or surface which is everywhere parallel
   to  the  surface  of  still water; -- this is the true level, and is a
   curve  or  surface  in  which  all points are equally distant from the
   center  of the earth, or rather would be so if the earth were an exact

   2.  A  horizontal  line  or plane; that is, a straight line or a plane
   which  is  tangent to a true level at a given point and hence parallel
   to  the  horizon  at  that point; -- this is the apparent level at the
   given point.

   3.  An approximately horizontal line or surface at a certain degree of
   altitude,  or distance from the center of the earth; as, to climb from
   the level of the coast to the l of the plateau and then descent to the
   level of the valley or of the sea.

     After draining of the level in Northamptonshire. Sir M. Hale.

     Shot from the deadly level of a gun. Shak.

   4.  Hence,  figuratively,  a certain position, rank, standard, degree,
   quality,  character, etc., conceived of as in one of several planes of
   different elevation.

     Providence, for the most part, sets us on a level. Addison.

     Somebody there of his own level. Swift.

     Be  the  fair  level  of  thy  actions laid As temperance wills and
     prudence may persuade. Prior.

   5.  A  uniform  or  average  height;  a  normal  plane  or altitude; a
   condition  conformable  to  natural  law  or which will secure a level
   surface; as, moving fluids seek a level.

     When merit shall find its level. F. W. Robertson.

   6.  (Mech.  &  Surv.)  (a) An instrument by which to find a horizontal
   line,  or  adjust something with reference to a horizontal line. (b) A
   measurement of the difference of altitude of two points, by means of a
   level; as, to take a level.

   7. A horizontal passage, drift, or adit, in mine.
   Air  level,  a spirit level. See Spirit level (below). -- Box level, a
   spirit  level  in which a glass-covered box is used instead of a tube.
   --  Garpenter's  level,  Mason's  level,  either  the plumb level or a
   straight  bar  of  wood, in which is imbedded a small spirit level. --
   Level  of  the  sea, the imaginary level from which heights and depths
   are  calculated,  taken at a mean distance between high and low water.
   --  Line  of levels, a connected series of measurements, by means of a
   level,  along a given line, as of a railroad, to ascertain the profile
   of the ground. -- Plumb level, one in which a horizontal bar is placed
   in  true  position  by  means of a plumb line, to which it is at right
   angles. -- Spirit level, one in which the adjustment to the horizon is
   shown  by  the position of a bubble in alcohol or ether contained in a
   nearly horizontal glass tube, or a circular box with a glass cover. --
   Surveyor's  level, a telescope, with a spirit level attached, and with
   suitable screws, etc., for accurate adjustment, the whole mounted on a
   tripod,  for  use  in leveling; -- called also leveling instrument. --
   Water  level,  an instrument to show the level by means the surface of
   water in a trough, or in upright tubes connected by a pipe.


   Lev"el (?), a.

   1.  Even;  flat;  having  no  part  higher  than  another;  having, or
   conforming  to,  the curvature which belongs to the undisturbed liquid
   parts  of  the  earth's  surface; as, a level field; level ground; the
   level surface of a pond or lake.

     Ample spaces o'er the smooth And level pavement. Milton.

   2.  Coinciding  or parallel with the plane of the horizon; horizontal;
   as, the telescope is now level.

   3.  Even  with  anything else; of the same height; on the same line or
   plane;  on the same footing; of equal importance; -- followed by with,
   sometimes by to.

     Young  boys  and  girls  Are  level now with men; the odds is gone.

     Everything lies level to our wish. Shak.

   4. Straightforward; direct; direct; clear; open.

     A very plain and level account. M. Arnold.

   5.  Well  balanced; even; just; steady; impartial; as, a level head; a
   level understanding. [Colloq.] " A level consideration." Shak.

   6.  (Phonetics) Of even tone; without rising or falling inflection. H.
   Level   line  (Shipbuilding),  the  outline  of  a  section  which  is
   horizontal  crosswise,  and  parallel  with  the  rabbet  of  the keel
   lengthwise. Level surface (Physics), an equipotential surface at right
   angles at every point to the lines of force.


   Lev"el,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Leveled (?) or Levelled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Leveling or Levelling.]

   1.  To  make level; to make horizontal; to bring to the condition of a
   level  line  or  surface;  hence, to make flat or even; as, to level a
   road, a walk, or a garden.

   2.  To bring to a lower level; to overthrow; to topple down; to reduce
   to a flat surface; to lower.

     And their proud structures level with the ground. Sandys.

     He levels mountains and he raises plains. Dryden.

   3.  To  bring  to  a horizontal position, as a gun; hence, to point in
   taking aim; to aim; to direct.

     Bertram  de  Gordon, standing on the castle wall, leveled a quarrel
     out of a crossbow. Stow.

   4.  Figuratively,  to  bring to a common level or plane, in respect of
   rank,  condition,  character,  privilege,  etc.;  as, to level all the
   ranks and conditions of men.

   5.  To adjust or adapt to a certain level; as, to level remarks to the
   capacity of children.

     For  all  his  mind  on  honor fixed is, To which he levels all his
     purposes. Spenser.


   Lev"el, v. i.

   1.  To  be  level;  to  be  on  a  level with, or on an equality with,
   something; hence, to accord; to agree; to suit. [Obs.]

     With  such  accommodation  and  besort As levels with her breeding.

   2.  To  aim a gun, spear, etc., horizontally; hence, to aim or point a
   weapon in direct line with the mark; fig., to direct the eye, mind, or
   effort, directly to an object.

     The  foeman  may with as great aim level at the edge of a penknife.

     The  glory  of God and the good of his church . . . ought to be the
     mark whereat we also level. Hooker.

     She leveled at our purposes. Shak.


   Lev"el*er (?), n. [Written also leveller.]

   1. One who, or that which, levels.

   2.  One  who  would  remove  social  inequalities  or  distinctions; a


   Lev"el*ing, n. [Written also levelling.]

   1. The act or operation of making level.

   2. (Surveying) The art or operation of using a leveling instrument for
   finding  a  horizontal line, for ascertaining the differences of level
   between  different points of the earth's surface included in a survey,
   for  establishing  grades, etc., as in finding the descent of a river,
   or locating a line of railroad.
   Leveling instrument. See Surveyor's level, under Level, n. -- Leveling
   staff,  a  graduated  rod  or staff used in connection with a leveling
   instrument for measuring differences of level between points.


   Lev"el*ism   (?),   n.  The  disposition  or  endeavor  to  level  all
   distinctions of rank in society.


   Lev"el*ly, adv. In an even or level manner.


   Lev"el*ness, n. The state or quality of being level.


   Lev"en (?), n. [See Levin.] Lightning. [Obs.]

     Wild thunder dint and fiery leven. Chaucer.


   Lev"er  (?),  a.  [Old  compar. of leve or lief.] More agreeable; more
   pleasing.  [Obs.]  Chaucer.  To  be lever than. See Had as lief, under


   Lev"er, adv. Bather. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     For lever had I die than see his deadly face. Spenser.


   Le"ver  (?), n. [OE. levour, OF. leveor, prop., a lifter, fr. F. lever
   to  raise,  L.  levare;  akin to levis light in weight, E. levity, and
   perh.  to  E.  light not heavy: cf. F. levier. Cf. Alleviate, Elevate,
   Leaven, Legerdemain, Levy, n.]

   1.  (Mech.) A rigid piece which is capable of turning about one point,
   or axis (the fulcrum), and in which are two or more other points where
   forces  are  applied; -- used for transmitting and modifying force and
   motion.  Specif., a bar of metal, wood, or other rigid substance, used
   to  exert a pressure, or sustain a weight, at one point of its length,
   by receiving a force or power at a second, and turning at a third on a
   fixed  point called a fulcrum. It is usually named as the first of the
   six  mechanical  powers,  and  is three kinds, according as either the
   fulcrum  F,  the  weight  W, or the power P. respectively, is situated
   between the other two, as in the figures.

   2. (Mach.) (a) A bar, as a capstan bar, applied to a rotatory piece to
   turn it. (b) An arm on a rock shaft, to give motion to the shaft or to
   obtain motion from it.
   Compound lever, a machine consisting of two or more levers acting upon
   each  other.  --  Lever escapement. See Escapement. -- Lever jack. See
   Jack,  n.,  5.  --  Lever  watch,  a watch having a vibrating lever to
   connect  the  action  of  the  escape  wheel with that of the balance.
   Universal lever, a machine formed by a combination of a lever with the
   wheel  and  axle,  in  such  a  manner as to convert the reciprocating
   motion  of  the lever into a continued rectilinear motion of some body
   to which the power is applied.


   Lev"er*age  (?), n. The action of a lever; mechanical advantage gained
   by the lever. Leverage of a couple (Mech.), the perpendicular distance
   between  the  lines  of action of two forces which act in parallel and
   opposite  directions.  --  Leverage  of  a  force,  the  perpendicular
   distance  from  the  line in which a force acts upon a body to a point
   about which the body may be supposed to turn.


   Lev"er*et  (?),  n. [F. levraut, dim. of li\'8avre hare, L. lepus. Cf.
   Leporine.] (Zo\'94l.) A hare in the first year of its age.


   Lev"er*ock (?), n. [See Lark.] A lark. [Scot.]


   Lev"er*wood`   (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  American  hop  hornbeam  (Ostrya
   Virginica), a small tree with very tough wood.


   Lev"e*sel  (?), n. [AS. le\'a0f a leaf + s\'91l, sel, a room, a hall.]
   A leafy shelter; a place covered with foliage. [Obs.]

     Behind the mill, under a levesel. Chaucer.


   Lev"et  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. lever to raise.] A trumpet call for rousing
   soldiers; a reveille. [Obs.] Hudibras.


   Lev"i*a*ble  (?),  a. [From Levy to assess.] Fit to be levied; capable
   of  being  assessed and collected; as, sums leviable by course of law.


   Le*vi"a*than (?), n. [Heb. livy\'beth\'ben.]

   1.  An  aquatic  animal,  described  in the book of Job, ch. xli., and
   mentioned on other passages of Scripture.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  no t ce rtainly known what animal is intended,
     whether the crocodile, the whale, or some sort of serpent.

   2. The whale, or a great whale. Milton.


   Lev"i*er (?), n. One who levees. Cartwright.


   Lev"i*ga*ble (?) a. [See Levigate, v. t.] Capable of being levigated.


   Lev"i*gate  (?), a. [L. levigatus, p. p. of levigare to lighten, fr. l
   light.]  Made  less  harsh  or  burdensome; alleviated. [Obs.] Sir. T.


   Lev"i*gate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Levigated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Levigating.]  [L.  levigatus,  p. p. of levigare to make smooth, fr. l
   smooth; akin to Gr. To make smooth in various senses: (a) To free from
   grit;  to  reduce  to  an  impalpable  powder  or  paste.  (b)  To mix
   thoroughly,  as  liquids  or  semiliquids.  (c) To polish. (d) To make
   smooth  in  action. " When use hath levigated the organs." Barrow. (e)
   Technically,  to  make  smooth by rubbing in a moist condition between
   hard surfaces, as in grinding pigments.


   Lev"i*gate (?), a. [L. levigatus, p. p.] Made smooth, as if polished.


   Lev"i*ga"tion   (?),   n.   [L.   levigatio   a   smoothing:   cf.  F.
   l\'82vigation.] The act or operation of levigating.


   Lev"in  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.  Cf.  Leven.] Lightning. [Obs.]
   Spenser. Levin brand, a thunderbolt. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Lev"in*er (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A swift hound.


   Le"vir  (?),  n.  [L.]  A  husband's  brother; -- used in reference to
   levirate marriages.

                             Levirate, Leviratical

   Lev"i*rate (?), Lev`i*rat"ic*al (?), a. [L. levir a husband's brother,
   brother-in-law; akin to Gr. l\'82virat leviration.] Of, pertaining to,
   or  in  accordance  with,  a  law  of the ancient Israelites and other
   tribes  and  races,  according  to  which  a woman, whose husband died
   without issue, was married to the husband's brother.

     The  firstborn  son  of  a  leviratical  marriage  was reckoned and
     registered as the son of the deceased brother. Alford.


   Lev`i*ra"tion (?), n. Levirate marriage or marriages. Kitto.


   Lev`i*ros"tres  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. L. levis light + rostrum beak.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A group of birds, including the hornbills, kingfishers, and
   related forms.


   Lev"i*tate  (?),  v. i. [L. levitas, -atis, lightness. See Levity.] To
   rise,  or  tend to rise, as if lighter than the surrounding medium; to
   become buoyant; -- opposed to gravitate. Sir. J. Herschel.


   Lev"i*tate, v. i. (Spiritualism) To make buoyant; to cause to float in
   the air; as, to levitate a table. [Cant]


   Lev`i*ta"tion (?), n. [L. levis light in weight.]

   1. Lightness; buoyancy; act of making light. Paley.

   2. The act or process of making buoyant.


   Le"vite (?), n. [L. Levites, Gr. Levi, one of the sons of Jacob.]

   1.  (Bib.  Hist.)  One of the tribe or family of Levi; a descendant of
   Levi;  esp.,  one  subordinate  to  the  priests (who were of the same
   tribe)  and  employed  in various duties connected with the tabernacle
   first,  and  afterward  the  temple, such as the care of the building,
   bringing  of  wood and other necessaries for the sacrifices, the music
   of the services, etc.

   2. A priest; so called in contempt or ridicule.

   Page 847


   Le*vit"ic*al (?), a. [L. Leviticus, Gr.

   1. Of or pertaining to a Levite or the Levites.

   2. Priestly. " Levitical questions." Milton.

   3.  Of or pertaining to, or designating, the law contained in the book
   of Leviticus. Ayliffe.
   Levitical  degrees, degrees of relationship named in Leviticus, within
   which marriage is forbidden.


   Le*vit"ic*al*ly,  adv.  After the manner of the Levites; in accordance
   with the levitical law.


   Le*vit"i*cus  (?), n. [See Levitical.] The third canonical book of the
   Old  Testament,  containing  the  laws and regulations relating to the
   priests  and  Levites among the Hebrews, or the body of the ceremonial


   Lev"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  levitas,  fr.  levis light in weight; akin to
   levare to raise. See Lever, n.]

   1.  The  quality  of  weighing less than something else of equal bulk;
   relative lightness, especially as shown by rising through, or floating
   upon, a contiguous substance; buoyancy; -- opposed to gravity.

     He  gave  the  form of levity to that which ascended; to that which
     descended, the form of gravity. Sir. W. Raleigh.

     This  bubble  by  reason  of its comparative levity to the fluidity
     that incloses it, would ascend to the top. Bentley.

   2.  Lack  of  gravity  and  earnestness  in  deportment  or character;
   trifling gayety; frivolity; sportiveness; vanity. " A spirit of levity
   and libertinism." Atterbury.

     He never employed his omnipotence out of levity. Calamy.

   3. Lack of steadiness or constancy; disposition to change; fickleness;

     The  levity that is fatigued and disgusted with everything of which
     it is in possession. Burke.

   Syn.  --  Inconstancy; thoughtlessness; unsteadiness; inconsideration;
   volatility; flightiness. -- Levity, Volatility, Flightiness. All these
   words  relate  to  outward conduct. Levity springs from a lightness of
   mind  which  produces  a  disregard  of  the  proprieties  of time and
   place.Volatility  is  a  degree of levity which causes the thoughts to
   fly  from  one object to another, without resting on any for a moment.
   Flightiness  is  volatility  carried to an extreme which often betrays
   its  subject into gross impropriety or weakness. Levity of deportment,
   of  conduct,  of remark; volatility of temper, of spirits; flightiness
   of mind or disposition.


   Le"vo-  (?).  A  prefix from L. laevus, meaning: (a) Pertaining to, or
   toward,  the  left;  as,  levorotatory. (b) (Chem. & Opt.) Turning the
   plane   of  polarized  light  to  the  left;  as,  levotartaric  acid;
   levoracemic acid; levogyratory crystals, etc. [Written also l\'91vo-.]


   Le`vo*gy"rate  (?),  a. [Levo- + gyrate.] (Chem. & Physics) Turning or
   twisting  the  plane  of  polarization  towards the left, as levulose,
   levotartaric acid, etc. [Written also l\'91vogyrate.]


   Le`vo*ro"ta*to*ry  (?),  a.  [Levo-  +  rotatory.]  (Chem.  & Physics)
   Turning  or  rotating  the  plane  of  polarization  towards the left;
   levogyrate,  as  levulose,  left handed quartz crystals, etc. [Written
   also l\'91vorotatory.]


   Lev"u*lin  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A substance resembling dextrin, obtained
   from  the  bulbs of the dahlia, the artichoke, and other sources, as a
   colorless,  spongy,  amorphous  material.  It  is so called because by
   decomposition it yields levulose. [Written also l\'91vulin.]


   Lev`u*lin"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or denoting, an acid
   (called also acetyl-propionic acid), C5H8O3, obtained by the action of
   dilute   acids   on   various  sugars  (as  levulose).  [Written  also


   Lev`u*lo"san (?), n. (Chem.) An unfermentable carbohydrate obtained by
   gently heating levulose.


   Lev"u*lose`  (?),  n.  [See Levo-.] (Chem.) A sirupy variety of sugar,
   rarely  obtained crystallized, occurring widely in honey, ripe fruits,
   etc.,  and  hence  called  also  fruit  sugar.  It is called levulose,
   because  it  rotates  the  plane of polarization to the left. [Written
   also l\'91vulose.]<-- also called fructose: C6H12O6>

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  ob tained, to gether with an equal quantity of
     dextrose,  by  the  inversion  of  ordinary cane or beet sugar, and
     hence,  as being an ingredient of invert sugar, is often so called.
     It  is fermentable, nearly as sweet as cane sugar, and is metameric
     with dextrose. Cf. Dextrose.


   Lev"y (?), n.; pl. Levies (#). [A contr. of elevenpence or elevenpenny
   bit.] A name formerly given in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia to
   the  Spanish  real  of  one eight of a dollar (or 12 cents), valued at
   eleven pence when the dollar was rated at 7s. 6d.


   Lev"y, n. [F. lev\'82e, fr. lever to raise. See Lever, and cf. Lever.]

   1.  The  act  of  levying  or collecting by authority; as, the levy of
   troops, taxes, etc.

     A levy of all the men left under sixty. Thirlwall.

   2.  That which is levied, as an army, force, tribute, etc. " The Irish
   levies." Macaulay.

   3.  (Law)  The  taking or seizure of property on executions to satisfy
   judgments, or on warrants for the collection of taxes; a collecting by
   Levy  in mass [F. lev\'82e en masse], a requisition of all able-bodied
   men for military service.


   Lev"y, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Levied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Levying.]

   1. To raise, as a siege. [Obs.] Holland.

   2.  To  raise;  to  collect;  said  of troops, to form into an army by
   enrollment, conscription. etc.

     Augustine  .  .  .  inflamed  Ethelbert,  king of Kent, to levy his
     power, and to war against them. Fuller.

   3.  To  raise  or collect by assessment; to exact by authority; as, to
   levy taxes, toll, tribute, or contributions.

     If they do this . . . my ransom, then, Will soon be levied. Shak.

   4.  (Law)  (a)  To  gather  or exact; as, to levy money. (b) To erect,
   build,  or  set  up; to make or construct; to raise or cast up; as, to
   levy  a mill, dike, ditch, a nuisance, etc. [Obs.] Cowell. Blackstone.
   (c) To take or seize on execution; to collect by execution.
   To levy a fine, to commence and carry on a suit for assuring the title
   to  lands  or  tenements. Blackstone. -- To levy war, to make or begin
   war; to take arms for attack; to attack.


   Lev"y, v. i. To seize property, real or personal, or subject it to the
   operation  of  an  execution; to make a levy; as, to levy on property;
   the  usual  mode  of  levying, in England, is by seizing the goods. To
   levy  on  goods  and  chattels, to take into custody or seize specific
   property in satisfaction of a writ.

                               Levyne, Levynite

   Lev"yne   (?),   Lev"yn*ite   (?),  n.  [From  Mr.  Levy,  an  English
   mineralogist.] (Min.) A whitish, reddish, or yellowish, transparent or
   translucent mineral, allied to chabazite.


   Lew  (?),  a. [Cf. lee a calm or sheltered place, lukewarm.] Lukewarm;
   tepid. [Obs.] Wyclif.


   Lewd  (?),  a. [Compar. Lewder (?); superl. Lewdest.] [OE.lewed, lewd,
   lay, ignorant, vile, AS. l laical, belonging to the laity.]

   1. Not clerical; laic; laical; hence, unlearned; simple. [Obs.]

     For  if  priest be foul, on whom we trust, No wonder is a lewed man
     to rust. Chaucer.

     So these great clerks their little wisdom show To mock the lewd, as
     learn'd in this as they. Sit. J. Davies.

   2.  Belonging  to  the lower classes, or the rabble; idle and lawless;
   bad; vicious. [Archaic] Chaucer.

     But the Jews, which believed not, . . . took unto them certain lewd
     fellows  of the baser sort, . . . and assaulted the house of Jason.
     Acts xvii. 5.

     Too lewd to work, and ready for any kind of mischief. Southey


   3.  Given  to  the promiscuous indulgence of lust; dissolute; lustful;
   libidinous. Dryden.

   4. Suiting, or proceeding from, lustfulness; involving unlawful sexual
   desire;  as,  lewd  thoughts,  conduct,  or language. Syn. -- Lustful;
   libidinous;  licentious;  profligate;  dissolute;  sensual;  unchaste;
   impure;  lascivious; lecherous; rakish; debauched. -- Lewd"ly, adv. --
   Lewd"ness, n.


   Lewd"ster (?), n. A lewd person. [Obs.] Shak.

                                Lewis, Lewisson

   Lew"is (?), Lew"is*son (?), n.

   1.  An  iron  dovetailed  tenon, made in sections, which can be fitted
   into a dovetail mortise; -- used in hoisting large stones, etc.

   2. A kind of shears used in cropping woolen cloth.
   Lewis hole, a hole wider at the bottom than at the mouth, into which a
   lewis  is  fitted.  De  Foe.  <-- Lewis acid (Chem) A compound without
   dissociable  hydrogen which acts as an acid (bonding with Lewis bases)
   in chemical reaction. -->
   Lex (?), n.; pl. Leges (#). [L. See Legal.] Law; as, lex talionis, the
   law  of  retaliation; lex terr\'91, the law of the land; lex fori, the
   law  of  the  forum  or  court;  lex  loci,  the law of the place; lex
   mercatoria, the law or custom of merchants. 


   Lex"ic*al  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to a lexicon, to lexicography, or
   words; according or conforming to a lexicon. -- Lex"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Lex`i*cog"ra*pher  (?), n. [Gr. lexicographe. See Lexicon.] The author
   or compiler of a lexicon or dictionary.

     Every other author may aspire to praise; the lexicographer can only
     hope to escape reproach; and even this negative recompense has been
     yet granted to very few. Johnson.

                        Lexicographic, Lexicographical

   Lex`i*co*graph"ic   (?),   Lex`i*co*graph"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.  F.
   lexicographique.]  Of or pertaining to, or according to, lexicography.
   -- Lex`i*co*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Lex`i*cog"ra*phist (?), n. A lexicographer. [R.] Southey.


   Lex`i*cog"ra*phy  (?), n. [Cf. F. lexicographie.] The art, process, or
   occupation of making a lexicon or dictionary; the principles which are
   applied in making dictionaries.


   Lex`i*col"o*gist (?), n. One versed in lexicology.


   Lex`i*col"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. lexicologie.] The science of
   the  derivation  and  signification  of words; that branch of learning
   which treats of the signification and application of words.


   Lex"i*con  (?),  n.  [Gr. Legend.] A vocabulary, or book containing an
   alphabetical   arrangement  of  the  words  in  a  language  or  of  a
   considerable   number   of  them,  with  the  definition  of  each;  a
   dictionary;  especially,  a  dictionary of the Greek, Hebrew, or Latin
   language.  <-- also, a dictionary for use in computational linguistics


   Lex"i*con*ist, n. A writer of a lexicon. [R.]


   Lex`i*graph"ic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. lexigraphique.] Of or pertaining to


   Lex*ig"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr. -graphy: cf. F. lexigraphie.] The art or
   practice of defining words; definition of words.


   Lex`i*phan"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Using, or interlarded with, pretentious
   words;  bombastic;  as,  a  lexiphanic  writer  or speaker; lexiphanic


   Lex`i*phan"i*cism  (?),  n. The use of pretentious words, language, or


   Lex`i*phar"mic (?), a. See Alexipharmic.


   Ley (?), v. i., & i. To lay; to wager. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ley, n. [OF.] Law. Abbott.


   Ley (?), n. [Obs.] See Lye.


   Ley (?), n. Grass or meadow land; a lea.


   Ley, a. Fallow; unseeded. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

                           Leyden jar, Leyden phial

   Ley"den  jar"  (?),  Ley"den phi"al (?), (Elec.) A glass jar or bottle
   used to accumulate electricity. It is coated with tin foil, within and
   without,  nearly  to  its top, and is surmounted by a brass knob which
   communicates  with  the  inner coating, for the purpose of charging it
   with  electricity. It is so named from having been invented in Leyden,


   Ley"ser (?), n. Leisure. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                 Leze majesty

   Leze`  maj"es*ty  (?). [F. lese-majest\'82, fr. L. laesus, fem. laesa,
   injured  (see  Lesion)  +  majestas  majesty;  that  is, crimen laesae
   majestatis.]  [Written  also  lese majesty.] (Law) Any crime committed
   against  the  sovereign  power. <-- now usually lese or l\'8ase . also
   (2) any affront to dignity -->


   Lher"zo*lite  (?),  n.  [From Lherz, a place in the Pyrenees + -lite.]
   (Min.) An igneous rock consisting largely of chrysolite, with pyroxene
   and picotite (a variety of spinel containing chromium).


   Li (?), n.

   1.  Chinese measure of distance, being a little more that one third of
   a mile.

   2. A Chinese copper coin; a cash. See Cash.


   Li`a*bil"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Liabilities (.

   1.  The  state  of  being  liable;  as,  the  liability of an insurer;
   liability to accidents; liability to the law.

   2.  That  which  one  is  under obligation to pay, or for which one is
   liable.   Specifically,  in  the  pl.,  the  sum  of  one's  pecuniary
   obligations; -- opposed to assets.
   Limited liability. See Limited company, under Limited.


   Li"a*ble  (?),  a.  [From F. lier to bind, L. ligare. Cf. Ally, v. t.,

   1. Bound or obliged in law or equity; responsible; answerable; as, the
   surety is liable for the debt of his principal.

   2.  Exposed  to  a  certain  contingency  or  casualty,  more  or less
   probable;  --  with  to and an infinitive or noun; as, liable to slip;
   liable  to  accident.  Syn.  --  Accountable; responsible; answerable;
   bound;  subject; obnoxious; exposed. -- Liable, Subject. Liable refers
   to  a  future  possible  or  probable happening which may not actually
   occur; as, horses are liable to slip; even the sagacious are liable to
   make  mistakes.  Subject  refers  to  any  actual  state  or condition
   belonging to the nature or circumstances of the person or thing spoken
   of,  or  to that which often befalls one. One whose father was subject
   to attacks of the gout is himself liable to have that disease. Men are
   constantly subject to the law, but liable to suffer by its infraction.

     Proudly secure, yet liable to fall. Milton.

     All human things are subject to decay. Dryden.


   Li"a*ble*ness, n. Quality of being liable; liability.


   Li"age  (?),  n.  [Cf. OF. liage a bond. See Liable.] Union by league;
   alliance. [Obs.]


   Li`al`son"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  L.  ligatio,  fr. ligare to bind. See
   Ligature,  and  cf. Ligation.] A union, or bond of union; an intimacy;
   especially, an illicit intimacy between a man and a woman.

                                 Liane, Liana

   Li*ane" (?), Li*a"na (?), n. [F. liane; prob. akin to lien a band, fr.
   L.  ligamen,  fr.  ligare  to  bind. Cf. Lien, n. ] (Bot.) A luxuriant
   woody  plant,  climbing  high  trees  and  having  ropelike stems. The
   grapevine  often  has the habit of a liane. Lianes are abundant in the
   forests of the Amazon region.


   Li"ar  (?), n. [OE. liere. See Lie to falsify.] A person who knowingly
   utters falsehood; one who lies.


   Li"ard  (?),  a.  [OF.  liart, LL. liardus gray, dappie.] Gray. [Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; Used by Chaucer as an epithet of a gray or dapple gray
     horse. Also used as a name for such a horse.


   Liard  (?),  n. [F.] A French copper coin of one fourth the value of a


   Li"as  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  lias, fr. liais sort of limestone, OF. also
   liois; perh. of Celtic origin, cf. Armor. liach, leach, a stone, Gael.
   leac,  W.  llech.  Cf.  Cromlech.]  (Geol.)  The  lowest  of the three
   divisions  of  the Jurassic period; a name given in England and Europe
   to  a  series  of  marine limestones underlying the O\'94lite. See the
   Chart of Geology.


   Li*as"sic  (?),  a.  (Geol.) Of the age of the Lias; pertaining to the
   Lias Formation. -- n. Same as Lias.


   Lib (?), v. i. [Cf. Glib to geld.] To castrate. [Obs.]


   Lib"a*ment (?), n. [L. libamentum.] Libation. [Obs.] Holland.


   Li"bant  (?),  a.  [L.  libans,  p.  pr.  of  libare to taste, touch.]
   Sipping; touching lightly. [R.] Landor.


   Li*ba"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  libatio,  fr.  libare to take a little from
   anything,  to taste, to pour out as an offering: cf. F. libation.] The
   act  of pouring a liquid or liquor, usually wine, either on the ground
   or on a victim in sacrifice, in honor of some deity; also, the wine or
   liquid thus poured out. Dryden.

     A heathen sacrifice or libation to the earth. Bacon.


   Li"ba*to*ry (?), a. Pertaining to libation.


   Lib"bard  (?),  n. [See Leopard.] A leopard. [Obs. or Poetic] Spenser.

                                Libbard's bane

   Lib"bard's bane` (?). Leopard's bane. [Obs.]


   Li"bel  (?),  n. [L. libellus a little book, pamphlet, libel, lampoon,
   dim.  of  liber  the  liber or inner bark of a tree; also (because the
   ancients  wrote  on  this  bark),  paper,  parchment, or a roll of any
   material  used  to  write  upon, and hence, a book or treatise: cf. F.

   1. A brief writing of any kind, esp. a declaration, bill, certificate,
   request, supplication, etc. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     A libel of forsaking [divorcement]. Wyclif (Matt. v. 31).

   2. Any defamatory writing; a lampoon; a satire.

   3.  (Law)  A  malicious  publication  expressed  either in print or in
   writing,  or  by pictures, effigies, or other signs, tending to expose
   another  to  public hatred, contempt, or ridicule. Such publication is
   indictable at common law.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm, in  a  mo re ex tended sense, includes the
     publication  of  such writings, pictures, and the like, as are of a
     blasphemous,  treasonable,  seditious,  or obscene character. These
     also are indictable at common law.

   4. (Law) The crime of issuing a malicious defamatory publication.

   5.  (Civil  Law  &  Courts  of  Admiralty)  A  written  declaration or
   statement  by  the plaintiff of his cause of action, and of the relief
   he seeks.


   Li"bel,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Liebeled (?) or Libelled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Libeling or Libelling.]

   1.  To defame, or expose to public hatred, contempt, or ridicule, by a
   writing, picture, sign, etc.; to lampoon.

     Some wicked wits have libeled all the fair. Pope.

   Page 848

   2.  (Law) To proceed against by filing a libel, particularly against a
   ship or goods.


   Li"bel  (?),  v.  i. To spread defamation, written or printed; -- with
   against. [Obs.]

     What's this but libeling against the senate? Shak.

     [He] libels now 'gainst each great man. Donne.


   Li"bel*ant  (?),  n.  One  who libels; one who institutes a suit in an
   ecclesiastical or admiralty court. [Written also libellant.] Cranch.


   Li"bel*er  (?), n. One who libels. [Written also libeller.] " Libelers
   of others." Buckkminster.


   Li"bel*ist (?), n. A libeler.

                                   Li bella

   Li *bel"la (?), n. [L., dim. of libra balance. See Level, n.]

   1. A small balance.

   2. A level, or leveling instrument.


   Li*bel"lu*lid (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A dragon fly.


   Li*bel"lu*loid (?), a. [NL. Libellula, the name of the typical genus +
   -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like or pertaining to the dragon fi


   Li"bel*ous  (?),  a.  Containing  or  involving  a  libel; defamatory;
   containing  that which exposes some person to public hatred, contempt,
   or  ridicule;  as,  a  libelous pamphlet. [Written also libellous.] --
   Li"bel*ous*ly, adv.


   Li"ber  (?), n. [L. See Libel.] (Bot.) The inner bark of plants, lying
   next  to  the  wood.  It usually contains a large proportion of woody,
   fibrous cells, and is, therefore, the part from which the fiber of the
   plant  is obtained, as that of hemp, etc. Liber cells, elongated woody
   cells found in the liber.


   Lib"er*al (?), a. [F. lib\'82ral, L. liberalis, from liber free; perh.
   akin to libet, lubet,it pleases, E. lief. Cf. Deliver.]

   1.  Free  by  birth; hence, befitting a freeman or gentleman; refined;
   noble; independent; free; not servile or mean; as, a liberal ancestry;
   a  liberal  spirit;  liberal  arts  or  studies. " Liberal education."
   Macaulay. " A liberal tongue." Shak.

   2.  Bestowing  in  a  large  and  noble  way,  as a freeman; generous;
   bounteous;  open-handed;  as,  a  liberal giver. " Liberal of praise."

     Infinitely  good,  and of his good As liberal and free as infinite.

   3.  Bestowed  in  a  large way; hence, more than sufficient; abundant;
   bountiful;  ample; profuse; as, a liberal gift; a liberal discharge of
   matter or of water.

     His wealth doth warrant a liberal dower. Shak.

   4.  Not  strict or rigorous; not confined or restricted to the literal
   sense;  free;  as,  a  liberal  translation of a classic, or a liberal
   construction of law or of language.

   5.  Not narrow or contracted in mind; not selfish; enlarged in spirit;

   6. Free to excess; regardless of law or moral restraint; licentious. "
   Most like a liberal villain." Shak.

   7.  Not  bound by orthodox tenets or established forms in political or
   religious   philosophy;  independent  in  opinion;  not  conservative;
   friendly  to  great  freedom  in the constitution or administration of
   government;  having  tendency  toward  democratic  or  republican,  as
   distinguished  from  monarchical  or  aristocratic, forms; as, liberal
   thinkers; liberal Christians; the Liberal party.

     I  confess  I  see nothing liberal in this " order of thoughts," as
     Hobbes elsewhere expresses it. Hazlitt.

     NOTE: &hand; Li beral ha s of , so metimes wi th, be fore the thing
     bestowed,  in  before  a  word  signifying  action, and to before a
     person  or  object on which anything is bestowed; as, to be liberal
     of  praise  or  censure;  liberal  with  money;  liberal in giving;
     liberal to the poor.

   The  liberal arts. See under Art. -- Liberal education, education that
   enlarges  and  disciplines  the  mind  and  makes it master of its own
   powers,  irrespective of the particular business or profession one may
   follow.  Syn.  --  Generous; bountiful; munificent; beneficent; ample;
   large;  profuse;  free. -- Liberal, Generous. Liberal is freeborn, and
   generous  is  highborn. The former is opposed to the ordinary feelings
   of  a  servile  state,  and  implies  largeness  of  spirit in giving,
   judging,  acting,  etc.  The  latter  expresses that nobleness of soul
   which  is  peculiarly  appropriate  to those of high rank, -- a spirit
   that  goes  out  of  self,  and  finds its enjoyment in consulting the
   feelings and happiness of others. Generosity is measured by the extent
   of the sacrifices it makes; liberality, by the warmth of feeling which
   it manifests.


   Lib"er*al, n. One who favors greater freedom in political or religious
   matters;  an  opponent  of  the  established  systems;  a reformer; in
   English politics, a member of the Liberal party, so called. Cf. Whig.


   Lib"er*al*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. lib\'82ralisme.] Liberal principles; the
   principles  and  methods  of  the  liberals  in  politics or religion;
   specifically, the principles of the Liberal party.


   Lib"er*al*ist, n. A liberal.


   Lib`er*al*is"tic   (?),   a.   Pertaining  to,  or  characterized  by,
   liberalism; as, liberalistic opinions.


   Lib`er*al"i*ty  (?), n.; pl. Liberalities (#). [L. liberalitas: cf. F.

   1.  The  quality  or  state  of  being liberal; liberal disposition or
   practice;  freedom  from  narrowness or prejudice; generosity; candor;

     That  liberality is but cast away Which makes us borrow what we can
     not pay. Denham.

   2.  A  gift; a gratuity; -- sometimes in the plural; as, a prudent man
   is not impoverished by his liberalities.


   Lib`er*al*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of liberalizing.


   Lib"er*al*ize  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Liberalized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Liberalizing  (?).]  [Cf.  F. lib\'82raliser.] To make liberal; to
   free from narrow views or prejudices.

     To open and to liberalize the mind. Burke.


   Lib"er*al*i`zer (?), n. One who, or that which, liberalizes. Emerson.


   Lib"er*al*ly, adv. In a liberal manner.


   Lib"er*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Liberated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Liberating  (?).]  [L. liberatus, p. p. of liberare to free, fr. liber
   free.  See Liberal, a., and cf. Deliver.] To release from restraint or
   bondage;  to set at liberty; to free; to manumit; to disengage; as, to
   liberate  a slave or prisoner; to liberate the mind from prejudice; to
   liberate gases. Syn. -- To deliver; free; release. See Deliver.


   Lib`er*a"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  liberatio:  cf.  F.  lib\'82ration.  Cf.
   Livraison.] The act of liberating or the state of being liberated.

     This   mode  of  analysis  requires  perfect  liberation  from  all
     prejudged system. Pownall.


   Lib"er*a`tor  (?),  n.  [L.]  One  who,  or  that  which, liberates; a


   Lib"er*a*to*ry (?), a. Tending, or serving, to liberate. [R.]


   Lib`er*ta"ri*an  (?),  a.  [See Liberty.] Pertaining to liberty, or to
   the doctrine of free will, as opposed to the doctrine of necessity.


   Lib`er*ta"ri*an, n. One who holds to the doctrine of free will.


   Lib`er*ta"ri*an*ism (?), n. Libertarian principles or doctrines.


   Lib"er*ti*cide  (?),  n.  [L.  libertas liberty + caedere to kill: cf.
   (for sense 2) F. liberticide.]

   1. The destruction of civil liberty.

   2. A destroyer of civil liberty. B. F. Wade.


   Lib"er*tin*age   (?)   n.   [Cf.   F.   libertinage.  See  Libertine.]
   Libertinism; license. [R.]


   Lib"er*tine  (?),  n.  [L. libertinus freedman, from libertus one made
   free, fr. liber free: cf. F. libertin. See Liberal.]

   1.  (Rom.  Antiq.)  A manumitted slave; a freedman; also, the son of a

   2.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  One of a sect of Anabaptists, in the fifteenth and
   early  part of the sixteenth century, who rejected many of the customs
   and  decencies  of  life,  and  advocated  a community of goods and of

   3. One free from restraint; one who acts according to his impulses and
   desires;  now,  specifically,  one  who  gives rein to lust; a rake; a

     Like  a puffed and reckless libertine, Himself the primrose path of
     dalliance treads. Shak.

   4. A defamatory name for a freethinker. [Obsoles.]


   Lib"er*tine,  a.  [L.  libertinus  of a freedman: cf. F. libertin. See
   Libertine, n. ]

   1. Free from restraint; uncontrolled. [Obs.]

     You are too much libertine. Beau. & Fl.

   2.  Dissolute;  licentious; profligate; loose in morals; as, libertine
   principles or manners. Bacon.


   Lib"er*tin*ism (?), n.

   1. The state of a libertine or freedman. [R.] Hammond.

   2. Licentious conduct; debauchery; lewdness.

   3. Licentiousness of principle or opinion.

     That spirit of religion and seriousness vanished all at once, and a
     spirit  of  liberty and libertinism, of infidelity and profaneness,
     started up in the room of it. Atterbury.


   Lib"er*ty  (?),  n.; pl. Liberties (. [OE. liberte, F. libert\'82, fr.
   L. libertas, fr. liber free. See Liberal.]

   1.  The  state of a free person; exemption from subjection to the will
   of  another  claiming ownership of the person or services; freedom; --
   opposed to slavery, serfdom, bondage, or subjection.

     But  ye  .  .  .  caused  every  man his servant, and every man his
     handmaid  whom  he had set at liberty at their pleasure, to return,
     and brought them into subjection. Jer. xxxiv. 16.

     Delivered  fro  the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty
     of the sons of God. Bible, 1551. Rom. viii. 21.

   2.   Freedom   from  imprisonment,  bonds,  or  other  restraint  upon

     Being pent from liberty, as I am now. Shak.

   3.  A  privilege  conferred  by  a superior power; permission granted;
   leave;  as, liberty given to a child to play, or to a witness to leave
   a court, and the like.

   4.  Privilege;  exemption; franchise; immunity enjoyed by prescription
   or by grant; as, the liberties of the commercial cities of Europe.

     His  majesty  gave  not  an  entire county to any; much less did he
     grant . . . any extraordinary liberties. Sir J. Davies.

   5.   The  place  within  which  certain  immunities  are  enjoyed,  or
   jurisdiction is exercised. [Eng.]

     Brought  forth into some public or open place within the liberty of
     the city, and there . . . burned. Fuller.

   6. A certain amount of freedom; permission to go freely within certain
   limits;  also,  the  place  or  limits  within  which  such freedom is
   exercised; as, the liberties of a prison.

   7.  A  privilege  or  license in violation of the laws of etiquette or
   propriety; as, to permit, or take, a liberty.

     He  was  repeatedly  provoked  into  striking  those  who had taken
     liberties with him. Macaulay.

   8.   The  power  of  choice;  freedom  from  necessity;  freedom  from
   compulsion or constraint in willing.

     The  idea  of  liberty is the idea of a power in any agent to do or
     forbear  any  particular  action, according to the determination or
     thought  of  the  mind,  whereby either of them is preferred to the
     other. Locke.

     This  liberty of judgment did not of necessity lead to lawlessness.
     J. A. Symonds.

   9.  (Manege) A curve or arch in a bit to afford room for the tongue of
   the horse.

   10. (Naut.) Leave of absence; permission to go on shore.
   At  liberty.  (a)  Unconfined; free. (b) At leisure. -- Civil liberty,
   exemption   from  arbitrary  interference  with  person,  opinion,  or
   property,  on  the  part  of the government under which one lives, and
   freedom  to  take  part  in  modifying that government or its laws. --
   Liberty  bell.  See  under  Bell. -- Liberty cap. (a) The Roman pileus
   which   was  given  to  a  slave  at  his  manumission.  (b)  A  limp,
   close-fitting  cap  with  which  the  head  of  representations of the
   goddess  of  liberty is often decked. It is sometimes represented on a
   spear or a liberty pole. -- Liberty of the press, freedom to print and
   publish without official supervision. Liberty party, the party, in the
   American  Revolution,  which  favored independence of England; in more
   recent usage, a party which favored the emancipation of the slaves. --
   Liberty pole, a tall flagstaff planted in the ground, often surmounted
   by  a  liberty  cap.  [U. S.] -- Moral liberty, that liberty of choice
   which  is  essential  to  moral  responsibility. -- Religious liberty,
   freedom  of  religious opinion and worship. Syn. -- Leave; permission;
   license.  -- Liberty, Freedom. These words, though often interchanged,
   are  distinct  in some of of their applications. Liberty has reference
   to previous restraint; freedom, to the simple, unrepressed exercise of
   our powers. A slave is set at liberty; his master had always been in a
   state  of  freedom.  A prisoner under trial may ask liberty (exemption
   from  restraint) to speak his sentiments with freedom (the spontaneous
   and  bold  utterance of his feelings), The liberty of the press is our
   great security for freedom of thought.


   Li*beth"en*ite  (?), n. [From Libethen, in Hungary, where it was first
   found.]  (Min.)  A  mineral  of  an  olive-green  color,  commonly  in
   orthorhombic crystals. It is a hydrous phosphate of copper.


   Li*bid"i*nist (?), n. [See Libidinous.] One given to lewdness.


   Li*bid`i*nos"i*ty  (?),  n.  The state or quality of being libidinous;
   libidinousness. Skelton.


   Li*bid"i*nous   (?),   a.  [L.  libidinosus,  fr.  libido,  libidinis,
   pleasure,   desire,  lust,  fr.  libet,  lubet,  it  pleases:  cf.  F.
   libidineux.  See  Lief.]  Having  lustful  desires;  characterized  by
   lewdness;   sensual;   lascivious.   --   Li*bid"i*nous*ly,   adv.  --
   Li*bid"i*nous*ness,  n.  Syn.  -- Lewd; lustful; lascivious; unchaste;
   impure; sensual; licentious; lecherous; salacious.

                                Libken, Libkin

   Lib"ken  (?),  Lib"kin  (?), n. [AS. libban, F. live, v. i. + -kin.] A
   house or lodging. [Old Slang] B. Jonson.


   Li"bra  (?),  n.; pl. Libr\'91 (#). [L., a balance.] (Astron.) (a) The
   Balance;  the  seventh sign in the zodiac, which the sun enters at the
   autumnal  equinox  in September, marked thus &libra; in almanacs, etc.
   (b ) A southern constellation between Virgo and Scorpio.


   Li"bral  (?),  a. [L. libralis, fr. libra the Roman pound.] Of a pound
   weight. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Li*bra"ri*an, n. [See Library.]

   1. One who has the care or charge of a library.

   2. One who copies manuscript books. [Obs.] Broome.


   Li*bra"ri*an*ship, n. The office of a librarian.


   Li"bra*ry  (?),  n.;  pl.  Libraries (#). [OE. librairie, F. librairie
   bookseller's  shop,  book  trade,  formerly,  a  library, fr. libraire
   bookseller,  L.  librarius, from liber book; cf. libraria bookseller's
   shop, librarium bookcase, It. libreria. See Libel.]

   1.  A  considerable  collection  of  books  kept  for  use, and not as
   merchandise; as, a private library; a public library.

   2.  A building or apartment appropriated for holding such a collection
   of books. Holland.


   Li"brate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Librated  p.  pr. & & vb. n.
   Librating.]  [L.  libratus, p. p. of librare to balance, to make even,
   fr. libra.Cf. Level, Deliberate, Equilibrium.] To vibrate as a balance
   does before resting in equilibrium; hence, to be poised.

     Their parts all liberate on too nice a beam. Clifton.


   Li"brate, v. i. To poise; to balance.


   Li*bra"tion (?), n. [L. libratio: cf. F. libration.]

   1. The act or state of librating. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  (Astron.)  A  real  or  apparent  libratory motion, like that of a
   balance before coming to rest.
   Libration  of  the  moon, any one of those small periodical changes in
   the  position  of  the  moon's  surface  relatively  to  the earth, in
   consequence  of which narrow portions at opposite limbs become visible
   or invisible alternately. It receives different names according to the
   manner  in  which it takes place; as: (a) Libration in longitude, that
   which,  depending  on  the  place  of  the moon in its elliptic orbit,
   causes small portions near the eastern and western borders alternately
   to  appear  and  disappear each month. (b) Libration in latitude, that
   which depends on the varying position of the moon's axis in respect to
   the  spectator,  causing the alternate appearance and disappearance of
   either  pole.  (c) Diurnal or parallactic libration, that which brings
   into  view on the upper limb, at rising and setting, some parts not in
   the average visible hemisphere.
   Li"bra*to*ry  (?), a. Balancing; moving like a balance, as it tends to
   an equipoise or level.
   Li*bret"tist (?), n. One who makes a libretto.
   Li*bret"to (?), n.; pl. E. Librettos (#), It. Libretti (#). [It., dim.
   of  libro book, L. liber. See Libel.] (Mus.) (a) A book containing the
   words  of  an  opera  or  extended  piece  of  music.  (b)  The  words
   Li"bri*form  (?), a. [Liber + -form.] (Bot.) Having the form of liber,
   or  resembling  liber.  Libriform cells, peculiar wood cells which are
   very   slender  and  relatively  thick-walled,  and  occasionally  are
   furnished with bordered pits. Goodale. 


   Lib"y*an  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Libya, the ancient name of that
   part of Africa between Egypt and the Atlantic Ocean, or of Africa as a


   Lice (?), n.; pl. of Louse.


   Li"cens*a*ble (?), a. That can be licensed.


   Li"cense (?), n. [Written also licence.] [F. licence, L. licentia, fr.
   licere  to  be permitted, prob. orig., to be left free to one; akin to
   linquere to leave. See Loan, and cf. Illicit, Leisure.]

   1.  Authority or liberty given to do or forbear any act; especially, a
   formal  permission from the proper authorities to perform certain acts
   or to carry on a certain business, which without such permission would
   be  illegal;  a  grant  of  permission;  as,  a  license to preach, to
   practice medicine, to sell gunpowder or intoxicating liquors.

     To have a license and a leave at London to dwell. P. Plowman.

   2. The document granting such permission. Addison.

   3.  Excess  of  liberty; freedom abused, or used in contempt of law or
   decorum; disregard of law or propriety.

     License they mean when they cry liberty. Milton.

   4.  That deviation from strict fact, form, or rule, in which an artist
   or writer indulges, assuming that it will be permitted for the sake of
   the  advantage  or  effect  gained;  as,  poetic  license; grammatical
   license, etc. Syn. -- Leave; liberty; permission.

   Page 849


   Li"cense  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Licensed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Licensing.] To permit or authorize by license; to give license to; as,
   to license a man to preach. Milton. Shak.


   Li"censed  (?),  a.  Having  a  license;  permitted  or  authorized by
   license;  as,  a  licensed  victualer;  a  licensed  traffic. Licensed
   victualer,  one who has a license to keep an in or eating house; esp.,
   a victualer who has a license to sell intoxicating liquors.


   Li`cen*see" (?), n. (Law) The person to whom a license is given.


   Li"cens*er  (?),  n.  One  who  gives a license; as, a licenser of the


   Li"cen*sure (?), n. A licensing. [R.]


   Li*cen"ti*ate  (?), n. [LL. licentiatus, fr. licentiare to allow to do
   anything, fr. L. licentia license. See License, n.]

   1. One who has a license to exercise a profession; as, a licentiate in
   medicine or theology.

     The  college  of  physicians,  in  July,  1687, published an edict,
     requiring  all  the  fellows,  candidates, and licentiates, to give
     gratuitous advice to the neighboring poor. Johnson.

   2.  A  friar authorized to receive confessions and grant absolution in
   all places, independently of the local clergy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   3.  One who acts without restraint, or takes a liberty, as if having a
   license therefor. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

   4.  On  the  continent  of  Europe,  a  university degree intermediate
   between that of bachelor and that of doctor.


   Li*cen"ti*ate (?), v. t. To give a license to. [Obs.] L'Estrange.


   Li*cen"tious (?), a. [L. licentiosus: cf. F. licencieux. See License.]

   1. Characterized by license; passing due bounds; excessive; abusive of
   freedom; wantonly offensive; as, a licentious press.

     A wit that no licentious pertness knows. Savage.

   2. Unrestrained by law or morality; lawless; immoral; dissolute; lewd;
   lascivious;  as,  a  licentious  man;  a  licentious life. "Licentious
   wickedness."  Shak.  Syn.  --  Unrestrained;  uncurbed;  uncontrolled;
   unruly;  riotous;  ungovernable;  wanton;  profligate; dissolute; lax;
   loose;    sensual;   impure;   unchaste;   lascivious;   immoral.   --
   Li*cen"tious*ly, adv. -- Li*cen"tious*ness, n.


   Lich (?), a. Like. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.


   Lich  (?),  n.  [AS.l\'c6c  body. See Like, a.] A dead body; a corpse.
   [Obs.]  Lich  fowl (Zo\'94l.), the European goatsucker; -- called also
   lich  owl.  --  Lich gate, a covered gate through which the corpse was
   carried  to  the church or burial place, and where the bier was placed
   to  await  clergyman;  a  corpse gate. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. -- Lich
   wake,  the  wake, or watching, held over a corpse before burial. [Prov
   Eng.]  Chaucer.  --  Lich  wall,  the  wall of a churchyard or burying
   ground.  --  Lich  way,  the path by which the dead are carried to the
   grave. [Prov. Eng.]


   Li"chen (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Bot.) One of a class of cellular, flowerless plants, (technically
   called  Lichenes),  having no distinction of leaf and stem, usually of
   scaly,  expanded,  frond-like  forms, but sometimes erect or pendulous
   and  variously  branched.  They derive their nourishment from the air,
   and  generate  by  means  of  spores.  The  species  are  very  widely
   distributed,  and  form  irregular  spots  or  patches,  usually  of a
   greenish or yellowish color, upon rocks, trees, and various bodies, to
   which  they  adhere  with  great  tenacity.  They are often improperly
   called rock moss or tree moss.

     NOTE: &hand; A  favorite modern theory of lichens (called after its
     inventor   the  Schwendener  hypothesis),  is  that  they  are  not
     autonomous  plants,  but  that  they  consist  of ascigerous fungi,
     parasitic  on  alg\'91.  Each lichen is composed of white filaments
     and  green,  or  greenish, rounded cells, and it is argued that the
     two  are  of different nature, the one living at the expense of the
     other. See Hyph\'91, and Gonidia.

   2.  (Med.)  A name given to several varieties of skin disease, esp. to
   one  characterized  by the eruption of small, conical or flat, reddish
   pimples,  which,  if  unchecked,  tend to spread and produce great and
   even fatal exhaustion.


   Li"chened (?), a. Belonging to, or covered with, lichens. Tennyson.


   Li*chen"ic  (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or obtained from, lichens.
   Lichenic  acid.  (a)  An  organic acid, C14H24O3 obtained from Iceland
   moss. (b) An old name of fumaric acid.


   Li*chen"i*form (?), a. Having the form of a lichen.


   Li"chen*in (?), n. (Chem.) A substance isomeric with starch, extracted
   from several species of moss and lichen, esp. from Iceland moss.

                       Lichenographic, Lichenographical

   Li"chen*o*graph"ic   (?),   Li`chen*o*graph"ic*al   (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.
   lich\'82nographique.] Of or pertaining to lichenography.


   Li`chen*og"ra*phist  (?),  n. One who describes lichens; one versed in


   Li`chen*og"ra*phy    (?),    n.    [Lichen    +    -graphy:   cf.   F.
   lich\'82nographie.]  A  description  of  lichens;  the  science  which
   illustrates the natural history of lichens.


   Li`chen*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in lichenology.


   Li`chen*ol"*gy  (?),  n. [Lichen + -logy.] The science which treats of


   Li"chen*ous  (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  resembling,  lichens;
   abounding in lichens; covered with lichens. G. Eliot.


   Li"chi` (?), n. (Bot.) See Litchi.


   Lich"wale` (?), n. (Bot.) The gromwell.


   Lich"wort` (?), n. (Bot.) An herb, the wall pellitory. See Pellitory.


   Lic"it  (?),  a.  [L.licitus  permitted,  lawful,  from licere: cf. F.
   licite.  See  License.]  Lawful.  "Licit  establishments." Carlyle. --
   Lic"it*ly, adv. -- Lic"it*ness, n.


   Lic`i*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  licitatio, fr. licitari, liceri, to bid,
   offer  a  price.]  The act of offering for sale to the highest bidder.


   Lick  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Licked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Licking.]
   [AS.  liccian;  akin  to  OS.  likk, D. likken, OHG. lecch, G. lecken,
   Goth.  bi-laig,  Russ. lizate, L. lingere, Gr. lih, rih. . Cf. Lecher,

   1. To draw or pass the tongue over; as, a dog licks his master's hand.

   2.  To  lap;  to take in with the tongue; as, a dog or cat licks milk.
   To  lick  the dust, to be slain; to fall in battle. "His enemies shall
   lick  the  dust."  Ps. lxxii. 9. -- To lick into shape, to give proper
   form  to; -- from a notion that the bear's cubs are born shapeless and
   subsequently  formed  by licking. Hudibras. -- To lick the spittle of,
   to  fawn  upon.  South.  --  To lick up, to take all of by licking; to
   devour; to consume entirely. Shak. Num. xxii. 4.


   Lick, n. [See Lick, v.]

   1.  A  stroke  of  the  tongue  in licking. "A lick at the honey pot."

   2.  A quick and careless application of anything, as if by a stroke of
   the  tongue,  or  of something which acts like a tongue; as, to put on
   colors  with  a  lick  of  the  brush.  Also,  a small quantity of any
   substance so applied. [Colloq.]

     A lick of court white wash. Gray.

   3.  A  place where salt is found on the surface of the earth, to which
   wild animals resort to lick it up; -- often, but not always, near salt
   springs. [U. S.] <-- = salt lick -->


   Lick,  v.  t.  [Cf.  OSw. l\'84gga to place, strike, prick.] To strike
   with repeated blows for punishment; to flog; to whip or conquer, as in
   a  pugilistic  encounter.  [Colloq. or Low]<-- to defeat in a contest?
   --> Carlyle. Thackeray.


   Lick,  n.  A  slap; a quick stroke.[Colloq.] "A lick across the face."


   Lick"er (?), n. [Cf. Lecher.] One who, or that which, licks. Licker in
   (Carding  Machine),  the  drum, or cylinder, by which the lap is taken
   from the feed rollers.


   Lick"er*ish, a. [Cf. Lecherous.]

   1.  Eager;  craving; urged by desire; eager to taste or enjoy; greedy.
   "The lickerish palate of the glutton." Bp. Hall.

   2.  Tempting  the appetite; dainty. "Lickerish baits, fit to insnare a
   brute." Milton.

   3.  lecherous;  lustful.  Robert of Brunne. -- Lick"er*ish*ly, adv. --
   Lick"er*ish*ness, n.


   Lick"er*ous   (?),   a.   Lickerish;   eager;   lustful.   [Obs.]   --
   Lick"er*ous*ness, n. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lick"ing, n.

   1. A lapping with the tongue.

   2. A flogging or castigation. [Colloq. or Low]


   Lick"pen`ny  (?),  n.  A  devourer  or  absorber  of  money. "Law is a
   lickpenny." Sir W. Scott.


   Lick"-spig`ot (?), n. A tapster. [Obs.]


   Lick"-spit`tle (?), n. An abject flatterer or parasite. Theodore Hook.


   Lic"o*rice (?), n. [OE. licoris, though old French, fr. L. liquiritia,
   corrupted  fr. glycyrrhiza, Gr. Glycerin, Glycyrrhiza, Wort.] [Written
   also liquorice.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  plant of the genus Glycyrrhiza (G. glabra), the root of
   which   abounds   with   a  juice,  and  is  much  used  in  demulcent

   2.  The  inspissated  juice of licorice root, used as a confection and
   medicinal purposes.
   Licorice  fern  (Bot.), a name of several kinds of polypody which have
   rootstocks  of  a  sweetish  flavor.  --  Licorice  sugar. (Chem.) See
   Glycyrrhizin.  --  Licorice  weed  (Bot.), the tropical plant Scapania
   aulcis.  --  Mountain  licorice  (Bot.),  a  kind of clover (Trifolium
   alpinum),  found  in  the  Alps.  It  has large purplish flowers and a
   sweetish  perennial  rootstock. -- Wild licorice. (Bot.) (a) The North
   American perennial herb Glycyrrhiza lepidota. (b) Certain broad-leaved
   cleavers  (Galium circ\'91zans and G. lanceolatum). (c) The leguminous
   climber  Abrus  precatorius,  whose scarlet and black seeds are called
   black-eyed  Susans.  Its  roots  are used as a substitute for those of
   true licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra).
   Lic"o*rous  (?),  a.  See  Lickerish.  --  Lic"o*rous*ness,  n. [Obs.]


