Unabridged Dictionary - Letter J

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   J  (?).  J  is the tenth letter of the English alphabet. It is a later
   variant  form  of  the  Roman  letter I, used to express a consonantal
   sound, that is, originally, the sound of English y in yet. The forms J
   and  I have, until a recent time, been classed together, and they have
   been used interchangeably.

     NOTE: In medical prescriptions j is still used in place of i at the
     end   of  a  number,  as  a  Roman  numeral;  as,  vj,  xij.  J  is
     etymologically  most  closely  related to i, y, g; as in jot, iota;
     jest,  gesture;  join,  jugular, yoke. See I. J is a compound vocal
     consonant,  nearly  equivalent  in  sound to dzh. It is exactly the
     same as g in gem. See Guide to Pronunciation,  179, 211, 239.

                                   Jaal goat

   Jaal"  goat`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  A species of wild goat (Capra Nubiana)
   found  in  the  mountains  of  Abyssinia,  Upper Egypt, and Arabia; --
   called also beden, and jaela.


   Jab (?), v. t. [Cf. Job.] To thrust; to stab; to punch. See Job, v. t.
   [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.]


   Jab, n. A thrust or stab. [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.]


   Jab"ber  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Jabbered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Jabbering.]  [Cf.  Gibber,  Gabble.] To talk rapidly, indistinctly, or
   unintelligibly; to utter gibberish or nonsense; to chatter. Swift.


   Jab"ber,  v.  t.  To  utter rapidly or indistinctly; to gabble; as, to
   jabber French. Addison.


   Jab"ber,  n.  Rapid  or  incoherent  talk,  with indistinct utterance;
   gibberish. Swift.


   Jab"ber (?), n. One who jabbers.


   Jab"ber*ing*ly, adv. In a jabbering manner.


   Jab"ber*ment (?), n. Jabber. [R.] Milton.


   Jab"ber*nowl` (?), n. Same as Jobbernowl.


   Jab"i*ru  (?),  n.  [Braz.  jabir\'a3,  jabur\'a3.]  (Zo\'94l.) One of
   several  large  wading  birds of the genera Mycteria and Xenorhynchus,
   allied to the storks in form and habits.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Am erican ja biru (M ycteria Americana) is white,
     with  the head and neck black and nearly bare of feathers. The East
     Indian  and Australian (Xenorhynchus Australis) has the neck, head,
     and  back covered with glossy, dark green feathers, changing on the
     head  to purple. The African jabiru (Mycteria, OR Ephippiorhynchus,
     Senegalensis)  has  the  neck, head, wing coverts, and tail, black,
     and is called also saddle-billed stork.


   Jab`o*ran"di  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  native  name  of a South American
   rutaceous  shrub  (Pilocarpus  pennatifolius).  The leaves are used in
   medicine as an diaphoretic and sialogogue.


   Jab"o*rine  (?),  n.  [From  Jaborandi.]  (Chem.) An alkaloid found in
   jaborandi  leaves,  from  which  it  is extracted as a white amorphous
   substance. In its action it resembles atropine.


   Jab"ot (?), n. [F.]

   1. Originally, a kind of ruffle worn by men on the bosom of the shirt.

   2.  An  arrangement of lace or tulle, looped ornamentally, and worn by
   women on the front of the dress.


   Jac"a*mar`  (?),  n.  [F. jacamar, Braz. jacamarica; cf. Sp. jacamar.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one of numerous species of tropical American birds of
   the   genus  Galbula  and  allied  genera.  They  are  allied  to  the
   kingfishers,  but  climb on tree trunks like nuthatches, and feed upon
   insects. Their colors are often brilliant.


   Jac"a*na`  (?), n. [Cf. Sp. jacania.] (Zo\'94l.) Any of several wading
   birds  belonging to the genus Jacana and several allied genera, all of
   which  have  spurs  on  the  wings.  They  are  able to run about over
   floating  water  weeds  by  means  of their very long, spreading toes.
   Called also surgeon bird.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e mo st co mmon So uth Am erican sp ecies is Jacana
     spinosa.   The  East  Indian  or  pheasant  jacana  (Hydrophasianus
     chirurgus)  is remarkable for having four very long, curved, middle
     tail feathers.


   Jac`a*ran"da  (?), n. [Braz.; cf. Sp. & Pg. jacaranda.] (Bot.) (a) The
   native  Brazilian name for certain leguminous trees, which produce the
   beautiful  woods  called king wood, tiger wood, and violet wood. (b) A
   genus  of  bignoniaceous  Brazilian  trees  with  showy trumpet-shaped


   Jac"a*re`  (?),  n. [Pg. jacar\'82; of Brazilian origin.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   cayman. See Yacare.


   Jac"chus  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. L. Jacchus a mystic name of Bacchus, Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.)  The  common marmoset (Hapale vulgaris). Formerly, the name
   was also applied to other species of the same genus.


   Jac"co*net (?), n. See Jaconet.


   Ja"cent  (?),  a. [L. jacens, p. pr. of jacere to lie: cf. F. jacent.]
   Lying at length; as, the jacent posture. [R.] Sir H. Wotton.


   Ja"cinth  (?),  n.  [F.  jacinthe,  L.  hyacinthus. See Hyacinth.] See
   Hyacinth. Tennyson.


   Jack  (?),  n. [Pg. jaca, Malayalam, tsjaka.] (Bot.) A large tree, the
   Artocarpus  integrifolia, common in the East Indies, closely allied to
   the breadfruit, from which it differs in having its leaves entire. The
   fruit  is  of  great  size,  weighing from thirty to forty pounds, and
   through  its  soft  fibrous  matter are scattered the seeds, which are
   roasted  and  eaten.  The  wood  is of a yellow color, fine grain, and
   rather  heavy,  and  is  much used in cabinetwork. It is also used for
   dyeing a brilliant yellow. [Written also jak.]


   Jack  (?),  n. [F. Jacques James, L. Jacobus, Gr. Ya 'aq Jacob; prop.,
   seizing by the heel; hence, a supplanter. Cf. Jacobite, Jockey.]

   1. A familiar nickname of, or substitute for, John.

     You are John Rugby, and you are Jack Rugby. Shak.

   2. An impertinent or silly fellow; a simpleton; a boor; a clown; also,
   a servant; a rustic. "Jack fool." Chaucer.

     Since  every Jack became a gentleman, There 's many a gentle person
     made a Jack. Shak.

   3.  A  popular  colloquial name for a sailor; -- called also Jack tar,
   and Jack afloat.

   4.  A  mechanical  contrivance, an auxiliary machine, or a subordinate
   part  of  a machine, rendering convenient service, and often supplying
   the  place of a boy or attendant who was commonly called Jack; as: (a)
   A  device  to pull off boots. (b) A sawhorse or sawbuck. (c) A machine
   or  contrivance for turning a spit; a smoke jack, or kitchen jack. (b)
   (Mining)  A  wooden  wedge  for separating rocks rent by blasting. (e)
   (Knitting  Machine)  A lever for depressing the sinkers which push the
   loops down on the needles. (f) (Warping Machine) A grating to separate
   and  guide  the  threads;  a  heck  box.  (g) (Spinning) A machine for
   twisting  the  sliver as it leaves the carding machine. (h) A compact,
   portable  machine  for  planing  metal.  (i) A machine for slicking or
   pebbling leather. (k) A system of gearing driven by a horse power, for
   multiplying speed. (l) A hood or other device placed over a chimney or
   vent  pipe,  to  prevent  a  back  draught. (m) In the harpsichord, an
   intermediate  piece  communicating the action of the key to the quill;
   --  called  also  hopper. (n) In hunting, the pan or frame holding the
   fuel  of  the  torch  used  to  attract game at night; also, the light
   itself. C. Hallock.

   5.  A  portable  machine  variously  constructed,  for  exerting great
   pressure,  or lifting or moving a heavy body through a small distance.
   It  consists  of  a lever, screw, rack and pinion, hydraulic press, or
   any  simple  combination  of  mechanical  powers, working in a compact
   pedestal  or support and operated by a lever, crank, capstan bar, etc.
   The name is often given to a jackscrew, which is a kind of jack.

   6. The small bowl used as a mark in the game of bowls. Shak.

     Like  an  uninstructed  bowler  who  thinks  to  attain the jack by
     delivering his bowl straight forward upon it. Sir W. Scott.

   7. The male of certain animals, as of the ass.

   8.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A  young  pike;  a pickerel. (b) The jurel. (c) A
   large,  California  rock fish (Sebastodes paucispinus); -- called also
   boccaccio, and m\'82rou. (d) The wall-eyed pike.

   9. A drinking measure holding half a pint; also, one holding a quarter
   of a pint. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.

   10.  (Naut.)  (a)  A flag, containing only the union, without the fly,
   usually  hoisted  on  a jack staff at the bowsprit cap; -- called also
   union  jack.  The  American jack is a small blue flag, with a star for
   each  State. (b) A bar of iron athwart ships at a topgallant masthead,
   to  support  a  royal  mast,  and give spread to the royal shrouds; --
   called also jack crosstree. R. H. Dana, Jr.

   Page 795

   11.  The  knave  of  a  suit  of  playing  cards. <-- 12. (pl) same as
   jackstone  (which  see):  A  game  played  with  small (metallic, with
   tetrahedrally  oriented  spikes)  objects  (the jacks(1950+), formerly
   jackstones)  that  are  tossed,  caught,  picked up, and arranged on a
   horizontal  surface  in various patterns; in the modern American game,
   the  movements are accompanied by tossing or bouncing a rubber ball on
   the  horizontal  surface  supporting  the jacks. 13. (slang) Money. 14
   (MW10= 9) a. Apple jack. b. brandy -->

     NOTE: &hand; Ja ck is  us ed ad jectively in  va rious se nses. It 
     sometimes designates something cut short or diminished in size; as,
     a jack timber; a jack rafter; a jack arch, etc.

