Unabridged Dictionary - Letter K

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   K,  (K  are from the Latin, which used the letter but little except in
   the  early  period  of  the  language. It came into the Latin from the
   Greek,  which  received  it  from  a Ph\'d2nician source, the ultimate
   origin  probably  being  Egyptian,.  Etymologically  K  is most nearly
   related to c, g, h (which see).

     NOTE: In many words of one syllable k is used after c, as in crack,
     check,  deck, being necessary to exhibit a correct pronunciation in
     the  derivatives, cracked, checked, decked, cracking; since without
     it,  c,  before  the  vowels  e  and  i,  would  be sounded like s.
     Formerly,  k was added to c in certain words of Latin origin, as in
     musick, publick, republick; but now it is omitted.

     NOTE: See Guide to Pronunciation ,  240, 178, 179, 185.


   Kaa"ma (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The hartbeest.


   Kab"a*la (?), n. See Cabala.


   Ka*bas"sou (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Cabassou.


   Ka*bob" (?), n. & v. t. See Cabob, n. & v. t.


   Ka*book" (?), n. (min.) A clay ironstone found in Ceylon.


   Ka*byle" (?), n. [Ar. qab\'c6la.] (Ethnol.) A Berber, as in Algiers or
   Tunis. See Berber.


   Kad"der (?), n. [Cf. Caddow.] (Zo\'94l.) The jackdaw.

                                Kadi, Kadiaster

   Ka"di (?), Ka`di*as"ter (?), n. A Turkish judge. See Cadi.


   Ka*fal"  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  Arabian name of two trees of the genus
   Balsamodendron, which yield a gum resin and a red aromatic wood.

                                 Kaffir, Kafir

   Kaf"fir  (?),  Ka"fir  (?), n. [Ar. k infidel, pagan, fr. kafara to be
   skeptical  in  religious  matters;  -- a name given to certain infidel
   races  by  the  Mohammedans.  Cf. Giaour.] (Ethnol.) (a) One of a race
   which,  with  the  Hottentots  and Bushmen, inhabit South Africa. They
   inhabit  the  country  north  of  Cape  Colony,  the  name  being  now
   specifically  applied  to  the  tribes  living between Cape Colony and
   Natal;  but  the  Zulus  of  Natal are true Kaffirs. (b) One of a race
   inhabiting  Kafiristan  in  Central  Asia. [Spelt also Caffre.] Kaffir
   corn (Bot.), a Cape Colony name for Indian millet.


   Kaf"fle (?), n. See Coffle.


   Ka"fi*lah (?), n. See Cafila.


   Kaf"tan (?), n & v. See Caftan.


   Kage (?), n. A chantry chapel inclosed with lattice or screen work.


   Ka"gu  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  singular,  crested,  grallatorial bird
   (Rhinochetos  jubatus),  native  of  New  Caledonia. It is gray above,
   paler  beneath,  and the feathers of the wings and tail are handsomely
   barred with brown, black, and gray. It is allied to the sun bittern.


   Ka`gu*an" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The colugo.


   Ka"ha"ni (?), n. A kind of notary public, or attorney, in the Levant.


   Ka*hau"  (?),  n. [Native name, from its cry.] (Zo\'94l.) A long-nosed
   monkey (Semnopithecus nasalis), native of Borneo. The general color of
   the  body  is  bright  chestnut,  with the under parts, shoulders, and
   sides  of  the  head, golden yellow, and the top of the head and upper
   part  of  the  back brown. Called also proboscis monkey. [Written also


   Kail (?), n.

   1. (Bot.) A kind of headless cabbage. Same as Kale, 1.

   2. Any cabbage, greens, or vegetables. [OE. or Scot.]

   3. A broth made with kail or other vegetables; hence, any broth; also,
   a dinner. [Scot.]
   Kail yard, a kitchen garden. [Scot.]


   Kai`ma*cam" (?), n. Same as Caimacam.


   Kain  (?),  n.  (Scots Law) Poultry, etc., required by the lease to be
   paid in kind by a tenant to his landlord. Wharton (Law Dict.).


   Kai"nit  (?), n. [Trade name, fr. kainite.] Salts of potassium used in
   the manufacture of fertilizers.


   Kai"nite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Min.) A compound salt consisting chiefly of
   potassium  chloride and magnesium sulphate, occurring at the Stassfurt
   salt mines in Prussian Saxony.


   Kai`no*zo"ic (?), a. See Cenozoic.


   Ka*ique" (?), n. (Naut.) See Caique.


   Kai"rine  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A pale buff or white crystalline alkaloid
   derived from quinoline, and used as an antipyretic in medicine.


   Kai`ro*line  (?),  n. (Chem.) An organic base obtained from quinoline.
   It is used as a febrifuge, and resembles kairine.


   Kai"ser (?), n. [Gr., fr. L. Caesar. Cf. Kesar, and Czar.] The ancient
   title  of  emperors of Germany assumed by King William of Prussia when
   crowned sovereign of the new German empire in 1871.


   Ka"ka  (?),  n.  [Maori  kaka  a  parrot;  -- so named from its note.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  New  Zealand parrot of the genus Nestor, especially the
   brown parrot (Nestor meridionalis).

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e mo  untain ka ka, or  ke a (N . no tabilis), is 
     remarkable  for  having  recently  acquired  carnivorous habits. It
     attacks and kills lambs and pigs, sometimes doing great damage.

   Night kaka. (Zo\'94l.) The kakapo.


   Ka`ka*po"  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A singular nocturnal parrot (Strigops
   habroptilus), native of New Zealand. It lives in holes during the day,
   but  is active at night. It resembles an owl in its colors and general
   appearance.  It  has  large  wings, but can fly only a short distance.
   Called also owl parrot, night parrot, and night kaka.


   Kak`a*ral"li  (?),  n.  A  kind of wood common in Demerara, durable in
   salt  water,  because  not subject to the depredations of the sea worm
   and barnacle.


   Kak`is*toc"ra*cy (?), n. [Gr. Government by the worst men.


   Ka*kox"ene (?), n. See Cacoxene.


   Ka*lan" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The sea otter.


   Ka`la*sie"   (?),   n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  long-tailed  monkey  of  Borneo
   (Semnopithecus rubicundus). It has a tuft of long hair on the head.


   Kale  (?),  n.  [Scot. kale, kail, cale, colewort, Gael. cael; akin to
   Ir. cal, W. cawl, Armor. kaol. See Cole.]

   1. (Bot.) A variety of cabbage in which the leaves do not form a head,
   being  nearly  the original or wild form of the species. [Written also
   kail, and cale.]

   2. See Kail, 2.
   Sea  kale (Bot.), a European cruciferous herb (Crambe maritima), often
   used as a pot herb; sea cabbage.


   Ka*leege" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of several species of large, crested,
   Asiatic  pheasants,  belonging  to the genus Euplocamus, and allied to
   the firebacks.

                           Kaleidophon, Kaleidophone

   Ka*lei"do*phon (?), Ka*lei"do*phone (?), [Gr. (Physics.) An instrument
   invented  by  Professor Wheatstone, consisting of a reflecting knob at
   the  end  of a vibrating rod or thin plate, for making visible, in the
   motion  of  a  point  of  light  reflected from the knob, the paths or
   curves   corresponding   with   the  musical  notes  produced  by  the


   Ka*lei"do*scope  (?),  n.  [Gr. -scope.] An instrument invented by Sir
   David Brewster, which contains loose fragments of colored glass, etc.,
   and  reflecting  surfaces so arranged that changes of position exhibit
   its contents in an endless variety of beautiful colors and symmetrical
   forms. It has been much employed in arts of design.

     Shifting  like  the fragments of colored glass in the kaleidoscope.
     G. W. Cable.

                        Kaleidoscopic, Kaleidoscopical

   Ka*lei`do*scop"ic (?), Ka*lei`do*scop"ic*al (?), a. Of, pertaining to,
   or formed by, a kaleidoscope; variegated.


   Kal"en*dar (?), n. See Calendar.


   Kal`en*da"ri*al (?), a. See Calendarial.


   Kal"en*der (?), n. See 3d Calender.


   Kal"ends (?), n. Same as Calends.


   Ka"li  (?),  n. [Skr. kali.] (Hind. Cosmog.) The last and worst of the
   four ages of the world; -- considered to have begun B. C. 3102, and to
   last 432,000 years.


   Ka"li,  n.  [Skr.  k\'bel\'c6.]  (Hind.  Myth.)  The black, destroying
   goddess; -- called also Doorga, Anna Purna.


   Ka"li  (?),  n.  [Ar. qali. See Alkali.] (Bot.) The glasswort (Salsola


   Ka"lif (?), n. See Caliph.


   Ka"li*form (?), a. [Kali + -form.] Formed like kali, or glasswort.


   Ka*lig"e*nous  (?),  a. [Kali + -genous. See Alkali.] Forming alkalies
   with oxygen, as some metals.


   Ka"li*um  (?),  n.  [NL. See Kali.] (Chem.) Potassium; -- so called by
   the German chemists.


   Kal"ki (?), n. [Skr.] The name of Vishnu in his tenth and last avatar.


   Kal"mi*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  Named  in  honor  of  Peter  Kalm, a Swedish
   botanist.]  (Bot.)  A  genus  of  North American shrubs with poisonous
   evergreen  foliage  and corymbs of showy flowers. Called also mountain
   laurel, ivy bush, lamb kill, calico bush, etc.


   Kal"muck (?), n.

   1. pl. (Ethnol.) See Calmucks.

   2. A kind of shaggy cloth, resembling bearskin.

   3. A coarse, dyed, cotton cloth, made in Prussia.


   Ka*long"  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A fruit bat, esp. the Indian edible fruit
   bat (Pteropus edulis).


   Ka*loy"er (?), n. See Caloyer.


   Kal"pa  (?),  n.  [Skr.]  (Hind.  Myth.)  One of the Brahmanic eons, a
   period  of  4,320,000,000 years. At the end of each Kalpa the world is


   Kal"so*mine (?), n. & v. t. Same as Calcimine.


   Kam  (?),  a.  [From  Celtic;  cf. Gael., Ir., & W. cam. Cf. Jamb, n.]
   Crooked; awry. [Obs.] "This is clean kam." Shak.


   Ka"ma  (?), n. [Skr. k\'bema love, the god of love.] The Hindoo Cupid.
   He  is  represented  as a beautiful youth, with a bow of sugar cane or


   Ka*ma"la (?), n. (Bot.) The red dusty hairs of the capsules of an East
   Indian  tree  (Mallotus  Philippinensis)  used  for dyeing silk. It is
   violently  emetic,  and is used in the treatment of tapeworm. [Written
   also kameela.]


   Kame (?), n. A low ridge. [Scot.] See Eschar.


   Ka"mi  (?),  n. pl. [Japanese.] A title given to the celestial gods of
   the  first  mythical  dynasty of Japan and extended to the demigods of
   the  second  dynasty,  and  then to the long line of spiritual princes
   still represented by the mikado.


   Ka"mi*chi (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A curious South American bird (Anhima, OR
   Palamedea,  cornuta),  often domesticated by the natives and kept with
   poultry,  which  it  defends  against  birds  of  prey. It has a long,
   slender,  hornlike  ornament  on its head, and two sharp spurs on each
   wing. Although its beak, feet, and legs resemble those of gallinaceous
   birds,  it  is related in anatomical characters to the ducks and geese
   (Anseres).  Called also horned screamer. The name is sometimes applied
   also to the chaja. See Chaja, and Screamer.


   Kamp*tu"li*con  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A kind of elastic floor cloth, made of
   India rubber, gutta-percha, linseed oil, and powdered cork.


   Kam"py*lite  (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) A variety of mimetite or arseniate of
   lead  in  hexagonal  prisms  of  a  fine  orange yellow. [Written also

                                Kamsin, Khamsin

   Kam*sin",  Kham*sin"  (?), n. [Ar. khams\'c6n, fr. khams\'d4n, oblique
   case  khams\'c6n, fifty; -- so called because it blows for about fifty
   days, from April till June.] A hot southwesterly wind in Egypt, coming
   from the Sahara. [Written also Khamseen.]


   Kam"tscha*dales  (?),  n. pl. (Ethnol.) An aboriginal tribe inhabiting
   the southern part of Kamtschatka.


   Kan (?), v. t. To know; to ken. [Obs.] See Ken.


   Kan (?), n. See Khan.

                                Kanacka, Kanaka

   Ka*nack"a  (?), Ka*na"ka (?), n. [Native name, prop., a man.] A native
   of the Sandwich Islands.


   Kan"chil  (?), n. [Malay canch\'c6l.] (Zo\'94l.) A small chevrotain of
   the  genus  Tragulus,  esp.  T.  pygm\'91us, or T. kanchil, inhabiting
   Java,  Sumatra,  and  adjacent islands; a deerlet. It is noted for its
   agility and cunning.


   Kand (?), n. (Mining) Fluor spar; -- so called by Cornish miners.


   Kan"ga*roo"  (?),  n. [Said to be the native name.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one
   of   numerous   species   of   jumping   marsupials   of   the  family
   Macropodid\'91.  They  inhabit  Australia,  New  Guinea,  and adjacent
   islands,  They  have long and strong hind legs and a large tail, while
   the  fore  legs are comparatively short and feeble. The giant kangaroo
   (Macropus  major) is the largest species, sometimes becoming twelve or
   fourteen  feet  in  total length. The tree kangaroos, belonging to the
   genus  Dendrolagus,  live  in  trees; the rock kangaroos, of the genus
   Petrogale,  inhabit  rocky situations; and the brush kangaroos, of the
   genus Halmaturus, inhabit wooded districts. See Wallaby.

   Page 809

   Kangaroo apple (Bot.), the edible fruit of the Tasmanian plant Solanum
   aviculare.  --  Kangaroo  grass  (Bot.), a perennial Australian forage
   grass (Anthistiria australis). -- Kangaroo hare (Zo\'94l.), the jerboa
   kangaroo.  See under Jerboa. -- Kangaroo mouse. (Zo\'94l.) See Jumping
   mouse, under Jumping. -- Kangaroo rat (Zo\'94l.), the potoroo.


   Kan"sas  (?),  n.  pl.  (Ethnol.)  A  tribe  of  Indians allied to the
   Winnebagoes  and  Osages.  They formerly inhabited the region which is
   now the State of Kansas, but were removed to the Indian Territory.


   Kant"i*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  Immanuel Kant, the German
   philosopher;  conformed or relating to any or all of the philosophical
   doctrines of Immanuel Kant.


   Kant"i*an, n. A follower of Kant; a Kantist.

                              Kantianism, Kantism

   Kant"i*an*ism,  Kant"ism  (?),  n. The doctrine or theory of Kant; the
   Kantian philosophy.


   Kant"ist n. A disciple or follower of Kant.


   Kant"try (?), n. Same as Cantred.

                                Kaolin, Kaoline

   Ka"o*lin, Ka"o*line (?), n. [Chin. kao-ling.] (Min.) A very pure white
   clay, ordinarily in the form of an impalpable powder, and used to form
   the  paste  of  porcelain;  China  clay; porcelain clay. It is chiefly
   derived from the decomposition of common feldspar.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is now applied to all porcelain clays which
     endure the fire without discoloration.


   Ka`o*lin`i*za"tion  (?),  n.  The process by which feldspar is changed
   into kaolin.


   Ka"o*lin*ize (?), v. t. To convert into kaolin.


   Ka*pel"le  (?), n. [G.] (Mus.) A chapel; hence, the choir or orchestra
   of   a   prince's   chapel;  now,  a  musical  establishment,  usually
   orchestral. Grove.


   Ka*pell"meis`ter (?), n. [G.] (Mus.) See Capellmeister.


   Ka"pi*a  (?),  n.  [Native name.] (Min.) The fossil resin of the kauri
   tree of New Zealand.


   Kap"no*mar (?), n. Chem.) See Capnomor.


   Kar"a*gane  (?),  n. [Russ. karagan'] (Zo\'94l.) A species of gray fox
   found in Russia.


   Ka"ra*ism (?), n. Doctrines of the Karaites.


   Ka"ra*ite  (?),  n.  [Heb.q\'ber\'be to read.] (Eccl. Hist.) A sect of
   Jews who adhere closely to the letter of the Scriptures, rejecting the
   oral  law, and allowing the Talmud no binding authority; -- opposed to
   the Rabbinists.


   Ka*ra"tas  (?),  n. (Bot.) A West Indian plant of the Pineapple family
   (Nidularium Karatas).


   Kar"ma (?), n. [Skr.] (Buddhism) One's acts considered as fixing one's
   lot  in  the  future  existence.  (Theos.) The doctrine of fate as the
   inflexible  result  of  cause  and  effect;  the  theory of inevitable


   Kar*ma"thi*an  (?),  n.  One of a Mohammedan sect founded in the ninth
   century by Karmat.


   Karn  (?),  n.  [Cornish.  Cf.  Cairn.]  (Mining)  A  pile  of  rocks;
   sometimes, the solid rock. See Cairn.


   Ka"rob  (?),  n.  [Cf. Carat.] The twenty-fourth part of a grain; -- a
   weight used by goldsmiths. Crabb.


   Kar"pho*lite (?), n. [Gr. -lite: cf. F. carpholithe.] (Min.) A fibrous
   mineral  occurring  in  tufts of a straw-yellow color. It is a hydrous
   silicate of alumina and manganese.


   Kar*reo"  (?),  n.; pl. Karroos (. One of the dry table-lands of South
   Africa, which often rise terracelike to considerable elevations. [Also
   karoo.]  The  Great  Karroo,  OR  The  Karroo, a vast plateau, in Cape
   Colony,  stretching through five degrees of longitude, at an elevation
   of about 3,000 feet.


   Kar"sten*ite (?), n. Same as Anhydrite.


   Kar"vel (?), n. [Obs.] See Carvel, and Caravel.


   Kar"y*o*ki*ne`sis  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.) The indirect division
   of  cells  in  which,  prior  to  division  of  the  cell  protoplasm,
   complicated  changes take place in the nucleus, attended with movement
   of  the  nuclear  fibrils;  --  opposed  to karyostenosis. The nucleus
   becomes enlarged and convoluted, and finally the threads are separated
   into  two  groups  which ultimately become disconnected and constitute
   the  daughter nuclei. Called also mitosis. See Cell development, under


   Kar`y*o*ki*net"ic  (?),  a.  (Biol.) Of or pertaining to karyokinesis;
   as, karyokinetic changes of cell division.


   Kar`y*om"i*ton  (?),  n.  [NL., Gr. ( (Biol.) The reticular network of
   fine fibers, of which the nucleus of a cell is in part composed; -- in
   opposition  to  kytomiton,  or the network in the body of the cell. W.


   Kar`y*o*plas"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. a num + (Biol.) The protoplasmic
   substance  of  the nucleus of a cell: nucleoplasm; -- in opposition to
   kytoplasma, the protoplasm of the cell.


   Kar`y*o*ste*no"sis  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.) Direct cell division
   (in which there is first a simple division of the nucleus, without any
   changes  in  its  structure, followed by division of the protoplasm of
   the karyostenotic mode of nuclear division.


   Ka*sack" (?), n. (Ethnol.) Same as Cossack.


   Kat  (?), n. (Bot.) An Arabian shrub Catha edulis) the leaves of which
   are used as tea by the Arabs.


   Kat`a*bol"ic  (?),  a.  (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to katabolism; as,
   katabolic  processes,  which  give  rise to substances (katastates) of
   decreasing complexity and increasing stability.


   Ka*tab"o*lism   (?),   n.  [Gr.  (Physiol.)  Destructive  or  downward
   metabolism;  regressive  metamorphism;  --  opposed  to anabolism. See


   Kat"a*state  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (  (Physiol.)  A  substance  formed  by a
   katabolic process; -- opposed to anastate. See Katabolic.


   Kate (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The brambling finch.


   Kath"e*tal  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Cathetus.]  (Math.)  Making a right angle;
   perpendicular,  as two lines or two sides of a triangle, which include
   a right angle.


   Kath`e*tom"e*ter (?), n. Same as Cathetometer.


   Kat`ti*num"doo  (?),  n. A caoutchouc like substance obtained from the
   milky  juice of the East Indian Euphorbia Kattimundoo. It is used as a


   Ka"ty*did`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A large, green, arboreal, orthopterous
   insect  (Cyrtophyllus  concavus) of the family Locustid\'91, common in
   the  United States. The males have stridulating organs at the bases of
   the  front  wings.  During  the summer and autumn, in the evening, the
   males  make a peculiar, loud, shrill sound, resembling the combination
   Katy-did, whence the name.


   Ka"u*ri  (?),  n. [Native name.] (Bot.) A lofty coniferous tree of New
   Zealand  Agathis,  OR  Dammara, australis), furnishing valuable timber
   and  yielding  one  kind of dammar resin. [Written also kaudi, cowdie,
   and cowrie.]


   Ka"va  (?),  n.  [Polynesian.]  (Bot.)  A  species  of  Macropiper (M.
   methysticum),  the long pepper, from the root of which an intoxicating
   beverage  is  made  by  the  Polynesians, by a process of mastication;
   also, the beverage itself. [Written also kawa, kava, and ava.]


   Ka*vass"  (?),  n.;  pl.  Kavasses  (#)  [Turk. k\'bevv\'bes] An armed
   constable; also, a government servant or courier. [Turkey]


   Kaw (?), v. i. & n. See Caw.


   Ka*wa"ka  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  a  New  Zealand  tree,  the  Cypress cedar
   (Libocedrus Doniana), having a valuable, fine-grained, reddish wood.


   Kawn (?), n. A inn. [Turkey] See Khan.


   Kay"ak  (?),  n. (Naut.) A light canoe, made of skins stretched over a
   frame,  and  usually  capable  of  carrying  but  one person, who sits
   amidships  and  uses  a  double-bladed  paddle.  It is peculiar to the
   Eskimos and other Arctic tribes.


   Kay"ak*er (?), n. One who uses a kayak.


   Kay"ko (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The dog salmon.


   Kayles (?), n. pl. [Akin to Dan. kegle, Sw. kegla, D. & G. kegel, OHG.
   kegil, whence F. quille.] A game; ninepins. [Prov Eng.] Carew.


   Kay"nard  (?),  n.  [F. cagnard.] A lazy or cowardly person; a rascal.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Keck  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Kecked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kecking.]
   [Cf.  dial.  G.  k\'94cken,  k\'94ken.] To heave or to retch, as in an
   effort to vomit. [R.] Swift.


   Keck, n. An effort to vomit; queasiness. [R.]


   Kec"kle (?), v. i. & n. See Keck, v. i. & n.


   Kec"kle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Keckled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Keckling
   (?).]  (Naut.)  To  wind  old rope around, as a cable, to preserve its
   surface  from  being fretted, or to wind iron chains around, to defend
   from the friction of a rocky bottom, or from the ice. Totten.


   Kec"kling  (?),  n.  Old rope or iron chains wound around a cable. See
   Keckle, v. t.


   Kec"klish  (?),  a. [From keck, keckle.] Inclined to vomit; squeamish.
   [R.] Holland.


   Keck"sy  (?),  n.;  pl. Kecksies (-s&icr;z). [Properly pl. of kex. See
   Kex.]  (Bot.)  The hollow stalk of an umbelliferous plant, such as the
   cow  parsnip  or  the  hemlock.  [Written also kex, and in pl., kecks,

     Nothing  teems  But  hateful docks, rough thistles, kecksies, burs.


   Keck"y (?), a. Resembling a kecksy. Grew.


   Kedge  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Kedged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kedging.]
   [Cf.  dial.  Sw.  keka  to  tug, to drag one's self slowly forward; or
   perh.  fr.  ked,  and kedge, n., for ked anchor, named from the ked or
   cask fastened to the anchor to show where it lies.] (Naut.) To move (a
   vessel)  by carrying out a kedge in a boat, dropping it overboard, and
   hauling the vessel up to it.


   Kedge,  n.  [See  Kedge, v. t.] (Naut.) A small anchor used whenever a
   large one can be dispensed witch. See Kedge, v. t., and Anchor, n.


   Keg"er (?) n. (Naut.) A small anchor; a kedge.


   Ked"look (?), n. [Cf. dial. G.k\'94ddik, k\'81dik, kettich, keek, Dan.
   kidike,  E.  charlock,  and  AS.  cedelc the herb mercury.] (Bot.) See


   Kee  (?), n. pl. of Cow. [AS. c, pl. of c cow. See Kine.] See Kie, Ky,
   and Kine. [Prov. Eng.] Gay.


   Keech  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Prov.  E.  keech a cake.] A mass or lump of fat
   rolled up by the butcher. [Obs.] Shak.


   Keel  (?),  v. t. & i. [AS. c to cool, fr. c cool. See Cool.] To cool;
   to akin or stir [Obs.]

     While greasy Joan doth keel the pot. Shak.


   Keel, n. A brewer's cooling vat; a keelfat.


   Keel,  n. [Cf. AS. ce\'a2l ship; akin to D. & G. kiel keel, OHG. chiol
   ship, Icel. kj, and perh. to Gr. gla ball, round water vessel. But the
   meaning  of  the  English word seems to come from Icel. kj\'94lr keel,
   akin to Sw. k\'94l, Dan. kj\'94l.]

   1.  (Shipbuilding) A longitudinal timber, or series of timbers scarfed
   together,  extending  from stem to stern along the bottom of a vessel.
   It  is  the  principal timber of the vessel, and, by means of the ribs
   attached on each side, supports the vessel's frame. In an iron vessel,
   a  combination  of  plates  supplies the place of the keel of a wooden
   ship. See Illust. of Keelson.

   2. Fig.: The whole ship.

   3.  A  barge  or  lighter,  used  on  the  Type for carrying coal from
   Newcastle;  also,  a  barge  load  of  coal, twentyone tons, four cwt.