   Lic"our (?), n. Liquor. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lic"tor, n. [L.] (Rom. Antiq.) An officer who bore an ax and fasces or
   rods,  as  ensigns  of  his  office.  His duty was to attend the chief
   magistrates  when they appeared in public, to clear the way, and cause
   due  respect  to  be  paid  to  them,  also  to  apprehend  and punish

     Lictors and rods, the ensigns of their power. Milton.


   Lid  (?),  n. [AS. hlid, fr. hl\'c6dan (in comp.) to cover, shut; akin
   to  OS.  hl\'c6dan  (in comp.), D. lid, OHG. hlit, G. augenlid eyelid,
   Icel. hli gate, gateway.

   1.  That which covers the opening of a vessel or box, etc. ; a movable
   cover; as, the lid of a chest or trunk.

   2. The cover of the eye; an eyelid. Shak.

     Tears, big tears, gushed from the rough soldier's lid. Byron.

   3.  (Bot.)  (a)  The  cover  of the spore cases of mosses. (b) A calyx
   which  separates  from the flower, and falls off in a single piece, as
   in  the  Australian  Eucalypti.  (c)  The  top of an ovary which opens
   transversely,  as  in  the  fruit  of  the purslane and the tree which
   yields Brazil nuts.


   Lid"ded (?), a. Covered with a lid. Keats.


   Lidge (?), n. Same Ledge.[Obs.] Spenser.


   Lid"less  (?),  a. Having no lid, or not covered with the lids, as the
   eyes; hence, sleepless; watchful.

     A lidless watcher of the public weal. Tennyson.


   Lie (?), n. See Lye.


   Lie  (?), n. [AS. lyge; akin to D. leugen, OHG. lugi, G. l\'81ge, lug,
   Icel.  lygi,  Dan.  &  Sw.  l\'94gn,  Goth.  liugn. See Lie to utter a

   1.  A  falsehood  uttered  or  acted  for the purpose of deception; an
   intentional  violation  of truth; an untruth spoken with the intention
   to deceive.

     It  is  willful deceit that makes a lie. A man may act a lie, as by
     pointing  his  finger in a wrong direction when a traveler inquires
     of him his road. Paley.

   2. A fiction; a fable; an untruth. Dryden.

   3. Anything which misleads or disappoints.

     Wishing this lie of life was o'er. Trench.

   To give the lie to. (a) To charge with falsehood; as, the man gave him
   the  lie.  (b) To reveal to be false; as, a man's actions may give the
   lie to his words. -- White lie, a euphemism for such lies as one finds
   it  convenient  to  tell,  and  excuses  himself  for telling. Syn. --
   Untruth;  falsehood;  fiction;  deception.  -- lie, Untruth. A man may
   state what is untrue from ignorance or misconception; hence, to impute
   an  untruth  to one is not necessarily the same as charging him with a
   lie.  Every  lie  is  an  untruth, but not every untruth is a lie. Cf.


   Lie,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Lied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lying (?).] [OE.
   lien,  li,  le,  leo,  AS.  le\'a2gan;  akin  to D. liegen, OS. & OHG.
   liogan,  G.  l\'81gen,  Icel.  lj,  Sw. ljuga, Dan.lyve, Goth. liugan,
   Russ.  lgate.] To utter falsehood with an intention to deceive; to say
   or  do  that  which is intended to deceive another, when he a right to
   know the truth, or when morality requires a just representation.


   Lie,  v.  i. [imp. Lay (?); p. p. Lain (?), (Lien (, [Obs.]); p. pr. &
   vb.  n. Lying.] [OE. lien, liggen, AS. licgan; akin to D. liggen, OHG.
   ligen,  licken,  G. liegen, Icel. liggja, Sw. ligga, Dan. ligge, Goth.
   ligan, Russ. lejate, L. lectus bed, Gr. Lair, Law, Lay, v. t., Litter,
   Low, adj.]

   1. To rest extended on the ground, a bed, or any support; to be, or to
   put  one's  self,  in  an  horizontal  position,  or  nearly so; to be
   prostate;  to be stretched out; -- often with down, when predicated of
   living creatures; as, the book lies on the table; the snow lies on the
   roof; he lies in his coffin.

     The  watchful  traveler  . . . Lay down again, and closed his weary
     eyes. Dryden.

   2. To be situated; to occupy a certain place; as, Ireland lies west of
   England; the meadows lie along the river; the ship lay in port.

   3.  To  abide;  to  remain  for  a  longer or shorter time; to be in a
   certain  state  or  condition; as, to lie waste; to lie fallow; to lie
   open;  to lie hid; to lie grieving; to lie under one's displeasure; to
   lie  at  the  mercy of the waves; the paper does not lie smooth on the

   4.  To be or exist; to belong or pertain; to have an abiding place; to
   consist; -- with in.

     Envy  lies  between  beings  equal  in  nature,  though  unequal in
     circumstances. Collier.

     He  that  thinks  that diversion may not lie in hard labor, forgets
     the early rising and hard riding of huntsmen. Locke.

   5. To lodge; to sleep.

     Whiles  I was now trifling at home, I saw London, . . . where I lay
     one night only. Evelyn.

     Mr. Quinion lay at our house that night. Dickens.

   6. To be still or quiet, like one lying down to rest.

     The wind is loud and will not lie. Shak.

   7.  (Law)  To  be  sustainable; to be capable of being maintained. "An
   appeal lies in this case." Parsons.

     NOTE: &hand; Through ignorance or carelessness speakers and writers
     often  confuse the forms of the two distinct verbs lay and lie. Lay
     is a transitive verb, and has for its preterit laid; as, he told me
     to  lay  it  down, and I laid it down. Lie is intransitive, and has
     for  its  preterit lay; as, he told me to lie down, and I lay down.
     Some  persons blunder by using laid for the preterit of lie; as, he
     told  me  to  lie  down,  and  I  laid  down.  So persons often say
     incorrectly,  the  ship  laid  at  anchor;  they laid by during the
     storm;  the book was laying on the shelf, etc. It is only necessary
     to  remember,  in all such cases, that laid is the preterit of lay,
     and not of lie.

   To lie along the shore (Naut.), to coast, keeping land in sight. -- To
   lie at the door of, to be imputable to; as, the sin, blame, etc., lies
   at  your  door.  -- To lie at the heart, to be an object of affection,
   desire, or anxiety. Sir W. Temple. -- To lie at the mercy of, to be in
   the  power of. -- To lie by. (a) To remain with; to be at hand; as, he
   has  the  manuscript lying by him. (b) To rest; to intermit labor; as,
   we  lay  by  during  the  heat of the day. -- To lie hard OR heavy, to
   press  or  weigh;  to  bear  hard. -- To lie in, to be in childbed; to
   bring  forth young. -- To lie in one, to be in the power of; to belong
   to.  "As much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men." Rom. xii.
   18.  --  To lie in the way, to be an obstacle or impediment. -- To lie
   in  wait  ,  to wait in concealment; to lie in ambush. -- To lie on OR
   upon.  (a) To depend on; as, his life lies on the result. (b) To bear,
   rest,  press,  or weigh on. -- To lie low, to remain in concealment or
   inactive.  [Slang] -- To lie on hand, To lie on one's hands, to remain
   unsold  or  unused;  as,  the goods are still lying on his hands; they
   have  too much time lying on their hands. -- To lie on the head of, to
   be imputed to.

     What  he  gets more of her than sharp words, let it lie on my head.

   --  To  lie  over. (a) To remain unpaid after the time when payment is
   due, as a note in bank. (b) To be deferred to some future occasion, as
   a  resolution  in a public deliberative body. -- To lie to (Naut.), to
   stop  or  delay;  especially,  to head as near the wind as possible as
   being  the  position  of greatest safety in a gale; -- said of a ship.
   Cf.  To  bring  to, under Bring. -- To lie under, to be subject to; to
   suffer;  to  be  oppressed  by.  -- To lie with. (a) To lodge or sleep
   with.  (b)  To  have sexual intercourse with. (c) To belong to; as, it
   lies with you to make amends.

   Page 850


   Lie (?), n. The position or way in which anything lies; the lay, as of
   land or country. J. H. Newman.

     He  surveyed  with his own eyes . . . the lie of the country on the
     side towards Thrace. Jowett (Thucyd.).


   Lie"ber*k\'81hn (?), n. [Named after a German physician and instrument
   maker,  J.  n.  Lieberk\'81hn.]  (Optics)  A  concave  metallic mirror
   attached  to the object-glass end of a microscope, to throw down light
   on opaque objects; a reflector.

                            Lieberk\'81hn's glands

   Lie"ber*k\'81hn's glands` (?). [See Lieberk\'81hn.] (Anat.) The simple
   tubular  glands  of  the  small  intestines;  -- called also crypts of


   Lied  (?),  n.  ; pl. Lieder (#). [G.] (Mus.) A lay; a German song. It
   differs  from  the  French chanson, and the Italian canzone, all three
   being national.

     The  German  Lied  is  perhaps  the most faithful reflection of the
     national sentiment. Grove.


   Lie"der*ta`fel (?), n. [G., lit., a song table.] (Mus.) A popular name
   for  any  society  or  club  which meets for the practice of male part


   Lief (?), n. Same as Lif.


   Lief  (?), a. [Written also lieve.] [OE. leef, lef, leof, AS. le\'a2f;
   akin  to OS.liof, OFries. liaf, D. lief, G. lieb, OHG. liob, Icel. lj,
   Sw.ljuf,  Goth.  liubs,  and  E.  love.  &root;124.  See Love, and cf.
   Believe, Leave, n., Furlough, Libidinous.]

   1.  Dear;  beloved.  [Obs.,  except  in  poetry.]  "My  liefe mother."
   Chaucer. "My liefest liege." Shak.

     As thou art lief and dear. Tennyson.


     NOTE: (Used wi th a  fo rm of the verb to be, and the dative of the
     personal pronoun.)

   Pleasing;  agreeable;  acceptable;  preferable. [Obs.] See Lief, adv.,
   and Had as lief, under Had.

     Full lief me were this counsel for to hide. Chaucer.

     Death me liefer were than such despite. Spenser.

   3. Willing; disposed. [Obs.]

     I am not lief to gab. Chaucer.

     He up arose, however lief or loth. Spenser.


   Lief, n. A dear one; a sweetheart. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lief, adv. Gladly; willingly; freely; -- now used only in the phrases,
   had  as  lief,  and  would as lief; as, I had, or would, as lief go as

     All women liefest would Be sovereign of man's love. Gower.

     I had as lief the town crier spoke my lines. Shak.

     Far liefer by his dear hand had I die. Tennyson.

     NOTE: &hand; The comparative liefer with had or would, and followed
     by  the  infinitive,  either with or without the sign to, signifies
     prefer,  choose  as  preferable,  would  or had rather. In the 16th
     century  rather was substituted for liefer in such constructions in
     literary  English,  and  has continued to be generally so used. See
     Had as lief, Had rather, etc. , under Had.


   Lief"some (?), a. Pleasing; delightful. [Obs.]


   Lieg"ance (?), n. Same as Ligeance.


   Liege  (?),  a.  [OE.  lige, lege, F. lige, LL. ligius, legius, liege,
   unlimited,  complete,  prob.  of German origin; cf. G. ledig free from
   bonds  and  obstacles,  MHG.  ledec,  ledic, lidic, freed, loosed, and
   Charta  Ottonis de Benthem, ann. ligius homo quod Teutonic\'8a dicitur
   ledigman,"   i.   e.,  uni  soli  homagio  obligatus,  free  from  all
   obligations  to others; influenced by L.ligare to bind. G. ledig perh.
   orig. meant, free to go where one pleases, and is perh. akin to E.lead
   to conduct. Cf. Lead to guide.]

   1.  Sovereign;  independent;  having authority or right to allegiance;
   as, a liege lord. Chaucer.

     She looked as grand as doomsday and as grave; And he, he reverenced
     his liege lady there. Tennyson.

   2.  serving  an  independent  sovereign  or  master; bound by a feudal
   tenure; obliged to be faithful and loyal to a superior, as a vassal to
   his lord; faithful; loyal; as, a liege man; a liege subject.

   3. (Old Law) Full; perfect; complete; pure. Burrill.
   Liege  homage  (Feudal Custom), that homage of one sovereign or prince
   to another which acknowledged an obligation of fealty and services. --
   Liege  poustie  [L.  legitima  potestas]  (Scots Law), perfect, i. e.,
   legal,  power;  specif.,  having health requisite to do legal acts. --
   Liege widowhood, perfect, i. e., pure, widowhood. [Obs.]


   Liege (?), n.

   1.  A  free  and  independent  person;  specif.,  a  lord paramount; a
   sovereign. Mrs. Browning.

     The  anointed sovereign of sighs and groans, Liege of all loiterers
     and malcontents. Shak.

   2. The subject of a sovereign or lord; a liegeman.

     A  liege  lord  seems  to  have been a lord of a free band; and his
     lieges,  though  serving  under him, were privileged men, free from
     all  other  obligations, their name being due to their freedom, not
     to their service. Skeat.


   Liege"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Liegemen  (. Same as Liege, n., 2. Chaucer.


   Lie"ger (?), n. [See Leger, Ledger.] A resident ambassador. [Obs.] See
   Leger. Denham.


   Lie"gian*cy (?), n. See Ligeance.


   Li"en (?), obs. p. p. of Lie. See lain. Ps. lxviii. 13.


   Lien  (?),  n. [F. lien band, bond, tie, fr. L. ligamen, fr. ligare to
   bind.  Cf.  League  a union, Leam a string, Leamer, Ligament.] (Law) A
   legal  claim;  a  charge  upon  real  or  personal  property  for  the
   satisfaction  of  some debt or duty; a right in one to control or hold
   and  retain  the property of another until some claim of the former is
   paid or satisfied.


   Li*e"nal (?), a. [L. lien the spleen.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the
   spleen; splenic.


   Li*en"cu*lus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Lienculi  (#). [NL., dim. of L. lien the
   spleen.]  (Anat.)  One  of  the  small  nodules sometimes found in the
   neighborhood of the spleen; an accessory or supplementary spleen.


   Li*e`no-in*tes"ti*nal  (?),  a.  [l. lien the spleen + E. intestinal.]
   (Anat.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  spleen  and  intestine;  as, the
   lieno-intestinal vein of the frog.


   Li`en*ter"ic   (?),   a.  [L.  lientericus,  Gr.  lient\'82rique.  See
   Lientery.]  (Med.)  Of  or  pertaining  to,  or  of  the  nature of, a
   lientery. -- n. (Med.) A lientery. Grew.


   Li"en*ter*y  (?),  n.  [Gr. lient\'82rie.] (Med.) A diarrhea, in which
   the  food  is  discharged  imperfectly  digested,  or  with but little
   change. Dunglison.


   Li"er  (?),  n.  [From  Lie.  ]  One  who  lies down; one who rests or
   remains, as in concealment.

     There were liers in a ambush against him. Josh. viii. 14.

                                  Lierne rib

   Lierne"  rib`  (?).  [F.  lierne.] (Arch.) In Gothic vaulting, any rib
   which  does  not  spring  from  the impost and is not a ridge rib, but
   passes from one boss or intersection of the principal ribs to another.


   Lieu  (?),  n.  [F.,  OF.  also liu, leu, lou, fr. L. locus place. See
   Local,  Locus.] Place; room; stead; -- used only in the phrase in lieu
   of, that is, instead of.

     The  plan  of  extortion  had been adopted in lieu of the scheme of
     confiscation. Burke.


   Lieu*ten"an*cy (?), n.

   1. The office, rank, or commission, of a lieutenant.

   2. The body of lieutenants or subordinates. [Obs.]

     The list of the lieutenancy of our metropolis. Felton.


   Lieu*ten"ant  (?),  n. [F., fr. lieu place + tenant holding, p. pr. of
   tenir to hold, L. tenere. See Lieu, and Tenant, and cf. Locum tenens.]

   1.  An  officer who supplies the place of a superior in his absence; a
   representative  of,  or  substitute for, another in the performance of
   any duty.

     The  lawful magistrate, who is the vicegerent or lieutenant of God.
     Abp. Bramhall.

   2. (a) A commissioned officer in the army, next below a captain. (b) A
   commissioned  officer  in  the  British  navy,  in  rank  next below a
   commander.  (c)  A  commissioned officer in the United States navy, in
   rank next below a lieutenant commander.

     NOTE: &hand; Li eutenant is  of ten us ed, either adjectively or in
     hyphened  compounds,  to  denote  an  officer,  in  rank next below
     another,  especially  when  the  duties  of  the higher officer may
     devolve   upon   the   lower   one;   as,  lieutenant  general,  or
     lieutenant-general;   lieutenant  colonel,  or  lieutenant-colonel;
     lieutenant governor, etc.

   Deputy  lieutenant, the title of any one of the deputies or assistants
   of  the  lord lieutenant of a county. [Eng.] -- Lieutenant colonel, an
   army  officer  next  in  rank  above  major,  and  below  colonel.  --
   Lieutenant  commander,  an  officer in the United States navy, in rank
   next  below  a  commander  and  next above a lieutenant. -- Lieutenant
   general.  See in Vocabulary. -- Lieutenant governor. (a) An officer of
   a  State, being next in rank to the governor, and in case of the death
   or  resignation of the latter, himself acting as governor. [U. S.] (b)
   A  deputy governor acting as the chief civil officer of one of several
   colonies under a governor general. [Eng.]

                              Lieutenant general

   Lieu*ten"ant  gen"er*al  (?).  An  army  officer  in rank next below a
   general and next above a major general.

     NOTE: &hand; In  the United States, before the civil war, this rank
     had  been  conferred  only  on George Washington and (in brevet) on
     Winfield Scott. In 1864 it was revived by Congress and conferred on
     Ulysses  S.  Grant,  and  subsequently, by promotion, on William T.
     Sherman  and  Philip  H. Sheridan, each of whom was advanced to the
     rank  of  general  of  the army. When Sheridan was made general (in
     1888)  the  rank  of  lieutenant general was suffered to lapse. See


   Lieu*ten"ant*ry (?), n. See Lieutenancy. [Obs.]


   Lieu*ten"ant*ship, n. Same as Lieutenancy, 1.


   Lieve (?), a. Same as Lief.


   Lif  (?),  n.  [Written also lief.] The fiber by which the petioles of
   the  date palm are bound together, from which various kinds of cordage
   are made.


   Life  (?),  n.;  pl.  Lives (#). [AS. l; akin to D. lijf body, G. leib
   body,  MHG.  l  life, body, OHG. l life, Icel. l, life, body, Sw. lif,
   Dan. liv, and E. live, v. Live, and cf. Alive.]

   1.  The  state  of  being  which  begins  with  generation,  birth, or
   germination,  and  ends  with  death; also, the time during which this
   state  continues; that state of an animal or plant in which all or any
   of its organs are capable of performing all or any of their functions;
   -- used of all animal and vegetable organisms.

   2.  Of human being: The union of the soul and body; also, the duration
   of  their  union; sometimes, the deathless quality or existence of the
   soul; as, man is a creature having an immortal life.

     She shows a body rather than a life. Shak.

   3.  (Philos) The potential principle, or force, by which the organs of
   animals  and  plants  are  started and continued in the performance of
   their  several  and co\'94perative functions; the vital force, whether
   regarded as physical or spiritual.

   4.  Figuratively:  The  potential  or  animating  principle, also, the
   period  of  duration, of anything that is conceived of as resembling a
   natural organism in structure or functions; as, the life of a state, a
   machine, or a book; authority is the life of government.

   5.  A  certain  way  or  manner  of living with respect to conditions,
   circumstances,  character,  conduct,  occupation,  etc.;  hence, human
   affairs;  also, lives, considered collectively, as a distinct class or
   type;  as,  low  life; a good or evil life; the life of Indians, or of

     That which before us lies in daily life. Milton.

     By experience of life abroad in the world. Ascham.

     Lives  of  great  men  all remind us We can make our lives sublime.

     'T is from high life high characters are drawn. Pope

   6. Animation; spirit; vivacity; vigor; energy.

     No notion of life and fire in fancy and in words. Felton.

     That gives thy gestures grace and life. Wordsworth.

   7.  That  which  imparts  or  excites spirit or vigor; that upon which
   enjoyment  or  success depends; as, he was the life of the company, or
   of the enterprise.

   8.  The  living or actual form, person, thing, or state; as, a picture
   or a description from, the life.

   9.  A  person;  a  living being, usually a human being; as, many lives
   were sacrificed.

   10.  The  system  of  animal nature; animals in general, or considered

     Full nature swarms with life. Thomson.

   11. An essential constituent of life, esp: the blood.

     The words that I speak unto you . . . they are life. John vi. 63.

     The warm life came issuing through the wound. Pope

   12.  A  history  of  the  acts  and events of a life; a biography; as,
   Johnson wrote the life of Milton.

   13.  Enjoyment in the right use of the powers; especially, a spiritual
   existence; happiness in the favor of God; heavenly felicity.

   14.  Something dear to one as one's existence; a darling; -- used as a
   term of endearment.

     NOTE: &hand; Li fe fo rms the first part of many compounds, for the
     most  part  of  obvious  meaning; as, life-giving, life-sustaining,

   Life  annuity,  an  annuity  payable during one's life. -- Life arrow,
   Life  rocket,  Life  shot,  an arrow, rocket, or shot, for carrying an
   attached  line  to a vessel in distress in order to save life. -- Life
   assurance.  See  Life  insurance,  below. <-- no life boat?--> -- Life
   buoy. See Buoy. -- Life car, a water-tight boat or box, traveling on a
   line  from  a  wrecked  vessel  to  the shore. In it person are hauled
   through  the  waves  and  surf.  --  Life drop, a drop of vital blood.
   Byron.  --  Life estate (Law), an estate which is held during the term
   of  some  certain  person's life, but does not pass by inheritance. --
   Life  everlasting  (Bot.),  a  plant  with  white or yellow persistent
   scales  about the heads of the flowers, as Antennaria, and Gnaphalium;
   cudweed.  --  Life of an execution (Law), the period when an execution
   is  in  force,  or  before it expires. -- Life guard. (Mil.) See under
   Guard. -- Life insurance, the act or system of insuring against death;
   a  contract  by  which the insurer undertakes, in consideration of the
   payment  of a premium (usually at stated periods), to pay a stipulated
   sum  in  the event of the death of the insured or of a third person in
   whose life the insured has an interest. -- Life interest, an estate or
   interest which lasts during one's life, or the life of another person,
   but  does  not  pass  by inheritance. -- Life land (Law), land held by
   lease  for  the  term  of a life or lives. -- Life line. (a) (Naut.) A
   line  along  any  part  of a vessel for the security of sailors. (b) A
   line  attached  to a life boat, or to any life saving apparatus, to be
   grasped  by  a  person in the water. -- Life rate, rate of premium for
   insuring  a  life.  --  Life  rent, the rent of a life estate; rent or
   property to which one is entitled during one's life. -- Life school, a
   school  for  artists  in  which they model, paint, or draw from living
   models.  --  Lifetable,  a  table  showing  the probability of life at
   different ages. -- To lose one's life, to die. -- To seek the life of,
   to  seek to kill. -- To the life, so as closely to resemble the living
   person or the subject; as, the portrait was drawn to the life.


   Life"blood` (?), n.

   1. The blood necessary to life; vital blood. Dryden.

   2. Fig.: That which gives strength and energy.

     Money [is] the lifeblood of the nation. Swift.


   Life"boat`  (?),  n.  A  strong,  buoyant boat especially designed for
   saving the lives of shipwrecked people.


   Life"ful (?), a. Full of vitality. Spenser.


   Life"-giv`ing  (?),  a.  Giving  life  or spirit; having power to give
   life; inspiriting; invigorating.


   Life"hold` (?), n. Land held by a life estate.


   Life"less,  a. Destitute of life, or deprived of life; not containing,
   or  inhabited  by,  living  beings  or vegetation; dead, or apparently
   dead;  spiritless;  powerless;  dull; as, a lifeless carcass; lifeless
   matter;  a  lifeless  desert;  a  lifeless  wine; a lifeless story. --
   Life"less*ly,  adv.  --  Life"less*ness,  n.  Syn.  -- Dead; soulless;
   inanimate;   torpid;   inert;   inactive;   dull;  heavy;  unanimated;
   spiritless;  frigid;  pointless;  vapid; flat; tasteless. -- Lifeless,
   Dull,  Inanimate,  Dead.  In a moral sense, lifeless denotes a want of
   vital  energy;  inanimate, a want of expression as to any feeling that
   may  be  possessed;  dull  implies  a  torpor of soul which checks all
   mental  activity;  dead supposes a destitution of feeling. A person is
   said  to be lifeless who has lost the spirits which he once had; he is
   said  to  be inanimate when he is naturally wanting in spirits; one is
   dull  from  an  original deficiency of mental power; he who is dead to
   moral  sentiment  is  wholly  bereft  of  the highest attribute of his


   Life"like` (?), a. [Cf. Lively.] Like a living being; resembling life;
   giving  an  accurate  representation;  as,  a  lifelike  portrait.  --
   Life"like`ness, n. Poe.


   Life"long  (?),  a. [Life + long. Cf. Livelong.] Lasting or continuing
   through life. Tennyson.


   Life"ly, adv. [Cf. Lively, a.] In a lifelike manner. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Life"mate` (?), n. Companion for life. Hawthorne.


   Lif"en (?), v. t. To enliven. [Obs.] Marston.


   Life"-pre*serv`er  (?),  n.  An apparatus, made in very various forms,
   and  of  various materials, for saving one from drowning by buoying up
   the body while in the water. -- Life"-pre*serv`ing, a.


   Life"-sav`ing (?), a. That saves life, or is suited to save life, esp.
   from drowning; as, the life-saving service; a life-saving station.


   Life"-size` (?), a. Of full size; of the natural size.


   Life"some   (?),   a.  Animated;  sprightly.  [Poetic]  Coleridge.  --
   Life"some*ness, n.


   Life"spring` (?), n. Spring or source of life.


   Life"string"  (?),  n.  A  nerve,  or  string,  that is imagined to be
   essential to life. Daniel.


   Life"time` (, n. The time that life continues.


   Life"-wea`ry (?), a. Weary of living. Shak.


   Lif"lode (?), n. Livelihood. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lift  (?),  n.[AS.lyft  air.  See  Loft.] The sky; the atmosphere; the
   firmament. [Obs. or Scot.]


   Lift (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lifted; p. pr. & vb. n. Lifting.] [Icel.
   lypta,  fr.  lopt  air;  akin  to  Sw.lyfta to lift, Dan. l\'94fte, G.
   l\'81ften;  --  prop.,  to  raise  into the air. See Loft, and cf. 1st

   1.  To  move in a direction opposite to that of gravitation; to raise;
   to  elevate;  to  bring up from a lower place to a higher; to upheave;
   sometimes implying a continued support or holding in the higher place;
   --  said of material things; as, to lift the foot or the hand; to lift
   a chair or a burden.

   Page 851

   2.  To raise, elevate, exalt, improve, in rank, condition, estimation,
   character, etc.; -- often with up.

     The Roman virtues lift up mortal man. Addison.

     Lest, being lifted up with pride. I Tim. iii. 6.

   3. To bear; to support. [Obs.] Spenser.

   4. To collect, as moneys due; to raise.

   5. [Perh. a different word, and akin to Goth. hliftus thief, hlifan to
   steal,  L.  clepere,  Gr. Shoplifter.] To steal; to carry off by theft
   (esp. cattle); as, to lift a drove of cattle.

     NOTE: &hand; In old writers, lift is sometimes used for lifted.

     He ne'er lift up his hand but conquered. Shak.

   To  lift  up, to raise or elevate; in the Scriptures, specifically, to
   elevate upon the cross. John viii. 28. -- To lift up the eyes. To look
   up;  to  raise  the eyes, as in prayer. Ps. cxxi. 1. -- To lift up the
   feet,  to  come  speedily to one's relief. Ps. lxxiv. 3. -- To lift up
   the  hand. (a) To take an oath. Gen. xiv. 22. (b) To pray. Ps. xxviii.
   2.  (c)  To  engage  in  duty.  Heb.  xii.  12. -- To lift up the hand
   against,  to  rebel  against;  to  assault;  to  attack; to injure; to
   oppress.  Job  xxxi.  21. -- To lift up one's head, to cause one to be
   exalted  or  to  rejoice. Gen. xl. 13. Luke xxi. 28. -- To lift up the
   heel  against, to treat with insolence or unkindness. John xiii.18. --
   To lift up the voice, to cry aloud; to call out. Gen. xxi. 16.


   Lift (?), v. i.

   1.  To  try  to  raise something; to exert the strength for raising or

     Strained by lifting at a weight too heavy. Locke.

   2. To rise; to become or appear raised or elevated; as, the fog lifts;
   the land lifts to a ship approaching it.

   3. [See Lift, v. t., 5.] To live by theft. Spenser.


   Lift, n.

   1. Act of lifting; also, that which is lifted.

   2.  The space or distance through which anything is lifted; as, a long
   lift. Bacon.

   3. Help; assistance, as by lifting; as, to give one a lift in a wagon.

     The goat gives the fox a lift. L'Estrange.

   <--  3b.  a ride in a vehicle, given by the vehicle's owner to another
   person  as  a  favor  --  usually in "give a lift" or "got a lift", as
   "Jack gave me a lift into town." -->

   4.  That  by  means of which a person or thing lifts or is lifted; as:
   (a)  A hoisting machine; an elevator; a dumb waiter. (b) An exercising

   5. A rise; a degree of elevation; as, the lift of a lock in canals.

   6. A lift gate. See Lift gate, below. [Prov. Eng.]

   7. (Naut.) A rope leading from the masthead to the extremity of a yard
   below; -- used for raising or supporting the end of the yard.

   8. (Mach.) One of the steps of a cone pulley.

   9. (Shoemaking) A layer of leather in the heel.

   10. (Horology) That portion of the vibration of a balance during which
   the impulse is given. Saunier.
   Dead  lift.  See  under  Dead.  Swift.  --  Lift  bridge,  a  kind  of
   drawbridge,  the  movable  part  of  which is lifted, instead of being
   drawn  aside.  -- Lift gate, a gate that is opened by lifting. -- Lift
   hammer.  See  Tilt hammer. -- Lift lock, a canal lock. -- Lift pump, a
   lifting  pump.  --  Lift tenter (Windmills), a governor for regulating
   the  speed  by  adjusting  the  sails,  or for adjusting the action of
   grinding  machinery according to the speed. -- Lift wall (Canal Lock),
   the cross wall at the head of the lock.


   Lift"a*ble (?), a.Such as can be lifted.


   Lift"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, lifts.

   2.  (Founding)  A  tool  for lifting loose sand from the mold; also, a
   contrivance  attached  to  a  cope, to hold the sand together when the
   cope is lifted.


   Lift"ing,  a.  Used in, or for, or by, lifting. Lifting bridge, a lift
   bridge.  --  Lifting  jack.  See  2d  Jack, 5. -- Lifting machine. See
   Health lift, under Health. -- Lifting pump. (Mach.) (a) A kind of pump
   having  a  bucket,  or  valved  piston, instead of a solid piston, for
   drawing  water  and lifting it to a high level. (b) A pump which lifts
   the water only to the top of the pump, or delivers it through a spout;
   a  lift  pump.  -- Lifting rod, a vertical rod lifted by a rock shaft,
   and  imparting  motion  to  a  puppet valve; -- used in the engines of
   river  steamboats.  -- Lifting sail (Naut.), one which tends to lift a
   vessel's bow out of water, as jibs and square foresails.


   Lig  (?),  v.  i. [See Lie to be prostrate.] To recline; to lie still.
   [Obs. or Scot.] Chaucer. Spenser.


   Lig"a*ment  (?),  n.  [L.  ligamentum,  fr.  ligare  to  bind;  cf. f.
   ligament. Cf. Lien, n., Ligature.]

   1.  Anything  that  ties  or  unites  one  thing or part to another; a
   bandage; a bond. Hawthorne.

     Interwoven  is  the  love  of  liberty  with every ligament of your
     hearts. Washington.

   2.  (Anat.)  (a)  A  tough band or plate of dense, fibrous, connective
   tissue  or fibrocartilage serving to unite bones or form joints. (b) A
   band  of  connective  tissue,  or a membranous fold, which supports or
   retains  an organ in place; as, the gastrophrenic ligament, connecting
   the diaphragm and stomach.

                            Ligamental, Ligamentous

   Lig`a*men"tal  (?),  Lig"a*men"tous  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  ligamenteux.]
   Composing  a  ligament;  of  the  nature of a ligament; binding; as, a
   strong ligamentous membrane.


   Li"gan  (?),  n.[Cf. L. ligare to bind, to tie, ligamen band, bandage,
   E.  ligament,  or  ligsam.]  (Law)  Goods sunk in the sea, with a buoy
   attached  in  order  that  they  may  be  found  again. See Jetsam and
   Flotsam. [Written also lagan.] Blackstone.


   Li"gate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  ligatus,  p.  p. of ligare.] To tie with a
   ligature;  to  bind  around;  to  bandage. <-- ((Molecular biology) To
   concatenate two strands of nucleic acid, usually DNA, in an end-to-end
   fashion, using a ligase. -->


   Li*ga"tion (?), n. [L. ligatio, fr. ligare to bind. Cf. Liaison.]

   1. The act of binding, or the state of being bound.

   2. That which binds; bond; connection.

     Tied with tape, and sealed at each fold and ligation. Sir W. Scott.


   Li*ga"tor  (?) n. [See Ligate.] (Surg.) An instrument for ligating, or
   for placing and fastening a ligature.


   Lig"a*ture  (?), n. [L. ligatura, fr. ligare, ligatum, to bind: cf. f.
   ligature. Cf. Ally, League, Legatura, Liable, Legament.]

   1. The act of binding.

   2. Anything that binds; a band or bandage.

   3.  (Surg.)  (a)  A  thread  or  string  for  tying the blood vessels,
   particularly the arteries, to prevent hemorrhage. (b) A thread or wire
   used to remove tumors, etc.

   4.  The state of being bound or stiffened; stiffness; as, the ligature
   of a joint.

   5. Impotence caused by magic or charms. [Obs.]

   6. (Mus.) A curve or line connecting notes; a slur.

   7.  (Print.)  A  double character, or a type consisting of two or more
   letters or characters united, as \'91, fi, ffl.


   Lig"a*ture (?), v. t. (Surg.) To ligate; to tie.


   Lig"e (?), v. t. & i. To lie; to tell lies. [Obs.]


   Li"geance  (?),  n.  [OF. ligeance, ligance. See Liege.] (O. Eng. Law)
   The  connection  between  sovereign  and  subject  by  which they were
   mutually  bound, the former to protection and the securing of justice,
   the latter to faithful service; allegiance. [Written also ligeancy and
   liegance.] Chaucer.


   Lige"ment (?), n. See Ledgment


   Lig"ge (?), v. i. To lie or recline. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lig"ger (?), n.

   1. A baited line attached to a float, for night fishing. See Leger, a.

   2. See Ledger, 2.


   Light (?), n. [OE.light, liht, AS. le\'a2t; akin to OS. lioht, D. & G.
   licht,  OHG.  lioht,  Goth.  liuhap, Icel. lj, L. lux light, lucere to
   shine, Gr. ruc to shine. Lucid, Lunar, Luminous, Lynx.]

   1.  That  agent,  force, or action in nature by the operation of which
   upon the organs of sight, objects are rendered visible or luminous.

     NOTE: &hand; Li ght was regarded formerly as consisting of material
     particles, or corpuscules, sent off in all directions from luminous
     bodies,  and  traversing  space,  in  right  lines,  with the known
     velocity of about 186,300 miles per second; but it is now generally
     understood  to consist, not in any actual transmission of particles
     or  substance,  but in the propagation of vibrations or undulations
     in  a  subtile,  elastic  medium,  or ether, assumed to pervade all
     space,  and  to  be  thus  set in vibratory motion by the action of
     luminous bodies, as the atmosphere is by sonorous bodies. This view
     of  the  nature of light is known as the undulatory or wave theory;
     the  other,  advocated by Newton (but long since abandoned), as the
     corpuscular,  emission,  or  Newtonian theory. A more recent theory
     makes  light to consist in electrical oscillations, and is known as
     the electro-magnetic theory of light.

   2. That which furnishes, or is a source of, light, as the sun, a star,
   a candle, a lighthouse, etc.

     Then he called for a light, and sprang in. Acts xvi. 29.

     And  God  made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day,
     and the lesser light to rule the night. Gen. i. 16.

   3.  The  time  during  which  the  light  of  the sun is visible; day;
   especially, the dawn of day.

     The  murderer,  rising  with the light, killeth the poor and needy.
     Job xxiv. 14.

   4. The brightness of the eye or eyes.

     He  seemed to find his way without his eyes; For out o'door he went
     without  their  helps,  And, to the last, bended their light on me.

   5.  The medium through which light is admitted, as a window, or window
   pane; a skylight; in architecture, one of the compartments of a window
   made by a mullion or mullions.

     There  were  windows  in three rows, and light was against light in
     three ranks. I Kings vii.4.

   6. Life; existence.

     O, spring to light, auspicious Babe, be born ! Pope.

   7.  Open  view;  a  visible  state  or  condition; public observation;

     The  duke yet would have dark deeds darkly answered; he would never
     bring them to light. Shak.

   8. The power of perception by vision.

     My  strength  faileth  me;  as for the light of my eyes, it also is
     gone from me. Ps. xxxviii. 10.

   9.  That  which  illumines  or  makes  clear  to  the  mind; mental or
   spiritual illumination; enlightenment; knowledge; information.

     He shall never know That I had any light of this from thee. Shak.

   10. Prosperity; happiness; joy; felicity.

     Then  shall  thy  light  break forth as the morning, and thy health
     shall spring forth speedily. Is. lviii. 8.

   11.  (Paint.)  The  manner  in which the light strikes upon a picture;
   that  part  of a picture which represents those objects upon which the
   light is supposed to fall; the more illuminated part of a landscape or
   other scene; -- opposed to shade. Cf. Chiaroscuro.

   12. Appearance due to the particular facts and circumstances presented
   to view; point of view; as, to state things fairly and put them in the
   right light.

     Frequent  consideration  of  a  thing . . . shows it in its several
     lights and various ways of appearance. South.

   13.  One who is conspicuous or noteworthy; a model or example; as, the
   lights of the age or of antiquity.

     Joan of Are, A light of ancient France. Tennyson.

   14.  (Pyrotech.)  A  firework  made by filling a case with a substance
   which  burns  brilliantly  with a white or colored flame; as, a Bengal

     NOTE: &hand; Li ght is  us ed fi guratively to  de note th at which
     resembles   physical   light   in  any  respect,  as  illuminating,
     benefiting, enlightening, or enlivening mankind.

   Ancient  lights  (Law),  Calcium  light,  Flash  light, etc. See under
   Ancient,  Calcium,  etc.  --  Light ball (Mil.), a ball of combustible
   materials, used to afford light; -- sometimes made so as to fired from
   a  cannon  or mortar, or to be carried up by a rocket. -- Light barrel
   (Mil.),  an  empty  power  barrel  pierced  with holes and filled with
   shavings  soaked  in  pitch,  used to light up a ditch or a breach. --
   Light  dues  (Com.),  tolls levied on ships navigating certain waters,
   for  the  maintenance  of  lighthouses.  -- Light iron, a candlestick.
   [Obs.]  --  Light  keeper,  a  person  appointed  to  take  care  of a
   lighthouse  or  light-ship. -- Light money, charges laid by government
   on  shipping  entering  a port, for the maintenance of lighthouses and
   light-ships. -- The light of the countenance, favor; kindness; smiles.

     Lord, lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us. Ps. iv. 6.

   --  Northern lights. See Aurora borealis, under Aurora. -- To bring to
   light, to cause to be disclosed. -- To come to light, to be disclosed.
   --  To  see the light, to come into the light; hence, to come into the
   world or public notice; as, his book never saw the light.<-- also, see
   the   light  of  day;  (b)  to  come  to  understand  (sometimes  used
   ironically, said of a person who professes to change his opinion after
   he has been convinced that it will be in his own interest if the facts
   are  different  from his initial beliefs) --> -- To stand in one's own
   light, to take a position which is injurious to one's own interest.


   Light  (?),  a.  [AS.  le\'a2ht.  See Light, n.] [Compar. Lighter (#);
   superl. Lightest.]

   1. Having light; not dark or obscure; bright; clear; as, the apartment
   is light.

   2.  White or whitish; not intense or very marked; not of a deep shade;
   moderately  colored;  as,  a  light  color;  a  light  brown;  a light


   Light,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lighted  (?) or Lit (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lighting.] [AS. l, l\'c6htan, to shine. Light, n.]

   1.  To  set  fire  to; to cause to burn; to set burning; to ignite; to
   kindle;  as, to light a candle or lamp; to light the gas; -- sometimes
   with up.

     If a thousand candles be all lighted from one. Hakewill.

     And the largest lamp is lit. Macaulay.

     Absence might cure it, or a second mistress Light up another flame,
     and put out this. Addison.

   2. To give light to; to illuminate; to fill with light; to spread over
   with light; -- often with up.

     Ah,  hopeless,  lasting  flames I like those that burn To light the
     dead. Pope.

     One  hundred  years ago, to have lit this theater as brilliantly as
     it  is  now  lighted  would  have cost, I suppose, fifty pounds. F.

     The  sun  has  set,  and  Vesper,  to  supply His absent beams, has
     lighted up the sky. Dryden.

   3. To attend or conduct with a light; to show the way to by means of a

     His bishops lead him forth, and light him on. Landor.

   To light a fire, to kindle the material of a fire.


   Light, v. i.

   1. To become ignited; to take fire; as, the match will not light.

   2.  To  be illuminated; to receive light; to brighten; -- with up; as,
   the room light up very well.


   Light,  a.  [Compar. Lighted (?); superl. Lightest.] [OE. light, liht,
   AS. l\'c6ht, le\'a2ht; akin to D. ligt, G. leicht, OHG.l\'c6hti, Icel.
   l,  Dan.  let,  Sw.  l\'84tt, Goth. leihts, and perh. to L. levis (cf.
   Levity), Gr. laghu light.

   1.  Having  little, or comparatively little, weight; not tending to be
   the center of gravity with force; not heavy.

     These  weights  did  not exert their natural gravity . . . insomuch
     that  I could not guess which was light or heavy whilst I held them
     in my hand. Addison.

   2.  Not  burdensome;  easy to be lifted, borne, or carried by physical
   strength; as, a light burden, or load.

     Ye  shall  find  rest  unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my
     burden is light. Matt. xi. 29. 30.

   3.  Easy  to be endured or performed; not severe; not difficult; as, a
   light affliction or task. Chaucer.

     Light sufferings give us leisure to complain. Dryden.

   4. Easy to be digested; not oppressive to the stomach; as, light food;
   also, containing little nutriment.

   5.  Not  heavily  armed; armed with light weapons; as, light troops; a
   troop of light horse.

   6. Not encumbered; unembarrassed; clear of impediments; hence, active;
   nimble; swift.

     Unmarried  men  are best friends, best masters . . . but not always
     best subjects, for they are light to run away. Bacon.

   7. Not heavily burdened; not deeply laden; not sufficiently ballasted;
   as, the ship returned light.

   8. Slight; not important; as, a light error. Shak.

   9. Well leavened; not heavy; as, light bread.

   10.  Not  copious or heavy; not dense; not inconsiderable; as, a light
   rain; a light snow; light vapors.

   11. Not strong or violent; moderate; as, a light wind.

   12.  Not pressing heavily or hard upon; hence, having an easy graceful
   manner; delicate; as, a light touch; a light style of execution.

   13.  Easy  to  admit  influence;  inconsiderate;  easily influenced by
   trifling  considerations;  unsteady; unsettled; volatile; as, a light,
   vain person; a light mind.

     There  is  no  greater argument of a light and inconsiderate person
     than profanely to scoff at religion. Tillotson.

   14.   Indulging  in,  or  inclined  to,  levity;  wanting  dignity  or
   solemnity; trifling; gay; frivolous; airy; unsubstantial.

     Seneca can not be too heavy, nor Plautus too light. Shak.

     Specimens  of  New  England  humor laboriously light and lamentably
     mirthful. Hawthorne.

   15.  Not  quite sound or normal; somewhat impaired or deranged; dizzy;

     Are his wits safe? Is he not light of brain ? Shak.

   16. Easily bestowed; inconsiderately rendered.

     To a fair semblance doth light annex. Spenser.

   17. Wanton; unchaste; as, a woman of light character.

     A light wife doth make a heavy husband. Shak.

   18.  Not of the legal, standard, or usual weight; clipped; diminished;
   as, light coin.

   19. Loose; sandy; easily pulverized; as, a light soil.
   Light  cavalry,  Light  horse  (Mil.), light-armed soldiers mounted on
   strong  and active horses. -- Light eater, one who eats but little. --
   Light  infantry,  infantry  soldiers  selected  and  trained for rapid
   evolutions.  --  Light of foot. (a) Having a light step. (b) Fleet. --
   Light of heart, gay, cheerful. -- Light oil (Chem.), the oily product,
   lighter  than water, forming the chief part of the first distillate of
   coal  tar,  and  consisting  largely  of benzene and toluene. -- Light
   sails  (Naut.),  all  the  sails  above  the topsails, with, also, the
   studding  sails  and  flying  jib.  Dana. -- Light sleeper, one easily
   wakened. -- Light weight, a prize fighter, boxer, wrestler, or jockey,
   who  is  below  a  standard  medium  weight. Cf. Feather weight, under
   Feather.   [Cant]  --  To  make  light  of,  to  treat  as  of  little
   consequence;  to  slight;  to  disregard.  --  To  set  light  by,  to
   undervalue; to slight; to treat as of no importance; to despise.

   Page 852


   Light (?), adv. Lightly; cheaply. Hooker.


   Light,  v.  t.  [See  Light  not  heavy,  and cf. Light to alight, and
   Lighten  to make less heavy.] To lighten; to ease of a burden; to take
   off. [Obs.]

     From his head the heavy burgonet did light. Spenser.


   Light,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lighted  (?) OR Lit (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lighting.] [AS. l\'c6htan to alight orig., to relieve (a horse) of the
   rider's  burden,  to make less heavy, fr. l\'c6ht light. See Light not
   heavy, and cf. Alight, Lighten to make light.]

   1. To dismount; to descend, as from a horse or carriage; to alight; --
   with from, off, on, upon, at, in.

     When she saw Isaac, she lighted off the camel. Gen. xxiv. 64.

     Slowly  rode  across a withered heath, And lighted at a ruined inn.

   2. To feel light; to be made happy. [Obs.]

     It made all their hearts to light. Chaucer.

   3.  To  descend  from flight, and rest, perch, or settle, as a bird or

     [The  bee]  lights  on  that,  and  this,  and tasteth all. Sir. J.

     On the tree tops a crested peacock lit. Tennyson.

   4. To come down suddenly and forcibly; to fall; -- with on or upon.

     On me, me only, as the source and spring Of all corruption, all the
     blame light due. Milton.

   5.  To  come  by  chance; to happen; -- with on or upon; formerly with

     The  several  degrees  of  vision,  which the assistance of glasses
     (casually at first lit on) has taught us to conceive. Locke.

     They shall light into atheistical company. South.

     And  here  we  lit  on  Aunt  Elizabeth,  And  Lilia with the rest.


   Light"a*ble (?), a. Such as can be lighted.


   Light"-armed` (?), a. Armed with light weapons or accouterments.


   Light"-boat` (?), n. Light-ship.


   Light"e (?), obs. imp. of Light, to alight. Chaucer.


   Light"en (?), v. i. [See Light to alight.] To descend; to light.

     O  Lord, let thy mercy lighten upon us. Book of Common Prayer [Eng.


   Light"en  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Lightened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lightening.] [OE. lightenen. See Light to kindle, illuminate.]

   1.  To  burst  forth  or  dart,  as lightning; to shine with, or like,
   lightning; to display a flash or flashes of lightning; to flash.

     This  dreadful  night,  That  thunders, lightens, opens graves, and
     roars As doth the lion. Shak.

   2.  To  grow lighter; to become less dark or lowering; to brighten; to
   clear, as the sky.


   Light"en, v. t. [See Light to illuminate.]

   1.  To make light or clear; to light; to illuminate; as, to lighten an
   apartment  with  lamps  or gas; to lighten the streets. [In this sense
   less common than light.]

     A  key of fire ran all along the shore, And lightened all the river
     with a blaze. Dryden.

   2.  To  illuminate  with  knowledge; to enlighten. [In this sense less
   common than enlighten.]

     Lighten my spirit with one clear heavenly ray. Sir J. Davies.

   3.  To  emit  or  disclose in, or as in, lightning; to flash out, like

     His eye . . . lightens forth Controlling majesty. Shak.

   4. To free from trouble and fill with joy.

     They looked unto him, were lightened. Ps. xxxiv. 5.


   Light"en, v. t. [See Light not heavy.]

   1.  To make lighter, or less heavy; to reduce in weight; to relieve of
   part  of  a  load  or  burden;  as, to lighten a ship by unloading; to
   lighten a load or burden.

   2. To make less burdensome or afflictive; to alleviate; as, to lighten
   the cares of life or the burden of grief.

   3. To cheer; to exhilarate.

     Lighens my humor with his merry jests. Shak.


   Light"er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or that which, lights; as, a lighter of


   Light"er, n. [D. ligter, fr. ligt light. See Light not heavy.] (Naut.)
   A  large  boat  or barge, mainly, used in unloading or loading vessels
   which  can not reach the wharves at the place of shipment or delivery.
   Lighter  screw (Mach.), a screw for adjusting the distance between the
   stones in a grinding mill by raising or lowering the bridgetree.


   Light"er,  v.  t. To convey by a lighter, as to or from the shore; as,
   to lighter the cargo of a ship.


   Light"er*age (?), n.

   1. The price paid for conveyance of goods on a lighter.

   2. The act of unloading into a lighter, or of conveying by a lighter.


   Light"er*man  (?),  n.; pl. Lightermen (. A person employed on, or who
   manages, a lighter.


   Light"-fin`gered  (?),  a.  Dexterous  in  taking  and conveying away;
   thievish; pilfering; addicted to petty thefts. Fuller.

                           Light-foot, Light-footed

   Light"-foot`  (?),  Light"-foot`ed,  a.  Having a light, springy step;
   nimble in running or dancing; active; as, light-foot Iris. Tennyson.


   Light"ful  (?),  a.  Full  of light; bright. [R.] "Lightful presence."


   Light"-hand`ed  (?),  a.  (Naut.) Not having a full complement of men;
   as, a vessel light-handed.


   Light"-head`ed (?), a.

   1. Disordered in the head; dilirious. Walpole.

   2.   Thoughtless;   heedless;   volatile;   unsteady;  fickle;  loose.
   "Light-headed, weak men." Clarendon. -- Light"-head`ed*ness, n.


   Light"-heart"ed  (?),  a.  Free  from grief or anxiety; gay; cheerful;
   merry. -- Light"-heart`ed*ly, adv. -- Light"-heart"ed*ness, n.


   Light"-heeled`   (?),   a.   Lively  in  walking  or  running;  brisk;


   Light"-horse`man (?), n.; pl. -men (.

   1. A soldier who serves in the light horse. See under 5th Light.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A West Indian fish of the genus Ephippus, remarkable for
   its high dorsal fin and brilliant colors.


   Light"house`  (?) n.; pl.Lighthouses (. A tower or other building with
   a powerful light at top, erected at the entrance of a port, or at some
   important  point on a coast, to serve as a guide to mariners at night;
   a pharos.


   Light"ing,  n.  (Metal.)  A  name  sometimes applied to the process of
   annealing metals.


   Light"-legged` (?), a. Nimble; swift of foot. Sir P. Sidney.


   Light"less, a.Destitute of light; dark. Shak.


   Light"ly, adv.

   1.  With  little  weight;  with little force; as, to tread lightly; to
   press lightly.

     Yet  shall  thy  grave  with rising flowers be drest, And the green
     turf lie lightly on thy breast. Pope.

     Him thus intent Ithuriel with his spear Touched lightly. Milton.

   2. Swiftly; nimbly; with agility.

     So mikle was that barge, it might not lightly sail. R. of Brunne.

     Watch what thou seest and lightly bring me word. Tennyson.

   3. Without deep impression.

     The  soft ideas of the cheerful note, Lightly received, were easily
     forgot. Prior.

   4. In a small degree; slightly; not severely.

     At  the  first  he  lightly afflicted the land of Zebulun . . . and
     afterward did more grievously afflict her. Is. ix. 1.

   5. With little effort or difficulty; easily; readily.

     That lightly come, shall lightly go. Old Proverb.

     They come lightly by the malt, and need not spare it. Sir W. Scott.

   6. Without reason, or for reasons of little weight.

     Flatter  not  the rich, neither do thou willingly or lightly appear
     before great personages. Jer. Taylor.

   7. Commonly; usually. [Obs.] Bp. Fisher.

     The great thieves of a state are lightly the officers of the crown.
     B. Jonson.

   8. Without dejection; cheerfully. "Seeming to bear it lightly." Shak.

   9. Without heed or care; with levity; gayly; airily.

     Matrimony . . . is not by any to be enterprised, nor taken in hand,
     unadvisedly,  lightly,  or  wantonly.  Book  of Common Prayer [Eng.

   10. Not chastely; wantonly. Swift.


   Light"man  (?),  n.  ; pl. -men ( A man who carries or takes care of a
   light. T. Brown.


   Light"-mind`ed (?), a. Unsettled; unsteady; volatile; not considerate.
   -- Light"-mind`ed*ness, n.


   Light"ness,  n.  [From  Light  not  heavy.]  The  state, condition, or
   quality,  of  being  light or not heavy; buoyancy; levity; fickleness;
   delicacy; grace. Syn. -- Levity; volatility; instability; inconstancy;
   unsteadiness;  giddiness;  flightiness;  airiness; gayety; liveliness;
   agility;   nimbleness;   sprightliness;  briskness;  swiftness;  ease;


   Light"ness, n. [From Light bright.]

   1.  Illumination,  or  degree  of illumination; as, the lightness of a
   room. Chaucer.

   2.  Absence  of depth or of duskiness in color; as, the lightness of a
   tint; lightness of complexion.


   Light"ning (?), n. [For lightening, fr. lighten to flash.]

   1.  A  discharge  of  atmospheric  electricity, accompanied by a vivid
   flash  of  light, commonly from one cloud to another, sometimes from a
   cloud  to  the earth. The sound produced by the electricity in passing
   rapidly through the atmosphere constitutes thunder.

   2.  The  act  of  making  bright,  or  the state of being made bright;
   enlightenment; brightening, as of the mental powers. [R.]
   Ball  lightning, a rare form of lightning sometimes seen as a globe of
   fire  moving  from  the  clouds  to  the  earth.  --  Chain lightning,
   lightning  in  angular,  zigzag, or forked flashes. -- Heat lightning,
   more  or  less  vivid and extensive flashes of electric light, without
   thunder,  seen  near  the  horizon, esp. at the close of a hot day. --
   Lightning  arrester  (Telegraphy), a device, at the place where a wire
   enters  a  building, for preventing injury by lightning to an operator
   or   instrument.  It  consists  of  a  short  circuit  to  the  ground
   interrupted  by a thin nonconductor over which lightning jumps. Called
   also  lightning  discharger.  --  Lightning bug (Zo\'94l.), a luminous
   beetle.  See  Firefly.  --  Lightning  conductor,  a lightning rod. --
   Lightning  glance,  a quick, penetrating glance of a brilliant eye. --
   Lightning  rod, a metallic rod set up on a building, or on the mast of
   a vessel, and connected with the earth or water below, for the purpose
   of  protecting  the  building  or  vessel  from  lightning.  --  Sheet
   lightning,  a  diffused  glow  of electric light flashing out from the
   clouds, and illumining their outlines. The appearance is sometimes due
   to  the  reflection  of light from distant flashes of lightning by the
   nearer clouds.


   Light"ning (?), vb. n. Lightening. [R.]


   Light"-o'-love` (?), n.

   1.  An  old  tune  of  a dance, the name of which made it a proverbial
   expression of levity, especially in love matters. Nares. "Best sing it
   to the tune of light-o'-love." Shak.

   2. Hence: A light or wanton woman. Beau. & Fl.


   Light"room`  (?),  n.  A small room from which the magazine of a naval
   vessel  is  lighted,  being separated from the magazine by heavy glass


   lights  (?),  n. pl. [So called from their lightness.] The lungs of an
   animal  or bird; -- sometimes coarsely applied to the lungs of a human


   Light"-ship`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  A  vessel  carrying at the masthead a
   brilliant  light,  and  moored  off  a  shoal  or  place  of dangerous
   navigation as a guide for mariners.


   Light"some (?), a.

   1. Having light; lighted; not dark or gloomy; bright.

     White walls make rooms more lightsome than black. Bacon.

   2. Gay; airy; cheering; exhilarating.

     That lightsome affection of joy. Hooker.

   -- Light"some*ly, adv. -- Light"some*ness, n.

     Happiness  may  walk  soberly  in  dark  attire,  as  well as dance
     lightsomely in a gala dress. Hawthorne.


   Light"-winged`  (?),  a.  Having  light  and  active  wings; volatile;
   fleeting. Shak.


   Light"wood`  (?), n. Pine wood abounding in pitch, used for torches in
   the  Southern United States; pine knots, dry sticks, and the like, for
   kindling a fire quickly or making a blaze.


   Light"y (?), a. Illuminated. [Obs.] Wyclif.


   Lign`-al"oes  (?),  n.  [OE.  ligne  aloes,  fr. L. lignum wood + aloe

   1. Aloes wood, or agallochum. See Agallochum.

   2. A fragrant tree mentioned in the Bible. Num. xxiv. 6.


   Lig"ne*ous (?), a. [L. ligneus, fr. lignum wood. Cf. Lignous.] Made of
   wood;  consisting  of  wood;  of  the  nature of, or resembling, wood;

     It should be tried with shoots of vines and roots of red roses; for
     it  may  be  they, being of a moreligneous nature, will incorporate
     with the tree itself. Bacon.

   Ligneous marble, wood coated or prepared so as to resemble marble.


   Lig*nif`er*ous  (?), a. [L. lignifer; lignum wood + ferre to bear: cf.
   F. lignif\'8are.] Yielding or producing wood.


   Lig`ni*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [Cf. F. lignification. See Lignify.] (Bot.)
   A  change in the character of a cell wall, by which it becomes harder.
   It is supposed to be due to an incrustation of lignin.