   Jack  arch,  an  arch  of  the  thickness  of  one brick. -- Jack back
   (Brewing  &  Malt  Vinegar Manuf.), a cistern which receives the wort.
   See  under  1st  Back.  --  Jack  block  (Naut.), a block fixed in the
   topgallant or royal rigging, used for raising and lowering light masts
   and  spars.  --  Jack boots, boots reaching above the knee; -- worn in
   the  17  century  by  soldiers;  afterwards  by fishermen, etc.<-- see
   jack-booted  -->  -- Jack crosstree. (Naut.) See 10, b, above. -- Jack
   curlew  (Zo\'94l.), the whimbrel. -- Jack frame. (Cotton Spinning) See
   4  (g),  above.  --  Jack  Frost,  frost  personified as a mischievous
   person.  --  Jack  hare, a male hare. Cowper. -- Jack lamp, a lamp for
   still  hunting  and camp use. See def. 4 (n.), above. -- Jack plane, a
   joiner's  plane  used  for coarse work. -- Jack post, one of the posts
   which support the crank shaft of a deep-well-boring apparatus. -- Jack
   pot  (Poker  Playing),  the name given to the stakes, contributions to
   which are made by each player successively, till such a hand is turned
   as  shall  take  the "pot," which is the sum total of all the bets.<--
   see  also  jackpot  -->  -- Jack rabbit (Zo\'94l.), any one of several
   species of large American hares, having very large ears and long legs.
   The California species (Lepus Californicus), and that of Texas and New
   Mexico (L. callotis), have the tail black above, and the ears black at
   the tip. They do not become white in winter. The more northern prairie
   hare  (L.  campestris)  has  the  upper side of the tail white, and in
   winter  its  fur  becomes  nearly  white.  --  Jack rafter (Arch.), in
   England,  one  of  the  shorter  rafters used in constructing a hip or
   valley  roof;  in the United States, any secondary roof timber, as the
   common  rafters resting on purlins in a trussed roof; also, one of the
   pieces  simulating  extended  rafters,  used  under  the eaves in some
   styles  of building. -- Jack salmon (Zo\'94l.), the wall-eyed pike, or
   glasseye.  -- Jack sauce, an impudent fellow. [Colloq. & Obs.] -- Jack
   shaft  (Mach.),  the  first  intermediate shaft, in a factory or mill,
   which  receives  power,  through belts or gearing, from a prime mover,
   and  transmits  it, by the same means, to other intermediate shafts or
   to  a  line  shaft. -- Jack sinker (Knitting Mach.), a thin iron plate
   operated  by  the  jack  to  depress  the  loop  of thread between two
   needles.  --  Jack  snipe.  (Zo\'94l.)  See in the Vocabulary. -- Jack
   staff  (Naut.), a staff fixed on the bowsprit cap, upon which the jack
   is  hoisted.  -- Jack timber (Arch.), any timber, as a rafter, rib, or
   studding,  which,  being  intercepted,  is shorter than the others. --
   Jack  towel,  a  towel  hung on a roller for common use. -- Jack truss
   (Arch.),  in a hip roof, a minor truss used where the roof has not its
   full  section.  --  Jack  tree.  (Bot.)  See 1st Jack, n. -- Jack yard
   (Naut.),  a short spar to extend a topsail beyond the gaff. Blue jack,
   blue  vitriol;  sulphate of copper. -- Hydraulic jack, a jack used for
   lifting,  pulling,  or  forcing,  consisting  of  a  compact  portable
   hydrostatic  press,  with its pump and a reservoir containing a supply
   of liquid, as oil. -- Jack-at-a-pinch. (a) One called upon to take the
   place of another in an emergency. (b) An itinerant parson who conducts
   an  occasional  service  for a fee. -- Jack-at-all-trades, one who can
   turn  his  hand  to  any  kind of work. -- Jack-by-the-hedge (Bot.), a
   plant  of  the  genus Erysimum (E. alliaria, or Alliaria officinalis),
   which  grows under hedges. It bears a white flower and has a taste not
   unlike  garlic.  Called  also,  in  England, sauce-alone. Eng. Cyc. --
   Jack-in-a-box.  (a)  (Bot.)  A tropical tree (Hernandia sonora), which
   bears  a  drupe  that  rattles  when  dry in the inflated calyx. (b) A
   child's  toy,  consisting  of  a  box,  out  of which, when the lid is
   raised,  a  figure  springs.  (c)  (Mech.) An epicyclic train of bevel
   gears  for  transmitting  rotary  motion to two parts in such a manner
   that  their  relative rotation may be variable; applied to driving the
   wheels  of tricycles, road locomotives, and to cotton machinery, etc.;
   an  equation  box;  a jack frame; -- called also compensating gearing.
   (d)  A  large wooden screw turning in a nut attached to the crosspiece
   of  a  rude press. -- Jack-in-office, an insolent fellow in authority.
   Wolcott.  --  Jack-in-the-bush (Bot.), a tropical shrub with red fruit
   (Cordia   Cylindrostachya).  --  Jack-in-the-green,  a  chimney  sweep
   inclosed  in  a framework of boughs, carried in Mayday processions. --
   Jack-in-the-pulpit  (Bot.),  the American plant Aris\'91ma triphyllum,
   or  Indian  turnip,  in  which  the  upright  spadix  is  inclosed. --
   Jack-of-the-buttery   (Bot.),   the   stonecrop   (Sedum   acre).   --
   Jack-of-the-clock,  a  figure,  usually of a man, on old clocks, which
   struck  the  time  on  the  bell. -- Jack-on-both-sides, one who is or
   tries to be neutral. -- Jack-out-of-office, one who has been in office
   and  is  turned  out.  Shak.  --  Jack the Giant Killer, the hero of a
   well-known nursery story. -- Jack-with-a-lantern, Jack-o'-lantern. (a)
   An   ignis   fatuus;  a  will-o'-the-wisp.  "[Newspaper  speculations]
   supplying  so  many  more  jack-o'-lanterns  to the future historian."
   Lowell.  (b)  A  lantern  made  of a pumpkin so prepared as to show in
   illumination  the  features  of  a  human  face,  etc.  -- Yellow Jack
   (Naut.), the yellow fever; also, the quarantine flag. See Yellow flag,
   under Flag.


   Jack  (?),  n.  [F. jaque, jacque, perh. from the proper name Jacques.
   Cf.  Jacquerie.]  A coarse and cheap medi\'91val coat of defense, esp.
   one made of leather.

     Their   horsemen  are  with  jacks  for  most  part  clad.  Sir  J.


   Jack (?), n. [Named from its resemblance to a jack boot.] A pitcher or
   can of waxed leather; -- called also black jack. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Jack, v. i. To hunt game at night by means of a jack. See 2d Jack, n.,
   4, n.


   Jack,  v. t. To move or lift, as a house, by means of a jack or jacks.
   See 2d Jack, n., 5. <-- = jack up -->


   Jack`-a-dan"dy  (?), n. A little dandy; a little, foppish, impertinent


   Jack"al`  (?),  n.  [Pers.  shagh\'bel: cf. OF. jackal, F. chacal; cf.
   Skr. \'87\'f0g\'bela.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  several  species  of carnivorous animals
   inhabiting  Africa  and  Asia,  related  to the dog and wolf. They are
   cowardly, nocturnal, and gregarious. They feed largely on carrion, and
   are noted for their piercing and dismal howling.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e common species of Southern Asia (Canis aureus) is
     yellowish  gray,  varied with brown on the shoulders, haunches, and
     legs. The common African species (C. anthus) is darker in color.

   2.  One  who  does  mean work for another's advantage, as jackals were
   once  thought  to  kill  game  which lions appropriated. [Colloq.] Ld.


   Jack"-a-lent  (?),  n.  A  small  stuffed puppet to be pelted in Lent;
   hence, a simple fellow.


   Jack"a*napes  (?),  n.  [For  Jack  o'  (=  of) apes; prop., a man who
   exhibits apes.] [Written also jackanape.]

   1. A monkey; an ape. Shak.

   2. A coxcomb; an impertinent or conceited fellow.

     A young upstart jackanapes. Arbuthnot.


   Jack"ass` (?), n. [2d jack + ass.]

   1. The male ass; a donkey.

   2. A conceited dolt; a perverse blockhead.
   Jackass  bark  (Naut.),  a three-masted vessel, with only the foremast
   square-rigged;  a barkentine. -- Jackass deer (Zo\'94l.), the koba. --
   Jackass  hare,  Jackass  rabbit  (Zo\'94l.). See Jack rabbit, under 2d
   Jack,  n. -- Jackass penguin (Zo\'94l.), any species of penguin of the
   genus  Spheniscus,  of  which  several  are  known.  One  species  (S.
   demersus) inhabits the islands near the Cape of Good Hope; another (S.
   Magellanicus) is found at the Falkland Islands. They make a noise like
   the  braying  of  an  ass;  --  hence  the  name. -- Laughing jackass.
   (Zo\'94l.) See under Laughing.


   Jack"daw` (?), n. [Prob. 2d jack + daw, n.] (Zo\'94l.) See Daw, n.


   Jack*een" (?), n. A drunken, dissolute fellow. [Ireland] S. C. Hall.


   Jack"et (?), n. [F. jaquette, dim. of jaque. See 3d Jack, n.]

   1. A short upper garment, extending downward to the hips; a short coat
   without skirts.

   2.   An   outer  covering  for  anything,  esp.  a  covering  of  some
   nonconducting material such as wood or felt, used to prevent radiation
   of heat, as from a steam boiler, cylinder, pipe, etc.

   3.   (Mil.)   In   ordnance,  a  strengthening  band  surrounding  and
   re\'89nforcing the tube in which the charge is fired.

   4.  A  garment  resembling  a waistcoat lined with cork, to serve as a
   life preserver; -- called also cork jacket.
   Blue  jacket.  (Naut.) See under Blue. -- Steam jacket, a space filled
   with steam between an inner and an outer cylinder, or between a casing
   and  a receptacle, as a kettle. -- To dust one's jacket, to give one a
   beating. [Colloq.]