   4.  (Bot.)  The  two  lowest petals of the corolla of a papilionaceous
   flower,  united  and  inclosing  the stamens and pistil; a carina. See

   5.  (Nat.  Hist.)  A  projecting  ridge  along the middle of a flat or
   curved surface.
   Bilge  keel  (Naut.),  a  keel peculiar to ironclad vessels, extending
   only a portion of the length of the vessel under the bilges. Ham. Nav.
   Encyc.  --  False  keel.  See under False. -- Keel boat. (a) A covered
   freight  boat,  with a keel, but no sails, used on Western rivers. [U.
   S.]  (b)  A  low, flat-bottomed freight boat. See Keel, n., 3. -- Keel
   piece,  one of the timbers or sections of which a keel is composed. On
   even  keel,  in a level or horizontal position, so that the draught of
   water at the stern and the bow is the same. Ham. Nav. Encyc.


   Keel, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Keeled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Keeling.]

   1. To traverse with a keel; to navigate.

   2. To turn up the keel; to show the bottom.
   To keel over, to upset; to capsize. [Colloq.]


   Keel"age (?), n. [Cf. F. guillage, fr. guille keel; of German or Scand
   origin. See 3d Keel.] The right of demanding a duty or toll for a ship
   entering a port; also, the duty or toll. Bouvier. Wharton.


   Keeled (?), a.

   1.  (Bot.)  Keel-shaped; having a longitudinal prominence on the back;
   as, a keeled leaf.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Having a median ridge; carinate; as, a keeled scale.


   Keel"er (?), n. [See 3d Keel.]

   1. One employed in managing a Newcastle keel; -- called also keelman.

   2.  A  small  or shallow tub; esp., one used for holding materials for
   calking ships, or one used for washing dishes, etc.


   Keel"fat` (?), n. [Keel to cool + fat a large tub, a vat.] (Brewing) A
   cooler; a vat for cooling wort, etc. [Written also keelvat.] Johnson.


   Keel"haul`  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Keelhauled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Keelhauling.] [3d keel + haul: cf. LG. & D. kielhalen, G. kielholen. ]
   [Written  also keelhale.] (Naut.) To haul under the keel of a ship, by
   ropes attached to the yardarms on each side. It was formerly practiced
   as a punishment in the Dutch and English navies. Totten.


   Kee"ling  (?), n. [Cf. Icel. keila, Sw. kolja, Dan. kulle.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A cod.


   Kee"li*vine  (?),  n. [Cf. Gael. cil ruddle.] A pencil of black or red
   lead; -- called also keelyvine pen. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.


   Keel"man (?), n.; pl. -men (. See Keeler,



   Keel"rake` (?), v. t. (Naut.) Same as Keelhaul.


   Keels (?), n. pl. Ninepins. See Kayles.


   Keel"son  (?),  n.  [Akin  to  Sw.  k\'94lsvin,  Dan. kj\'94lsviin, G.
   kielschwein;  apparently  compounded  of the words keel and swine; but
   cf.  Norweg.  kj\'94lsvill,  where  svill  is  akin  to  E. sill, n. ]
   (Shipbuilding)  A  piece of timber in a ship laid on the middle of the
   floor  timbers  over  the  keel,  and binding the floor timbers to the
   keel;  in  iron  vessels,  a  structure  of  plates, situated like the
   keelson  of  a  timber  ship. Cross keelson, a similar structure lying
   athwart the main keelson, to support the engines and boilers.

   Page 810


   Keel"vat` (?), n. See Keelfat.


   Keen  (?),  a. [Compar. Keener (?); superl. Keenest.] [OE. kene sharp,
   bold,  AS.c  bold;  akin to D. koen, OHG. kuoni, G. k\'81hn, OSw. kyn,
   k\'94n, Icel. k\'91nn, for koenn wise; perh. akin to E. ken, can to be

   1.  Sharp;  having  a fine edge or point; as, a keen razor, or a razor
   with a keen edge.

     A bow he bare and arwes [arrows] bright and kene. Chaucer.

     That my keen knife see not the wound it makes. Shak.

   2.  Acute  of  mind;  sharp;  penetrating; having or expressing mental
   acuteness;  as,  a  man  of  keen  understanding;  a  keen  look; keen

     To make our wits more keen. Shak.

     Before the keen inquiry of her thought. Cowper.

   3.  Bitter; piercing; acrimonious; cutting; stinging; severe; as, keen
   satire or sarcasm.

     Good father cardinal, cry thou amen To my keen curses. Shak.

   4.  Piercing;  penetrating;  cutting; sharp; -- applied to cold, wind,
   etc, ; as, a keen wind; the cold is very keen.

     Breasts the keen air, and carols as he goes. Goldsmith.

   5.  Eager; vehement; fierce; as, a keen appetite. "Of full kene will."
   Piers Plowman.

     So keen and greedy to confound a man. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Ke en is  often used in the composition of words, most
     of  which  are of obvious signification; as, keen-edged, keen-eyed,
     keen-sighted, keen-witted, etc.

   Syn.  --  Prompt;  eager;  ardent; sharp; acute; cutting; penetrating;
   biting; severe; sarcastic; satirical; piercing; shrewd.


   Keen, v. t. To sharpen; to make cold. [R.]

     Cold winter keens the brightening flood. Thomson.


   Keen,  n.  [Ir.  caoine.]  A prolonged wail for a deceased person. Cf.
   Coranach. [Ireland] Froude.


   Keen, v. i. To wail as a keener does. [Ireland]


   Keen"er  (?),  n.  A  professional  mourner  who  wails  at a funeral.


   Keen"ly, adv. In a keen manner.


   Keen"ness, n. The quality or state of being keen.


   Keep (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Kept (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Keeping.] [OE.
   k, AS.c to keep, regard, desire, await, take, betake; cf. AS. copenere
   lover, OE. copnien to desire.]

   1. To care; to desire. [Obs.]

     I kepe not of armes for to yelp [boast]. Chaucer.

   2.  To  hold; to restrain from departure or removal; not to let go of;
   to  retain  in  one's  power or possession; not to lose; to retain; to

     If we lose the field, We can not keep the town. Shak.

     That I may know what keeps me here with you. Dryden.

     If  we  would  weigh and keep in our minds what we are considering,
     that would instruct us. Locke.

   3.  To  cause to remain in a given situation or condition; to maintain
   unchanged; to hold or preserve in any state or tenor.

     His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal. Milton.

     Keep a stiff rein, and move but gently on. Addison.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th is sense it is often used with prepositions and
     adverbs,  as  to keep away, to keep down, to keep from, to keep in,
     out,  or  off, etc. "To keep off impertinence and solicitation from
     his superior."


   4. To have in custody; to have in some place for preservation; to take
   charge of.

     The  crown  of Stephanus, first king of Hungary, was always kept in
     the castle of Vicegrade. Knolles.

   5. To preserve from danger, harm, or loss; to guard.

     Behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee. Gen. xxviii. 15.

   6.  To  preserve  from  discovery  or  publicity;  not to communicate,
   reveal, or betray, as a secret.

     Great are thy virtues . . . though kept from man. Milton.

   7. To attend upon; to have the care of; to tend.

     And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden,
     to dress it and to keep it. Gen. ii. 15.

     In her girlish age, she kept sheep on the moor. Carew.

   8.  To record transactions, accounts, or events in; as, to keep books,
   a  journal,  etc.  ; also, to enter (as accounts, records, etc. ) in a

   9.  To  maintain,  as  an  establishment, institution, or the like; to
   conduct; to manage; as, to keep store.

     Like a pedant that keeps a school. Shak.

     Every one of them kept house by himself. Hayward.

   10.  To  supply  with  necessaries  of life; to entertain; as, to keep

   11. To have in one's service; to have and maintain, as an assistant, a
   servant, a mistress, a horse, etc.

     I keep but three men and a boy. Shak.

   12. To have habitually in stock for sale.

   13.  To continue in, as a course or mode of action; not to intermit or
   fall from; to hold to; to maintain; as, to keep silence; to keep one's
   word; to keep possession.

     Both day and night did we keep company. Shak.

     Within this portal as I kept my watch. Smollett.

   14.  To  observe;  to  adhere  to;  to  fulfill; not to swerve from or
   violate;  to  practice  or  perform,  as  duty;  not to neglect; to be
   faithful to.

     I have kept the faith. 2 Tim. iv. 7.

     Him whom to love is to obey, and keep His great command. Milton.

   15.  To  confine one's self to; not to quit; to remain in; as, to keep
   one's house, room, bed, etc. ; hence, to haunt; to frequent. Shak.

     'Tis hallowed ground; Fairies, and fawns, and satyrs do it keep. J.

   16. To observe duty, as a festival, etc. ; to celebrate; to solemnize;
   as, to keep a feast.

     I  went  with  them to the house of God . . . with a multitude that
     kept holyday. Ps. xlii. 4.

   To  keep  at  arm's  length. See under Arm, n. -- To keep back. (a) To
   reserve;  to withhold. "I will keep nothing back from you." Jer. xlii.
   4.  (b)  To  restrain;  to hold back. "Keep back thy servant also from
   presumptuous  sins."  Ps.  xix.  13.  --  To keep company with. (a) To
   frequent the society of; to associate with; as, let youth keep company
   with  the  wise  and  good.  (b) To accompany; to go with; as, to keep
   company  with  one  on  a  voyage;  also,  to  pay court to, or accept
   attentions  from,  with  a  view  to  marriage.  [Colloq.]  -- To keep
   counsel.  See  under  Counsel,  n.  --  To  keep  down. (a) To hold in
   subjection;  to restrain; to hinder. (b) (Fine Arts) To subdue in tint
   or  tone, as a portion of a picture, so that the spectator's attention
   may  not  be diverted from the more important parts of the work. -- To
   keep  good  (OR  bad)  hours,  to  be  customarily  early (or late) in
   returning home or in retiring to rest. -- To keep house. (a) To occupy
   a   separate   house  or  establishment,  as  with  one's  family,  as
   distinguished  from  boarding;  to  manage domestic affairs. (b) (Eng.
   Bankrupt  Law)  To seclude one's self in one's house in order to evade
   the  demands  of  creditors.  --  To  keep  one's  hand in, to keep in
   practice.  --  To  keep  open  house, to be hospitable. -- To keep the
   peace  (Law), to avoid or to prevent a breach of the peace. -- To keep
   school,  to  govern,  manage  and  instruct  or  teach  a school, as a
   preceptor.  --  To  keep  a stiff upper lip, to keep up one's courage.
   [Slang]  --  To  keep term. (a) (Eng. Universities) To reside during a
   term.  (b)  (Inns  of  Court) To eat a sufficient number of dinners in
   hall  to  make  the  term count for the purpose of being called to the
   bar.  [Eng.]  Mozley  & W. -- To keep touch. See under Touch, n. -- To
   keep  under,  to hold in subjection; hence, to oppress. -- To keep up.
   (a) To maintain; to prevent from falling or diminution; as, to keep up
   the  price  of  goods;  to  keep  up one's credit. (b) To maintain; to
   continue;  to  prevent  from ceasing. "In joy, that which keeps up the
   action  is  the  desire  to  continue  it."  Locke. Syn. -- To retain;
   detain; reserve; preserve; hold; restrain; maintain; sustain; support;
   withhold.  -- To Keep. Retain, Preserve. Keep is the generic term, and
   is  often  used  where  retain or preserve would too much restrict the
   meaning; as, to keep silence, etc. Retain denotes that we keep or hold
   things,  as  against  influences  which  might  deprive us of them, or
   reasons which might lead us to give them up; as, to retain vivacity in
   old age; to retain counsel in a lawsuit; to retain one's servant after
   a  reverse  of  fortune. Preserve denotes that we keep a thing against
   agencies  which  might  lead to its being destroyed or broken in upon;
   as, to preserve one's health; to preserve appearances.
   Keep (?), v. i. 

   1. To remain in any position or state; to continue; to abide; to stay;
   as, to keep at a distance; to keep aloft; to keep near; to keep in the
   house;  to  keep  before  or  behind; to keep in favor; to keep out of
   company, or out reach.

   2. To last; to endure; to remain unimpaired.

     If  the  malt  be  not  thoroughly dried, the ale it makes will not
     keep. Mortimer.

   3.  To  reside  for  a  time;  to lodge; to dwell. [Now disused except
   locally or colloquially.]

     Knock at his study, where, they say, he keeps. Shak.

   4. To take care; to be solicitous; to watch. [Obs.]

     Keep  that  the  lusts  choke  not  the  word of God that is in us.

   5. To be in session; as, school keeps to-day. [Colloq.]
   To  keep from, to abstain or refrain from. -- To keep in with, to keep
   on good terms with; as, to keep in with an opponent. -- To keep on, to
   go  forward;  to  proceed;  to  continue to advance. -- To keep to, to
   adhere strictly to; not to neglect or deviate from; as, to keep to old
   customs;  to  keep  to a rule; to keep to one's word or promise. -- To
   keep up, to remain unsubdued; also, not to be confined to one's bed.


   Keep, n.

   1.  The  act or office of keeping; custody; guard; care; heed; charge.

     Pan, thou god of shepherds all, Which of our tender lambkins takest
     keep. Spenser.

   2.  The state of being kept; hence, the resulting condition; case; as,
   to be in good keep.

   3. The means or provisions by which one is kept; maintenance; support;
   as, the keep of a horse.

     Grass equal to the keep of seven cows. Carlyle.

     I  performed some services to the college in return for my keep. T.

   4.  That  which keeps or protects; a stronghold; a fortress; a castle;
   specifically,  the strongest and securest part of a castle, often used
   as a place of residence by the lord of the castle, especially during a
   siege; the donjon. See Illust. of Castle.

     The prison strong, Within whose keep the captive knights were laid.

     The lower chambers of those gloomy keeps. Hallam.

     I  think  .  .  .  the  keep, or principal part of a castle, was so
     called  because  the  lord  and his domestic circle kept, abode, or
     lived there. M. A. Lower.

   5. That which is kept in charge; a charge. [Obs.]

     Often he used of his keep A sacrifice to bring. Spenser.

   6. (Mach.) A cap for retaining anything, as a journal box, in place.
   To take keep, to take care; to heed. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Keep"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, keeps; one who, or that which, holds or has
   possession of anything.

   2.  One  who  retains in custody; one who has the care of a prison and
   the charge of prisoners.

   3.  One who has the care, custody, or superintendence of anything; as,
   the  keeper of a park, a pound, of sheep, of a gate, etc. ; the keeper
   of  attached  property;  hence, one who saves from harm; a defender; a

     The Lord is thy keeper. Ps. cxxi. 6.

   4. One who remains or keeps in a place or position.

     Discreet; chaste; keepers at home. Titus ii. 5.

   5. A ring, strap, clamp, or any device for holding an object in place;
   as:  (a)  The  box  on  a  door  jamb  into  which  the bolt of a lock
   protrudes,  when  shot. (b) A ring serving to keep another ring on the
   finger.  (c)  A  loop near the buckle of a strap to receive the end of
   the strap.

   6.  A  fruit that keeps well; as, the Roxbury Russet is a good keeper.
   Keeper  of  the forest (O. Eng. Law), an officer who had the principal
   government  of  all  things  relating  to the forest. -- Keeper of the
   great  seal,  a  high  officer  of state, who has custody of the great
   seal. The office is now united with that of lord chancellor. [Eng.] --
   Keeper  of the King's conscience, the lord chancellor; -- a name given
   when the chancellor was an ecclesiastic. [Eng.] -- Keeper of the privy
   seal  (styled  also lord privy seal), a high officer of state, through
   whose  hands pass all charters, pardons, etc., before they come to the
   great seal. He is a privy councillor, and was formerly called clerk of
   the  privy  seal.  [Eng.] -- Keeper of a magnet, a piece of iron which
   connects  the two poles, for the purpose of keeping the magnetic power
   undiminished; an armature.


   Keep"er*ship (?), n. The office or position of a keeper. Carew.


   Keep"ing, n.

   1. A holding; restraint; custody; guard; charge; care; preservation.

     His happiness is in his own keeping. South.

   2.  Maintenance;  support;  provision;  feed; as, the cattle have good

     The work of many hands, which earns my keeping. Milton.

   3. Conformity; congruity; harmony; consistency; as, these subjects are
   in keeping with each other.

   4. (Paint.) Harmony or correspondence between the different parts of a
   work of art; as, the foreground of this painting is not in keeping.
   Keeping  room,  a family sitting room. [New Eng. & Prov. Eng.] Syn. --
   Care; guardianship; custody; possession.


   Keep"sake` (?), n. Anything kept, or given to be kept, for the sake of
   the giver; a token of friendship.


   Keesh (?), n. See Kish.


   Keeve  (?),  n.  [AS.  c,  fr. L. cupa a tub, cask; also, F. cuve. Cf.
   Kive, Coop.]

   1. (Brewing) A vat or tub in which the mash is made; a mash tub. Ure.

   2. (Bleaching) A bleaching vat; a kier.

   3. (Mining) A large vat used in dressing ores.


   Keeve, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Keeved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Keeving.]

   1. To set in a keeve, or tub, for fermentation.

   2. To heave; to tilt, as a cart. [Prov. Eng.]


   Keev"er (?), n. See Keeve, n.


   Kef"fe-kil (?), n. (Min.) See Kiefekil.


   Keg  (?),  n.  [Earlier  cag, Icel. kaggi; akin to Sw. kagge.] A small
   cask or barrel.


   Keil"hau-ite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A  mineral  of a brownish black color,
   related  to  titanite in form. It consists chiefly of silica, titanium
   dioxide, lime, and yttria.


   Keir (?), n. See Kier.


   Keit*lo"a  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A black, two-horned,
   African rhinoceros (Atelodus keitloa). It has the posterior horn about
   as long as the anterior one, or even longer.


   Keld  (?),  a.  [Cf.  Cavl.] Having a kell or covering; webbed. [Obs.]


   Kele (?), v. t. [See Keel to cool.] To cool. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Kell (?), n. A kiln. [Obs.]


   Kell,  n. [A modification of kale.] A sort of pottage; kale. See Kale,
   2. Ainsworth.


   Kell, n. [Cf. Caul.]

   1. The caul; that which covers or envelops as a caul; a net; a fold; a
   film. [Obs.]

     I'll have him cut to the kell. Beau. & Fl.

   2. The cocoon or chrysalis of an insect. B. Jonson.


   Ke"loid  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -oid.]  (Med.)  Applied to a variety of tumor
   forming  hard,  flat,  irregular  excrescences  upon the skin. -- n. A
   keloid tumor.


   Ke*lot"o*my (?), n. (Med.) See Celotomy.


   Kelp (?), n. [Formerly kilpe; of unknown origin.]

   1.  The  calcined  ashes  of  seaweed,  --  formerly  much used in the
   manufacture of glass, now used in the manufacture of iodine.

   2. (Bot.) Any large blackish seaweed.

     NOTE: &hand; La minaria is  th e co mmon ke lp of  Gr eat Br itain;
     Macrocystis  pyrifera  and Nereocystis Lutkeana are the great kelps
     of the Pacific Ocean.

   Kelp  crab  (Zo\'94l.), a California spider crab (Epialtus productus),
   found  among  seaweeds,  which  it  resembles in color. -- Kelp salmon
   (Zo\'94l.), a serranoid food fish (Serranus clathratus) of California.
   See Cabrilla.


   Kelp"fish`   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   A  small  California  food  fish
   (Heterostichus rostratus), living among kelp. The name is also applied
   to species of the genus Platyglossus.

                                 Kelpie, Kelpy

   Kel"pie,  Kel"py,  n.; pl. Kelpies (#). [Cf. Gael. cailpeach, calpach,
   colpach,  a heifer, steer, colt, colpa a cow or horse.] (Scotch Myth.)
   An  imaginary  spirit  of  the  waters,  horselike  in  form, vulgarly
   believed to warn, by preternatural noises and lights, those who are to
   be drowned. Jamieson.


   Kelp"ware` (?), n. Same as Kelp, 2.


   Kel"son (?), n. See Keelson. Sir W. Raleigh.


   Kelt (?), n. See Kilt, n. Jamieson.


   Kelt,  n.  [Cf.  Icel.  kult  quilt.] Cloth with the nap, generally of
   native black wool. [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Kelt, n. A salmon after spawning. [Scot.]


   Kelt, n. Same as Celt, one of Celtic race.


   Kel"ter (?), n. [Cf. Gael. & Ir. cealt clothes, Gael. cealltair spear,
   castle,  cause,  Prov.  E. kilter tool, instrument. Cf. Kilt.] Regular
   order or proper condition. [Written also kilter.] [>Colloq.]

     If the organs of prayer be out of kelter or out of tune, how can we
     pray? Barrow.

   <-- now most commonly out of kilter -->


   Kelt"ic (?), a. & n. Same as Celtic, a. & n.


   Kemb  (?),  n.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Kembed (?) or Kempt (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Kembing.] [OE.kemben, AS. cemban, fr. camb comb.] To comb. [Obs.]

     His longe hair was kembed behind his back. Chaucer.


   Kem"e*lin  (?), n. [Cf. Prov. E.kemlin, kimlin, kimmel, a salting tub,
   any tub, kembing a brewing tub, G. kumme bowl, basin, W. cwmman a tub,
   brewing tub.] A tub; a brewer's vessel. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                 Kemp, Kempty

   Kemp (?), Kemp"ty (?), n. Coarse, rough hair wool or fur, injuring its


   Kem"pe (?), a.Rough; shaggy. [Obs.] "Kempe hairs." Chaucer.


   Kemps (?), n. pl. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Bot.) The long flower stems of
   the ribwort plantain (Plantago Lanceolata). Dr. Prior.


   Kempt (?), p. p. of Kemb. B. Jonson. 


   Ken  (?), n. [Perh. from kennel.] A house; esp., one which is a resort
   for thieves. [Slang, Eng.]


   Ken,  n.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Kenned  (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kenning.]
   [OE.kennen  to  teach,  make  known,  know,  AS. cennan to make known,
   proclaim, or rather from the related Icel. kenna to know; akin to D. &
   G.  kennen  to  know,  Goth. kannjan to make known; orig., a causative
   corresponding  to  AS. cunnan to know, Goth. kunnan. &root;45. See Can
   to be able, Know.]

   1. To know; to understand; to take cognizance of. [Archaic or Scot.]

   2.  To  recognize;  to  descry; to discern. [Archaic or Scot.] "We ken
   them from afar." Addison

     'T is he. I ken the manner of his gait. Shak.


   Ken, v. i. To look around. [Obs.] Burton.


   Ken,  n.  Cognizance;  view;  especially, reach of sight or knowledge.
   "Beyond his ken." Longfellow.

     Above the reach and ken of a mortal apprehension. South.

     It  was  relief  to  quit  the  ken And the inquiring looks of men.

                            Kendal green, OR Kendal

   Ken"dal  green`  (?), OR Ken"dal.A cloth colored green by dye obtained
   from  the  woad-waxen,  formerly used by Flemish weavers at Kendal, in
   Westmoreland, England. J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).

     How couldst thou know these men in Kendal green ? Shak.


   Ken"nel  (?), n. [See Channel, Canal.] The water course of a street; a
   little canal or channel; a gutter; also, a puddle. Bp. Hall.


   Ken"nel, n. [OE.kenel, (assumed) OF. kenil, F. chenil, LL. canile, fr.
   L. canis a dog. Cf. Canine.]

   1. A house for a dog or for dogs, or for a pack of hounds.

     A  dog  sure,  if  he  could  speak, had wit enough to describe his
     kennel. Sir P. Sidney.

   2. A pack of hounds, or a collection of dogs. Shak.

   3. The hole of a fox or other beast; a haunt.


   Ken"nel,  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Kenneled (?) or Kennelled; p. pr. & vb.
   n. Kennelling.] To lie or lodge; to dwell, as a dog or a fox.

     The dog kenneled in a hollow tree. L'Estrange.


   Ken"nel, v. t. To put or keep in a kennel. Thomson.

                                  Kennel coal

   Ken"nel coal` (?). See Cannel coal.


   Ken"ning (?), n. [See Ken, v. t.]

   1. Range of sight. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2. The limit of vision at sea, being a distance of about twenty miles.


   Ke"no  (?), n. [F. quine five winning numbers, fr. L. quini five each,
   quinque  five.  See  Five.]  A gambling game, a variety of the game of
   lotto,  played with balls or knobs, numbered, and cards also numbered.
   [U. S.]


   Ken`o*gen"e*sis  (?), n. [Gr. genesis.] (Biol.) Modified evolution, in
   which  nonprimitive characters make their appearance in consequence of
   a secondary adaptation of the embryo to the peculiar conditions of its
   environment;   --   distinguished  from  palingenesis.  [Written  also


   Ken`o*ge*net"ic  (?),  a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to kenogenesis; as,
   kenogenetic processes. -- Ken`o*ge*net"ic*al*ly (#), adv.


   Ken"spec`kle  (?),  a.  Having so marked an appearance as easily to be
   recognized. [Scot.]

                                  Kent bugle

   Kent"  bu"gle  (?).  [Probably  named  after a Duke of Kent.] (Mus.) A
   curved  bugle,  having six finger keys or stops, by means of which the
   performer can play upon every key in the musical scale; -- called also
   keyed bugle, and key bugle. Moore.


   Ken"tle (?), n. [From Quintal.] (Com.) A hundred weight; a quintal.


   Kent"ledge  (?),  n.  [OF.  cant  edge, corner, D.kant. See Cant edge,
   angle.]   (Naut.)  Pigs  of  iron  used  for  ballast.  [Written  also


   Ken*tuck"y  (?),  n.  One  of  the  United States. Kentucky blue grass
   (Bot.),  a valuable pasture and meadow grass (Poa pratensis), found in
   both Europe and America. See under Blue grass. -- Kentucky coffee tree
   (Bot.),  a  tall  North  American  tree  (Gymnocladus Canadensis) with
   bipinnate  leaves. It produces large woody pods containing a few seeds
   which  have been used as a substitute for coffee. The timber is a very


   Keph"a*lin (?), n. [Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) One of a group of nitrogenous
   phosphorized  principles,  supposed  by  Thudichum  to  exist in brain


   Kept  (?),  imp.  & p. p. of Keep. Kept mistress, a concubine; a woman
   supported by a man as his paramour.


   Ke*ram"ic (?), a. Same as Ceramic.


   Ke*ram"ics (?), n. Same as Ceramics.