   Lig"ni*form  (?), a. [L. lignum wood + -form: cf. F. ligniforme.] Like


   Lig"ni*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Lignified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lignifying  (?).]  [L. lignum wood + -fy: cf. F. lignifier.] (Bot.) To
   convert into wood or into a ligneous substance.


   Lig"ni*fy, v. i. (Bot.) To become wood.


   Lig"nin  (?),  n. [L. lignum wood: cf. F. lignine.] (Bot.) A substance
   characterizing  wood cells and differing from cellulose in its conduct
   with certain chemical reagents.

     NOTE: &hand; Re cent au thors have distinguished four forms of this
     substance, naming them lignose, lignin, lignone, and lignireose.


   Lig`ni*per"dous  (?),  a. [L. lignum wood + perdere to destroy: cf. F.
   ligniperde.] (Zo\'94l.) Wood-destroying; -- said of certain insects.


   Lig*nir"e*ose` (?), n. (Bot.) See Lignin.


   Lig"nite (?), n. [L. lignum wood: cf. F. lignite.] (Min.) Mineral coal
   retaining  the  texture  of  the  wood  from  which it was formed, and
   burning  with  an  empyreumatic odor. It is of more recent origin than
   the  anthracite  and bituminous coal of the proper coal series. Called
   also brown coal, wood coal.


   Lig*nit"ic  (?),  a.  Containing lignite; resembling, or of the nature
   of, lignite; as, lignitic clay. Lignitic group. See Laramie group.


   Lig`ni*tif"er*ous (?), a. [Lignite + -ferous.] Producing or containing
   lignite; lignitic.


   Lig`no*cer"ic  (?), a. [L. lignum wood + cera wax.] (Chem.) Pertaining
   to,  or  designating,  an acid of the formic acid series, found in the
   tar,  wax,  or paraffine obtained by distilling certain kinds of wood,
   as the beech.


   Lig"none` (?), n. (Bot.) See Lignin.

                               Lignose, Lignous

   Lig*nose`  (?), Lig"nous (?), a. [L. lignosus, fr. lignum wood: cf. F.
   ligneux. Cf. Ligneous.] Ligneous. [R.] Evelyn.


   Lig"nose` (?), n.

   1. (Bot.) See Lignin.

   2.  (Chem.) An explosive compound of wood fiber and nitroglycerin. See

                                Lignum rhodium

   Lig"num  rho"di*um  (?).  [NL.,  fr.  L.  lignum wood + Gr. (Bot.) The
   fragrant  wood  of  several shrubs and trees, especially of species of
   Rhodorhiza  from  the  Canary  Islands,  and of the West Indian Amyris


   Lig"num-vi"tae (?), n. [L., wood of life; lignum wood + vita, genitive
   vit\'91,  life.] (Bot.) A tree (Guaiacum officinale) found in the warm
   latitudes of America, from which the guaiacum of medicine is procured.
   Its  wood  is  very hard and heavy, and is used for various mechanical
   purposes,  as for the wheels of ships' blocks, cogs, bearings, and the
   like. See Guaiacum.

     NOTE: &hand; In  Ne w Ze aland the Metrosideros buxifolia is called
     lignum-vit\'91,  and  in Australia a species of Acacia. The bastard
     lignum-vit\'91 is a West Indian tree (Sarcomphalus laurinus).


   Lig"ro*in  (?),  n. A trade name applied somewhat indefinitely to some
   of the volatile products obtained in refining crude petroleum. It is a
   complex  and variable mixture of several hydrocarbons, generally boils
   below  170  Fahr.,  and is more inflammable than safe kerosene. It is
   used  as a solvent, as a carburetant for air gas, and for illumination
   in special lamps.

   Page 853


   Lig"sam  (?), n. [Cf. D. liggen to lie, E. lie to be prostrate, and E.
   flotsam, jetsam, or ligan.] Same as Ligan. Brande & C.


   Lig"u*la  (?), n.; pl. L. Ligul\'91 (#), E. Ligulas (#). [L., a little
   tongue. See Ligule.]

   1. (Bot.) See Ligule.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The central process, or front edge, of the labium of
   insects.  It  sometimes  serves  as a tongue or proboscis, as in bees.
   [See  Illust. under Labium, and Hymenoptera.] (b) A tongue-shaped lobe
   of the parapodia of annelids. See Parapodium.

                              Ligulate, Ligulated

   Lig"u*late  (?),  Lig"u*la`ted  (?), a. [Cf. F. ligul\'82. See Ligule,
   and cf. Lingulate.]

   1. (Bot.) Like a bandage, or strap; strap-shaped.

   2. Composed of ligules.
   Ligulate  flower,  a  species of compound flower, the florets of which
   have their corollets flat, spreading out toward the end, with the base
   only tubular.


   Lig"ule  (?),  n. [L.ligula, little tongue, dim of lingua tongue : cf.
   F. ligule.]

   1.  (Bot.)  (a) The thin and scarious projection from the upper end of
   the  sheath of leaf of grass. (b) A strap-shaped corolla of flowers of

   2.  (Anat.)  A band of white matter in the wall of fourth ventricle of
   the brain.


   Lig`u*li*flo"rous (?), a. [Ligule + L. flos, floris, a flower.] (Bot.)
   Bearing  only  ligulate  flowers;  --  said  of  a  large  suborder of
   composite plants, such as the dandelion, hawkweed, etc.


   Lig"ure (?), n. [L. ligurius, Gr. leshem.] A kind of precious stone.

     The third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. Ex. xxviii. 19.


   Li*gus"trin  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A bitter principle found in the bark of
   the  privet  (Ligustrum vulgare), and extracted as a white crystalline
   substance with a warm, bitter taste; -- called also ligustron.


   Lik"a*ble (?), a. Such as can be liked; such as to attract liking; as,
   a likable person. Thackeray.


   Like  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Liker  (?); superl. Likest.] [OE. lik, ilik,
   gelic,  AS.  gel\'c6c, fr. pref. ge- + l\'c6c body, and orig. meaning,
   having  the  same body, shape, or appearance, and hence, like; akin to
   OS.  gil\'c6k,  D.  gelijk,  G.  gleich, OHG. gil\'c6h, Icel. l\'c6kr,
   gl\'c6kr,  Dan. lig, Sw. lik, Goth. galeiks, OS. lik body, D. lijk, G.
   leiche,  Icel.  l\'c6k,  Sw.  lik,  Goth.  leik. The English adverbial
   ending-ly is from the same adjective. Cf. Each, Such, Which.]

   1.  Having  the  same,  or  nearly the same, appearance, qualities, or
   characteristics; resembling; similar to; similar; alike; -- often with
   in  and  the  particulars  of  the resemblance; as, they are like each
   other in features, complexion, and many traits of character.

     'The as like you As cherry is to cherry. Shak.

     Like master, like man. Old Prov.

     He  giveth snow like wool; he scattereth the hoar-frost like ashes.
     Ps. cxlvii. 16.

     NOTE: &hand; To, which formerly often followed like, is now usually

   2. Equal, or nearly equal; as, fields of like extent.

     More  clergymen  were impoverished by the late war than ever in the
     like space before. Sprat.

   3.   Having  probability;  affording  probability;  probable;  likely.
   [Likely is more used now.] Shak.

     But  it  is like the jolly world about us will scoff at the paradox
     of these practices. South.

     Many  were  not easy to be governed, nor like to conform themselves
     to strict rules. Clarendon.

   4. Inclined toward; disposed to; as, to feel like taking a walk.
   Had  like  (followed by the infinitive), had nearly; came little short

     Had like to have been my utter overthrow. Sir W. Raleigh

     Ramona  had  like  to  have  said  the  literal  truth,  .  . . but
     recollected herself in time. Mrs. H. H. Jackson.

   Like figures (Geom.), similar figures.

     NOTE: &hand; Li ke is  us ed as  a  su ffix, co nverting nouns into
     adjectives  expressing resemblance to the noun; as, manlike, like a
     man;  childlike,  like  a  child;  godlike,  like  a god, etc. Such
     compounds  are  readily formed whenever convenient, and several, as
     crescentlike,  serpentlike,  hairlike, etc., are used in this book,
     although,  in  some  cases,  not  entered  in  the vocabulary. Such
     combinations as bell-like, ball-like, etc., are hyphened.


   Like, n.

   1.  That  which  is  equal  or similar to another; the counterpart; an
   exact resemblance; a copy.

     He  was  a  man, take him for all in all, I shall not look upon his
     like again. Shak.

   2.  A liking; a preference; inclination; -- usually in pl.; as, we all
   have likes and dislikes.


   Like, adv. [AS. gel\'c6ce. See Like, a.]

   1.  In  a  manner like that of; in a manner similar to; as, do not act
   like him.

     He maketh them to stagger like a drunken man. Job xii. 25.

     NOTE: &hand; Like, as here used, is regarded by some grammarians as
     a preposition.

   2. In a like or similar manner. Shak.

     Like  as  a  father  pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth them
     that fear him. Ps. ciii. 13.

   3. Likely; probably. "Like enough it will." Shak.


   Like,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Liked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Liking.] [OE.
   liken  to  please,  AS. l\'c6cian, gel\'c6cian, fr.gel\'c6c. See Like,

   1. To suit; to please; to be agreeable to. [Obs.]

     Cornwall   him   liked  best,  therefore  he  chose  there.  R.  of

     I willingly confess that it likes me much better when I find virtue
     in a fair lodging than when I am bound to seek it in an ill-favored
     creature. Sir P. Sidney.

   2.  To  be  pleased  with  in  a  moderate degree; to approve; to take
   satisfaction in; to enjoy.

     He proceeded from looking to liking, and from liking to loving. Sir
     P. Sidney.

   3. To liken; to compare.[Obs.]

     Like me to the peasant boys of France. Shak.


   Like (?), v. i.

   1. To be pleased; to choose.

     He may either go or stay, as he best likes. Locke.

   2.  To  have an appearance or expression; to look; to seem to be (in a
   specified condition). [Obs.]

     You like well, and bear your years very well. Shak.

   3.  To come near; to avoid with difficulty; to escape narrowly; as, he
   liked to have been too late. Cf. Had like, under Like, a. [Colloq.]

     He  probably got his death, as he liked to have done two years ago,
     by  viewing  the  troops  for  the  expedition  from  the  wall  of
     Kensington Garden. Walpole.

   To like of, to be pleased with. [Obs.] Massinger.


   Like"hood (?), n. Likelihood. [Obs.] South.


   Like"li*hood (?), n. [Likely + -hood.]

   1. Appearance; show; sign; expression. [Obs.]

     What  of  his  heart  perceive you in his face By any likelihood he
     showed to-day ? Shak.

   2. Likeness; resemblance. [Obs.]

     There  is  no  likelihood between pure light and black darkness, or
     between righteousness and reprobation. Sir W. Raleigh.

   3.  Appearance  of  truth  or  reality;  probability;  verisimilitude.


   Like"li*ness, n.

   1. Likelihood; probability.

   2. Suitableness; agreeableness. [Obs.]


   Like"ly,  a.  [Compar.  Likelier  (?);  superl.  Likeliest.] [That is,
   like-like. See Like, a.]

   1. Worthy of belief; probable; credible; as, a likely story.

     It  seems likely that he was in hope of being busy and conspicuous.

   2.  Having probability; having or giving reason to expect; -- followed
   by the infinitive; as, it is likely to rain.

   3. Similar; like; alike. [Obs.] Spenser.

   4.  Such  as suits; good-looking; pleasing; agreeable; handsome. Shak.

   5. Having such qualities as make success probable; well adapted to the
   place; promising; as, a likely young man; a likely servant.


   Like"ly, adv. In all probability; probably.

     While  man  was  innocent  he  was  likely ignorant of nothing that
     imported him to know. Glanvill.


   Like"-mind`ed  (?),  a.  Having  a like disposition or purpose; of the
   same mind. Tillotson.


   Lik"en  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Likened  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Likening.] [OE. liknen. See Like, a.]

   1.  To allege, or think, to be like; to represent as like; to compare;
   as, to liken life to a pilgrimage.

     Whosoever  heareth  these  sayings  of mine, and doeth them, I will
     liken  him unto a wise man which built his house upon a rock. Matt.
     vii. 24.

   2. To make or cause to be like. [R.] Brougham.


   Like"ness, n. [AS. gel\'c6cnes.]

   1.  The  state  or  quality  of  being  like; similitude; resemblance;
   similarity; as, the likeness of the one to the other is remarkable.

   2. Appearance or form; guise.

     An enemy in the likeness of a friend. L'Estrange.

   3. That which closely resembles; a portrait.

     [How  he looked] the likenesses of him which still remain enable us
     to imagine. Macaulay.

   4. A comparison; parable; proverb. [Obs.]

     He  said  to them, Soothly ye shall say to me this likeness, Leech,
     heal thyself. Wyclif (Luke iv. 23).

   Syn.  --  Similarity;  parallel; similitude; representation; portrait;

                          Likerous, a., Likerousness

   Lik"er*ous   (?),   a.,  Lik"er*ous*ness,  n.  [Obs.]  See  Lickerish,
   Lickerishness. Chaucer.


   Like"wise`  (?),  adv.  &  conj.  [See Wise, n.] In like manner; also;
   moreover; too. See Also.

     Go, and do thou likewise. Luke x. 37.

     For  he  seeth that wise men die; likewise the fool and the brutish
     person perish. Ps. xlix. 10.


   Lik"ing (?), p. a. Looking; appearing; as, better or worse liking. See
   Like, to look. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Why  should  he see your faces worse liking than the children which
     are of your sort ? Dan. i. 10.


   Lik"ing, n.

   1. The state of being pleasing; a suiting. See On liking, below. [Obs.
   or Prov. End.]

   2. The state of being pleased with, or attracted toward, some thing or
   person;  hence,  inclination;  desire;  pleasure; preference; -- often
   with  for,  formerly  with to; as, it is an amusement I have no liking

     If  the human intellect hath once taken a liking to any doctrine, .
     .  .  it draws everything else into harmony with that doctrine, and
     to its support. Bacon.

   3.  Appearance; look; figure; state of body as to health or condition.

     I  shall  think  the  worse of fat men, as long as I have an eye to
     make difference of men's liking. Shak.

     Their young ones are in good liking. Job. xxxix. 4.

   On  liking,  on  condition  of  being pleasing to or suiting; also, on
   condition  of  being  pleased  with; as, to hold a place of service on
   liking; to engage a servant on liking. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
     Would  he  be the degenerate scion of that royal line . . . to be a
     king on liking and on sufferance ? Hazlitt.
   Li"lac  (?), n. [Also lilach.] [Sp. lilac, lila, Ar.l\'c6lak, fr. Per.
   l\'c6laj, l\'c6lanj, l\'c6lang, n\'c6laj, n\'c6l, the indigo plant, or
   from  the  kindred  l\'c6lak  bluish, the flowers being named from the
   color. Cf. Anil.]
   1. (Bot.) A shrub of the genus Syringa. There are six species, natives
   of  Europe  and  Asia.  Syringa  vulgaris,  the  common  lilac, and S.
   Persica,   the  Persian  lilac,  are  frequently  cultivated  for  the
   fragrance  and  beauty  of  their  purplish  or  white flowers. In the
   British colonies various other shrubs have this name.
   2.  A  light  purplish  color  like that of the flower of the purplish
   California  lilac  (Bot.), a low shrub with dense clusters of purplish
   flowers (Ceanothus thyrsiflorus).


   Lil"a*cin (?), n. (Chem.) See Syringin.


   Lil`i*a"ceous  (?),  a.  [L.  liliaceus,  fr.  lilium lily. See Lily.]
   (Bot.)  (a)  Of  or  pertaining  to a natural order of which the lily,
   tulip, and hyacinth are well-known examples. (b) Like the blossom of a
   lily in general form.


   Lil"i*al  (?),  a. (Bot.) Having a general resemblance to lilies or to
   liliaceous plants.


   Lil"ied (?), a. Covered with, or having many, lilies.

     By sandy Ladon's lilied banks. Milton.


   Lill (?), v. i. To loll. [Obs. or Prov.] Spenser.


   Lil`li*pu"tian (?), n.

   1.  One  belonging  to  a  very  diminutive  race described in Swift's
   "Voyage to Lilliput."

   2. Hence: A person or thing of very small size.


   Lil`li*pu"tian, a.

   1.  Of  or  having  to  the  imaginary island of Lilliput described by
   Swift, or to its inhabitants.

   2. Hence: Of very small size; diminutive; dwarfed.


   Lil"ly-pil`ly  (?),  n.  (Bot.) An Australian myrtaceous tree (Eugenia
   Smithii),  having  smooth  ovate  leaves,  and panicles of small white
   flowers. The wood is hard and fine-grained.


   Lilt (?), v. i. [Cf. Norw. lilla, lirla, to sing in a high tone.]

   1.  To  do  anything with animation and quickness, as to skip, fly, or
   hop. [Prov. Eng.] Wordsworth.

   2. To sing cheerfully. [Scot.]


   Lilt,  v.  t. To utter with spirit, animation, or gayety; to sing with
   spirit and liveliness.

     A classic lecture, rich in sentiment, With scraps of thundrous epic
     lilted out By violet-hooded doctors. Tennyson.


   Lilt, n.

   1. Animated, brisk motion; spirited rhythm; sprightliness.

     The  movement,  the  lilt,  and  the  subtle charm of the verse. F.

   2. A lively song or dance; a cheerful tune.

     The  housewife  went  about  her work, or spun at her wheel, with a
     lilt upon her lips. J. C. Shairp.


   Lil"y   (?),   n.;   pl.  Lilies  (#).  [AS.  lilie,  L.  lilium,  Gr.

   1.  (Bot.)  A plant and flower of the genus Lilium, endogenous bulbous
   plants,  having a regular perianth of six colored pieces, six stamens,
   and a superior three-celled ovary.

     NOTE: &hand; There are nearly fifty species, all found in the North
     Temperate  zone.  Lilium candidum and L. longiflorum are the common
     white  lilies of gardens; L. Philadelphicum is the wild red lily of
     the  Atlantic  States. L. Chalcedonicum is supposed to be the "lily
     of  the  field"  in  our  Lord's  parable;  L. auratum is the great
     gold-banded lily of Japan.

   2. (Bot.) A name given to handsome flowering plants of several genera,
   having  some  resemblance  in  color  or  form  to  a  true  lily,  as
   Pancratium, Crinum, Amaryllis, Nerine, etc.

   3. That end of a compass needle which should point to the north; -- so
   called as often ornamented with the figure of a lily or fleur-de-lis.

     But sailing further, it veers its lily to the west. Sir T. Browne. 

   African  lily  (Bot.),  the  blue-flowered  Agapanthus  umbellatus. --
   Atamasco lily (Bot.), a plant of the genus Zephyranthes (Z. Atamasco),
   having  a  white  and  pink  funnelform  perianth, with six petal-like
   divisions resembling those of a lily. Gray. -- Blackberry lily (Bot.),
   the Pardanthus Chinensis, the black seeds of which form a dense like a
   blackberry.  --  Bourbon  lily (Bot.), Lilium candidum. See Illust. --
   Butterfly  lily.  (Bot.)  Same as Mariposa lily, in the Vocabulary. --
   Lily  daffodil (Bot.), a plant of the genus Narcissus, and its flower.
   --  Lily  encrinite  (Paleon.),  a  fossil  encrinite,  esp.  Encrinus
   liliiformis.  See  Encrinite.  -- Lily hyacinth (Bot.), a plant of the
   genus  Hyacinthus.  --  Lily iron, a kind of harpoon with a detachable
   head of peculiar shape, used in capturing swordfish. <-- illustration:
   Lily  Iron  -->  --  Lily  of  the valley (Bot.), a low perennial herb
   (Convallaria  majalis),  having  a  raceme of nodding, fragrant, white
   flowers.  <--  illustration:  Lily  of the valley --> -- Lily pad, the
   large  floating  leaf of the water lily. [U. S.] Lowell. -- Tiger lily
   (Bot.),  Lilium tigrinum, the sepals of which are blotched with black.
   --  Turk's-cap  lily  (Bot.) Lilium Martagon, a red lily with recurved
   sepals;  also,  the  similar American lily, L. superbum. -- Water lily
   (Bot.),  the  Nymph\'91a,  a  plant with floating roundish leaves, and
   large  flowers  having many petals, usually white, but sometimes pink,
   red, blue, or yellow. [See Illust. of Nymph\'91a.]
   Lil"y-hand`ed (?), a. Having white, delicate hands. 


   Lil"y-liv`ered (?), a. White-livered; cowardly.


   Lil"y*wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  Any  plant of the Lily family or order.


   Lim (?), n. [See Limb.] A limb. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Li"ma  (?),  n. The capital city of Peru, in South America. Lima bean.
   (Bot.)  (a)  A  variety  of climbing or pole bean (Phaseolus lunatus),
   which  has very large flattish seeds. (b) The seed of this plant, much
   used  for  food.  --  Lima wood (Bot.), the beautiful dark wood of the
   South American tree C\'91salpinia echinata.

   Page 854


   Li*ma"ceous   (?),   a.  [L.  limax,  limacis,  slug,  snail:  cf.  F.
   limac\'82.] (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to, or like, Limax, or the slugs.


   Lim`a*ci"na  (?), n. [NL., From L. limax, limacis, a slug.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A  genus of small spiral pteropods, common in the Arctic and Antarctic
   seas. It contributes to the food of the right whales.

  Lima Li`ma` (?), n. [F. lima, lit., a snail.] (Geom.) A curve of the fourth
       degree, invented by Pascal. Its polar equation is r = a cos + b. 


   Li"maille  (?),  n.  [F., fr. limer to file. See Limation.] Filings of
   metal. [Obs.] "An ounce . . . of silver lymaille." Chaucer.


   Li"man (?), n. [F. limon, fr. L. limus slime.] The deposit of slime at
   the mouth of a river; slime.


   Li*ma"tion (?), n. [L. limatus, p. p. of limare to file, fr. lima file
   : cf. F. limation.] The act of filing or polishing.


   Li"ma*ture (?), n. [L. limatura. See Limation.]

   1. The act of filing.

   2. That which is filed off; filings. Johnson.


   Li"max  (?),  n.  [L.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus of airbreathing mollusks,
   including  the  common  garden  slugs.  They  have a small rudimentary
   shell.  The  breathing  pore is on the right side of the neck. Several
   species are troublesome in gardens. See Slug.


   Limb (?), n. [OE. lim, AS. lim; akin to Icel. limr limb, lim branch of
   a  tree,  Sw.  &  Dan.  lem limb; cf. also AS. li, OHG. lid, gilid, G.
   glied, Goth. lipus. Cf. Lith, Limber.]

   1.  A  part  of a tree which extends from the trunk and separates into
   branches and twigs; a large branch.

   2. An arm or a leg of a human being; a leg, arm, or wing of an animal.

     A  second  Hector  for his grim aspect, And large proportion of his
     strong-knit limbs. Shak.

   3.  A  thing  or person regarded as a part or member of, or attachment
   to, something else. Shak.

     That  little  limb  of  the  devil  has cheated the gallows. Sir W.

   4. An elementary piece of the mechanism of a lock.
   Limb of the law, a lawyer or an officer of the law. [Colloq.] Landor.


   Limb, v. t.

   1. To supply with limbs. [R.] Milton.

   2. To dismember; to tear off the limbs of.


   Limb,  n.  [L. limbus border. Cf. Limbo, Limbus.] A border or edge, in
   certain special uses. (a) (Bot.) The border or upper spreading part of
   a  monopetalous corolla, or of a petal, or sepal; blade. (b) (Astron.)
   The  border  or edge of the disk of a heavenly body, especially of the
   sun  and  moon.  (c)  The  graduated margin of an arc or circle, in an
   instrument for measuring angles.


   Lim"bat  (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A cooling periodical wind in the
   Isle  of Cyprus, blowing from the northwest from eight o'clock, A. M.,
   to the middle of the day or later.


   Lim"bate  (?),  a. [L. limbatus, fr. limbus border, edge. See Limbus.]
   (Bot.  &  Zo\'94l.)  Bordered,  as  when one color is surrounded by an
   edging of another.


   Lim"bec  (?),  n.  [Abbrev.  of  alembic.] An alembic; a still. [Obs.]
   Spenser. Shak.


   Lim"bec, v. t. To distill. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Limbed  (?),  a.  Having  limbs;  --  much  used  in  composition; as,
   large-limbed; short-limbed.

     Innumerous  living creatures, perfect forms, Limbed and full grown.


   Lim"ber (?), n. [For limmer, Icel. limar branches, boughs, pl. of lim;
   akin to E. limb. See Limb a branch.]

   1. pl. The shafts or thills of a wagon or carriage. [Prov. Eng.]

   2.  (Mil.)  The  detachable fore part of a gun carriage, consisting of
   two  wheels, an axle, and a shaft to which the horses are attached. On
   top is an ammunition box upon which the cannoneers sit.

   3.  pl.  (Naut.)  Gutters  or  conduits on each side of the keelson to
   afford a passage for water to the pump well.
   Limber  boards  (Naut.),  short  pieces  of  plank forming part of the
   lining  of  a  ship's  floor  immediately  above the timbers, so as to
   prevent  the  limbers  from  becoming  clogged. -- Limber box OR chest
   (Mil.),  a  box on the limber for carrying ammunition. -- Limber rope,
   Limber  chain  OR  Limber  clearer  (Naut.),  a  rope or chain passing
   through  the  limbers  of a ship, by which they may be cleared of dirt
   that  chokes  them. Totten. -- Limber strake (Shipbuilding), the first
   course of inside planking next the keelson.


   Lim"ber  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Limbered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Limbering.]
   (Mil.)  To attach to the limber; as, to limber a gun. To limber up, to
   change  a  gun  carriage  into a four-wheeled vehicle by attaching the
   limber.  <--  (b) to render limber, esp. to perform light exercises so
   as  to  stretch  the  muscles  and  tendons  gently in preparation for
   vigorous  activity  (and  thus  to  avoid straining the muscles by too
   sudden exertion after prolonged inactivity) -->


   Lim"ber,  a. [Akin to lim, a. Limp, a.] Easily bent; flexible; pliant;
   yielding. Milton.

     The bargeman that doth row with long and limber oar. Turbervile.


   Lim"ber,  v. t. To cause to become limber; to make flexible or pliant.


   Lim"ber*ness,  n.  The quality or state of being limber; flexibleness.


   Limb"less (?), a. Destitute of limbs.


   Limb"meal`  (?), adv. [See Limb, and Piecemeal.] Piecemeal. [Obs.] "To
   tear her limbmeal." Shak.

                                 Limbo, Limbus

   Lim"bo  (?),  Lim"bus  (?), n. [L. limbus border, edge in limbo on the
   border. Cf. Limb border.]

   1. (Scholastic Theol.) An extramundane region where certain classes of
   souls were supposed to await the judgment.

     As far from help as Limbo is from bliss. Shak.

     A  Limbo  large  and  broad,  since  called  The Paradise of fools.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e li mbus pa trum was considered as a place for the
     souls  of  good  men who lived before the coming of our Savior. The
     limbus  infantium  was  said to be a similar place for the souls of
     unbaptized  infants. To these was added, in the popular belief, the
     limbus  fatuorum,  or  fool's paradise, regarded as a receptacle of
     all vanity and nonsense.

   2.  Hence:  Any real or imaginary place of restraint or confinement; a
   prison;  as,  to put a man in limbo. <-- hence: a state of waiting, or
   uncertainty,  in  which  final  judgment  concerning  the outcome of a
   decision is postponed, perhaps indefinitely; neglect for an indefinite
   time -->

   3.  (Anat.) A border or margin; as, the limbus of the cornea. <-- 4. A
   West  Indian  dance  contest, in which participants must dance under a
   pole  which  is  lowered  successively  until only one participant can
   successfully  pass  under,  without falling. [MW10 Jamaican E limba to
   bend,  fr. E. limber (1950)]. Often performed at celebrations, such as
   weddings. (1950-1996) -->


   Lim"bous  (?),  a.  [See  Limbus.]  (Anat.)  With slightly overlapping
   borders; -- said of a suture.


   Lime  (?),  n.  [See  Leam a string.] A thong by which a dog is led; a
   leash. Halliwell.


   Lime,  n.  [Formerly  line,  for earlier lind. See Linden.] (Bot.) The
   linden tree. See Linden.


   Lime,  n.  [F.  lime;  of  Persian  origin. See Lemon.] (Bot.) A fruit
   allied  to the lemon, but much smaller; also, the tree which bears it.
   There  are  two  kinds;  Citrus  Medica, var. acida which is intensely
   sour,  and  the  sweet  lime  (C.  Medica, var. Limetta) which is only
   slightly sour.


   Lime,  n. [AS. l\'c6m; akin to D. lijm, G. leim, OHG. l\'c6m, L. limus
   mud, linere to smear, and E. loam. . Cf. Loam, Liniment.]

   1. Birdlime.

     Like the lime That foolish birds are caught with. Wordsworth.

   2.  (Chem.)  Oxide  of  calcium; the white or gray, caustic substance,
   usually  called  quicklime, obtained by calcining limestone or shells,
   the  heat  driving  off  carbon  dioxide and leaving lime. It develops
   great  heat  when treated with water, forming slacked lime, <-- ##sic,
   and  thus  intended  (see  slack,  v.t.), but now it should be "slaked
   lime" -->and is an essential ingredient of cement, plastering, mortar,
   etc.<-- CaO -->

     NOTE: &hand; Li me is  th e pr incipal co nstituent of  li mestone,
     marble, chalk, bones, shells, etc.

   Caustic  lime,  calcium  hydrate  or  slacked  lime;  also,  in a less
   technical  sense,  calcium  oxide or quicklime.<-- Calcium hydroxide =
   slaked lime --> -- Lime burner, one who burns limestone, shells, etc.,
   to  make  lime.  -- Lime light. See Calcium light under Calcium.<-- as
   one  word, limelight means the center of public attention, esp. in the
   phrase "in the limelight" --> -- Lime pit, a limestone quarry. -- Lime
   rod,  Lime  twig,  a  twig  smeared  with  birdlime; hence, that which
   catches; a snare. Chaucer.


   Lime, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Limed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Liming.] [Cf. AS.
   gel\'c6man to glue or join together. See Lime a viscous substance.]

   1. To smear with a viscous substance, as birdlime.

     These twigs, in time, will come to be limed. L'Estrange.

   2. To entangle; to insnare.

     We had limed ourselves With open eyes, and we must take the chance.

   3.  To treat with lime, or oxide or hydrate of calcium; to manure with
   lime;  as, to lime hides for removing the hair; to lime sails in order
   to whiten them.

     Land  may  be  improved  by  draining,  marling, and liming. Sir J.

   4.  To cement. "Who gave his blood to lime the stones together." Shak.
   <--  Lime, lime-colored. adj. having a yellowish-green color like that
   of the lime. -- n. the lime color. -->


   Lime"hound`  (?), n. [Lime a leash + hound.] A dog used in hunting the
   wild boar; a leamer. Spenser.


   Lime"kiln`  (?), n. A kiln or furnace in which limestone or shells are
   burned and reduced to lime.


   Li*men"e*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Lima, or to the inhabitants of
   Lima, in Peru. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Lima.


   Lim"er (?), n. A limehound; a limmer. Chaucer.


   Lime"stone`  (?), n. A rock consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate or
   carbonate of lime. It sometimes contains also magnesium carbonate, and
   is then called magnesian or dolomitic limestone. Crystalline limestone
   is called marble.

                                   Lime twig

   Lime twig. See under 4th Lime.


   Lime"-twigged`  (?), a. Beset with snares; insnared, as with birdlime.
   L. Addison.


   Lime"wa`ter  (?),  n. Water impregnated with lime; esp., an artificial
   solution of lime for medicinal purposes.


   Li*mic"o*l\'91  (?),  n.  pl. [L. limicola a dweller in the mud; limus
   mud  +  colere to dwell.] (Zo\'94l.) A group of shore birds, embracing
   the plovers, sandpipers, snipe, curlew, etc. ; the Grall\'91.


   Li*mic"o*line (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Shore-inhabiting; of or pertaining to
   the Limicol\'91.


   Lim"i*ness (?), n. The state or quality of being limy.


   Lim"it  (?),  n.  [From  L.  limes, limitis: cf. F.limite; -or from E.
   limit, v. See Limit, v. t.]

   1.  That  which terminates, circumscribes, restrains, or confines; the
   bound, border, or edge; the utmost extent; as, the limit of a walk, of
   a town, of a country; the limits of human knowledge or endeavor.

     As  eager of the chase, the maid Beyond the forest's verdant limits
     strayed. Pope.

   2. The space or thing defined by limits.

     The  archdeacon  hath  divided  it  Into three limits very equally.

   3.  That  which terminates a period of time; hence, the period itself;
   the full time or extent.

     The dateless limit of thy dear exile. Shak.

     The limit of your lives is out. Shak.

   4. A restriction; a check; a curb; a hindrance.

     I prithee, give no limits to my tongue. Shak.

   5.   (Logic   &  Metaph.)  A  determining  feature;  a  distinguishing
   characteristic a differentia.

   6. (Math.) A determinate quantity, to which a variable one continually
   approaches,  and may differ from it by less than any given difference,
   but  to  which,  under  the  law  of variation, the variable can never
   become exactly equivalent.
   Elastic limit. See under Elastic. -- Prison limits, a definite, extent
   of space in or around a prison, within which a prisoner has liberty to
   go and come. Syn. -- Boundary; border; edge; termination; restriction;
   bound; confine.


   Lim"it  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Limited; p. pr. & vb. n. Limiting.]
   [F.  limiter,  L.  limitare,  fr. limes, limitis, limit; prob. akin to
   limen  threshold,  E.  eliminate;  cf.  L. limus sidelong.] To apply a
   limit to, or set a limit for; to terminate, circumscribe, or restrict,
   by a limit or limits; as, to limit the acreage of a crop; to limit the
   issue  of  paper  money;  to  limit one's ambitions or aspirations; to
   limit  the  meaning  of  a  word.  Limiting parallels (Astron.), those
   parallels  of  latitude between which only an occultation of a star or
   planet by the moon, in a given case, can occur.


   Lim"it,  v.  i.  To  beg,  or  to exercise functions, within a certain
   limited region; as, a limiting friar. [Obs.]


   Lim"it*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being limited.


   Lim`i*ta"ne*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  limitancus.  See  Limit,  v. t.] Of or
   pertaining to a limit. [Obs.]


   Lim`i*ta"ri*an (?), a. Tending to limit.


   Lim"i*ta*ry (?), a. [L.limitaris. See Limit , v. t.]

   1. Placed at the limit, as a guard. "Proud limitary cherub." Milton.

   2.  Confined  within limits; limited in extent, authority, power, etc.
   "The limitary ocean." Trench.

     The  poor, limitary creature calling himself a man of the world. De

   3. Limiting, or tending to limit; restrictive.

     Doctrines limitary, if not subversive of the papal power. Milman.


   Lim"i*ta*ry, n.; pl. -ries (.

   1. That which serves to limit; a boundary; border land. [Obs.] Fuller.

   2. A limiter. See Limiter, 2.


   Lim"i*tate  (?),  a.  [L.  limitatus,  p. p. of limitare to limit. See
   Limit, v. t. ] Bounded by a distinct line.


   Lim`i*ta"tion  (?), n. [L. limitatio: cf. F. Limitation. See Limit, v.

   1.  The  act of limiting; the state or condition of being limited; as,
   the limitation of his authority was approved by the council.

     They  had  no  right  to  mistake the limitation . . . of their own
     faculties,  for  an  inherent  limitation  of the possible modes of
     existence in the universe. J. S. Mill.

   2.  That  which  limits; a restriction; a qualification; a restraining
   condition,   defining  circumstance,  or  qualifying  conception;  as,
   limitations of thought.

     The cause of error is ignorance what restraints and limitations all
     principles  have  in  regard  of  the  matter  whereunto  they  are
     applicable. Hooker.

   3.  A  certain  precinct  within  which friars were allowed to beg, or
   exercise  their  functions;  also,  the  time  during  which they were
   permitted  to  exercise  their  functions in such a district. Chaucer.

   4. A limited time within or during which something is to be done.

     You have stood your limitation, and the tribunes Endue you with the
     people's voice. Shak.

   5.  (Law)  (a)  A  certain  period  limited by statute after which the
   claimant  shall  not  enforce his claims by suit. (b) A settling of an
   estate  or property by specific rules. (c) A restriction of power; as,
   a constitutional limitation. Wharton. Bouvier.
   To  know  one's own limitations, to know the reach and limits of one's
   abilities. A. R. Wallace.


   Lim"it*ed  (?),  a.  Confined  within  limits;  narrow; circumscribed;
   restricted; as, our views of nature are very limited. Limited company,
   a company in which the liability of each shareholder is limited by the
   number  of  shares  he  has  taken, so that he can not be called on to
   contribute beyond the amount of his shares. [Eng.] Mozley & W.


   Lim"it*ed*ly, adv. With limitation.


   lim"it*ed*ness, n. The quality of being limited.


   Lim"it*er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, limits.

   2.  A  friar  licensed to beg within certain bounds, or whose duty was
   limited  to  a  certain  district.  [Formerly  written also limitour.]

     A  limitour  of  the  Gray  Friars,  in the time of his limitation,
     preached many times, and had one sermon at all times. Latimer.


   Lim"it*ive (?), a. Involving a limit; as, a limitive law, one designed
   to limit existing powers. [R.]


   Lim"it*less,  a. Having no limits; unbounded; boundless. Davies (Wit's


   Lim"it*our (?), n. See Limiter, 2.


   Lim"mer (?), a. Limber. [Obs.] Holland.


   Lim"mer, n. [F. limier. See Leamer.]

   1. A limehound; a leamer.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A mongrel, as a cross between the mastiff and hound.

   3. A low, base fellow; also, a prostitute. [Scot.]

     Thieves, limmers, and broken men of the Highlands. Sir W. Scott.

   4. (Naut.) A man rope at the side of a ladder.


   Limn  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Limned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Limning
   (?).]  [OE.  limnen,  fr.  luminen,  for  enluminen,  F.  enluminer to
   illuminate, to limn, LL. illuminare to paint. Illuminate, Luminous.]

   1.  To draw or paint; especially, to represent in an artistic way with
   pencil or brush.

     Let a painter carelessly limn out a million of faces, and you shall
     find them all different. Sir T. Browne. 

   2.  To  illumine,  as  books  or  parchments, with ornamental figures,
   letters, or borders.

   Page 855

                                  Lim n\'91a

   Lim  *n\'91"a  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of fresh-water
   air-breathing  mollusks, abundant in ponds and streams; -- called also
   pond snail. [Written also Lymn\'91a.]


   Lim"ner  (?),  n.  [F.  enlumineur, LL. illuminator. See Limn, and cf.
   Alluminor.]  A painter; an artist; esp.: (a) One who paints portraits.
   (b) One who illuminates books. [Archaic]


   Lim"ni*ad (?), n. [Gr. (Myth.) See Limoniad.


   Lim"ning  (?),  n.  The  act,  process,  or  art of one who limns; the
   picture or decoration so produced.

     Adorned with illumination which we now call limning. Wood.


   Li*moges" (?), n. A city of Southern France. Limoges enamel, a kind of
   enamel  ware  in which the enamel is applied to the whole surface of a
   metal plaque, vase, or the like, and painted in enamel colors. The art
   was  brought  to  a  high  degree of perfection in Limoges in the 16th
   century.  -- Limoges ware. (a) Articles decorated with Limoges enamel.
   (b) Articles of porcelain, etc., manufactured at Limoges.


   Li*mo"ni*ad (?), n. [L. limoniades, pl., Gr. (Class. Myth.) A nymph of
   the meadows; -- called also Limniad.


   Li*mo"nin   (?),  n.  [From  NL.  Citrus  Medica,  var.  Limonum,  the
   scientific  name  of  the lemon.] (Chem.) A bitter, white, crystalline
   substance found in orange and lemon seeds.


   Li"mon*ite   (?),  n.  [Gr.  limonite,  G.  limonit.]  (Min.)  Hydrous
   sesquixoide   of   iron,  an  important  ore  of  iron,  occurring  in
   stalactitic,  mammillary,  or  earthy  forms,  of  a dark brown color,
   yellowish  brown  powder.  It  includes  bog  iron.  Also called brown


   Li*mo"sis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A ravenous appetite caused by
   disease; excessive and morbid hunger.


   Li"mous  (?),  a.  [L.  limosus,  fr. limus slime, mud.] Muddy; slimy;
   thick. Sir T. Browne.


   Limp  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Limped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Limping.]
   [Cf.  AS. lemphealt lame, OHG. limphen to limp, be weak; perh. akin to
   E.   lame,  or  to  limp,  a  To  halt;  to  walk  lamely.  Also  used
   figuratively. Shak.


   Limp, n. A halt; the act of limping.


   Limp,  n. (Ore Washing) A scraper for removing poor ore or refuse from
   the sieve.


   Limp,  a.  [Cf. Icel. limpa limpness, weakness, and E.lap, n., lop, v.
   t. Cf. Limber, a.]

   1. Flaccid; flabby, as flesh. Walton.

   2. Lacking stiffness; flimsy; as, a limp cravat.


   Limp"er (?), n. One who limps.


   Lim"pet  (?),  n.  [Prob.  through  French  fr.  L.  lepas, -adis, Gr.

   1. In a general sense, any hatshaped, or conical, gastropod shell.

   2.  Any  one  of  many  species  of  marine  shellfish  of  the  order
   Docoglossa, mostly found adhering to rocks, between tides.

     NOTE: &hand; The common European limpets of the genus Patella (esp.
     P.  vulgata)  are  extensively used as food. The common New England
     species is Acm\'91a testudinalis. Numerous species of limpets occur
     on the Pacific coast of America, some of them of large size.

   3.  Any  species  of Siphonaria, a genus of limpet-shaped Pulmonifera,
   living between tides, on rocks.

   4. A keyhole limpet. See Fissurella.


   Lim"pid   (?),  a.  [L.limpidus;  akin  to  Gr.  limpide.  Cf.  Lamp.]
   Characterized  by  clearness  or  transparency;  clear;  as,  a limpid

     Springs which were clear, fresh, and limpid. Woodward.

   Syn.   --   Clear;   transparent;   pellucid;  lucid;  pure;  crystal;
   translucent; bright.


   Lim*pid"i*ty (?), n. [L. limpiditas: cf. F. limpidit\'82.] The quality
   or state of being limpid.


   Lim"pid*ness (?), n. Quality of being limpid; limpidity.


   Lim"pin (?), n. A limpet. [Obs.] Holland.


   Limp"ing*ly (?), adv. In a limping manner.


   Limp"i*tude (?), n. Limpidity. [Obs.]


   Limp"kin  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Either one of two species of wading birds
   of  the  genus  Aramus, intermediate between the cranes and rails. The
   limpkins  are remarkable for the great length of the toes. One species
   (A.  giganteus)  inhabits  Florida  and the West Indies; the other (A.
   scolopaceus)  is  found  in  South  America.  Called also courlan, and
   crying bird.


   Limp"ness, n. The quality or state of being limp.

                                 Limpsy, Limsy

   Limp"sy  (?), Lim"sy (?), a. [See Limp, a., and cf. W. llymsi having a
   fickle  motion,  weak. Cf. Flimsy.] Limp; flexible; flimsy. [Local, U.


   Li"mu  (?), n. (Bot.) The Hawaiian name for seaweeds. Over sixty kinds
   are used as food, and have species names, as Limu Lipoa, Limu palawai,


   Lim"ule (?), n. [F.] (Zo\'94l.) A limulus.


   Lim`u*loi"de*a  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Limulus, and -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) An
   order  of  Merostomata,  including  among  living  animals  the  genus
   Limulus,   with   various   allied   fossil   genera,  mostly  of  the
   Carboniferous period. Called also Xiphosura.

     NOTE: &hand; There are six pairs of leglike organs, surrounding the
     mouth,  most  of  which terminate in claws; those of the first pair
     (probably  mandibles)  are  the smallest; the others have the basal
     joints  thickened and spinose, to serve as jaws, while the terminal
     joints   serve  as  legs.  This  group  is  intermediate,  in  some
     characteristics,   between   crustaceans   and   certain  arachnids
     (scorpions),  but  the  respiration  is by means of lamellate gills
     borne  upon the five posterior abdominal appendages, which are flat
     and  united in pairs by their inner edges, and are protected by the
     lidlike anterior pair, which also bear the genital orifices.


   Lim"u*lus (?), n.; pl. Limuli (-l&imac;). [L., dim. of limus sidelong,
   askance.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The  only  existing  genus  of  Merostomata. It
   includes  only  a  few  species from the East Indies, and one (Limulus
   polyphemus)  from  the  Atlantic  coast  of North America. Called also
   Molucca crab, king crab, horseshoe crab, and horsefoot.


   Lim"y (?), a. [See 4th Lime.]

   1.  Smeared  with,  or  consisting  of,  lime; viscous. "Limy snares.'

   2. Containing lime; as, a limy soil.

   3. Resembling lime; having the qualities of lime.


   Lin  (?),  v. i. [AS. linnan. See Lithe.] To yield; to stop; to cease.
   [Obs. or Scot.] Marsion.


   Lin, n. [Ir. linn, or Gael. linne; akin to W. llyn a pool, pond, lake,
   but in senses 2 and 3 prob. from AS.hlynn torrent. Cf. Dunlin.]

   1.  A  pool  or collection of water, particularly one above or below a
   fall of water.

   2. A waterfall, or cataract; as, a roaring lin.

   3. A steep ravine.

     NOTE: &hand; Written also linn and lyn.


   Lin"age (?), n. See Lineage. [Obs.] Holland.


   Lin"a*ment  (?),  n.  [L.  linamentum,  fr. linum flax.] (Surg.) Lint;
   esp., lint made into a tent for insertion into wounds or ulcers.


   Li*nar`ite  (?),  n.  [So called because formerly supposed to occur at
   Linares,  in  Spain.]  (Min.)  A  hydrous  sulphate of lead and copper
   occurring in bright blue monoclinic crystals.


   Linch (?), n. [AS. hlinc a hill.] A ledge; a right-angled projection.


   Lin"chi (?), n. [Native Chinese name.] (Zo\'94l.) An esculent swallow.


   Linch"pin`  (?), n. [AS. lynis the axletree; akin to D. luns linchpin,
   OS. lunisa, LG. lunse, G. l\'81nse, OHG. lun peg, bolt.] A pin used to
   prevent the wheel of a vehicle from sliding off the axletree.

                                 Lincoln green

   Lin"coln  green"  (?).  A  color  of  cloth  formerly made in Lincoln,
   England; the cloth itself.

                               Lincture, Linctus

   Linc"ture  (?),  Linc"tus  (?),  n.  [L.  lingere,  linctum, to lick.]
   Medicine taken by licking with the tongue.


   Lind (?), n. The linden. See Linden. Chaucer.


   Lin"den  (?),  n. [Orig. an adj. from lind linden tree, AS. lind; akin
   to  D.  &  G.  linde,  OHG.  linta,  Icel., Sw., & Dan. lind. Cf. Lime
   linden.]  (Bot.)  (a) A handsome tree (Tilia Europ\'91a), having cymes
   of  light yellow flowers, and large cordate leaves. The tree is common
   in Europe. (b) In America, the basswood, or Tilia Americana.


   Lin"di*a  (?),  n.  [NL.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  peculiar  genus of rotifers,
   remarkable for the absence of ciliated disks. By some zo\'94logists it
   is thought to be like the ancestral form of the Arthropoda.


   Lin"di*form  (?), a. [Lindia + -form.] (Zo\'94l.) Resembling the genus
   Lindia; -- said of certain apodous insect larv\'91. [See Illust. under


   Line (?), n. [OE. lin. See Linen.]

   1. Flax; linen. [Obs.] "Garments made of line." Spenser.

   2. The longer and fiber of flax.


   Line, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lining.]

   1.  To  cover  the  inner surface of; as, to line a cloak with silk or
   fur; to line a box with paper or tin.

     The inside lined with rich carnation silk. W. Browne.

   2.  To  put something in the inside of; to fill; to supply, as a purse
   with money.

     The  charge  amounteth  very  high  for any one man's purse, except
     lined beyond ordinary, to reach unto. Carew.

     Till coffee has her stomach lined. Swift.

   3.  To  place  persons  or  things  along  the side of for security or
   defense;  to  strengthen by adding; to fortify; as, to line works with

     Line  and  new repair our towns of war With men of courage and with
     means defendant. Shak.

   4. To impregnate; -- applied to brute animals. Creech.
   Lined gold, gold foil having a lining of another metal.


   Line,  n.  [OE. line, AS. l\'c6ne cable, hawser, prob. from L. linea a
   linen  thread, string, line, fr. linum flax, thread, linen, cable; but
   the  English  word  was  influenced by F. ligne line, from the same L.
   word linea. See Linen.]

   1. linen thread or string; a slender, strong cord; also, a cord of any
   thickness;  a  rope;  a hawser; as, a fishing line; a line for snaring
   birds; a clothesline; a towline.

     Who so layeth lines for to latch fowls. Piers Plowman.

   2.  A more or less threadlike mark of pen, pencil, or graver; any long
   mark; as, a chalk line.

   3.  The course followed by anything in motion; hence, a road or route;
   as,  the  arrow  descended  in a curved line; the place is remote from
   lines of travel.

   4. Direction; as, the line sight or vision.

   5.  A  row of letters, words, etc., written or printed; esp., a row of
   words extending across a page or column.

   6. A short letter; a note; as, a line from a friend.

   7.  (Poet.) A verse, or the words which form a certain number of feet,
   according to the measure.

     In the preceding line Ulysses speaks of Nausicaa. Broome.

   8.  Course  of  conduct,  thought,  occupation,  or  policy; method of
   argument; department of industry, trade, or intellectual activity.

     He  is  uncommonly powerful in his own line, but it is not the line
     of a first-rate man. Coleridge.

   9. (Math.) That which has length, but not breadth or thickness.

   10.  The  exterior  limit  of  a figure, plat, or territory; boundary;
   contour; outline.

     Eden  stretched her line From Auran eastward to the royal towers Of
     great Seleucia. Milton.

   11.  A  threadlike  crease  marking  the  face  or  the  hand;  hence,
   characteristic mark.

     Though on his brow were graven lines austere. Byron.

     He  tipples  palmistry, and dines On all her fortune-telling lines.

   12. Lineament; feature; figure. "The lines of my boy's face." Shak.

   13.  A straight row; a continued series or rank; as, a line of houses,
   or of soldiers; a line of barriers.

     Unite thy forces and attack their lines. Dryden.

   14.  A  series  or  succession of ancestors or descand ants of a given
   person;  a  family  or race; as, the ascending or descending line; the
   line of descent; the male line; a line of kings.

     Of  his  lineage  am  I,  and his offspring By very line, as of the
     stock real. Chaucer.

   15.   A   connected  series  of  public  conveyances,  and  hence,  an
   established  arrangement for forwarding merchandise, etc. ; as, a line
   of stages; an express line.

   16.  (Geog.)  (a) A circle of latitude or of longitude, as represented
   on  a map. (b) The equator; -- usually called the line, or equinoctial
   line; as, to cross the line.

   17.  A  long  tape,  or  a  narrow  ribbon of steel, etc., marked with
   subdivisions, as feet and inches, for measuring; a tapeline.

   18. (Script.) (a) A measuring line or cord.

     He marketh it out with a line. Is. xliv. 13.

   (b) That which was measured by a line, as a field or any piece of land
   set apart; hence, allotted place of abode.

     The  lines  are  fallen  unto  me in pleasant places; yes. I have a
     goodly heritage. Ps. xvi. 6.

   (c) Instruction; doctrine.

     Their line is gone out through all the earth. Ps. xix. 4.

   19.  (Mach.)  The proper relative position or adjustment of parts, not
   as  to design or proportion, but with reference to smooth working; as,
   the engine is in line or out of line or out of line.

   20. The track and roadbed of a railway; railroad.

   21.  (Mil.)  (a)  A row of men who are abreast of one another, whether
   side  by  side  or  some distance apart; -- opposed to column. (b) The
   regular  infantry  of  an army, as distinguished from militia, guards,
   volunteer corps, cavalry, artillery, etc.

   22.  (Fort.)  (a)  A  trench  or rampart. (b) pl. Dispositions made to
   cover  extended positions, and presenting a front in but one direction
   to an enemy.

   23.  pl.  (Shipbuilding)  form of a vessel as shown by the outlines of
   vertical, horizontal, and obique sections.

   24.  (Mus.)  One  of  the  straight  horizontal and parallel prolonged
   strokes on and between which the notes are placed.

   25. (Stock Exchange) A number of shares taken by a jobber.

   26.  (Trade)  A  series  of  various  qualities and values of the same
   general  class  of  articles;  as,  a  full line of hosiery; a line of
   merinos, etc. McElrath.

   27.  The  wire connecting one telegraphic station with another, or the
   whole of a system of telegraph wires under one management and name.

   28. pl. The reins with which a horse is guided by his driver. [U. S.]

   29. A measure of length; one twelfth of an inch.
   Hard  lines,  hard  lot.  C. Kingsley. [See Def. 18.] -- Line breeding
   (Stockbreeding),  breeding  by  a  certain  family  line  of  descent,
   especially  in  the  selection  of  the  dam  or mother. -- Line conch
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  spiral  marine shell (Fasciolaria distans), of Florida
   and the West Indies. It is marked by narrow, dark, revolving lines. --
   Line  engraving.  (a)  Engraving  in which the effects are produced by
   lines of different width and closeness, cut with the burin upon copper
   or similar material; also, a plate so engraved. (b) A picture produced
   by  printing  from  such  an  engraving.  --  Line of battle. (a) (Mil
   Tactics)  The position of troops drawn up in their usual order without
   any determined maneuver. (b) (Naval) The line or arrangement formed by
   vessels  of  war in an engagement. -- Line of battle ship. See Ship of
   the  line,  below.  --  Line  of  beauty  (Fine Arts),an abstract line
   supposed  to  be  beautiful  in  itself and absolutely; -- differently
   represented by different authors, often as a kind of elongated S (like
   the  one  drawn  by  Hogarth).  -- Line of centers. (Mach.) (a) A line
   joining  two  centers,  or  fulcra, as of wheels or levers. (b) A line
   which  determines  a dead center. See Dead center, under Dead. -- Line
   of  dip  (Geol.),  a  line  in  the  plane  of a stratum, or part of a
   stratum,  perpendicular  to  its intersection with a horizontal plane;
   the  line of greatest inclination of a stratum to the horizon. -- Line
   of fire (Mil.), the direction of fire. -- Line of force (Physics), any
   line  in  a  space  in which forces are acting, so drawn that at every
   point of the line its tangent is the direction of the resultant of all
   the  forces. It cuts at right angles every equipotential surface which
   it meets. Specifically (Magnetism), a line in proximity to a magnet so
   drawn that any point in it is tangential with the direction of a short
   compass   needle  held  at  that  point.  Faraday.  --  Line  of  life
   (Palmistry),  a line on the inside of the hand, curving about the base
   of  the  thumb,  supposed  to  indicate,  by its form or position, the
   length  of  a  person's  life. -- Line of lines. See Gunter's line. --
   Line  of  march.  (Mil.)  (a)  Arrangement of troops for marching. (b)
   Course or direction taken by an army or body of troops in marching. --
   Line  of  operations,  that  portion of a theater of war which an army
   passes  over  in attaining its object. H. W. Halleck. -- Line of sight
   (Firearms), the line which passes through the front and rear sight, at
   any  elevation,  when  they  are  sighted  at  an  object. -- Line tub
   (Naut.),  a tub in which the line carried by a whaleboat is coiled. --
   Mason and Dixon's line<-- also, the Mason-Dixon Line -->, the boundary
   line  between  Pennsylvania and Maryland, as run before the Revolution
   (1764-1767)  by  two  English  astronomers  named  Charles  Mason  and
   Jeremiah  Dixon.  In  an extended sense, the line between the free and
   the  slave  States.  --  On  the  line, on a level with the eye of the
   spectator;  --  said  of  a  picture,  as  hung  in  an  exhibition of
   pictures.<--  also,  at  risk (dependent upon success) in a contest or
   enterprise,  as  the  survival  of  the company is on the line in this
   project  -->  --  Right  line  a  picture, as hung in an exhibition of
   pictures.  --  Right line, a straight line; the shortest line that can
   be  drawn between two points. -- Ship of the line, formerly, a ship of
   war  large  enough  to  have  a  place in the line of battle; a vessel
   superior  to  a  frigate; usually, a seventy-four, or three-decker; --
   called   also  line  of  battle  ship.<--  eventually  abbreviated  to
   "battleship"  -->  Totten. -- To cross the line, to cross the equator,
   as  a  vessel  at  sea. -- To give a person line, to allow him more or
   less  liberty  until  it  is  convenient  to stop or check him, like a
   hooked   fish   that   swims   away  with  the  line.  --  Water  line
   (Shipbuilding),  the  outline  of a horizontal section of a vessel, as
   when floating in the water.

   Page 856


   Line (?), v. t.

   1.  To  mark  with a line or lines; to cover with lines; as, to line a
   copy book.

     He  had  a healthy color in his cheeks, and his face, though lined,
     bore few traces of anxiety. Dickens.

   2.  To  represent  by  lines; to delineate; to portray. [R.] "Pictures
   fairest lined." Shak.

   3. To read or repeat line by line; as, to line out a hymn.

     This  custom  of reading or lining, or, as it was frequently called
     "deaconing'  the  hymn  or psalm in the churches, was brought about
     partly from necessity. N. D. Gould.

   4. To form into a line; to align; as, to line troops.
   To line bees, to track wild bees to their nest by following their line
   of  flight.  --  To  line  up  (Mach.), to put in alignment; to put in
   correct adjustment for smooth running. See 3d Line, 19.


   Lin"e*age  (?),  n. [OE. linage, F. lignage, fr. L. linea line. See 3d
   Line.]  Descent  in  a  line  from a common progenitor; progeny; race;
   descending line of offspring or ascending line of parentage.

     Both  the lineage and the certain sire From which I sprung, from me
     are hidden yet. Spenser.


   Lin"e*al (?), a. [L. linealis belonging to a line, fr. linea line: cf.
   F. lin\'82al. See 3d Line.]

   1.  Descending  in a direct line from an ancestor; hereditary; derived
   from  ancestors;  --  opposed to collateral; as, a lineal descent or a
   lineal descendant.

     The prime and ancient right of lineal succession. Locke.

   2. Inheriting by direct descent; having the right by direct descent to
   succeed (to).

     For only you are lineal to the throne. Dryden.

   3. Composed of lines; delineated; as, lineal designs.

   4.  In the direction of a line; of a line; of or pertaining to a line;
   measured on, or ascertained by, a line; linear; as, lineal magnitude.
   Lineal  measure,  the  measure  of  length;  -- usually written linear


   Lin`e*al"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being linea


   Lin"e*al*ly  (?),  adv. In a lineal manner; as, the prince is lineally
   descended from the Conqueror.


   Lin"e*a*ment   (?),  n.  [L.  lineamentum,  fr.  linea  line:  cf.  F.
   lin\'82ament. See 3d Line.] One of the outlines, exterior features, or
   distinctive  marks,  of  a  body  or figure, particularly of the face;
   feature;  form; mark; -- usually in the plural. "The lineaments of the
   body." Locke. "Lineaments in the character." Swift.