   Jack"et, v. t.

   1. To put a jacket on; to furnish, as a boiler, with a jacket.

   2. To thrash; to beat. [Low]


   Jack"et*ed, a. Wearing, or furnished with, a jacket.


   Jack"et*ing, n. The material of a jacket; as, nonconducting jacketing.

                                  Jack Ketch

   Jack"  Ketch" (?). [Perh. fr. Jack, the proper name + Prov. E. ketch a
   hangman,  fr. ketch, for catch to seize; but see the citations below.]
   A public executioner, or hangman. [Eng.]

     The  manor  of  Tyburn  was formerly held by Richard Jaquett, where
     felons  for  a  long  time  were executed; from whence we have Jack
     Ketch. Lloyd's MS., British Museum.

     [Monmouth]  then accosted John Ketch, the executioner, a wretch who
     had  butchered  many  brave  and noble victims, and whose name has,
     during  a  century  and a half, been vulgarly given to all who have
     succeeded him in his odious office. Macaulay.


   Jack"knife`  (?),  n.  A  large,  strong clasp knife for the pocket; a
   pocket knife.


   Jack"man (?), n.; pl. Jackmen (.

   1. One wearing a jack; a horse soldier; a retainer. See 3d Jack, n.

     Christie . . . the laird's chief jackman. Sir W. Scott.

   2. A cream cheese. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.


   Jack"-o'-lan`tern (?), n. See Jack-with-a-lantern, under 2d Jack. <--


   Jackpot  1.  (a)  See "jack pot" under jack; (b) any larger-than-usual
   gambling  prize formed by the accumulation of unwon bets[=MW10 1(a)(2)
   and  1(c)];  (c) the highest gambling prize awarded in a gambling game
   in which smaller prizes are also awarded, especially such a prize on a
   slot  machine.  2.  (a)  An  unusually large success in an enterprise,
   either  unexpected  or  unpredictable,  esp.  one  providing  a  great
   financial benefit. hit the jackpotto receive an unexpectedly large (or
   the largest possible) benefit from an enterprise. -->


   Jack"pud`ding (?), n. A merry-andrew; a buffoon. Milton.


   Jack"saw` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The merganser.


   Jack"screw`  (?),  n.  A jack in which a screw is used for lifting, or
   exerting pressure. See Illust. of 2d Jack, n., 5.


   Jack"slave` (?), n. A low servant; a mean fellow. Shak.


   Jack"smith`  (?),  n.  A  smith  who  makes  jacks. See 2d Jack, 4, c.


   Jack"snipe`   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   (a)   A  small  European  snipe
   (Limnocryptes  gallinula);  --  called also judcock, jedcock, juddock,
   jed, and half snipe. (b) A small American sandpiper (Tringa maculata);
   -- called also pectoral sandpiper, and grass snipe.


   Jack"stay`  (?),  n. (Naut.) A rail of wood or iron stretching along a
   yard of a vessel, to which the sails are fastened.


   Jack"stone`  (?), n. (a) One of the pebbles or pieces used in the game
   of  jackstones.  (b)  (pl.)  A  game  played with five small stones or
   pieces  of  metal. See 6th Chuck. <-- also called "jacks" see jack, n.
   12 -->


   Jack"straw` (?), n.

   1.  An  effigy  stuffed  with straw; a scarecrow; hence, a man without
   property or influence. Milton.

   2.  One  of  a set of straws of strips of ivory, bone, wood, etc., for
   playing  a  child's  game,  the  jackstraws  being  thrown  confusedly
   together  on a table, to be gathered up singly by a hooked instrument,
   without  touching or disturbing the rest of the pile. See Spilikin.<--
   =  Sim. to pick-up-sticks (U.S. 1940+), played with thin wooden sticks
   of   different  colors,  having  different  values  for  scoring,  and
   dislodged from the pile with the hand or one of the sticks -->


   Jack"wood` (?), n. Wood of the jack (Artocarpus integrifolia), used in


   Ja"cob (?), n. [Cf. F. Jacob. See 2d Jack.] A Hebrew patriarch (son of
   Isaac,  and  ancestor  of  the  Jews),  who  in  a vision saw a ladder
   reaching up to heaven (Gen. xxviii. 12); -- also called Israel.

     And  Jacob  said . . . with my staff I passed over this Jordan, and
     now I am become two bands. Gen. xxxii. 9, 10.

     Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel. Gen. xxxii. 28.

   Jacob's  ladder.  (a)  (Bot.) A perennial herb of the genus Polemonium
   (P.  c\'d2ruleum),  having  corymbs of drooping flowers, usually blue.
   Gray.  (b)  (Naut.) A rope ladder, with wooden steps, for going aloft.
   R.  H.  Dana,  Jr.  (c)  (Naut.)  A  succession  of  short cracks in a
   defective spar. -- Jacob's membrane. See Retina. -- Jacob's staff. (a)
   A  name  given  to  many  forms  of staff or weapon, especially in the
   Middle  Ages;  a  pilgrim's staff. [Obs.] Spenser. (b) (Surveying) See
   under Staff.

                               Jacob\'91an lily

   Jac`o*b\'91"an  lil"y  (?).  [See  Jacobean.]  (Bot.)  A bulbous plant
   (Amaryllis,  OR  Sprekelia,  formosissima)  from  Mexico.  It  bears a
   single, large, deep, red, lilylike flower. [Written also Jacobean.]

                            Jacobean; 277, Jacobian

   Ja*co"be*an  (?; 277), Ja*co"bi*an (?), a. [From L. Jacobus James. See
   2d  Jack.]  Of or pertaining to a style of architecture and decoration
   in  the time of James the First, of England. "A Jacobean table." C. L.


   Jac"o*bin (?), n. [F. See 2d Jack, Jacobite.]

   1.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  A Dominican friar; -- so named because, before the
   French  Revolution,  that  order had a convent in the Rue St. Jacques,

   2.  One  of  a  society  of  violent  agitators  in France, during the
   revolution of 1789, who held secret meetings in the Jacobin convent in
   the  Rue  St.  Jacques,  Paris,  and concerted measures to control the
   proceedings  of  the  National  Assembly.  Hence: A plotter against an
   existing government; a turbulent demagogue.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) A fancy pigeon, in which the feathers of the neck form a
   hood,  --  whence  the name. The wings and tail are long, and the beak
   moderately short.


   Jac"o*bin, a. Same as Jacobinic.


   Jac"o*bine (?), n. A Jacobin.

                            Jacobinic, Jacobinical

   Jac`o*bin"ic  (?),  Jac`o*bin"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to the
   Jacobins  of France; revolutionary; of the nature of, or characterized
   by, Jacobinism. Burke. -- Jac`o*bin"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Jac"o*bin*ism  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  Jacobinisme.] The principles of the
   Jacobins; violent and factious opposition to legitimate government.

     Under  this new stimulus, Burn's previous Jacobitism passed towards
     the  opposite,  but  not very distant, extreme of Jacobinism. J. C.


   Jac"o*bin*ize`  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jacobinized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Jacobinizing (?).] [Cf. F. Jacobiniser.] To taint with, or convert
   to, Jacobinism.

     France was not then jacobinized. Burke.


   Jac"o*bite (?), n. [L. Jacobus James: cf. F. Jacobite. See 2d Jack.]

   1.  (Eng. Hist.) A partisan or adherent of James the Second, after his
   abdication,  or  of  his  descendants, an opposer of the revolution in
   1688 in favor of William and Mary. Macaulay.

   2.  (Eccl.)  One of the sect of Syrian Monophysites. The sect is named
   after Jacob Barad\'91us, its leader in the sixth century.


   Jac"o*bite, a. Of or pertaining to the Jacobites.

                            Jacobitic, Jacobitical

   Jac`o*bit"ic  (?),  Jac`o*bit"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to the
   Jacobites; characterized by Jacobitism. -- Jac`o*bit"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Jac"o*bit*ism` (?), n. The principles of the Jacobites. Mason.


   Ja*co"bus  (?), n.; pl. Jacobuses (#). [See Jacobite.] An English gold
   coin,  of  the  value of twenty-five shillings sterling, struck in the
   reign of James I.


   Jac"o*net  (?),  n.  [F.  jaconas.]  A thin cotton fabric, between and
   muslin, used for dresses, neckcloths, etc. [Written also jacconet.]


   Jac*quard"  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or invented by, Jacquard, a French
   mechanician,  who  died  in 1834. Jacquard apparatus OR arrangement, a
   device  applied  to  looms  for  weaving  figured goods, consisting of
   mechanism  controlled  by a chain of variously perforated cards, which
   cause  the  warp  threads  to  be  lifted in the proper succession for
   producing the required figure. -- Jacquard card, one of the perforated
   cards of a Jacquard apparatus. -- Jackquard loom, a loom with Jacquard


   Jacque"mi*not (?), n. A half-hardy, deep crimson rose of the remontant
   class; -- so named after General Jacqueminot, of France.


   Jacque`rie" (?), n. [F.] The name given to a revolt of French peasants
   against  the  nobles  in  1358,  the  leader assuming the contemptuous
   title,  Jacques Bonhomme, given by the nobles to the peasantry. Hence,
   any revolt of peasants.


   Jac"tan*cy  (?),  n.  [L. jactantia, fr. jactans, p. pr. of jactare to
   throw, boast, freq. fr. jacere to throw; cf. F. jactance.] A boasting;
   a bragging. [Obs.]

   Page 796


   Jac*ta"tion  (?),  n. [L. jactatio, fr. jactare: af. F. jactation. See
   Jactancy.]  A throwing or tossing of the body; a shaking or agitation.
   Sir. W. Temple.


   Jac"ti*ta"tion (?), n. [L. jactitare to utter in public, from jactare.
   See Jactancy.]