   Ker`a*mo*graph"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  graph + ic.] Suitable to be written
   upon; capable of being written upon, as a slate; -- said especially of
   a certain kind of globe. Scudamore.


   Ke*ra"na  (?),  n.  (Mus.)  A  kind  of  long  trumpet, used among the
   Persians. Moore (Encyc. of Music).


   Ke*rar"gy*rite (?), n. See Cerargyrite.


   Ker"a*sin  (?),  n. (Physiol. Chem.) A nitrogenous substance free from
   phosphorus,  supposed  to  be  present  in  the  brain; a body closely
   related to cerebrin.


   Ker"a*sine (?), a. [Gr. Resembling horn; horny; corneous.


   Ker"a*tin  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) A nitrogenous substance, or
   mixture  of  substances,  containing  sulphur  in  a  loose  state  of
   combination, and forming the chemical basis of epidermal tissues, such
   as  horn,  hair, feathers, and the like. It is an insoluble substance,
   and,  unlike  elastin,  is not dissolved even by gastric or pancreatic
   juice.  By  decomposition  with  sulphuric  acid  it yields leucin and
   tyrosin,    as    does   albumin.   Called   also   epidermose.<--   a
   sulfur-containing fibrous proein. -->


   Ker`a*ti"tis  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the


   Ker"a*tode (?), n. See Keratose.


   Ker`a*tog"e*nous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -genous.]  Producing  horn;  as, the
   keratogenous membrane within the horny hoof of the horse.


   Ker`a*toi"de*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., from Gr. -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Ker"a*tome  (?), n. [Gr. (Surg.) An instrument for dividing the cornea
   in operations for cataract.


   Ker`a*to*nyx"is  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Med.)  The  operation  of removing a
   cataract  by  thrusting  a  needle  through the cornea of the eye, and
   breaking up the opaque mass.


   Ker"a*to*phyte  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A gorgonian coral having a
   horny axis.


   Ker`a*to"sa  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of sponges
   having  a  skeleton  composed  of  hornlike  fibers.  It  includes the
   commercial sponges.


   Ker"a*tose`  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Physiol.  Chem.)  A  tough, horny animal
   substance  entering  into  the composition of the skeleton of sponges,
   and other invertebrates; -- called also keratode.


   Ker"a*tose`,  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Containing  hornlike fibers or fibers of
   keratose; belonging to the Keratosa.


   Ke*rau"no*graph  (?), n. [Gr. graph.] A figure or picture impressed by
   lightning  upon the human body or elsewhere. -- Ker`au-nog"ra-phy (#),


   Kerb (?), n. See Curb.


   Kerb"stone` (?), n. See Curbstone.


   Ker"cher (?), n. A kerchief. [Obs.]

     He became . . . white as a kercher. Sir T. North.


   Ker"chered  (?), a. Covered, or bound round, with a kercher. [Obs.] G.


   Ker"chief (?), n.; pl. Kerchiefs (#). [OE. coverchef, OF. cuevrechief,
   couvrechef, F. couvrechef, a head covering, fr. couvrir to cover + OF.
   chief head, F. chef. See Cover, Chief, and cf. Curfew.]

   1.  A  square  of fine linen worn by women as a covering for the head;
   hence,  anything  similar  in  form  or material, worn for ornament on
   other   parts  of  the  person;  --  mostly  used  in  compounds;  as,
   neckerchief; breastkerchief; and later, handkerchief.

     He  might  put  on a hat, a muffler, and a kerchief, and so escape.

     Her  black  hair strained away To a scarlet kerchief caught beneath
     her chin. Mrs. Browning.

   2. A lady who wears a kerchief. Dryden.

                             Kerchiefed, Kerchieft

   Ker"chiefed,  Ker"chieft  (?),  a. Dressed; hooded; covered; wearing a
   kerchief. Milton.


   Kerf  (?),  n. [AS. cyrf a cutting off, fr. ceorfan to cut, carve. See
   Carve.]  A  notch, channel, or slit made in any material by cutting or


   Ke"rite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A compound in which tar or asphaltum combined
   with  animal  or  vegetable oils is vulcanized by sulphur, the product
   closely  resembling  rubber;  --  used  principally  as  an insulating
   material in telegraphy. Knight.


   Kerl (?), n. See Carl.


   Ker"mes (?), n. [Ar. & Per. girmiz. See Crimson, and cf. Alkermes.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  dried  bodies  of  the  females of a scale insect
   (Coccus  ilicis), allied to the cochineal insect, and found on several
   species  of oak near the Mediterranean. They are round, about the size
   of  a  pea, contain coloring matter analogous to carmine, and are used
   in  dyeing.  They  were anciently thought to be of a vegetable nature,
   and were used in medicine. [Written also chermes.]

   2.  (Bot.) A small European evergreen oak (Quercus coccifera) on which
   the  kermes  insect  (Coccus  ilicis)  feeds.  J.  Smith  (Dict. Econ.
   Kermes mineral. (a) (Old Chem.) An artificial amorphous trisulphide of
   antimony; -- so called on account of its red color. (b) (Med. Chem.) A
   compound  of  the  trioxide  and  trisulphide  of  antimony,  used  in
   medicine. This substance occurs in nature as the mineral kermesite.
   Ker"messe (?), n. [F.] See Kirmess. 


   Kern (?), n. [Ir.ceatharnach.Cf. Cateran. ]

   1.  A  light-armed  foot soldier of the ancient militia of Ireland and
   Scotland;  -- distinguished from gallowglass, and often used as a term
   of contempt. Macaulay.

     Now  for  our  Irish wars; We must supplant those rough, rug-headed
     kerns. Shak.

   2. Any kind of boor or low-lived person. [Obs.] Blount.

   3. (O. Eng. Law) An idler; a vagabond. Wharton.


   Kern,  n.  (Type Founding) A part of the face of a type which projects
   beyond the body, or shank.


   Kern, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Kerned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kerning. ] (Type
   Founding) To form with a kern. See 2d Kern.


   Kern, n. [See Churn. ] A churn. [Prov. Eng.]


   Kern,  n.  [AS.  cweorn,  cwyrn.  See Quern. ] A hand mill. See Quern.


   Kern,  v.  i.  [Cf.  G. kern kernel, grain; akin to E. corn. See Corn,
   Kernel. ]

   1. To harden, as corn in ripening. [Obs.] Carew.

   2. To take the form of kernels; to granulate. [Obs.]

     It is observed that rain makes the salt kern. Dampier.


   Kerned  (?), a. (Print.) Having part of the face projecting beyond the
   body or shank; -- said of type. "In Roman, f and j are the only kerned
   letters." MacKellar.


   Ker"nel  (?),  n.  [OE.  kernel,  kirnel,  curnel, AS.cyrnel, fr. corn
   grain. See Corn, and cf. Kern to harden.]

   1.  The  essential  part of a seed; all that is within the seed walls;
   the  edible substance contained in the shell of a nut; hence, anything
   included in a shell, husk, or integument; as, the kernel of a nut. See
   Illust. of Endocarp.

     ' A were as good crack a fusty nut with no kernel Shak.

   2. A single seed or grain; as, a kernel of corn.

   3.  A  small mass around which other matter is concreted; a nucleus; a
   concretion or hard lump in the flesh.

   4.  The  central, substantial or essential part of anything; the gist;
   the core; as, the kernel of an argument.


   Ker"nel,  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Kerneled (?) OR Kernelled; p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Kerneling  OR  Kernelling.]  To  harden  or ripen into kernels; to
   produce kernels.

                              Kerneled, Kernelled

   Ker"neled, Ker"nelled (?), a. Having a kernel.


   Ker"nel*ly  (?), a. Full of kernels; resembling kernels; of the nature
   of kernels. Holland.


   Ker"ish  (?),  a.  [From  Kern  a boor.] Clownish; booorish. [Obs.] "A
   petty kernish prince." Milton.


   Ker"o*lite (?), n. (Min.) Same as Cerolite.


   Ker"o*sene`  (?),  n.  [Gr.  An  oil  used  for illuminating purposes,
   formerly  obtained  from  the  distillation of mineral wax, bituminous
   shale,  etc.,  and  hence  called also coal oil. It is now produced in
   immense  quantities,  chiefly  by the distillation and purification of
   petroleum.  It consists chiefly of several hydrocarbons of the methane

                                  Kers, Kerse

   Kers,  Kerse  (?),  n.  A cress. [Obs.] Chaucer. Not worth a kers. See
   under Cress.


   Ker"sey  (?),  n.;  pl. Kerseys (#). [Prob. from the town of Kersey in
   Suffolk,  Eng.]  A kind of coarse, woolen cloth, usually ribbed, woven
   from wool of long staple.


   Ker"sey*mere  (?),  n.  [For  cassimere,  confounded with kersey.] See


   Ker`sey*nette" (?), n. See Cassinette.


   Kerve (?), v. t. To carve. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Kerv"er (?), n. A carver. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ke"sar (?), n. See Kaiser [Obs.] Spenser.


   Kes"lop  (?),  n.  [AS.c,  or  c,  milk  curdled;  cf.  G. k\'84selab,
   k\'84selippe.  See  Cheese,  and cf.Cheeselep.] The stomach of a calf,
   prepared for rennet. Halliwell.


   Kess (?), v. t. To kiss. [Obs.] Chaucer


   Kest (?), imp. of Cast. [Obs.]


   Kes"trel  (?),  n. [See Castrel.] (Zo\'94l.) A small, slender European
   hawk  (Falco  alaudarius),  allied  to  the sparrow hawk. Its color is
   reddish  fawn,  streaked and spotted with white and black. Also called
   windhover  and  stannel.  The  name  is  also  applied to other allied

     NOTE: &hand; This word is often used in contempt, as of a mean kind
     of hawk. "Kites and kestrels have a resemblance with hawks."



   Ket  (?), n. [Icel. kj\'94t flesh; akin to Sw. k\'94tt, Dan. kj\'94d.]
   Carrion; any filth. [Prob. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Ketch  (?), n. [Prob. corrupted fr. Turk. q\'beiq : cf. F. caiche. Cf.
   Ca\'8bque.] (Naut.) An almost obsolete form of vessel, with a mainmast
   and a mizzenmast, -- usually from one hundred to two hundred and fifty
   tons burden. Bomb ketch. See under Bomb.


   Ketch, n. A hangman. See Jack Ketch.


   Ketch, v. t. [See Catch.] To catch. [Now obs. in spelling, and colloq.
   in pronunciation.]

     To ketch him at a vantage in his snares. Spenser.


   Ketch"up (?), n. A sauce. See Catchup.


   Ke"tine (?), n. [See Ketone.] (Chem.) One of a series of organic bases
   obtained  by  the  reduction  of  certain  isonitroso compounds of the
   ketones. In general they are unstable oily substances having a pungent
   aromatic odor.


   Ket`mie"  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  name  of  certain  African species of
   Hibiscus,  cultivated  for  the  acid of their mucilage. [Written also


   Ke"tol  (?), n. [Ketone + indol.] (Chem.) One of a series of series of
   complex  nitrogenous  substances,  represented  by  methyl  ketol  and
   related  to  indol.  Methyl  ketol, a weak organic base, obtained as a
   white crystalline substance having the odor of f\'91ces.


   Ke"tone (?), n. [Cf. Acetone.] (Chem.) One of a large class of organic
   substances  resembling  the aldehydes, obtained by the distillation of
   certain  salts of organic acids and consisting of carbonyl (CO) united
   with  two  hydrocarbon  radicals. In general the ketones are colorless
   volatile liquids having a pungent ethereal odor.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ketones are named by adding the suffix-one to the
     stems  of  the  organic  acids  from  which  they  are respectively
     derived;  thus,  acetic acid gives acetone; butyric acid, butyrone,


   Ke*ton"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, a ketone;
   as, a ketonic acid.


   Ket"tle  (?),  n.  [OE. ketel; cf. AS. cetel, cetil, cytel; akin to D.
   kjedel,  G.  kessel,  OHG.  chezzil,  Icel.  ketill,  SW. kittel, Dan.
   kjedel,  Goth.  katils;  all  perh. fr. L. catillus, dim. of catinus a
   deep  vessel,  bowl;  but  cf.  also OHG. chezz\'c6 kettle, Icel. kati
   small  ship.]  A  metallic  vessel, with a wide mouth, often without a
   cover,  used  for  heating  and boiling water or other liguids. Kettle
   pins,   ninepins;   skittles.   [Obs.]   Shelton.   --  Kettle  stitch
   (Bookbinding),  the  stitch  made  in sewing at the head and tail of a
   book. Knight.


   Ket"tle*drum` (?), n.

   1.  (Mus.)  A  drum made of thin copper in the form of a hemispherical
   kettle, with parchment stretched over the mouth of it.

     NOTE: &hand; Ke ttledrums, in  pairs, were formerly used in martial
     music  for  cavalry,  but  are  now chiefly confined to orchestras,
     where they are called tympani.

   2.  An  informal  social  party at which a light collation is offered,
   held in the afternoon or early evening. Cf. Drum, n., 4 and 5.


   Ket"tle*drum`mer (?), n. One who plays on a kettledrum.


   Keu"per  (?),  n.  [G.]  (Geol.)  The  upper  division of the European
   Triassic. See Chart of Geology.


   Kev"el  (?),  n.  [Prov.  E.  kevil, cavel, rod, pole, a large hammer,
   horse's  bit;  cf.  Icel.  kefli  cylinder,  a stick, mangle, and Dan.
   kievle a roller.]

   1. (Naut.) A strong cleat to which large ropes are belayed.

   2. A stone mason's hammer. [Written also cavil.]
   Kevel head (Naut.), a projecting end of a timber, used as a kevel.

                                 Kevel, Kevin

   Kev"el, Kev"in (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The gazelle.


   Kev"er (?), v. t. & i. To cover. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Kev"er*chief (?), n. A kerchief. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Kex (?), n. [W. cecys, pl., hollow stalks.]

   1. (Bot.) A weed; a kecksy. Bp. Gauden.

     Though the rough kex break The starred mosaic. Tennyson.

   2. A dry husk or covering.

     When  the  kex,  or  husk,  is  broken,  he  proveth  a fair flying
     butterfly. Holland.


   Key (?), n. [OE. keye, key, kay, AS. c

   1.  An  instrument  by  means  of  which the bolt of a lock is shot or
   drawn;  usually,  a removable metal instrument fitted to the mechanism
   of a particular lock and operated by turning in its place.

   2.  An instrument which is turned like a key in fastening or adjusting
   any mechanism; as, a watch key; a bed key, etc.

   3.  That part of an instrument or machine which serves as the means of
   operating  it;  as, a telegraph key; the keys of a pianoforte, or of a

   4.  A  position  or  condition  which  affords  entrance,  control, pr
   possession,  etc.;  as,  the  key  of  a line of defense; the key of a
   country; the key of a political situation. Hence, that which serves to
   unlock,  open,  discover, or solve something unknown or difficult; as,
   the key to a riddle; the key to a problem.

     Those  who are accustomed to reason have got the true key of books.

     Who keeps the keys of all the creeds. Tennyson.

   5.  That  part  of  a mechanism which serves to lock up, make fast, or
   adjust to position.

   6.  (Arch.) (a) A piece of wood used as a wedge. (b) The last board of
   a floor when laid down.

   7.  (Masonry) (a) A keystone. (b) That part of the plastering which is
   forced through between the laths and holds the rest in place.

   8.  (Mach.)  (a)  A wedge to unite two or more pieces, or adjust their
   relative  position;  a cotter; a forelock. See Illusts. of Cotter, and
   Gib.  (b)  A  bar,  pin or wedge, to secure a crank, pulley, coupling,
   etc., upon a shaft, and prevent relative turning; sometimes holding by
   friction  alone,  but  more  frequently by its resistance to shearing,
   being  usually  embedded  partly in the shaft and partly in the crank,
   pulley, etc.

   9.  (Bot.)  An indehiscent, one-seeded fruit furnished with a wing, as
   the fruit of the ash and maple; a samara; -- called also key fruit.

   10.  (Mus.)  (a)  A  family  of tones whose regular members are called
   diatonic  tones,  and  named  key  tone  (or tonic) or one (or eight),
   mediant or three, dominant or five, subdominant or four, submediant or
   six,  supertonic  or  two,  and subtonic or seven. Chromatic tones are
   temporary  members  of a key, under such names as " sharp four," "flat
   seven," etc. Scales and tunes of every variety are made from the tones
   of  a  key.  (b)  The  fundamental  tone  of  a  movement to which its
   modulations are referred, and with which it generally begins and ends;

     Both warbling of one song, both in one key. Shak.

   11. Fig: The general pitch or tone of a sentence or utterance.

     You fall at once into a lower key. Cowper.

   Key  bed.  Same  as  Key seat. -- Key bolt, a bolt which has a mortise
   near  the  end,  and is secured by a cotter or wedge instead of a nut.
   Key bugle. See Kent bugle. -- Key of a position OR country. (Mil.) See
   Key,  4.  --  Key seat (Mach.), a bed or groove to receive a key which
   prevents one part from turning on the other. -- Key way, a channel for
   a  key,  in the hole of a piece which is keyed to a shaft; an internal
   key  seat;  --  called  also  key  seat.  --  Key  wrench  (Mach.), an
   adjustable  wrench  in which the movable jaw is made fast by a key. --
   Power  of  the  keys (Eccl.), the authority claimed by the ministry in
   some  Christian  churches  to administer the discipline of the church,
   and  to  grant  or  withhold  its  privileges;  --  so called from the
   declaration  of Christ, "I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom
   of heaven." Matt. xvi. 19.
   Key  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Keved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Keying.] To
   fasten  or  secure  firmly;  to fasten or tighten with keys or wedges.
   Francis.  To  key up. (a) (Arch.) To raise (the whole ring of an arch)
   off  its centering, by driving in the keystone forcibly. (b) (Mus.) To
   raise the pitch of. (c) Hence, fig., to produce nervous tension in.


   Key"age  (?), n. [OF.caiage, F. guayage. See lst Key, Quay.] Wharfage;


   Key"board` (?), n. The whole arrangement, or one range, of the keys of
   an organ, typewriter, etc.


   Key"-cold`  (?),  a.  Cold  as  a metallic key; lifeless. [Formerly, a
   proverbial expression.] Shak. Milton.


   Keyed  (k&emac;d),  a.  Furnished  with  keys; as, a keyed instrument;
   also, set to a key, as a tune. Keyed bugle. See Kent bugle.


   Key"hole` (?), n.

   1. A hole or apertupe in a door or lock, for receiving a key.

   2.  (a)  (Carp.)  A  hole or excavation in beams intended to be joined
   together, to receive the key which fastens them. (b) (Mach.) a mortise
   for a key or cotter.
   Keyhole  limpet (Zo\'94l.), a marine gastropod of the genus Fissurella
   and  allied  genera. See Fissurella. -- Keyhole saw, a narrow, slender
   saw,  used  in  cutting keyholes, etc., as in doors; a kind of compass
   saw  or  fret  saw.  -- Keyhole urchin (Zo\'94l.), any one of numerous
   clypeastroid  sea  urchins, of the genera Melitta, Rotula, and Encope;
   --  so  called  because  they have one or more perforations resembling


   Key"note` (?), n.

   1.  (Mus.)  The  tonic  or first tone of the scale in which a piece or
   passage  is  written;  the fundamental tone of the chord, to which all
   the modulations of the piece are referred; -- called also key tone.

   2.  The  fundamental  fact  or idea; that which gives the key; as, the
   keynote of a policy or a sermon.


   Key"seat`  (?), v. t. To form a key seat, as by cutting. See Key seat,
   under Key.


   Key"stone`  (?),  n.  (Arch.) The central or topmost stone of an arch.
   This  in  some  styles  is  made  different  in  size  from  the other
   voussoirs,  or  projects, or is decorated with carving. See Illust. of
   Arch. Keystone State, the State of Pennsylvania; -- so called from its
   having  been  the  central  State of the Union at the formation of the

                                   Key tone

   Key" tone` (?). (Mus.) See Keynote.


   Key"way` (?), n. See Key way, under Key.


   Kha"liff (?), n. See Caliph.


   Kham*sin` (?), n. Same as Kamsin.


   Khan  (?),  n.  [Pers.  &  Tart. kh\'ben.] [Also kan, kaun.] A king; a
   prince;  a  chief;  a governor; -- so called among the Tartars, Turks,
   and Persians, and in countries now or formerly governed by them.


   Khan,  n.  [Per. kh\'ben, kh\'benah, house, tent, inn.] An Eastern inn
   or caravansary. [Written also kawn.]


   Khan*ate (, n. Dominion or jurisdiction of a khan.


   Kha"ya  (?), n. (Bot.) A lofty West African tree (Khaya Senegalensis),
   related  to  the  mahogany,  which  it resembles in the quality of the
   wood. The bark is used as a febrifuge.


   Khe`dive"  (?),  n. [F. kh\'82dive, Pers. khediw a prince.] A governor
   or  viceroy; -- a title granted in 1867 by the sultan of Turkey to the
   ruler of Egypt.


   Khen"na (?), n. See Henna.


   Kho"lah (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The Indian jackal.


   Khol"sun (, n. (Zo\'94l.) The dhole.


   Khut"bah (?), n. [Ar.] An address or public prayer read from the steps
   of  the  pulpit in Mohammedan mosques, offering glory to God, praising
   Mohammed and his descendants, and the ruling princes.

                                 Kiabooca wood

   Ki`a*boo"ca wood` (?). See Kyaboca wood.


   Ki*ang" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The dziggetai.


   Kib"ble  (?),  v.  t.  To bruise; to grind coarsely; as, kibbled oats.
   [Prov.Eng.] Halliwell.


   Kib"ble, n. A large iron bucket used in Cornwall and Wales for raising
   ore out of mines. [Prov. Eng.] [Written also kibbal.]


   Kib"blings  (?),  n.  pl.  Portions of small fish used for bait on the
   banks of Newfoundland.


   Kibe  (?),  n.  [W. cib + gwst pain, sickness.] A chap or crack in the
   flesh occasioned by cold; an ulcerated chilblain. "He galls his kibe."


   Kibed (?), a. Chapped; cracked with cold; affected with chilblains; as
   kibed heels. Beau. & Fl. 


   Ki*bit"ka (?), n.; pl. Kibitkas (. [Russ.]

   1. A tent used by the Kirghiz Tartars.

   2.  A rude kind of Russian vehicle, on wheels or on runners, sometimes
   covered with cloth or leather, and often used as a movable habitation.


   Kib"lah (, n. See Keblah.


   Kib"y (?), a. Affected with kibes. Skelton.


   Kich"il (?),. [Obs.] See Kechil. Chaucer.


   Kick  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Kicred (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Kicking.]
   [W. cicio, fr. cic foot.] To strike, thrust, or hit violently with the
   foot; as, a horse kicks a groom; a man kicks a dog.

     He [Frederick the Great] kicked the shins of his judges. Macaulay.

   To  kick  the  beam,  to  fit  up  and strike the beam; -- said of the
   lighter arm of a loaded balance; hence, to be found wanting in weight.
   Milton.  -- To kick the bucket, to lose one's life; to die. [Colloq. &


   Kick, v. i.

   1.  To  thrust  out the foot or feet with violence; to strike out with
   the  foot  or  feet,  as  in defense or in bad temper; esp., to strike
   backward,  as  a  horse  does,  or to have a habit of doing so. Hence,
   figuratively:  To  show  ugly resistance, opposition, or hostility; to

     I should kick, being kicked. Shak.

   2. To recoil; -- said of a musket, cannon, etc.<-- also kicj back -->


   Kick, n.

   1. A blow with the foot or feet; a striking or thrust with the foot.

     A  kick,  that  scarce would more a horse, May kill a sound divine.

   2.  The  projection  on the tang of the blade of a pocket knife, which
   prevents  the  edge of the blade from striking the spring. See Illust.
   of Pocketknife.

   3.  (Brickmaking)  A projection in a mold, to form a depression in the
   surface of the brick.

   4. The recoil of a musket or other firearm, when discharged.


   Kick"a*ble  (?),  a. Capable or deserving of being kicked. "A kickable
   boy." G. Eliot. 


   Kick`a*poos"  (?),  n.  pl.;  sing.  Kickapoo  (. (Ethnol.) A tribe of
   Indians  which  formerly  occupied  the  region  of Northern Illinois,
   allied  in language to the Sacs and Foxes. <-- kickback. n. recoil, of
   a  gun  or  machine,  as  in  older automobile engines when started by
   turning  a  crank.  2.  a  secret,  and usually illegal, payment, by a
   recipient of money paid for goods or services, to a facilitator of the
   transaction, of a portion of that money. -->


   Kick"er, n. One who, or that which, kicks.


   Kick"shaw` (?), n. See Kickshaws, the correct singular.


   Kick"shaws`  (?),  n.;  pl.  Kickshawses  (#) [Corrupt. fr. F. guelgue
   chose  something,  fr.  L.  gualis  of  what kind (akin to E. which) +
   suffix -guam + causa cause, in LL., a thing. See Which, and Cause.]

   1. Something fantastical; any trifling, trumpery thing; a toy.

     Art thou good at these kickshawses! Shak.

   2. A fancy dish; a titbit; a delicacy.

     Some  pigeons,  . . . a joint of mutton, and any pretty little tiny
     kickshaws. Shak.

     Cressy was lost by kickshaws and soup-maigre. Fenton.


   Kick"shoe` (?), n. A kickshaws. Milton.

                          Kicksy-wicksy, Kicky-wisky

   Kick"sy-wick`sy  (?), Kick"y-wisk`y (?), n. That which is restless and

     NOTE: &hand; Ki cky-wicky, or , in some editions, Kicksy-wicksy, is
     applied  contemptuously  to  a  wife by Shakespeare, in "All's Well
     that Ends Well," ii. 3, 297.


   Kick"sy-wick`sy,  a.  Fantastic;  restless;  as, kicksy-wicksy flames.


   Kick"up  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The water thrush or accentor. [Local, West


   Kid  (?),  n. [Of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. ki, Dan. & Sw. kid; akin to
   OHG. kizzi, G. kitz, kitzchen, kitzlein.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A young goat.