     Man he seems In all his lineaments. Milton.


   Lin"e*ar  (?),  a.  [L.  linearis,  linearius , fr. linea line: cf. F.
   lin\'82aire. See 3d Line.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  a line; consisting of lines; in a straight
   direction; lineal.

   2.  (Bot.) Like a line; narrow; of the same breadth throughout, except
   at the extremities; as, a linear leaf.
   Linear differential (Math.), an equation which is of the first degree,
   when the expression which is equated to zero is regarded as a function
   of the dependent variable and its differential coefficients. -- Linear
   equation  (Math.),  an  equation  of  the  first  degree  between  two
   variables;  -- so called because every such equation may be considered
   as  representing  a  right  line.<--  =  stright  line!  --> -- Linear
   measure,  the  measurement  of length. -- Linear numbers (Math.), such
   numbers  as  have  relation  to  length  only:  such is a number which
   represents  one side of a plane figure. If the plane figure is square,
   the  linear  figure  is  called  a  root. -- Linear problem (Geom.), a
   problem  which  may  be solved geometrically by the use of right lines
   alone.  --  Linear  transformation (Alg.), a change of variables where
   each variable is replaced by a function of the first degree in the new


   Lin`e*ar*en"sate  (?),  a. (Bot.) Having the form of a sword, but very
   long and narrow.


   Lin"e*ar*ly, adv. In a linear manner; with lines.


   Lin"e*ar-shaped` (?), a. Of a linear shape.


   Lin"e*a*ry (?), a. Linear. Holland.

                               Lineate, Lineated

   Lin"e*ate  (?),  Lin"e*a`ted (?), a. [L. lineatus, p. p. of lineare to
   reduce to a straight line, fr. linea line.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Marked with lines.

   2.  (Bot.)  Marked longitudinally with depressed parallel lines; as, a
   lineate leaf.


   Lin`e*a"tion (?), n. [L. lineatio the drawing of a line, fr. lineare.]
   Delineation; a line or lines.


   Lin"e*a*ture (?), n. Anything having outline. [R.]<-- sic --> Holland.


   Line"man (?), n.; pl. Linemen (.

   1. One who carried the line in surveying, etc.

   2.  A  man  employed to examine the rails of a railroad to see if they
   are  in  good  condition;  also,  a  man  employed to repair telegraph
   lines.<--  or  telephone,  or  power  lines. also, linesman --> <-- 3.
   (Football)  A player whose position is in the first (forward) line, as
   opposed  to  a  "back".  spec: center, guard, tackle. 4. A (Colloq.) A
   ladies'   man   who   is   especially  adept  at  inventing  effective
   introductory phrases (pick-up lines) to gain a woman's attention -->


   Lin"en (?), a. [OE., fr. lin linen. See Linen, n.

   1.] Made of linen; as, linen cloth; a linen stocking.

   2. Resembling linen cloth; white; pale.


   Lin"en,  n. [Prop. an adj. from OE. lin. flax, AS. l\'c6n flax, whence
   l\'c6nen  made  of  flax;  akin  to OS., Icel., & MHG. l\'c6n flax and
   linen,  G.  lein,  leinen,  linen,  Sw. lin flax, Goth. lein linen, L.
   linum flax, linen, Gr. Line, Linseed.]

   1.  Thread  or  cloth  made  of flax or (rarely) of hemp; -- used in a
   general   sense   to  include  cambric,  shirting,  sheeting,  towels,
   tablecloths, etc. "In linen white as milk." Robert of Brunne.

   2.  Underclothing,  esp. the shirt, as being, in former times, chiefly
   made of linen. <-- 3. pl. bed linens -->
   Linen  draper,  a dealer in linen. -- Linen prover, a small microscope
   for  counting  the threads in a given space in linen fabrics. -- Linen
   scroll,  Linen pattern (Arch.), an ornament for filling panels, copied
   from  the  folds  of  a piece of stuff symmetrically disposed. <-- bed
   linens, sheets and pillowcases for a bed. -->


   Lin"en*er, n. A dealer in linen; a linen draper. [Obs.]


   Lin"e*o*late (?), a. [L. lineola, dim. of linea line.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Marked with little lines.

   2. (Bot.) Marked longitudinally with fine lines. Gray.


   Lin"er (?), n.

   1. One who lines, as, a liner of shoes.

   2.  A  vessel  belonging  to  a  regular  line  of  packets;  also,  a
   line-of-battle ship; a ship of the line.

   3.  (Mach.)  A  thin  piece placed between two parts to hold or adjust
   them, fill a space, etc., ; a shim.

   4.  (Steam  Engine)  A lining within the cylinder, in which the piston
   works and between which and the outer shell of the cylinder a space is
   left to form a steam jacket.

   5.  A  slab  on which small pieces of marble, tile, etc., are fastened
   for grinding.

   6.  (Baseball)  A  ball which, when struck, flies through the air in a
   nearly  straight  line  not far from the ground.<-- = line drive, also
   (Coloq.) clothesliner -->


   -ling (?). [AS. -ling.] A noun suffix, commonly having a diminutive or
   a  depreciatory force; as in duck-ling, dosling, hireling, fosterling,
   firstling, underling.


   -ling. An adverbial suffix; as, darkling, flatling.


   Ling (?), n. [OE. lenge; akin to D. leng, G. l\'84nge, Dan. lange, Sw.
   l, Icel. langa. So named from its being long. See Long, a.] (Zo\'94l.)
   (a)  A  large, marine, gadoid fish (Molva vulgaris) of Northern Europe
   and  Greenland.  It is valued as a food fish and is largely salted and
   dried.  Called  also  drizzle.  (b) The burbot of Lake Ontario. (c) An
   American  hake  of  the  genus Phycis. [Canada] (d) A New Zealand food
   fish  of  the  genus  Genypterus.  The name is also locally applied to
   other fishes, as the cultus cod, the mutton fish, and the cobia.


   Ling,  n.  [Icel.  lyng; akin to Dan. lyng, Sw. ljung.] (Bot.) Heather
   (Calluna  vulgaris).  Ling  honey, a sort of wild honey, made from the
   flowers of the heather. Holland.

                                 Linga, Lingam

   Lin"ga  (?),  Lin"gam  (?),  n. [Skr. linga.] The phallic symbol under
   which  Siva  is principally worshiped in his character of the creative
   and reproductive power. Whitworth. E. Arnold.


   Ling"-bird`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) The European meadow pipit; -- called
   also titling.


   Lin"gel (?), n. [F. ligneul, dim. of L. linea a linen thread.]

   1. A shoemaker's thread. [Obs.]

   2. A little tongue or thong of leather; a lacing for belts. Crabb.


   Lin"gence (?), n. [L. lingere to lick.] A linctus. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Lin"ger  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lingered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lingering.]  [OE. lengen to tarry, AS. lengan to prolong, put off, fr.
   lang  long.  Long, a.] To delay; to loiter; to remain or wait long; to
   be  slow or reluctant in parting or moving; to be slow in deciding; to
   be in suspense; to hesitate.

     Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind. Gray.

     Perhaps thou linger'st, in deep thoughts detained. Milton.

   Syn. -- To loiter; lag; saunter; delay; tarry; stop; hesitate.


   Lin"ger, v. t.

   1. To protract; to draw out. [Obs.]

     She lingers my desires. Shak.

   2.  To  spend  or pass in lingering manner; -- with out; as, to linger
   out one's days on a sick bed. Dryden.


   Lin"ger*er (?), n. One who lingers. Guardian.


   Lin"ger*ing, a.

   1. Delaying.

   2.  Drawn  out  in  time;  remaining long; protracted; as, a lingering

     To  die  is  the  fate of man; but to die with lingering anguish is
     generally his folly. Rambler.


   Lin"ger*ing*ly, adv. With delay; slowly; tediously.


   Lin"get  (?),  n. [F. lingot, perh. fr. L. lingua tongue (see Tongue).
   Cf. Ingot.] An ingot. [Written also lingot.]


   Ling"ism  (?),  n. A mode of treating certain diseases, as obesity, by
   gymnastics;   --   proposed   by   Pehr  Henrik  Ling,  a  Swede.  See


   Lin"gle (?), n. See Lingel.


   Lin"go  (?),  n.  [L. lingua tongue, language. See Lingual.] Language;
   speech; dialect. [Slang]

                                  Lingoa wood

   Lin*go"a wood` (?). Amboyna wood.


   Lin"got  (?),  n.  A linget or ingot; also, a mold for casting metals.
   See Linget.


   Lin"gua (?), n.; pl. Lingu\'91 (#). [L., the tongue.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A
   tongue.  (b)  A median process of the labium, at the under side of the
   mouth in insects, and serving as a tongue.


   Lin*gua"cious  (?),  a.  [L.  linguax,  -acis,  loquacious, fr. lingua
   tongue.] Given to the use of the tongue; loquacious. [Obs.]


   Lin`gua*den"tal  (?),  a.  [L. lingua tongue + E. dental.] (Phonetics)
   Formed  or uttered by the joint use of the tongue and teeth, or rather
   that  part of the gum just above the front teeth; dentolingual, as the
   letters d and t.


   Lin`gua*den"tal,  n. (Phonetics) An articulation pronounced by the aid
   or use of the tongue and teeth.

                                 Lingua Franca

   Lin"gua  Fran"ca  (?).  [It.,  prop.,  language  of  the  Franks.] The
   commercial language of the Levant, -- a mixture of the language of the
   people of the region and foreign traders.


   Lin"gual  (?),  a.  [L. lingua tongue: cf. F. lingual. See Tongue, and
   cf.  Language.]  Of or pertaining to the tongue; uttered by the aid of
   the tongue; glossal; as, the lingual nerves; a lingual letter. Lingual
   ribbon. (Zo\'94l.) See Odontophore.


   Lin"gual,  n.  A consonant sound formed by the aid of the tongue; -- a
   term  especially  applied  to certain articulations (as those of t, d,
   th, and n) and to the letters denoting them.

     NOTE: &hand; In  Sanskrit grammar certain letters, as t, th, d, dh,
     n,  are called linguals, cerebrals, or cacuminals. They are uttered
     with  the  tip of the tongue turned up and drawn back into the dome
     of the palate.


   Lin*gual"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being lingual.


   Lin`gua*tu"li*da  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. L. lingua tongue.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Same as Linguatulina.


   Lin*guat`*u*li"na  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. lingua tongue.] (Zo\'94l.)
   An  order  of  wormlike,  degraded, parasitic arachnids. They have two
   pairs of retractile hooks, near the mouth. Called also Pentastomida.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ad ults of  some species inhabit the nostrils and
     nasal  sinuses of dogs and other carnivores. The young, after being
     swallowed  by sheep, rabbits, etc., find their way to the lungs and
     liver and become encysted. These, when eaten by carnivores, develop
     into the adult forms.


   Lin`gui*den"tal (?), a. & n. Linguadental.


   Lin"gui*form  (?),  a. [L. lingua tongue + -form: cf. F. linguiforme.]
   Having the form of the tongue; tongue-shaped.


   Lin"guist  (?),  n.  [L.  lingua  tongue,  speech,  language:  cf.  F.

   1. A master of the use of language; a talker. [Obs.]

     I'll dispute with him; He's a rare linguist. J. Webster.

   2. A person skilled in languages.

     There  too  were  Gibbon,  the  greatest  historian, and Jones, the
     greatest linguist, of the age. Macaulay.

                           Linguistic, Linguistical

   Lin*guis"tic (?), Lin*guis"tic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. linguistique.] Of or
   pertaining  to language; relating to linguistics, or to the affinities
   of languages.


   Lin*guis"tic*al*ly,  adv.  In  a  linguistic manner; from the point of
   view of a linguist. Tylor.


   Lin*guis"tics (?), n. [Cf. F. linguistique.] The science of languages,
   or of the origin, signification, and application of words; glossology.


   Lin"gu*la (?), n.; pl. -l\'91 (#). [L., a little tongue.]

   1. (Anat.) A tonguelike process or part.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  numerous  species  of  brachiopod shells
   belonging  to  the genus Lingula, and related genera. See Brachiopoda,
   and Illustration in Appendix.
   Lingula  flags  (Geol.),  a  group  of strata in the lower Silurian or
   Cambrian  system  of  Wales,  in which some of the layers contain vast
   numbers of a species of Lingula.


   Lin"gu*late  (?),  a. [L. lingulatus, fr. lingula a little tongue. Cf.
   Ligulate.] Shaped like the tongue or a strap; ligulate.


   Li*nig"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  linum  flax  +  -gerous.]  Bearing flax;
   producing linen.


   Lin"i*ment  (?),  n.  [L.  linimentum, fr. linire, linere, to besmear,
   anoint  :  cf.  F.  liniment. Cf. Letter, Lime a viscous substance.] A
   liquid  or  semiliquid  preparation  of  a consistence thinner than an
   ointment, applied to the skin by friction, esp. one used as a sedative
   or a stimulant.


   Lin"ing (?), n. [See Line to cover the in side.]

   1. The act of one who lines; the act or process of making lines, or of
   inserting a lining.

   2. That which covers the inner surface of anything, as of a garment or
   a box; also, the contents of anything.

     The  lining  of  his coffers shall make coats To deck our soldiers.


   Link  (?),  n.  [Prob.  corrupted from lint and this for lunt a torch,
   match,  D.  lont  match; akin to G. lunte, cf. MHG. l\'81nden to burn.
   Cf. Lunt, Linstock.] A torch made of tow and pitch, or the like. Shak.


   Link,  n. [OE. linke, AS. hlence; akin to Sw. l\'84nk ring of a chain,
   Dan.  l\'91nke chain, Icel. hlekkr; cf. G. gelenk joint, link, ring of
   a chain, lenken to bend.]

   1. A single ring or division of a chain.

   2.  Hence: Anything, whether material or not, which binds together, or
   connects,  separate  things;  a  part  of a connected series; a tie; a
   bond. "Links of iron." Shak.

   Page 857

     The  link of brotherhood, by which One common Maker bound me to the
     kind. Cowper.

     And  so  by  double  links  enchained  themselves  in lover's life.

   3.  Anything  doubled and closed like a link; as, a link of horsehair.

   4.  (Kinematics)  Any  one  of  the  several  elementary  pieces  of a
   mechanism,  as  the  fixed  frame,  or  a rod, wheel, mass of confined
   liquid,  etc., by which relative motion of other parts is produced and

   5.  (Mach.)  Any  intermediate  rod or piece for transmitting force or
   motion,  especially a short connecting rod with a bearing at each end;
   specifically  (Steam Engine), the slotted bar, or connecting piece, to
   the  opposite  ends  of  which  the eccentric rods are jointed, and by
   means of which the movement of the valve is varied, in a link motion.

   6.  (Surveying)  The  length of one joint of Gunter's chain, being the
   hundredth  part  of  it,  or  7.92  inches, the chain being 66 feet in
   length. Cf. Chain, n., 4.

   7.  (Chem.) A bond of affinity, or a unit of valence between atoms; --
   applied to a unit of chemical force or attraction.

   8.  pl.  Sausages;  -- because linked together. [Colloq.] <-- 9. pl. A
   golf course. -->


   Link (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Linked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Linking.] To
   connect or unite with a link or as with a link; to join; to attach; to
   unite; to couple.

     All the tribes and nations that composed it [the Roman Empire] were
     linked together, not only by the same laws and the same government,
     but  by  all  the  facilities  of  commodious  intercourse,  and of
     frequent communication. Eustace.


   Link, v. i. To be connected.

     No one generation could link with the other. Burke.


   Link"age (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of linking; the state of being linked; also, a system of

   2.  (Chem.) Manner of linking or of being linked; -- said of the union
   of atoms or radicals in the molecule.

   3.  (Geom.)  A  system of straight lines or bars, fastened together by
   joins, and having certain of their points fixed in a plane. It is used
   to describe straight lines and curves in the plane.

                               Linkboy, Linkman

   Link"boy`  (?),  Link"man  (?),  n.  [See 1st Link.] A boy or man that
   carried a link or torch to light passengers.<-- sic -->

                                  Link motion

   Link"  mo"tion  (?).  (Steam  Engine)  A valve gear, consisting of two
   eccentrics  with  their  rods,  giving  motion  to a slide valve by an
   adjustable  connecting  bar,  called  the link, in such a way that the
   motion  of the engine can be reversed, or the cut-off varied, at will;
   -- used very generally in locomotives and marine engines.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e il lustration sh ows a link motion for a vertical
     engine,  c representing the shaft carrying two eccentrics, a and b,
     for making the engine run forward and backward, respectively, their
     rods  e and d being jointed to opposite ends of the slotted link f,
     in  the  opening of which is a pin g which is attached to the valve
     rod  h.  The valve will receive the motion of the forward eccentric
     when  is  in  the  position  shown,  and the motion of the backward
     eccentric  when the link is shifted so far to the right as to bring
     e in line with h, or a compound motion derived from both eccentrics
     when  the  link  is shifted to intermediate positions, the compound
     motion causing the valve to cut off the steam at a point determined
     by the position to which the link may have been shifted.


   Link"work` (?), n.

   1.  A  fabric  consisting  of  links  made  of metal or other material
   fastened together; also, a chain.

     And  thou  shalt  make  hooks of gold, and two chains of fine gold;
     linkwork and wreathed. Udall.

   2.  Mechanism  in  which links, or intermediate connecting pieces, are
   employed to transmit motion from one part to another.

                              Linn\'91a borealis

   Lin*n\'91"a  bo`re*a"lis  (?).  [NL.Linnaeus  Linn\'91an + L. borealis
   northern.]  (Bot.)  The  twin  flower  which  grows  in  cold northern

                              Linn\'91an, Linnean

   Lin*n\'91"an,  Lin*ne"an  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Linn\'91us, the
   celebrated  Swedish  botanist.  Linnaean  system (Bot.), the system in
   which  the classes are founded mainly upon the stamens, and the orders
   upon the pistils; the artificial or sexual system.


   Lin*n\'91"ite  (?),  n.  [See  Linn\'91an.]  (Min.)  A mineral of pale
   steel-gray color and metallic luster, occurring in isometric crystals,
   and also massive. It is a sulphide of cobalt containing some nickel or


   Linne (?), n. Flax. See Linen. [Obs.]


   Lin"net  (?),  n.  [F.  linot,  linotte,  from L. linum flax; or perh.
   shortened  from  AS.l\'c6netwige,  fr.  AS.  l\'c6n flax; -- so called
   because it feeds on the seeds of flax and hemp. See Linen.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Any  one of several species of fringilline birds of the genera Linota,
   Acanthis,  and  allied  genera,  esp.  the common European species (L.
   cannabina),  which,  in  full summer plumage, is chestnut brown above,
   with  the  breast  more  or less crimson. The feathers of its head are
   grayish  brown,  tipped  with  crimson.  Called  also gray linnet, red
   linnet,  rose linnet, brown linnet, lintie, lintwhite, gorse thatcher,
   linnet  finch,  and  greater  redpoll.  The  American  redpoll  linnet
   (Acanthis  linaria)  often has the crown and throat rosy. See Redpoll,
   and Twite. Green linnet (Zo\'94l.), the European green finch.


   Li*no"le*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of linoleic acid.


   Li*no"le*ic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or  derived from, linoleum, or
   linseed oil; specifically (Chem.), designating an organic acid, a thin
   yellow  oil,  found combined as a salt of glycerin in oils of linseed,
   poppy, hemp, and certain nuts.


   Li*no"le*um (?), n. [L. linum flax + oleum oil.]

   1.  Linseed  oil  brought  to  various  degrees  of  hardness  by some
   oxidizing  process, as by exposure to heated air, or by treatment with
   chloride  of  sulphur.  In  this  condition it is used for many of the
   purposes to which India rubber has been applied.

   2.  A  kind  of  floor cloth made by laying hardened linseed oil mixed
   with ground cork on a canvas backing.


   Li*nox"in  (?),  n.  [Linoleic + oxygen.] (Chem.) A resinous substance
   obtained  as  an  oxidation  product  of  linoleic acid. [Written also


   Lin*sang"  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  viverrine  mammal  of  the genus
   Prionodon,  inhabiting  the  East Indies and Southern Asia. The common
   East  Indian  linsang  (P. gracilis) is white, crossed by broad, black
   bands.  The  Guinea  linsang (Porana Richardsonii) is brown with black


   Lin"seed`  (?),  n. [OE. lin flax + seed. See Linen.] (Bot.) The seeds
   of  flax, from which linseed oil is obtained. [Written also lintseed.]
   Linseed  cake,  the  solid  mass  or  cake  which  remains when oil is
   expressed. -- Linseed meal, linseed cake reduced to powder. -- Linseed
   oil, oil obtained by pressure from flaxseed.


   Lin"sey (?), n. [See Linen.] Linsey-woolsey.


   Lin"sey-wool"sey (?), n.

   1. Cloth made of linen and wool, mixed.

   2. Jargon. [Obs.] Shak.


   Lin"sey-wool"sey,  a.  Made of linen and wool; hence, of different and
   unsuitable parts; mean. Johnson.


   Lin"stock  (?),  n.  [Corrupt. fr. luntstock, D. lonistok; lont lunt +
   stok  stock,  stick.  See  Link  a  torch, Lunt, and Stock.] A pointed
   forked  staff, shod with iron at the foot, to hold a lighted match for
   firing cannon. [Written also lintstock.]


   Lint  (?),  n.  [AS.  l\'c6net  flax, hemp, fr. l\'c6n flax; or, perh.
   borrowed  fr. L. linteum a linen cloth, linen, from linteus linen, a.,
   fr. lineum flax, lint. See Linen.]

   1. Flax.

   2.  Linen  scraped  or  otherwise  made  into  a soft, downy or fleecy
   substance  for  dressing wounds and sores; also, fine ravelings, down,
   fluff, or loose short fibers from yarn or fabrics.
   Lint  doctor  (Calico-printing Mach.), a scraper to remove lint from a
   printing cylinder.


   Lin"tel   (?),   n.  [OE.  lintel,  F.  linteau,  LL.  lintellus,  for
   limitellus,  a  dim.  fr.  L.  limes  limit.  See  Limit.]  (Arch.)  A
   horizontal member spanning an opening, and carrying the superincumbent
   weight by means of its strength in resisting crosswise fracture.

                               Lintie, Lintwhite

   Lin"tie  (?),  Lint"white`  (?),  n.  [AS.  l\'c6netwige. See Linnet.]
   (Zo\'94l.) See Linnet. Tennyson.


   Lint"seed` (?), n. See Linseed.


   Li"num  (?),  n.  [L.,  flax.]  (Bot.)  A  genus  of herbaceous plants
   including the flax (Linum usitatissimum).


   Li"on  (?),  n.  [F.  lion,  L.  leo,  -onis,  akin  to Gr. Chameleon,
   Dandelion, Leopard.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) A large carnivorous feline mammal (Felis leo), found in
   Southern  Asia  and  in  most  parts  of  Africa,  distinct  varieties
   occurring  in  the  different  countries.  The  adult  male,  in  most
   varieties,  has  a  thick  mane  of  long shaggy hair that adds to his
   apparent  size,  which  is  less  than that of the largest tigers. The
   length, however, is sometimes eleven feet to the base of the tail. The
   color  is  a  tawny yellow or yellowish brown; the mane is darker, and
   the  terminal  tuft  of  the tail is black. In one variety, called the
   maneless  lion,  the  male has only a slight mane.<-- now Panthera leo

   2. (Astron.) A sign and a constellation; Leo.

   3.  An object of interest and curiosity, especially a person who is so
   regarded; as, he was quite a lion in London at that time.

     Such  society  was  far  more enjoyable than that of Edinburgh, for
     here he was not a lion, but a man. Prof. Wilson.

   American  lion (Zo\'94l.), the puma or cougar. -- Lion ant (Zo\'94l.),
   the ant-lion. -- Lion dog (Zo\'94l.), a fancy dog with a flowing mane,
   usually  clipped to resemble a lion's mane. -- Lion lizard (Zo\'94l.),
   the basilisk. -- Lion's share, all, or nearly all; the best or largest
   part;  --  from  \'92sop's  fable  of the lion hunting in company with
   certain smaller beasts, and appropriating to himself all the prey.


   Li"onced  (?),  a.  (Her.)  Adorned  with  lions  heads;  having  arms
   terminating  in  lions'  heads;  --  said  of  a  cross. [Written also


   Li"on*cel  (?),  n.  [OE.,  F. lionceau, dim. of lion.] (Her.) A small
   lion, especially one of several borne in the same coat of arms.


   Li"on*el  (?),  n.  [OF.,  dim.  of  lion.]  (Zo\'94l.) The whelp of a
   lioness; a young lion.


   Li"on*ess, n. [OF. lionesse.] (Zo\'94l.) A female lion.


   Li"on*et  (?),  n.  [OF.,  dim.  of lion.] (Zo\'94l.) A young or small


   Li"on-heart` (?), n. A very brave person.


   Li"on-heart`ed  (?),  a.  Very  brave;  brave  and magnanimous. Sir W.


   Li"on*hood (?), n. State of being a lion. Carlyle.


   Li"on*ism  (?),  n.  An  attracting of attention, as a lion; also, the
   treating or regarding as a lion.


   Li"on*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Lionized (?), p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lionizing (.]

   1.  To  treat  or  regard as a lion or object of great interest. J. D.

   2. To show the lions or objects of interest to; to conduct about among
   objects of interest. Macaulay.


   Li"on*like` (?), a. Like a lion; brave as a lion.


   Li"on*ly, a. Like a lion; fierce. [Obs.] Milton.

                                  Lion's ear

   Li"on's  ear`  (?).  (Bot.)  A  name given in Western South America to
   certain  plants with shaggy tomentose leaves, as species of Culcitium,
   and Espeletia.

                                  Lion's foot

   Li"on's  foot`  (?).  (Bot.)  (a)  A  composite  plant  of  the  genus
   Prenanthes,  of  which several species are found in the United States.
   (b) The edelweiss.


   Li"on*ship (?), n. The state of being a lion.

                                  Lion's leaf

   Li"on's leaf` (?). (Bot.) A South European plant of the genus Leontice
   (L. leontopetalum), the tuberous roots of which contain so much alkali
   that they are sometimes used as a substitute for soap.

                                  Lion's tail

   Li"on's  tail` (?). (Bot.) A genus of labiate plants (Leonurus); -- so
   called  from a fancied resemblance of its flower spikes to the tuft of
   a lion's tail. L. Cardiaca is the common motherwort.

                                 Lion's tooth

   Li"on's tooth` (?); pl. Lions' teeth (. (Bot.) See Leontodon.


   Lip  (?),  n.  [OE. lippe, AS. lippa; akin to D. lip, G. lippe, lefze,
   OHG. lefs, Dan. l\'91be, Sw. l\'84pp, L. labium, labrum. Cf. Labial.]

   1. One of the two fleshy folds which surround the orifice of the mouth
   in  man  and  many other animals. In man the lips are organs of speech
   essential to certain articulations. Hence, by a figure they denote the
   mouth, or all the organs of speech, and sometimes speech itself.

     Thine own lips testify against thee. Jeb xv. 6.

   2.  An  edge of an opening; a thin projecting part of anything; a kind
   of short open spout; as, the lip of a vessel.

   3. The sharp cutting edge on the end of an auger.

   4.  (Bot.) (a) One of the two opposite divisions of a labiate corolla.
   (b) The odd and peculiar petal in the Orchis family. See Orchidaceous.

   5. (Zo\'94l.) One of the edges of the aperture of a univalve shell.
   Lip bit, a pod auger. See Auger. -- Lip comfort, comfort that is given
   with  words  only. -- Lip comforter, one who comforts with words only.
   --  Lip  labor,  unfelt  or  insincere speech; hypocrisy. Bale. -- Lip
   reading,  the  catching  of  the  words  or meaning of one speaking by
   watching  the motion of his lips without hearing his voice. Carpenter.
   -- Lip salve, a salve for sore lips. -- Lip service, expression by the
   lips  of  obedience  and  devotion  without  the  performance  of acts
   suitable  to  such  sentiments.  --  Lip  wisdom,  wise  talk  without
   practice,  or  unsupported  by  experience. -- Lip work. (a) Talk. (b)
   Kissing.  [Humorous]  B.  Jonson. -- Lip make a lip, to drop the under
   lip  in  sullenness  or  contempt.  Shak.  --  To  shoot  out  the lip
   (Script.), to show contempt by protruding the lip.


   Lip, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lipped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lipping (?).]

   1. To touch with the lips; to put the lips to; hence, to kiss.

     The  bubble  on  the  wine  which  breaks Before you lip the glass.

     A hand that kings Have lipped and trembled kissing. Shak.

   2. To utter; to speak. [R.] Keats.


   Lip, v. t. To clip; to trim. [Obs.] Holland.


   Li*p\'91"mi*a  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A condition in which fat
   occurs in the blood.


   Li*pans"  (?),  n.  pl.;  sing.  Lipan  (.  (Ethnol.) A tribe of North
   American Inedians, inhabiting the northern part of Mexico. They belong
   to the Tinneh stock, and are closely related to the Apaches.


   Li*pa"ri*an  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of a family (Liparid\'91)
   of destructive bombycid moths, as the tussock moths.


   Lip"a*rite  (?),  n.  [So  called  from  Lipari, the island.] (Min.) A
   quartzose trachyte; rhyolite.


   Lip"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, fat. The
   word  was  formerly  used  specifically  to  designate a supposed acid
   obtained by the oxidation of oleic acid, tallow, wax, etc.

   Page 858


   Li*pin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Lipic.


   Lip"less (?), a, Having no lips.


   Lip"let (?), n. A little lip.


   Lip`o*ceph"a*la   (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  Same  as


   Lip"o*chrin  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) A yellow coloring matter,
   soluble  in  ether,  contained  in  the  small  round fat drops in the
   retinal epithelium cells. It is best obtained from the eyes of frogs.


   Lip"o*gram  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  writing  composed of words not having a
   certain  letters;  -- as in the Odyssey of Tryphiodorus there was no A
   in the first book, no B in the second, and so on.


   Lip"o*gram*mat"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr. lipogrammatique.] Omitting a letter;
   composed  of  words  not  having  a  certain  letter  or  letters; as,
   lipogrammatic writings.


   Lip`o*gram"ma*tist  (?),  n. [Cf. F. lipogrammatiste.] One who makes a


   Li*po"ma  (?),  n.  [NL., from Gr. -oma.] (Med.) A tumor consisting of
   fat or adipose tissue. -- Li*pom"a*tous (#), a.


   Li`po*thym"ic (?), a. [Gr. , Tending to swoon; fainting. [Written also


   Li*poth"y*mous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Pertaining,  or  given,  to  swooning;


   Li*poth"y*my  (?),  n.  [Gr.  lipothymie.]  A  fainting; a swoon. Jer.


   Lipped (?), a.

   1.  Having  a  lip or lips; having a raised or rounded edge resembling
   the  lip; -- often used in composition; as, thick-lipped, thin-lipped,

   2. (Bot.) Labiate.


   Lip"pi*tude  (?),  n.  [L.  lippitudo,  fr.  lippus blear-eyed: cf. F.
   lippitude.]   Soreness   of  eyes;  the  state  of  being  blear-eyes;


   Lipse (?), v. i. To lisp. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lip"yl  (?), n. [Gr. -yl.] (Chem.) A hypothetical radical of glycerin.
   [Obs.] Berzelius.


   Liq"ua*ble  (?),  a.  [l.  liquabilis.  See Liquate, v. i.] Capable of
   being melted.


   Li"quate  (?), v. i. [L. liquatus, p. p. of liquare to melt.] To melt;
   to become liquid. [Obs.] Woodward.


   Li"quate, v. t. (Metal.) To separate by fusion, as a more fusible from
   a less fusible material.


   Li*qua"tion (?), n. [L. liquatio: cf. F. liquation.]

   1.  The  act  or  operation  of  making  or becoming liquid; also, the
   capacity of becoming liquid.

   2.  (Metal.)  The  process  of  separating, by heat, an easily fusible
   metal from one less fusible; eliquation.


   Liq`ue*fa"cient  (?),  n. [L. liquefaciens, p. pr. of liquefacere. See

   1. That which serves to liquefy.

   2.  (Med.)  An  agent,  as  mercury,  iodine, etc., which promotes the
   liquefying processes of the system, and increases the secretions.


   Liq`ue*fac"tion  (?),  n. [L. liquefactio: cf. F. liqu\'82faction. See

   1.  The act or operation of making or becoming liquid; especially, the
   conversion of a solid into a liquid by the sole agency of heat.

   2. The state of being liquid.

   3.  (Chem.  Physics) The act, process, or method, of reducing a gas or
   vapor  to a liquid by cold or pressure; as, the liquefaction of oxygen
   or hydrogen.


   Liq"ue*fi`a*ble  (?), a. [Cf. F. liqu\'82fiable. See Liquefy.] Capable
   of being changed from a solid to a liquid state.


   Liq"ue*fi`er (?), n. That which liquefies.


   Liq"ue*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Liquefied (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Liquefying  (?).]  [F. liqu\'82fier, L. liquere to be liquid + facere,
   -ficare  (in  comp.), to make. See Liquid, and -fy.] To convert from a
   solid form to that of a liquid; to melt; to dissolve; and technically,
   to melt by the sole agency of heat.


   Liq"ue*fy, v. i. To become liquid.


   Li*ques"cen*cy (?), n. [See Liquescent.] The quality or state of being
   liquescent. Johnson.


   Li*ques"cent  (?),  a.  [L. liquescens, p. pr. of liquescere to become
   liquid,  incho.  fr.  liquere to be liquid.] Tending to become liquid;
   inclined to melt to melt; melting.


   Li`queur" (?), n. [F. See Liquor.] An aromatic alcoholic cordial.

     NOTE: &hand; So me liqueurs are prepared by infusing certain woods,
     fruits,  or  flowers, in either water or alcohol, and adding sugar,
     etc. Others are distilled from aromatic or flavoring agents.


   Liq"uid  (?),  a. [L. liquidus, fr. liquere to be fluid or liquid; cf.
   Skr. r\'c6 to ooze, drop, l\'c6 to melt.]

   1. Flowing freely like water; fluid; not solid.

     Yes,  though  he  go  upon  the  plane  and liquid water which will
     receive no step. Tyndale.

   2. (Physics) Being in such a state that the component parts move among
   themselves,  but  do  not  tend  to  separate  from  each other as the
   particles  of  gases and vapors do; neither solid nor a\'89riform; as,
   liquid  mercury,  in distinction from mercury solidified or in a state
   of vapor.

   3. Flowing or sounding smoothly or without abrupt transitions or harsh
   tones. "Liquid melody." Crashaw.

   4.  Pronounced  without  any jar or harshness; smooth; as, l and r are
   liquid letters.

   5. Fluid and transparent; as, the liquid air.

   6.  Clear;  definite in terms or amount.[Obs.] "Though the debt should
   be  entirely  liquid."  Ayliffe. <-- 7. (Finance) the quality of being
   readily  convertible to cash. -- said of assets, such as common stocks
   or bonds, tradable on a major stock exchange -->
   Liquid glass. See Soluble glass, under Glass.


   Liq"uid, n.

   1.  A  substance  whose  parts  change  their relative position on the
   slightest  pressure,  and  therefore  retain  no  definite  form;  any
   substance  in the state of liquidity; a fluid that is not a\'89riform.
   <--  needs  a  better definition: e.g. a fluid with a definite volume,
   but  whose  shape  is  determined  by  the  container  in  which it is
   contained.  Liquids,  in contrast to gases, cannot expand indefinitely
   to  fill an expanding container, and are only slightly compressible by
   application of pressure. -->

     NOTE: &hand; Li quid an d fl uid are terms often used synonymously,
     but  fluid  has  the broader signification. All liquids are fluids,
     but many fluids, as air and the gases, are not liquids.

   2.  (Phon.) A letter which has a smooth, flowing sound, or which flows
   smoothly  after  a  mute;  as,  l and r, in bla, bra. M and n also are
   called liquids.
   Liquid measure, a measure, or system of measuring, for liquids, by the
   gallon, quart, pint, gill, etc.


   Liq"uid*am`bar (?), n. [Liquid + amber.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  genus  consisting  of  two species of tall trees having
   star-shaped  leaves,  and woody burlike fruit. Liquidambar styraciflua
   is  the  North  American sweet qum, and L. Orientalis is found in Asia

   2.  The balsamic juice which is obtained from these trees by incision.
   The liquid balsam of the Oriental tree is liquid storax.


   Liq"uid*am`ber, n. See Liquidambar.


   Liq"ui*date  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Liquidated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Liquidating.] [LL. liquidatus, p. p. of liquidate to liquidate, fr. L.
   liquidus liquid, clear. See Liquid.]

   1. (Law) To determine by agreement or by litigation the precise amount
   of (indebtedness); or, where there is an indebtedness to more than one
   person,  to  determine  the  precise amount of (each indebtedness); to
   make the amount of (an indebtedness); clear and certain.

     A debt or demand is liquidated whenever the amount due is agreed on
     by the parties, or fixed by the operation of law. 15 Ga. Rep. 821.

     If  our  epistolary  accounts were fairly liquidated, I believe you
     would be brought in considerable debtor. Chesterfield.

   2.  In  an  extended  sense:  To  ascertain the amount, or the several
   amounts,   of   ,  and  apply  assets  toward  the  discharge  of  (an
   indebtedness). Abbott.

   3. To discharge; to pay off, as an indebtedness.

     Friburg  was  ceded to Zurich by Sigismund to liquidate a debt of a
     thousand florins. W. Coxe.

   4. To make clear and intelligible.

     Time  only  can  liquidate  the  meaning of all parts of a compound
     system. A. Hamilton.

   5. To make liquid. [Obs.]
   Liquidated  damages  (Law),  damages  the  amount of which is fixed or
   ascertained. Abbott.


   Liq`ui*da"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. liquidation.] The act or process of
   liquidating;  the  state  of  being liquidated. To go into liquidation
   (Law),  to  turn over to a trustee one's assets and accounts, in order
   that  the  several  amounts  of  one's indebtedness be authoritatively
   ascertained,   and  that  the  assets  may  be  applied  toward  their


   Liq"ui*da`tor (?), n. [Cf. F. liquidateur.]

   1. One who, or that which, liquidates.

   2.  An  officer  appointed  to conduct the winding up of a company, to
   bring  and  defend  actions  and  suits  in  its  name,  and to do all
   necessary acts on behalf of the company. [Eng.] Mozley & W. 


   Li*quid"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  liquiditas,  fr.  liquidus liquid: cf. F.
   liquidit\'82.] The state or quality of being liquid. <-- (Finance) the
   quality of being readily convertible to cash. -->


   Liq"uid*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Liquidized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Liquidizing (?).] To render liquid.


   Liq"uid*ly, adv. In a liquid manner; flowingly.


   Liq"uid*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state of being liquid; liquidity;


   Liq"uor  (?),  n.  [OE.  licour,  licur, OF. licur, F. liqueur, fr. L.
   liquor, fr. liquere to be liquid. See Liquid, and cf. Liqueur.]

   1.  Any  liquid  substance,  as water, milk, blood, sap, juice, or the

   2.  Specifically,  alcoholic  or spirituous fluid, either distilled or
   fermented, as brandy, wine, whisky, beer, etc.

   3.  (Pharm.)  A  solution  of  a  medicinal  substance  in  water;  --
   distinguished from tincture and aqua.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e U.  S.  Ph armacopoeia includes, in this class of
     preparations,  all  aqueous  solutions  without sugar, in which the
     substance  acted  on is wholly soluble in water, excluding those in
     which  the  dissolved matter is gaseous or very volatile, as in the
     aqu\'91 or waters.

   U. S. Disp. Labarraque's liquor (Old Chem.), a solution of an alkaline
   hypochlorite,  as  sodium  hypochlorite,  used  in  bleaching and as a
   disinfectant.  --  Liquor  of  flints,  OR Liquor silicum (Old Chem.),
   soluble  glass;  --  so  called  because  formerly  made from powdered
   flints.  See  Soluble  glass, under Glass. -- Liquor of Libavius. (Old
   Chem.)  See  Fuming  liquor  of  Libavius,  under  Fuming.  --  Liquor
   sanguinis (, (Physiol.), the blood plasma. -- Liquor thief, a tube for
   taking  samples  of liquor from a cask through the bung hole. -- To be
   in liquor, to be intoxicated.


   Liq"uor, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Liquored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Liquoring.]

   1. To supply with liquor. [R.]

   2. To grease. [Obs.] Bacon.

     Liquor fishermen's boots. Shak.

   <-- liquored up. intoxicated by liquor -->


   Liq"uor*ice (?), n. See Licorice.


   Liq"uor*ish, a. See Lickerish. [Obs.] Shak.


   Liq"uor*ous (?), a. Eagerly desirous. See Lickerish. [Obs.] Marston.


   Li"ra  (?), n. ; pl. Lire (#). [It., fr. L. libra the Roman pound. Cf.
   Livre.] An Italian coin equivalent in value to the French franc.


   Li*rel"la  (?),  n.  [NL.,  dim.  of L.lira a furrow.] (Bot.) A linear
   apothecium furrowed along the middle; the fruit of certain lichens.


   Li*rel"li*form  (?),  a.  [Lirella  +  -form.]  (Bot.) Like a lirella.
   [Written also lirell\'91form.]


   Lir`i*o*den"dron  (?), n.; pl. Liriodendra (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A
   genus  of  large  and  very  beautiful  trees of North America, having
   smooth,  shining  leaves, and handsome, tuliplike flowers; tulip tree;
   whitewood;  --  called  also canoewood. Liriodendron tulipifera is the
   only  extant  species, but there were several others in the Cretaceous


   Lir"i*pipe (?), n. [Obs.] See Liripoop.


   Lir"i*poop  (?), n. [OF. liripipion, liripion, LL. liripipium. Said to
   be corrupted from L. cleri ephippium, lit., the clergy's caparison.]

   1.  A pendent part of the old clerical tippet; afterwards, a tippet; a
   scarf; -- worn also by doctors, learned men, etc. [Obs.]

   2.  Acuteness;  smartness;  also,  a  smart  trick or stratagem.[Obs.]

   3. A silly person. [Obs.]

     A  liripoop, vel lerripoop, a silly, empty creature; an old dotard.
     Milles. MS. Devon Gloss.


   Li*roc"o*nite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Min.)  A hydrated arseniate of copper,
   occurring   in   obtuse   pyramidal   crystals   of   a   sky-blue  or
   verdigris-green color.


   Lis"bon  (?),  n.  A sweet, light-colored species of wine, produced in
   the  province  of  Estremadura,  and  so  called as being shipped from
   Lisbon, in Portugal.


   Lisle  (?),  n.  A city of France celebrated for certain manufactures.
   Lisle glove, a fine summer glove, made of Lisle thread. -- Lisle lace,
   a  fine  handmade lace, made at Lisle. -- Lisle thread, a hard twisted
   cotton thread, originally produced at Lisle.


   Lisne (?), n. [Prov. E. lissen, lisne, a cleft in a rock.] A cavity or
   hollow.[Obs.] Sir M. Hale.


   Lisp  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Lisped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lisping.]
   [OE.  lispen, lipsen, AS. wlisp stammering, lisping; akin to D. & OHG.
   lispen to lisp, G. lispeln, Sw. l\'84spa, Dan. lespe.]

   1. To pronounce the sibilant letter s imperfectly; to give s and z the
   sound of th; -- a defect common among children.

   2.  To  speak with imperfect articulation; to mispronounce, as a child
   learning to talk.

     As  yet  a child, nor yet a fool to fame, I lisped in numbers came.

   3. To speak hesitatingly with a low voice, as if afraid.

     Lest when my lisping, guilty tongue should halt. Drayton.


   Lisp, v. t.

   1. To pronounce with a lisp.

   2.  To  utter  with  imperfect  articulation;  to  express  with words
   pronounced  imperfectly  or indistinctly, as a child speaks; hence, to
   express by the use of simple, childlike language.

     To  speak  unto  them  after their own capacity, and to lispe words
     unto  them  according  as  the babes and children of that age might
     sound them again. Tyndale.

   3.  To  speak  with  reserve  or  concealment;  to  utter  timidly  or
   confidentially; as, to lisp treason.


   Lisp, n. The habit or act of lisping. See Lisp, v. i., 1.

     I  overheard her answer, with a very pretty lisp, "O! Strephon, you
     are a dangerous creature." Tatler.


     Lisp"er (?), n. One who lisps.


     Lisp"ing*ly, adv. With a lisp; in a lisping manner.


     Liss  (?),  n. [AS. liss.] Release; remission; ease; relief. [Obs.]
     "Of penance had a lisse." Chaucer.


     Liss,  v.  t.  [AS.  lissan.]  To  free,  as  from care or pain; to
     relieve. [Obs.] "Lissed of his care." Chaucer.


     Lis`sen*ceph"a*la  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A general
     name  for all those placental mammals that have a brain with few or
     no cerebral convolutions, as Rodentia, Insectivora, etc.

                                Lissom, Lissome

     Lis"som, Lis"some (?), a. [For lithesome.]

     1. Limber; supple; flexible; lithe; lithesome.

     Straight, but as lissome as a hazel wand. Tennyson.

     2. Light; nimble; active. Halliwell. -- Lis"some*ness, n.


     List  (?),  n.  [F.  lice,  LL. liciae, pl., from L. licium thread,
     girdle.]  A  line  inclosing or forming the extremity of a piece of
     ground,  or  field  of  combat;  hence,  in the plural (lists), the
     ground or field inclosed for a race or combat. Chaucer.

     In measured lists to toss the weighty lance. Pope.

   To enter the lists, to accept a challenge, or engage in contest.


   List, v. t. To inclose for combat; as, to list a field.


   List,  v.  i.  [See  Listen.]  To hearken; to attend; to listen. [Obs.
   except in poetry.]

     Stand close, and list to him. Shak.


   List, v. t. To listen or hearken to.

     Then  weigh  what  loss your honor may sustain, If with too credent
     ear you list his songs. Shak.


   List,  v.  i. [OE. listen, lusten, AS. lystan, from lust pleasure. See

   1. To desire or choose; to please.

     The wind bloweth where it listeth. John iii. 8.

     Them that add to the Word of God what them listeth. Hooker.

     Let other men think of your devices as they list. Whitgift.

   2. (Naut.) To lean; to incline; as, the ship lists to port.


   List, n.

   1. Inclination; desire. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  (Naut.)  An  inclination  to  one side; as, the ship has a list to


   List,  n.  [AS.  l\'c6st a list of cloth; akin to D. lijst, G. leiste,
   OHG.  l\'c6sta,Icel.  lista,  listi,  Sw. list, Dan. liste. In sense 5
   from F. liste, of German origin, and thus ultimately the same word.]

   1. A strip forming the woven border or selvedge of cloth, particularly
   of  broadcloth, and serving to strengthen it; hence, a strip of cloth;
   a fillet. " Gartered with a red and blue list. "

   Page 859


   2. A limit or boundary; a border.

     The very list, the very utmost bound, Of all our fortunes. Shak.

   3. The lobe of the ear; the ear itself. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   4. A stripe. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.

   5.  A roll or catalogue, that is row or line; a record of names; as, a
   list of names, books, articles; a list of ratable estate.

     He was the ablest emperor of all the list. Bacon.

   6. (Arch.) A little square molding; a fillet; -- called also listel.

   7.  (Carp.) A narrow strip of wood, esp. sapwood, cut from the edge of
   a plank or board.

   8.  (Rope  Making)  A  piece  of woolen cloth with which the yarns are
   grasped by a workman.

   9.  (Tin-plate  Manuf.) (a) The first thin coat of tin. (b) A wirelike
   rim of tin left on an edge of the plate after it is coated.
   Civil  list  (Great Britain & U.S.), the civil officers of government,
   as  judges,  ambassadors,  secretaries,  etc.  Hence,  the revenues or
   appropriations  of public money for the support of the civil officers.
   More  recently, the civil list, in England, embraces only the expenses
   of the reigning monarch's household. Free list. (a) A list of articles
   admitted  to a country free of duty. (b) A list of persons admitted to
   any  entertainment, as a theater or opera, without payment, or to whom
   a  periodical,  or  the like, is furnished without cost. Syn. -- Roll;
   catalogue;  register;  inventory;  schedule. -- List, Boll, Catalogue,
   Register,  Inventory,  Schedule.  Alist is properly a simple series of
   names,  etc., in a brief form, such as might naturally be entered in a
   narrow  strip  of  paper.  A roll was originally a list containing the
   names  of  persons  belonging  to a public body (as Parliament, etc.),
   which  was rolled up and laid aside among its archives. A catalogue is
   a  list of persons or things arranged in order, and usually containing
   some  description  of  the  same, more or less extended. A register is
   designed  for  record  or  preservation.  An  inventory  is  a list of
   articles,  found  on  hand  in a store of goods, or in the estate of a
   deceased  person,  or  under  similar  circumstances.  A schedule is a
   formal list or inventory prepared for legal or business purposes.


   List  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Listed; p. pr. & vb. n. Listing.] [From
   list a roll.]

   1.  To  sew  together,  as  strips  of  cloth, so as to make a show of
   colors, or form a border. Sir H. Wotton.

   2. To cover with list, or with strips of cloth; to put list on; as, to
   list a door; to stripe as if with list.

     The tree that stood white-listed through the gloom. Tennyson.

   3. To enroll; to place or register in a list.

     Listed among the upper serving men. Milton.

   4. To engage, as a soldier; to enlist.

     I will list you for my soldier. Sir W. Scott.

   5.  (Carp.)  To  cut away a narrow strip, as of sapwood, from the edge
   of; as, to list a board.
   To  list  a  stock  (Stock  Exchange), to put it in the list of stocks
   called  at  the meeting of the board.<-- to put it on a list of stocks
   which may be traded on a specific stock exchange -->


   List,  v.  i.  To engage in public service by enrolling one's name; to


   List"el  (?),  n. [F. listel, dim. of liste fillet, list. See List the
   edge.] (Arch.) Same as List, n., 6.


   Lis"ten  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Listened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Listening.]  [OE.  listnen, listen, lustnen, lusten, AS. hlystan; akin
   to  hlyst  hearing,  OS. hlust, Icel. hlusta to listen, hlust ear, AS.
   hlosnian  to  wait  in  suspense,  OHG. hlos\'c7n to listen, Gr. loud.
   &root;41. See Loud, and cf. List to listen.]

   1.  To  give close attention with the purpose of hearing; to give ear;
   to hearken; to attend.

     When  we  have  occasion  to  listen,  and  give  a more particular
     attention  to  same  sound,  the  tympanum  is drawn to a more than
     ordinary tension. Holder.

   2. To give heed; to yield to advice; to follow admonition; to obey.

     Listen to me, and by me be ruled. Tennyson.

   To listen after, to take an interest in. [Obs.]

     Soldiers note forts, armories, and magazines; scholars listen after
     libraries, disputations, and professors. Fuller.

   Syn. -- To attend; hearken. See Attend.


   Lis"ten, v. t. To attend to. [Obs.] Shak.


   Lis"ten*er (?), n. One who listens; a hearkener.


   List"er (?), n. One who makes a list or roll.


   Lis"ter (?), n. Same as Leister.


   Lis*te"ri*an (?), a. (Med.) Of or pertaining to listerism.


   Lis"ter*ism  (?),  n.  (Med.) The systematic use of antiseptics in the
   performance  of  operations  and the treatment of wounds; -- so called
   from Joseph Lister, an English surgeon.


   List"ful (?), a. Attentive [Obs.] Spenser.


   List"ing, n.

   1. The act or process of one who lists (in any sense of the verb); as,
   the listing of a door; the listing of a stock at the Stock Exchange.

   2. The selvedge of cloth; list.

   3. (Carp.) The sapwood cut from the edge of a board.

   4.  (Agric.)  The  throwing  up  of  the soil into ridges, -- a method
   adopted in the culture of beets and some garden crops. [Local, U. S.]


   List"less,  a.  [OE.  listles, lustles. See Lust.] Having no desire or
   inclination;   indifferent;   heedless;   spiritless.   "  A  listless
   unconcern." Thomson.

     Benumbed with cold, and listless of their gain. Dryden.

     I was listless, and desponding. Swift.

   Syn.   --   Heedless;  careless;  indifferent;  vacant;  uninterested;
   languid;  spiritless;  supine;  indolent.  --  List"less*ly,  adv.  --
   List"less*ness, n.


   Lit (?), a form of the imp. & p. p. of Light.


   Lit"a*ny  (?),  n.;  pl.  Litanies  (#). [OE. letanie, OF. letanie, F.
   litanie,  L.  litania, Gr. A solemn form of supplication in the public
   worship  of  various  churches,  in  which the clergy and congregation
   join,  the  former  leading  and  the  latter  responding in alternate
   sentences. It is usually of a penitential character.

     Supplications  .  .  . for the appeasing of God's wrath were of the
     Greek church termed litanies, and rogations of the Latin. Hooker.


   Lit"arge (?), n. Litharge. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Li"tchi` (?), n. (Bot.) The fruit of a tree native to China (Nephelium
   Litchi). It is nutlike, having a rough but tender shell, containing an
   aromatic  pulp,  and  a single large seed. In the dried fruit which is
   exported  the  pulp  somewhat  resembles  a  raisin in color and form.
   [Written also lichi, and lychee.] -- lite (#). See -lith.


   Lite (?), a., adv., & n. Little. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                 Liter, Litre

   Li"ter,  Li"tre  (?),  n.  [F. litre, Gr. A measure of capacity in the
   metric  system, being a cubic decimeter, equal to 61.022 cubic inches,
   or 2.113 American pints, or 1.76 English pints.


   Lit"er*a*cy (?), n. State of being literate.


   Lit"er*al   (?),   a.  [F.  lit\'82ral,  litt\'82ral,  L.  litteralis,
   literalis, fr. littera, litera, a letter. See Letter.]

   1.  According to the letter or verbal expression; real; not figurative
   or metaphorical; as, the literal meaning of a phrase.

     It  hath  but one simple literal sense whose light the owls can not
     abide. Tyndale


   2. Following the letter or exact words; not free.

     A  middle  course between the rigor of literal translations and the
     liberty of paraphrasts. Hooker.

   3. Consisting of, or expressed by, letters.

     The  literal  notation of numbers was known to Europeans before the
     ciphers. Johnson.

   4.  Giving  a strict or literal construction; unimaginative; matter-of
   fast; -- applied to persons.
   Literal  contract (Law), contract of which the whole evidence is given
   in writing. Bouvier. -- Literal equation (Math.), an equation in which
   known  quantities  are  expressed either wholly or in part by means of
   letters; -- distinguished from a numerical equation.
   Lit"er*al, n. Literal meaning. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne. 


   Lit"er*al*ism (?), n.

   1.  That  which  accords  with  the  letter;  a  mode  of interpreting
   literally; adherence to the letter.

   2.  (Fine  Arts)  The  tendency  or  disposition  to represent objects
   faithfully, without abstraction, conventionalities, or idealization.


   Lit"er*al*ist,  n.  One  who  adheres  to the letter or exact word; an
   interpreter according to the letter.


   Lit`er*al"ty  (?), n. [Cf. F. litt\'82ralit\'82.] The state or quality
   of being literal. Sir T. Browne.


   Lit`er*al*i*za"tion  (?),  n.  The act of literalizing; reduction to a
   literal meaning.


   Lit"er*al*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Literalized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Literalizing (?).] To make literal; to interpret or put in practice
   according   to  the  strict  meaning  of  the  words;  --  opposed  to
   spiritualize; as, to literalize Scripture.


   Lit"er*al*i`zer (?), n. A literalist.


   Lit"er*al*ly, adv.

   1.  According  to  the  primary  and  natural  import  of  words;  not
   figuratively; as, a man and his wife can not be literally one flesh.

   2. With close adherence to words; word by word.

     So  wild  and  ungovernable a poet can not be translated literally.


   Lit"er*al*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state of being literal; literal


   Lit"er*a*ry (?), a. [L. litterarius, literarius,fr. littera, litera, a
   letter: cf. F. litt\'82raire. See Letter.]

   1.  Of  or pertaining to letters or literature; pertaining to learning
   or  learned  men;  as,  literary  fame;  a  literary history; literary

     He  has  long  outlived his century, the term commonly fixed as the
     test of literary merit. Johnson.

   2. Versed in, or acquainted with, literature; occupied with literature
   as a profession; connected with literature or with men of letters; as,
   a literary man.

     In the literary as well as fashionable world. Mason.

   Literary  property.  (a) Property which consists in written or printed
   compositions. (b) The exclusive right of publication as recognized and
   limited by law.<--- e.g. a copyright -->


   Lit"er*ate  (?), a. [L. litteratus, literatus. See Letter.] Instructed
   in learning, science, or literature; learned; lettered.

     The literate now chose their emperor, as the military chose theirs.


   Lit"er*ate, n.

   1. One educated, but not having taken a university degree; especially,
   such a person who is prepared to take holy orders. [Eng.]

   2. A literary man.


   Lit`e*ra"ti  (?), n. pl. [See Literatus.] Learned or literary men. See

     Shakespearean commentators, and other literati. Craik.


   Lit`e*ra"tim (?), adv. [LL., fr. L.litera, litera, letter.] Letter for


   Lit`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. littera, litera, letter.] The act or process
   of representing by letters.


   Lit"er*a`tor (?), n. [L. litterator, literator. See Letter.]

   1.  One  who  teaches  the  letters  or elements of knowledge; a petty
   schoolmaster. Burke.

   2.  A  person  devoted  to the study of literary trifles, esp. trifles
   belonging to the literature of a former age.

     That  class  of  subjects  which  are  interesting  to  the regular
     literator  or  black-letter " bibliomane," simply because they have
     once been interesting. De Quincey.

   3. A learned person; a literatus. Sir W. Hamilton.


   Lit"er*a*ture  (?), n. [F. litt\'82rature, L. litteratura, literatura,
   learning, grammar, writing, fr.littera, litera, letter. See Letter.]

   1. Learning; acquaintance with letters or books.

   2.  The  collective body of literary productions, embracing the entire
   results  of  knowledge and fancy preserved in writing; also, the whole
   body  of  literary productions or writings upon a given subject, or in
   reference  to  a  particular  science  or branch of knowledge, or of a
   given country or period; as, the literature of Biblical criticism; the
   literature of chemistry.

   3.  The  class  of  writings  distinguished  for  beauty  of  style or
   expression,  as  poetry,  essays,  or  history,  in  distinction  from
   scientific  treatises  and  works  which  contain  positive knowledge;

   4.  The  occupation,  profession,  or business of doing literary work.
   Lamp.  Syn.  --  Science;  learning;  erudition;  belles-lettres.  See
   Science. -- Literature, Learning, Erudition. Literature, in its widest
   sense,  embraces  all  compositions in writing or print which preserve
   the  results  of  observation,  thought,  or fancy; but those upon the
   positive  sciences  (mathematics,  etc.)  are  usually excluded. It is
   often  confined,  however,  to  belles-lettres,  or works of taste and
   sentiment,  as  poetry,  eloquence,  history, etc., excluding abstract
   discussions and mere erudition. A man of literature (in this narrowest
   sense)  is  one  who  is  versed  in belles-lettres; a man of learning
   excels  in  what  is  taught  in the schools, and has a wide extent of
   knowledge,  especially,  in respect to the past; a man of erudition is
   one who is skilled in the more recondite branches of learned inquiry.