   1.  (Law)  Vain  boasting  or  assertions repeated to the prejudice of
   another's right; false claim. Mozley & W.

   2.  (Med.)  A frequent tossing or moving of the body; restlessness, as
   in delirium. Dunglison.
   Jactitation  of marriage (Eng. Eccl. Law), a giving out or boasting by
   a  party  that  he  or  she  is  married  to another, whereby a common
   reputation of their matrimony may ensue. Blackstone.


   Jac"u*la*ble (?), a. Fit for throwing. [Obs.]


   Jac"u*late  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Jaculated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Jaculating.]  [L.  jaculatus,  p.  p.  of jaculari. See Ejaculate.] To
   throw or cast, as a dart; to throw out; to emit.


   Jac`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. jaculatio.] The act of tossing, throwing, or
   hurling, as spears.

     Hurled to and fro with jaculation dire. Milton.


   Jac"u*la`tor (?), [L.]

   1. One who throws or casts. [R.]

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The archer fish (Toxotes jaculator).


   Jac"u*la*to*ry  (?), a. [L. jaculatorius: cf. F. jaculatoire.] Darting
   or  throwing out suddenly; also, suddenly thrown out; uttered in short
   sentences; ejaculatory; as, jaculatory prayers. Smart.


   Jad"ding (?), n. (Mining) See Holing.


   Jade (?), n. [F., fr. Sp. jade, fr. piedra de ijada stone of the side,
   fr.  ijada  flank,  side,  pain  in the side, the stone being so named
   because it was supposed to cure this pain. Sp. ijada is derived fr. L.
   ilia  flanks.  Cf.  Iliac.] (Min.) A stone, commonly of a pale to dark
   green  color  but  sometimes  whitish.  It  is  very hard and compact,
   capable  of  fine  polish, and is used for ornamental purposes and for
   implements, esp. in Eastern countries and among many early peoples.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ge neral te rm ja de includes nephrite, a compact
     variety  of  tremolite  with  a specific gravity of 3, and also the
     mineral  jadeite,  a  silicate of alumina and soda, with a specific
     gravity  of  3.3. The latter is the more highly prized and includes
     the  feitsui  of the Chinese. The name has also been given to other
     tough green minerals capable of similar use.


   Jade,  n.  [OE.  jade; cf. Prov. E. yaud, Scot. yade, yad, yaud, Icel.
   jalda a mare.]

   1. A mean or tired horse; a worthless nag. Chaucer.

     Tired as a jade in overloaden cart. Sir P. Sidney.

   2. A disreputable or vicious woman; a wench; a quean; also, sometimes,
   a worthless man. Shak.

     She shines the first of battered jades. Swift.

   3. A young woman; -- generally so called in irony or slight contempt.

     A souple jade she was, and strang. Burns.


   Jade, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Jading.]

   1. To treat like a jade; to spurn. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. To make ridiculous and contemptible. [Obs.]

     I do now fool myself, to let imagination jade me. Shak.

   3.  To  exhaust by overdriving or long-continued labor of any kind; to
   tire or wear out by severe or tedious tasks; to harass.

     The mind, once jaded by an attempt above its power, . . . checks at
     any vigorous undertaking ever after. Locke.

   Syn.  --  To  fatigue; tire; weary; harass. -- To Jade, Fatigue, Tire,
   Weary.  Fatigue is the generic term; tire denotes fatigue which wastes
   the  strength;  weary  implies  that a person is worn out by exertion;
   jade  refers  to the weariness created by a long and steady repetition
   of  the  same  act or effort. A little exertion will tire a child or a
   weak  person; a severe or protracted task wearies equally the body and
   the mind; the most powerful horse becomes jaded on a long journey by a
   continual straining of the same muscles. Wearied with labor of body or
   mind;  tired  of  work, tired out by importunities; jaded by incessant
   attention to business.


   Jade, v. i. To become weary; to lose spirit.

     They . . . fail, and jade, and tire in the prosecution. South.


   Jade"ite (?), n. (Min.) See Jade, the stone.


   Jad"er*y (?), n. The tricks of a jade.


   Jad"ish, a.

   1. Vicious; ill-tempered; resembling a jade; -- applied to a horse.

   2. Unchaste; -- applied to a woman. L'Estrange.


   Jae"ger (?), n. See Jager.


   Jag  (?),  n.  [Prob.  of  Celtic  origin; cf. W. gag aperture, cleft,
   chink; akin to Ir. & Gael. gag.] [Written also jagg.]

   1.  A  notch;  a  cleft;  a  barb;  a  ragged or sharp protuberance; a

     Arethuss arose . . . From rock and from jag. Shelley.

     Garments thus beset with long jags. Holland.

   2. A part broken off; a fragment. Bp. Hacket.

   3. (Bot.) A cleft or division.
   Jag  bolt,  a  bolt  with  a  nicked  or  barbed  shank  which resists
   retraction, as when leaded into stone.


   Jag,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jagged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jagging (?).] To
   cut into notches or teeth like those of a saw; to notch. [Written also
   jagg.  Jagging  iron, a wheel with a zigzag or jagged edge for cutting
   cakes or pastry into ornamental figures.


   Jag, n. [Scot. jag, jaug, a leather bag or wallet, a pocket. Cf. Jag a
   notch.]  A  small  load,  as  of hay or grain in the straw, or of ore.
   [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. U.S.] [Written also jagg.] Forby.


   Jag,  v.  t.  To  carry, as a load; as, to jag hay, etc. [Prov. Eng. &
   Colloq. U.S.]

                             Jaganatha, Jaganatha

   Jag`a*nat"ha (?), Jag`a*nat"ha (?), n. See Juggernaut.


   Ja"ger  (?),  n.  [G.  j\'84ger  a  hunter,  a  sportsman. Cf. Yager.]
   [Written also jaeger.]

   1. (Mil.) A sharpshooter. See Yager.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  species  of gull of the genus Stercorarius. Three
   species  occur  on the Atlantic coast. The jagers pursue other species
   of  gulls  and  force them to disgorge their prey. The two middle tail
   feathers  are  usually  decidedly  longer  than  the rest. Called also
   boatswain,  and  marline-spike  bird.  The name is also applied to the
   skua, or Arctic gull (Megalestris skua).


   Jagg (?), v. t. & n. See Jag.


   Jag"ged   (?),   a.   Having   jags;   having  rough,  sharp  notches,
   protuberances,  or teeth; cleft; laciniate; divided; as, jagged rocks.
   "   Jagged  vine  leaves'  shade."  Trench.  --  Jag"ged*ly,  adv.  --
   Jag"ged*ness, n.


   Jag"ger  (?), n. One who carries about a small load; a peddler. See 2d
   Jag. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.


   Jag"ger,   n.   [From   4th  Jag.]  One  who,  or  that  which,  jags;
   specifically: (a) jagging iron used for crimping pies, cakes, etc. (b)
   A  toothed  chisel.  See  Jag, v. t. Jagger spring, a spring beneath a
   seat,  and  resting  on  cleats  or  blocks  in the body of a vehicle.


   Jag"ger*y  (?), n. [Hind j\'begr\'c6. Cf. Sugar.] Raw palm sugar, made
   in  the East Indies by evaporating the fresh juice of several kinds of
   palm   trees,   but   specifically   that  of  the  palmyra  (Borassus
   flabelliformis). [Written also jagghery.]


   Jag"gy (?), a. Having jags; set with teeth; notched; uneven; as, jaggy
   teeth. Addison.


   Ja"ghir  (?),  n.  [Per.  j\'beg\'c6r.]  A  village  or  district  the
   government  and revenues of which are assigned to some person, usually
   in  consideration of some service to be rendered, esp. the maintenance
   of troops. [Written also jaghire, jagir, etc.] [India] Whitworth.


   Ja"ghir*dar`  (?),  n.  [Per.  j\'beg\'c6r-d\'ber.]  The  holder  of a

                                  Jagua palm

   Ja"gua  palm`  (?).  [Sp. jagua the fruit of the jagua palm.] (Bot.) A
   great Brazilian palm (Maximiliana regia), having immense spathes which
   are used for baskets and tubs.


   Ja*guar"  (?),  n.  [Braz. yago\'a0ra: cf. & Pg. jaguar.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   large  and powerful feline animal (Felis onca), ranging from Texas and
   Mexico  to Patagonia. It is usually brownish yellow, with large, dark,
   somewhat  angular  rings,  each  generally  inclosing  one or two dark
   spots.  It is chiefly arboreal in its habits. Called also the American
   tiger.<-- now Panthera onca; also called panther -->


   Ja`gua*ron"di  (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A South American wild
   cat  (Felis jaguarondi), having a long, slim body and very short legs.
   Its color is grayish brown, varied with a blackish hue. It is arboreal
   in its habits and feeds mostly on birds.


   Jah (j&aum;), n. [Heb. y\'beh.] Jehovah. Ps. lxviii. 4.


   Jail  (?),  n. [OE. jaile, gail, gayhol, OF. gaole, gaiole, jaiole, F.
   ge\'93le,  LL. gabiola, dim. of gabia cage, for L. cavea cavity, cage.
   See Cage.] A kind of prison; a building for the confinement of persons
   held  in  lawful  custody,  especially  for  minor  offenses  or  with
   reference to some future judicial proceeding. [Written also gaol.]

     This jail I count the house of liberty. Milton.

   Jail bird, a prisoner; one who has been confined in prison. [Slang] --
   Jail  delivery,  the release of prisoners from jail, either legally or
   by  violence.  --  Jail  delivery  commission. See under Gaol. -- Jail
   fever  (Med.),  typhus fever, or a disease resembling it, generated in
   jails  and  other  places crowded with people; -- called also hospital
   fever,  and  ship fever. -- Jail liberties, OR Jail limits, a space or
   district  around  a  jail  within  which  an imprisoned debtor was, on
   certain  conditions,  allowed  to go at large. Abbott. -- Jail lock, a
   peculiar form of padlock; -- called also Scandinavian lock.