     The . . . leopard shall lie down with the kid. Is. xi. 6


   2. A young child or infant; hence, a simple person, easily imposed on.
   [Slang] Charles Reade.

   3.  A  kind  of  leather made of the skin of the young goat, or of the
   skin of rats, etc.

   4. pl. Gloves made of kid. [Colloq. & Low]

   5. A small wooden mess tub; -- a name given by sailors to one in which
   they receive their food. Cooper.


   Kid,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Kidded; p. pr. & vb. n. Kidding.] To bring
   forth a young goat.


   Kid, n. [Cf. W. cidysen.] A fagot; a bundle of heath and furze. [Prov.
   Eng.] Wright.


   Kid, p. p. of Kythe. [Obs.] Gower. Chaucer.


   Kid, v. t. See Kiddy, v. t. [Slang]


   Kid"de (?), imp. of Kythe. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Kid"der*min`ster  (?),  n. A kind of ingrain carpeting, named from the
   English town where formerly most of it was manufactured.


   Kid"di*er  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OSw.  kyta to truck.] A huckster; a cadger.
   [Obs.] Halliwell.


   Kid"dle   (?),  n.  [Cf.  LL.kidellus,  Armor.  ki\'beel]  A  kind  of
   basketwork  wear  in  a  river, for catching fish. [Improperly spelled


   Kid"dow  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  guillemot.  [Written also kiddaw.]
   [Prov. Eng.]


   Kid"dy (?), v. t. To deceive; to outwit; to hoax. [Slang] Dickens.


   Kid"dy, n. A young fellow; formerly, a low thief. [Slang, Eng.]


   Kid"dy*ish, a. Frolicsome; sportive. [Slang]


   Kid"fox` (?). (Zo\'94l.) A young fox Shak.


   Kid"ling (?), n. [Kid +-ling: cf. Sw. kidling.] A young kid.


   Kid"nap`  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Kidnaped (?) or Kidnapped; p. pr. &
   vb. n. Kidnaping or Kidnapping.] [Kid a child + Prov. E. nap to seize,
   to  grasp.  Cf.  Knab, Knap, Nab.] To take (any one) by force or fear,
   and against one's will, with intent to carry to another place. Abbott.

     You  may  reason or expostulate with the parents, but never attempt
     to kidnap their children, and to make proselytes of them. Whately.

     NOTE: &hand; Or iginally us ed on ly of  stealing children, but now
     extended in application to any human being, involuntarily abducted.

                            Kidnaper, OR Kidnapper

   Kid"nap`er  (?), OR Kid"nap`per, n. One who steals or forcibly carries
   away a human being; a manstealer.


   Kid"ney (?), n.; pl. Kidneys (#). [OE. kidnei, kidnere, from Icel. koi
   belly,  womb  (akin  to Goth. gipus, AS. cwip womb) + OE. nere kidney;
   akin  to D. nier, G. niere, OHG. nioro, Icel. n, Dan. nyre, Sw. njure,
   and probably to Gr. (Kite belly.]

   Page 813

   1.  (Anat.)  A  glandular  organ  which  excretes urea and other waste
   products from the animal body; a urinary gland.

     NOTE: &hand; In man and in other mammals there are two kidneys, one
     each side of vertebral column in the back part of the abdomen, each
     kidney being connected with the bladder by a long tube, the ureter,
     through  which the urine is constantly excreted into the bladder to
     be periodically discharged.

   2. Habit; disposition; sort; kind. Shak.

     There  are in later other decrees, made by popes of another kidney.

     Millions in the world of this man's kidney. L'Estrange.

     Your  poets, spendthrifts, and other fools of that kidney, pretend,
     forsooth, to crack their jokes on prudence. Burns.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is use of the word perhaps arose from the fact that
     the  kidneys  and  the  fat  about  them  are  an  easy test of the
     condition  of  an animal as to fatness. "Think of that, -- a man of
     my kidney; -- . . . as subject to heat as butter."


   3. A waiter. [Old Cant] Tatler.
   Floating kidney. See Wandering kidney, under Wandering. -- Kidney bean
   (Bot.), a sort of bean; -- so named from its shape. It is of the genus
   Phaseolus  (P.  vulgaris).  See  under  Bean.  -- Kidney ore (Min.), a
   variety   of  hematite  or  iron  sesquioxide,  occurring  in  compact
   kidney-shaped  masses. -- Kidney stone. (Min.) See Nephrite, and Jade.
   --  Kidney  vetch  (Bot.),  a  leguminous  herb  of  Europe  and  Asia
   (Anthyllis  vulneraria),  with  cloverlike  heads  of  red  or  yellow
   flowers,  once  used as a remedy for renal disorders, and also to stop
   the flow of blood from wounds; lady's-fingers.

                          Kidney-form, Kidney-shaped

   Kid"ney-form` (?), Kid"ney-shaped` (?), a. Having the form or shape of
   a kidney; reniform; as, a kidney-shaped leaf. Gray.


   Kid"ney*wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  (a)  A  kind  of saxifrage (Saxifrage
   stellaris). (b) The navelwort.


   Kie (?), n. pl. [Cf. Kee.] Kine; cows. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Kie"fe*kil  (?),  n.  [Per. keff foam, scum + gil clay, mud.] (Min.) A
   species of clay; meerschaum. [Also written keffekil.]


   Kier  (?),  n.  [Icel.  ker  a tub.] (Bleaching) A large tub or vat in
   which  goods  are  subjected  to  the  action  of hot lye or bleaching
   liquor; -- also called keeve.


   Kie"sel*guhr`  (?),  n. [G., fr. kiesel flint + guhr an earthy deposit
   or   sediment   in   water.]  Siliceous  earth;  specifically,  porous
   infusorial  earth,  used  as  an  absorbent  of  nitroglycerin  in the
   manufacture of dynamite.


   Kie"ser*ite  (?).  n.  [Named  after  Prof.  Kieser,  of Jena.] (Min.)
   Hydrous  sulphate  of  magnesia  found at the salt mines of Stassfurt,
   Prussian Saxony.


   Kieve (?), n. See Keeve, n.


   Kike  (?),  v. i. [Cf. D. kijken, Sw. kika.] To gaze; to stare. [Obs.]


   Kike  (?),  v.  t. & i. To kick [Obs.] Chaucer. <-- kike n. derogatory
   name for a jew. -->


   Kil"der*kin  (?), n. [OD. kindeken, kinneken, a small barrel, orig., a
   little  child, fr. kind child; akin to G.kind, and to E. kin.] A small
   barrel;  an  old  liquid  measure  containing  eighteen  English  beer
   gallons, or nearly twenty-two gallons, United States measure. [Written
   also kinderkin.]


   Kill (?), n. A kiln. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Kill, n. [D. kil.] A channel or arm of the sea; a river; a stream; as,
   the  channel  between  Staten  Island  and Bergen Neck is the Kill van
   Kull,  or  the  Kills;  --  used  also in composition; as, Schuylkill,
   Catskill, etc.


   Kill,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Killed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Killing.] [OE.
   killen,  kellen,  cullen,  to  kill,  strike;  perh.  the same word as
   cwellen,  quellen,  to kill (cf. Quell), or perh. rather akin to Icel.
   kolla to hit in the head, harm, kollr top, summit, head, Sw. kulle, D.
   kollen to kill with the ax.]

   1.  To  deprive  of life, animal or vegetable, in any manner or by any
   means; to render inanimate; to put to death; to slay.

     Ah, kill me with thy weapon, not with words ! Shak.

   2. To destroy; to ruin; as, to kill one's chances; to kill the sale of
   a book. "To kill thine honor." Shak.

     Her lively color kill'd with deadly cares. Shak.

   3.  To  cause  to  cease; to quell; to calm; to still; as, in seamen's
   language, a shower of rain kills the wind.

     Be  comforted,  good  madam;  the great rage, You see, is killed in
     him. Shak.

   4.  To destroy the effect of; to counteract; to neutralize; as, alkali
   kills acid.
   To  kill  time,  to  busy one's self with something which occupies the
   attention,  or  makes  the  time  pass without tediousness. Syn. -- To
   murder;  assassinate;  slay;  butcher;  destroy.  --  To Kill, Murder,
   Assassinate.  To  kill  does  not  necessarily  mean  any more than to
   deprive   of   life.  A  man  may  kill  another  by  accident  or  in
   self-defense,  without  the  imputation of guilt. To murder is to kill
   with  malicious  forethought and intention. To assassinate is tomurder
   suddenly  and  by stealth. The sheriff may kill without murdering; the
   duelist murders, but does not assassinate his antagonist; the assassin
   kills and murders.

                               Killdee, Killdeer

   Kill"dee`   (?),  Kill"deer`  (?),  n.  [So  named  from  its  notes.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A small American plover (\'92gialitis vocifera).

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  da rk gr ayish brown above; the rump and upper
     tail  coverts  are  yellowish rufous; the belly, throat, and a line
     over  the  eyes,  white;  a ring round the neck and band across the
     breast, black.


   Kill"er (?), n.

   1. One who deprives of life; one who, or that which, kills.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A voracious, toothed whale of the genus Orca, of which
   several species are known.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e killers have a high dorsal fin, and powerful jaws
     armed  with  large,  sharp teeth. They capture, and swallow entire,
     large numbers of seals, porpoises, and dolphins, and are celebrated
     for  their  savage,  combined  attacks upon the right whales, which
     they  are  said  to  mutilate and kill. The common Atlantic species
     (Orca  gladiator),  is  found both on the European and the American
     coast.  Two  species  (Orca  ater  and  O. rectipinna) occur on the
     Pacific coast.


   Kil*lesse"  (?),  n.  [Cf. Coulisse.] (Arch.) (a) A gutter, groove, or
   channel. (b) A hipped roof. [Prov. Eng.] Parker.


   Kil"li*fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one of several small American
   cyprinodont  fishes of the genus Fundulus and allied genera. They live
   equally well in fresh and brackish water, or even in the sea. They are
   usually  striped  or  barred with black. Called also minnow, and brook
   fish. See Minnow.


   Kil"li*grew  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) The Cornish chough. See under Chough.
   [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]


   Kil`li*ki*nick" (?), n. See Kinnikinic.


   Kill"ing  (?),  a. Literally, that kills; having power to kill; fatal;
   in  a  colloquial  sense,  conquering;  captivating;  irresistible. --
   Kill"ing*ly, adv.

     Those eyes are made so killing. Pope.

     Nothing could be more killingly spoken. Milton.


   Kill"-joy`  (?),  n.  One  who  causes  gloom  or grief; a dispiriting
   person. W. Black.


   Kil"lock  (?),  n.  [Cf. Scot.killick "the flue [fluke] of an anchor."
   Jamieson.]  A  small  anchor; also, a kind of anchor formed by a stone
   inclosed by pieces of wood fastened together. [Written also killick.]


   Kil"low  (?),  n.  [Prov.  E. kollow the smut or grime on the backs of
   chimneys.] An earth of a blackish or deep blue color. Woodward.


   Kiln  (?),  n. [OE.kilne, kulne, AS. cyln, cylen; akin to Icel. kylna;
   prob. from the same source as coal. See Coal.]

   1.  A  large  stove  or oven; a furnace of brick or stone, or a heated
   chamber,  for  the  purpose of hardening, burning, or drying anything;
   as,  a kiln for baking or hardening earthen vessels; a kiln for drying
   grain, meal, lumber, etc.; a kiln for calcining limestone.

   2. A furnace for burning bricks; a brickkiln.


   Kiln"-dry` (?), v. t. To dry in a kiln; as, to kiln-dry meal or grain.


   Kiln"hole` (?), n. The mouth or opening of an oven or kiln. Shak.


   Ki"lo (?), n.; pl. Kilos (#). [F.] An abbreviation of Kilogram.

                             Kilogram, Kilogramme

   Kil"o*gram  (?), Kil"o*gramme, n. [F. kilogramme; pref. kilo- (fr. Gr.
   chi`lioi  a  thousand  )  + gramme. See 3d Gram.] A measure of weight,
   being  a thousand grams, equal to 2.2046 pounds avoirdupois (15,432.34
   grains).  It  is equal to the weight of a cubic decimeter of distilled
   water at the temperature of maximum density, or 39 Fahrenheit.

                         Kilogrammeter, Kilogrammetre

   Kil"o*gram*me`ter  (?),  Kil"o*gram*me`tre,  n.  (Mech.)  A measure of
   energy or work done, being the amount expended in raising one kilogram
   through the height of one meter, in the latitude of Paris.

                             Kiloliter, Kilolitre

   Kil"o*li`ter  (?),  Kil"o*li`tre,  n. [F. kilolitre. See Kilogram, and
   Liter.]  A  measure  of capacity equal to a cubic meter, or a thousand
   liters.  It is equivalent to 35.315 cubic feet, and to 220.04 imperial
   gallons, or 264.18 American gallons of 321 cubic inches.

                             Kilometer, Kilometre

   Kil"o*me`ter  (?),  Kil"o*me`tre,  n. [F. kilometre. See Kilogram, and
   Meter.]  A  measure of length, being a thousand meters. It is equal to
   3,280.8 feet, or 62137 of a mile.


   Kil"o*stere`  (?),  n. [F.kilostere. See Kilogram, and Stere.] A cubic
   measure  containing  1000 cubic meters, and equivalent to 35,315 cubic


   Kil"o*watt  (?),  n.  [See  Kilogram  and  Watt.] (Elec.) One thousand


   Kilt (, p. p. from Kill. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Kilt,  n.  [OGael. cealt clothes, or rather perh. fr. Dan. kilte op to
   truss,  tie up, tuck up.] A kind of short petticoat, reaching from the
   waist  to  the knees, worn in the Highlands of Scotland by men, and in
   the Lowlands by young boys; a filibeg. [Written also kelt.]


   Kilt,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Kilted; p. pr. & vb. n. Kilting.] To tuck
   up; to truss up, as the clothes. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.


   Kilt"ed, a.

   1. Having on a kilt.

   2. Plaited after the manner of kilting.

   3. Tucked or fastened up; -- said of petticoats, etc.


   Kil"ter (?), n. See Kelter.


   Kilt"ing  (?),  n.  (Dressmaking) A perpendicular arrangement of flat,
   single plaits, each plait being folded so as to cover half the breadth
   of the preceding one.


   Kim"bo  (?),  a.  [Cf.  Akimbo.]  Crooked; arched; bent. [Written also
   kimbow.] Dryden.


   Kim*me"ri*an (?), a. See Cimmerian.


   Kim"nel (?), n. A tub. See Kemelin. [Obs.]

     She knew not what a kimnel was Beau. & Fl.


   Kim"ry (?), n. See Cymry.


   kin  (. [Of Low German origin; cf. G. -chen, LG. -- ken.] A diminutive
   suffix; as, manikin; lambkin.


   Kin (?), n. (Mus.) A primitive Chinese instrument of the cittern kind,
   with from five to twenty-five silken strings. Riemann.


   Kin,  n.  [OE.  kin,  cun,  AS.  cynn kin, kind, race, people; akin to
   cennan  to beget, D. kunne sex, OS. & OHG. kunni kin, race, Icel. kyn,
   Goth.  kuni,  G. & D. kind a child, L. genus kind, race, L. gignere to
   beget, Gr. jan to beget. Kind, King, Gender kind, Nation.]

   1.  Relationship,  consanguinity,  or affinity; connection by birth or
   marriage;  kindred;  near  connection  or alliance, as of those having
   common descent.

   2. Relatives; persons of the same family or race.

     The father, mother, and the kinbeside. Dryden.

     You are of kin, and so a friend to their persons. Bacon.


   Kin, a. Of the same nature or kind; kinder. "Kin to the king." Shak.


   Kin`\'91*sod"ic (?), a. (Physiol.) Kinesodic.


   Kin`\'91s*the"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Physiol.) The perception
   attendant upon the movements of the muscles. Bastian.


   Ki"nate (?), n. [Cf. F. kinate. ] (Chem.) See Quinate. [Obsolescent]


   Kin"cob (?), n. India silk brocaded with flowers in silver or gold. --
   a. Of the nature of kincob; brocaded. Thackeray.


   Kind  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Kinder  (?);  superl.  Kindest.] [AS. cynde,
   gecynde,  natural, innate, prop. an old p. p. from the root of E. kin.
   See Kin kindred.]

   1.  Characteristic of the species; belonging to one's nature; natural;
   native. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     It  becometh  sweeter than it should be, and loseth the kind taste.

   2.   Having   feelings   befitting   our   common  nature;  congenial;
   sympathetic; as, a kind man; a kind heart.

     Yet  was  he  kind,  or  if  severe  in  aught, The love he bore to
     learning was his fault. Goldsmith.

   3.  Showing  tenderness  or  goodness;  disposed to do good and confer
   happiness;  averse  to  hurting  or  paining;  benevolent;  benignant;

     He is kind unto the unthankful and to evil. Luke vi 35.

     O  cruel  Death,  to  those you take more kind Than to the wretched
     mortals left behind. Waller.

     A fellow feeling makes one wondrous kind. Garrick.

   4.  Proceeding  from,  or  characterized  by, goodness, gentleness, or
   benevolence; as, a kind act. "Manners so kind, yet stately." Tennyson.

   5.  Gentle;  tractable;  easily governed; as, a horse kind in harness.
   Syn.   --   Benevolent;   benign;   beneficent;  bounteous;  gracious;
   propitious;   generous;   forbearing;   indulgent;   tender;   humane;
   compassionate;  good; lenient; clement; mild; gentle; bland; obliging;
   friendly; amicable. See Obliging.


   Kind, n. [OE. kinde, cunde, AS. cynd. See Kind, a.]

   1. Nature; natural instinct or disposition. [Obs.]

     He knew by kind and by no other lore. Chaucer.

     Some  of  you, on pure instinct of nature, Are led by kind t'admire
     your fellow-creature. Dryden.

   2.  Race;  genus; species; generic class; as, in mankind or humankind.
   "Come of so low a kind." Chaucer.

     Every kind of beasts, and of birds. James iii.7.

     She follows the law of her kind. Wordsworth.

     Here  to  sow the seed of bread, That man and all the kinds be fed.

   3.   Nature;   style;   character;  sort;  fashion;  manner;  variety;
   description;  class;  as,  there  are  several  kinds of eloquence, of
   style,  and of music; many kinds of government; various kinds of soil,

     How  diversely  Love doth his pageants play, And snows his power in
     variable kinds ! Spenser.

     There is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another
     of fishes, and another of birds. I Cor. xv. 39.

     Diogenes  was  asked  in  a kind of scorn: What was the matter that
     philosophers  haunted  rich  men,  and  not rich men philosophers ?

   A  kind of, something belonging to the class of; something like to; --
   said  loosely  or  slightingly.  In kind, in the produce or designated
   commodity itself, as distinguished from its value in money.

     Tax on tillage was often levied in kind upon corn. Arbuthnot.

   Syn.  -- Sort; species; class; genus; nature; style; character; breed;


   Kind, v. t. [See Kin.] To beget. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Kin"der*gar`ten  (?),  n. [G., lit., children's garden; kinder (pl. of
   kind  child,  akin  to  E. kin kindred) + garten garden.] A school for
   young children, conducted on the theory that education should be begun
   by  gratifying and cultivating the normal aptitude for exercise, play,
   observation, imitation, and construction; -- a name given by Friedrich
   Froebel, a German educator, who introduced this method of training, in
   rooms opening on a garden.


   Kin"der*gart`ner (?), n. One who teaches in a kindergarten.


   Kind"-heart`ed   (?),  a.  Having  kindness  of  nature;  sympathetic;
   characterized by a humane disposition; as, a kind-hearted landlord.

     To thy self at least kind-hearted prove. Shak.


   Kind"-heart`ed*ness,  n.  The  state or quality of being kind-hearted;


   Kin"dle  (?),  v.  t.  & i. [OE. kindlen, cundlen. See Kind.] To bring
   forth young. [Obs.] Shak.

     The poor beast had but lately kindled. Holland.


   Kin`dle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Kindled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kindling
   (?).]  [Icel.  kyndill  candle,  torch; prob. fr. L. candela; cf. also
   Icel. kynda to kindle. Cf. Candle.]

   1. To set on fire; to cause to burn with flame; to ignite; to cause to
   begin burning; to start; to light; as, to kindle a match, or shavings.

     His breath kindleth coals. Job xii. 21.

   2.  Fig.: To inflame, as the passions; to rouse; to provoke; to excite
   to  action;  to  heat;  to  fire; to animate; to incite; as, to kindle
   anger or wrath; to kindle the flame of love, or love into a flame.

     So is a contentious man to kindle strife. Prov. xxvi. 21.

     Nothing remains but that I kindle the boy thither. Shak.

     Kindling her undazzled eyes at the full midday beam. Milton.

     Could swell the soul to rage, or kindle soft desire. Dryden.

   Syn.  --  Enkindle;  light;  ignite; inflame; provoke; excite; arouse;
   stir up.


   Kin"dle (?), v. i.

   1. To take fire; to begin to burn with flame; to start as a flame.

     When  thou  walkest  through  the  fire,  thou shalt not be burned;
     neither shall the flame kindle upon thee. Is. xliii. 2.

   2.  Fig.:  To  begin  to  be  excited; to grow warm or animated; to be
   roused or exasperated.

     On  all occasions where forbearance might be called for, the Briton
     kindles, and the Christian gives way. I. Taylor.


   Kin"dler (?), n. One who, or that which, kindles, stirs up, or sets on
   fire."Kindlers of riot." Gay.


   Kind"less  (?),  a  Destitute  of kindness; unnatural.[Obs.] "Kindless
   villain." Shak.


   Kind"li*ness (?), n.

   1. Natural inclination; natural course. [Obs.] Milton.

   2.  The  quality  or  state  of  being kindly; benignity; benevolence;
   gentleness;  tenderness;  as, kindliness of disposition, of treatment,
   or of words.

     In kind a father, but not in kindliness. Sackville.

   3.  Softness;  mildness; propitiousness; as, kindliness of weather, or
   of a season.

     Fruits  and  corn  are  much  advanced  by  temper  of  the air and
     kindliness of seasons. Whitlock.


   Kin"ding (?), n.

   1. The of causing to burn, or of exciting or inflaming the passions.

   2. pl. Materials, easily lighted, for starting a fire.


   Kind"ly  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Kindlier  (?);  superl.  Kindliest.] [AS.
   cyndelic. See Kind, n. ]

   1. According to the kind or nature; natural. [R.]

     The kindly fruits of the earth. Book of Com. Prayer.

     An herd of bulls whom kindly rage doth sting. Spenser.

     Whatsoever as the Son of God he may do, it is kindly for Him as the
     Son of Man to save the sons of men. L. Andrews.

   2.  Humane;  congenial;  sympathetic;  hence,  disposed to do good to;
   benevolent;  gracious;  kind;  helpful;  as, kindly affections, words,
   acts, etc.

     The  shade  by  which my life was crossed, . . . Has made me kindly
     with my kind. Tennyson.

   3. Favorable; mild; gentle; auspicious; beneficent.

     In soft silence shed the kindly shower. Pope.

     Should e'er a kindlier time ensue. Wordsworth.

     NOTE: &hand; "N othing et hical was connoted in kindly once: it was
     simply  the  adjective of kind. But it is God's ordinance that kind
     should be kindly, in our modern sense of the word as well; and thus
     the word has attained this meaning."



   Kind"ly, adv.

   1. Naturally; fitly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Examine how kindly the Hebrew manners of speech mix and incorporate
     with the English language Addison.

   2.  In  a kind manner; congenially; with good will; with a disposition
   to make others happy, or to oblige.

     Be  kindly  affectioned  one  to another, with brotherly love. Rom.
     xii. 10. 


   Kind"ness (?), n. [From Kind. a.]

   1.  The  state or quality of being kind, in any of its various senses;
   manifestation of kind feeling or disposition beneficence.

     I  do fear thy nature; It is too full o' the milk of human kindness
     To catch the nearest way. Shak.

     Unremembered acts Of kindness and of love. Wordsworth.

   2.  A  kind act; an act of good will; as, to do a great kindness. Syn.
   --  Good  will;  benignity;  grace;  tenderness; compassion; humanity;
   clemency;  mildness;  gentleness;  goodness;  generosity; beneficence;


   Kin"dred  (?), n. [OE. kinrede, kynrede, kunreden (with excrescent d),
   fr.  AS.  cunn  kin,  race + the termination to advise, G. rathen. Cf.

   1. Relationship by birth or marriage; consanguinity; affinity; kin.

     Like her, of equal kindred to the throne. Dryden.

   2.   Relatives  by  blood  or  marriage,  more  properly  the  former;
   relations; persons related to each other.

     I think there's no man is secure But the queen's kindred. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Kin;  kinsfolk; relatives; kinsmen; relations; relationship;


   Kin"dred, a. Related; congenial; of the like nature or properties; as,
   kindred souls; kindred skies; kindred propositions.

     True to the kindred points of heaven and home. Wordsworth.


   Kine  (?), n. pl. [For older kyen, formed like oxen, fr. AS. c, itself
   pl.  of  c  cow. See Cow, and cf. Kee, Kie.] Cows. "A herd of fifty or
   sixty kine." Milton.

                            Kinematic, Kinematical

   Kin`e*mat"ic   (?),  Kin`e*mat"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to
   kinematics.  Kinematic  curves,  curves  produced  by  machinery, or a
   combination of motions, as distinguished from mathematical curves.


   Kin`e*mat"ics  (?),  n.  [Gr.  ( (Physics) The science which treats of
   motions  considered  in  themselves,  or  apart from their causes; the
   comparison and relation of motions.

     NOTE: &hand; Ki  nematics fo  rms pr  operly an   in troduction to 
     mechanics, as involving the mathematical principles which are to be
     applied to its data of forces.



   Kine"pox`   (?),   n.   (Med.)  See  Cowpox.  Kin"e*scope  (,  n.  See


   Kin`e*si*at"rics  (?),  n. [Gr. ( (Med.) A mode of treating disease by
   appropriate   muscular   movements;   --  also  termed  kinesitherapy,
   kinesipathy, lingism, and the movement cure.


   Kin`e*sip"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) See Kinesiatrics.


   Kin`e*si*ther"a*py (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) See Kinesiatrics.