     The  origin  of  all positive science and philosophy, as well as of
     all  literature  and  art,  in  the  forms  in  which they exist in
     civilized Europe, must be traced to the Greeks. Sir G. Lewis.

     Learning thy talent is, but mine is sense. Prior.

     Some gentlemen, abounding in their university erudition, fill their
     sermons with philosophical terms. Swift.


   Lit`e*ra"tus  (?), n.; pl. Literati (#). [L. litteratus, literatus.] A
   learned  man; a man acquainted with literature; -- chiefly used in the

     Now  we  are  to  consider that our bright ideal of a literatus may
     chance to be maimed. De Quincey.

                                 -lith, -lite

   -lith  (?), -lite (?). Combining forms fr. Gr. li`qos a stone; -- used
   chiefly in naming minerals and rocks.


   Lith  (?),  obs.  3d  pers. sing. pres. of Lie, to recline, for lieth.


   Lith  (?),  n. [AS. li.] A joint or limb; a division; a member; a part
   formed  by  growth,  and  articulated  to,  or symmetrical with, other
   parts. Chaucer.


   Li*th\'91"mi*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A condition in which uric
   (lithic) acid is present in the blood.


   Lith"a*gogue  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Med.) A medicine having, or supposed to
   have, the power of expelling calculous matter with the urine. Hooper.


   Lith"arge  (?),  n.  [OE.  litarge,  F.  litharge, L. lithargyrus, Gr.
   (Chem.)  Lead  monoxide;  a  yellowish  red  substance, obtained as an
   amorphous  powder,  or  crystallized  in  fine scales, by heating lead
   moderately  in  a  current  of  air  or  by  calcining lead nitrate or
   carbonate.  It  is used in making flint glass, in glazing earthenware,
   in making red lead minium, etc. Called also massicot.


   Li*thar"gy*rum  (?),  n.  [NL. See Litharge.] (Old Chem.) Crystallized
   litharge, obtained by fusion in the form of fine yellow scales.


   Lith"ate  (?),  n.  (Old  Med. Chem.) A salt of lithic or uric acid; a
   urate. [Obs.] [Written also lithiate.]


   Lithe  (?),  v.  i.  &  i.  [Icel  Listen.] To listen or listen to; to
   hearken to. [Obs.] P. Plowman.


   Lithe,  a.  [AS.  lind, gelind, OHG. lindi, Icel. linr, L. lenis soft,
   mild, lentus flexible, and AS. linnan to yield. Cf. Lenient.]

   1. Mild; calm; as, lithe weather. [Obs.]

   2.  Capable  of  being  easily bent; pliant; flexible; limber; as, the
   elephant's lithe proboscis. Milton.


   Lithe, v. t. [AS. Lithe, a.] To smooth; to soften; to palliate. [Obs.]


   Lithe"ly, adv. In a lithe, pliant, or flexible manner.


   Lithe"ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state  of being lithe; flexibility;


   Li"ther  (?),  a. [AS. Bad; wicked; false; worthless; slothful. [Obs.]

     Not lither in business, fervent in spirit. Bp. Woolton.

     NOTE: &hand; Pr ofessor Sk eat thinks " the lither sky" as found in
     Shakespeare's  Henry VI. ((Part I. IY. YII., 21) means the stagnant
     or pestilential sky.

   -- Li"ther*ly, adv. [Obs.]. -- Li"ther*ness, n. [Obs.]


   Li"ther*ly,  a.  Crafty;  cunning;  mischievous;  wicked; treacherous;

     He [the dwarf] was waspish, arch, and litherly. Sir W. Scott.


   Lithe"some  (?),  a.  [See Lithe, a., and cf. Lissom.] Pliant; limber;
   flexible; supple; nimble; lissom. -- Lithe"some*ness, n.


   Lith"i*a (?), n. [NL., from Gr. (Chem.) The oxide of lithium; a strong
   alkaline  caustic similar to potash and soda, but weaker. See Lithium.
   Lithia emerald. See Hiddenite.


   Li*thi"a*sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Med.) The formation of stony
   concretions  or  calculi  in  any  part of the body, especially in the
   bladder and urinary passages. Dunglison.


   Lith"ic (?), a. [Gr. lithique.]

   1. Of or pertaining to stone; as, lithic architecture.

   2. (Med.) Pertaining to the formation of uric-acid concretions (stone)
   in the bladder and other parts of the body; as, lithic diathesis.
   LIthic acid (Old Med. Chem.), uric acid. See Uric acid, under Uric.


   Lith"ic,  n.  (Med.)  A  medicine  which tends to prevent stone in the


   Lith"ic,  a. [From Lithium.] (Chem.) Pertaining to or denoting lithium
   or some of its compounds. Frankland.


   Lith`i*oph"i*lite  (?),  n.  [Lithium  +  Gr.  (Min.)  A  phosphate of
   manganese and lithium; a variety of triphylite.

   Page 860


   Lith"i*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from Gr. (Chem.) A metallic element of the
   alkaline group, occurring in several minerals, as petalite, spodumene,
   lepidolite,  triphylite,  etc.,  and  otherwise  widely  disseminated,
   though in small quantities.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en is olated it  is  a  so ft, si lver white metal,
     tarnishing  and  oxidizing  very  rapidly  in  the  air.  It is the
     lightest  solid  element known, specific gravity being 0.59. Symbol
     Li.  Atomic  weight  7.0 So called from having been discovered in a


   Lith"o (?) A combining form from Gr. stone.


   Lith`o*bil"ic  (?),  a.  [Litho  +  bile.]  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to or
   designating an organic acid of the tartaric acid series, distinct from
   lithofellic  acid,  but, like it, obtained from certain bile products,
   as bezoar stones.


   Lith"o*carp (?), n. [Litho- + Gr. lithocarpe.] (Paleon.) Fossil fruit;
   a fruit petrified; a carpolite.


   Lith`o*chro*mat"ics (?), n. See Lithochromics.


   Lith`o*chro"mics  (?),  n.  [Litho-  + Gr. The art of printing colored
   pictures on canvas from oil paintings on stone.


   Lith"o*clast  (?), n. [Litho- + Gr. (Surg.) An instrument for crushing
   stones in the bladder.


   Lith"o*cyst  (?),  n.  [Litho-  +  cyst.]  (Zo\'94l.) A sac containing
   small,  calcareous  concretions  (otoliths).  They  are  found in many
   Medus\'91,  and  other  invertebrates, and are supposed to be auditory


   Lith"o*dome  (?),  n.  [Litho- + Gr. lithodome.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of
   several  species  of bivalves, which form holes in limestone, in which
   they live; esp., any species of the genus Lithodomus.


   Li*thod"o*mous  (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Like, or pertaining to, Lithodomus;


   Li*thod"o*mus  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Lithodome.]  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   elongated  bivalve  shells,  allied to the mussels, and remarkable for
   their  ability  to bore holes for shelter, in solid limestone, shells,
   etc. Called also Lithophagus.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ese ho les are at first very small and shallow, but
     are  enlarged  with the growth of the shell, sometimes becoming two
     or three inches deep and nearly an inch diameter.


   Lith"o*fel"lic  (?),  a.  [Litho-  +  L. fel, fellis, gall.] (Physiol.
   Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or  designating, a crystalline, organic acid,
   resembling  cholic  acid,  found in the biliary intestinal concretions
   (bezoar stones) common in certain species of antelope.


   Lith`o*frac"teur  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. frangere, fractum, to break.] An
   explosive compound of nitroglycerin. See Nitroglycerin.


   Lith`o*gen"e*sy  (?), n. [Litho- Gr. lithog\'82n\'82sie. See Genesis.]
   The  doctrine  or  science of the origin of the minerals composing the


   Li*thog"e*nous (?), a. [Litho- + -genous.] Stone-producing; -- said of
   polyps which form coral.


   Lith"o*glyph (?), n. [Gr. An engraving on a gem.


   Li*thog"ly*pher (?), n. One who curs or engraves precious stones.


   Lith`o*glyph"ic  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to the art of cutting and
   engraving precious stones.


   Lith`o*glyp"tics (?), n. The art of cutting and engraving gems.


   Lith"o*graph  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lithographed (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Lithographing  (?).]  [Litho-  + -graph: cf. F. lithographier.] To
   trace  on  stone  by  the process of lithography so as to transfer the
   design to paper by printing; as, to lithograph a design; to lithograph
   a painting. See Lithography.


   Lith"o*graph, n. A print made by lithography.


   Li*thog"ra*pher  (?),  n.  One  who  lithographs;  one  who  practices

                         Lithographic, Lithographical

   Lith`o*graph"ic    (?),    Lith`o*graph"ic*al    (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   lithographique.] Of or pertaining to lithography; made by lithography;
   as,   the  lithographic  art;  a  lithographic  picture.  Lithographic
   limestone  (Min.), a compact, fine-grained limestone, obtained largely
   from  the Lias and O\'94lite, esp. of Bavaria, and extensively used in
   lithography. -- Lith`o*graph"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Li*thog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. lithographie.] The art or process of
   putting  designs  or writing, with a greasy material, on stone, and of
   producing  printed  impressions therefrom. The process depends, in the
   main,  upon  the  antipathy between grease and water, which prevents a
   printing ink containing oil from adhering to wetted parts of the stone
   not   covered   by  the  design.  See  Lithographic  limestone,  under
   Lithographic.<--  now  used  for  a  similar  process  using  any flat
   surface, such as a metal plate, for a similar purpose. (b) The process
   of   producing   patterns   on   semiconductor  crystals  by  exposing
   photosensitive  coatings  on  a  matrix,  such  as  silicon,  to light
   patterns  in  the  form  desired  for  the  circuit,  and subsequently
   treating  (e.g., chemically) the patterns thus formed in such a way as
   to   create   integrated   semiconductor  circuits  with  the  desired
   properties.  This  is  the  principle  method  (1990's)  to create the
   high-density  integrated  circuits  used  in  the digital computers on
   which you are reading this. -->

                               Lithoid Lithoidal

   Lith"oid  (?) Li*thoid"al (?), a. [Litho- + -oid: cf. F. litho\'8bde.]
   Like a stone; having a stony structure.


   Li*thol"a*try (?), n. [Litho- + Gr. The worship of a stone or stones.

                           Lithologic, Lithological

   Lith`o*log"ic (?), Lith`o*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. lithologique.]

   1.  (Geol.)  Of  or  pertaining to the character of a rock, as derived
   from the nature and mode of aggregation of its mineral contents.

   2. Of or pertaining to lithology.


   Lith`o*log"ic*al*ly  (?),  adv. From a lithological point of view; as,
   to consider a stratum lithologically.


   Li*thol"o*gist (?), n. One who is skilled in lithology.


   Li*thol"o*gy (?), n. [Litho- + -logy: cf. F. lithologie.]

   1.  The  science  which  treats  of  rocks,  as  regards their mineral
   constitution  and  classification,  and  their  mode  of occurrence in

   2. (Med.) A treatise on stones found in the body.


   Lith"o*man`cy   (?),   n.  [Litho-  +  -mancy:  cf.  F.  lithomancie.]
   Divination by means of stones.


   Lith"o*marge (?), n. [Litho- + L. marga marl.] A clay of a fine smooth
   texture, and very sectile.

                        Lithonthriptic, Lithonthryptic

   Lith`on*thrip"tic,  Lith`on*thryp"tic  (?), a. & n. [Litho- + Gr. Same
   as Lithontriptic.


   Lith`on*trip"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  lithontriptique.]  (Med.) Having the
   quality of, or used for, dissolving or destroying stone in the bladder
   or kidneys; as, lithontriptic forc\'82ps. -- n. A lithontriptic remedy
   or agent, as distilled water.


   Lith"on*trip"tist, n. Same as Lithotriptist.


   Lith"on*trip`tor (?), n. (Surg.) See Lithotriptor.


   Li*thoph"a*gous  (?),  a.  [Litho-  +  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  Eating or
   swallowing  stones or gravel, as the ostrich. (b) Eating or destroying
   stone;  --  applied to various animals which make burrows in stone, as
   many bivalve mollusks, certain sponges, annelids, and sea urchins. See


   Lith`o*phane  (?),  n.  [Litho- + Gr. Porcelain impressed with figures
   which  are  made  distinct  by transmitted light, -- as when hung in a
   window, or used as a lamp shade.


   Lith"o*phos`phor  (?),  n.  [Litho-  + phosphor.] A stone that becomes
   phosphoric by heat.


   Lith`o*phos*phor"ic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  lithophosphor; becoming
   phosphoric by heat.


   Lith`o*pho*tog"ra*phy   (?),   n.  [Litho-  +  photography.]  Same  as


   Lith"o*phyll (?), n. [Gr. lithophylle.] A fossil leaf or impression of
   a leaf.


   Lith"o*physe  (?),  n. [Litho- + Gr. (Min.) A spherulitic cavity often
   with  concentric  chambers,  observed  in  some  volcanic rocks, as in
   rhyolitic  lavas.  It  is  supposed  to  be produced by expanding gas,
   whence the name.


   Lith"o*phyte  (?), n. [Litho- + Gr. lithophyte.] (Zo\'94l.) A hard, or
   stony,  plantlike organism, as the gorgonians, corals, and corallines,
   esp.  those  gorgonians  having a calcareous axis. All the lithophytes
   except the corallines are animals.


   Lith`o*phyt"ic (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to lithophytes.


   Li*thoph"y*tous (?), a. Lithophytic.


   Li*tho"sian  (?),  n.  [From  NL. Lithosia, the typical genus, fr. Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.) Any one of various species of moths belonging to the family
   Lithosid\'91. Many of them are beautifully colored.


   Lith"o*tint (?), n. [Litho- + tint.]

   1.  A  kind  of lithography by which the effect of a tinted drawing is
   produced, as if made with India ink.

   2. A picture produced by this process.


   Lith"o*tome (?), n. [Gr. lithotome.]

   1. A stone so formed by nature as to appear as if cut by art.

   2.  (Surg.)  An  instrument used for cutting the bladder in operations
   for the stone.

                           Lithotomic, Lithotomical

   Lith`o*tom"ic   (?),  Lith`o*tom"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  lithotomique.]
   Pertaining to, or performed by, lithotomy.


   Li*thot"o*mist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. lithotomiste.] One who performs the
   operation  of  cutting for stone in the bladder, or one who is skilled
   in the operation.


   Li*thot"o*my  (?),  n.  [L.  lithotomia,  Gr. lithotomie.] (Surg.) The
   operation, art, or practice of cutting for stone in the bladder.


   Lith"o*trip`sy  (?),  n.  [Litho-  +  Gr.  lithotripsie.]  (Surg.) The
   operation of crushing a stone in the bladder with an instrument called
   lithotriptor or lithotrite; lithotrity.


   Lith`o*trip"tic (?), a. & n. Same as Lithontriptic.


   Lith"o*trip`tist  (?), n. One skilled in breaking and extracting stone
   in the bladder.


   Lith"o*trip`tor  (?),  n.  (Surg.)  An  instrument for triturating the
   stone in the bladder; a lithotrite.

                            Lithotrite, Lithotritor

   Lith"o*trite  (?),  Lith"o*tri"tor  (?),[See  Lithotrity.]  (Surg.)  A


   Li*thot"ri*tist (?), n. A lithotriptist.


   Li*thot"ri*ty  (?),  n.  [Litho-  + L. terere, tritum, to rub, grind.]
   (Surg.)  The  operation  of breaking a stone in the bladder into small
   pieces capable of being voided.<-- = lithotripsy? -->


   Lith"o*type  (?),  n.  A  kind  of stereotype plate made by lithotypy;
   also, that which in printed from it. See Lithotypy.


   Lith"o*type,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Lithotyped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lithotyping  (?).]  To  prepare  for  printing with plates made by the
   process of lithotypy. See Lithotypy.


   Lith`o*typ"ic (?), a. Of, pertaining to, or produced by, lithotypy.


   Li*thot"y*py  (?), n. [Litho- + -typy.] The art or process of making a
   kind  of  hard, stereotypeplate, by pressing into a mold, taken from a
   page  of type or other matter, a composition of gum shell-lac and sand
   of  a fine quality, together with a little tar and linseed oil, all in
   a heated state.


   Li*thox`yl (?), n. [Written also lithoxyle.] [Litho- + Gr. lithoxyle.]
   Petrified wood. [Obs.]


   Lith`u*a"ni*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to Lithuania (formerly a
   principality   united  with  Poland,  but  now  Russian  and  Prussian
   territory).<-- after 1992, an independent country. -->


   Lith`u*a"ni*an, n. A native, or one of the people, of Lithuania; also,
   the language of the Lithuanian people.


   Lith"y  (?) a. [See Lithe.] Easily bent; pliable. Lithy tree (Bot.), a
   European  shrub  (Viburnum  Lantana);  --  so named from its tough and
   flexible stem.


   Lit"i*ga*ble (?), a. Such as can be litigated.


   Lit"i*gant  (?),  a.  [L. litigans, -antis, p. pr. of litigare: cf. F.
   litigant.  See  Litigate.]  Disposed  to  litigate; contending in law;
   engaged in a lawsuit; as, the parties litigant. Ayliffe.


   Lit"i*gant, n. A person engaged in a lawsuit.


   Lit"i*gate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Litigated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Litigating.]  [See  Litigation.]  To make the subject of a lawsuit; to
   contest  in  law;  to  prosecute or defend by pleadings, exhibition of
   evidence, and judicial debate in a court; as, to litigate a cause.


   Lit"i*gate, v. i. To carry on a suit by judicial process.


   Lit`i*ga"tion   (?),  n.  [L.  litigatio,  fr.  litigare  to  dispute,
   litigate;  lis,  litis,  dispute, lawsuit (OL. stlis) + agere to carry
   on.  See  Agent.]  The  act or process of litigating; a suit at law; a
   judicial contest.


   Lit"i*ga`tor (?), n. [L.] One who litigates.


   Li*ti"gious (?), a. [L. litigiosus, fr. litigium dispute, quarrel, fr.
   litigare: cf. F. litigieux. See Litigation.]

   1.  Inclined  to judicial contest; given to the practice of contending
   in law; guarrelsome; contentious; fond of litigation. " A pettifogging
   attorney or a litigious client." Macaulay.

     Soldiers  find  wars, and lawyers find out still Litigious men, who
     guarrels move. Donne.

   2.  Subject  to  contention;  disputable;  controvertible;  debatable;
   doubtful; precarious. Shak.

     No  fences,  parted  fields,  nor  marks, nor bounds, Distinguished
     acres of litigious grounds. Dryden.

   3. Of or pertaining to legal disputes.

     Nor brothers cite to the litigious bar. Young.


   Li*ti"gious*ly, adv. In a litigious manner.


   Li*ti"gious*ness,  n.  The  state  of  being litigious; disposition to
   engage in or carry on lawsuits.


   Lit"mus  (?), n. [D. lakmoes; lak lacker + moes a thick preparation of
   fruit,  pap, prob. akin to E. meat: cf. G. lackmus. See Lac a resinous
   substance.]   (Chem.)   A  dyestuff  extracted  from  certain  lichens
   (Roccella  tinctoria,  Lecanora  tartarea,  etc.), as a blue amorphous
   mass  which  consists  of  a  compound of the alkaline carbonates with
   certain coloring matters related to orcin and orcein.

     NOTE: &hand; Litmus is used as a dye, and being turned red by acids
     and  restored  to its blue color by alkalies, is a common indicator
     or test for acidity and alkalinity.

   Litmus paper (Chem.), unsized paper saturated with blue or red litmus,
   --  used  in  testing for acids or alkalies. <-- litmus test, (Fig.) a
   test  for  a  single  factor, which has only two outcomes, positive or
   negative;  (Politics)  For  voters concerned predominantly by a single
   issue,  the  question  of  whether a candidate is for or against their
   position on that issue. -->


   Li"to*tes  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A diminution or softening of
   statement for the sake of avoiding censure or increasing the effect by
   contrast  with the moderation shown in the form of expression; as, " a
   citizen of no mean city," that is, of an illustrious city.


   Li*tran"e*ter  (?),  n. [Gr. li`tra + -meter. See Liter] An instrument
   for ascertaining the specific gravity of liquids.


   Li"tre (?), n. [F.] Same as Liter.


   Lit"ter  (?),  n.  [F.  liti\'8are, LL. lectaria, fr. L. lectus couch,
   bed. See Lie to be prostrated, and cf. Coverlet.]

   1.  A  bed  or  stretcher  so  arranged  that a person, esp. a sick or
   wounded person, may be easily carried in or upon it.

     There is a litter ready; lay him in 't. Shak.

   2.  Straw,  hay, etc., scattered on a floor, as bedding for animals to
   rest on; also, a covering of straw for plants.

     To crouch in litter of your stable planks. Shak.

     Take off the litter from your kernel beds. Evelyn.

   3.  Things  lying scattered about in a manner indicating slovenliness;
   scattered rubbish.

     Strephon,  who found the room was void. Stole in, and took a strict
     survey Of all the litter as it lay. Swift.

   4.  Disorder  or  untidiness resulting from scattered rubbish, or from
   thongs lying about uncared for; as, a room in a state of litter.

   5.  The young brought forth at one time, by a sow or other multiparous
   animal, taken collectively. Also Fig.

     A  wolf  came to a sow, and very kindly offered to take care of her
     litter. D. Estrange.

     Reflect  upon  numerous  litter of strange, senseless opinions that
     crawl about the world. South.


   Lit"ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Littered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Littering.]

   1.  To  supply  with  litter,  as cattle; to cover with litter, as the
   floor of a stall.

     Tell them how they litter their jades. Bp. Hacke

     For his ease, well littered was the floor. Dryden.

   2.  To  put  into  a  confused  or disordered condition; to strew with
   scattered articles; as, to litter a room.

     The room with volumes littered round. Swift.

   3.  To  give  birth  to;  to bear; -- said of brutes, esp. those which
   produce  more  than  one  at  a  birth,  and  also of human beings, in
   abhorrence or contempt.

     We  might conceive that dogs were created blind, because we observe
     they were littered so with us. Sir T. Browne.

     The son that she did litter here, A freckled whelp hagborn. Shak.

   Page 861


   Lit"ter (?), v. i.

   1.  To  be supplied with litter as bedding; to sleep or make one's bed
   in litter. [R.]

     The inn Where he and his horse littered. Habington.

   2. To produce a litter.

     A desert . . . where the she-wolf still littered. Macaulay.


   Lit`te`ra`teur" (?), n. [F.] One who occupies himself with literature;
   a  literary  man;  a  literatus.  "  Befriended  by  one  kind-hearted
   litt\'82rateur after another." C. Kingsley.


   Lit"ter*y  (?), a. Covered or encumbered with litter; consisting of or
   constituting litter.


   Lit"tle  (?), a. [The regular comparative of this word is wanting, its
   place  being supplied by less, or, rarely, lesser. See Lesser. For the
   superlative  least is used, the regular form, littlest, occurring very
   rarely,  except  in some of the English provinces, and occasionally in
   colloquial  language.  "  Where love is great, the littlest doubts are
   fear."  Shak.]  [OE.  litel,  lutel,  AS.  l, l\'c6tel, l; akin to OS.
   littil, D. luttel, LG. l\'81tt, OHG. luzzil, MHG. l\'81tzel; and perh.
   to  AS.  lytig  deceitful,  lot  deceit, Goth. liuts deceitful, lut to
   deceive;  cf.  also  Icel.  l\'c6till  little,  Sw. liten, Dan. liden,
   lille, Goth. leitils, which appear to have a different root vowel.]

   1.  Small in size or extent; not big; diminutive; -- opposed to big or
   large; as, a little body; a little animal; a little piece of ground; a
   little hill; a little distance; a little child.

     He  sought  to  see  Jesus who he was; and could not for the press,
     because he was little of stature. Luke xix. 3.

   2. Short in duration; brief; as, a little sleep.

     Best him enough: after a little time, I'll beat him too. Shak.

   3.  Small in quantity or amount; not much; as, a little food; a little
   air or water.

     Conceited  of  their  little  wisdoms,  and  doting  upon their own
     fancies. Barrow.

   4.  Small  in dignity, power, or importance; not great; insignificant;

     When  thou  wast  little in thine own sight, wast thou not made the
     head of the tribes? I Sam. xv. 17.

   5.   Small   in   force  or  efficiency;  not  strong;  weak;  slight;
   inconsiderable; as, little attention or exertion;little effort; little
   care or diligence.

     By  sad  experiment I know How little weight my words with thee can
     find. Milton.

   6.   Small   in  extent  of  views  or  sympathies;  narrow;  shallow;
   contracted; mean; illiberal; ungenerous.

     The long-necked geese of the world that are ever hissing dispraise,
     Because their natures are little. Tennyson.

   Little  chief. (Zo\'94l.) See Chief hare. -- Little finger, the fourth
   and  smallest  finger of the hand. -- Little go (Eng. Universities), a
   public  examination  about  the  middle  of  the course, which as less
   strict  and  important  than the final one; -- called also smalls. Cf.
   Great  go,  under  Great.  Thackeray. -- Little hours (R. C. Ch.), the
   offices  of  prime,  tierce, sext, and nones. Vespers and compline are
   sometimes included. -- Little ones, young children.

     The men, and the women, and the little ones. Deut. ii. 34.


   Lit"tle, n.

   1. That which is little; a small quantity, amount, space, or the like.

     Much was in little writ. Dryden.

     There  are  many  expressions,  which  carrying  with them no clear
     ideas, are like to remove but little of my ignorance. Locke.

   2. A small degree or scale; miniature. " His picture in little." Shak.

     A  little,  to or in a small degree; to a limited extent; somewhat;
     for a short time. " Stay a little." Shak.

     The painter flattered her a little. Shak.


   By little and little, OR Little by little, by slow degrees; piecemeal;


   Lit"tle,  adv.  In  a  small  quantity  or degree; not much; slightly;
   somewhat;  --  often  with  a  preceding it. " The poor sleep little."


   Lit"tle-ease` (?), n. An old slang name for the pillory, stocks, etc.,
   of a prison.[Eng.] Latimer.


   Lit"tle*ness,  n. The state or quality of being little; as, littleness
   of size, thought, duration, power, etc. Syn. -- Smallness; slightness;
   inconsiderableness;      narrowness;     insignificance;     meanness;


   Lit"to*ral  (?), a. [L. littoralis, litoralis, from littus, litus, the
   seashore: cf. F. littoral.]

   1. Of or pertaining to a shore, as of the sea.

   2.  (Biol.)  Inhabiting the seashore, esp. the zone between high-water
   and low-water mark.


   Lit"to*ri"na  (?),  n. [NL. See Littoral.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of small
   pectinibranch  mollusks,  having thick spiral shells, abundant between
   tides on nearly all rocky seacoasts. They feed on seaweeds. The common
   periwinkle is a well-known example. See Periwinkle.


   Lit"tress  (?),  n.  A  smooth kind of cartridge paper used for making
   cards. Knight.


   Lit"ate  (?), a. [See Lituus.] (Bot.) Forked, with the points slightly
   curved outward.


   Lit"u*i*form  (?),  a.  [Lituus + -form.] Having the form of a lituus;
   like a lituite.


   Lit"u*ite  (?), n. [See Lituus.] (Paleon.) Any species of ammonites of
   the genus Lituites. They are found in the Cretaceous formation.


   Lit"u*rate  (?),  a.  [L.  lituratus,  p. p. of liturare to erase, fr.
   litura a blur.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Having indistinct spots, paler at their margins.

   2. (Bot.) Spotted, as if from abrasions of the surface.

                             Liturgic, Liturgical

   Li*tur"gic  (?), Li*tur"gic*al (?),[Gr. liturgique.] Pertaining to, of
   or  the  nature  of,  a liturgy; of or pertaining to public prayer and
   worship. T. Warton. 


   Li*tur"gic*al*ly, adv. In the manner of a liturgy.


   Li*tur"gics  (?),  n.  The  science of worship; history, doctrine, and
   interpretation of liturgies.


   Li*tur`gi*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in liturgiology.


   Li*tur`gi*ol"o*gy  (?),  n. [Liturgy + -logy.] The science treating of
   liturgical  matters;  a  treatise  on,  or  description of, liturgies.


   Lit"ur*gist  (?),  n. One who favors or adheres strictly to a liturgy.


   Lit"ur*gy  (?), n.; pl. Liturgies (#). [F. liturgie, LL. liturgia, Gr.
   Lay,  a., and Work.] An established formula for public worship, or the
   entire  ritual  for  public  worship in a church which uses prescribed
   forms;  a  formulary  for  public  prayer  or  devotion.  In the Roman
   Catholic Church it includes all forms and services in any language, in
   any part of the world, for the celebration of Mass.


   Lit"u*us (?), n.; pl. Litui (#). [L.]

   1.  (Rom.  Antig.) (a) A curved staff used by the augurs in quartering
   the  heavens. (b) An instrument of martial music; a kind of trumpet of
   a somewhat curved form and shrill note.

   2. (Math.) A spiral whose polar equation is r2th = a; that is, a curve
   the  square of whose radius vector varies inversely as the angle which
   the radius vector makes with a given line.


   Liv"a*ble (?), a.

   1. Such as can be lived.

   2.  Such  as  in  pleasant  to  live  in;  fit or suitable to live in.

     A  more  delightful or livable region is not easily to be found. T.


   Live (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lived (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Living.] [OE.
   liven,  livien,  AS. libban, lifian; akin to OS. libbian, D. leven, G.
   leben,  OHG.  lebn,  Dan.  leve,  Sw. lefva, Icel. lifa to live, to be
   left, to remain, Goth. liban to live; akin to E. leave to forsake, and
   life,  Gr.  lip  to  anoint,  smear;  -- the first sense prob. was, to
   cleave to, stick to; hence, to remain, stay; and hence, to live.]

   1.  To  be  alive; to have life; to have, as an animal or a plant, the
   capacity  of  assimilating matter as food, and to be dependent on such
   assimilation  for  a  continuance of existence; as, animals and plants
   that live to a great age are long in reaching maturity.

     Thus  saith the Lord God unto these bones; Behold, I will . . . lay
     sinews  upon  you,  and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you
     with  skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live. Ezek. xxxvii.
     5, 6.

   2. To pass one's time; to pass life or time in a certain manner, as to
   habits,  conduct,  or circumstances; as, to live in ease or affluence;
   to live happily or usefully.

     O death, how bitter is the remembrance of thee to a man that liveth
     at rest in his possessions! Ecclus. xli. 1. 

   3. To make one's abiding place or home; to abide; to dwell; to reside.

     Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years. Gen. xlvii. 28.

   4.  To  be  or  continue  in  existence;  to  exist;  to remain; to be
   permanent; to last; -- said of inanimate objects, ideas, etc.

     Men's  evil manners live in brass; their virtues We write in water.

   5. To enjoy or make the most of life; to be in a state of happiness.

     What greater curse could envious fortune give Than just to die when
     I began to live? Dryden.

   6.  To feed; to subsist; to be nourished or supported; -- with on; as,
   horses live on grass and grain.

   7.  To  have  a  spiritual  existence; to be quickened, nourished, and
   actuated by divine influence or faith.

     The just shall live by faith. Gal. iii. ll.

   8.  To  be maintained in life; to acquire a livelihood; to subsist; --
   with on or by; as, to live on spoils.

     Those who live by labor. Sir W. Temple.

   9.  To outlast danger; to float; -- said of a ship, boat, etc.; as, no
   ship could live in such a storm.

     A strong mast that lived upon the sea. Shak.

   To  live  out,  to be at service; to live away from home as a servant.
   [U.  S.]  -- To live with. (a) To dwell or to be a lodger with. (b) To
   cohabit with; to have intercourse with, as male with female.


   Live (?), v. t.

   1.  To  spend,  as  one's  life; to pass; to maintain; to continue in,
   constantly or habitually; as, to live an idle or a useful life.

   2. To act habitually in conformity with; to practice.

     To live the Gospel. Foxe.

   To  live  down,  to  live  so as to subdue or refute; as, to live down
   Live (?), a. [Abbreviated from alive. See Alive, Life.] 

   1. Having life; alive; living; not dead.

     If  one  man's ox hurt another's, that he die; then they shall sell
     the live ox, and divide the money of it. Ex. xxi. 35.

   2.  Being  in  a state of ignition; burning; having active properties;
   as, a live coal; live embers. " The live ether." Thomson.

   3.  Full  of earnestness; active; wide awake; glowing; as, a live man,
   or orator.

   4. Vivid; bright. " The live carnation." Thomson.

   5.  (Engin.) Imparting power; having motion; as, the live spindle of a
   lathe.  <--  6. (Elec.) connected to a voltage source, as a live wire.
   7.  (Broadcasting) being transmitted instantaneously, as events occur,
   in  contrast to recorded. 8. (Sport) still in active play -- as a live
   ball. 9. pertaingin to an entertainment event which was performed (and
   possibly recorded) in front of an audience; contrasted to performances
   recorded in a studio without an audience -->
   Live  birth,  the condition of being born in such a state that acts of
   life  are manifested after the extrusion of the whole body. Dunglison.
   --  Live  box,  a  cell for holding living objects under microscopical
   examination.  P.  H. Gosse. -- Live feathers, feathers which have been
   plucked  from  the  living  bird,  and are therefore stronger and more
   elastic.  -- Live gang. (Sawing) See under Gang. -- Live grass (Bot.),
   a  grass  of  the  genus Eragrostis. -- Live load (Engin.), a suddenly
   applied load; a varying load; a moving load; as a moving train of cars
   on a bridge, or wind pressure on a roof. Live oak (Bot.), a species of
   oak  (Quercus  virens),  growing  in  the  Southern  States,  of great
   durability,  and highly esteemed for ship timber. In California the Q.
   chrysolepis  and some other species are also called live oaks. -- Live
   ring  (Engin.), a circular train of rollers upon which a swing bridge,
   or  turntable,  rests,  and which travels around a circular track when
   the  bridge  or  table  turns.  --  Live steam , steam direct from the
   boiler,  used  for  any purpose, in distinction from exhaust steam. --
   Live stock, horses, cattle, and other domestic animals kept on a farm.
   whole  body.  <--  live  wire  (a) (Elec.) a wire connected to a power
   source,  having a voltage potential; -- used esp. of a power line with
   a  high  potential relative to ground, capable of harming a person who
   touches  it.  (b)  [MW10]  (Fig.)  "an  alert,  active,  or aggressive
   person." -->


   Live (?), n. Life. [Obs.] Chaucer. On live, in life; alive. [Obs.] See
   Alive. Chaucer.


   Lived   (?),  a.  Having  life;  --  used  only  in  composition;  as,
   long-lived; short-lived.


   Live"-for*ev`er  (?),  n. (Bot.) A plant (Sedum Telephium) with fleshy
   leaves, which has extreme powers of resisting drought; garden ox-pine.


   Live"li*hed (?), n. See Livelihood. [Obs.]


   Live"li*hood  (?),  n.  [OE. livelode, liflode, prop., course of life,
   life's  support,  maintenance, fr. AS. l\'c6f life + l\'bed road, way,
   maintenance. Confused with livelihood liveliness. See Life, and Lode.]
   Subsistence  or living, as dependent on some means of support; support
   of life; maintenance.

     The opportunities of gaining an honest livelihood. Addison.

     It  is  their  profession  and  livelihood  to  get their living by
     practices for which they deserve to forfeit their lives. South.


   Live"li*hood,  n.  [Lively  +  -hood.] Liveliness; appearance of life.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Live"li*ly, adv. In a lively manner. [Obs.] Lamb.


   Live"li*ness, n. [From Lively.]

   1.  The  quality  or state of being lively or animated; sprightliness;
   vivacity;  animation;  spirit; as, the liveliness of youth, contrasted
   with the gravity of age. B. Jonson.

   2.  An appearance of life, animation, or spirit; as, the liveliness of
   the eye or the countenance in a portrait.

   3.   Briskness;  activity;  effervescence,  as  of  liquors.  Syn.  --
   Sprightliness;  gayety;  animation;  vivacity;  smartness;  briskness;
   activity. -- Liveliness, Gayety, Animation, Vivacity. Liveliness is an
   habitual  feeling  of  life  and  interest;  gayety  refers  more to a
   temporary excitement of the animal spirits; animation implies a warmth
   of emotion and a corresponding vividness of expressing it, awakened by
   the presence of something which strongly affects the mind; vivacity is
   a  feeling  between liveliness and animation, having the permanency of
   the  one,  and, to some extent, the warmth of the other. Liveliness of
   imagination;  gayety  of  heart; animation of countenance; vivacity of
   gesture or conversation.


   Live"lode`  (?),  n.  [See  1st  Livelihood.] Course of life; means of
   support; livelihood. [Obs.]


   Live"long` (?), a. [For lifelong. Cf. Lifelong.]

   1.  Whole;  entire; long in passing; -- used of time, as day or night,
   in adverbial phrases, and usually with a sense of tediousness.

     The obscure bird Clamored the livelong night. Shak.

     How  could she sit the livelong day, Yet never ask us once to play?

   2. Lasting; durable. [Obs.]

     Thou hast built thyself a livelong monument. Milton.


   Live"ly  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Livelier  (?);  superl.  Liveliest.] [For
   lifely. Cf. Lifelike.]

   1. Endowed with or manifesting life; living.

     Chaplets  of  gold and silver resembling lively flowers and leaves.

   2. Brisk; vivacious; active; as, a lively youth.

     But  wherefore comes old Manoa in such haste, With youthful steps ?
     Much livelier than erewhile He seems. Milton.

   3. Gay; airy; animated; spirited.

     From grave to gay, from lively to severe. Pope.

   4. Representing life; lifelike. [Obs.]

     I spied the lively picture of my father. Massinger.

   5. Bright; vivid; glowing; strong; vigorous.

     The  colors  of  the  prism  are manifestly more full, intense, and
     lively that those of natural bodies. Sir I. Newton.

     His faith must be not only living, but lively too. South.

   Lively stones (Script.), saints, as being quickened by the Spirit, and
   active  in  holiness.  Syn.  -- Brisk; vigorous; quick; nimble; smart;
   active; alert; sprightly; animated; spirited; prompt; earnest; strong;
   energetic; vivid; vivacious; blithe; gleeful; airy; gay; jocund.


   Live"ly, adv.

   1.  In  a  brisk,  active,  or  animated  manner; briskly; vigorously.

   2. With strong resemblance of life. [Obs.]

     Thou counterfeitest most lively. Shak.


   Liv"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, lives.

     And try if life be worth the liver's care. Prior.

   2. A resident; a dweller; as, a liver in Brooklyn.

   3.  One whose course of life has some marked characteristic (expressed
   by an adjective); as, a free liver.
   Fast  liver,  one  who  lives in an extravagant and dissipated way. --
   Free  liver,  Good  liver, one given to the pleasures of the table. --
   Loose liver, a person who lives a somewhat dissolute life.


   Liv"er,  n. [AS. lifer; akin to D. liver, G. leber, OHG. lebara, Icel.
   lifr,  Sw.  lefver,  and  perh.  to Gr. live, v.] (Anat.) A very large
   glandular   and   vascular   organ  in  the  visceral  cavity  of  all

     NOTE: &hand; Mo st of  th e ve nous blood from the alimentary canal
     passes through it on its way back to the heart; and it secretes the
     bile,  produces glycogen, and in other ways changes the blood which
     passes  through  it.  In man it is situated immediately beneath the
     diaphragm  and  mainly  on the right side. See Bile, Digestive, and
     Glycogen.  The  liver of invertebrate animals is usually made up of
     c\'91cal  tubes, and differs materially, in form and function, from
     that of vertebrates.

   Floating  liver.  See  Wandering  liver,  under Wandering. -- Liver of
   antimony,  Liver  of  sulphur.  (Old Chem.) See Hepar. -- Liver brown,
   Liver color, the color of liver, a dark, reddish brown. -- Liver shark
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  very  large shark (Cetorhinus maximus), inhabiting the
   northern coasts both of Europe and North America. It sometimes becomes
   forty  feet  in  length, being one of the largest sharks known; but it
   has  small  simple teeth, and is not dangerous. It is captured for the
   sake  of  its liver, which often yields several barrels of oil. It has
   gill  rakers,  resembling  whalebone,  by  means of which it separates
   small  animals  from  the  sea  water. Called also basking shark, bone
   shark,  hoemother,  homer,  and  sailfish<--  sometimes referred to as
   'whale  shark',  but that name is more commonly used for the Rhincodon
   typus,  which  grows  even larger -->. -- Liver spots, yellowish brown
   patches or spots of chloasma.

   Page 862


   Liv"er  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The glossy ibis (Ibis falcinellus); -- said
   to have given its name to the city of Liverpool.


   Liv"er-col`ored (?), a. Having a color like liver; dark reddish brown.


   Liv"ered  (?),  a.  Having  (such)  a  liver; used in composition; as,


   Liv"er-grown` (?), a. Having an enlarged liver. Dunglison.


   Liv"er*ied (?), a. Wearing a livery. See Livery, 3.

     The liveried servants wait. Parnell.


   Liv"er*ing,  n.  A  kind  of pudding or sausage made of liver or pork.
   [Obs.] Chapman.


   Liv"er*leaf` (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Liverwort.


   Liv"er*wort` (?), n. (Bot.)

   1.  A  ranunculaceous  plant  (Anemone  Hepatica) with pretty white or
   bluish flowers and a three-lobed leaf; -- called also squirrel cups.

   2.  A  flowerless plant (Marchantia polymorpha), having an irregularly
   lobed, spreading, and forking frond.

     NOTE: &hand; Fr om th is pl ant ma ny ot hers of  th e sa me or der
     (Hepatic\'91)  have  been  vaguely called liverworts, esp. those of
     the tribe Marchantiace\'91. See Illust. of Hepatica.


   Liv"er*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Liveries  (#).  [OE.  livere,  F. livr\'82e,
   formerly, a gift of clothes made by the master to his servants, prop.,
   a  thing delivered, fr. livrer to deliver, L. liberare to set free, in
   LL., to deliver up. See Liberate.]

   1.  (Eng.  Law)  (a)  The  act  of  delivering  possession of lands or
   tenements. (b) The writ by which possession is obtained.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  us ual to  sa y, li very of seizin, which is a
     feudal  investiture,  made  by the delivery of a turf, of a rod, or
     twig,  from  the  feoffor to the feoffee. In the United States, and
     now  in  Great Britain, no such ceremony is necessary, the delivery
     of a deed being sufficient.

   2. Release from wardship; deliverance.

     It  concerned  them  first  to sue out their livery from the unjust
     wardship of his encroaching prerogative. Milton.

   3.  That  which  is  delivered  out statedly or formally, as clothing,
   food,  etc.;  especially:  (a)  The  uniform clothing issued by feudal
   superiors  to  their retainers and serving as a badge when in military
   service. (b) The peculiar dress by which the servants of a nobleman or
   gentleman  are  distinguished; as, a claret-colored livery. (c) Hence,
   also,  the  peculiar  dress or garb appropriated by any association or
   body  of  persons  to  their  own  use;  as,  the livery of the London
   tradesmen,  of  a  priest,  of a charity school, etc.; also, the whole
   body  or  company  of persons wearing such a garb, and entitled to the
   privileges of the association; as, the whole livery of London.

     A  Haberdasher and a Carpenter, A Webbe, a Dyer, and a Tapicer, And
     they  were  clothed  all  in  one  livery  Of a solempne and a gret
     fraternite. Chaucer.

     From  the periodical deliveries of these characteristic articles of
     servile costume (blue coats) came our word livery. De Quincey.

   (d)  Hence,  any characteristic dress or outward appearance. " April's
   livery." Sir P. Sidney.

     Now  came  still  evening  on,  and  twilight gray Had in her sober
     livery all things clad. Milton.

   (e) An allowance of food statedly given out; a ration, as to a family,
   to servants, to horses, etc.

     The emperor's officers every night went through the town from house
     to  house  whereat  any  English gentleman did repast or lodge, and
     served  their  liveries  for all night: first, the officers brought
     into  the house a cast of fine manchet [white bread], and of silver
     two great post, and white wine, and sugar. Cavendish.

   (f)  The  feeding,  stabling,  and  care  of  horses for compensation;
   boarding; as, to keep one's horses at livery.

     What  livery  is,  we  by  common  use in England know well enough,
     namely,  that  is,  allowance  of  horse meat, as to keep horses at
     livery,  the  which  word,  I  guess,  is  derived  of  livering or
     delivering forth their nightly food. Spenser.

     It  need  hardly  be  observed that the explanation of livery which
     Spenser  offers  is  perfectly  correct,  but . . . it is no longer
     applied to the ration or stated portion of food delivered at stated
     periods. Trench.

   (g)  The  keeping  of  horses in readiness to be hired temporarily for
   riding or driving; the state of being so kept.

     Pegasus  does not stand at livery even at the largest establishment
     in Moorfields. Lowell.

     4. A low grade of wool.

   Livery gown, the gown worn by a liveryman in London.


   Liv"er*y, v. t. To clothe in, or as in, livery. Shak.


   Liv"er*y*man (?), n.; pl. Liverymen (.

   1. One who wears a livery, as a servant.

   2. A freeman of the city, in London, who, having paid certain fees, is
   entitled  to wear the distinguishing dress or livery of the company to
   which  he  belongs, and also to enjoy certain other privileges, as the
   right  of  voting  in  an  election  for  the  lord  mayor,  sheriffs,
   chamberlain, etc.

   3. One who keeps a livery stable.

                                 Livery stable

   Liv"er*y  sta`ble  (?).  A  stable where horses are kept for hire, and
   where stabling is provided. See Livery, n., 3 (e) (f) & (g).


   Lives (?), n.; pl. of Life.


   Lives  (?), a. & adv. [Orig. a genitive sing. of life.] Alive; living;
   with life. [Obs.] " Any lives creature." Chaucer.


   Liv"id  (?), a. [L. lividus, from livere to be of a blush color, to be
   black  and  blue:  cf.  F. livide.] Black and blue; grayish blue; of a
   lead color; discolored, as flesh by contusion. Cowper.

     There followed no carbuncles, no purple or livid spots, the mass of
     the blood not being tainted. Bacon.


   Li*vid"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  lividit\'82.] The state or quality of
   being livid.


   Liv"id*ness (?), n. Lividity. Walpole.


   Lav"ing (?), a. [From Live, v. i.]

   1. Being alive; having life; as, a living creature.

   2.  Active; lively; vigorous; -- said esp. of states of the mind , and
   sometimes  of abstract things; as, a living faith; a living principle.
   " Living hope. " Wyclif.

   3.  Issuing continually from the earth; running; flowing; as, a living
   spring; -- opposed to stagnant.

   4.  Producing  life, action, animation, or vigor; quickening. " Living
   light." Shak.

   5. Ignited; glowing with heat; burning; live.

     Then on the living coals wine they pour. Dryden.

   Living force. See Vis viva, under Vis. -- Living gale (Naut.), a heavy
   gale.  Living  rock  OR stone, rock in its native or original state or
   location; rock not quarried. " I now found myself on a rude and narrow
   stairway,  the  steps of which were cut of the living rock." Moore. --
   The living, those who are alive, or one who is alive.


   Liv"ing, n.

   1. The state of one who, or that which, lives; lives; life; existence.
   "Health and living." Shak.

   2.  Manner  of  life;  as,  riotous  living; penurious living; earnest
   living. " A vicious living." Chaucer.

   3. Means of subsistence; sustenance; estate.

     She can spin for her living. Shak.

     He divided unto them his living. Luke xv. 12.

   4. Power of continuing life; the act of living, or living comfortably.

     There  is  no  living  without  trusting  somebody or other in some
     cases. L' Estrange.

   5.  The  benefice  of  a  clergyman;  an ecclesiastical charge which a
   minister receives. [Eng.]

     He could not get a deanery, a prebend, or even a living Macaulay.

   Livng room, the room most used by the family.


   Liv"ing*ly, adv. In a living state. Sir T. Browne.


   Liv"ing*ness,  n.  The  state or quality of being alive; possession of
   energy or vigor; animation; quickening.


   Li*vo"ni*an  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Livonia, a district of Russia
   near the Baltic Sea.


   Li*vi"ni*an,  n.  A  native  or an inhabitant of Livonia; the language
   (allied to the Finnish) of the Livonians.


   Li"vor (?), n. [L.] Malignity. [P.] Burton.


   Li`vrai`son"  (?),  n. [F., fr. L. liberatio a setting free, in LL., a
   delivering  up.  See  Liberation.]  A  part  of  a  book  or  literary
   composition printed and delivered by itself; a number; a part.


   Li"vre  (?), n. [F., fr. L. libra a pound of twelve ounces. Cf. Lira.]
   A  French  money of account, afterward a silver coin equal to 20 sous.
   It is not now in use, having been superseded by the franc.


   Lix*iv"i*al  (?),  a. [L. lixivius, fr. lix ashes, lye ashes, lye: cf.
   F. lixiviel.]

   1.  Impregnated  with, or consisting of, alkaline salts extracted from
   wood ashes; impregnated with a salt or salts like a lixivium. Boyle.

   2. Of the color of lye; resembling lye.

   3. Having the qualities of alkaline salts extracted from wood ashes.
   Lixivial  salts (Old Chem.), salts which are obtained by passing water
   through ashes, or by pouring it on them.

                             Lixiviate, Lixivited

   Lix*iv"i*ate (?), Lix*iv"i*`ted (?), a. [From Lixivium.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to lye or lixivium; of the quality of alkaline

   2. Impregnated with salts from wood ashes. Boyle.


   Lix*iv"i*ate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lixiviated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lixiviating  (?).]  To subject to a washing process for the purpose of
   separating soluble material from that which is insoluble; to leach, as
   ashes, for the purpose of extracting the alkaline substances.


   Lix*iv`i*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. lixiviation.] Lixiviating; the process
   of  separating  a  soluble  substance  form  one that is insoluble, by
   washing with some solvent, as water; leaching.


   Lix*iv"i*ous (?), a. See Lixivial.


   Lix*iv"i*um  (?),  n. [L. lixivium, lixivia. See Lixivial.] A solution
   of  alkaline  salts  extracted  from  wood  ashes; hence, any solution
   obtained by lixiviation.


   Lixt  (?), obs. 2d pers. sing. pres. of Lige, to lie, to tell lies, --
   contracted for ligest. Chaucer.


   Li"za (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The American white mullet (Mugil curema).


   Liz"ard  (?),  n. [OE. lesarde, OF. lesarde, F. l\'82zard, L. lacerta,
   lacertus. Cf. Alligator, Lacerta.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of the numerous species of reptiles belonging to
   the  order  Lacertilia;  sometimes,  also applied to reptiles of other
   orders, as the Hatteria.

     NOTE: &hand; Mo st li zards have an elongated body, with four legs,
     and  a  long tail; but there are some without legs, and some with a
     short,  thick tail. Most have scales, but some are naked; most have
     eyelids,  but  some  do  not.  The  tongue  is  varied  in form and
     structure.  In  some  it  is  forked, in others, as the chameleons,
     club-shaped,  and  very  extensible.  See Amphisb\'91na, Chameleon,
     Gecko, Gila monster, Horned toad, Iguana, and Dragon, 6.

   2.  (Naut.)  A piece of rope with thimble or block spliced into one or
   both of the ends. R. H. Dana, Ir.

   3.  A  piece  of  timber  with  a forked end, used in dragging a heavy
   stone, a log, or the like, from a field.
   Lizard  fish (Zo\'94l.), a marine scopeloid fish of the genus Synodus,
   or  Saurus,  esp.  S. f\'d2tens of the Southern United States and West
   Indies;  --  called  also  sand  pike. -- Lizard snake (Zo\'94l.), the
   garter  snake (Eut\'91nia sirtalis). -- Lizard stone (Min.), a kind of
   serpentine  from  near  Lizard  Point,  Cornwall, England, -- used for
   ornamental purposes.

                                 Lizard's tail

   Liz"ard's  tail`  (?).  (Bot.) A perennial plant of the genus Saururus
   (S.  cernuus), growing in marshes, and having white flowers crowded in
   a slender terminal spike, somewhat resembling in form a lizard's tail;
   whence the name. Gray.


   Lla"ma,  n.  [Peruv.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A South American ruminant (Auchenia
   llama),  allied to the camels, but much smaller and without a hump. It
   is  supposed  to  be  a  domesticated  variety  of the guanaco. It was
   formerly much used as a beast of burden in the Andes.

                                Llandeilo group

   Llan*dei"lo  group`.  (Geol.) A series of strata in the lower Silurian
   formations  of  Great  Britain; -- so named from Llandeilo in Southern
   Wales. See Chart of Geology.


   Lla*ne"ro  (?), n. [Sp. Amer.] One of the inhabitants of the llanos of
   South America.


   Lla"no  (?),  n.; pl. Llanos (#). [Sp., plain even, level. See Plain.]
   An extensive plain with or without vegetation. [Spanish America]


   Lloyd's (?), n.

   1.  An  association  of  underwriters  and  others  in London, for the
   collection  and  diffusion  of  marine  intelligence,  the  insurance,
   classification,  registration,  and  certifying  of  vessels,  and the
   transaction of business of various kinds connected with shipping.

   2. A part of the Royal Exchange, in London, appropriated to the use of
   underwriters and insurance brokers; -- called also Lloyd's Rooms.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  de rived fr om Lloyd's Coffee House, in
     Lombard  Street,  where  there  were  formerly  rooms  for the same
     purpose.  The  name  Lloyd  or  Lloyd's  has  been taken by several
     associations,   in  different  parts  of  Europe,  established  for
     purposes similar to those of the original association.

   Lloyd's agents, persons employed in various parts of the world, by the
   association called Lloyd's, to serve its interests. -- Lloyd's list, a
   publication of the latest news respecting shipping matters, with lists
   of  vessels, etc., made under the direction of Lloyd's. Brande & C. --
   Lloyd's  register,  a  register  of  vessels  rated according to their
   quality, published yearly.


   Lo  (?),  interj.  [OE. lo, low; perh. akin to E. look, v.] Look; see;
   behold;  observe. " Lo, here is Christ." Matt. xxiv. 23. " Lo, we turn
   to the Gentiles." Acts xiii. 46.


   Loach  (?),  n.  [OE.  loche, F. loche.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several
   small,   fresh-water,   cyprinoid   fishes   of  the  genera  Cobitis,
   Nemachilus,  and allied genera, having six or more barbules around the
   mouth.  They are found in Europe and Asia. The common European species
   (N. barbatulus) is used as a food fish.


   Load  (?), n. [OE. lode load, way; properly the same word as lode, but
   confused with lade, load, v. See Lade, Lead, v., Lode.]

   1.  A burden; that which is laid on or put in anything for conveyance;
   that which is borne or sustained; a weight; as, a heavy load.

     He might such a load To town with his ass carry. Gower.

   2.  The  quantity which can be carried or drawn in some specified way;
   the  contents of a cart, barrow, or vessel; that which will constitute
   a cargo; lading.

   3.  That which burdens, oppresses, or grieves the mind or spirits; as,
   a  load  of care. " A . . . load of guilt." Ray. " Our life's a load."

   4.  A particular measure for certain articles, being as much as may be
   carried  at  one  time by the conveyance commonly used for the article
   measured;  as,  a  load  of  wood;  a  load of hay; specifically, five

   5. The charge of a firearm; as, a load of powder.

   6. Weight or violence of blows. [Obs.] Milton.

   7.  (Mach.)  The work done by a steam engine or other prime mover when
   Load  line,  OR  Load water line (Naut.), the line on the outside of a
   vessel  indicating  the  depth  to  which  it  sinks in the water when
   loaded. Syn. -- Burden; lading; weight; cargo. See Burden.


   Load,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Loaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Loading. Loaden is
   obsolete, and laden belongs to lade.]

   1.  To  lay  a load or burden on or in, as on a horse or in a cart; to
   charge  with a load, as a gun; to furnish with a lading or cargo, as a
   ship;  hence, to add weight to, so as to oppress or embarrass; to heap

     I strive all in vain to load the cart. Gascoigne.

     I have loaden me with many spoils. Shak.

     Those  honors  deep  and  broad,  wherewith  Your majesty loads our
     house. Shak.

   Page 863

   2. To adulterate or drug; as, to load wine. [Cant]

   3. To magnetize.[Obs.] Prior.
   Loaded  dice, dice with one side made heavier than the others, so that
   the number on the opposite side will come up oftenest.


   Load"er   (?),  n.  One  who,  or  that  which,  loads;  a  mechanical
   contrivance for loading, as a gun.


   Load"ing, n.

   1. The act of putting a load on or into.

   2. A load; cargo; burden. Shak.

                            Loadmanage, Lodemanage

   Load"man*age,  Lode"man*age  (?),  n.  Pilotage;  skill  of a pilot or
   loadsman. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                              Loadsman, Lodesman

   Loads"man,  Lodes"man  (?),  n. [Load, lode + man. See Lode.] A pilot.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.

                              Loadstar, Lodestar

   Load"star`,  Lode"star`  (?), n. [Load, lode + star. See Lode.] A star
   that leads; a guiding star; esp., the polestar; the cynosure. Chaucer.
   " Your eyes are lodestars." Shak.

     The pilot can no loadstar see. Spenser.

                             Loadstone, Lodestone

   Load"stone`,  Lode"stone  (?), n. [Load, lode + stone.] (Min.) A piece
   of  magnetic  iron ore possessing polarity like a magnetic needle. See


   Loaf  (?),  n.; pl. Loaves (#). [OE. lof, laf, AS. hl\'bef; akin to G.
   laib,  OHG.  hleip,  Icel.  hleifr, Goth. hlaifs, Russ. khlieb', Lith.
   kl\'89pas.  Cf.  Lady,  Lammas,  Lord.] Any thick lump, mass, or cake;
   especially,  a  large  regularly  shaped  or molded mass, as of bread,
   sugar,  or cake. Bacon. Loaf sugar, refined sugar that has been formed
   into a conical loaf in a mold.


   Loaf,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Loafed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Loafing.] [G.
   laufen  to run, Prov. G. loofen. See Leap.] To spend time in idleness;
   to lounge or loiter about. " Loafing vagabonds." W. Black.


   Loaf, v. t. To spend in idleness; -- with away; as, to loaf time away.


   Loaf"er  (?),  n.  [G. l\'84ufer a runner, Prov. G. laufer, lofer, fr.
   laufen to run. See Leap.] One who loafs; a lazy lounger. Lowell.


   Loam  (?),  n. [AS. l\'bem; akin to D. leem, G. lehm, and E. lime. See
   4th Lime.]

   1.  A  kind  of soil; an earthy mixture of clay and sand, with organic
   matter to which its fertility is chiefly due.

     We wash a wall of loam; we labor in vain. Hooker.

   2.  (Founding)  A  mixture of sand, clay, and other materials, used in
   making molds for large castings, often without a pattern.
   Loam  mold (Founding), a mold made with loam. See Loam, n., 2. -- Loam
   molding,  the process or business of making loam molds. Loam plate, an
   iron plate upon which a section of a loam mold rests, or from which it
   is suspended. -- Loam work, loam molding or loam molds.


   Loam,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Loamed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Loaming.] To
   cover, smear, or fill with loam.


   Loam"y  (?),  a.  Consisting of loam; partaking of the nature of loam;
   resembling loam. Bacon.


   Loan (?), n. [See Lawn.] A loanin. [Scot.]