   Jail, v. t. To imprison. [R.] T. Adams (1614).

     [Bolts] that jail you from free life. Tennyson.


   Jail"er  (?),  n. [OE. jailer, gailer, OF. geolier, F. ge\'93lier. See
   Jail.] The keeper of a jail or prison. [Written also jailor, gaoler.]

                                  Jain, Jaina

   Jain  (?),  Jai"na,  n. [Skr. Jaina, fr. Jina, a proper name, fr. jina
   victorious.]  One  of  a  numerous  sect in British India, holding the
   tenets of Jainism.


   Jain"ism  (?),  n.  The  heterodox  Hindoo religion, of which the most
   striking features are the exaltation of saints or holy mortals, called
   jins,  above  the  ordinary  Hindoo gods, and the denial of the divine
   origin  and  infallibility  of  the  Vedas. It is intermediate between
   Brahmanism and Buddhism, having some things in common with each.


   Jai*rou" (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) The ahu or Asiatic gazelle.


   Jak (?), n. (Bot.) see Ils Jack.


   Jakes  (?), n. [Prob. fr. F. Jacques, the proper name. See 2d Jack.] A
   privy. Shak.


   Ja"kie  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South  American striped frog (Pseudis
   paradoxa),  remarkable for having a tadpole larger than the adult, and
   hence called also paradoxical frog.


   Jak"o  (j&acr;k"&osl;),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  African parrot (Psittacus
   erithacus),  very  commonly  kept  as a cage bird; -- called also gray


   Jak"wood` (?), n. See Jackwood.


   Jal"ap  (?),  n. [F., fr. Sp. jalapa; -- so called from Jalapa, a town
   in  Mexico,  whence  it  was first obtained.] (Med.) The tubers of the
   Mexican  plant  Ipom\'d2a  purga  (or Exogonium purga), a climber much
   like  the  morning-glory.  The abstract, extract, and powder, prepared
   from  the tubers, are well known purgative medicines. Other species of
   Ipom\'d2a   yield   several   inferior  kinds  of  jalap,  as  the  I.
   Orizabensis,  and  I.  tuberosa.  False  jalap,  the root of Mirabilis
   Jalapa, four-o'clock, or marvel of Peru.


   Ja*lap"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to jalap.


   Jal"a*pin  (?), n. (Chem.) A glucoside found in the stems of the jalap
   plant and scammony. It is a strong purgative.


   Ja`lons",  n.  pl.  [F.  Of unknown origin.] (Mil.) Long poles, topped
   with wisps of straw, used as landmarks and signals. Farrow.


   Ja`lou`sie", n. [F. See Jealousy.] A Venetian or slatted inside window


   Ja`lou`sied" (?), a. Furnished with jalousies; as, jalousied porches.


   Jam  (?),  n.  [Per. or Hind. j\'bemah garment, robe.] A kind of frock
   for children.


   Jam, n. (Mining) See Jamb.


   Jam, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jammed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jamming.] [Either
   fr.  jamb,  as if squeezed between jambs, or more likely from the same
   source as champ See Champ.]

   1.  To  press into a close or tight position; to crowd; to squeeze; to
   wedge in.

     The . . . jammed in between two rocks. De Foe.

   2.  To  crush  or  bruise; as, to jam a finger in the crack of a door.

   3.  (Naut.)  To  bring  (a  vessel) so close to the wind that half her
   upper sails are laid aback. W. C. Russell.


   Jam, n.

   1.  A  mass  of people or objects crowded together; also, the pressure
   from  a  crowd;  a  crush;  as,  a jam in a street; a jam of logs in a

   2. An injury caused by jamming. [Colloq.]


   Jam,  n.  [Prob.  fr.  jam,  v.;  but  cf.  also Ar. jamad ice, jelly,
   j\'bemid congealed, jamd congelation, ice.] A preserve of fruit boiled
   with  sugar  and water; as, raspberry jam; currant jam; grape jam. Jam
   nut.  See  Check nut, under Check. -- Jam weld (Forging), a butt weld.
   See under Butt.


   Jam`a*ci"na (?), n. [NL.] Jamaicine.


   Jam"a*dar (?), n. Same as Jemidar.


   Ja*mai"ca  (?), n. One of the West India is islands. Jamaica ginger, a
   variety  of ginger, called also white ginger, prepared in Jamaica from
   the  best  roots,  which  are  deprived  of  their epidermis and dried
   separately.  --  Jamaica  pepper,  allspice. -- Jamaica rose (Bot.), a
   West  Indian  melastomaceous shrub (Blakea trinervis), with showy pink


   Ja*mai"can  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Jamaica. -- n. A native or
   inhabitant of Jamaica.


   Ja*ma"i*cine  (?),  n.  [From Jamaica.] (Chem.) An alkaloid said to be
   contained  in the bark of Geoffroya inermis, a leguminous tree growing
   in Jamaica and Surinam; -- called also jamacina. Watts.


   Jamb  (?),  n. [Prov. E. jaumb, jaum, F. jambe a leg, jambe de force a
   principal rafter. See Gambol.]

   1.  (Arch)  The  vertical side of any opening, as a door or fireplace;
   hence, less properly, any narrow vertical surface of wall, as the of a
   chimney-breast or of a pier, as distinguished from its face. Gwilt.

   2.  (Mining)  Any  thick  mass  of  rock  which  prevents  miners from
   following the lode or vein.


   Jamb (?), v. t. See Jam, v. t.


   Jam*bee"  (?),  n.  [See  Jamb,  n.:  cf.  OF.  jamboier  to  walk.] A
   fashionable cane. [Obs.] Tatler.

                                Jambes, Jambeux

   Jambes  (?),  Jam"beux  (?),  n.  pl.  [From  F.  jambe a leg: cf. OF.
   jambiere.  See Jamb, n.] (Ancient Armor) In the Middle Ages, armor for
   the legs below the knees. [Written also giambeux.] Chaucer.


   Jam`bo*la"na (?), n. [Cf. Pg. jambol&atil;o a kind of tropical fruit.]
   (Bot.)  A  myrtaceous  tree  of  the  West Indies and tropical America
   (Calyptranthes  Jambolana),  with astringent bark, used for dyeing. It
   bears an edible fruit.


   Jam"da*ni  (?),  n.  A  silk fabric, with a woven pattern of sprigs of
   flowers. [Written also jamdanee.] Balfour (Cyc. of India).


   Ja"me*son*ite  (?),  n.  [From  Prof. Jameson, of Edinburgh.] (Min.) A
   steel-gray  mineral,  of metallic luster, commonly fibrous massive. It
   is a sulphide of antimony and lead, with a little iron.

                                James's powder

   James"'s  pow`der (?). (Med.) Antimonial powder, first prepared by Dr.
   James, ar English physician; -- called also fever powder.

                                Jamestown weed

   James"town`  weed` (?). (Bot.) The poisonous thorn apple or stramonium
   (Datura stramonium), a rank weed early noticed at Jamestown, Virginia.
   See Datura.

     NOTE: &hand; This name is often corrupted into jimson, jimpson, and

   Page 797


   Jan  (?),  n.  [Ar.]  (Moham. Myth.) One of intermediate order between
   angels and men.


   Jane (?), n. [LL. Janua Genoa; L. Genua, also OE. Jean.]

   1. A coin of Genoa; any small coin. Chaucer.

   2. A kind of twilled cotton cloth. See Jean.


   Jane"-of-apes"  (?),  n.  A  silly,  pert  girl;  --  corresponding to
   jackanapes. Massinger.


   Jan"gle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jangled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jangling
   (?).]  [OE. janglen to quarrel, OF. jangler to rail, quarrel; of Dutch
   or  German  origin; cf. D. jangelen, janken, to whimper, chide, brawl,

   1. To sound harshly or discordantly, as bells out of tune.

   2.  To  talk  idly;  to prate; to babble; to chatter; to gossip. "Thou
   janglest as a jay." Chaucer.

   3. To quarrel in words; to altercate; to wrangle.

     Good wits will be jangling; but, gentles, agree. Shak.

     Prussian Trenck . . . jargons and jangles in an unmelodious manner.


   Jan"gle, v. t. To cause to sound harshly or inharmoniously; to produce
   discordant sounds with.

     Like sweet bells jangled, out of tune, and harsh. Shak.


   Jan"gle, n. [Cf. OF.jangle.]

   1. Idle talk; prate; chatter; babble. Chaucer.

   2. Discordant sound; wrangling.

     The musical jangle of sleigh bells. Longfellow.


   Jan"gler (?), n. [Cf. OF. jangleor.]

   1. An idle talker; a babbler; a prater. Chaucer.

   2. A wrangling, noisy fellow.


   Jan"gler*ess, n. A female prater or babbler.


   Jan"gler*y,  n. [Cf. OF. janglerie chattering, talk.] Jangling. [Obs.]


   Jan"gling  (?),  a.  Producing  discordant sounds. "A jangling noise."


   Jan"gling, n.

   1. Idle babbling; vain disputation.

     From  which  some,  having  swerved,  have  turned  aside unto vain
     jangling. 1 Tim. i. 6.

   2. Wrangling; altercation. Lamb.


   Jan"is*sa*ry (?), n. See Janizary.


   Jan"i*tor (?), n. [L., fr. janua a door.] A door-keeper; a porter; one
   who  has  the  care  of  a public building, or a building occupied for
   offices, suites of rooms, etc.

                              Janitress, Janitrix

   Jan"i*tress  (?),  Jan"i*trix  (?),  n.  [L. janitrix. See Janitor.] A
   female janitor.


   Jan"i*zar` (?), n. A janizary. [R.] Byron.


   Jan`i*za"ri*an  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to the janizaries, or their
   government. Burke.