   Kin`e*sip"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) See Kinesiatrics.


   Kin`e*sod"ic   (?),  a.  [Gr.  kin\'82sodigue.]  (Physiol.)  Conveying
   motion;  as;  kinesodic substance; -- applied esp. to the spinal cord,
   because  it  is  capable  of conveying doth voluntary and reflex motor
   impulses,  without  itself being affected by motor impulses applied to
   it directly.


   Ki*net"ic  (?),  q.  [Gr.  (Physics) Moving or causing motion; motory;
   active, as opposed to latent. Kinetic energy. See Energy, n. 4.


   Ki*net"ics (?), n. (Physics) See Dynamics.


   Ki*ne`to*gen"e*sis  (?),  n. [Gr. -scope.] An instrument for producing
   curves  by  the  combination  of  circular  movements;  -- called also


   King (, n. A Chinese musical instrument, consisting of resonant stones
   or metal plates, arranged according to their tones in a frame of wood,
   and struck with a hammer.


   King, n.[AS. cyng, cyning; akin to OS. kining, D. koning, OHG. kining,
   G.  k\'94nig,  Icel.  konungr,  Sw.  koning,  OHG. kuning, Dan. konge;
   formed with a patronymic ending, and fr. the root of E. kin; cf. Icel.
   konr a man of noble birth. Kin.]

   1.  A  chief  ruler;  a sovereign; one invested with supreme authority
   over  a nation, country, or tribe, usually by hereditary succession; a
   monarch; a prince. "Ay, every inch a king." Shak.

     Kings  will  be  tyrants from policy, when subjects are rebels from
     principle. Burke.

     There was a State without king or nobles. R. Choate.

     But  yonder  comes  the powerful King of Day, Rejoicing in the east

   2.  One  who, or that which, holds a supreme position or rank; a chief
   among  competitors; as, a railroad king; a money king; the king of the
   lobby; the king of beasts.

   3.  A  playing  card  having  the  picture  of a king; as, the king of

   4. The chief piece in the game of chess.

   5. A crowned man in the game of draughts.

   6. pl. The title of two historical books in the Old Testament.

     NOTE: &hand; Ki ng is often used adjectively, or in combination, to
     denote  pre\'89minence  or  superiority  in  some  particular;  as,
     kingbird; king crow; king vulture.

   Apostolic  king.See  Apostolic.  -- King-at-arms, OR King-of-arms, the
   chief  heraldic  officer of a country. In England the king-at-arms was
   formerly  of  great  authority. His business is to direct the heralds,
   preside  at their chapters, and have the jurisdiction of armory. There
   are  three  principal  kings-at-arms,  viz.,  Garter, Clarencieux, and
   Norroy.  The  latter  (literally  north  roy or north king) officiates
   north  of  the  Trent.  --  King auk (Zo\'94l.), the little auk or sea
   dove.  --  King bird of paradise. (Zo\'94l.), See Bird of paradise. --
   King card, in whist, the best unplayed card of each suit; thus, if the
   ace and king of a suit have been played, the queen is the king card of
   the  suit.  -- King Cole , a legendary king of Britain, who is said to
   have  reigned  in the third century. -- King conch (Zo\'94l.), a large
   and  handsome univalve shell (Cassis cameo), found in the West Indies.
   It  is used for making cameos. See Helmet shell, under Helmet. -- King
   Cotton,  a  popular  personification of the great staple production of
   the  southern  United States. -- King crab. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The limulus
   or  horseshoe crab. See Limulus. (b) The large European spider crab or
   thornback (Maia sguinado). -- King crow. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A black drongo
   shrike (Buchanga atra) of India; -- so called because, while breeding,
   they  attack  and  drive away hawks, crows, and other large birds. (b)
   The  Dicrurus macrocercus of India, a crested bird with a long, forked
   tail. Its color is black, with green and blue reflections. Called also
   devil  bird.  -- King duck (Zo\'94l.), a large and handsome eider duck
   (Somateria   spectabilis),  inhabiting  the  arctic  regions  of  both
   continents.  -- King eagle (Zo\'94l.), an eagle (Aquila heliaca) found
   in  Asia  and  Southeastern Europe. It is about as large as the golden
   eagle.  Some  writers  believe it to be the imperial eagle of Rome. --
   King  hake  (Zo\'94l.), an American hake (Phycis regius), fond in deep
   water  along the Atlantic coast. -- King monkey (Zo\'94l.), an African
   monkey(Colobus  polycomus),  inhabiting  Sierra  Leone. -- King mullet
   (Zo\'94l.), a West Indian red mullet (Upeneus maculatus); -- so called
   on  account  of  its  great  beauty.  Called also goldfish. -- King of
   terrors,  death.  --  King parrakeet (Zo\'94l.), a handsome Australian
   parrakeet   (Platycercys  scapulatus),  often  kept  in  a  cage.  Its
   prevailing  color is bright red, with the back and wings bright green,
   the  rump  blue, and tail black. -- King penguin (Zo\'94l.), any large
   species of penguin of the genus Aptenodytes; esp., A. longirostris, of
   the  Falkland  Islands  and  Kerguelen  Land,  and  A. Patagonica , of
   Patagonia.  --  King  rail  (Zo\'94l.),  a small American rail (Rallus
   elegans),  living  in fresh-water marshes. The upper parts are fulvous
   brown,  striped with black; the breast is deep cinnamon color. -- King
   salmon  (Zo\'94l.),  the  quinnat. See Quinnat. -- King's, OR Queen's,
   counsel  (Eng.  Law),  barristers  learned  in  the law, who have been
   called  within  the  bar,  and  selected  to  be the king's or gueen's
   counsel.  They  answer in some measure to the advocates of the revenue
   (advocati  fisci)  among  the Romans. They can not be employed against
   the  crown  without  special  license.  Wharton's  Law Dict. -- King's
   cushion,  a  temporary  seat made by two persons crossing their hands.
   [Prov.  Eng.]  Halliwell.  --  The  king's English, correct or current
   language  of  good speakers; pure English. Shak. -- King's OR Queen's,
   evidence,  testimony  in favor of the Crown by a witness who confesses
   his guilt as an accomplice. See under Evidence. [Eng.] -- King's evil,
   scrofula;  --  so called because formerly supposed to be healed by the
   touch  of  a  king.  --  King snake (Zo\'94l.), a large, nearly black,
   harmless  snake (Ophiobolus getulus) of the Southern United States; --
   so  called  because it kills and eats other kinds of snakes, including
   even  the  rattlesnake.  --  King's  spear  (Bot.), the white asphodel
   (Asphodelus  albus).  --  King's  yellow, a yellow pigment, consisting
   essentially  of  sulphide  and oxide of arsenic; -- called also yellow
   orpiment.   --   King  tody  (Zo\'94l.),  a  small  fly-catching  bird
   (Eurylaimus  serilophus) of tropical America. The head is adorned with
   a  large, spreading, fan-shaped crest, which is bright red, edged with
   black.  --  King  vulture  (Zo\'94l.),  a  large  species  of  vulture
   (Sarcorhamphus  papa),  ranging  from  Mexico to Paraguay, The general
   color  is  white.  The  wings  and  tail  are  black,  and  the  naked
   carunculated  head  and  the neck are briliantly colored with scarlet,
   yellow,  orange,  and  blue.  So  called  because it drives away other
   vultures  while feeding. -- King wood, a wood from Brazil, called also
   violet wood, beautifully streaked in violet tints, used in turning and
   small  cabinetwork.  The  tree is probably a species of Dalbergia. See


   King  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Kinged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kinging). ]
   To  supply  with  a king; to make a king of; to raise to royalty. [R.]

     Those  traitorous  captains  of  Israel  who  kinged  themselves by
     slaying their masters and reigning in their stead. South.


   King"bird (?), n. (Zo\'94l.)

   1. A small American bird (Tyrannus, or T. Carolinensis), noted for its
   courage  in  attacking larger birds, even hawks and eagles, especially
   when  they  approach  its nest in the breeding season. It is a typical
   tyrant  flycatcher,  taking  various insects upon the wing. It is dark
   ash  above,  and  blackish  on  the bead and tail. The quills and wing
   coverts  are  whitish  at the edges. It is white beneath, with a white
   terminal band on the tail. The feathers on the head of the adults show
   a bright orange basal spot when erected. Called also bee bird, and bee
   martin.  Several  Southern  and  Western  species of Tyrannus are also
   called king birds.

   2. The king tody. See under King.


   King"bolt` (?), n. A vertical iron bolt, by which the forward axle and
   wheels of a vehicle or the trucks of a railroad car are connected with
   the other parts.

                             King Charles spaniel

   King  Charles  span"iel  (?).  (Zo\'94l.) A variety of small pet dogs,
   having,  drooping ears, a high, dome-shaped forehead, pug nose, large,
   prominent  eyes,  and  long, wavy hair. The color is usually black and


   King"craft  (?),  n.  The  craft  of  kings; the art of governing as a
   sovereign; royal policy. Prescott.


   King"cup` (?), n. (Bot.) The common buttercup.


   King"dom (?), n. [AS. cyningd. See 2d King, and -dom.]

   1. The rank, quality, state, or attributes of a king; royal authority;
   sovereign power; rule; dominion; monarchy.

     Thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom. Ps. cxiv. 13. 

     When  Jehoram  was  risen  up  to  the  kingdom  of  his father, he
     strengthened himself. 2 Chron. xxi. 4. 

   2.  The  territory or country subject to a king or queen; the dominion
   of a monarch; the sphere in which one is king or has control.

     Unto the kingdom of perpetual night. Shak.

     You're welcome, Most learned reverend sir, into our kingdom. Shak.

   3. An extensive scientific division distinguished by leading or ruling
   characteristics;  a  principal division; a department; as, the mineral
   kingdom. "The animal and vegetable kingdoms." Locke.
   Animal kingdom. See under Animal. -- Kingdom of God. (a) The universe.
   (b)  That  spiritual realm of which God is the acknowledged sovereign.
   (c)  The  authority  or dominion of God. -- Mineral kingdom. See under
   Mineral.  --  United  Kingdom. See under United. -- Vegetable kingdom.
   See  under  Vegetable.  Syn.  --  Realm;  empire;  dominion; monarchy;
   sovereignty; domain.


   King"domed  (?),  a. Having a kingdom or the dignity of a king; like a
   kingdom. [R.]

     "Twixt  his  mental  and  his  active  parts, Kingdom'd Achilles in
     commotion rages And batters down himself. Shak.


   King"fish`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) (a) An American marine food fish of the
   genus  Menticirrus,  especially  M. saxatilis, or M. nebulosos, of the
   Atlantic  coast;  --  called also whiting, surf whiting, and barb. (b)
   The  opah.  (c) The common cero; also, the spotted cero. See Cero. (d)
   The queenfish.

   Page 815


   King"fish`er  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of numerous species of birds
   constituting  the  family Alcedinid\'91. Most of them feed upon fishes
   which  they  capture  by diving and seizing then with the beak; others
   feed  only  upon  reptiles,  insects, etc. About one hundred and fifty
   species  are  known.  They are found in nearly all parts of the world,
   but are particularly abundant in the East Indies.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e be lted ki ng-fisher of the United States (Ceryle
     alcyon)  feeds  upon  fishes.  It is slate-blue above, with a white
     belly  and  breast,  and a broad white ring around the neck. A dark
     band  crosses  the  breast.  The  common  European  species (Alcedo
     ispida),  which  is  much  smaller  and brighter colored, is also a
     fisher. See Alcedo. The wood kingfishers (Halcyones), which inhabit
     forests,  especially in Africa, feed largely upon insects, but also
     eat  reptiles,  snails, and small Crustacea, as well as fishes. The
     giant  kingfisher  of  Australia  feeds  largely  upon  lizards and
     insects. See Laughing jackass, under Laughing.


   King"hood (?), n. The state of being a king; the attributes of a king;
   kingship. Gower.


   King"less, a. Having no king. F. Lieber.


   King"let (?), n.

   1. A little king; a weak or insignificant king. Carlyle.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several species of small singing birds of the
   genus Regulus and family Sylviid\'91.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa), and the
     rubycrowned  kinglet  (R.  calendula), are the most common American
     species.  The  common English kinglet (R. cristatus) is also called
     golden-crested  wren,  moonie, and marigold finch. The kinglets are
     often popularly called wrens, both in America and England.


   King"li*hood (?), n. King-liness. Tennyson.


   King"li*ness, n. The state or quality of being kingly.


   King"ling (?), n. Same as Kinglet, 1. Churchill.


   King"ly  (?),  a. [Compar. Kinglier (?); superl. Kingliest.] Belonging
   to, suitable to, or becoming, a king; characteristic of, resembling, a
   king;   directed  or  administered  by  a  king;  monarchical;  royal;
   sovereign;  regal; august; noble; grand. "Kingly magnificence." Sir P.
   Sidney. "A kingly government." Swift. "The kingly couch." Shak.

     The kingliest kings are crowned with thorn. G. Massey.

     Leave kingly backs to cope with kingly cares. Cowper.

   Syn. -- Regal; royal; monarchical; imperial; august; sovereign; noble;
   splendid.   --  Kingly,  Regal.  Kingly  is  Anglo-Saxon,  and  refers
   especially to the character of a king; regal is Latin, and now relates
   more  to  his  office.  The  former  is  chiefly used of dispositions,
   feelings,  and  purposes  which  are  kinglike; as, kingly sentiments;
   kingly  condescension;  "  a  kingly  heart  for  enterprises." Sir P.
   Sidney.  The  latter is oftener applied to external state, pomp, etc.;
   as, regal state, regal title, etc. This distinction is not observed by
   our early writers, but is gaining ground.


   King"ly, adv. In a kingly or kinglike manner. Shak.

     Low bowed the rest; he, kingly, did but nod. Pore.

     NOTE: &hand; Al though th is ci tation, one from Paradise Lost, and
     one  from Shakespeare's ll4th Sonnet are given by lexicographers as
     examples of adverbial use, it is by no means clear that the word is
     not an adjective in each instance.


   King"-post`  (?),  n. (Carp.) A member of a common form of truss, as a
   roof  truss.  It is strictly a tie, intended to prevent the sagging of
   the  tiebeam  in  the middle. If there are struts, supporting the main
   rafters,  they  often bear upon the foot of the king-post. Called also

                                 King's Bench

   King's  Bench  (?). (Law) Formerly, the highest court of common law in
   England; -- so called because the king used to sit there in person. It
   consisted  of  a  chief  justice and four puisne, or junior, justices.
   During  the  reign  of  a  queen  it was called the Queen's Bench. Its
   jurisdiction  was  transferred by the judicature acts of 1873 and 1875
   to the high court of justice created by that legislation.


   King"ship  (?),  n.  The state, office, or dignity of a king; royalty.

                              Kingston, Kingstone

   King"ston  (?),  King"stone`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The black angel fish.
   See Angel fish, under Angel.

                                Kingston metal

   King"ston  met"al (?). An alloy of tin, copper, and mercury, sometimes
   used for the bearings and packings of machinery. McElrath.

                                Kingston valve

   King"ston  valve  (?).  (Marine Steam Engin.) A conical valve, opening
   outward, to close the mouth of a pipe which passes through the side of
   a vessel below the water line.


   King"truss`  (?). (Carp.) A truss, framed with a king-post; -- used in
   roofs, bridges, etc.


   Ki"nic (?), a. [Cf. F.kinique.] (Chem.) See Quinic.


   Kink (?), n. [D. kink a bend or turn, or Sw. kink.]

   1.  A  twist  or  loop  in  a  rope or thread, caused by a spontaneous
   doubling or winding upon itself; a close loop or curl; a doubling in a

   2.  An  unreasonable  notion; a crotchet; a whim; a caprice. [Colloq.]


   Kink (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Kinked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kinking.] To
   wind  into  a  kink;  to knot or twist spontaneously upon itself, as a
   rope or thread.


   Kink,  n.  [Cf.  Chincough,  Kink-haust.]  A  fit of coughing; also, a
   convulsive fit of laughter. [Scot.]


   Kin"ka*jou`  (?), n. [F. kinkajou, quincajou, from the native American
   name.]   (Zo\'94l.)   A   nocturnal  carnivorous  mammal  (Cercoleptes
   caudivolvulus)  of  South America, about as large as a full-grown cat.
   It  has  a  prehensile  tail  and  lives  in  trees.  It  is  the only
   representative  of  a  distinct family (Cercoleptid\'91) allied to the
   raccoons. Called also potto, and honey bear.


   Kink"haust`  (?), n. [Prov. E. kink to gasp (cf. Chin cough) + haust a
   cough (akin to E. wheeze).] Whooping cough. [Obs.or Prov. Eng.]


   Kin"kle (?), n. Same as 3d Kink.


   Kink"y (?), a.

   1. Full of kinks; liable to kink or curl; as, kinky hair.

   2. Queer; eccentric; crotchety. [Colloq. U.S.]


   Kin`ni*ki*nic" (?), n. [Indian, literally, a mixture.] Prepared leaves
   or bark of certain plants; -- used by the Indians of the Northwest for
   smoking,  either mixed with tobacco or as a substitute for it. Also, a
   plant  so  used,  as  the  osier  cornel  (Cornus stolonijra), and the
   bearberry  (Arctostaphylus  Uva-ursi). [Spelled also kinnickinnick and


   Ki"no  (?),  n.  The  dark  red  dried  juice  of certain plants, used
   variously in tanning, in dyeing, and as an astringent in medicine.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ch ief su pply is  from an East Indian leguminous
     tree,  the  Pterocarpus  Marsupium.  Other  sources are the African
     Pterocarpus  erinaceus,  the tropical American sea grape (Coccoloba
     uvifera),  and  several  Australian Eucalypti. See Botany bay kino,
     under Botany bay, Gum butea, under Gum, and Eucalyptus.


   Ki*nol"o*gy  (?),  n. [Gr. -logy.] That branch of physics which treats
   of  the  laws of motion, or of moving bodies. <-- kinetics? mechanics?


   Ki"none (?), n. (Chem.) See Quinone.


   Ki"noyl (?), n. (Chem.) [Obs.] See Quinoyl.


   Kin"rede (?), n. Kindred. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Kins"folk` (?), n. Relatives; kindred; kin; persons of the same family
   or closely or closely related families.

     They sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance. Luke ii. 44.

   Kin"ship (?), n. Family relationship.


   Kins"man (?), n.; pl. Kinsmen (. A man of the same race or family; one
   related by blood.


   Kins"man*ship, n. Kinship. Thackeray.


   Kins"wom`an (?), n.; pl. Kinswomen (. A female relative. Shak.


   Kint"lidge (?), n. (Naut.) See Kentledge.


   Ki*osk"  (?),  n.  [Turk.  kiushk,  ki\'94shk, Per. k.] A Turkish open
   summer  house  or  pavilion,  supported  by  pillars.  <--  2. A small
   structure,  typically  located  on a street and sometimes in a parking
   lot,  with  one  or more open sides, used to vend merchandise, such as
   newspapers,   or   services,   such   as   key   duplication  or  film
   developing.(MW10 s. 2) -->


   Ki"o*ways`  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Kioway (. (Ethnol.) A tribe of Indians
   distantly related to the Shoshones. They formerly inhabited the region
   about the head waters of the North Platte.


   Kip  (?),  n.  The  hide of a young or small beef creature, or leather
   made from it; kipskin. Kip leather. See Kipskin.


   Kipe (?), n. [Cf. OE. kipen to catch, Icel. kippa to pull, snatch. Cf.
   Kipper.] An osier basket used for catching fish. [Prov. Eng.]


   Kip"per (?), n. [D. kippen to hatch, snatch, seize. Cf. Kipe.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A salmon after spawning.

   2.  A  salmon  split  open,  salted, and dried or smoked; -- so called
   because  salmon  after  spawning were usually so cured, not being good
   when fresh. [Scot.]
   Kipper  time,  the  season  in  which fishing for salmon is forbidden.
   [Eng. & Scot.]


   Kip"per, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Kippered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kippering.]
   To  cure,  by  splitting,  salting,  and  smoking.  "Kippered salmon."


   Kip"per,   a.   Amorous;  also,  lively;  light-footed;  nimble;  gay;
   sprightly. [Prov. Eng.]<-- = chipper? --> Halliwell.


   Kip"per*nut`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  name  given to earthnuts of several


   Kip"skin`  (?),  n.  [Kip  +  skin.] Leather prepared from the skin of
   young  or  small  cattle,  intermediate  in grade between calfskin and


   Kirk (?), n. [Scot.; cf. Icel. kirkja, of Greek origin. See Church.] A
   church  or  the  church,  in the various senses of the word; esp., the
   Church  of  Scotland as distinguished from other reformed churches, or
   from the Roman Catholic Church. [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Kirked  (?),  a. [Etymol. uncertain.] Turned upward; bent. [Obs.] Rom.
   of R.


   Kirk"man (?), n.; pl. Kirkmen (.

   1. A clergyman or officer in a kirk. [Scot.]

   2.  A member of the Church of Scotland, as distinguished from a member
   of another communion. [Scot.]


   Kirk"yard` (?), n. A churchyard. [Scot.]


   Kir"mess  (?),  n.  [D. kermis; cf. G. kirmes; prop., church mass. See
   Church,  and  Mass  a  religious  service.] In Europe, particularly in
   Belgium  and  Holland,  and  outdoor  festival and fair; in the United
   States, generally an indoor entertainment and fair combined.


   Kirsch"was`ser  (?),  n.  [G.,  fr. kirsche cherry + wasser water.] An
   alcoholic  liquor,  obtained  by distilling the fermented juice of the
   small black cherry.


   Kir"some, a. [Corrupted from chrisom.] Christian; christened. [Obs.]

     I am a true kirsome woman. Beau. & Fl.


   Kir"tle  (?),  n.  [OE.  kirtel,  curtel,  AS.  cyrtel;  skin to Icel.
   kyrtill,  Sw. kjortel, Dan. kiortel, kiole.] A garment varying in form
   and use at different times, and worn doth by men and women.

     Wearing her Norman car, and her kirtle of blue. Longfellow.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm is  still retained in the provinces, in the
     sense of " an outer petticoat."



   Kir"tled (?), a. Wearing a kirtle. Byron.


   Ki*rum"bo   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  bird  of  Madagascar  (Leptosomus
   discolor),  the only living type of a family allied to the rollers. It
   has  a  pair  of  loral  plumes.  The male is glossy green above, with
   metallic reflections; the female is spotted with brown and black.


   Kish  (?),  n.  [Cf. G. kies gravel, pyrites.] (Min.) A workman's name
   for the graphite which forms incidentally in iron smelting.


   Kis"met  (?),  n. [Per. qismat.] Destiny; fate. [Written also kismat.]


   Kiss  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Kissed (?);p. pr. & vb. n. Kissing.]
   [OE. kissen, cussen, AS. cyssan, fr. coss a kiss; of uncertain origin;
   akin to D. kus, G. kuss, Icel. koss.]

   1.  To  salute  with  the  lips,  as  a  mark of affection, reverence,
   submission, forgiveness, etc.

     He  .  . . kissed her lips with such a clamorous smack, That at the
     parting all the church echoed. Shak.

   2. To touch gently, as if fondly or caressingly.

     When the sweet wind did gently kiss the trees. Shak.


   Kiss, v. i.

   1. To make or give salutation with the lips in token of love, respect,
   etc.; as, kiss and make friends.

   2. To meet; to come in contact; to touch fondly.

     Like fire and powder, Which as they kiss consume. Shak.

     Rose,  rose  and  clematis,  Trail  and  twine  and clasp and kiss.

   Kissing  comfit,  a  perfumed sugarplum to sweeten the breath. [Obs or
   Prov. End.] Shak.


   Kiss,  n.  [OE. kiss, derived under the influence of the verb from the
   older form coss, AS. coss. See Kiss, v.]

   1. A salutation with the lips, as a token of affection, respect, etc.;
   as, a parting kiss; a kiss of reconciliation.

     Last with a kiss, she took a long farewell. Dryden.

     Dear as remembered kisses after death. Tennyson.

   2. A small piece of confectionery.


   Kiss"er (?), n. One who kisses. Beau. & Fl.


   Kiss"ing*crust`  (?), n. (Cookery) The portion of the upper crust of a
   loaf which has touched another loaf in baking. Lamb.

     A  massy  fragment  from  the  rich  kissingcrust that hangs like a
     fretted cornice from the upper half of the loaf. W. Howitt.


   Kist  (?),  n.  [See  Chest.] A chest; hence, a coffin. [Scot. & Prov.
   End.] Jamieson. Halliwell.


   Kist,  n.  [Ar.  gist.] A stated payment, especially a payment of rent
   for land; hence, the time for such payment. [India]


   Kist"vaen  (?),  n.  [W.  cist-faen.] (Arch\'91ol.) A Celtic monument,
   commonly known as a dolmen.


   Kit, v. t. [imp. Kitte.] To cut. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   t,  n.  [See  Kitten.] A kitten. Kit fox (Zo\'94l.), a small burrowing
   fox  (Vulpes  velox), inhabiting the region of the Rocky Mountains. It
   is  brownish  gray, reddish on the breast and flanks, and white below.
   Called also swift fox.


   Kit, n. [Gf. AS. cytere harp, L. cithara. Cf. Guitar.] A small violin.
   "A dancing master's kit." Grew.

     Prince  Turveydrop  then  tinkled  the  strings of his kit with his
     fingers, and the young ladies stood up to dance. Dickens.


   Kit, m. [Cf. D. kit a large bottle, OD. kitte beaker, decanter.]

   1. A large bottle.

   2.  A wooden tub or pail, smaller at the top than at the bottom; as, a
   kit of butter, or of mackerel. Wright.

   3.  straw  or  rush  basket for fish; also, any kind of basket. [Prov.
   Eng.] Halliwell.

   4.  A  box  for  working  implements; hence, a working outfit, as of a
   workman, a soldier, and the like.

   5.  A  group  of  separate parts, things, or individuals; -- used with
   whole,  and  generally  contemptuously; as, the whole kit of them. <--
   now: the whole kit and kaboodle -->


   Kit"cat` (?), a.