   Loan,  n.  [OE.  lone,  lane, AS. l\'ben, l\'91n, fr. le\'a2n to lend;
   akin  to D. leen loan, fief, G. lehen fief, Icel. l\'ben, G. leihen to
   lend,  OHG.  l\'c6han,  Icel.  lj\'c6,  Goth.  leihwan, L. linquere to
   leave,  Gr.  ric. Delinquent, Eclipse, Eleven, Ellipse, Lend, License,

   1. The act of lending; a lending; permission to use; as, the loan of a
   book, money, services.

   2.  That  which  one  lends  or  borrows,  esp. a sum of money lent at
   interest; as, he repaid the loan.
   Loan  office. (a) An office at which loans are negotiated, or at which
   the  accounts  of loans are kept, and the interest paid to the lender.
   (b) A pawnbroker's shop.


   Loan,  n.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Loaned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Loaning.] To
   lend; -- sometimes with out. Kent.

     By way of location or loaning them out. J. Langley (1644).


   Loan"a*ble  (?),  a.  Such  as can be lent; available for lending; as,
   loanable funds; -- used mostly in financial business and writings.

                                Loanin, Loaning

   Loan"in  (?),  Loan"ing, n. [From Scotch loan, E. lawn.] An open space
   between  cultivated  fields through which cattle are driven, and where
   the cows are sometimes milked; also, a lane. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott. 


   Loan"mon`ger (?), n. A dealer in, or negotiator of, loans.

     The millions of the loanmonger. Beaconsfield.


   Loath (?), a. [OE. looth, loth, AS. l\'be hostile, odious; akin to OS.
   l,  G. leid, Icel. lei, Sw. led, G. leiden to suffer, OHG. l\'c6dan to
   suffer, go, cf. AS. l\'c6 to go, Goth. leipan, and E. lead to guide.]

   1. Hateful; odious; disliked. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  Filled with disgust or aversion; averse; unwilling; reluctant; as,
   loath to part.

     Full loth were him to curse for his tithes. Chaucer


     Why, then, though loath, yet must I be content. Shak.


   Loathe  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Loathed  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Loathing.] [AS. l\'be to hate. See Loath.]

   1. To feel extreme disgust at, or aversion for.

     Loathing the honeyed cakes, I Ionged for bread. Cowley.

   2. To dislike greatly; to abhor; to hate.

     The secret which I loathe. Waller.

     She loathes the vital sir. Dryden.

   Syn. -- To hate; abhor; detest; abominate. See Hate.


   Loathe, v. i. To feel disgust or nausea. [Obs.]


   Loath"er (?), n. One who loathes.


   Loath"ful (?), a.

   1. Full of loathing; hating; abhorring. "Loathful eyes." Spenser.

   2. Causing a feeling of loathing; disgusting.

     Above the reach of loathful, sinful lust. Spenser.


   Loath"ing,   n.  Extreme  disgust;  a  feeling  of  aversion,  nausea,
   abhorrence, or detestation.

     The mutual fear and loathing of the hostile races. Macaulay.


   Loath"ing*ly, adv. With loathing.


   Loath"li*ness (?), n. Loathsomeness. [Obs.]


   Loath"ly  (?),  a.  [AS.  l\'be.]  Loathsome. [Obs.] " Loathly mouth."


   Loath"ly (?), adv.

   1. Unwillingly; reluctantly.

     This shows that you from nature loathly stray. Donne.

   2. ( [Obs.]

     With dust and blood his locks were loathly dight. Fairfax.


   Loath"ness (?), n. Unwillingness; reluctance.

     A general silence and loathness to speak. Bacon.


   Loath"some  (?),  a.  Fitted  to  cause  loathing;  exciting  disgust;

     The most loathsome and deadly forms of infection. Macaulay.

   -- Loath"some*ly. adv. -- Loath"some*ness, n.


   Loath"y (?), a. Loathsome. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Loaves (?), n.; pl. of Loaf.


   Lob (?), n. [W. llob an unwieldy lump, a dull fellow, a blockhead. Cf.
   Looby, Lubber.]

   1. A dull, heavy person. " Country lobs." Gauden.

   2. Something thick and heavy.


   Lob,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lobbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lobbing.] To let
   fall heavily or lazily.

     And their poor jades Lob down their heads. Shak.

   To lob a ball (Lawn Tennis), to strike a ball so as to send it up into
   the air. <-- to propel (relatively slowly) in a high arcing trajectory


   Lob, v. t. (Mining) See Cob, v. t.


   Lob, n. [Dan. lubbe.] (Zo\'94l.) The European pollock.


   Lo"bar  (?), a. Of or pertaining to a lobe; characterized by, or like,
   a lobe or lobes.

                                Lobate, Lobated

   Lo"bate (?), Lo"ba*ted (?), a. [See Lobe.]

   1. (Bot.) Consisting of, or having, lobes; lobed; as, a lobate leaf.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) Having lobes; -- said of the tails of certain fishes
   having  the  integument  continued  to  the bases of the fin rays. (b)
   Furnished  with  membranous  flaps, as the toes of a coot. See Illust.
   (m) under Aves.


   Lo"bate*ly  (?),  adv.  As  a  lobe; so as to make a lobe; in a lobate


   Lob"bish (?), a. Like a lob; consisting of lobs. Sir. P. Sidney.


   Lob"by (?), n.; pl. Lobbies (#). [LL. lobium, lobia, laubia, a covered
   portico fit for walking, fr. OHG.louba, G. laube, arbor. See Lodge.]

   1.  (Arch.)  A passage or hall of communication, especially when large
   enough to serve also as a waiting room. It differs from an antechamber
   in  that a lobby communicates between several rooms, an antechamber to
   one only; but this distinction is not carefully preserved.

   2. That part of a hall of legislation not appropriated to the official
   use  of  the  assembly; hence, the persons, collectively, who frequent
   such  a  place to transact business with the legislators; any persons,
   not  members  of  a  legislative  body,  who  strive  to influence its
   proceedings by personal agency<-- = lobbyist -->. [U.S.]

   3.  (Naut.)  An  apartment  or  passageway  in  the  fore  part  of an
   old-fashioned cabin under the quarter-deck.

   4.  (Agric.)  A confined place for cattle, formed by hedges. trees, or
   other fencing, near the farmyard.
   Lobby member, a lobbyist. [Humorous cant, U. S.]


   Lob"by, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lobbied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lobbying.] To
   address  or  solicit  members  of  a  legislative body in the lobby or
   elsewhere, with the purpose to influence their votes.[U.S.] Bartlett.


   Lob"by, v. t. To urge the adoption or passage of by soliciting members
   of a legislative body; as, to lobby a bill. [U.S.]


   Lob"by*ist, n. A member of the lobby; a person who solicits members of
   a legislature for the purpose of influencing legislation. [U.S.]


   Lob"cock` (?), n. A dull, sluggish person; a lubber; a lob. [Low]


   Lobe  (?), n. [F. lobe, Gr. Any projection or division, especially one
   of  a  somewhat  rounded  form; as: (a) (Bot.) A rounded projection or
   division of a leaf. Gray. (b)(Zo\'94l.) A membranous flap on the sides
   of  the  toes  of  certain  birds,  as  the  coot. (c) (Anat.) A round
   projecting  part  of an organ, as of the liver, lungs, brain, etc. See
   Illust. of Brain. (b) (Mach.) The projecting part of a cam wheel or of
   a  non-circular  gear  wheel.  Lobe  of  the  ear,  the  soft,  fleshy
   prominence  in  which  the human ear terminates below. See. Illust. of
   Ear.<-- = earlobe -->
   Lobed (?), a. Having lobes; lobate. 


   Lobe"foot`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  bird  having lobate toes; esp., a


   Lobe"-foot`ed, a. (Zo\'94l.) Lobiped.


   Lobe"let (?), n. (Bot.) A small lobe; a lobule.


   Lo*be"li*a  (?;  106),  n. [NL. So called from Lobel, botanist to King
   James  I.]  (Bot.)  A  genus  of  plants,  including a great number of
   species.  Lobelia  inflata,  or  Indian tobacco, is an annual plant of
   North America, whose leaves contain a poisonous white viscid juice, of
   an  acrid  taste.  It  has  often  been used in medicine as an emetic,
   expectorant, etc. L. cardinalis is the cardinal flower, remarkable for
   the deep and vivid red color of its flowers.


   Lo*be`li*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of
   plants of which the genus Lobelia is the type.


   Lo*be"lin (?), n. (Med.) A yellowish green resin from Lobelia, used as
   an emetic and diaphoretic.


   Lo*be"line  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A poisonous narcotic alkaloid extracted
   from  the  leaves of Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata) as a yellow oil,
   having a tobaccolike taste and odor.


   Lo"bi*ped,  a.  [Lobe + L. pes, pedis, foot.] (Zo\'94l.) Having lobate
   toes, as a coot.


   Lob"lol`ly  (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] Gruel; porridge; -- so called
   among seamen. Loblolly bay (Bot.), an elegant white-flowered evergreen
   shrub or small tree, of the genus Gordonia (G. Lasianthus), growing in
   the  maritime  parts  of  the  Southern  United  States.  Its  bark is
   sometimes  used in tanning. Also, a similar West Indian tree (Laplacea
   h\'91matoxylon).  -- Loblolly boy, a surgeon's attendant on shipboard.
   Smollett.  --  Loblolly  pine  (Bot.), a kind of pitch pine found from
   Delaware  southward  along  the coast; old field pine (Pinus T\'91da).
   Also,  P.  Bahamensis,  of the West Indies. -- Loblolly tree (Bot.), a
   name  of  several  West  Indian  trees,  having  more or less leathery
   foliage,  but alike in no other respect; as Pisonia subcordata, Cordia
   alba, and Cupania glabra.


   Lo*bo"sa (?), n. pl. [NL. See Lobe.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of Rhizopoda,
   in  which  the  pseudopodia are thick and irregular in form, as in the


   Lob"scouse`  (?),  n. [Written also lobscourse from which lobscouse is
   corrupted.]  [Lob  +  course.]  (Naut.)  A  combination  of  meat with
   vegetables, bread, etc., usually stewed, sometimes baked; an olio.


   Lob"sid`ed (?), a. See Lopsided.


   Lobs"pound` (?), n. [Lob + pound a prison.] A prison. [Obs.] Hudibras.


   Lob"ster  (?),  n.  [AS.  loppestre,  lopystre prob., corrupted fr. L.
   locusta  a marine shellfish, a kind of lobster, a locust. Cf. Locust.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any large macrurous crustacean used as food, esp. those of
   the  genus  Homarus;  as the American lobster (H. Americanus), and the
   European  lobster  (H.  vulgaris).  The  Norwegian  lobster  (Nephrops
   Norvegicus) is similar in form. All these have a pair of large unequal
   claws.  The  spiny  lobsters  of  more  southern  waters, belonging to
   Palinurus,  Panulirus,  and  allied  genera,  have no large claws. The
   fresh-water   crayfishes   are   sometimes  called  lobsters.  Lobster
   caterpillar  (Zo\'94l.),  the  caterpillar of a European bombycid moth
   (Stauropus   fagi);   --  so  called  from  its  form.  Lobster  louse
   (Zo\'94l.), a copepod crustacean (Nicotho\'89 astaci) parasitic on the
   gills of the European lobster.


   Lob"u*lar,  a.  [Cf.  F.  lobulaire.]  Like  a lobule; pertaining to a
   lobule or lobules.

                              Lobulate, Lobulated

   Lob"u*late  (?),  Lob"u*la`ted  (?),  a.  Made up of, or divided into,
   lobules; as, a lobulated gland.


   Lob"ule,  n.  [Cf. F. lobule, dim. of lobe. See Lobe.] A small lobe; a
   subdivision  of a lobe. Lobule of the ear. (Anat.) Same as Lobe of the


   Lob`u*lette"  (?),  n.  [Dim.  of lobule.] (Anat.) A little lobule, or
   subdivision of a lobule.


   Lob"worm` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The lugworm.


   Lo"cal  (?),  a. [L. localis, fr. locus place: cf. F. local. See Lieu,
   Locus.]  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  particular place, or to a definite
   region  or  portion of space; restricted to one place or region; as, a
   local custom.

     Gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name. Shak.

   Local  actions  (Law), actions such as must be brought in a particular
   county,  where  the  cause  arises;  --  distinguished from transitory
   actions. -- Local affection (Med.), a disease or ailment confined to a
   particular  part  or  organ, and not directly affecting the system. --
   Local  attraction  (Magnetism),  an attraction near a compass, causing
   its  needle  to  deviate  from  its  proper  direction,  especially on
   shipboard.  --  Local battery (Teleg.), the battery which actuates the
   recording  instruments of a telegraphic station, as distinguished from
   the  battery  furnishing  a  current  for  the  line. -- Local circuit
   (Teleg.),  the  circuit  of  the  local  battery.  -- Local color. (a)
   (Paint.)  The  color  which belongs to an object, and is not caused by
   accidental influences, as of reflection, shadow, etc. (b) (Literature)
   Peculiarities  of  the place and its inhabitants where the scene of an
   action  or  story is laid. -- Local option, the right or obligation of
   determining  by  popular  vote  within  certain  districts, as in each
   county,  city, or town, whether the sale of alcoholic beverages within
   the district shall be allowed.


   Lo"cal, n.

   1.  (Railroad)  A  train  which  receives  and  deposits passengers or
   freight along the line of the road; a train for the accommodation of a
   certain  district.  [U.S.]  <--  a  train  or  bus  which stops at all
   stations along a line, as contrasted with an express, which stops only
   at certain stations designated as express stops -->

   2.  On newspaper cant, an item of news relating to the place where the
   paper is published. [U.S.]


   Lo`cale" (?), n. [F. local.]

   1. A place, spot, or location.

   2. A principle, practice, form of speech, or other thing of local use,
   or limited to a locality.


   Lo"cal*ism (?), n.

   1.  The  state  or  quality of being local; affection for a particular

   2.  A  method  of speaking or acting peculiar to a certain district; a
   local idiom or phrase.


   Lo*cal"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Localitiees  (.  [L.  localitas:  cf.  F.

   1.  The  state,  or condition, of belonging to a definite place, or of
   being contained within definite limits.

     It  is  thought that the soul and angels are devoid of quantity and
     dimension,  and that they have nothing to do with grosser locality.

   Page 864

   2. Position; situation; a place; a spot; esp., a geographical place or
   situation, as of a mineral or plant.

   3.  Limitation to a county, district, or place; as, locality of trial.

   4.  (Phren.)  The  perceptive  faculty  concerned  with the ability to
   remember the relative positions of places.


   Lo`cal*i*za"tion  (?), n. [Cf. F. localisation.] Act of localizing, or
   state  of  being  localized.  Cerebral  localization  (Physiol.),  the
   localization  of  the  control of special functions, as of sight or of
   the various movements of the body, in special regions of the brain.


   Lo"cal*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Localized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Localizing  (?).] [Cf. F. localiser. See Local.] To make local; to fix
   in, or assign to, a definite place. H. Spencer. Wordsworth.


   Lo"cal*ly,  adv.  With  respect  to place; in place; as, to be locally
   separated or distant.


   Lo"cate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Located  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Locating.] [L. locatus, p. p. of locare to place, fr. locus place. See

   1. To place; to set in a particular spot or position.

     The captives and emigrants whom he brought with him were located in
     the trans-Tiberine quarter. B. F. Westcott.

   2.  To designate the site or place of; to define the limits of; as, to
   locate  a  public  building;  to locate a mining claim; to locate (the
   land granted by) a land warrant.

     That  part  of  the body in which the sense of touch is located. H.


   Lo"cate,  v.  i.  To  place one's self; to take up one's residence; to
   settle. [Colloq.]


   Lo*ca"tion (?), n. [L. locatio, fr. locare.]

   1. The act or process of locating.

   2. Situation; place; locality. Locke.

   3. That which is located; a tract of land designated in place. [U.S.]

   4. (Law) (a) (Civil Law) A leasing on rent. (b) (Scots Law) A contract
   for the use of a thing, or service of a person, for hire. Wharton. (c)
   (Amer.  Law)  The  marking  out  of the boundaries, or identifying the
   place  or site of, a piece of land, according to the description given
   in an entry, plan, map, etc. Burrill. Bouvier.


   Loc"a*tive  (?),  a.  (Gram.) Indicating place, or the place where, or
   wherein;  as, a locative adjective; locative case of a noun. -- n. The
   locative case.


   Lo"ca*tor (?), n. One who locates, or is entitled to locate, land or a
   mining claim. [U.S.]


   Lo*cel"late  (?),  a.  [L.  locellus  a  compartment,  dim. of locus a
   place.]  (Bot.) Divided into secondary compartments or cells, as where
   one cavity is separated into several smaller ones.


   Loch  (?), n. [Gael. & Olr. loch. See Lake of water.] A lake; a bay or
   arm of the sea. [Scot.]


   Loch  (?),  n. [F. looch, Ar. la', an electuary, or any medicine which
   may  be  licked or sucked, fr. la' to lick.] (Med.) A kind of medicine
   to be taken by licking with the tongue; a lambative; a lincture.

                           Lochaber ax, Lochaber axe

   Loch*a"ber  ax",  Loch*a"ber  axe"  (?).  [So called from Lochaber, in
   Scotland.]  A weapon of war, consisting of a pole armed with an axhead
   at its end, formerly used by the Scotch Highlanders.


   Loch"age (?), n. [Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) An officer who commanded a company;
   a captain. Mitford.


   Loch"an (?), n. [Gael. See 1st Loch.] A small lake; a pond. [Scot.]

     A pond or lochan rather than a lake. H. Miller.


   Loche (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Loach.


   Lo*chi"a (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. (Med.) The discharge from the womb
   and vagina which follows childbirth.


   Lo"chi*al (?), a. [Cf. F. lochial.] Of or pertaining to the lochia.


   Lock  (?),  n.  [AS.  locc;  akin to D. lok, G. locke, OHG. loc, Icel.
   lokkr,  and  perh. to Gr. A tuft of hair; a flock or small quantity of
   wool, hay, or other like substance; a tress or ringlet of hair.

     These gray locks, the pursuivants of death. Shak.


   Lock,  n.  [AS.  loc  inclosure, an inclosed place, the fastening of a
   door,  fr.  l&umac;can  to  lock,  fasten;  akin to OS. l&umac;kan (in
   comp.),  D.  luiken,  OHG.  l&umac;hhan, Icel. l, Goth. l&umac;kan (in
   comp.); cf. Skr. ruj to break. Cf. Locket.]

   1.  Anything that fastens; specifically, a fastening, as for a door, a
   lid,  a  trunk,  a drawer, and the like, in which a bolt is moved by a
   key so as to hold or to release the thing fastened.

   2.  A  fastening  together or interlacing; a closing of one thing upon
   another; a state of being fixed or immovable.

     Albemarle Street closed by a lock of carriages. De Quincey.

   3. A place from which egress is prevented, as by a lock. Dryden.

   4. The barrier or works which confine the water of a stream or canal.

   5.  An inclosure in a canal with gates at each end, used in raising or
   lowering  boats as they pass from one level to another; -- called also
   lift lock.

   6.  That  part  or  apparatus  of  a  firearm  by  which the charge is
   exploded; as, a matchlock, flintlock, percussion lock, etc.

   7. A device for keeping a wheel from turning.

   8. A grapple in wrestling. Milton.
   Detector  lock, a lock containing a contrivance for showing whether it
   as  has been tampered with. -- Lock bay (Canals), the body of water in
   a  lock chamber. -- Lock chamber, the inclosed space between the gates
   of  a  canal  lock.  --  Lock nut. See Check nut, under Check. -- Lock
   plate,  a  plate  to  which the mechanism of a gunlock is attached. --
   Lock  rail  (Arch.),  in  ordinary paneled doors, the rail nearest the
   lock.  Lock  rand (Masonry), a range of bond stone. Knight. -- Mortise
   lock,  a door lock inserted in a mortise. -- Rim lock, a lock fastened
   to the face of a door, thus differing from a mortise lock.


   Lock, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Locked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Locking.]

   1.  To fasten with a lock, or as with a lock; to make fast; to prevent
   free movement of; as, to lock a door, a carriage wheel, a river, etc.

   2.  To  prevent  ingress  or access to, or exit from, by fastening the
   lock  or  locks of; -- often with up; as, to lock or lock up, a house,
   jail, room, trunk. etc.

   3.  To  fasten  in  or out, or to make secure by means of, or as with,
   locks;  to confine, or to shut in or out -- often with up; as, to lock
   one's  self  in  a  room;  to  lock up the prisoners; to lock up one's
   silver;  to  lock  intruders  out  of  the house; to lock money into a
   vault;  to  lock  a  child  in  one's  arms; to lock a secret in one's

   4.  To  link together; to clasp closely; as, to lock arms. " Lock hand
   in hand." Shak.

   5. (Canals) To furnish with locks; also, to raise or lower (a boat) in
   a lock.

   6.  (Fencing)  To seize, as the sword arm of an antagonist, by turning
   the left arm around it, to disarm him.


   Lock  (?),  v.  i.  To  become  fast,  as  by  means  of  a lock or by
   interlacing; as, the door locks close.

     When it locked none might through it pass. Spenser.

   To  lock  into,  to  fit or slide into; as, they lock into each other.


   Lock"age (?), n.

   1.  Materials  for  locks  in  a canal, or the works forming a lock or

   2. Toll paid for passing the locks of a canal.

   3. Amount of elevation and descent made by the locks of a canal.

     The entire lock will be about fifty feet. De Witt Clinton.


   Lock"-down`  (?), n. A contrivance to fasten logs together in rafting;
   -- used by lumbermen. [U.S.]


   Locked"-jaw` (?), n. See Lockjaw.


   Lock"en (?), obs. p. p. of Lock. Chaucer.


   Lock"en, n. (Bot.) The globeflower (Trollius).


   Lock"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, locks.

   2. A drawer, cupboard, compartment, or chest, esp. one in a ship, that
   may be closed with a lock.
   Chain  locker  (Naut.),  a  compartment  in  the hold of a vessel, for
   holding  the  chain  cables. -- Davy Jones's locker, OR Davy's locker.
   See  Davy  Jones.  --  Shot  locker,  a  compartment  where  shot  are
   deposited. Totten.


   Lock"et  (?),  n.  [F.  loquet  latch, dim. of OF. loc latch, lock; of
   German origin. See Lock a fastening.]

   1.  A  small  lock;  a  catch  or spring to fasten a necklace or other

   2.  A  little  case  for  holding a miniature or lock of hair, usually
   suspended from a necklace or watch chain.

                                 Lock hospital

   Lock"  hos"pi*tal  (?).  A  hospital  for  the  treatment  of venereal
   diseases. [Eng.]


   Lock"jaw`  (?),  n.  (Med.) A contraction of the muscles of the jaw by
   which its motion is suspended; a variety of tetanus.


   Lock"less, a. Destitute of a lock.


   Lock"man (?), n. A public executioner. [Scot.]


   Lock"out` (?), n. The closing of a factory or workshop by an employer,
   usually  in  order  to  bring  the  workmen to satisfactory terms by a
   suspension of wages.


   Lock"ram  (?),  n. [F. locrenan, locronan; from Locronan, in Brittany,
   where  it  is said to have been made.] A kind of linen cloth anciently
   used in England, originally imported from Brittany. Shak.


   Lock"smith`  (?),  n. An artificer whose occupation is to make or mend

                                   Lock step

   Lock"  step`  (?). A mode of marching by a body of men going one after
   another  as closely as possible, in which the leg of each moves at the
   same time with the corresponding leg of the person before him.

                                  Lock stitch

   Lock"  stitch` (?). A peculiar sort of stitch formed by the locking of
   two threads together, as in the work done by some sewing machines. See


   Lock"up`  (?),  n.  A place where persons under arrest are temporarily
   locked up; a watchhouse.


   Lock"-weir`  (?), n. A waste weir for a canal, discharging into a lock


   Lock"y (?), a. Having locks or tufts. [R.] Sherwood.


   Lo"co  (?),  adv. [It.] (Mus.) A direction in written or printed music
   to return to the proper pitch after having played an octave higher.


   Lo"co,  n.  [Sp.  loco  insane.]  (Bot.)  A  plant (Astragalus Hornii)
   growing  in  the  Southwestern  United States, which is said to poison
   horses  and  cattle,  first making them insane. The name is also given
   vaguely  to  several other species of the same genus. Called also loco


   Lo`co*fo"co  (?),  n.  [Of  uncertain  etymol.; perh. for L. loco foci
   instead  of  fire;  or, according to Bartlett, it was called so from a
   self-lighting  cigar, with a match composition at the end, invented in
   1834  by  John Marck of New York, and called by him locofoco cigar, in
   imitation of the word locomotive, which by the uneducated was supposed
   to mean, self-moving.]

   1. A friction match. [U.S.]

   2.  A  nickname  formerly  given  to a member of the Democratic party.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me was first applied, in 1834, to a portion of
     the  Democratic  party,  because, at a meeting in Tammany Hall, New
     York, in which there was great diversity of sentiment, the chairman
     left his seat, and the lights were extinguished, for the purpose of
     dissolving   the  meeting;  when  those  who  were  opposed  to  an
     adjournment   produced  locofoco  matches,  rekindled  the  lights,
     continued the meeting, and accomplished their object.


   Lo`co*mo"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  locus  place  +  motio  motion:  cf.  F.
   locomotion. See Local, and Motion.]

   1.  The  act  of  moving  from  place  to place. " Animal locomotion."

   2.  The  power  of  moving  from place to place, characteristic of the
   higher  animals  and some of the lower forms of plant life. <-- 3. the
   name of a song and a dance, briefly popular in the 1960's -->


   Lo"co*mo`tive (?), a. [Cf. F. locomotif. See Locomotion.]

   1.  Moving  from  place  to  place;  changing place, or able to change
   place; as, a locomotive animal.

   2. Used in producing motion; as, the locomotive organs of an animal.


   Lo"co*mo`tive  (?),  n.  A  locomotive engine; a self-propelling wheel
   carriage,  especially  one  which bears a steam boiler and one or more
   steam  engines  which communicate motion to the wheels and thus propel
   the  carriage,  --  used  to  convey  goods  or passengers, or to draw
   wagons,   railroad   cars,   etc.   See   Illustration   in  Appendix.
   Consolidation  locomotive, a locomotive having four pairs of connected
   drivers.  --  Locomotive  car,  a locomotive and a car combined in one
   vehicle;  a  dummy  engine.  [U.S.]  --  Locomotive  engine.  Same  as
   Locomotive, above. -- Mogul locomotive. See Mogul.

                         Locomotiveness, Locomotivity

   Lo"co*mo`tive*ness    (?),   Lo`co*mo*tiv"i*ty   (?),   n.   [Cf.   F.
   locomotivit\'82.] The power of changing place.


   Lo`co*mo"tor (?), a. [See Locomotion.] Of or pertaining to movement or
   locomotion. Locomotor ataxia, OR Progressive locomotor ataxy (Med.), a
   disease  of  the spinal cord characterized by peculiar disturbances of
   gait, and difficulty in co\'94rdinating voluntary movements.


   Loc"u*la*ment  (?),  n.  [L.  loculamentum  case,  box,  fr. loculus a
   compartment,  dim.  of  locus place.] (Bot.) The cell of a pericarp in
   which the seed is lodged.


   Loc"u*lar (?), a. [L. locularis.] (Bot.) Of or relating to the cell or
   compartment  of  an  ovary,  etc.;  in  composition,  having cells; as
   trilocular. Gray.


   Loc"u*late (?), a. [L. loculatus.] (Bot.) Divided into compartments.


   Loc"ule  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  locule. See Loculus.] (Zo\'94l.) A little
   hollow; a loculus.


   Loc"u*li*ci`dal  (?),  a.  [L.  loculus  cell + caedere to cut: cf. F.
   loculicide.]  (Bot.)  Dehiscent through the middle of the back of each
   cell; -- said of capsules.

                              Loculose, Loculous

   Loc"u*lose`  (?),  Loc"u*lous  (?), a. [L. loculosus. See Loculament.]
   (Bot.)  Divided  by internal partitions into cells, as the pith of the


   Loc"u*lus (?), n.; pl. Loculi (#). [L., little place, a compartment.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) One of the spaces between the septa in the Anthozoa.

   2.   (Bot.)  One  of  the  compartments  of  a  several-celled  ovary;

                                 Locum tenens

   Lo"cum  te"nens  (?). [L., holding the place; locus place + tenens, p.
   pr.  of  tenere  to hold. Cf. Lieutenant.] A substitute or deputy; one
   filling an office for a time.


   Lo"cus  (?),  n.;  pl.  Loci  (#),  & Loca (#). [L., place. Cf. Allow,
   Couch, Lieu, Local.]

   1. A place; a locality.

   2.  (Math.)  The  line  traced  by  a  point which varies its position
   according to some determinate law; the surface described by a point or
   line that moves according to a given law.
   Plane  locus,  a  locus that is a straight line, or a circle. -- Solid
   locus, a locus that is one of the conic sections.


   Lo"cust (?), n. [L. locusta locust, grasshopper. Cf. Lobster.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any one of numerous species of long-winged, migratory,
   orthopterous  insects,  of  the  family  Acridid\'91,  allied  to  the
   grasshoppers;  esp., (Edipoda, OR Pachytylus, migratoria, and Acridium
   perigrinum, of Southern Europe, Asia, and Africa. In the United States
   the   related   species   with   similar  habits  are  usually  called
   grasshoppers. See Grasshopper.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ese in sects are at times so numerous in Africa and
     the  south  of  Asia  as to devour every green thing; and when they
     migrate,  they  fly  in  an immense cloud. In the United States the
     harvest flies are improperly called locusts. See Cicada.

   Locust  beetle  (Zo\'94l.),  a  longicorn beetle (Cyllene robini\'91),
   which,  in  the  larval  state,  bores holes in the wood of the locust
   tree.  Its  color  is  brownish black, barred with yellow. Called also
   locust  borer.  -- Locust bird (Zo\'94l.) the rose-colored starling or
   pastor  of  India. See Pastor. -- Locust hunter (Zo\'94l.), an African
   bird; the beefeater.

   2.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  (Bot.)  The  locust  tree.  See Locust Tree
   (definition, note, and phrases).
   Locust  bean  (Bot.), a commercial name for the sweet pod of the carob


   Lo*cus"ta  (?),  n.  [NL.: cf. locuste.] (Bot.) The spikelet or flower
   cluster of grasses. Gray.


   Lo`cus*tel"la  (?),  n. [NL., fr. L. locusta a locust.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   European cricket warbler.


   Lo*cus"tic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, the locust;
   -- formerly used to designate a supposed acid.


   Lo"cust*ing  (?),  p.  a.  Swarming and devastating like locusts. [R.]

                                  Locust tree

   Lo"cust  tree` (?). [Etymol. uncertain.] (Bot.) A large North American
   tree  of  the  genus Robinia (R. Pseudacacia), producing large slender
   racemes   of   white,  fragrant,  papilionaceous  flowers,  and  often
   cultivated as an ornamental tree. In England it is called acacia.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is also applied to other trees of different
     genera,  especially  to  those of the genus Hymen\'91a, of which H.
     Courbaril  is a lofty, spreading tree of South America; also to the
     carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua), a tree growing in the Mediterranean

   Honey  locust  tree  (Bot.),  a  tree  of  the  genus Gleditschia ) G.
   triacanthus), having pinnate leaves and strong branching thorns; -- so
   called  from  a sweet pulp found between the seeds in the pods. Called
   also  simply  honey locust. -- Water locust tree (Bot.), a small swamp
   tree (Gleditschia monosperma), of the Southern United States.

   Page 865


   Lo*cu"tion,  n.  [L.  locutio,  fr. loqui to speak: cf. F. locution. ]
   Speech  or  discourse;  a  phrase;  a  form  or  mode of expression. "
   Stumbling locutions." G. Eliot.

     I  hate  these  figures  in locution, These about phrases forced by
     ceremony. Marston.


   Loc"u*to*ry  (?),  n.  A  room for conversation; especially, a room in
   monasteries, where the monks were allowed to converse.


   Lod"de (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The capelin.


   Lode (?), n. [AS. l\'bed way, journey, fr. l\'c6\'eban to go. See Lead
   to guide, and cf. Load a burden.]

   1. A water course or way; a reach of water.

     Down  that  long, dark lode . . . he and his brother skated home in
     triumph. C. Kingsley.

   2.  (Mining)  A  metallic  vein;  any  regular vein or course, whether
   metallic or not.


   Lode"man*age (?), n. [OE. lodemenage. Chaucer.] Pilotage. [Obs.]


   Lode"*ship` (?), n. An old name for a pilot boat.


   Lodes"man (?), n. Same as Loadsman. [Obs.]


   Lode"star` (?), n. Same as Loadstar.


   Lode"stone` (?), n. (Min.) Same as Loadstone.


   Lodge  (?),  n.  [OE. loge, logge, F. loge, LL. laubia porch, gallery,
   fr. OHG. louba, G. laube, arbor, bower, fr. lab foliage. See Leaf, and
   cf. Lobby, Loggia.]

   1.  A  shelter  in which one may rest; as: (a) A shed; a rude cabin; a
   hut; as, an Indian's lodge. Chaucer.

     Their  lodges and their tentis up they gan bigge [to build]. Robert
     of Brunne.

     O for a lodge in some vast wilderness! Cowper.

   (b)  A  small  dwelling house, as for a gamekeeper or gatekeeper of an
   estate.  Shak.  (c)  A  den  or  cave.  (d)  The  meeting  room  of an
   association;  hence,  the  regularly constituted body of members which
   meets  there; as, a masonic lodge. (c) The chamber of an abbot, prior,
   or head of a college.

   2.  (Mining) The space at the mouth of a level next the shaft, widened
   to  permit  wagons  to  pass,  or ore to be deposited for hoisting; --
   called also platt. Raymond.

   3. A collection of objects lodged together.

     The Maldives, a famous lodge of islands. De Foe.

   4.  A  family  of  North  American Indians, or the persons who usually
   occupy  an  Indian  lodge,  -- as a unit of enumeration, reckoned from
   four  to  six  persons;  as,  the  tribe consists of about two hundred
   lodges, that is, of about a thousand individuals.
   Lodge  gate, a park gate, or entrance gate, near the lodge. See Lodge,
   n., 1 (b).


   Lodge, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lodged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lodging (?).]

   1.  To  rest  or  remain  a lodge house, or other shelter; to rest; to
   stay;  to abide; esp., to sleep at night; as, to lodge in York Street.

     Stay and lodge by me this night. Shak.

     Something holy lodges in that breast. Milton


   2.  To  fall  or lie down, as grass or grain, when overgrown or beaten
   down by the wind. Mortimer.

   3. To come to a rest; to stop and remain; as, the bullet lodged in the
   bark of a tree.


   Lodge, v. t. [OE. loggen, OF. logier, F. loger. See Lodge, n. ]

   1. To give shelter or rest to; especially, to furnish a sleeping place
   for; to harbor; to shelter; hence, to receive; to hold.

     Every house was proud to lodge a knight. Dryden.

     The  memory can lodge a greater stone of images that all the senses
     can present at one time. Cheyne.

   2. To drive to shelter; to track to covert.

     The deer is lodged; I have tracked her to her covert. Addison.

   3.  To  deposit  for keeping or preservation; as, the men lodged their
   arms in the arsenal.

   4. To cause to stop or rest in; to implant.

     He lodged an arrow in a tender breast. Addison.

   5. To lay down; to prostrate.

     Though bladed corn be lodged, and trees blown down. Shak.

   To lodge an information, to enter a formal complaint.


   Lodge"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. logeable.]

   1. That may be or can be lodged; as, so many persons are not lodgeable
   in this village.

   2.  Capable  of  affording  lodging;  fit  for  lodging in. [R.] " The
   lodgeable area of the earth." Jeffrey.


   Lodged  (?),  a. (Her.) Lying down; -- used of beasts of the chase, as
   couchant is of beasts of prey.


   Lodge"ment (?), n. See Lodgment.


   Lodg"er  (?),  n.  One  who, or that which, lodges; one who occupies a
   hired room in another's house.


   Lodg"ing, n.

   1. The act of one who, or that which, lodges.

   2.  A  place  of  rest,  or  of temporary habitation; esp., a sleeping
   apartment; -- often in the plural with a singular meaning. Gower.

     Wits take lodgings in the sound of Bow. Pope.

   3. Abiding place; harbor; cover.

     Fair bosom . . . the lodging of delight. Spenser.

   Lodging house, a house where lodgings are provided and let. -- Lodging
   room, a room in which a person lodges, esp. a hired room.


   Lodg"ment  (?),  n.  [Written  also  lodgement.] [Cf. F. logement. See
   Lodge, v.]

   1. The act of lodging, or the state of being lodged.

     Any  particle which is of size enough to make a lodgment afterwards
     in the small arteries. Paley.

   2. A lodging place; a room. [Obs.]

   3.  An accumulation or collection of something deposited in a place or
   remaining at rest.

   4.  (Mil.) The occupation and holding of a position, as by a besieging
   party; an instrument thrown up in a captured position; as, to effect a


   Lod"i*cule  (?),  n. [L. lodicula. dim, of lodix, lodicis, a coverlet:
   cf.  F.  lodicule.] (Bot.) One of the two or three delicate membranous
   scales which are next to the stamens in grasses.


   Loel"ling*ite  (?), n. [So called from L\'94lling, in Austria.] (Min.)
   A tin-white arsenide of iron, isomorphous with arsenopyrite.


   Loess  (?),  n.  [G.  l\'94ss.]  (Geol.) A quaternary deposit, usually
   consisting  of  a  fine yellowish earth, on the banks of the Rhine and
   other large rivers.

                                Loeven's larva

   Loev"en's  lar"va  (?).  [Named  after the Swedish zo\'94logist, S. F.
   L\'94ven,  who  discovered  it.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The  peculiar  larva  of
   Polygordius. See Polygordius.


   Loffe (?), v. i. To laugh. [Obs.] Shak.


   Loft  (?),  n.  [Icel. lopt air, heaven, loft, upper room; akin to AS.
   lyft air, G. luft, Dan. loft loft, Goth. luftus air. Cf. Lift, v. & n.
   ]  That  which  is lifted up; an elevation. Hence, especially: (a) The
   room  or  space  under  a  roof and above the ceiling of the uppermost
   story.  (b) A gallery or raised apartment in a church, hall, etc.; as,
   an organ loft. (c) A floor or room placed above another; a story.

     Eutychus . . . fell down from the third loft. Acts xx. 9.

   On loft, aloft; on high. Cf. Onloft. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Loft, a. Lofty; proud. [R. & Obs.] Surrey.


   Loft"i*ly  (?),  adv.  [From  Lofty.]  In  a lofty manner or position;


   Loft"i*ness, n. The state or quality of being lofty.


   Loft"y (?), a. [Compar. Loftier (?); superl. Loftiest.] [From Loft.]

   1. Lifted high up; having great height; towering; high.

     See lofty Lebanon his head advance. Pope.

   2.  Fig.:  Elevated  in  character,  rank,  dignity,  spirit, bearing,
   language,  etc.;  exalted;  noble;  stately;  characterized  by pride;

     The high and lofty One, that inhabiteth eternity. Is. lvii. 15.

     Lofty and sour to them that loved him not. Shak.

     Himself to sing, and build the lofty rhyme. Milton.

   Syn.  --  Tall;  high; exalted; dignified; stately; majestic; sublime;
   proud; haughty. See Tall.


   Log  (?),  n. [Heb. l&omac;g.] A Hebrew measure of liquids, containing
   2.37 gills. W. H. Ward. 


   Log  (?), n. [Icel. l\'beg a felled tree, log; akin to E. lie. See Lie
   to lie prostrate.]

   1.  A  bulky  piece  of  wood  which  has not been shaped by hewing or

   2.  [Prob.  the  same word as in sense 1; cf. LG. log, lock, Dan. log,
   Sw.  logg.]  (Naut.)  An  apparatus for measuring the rate of a ship's
   motion through the water.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon log consists of the log-chip, or logship,
     often  exclusively  called  the  log,  and the log line, the former
     being commonly a thin wooden quadrant of five or six inches radius,
     loaded  with lead on the arc to make it float with the point up. It
     is attached to the log line by cords from each corner. This line is
     divided  into  equal  spaces,  called  knots, each bearing the same
     proportion  to  a mile that half a minute does to an hour. The line
     is  wound  on  a reel which is so held as to let it run off freely.
     When  the  log  is  thrown,  the log-chip is kept by the water from
     being  drawn  forward,  and  the  speed of the ship is shown by the
     number  of knots run out in half a minute. There are improved logs,
     consisting of a piece of mechanism which, being towed astern, shows
     the  distance  actually  gone  through by the ship, by means of the
     revolutions of a fly, which are registered on a dial plate.

   3.  Hence:  The  record  of  the  rate of ship's speed or of her daily
   progress; also, the full nautical record of a ship's cruise or voyage;
   a log slate; a log book.

   4.  A record and tabulated statement of the work done by an engine, as
   of  a  steamship, of the coal consumed, and of other items relating to
   the performance of machinery during a given time.

   5.  (Mining) A weight or block near the free end of a hoisting rope to
   prevent it from being drawn through the sheave.
   Log  board  (Naut.), a board consisting of two parts shutting together
   like  a  book,  with columns in which are entered the direction of the
   wind, course of the ship, etc., during each hour of the day and night.
   These  entries are transferred to the log book. A folding slate is now
   used  instead.  --  Log  book,  OR Logbook (Naut.), a book in which is
   entered  the daily progress of a ship at sea, as indicated by the log,
   with notes on the weather and incidents of the voyage; the contents of
   the log board. Log cabin, Log house, a cabin or house made of logs. --
   Log  canoe, a canoe made by shaping and hollowing out a single log.<--
   =  dugout  canoe  -->  -- Log glass (Naut.), a small sandglass used to
   time  the  running out of the log line. -- Log line (Naut.), a line or
   cord about a hundred and fifty fathoms long, fastened to the log-chip.
   See Note under 2d Log, n., 2. -- Log perch (Zo\'94l.), an ethiostomoid
   fish,  or  darter  (Percina  caprodes);  --  called  also  hogfish and
   rockfish.  --  Log  reel  (Naut.),  the  reel on which the log line is
   wound.  --  Log  slate.  (Naut.)  See  Log board (above). -- Rough log
   (Naut.),  a  first  draught  of  a  record of the cruise or voyage. --
   Smooth  log  (Naut.),  a  clean  copy of the rough log. In the case of
   naval  vessels  this  copy  is  forwarded to the proper officer of the
   government. -- To heave the log (Naut.), to cast the log-chip into the
   water; also, the whole process of ascertaining a vessel's speed by the


   Log,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Logged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Logging (?).]
   (Naut.),  To  enter in a ship's log book; as, to log the miles run. J.
   F. Cooper.


   Log, v. i.

   1.  To  engage  in  the  business  of cutting or transporting logs for
   timber; to get out logs. [U.S.]

   2. To move to and fro; to rock. [Obs.]


   Log"an (?), n. A rocking or balanced stone. Gwill.


   Log`a*\'d2d"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Gr.  Pros.)  Composed  of dactyls and
   trochees  so  arranged  as to produce a movement<-- ? ve illegible -->
   like that of ordinary speech.


   Log"a*rithm  (?),  n.  [Gr.  logarithme.]  (Math.)  One  of a class of
   auxiliary  numbers,  devised  by  John Napier, of Merchiston, Scotland
   (1550-1617),  to  abridge  arithmetical  calculations,  by  the use of
   addition and subtraction in place of multiplication and division.

     NOTE: The re lation of  lo garithms to  co mmon nu mbers is that of
     numbers  in  an  arithmetical  series to corresponding numbers in a
     geometrical  series,  so  that  sums  and differences of the former
     indicate respectively products and quotients of the latter; thus

   0 1 2 3 4 Indices or logarithms 1 10 100 1000 10,000 Numbers in
   geometrical progression

     Hence, the logarithm of any given number is the exponent of a power
     to  which another given invariable number, called the base, must be
     raised  in  order to produce that given number. Thus, let 10 be the
     base,  then  2 is the logarithm of 100, because 102 = 100, and 3 is
     the logarithm of 1,000, because 103 = 1,000.

   Arithmetical  complement  of  a  logarithm,  the  difference between a
   logarithm  and the number ten. -- Binary logarithms. See under Binary.
   --  Common  logarithms, OR Brigg's logarithms, logarithms of which the
   base  is  10;  --  so  called from Henry Briggs, who invented them. --
   Gauss's  logarithms, tables of logarithms constructed for facilitating
   the operation of finding the logarithm of the sum of difference of two
   quantities  from  the logarithms of the quantities, one entry of those
   tables  and  two  additions  or  subtractions answering the purpose of
   three  entries  of  the common tables and one addition or subtraction.
   They  were  suggested  by  the  celebrated  German  mathematician Karl
   Friedrich  Gauss  (died  in  1855),  and  are of great service in many
   astronomical  computations. -- Hyperbolic, OR Napierian, logarithms<--
   usually  called 'natural logarithms' -->, those logarithms (devised by
   John Speidell, 1619) of which the base is 2.7182818; -- so called from
   Napier,    the    inventor    of    logarithms.    --    Logistic   OR
   Proportionallogarithms., See under Logistic.

                        Logarithmetic, Logarithmetical

   Log`a*rith*met"ic (?), Log"a*rith*met"ic*al (?), a. See Logarithmic.


   Log`a*rith*met"ic*al*ly, adv. Logarithmically.

                          Logarithmic, Logarithmical

   Log`a*rith"mic  (?), Log`a*rith"mic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. logarithmique.]
   Of  or pertaining to logarithms; consisting of logarithms. Logarithmic
   curve  (Math.),  a  curve  which,  referred to a system of rectangular
   co\'94rdinate axes, is such that the ordinate of any point will be the
   logarithm  of its abscissa. -- Logarithmic spiral, a spiral curve such
   that  radii drawn from its pole or eye at equal angles with each other
   are in continual proportion. See Spiral.


   Log`a*rith"mic*al*ly, adv. By the use of logarithms.


   Log"-chip`  (?), n. (Naut.) A thin, flat piece of board in the form of
   a  quadrant  of  a  circle  attached  to  the log line; -- called also
   log-ship. See 2d Log, n., 2.


   Log"cock` (?), n. The pileated woodpecker.


   Loge (?), n. [F. See Lodge.] A lodge; a habitation. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Log"gan (?), n. See Logan.


   Log"gat (?), n. [Also written logget.]

   1. A small log or piece of wood. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

   2.  pl. An old game in England, played by throwing pieces of wood at a
   stake set in the ground. [Obs.] Shak.


   Logge (?), n. & v. See Lodge. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Logged  (?),  a.  Made  slow  and  heavy  in  movement;  water-logged.


   Log"ger (?), n. One engaged in logging. See Log, v. i. [U.S.] Lowell.


   Log"ger*head` (?), n. [Log + head.]

   1. A blockhead; a dunce; a numskull. Shak. Milton.

   2. A spherical mass of iron, with a long handle, used to heat tar.

   3.  (Naut.)  An  upright  piece  of round timber, in a whaleboat, over
   which  a  turn  of  the line is taken when it is running out too fast.
   Ham. Nav. Encyc.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  A very large marine turtle (Thalassochelys caretta, OR
   caouana),  common  in  the  warmer  parts  of the Atlantic Ocean, from
   Brazil to Cape Cod; -- called also logger-headed turtle.

   5. (Zo\'94l.) An American shrike (Lanius Ludovicianus), similar to the
   butcher bird, but smaller. See Shrike.
   To be at loggerheads, To fall to loggerheads, OR To go to loggerheads,
   to quarrel; to be at strife. L' Estrange.


   Log"ger*head`ed, a. Dull; stupid. Shak.

     A rabble of loggerheaded physicians. Urquhart.


   Log"ger*heads` (?), n. (Bot.) The knapweed.


   Log"gia  (?),  n.  [It.  See Lodge.] (Arch.) A roofed open gallery. It
   differs  from  a  veranda  in being more architectural, and in forming
   more  decidedly  a  part  of the main edifice to which it is attached;
   from  a  porch,  in  being  intended  not  for  entrance  but  for  an
   out-of-door sitting-room.


   Log"ging  (?),  n.  The  business  of felling trees, cutting them into
   logs, and transporting the logs to sawmills or to market.


   Log"ic  (?),  n.  [OE.  logike,  F.  logique,  L.  logica, logice, Gr.

   1.  The  science  or  art  of  exact  reasoning, or of pure and formal
   thought,  or  of  the  laws  according  to which the processes of pure
   thinking  should  be  conducted;  the  science  of  the  formation and
   application   of  general  notions;  the  science  of  generalization,
   judgment,   classification,  reasoning,  and  systematic  arrangement;
   correct reasoning.

   Page 866

     Logic  is  science  of  the  laws  of  thought,  as that is, of the
     necessary  conditions  to  which  thought, considered in itself, is
     subject. Sir W. Hamilton.

     NOTE: &hand; Lo gic is  di stinguished as  pure and applied. " Pure
     logic is a science of the form, or of the formal laws, of thinking,
     and not of the matter. Applied logic teaches the application of the
     forms of thinking to those objects about which men do think. "

   Abp. Thomson. 

   2. A treatise on logic; as, Mill's Logic.


   Log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. logique, L. logicus, Gr.

   1.  Of  or pertaining to logic; used in logic; as, logical subtilties.

   2.  According  to  the  rules  of  logic;  as,  a  logical argument or
   inference; the reasoning is logical. Prior.

   3.  Skilled in logic; versed in the art of thinking and reasoning; as,
   he is a logical thinker. Addison.


   Log`i*cal"i*ty (?), n. Logicalness.


   Log"ic*al*ly (?), adv. In a logical manner; as, to argue logically.


   Log"ic*al*ness, n. The quality of being logical.


   Lo*gi"cian  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  logicien.]  A person skilled in logic.

     Each fierce logician still expelling Locke. Pope.


   Log"ics (?), n. See Logic.

                             Logistic, Logistical

   Lo*gis"tic (?), Lo*gis"tic*al (?), a. [Gr. logistique.]

   1. Logical. [Obs.] Berkeley.

   2.  (Math.)  Sexagesimal, or made on the scale of 60; as, logistic, or
   sexagesimal, arithmetic.
   Logistic,  OR  Proportional,  logarithms,  certain logarithmic numbers
   used  to shorten the calculation of the fourth term of a proportion of
   which  one  of  the  terms  is a given constant quantity, commonly one
   hour,  while  the other terms are expressed in minutes and seconds; --
   not now used.


   Lo*gis"tics (?), n.

   1.  (Mil.)  That branch of the military art which embraces the details
   of  moving  and  supplying  armies. The meaning of the word is by some
   writers extended to include strategy. H. L. Scott.

   2. (Math.) A system of arithmetic, in which numbers are expressed in a
   scale of 60; logistic arithmetic.


   Log"man (?), n.; pl. Logmen (. A man who carries logs. Shak.


   Log`o*d\'91d"a*ly   (?),   n.   [Gr.   Logos,  and  D\'91dal.]  Verbal
   legerdemain; a playing with words. [R.] Coleridge.


   Log"o*gram  (?), n. [Gr. -gram.] A word letter; a phonogram, that, for
   the  sake  of brevity, represents a word; as, |, i. e., t, for it. Cf.


   Lo*gog"ra*pher (?), n.

   1.  A  chronicler;  one  who writes history in a condensed manner with
   short simple sentences.

   2. One skilled in logography.

                          Logographic, Logographical

   Log`o*graph"ic  (?), Log`o*graph"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. logographique.] Of
   or pertaining to logography.


   Lo*gog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. logographie.]

   1.  A  method  of  printing in which whole words or syllables, cast as
   single types, are used.

   2.  A  mode of reporting speeches without using shorthand, -- a number
   of  reporters,  each  in  succession, taking down three or four words.
   Brande & C.


   Log"o*griph  (?), n. [Gr. logogriphe.] A sort of riddle in which it is
   required  to  discover  a chosen word from various combinations of its
   letters,  or  of some of its letters, which form other words; -- thus,
   to  discover  the  chosen word chatter form cat, hat, rat, hate, rate,
   etc. B. Jonson.


   Lo*gom"a*chist (?), n. [See Logomachy.] One who contends about words.


   Lo*gom"a*chy (?), n. [Gr. logomachie.]

   1.  Contention  in words merely, or a contention about words; a war of

     The  discussion concerning the meaning of the word " justification"
     . . . has largely been a mere logomachy. L. Abbott.

   2. A game of word making.


   Log`o*met"ric  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Chem.) Serving to measure or ascertain
   chemical equivalents; stoichiometric. [R.]


   Log"os (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1. A word; reason; speech. H. Bushell.

   2. The divine Word; Christ.


   Log"o*thete   (?),  [LL.  logotheta,  fr.  Gr.  An  accountant;  under
   Constantine,  an  officer  of  the  empire;  a receiver of revenue; an
   administrator of a department.


   Log"o*type (?), n. [Gr. -type.] (Print.) A single type, containing two
   or  more  letters;  as, \'91, \'92, fi, fl, ffl, etc. ; -- called also


   Log"roll`  (?),  v.  i. & t. To engage in logrolling; to accomplish by
   logrolling. [Political cant, U. S.]


   Log"roll`er (?), n. One who engages in logrolling. [Political cant, U.

     The jobbers and logrollers will all be against it. The. Nation.


   Log"roll`ing, n.

   1.  (Logging)  The act or process of rolling logs from the place where
   they  were felled to the stream which floats them to the sawmill or to
   market.  In  this labor neighboring camps of loggers combine to assist
   each other in turn. Longfellow. [U.S.]

   2.  Hence: A combining to assist another in consideration of receiving
   assistance  in  return;  --  sometimes  used of a disreputable mode of
   accomplishing  political schemes or ends. [Cant, U.S.]<-- "You scratch
   my back, I'll scratch yours." -->


   Log"-ship (?), n. (Naut.) A part of the log. See Log-chip, and 2d Log,
   n., 2.


   Log"wood`  (?)  n.  [So  called  from  being  imported  in  logs.] The
   heartwood  of  a tree (H\'91matoxylon Campechianum), a native of South
   America,  It  is a red, heavy wood, containing a crystalline substance
   called  h\'91matoxylin, and is used largely in dyeing. An extract from
   this  wood is used in medicine as an astringent. Also called Campeachy
   wood, and bloodwood.


   -lo*gy  (?).  [Gr.  Logic.]  A  combining  form  denoting a discourse,
   treatise,  doctrine,  theory, science; as, theology, geology, biology,


   Lo"gy,  a.  [From  D.  log.]  Heavy  or  dull  in respect to motion or
   thought; as, a logy horse. [U.S.]

     Porcupines are . . . logy, sluggish creatures. C. H. Merriam.


   Lo"hock (?), n. (Med.) See Loch, a medicine.


   Loi"mic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Of  or pertaining to the plague or contagious


   Loin  (?),  n.  [OE.  loine,  OF.  logne, F. longe, from (assumed) LL.
   lumbea,  L.  lumbus  join. Cf. Lends, Lumbar, Nombles.] That part of a
   human  being  or quadruped, which extends on either side of the spinal
   column  between  the  hip bone and the false ribs. In human beings the
   loins are also called the reins. See Illust. of Beef.


   Loir  (?),  n.  [F., fr. L. glis, gliris.] (Zo\'94l.) A large European
   dormouse (Myoxus glis).


   Loi"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Loitered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Loitering.]  [D. leuteren to delay, loiter; cf; Prov. G. lottern to be
   louse, lotter louse, slack, unsettled, vagrant, OHG. lotar.]

   1. To be slow in moving; to delay; to linger; to be dilatory; to spend
   time idly; to saunter; to lag behind.

     Sir John, you loiter here too long. Shak.

     If we have loitered, let us quicken our pace. Rogers.

   2.  To  wander  as an idle vagrant. [Obs.] Spenser. Syn. -- To linger;
   delay; lag; saunter; tarry.


   Loi"ter*er (?), n.

   1. One who loiters; an idler.

   2. An idle vagrant; a tramp. [Obs.] Bp. Sanderson.


   Loi"ter*ing*ly, adv. In a loitering manner.

                                   Lok, Loki

   Lok  (?),  Lo"ki  (?),  n.  [Icel. Loki, perh. akin to lokka, locka to
   allure,  entice.]  (Scandinavian  Myth.) The evil deity, the author of
   all calamities and mischief, answering to the African of the Persians.


   Lo*ca"o (?), n. A green vegetable dye imported from China.


   Loke (?), n. [See Lock a fastening.] A private path or road; also, the
   wicket or hatch of a door. [Prov. Eng.]


   Lok"o*rys (?), n. Liquorice. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lo*li"go (?), n. [L., cuttle fish.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of cephalopods,
   including  numerous species of squids, common on the coasts of America
   and Europe. They are much used for fish bait.


   Loll  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Lolled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lolling.]
   [Cf.  Icel.  lolla to act lazily, loll, lolla, laziness, OD. lollen to
   sit over the fire, and E. lull. Cf. Lill, Lull.]

   1.  To  act  lazily or indolently; to recline; to lean; to throw one's
   self down; to lie at ease.

     Void of care, he lolls supine in state. Dryden.

   2.  To  hand  extended from the mouth, as the tongue of an ox or a log
   when heated with labor or exertion.

     The  triple  porter  of  the Stygian seat, With lolling tongue, lay
     fawning at thy feet. Dryden


   3.  To  let  the  tongue  hang from the mouth, as an ox, dog, or other
   animal, when heated by labor; as, the ox stood lolling in the furrow.


   Loll, v. t. To let hang from the mouth, as the tongue.

     Fierce  tigers  couched  around  and  lolled their fawning tongues.


   Lol"lard  (?),  n.  [LL.  Lollardi, Lullardi, from Walter Lolhardus, a
   German;  cf.  LG.  &  D. lollen to mumble, to hum, sing in a murmuring
   strain;  hence,  OD.  lollaerd a mumbler, i. e., of prayers or psalms,
   which was prob. the origin of the name. See Loll, Lull.] (Eccl. Hist.)
   (a)  One  of  a  sect  of  early  reformers in Germany. (b) One of the
   followers of Wyclif in England. [Called also Loller.]

     By  Lollards  all  know  the  Wyclifities are meant, so called from
     Walter Lollardus, one of their teachers in Germany. Fuller.

                             Lollardism, Lollardy

   Lol"lard*ism  (?),  Lol"lard*y  (?), n. The doctrines or principles of
   the Lollards.


   Loll"er (?), n. [See Loll.]

   1. One who lolls.

   2. An idle vagabond. [Obs.] Piers Plowman.

   3. A Lollard.


   Loll"ing*ly, adv. In a lolling manner. Buckle.


   Lol"li*pop (?), n. [Perhaps fr. Prov. E. loll to soothe + pope a mixed
   liquor.]  A  kind  of  sugar  confection which dissolves easily in the
   mouth. Thackeray.


   Lol"lop (?), v. i. [From Loll.] To move heavily; to lounge or idle; to
   loll. [Law.] Charles Reade.


   Lo"ma  (?),  n.;  pl.  Lomata  (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A lobe; a
   membranous fringe or flap.


   Lo*mat"i*nous  (?),  a. [See Loma.] (Zo\'94l.) Furnished with lobes or


   Lom"bard  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Lombardy, or the inhabitants of


   Lom"bard,  n.  [F.  lombard,  fr. the Longobardi or Langobardi, i. e.,
   Longbeards,  a  people  of  Northern  Germany,  west  of the Elbe, and
   afterward in Northern Italy. See Long, and Beard, and cf. Lumber.]