   Jan"i*za*ry  (?), n.; pl. Janizaries (#). [F. janissaire, fr. Turk. ye
   new  soldiers  or  troops.]  A soldier of a privileged military class,
   which  formed  the nucleus of the Turkish infantry, but was suppressed
   in 1826. [written also janissary.]


   Jan"ker  (?),  n.  A  long  pole  on two wheels, used in hauling logs.
   [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Jan"sen*ism  (?), n. [F. Jans\'82nisme.] (Eccl. Hist.) The doctrine of
   Jansen regarding free will and divine grace.


   Jan"sen*ist,  n.  [F.  Jans\'82niste.]  (Eccl.  Hist.)  A  follower of
   Cornelius  Jansen,  a  Roman Catholic bishop of Ypres, in Flanders, in
   the  17th  century, who taught certain doctrines denying free will and
   the possibility of resisting divine grace.


   Jant (?), v. i. See Jaunt.


   Jan"thi*na (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Ianthina.


   Jan"ti*ly (?), adv. See Jauntily.


   Jan"ti*ness, n. See Jauntiness.


   Jan"tu (?) n. A machine of great antiquity, used in Bengal for raising
   water to irrigate land. Knight.


   Jan"ty (?), a. See Jaunty.


   Jan"u*a*ry  (?),  n.  [L. Januarius, fr. Janus an old Latin deity, the
   god  of the sun and the year, to whom the month of January was sacred;
   cf.  janua  a  door,  Skr.  y\'be to go.] The first month of the year,
   containing thirty-one days.

     NOTE: &hand; Be fore the adoption of New Style, the commencement of
     the year was usually reckoned from March 25.


   Ja"nus  (?),  n.  [L.  See  January.]  (Rom.  Antiq.)  A  Latin  deity
   represented  with  two  faces  looking in opposite directions. Numa is
   said  to have dedicated to Janus the covered passage at Rome, near the
   Forum,  which  is usually called the Temple of Janus. This passage was
   open  in  war and closed in peace. Dr. W. Smith. Janus cloth, a fabric
   having  both  sides  dressed,  the sides being of different colors, --
   used for reversible garments.


   Ja"nus-faced`  (?),  a. Double-faced; deceitful. Janus-faced lock, one
   having  duplicate  faces so as to go upon a right or a left hand door,
   the key entering on either side indifferently. Knight.


   Ja"nus-head`ed (?), a. Double-headed.


   Ja*pan"  (?), n. [From Japan, the country.] Work varnished and figured
   in  the  Japanese  manner;  also,  the  varnish  or  lacquer  used  in


   Ja*pan",  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Japan, or to the lacquered work of
   that  country;  as,  Japan  ware. Japan allspice (Bot.), a spiny shrub
   from  Japan (Chimonanthus fragrans), related to the Carolina allspice.
   --  Japan  black  (Chem.),  a quickly drying black lacquer or varnish,
   consisting   essentially   of   asphaltum   dissolved  in  naphtha  or
   turpentine,  and  used  for coating ironwork; -- called also Brunswick
   black,  Japan  lacquer,  or  simply  Japan. -- Japan camphor, ordinary
   camphor  brought  from  China or Japan, as distinguished from the rare
   variety  called  borneol  or Borneo camphor. -- Japan clover, OR Japan
   pea  (Bot.), a cloverlike plant (Lespedeza striata) from Eastern Asia,
   useful  for  fodder, first noticed in the Southern United States about
   1860,  but  now become very common. During the Civil War it was called
   variously Yankee clover and Rebel clover. -- Japan earth. See Catechu.
   -- Japan ink, a kind of writing ink, of a deep, glossy black when dry.
   --  Japan varnish, a varnish prepared from the milky juice of the Rhus
   vernix, a small Japanese tree related to the poison sumac.


   Ja*pan"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Japanned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  cover with a coat of hard, brilliant varnish, in the manner of
   the Japanese; to lacquer.

   2. To give a glossy black to, as shoes. [R.] Gay.


   Jap`a*nese" (?), a. Of or pertaining to Japan, or its inhabitants.


   Jap`a*nese", n. sing. & pl.

   1. A native or inhabitant of Japan; collectively, the people of Japan.

   2. sing. The language of the people of Japan.


   Ja*panned"  (?),  a.  Treated, or coated, with varnish in the Japanese
   manner.  Japanned  leather,leather  treated  with  coatings  of  Japan
   varnish, and dried in a stove. Knight.


   Ja*pan"ner (?), n.

   1.  One who varnishes in the manner of the Japanese, or one skilled in
   the art.

   2. A bootblack. [R.]


   Ja*pan"ning  (?),  n.  The  art  or  act of varnishing in the Japanese


   Ja*pan"nish  (?),  a.  After  the  manner  of the Japanese; resembling
   japanned articles. Carlyle.


   Jape  (?),  v.  i. [Prob. from the same source as gab,influenced by F.
   japper to yelp. See Gab to deceive.] To jest; to play tricks; to jeer.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Jape, v. t. To mock; to trick. Chaucer.

     I have not been putting a jape upon you. Sir W. Scott.

     The coy giggle of the young lady to whom he has imparted his latest
     merry jape. W. Besant.


   Jap"er (?), n. A jester; a buffoon. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Jap"er*y  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF. japerie a yelping.] Jesting; buffoonery.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ja"pheth*ite (?), n. A Japhetite. Kitto.


   Ja*phet"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or derived from, Japheth, one of the
   sons of Noah; as, Japhetic nations, the nations of Europe and Northern
   Asia; Japhetic languages.


   Ja"phet*ite (?), n. A descendant of Japheth.


   Ja*pon"i*ca  (?),  n.  [NL.,  Japanese,  fr.  Japonia Japan.] (Bot.) A
   species  of  Camellia  (Camellia Japonica), a native of Japan, bearing
   beautiful  red or white flowers. Many other genera have species of the
   same name.


   Jar  (?),  n. [See Ajar.] A turn. [Only in phrase.] On the jar, on the
   turn, ajar, as a door.


   Jar  (?),  n.  [F.  jarre,  Sp. jarra, from Ar. jarrah ewer; cf. Pers.

   1.  A  deep, broad-mouthed vessel of earthenware or glass, for holding
   fruit,  preserves,  etc.,  or  for  ornamental  purposes; as, a jar of
   honey; a rose jar. Dryden.

   2.  The measure of what is contained in a jar; as, a jar of oil; a jar
   of preserves.
   Bell jar, Leyden jar. See in the Vocabulary.


   Jar,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Jarred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. jarring (?).]
   [Cf. OE. charken to creak, AS. cearcian to gnash, F. jars a gander, L.
   garrire  to  chatter, prate, OHG. kerran to chatter, croak, G. quarren
   to grumble, and E. jargon, ajar.]

   1.  To  give  forth  a  rudely  quivering or tremulous sound; to sound
   harshly or discordantly; as, the notes jarred on my ears.

     When such strings jar, what hope of harmony ? Shak.

     A string may jar in the best master's hand. Roscommon.

   2.  To  act  in opposition or disagreement; to clash; to interfere; to
   quarrel; to dispute.

     When those renowned noble peers Greece Through stubborn pride among
     themselves did jar. Spenser.

     For  orders  and  degrees  Jar  not with liberty, but well consist.


   Jar, v. t.

   1. To cause a short, tremulous motion of, to cause to tremble, as by a
   sudden shock or blow; to shake; to shock; as, to jar the earth; to jar
   one's faith.

   2. To tick; to beat; to mark or tell off. [Obs.]

     My  thoughts  are minutes, and with sighs they jar Their watches on
     unto mine eyes. Shak.


   Jar, n.

   1. A rattling, tremulous vibration or shock; a shake; a harsh sound; a
   discord; as, the jar of a train; the jar of harsh sounds.

   2.  Clash  of interest or opinions; collision; discord; debate; slight

     And yet his peace is but continual jar. Spenser.

     Cease, cease these jars, and rest your minds in peace. Shak.

   3. A regular vibration, as of a pendulum.

     I love thee not a jar of the clock. Shak.

   4.  pl. In deep well boring, a device resembling two long chain links,
   for  connecting  a percussion drill to the rod or rope which works it,
   so  that  the  drill is driven down by impact and is jerked loose when


   Jar`a*ra"ca  (?),  n.  [Pg.,  from  the  native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A
   poisonous serpent of Brazil (Bothrops jararaca), about eighteen inches
   long,  and  of  a dusky, brownish color, variegated with red and black


   Jar"ble (?), v. t. To wet; to bemire. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Jar`di`ni\'8are" (?), n. [F., fem. of jardinier gardener. See Garden.]
   An ornamental stand or receptacle for plants, flowers, etc., used as a
   piece of decorative furniture in room.


   Jards (?), n. [F. jarde, jardon.] (Far.) A callous tumor on the leg of
   a horse, below the hock.


   Jar"gle  (?), v. i. [Cf. OSw. jerga to repeat angrily, to brawl, Icel.
   jarg  tedious  iteration,  F.  jargonner  to  talk  jargon. See Jargon
   gabble.] To emit a harsh or discordant sound. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Jar"gon  (?),  n.  [F.  jargon,  OF.  also  gargon,  perh.  akin to E.
   garrulous,  or  gargle.] Confused, unintelligible language; gibberish;
   hence,  an  artificial  idiom  or  dialect;  cant  language; slang. "A
   barbarous jargon." Macaulay. "All jargon of the schools." Prior.

     The jargon which serves the traffickers. Johnson.

   <--  an  idiom  with  frequent  use  of  informal  technical terms, as
   acronyms, used by specialists -->


   Jar"gon  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Jargon  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Jargoning.]  To  utter  jargon;  to  emit  confused  or unintelligible
   sounds; to talk unintelligibly, or in a harsh and noisy manner.

     The noisy jay, Jargoning like a foreigner at his food. Longfellow.


   Jar"gon,   n.   [E.jargon,   It.   jiargone;   perh.  fr.  Pers.  zarg
   gold-colored,  fr.  zar gold. Cf. Zircon.] (Min.) A variety of zircon.
   See Zircon.