   1. Designating a club in London, to which Addison and Steele belonged;
   --  so called from Christopher Cat, a pastry cook, who served the club
   with mutton pies.

   2.  Designating  a canvas used for portraits of a peculiar size, viz.,
   twenty-right  or twenty-nine inches by thirtysix; -- so called because
   that  size  was  adopted  by  Sir Godfrey Kneller for the portraits he
   painted of the members of the Kitcal Club. Fairholt.


   Kit"cat`,  n.  A  game  played by striking with a stick small piece of
   wood,  called  a  cat,  shaped  like  two coned united at their bases;
   tipcat. Cotton. Kitcat roll (Agric.), a roller somewhat in the form of
   two cones set base to base. [Prov. Eng.]


   Kitch"en  (?),  n.  [OE.  kichen,  kichene,  kuchene,  AS.  cycene, L.
   coquina,  equiv.  to  culina  a  kitchen,  fr.  coquinus pertaining to
   cooking,  fr.  coquere  to  cook.  See  Cook  to prepare food, and cf.

   1. A cookroom; the room of a house appropriated to cookery.

     Cool was his kitchen, though his brains were hot. Dryden.

     A fat kitchen makes a lean will. Franklin.

   2. A utensil for roasting meat; as, a tin kitchen.
   Kitchen  garden.  See  under  Garden.  -- Kitchen lee, dirty soapsuds.
   [Obs.]  "  A  brazen  tub of kitchen lee." Ford. -- Kitchen stuff, fat
   collected from pots and pans. Donne.


   Kitch"en,  v. t. To furnish food to; to entertain with the fare of the
   kitchen. [Obs.] Shak.


   Kitch"en*er, n. A kitchen servant; a cook. Carlyle.


   Kitch"en*maid` (?), n. A woman employed in the kitchen. Shak.

   Page 816

                                Kitchen middens

   Kitch"en  mid`dens (?). [Dan. kj\'94k-kenm\'94ddings kitchen leavings;
   cf.  Scot.  midden  a  dunghill.] Relics of neolithic man found on the
   coast  of  Denmark,  consisting of shell mounds, some of which are ten
   feet high, one thousand feet long, and two hundred feet wide. The name
   is  applied  also  to  similar mounds found on the American coast from
   Canada to Florida, made by the North American Indians.


   Kitch"en-ry  (?),  n.  The  body  of servants employed in the kitchen.
   [Obs.] Holland.


   Kite (?), n. [OE. kyte, AS.c; cf. W. cud, cut.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Any raptorial bird of the subfamily Milvin\'91, of which
   many species are known. They have long wings, adapted for soaring, and
   usually a forked tail.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Eu ropean sp ecies ar e Mi lvus ic tinus an d M. 
     govinda;  the  sacred or Brahmany kite of India is Haliastur Indus;
     the American fork-tailed kite is the Nauclerus furcatus.

   2. Fig. : One who is rapacious.

     Detested kite, thou liest. Shak.

   3.  A  light  frame  of  wood  or other material covered with paper or
   cloth, for flying in the air at the end of a string.

   4. (Naut.) A lofty sail, carried only when the wind is light.

   5.  (Geom.)  A  quadrilateral,  one  of  whose diagonals is an axis of
   symmetry. Henrici.

   6.  Fictitious  commercial  paper used for raising money or to sustain
   credit,  as  a check which represents no deposit in bank, or a bill of
   exchange  not  sanctioned  by sale of goods; an accommodation check or
   bill. [Cant]

   7. (Zo\'94l.) The brill. [Prov. Eng. ]
   Flying  kites. (Naut.) See under Flying. -- Kite falcon (Zo\'94l.), an
   African  falcon  of  the  genus  Avicida, having some resemblance to a


   Kite,  v.  i.  To raise money by "kites;" as, kiting transactions. See
   Kite, 6. [Cant]


   Kite, n. The belly. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

Kiteflying, n. A mode of raising money, or sustaining one's credit, by the use
     of paper which is merely nominal; -- called also kiting. -- Kiteflier

   Kite"fly`ing  (?),  n.  A  mode  of raising money, or sustaining one's
   credit,  by  the  use of paper which is merely nominal; -- called also
   kiting.   --  Kite"fli`er,  n.  See  Kite,  n.,  6.  [Cant]  McElrath.


   Kith  (?),  n.  [OE.  kith,  cu,  AS.  cc known. Uncouth, Can, and cf.
   Kythe.] Acquaintance; kindred.

     And my near kith for sore me shend. W. Browne.

     The sage of his kith and the hamlet. Longfellow.

   Kith and kin, kindred more or less remote.


   Kith"a*ra (?), n. See Cithara.


   Kithe (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Kythe. Chaucer.


   Kit"ish (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Like or relating to a kite.


   Kit"ling  (?),  n.  [Kit a kitten + ling: cf. Icel. ketlingr.] A young
   kitten; a whelp. [Obs. or Scot.] B. Jonson.


   Kit"te (?), imp. of Kit to cut. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Kit"tel (?), v. t. See Kittle, v. t.


   Kit"ten  (?),  n.  [OE. kiton, a dim. of cat; cf. G.kitze a young cat,
   also  a  female cat, and F. chaton, dim. of chat cat, also E. kitling.
   See Cat.] A young cat.


   Kit"ten,  v.  t.  &  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Kittened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Kittening.]  To  bring  forth  young,  as  a  cat;  to bring forth, as
   kittens. Shak. H. Spencer.


   Kit"ten*ish,   a.  Resembling  a  kitten;  playful;  as,  a  kittenish
   disposition. Richardson.


   Kit"ti*wake  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A northern gull (Rissa tridactyla),
   inhabiting  the  coasts of Europe and America. It is white, with black
   tips to the wings, and has but three toes.


   Kit"tle  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf.  Kit  a kitten.] (Zo\'94l.) To bring forth
   young, as a cat; to kitten; to litter. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]


   Kit"tle,  v.  t.  [Cf.  AS. citelian; akin to D. kittelen, G. kitzeln,
   Icel. kitla, Sw. kittla, kittsla, Dan. kildre. Cf. Tickle.] To tickle.
   [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] [Written also kittel.] Halliwell. Jamieson.


   Kit"tle,  a.  Ticklish;  not  easily  managed; troublesome; difficult;
   variable. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Halliwell. Sir W. Scott.


   Kit"tlish (?), a. Ticklish; kittle. Sir W. Scott.


   Kit*ty*sol" (?), n. [Sp. quitasol.] The Chinese paper parasol.


   Kive (?), n. A mash vat. See Keeve. [Obs.]


   Kiv"er  (?),  v.  t.  To  cover.  --  n.  A  cover. [Disused except in
   illiterate speech.]

                              Kivikivi, Kiwikiwi

   Ki`vi*ki"vi  (?),  Ki`wi*ki"wi  (?), n.; pl. Kivikivies (Kiwikiwies (.
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any species of Apteryx, esp. A. australis; -- so called in
   imitation of its notes. Called also kiwi. See Apteryx.

                              Kjoekken moeddings

   Kjoek"ken moed`dings (?). [Dan.] See Kitchen middens.


   Kla"maths  (?),  n. pl.; sing. Klamath (Ethnol.) A collective name for
   the Indians of several tribes formerly living along the Klamath river,
   in  California  and  Oregon,  but  now  restricted to a reservation at
   Klamath Lake; -- called also Clamets and Hamati.


   Kleene"boc`  (kl&emac;n"b&ocr;k`),  n.  [D.  kleen little, small + bok
   buck.] (Zo\'94l.) An antelope (Cerphalopus pygm\'91us), found in South
   Africa. It is of very small size, being but one foot high at shoulder.
   It  is  remarkable  for  its  activity,  and  for  its  mild and timid
   disposition. Called also guevi, and pygmy antelope.


   Klep`to*ma"ni*a (?), n. [Gr. mania.] A propensity to steal, claimed to
   be  irresistible.  This  does  not  constitute legal irresponsibility.


   Klep`to*ma"ni*ac (?), n. A person affected with kleptomania.


   Klick (?), n. & v. See Click.


   Klick"et  (?),  n.  [Cf. Clicket.] (Mil.) A small postern or gate in a
   palisade, for the passage of sallying parties. [Written also klinket.]


   Klink"stone` (?), n. See Clinkstone.


   Kli*nom"e*ter (?), n. See Clinometer.

                              Klipdas, Klipdachs

   Klip"das (?), Klip"dachs` (?), n. [D. klip cliff + das badger, akin to
   G.  dachs.] (Zo\'94l.) A small mammal (Hyrax Capensis), found in South
   Africa. It is of about the size of a rabbit, and closely resembles the
   daman. Called also rock rabbit.


   Klip"fish`  (?),  n.  Dried  cod,  exported from Norway. [Written also


   Klip"spring`er (?), n. [D., lit., cliff springer.] (Zo\'94l.) A small,
   graceful  South  African antelope (Nanotragus oreotragus), which, like
   the  chamois,  springs from one crag to another with great agility; --
   called also kainsi. [Written also klippspringer.]


   Kloof  (?),  n. [D. See Clove a cleft.] A glen; a ravine closed at its
   upper end. [South Africa]


   Klo`pe*ma"ni*a (?), n. [Gr. mania.] See Kleptomania.


   Knab  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Knabbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Knabbing.]
   [See Nab, v. t., and cf. Knap, v. t.]

   1.  To  seize  with  the  teeth;  to  gnaw.  "Knabbing crusts." [Obs.]

   2. To nab. See Nab, v. t. [Colloq.]


   Knab"ble (?), v. i. [Freq. of knab.] To bite or nibble. [Obs.]

     Horses will knabble at walls, and rats gnaw iron. Sir T. Browne.


   Knack  (?), v. i. [Prob. of imitative origin; cf. G. knacken to break,
   Dan. knage to crack, and E. knock.]

   1.  To  crack;  to make a sharp, abrupt noise to chink. [Obs. or Prov.
   Eng.] Bp. Hall.

   2. To speak affectedly. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Knack, n.

   1. A petty contrivance; a toy; a plaything; a knickknack.

     A knack, a toy, a trick, a baby's cap. Shak.

   2.  A  readiness  in  performance;  aptness at doing something; skill;
   facility; dexterity.

     The fellow . . . has not the knack with his shears. B. Jonson.

     The  dean was famous in his time, And had a kind of knack at rhyme.

   3.   Something  performed,  or  to  be  done,  requiring  aptness  and
   dexterity; a trick; a device. "The knacks of japers." Chaucer.

     For how should equal colors do the knack ! Pope.


   Knack"er (?), n.

   1. One who makes knickknacks, toys, etc. Mortimer.

   2.  One of two or more pieces of bone or wood held loosely between the
   fingers,  and  struck  together  by  moving  the  hand; -- called also
   clapper. Halliwell.


   Knack"er, n. [Cf. Icel.hnakkr a saddle.]

   1. a harness maker. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

   2.  One who slaughters worn-out horses and sells their flesh for dog's
   meat. [Eng.]


   Knack"ish,  a.  Trickish;  artful. [Obs.] -- Knack"ish*ness, n. [Obs.]
   Dr. H. More.


   Knack"-kneed` (?), a. See Knock-kneed.


   Knack"y (?), a. Having a knack; cunning; crafty; trickish. [Prov. Eng.
   & Scot.] Halliwell.


   Knag (?), n. [Cf. Prov. G. knagge a knot in wood, Sw. knagg, Dan. knag
   a hook to hand clothes on, a bracket; Gael. & Ir. cnag peg, knob.]

   1. A knot in wood; a protuberance. Wright.

   2. A wooden peg for hanging things on. Wright.

   3. The prong of an antler Holland.

   4. The rugged top of a hill. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Knag"ged (?), a. Full of knots; knaggy.


   Knag"gy  (?), a. Knotty; rough; figuratively, rough in temper. Fuller.
   -- Knag"gi*ness (#), n.


   Knap  (?),  n.  [AS.  cn\'91p,  cn\'91pp, top, knob, button; cf. Icel.
   knappr  knob, Sw. knapp, Dan. knap button, W., Gael., & Ir. cnap knob,
   button,  and  E.  knop.] A protuberance; a swelling; a knob; a button;
   hence, rising ground; a summit. See Knob, and Knop.

     The highest part and knap of the same island. Holland.


   Knap,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Knapped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Knapping.] [D.
   knappen  to  chew,  bite,  crack,  take  hold  of;  prob. of imitative

   1. To bite; to bite off; to break short. [Obs. or Prov. Eng. ]

     He will knap the spears apieces with his teeth. Dr. H. More.

     He  breaketh the bow, and knappeth the spear in sunder. Ps. xlvi. 9
     (Book of Common Prayer.)

   2. To strike smartly; to rap; to snap. Bacon.


   Knap, v. i. To make a sound of snapping. Wiseman.


   Knap, n. A sharp blow or slap. Halliwell.


   Knap"bot`tle (?), n. (Bot.) The bladder campion (Silene inflata).


   Knap"pish  (?),  a.  [See  Knap  to strike.] Snappish; peevish. [Obs.]


   Knap"ple  (?), v. i. [Freq. of knap, v., cf. D. knabbelen to gnaw.] To
   break  off  with  an abrupt, sharp noise; to bite; to nibble. [Obs. or
   Prov. Eng.]


   Knap"py  (?), a. Having knaps; full of protuberances or humps; knobby.
   [Obs.] Huloet.


   Knap"sack`  (?), n. [D. knapzak; knappen to eat + zak a bag. See Knap,
   v.  t.,  and  Sack.]  A case of canvas or leather, for carrying on the
   back a soldier's necessaries, or the clothing, etc., of a traveler.

     And  each  one fills his knapsack or his scrip With some rare thing
     that on the field is found. Drayton.


   Knap"weed`  (?), n. (Bot.) The black centaury (Centaurea nigra); -- so
   called from the knoblike heads of flowers. Called also bullweed.


   Knar (?), n. See Gnar. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Knar"l (?), n. A knot in wood. See Gnarl.


   Knarled (?), a. Knotted. See Gnarled.


   Knarred (?), a. Knotty; gnarled.

     The knarred and crooked cedar knees. Longfellow.


   Knar"ry (?), a. Knotty; gnarled. Chaucer.


   Knave (?), n. [OE., boy, servant, knave, AS. cnafa boy, youth; cf. AS.
   cnapa  boy,  youth, D. kna, G. knabe boy, knappe esquire, Icel. knapi,
   Sw. knape esquire, kn\'84fvel knave.]

   1. A boy; especially, a boy servant. [Obs.] Wyclif. Chaucer.

     O  murderous  slumber, Lay'st thou thy leaden mace upon my boy That
     plays thee music ? Gentle knave, good night. Shak.

   2. Any male servant; a menial. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     He's but Fortune's knave, A minister of her will. Shak.

   3. A tricky, deceitful fellow; a dishonest person; a rogue; a villain.
   "A pair of crafty knaves." Shak.

     In  defiance  of  demonstration,  knaves will continue to proselyte
     fools. Ames.

     NOTE: &hand; "H ow ma ny serving lads must have been unfaithful and
     dishonest  before  knave  -which meant at first no more than boy --
     acquired the meaning which it has now !"


   4.  A  playing  card marked with the figure of a servant or soldier; a
   Knave  child,  a  male  child. [Obs.] Chaucer. Syn. -- Villain; cheat;
   rascal; rogue; scoundrel; miscreant.


   Knav"er*y (?), n.; pl. Knaveries (.

   1.  The  practices  of  a  knave;  petty  villainy; fraud; trickery; a
   knavish action.

     This is flat knavery, to take upon you another man's name. Shak.

   2. pl. Roguish or mischievous tricks. Shak.


   Knave"ship,  n.  A  small due, in meal, established by usage, which is
   paid to the under miller. [Scot.]


   Knav"ess (?), n. A knavish woman. Carlyle.


   Knav"ish, a.

   1.  Like  or  characteristic  of  a knave; given to knavery; trickish;
   fraudulent;  dishonest; villainous; as, a knavish fellow, or a knavish
   trick. "Knavish politicians." Macaulay.

   2. Mischievous; roguish; waggish.

     Cupid is knavish lad, Thus to make poor females mad. Shak.


   Knav"ish*ly, adv.

   1. In a knavish manner; dishonestly; fraudulently. Holland.

   2. Mischievously; waggishly; roguishly. "Knavishly witty." Gayton.


   KNav"ish*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state of being knavish; knavery;


   Knaw (?), v. t. See Gnaw. [Obs.] Sir T. More.


   Knaw"el  (?),  n.  [Akin  to  G.  knauelk,  kn\'84uel,prop., a ball of
   thread,  coil.  Cf.  Clew.]  (Bot.) A low, spreading weed (Scleranthus
   annuus), common in sandy soil.


   Knead  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Kneaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Kneading.]
   [OE.  kneden,  As. cnedan; akin to D. kneden, G. kneten, Sw. kn, Icel.
   kno; cf. OSlav.gnesti.]

   1.  To  work  and  press into a mass, usually with the hands; esp., to
   work,  as  by  repeated  pressure with the knuckles, into a well mixed
   mass, as the materials of bread, cake, etc.; as, to knead dough.

     The  kneading, the making of the cake, the heating of the oven, and
     the baking. Shak.

   2. Fig.: To treat or form as by kneading; to beat.

     I will knead him : I'll make him supple. Shak.

   Kneading trough, a trough or tray in which dough is kneaded. Ex. viii.


   Knead"a*ble  (?), a. That may be kneaded; capable of being worked into
   a mass.


   Knead"er (?), n. One who kneads.


   Knead"ing*ly, adv. In the manner of one kneading.


   Kne"bel*ite  (?),  n.  [From  Major von Knebel.] (Min.) A mineral of a
   gray,  red,  brown,  or  green  color,  and glistening luster. It is a
   silicate of iron and manganese.


   Kneck  (?),  n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Naut.) The twisting of a rope or
   cable, as it is running out. [Eng.]


   Knee  (?), n. [OE. kne, cneo, As. cne\'a2, cne\'a2w; akin to OS. knio,
   kneo,  OFries.  kn\'c6, G. & D. knie, OHG. chniu, chneo, Icel. kn, Sw.
   kn\'84,Dan.   kn\'91,   Goth.   kniu,   L.genu,   Gr.   j\'benu,   Cf.

   1. In man, the joint in the middle part of the leg.

   2.  (Anat.)  (a)  The joint, or region of the joint, between the thigh
   and  leg.  (b)  In  the  horse  and  allied animals, the carpal joint,
   corresponding to the wrist in man.

   3.  (Mech.  &  Shipbuilding) A piece of timber or metal formed with an
   angle somewhat in the shape of the human knee when bent.

   4. A bending of the knee, as in respect or courtesy.

     Give them title, knee, and approbation. Shak.

   Knee  breeches.  See  under Breeches. -- Knee holly, Knee holm (Bot.),
   butcher's  broom. -- Knee jerk (Physiol.) a jerk or kick produced by a
   blow  or  sudden  strain  upon  the patellar tendon of the knee, which
   causes  a  sudden  contraction  of  the  quadriceps muscle; one of the
   so-called  tendon  reflexes.  -- Knee joint. See in the Vocabulary. --
   Knee  timber,  timber  with knees or angles in it. -- Knee tribute, or
   Knee  worship,  tribute  paid  by  kneeling;  worship by genuflection.
   [Obs.] "Knee tribute yet unpaid." Milton.
   Knee (?), v. t. To supplicate by kneeling. [Obs.] 

     Fall down, and knee The way into his mercy. Shak


   Knee"brush` (?), n.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) A tuft or brush of hair on the knees of some species of
   antelopes and other animals; -- chiefly used in the plural.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A thick mass or collection of hairs on the legs of bees,
   by  aid  of which they carry the collected pollen to the hive or nest;
   -- usually in the plural.


   Knee"cap` (?), n.

   1. (Anat.) The kneepan.

   2.  A  cap  or protection for the knee. <-- kneecap v. t. to break the
   knees  of, often by shooting in the kneecap. -- a method of punishment
   sometimes  used  by  criminal  organizations against people who offend
   them -->


   Knee"-crook`ing  (?), a. Obsequious; fawning; cringing. "Knee-crooking
   knave." Shak.


   Kneed (?), a.

   1.   Having   knees;-  used  chiefly  in  composition;  as,  in-kneed;
   out-kneed; weak-kneed.

   2. (Bot.) Geniculated; forming an obtuse angle at the joints, like the
   knee when a little bent; as, kneed grass.


   Knee"-deep` (?), a.

   1. Rising to the knees; knee-high; as, water or snow knee-deep.

     Grass knee-deep within a month. Milton.

   2. Sunk to the knees; as, men knee-deep in water.

     Where knee-deep the trees were standing. Longfellow.


   Knee"-high`  (?),  a.  Rising or reaching upward to the knees; as, the
   water is knee-high.


   Knee"joint` (?), n.

   1. The joint of the knee.

   2.  (Mach.)  A  toggle  joint;  -- so called because consisting of two
   pieces jointed to each other end to end, making an angle like the knee
   when bent.


   Knee"joint`ed, a. (Bot.) Geniculate; kneed. See Kneed, a., 2.


   Kneel  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Knelt (?) or Kneeled (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Kneeling.]  [OE.  knelen, cneolien; akin to D. knielen, Dan. kn\'91le.
   See  Knee.]  To  bend  the  knee;  to  fall  or  rest on the knees; --
   sometimes with down.

     And  he  kneeled  down,  and cried with a loud voice, Lord, lay not
     this sin to their charge. Acts vii. 60.

     As  soon  as you are dressed, kneel and say the Lord's Prayer. Jer.


   Kneel"er (?), n.

   1. One who kneels or who worships by or while kneeling. Tennyson.

   2. A cushion or stool to kneel on.

   3. (Eccl. Hist.) A name given to certain catechumens and penitents who
   were permitted to join only in parts of church worship.


   Kneel"ing*ly, adv. In a kneeling position.


   Knee"pan`  (?), n. (Anat.) A roundish, flattened, sesamoid bone in the
   tendon in front of the knee joint; the patella; the kneecap.


   Knee"piece`  (?), n. A piece shaped like a knee; as, the kneepieces or
   ears of a boat.


   Knell (?), n. [OE. knel, cnul, AS. cnyll, fr. cnyllan to sound a bell;
   cf. D. & G. knallen to clap, crack, G. & Sw. knall a clap, crack, loud
   sound,  Dan. knalde to clap, crack. Cf. Knoll, n. & v.] The stoke of a
   bell  tolled at a funeral or at the death of a person; a death signal;
   a  passing  bell;  hence,  figuratively,  a  warning  of,  or  a sound
   indicating, the passing away of anything.

     The dead man's knell Is there scarce asked for who. Shak.

     The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. Gray.


   Knell,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Knelled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Knelling.]
   [OE.  knellen,  knillen,  As.  cnyllan.  See  Knell, n.] To sound as a
   knell; especially, to toll at a death or funeral; hence, to sound as a
   warning or evil omen.

     Not worth a blessing nor a bell to knell for thee. Beau. & Fl.

     Yet all that poets sing, and grief hath known, Of hopes laid waste,
     knells in that word, "alone". Ld. Lytton.


   Knell, v. t. To summon, as by a knell.

     Each  matin  bell,  the  baron  saith, Knells us back to a world of
     death. Coleridge.


   Knelt (?), imp. & p. p. of Kneel.


   Knew (?), imp. of Know.


   Knick"er  (?),  n.  [D. knikker.] A small ball of clay, baked hard and
   oiled,  used  as  a  marble  by  boys in playing. [Prov. Eng. & U. S.]
   Halliwell. Bartlett. 


   Knick"er*bock`ers  (?), n. pl. The name for a style of short breeches;


   Knick"knack` (?), n. [See Knack.] A trifle or toy; a bawble; a gewgaw.


   Knick"knack`a*to*ry (?), n. A collection of knickknacks. Richardson.


   Knick"knack`er*y (?), n. Knickknacks.


   Knife  (?),  n.;  pl.  Knives  (#). [OE. knif, AS. cn\'c6f; akin to D.
   knijf, Icel. kn\'c6fr, Sw. knif, Dan. kniv.]

   1.  An  instrument  consisting  of  a thin blade, usually of steel and
   having  a  sharp  edge  for cutting, fastened to a handle, but of many
   different forms and names for different uses; as, table knife, drawing
   knife,  putty  knife,  pallet  knife,  pocketknife, penknife, chopping
   knife, etc. /as>.

   2. A sword or dagger.

     The coward conquest of a wretch's knife. Shak.

   Knife  grass  (Bot.)  a  tropical  American sedge (Scleria latifolia),
   having leaves with a very sharp and hard edge, like a knife. -- War to
   the knife, mortal combat; a conflict carried to the last extremity.


   Knife, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Knifed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Knifing (?).]

   1. (Hort.) To prune with the knife.

   2. To cut or stab with a knife. [Low]


   Knife"board` (?), n. A board on which knives are cleaned or polished.


   Knife"*edge`  (?),  n.  (Mech.) A piece of steel sharpened to an acute
   edge or angle, and resting on a smooth surface, serving as the axis of
   motion of a pendulum, scale beam, or other piece required to oscillate
   with  the  least  possible  friction.  Knife-edge file. See Illust. of
   Knight (?), n. [OE. knight, cniht, knight, soldier, As. cniht, cneoht,
   a  boy,  youth,  attendant,  military follower; akin to D. & G. knecht
   servant; perh. akin to E. kin.] 

   1. A young servant or follower; a military attendant. [Obs.]

   2.  (a)  In  feudal  times,  a  man-at-arms  serving  on horseback and
   admitted to a certain military rank with special ceremonies, including
   an  oath  to  protect  the  distressed, maintain the right, and live a
   stainless  life. (b) One on whom knighthood, a dignity next below that
   of  baronet,  is  conferred  by  the  sovereign,  entitling  him to be
   addressed  as  Sir;  as,  Sir  John.  [Eng.]  Hence: (c) A champion; a
   partisan;  a  lover.  "Give this ring to my true knight." Shak "In all
   your quarrels will I be your knight." Tennyson.