   1. A native or inhabitant of Lombardy.

   2.  A  money  lender  or  banker; -- so called because the business of
   banking was first carried on in London by Lombards.

   3. Same as Lombard-house.

     A  Lombard  unto  this  day  signifying  a bank for usury or pawns.

   4. (Mil.) A form of cannon formerly in use. Prescott.
   Lombard  Street,  the  principal  street  in  London for banks and the
   offices  of  note  brokers;  hence,  the  money market and interest of


   Lom`bard*eer" (?; 277), n. A pawnbroker. [Obs.] Howell.

                          Lombard-house, Lombar-house

   Lom"bard-house (?), Lom"bar-house` (?),[F. or D. lombard. See Lombard,

   1. A bank or a pawnbroker's shop.

   2.  A  public  institution for lending money to the poor at a moderate
   interest,  upon articles deposited and pledged; -- called also mont de


   Lom*bar"dic  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Lombardy of the Lombards.
   Lombardic  alphabet,  the ancient alphabet derived from the Roman, and
   employed  in  the  manuscript of Italy. -- Lombardic architecture, the
   debased  Roman  style  of  architecture  as found in parts of Northern
   Italy. F. G. Lee. Lombardy poplar. (Bot.) See Poplar.


   Lo"ment  (?), n. [L. lomentum a mixture of bean meal and rice, used as
   a  cosmetic  wash,  bean  meal, fr. lavare, lotum, to wash.] (Bot.) An
   elongated pod, consisting, like the legume, of two valves, but divided
   transversely into small cells, each containing a single seed.


   Lo`men*ta"ceous  (?),  a.  [From  Loment.]  (Bot.)  Of the nature of a
   loment; having fruits like loments.


   Lom"o*nite (?), n. Same as Laumontite.


   Lomp"ish (?), a. Lumpish. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Lond (?), n. Land. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Lon"don  (?),  n.  The capital city of England. London paste (Med.), a
   paste made of caustic soda and unslacked lime; -- used as a caustic to
   destroy  tumors and other morbid enlargements. -- London pride. (Bot.)
   (a)  A garden name for Saxifraga umbrosa, a hardy perennial herbaceous
   plant,  a  native of high lands in Great Britain. (b) A name anciently
   given  to  the  Sweet  William.  Dr. Prior. -- London rocket (Bot.), a
   cruciferous   plant  (Sisymbrium  Irio)  which  sprung  up  in  London
   abundantly on the ruins of the great fire of 1667.


   Lon"don*er (-&etil;r), n. A native or inhabitant of London. Shak.


   Lon"don*ism  (?), n. A characteristic of Londoners; a mode of speaking
   peculiar to London.


   Lon"don*ize  (?),  v. i. To impart to (one) a manner or character like
   that which distinguishes Londoners.


   Lon"don*ize, v. i. To imitate the manner of the people of London.


   Lone (?), n. A lane. See Loanin. [Prov. Eng.]


   Lone, a. [Abbrev. fr. alone.]

   1. Being without a companion; being by one's self; also, sad from lack
   of companionship; lonely; as, a lone traveler or watcher.

     When  I  have  on  those  pathless  wilds  a appeared, And the lone
     wanderer with my presence cheered. Shenstone.

   2. Single; unmarried, or in widowhood. [Archaic]

     Queen Elizabeth being a lone woman. Collection of Records (1642).

     A hundred mark is a long one for a poor lone woman to bear. Shak.

   3.  Being  apart from other things of the kind; being by itself; also,
   apart  from  human  dwellings  and  resort; as, a lone house. " A lone
   isle." Pope.

     By a lone well a lonelier column rears. Byron.

   4. Unfrequented by human beings; solitary.

     Thus  vanish  scepters,  coronets, and balls, And leave you on lone
     woods, or empty walls. Pope.


   Lone"li*ness (?), n.

   1. The condition of being lonely; solitude; seclusion.

   2. The state of being unfrequented by human beings; as, the loneliness
   of a road.

   3. Love of retirement; disposition to solitude.

     I see The mystery of your loneliness. Shak.

   4.  A  feeling  of  depression  resulting  from  being  alone. Syn. --
   Solitude; seclusion. See Solitude.


   Lone"ly,  a. [Compar. Lonelier (?); superl. Loneliest.] [Shortened fr.

   1.  Sequestered  from  company  or neighbors; solitary; retired; as, a
   lonely situation; a lonely cell.

   2. Alone, or in want of company; forsaken.

     To the misled and lonely traveler. Milton.

   3. Not frequented by human beings; as, a lonely wood.

   4.  Having  a  feeling  of  depression  or  sadness resulting from the
   consciousness of being alone; lonesome.

     I am very often alone. I don't mean I am lonely. H. James.

   Syn.  -- Solitary; lone; lonesome; retired; unfrequented; sequestered;


   Lone"ness, n. Solitude; seclusion. [Obs.] Donne.


   Lone"some (?), a. [Compar. Lonesomer (?); superl. Lonesomest.]

   1. Secluded from society; not frequented by human beings; solitary.

     Like  one  that  on  a  lonesome  road Doth walk in fear and dread.


   2.  Conscious  of,  and  somewhat  depressed by, solitude; as, to feel
   lonesome. -- Lone"some*ly, adv. -- Lone"some*ness, n.


   Long  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Longer (?); superl. Longest (?).] [AS. long,
   lang;  akin  to  OS, OFries., D., & G. lang, Icel. langr, Sw. l\'86ng,
   Dan.  lang, Goth. laggs, L.longus. &root;125. Cf. Length, Ling a fish,
   Linger, Lunge, Purloin.]

   1.  Drawn  out  in  a line, or in the direction of length; protracted;
   extended; as, a long line; -- opposed to short, and distinguished from
   broad or wide.

   Page 867

   2.  Drawn  out  or  extended in time; continued through a considerable
   tine,  or  to  a  great  length;  as,  a long series of events; a long
   debate; a long drama; a long history; a long book.

   3.   Slow  in  passing;  causing  weariness  by  length  or  duration;
   lingering; as, long hours of watching.

   4.  Occurring  or  coming after an extended interval; distant in time;
   far away.

     The we may us reserve both fresh and strong Against the tournament,
     which is not long. Spenser.

   5.  Extended  to  any  specified measure; of a specified length; as, a
   span  long; a yard long; a mile long, that is, extended to the measure
   of a mile, etc.

   6. Far-reaching; extensive. " Long views." Burke.

   7.  (Phonetics) Prolonged, or relatively more prolonged, in utterance;
   --  said  of  vowels  and  syllables.  See Short, a., 13, and Guide to
   Pronunciation,  22, 30.

     NOTE: &hand; Long is used as a prefix in a large number of compound
     adjectives  which  are  mostly  of obvious meaning; as, long-armed,
     long-beaked,  long-haired,  long-horned, long-necked, long-sleeved,
     long-tailed, long- worded, etc.

   In  the long run, in the whole course of things taken together; in the
   ultimate  result; eventually. -- Long clam (Zo\'94l.), the common clam
   (Mya  arenaria)  of  the  Northern United States and Canada; -- called
   also  soft-shell  clam  and  long-neck clam. See Mya. -- Long cloth, a
   kind  of  cotton  cloth  of superior quality. -- Long clothes, clothes
   worn  by  a  young infant, extending below the feet. -- Long division.
   (Math.)  See Division. -- Long dozen, one more than a dozen; thirteen.
   --  Long  home,  the  grave.  --  Long  measure, Long mater. See under
   Measure,  Meter. -- Long Parliament (Eng. Hist.), the Parliament which
   assembled Nov. 3, 1640, and was dissolved by Cromwell, April 20, 1653.
   --  Long  price, the full retail price. -- Long purple (Bot.), a plant
   with  purple flowers, supposed to be the Orchis mascula. Dr. Prior. --
   Long  suit  (Whist),  a  suit  of which one holds originally more than
   three  cards.  R.  A.  Proctor.  -- Long tom. (a) A pivot gun of great
   length  and  range,  on  the  dock  of a vessel. (b) A long trough for
   washing   auriferous   earth.   [Western   U.S.]  (c)  (Zo\'94l.)  The
   long-tailed  titmouse.  -- Long wall (Coal Mining), a working in which
   the whole seam is removed and the roof allowed to fall in, as the work
   progresses, except where passages are needed. -- Of long, a long time.
   [Obs.] Fairfax. -- To be, OR go, long of the market, To be on the long
   side of the market, etc. (Stock Exchange), to hold stock for a rise in
   price,  or  to  have a contract under which one can demand stock on or
   before  a  certain  day  at a stipulated price; -- opposed to short in
   such  phrases as, to be short of stock, to sell short, etc. [Cant] See
   Short. -- To have a long head, to have a farseeing or sagacious mind.
   Long (?), n.
   1.  (Mus.)  A  note  formerly  used in music, one half the length of a
   large, twice that of a breve.
   2. (Phonetics) A long sound, syllable, or vowel.

   3.  The  longest dimension; the greatest extent; -- in the phrase, the
   long  and  the  short  of  it,  that  is, the sum and substance of it.


   Long, adv. [AS. lance.]

   1. To a great extent in apace; as, a long drawn out line.

   2. To a great extent in time; during a long time.

     They that tarry long at the wine. Prov. xxiii. 30.

     When the trumpet soundeth long. Ex. xix. 13.

   3.  At a point of duration far distant, either prior or posterior; as,
   not  long  before; not long after; long before the foundation of Rome;
   long after the Conquest.

   4. Through the whole extent or duration.

     The bird of dawning singeth all night long. Shak.

   5.  Through  an extent of time, more or less; -- only in question; as,
   how long will you be gone?


   Long, prep. [Abbreviated fr. along. See 3d Along.] By means of; by the
   fault of; because of. [Obs.] See Along of, under 3d Along.


   Long,  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Longed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Longing.] [AS.
   langian  to  increase,  to lengthen, to stretch out the mind after, to
   long, to crave, to belong to, fr. lang long. See Long, a.]

   1. To feel a strong or morbid desire or craving; to wish for something
   with eagerness; -- followed by an infinitive, or by after or for.

     I long to see you. Rom. i. 11.

     I have longed after thy precepts. Ps. cxix. 40.

     I have longed for thy salvation. Ps. cxix. 174.

     Nicomedes, longing for herrings, was supplied with fresh ones . . .
     at a great distance from the sea. Arbuthnot.

   2. To belong; -- used with to, unto, or for. [Obs.]

     The labor which that longeth unto me. Chaucer.


   Lon"gan  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  pulpy  fruit  related to the litchi, and
   produced by an evergreen East Indian tree (Nephelium Longan).


   Lon`ga*nim"i*ty  (?),  n. [L. longanimitas; longus long + animus mind:
   cf.  F.  longanimit\'82.]  Disposition  to  bear  injuries  patiently;
   forbearance; patience. Jer. Taylor.


   Long"-armed`  (?),  a.  Having  long  arms;  as, the long-armed ape or


   Long"beak`   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   The  American  redbellied  snipe
   (Macrorhamphus scolopaceus); -- called also long-billed dowitcher.


   Long"boat`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  Formerly, the largest boat carried by a
   merchant vessel, corresponding to the launch of a naval vessel.


   Long"bow`  (?),  n.  The  ordinary  bow, not mounted on a stock; -- so
   called in distinction from the crossbow when both were used as weapons
   of  war.  Also, sometimes, such a bow of about the height of a man, as
   distinguished  from  a  much shorter one. To draw the longbow, to tell
   large stories.


   Long"-breathed` (?), a. Having the power of retaining the breath for a
   long time; long-winded.


   Long"-drawn` (?), a. Extended to a great length.

     The cicad\'91 hushed their long-drawn, ear-splitting strains. G. W.


   Longe (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. allonge. See Lunge.]

   1. A thrust. See Lunge. Smollett.

   2. The training ground for a horse. Farrow.


   Longe, n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as 4th Lunge.


   Long"er (?), n. One who longs for anything.


   Lon*ge"val (?), a. Long-loved; longevous.[R.] Pope.


   Lon*gev"i*ty (?), n. [L. longaevitas. See Longevous.] Long duration of
   life; length of life.

     The  instances  of  longevity  are  chiefly amongst the abstemious.


   Lon*ge"vous  (?), a. [L. longaevus; longus long + aevum lifetime, age.
   See Long, and Age.] Living a long time; of great age. Sir T. Browne.


   Long"hand` (?), n. The written characters used in the common method of
   writing; -- opposed to shorthand.


   Long"head"ed   (?),  a.  Having  unusual  foresight  or  sagacity.  --
   Long"-head`ed*ness, n.


   Long"horn` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A long-horned animal, as a cow, goat, or
   beetle. See Long-horned.


   Long"-horned`  (?),  a. (Zo\'94l.) [Obs.] Having a long horn or horns;
   as,  a  long-horned  goat,  or cow; having long antenn\'91, as certain
   beetles (Longicornia).


   Lon"gi*corn  (?), a. [L. longus long + cornu horn: cf. F. longicorne.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Long-horned;  pertaining  to the Longicornia. -- n. One of
   the Longicornia.


   Lon`gi*cor"ni*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. L. longus long + cornu horn.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A division of beetles, including a large number of species,
   in  which  the  antenn\'91  are  very long. Most of them, while in the
   larval  state,  bore  into  the wood or beneath the bark of trees, and
   some  species are very destructive to fruit and shade trees. See Apple
   borer, under Apple, and Locust beetle, under Locust.


   Lon`gi*lat"er*al  (?),  a.  [L.  longus  long + lateralis lateral, fr.
   latus  side.]  Having long sides especially, having the form of a long

     Nineveh  .  .  . was of a longilateral figure, ninety-five furlongs
     broad, and a hundred and fifty long. Sir T. Browne.


   Lon*gil"o*quence  (?),  n.  [L.  langus  long  + loquentia a talking.]

     American longiloquence in oratory. Fitzed. Hall.


   Lon*gim"a*nous  (?),  a.  [L.  longus  long + manus hand.] Having long
   hands. Sir T. Browne.


   Lon*gim"e*try   (?),   n.   [L.   longus   long   +   -metry:  cf.  F.
   longim\'82trie.]  The  art  or  practice  of  measuring  distances  or
   lengths. Cheyne.


   Long"ing  (?),  n.  An  eager desire; a craving; a morbid appetite; an
   earnest wish; an aspiration.

     Put on my crown; I have immortal longings in me. Shak.


   Long"ing*ly, adv. With longing. Dryden.


   Lon*gin"qui*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  longinquitas, fr. longinquus extensive,
   remote,  fr.  longus  long.]  Greatness  of distance; remoteness. [R.]


   Lon"gi*palp  (?),  n.  [F. longipalpe, fr. L. longus long + F. palpe a
   feeler,  a  palp.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One of a tribe of beetles, having long
   maxillary palpi.


   Lon"gi*pen"nate  (?),  a.  [L.  longus  long + E. pennate.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Having long wings, or quills.


   Lon`gi*pen"nes  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., from L. longus long + penna wing.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  group  of  longwinged  sea  birds, including the gulls,
   petrels, etc.


   Lon`gi*pen"nine   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Of  or  pertaining  to  the
   Longipennes; longipennate.


   Lon`gi*ros"ter  (?), n.; pl. L. Longirostres (#), E. Longirosters (#).
   [L. longus long + rostrum beak: cf. F. longirostre.] (Zo\'94l.) One of
   the Longirostres.


   Lon`gi*ros"tral   (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  a  long  bill;  of  or
   pertaining to the Longirostres.


   Lon`gi*ros"tres  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. longus long + rostrum beak.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  group  of  birds  characterized  by having long slender
   bills,  as  the sandpipers, curlews, and ibises. It is now regarded as
   an artificial division.


   Long"ish (?), a. Somewhat long; moderately long.


   Lon"gi*tude (?), n. [F., fr. L. longitudo, fr. longus long.]

   1.   Length;   measure   or   distance  along  the  longest  line;  --
   distinguished  from breadth or thickness; as, the longitude of a room;
   rare now, except in a humorous sense. Sir H. Wotton.

     The longitude of their cloaks. Sir. W. Scott.

     Mine [shadow] spindling into longitude immense. Cowper.

   2.  (Geog.)  The arc or portion of the equator intersected between the
   meridian  of  a  given place and the meridian of some other place from
   which  longitude is reckoned, as from Greenwich, England, or sometimes
   from  the  capital  of  a  country,  as  from Washington or Paris. The
   longitude  of  a  place is expressed either in degrees or in time; as,
   that of New York is 74 or 4 h. 56 min. west of Greenwich.

   3.  (Astron.)  The  distance  in  degrees,  reckoned  from  the vernal
   equinox,  on the ecliptic, to a circle at right angles to the ecliptic
   passing  through  the heavenly body whose longitude is designated; as,
   the longitude of Capella is 79.
   Geocentric  longitude  (Astron.),  the longitude of a heavenly body as
   seen  from  the  earth.  -- Heliocentric longitude, the longitude of a
   heavenly  body,  as  seen  from  the sun's center. -- Longitude stars,
   certain stars whose position is known, and the data in regard to which
   are  used  in  observations  for  finding  the  longitude, as by lunar


   Lon`gi*tu"di*nal (?), a. [Cf. F. longitudinal.]

   1. Of or pertaining to longitude or length; as, longitudinal distance.

   2.  Extending  in  length;  in  the  direction  of the length; running
   lengthwise,  as  distinguished  from  transverse; as, the longitudinal
   diameter of a body. Cheyne.


   Lon`gi*tu"di*nal, n. A railway sleeper lying parallel with the rail.


   Lon`gi*tu"di*nal*ly, adv. In the direction of length.


   Long"legs` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A daddy longlegs.


   Long"-lived`  (?),  a.  Having  a  long  life;  having  constitutional
   peculiarities  which  make  long  life  probable;  lasting long; as, a
   long-lived tree; they are a longlived family; long-lived prejudices.


   Long"ly, adv.

   1. With longing desire. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. For a long time; hence, wearisomely.

                                Longmynd rocks

   Long"mynd    rocks"   (?).   (Geol.)   The   sparingly   fossiliferous
   conglomerates,  grits, schists, and states of Great Britain, which lie
   at  the  base  of the Cambrian system; -- so called, because typically
   developed in the Longmynd Hills, Shropshire.


   Long"ness, n. Length.


   Long"nose` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European garfish.

                                  Long primer

   Long" prim"er (?). (Print.) A kind of type, in size between small pica
   and bourgeois.

     NOTE: &hand; long primer.


   Long"shanks` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The stilt.


   Long"shore`  (?),  a.  [Abbrev.  from  alongshore.]  Belonging  to the
   seashore or a seaport; along and on the shore. "Longshore thieves." R.


   Long"shore`man   (?),   n.;   pl.   Longshoremen   (#).  [Abbrev.  fr.
   alongshoreman.]  One of a class of laborers employed about the wharves
   of a seaport, especially in loading and unloading vessels.


   Long"-sight (?), n. Long-sightedness Good.


   Long"-sight`ed (?), a.

   1.  Able  to  see  objects  at  a  great distance; hence, having great
   foresight; sagacious; farseeing.

   2.  Able  to  see  objects  distinctly at a distance, but not close at
   hand; hypermetropic.


   Long"-sight`ed*ness, n.

   1.  The  state  or  condition  of being long-sighted; hence, sagacity;

   2. (Med.) See Hypermetropia.


   Long"some  (?)  a. [AS. langsum.] Extended in length; tiresome. [Obs.]
   Bp. Hall. Prior. -- Long"some*ness, n. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Long"spun`  (?),  a.  Spun  out,  or extended, to great length; hence,
   long-winded; tedious.

     The longspun allegories fulsome grow, While the dull moral lies too
     plain below. Addison.


   Long"spur`  (?),  n.  [So  called  from  the length of the hind claw.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  several  species of fringilline birds of the
   genus  Calcarius  (or  Plectrophanes),  and allied genera. The Lapland
   longspur  (C. Lapponicus), the chestnut-colored longspur (C. ornatus),
   and other species, inhabit the United States.


   Long"-stop`  (?), n. (Cricket) One who is set to stop balls which pass
   the wicket keeper.


   Long"-suf`fer*ance (?), n. Forbearance to punish or resent.


   Long"-suf`fer*ing, n. Bearing injuries or provocation for a long time;
   patient; not easily provoked.

     The  Lord  God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant
     in goodness and truth. Ex. xxxiv. 6.


   Long"-suf`fer*ing, n. Long patience of offense.

     Despisest  thou  the  riches  of  his  goodness and forbearance and
     long-suffering? Rom. ii. 4. 


   Long"tail`  (?),  n.  An  animal,  particularly a log, having an uncut
   tail. Cf. Curtail. Dog.

     NOTE: &hand; A  lo ngtail wa s a gentleman's dog, or the dog of one
     qualified  to  bunt,  other dogs being required to have their tails

   Cut  and  longtail,  all,  gentlefolks and others, as they might come.


   Long"-tongue` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The wryneck.


   Long"-tongued` (?), a.

   1. Having a long tongue.

   2. Talkative; babbling; loquacious. Shak.


   Lon"gu*lite  (?),  n.  [L.  longus  long  +  -lie.]  (Min.)  A kind of
   crystallite having a (slender) acicular form.


   Long"-waist`ed (?), a.

   1.  Having  a  long waist; long from the armpits to the armpits to the
   bottom of the waist; -- said of persons.

   2. Long from the part about the neck or shoulder, or from the armpits,
   to  the bottom of the weist, or to the skirt; -- said of garments; as,
   a long-waisted coat.


   Long"ways` (?), adv. Lengthwise. Addison.


   Long"-wind"ed   (?),   a.  Long-breathed;  hence,  tediously  long  in
   speaking;   consuming   much   time;  as,  a  long-winded  talker.  --
   Long"-wind"ed*ness, n.

     A tedious, long-winded harangue. South.


   Long"wise` (?), adv. Lengthwise.


   Loo  (?), n. [For older lanterloo, F. lanturelu, lanturlu, name of the
   game; orig., the refrain of a vaudeville.] (a) An old game played with
   five, or three, cards dealt to each player from a full pack. When five
   cards are used the highest card is the knave of clubs or (if so agreed
   upon)  the  knave  of  trumps;  --  formerly  called  lanterloo. (b) A
   modification of the game of "all fours" in which the players replenish
   their hands after each round by drawing each a card from the pack.

   Page 868

   Loo table, a round table adapted for a circle of persons playing loo.


   Loo  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Looed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Looing.] To
   beat  in  the  game  of loo by winning every trick. [Written also lu.]


   Loob  (?),  n.  [Corn.,  slime,  sludge.]  (Mining) The clay or slimes
   washed from tin ore in dressing.


   Loo"bi*ly (?), a. [From Looby.] Loobylike; awkward. Fuller.


   Loo"bi*ly, adv. Awkwardly. L'Estrange.


   Loo"by (?), n.; pl. Loobies (#). [Cf. Lob.] An awkward, clumsy fellow;
   a lubber. Swift.


   Looch (?), n. See 2d Loch.


   Loof  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  spongelike  fibers  of  the  fruit  of  a
   cucurbitaceous  plant  (Luffa  \'92gyptiaca);  called  also  vegetable


   Loof  (?),  n.  [See Luff.] [Also written luff.] (Naut.) (a) Formerly,
   some  appurtenance  of a vessel which was used in changing her course;
   -- probably a large paddle put over the lee bow to help bring her head
   nearer  to  the wind. (b) The part of a ship's side where the planking
   begins to curve toward bow and stern.


   Loof, v. i. (Naut.) See Luff.


   Look  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Looked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Looking.]
   [OE. loken, AS. l&omac;cian; akin to G. lugen, OHG. luog&emac;n.]

   1.  To  direct the eyes for the purpose of seeing something; to direct
   the eyes toward an object; to observe with the eyes while keeping them
   directed;  --  with  various  prepositions,  often  in  a  special  or
   figurative sense. See Phrases below.

   2.  To  direct  the attention (to something); to consider; to examine;
   as, to look at an action.

   3.  To  seem;  to  appear;  to  have  a particular appearance; as, the
   patient looks better; the clouds look rainy.

     It would look more like vanity than gratitude. Addison.

     Observe how such a practice looks in another person. I. Watts.

   4. To have a particular direction or situation; to face; to front.

     The inner gate that looketh to north. Ezek. viii. 3.

     The east gate . . . which looketh eastward. Ezek. xi. 1.

   5. In the imperative: see; behold; take notice; take care; observe; --
   used to call attention.

     Look,  how  much  we thus expel of sin, so much we expel of virtue.

     NOTE: &hand; Lo ok, in  th e im perative, ma y be  fo llowed by  a 
     dependent sentence, but see is oftener so used.

   <-- See spot run? in 1990, the reverse is true -->

     Look that ye bind them fast. Shak.

     Look if it be my daughter. Talfourd.

   6.  To  show one's self in looking, as by leaning out of a window; as,
   look  out  of  the  window  while  I  speak  to  you.  Sometimes  used

     My toes look through the overleather. Shak.

   7. To await the appearance of anything; to expect; to anticipate.

     Looking each hour into death's mouth to fall. Spenser.

   To look about, to look on all sides, or in different directions. -- To
   look  about one, to be on the watch; to be vigilant; to be circumspect
   or  guarded.  -- To look after. (a) To attend to; to take care of; as,
   to  look  after  children.  (b)  To  expect;  to  be  in  a  state  of
     Men's  hearts  failing  them  for fear, and for looking after those
     things which are coming on the earth. Luke xxi. 26.
   (c) To seek; to search. 

     My  subject  does  not  oblige me to look after the water, or point
     forth the place where to it is now retreated. Woodward.

   -- To look at, to direct the eyes toward so that one sees, or as if to
   see;  as, to look at a star; hence, to observe, examine, consider; as,
   to  look at a matter without prejudice. -- To look black, to frown; to
   scowl; to have a threatening appearance.

     The bishops thereat repined, and looked black. Holinshed.

   -- To look down on OR upon, to treat with indifference or contempt; to
   regard  as an inferior; to despise. -- To look for. (a) To expect; as,
   to look for news by the arrival of a ship. "Look now for no enchanting
   voice."  Milton.  (b) To seek for; to search for; as, to look for lost
   money, or lost cattle. -- To look forth. (a) To look out of something,
   as  from  a  window.  (b)  To  threaten to come out. Jer. vi. 1. (Rev.
   Ver.).  --  To  look into, to inspect closely; to observe narrowly; to
   examine;  as,  to  look  into  the works of nature; to look into one's
   conduct or affairs. -- To look on. (a) To regard; to esteem.

     Her friends would look on her the worse. Prior.

   (b) To consider; to view; to conceive of; to think of.

     I looked on Virgil as a succinct, majestic writer. Dryden.

   (c) To be a mere spectator.

     I'll be a candleholder, and look on. Shak.

   --  To  look  out,  to  be on the watch; to be careful; as, the seaman
   looks out for breakers. -- To look through. (a) To see through. (b) To
   search; to examine with the eyes. -- To look to OR unto. (a) To watch;
   to  take  care  of.  "Look well to thy herds." Prov. xxvii. 23. (b) To
   resort  to  with  expectation  of  receiving  something;  to expect to
   receive  from;  as, the creditor may look to surety for payment. "Look
   unto  me,  and be ye saved." Is. xlv. 22. -- To look up, to search for
   or  find out by looking; as, to look up the items of an account. -- To
   look up to, to respect; to regard with deference.


   Look, v. t.

   1. To look at; to turn the eyes toward.

   2. To seek; to search for. [Obs.]

     Looking my love, I go from place to place. Spenser.

   3. To expect. [Obs.] Shak.

   4.  To  influence, overawe, or subdue by looks or presence as, to look
   down opposition.

     A  spirit  fit  to start into an empire, And look the world to law.

   5. To express or manifest by a look.

     Soft eyes looked love to eyes which spake again. Byron.

   To  look daggers. See under Dagger. -- To look in the face, to face or
   meet  with  boldness  or  confidence;  hence,  sometimes,  to meet for
   combat.  --  To  look  out,  to seek for; as, prudent persons look out
   associates good reputation.
   Look (?), n. 

   1.  The act of looking; a glance; a sight; a view; -- often in certain
   phrases; as, to have, get, take, throw, or cast, a look.

     Threw  many a northward look to see his father Bring up his powers;
     but he did long in vain. Shak.

   2.  Expression  of  the  eyes and face; manner; as, a proud or defiant
   look. "Gentle looks." Shak.

     Up ! up! my friends, and clear your looks. Wordsworth.

   3.  Hence;  Appearance;  aspect;  as, the house has a gloomy look; the
   affair has a bad look.

     Pain, disgrace, and poverty have frighted looks. Locke.

     There was something that reminded me of Dante's Hell in the look of
     this. Carlyle.


   Look"down` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Moonfish (b).


   Look"er  (?), n. One who looks. Looker-on, a spectator; one that looks
   on, but has no agency or part in an affair.

     Did  not this fatal war affront thy coast, Yet sattest thou an idle
     looker-on ? Fairfax.


   Look"ing,  a. Having a certain look or appearance; -- often compounded
   with adjectives; as, good-looking, grand-looking, etc.


   Look"ing, n.

   1. The act of one who looks; a glance.

   2.  The  manner  in  which  one  looks; appearance; countenance; face.

     All dreary was his cheer and his looking. Chaucer.

   Looking for, anticipation; expectation. "A certain fearful looking for
   of judgment." Heb. x. 27.
   Look"ing-glass`  (?),  n.  A  mirror  made  of glass on which has been
   placed a backing of some reflecting substance, as quicksilver. 

     There is none so homely but loves a looking-glass. South.


   Look"out` (?), n.

   1. A careful looking or watching for any object or event.

   2. The place from which such observation is made.

   3. A person engaged in watching.

   4. Object or duty of forethought and care; responsibility. [Colloq.]


   Lool (?), n. (Metal.) A vessel used to receive the washings of ores of


   Loom (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Loon, the bird.


   Loom, n. [OE. lome, AS. gel utensil, implement.]

   1.  A  frame  or  machine of wood or other material, in which a weaver
   forms  cloth out of thread; a machine for interweaving yarn or threads
   into a fabric, as in knitting or lace making.

     Hector,  when he sees Andromache overwhelmed with terror, sends her
     for consolation to the loom and the distaff. Rambler.

   2.  (Naut.)  That  part of an oar which is near the grip or handle and
   inboard from the rowlock. Totten.


   Loom,  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Loomed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Looming.] [OE.
   lumen to shine, Icel. ljoma; akin to AS. le\'a2ma light, and E. light;
   or  cf. OF. lumer to shine, L. luminare to illumine, lumen light; akin
   to E. light. Light not dark.]

   1.  To  appear  above  the surface either of sea or land, or to appear
   enlarged,  or distorted and indistinct, as a distant object, a ship at
   sea,  or  a  mountain,  esp. from atmospheric influences; as, the ship
   looms large; the land looms high.

     Awful she looms, the terror of the main. H. J. Pye.

   2.  To  rise and to be eminent; to be elevated or ennobled, in a moral

     On  no  occasion  does  he  [Paul]  loom  so  high,  and  shine  so
     gloriously, as in the context. J. M. Mason.


   Loom,  n.  The  state  of  looming;  esp., an unnatural and indistinct
   appearance of elevation or enlargement of anything, as of land or of a
   ship, seen by one at sea.


   Loom"-gale` (?), n. A gentle gale of wind.


   Loom"ing,  n.  The indistinct and magnified appearance of objects seen
   in particular states of the atmosphere. See Mirage.


   Loon  (?),  n. [Scot. loun, lown, loon; akin to OD. loen a stupid man;
   prob.  for  an  older  lown,  and  akin to E. lame.] A sorry fellow; a
   worthless person; a rogue.


   Loon, n. [For older loom, Icel. l; akin to Dan. & Sw. lom.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Any  one  of  several aquatic, wed-footed, northern birds of the genus
   Urinator (formerly Colymbus), noted for their expertness in diving and
   swimming  under  water.  The  common  loon,  or  great  northern diver
   (Urinator  imber, or Colymbus torquatus), and the red-throated loon or
   diver (U. septentrionalis), are the best known species. See Diver.


   Loon"y (?), a. See Luny.


   Loop (?), n. [G. luppe an iron lump. Cf. Looping.] (Iron Works) A mass
   of  iron in a pasty condition gathered into a ball for the tilt hammer
   or rolls. [Written also loup.]


   Loop,  n.  [Cf. Ir. & Gael. lub loop, noose, fold, thong, bend, lub to
   bend, incline.]

   1.  A  fold  or  doubling of a thread, cord, rope, etc., through which
   another  thread,  cord,  etc.,  can  be passed, or which a hook can be
   hooked into; an eye, as of metal; a staple; a noose; a bight.

     That  the  probation  bear  no  hinge, nor loop To hang a doubt on.

   2. A small, narrow opening; a loophole.

     And  stop all sight-holes, every loop from whence The eye of Reason
     may pry in upon us. Shak.

   3. A curve of any kind in the form of a loop.

   4. (Telegraphy) A wire forming part of a main circuit and returning to
   the point from which it starts.

   5.  (Acoustics)  The  portion of a vibrating string, air column, etc.,
   between two nodes; -- called also ventral segment.
   Loop knot, a single knot tied in a doubled cord, etc. so as to leave a
   loop beyond the knot. See Illust. of Knot.
   Loop (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Looped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Looping.] To
   make  a  loop  of or in; to fasten with a loop or loops; -- often with
   up; as, to loop a string; to loop up a curtain. 


   Looped (?), a.

   1.  Bent,  folded, or tied, so as to make a loop; as, a looped wire or

   2. Full of holes. [Obs.] Shak.


   Loop"er (?), n.

   1.  An  instrument,  as  a bodkin, for forming a loop in yarn, a cord,

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  larva  of  any  species  of  geometrid moths. See


   Loop"hole` (?), n.

   1. (Mil.) A small opening, as in the walls of fortification, or in the
   bulkhead  of  a ship, through which small arms or other weapons may be
   discharged at an enemy.

   2.  A hole or aperture that gives a passage, or the means of escape or
   evasion. <-- 3. (Fig.) (Law) An amibiguity or unintended omission in a
   law,  rule,  or contract which allows a party to circumvent the intent
   of  the text and avoid its obligations under certain circumstances. --
   used  usually  in  a  negative  sense;  --  distinguished from "escape
   clause"  in  that the latter usually is included to deliberately allow
   evasion   of   obligation   under   certain   specified  and  foreseen
   circumstances. -->


   Loop"holed` (?), a. Provided with loopholes.


   Loop"ie (?), a. Deceitful; cunning; sly. [Scot.]


   Loop"ing,  n.  [Cf.  D. loopen to run. Cf. Loop a mass of iron, Leap.]
   (Metal.)  The  running  together  of the matter of an ore into a mass,
   when the ore is only heated for calcination.


   Loop"ing,  p.  pr.  &  vb.  n.  of Loop. Looping snail (Zo\'94l.), any
   species  of  land snail of the genus Truncatella; -- so called because
   it creeps like the measuring worms.


   Loop"light`  (?),  n.  A  small narrow opening or window in a tower or
   fortified wall; a loophole.


   Loord  (?), n. [F. lourd heavy, dull.] A dull, stupid fellow; a drone.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Loos  (?),  n. [OE. los, fr. OF. los, laus.] Praise; fame; reputation.
   [Obs.] Spenser.

     Good conscience and good loos. Chaucer.


   Loose  (?), a. [Compar. Looser (?); superl. Loosest.] [OE. loos, lous,
   laus,  Icel.  lauss;  akin  to  OD.  loos,  D. los, AS. le\'a0s false,
   deceitful,  G. los, loose, Dan. & Sw. l\'94s, Goth. laus, and E. lose.
   Lose, and cf. Leasing falsehood.]

   1.  Unbound;  untied;  unsewed;  not  attached,  fastened,  fixed,  or
   confined; as, the loose sheets of a book.

     Her hair, nor loose, nor tied in formal plat. Shak.

   2.  Free from constraint or obligation; not bound by duty, habit, etc.
   ; -- with from or of.

     Now  I  stand  Loose  of  my  vow;  but who knows Cato's thoughts ?

   3. Not tight or close; as, a loose garment.

   4.  Not  dense,  close,  compact,  or  crowded;  as,  a cloth of loose

     With horse and chariots ranked in loose array. Milton.

   5.  Not  precise or exact; vague; indeterminate; as, a loose style, or
   way of reasoning.

     The  comparison employed . . . must be considered rather as a loose
     analogy than as an exact scientific explanation. Whewel.

   6.  Not  strict  in  matters  of morality; not rigid according to some
   standard of right.

     The loose morality which he had learned. Sir W. Scott.

   7. Unconnected; rambling.

     Vario  spends  whole mornings in running over loose and unconnected
     pages. I. Watts.

   8. Lax; not costive; having lax bowels. Locke.

   9. Dissolute; unchaste; as, a loose man or woman.

     Loose ladies in delight. Spenser.

   10.  Containing  or  consisting of obscene or unchaste language; as, a
   loose epistle. Dryden.
   At loose ends, not in order; in confusion; carelessly managed. -- Fast
   and  loose.  See  under  Fast.  -- To break loose. See under Break. --
   Loose  pulley.  (Mach.)  See Fast and loose pulleys, under Fast. -- To
   let loose, to free from restraint or confinement; to set at liberty.


   Loose, n.

   1. Freedom from restraint. [Obs.] Prior.

   2. A letting go; discharge. B. Jonson.
   To give a loose, to give freedom.

     Vent all its griefs, and give a loose to sorrow. Addison.


   Loose  (?),  v. n. [imp. & p. p. Loosed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Loosing.]
   [From Loose, a.]

   1.  To  untie  or  unbind;  to  free from any fastening; to remove the
   shackles or fastenings of; to set free; to relieve.

     Canst thou . . . loose the bands of Orion ? Job. xxxviii. 31.

     Ye  shall  find  an  ass tied, and a colt with her; loose them, and
     bring them unto me. Matt. xxi. 2.

   2.  To  release  from anything obligatory or burdensome; to disengage;
   hence, to absolve; to remit.

     Art thou loosed from a wife ? seek not a wife. 1 Cor. vii. 27.

     Whatsoever  thou  shalt  loose  on earth shall be loosed in heaven.
     Matt. xvi. 19.

   3. To relax; to loosen; to make less strict.

     The joints of his loins were loosed. Dan. v. 6.

   4. To solve; to interpret. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Loose, v. i. To set sail. [Obs.] Acts xiii. 13.


   Loose"ly, adv. In a loose manner.


   Loos"en  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Loosened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Loosening.] [See Loose, v. t.]

   1.  To  make  loose;  to  free  from  tightness, tension, firmness, or
   fixedness; to make less dense or compact; as, to loosen a string, or a
   knot; to loosen a rock in the earth.

     After  a  year's  rooting,  then  shaking  doth  the  tree  good by
     loosening of the earth. Bacon.

   2. To free from restraint; to set at liberty..

     It loosens his hands, and assists his understanding. Dryden.

   3.  To  remove  costiveness from; to facilitate or increase the alvine
   discharges of. Bacon.


   Loos"en,  v.  i.  To  become  loose;  to  become  less tight, firm, or
   compact. S. Sharp.


   Loos"en*er (?), n. One who, or that which, loosens.


   Loose"ness,  n.  The state, condition, or quality, of being loose; as,
   the looseness of a cord; looseness of style; looseness of morals or of


   Loose"strife` (?), n. (Bot.) (a) The name of several species of plants
   of  the genus Lysimachia, having small star-shaped flowers, usually of
   a  yellow  color. (b) Any species of the genus Lythrum, having purple,
   or, in some species, crimson flowers. Gray.

   Page 869

   False  loosestrife,  a  plant  of  the  genus Ludwigia, which includes
   several  species,  most  of  which  are found in the United States. --
   Tufted  loosestrife,  the  plant  Lysimachia thyrsiflora, found in the
   northern parts of the United States and in Europe. Gray.


   Loos"ish (?), a. Somewhat loose.


   Loot  (?),  n.  [Hind. l, Skr. l, l, booty, lup to break, spoil; prob.
   akin to E. rob.]

   1. The act of plundering.

   2. Plunder; booty; especially, the boot taken in a conquered or sacked


   Loot,  v.  t.  & i. [imp. & p. p. Looted; p. pr. & vb. n. Looting.] To
   plunder; to carry off as plunder or a prize lawfully obtained by war.

     Looting parties . . . ransacking the houses. L.O


   Loot"er (?), n. A plunderer.


   Loo"ver (?), n. See Louver.


   Lop (?), n. [AS. loppe.] A flea.[Obs.] Cleveland.


   Lop (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lopped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lopping (?).]
   [Prov. G. luppen, lubben,to cut, geld, or OD. luppen, D. lubben.]

   1. To cut off as the top or extreme part of anything; to shoas, to lop
   a  tree  or  its  branches. "With branches lopped, in wood or mountain
   felled." Milton.

     Expunge the whole, or lop the excrescent parts. Pope.

   2. To cut partly off and bend down; as, to lop bushes in a hedge.


   Lop,  n.  That which is lopped from anything, as branches from a tree.
   Shak. Mortimer.


   Lop, v. i. To hang downward; to be pendent; to lean to one side.


   Lop, v. t. To let hang down; as, to lop the head.


   Lop,  a.  Hanging  down;  as,  lop  ears;  --  used  also  in compound
   adjectives; as, lopeared; lopsided.


   Lope (?), imp. of Leap. [Obs.]

     And, laughing, lope into a tree. Spenser.


     Lope,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Loped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Loping.] [See

     1.  To  leap;  to dance. [Prov. Eng.] "He that lopes on the ropes."

     2. To move with a lope, as a horse. [U.S.]


     Lope, n.

     1. A leap; a long step. [Prov. Eng.]

     2.  An  easy  gait,  consisting  of  long running strides or leaps.

     The  mustang  goes rollicking ahead, with the eternal lope, . . . a
     mixture  of  two or three gaits, as easy as the motions of a crade.
     T. B. Thorpe.


     Lop"eared` (?), a. Having ears which lop or hang down.


     Lope"man (?), n. Leaper; ropedancer. [Obs.]


     Lop"er (?), n.

     1. One who, or that which, lopes; esp., a horse that lopes. [U.S.]

     2.  (Rope Making) A swivel at one end of a ropewalk, used in laying
     the strands.


     Loph"ine  (?),  n. [Gr. (Chem.) A nitrogenous organic base obtained
     by  the  oxidation  of  amarine,  and  regarded  as a derivative of
     benzoic  aldehyde.  It is obtained in long white crystalline tufts,
     -- whence its name.


     Lo*phi"o*mys  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. lofia` a mane, bristly ridge +
     my^s  a  mouse.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  very  singular  rodent  (Lophiomys
     Imhausi)   of   Northeastern   Africa.   It   is   the  only  known
     representative of a special family (Lophiomyid\'91), remarkable for
     the  structure  of the skull. It has handlike feet, and the hair is
     peculiar in structure and arrangement.


     Loph"o*branch  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or pertaining to the
     Lophobranchii. -- n. One of the Lophobranchii.


     Loph`o*bran"chi*ate  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or pertaining to the


     Loph`o*bran"chi*i  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of
     teleostean  fishes,  having  the  gills  arranged  in  tufts on the
     branchial arches, as the Hippocampus and pipefishes.


     Loph"o*phore  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) A disk which surrounds the
     mouth and bears the tentacles of the Bryozoa. See Phylactolemata.


     Lo*phop"o*da  (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as


     Lo*phos"te*on  (?),  n. ; pl. L. Lophostea (#), E. Lophosteons (#).
     [NL., from Gr. (Anat.) The central keel-bearing part of the sternum
     in birds.


     Lop"pard  (?),  n.  [Lop + -ard.] A tree, the top of which has been
     lopped off. [Eng.]


     Lop"per (?), n. One who lops or cuts off.


     Lop"per,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Loppered  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
     Loppering.]  [Cf.  Prov.  G.  l\'81bbern,  levern, OHG. giliber, G.
     luppe,  lab,  rennet.]  To  turn  sour  and coagulate from too long
     standing, as milk.


     Lop"ping  (?),  n. A cutting off, as of branches; that which is cut
     off; leavings.

     The loppings made from that stock whilst it stood. Burke.


     Lop"py (?), a. Somewhat lop; inclined to lop.


     Lop"seed`  (?),  n.  (Bot.) A perennial herb (Phryma Leptostachya),
     having slender seedlike fruits.


     Lop"sid`ed (?), a. [Lop + side. Cf. Lobsided.]

     1.  Leaning  to one side because of some defect of structure; as, a
     lopsided ship. Marryat.

     2.  Unbalanced;  poorly proportioned; full of idiosyncrasies. J. S.


     Lo*qua"cious  (?),  a.  [L.  loquax, -acis, talkative, fr. loqui to
     speak; cf. Gr.

     1. Given to continual talking; talkative; garrulous.

     Loquacious, brawling, ever in the wrong. Dryden.

     2. Speaking; expressive. [R.] J. Philips.

     3.  Apt to blab and disclose secrets. Syn. -- Garrulous; talkative.
     See Garrulous.


     Lo*qua"cious*ly, adv. In a loquacious manner.


     Lo*qua"cious*ness, n. Loquacity.


     Lo*quac"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  loquacitas:  cf. F. loquacit\'82.] The
     habit   or   practice   of   talking  continually  or  excessively;
     inclination to talk too much; talkativeness; garrulity.

     Too great loquacity and too great taciturnity by fits. Arbuthnot.


     Lo"quat  (?),  n.  [Chinese name.] (Bot.) The fruit of the Japanese
     medlar  (Photinia  Japonica).  It  is as large as a small plum, but
     grows in clusters, and contains four or five large seeds. Also, the
     tree itself.


     Lo"ral (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the lores.


     Lo"rate  (?),  a.  [L. loratus, fr. lorum thong.] (Bot.) Having the
     form of a thong or strap; ligulate.


     Lor"cha  (?),  n.  [Pg.] (Naut.) A kind of light vessel used on the
     coast  of China, having the hull built on a European model, and the
     rigging like that of a Chinese junk. Admiral Foote.


     Lord   (?),  n.  [Cf.  Gr.  A  hump-backed  person;  --  so  called
     sportively. [Eng.] Richardson (Dict.).


     Lord,   n.   [OE.   lord,   laverd,  loverd,  AS.  hl\'beford,  for
     hl\'befweard,  i.  e., bread keeper; hl\'bef bread, loaf + weardian
     to  look  after,  to  take  care of, to ward. See Loaf, and Ward to
     guard, and cf. Laird, Lady.]

     1.  One who has power and authority; a master; a ruler; a governor;
     a prince; a proprietor, as of a manor.

     But now I was the lord Of this fair mansion. Shak.

     Man over men He made not lord. Milton.

     2.  A  titled  nobleman.,  whether  a  peer  of the realm or not; a
     bishop,  as a member of the House of Lords; by courtesy; the son of
     a  duke  or  marquis, or the eldest son of an earl; in a restricted
     sense, a boron, as opposed to noblemen of higher rank. [Eng.]

     3.  A  title  bestowed  on  the  persons above named; and also, for
     honor,  on  certain  official  persons;  as,  lord  advocate,  lord
     chamberlain, lord chancellor, lord chief justice, etc. [Eng.]

     4. A husband. "My lord being old also." Gen. xviii. 12.

     Thou worthy lord Of that unworthy wife that greeteth thee. Shak.

     5. (Feudal Law) One of whom a fee or estate is held; the male owner
     of feudal land; as, the lord of the soil; the lord of the manor.

     6. The Supreme Being; Jehovah.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en Lo rd, in the Old Testament, is printed in small
     capitals, it is usually equivalent to Jehovah, and might, with more
     propriety, be so rendered.

     7. The Savior; Jesus Christ.

   House   of  Lords,  one  of  the  constituent  parts  of  the  British
   Parliament,  consisting  of  the lords spiritual and temporal. -- Lord
   high  chancellor, Lord high constable, etc. See Chancellor, Constable,
   etc.  --  Lord  justice  clerk,  the second in rank of the two highest
   judges  of  the Supreme Court of Scotland. -- Lord justice general, OR
   Lord president, the highest in rank of the judges of the Supreme Court
   of  Scotland. -- Lord keeper, an ancient officer of the English crown,
   who  had the custody of the king's great seal, with authority to affix
   it  to  public  documents.  The  office  is  now merged in that of the
   chancellor.  --  Lord lieutenant, a representative of British royalty:
   the  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland being the representative of royalty
   there,  and  exercising  supreme  administrative  authority;  the lord
   lieutenant of a county being a deputy to manage its military concerns,
   and  also  to nominate to the chancellor the justices of the peace for
   that county. -- Lord of misrule, the master of the revels at Christmas
   in  a  nobleman's  or other great house. Eng. Cyc. -- Lords spiritual,
   the  archbishops  and bishops who have seats in the House of Lords. --
   Lords  temporal,  the  peers  of England; also, sixteen representative
   peers  of  Scotland,  and  twenty-eight  representatives  of the Irish
   peerage.  --  Our  lord,  Jesus Christ; the Savior. -- The Lord's Day,
   Sunday;  the  Christian Sabbath, on which the Lord Jesus rose from the
   dead.  --  The  Lord's  Prayer,  the  prayer  which  Jesus  taught his
   disciples.  Matt.  vi.  9-13.  --  The  Lord's Supper. (a) The paschal
   supper  partaken of by Jesus the night before his crucifixion. (b) The
   sacrament  of  the eucharist; the holy communion. -- The Lord's Table.
   (a)  The altar or table from which the sacrament is dispensed. (b) The
   sacrament itself.


   Lord, v. t.

   1.  To  invest with the dignity, power, and privileges of a lord. [R.]

   2. To rule or preside over as a lord. [R.]


   Lord,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Lorded; p. pr. & vb. n. Lording.] To play
   the  lord;  to  domineer;  to rule with arbitrary or despotic sway; --
   sometimes  with  over;  and  sometimes  with  it  in  the  manner of a
   transitive verb.

     The whiles she lordeth in licentious bliss. Spenser.

     I see them lording it in London streets. Shak.

     And lorded over them whom now they serve. Milton.


   Lord"ing, n. [Lord + -ing, 3.]

   1. The son of a lord; a person of noble lineage. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2.  A little lord; a lordling; a lord, in contempt or ridicule. [Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e pl ural, a  co mmon an cient mo de of address
     equivalent to "Sirs" or "My masters."

     Therefore, lordings all, I you beseech. Chaucer.


   Lord"kin (?), n. A little lord. Thackeray.


   Lord"like`, a. [2d lord + like. Cf. Lordly.]

   1. Befitting or like a lord; lordly.

   2. Haughty; proud; insolent; arrogant.


   Lord"li*ness  (?),  n.  [From  Lordly.]  The state or quality of being
   lordly. Shak.


   Lord"ling  (?),  n.  [Lord  +  -ling.] A little or insignificant lord.


   Lord"ly,  a.  [Compar.  Lordlier (?); superl. Lordliest.] [Lord + -ly.
   Cf. Lordlike.]

   1. Suitable for a lord; of or pertaining to a lord; resembling a lord;
   hence, grand; noble; dignified; honorable.

     She brought forth butter in a lordly dish. Judges v. 25.

     Lordly sins require lordly estates to support them. South.

     The maidens gathered strength and grace And presence, lordlier than
     before. Tennyson.

   2. Proud; haughty; imperious; insolent.

     Lords are lordliest in their wine. Milton.

   Syn.   --   Imperious;  haughty;  overbearing;  tyrannical;  despotic;
   domineering; arrogant. See Imperious.


   Lord"ly, adv. In a lordly manner.


   Lord*ol"a*try (?), n. [Lord + -olatry, as in idolatry.] Worship of, or
   reverence for, a lord as such. [Jocose]

     But  how  should  it  be otherwise in a country where lordolatry is
     part of our creed ? Thackeray.


   Lor*do"sis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) (a) A curvature of the spine
   forwards,  usually in the lumbar region. (b) Any abnormal curvature of
   the bones.

                               Lords and Ladies

   Lords"   and   La"dies  (?).  (Bot.)  The  European  wake-robin  (Arum
   maculatum),  --  those  with purplish spadix the lords, and those with
   pale spadix the ladies. Dr. Prior.


   Lord"ship (?), n.

   1. The state or condition of being a lord; hence (with his or your), a
   title  applied  to a lord (except an archbishop or duke, who is called
   Grace) or a judge (in Great Britain), etc.

   2.   Seigniory;   domain;  the  territory  over  which  a  lord  holds
   jurisdiction; a manor.

     What  lands  and  lordships for their owner know My quondam barber.

   3. Dominion; power; authority.

     They  which  are  accounted  to  rule  over  the  Gentiles exercise
     lordship over them. Mark x. 42.


   Lore  (?),  n.  [F.  lore,  L.  lorum thong.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) The space
   between  the  eye  and bill, in birds, and the corresponding region in
   reptiles  and  fishes.  (b)  The  anterior  portion  of  the cheeks of


   Lore,  obs.  imp.  &  p.  p.  of Lose. [See Lose.] Lost. <-- irregular
   pos-ety-def format -->

     Neither of them she found where she them lore. Spenser.


   Lore,  n. [OE. lore, lare, AS. l\'ber, fr. l to teach; akin to D. leer
   teaching,  doctrine,  G.  lehre, Dan. l\'91re, Sw. l\'84ra. See Learn,
   and cf. Lere, v. t.]

   1. That which is or may be learned or known; the knowledge gained from
   tradition,  books,  or  experience; often, the whole body of knowledge
   possessed  by  a  people  or  class  of  people,  or  pertaining  to a
   particular  subject;  as,  the  lore  of the Egyptians; priestly lore;
   legal lore; folklore. "The lore of war." Fairfax.

     His fair offspring, nursed in princely lore. Milton.

   2.  That which is taught; hence, instruction; wisdom; advice; counsel.

     If please ye, listen to my lore. Spenser.

   3. Workmanship. [Obs.] Spenser.

                                 Loreal, Loral

   Lor"e*al  (?), Lor"al (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the lore;
   -- said of certain feathers of birds, scales of reptiles, etc.


   Lor"el  (?), n. [Losel.] A good for nothing fellow; a vagabond. [Obs.]


   Lor"en (?), obs. strong p. p. of Lose. Chaucer.


   Lores"man (?), n. [Lorelearning + man.] An instructor. [Obs.] Gower.


   Lo`rette"  (?), n. [F.] In France, a name for a woman who is supported
   by her lovers, and devotes herself to idleness, show, and pleasure; --
   so  called  from  the  church of Notre Dame de Lorette, in Paris, near
   which many of them resided.


   Lo`ret*tine"  (?),  n.  (R.  C. Ch.) One of a order of nuns founded in
   1812  at  Loretto,  in Kentucky. The members of the order (called also
   Sisters  of  Loretto,  or  Friends  of  Mary at the Foot of the Cross)
   devote  themselves to the cause of education and the care of destitute
   orphans,  their  labors  being  chiefly confined to the Western United


   Lor`gnette"   (?)  n.  [F.]  An  opera  glass;  pl.  elaborate  double


   Lo"ri (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Lory.


   Lo*ri"ca  (?), n.; pl. Loric\'91 (#). [L., lit., a corselet of thongs,
   fr. lorum thong.]

   1.  (Anc. Armor) A cuirass, originally of leather, afterward of plates
   of metal or horn sewed on linen or the like.

   2. (Chem.) Lute for protecting vessels from the fire.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  protective  case  or  shell  of  an infusorian or


   Lor`i*ca"ta  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Loricata.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A suborder
   of  edentates, covered with bony plates, including the armadillos. (b)
   The crocodilia.

   Page 870


   Lor"i*cate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Loricated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Loricating  (?).]  [L. loricatus, p. p. of loricare to clothe in mail,
   to  cover with plastering, fr. lorica a leather cuirass, a plastering,
   fr.  lorum  thong.]  To  cover with some protecting substance, as with
   lute, a crust, coating, or plates.


   Lor"i*cate (?), a. [See Loricate, v.] Covered with a shell or exterior
   made of plates somewhat like a coat of mail, as in the armadillo.


   Lor"i*cate,  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  animal  covered  with bony scales, as
   crocodiles among reptiles, and the pangolins among mammals.


   Lor`i*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  loricatio.]  The  act of loricating; the
   protecting substance put on; a covering of scales or plates.


   Lor"i*keet  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  numerous  species of small
   brush-tongued parrots or lories, found mostly in Australia, New Guinea
   and the adjacent islands, with some forms in the East Indies. They are
   arboreal  in  their habits and feed largely upon the honey of flowers.
   They belong to Trichoglossus, Loriculus, and several allied genera.

                               Lorimer, Loriner

   Lor"i*mer  (?),  Lor"i*ner  (?),  n.  [OF.  lormier, loremier, fr. LL.
   loranum  bridle,  L.  lorum  thong,  the rein of a bridle.] A maker of
   bits,  spurs,  and  metal  mounting  for bridles and saddles; hence, a
   saddler. [Obs.] Holinshed.


   Lor"ing (?), n. [See 3d Lore.] Instructive discourse. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Lo"ri*ot  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  OF. loriou, for l'oriol, , l' being the
   article.  The  same word as oriole. See Oriole.] (Zo\'94l.) The golden
   oriole of Europe. See Oriole.


   Lo"ris  (?),  n.  [Loris,  or  lori, the indigenous East Indian name.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  several species of small lemurs of the genus
   Stenops.  They  have  long,  slender  limbs  and  large  eyes, and are
   arboreal  in their habits. The slender loris (S. gracilis), of Ceylon,
   in one of the best known species. [Written also lori.]


   Lorn (?), a. [Strong p. p. of Lose. See Lose, Forlorn.]

   1. Lost; undone; ruined. [Archaic]

     If thou readest, thou art lorn. Sir W. Scott.

   2. Forsaken; abandoned; solitary; bereft; as, a lone, lorn woman.

                                 Lorrie, Lorry

   Lor"rie, Lor"ry (?), n.; pl. Lorries (#). [Prob. from lurry to pull or
   lug.] A small cart or wagon, as those used on the tramways in mines to
   carry  coal  or rubbish; also, a barrow or truck for shifting baggage,
   as  at  railway  stations.<--  (Brit.) now a motorized vehicle, esp. a
   large one, for transporting freight, called "truck" in the U.S. -->


   Lo"ry   (?),   n.;   pl.  Lories  (#).  [Hind.  &  Malay.  l\'d4r\'c6,
   n\'d4r\'c6.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one of many species of small parrots of
   the family Trichoglossid\'91, generally having the tongue papillose at
   the  tip, and the mandibles straighter and less toothed than in common
   parrots. They are found in the East Indies, Australia, New Guinea, and
   the adjacent islands. They feed mostly on soft fruits and on the honey
   of flowers.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e lo  ry, or   lo uri, of  So uth Af rica is  th e
     white-crested plantain eater or turacou. See Turacou.


   Los (?), n. Praise. See Loos. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Los"a*ble (?), a. Such as can be lost.


   Los"ange (?), n. See Lozenge.


   Lose  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Losing (?).] [OE. losien to loose, be
   lost, lose, AS. losian to become loose; akin to OE. leosen to lose, p.
   p.  loren,  lorn, AS. le\'a2san, p. p. loren (in comp.), D. verliezen,
   G.   verlieren,   Dan.  forlise,  Sw.  f\'94rlisa,  f\'94rlora,  Goth.
   fraliusan,  also to E. loose, a & v., L. luere to loose, Gr. l to cut.
   &root;127. Cf. Analysis, Palsy, Solve, Forlorn, Leasing, Loose, Loss.]