   Jar`go*nelle"  (?),  n.  [F. jargonelle a very gritty variety of pear.
   See Jargon zircon.] A variety of pear which ripens early.


   Jar*gon"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the mineral jargon.


   Jar"gon*ist  (?),  n.  One  addicted  to  jargon; one who uses cant or
   slang. Macaulay.


   Jarl  (?), n. [Icel., nobleman, chief. See Earl.] A chief; an earl; in
   English history, one of the leaders in the Danish and Norse invasions.


   Jar"nut`  (?),  n.  [Of Scand. origin: cf. Dan. jordn\'94d.] (Bot.) An
   earthnut. Dr. Prior.


   Ja*ro"site  (?),  n.  [From  Barranco  Jaroso,  in  Spain.]  (Min.) An
   ocher-yellow  mineral occurring on minute rhombohedral crystals. It is
   a hydrous sulphate of iron and potash.


   Jar"-owl` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The goatsucker.


   Jar"rah  (?),  n.  The  mahoganylike wood of the Australian Eucalyptus
   marginata. See Eucalyptus.


   Jar"ring  (?),  a.  [See  Jar.]  Shaking;  disturbing;  discordant. "A
   jarring sound." Dryden.


   Jar"ring n.

   1.  A  shaking;  a  tremulous  motion; as, the jarring of a steamship,
   caused by its engines.

   2.  Discord;  a  clashing of interests. "Endless jarrings and immortal
   hate." Dryden.


   Jar"ring*ly, adv. In a jarring or discordant manner.

                                 Jarvey, Jarvy

   Jar"vey, Jar"vy (?), n.

   1. The driver of a hackney coach. [Slang, Eng.] Carlyle.

   2. A hackney coach. [Slang, Eng.]

     The litter at the bottom of the jarvy. T. Hook.


   Ja"sey  (?),  n.  A wig; -- so called, perhaps, from being made of, or
   resembling, Jersey yarn. Thackeray.


   Jas"hawk`  (?),  n.  [A  corruption  of eyas hawk.] (Zo\'94l.) A young
   hawk. Booth.


   Jas"mine  (?),  n.  [F.  jasmin,  Sp.  jazmin, Ar. y\'besm\'c6n, Pers.
   y\'besm\'c6n;  cf.  It.  gesmino,  gelsomino. Cf. Jessamine.] (Bot.) A
   shrubby  plant  of the genus Jasminum, bearing flowers of a peculiarly
   fragrant odor. The J. officinale, common in the south of Europe, bears
   white  flowers.  The  Arabian  jasmine  is  J.  Sambac,  and,  with J.
   angustifolia,  comes from the East Indies. The yellow false jasmine in
   the  Gelseminum sempervirens (see Gelsemium). Several other plants are
   called  jasmine  in  the  West  Indies,  as  species of Calotropis and
   Faramea.  [Written  also  jessamine.] Cape jasmine, OR Cape jessamine,
   the Gardenia florida, a shrub with fragrant white flowers, a native of
   China, and hardy in the Southern United States.


   Jasp (?), n. Jasper. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Jas"pa*chate (?), n. [L. iaspachates, Gr. (Min.) Agate jasper. [Obs.]


   Jas"per  (?),  n.  [OE. jaspre, jaspe, OF. jaspre, jaspe, F. jaspe, L.
   iaspis,  Gr. yashp, yashf, Ar.yashb, yasb, yasf, Heb. y\'beshpheh. Cf.
   Diaper.]  (Min.)  An opaque, impure variety of quartz, of red, yellow,
   and  other dull colors, breaking with a smooth surface. It admits of a
   high  polish, and is used for vases, seals, snuff boxes, etc. When the
   colors are in stripes or bands, it is called striped OR banded jasper.
   The Egyptian pebble is a brownish yellow jasper. Jasper opal, a yellow
   variety  of opal resembling jasper. -- Jasper ware, a delicate kind of
   earthenware  invented  by Josiah Wedgwood. It is usually white, but is
   capable of receiving color.


   Jas"per*a`ted  (?),  a.  mixed  with  jasper;  containing particles of
   jasper; as, jasperated agate.


   Jas"per*ize (?), v. t. [Usually p. p. Jasperized ( To convert into, or
   make to resemble, jasper.

     Polished  specimens  of  jasperized  and  agatized woods. Pop. Sci.


   Jas"per*y (?), a. Of the nature of jasper; mixed with jasper.

                             Jaspidean, Jaspideous

   Jas*pid"e*an  (?),  Jas*pid"e*ous  (?), a. [L. iaspideus. See Jasper.]
   Consisting of jasper, or containing jasper; jaspery; jasperlike.


   Jas"pi*lite  (?), n. [Jasper + -lite.] (Min.) A compact siliceous rock
   resembling jasper.


   Jas"poid  (?),  a.  [F.  jaspo\'8bde;  jaspe  jasper  + Gr. Resembling
   jasper. [R.]


   Jasp`o"nyx  (?),  n. [L. iasponyx, Gr. . See Jasper, and Onyx.] (min.)
   An onyx, part or all of whose layers consist of jasper.


   Ja*troph"ic  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to physic nuts, the seeds of
   plants of the genus Jatropha.


   Jaunce  (?),  v.  i. [OF. jancer. Cf. Jounce, Jaunt.] To ride hard; to
   jounce. [Obs.]

     Spurr'd, galled and tired by jauncing Bolingbroke. Shak.


   Jaun"dice  (?;  277),  n.  [OE. jaunis, F. jaunisse, fr. jaune yellow,
   orig.  jalne,  fr. L. galbinus yellowish, fr. galbus yellow.] (Med.) A
   morbid  condition,  characterized by yellowness of the eyes, skin, and
   urine,  whiteness  of  the  f\'91ces,  constipation, uneasiness in the
   region  of  the  stomach,  loss  of  appetite, and general languor and
   lassitude. It is caused usually by obstruction of the biliary passages
   and  consequent  damming  up, in the liver, of the bile, which is then
   absorbed into the blood. Blue jaundice. See Cyanopathy.

   Page 798


   Jaun"dice (?), v. t. To affect with jaundice; to color by prejudice or
   envy; to prejudice.

     The envy of wealth jaundiced his soul. Ld. Lytton.


   Jaun"diced (?), a.

   1. affected with jaundice.

     Jaundiced eyes seem to see all objects yellow. Bp. Hall.

   2. Prejudiced; envious; as, a jaundiced judgment.


   Jaunt  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Jaunted; p. pr. & vb. n. Jaunting.]
   [Cf. Scot. jaunder to ramble, jaunt to taunt, jeer, dial. Sw. ganta to
   play the buffoon, romp, jest; perh. akin to E. jump. Cf. Jaunce.]

   1. To ramble here and there; to stroll; to make an excursion.

   2. To ride on a jaunting car.
   Jaunting  car,  a  kind  of  low-set open vehicle, used in Ireland, in
   which  the  passengers  ride  sidewise, sitting back to back. [Written
   also jaunty car.] Thackeray.


   Jaunt, v. t. To jolt; to jounce. [Obs.] Bale.


   Jaunt, n.

   1. A wearisome journey. [R.]

     Our Savior, meek, and with untroubled mind After his a\'89ry jaunt,
     though  hurried  sore.  Hungry  and  cold,  betook him to his rest.

   2.  A  short  excursion for pleasure or refreshment; a ramble; a short


   Jaun"ti*ly (?), adv. In a jaunty manner.


   Jaun"ti*ness, n. The quality of being jaunty.

     That jauntiness of air I was once master of. Addison.


   Jaun"ty  (?),  a. [Compar. Jauntier (?); superl. Jauntiest.] [Formerly
   spelt  janty,  fr. F. gentil. See Gentle, and cf. Genty.] Airy; showy;
   finical; hence, characterized by an affected or fantastical manner.


   Ja"va (?), n.

   1.  One  of  the  islands  of  the  Malay Archipelago belonging to the

   2. Java coffee, a kind of coffee brought from Java.
   Java cat (Zo\'94l.), the musang. -- Java sparrow (Zo\'94l.), a species
   of  finch (Padda oryzivora), native of Java, but very commonly kept as
   a  cage bird; -- called also ricebird, and paddy bird. In the male the
   upper  parts  are  glaucous  gray,  the head and tail black, the under
   parts  delicate rose, and the cheeks white. The bill is large and red.
   A white variety is also kept as a cage bird.


   Jav`a*nese"  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Java, or to the people of
   Java. -- n. sing. & pl. A native or natives of Java.


   Jav"el (?), n. A vagabond. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Jave"lin  (?),  n.  [F. javeline; akin to Sp. jabalina, It. giavelina,
   and  F.  javelot, OF. gavlot. Cf. Gavelock.] A sort of light spear, to
   be  thrown  or  cast  by thew hand; anciently, a weapon of war used by
   horsemen  and foot soldiers; now used chiefly in hunting the wild boar
   and other fierce game.

     Flies  the  javelin swifter to its mark, Launched by the vigor of a
     Roman arm? Addison.


   Jave"lin, v. t. To pierce with a javelin. [R.] Tennyson.


   Jave`lin*ier" (?), n. A soldier armed with a javelin. Holland.


   Jaw  (?), n. [A modification of chaw, formed under the influence of F.
   joue the cheek. See Chaw, Chew.]

   1. (Anat.) (a) One of the bones, usually bearing teeth, which form the
   framework  of  the  mouth.  (b)  Hence, also, the bone itself with the
   teeth and covering. (c) In the plural, the mouth.

   2.  Fig.:  Anything resembling the jaw of an animal in form or action;
   esp.,  pl.,  the mouth or way of entrance; as, the jaws of a pass; the
   jaws of darkness; the jaws of death. Shak.