     Knights, by their oaths, should right poor ladies' harms. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rmerly, wh en a knight's name was not known, it was
     customary to address him as Sir Knight. The rank of a knight is not

   3. A piece used in the game of chess, usually bearing a horse's head.

   4.  A  playing card bearing the figure of a knight; the knave or jack.
   Carpet  knight. See under Carpet. -- Knight of industry. See Chevalier
   d'industrie,  under  Chevalier.  -- Knight of Malta, Knight of Rhodes,
   Knight  of  St.  John  of  Jerusalem. See Hospitaler. -- Knight of the
   post, one who gained his living by giving false evidence on trials, or
   false bail; hence, a sharper in general. Nares. "A knight of the post,
   .  .  .  quoth  he,  for  so I am termed; a fellow that will swear you
   anything  for  twelve  pence."  --  Nash.  --  Knight of the shire, in
   England,  one  of  the  representatives  of a county in Parliament, in
   distinction  from  the  representatives  of  cities  and  boroughs. --
   Knights  commanders,  Knights  grand  cross,  different classes of the
   Order  of the Bath. See under Bath, and Companion. Knights of labor, a
   secret  organization whose professed purpose is to secure and maintain
   the  rights  of  workingmen  as  respects  their  relations  to  their
   employers.  [U.  S.] -- Knights of Pythias, a secret order, founded in
   Washington,  d.C.,  in  1864,  for  social and charitable purposes. --
   Knights  of  the  Round  Table,  knights  belonging to an order which,
   according  to  the  legendary accounts, was instituted by the mythical
   King  Arthur.  They  derived  their common title from the table around
   which they sat on certain solemn days. Brande & C.


   Knight,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Knighted; p. pr. & vb. n. Knighting.] To
   dub  or  create  (one)  a  knight; -- done in England by the sovereign
   only,  who taps the kneeling candidate with a sword, saying: Rise, Sir

     A  soldier,  by  the  honor-giving  hand Of Cknighted in the field.


   Knight"age (?), n. To body of knights, taken collectively.

                                Knight bachelor

   Knight"  bach"e*lor (?); pl. Knights bachelors (. A knight of the most
   ancient, but lowest, order of English knights, and not a member of any
   order of chivalry. See Bachelor, 4.

                                Knight banneret

   Knight"  ban"ner*et (?); pl. Knights bannerets. A knight who carried a
   banner,  who  possessed  fiefs  to  a  greater  amount than the knight
   bachelor, and who was obliged to serve in war with a greater number of
   attendants.  The  dignity  was sometimes conferred by the sovereign in
   person on the field of battle.

                                Knight baro-net

   Knight" bar"o-net (?). See Baronet.


   Knight"-er`rant  (?),  n.;  pl.  Knight-errants,  or Knights-errant. A
   wandering  knight;  a knight who traveled in search of adventures, for
   the purpose of exhibiting military skill, prowess, and generosity.


   Knight"-er`rant*ry  (?), n.; pl. Knight-errantries (. The character or
   actions  of  wandering  knights; the practice of wandering in quest of
   adventures;  chivalry; a quixotic or romantic adventure or scheme. <--
   #  in original, the "pl." mark is absent, and is added for consistency
   with other entries. -->

     The rigid guardian [i. e., conscience] of a blameless heart Is weak
     with rank knight-erratries o'errun. Young.


   Knight"-er-rat"ic   (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  a  knight-errant  or  to
   knight-errantry. [R.] Quart. Rev.


   Knight"head` (?), n. (Naut.) A bollard timber. See under Bollard.


   Knight"hood (?), n. [Knight + hood: cf. AS. chihth\'bed youth.]

   1.  The character, dignity, or condition of a knight, or of knights as
   a class; hence, chivalry. "O shame to knighthood." Shak.

     If  you  needs must write, write C\'91sar's praise; You 'll gain at
     least a knighthood, or the bays. Pope.

   2. The whole body of knights.

     The  knighthood  nowadays  are  nothing  like the knighthood of old
     time. Chapman.

     NOTE: &hand; "W hen the order of knighthood was conferred with full
     solemnity  in  the  leisure  of  a court or court or city, imposing
     preliminary  ceremonies were required of the candidate. He prepared
     himself  by  prayer  and  fasting,  watched  his arms at night in a
     chapel,  and  was  then  admitted with the performance of religious
     rites.  Knighthood  was  conferred by the accolade, which, from the
     derivation  of  the  name,  would appear to have been originally an
     embrace;  but  afterward  consisted, as it still does, in a blow of
     the flat of a sword on the back of the kneeling candidate."

   Brande & C.


   Knight"less,  a.  Unbecoming  a  knight.  [Obs.]  "Knightless  guile."


   Knight"li*ness (?), n. The character or bearing suitable for a knight;
   chivalry. Spenser.


   Knight`ly,  a.  [AS.  cnihtlic  boyish.] Of or pertaining to a knight;
   becoming  a  knight;  chivalrous;  as,  a  knightly combat; a knightly

     For knightly jousts and fierce encounters fit. Spenser.

     [Excuses] full knightly without scorn. Tennyson.


   Knight"ly, adv. In a manner becoming a knight.

     And why thou comest thus knightly clad in arms. Shak.

                                Knight marshal

   Knight"  mar"shal  (?).  (Eng. Law) An officer in the household of the
   British  sovereign,  who  has  cognizance of transgressions within the
   royal  household  and  verge, and of contracts made there, a member of
   the household being one of the parties. Wharton.

                                Knight service

   Knight"  serv"ice  (?).  (Eng.  Feud.  Law)  A tenure of lands held by
   knights on condition of performing military service. See Chivalry, n.,

                                Knight Templar

   Knight"  Tem"plar  (?); pl. Knights Templars (. See Commandery, n., 3,
   and also Templar, n., 1 and 3.


   Knit  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Knit or Knitted; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Knitting.]  [OE.  knitten, knutten, As. cnyttan, fr. cnotta knot; akin
   to Icel. kn, Sw. knyta, Dan. knytte. See Knot.]

   1.  To  form  into a knot, or into knots; to tie together, as cord; to
   fasten by tying.

     A great sheet knit at the four corners. Acts x. 11.

     When  your  head  did  but  ache,  I knit my handkercher about your
     brows. Shak.

   2.  To form, as a textile fabric, by the interlacing of yarn or thread
   in a series of connected loops, by means of needles, either by hand or
   by machinery; as, to knit stockings.

   3. To join; to cause to grow together.

     Nature  can  not  knit  the  bones  while  the  parts  are  under a
     discharge. Wiseman.

   4.  To  unite closely; to connect; to engage; as, hearts knit together
   in love.

     Thy merit hath my duty strongly knit. Shak.

     Come , knit hands, and beat the ground, In a light fantastic round.

     A  link  among  the  days,  toknit  The  generations  each to each.

   5. To draw together; to contract into wrinkles.

     knits his brow and shows an angry eye. Shak.


   Knit, v. i.

   1.  To form a fabric by interlacing yarn or thread; to weave by making
   knots or loops.

   2.  To  be  united closely; to grow together; as, broken bones will in
   time knit and become sound.
   To knit up, to wind up; to conclude; to come to a close. "It remaineth
   to  knit  up  briefly with the nature and compass of the seas." [Obs.]
   Knit, n. Union knitting; texture. Shak. 


   Knit"back` (?), n. (Bot.) The plant comfrey; -- so called from its use
   as a restorative. Dr. Prier.

                               Knitch, Knitchet

   Knitch  (?),  Knitch"et (?), n. [Cf. Knit.] A number of things tied or
   knit together; a bundle; a fagot. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

     When  they  [stems  of asphodel] be dried, they ought to be made up
     into knitchets, or handfuls. Holland.


   Knits  (?),  n.  pl.  [Prob. same word as nit a louse's egg.] (Mining)
   Small particles of ore. Raymond.


   Knit"ster (?), n. A woman who knits. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Knit"ter  (?),  n.  One who, or that which, knits, joins, or unites; a
   knitting machine. Shak.


   Knit"ting (?), n.

   1. The work of a knitter; the network formed by knitting.

   2. Union formed by knitting, as of bones.
   Knitting  machine,  one  of  a number of contrivances for mechanically
   knitting  stockings, jerseys, and the like. -- Knitting , a stiff rod,
   as  of steel wire, with rounded ends for knitting yarn or threads into
   a fabric, as in stockings. -- Knitting sheath, a sheath to receive the
   end of a needle in knitting.


   Knit"tle (?), n. [From Knit.]

   1. A string that draws together a purse or bag. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.

   2. pl. (Naut.) See Nettles.


   Knives (?), n. pl. of Knife. See Knife.


   Knob (?), n. [A modification of knop. Cf. Nob.]

   1.  A  hard  protuberance; a hard swelling or rising; a bunch; a lump;
   as, a knob in the flesh, or on a bone.

   2.  A  knoblike  ornament  or handle; as, the knob of a lock, door, or
   drawer. Chaucer.

   3. A rounded hill or mountain; as, the Pilot Knob. [U. S.] Bartlett.

   4. (Arch.) See Knop.
   Knob  latch,  a latch which can be operated by turning a knob, without
   using a key.


   Knob,  v.  i. To grow into knobs or bunches; to become knobbed. [Obs.]


   Knobbed  (?), a. Containing knobs; full of knobs; ending in a nob. See
   Illust of Antenna.

     The  horns  of  a roe deer of Greenland are pointed at the top, and
     knobbed or tuberous at the bottom. Grew.


   Knob"ber (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Knobbler.


   Knob"bing  (?),  n.  (Stone  Quarrying) Rough dressing by knocking off
   knobs or projections.


   Knob"bler,  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The hart in its second year; a young deer.
   [Written also knobber.] Halliwell.

     He  has  hallooed  the hounds upon a velvet-headed knobbler. Sir W.

                                Knobbling fire

   Knob"bling fire (?). A bloomery fire. See Bloomery.


   Knob"by, a. [From Knob.]

   1. Full of, or covered with, knobs or hard protuberances. Dr. H. More.

   2. Irregular; stubborn in particulars. [Obs.]

     The informers continued in a knobby kind of obstinacy. Howell.

   3. Abounding in rounded hills or mountains; hilly. [U.S.] Bartlett.


   Knob"stick`  (?),  n.  One  who  refuses to join, or withdraws from, a
   trades union. [Cant, Eng.]


   Knock (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Knocked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Knocking.]
   [OE.  knoken, AS. cnocian, cnucian; prob. of imitative origin; cf. Sw.
   knacka.Cf. Knack.]

   1.  To  drive  or  be  driven  against  something;  to  strike against
   something; to clash; as, one heavy body knocks against another. Bacon.

   2.  To  strike  or  beat  with something hard or heavy; to rap; as, to
   knock with a club; to knock on the door.

     For harbor at a thousand doors they knocked. Dryden.

     Seek,  and  ye  shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.
     Matt. vii. 7.

   To  knock  about, to go about, taking knocks or rough usage; to wander
   about;  to  saunter. [Colloq.] "Knocking about town." W. Irving. -- To
   knock  up, to fail of strength; to become wearied or worn out, as with
   labor;  to  give out. "The horses were beginning to knock up under the
   fatigue  of  such severe service." De Quincey.<-- (b) to make pregnant
   (vulgar) --> -- To knock off, to cease, as from work; to desist. -- To
   knock under, to yield; to submit; to acknowledge one's self conquered;
   -- an expression probably borrowed from the practice of knocking under
   the  table  with the knuckles, when conquered. "Colonel Esmond knocked
   under to his fate." Thackeray.
   Knock (?), v. t.
   1.  To  strike  with  something hard or heavy; to move by striking; to
   drive  (a thing) against something; as, to knock a ball with a bat; to
   knock the head against a post; to knock a lamp off the table.
     When heroes knock their knotty heads together. Rowe.
   2. To strike for admittance; to rap upon, as a door.

     Master, knock the door hard. Shak.

   To  knock down. (a) To strike down; to fell; to prostrate by a blow or
   by blows; as, to knock down an assailant. (b) To assign to a bidder at
   an auction, by a blow or knock; to knock off. -- To knock in the head,
   OR on the head, to stun or kill by a blow upon the head; hence, to put
   am  end to; to defeat, as a scheme or project; to frustrate; to quash.
   [Colloq.]  --  To knock off. (a) To force off by a blow or by beating.
   (b) To assign to a bidder at an auction, by a blow on the counter. (c)
   To  leave off (work, etc.). [Colloq.] -- To knock out, to force out by
   a  blow  or by blows; as, to knock out the brains. -- To knock up. (a)
   To arouse by knocking. (b) To beat or tire out; to fatigue till unable
   to  do  more; as, the men were entirely knocked up. [Colloq.] "The day
   being  exceedingly hot, the want of food had knocked up my followers."
   Petherick.  (c)  (Bookbinding)  To make even at the edges, or to shape
   into  book  form, as printed sheets.<-- (d) To make pregnant. [vulgar:
   Often used in passive, "she got knocked up"] --> <-- [MW10]: Knock off
   (a)  v.  i.  and t. to quit (working). (b) accomplish, frequently used
   when  the task is accomplished rapidly. (c) (Coll.) to kill; to defeat
   (opponents). (d) to discount, to deduct (a sum from a price). (d) rob.
   (also "knock over") (e) to make a knockoff of; copy, imitate.-->
   Knock, n.
   1. A blow; a stroke with something hard or heavy; a jar.
   2.  A  stroke,  as  on  a door for admittance; a rap. " A knock at the
   door." Longfellow.
     A loud cry or some great knock. Holland.

   Knock  off,  a  device  in a knitting machine to remove loops from the


   Knock"down`  (?), n. A felling by a knock, as of a combatant, or of an


   Knock"down`,  a.  Of force sufficient to fell or completely overthrow;
   as, a knockdown blow; a knockdown argument. [Colloq.]


   Knock"er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or that which, knocks; specifically, an
   instrument,  or  kind  of  hammer,  fastened  to a door, to be used in
   seeking for admittance.

     Shut,  shut  the  door,  good John ! fatigued, <-I said; Tie up the
     knocker; say I'm sick, I'm dead. Pope.


   Knock"ing, n. A beating; a rap; a series of raps.

     The  .  .  .  repeated knockings of the head upon the ground by the
     Chinese worshiper. H. Spencer.


   Knock"ings  (?),  n. pl. (Mining) Large lumps picked out of the sieve,
   in dressing ore.


   Knock"-knee` (?), n. (Med.) A condition in which the knees are bent in
   so as to touch each other in walking; inknee.


   Knock"-kneed`  (?),  a.  Having the legs bent inward so that the knees
   touch  in  walking.  [Written also knack-kneed.] <-- knockoff. a cheap
   imitation  of  something  popular,  often  produced  illegally  and of
   inferior materials. -->


   Knock"stone` (?), n. (Mining) A block upon which ore is broken up.


   Knoll  (?),  n.  [AS.  cnoll;  akin to G. knolle, knollen, clod, lump,
   knob,  bunch,  OD.  knolle  ball,  bunch,  Sw. kn\'94l, Dan. knold.] A
   little  round  hill;  a  mound; a small elevation of earth; the top or
   crown of a hill.

     On  knoll  or  hillock  rears his crest, Lonely and huge, the giant
     oak. Sir W. Scott.


   Knoll (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Knolled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Knolling.]
   [OE. knollen, AS. cnyllan. See Knell.] To ring, as a bell; to strike a
   knell  upon;  to toll; to proclaim, or summon, by ringing. "Knolled to
   church." Shak.

     Heavy clocks knolling the drowsy hours. Tennyson.


   Knoll, v. i. To sound, as a bell; to knell. Shak.

     For  a  departed  being's soul The death hymn peals, and the hollow
     bells knoll. Byron.


   Knoll, n. The tolling of a bell; a knell. [R.] Byron.


   Knoll"er, n. One who tolls a bell. [Obs.] Sherwood.


   Knop  (?),  n.  [OE.  knop,  knoppe; cf. D.knop, knoop, G. knopf, Dan.
   knap,  knop, Sw. knapp, knopp, button, bud, Icel. knappr, and E. knap,
   n. Cf. Knap, Knob.]

   1. A knob; a bud; a bunch; a button.

     Four  bowls  made  like  unto  almonds,  with their knops and their
     flowers. Ex. xxv. 21.

   2.  (Arch.)  Any  boldly  projecting  sculptured  ornament;  esp., the
   ornamental termination of a pinnacle, and then synonymous with finial;
   -- called also knob, and knosp.
   Knop  sedge  (Bot.),  the bur reed (Sparganium); -- so called from its
   globular clusters of seed vessels. Prior.


   Knopped  (?),  a.  Having  knops  or  knobs; fastened as with buttons.
   [Obs.] Rom. of R.


   Knop"pern  (?),  n.  [Cf.  G. knopper. See Knop.] (Zo\'94l.) A kind of
   gall  produced by a gallfly on the cup of an acorn, -- used in tanning
   and dyeing.


   Knop"weed` (?), n. Same as Knapweed.


   Knor (?), n. See Knur. [Obs.]


   Knosp  (?),  n.  [Cf.  G.  knospe bud, E. knop, knar.] (Arch.) Same as
   Knop,2. Milman.


   Knot  (?),  n.  [OE.  knot,  knotte, AS. cnotta; akin to D. knot, OHG.
   chnodo,  chnoto,  G. knoten, Icel. kn, Sw. knut, Dan. knude, and perh.
   to L. nodus. Cf. Knout, Knit.]

   1.  (a)  A  fastening  together  of  the  pars  or ends of one or more
   threads,  cords,  ropes,  etc., by any one of various ways of tying or
   entangling.  (b)  A lump or loop formed in a thread, cord, rope. etc.,
   as  at  the  end,  by  tying  or  interweaving  it upon itself. (c) An
   ornamental tie, as of a ribbon.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na mes of  kn ots vary according to the manner of
     their  making, or the use for which they are intended; as, dowknot,
     reef knot, stopper knot, diamond knot, etc.

   2. A bond of union; a connection; a tie. "With nuptial knot." Shak.

     Ere we knit the knot that can never be loosed. Bp. Hall.

   3.  Something  not  easily  solved;  an  intricacy;  a  difficulty;  a
   perplexity; a problem.

     Knots worthy of solution. Cowper.

     A  man shall be perplexed with knots, and problems of business, and
     contrary affairs. South.

   4.  A  figure  the  lines  of  which  are  interlaced  or  intricately
   interwoven, as in embroidery, gardening, etc. "Garden knots." Bacon.

     Flowers worthy of paradise, which, not nice art In beds and curious
     knots,  but nature boon Poured forth profuse on hill, and dale, and
     plain. Milton.

   5.  A  cluster  of persons or things; a collection; a group; a hand; a
   clique; as, a knot of politicians. "Knots of talk." Tennyson.

     His ancient knot of dangerous adversaries. Shak.

     Palms in cluster, knots of Paradise. Tennyson.

     As  they  sat  together  in  small,  separate knots, they discussed
     doctrinal and metaphysical points of belief. Sir W. Scott. 

   6.  A  portion  of a branch of a tree that forms a mass of woody fiber
   running at an angle with the grain of the main stock and making a hard
   place  in  the timber. A loose knot is generally the remains of a dead
   branch of a tree covered by later woody growth.

   7. A knob, lump, swelling, or protuberance.

     With  lips  serenely  placid,  felt  the  knot Climb in her throat.

   8. A protuberant joint in a plant.

   9.  The  point  on  which the action of a story depends; the gist of a
   matter. [Obs.]

     I  shoulde  to the knotte condescend, And maken of her walking soon
     an end. Chaucer.

   10. (Mech.) See Node.

   11.  (Naut.)  (a)  A  division of the log line, serving to measure the
   rate  of  the  vessel's  motion.  Each knot on the line bears the same
   proportion  to a mile that thirty seconds do to an hour. The number of
   knots  which  run off from the reel in half a minute, therefore, shows
   the number of miles the vessel sails in an hour. Hence: (b) A nautical
   mile,  or  6080.27 feet; as, when a ship goes eight miles an hour, her
   speed is said to be eight knots.

   12. A kind of epaulet. See Shoulder knot.

   13.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  sandpiper  (Tringa canutus), found in the northern
   parts  of  all the continents, in summer. It is grayish or ashy above,
   with  the  rump  and  upper tail coverts white, barred with dusky. The
   lower  parts  are  pale  brown, with the flanks and under tail coverts
   white. When fat it is prized by epicures. Called also dunne.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e name is said to be derived from King Canute, this
     bird being a favorite article of food with him.

     The  knot  that called was Canutus' bird of old, Of that great king
     of Danes his name that still doth hold, His appetite to please that
     far and near was sought. Drayton.


   Knot, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Knotted; p. pr. & vb. n. Knotting.]

   1.  To  tie  in or with, or form into, a knot or knots; to form a knot
   on, as a rope; to entangle. "Knotted curls." Drayton.

     As tight as I could knot the noose. Tennyson.

   2. To unite closely; to knit together. Bacon.

   3. To entangle or perplex; to puzzle. [Obs. or R.]


   Knot, v. i.

   1.  To  form  knots  or joints, as in a cord, a plant, etc.; to become

     Cut hay when it begins to knot. Mortimer.

   2. To knit knots for fringe or trimming.

   3. To copulate; -- said of toads. [R.] Shak.


   Knot"ber`ry (?), n. (Bot.) The cloudberry (Rudus Cham\'91morus); -- so
   called from its knotted stems.


   Knot"grass`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  (a)  a  common  weed with jointed stems
   (Polygonum aviculare); knotweed. (b) The dog grass. See under Dog.

     NOTE: &hand; An  in fusion of Polygonum aviculare was once supposed
     to  have  the effect of stopping the growth of an animal, and hence
     it was called, as by Shakespeare, "hindering knotgrass."

     We  want  a  boy extremely for this function, Kept under for a year
     with milk and knotgrass. Beau. & Fl.


   Knot"less,  a.  Free  from  knots;  without  knots.  "Silver firs with
   knotless trunks." Congreve.


   Knot"ted (?), a.

   1.  Full  of  knots;  having  knots  knurled;  as, a knotted cord; the
   knotted oak. Dryden.

   2. Interwoven; matted; entangled.

     Make . . . thy knotted and combined locks to part. Shak.

   3. Having intersecting lines or figures.

     The west corner of thy curious knotted garden. Shak.

   4.  (Geol.)  Characterized by small, detached points, chiefly composed
   of  mica,  less  decomposable  than  the mass of the rock, and forming
   knots in relief on the weathered surface; as, knotted rocks. Percival.

   5. Entangled; puzzling; knotty. [R.]

     They're catched in knotted lawlike nets. Hudibras.


   Knot"ti*ness (?), n. [From Knotty.]

   1. The quality or state of being knotty or full of knots.

   2.  Difficulty  of  solution; intricacy; complication. " Knottiness of
   his style." Hare.


   Knot"ty (?), a. [Compar. Knottier (?); superl. Knottiest.]

   1.  Full  of  knots;  knotted; having many knots; as, knotty timber; a
   knotty rope.

   2. Hard; rugged; as, a knotty head.[R.] Rewe.

   3. Difficult; intricate; perplexed.

     A knotty point to which we now proceed Pope.


   Knot"weed" (?), n. (Bot.) See Knot.


   Knot"wort  (?),  n. (Bot.) A small, herbaceous, trailing plant, of the
   genus Illecebrum (I. verticillatum.)


   Knout (nout OR n??t), n. [Russ. knut'; prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Sw.
   knut  knot,  knout,  Icel. kn knot: cf. F. knout. See Knot.] A kind of
   whip for flogging criminals, formerly much used in Russia. The last is
   a tapering bundle of leather thongs twisted with wire and hardened, so
   that it mangles the flesh.


   Knout, v. t. To punish with the knout Brougham.


   Know (?), n. Knee. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Know  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  Knew  (?); p. p. Known (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Knowing.]  [OE.  knowen, knawen, AS. cn\'84wan; akin to OHG. chn\'84an
   (in comp.), Icel. kn\'84 to be able, Russ, znate to know, L. gnoscere,
   noscere,  Gr.  jn; fr. the root of E. can, v. i., ken. (Ken, Can to be
   able, and cf. Acquaint, Cognition, Gnome, Ignore, Noble, Note.]

   1.  To  perceive or apprehend clearly and certainly; to understand; to
   have full information of; as, to know one's duty.

     O,  that  a  man  might  know The end of this day's business ere it
     come! Shak.

     There is a certainty in the proposition, and we know it. Dryden.

     Know how sublime a thing it is To suffer and be strong. Longfellow.

   2.  To  be  convinced  of the truth of; to be fully assured of; as, to
   know things from information.

   3.  To  be  acquainted  with; to be no stranger to; to be more or less
   familiar  with  the person, character, etc., of; to possess experience
   of; as, to know an author; to know the rules of an organization.

     He hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin. 2 Cor. v. 21.

     Not to know me argues yourselves unknown. Milton.

   4.  To  recognize; to distinguish; to discern the character of; as, to
   know a person's face or figure.

     Ye shall know them by their fruits. Matt. vil. 16. 

     And their eyes were opened, and they knew him. Luke xxiv. 31.

     To know Faithful friend from flattering foe. Shak.

     At nearer view he thought he knew the dead. Flatman.

   5. To have sexual commerce with.

     And Adam knew Eve his wife. Gen. iv. 1.

     NOTE: &hand; Kn ow is  of ten fo llowed by  an  ob jective an d an 
     infinitive  (with  or  without  to)  or  a  participle, a dependent
     sentence, etc.

     And I knew that thou hearest me always. John xi. 42.

     The monk he instantly knew to be the prior. Sir W. Scott.

     In other hands I have known money do good. Dickens.

   To  know  how,  to  understand  the  manner,  way,  or  means; to have
   requisite  information,  intelligence,  or  sagacity. How is sometimes
   omitted. " If we fear to die, or know not to be patient." Jer. Taylor.
   Know, v. i.
   1.  To  have  knowledge;  to  have  a clear and certain perception; to
   possess wisdom, instruction, or information; -- often with of.
     Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider. Is. i. 3.
     If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether
     it be of God, or whether I speak of myself. John vii. 17.

     The  peasant  folklore  of Europe still knows of willows that bleed
     and weep and speak when hewn. Tylor.