   1.  To  part  with  unintentionally  or  unwillingly,  as by accident,
   misfortune, negligence, penalty, forfeit, etc.; to be deprived of; as,
   to lose money from one's purse or pocket, or in business or gaming; to
   lose an arm or a leg by amputation; to lose men in battle.

     Fair  Venus wept the sad disaster Of having lost her favorite dove.

   2.  To  cease  to have; to possess no longer; to suffer diminution of;
   as, to lose one's relish for anything; to lose one's health.

     If  the  salt  hath  lost his savor, wherewith shall it be salted ?
     Matt. v. 13.

   3. Not to employ; to employ ineffectually; to throw away; to waste; to
   squander; as, to lose a day; to lose the benefits of instruction.

     The unhappy have but hours, and these they lose. Dryden.

   4.  To wander from; to miss, so as not to be able to and; to go astray
   from; as, to lose one's way.

     He hath lost his fellows. Shak

   5.  To  ruin;  to  destroy;  as  destroy; as, the ship was lost on the

     The woman that deliberates is lost. Addison.

   6.  To  be  deprived  of  the  view  of;  to  cease to see or know the
   whereabouts of; as, he lost his companion in the crowd.

     Like following life thro' creatures you dissect, You lose it in the
     moment you detect. Pope


   7.  To fail to obtain or enjoy; to fail to gain or win; hence, to fail
   to  catch  with the mind or senses; to miss; as, I lost a part of what
   he said.

     He shall in no wise lose his reward. Matt. x. 42.

     I  fought  the  battle  bravely  which  I  lost, And lost it but to
     Macedonians. Dryden.

   8. To cause to part with; to deprive of. [R.]

     How  should  you  go about to lose him a wife he loves with so much
     passion ? Sir W. Temple.

   9. To prevent from gaining or obtaining.

     O  false  heart  ! thou hadst almost betrayed me to eternal flames,
     and lost me this glory. Baxter.

   To   lose   ground,   to  fall  behind;  to  suffer  gradual  loss  or
   disadvantage. -- To lose heart, to lose courage; to become timid. "The
   mutineers  lost  heart." Macaulay. -- To lose one's head, to be thrown
   off one's balance; to lose the use of one's good sense or judgment.

     In  the  excitement  of  such a discovery, many scholars lost their
     heads. Whitney.

   --  To  lose  one's  self.  (a)  To  forget  or mistake the bearing of
   surrounding  objects;  as,  to lose one's self in a great city. (b) To
   have  the  perceptive and rational power temporarily suspended; as, we
   lose ourselves in sleep. -- To lose sight of. (a) To cease to see; as,
   to  lose  sight  of  the  land. (b) To overlook; to forget; to fail to
   perceive; as, he lost sight of the issue.


   Lose  (?),  v. i. To suffer loss, disadvantage, or defeat; to be worse
   off, esp. as the result of any kind of contest.

     We  'll  .  . . hear poor rogues Talk of court news; and we'll talk
     with them too, Who loses and who wins; who's in, who's out. Shak.


   Los"el  (?), n. [From the root of lose, loss. Lorel.] One who loses by
   sloth or neglect; a worthless person; a lorel. [Archaic] Spenser.

     One sad losel soils a name for aye. Byron.


   Los"el, a. Wasteful; slothful.


   Los"en*ger  (?),  n.  [OF.  losengier,  losengeor,  fr.  losengier  to
   deceive, flatter, losenge, flattery, Pr. lauzenga, fr. L. laus praise.
   Cf. Lozenge.] A flatterer; a deceiver; a cozener. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     To  a fair pair of gallows, there to end their lives with shame, as
     a number of such other losengers had done. Holinshed.


   Los"en*ger*ie   (?),  n.  [OF.]  Flattery;  deceit;  trickery.  [Obs.]


   Los"er (?), n. One who loses. South.


   Lo"sing   (?),  a.  [See  Losenger.]  Given  to  flattery  or  deceit;
   flattering; cozening. [Obs.]

     Amongst  the  many  simoniacal  that  swarmed in the land, Herbert,
     Bishop  of Thetford, must not be forgotten; nick-named Losing, that
     is, the Fratterer. Fuller.


   Los"ing  (?),  a.  [See  Lose, v. t.] Causing or incurring loss; as, a
   losing game or business.

     Who strive sit out losing hands are lost. Herbert.


   Los"ing*ly (?), adv. In a manner to incur loss.


   Loss  (?),  n.  [AS. los loss, losing, fr. le\'a2san to lose. Lose, v.

   1. The act of losing; failure; destruction; privation; as, the loss of
   property; loss of money by gaming; loss of health or reputation.

     Assured loss before the match be played. Shak.

   2.  The  state  of  losing  or  having  lost;  the  privation, defect,
   misfortune, harm, etc., which ensues from losing.

     Though thou repent, yet I have still the loss. Shak

   3.  That which is lost or from which one has parted; waste; -- opposed
   to   gain  or  increase;  as,  the  loss  of  liquor  by  leakage  was

   4.  The  state  of  being  lost or destroyed; especially, the wreck or
   foundering of a ship or other vessel.

   5. Failure to gain or win; as, loss of a race or battle.

   6. Failure to use advantageously; as, loss of time.

   7. (Mil.) Killed, wounded, and captured persons, or captured property.

   8. (Insurance) Destruction or diminution of value, if brought about in
   a  manner  provided  for  in the insurance contract (as destruction by
   fire or wreck, damage by water or smoke), or the death or injury of an
   insured person; also, the sum paid or payable therefor; as, the losses
   of the company this year amount to a million of dollars.
   To  bear  a loss, to make a loss good; also, to sustain a loss without
   sinking under it. -- To be at a loss, to be in a state of uncertainty.
   Syn. -- Privation; detriment; injury; damage.


   Loss"ful (?), a. Detrimental. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Loss"less, a. Free from loss. [Obs.] Milton.


   Lost (?), a. [Prop. p. p. of OE. losien. See Lose, v. t.]

   1.  Parted  with  unwillingly  or  unintentionally;  not  to be found;
   missing; as, a lost book or sheep.

   2.  Parted  with;  no  longer held or possessed; as, a lost limb; lost

   3.  Not  employed  or  enjoyed;  thrown  away; employed ineffectually;
   wasted; squandered; as, a lost day; a lost opportunity or benefit.

   5.  Having  wandered  from,  or  unable  to find, the way; bewildered;
   perplexed; as, a child lost in the woods; a stranger lost in London.

   6.  Ruined  or  destroyed,  either physically or morally; past help or
   hope; as, a ship lost at sea; a woman lost to virtue; a lost soul.

   7. Hardened beyond sensibility or recovery; alienated; insensible; as,
   lost to shame; lost to all sense of honor.

   8.  Not  perceptible  to  the senses; no longer visible; as, an island
   lost in a fog; a person lost in a crowd.

   9.  Occupied  with,  or under the influence of, something, so as to be
   insensible of external things; as, to be lost in thought.
   Lost motion (Mach.), the difference between the motion of a driver and
   that  of  a  follower,  due  to  the yielding of parts or looseness of


   Lot (?), n. [AS. hlot; akin to hle\'a2tan to cast lots, OS. hl lot, D.
   lot,  G.  loos, OHG. l, Icel. hlutr, Sw. lott, Dan. lod, Goth. hlauts.
   Cf. Allot, Lotto, Lottery.]

   1.  That  which  happens  without human design or forethought; chance;
   accident; hazard; fortune; fate.

     But save my life, which lot before your foot doth lay. Spenser.

   2.  Anything  (as  a  die,  pebble,  ball,  or  slip of paper) used in
   determining a question by chance, or without man's choice or will; as,
   to cast or draw lots.

     The lot is cast into the lap, but the whole disposing thereof is of
     the Lord. Prov. xvi. 33.

     If we draw lots, he speeds. Shak.

   3.  The  part,  or fate, which falls to one, as it were, by chance, or
   without his planning.

     O visions ill foreseen! Each day's lot's Enough to bear. Milton.

     He  was  but  born  to  try The lot of man -- to suffer and to die.

   4.  A  separate  portion; a number of things taken collectively; as, a
   lot  of  stationery; -- colloquially, sometimes of people; as, a sorry
   lot; a bad lot.

     I, this winter, met with a very large lot of English heads, chiefly
     of the reign of James I. Walpole.

   5.  A  distinct portion or plot of land, usually smaller than a field;
   as, a building lot in a city.

     The  defendants  leased  a  house  and lot in the city of New York.

   6.  A  large  quantity  or number; a great deal; as, to spend a lot of
   money; lots of people think so. [Colloq.]

     He  wrote  to  her . . . he might be detained in London by a lot of
     business. W. Black.

   7. A prize in a lottery. [Obs.] Evelyn.
   To  cast in one's lot with, to share the fortunes of. -- To cast lots,
   to  use  or  throw  a die, or some other instrument, by the unforeseen
   turn  or  position  of  which,  an  event  is  by  previous  agreement
   determined.  --  To  draw  lots,  to  determine  an  event,  or make a
   decision, by drawing one thing from a number whose marks are concealed
   from  the  drawer.  --  To pay scot and lot, to pay taxes according to
   one's ability. See Scot.


   Lot (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Lotted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lotting (?).]
   To  allot;  to  sort;  to portion. [R.] To lot on OR upon, to count or
   reckon upon; to expect with pleasure. [Colloq. U. S.]


   Lote  (?),  n.  [L.  lotus,  Gr.  Lotus.]  (Bot.) A large tree (Celtis
   australis),  found  in  the  south  of Europe. It has a hard wood, and
   bears a cherrylike fruit. Called also nettle tree. Eng. Cyc.


   Lote, n. [F. lotte.] (Zo\'94l.) The European burbot.


   Lote (?), v. i. [AS. lutian.] To lurk; to lie hid. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                     Loth, a., Lothly, a. & adv., Lothsome

   Loth (?), a., Loth"ly, a. & adv., Loth"some (, a., See Loath, Loathly,


   Lo*tha"ri*o  (?),  n.  [Name of a character in Rowe's drama, "The Fair
   Penitent."] A gay seducer of women; a libertine.


   Lo"tion  (?), n. [L. lotio, fr. lavare, lotum, to wash: cf. F. lotion.
   See Lave to wash.]

   1.  A  washing, especially of the skin for the purpose of rendering it

   2.  A  liquid  preparation  for  bathing  the  skin,  or an injured or
   diseased  part,  either  for a medicinal purpose, or for improving its


   Lo"to (?), n. See Lotto.


   Lo*tong"   (?),  n.  [Malay  l.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  East  Indian  monkey
   (Semnopithecus femoralis).


   Lo*toph"a*gi  (?), n. pl. [L., fr. Gr. (Class. Myth.) A people visited
   by  Ulysses  in his wanderings. They subsisted on the lotus. See Lotus
   (b), and Lotus-eater.


   Lo"tos (?), n. [NL.] (Bot.) See Lotus.


   Lot"ter*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Lotteries  (#). [Lot + -ery, as in brewery,

   1.  A  scheme for the distribution of prizes by lot or chance; esp., a
   gaming  scheme in which one or more tickets bearing particular numbers
   draw  prizes,  and the rest of tickets are blanks. Fig. : An affair of

     NOTE: &hand; Th e la ws of  th e Un ited St ates and of most of the
     States make lotteries illegal.

   <-- except those conducted by the states themselves -->

   2. Allotment; thing allotted. [Obs.] Shak.


   Lot"to  (?), n. [F. loto or It. lotto, prop., a lot; of German origin.
   See  Lot.] A game of chance, played with cards, on which are inscribed
   numbers,  and  any  contrivance (as a wheel containing numbered balls)
   for  determining a set of numbers by chance. The player holding a card
   having  on it the set of numbers drawn from the wheel takes the stakes
   after a certain percentage of them has been deducted for the dealer. A
   variety of lotto is called keno. [Often written loto.]


   Lo"ture (?), n. [L. lotura. See Lotion.] See Lotion. [Obs.] Holland.


   Lo"tus (?), n. [L. lotus, Gr. Lote.]

   1.  (Bot.)  (a)  A name of several kinds of water lilies; as Nelumbium
   speciosum,  used  in  religious ceremonies, anciently in Egypt, and to
   this day in Asia; Nelumbium luteum, the American lotus; and Nymph\'91a
   Lotus   and   N.   c\'91rulea,  the  respectively  white-flowered  and
   blue-flowered  lotus of modern Egypt, which, with Nelumbium speciosum,
   are   figured   on  its  ancient  monuments.  (b)  The  lotus  of  the
   lotuseaters,  probably  a  tree  found  in  Northern  Africa,  Sicily,
   Portugal,  and  Spain  (Zizyphus  Lotus), the fruit of which is mildly
   sweet.  It  was fabled by the ancients to make strangers who ate of it
   forget  their  native country, or lose all desire to return to it. (c)
   The  lote, or nettle tree. See Lote. (d) A genus (Lotus) of leguminous
   plants much resembling clover. [Written also lotos.]
   European  lotus, a small tree (Diospyros Lotus) of Southern Europe and
   Asia;  also, its rather large bluish black berry, which is called also
   the date plum.

   Page 871

   2.  (Arch.)  An ornament much used in Egyptian architecture, generally
   asserted to have been suggested by the Egyptian water lily.

                           Lotus-eater, Lotos-eater

   Lo"tus-eat`er  (?),  Lo"tos-eat`er  (?), n. (Class. Myth.) One who ate
   the fruit or leaf of the lotus, and, as a consequence, gave himself up
   to indolence and daydreams; one of the Lotophagi.

     The mild-eyed melancholy Lotos-eaters. Tennyson.


   Lou*chettes"  (?),  n. pl. [F.] Goggles intended to rectify strabismus
   by permitting vision only directly in front. Knight.


   Loud  (?),  a.  [Compar. Louder (?); superl. Loudest.] [OE. loud, lud,
   AS.  hl;  akin  to  OS.  hl,  D. luid, OHG. l, G. laut, L. -clutus, in
   inclutus,  inclitus,  celebrated, renowned, cluere to be called, Gr. .
   Client, Listen, Slave a serf.]

   1.  Having,  making, or being a strong or great sound; noisy; striking
   the ear with great force; as, a loud cry; loud thunder.

     They  were  instant  with  loud  voices, requiring that he might be
     crucified. Luke xxiii. 23.

   2. Clamorous; boisterous.

     She is loud and stubborn. Prov. vii. 11.

   3.  Emphatic;  impressive;  urgent; as, a loud call for united effort.

   4.  Ostentatious; likely to attract attention; gaudy; as, a loud style
   of  dress; loud colors. [Slang] Syn. -- Noisy; boisterous; vociferous;
   clamorous; obstreperous; turbulent; blustering; vehement.


   Loud, adv. [AS. hl&umac;de.] With loudness; loudly.

     To speak loud in public assemblies. Addison.


   Loud"ful (?), a. Noisy. [Obs.] Marsion.


   Loud"ly, adv. In a loud manner. Denham.


   Loud"-mouthed`  (?),  a.  Having  a  loud  voice;  talking or sounding
   noisily; noisily impudent.


   Loud"ness, n. The quality or state of being loud.


   Loud"-voiced` (?), a. Having a loud voice; noisy; clamorous. Byron.


   Lough (?), n. [See 1st Loch.] A loch or lake; -- so spelt in Ireland.


   Lough (?), obs. strong imp. of Laugh. Chaucer.

                                  Louis d'or

   Lou"is  d'or`  (?).  [F., gold louis.] Formerly, a gold coin of France
   nominally  worth  twenty  shillings sterling, but of varying value; --
   first struck in 1640.

                                Lonis quatorze

   Lon"is  qua*torze"  (?). [F., Louis fourteenth.] Of, pertaining to, or
   resembling, the art or style of the times of Louis XIV. of France; as,
   Louis quatorze architecture.


   Louk (?), n. An accomplice; a "pal." [Obs.]

     There is no thief without a louk. Chaucer.


   Lounge  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Lounged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lounging
   (?).]  [OE.  lungis  a tall, slow, awkward fellow, OF. longis, longin,
   said  to  be  fr.  Longinus, the name of the centurion who pierced the
   body  of  Christ, but with reference also to L. longus long. Cf. Long,
   a.]  To spend time lazily, whether lolling or idly sauntering; to pass
   time indolently; to stand, sit, or recline, in an indolent manner.

     We  lounge  over the sciences, dawdle through literature, yawn over
     politics. J. Hannay.


   Lounge, n.

   1.  An idle gait or stroll; the state of reclining indolently; a place
   of lounging.

     She  went with Lady Stock to a bookseller's whose shop lounge. Miss

   2.  A  piece of furniture resembling a sofa, upon which one may lie or


   Loun"ger (?), n. One who lounges; ar idler.


   Loup (?), n. (Iron Works) See 1st Loop.


   Loup"-cer`vier"  (?),  n. [F. Cf. Lusern.] (Zo\'94l.) The Canada lynx.
   See Lynx.


   Loup`-loup" (?), n. [F.] (Zo\'94l.) The Pomeranian or Spitz dog.


   Loups  (?),  n.  pl.;  sing.  Loup. [F., prop., a wolf.] (Ethnol.) The
   Pawnees,  a  tribe of North American Indians whose principal totem was
   the wolf.


   Lour  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.) An Asiatic sardine (Clupea
   Neohowii), valued for its oil.


   Lou"ri (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Lory.


   Louse (?), n.; pl. Lice (#). [OE. lous, AS. l, pl. l; akin to D. luis,
   G.  laus,  OHG. l, Icel. l, Sw. lus, Dan. luus; perh. so named because
   it is destructive, and akin to E. lose, loose.] (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  Any  one  of  numerous  species  of  small,  wingless,  suctorial,
   parasitic  insects  belonging  to  a  tribe  (Pediculina), now usually
   regarded  as  degraded  Hemiptera. To this group belong of the lice of
   man  and other mammals; as, the head louse of man (Pediculus capitis),
   the  body louse (P. vestimenti), and the crab louse (Phthirius pubis),
   and  many others. See Crab louse, Dog louse, Cattle louse, etc., under
   Crab, Dog, etc.

   2.  Any one of numerous small mandibulate insects, mostly parasitic on
   birds,  and  feeding on the feathers. They are known as Mallophaga, or
   bird  lice, though some occur on the hair of mammals. They are usually
   regarded as degraded Pseudoneuroptera. See Mallophaga.

   3.  Any  one  of  the  numerous  species of aphids, or plant lice. See

   4.  Any  small  crustacean  parasitic  on  fishes. See Branchiura, and

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm is also applied to various other parasites;
     as, the whale louse, beelouse, horse louse.

   Louse  fly  (Zo\'94l.),  a  parasitic  dipterous  insect  of the group
   Pupipara.  Some  of them are wingless, as the bee louse. -- Louse mite
   (Zo\'94l.),  any one of numerous species of mites which infest mammals
   and birds, clinging to the hair and feathers like lice. They belong to
   Myobia, Dermaleichus, Mycoptes, and several other genera.


   Louse (?), v. t. To clean from lice. "You sat and loused him." Swift.


   Louse"wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  Any  species of Pedicularis, a genus of
   perennial  herbs.  It  was  said  to  make sheep that fed on it lousy.
   Yellow lousewort , a plant of the genus Rhinanthus.


   Lous"i*ly (?), adv. [From Lousy.] In a lousy manner; in a mean, paltry
   manner; scurvily. [Vulgar]


   Lous"i*ness, n. The state or quality of being lousy.


   Lous"y (?), a.

   1. Infested with lice.

   2.  Mean;  contemptible;  as,  lousy  knave.  [Vulgar]<-- informal but
   common(1950-96) -->

     Such lousy learning as this is. Bale.

   <--  3. very bad [RH2: "wretchedly bad"]. To feel lousy; to do a lousy
   job. -->


   Lout (?), v. i. [OE. louten, luten, AS. l; akin to Icel. l, Dan. lude,
   OHG.  l  to  lie  hid.]  To bend; to box; to stoop. [Archaic] Chaucer.

     He fair the knight saluted, louting low. Spenser.


   Lout,  n.  [Formerly also written lowt.] A clownish, awkward fellow; a
   bumpkin. Sir P. Sidney.


   Lout,  v.  t.  To  treat as a lout or fool; to neglect; to disappoint.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Lout"ish,  a. Clownish; rude; awkward. "Loutish clown." Sir P. Sidney.
   -- Lout"ish*ly, adv. -- Lout"*ish*ness, n.


   Lou*tou"  (?),  n.  [Native  names.] (Zo\'94l.) A crested black monkey
   (Semnopithecus maurus) of Java.

                                Louver, Louvre

   Lou"ver,  Lou"vre  (?),  n. [OE. lover, OF. lover, lovier; or l'ouvert
   the  opening,  fr.  overt, ouvert, p. p. of ovrir, ouvrir, to open, F.
   ouvrir.  Cf.  Overt.]  (Arch.)  A  small  lantern.  See Lantern, 2 (a)
   [Written  also  lover,  loover,  lovery,  and  luffer.] <-- 2. same as
   louver  boards;  (b) a set of slats resembling louver boards, arranged
   in a vertical row and attached at each slat end to a frame inserted in
   a  door  or  window; the slats may be made of wood, plastic, or metal,
   and   the  angle  of  inclination  of  the  slats  may  be  adjustable
   simultaneously, to allow more or less light or air into the enclosure.
   -->  Louver  boards  OR  boarding,  the  sloping  boards  set  to shed
   rainwater outward in openings which are to be left otherwise unfilled;
   as  belfry  windows,  the  openings  of a louver, etc. -- Louver work,
   slatted  work.  <-- Louver, v. to supply with louvers; louvered doors,
   louvered windows -->


   Lov"a*ble  (?),  a.  Having  qualities  that  excite, or are fitted to
   excite, love; worthy of love.

     Elaine  the  fair,  Elaine  the  lovable,  Elaine, the lily maid of
     Astolat. Tennyson.


   Lov"age (?), n. [F. liv\'8ache, fr. L. levisticum, ligusticum, a plant
   indigenous  to  Liguria,  lovage, from Ligusticus Ligustine, Ligurian,
   Liguria  a  country  of Cisalpine Gaul.] (Bot.) An umbelliferous plant
   (Levisticum  officinale),  sometimes  used  in medicine as an aromatic


   Love (?), n. [OE. love, luve, AS. lufe, lufu; akin to E.lief, believe,
   L. lubet, libet,it pleases, Skr. lubh to be lustful. See Lief.]

   1.  A  feeling  of strong attachment induced by that which delights or
   commands  admiration;  pre\'89minent  kindness or devotion to another;
   affection; tenderness; as, the love of brothers and sisters.

     Of  all the dearest bonds we prove Thou countest sons' and mothers'
     love Most sacred, most Thine own. Keble.

   2.   Especially,  devoted  attachment  to,  or  tender  or  passionate
   affection for, one of the opposite sex.

     He on his side Leaning half-raised, with looks of cordial love Hung
     over her enamored. Milton.

   3.  Courtship; -- chiefly in the phrase to make love, i. e., to court,
   to woo, to solicit union in marriage.

     Demetrius  . . . Made love to Nedar's daughter, Helena, And won her
     soul. Shak.

   4.  Affection;  kind  feeling;  friendship;  strong  liking or desire;
   fondness; good will; -- opposed to hate; often with of and an object.

     Love, and health to all. Shak.

     Smit with the love of sacred song. Milton.

     The love of science faintly warmed his breast. Fenton.

   5. Due gratitude and reverence to God.

     Keep yourselves in the love of God. Jude 21.

   6.  The  object  of affection; -- often employed in endearing address.
   "Trust me, love." Dryden.

     Open the temple gates unto my love. Spenser.

   7. Cupid, the god of love; sometimes, Venus.

     Such  was his form as painters, when they show Their utmost art, on
     naked Lores bestow. Dryden.

     Therefore do nimble-pinioned doves draw Love. Shak.

   8. A thin silk stuff. [Obs.] Boyle.

   9. (Bot.) A climbing species of Clematis (C. Vitalba).

   10.  Nothing;  no points scored on one side; -- used in counting score
   at tennis, etc.

     He won the match by three sets to love. The Field.

     NOTE: &hand; Lo ve is  often used in the formation of compounds, in
     most  of  which  the  meaning  is  very  obvious; as, love-cracked,
     love-darting, love-killing, love-linked, love-taught, etc.

   A  labor  of  love,  a  labor undertaken on account of regard for some
   person, or through pleasure in the work itself, without expectation of
   reward.  -- Free love, the doctrine or practice of consorting with one
   of  the opposite sex, at pleasure, without marriage. See Free love. --
   Free  lover,  one who avows or practices free love. -- In love, in the
   act  of  loving;  --  said esp. of the love of the sexes; as, to be in
   love;  to fall in love. -- Love apple (Bot.), the tomato. -- Love bird
   (Zo\'94l.), any one of several species of small, short-tailed parrots,
   or  parrakeets,  of  the  genus Agapornis, and allied genera. They are
   mostly from Africa. Some species are often kept as cage birds, and are
   celebrated  for the affection which they show for their mates. -- Love
   broker,  a  person  who  for pay acts as agent between lovers, or as a
   go-between  in  a  sexual  intrigue.  Shak. -- Love charm, a charm for
   exciting  love. Ld. Lytton. -- Love child. an illegitimate child. Jane
   Austen.  --  Love  day,  a  day  formerly  appointed  for  an amicable
   adjustment  of  differences.  [Obs.]  Piers  Plowman. Chaucer. -- Love
   drink,  a  love  potion;  a philter. Chaucer. -- Love favor, something
   given  to  be  worn  in  token  of  love.  --  Love feast, a religious
   festival,  held  quarterly  by  some  religious  denominations, as the
   Moravians  and  Methodists,  in imitation of the agap\'91 of the early
   Christians.  --  Love  feat, the gallant act of a lover. Shak. -- Love
   game,  a  game,  as in tennis, in which the vanquished person or party
   does  not  score  a  point. -- Love grass. [G. liebesgras.] (Bot.) Any
   grass  of  the genus Eragrostis. -- Love-in-a-mist. (Bot.) (a) An herb
   of  the Buttercup family (Nigella Damascena) having the flowers hidden
   in  a  maze  of  finely  cut  bracts.  (b)  The West Indian Passiflora
   f\'d2tida,  which  has  similar  bracts. -- Love-in-idleness (Bot.), a
   kind of violet; the small pansy.

     A  little western flower, Before milk-white, now purple with love's
     wound; And maidens call it love-in-idleness. Shak.

   --  Love  juice,  juice  of a plant supposed to produce love. Shak. --
   Love  knot,  a knot or bow, as of ribbon; -- so called from being used
   as  a  token  of  love, or as a pledge of mutual affection. Milman. --
   Love  lass, a sweetheart. -- Love letter, a letter of courtship. Shak.
   --   Love-lies-bleeding  (Bot.),  a  species  of  amaranth  (Amarantus
   melancholicus). -- Love match, a marriage brought about by love alone.
   --  Love  potion,  a  compounded  draught  intended to excite love, or
   venereal  desire.  --  Love  rites,  sexual  intercourse. Pope -- Love
   scene,  an exhibition of love, as between lovers on the stage. -- Love
   suit,  courtship.  Shak. -- Of all loves, for the sake of all love; by
   all  means.  [Obs.]  "Mrs. Arden desired him of all loves to come back
   again."  Holinshed. -- The god of love, OR Love god, Cupid. -- To make
   love  to,  to  express affection for; to woo. "If you will marry, make
   your  loves  to  me." Shak. -- To play for love, to play a game, as at
   cards,  without  stakes.  "A  game  at piquet for love." Lamb. Syn. --
   Affection; friendship; kindness; tenderness; fondness; delight.


   Love (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Loved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Loving.] [AS.
   lufian. Love, n.]

   1.  To  have  a  feeling of love for; to regard with affection or good
   will;  as,  to love one's children and friends; to love one's country;
   to love one's God.

     Thou  shalt  love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all
     thy soul, and with all thy mind. Matt. xxii. 37.

     Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thy self. Matt. xxii. 39.

   2. To regard with passionate and devoted affection, as that of one sex
   for the other.

   3.  To  take delight or pleasure in; to have a strong liking or desire
   for,  or  interest in; to be pleased with; to like; as, to love books;
   to love adventures.

     Wit, eloquence, and poetry. Arts which I loved. Cowley.


   Love, v. i. To have the feeling of love; to be in love.


   Love"a*ble (?), a. See Lovable.


   Love"*dru`ry,  n.  [Love + OF. druerie. Cf. Druery.] Affection. [Obs.]


   Lov*ee"  (?),  n.  One who is loved. [Humorous] "The lover and lovee."


   Love"ful (?), a. Full of love. [Obs.] Sylvester.


   Love"less, a.

   1. Void of love; void of tenderness or kindness. Milton. Shelton.

   2. Not attracting love; unattractive.

     These  are  ill-favored  to see to; and yet, asloveless as they be,
     they are not without some medicinable virtues. Holland.


   Love"li*ly (?), adv. [From Lovely.] In manner to excite love; amiably.
   [R.] Otway.


   Love"li*ness, n. [From Lovely.] The state or quality of being lovely.

     If  there  is  such  a native loveliness in the sex as to make them
     victorious  when in the wrong, how resistless their power when they
     are on the side of truth! Spectator.


   Love"lock`  (?), n. A long lock of hair hanging prominently by itself;
   an  earlock;  -- worn by men of fashion in the reigns of Elizabeth and
   James I. Burton.

     A long lovelock and long hair he wore. Sir W. Scott.


     Love"lorn` (?), a. Forsaken by one's love.

     The lovelorn nightingale. Milton.


     Love"ly  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Lovelier (?); superl. Loveliest.] [AS.

     1.  Having  such  an appearance as excites, or is fitted to excite,
     love;  beautiful;  charming; very pleasing in form, looks, tone, or
     manner. "Lovely to look on." Piers Plowman.

     Not one so fair of face, of speech so lovely. Robert of Brunne.

     If  I  had such a tire, this face of mine Were full as lovely as is
     this of hers. Shak.

     2.  Lovable; amiable; having qualities of any kind which excite, or
     are fitted to excite, love or friendship.

     A most lovely gentlemanlike man. Shak.

     3. Loving; tender. [Obs.] "A lovely kiss." Shak.

     Many a lovely look on them he cast. Chaucer.

     4.  Very  pleasing;  -- applied loosely to almost anything which is
     not  grand  or merely pretty; as, a lovely view; a lovely valley; a
     lovely melody.

     Indeed  these  fields  Are  lovely, lovelier not the Elysian lawns.

     Syn.  --  Beautiful;  charming; delightful; delectable; enchanting;
     lovable; amiable.


     Love"ly,  adv.  In  a manner to please, or to excite love. [Obs. or
     R.] Tyndale.


     Love"-mak`ing (?), n. Courtship. Bacon.


     Love"mon`ger (?), n. One who deals in affairs of love.[Obs.] Shak.


     Lov"er (?), n.

     1.  One  who  loves; one who is in love; -- usually limited, in the
     singular, to a person of the male sex. Gower.

     Love  is  blind,  and  lovers  can  not see The pretty follies that
     themselves commit. Shak.

     2.  A  friend;  one  strongly  attached to another; one who greatly
     desires  the  welfare  of  any  person or thing; as, a lover of his

     I slew my best lover for the good of Rome. Shak.

     3.  One who has a strong liking for anything, as books, science, or
     music. "A lover of knowledge." T. Burnet.

     Page 872

                                 Lover, Lovery

     Lo"ver (?), Lo"ver*y (?), n. See Louver. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


     Lo"ver*wise` (?), adv. As lovers do.

     As they sat down here loverwise. W. D. Howells.


     Love"-sick` (?), a.

     1. Languishing with love or amorous desire; as, a love-sick maid.

     To the dear mistress of my love-sick mind. Dryden.

     2. Originating in, or expressive of, languishing love.

     Where nightingales their love-sick ditty sing. Dryden.


     Love"-sick`ness, n. The state of being love-sick.


     Love"some (?), a. [AS. lufsum.] Lovely. [Obs.]


     Lov"ing (?), a.

     1. Affectionate.

     The fairest and most loving wife in Greece. Tennyson.

     2. Expressing love or kindness; as, loving words.


     Lov"ing-kind"ness  (?), n. Tender regard; mercy; favor. Ps. lxxxix.


     Lov"ing*ly, adv. With love; affectionately.


     Lov"ing*ness, n. Affection; kind regard.

     The only two bands of good will, loveliness and lovingness. Sir. P.


     Lov"yer (?), n. A lover. [Obs.] Chaucer.


     Low (?), obs, strong imp. of Laugh. Chaucer.


     Low  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Lowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lowing.]
     [OE.  lowen, AS. hl; akin to D. loeijen, OHG. hl, hluojan.] To make
     the calling sound of cows and other bovine animals; to moo.

     The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea. Gray.


     Low,  n. The calling sound ordinarily made by cows and other bovine

     Talking voices and the law of herds. Wordsworth.


     Low,  n.  [AS. hl\'bew; akin to Goth. hlaiw a grave, hlains a hill,
     and  to E. lean to incline.] A hill; a mound; a grave. [Obs. except
     in place names.] Skeat.


     Low  (?), n. [Icel. log, logi; akin to E. light, n.] Fire; a flame;
     a light. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]


     Low, v. i. To burn; to blaze. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Burns.


     Low  (?),  a.  [Compar. Lower (?); superl. Lowest.] [OE. low, louh,
     lah,  Icel.  l\'begr; akin to Sw. l\'86g, Dan. lav, D. laag, and E.
     lie. See Lie to be prostrate.]

     1.  Occupying  an inferior position or place; not high or elevated;
     depressed  in comparison with something else; as, low ground; a low

     2.  Not rising to the usual height; as, a man of low stature; a low

     3.  Near the horizon; as, the sun is low at four o'clock in winter,
     and six in summer.

     4. Sunk to the farthest ebb of the tide; as, low tide.

     5.  Beneath  the  usual  or  remunerative  rate  or  amount, or the
     ordinary  value;  moderate;  cheap;  as, the low price of corn; low

     6. Not loud; as, a low voice; a low sound.

     7. (Mus.) Depressed in the scale of sounds; grave; as, a low pitch;
     a low note.

     8.  (Phon.)  Made,  as  a vowel, with a low position of part of the
     tongue in relation to the palate; as, . See Guide to Pronunciation,
      5, 10, 11.

     9.  Near,  or  not  very  distant from, the equator; as, in the low
     northern latitudes.

     10. Numerically small; as, a low number.

     11.  Wanting  strength  or  animation; depressed; dejected; as, low
     spirits; low in spirits.

     12.  Depressed  in  condition;  humble  in  rank;  as,  men  of low
     condition; the lower classes.

     Why but to keep ye low and ignorant ? Milton.

     13.  Mean;  vulgar; base; dishonorable; as, a person of low mind; a
     low trick or stratagem.

     14.  Not  elevated  or  sublime;  not exalted or diction; as, a low

     In  comparison  of  these  divine  writers, the noblest wits of the
     heathen world are low and dull. Felton.

     15. Submissive; humble. "Low reverence." Milton.

     16.  Deficient in vital energy; feeble; weak; as, a low pulse; made
     low by sickness.

     17.  Moderate;  not  intense; not inflammatory; as, low heat; a low
     temperature; a low fever.

     18. Smaller than is reasonable or probable; as, a low estimate.

     19.  Not  rich,  high seasoned, or nourishing; plain; simple; as, a
     low diet.

     NOTE: &hand; Lo w is often used in the formation of compounds which
     require  no  special  explanation;  as,  low-arched,  low-  browed,
     low-crowned,   low-heeled,   low-lying,   low-priced,   low-roofed,
     low-toned, low-voiced, and the like.

   Low  Church.  See  High  Church,  under  High.  --  Low Countries, the
   Netherlands.  --  Low German, Low Latin, etc. See under German, Latin,
   etc.  --  Low  life,  humble life. -- Low milling, a process of making
   flour  from grain by a single grinding and by siftings. -- Low relief.
   See  Bas-relief. -- Low side window (Arch.), a peculiar form of window
   common  in medi\'91val churches, and of uncertain use. Windows of this
   sort  are narrow, near the ground, and out of the line of the windows,
   and  in  many  different  situations  in the building. -- Low spirits,
   despondency.  -- Low steam, steam having a low pressure. -- Low steel,
   steel which contains only a small proportion of carbon, and can not be
   hardened  greatly  by  sudden  cooling. -- Low Sunday, the Sunday next
   after Easter; -- popularly so called. -- Low tide, the farthest ebb of
   the  tide;  the tide at its lowest point; low water. -- Low water. (a)
   The lowest point of the ebb tide; a low stage of the in a river, lake,
   etc.  (b)  (Steam Boiler) The condition of an insufficient quantity of
   water in the boiler. -- Low water alarm OR indicator (Steam Boiler), a
   contrivance  of  various forms attached to a boiler for giving warning
   when  the  water  is low. -- Low water mark, that part of the shore to
   which  the  waters recede when the tide is the lowest. Bouvier. -- Low
   wine, a liquor containing about 20 percent of alcohol, produced by the
   first  distillation  of  wash; the first run of the still; -- often in
   the plural.


   Low, n. (Card Playing) The lowest trump, usually the deuce; the lowest
   trump dealt or drawn.


   Low, adv.

   1.  In  a  low  position  or  manner; not aloft; not on high; near the

   2.  Under  the  usual price; at a moderate price; cheaply; as, he sold
   his wheat low.

   3. In a low mean condition; humbly; meanly.

   4. In time approaching our own.

     In  that  part  of the world which was first inhabited, even as low
     down  as Abraham's time, they wandered with their flocks and herds.

   5.  With  a  low voice or sound; not loudly; gently; as, to speak low.

     The  .  .  .  odorous  wind Breathes low between the sunset and the
     moon. Tennyson.

   6. With a low musical pitch or tone.

     Can sing both high and low. Shak.

   7.  In  subjection,  poverty,  or  disgrace;  as, to be brought low by
   oppression, by want, or by vice. Spenser.

   8.  (Astron.)  In  a path near the equator, so that the declination is
   small,  or near the horizon, so that the altitude is small; -- said of
   the  heavenly bodies with reference to the diurnal revolution; as, the
   moon  runs  low, that is, is comparatively near the horizon when on or
   near the meridian.


   Low (?), v. t. To depress; to lower. [Obs.] Swift.


   Low"bell` (?), n. [Low a flame + bell.]

   1.  A  bell  used  in fowling at night, to frighten birds, and, with a
   sudden light, to make them fly into a net.

     The fowler's lowbell robs the lark of sleep. King.

   2. A bell to be hung on the neck of a sheep.

     A lowbell hung about a sheep's . . . neck. Howell.


   Low"bell`, v. t. To frighten, as with a lowbell.


   Low"born`  (?),  a.  Born  in  a  low condition or rank; -- opposed to


   Low"bred`  (?), a. Bred, or like one bred, in a low condition of life;
   characteristic or indicative of such breeding; rude; impolite; vulgar;
   as, a lowbred fellow; a lowbred remark.


   Low"-church`  (?),  a.  Not  placing a high estimate on ecclesiastical
   organizations  or  forms;  -- applied especially to Episcopalians, and
   opposed to high-church. See High Church, under High.


   Low"-church`ism (?), n. The principles of the low-church party.


   Low"-church`man  (?),  n.;  pl.  -men  (.  One  who  holds  low-church


   Low"-church`man*ship, n. The state of being a low-churchman.


   Low"er (?), a. Compar. of Low, a. <-- irregular format -->


   Low"er,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Lowered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Lowering.]
   [From Low, a.]

   1.  To  let  descend by its own weight, as something suspended; to let
   down;  as,  to  lower a bucket into a well; to lower a sail or a boat;
   sometimes, to pull down; as, to lower a flag.

     Lowered  softly  with  a  threefold  cord  of love Down to a silent
     grave. Tennyson.

   2.  To  reduce the height of; as, to lower a fence or wall; to lower a
   chimney or turret.

   3.  To depress as to direction; as, to lower the aim of a gun; to make
   less  elevated as to object; as, to lower one's ambition, aspirations,
   or hopes.

   4.  To  reduce the degree, intensity, strength, etc., of; as, to lower
   the  temperature  of  anything;  to  lower  one's  vitality;  to lower
   distilled liquors.

   5. To bring down; to humble; as, to lower one's pride.

   6. To reduce in value, amount, etc. ; as, to lower the price of goods,
   the rate of interest, etc.


   Low"er,  v.  i.  To  fall;  to  sink;  to  grow  less; to diminish; to
   decrease; as, the river lowered as rapidly as it rose.


   Low"er  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Lowered  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Lowering.]  [OE. lowren, luren; cf. D. loeren, LG. luren. G. lauern to
   lurk, to be on the watch, and E. leer, lurk.]

   1.  To be dark, gloomy, and threatening, as clouds; to be covered with
   dark  and threatening clouds, as the sky; to show threatening signs of
   approach, as a tempest.

     All the clouds that lowered upon our house. Shak.

   2. To frown; to look sullen.

     But sullen discontent sat lowering on her face. Dryden.


   Low"er, n. [Obs.]

   1. Cloudiness; gloominess.

   2. A frowning; sullenness.


   Low"er-case`  (?),  a.  (Print.)  Pertaining to, or kept in, the lower
   case;  --  used  to  denote  the  small  letters,  in distinction from
   capitals and small capitals. See the Note under 1st Case, n., 3.


   Low"er*ing  (?), a. Dark and threatening; gloomy; sullen; as, lowering
   clouds or sky.


   Low"er*ing*ly,   adv.   In  a  lowering  manner;  with  cloudiness  or
   threatening gloom.


   Low"er*most`  (?), a. [Irreg. superl. of Low. Cf. Uppermost, Foremost,
   etc.] Lowest.


   Low"er*y  (?),  a.  Cloudy; gloomy; lowering; as, a lowery sky; lowery

                                  Lowgh, Lowh

   Lowgh  (?),  Lowh,  obs.  strong  imp.  of  Laugh. [Cf. 1st Low and 2d
   Lough.] <-- irregular format --> Chaucer.


   Low"ing  (?),  n.  The  calling  sound  made  by cows and other bovine


   Low"ish, a. Somewhat low. [Colloq.] Richardson.


   Lowk (?), n. See Louk. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Low"land  (?),  n.  Land  which is low with respect to the neighboring
   country; a low or level country; -- opposed to highland. The Lowlands,
   Belgium  and  Holland;  the  Netherlands;  also,  the southern part of


   Low"land*er (?), n. A native or inhabitant of the Lowlands, especially
   of the Lowlands of Scotland, as distinguished from Highlander.

                             Lowlihood, Lowlihead

   Low"li*hood (?), Low"li*head (?), n. A lowly state. [R.] Tennyson.


   Low"li*ly, adv. In a lowly place or manner; humbly. [Obs. or R.]

     Thinking  lowlily  of  himself  and  highly  of  those  better than
     himself. J. C. Shairp.


   Low"li*ness, n. [From Lowly.]

   1. The state or quality of being lowly; humility; humbleness of mind.

     Walk . . . with all lowliness and meekness. Eph. iv. 1, 2.

   2. Low condition, especially as to manner of life.

     The  lowliness  of  my  fortune has not brought me to flatter vice.


   Low"-lived`  (?), a. Characteristic of, or like, one bred in a low and
   vulgar   condition  of  life;  mean  dishonorable;  contemptible;  as,
   low-lived dishonesty.


   Low"ly  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Lowlier (?); superl. Lowliest.] [Low, a. +

   1. Not high; not elevated in place; low. "Lowly lands." Dryden.

   2. Low in rank or social importance.

     One common right the great and lowly claims. Pope.

   3. Not lofty or sublime; humble.

     These rural poems, and their lowly strain. Dryden.

   4.  Having  a  low  esteem of one's own worth; humble; meek; free from

     Take  my yoke upon you, and learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in
     heart. Matt. xi. 29.


   Low"ly, adv.

   1. In a low manner; humbly; meekly; modestly. "Be lowly wise." Milton.

   2. In a low condition; meanly.

     I will show myself highly fed, and lowly taught. Shak.


   Low"-mind`ed  (?),  a.  Inclined  in  mind  to low or unworthy things;
   showing a base mind.

     Low-minded and immoral. Macaulay.

     All   old   religious   jealousies  were  condemned  as  low-minded
     infirmities. Bancroft.


   Low"-mind`ed*ness,  n.  The  quality  of  being  lowminded;  meanness;


   Lown (?), n. [See Loon.] A low fellow. [Obs.]


   Low"-necked`  (?),  a.  Cut  low  in the neck; decollete; -- said of a
   woman's dress.


   Low"ness, n. The state or quality of being low.


   Low"-pres`sure (?), a. Having, employing, or exerting, a low degree of
   pressure. Low-pressure steam engine, a steam engine in which low steam
   is  used; often applied to a condensing engine even when steam at high
   pressure is used. See Steam engine.


   Low"ry (?), n. An open box car used on railroads. Compare Lorry.


   Low"-spir`it*ed  (?), a. Deficient in animation and courage; dejected;
   depressed; not sprightly. -- Low"-spir`it*ed*ness, n.


   Low"-stud`ded  (?),  a.  Furnished  or  built  with short studs; as, a
   low-studded house or room.


   Low"-thought`ed  (?), a. Having one's thoughts directed toward mean or
   insignificant subjects.


   Lox`o*drom"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  loxodromique.] Pertaining to sailing on
   rhumb  lines; as, loxodromic tables. Loxodromic curve OR line (Geom.),
   a  line  on the surface of a sphere, which always makes an equal angle
   with  every  meridian;  the rhumb line. It is the line on which a ship
   sails  when  her course is always in the direction of one and the same
   point of the compass.


   Lox`o*drom"ics  (?), n. The art or method of sailing on the loxodromic
   or rhumb line.


   Lox*od"re*mism  (?),  n.  The  act  or process of tracing a loxodromic
   curve; the act of moving as if in a loxodromic curve.


   Lox*od"ro*my  (?), n. [Cf. F. loxodromic.] The science of loxodromics.


   Loy (?), n. A long, narrow spade for stony lands.


   Loy"al  (?),  a.  [F.  loyal,  OF.  loial, leial, L. legalis, fr. lex,
   legis, law. See Legal, and cf. Leal.]

   1.  Faithful to law; upholding the lawful authority; faithful and true
   to  the lawful government; faithful to the prince or sovereign to whom
   one is subject; unswerving in allegiance.

     Welcome,  sir  John  !  But  why  come you in arms ? - To help King
     Edward  in  his  time of storm, As every loyal subject ought to do.

   2. True to any person or persons to whom one owes fidelity, especially
   as  a wife to her husband, lovers to each other, and friend to friend;
   constant; faithful to a cause or a principle.

     Your true and loyal wife. Shak.

     Unhappy both, but loyaltheir loves. Dryden.


   Loy"al*ist,  n. A person who adheres to his sovereign or to the lawful
   authority;  especially, one who maintains his allegiance to his prince
   or government, and defends his cause in times of revolt or revolution.


   Loy"al*ly, adv. In a loyal manner; faithfully.


   Loy"al*ness, n. Loyalty. [R.] Stow.


   Loy"al*ly  (?),  n. [Cf. F. loyaute. See Loyal, and cf. Legality.] The
   state  or  quality of being loyal; fidelity to a superior, or to duty,
   love, etc.

     He had such loyalty to the king as the law required. Clarendon.

     Not  withstanding  all the subtle bait With which those Amazons his
     love still craved, To his one love his loyalty he saved. Spenser.

     NOTE: &hand; "L oyalty .  .  .  ex presses, properly, that fidelity
     which  one  owes according to law, and does not necessarily include
     that  attachment to the royal person, which, happily, we in England
     have been able further to throw into the word."

   Trench. Syn. -- Allegiance; fealty. See Allegiance.


   Loz"enge  (?), n. [F. lozange, losange; perh. the same as OF. losengef
   flattery,  praise,  the  heraldic  sense  being  the  oldest  (cf.  E.
   hatchment, blazon). Cf. Losenger, Laudable.]

   1. (Her.) (a) A diamond-shaped figure usually with the upper and lower
   angles  slightly  acute, borne upon a shield or escutcheon. Cf. Fusil.
   (b) A form of the escutcheon used by women instead of the shield which
   is used by men.

   2.  A  figure  with  four equal sides, having two acute and two obtuse
   angles; a rhomb.

   3. Anything in the form of lozenge.

   4. A small cake of sugar and starch, flavored, and often medicated. --
   originally in the form of a lozenge.
   Lozenge coach, the coach of a dowager, having her coat of arms painted
   on  a  lozenge.  [Obs.] Walpole. -- Lozenge-molding (Arch.), a kind of
   molding,  used in Norman architecture, characterized by lozenge-shaped

   Page 873

                           Lozenged, Lozenge-shaped

   Loz"enged  (?),  Loz"enge-shaped` (?), a. Having the form of a lozenge
   or rhomb.

     The lozenged panes of a very small latticed window. C. Bront\'82.


   Loz"en*gy  (?),  a.  [F. losang\'82. See Lozenge.] (Her.) Divided into
   lozenge-shaped compartments, as the field or a bearing, by lines drawn
   in the direction of the bend sinister.


   Lu (?), n. & v. t. See Loo.


   Lub"bard (?), n. [See Lubber.] A lubber. [Obs.] Swift.


   Lub"bard, a. Lubberly.


   Lub"ber  (?),  n.  [Cf.  dial.  Sw.  lubber. See Looby, Lob.] A heavy,
   clumsy, or awkward fellow; a sturdy drone; a clown.

     Lingering lubbers lose many a penny. Tusser.

   Land lubber, a name given in contempt by sailors to a person who lives
   on  land.  --  Lubber  grasshopper  (Zo\'94l.), a large, stout, clumsy
   grasshopper;  esp., Brachystola magna, from the Rocky Mountain plains,
   and Romalea microptera, which is injurious to orange trees in Florida.
   --  Lubber's  hole (Naut.), a hole in the floor of the "top," next the
   mast, through which sailors may go aloft without going over the rim by
   the futtock shrouds. It is considered by seamen as only fit to be used
   by  lubbers. Totten. -- Lubber's line, point, OR mark, a line or point
   in  the compass case indicating the head of the ship, and consequently
   the course which the ship is steering.


   Lub"ber*ly, a. Like a lubber; clumsy.

     A great lubberly boy. Shak.


   Lub"ber*ly, adv. Clumsily; awkwardly. Dryden.

                               Lubric, Lubrical

   Lu"bric (?), Lu"bric*al (?), a. [L. lubricus: cf. F. lubrique.]

   1. Having a smooth surface; slippery. [R.]

   2. Lascivious; wanton; lewd. [R.]

     This lubric and adulterate age. Dryden.


   Lu"bri*cant   (?),   a.  [L.  lubricans,  p.  pr.  of  lubricare,  See
   Lubricate.] Lubricating.


   Lu"bri*cant,  n.  That which lubricates; specifically, a substance, as
   oil,  grease,  plumbago,  etc.,  used for reducing the friction of the
   working parts of machinery.


   Lu"bri*cate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  lubricatus,  p.  p.  of  lubricare  to
   lubricate. See Lubric.]

   1.  To  make  smooth  or  slippery;  as,  mucilaginous and saponaceous
   remedies lubricate the parts to which they are applied. S. Sharp.

     Supples,  lubricates,  and  keeps in play, The various movements of
     this nice machine. Young.

   2. To apply a lubricant to, as oil or tallow.


   Lu`bri*ca"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of  lubricating; the act of making


   Lu"bri*ca`tor (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or that which, lubricates. " Lubricator of the fibers."

   2.  A  contrivance,  as  an  oil  cup,  for  supplying  a lubricant to


   Lu*bric"i*tate (?), v. i. See Lubricate.


   Lu*bric"i*ty (?), n. [L. lubricitas: cf. F. lubricit\'82.]

   1. Smoothness; freedom from friction; also, property, which diminishes
   friction; as, the lubricity of oil. Ray.

   2.   Slipperiness;   instability;   as,   the  lubricity  of  fortune.

   3.   Lasciviousness;   propensity   to  lewdness;  lewdness;  lechery;
   incontinency. Sir T. Herbert.

     As if wantonness and lubricity were essential to that poem. Dryden.


   Lu"bri*cous (?), a. [L. lubricus.] Lubric.

                          Lubrification, Lubrifaction

   Lu`bri*fi*ca"tion  (?),  Lu`bri*fac"tion (?), n. [L. lubricus lubric +
   facere to make.] The act of lubricating, or making smooth. Ray. Bacon.


   Lu`carne"  (?), n. [F., fr. L. lucerna a lamp. See Luthern.] (Arch.) A
   dormer window.


   Luc*chese"  (?), n. sing. & pl. [It. Lucchese.] A native or inhabitant
   of Lucca, in Tuscany; in the plural, the people of Lucca.


   Luce  (?),  n.  [OF. lus, L. lucius a kind of fish.] (Zo\'94l.) A pike
   when full grown. Halliwell.


   Lu"cen*cy (?), n. The quality of being lucent.


   Lu"cent (?), a. [L. lucens, p. pr. of lucere to shine, fr. lux, lucis,
   light.] Shining; bright; resplendent. " The sun's lucent orb." Milton.


   Lu"cern (?), n. [Etymology uncertain.] [Obs.]

   1. A sort of hunting dog; -- perhaps from Lucerne, in Switzerland.

     My  lucerns,  too,  or  dogs  inured to hunt Beasts of most rapine.

   2.  An  animal whose fur was formerly much in req [Written also lusern
   and luzern.]

     The  polecat,  mastern, and the richskinned lucern I know to chase.
     Beau. & Fl.


   Lu"cern, n. [F. luzerne.] (Bot.) A leguminous plant (Medicago sativa),
   having  bluish  purple  cloverlike  flowers, cultivated for fodder; --
   called also alfalfa. [Written also lucerne.]


   Lu"cern, n. [L. lucerna.] A lamp. [Obs.] Lydgate.


   Lu*cer"nal  (?),  a.  [L. lucerna a lamp.] Of or pertaining to a lamp.
   Lucernal  microscope,  a form of the microscope in which the object is
   illuminated  by  means of a lamp, and its image is thrown upon a plate
   of  ground  glass  connected  with  the  instrument,  or  on  a screen
   independent of it.


   Lu`cer*na"ri*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  L. lucerna a lamp.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   genus  of  acalephs,  having  a  bell-shaped body with eight groups of
   short  tentacles  around the margin. It attaches itself by a sucker at
   the base of the pedicel.


   Lu`cer*na"ri*an   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Of  or  pertaining  to  the
   Lucernarida. -- n. One of the Lucernarida.


   lu`cer*nar"i*da  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL. See Lucernaria.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A
   division  of  acalephs,  including  Lucernaria  and  allied genera; --
   called  also  Calycozoa.  (b)  A  more  extensive  group  of acalephs,
   including both the true lucernarida and the Discophora.


   Lu"cerne (?), n. (Bot.) See Lucern, the plant.


   Lu"cid (?), a. [L. lucidus, fr. lux, lucis, light. See Light, n.]

   1. Shining; bright; resplendent; as, the lucid orbs of heaven.

     Lucid, like a glowworm. Sir I. Newton.

     A court compact of lucid marbles. Tennyson.

   2. Clear; transparent. " Lucid streams." Milton.

   3. Presenting a clear view; easily understood; clear.

     A lucid and interesting abstract of the debate. Macaulay.

   4.  Bright with the radiance of intellect; not darkened or confused by
   delirium or madness; marked by the regular operations of reason; as, a
   lucid  interval.  Syn.  -- Luminous; bright; clear; transparent; sane;
   reasonable. See Luminous.


   Lu*cid"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. lucidit\'82. See Lucid.] The quality or
   state of being lucid.


   Lu"cid*ly (?), adv. In a lucid manner.


   Lu"cid*ness, n. The quality of being lucid; lucidity.


   Lu"ci*fer  (?), n. [L., bringing light, n., the morning star, fr. lux,
   lucis, light + ferre to bring.]

   1. The planet Venus, when appearing as the morning star; -- applied in
   Isaiah by a metaphor to a king of Babylon.

     How  art  thou  fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning !
     how  art thou cut down to the ground which didst weaken the nations
     ! Is. xiv. 12.

     Tertullian  and Gregory the Great understood this passage of Isaiah
     in reference to the fall of Satan; in consequence of which the name
     Lucifer has since been applied to, Satan. Kitto.

   2. Hence, Satan.

     How  wretched Is that poor man that hangs on princes' favors! . . .
     When he falls, he falls like Lucifer, Never to hope again. Shak.

   3.  A  match  made  of  a  sliver  of  wood  tipped with a combustible
   substance,  and ignited by friction; -- called also lucifer match, and
   locofoco. See Locofoco.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus of free-swimming macruran Crustacea, having a
   slender body and long appendages.


   Lu`ci*fe"ri*an (?), a.

   1.  Of or pertaining to Lucifer; having the pride of Lucifer; satanic;

   2. Of or pertaining to the Luciferians or their leader.


   Lu`ci*fe"ri*an,  n.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  One  of the followers of Lucifer,
   bishop  of  Cagliari,  in  the  fourth century, who separated from the
   orthodox  churches  because  they  would  not  go  as far as he did in
   opposing the Arians.


   Lu*cif"er*ous  (?), a. [See Lucifer.] Giving light; affording light or
   means of discovery. Boyle.


   Lu*cif"er*ous*ly, adv. In a luciferous manner.


   Lu*cif"ic  (?), a. [L. lucificus; lux, lucis, light + facere to make.]
   Producing light. Grew.


   Lu"ci*form  (?),  a.  [L.  lux, lucis, light = -form.] Having, in some
   respects, the nature of light; resembling light. Berkeley.


   Lu*cif"ri*an (?), a. Luciferian; satanic. [Obs.] Marston.


   Lu*cim"e*ter  (?),  n.  [L. lux, lucis, light + -meter.] an instrument
   for measuring the intensity of light; a photometer.


   Luck  (?),  n.  [Akin  to D. luk, geluk, G. gl\'81ck, Icel. lukka, Sw.
   lycka,  Dan.  lykke,  and perh. to G. locken to entice. Cf. 3d Gleck.]
   That which happens to a person; an event, good or ill, affecting one's
   interests or happiness, and which is deemed casual; a course or series
   of  such  events  regarded  as occurring by chance; chance; hap; fate;
   fortune;  often,  one's  habitual or characteristic fortune; as, good,
   bad,  ill, or hard luck. Luck is often used for good luck; as, luck is
   better than skill.

     If  thou dost play with him at any game, Thou art sure to lose; and
     of that natural luck, He beats thee 'gainst the odds. Shak.

   Luck  penny,  a  small  sum given back for luck to one who pays money.
   [Prov.  Eng.]  -- To be is luck, to receive some good, or to meet with
   some   success,   in  an  unexpected  manner,  or  as  the  result  of
   circumstances beyond one's control; to be fortunate.


   Luck"i*ly  (?), adv. [From Lucky.] In a lucky manner; by good fortune;
   fortunately; -- used in a good sense; as, they luckily escaped injury.


   Luck"i*ness, n.

   1.  The state or quality of being lucky; as, the luckiness of a man or
   of an event.

   2. Good fortune; favorable issue or event. Locke.