   2. To be assured; to feel confident.
   To  know  of,to  ask, to inquire. [Obs.] " Know of your youth, examine
   well your blood." Shak.
   Know"a*ble  (?),  a.  That  may be known; capable of being discovered,
   understood, or ascertained. 

     Thus  mind and matter, as known or knowable, are only two different
     series of phenomena or qualities. Sir W. Hamilton. 

                                 Knowa bleness

   Know"a* ble*ness, n. The state or quality of being knowable. Locke.


   Know"-all`  (?),  n.  One  who  knows everything; hence, one who makes
   pretension  to  great  knowledge;  a  wiseacre;  --  usually ironical.
   [Colloq. or R.]<-- = know-it-all -->


   Know"er (?), n. One who knows. Shak.


   Know"ing, a.

   1.  Skilful;  well informed; intelligent; as, a knowing man; a knowing

     The knowing and intelligent part of the world. South.

   2. Artful; cunning; as, a knowing rascal. [Colloq.]


   Know"ing, n. Knowledge; hence, experience. " In my knowing." Shak.

     This sore night Hath trifled former knowings. Shak.


   Know"ing*ly, adv.

   1.  With  knowledge;  in a knowing manner; intelligently; consciously;
   deliberately; as, he would not knowingly offend. Strype.

   2. By experience. [Obs.] Shak.


   Know"ing*ness,   n.   The   state  or  quality  of  being  knowing  or
   intelligent; shrewdness; skillfulness.


   Knowl"eche (?), n. & v. [Obs.] See Knowl, edge.

     We consider and knowleche that we have offended. Chaucer.

   Page 819


   Knowl"ech*ing (?), n. Knowledge. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Knowl"edge  (?), n. [OE. knowlage, knowlege, knowleche, knawleche. The
   last  part  is  the Icel. suffix -leikr, forming abstract nouns, orig.
   the  same  as Icel. leikr game, play, sport, akin to AS. l\'bec, Goth.
   laiks dance. See Know, and cf. Lake, v. i., Lark a frolic.]

   1.  The  act  or state of knowing; clear perception of fact, truth, or
   duty; certain apprehension; familiar cognizance; cognition.

     Knowledge,   which   is  the  highest  degree  of  the  speculative
     faculties,  consists  in the perception of the truth of affirmative
     or negative propositions. Locke.

   2.  That  which is or may be known; the object of an act of knowing; a
   cognition; -- chiefly used in the plural.

     There  is  a  great  difference in the delivery of the mathematics,
     which are the most abstracted of knowledges. Bacon.

     Knowledges  is  a  term  in  frequent use by Bacon, and, though now
     obsolete,  should  be  revived,  as  without it we are compelled to
     borrow "cognitions" to express its import. Sir W. Hamilton.

     To  use  a  word  of  Bacon's,  now unfortunately obsolete, we must
     determine the relative value of knowledges. H. Spencer.

   3.  That  which  is  gained  and  preserved  by  knowing; instruction;
   acquaintance; enlightenment; learning; scholarship; erudition.

     Knowledge puffeth up, but charity edifieth. 1 Cor. viii. 1.

     Ignorance  is  the curse of God; - Knowledge, the wing wherewith we
     fly to heaven. Shak.

   4.  That  familiarity  which is gained by actual experience; practical
   skill; as, a knowledge of life.

     Shipmen that had knowledge of the sea. 1 Kings ix. 27.

   5. Scope of information; cognizance; notice; as, it has not come to my

     Why  have  I  found  grace  in  thine eyes, that thou shouldst take
     knowledge of me? Ruth ii. 10.

   6.  Sexual  intercourse;  --  usually  preceded  by carnal; as, carnal
   knowledge. Syn. -- See Wisdom.


   Knowl"edge,  v.  t.  To  acknowledge.  [Obs.] "Sinners which knowledge
   their sins." Tyndale.


   Known (?), p. p. of Know.


   Know"-noth`ing  (?), n. A member of a secret political organization in
   the United States, the chief objects of which were the proscription of
   foreigners by the repeal of the naturalization laws, and the exclusive
   choice of native Americans for office.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e pa rty or iginated in 1853, and existed for about
     three  years.  The members of it were called Know-nothings, because
     they  replied  "I  don't  know,"  to  any  questions  asked them in
     reference to the party.


   Know"-noth`ing*ism (?), n. The doctrines, principles, or practices, of
   the Know-nothings.


   Knubs  (?), n. pl. Waste silk formed in winding off the threads from a


   Knuc"kle  (?), n. [OE. knokel, knokil, AS. cuncel; akin to D. knokkel,
   OFries.  knokele,  knokle,  G. kn\'94chel, Sw. knoge, Dan. knokkel, G.
   knochen bone, and perh. to E. knock.]

   1.  The  joint  of  a  finger, particularly when made prominent by the
   closing of the fingers. Davenant.

   2.  The  kneejoint,  or  middle  joint,  of either leg of a quadruped,
   especially  of  a  calf;  -- formerly used of the kneejoint of a human

     With weary knuckles on thy brim she kneeled sadly down. Golding.

   3. The joint of a plant. [Obs.] Bacon.

   4.  (Mech.) The joining pars of a hinge through which the pin or rivet
   passes; a knuckle joint.

   5. (Shipbuilding) A convex portion of a vessel's figure where a sudden
   change  of  shape  occurs, as in a canal boat, where a nearly vertical
   side joins a nearly flat bottom.

   6. A contrivance, usually of brass or iron, and furnished with points,
   worn to protect the hand, to add force to a blow, and to disfigure the
   person  struck;  as,  brass  knuckles;  -- called also knuckle duster.
   Knuckle  joint  (Mach.),  a hinge joint, in which a projection with an
   eye,  on one piece, enters a jaw between two corresponding projections
   with  eyes,  on  another  piece, and is retained by a pin which passes
   through  the  eyes  and forms the pivot. -- Knuckle of veal (Cookery),
   the  lower  part  of  a  leg of veal, from the line of the body to the


   Knuc"kle, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Knuckled (?);; p. pr. & vb. n. Knuckling
   (?).] To yield; to submit; -- used with down, to, or under. To knuckle
   to. (a) To submit to in a contest; to yield to. [Colloq.] See To knock
   under,  under  Knock,  v.  i.  (b)  To  apply one's self vigorously or
   earnestly to; as, to knuckle to work. [Colloq.]


   Knuc"kle,  v.  t.  To  beat  with the knuckles; to pommel. [R.] Horace


   Knuc"kled (?), a. Jointed. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Knuff (?), n. [Cf. Cnof a churl.] A lout; a clown. [Obs.]

     The  country  knuffs,  Hob,  Dick, and Hick, With clubs and clouted
     shoon. Hayward.


   Knur, n. [See Knurl.] A knurl. Woodward.


   Knurl  (?),  n.  [See  Knar,  Gnar.]  A  contorted  knot  in  wood;  a
   crossgrained protuberance; a nodule; a boss or projection.

   2. One who, or that which, is crossgrained.


   Knurl  (?),  v.  t. To provide with ridges, to assist the grasp, as in
   the edge of a flat knob, or coin; to mill.


   Knurled (?), a.

   1. Full of knots; gnarled.

   2. Milled, as the head of a screw, or the edge of a coin.


   Knurl"y  (?),  [Compar. Knurlier (; superl. Knurliest.] [See Knur, and
   cf. Gnarly.] Full of knots; hard; tough; hence, capable of enduring or
   resisting much.


   Knur"ry (?), a. Full of knots. [Obs.] Drayton.


   Ko*ai"ta (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Coaita.


   Ko*a"la  (?),  n. A tailless marsupial (Phascolarctos cinereus), found
   in  Australia.  The  female carries her young on the back of her neck.
   Called  also  Australian  bear, native bear, and native sloth. <-- and
   koala bear. -->

                                   Kob, Koba

   Kob  (?),  Ko"ba  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one of several species of
   African   antelopes  of  the  genus  Kobus,  esp.  the  species  Kobus


   Ko"balt (?), n. See Cobalt.


   Ko"bel*lite,  n. [From Franz von Kobell, of Munich.] (Min.) A blackish
   gray mineral, a sulphide of antimony, bismuth, and lead.


   Ko"bold  (?),  n.  [G.,  perh.  orig.,  house god, hose protector. See
   Cobalt]  A  kind of domestic spirit in German mythology, corresponding
   to the Scottish brownie and the English Robin Goodfellow.


   Ko"dak (?), n. A kind of portable camera.


   Ko"el  (?),  n.  [Native name in India.] (Zo\'94l.) Any one of several
   species  of  cuckoos  of the genus Eudynamys, found in India, the East
   Indies,  and  Australia. They deposit their eggs in the nests of other


   Koff (?), n. [D. kof.] A two-masted Dutch vessel.

                               Kohinoor, Kohnur

   Koh`i*noor", Koh`*nur (?), n. [Per. koh-i-n, lit., mountain of light.]
   A  famous  diamond, surrendered to the British crown on the annexation
   of the Punjab. According to Hindoo legends, it was found in a Golconda
   mine, and has been the property of various Hindoo and Persian rulers.


   Kohl  (?),  n. [See Alcohol.] A mixture of soot and other ingredients,
   used  by  Egyptian  and other Eastern women to darken the edges of the


   Kohl"-ra`bi  (?),  n.;  pl.  Kohl-rabies  (#).  [G. Cf. Cole, Rape the
   plant.]  (Bot.)  A  variety  of cabbage, in which the edible part is a
   large,  turnip-shaped  swelling  of the stem, above the surface of the


   Ko*ka"ma (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The gemsbok.


   Ko"klass  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) Any pheasant of the genus Pucrasia. The
   birds  of this genus inhabit India and China, and are distinguished by
   having  a long central and two lateral crests on the head. Called also


   Ko*koon" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The gnu.


   Ko*la"ri*an  (?),  n.  (Ethnol.)  An individual of one of the races of
   aboriginal  inhabitants  which  survive  in  Hindostan.  --  a.  Of or
   pertaining to the Kolarians.


   Ko*me"nic  (?),  a.  [Prob. G. mekonin (by transposition of letters) +
   -ic.]  (Chem.)  Of  or  pertaining to, or designating, an acid derived
   from meconic acid. [Written also comenic.]


   Kom"tok  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  An African freshwater fish (Protopterus
   annectens),  belonging  to  the Dipnoi. It can breathe air by means of
   its lungs, and when waters dry up, it encases itself in a nest of hard
   mud, where it remains till the rainy season. It is used as food.


   Kon (?), v. t. To know. See Can, and Con. [Obs.]

     Ye konnen thereon as much as any man. Chaucer.


   Ko"nite (?), n. (Min.) See Conite.


   Konze   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large  African  antelope  (Alcelaphus
   Lichtensteini),  allied  to  the  hartbeest,  but  having  shorter and
   flatter horns, and lacking a black patch on the face.


   Koo"doo   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   A   large  South  African  antelope
   (Strepsiceros  kudu).  The males have graceful spiral horns, sometimes
   four  feet  long.  The general color is reddish or grayish brown, with
   eight  or nine white bands on each side, and a pale dorsal stripe. The
   old males become dark bluish gray, due to the skin showing through the
   hair.  The  females  are  hornless.  Called also nellut. [Written also


   Koo"koom  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  oryx  or  gemsbok.  [Written also


   Koo`lo*kam"ba  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  west  African  anthropoid  ape
   (Troglodytes  koolokamba,  or T. Aubryi), allied to the chimpanzee and
   gorilla, and, in some respects, intermediate between them.


   Kool"slaa` (?), n. See Coleslaw.


   Koord (?), n. See Kurd.


   Koord"ish, n. See Kurdish.


   Koo*ril"i*an (?), a & n. Same as Kurilian.


   Ko"peck  (?),  n.  [Russ.  kopeika.] A small Russian coin. One hundred
   kopecks  make  a rouble, worth about sixty cents<-- in 1910, but three
   hundredths  of  a  cent  at  the end of 1994. By 1992, obsolete and no
   longer minted. -->. [Written also kopek, copec, and copeck.]


   Ko"ran (?; 277), n. [Ar. gor\'ben. See Alcoran.] The Scriptures of the
   Mohammedans,  containing  the  professed  revelations  to Mohammed; --
   called also Alcoran. [Written also Kuran or Quran.]


   Ko"rin (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The gazelle.


   Kor"ri*gum  (?),  n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A West African antelope
   (Damalis  Senegalensis),  allied  to  the sassaby. It is reddish gray,
   with a black face, and a black stripe on the outside of the legs above
   the knees.


   Kos"mos (?), n. See Cosmos. Gladstone.


   Ko*tow"  (?),  n.  [Chinese,  knock  head.]  The  prostration  made by
   mandarins  and others to their superiors, either as homage or worship,
   by knocking the forehead on the ground. There are degrees in the rite,
   the  highest  being  expressed  by three knockings. [China]<-- now now
   kowtow --> S. W. Williams. 


   Ko*tow",  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Kotowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Kotowing.]
   To perform the kotow.<-- now kowtow -->


   Kou"lan  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.) A wild horse (Equus, or
   Asinus,  onager) inhabiting the plants of Central Asia; -- called also
   gour, khur, and onager. [Written also kulan.]

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  so metimes co nfounded wi th the dziggetai, to
     which  it  is closely related. It is gray in winter, but fulvous in
     summer.  It  has  a well defined, dark, dorsal stripe, and a short,
     erect mane. In size, it is intermediate between the horse and ass.


   Kou"miss  (?),  n. [Russ. kumys; of Mongolian origin.] An intoxicating
   fermented  or  distilled  liquor  originally  made by the Tartars from
   mare's  or camel's milk. It can be obtained from any kind of milk, and
   is  now largely made in Europe. [Written also koumyss, kumiss, kumish,
   and kumys.]

     Koumiss  has from time immemorial served the Tartar instead of wine
     or spirits. J. H. Newman.


   Kous"so   (?),   n.  (Bot.)  An  Abyssinian  rosaceous  tree  (Brayera
   anthelmintica), the flowers of which are used as a vermifuge. [Written
   also cusso and kosso.]


   Kow*tow" (?), n. & v. i. The same as Kotow.

     I have salaamed and kowtowed to him. H. James.


   Kra (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A long-tailed ape (Macacus cynomolgus) of India
   and  Sumatra. It is reddish olive, spotted with black, and has a black


   Kraal  (?;  277),  n.  [D.,  a village, inclosure, park, prob. fr. Pg.
   curral a cattle pen; the same word as Sp. corral. See Corral.]

   1.  A  collection  of  huts within a stockade; a village; sometimes, a
   single hut. [South Africa]

   2.  An  inclosure into which are driven wild elephants which are to be
   tamed and educated. [Ceylon]


   Krait (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A very venomous snake of India
   (Bungarus  c\'d2ruleus),  allied  to  the  cobra.  Its upper parts are
   bluish  or  brownish black, often with narrow white streaks; the belly
   is whitish.


   Kra"ken  (?), n. [Prob. from OSw. krake, or ODan. krage the trunk of a
   tree,  the branches of which are not entirely cut off, to which it was
   likened  by  the  Norwegian  mariners.]  A  fabulous  Scandinavian sea
   monster,  often  represented as resembling an island, but sometimes as
   resembling an immense octopus.

     To  believe  all  that  has been said of the sea serpent or kraken,
     would  be  credulity; to reject the possibility of their existence,
     would be presumption. Goldsmith.

     Like a kraken huge and black. Longfellow.


   Kra*ko"wi*ak (?), n. (Mus.) A lively Polish dance. See Cracovienne.


   Kra*me"ri*a  (?),  n. [NL. So called after the German botanists, J. G.
   H.  &  W.  H.  Kramer.]  (Bot.)  A genus of spreading shrubs with many
   stems, from one species of which (K. triandra), found in Peru, rhatany
   root, used as a medicine, is obtained.


   Kra*mer"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, Krameria
   (rhatany); as, krameric acid, usually called ratanhia-tannic acid.


   Krang  (?),  n. [Cf. D. kreng a carcass.] The carcass of a whale after
   the blubber has been removed. [Written also crang and kreng.]

                                 Kranging hook

   Krang"ing  hook`  (?).  (Whaling) A hook for holding the blubber while
   cutting it away. [Written also cranging hook.]


   Kre*at"ic (?), a. See Creatic.


   Kre"a*tin (?), n. (Chem.) See Creatin.


   Kre*at"i*nin (?), n. (Chem.) See Creatinin.


   Kreel (?), n.See Creel.


   Krem"lin  (?),  n.  [Russ.  kremle.]  The  citadel  of a town or city;
   especially,  the  citadel  of Moscow, a large inclosure which contains
   imperial  palaces, cathedrals, churches, an arsenal, etc. [Russia] <--
   (metaphorically)  the  government  of  Russia  (or,  1920-1992, of the
   Soviet Union) -->


   Krems (?), n. A variety of white lead. See Krems lead, under Lead, n.


   Kreng (?), n. See Krang.


   Kre"o*sote (?), n. See Creosote.


   Kreut"zer  (?),  n. [G. kreuzer.] A small copper coin formerly used in
   South  Germany;  also,  a  small  Austrian  copper coin. [Written also


   Kriegs"spiel`  (,  n. [G., fr. krieg war + spiel play.] A game of war,
   played for practice, on maps. Farrow.


   Kris (?), n. A Malay dagger. See Creese.


   Krish"na  (,  n.  [Skr.  (Hindoo Myth.) The most popular of the Hindoo
   divinities,  usually  held  to  be  the  eighth incarnation of the god

   Page 820


   Kri"tarch*y (?), n. [Gr. The rule of the judges over Israel.

     Samson,  Jephthah,  Gideon,  and  other  heroes  of  the kritarchy.


   Kro*kid"o*lite (?), n. (Min.) See Crocidolite.


   Kro"ne  (?),  n.[Dan.]  A  coin of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, of the
   value of about twenty-eight cents. See Crown, n., 9.


   Kroo"man  (?),  n.; pl. Kroomen (. One of a negro tribe of Liberia and
   the adjacent coast, whose members are much employed on shipboard.


   Krul"ler (?), n. See Cruller.

                              Krummhorn, Krumhorn

   Krumm"horn`, Krum"horn` (?), n. [G. krummhorn horn.] (Mus.) (a) A reed
   instrument  of  music of the cornet kind, now obsolete (see Cornet, 1,
   a.) (b) A reed stop in the organ; -- sometimes called cremona.

                                   Krupp gun

   Krupp"  gun"  (?).  A  breech-loading steel cannon manufactured at the
   works of Friedrich Krupp, at Essen in Prussia. Guns of over eight-inch
   bore  are  made up of several concentric cylinders; those of a smaller
   size are forged solid. Knight.


   Kry"o*lite (?), n. (Min.) See Cryolite.


   Ksar (?), n. See Czar.

                             Kshatriya, Kshatruya

   Ksha"tri*ya  (?),  Ksha"tru*ya (?), n.[Skr. kshatriya one belonging to
   the  military caste.] The military caste, the second of the four great
   Hindoo castes; also, a member of that caste. See Caste. [India]


   Ku"da (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The East Indian tapir. See Tapir.


   Ku"dos  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  ky^dos glory.] Glory; fame; renown;
   praise. W. H. Russel.


   Ku"dos,  v. t. To praise; to extol; to glorify. "Kudos'd egregiously."
   [R.] Southey.


   Ku"du (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Koodoo.


   Ku"fic (?), a. See Cufic.


   Ku*kang" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) [Native name.] The slow lemur. See Lemur.


   Ku`klux"  (?),  n. The name adopted in the southern part of the United
   States  by  a  secret political organization, active for several years
   after  the  close  of  the  Civil  War,  and  having  for  its aim the
   repression  of  the  political  power  of the freedmen; -- called also
   Kuklux Klan.<-- also spelled Ku Klux Klan, also called the Klan. -->


   Ku"lan (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Koulan.

                                Kumish, Kumiss

   Ku"mish (?), Ku"miss (?), n. See Koumiss.


   Kum"mel  (?),  n.  [G.  k\'81mmel cumin, caraway seed, L. cuminum. Cf.
   Cumin.] A Russian and German liqueur, consisting of a sweetened spirit
   flavored with caraway seeds.


   Kum"quat  (?),  n.  [Chin.  kin keu.] (Bot.) A small tree of the genus
   Citrus (C. Japonica) growing in China and Japan; also, its small acid,
   orange-colored fruit used for preserves.


   Kup"fer*nick"el   (?),   n.   [G.  See  Copper,  and  Nickel.]  (Min.)
   Copper-nickel; niccolite. See Niccolite.


   Kurd  (?), n.A native or inhabitant of a mountainous region of Western
   Asia  belonging  to  the Turkish and Persian monarchies. [Written also
   Koord.]<-- parts of this group live in Turkey, Iran, and Iraq -->


   Kurd"ish, a. Of or pertaining to the Kurds. [Written also Koordish.]


   Ku*ril"i*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Kurile Islands, a chain of
   islands in the Pacific ocean, extending from the southern extremity of
   Kamschatka  to  Yesso.  --  n. A native or an inhabitant of the Kurile
   Islands. [Written also Koorilian.]


   Kur"saal`  (?),  n.[G.] A public hall or room, for the use of visitors
   at watering places and health resorts in Germany.


   Ku`si*man"se  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  carnivorous animal (Crossarchus
   obscurus) of tropical Africa. It its allied to the civets. Called also
   kusimansel, and mangue.


   Kus"kus (?), [Per. & Hind. khaskhas.] (Bot.) See Vetiver.


   Kus"si*er  (?), n. (Mus.) A Turkish instrument of music, with a hollow
   body  covered  with  skin,  over  which  five  strings  are stretched.
   [Written also kussir.]


   Ku*tauss" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The India civet (Viverra zibetha).


   Kutch  (?),  n. (Goldbeating) The packet of vellum leaves in which the
   gold is first beaten into thin sheets.


   Kutch, n. See Catechu.


   Ky (?), n. pl. Kine. [Scot.] See Kee, Kie, and Kine.

                                 Kyaboca wood

   Ky`a*bo"ca   wood`  (?).  (Bot.)  (a)  Amboyna  wood.  (b)  Sandalwood
   (Santalum album).


   Ky"an*nite (?), n. See Cyanite.


   Ky"an*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Kyanized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Kyanizing  (?).]  [From  Mr.  Kyan,  the  inventor of the process.] To
   render  (wood)  proof  against  decay by saturating with a solution of
   corrosive sublimate in open tanks, or under pressure.


   Ky"a*nol (?), n. [See Cyanite.] (Chem.) (a) Aniline. [Obs.] (b) A base
   obtained from coal tar. Ure.


   Ky*an"o*phyll (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Cyanophyll.


   Kyar (?), n. Cocoanut fiber, or the cordage made from it. See Coir.


   Kyaw (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A daw. [Scot.]


   Kyd (?), p. p. of Kythe.


   Kyd"de (, imp. of Kythe, to show. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     NOTE: &hand; Spenser erroneously uses kydst to mean "knowest."


   Kyke  (?),  v. i. [See 1st Kike.] To look steadfastly; to gaze. [Obs.]
   [Written also kike, keke.]

     This  Nicholas sat ever gaping upright, As he had kyked on the newe
     moon. Chaucer.


   Ky"ley (?), n.A variety of the boomerang.


   Ky"loes  (?),  n. pl. The cattle of the Hebrides, or of the Highlands.
   [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.


   Kym"nel (?), n. See Kimnel. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Ky"mo*graph  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -graph.]  (Physiol.)  An  instrument  for
   measuring, and recording graphically, the pressure of the blood in any
   of the blood vessels of a living animal; -- called also kymographion.


   Ky`mo*graph"ic (?), a. (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to a kymograph; as,
   a kymographic tracing.


   Kym"ric (?), a & n. See Cymric, a. & n.


   Kym"ry (?), n. See Cymry.


   Kyn"rede (?), n. Kindred. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ky`nu*ren"ic   (?),   a.  [Gr.  (Physiol.  Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or
   designating, an acid obtained from the urine of dogs. By decomposition
   the acid yields a nitrogenous base (called kynurin) and carbonic acid.
   [Written also cynurenic.]


   Kyr"i*e (?), n. See Kyrie eleison.

                                 Kyrie eleison

   Kyr"i*e e*lei"son (?). [Gr. ky`rie 'elei^son .]

   1.  (R.  C. Ch.) Greek words, meaning "Lord, have mercy upon us," used
   in  the  Mass,  the  breviary  offices, the litany of the saints, etc.
   Addis & Arnold.

   2.  The name given to the response to the Commandments, in the service
   of the Church of England and of the Protestant Episcopal Church.


   Kyr`i*elle  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  kyrielle.] A litany beginning with the
   words. "Kyrie eleison." Shipley.

                             Kyriolexy, Kyriology

   Kyr"i*o*lex`y  (?), Kyr`i*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. Curiologic.] The use of
   literal  or  simple  expressions,  as  distinguished  from  the use of
   figurative or obscure ones. Krauth-Fleming.


   Kyr`i*o*log"ic*al  (?), a. [See Curiologic.] Serving to denote objects
   by  conventional  signs  or  alphabetical characters; as, the original
   Greek  alphabet  of  sixteen letters was called kyriologic, because it
   represented  the pure elementary sounds. See Curiologic. [Written also
   curiologic and kuriologic.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm is  also applied, as by Warburton, to those
     Egyptian  hieroglyphics,  in which a part is put conventionally for
     the  whole,  as  in  depicting a battle by two hands, one holding a
     shield and the other a bow.

                                 Kythe, Kithe

   Kythe,  Kithe (?), v. t. [imp. Kydde, Kidde (k&icr;d"de); p. p. Kythed
   (?),  Kid;  p. pr. & vb. n. Kything.] [OE. kythen, kithen, cu, to make
   known,  AS.  c, fr. c known. Uncouth, Ca to be able, and cf. Kith.] To
   make known; to manifest; to show; to declare. [Obs: or Scot.]

     For gentle hearte kytheth gentilesse. Chaucer.


   Kythe, v. t. To come into view; to appear. [Scot.]

     It kythes bright . . . because all is dark around it. Sir W. Scott.


   Ky*tom"i*ton, n.[NL., from Gr. (Biol.) See Karyomiton.


   Ky`to*plas"ma (?), n.[NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.) See Karyoplasma.

   Page 821