   3.  (Mach.)  (a)  A  notch  or  opening. (b) A notched or forked part,
   adapted  for  holding an object in place; as, the jaw of a railway-car
   pedestal.  See  Axle  guard. (b) One of a pair of opposing parts which
   are  movable  towards  or  from  each  other, for grasping or crushing
   anything  between  them,  as,  the  jaws  of  a vise, or the jaws of a
   stone-crushing machine.

   4.  (Naut.) The inner end of a boom or gaff, hollowed in a half circle
   so as to move freely on a mast.


   Impudent or abusive talk. [Slang] H. Kingsley. Jaw bit
   (Railroad),  a  bar  across  the jaws of a pedestal underneath an axle
   box. --
   Jaw breaker, a word difficult to pronounce. [Obs.]<-- also, a piece of
   hard  candy  --> -- Jaw rope (Naut.), a rope which holds the jaws of a
   gaff to the mast. -- Jaw tooth, a molar or grinder; a back tooth.


   Jaw, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jawing.] To scold;
   to clamor. [Law] <-- generally, to talk, esp. long-windedly or without
   special purpose --> Smollett.


   Jaw, v. t. To assail or abuse by scolding. [Law]


   Jaw"bone` (?), n. The bone of either jaw; a maxilla or a mandible. <--
   Jawbone.  v.  t.  &  i.  To attempt to influence solely by talking, as
   contrasted   with   threatening  or  inducing  by  other  means,  e.g.
   legislation;  esp.  (1969,  MW10)  the  use  of  public appeals by the
   President or other high government officials to influence the behavior
   of  businessmen  or  labor  leaders. "Jawbone them into forgoing price
   increases." -->


   Jawed   (?),   a.   Having   jaws;  --  chiefly  in  composition;  as,
   lantern-jawed. "Jawed like a jetty." Skelton.


   Law"-fall`  (?),  n.  Depression  of  the  jaw;  hence,  depression of
   spirits. M. Griffith (1660).


   Jaw"-fall`en (?), a. Dejected; chopfallen.


   Jaw"foot` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Maxilliped.


   Jaw"ing, n. Scolding; clamorous or abusive talk. [Slang] H. Kingsley.


   Jawn (?), v. i. See Yawn. [Obs.] Marston.


   Jaw"y (?), a. Relating to the jaws. Gayton.


   Jay  (?), n. [F. geai, OF. gai, jaj, perh. fr. OHG. g\'behi. Cf. Gay.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  one  of  the  numerous  species of birds belonging to
   Garrulus, Cyanocitta, and allied genera. They are allied to the crows,
   but  are smaller, more graceful in form, often handsomely colored, and
   usually have a crest.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e European jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a large and
     handsomely  colored  species,  having  the body pale reddish brown,
     lighter beneath; tail and wing quills blackish; the primary coverts
     barred  with  bright  blue  and  black; throat, tail coverts, and a
     large spot on the wings, white. Called also jay pie, Jenny jay, and
     k\'91.  The common blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata.), and the related
     species,  are brilliantly colored, and have a large erectile crest.
     The  California  jay  (Aphelocoma Californica), the Florida jay (A.
     Floridana),  and  the  green  jay (Xanthoura luxuosa), of Texas and
     Mexico,  are  large,  handsome,  crested  species.  The  Canada jay
     (Perisoreus  Canadensis),  and  several  allied  species,  are much
     plainer and have no crest. See Blue jay, and Whisky jack.

   Jay  thrush  (Zo\'94l.),  any  one  several species of Asiatic singing
   birds,  of  the  genera Garrulax, Grammatoptila, and related genera of
   the  family  Crateropodid\'91;  as;  the white-throated jay thrush (G.
   albogularis), of India.
   Jay"et (?), n. (Min.) See Jet. [Obs.] 


   Jay"hawk`er  (?), n. A name given to a free-booting, unenlisted, armed
   man or guerrilla.

     NOTE: [A term of opprobrium used in the war of 1861-65, U. S.]


   Ja"zel (?), n. A gem of an azure color. [Obs.]


   Jaz"er*ant   (?),  n.  [OF.  jacerant,  jaseran,  Sp.  jacerina,  cota
   jacerina, fr. jazarino Algerine, fr. Ar. jaz\'be\'c6r Algiers.] A coat
   of defense made of small plates of metal sewed upon linen or the like;
   also, this kind of armor taken generally; as, a coat of jazerant.


   Jeal"ous  (?),  a.  [OE.  jalous,  gelus,  OF.  jalous, F. jaloux, LL.
   zelosus  zealous,  fr.  zelus emulation, zeal, jealousy, Gr. Zeal, and
   cf. Zealous.]

   1. Zealous; solicitous; vigilant; anxiously watchful.

     I have been very jeolous for the Lord God of hosts. Kings xix. 10.

     How  nicely  jealous  is  every one of us of his own repute! Dr. H.

   2. Apprehensive; anxious; suspiciously watchful.

     'This  doing wrong creates such doubts as these, Renders us jealous
     and disturbs our peace. Waller.

     The people are so jealous of the clergy's ambition. Swift.

   3. Exacting exclusive devotion; intolerant of rivalry.

     Thou  shalt  worship  no  other  God;  for  the Lord, whose name is
     Jealous, is a jealous God. Ex. xxxiv. 14.

   4.  Disposed  to suspect rivalry in matters of interest and affection;
   apprehensive regarding the motives of possible rivals, or the fidelity
   of  friends;  distrustful;  having  morbid  fear of rivalry in love or
   preference  given to another; painfully suspicious of the faithfulness
   of husband, wife, or lover.

     If  the  spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he be jealous of his
     wife. Num. v. 14.

     To  both  these  sisters  have I sworn my love: Each jealous of the
     other, as the stung Are of the adder. Shak.

     It is one of the best bonds, both of chastity and obedience, in the
     wife, if she think her husband wise; which she will never do if she
     find him jealous. Bacon.

   Syn.  -- Suspicious; anxious; envious. Jealous, Suspicious. Suspicious
   is  the  wider  term. We suspect a person when we distrust his honesty
   and imagine he has some bad design. We are jealous when we suspect him
   of  aiming  to  deprive  us  of  what  we  dearly prize. Iago began by
   awakening  the  suspicions of Othello, and converted them at last into
   jealousy.  "Suspicion  may  be excited by some kind of accusation, not
   supported  by  evidence  sufficient  for conviction, but sufficient to
   trouble the repose of confidence." "Jealousy is a painful apprehension
   of rivalship in cases that are peculiarly interesting to us." Cogan.


   Jeal"ous*hood (?), n. Jealousy. [Obs.] Shak.


   Jeal"ous*ly, adv. In a jealous manner.


   Jeal"ous*ness, n. State or quality of being jealous.


   Jeal"ous*y  (?),  n.;  pl. Jealousies (#). [ F. jalousie. See Jealous,
   and  cf.  Jalousie.]  The quality of being jealous; earnest concern or
   solicitude;   painful   apprehension  of  rivalship  in  cases  nearly
   affecting  one's  happiness;  painful suspicion of the faithfulness of
   husband, wife, or lover.

     I was jealous for jealousy. Zech. viii. 2.

     Jealousy is the . . . apprehension of superiority. Shenstone.

     Whoever  had  qualities  to  alarm  our jealousy, had excellence to
     deserve our fondness. Rambler.


   Jeames  (?), n. [Corrup. of James.] A footman; a flunky. [Slang, Eng.]


   Jean  (?),  n.  [Prob.  named  from Genoa. See Jane.] A twilled cotton
   cloth.  Satin  jean, a kind of jean woven smooth and glossy, after the
   manner of satin.


   Jears (?), n. pl. (Naut.) See 1st Jeer (b).


   Jeat (?), n. (Min.) See Jet. [Obs.]

                                  Jedding ax

   Jed"ding  ax`  (?),  n. A stone mason's tool, having a flat face and a
   pointed part. Knight.


   Jee (?), v. t. & i. See Gee.


   Jeel  (?), n. [Hind. jh\'c6l.] A morass; a shallow lake. [Written also
   jhil.] [India] Whitworth.


   Jeer  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Gear.]  (Naut.) (a) A gear; a tackle. (b) pl. An
   assemblage  or  combination  of  tackles, for hoisting or lowering the
   lower  yards of a ship. Jeer capstan (Naut.), an extra capstan usually
   placed between the foremast and mainmast.


   Jeer, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jeered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jeering.] [Perh.
   a  corrup. of cheer to salute with cheers, taken in an ironical sense;
   or  more prob. fr. D. gekscheren to jeer, lit., to shear the fool; gek
   a  fool  (see  1st  Geck)  + scheren to shear. See Shear, v.] To utter
   sarcastic  or scoffing reflections; to speak with mockery or derision;
   to use taunting language; to scoff; as, to jeer at a speaker.

     But when he saw her toy and gibe and jeer. Spenser.

   Syn. -- To sneer; scoff; flout; gibe; mock.


   Jeer  (?),  v.  t.  To  treat with scoffs or derision; to address with
   jeers; to taunt; to flout; to mock at.

     And if we can not jeer them, we jeer ourselves. B. Jonson.


   Jeer,  n.  A  railing remark or reflection; a scoff; a taunt; a biting
   jest; a flout; a jibe; mockery.

     Midas,  exposed  to all their jeers, Had lost his art, and kept his
     ears. Swift.


   Jeer"er (?), n. A scoffer; a railer; a mocker.


   Jeer"ing,  a.  Mocking;  scoffing.  --  n.  A  mocking  utterance.  --
   Jeer"ing*ly, adv.


   Jeers (?), n. pl. (Naut.) See 1st Jeer (b).

                                     Jeff Kendall

   Jeff Kendall, n.  Formatter of this gutenberg etext. jeff@jeffkendall.org.


   Jef`fer*so"ni*a  (?), n. [NL. Named after Thomas Jefferson.] (Bot.) An
   American  herb  with  a  pretty,  white,  solitary blossom, and deeply
   two-cleft leaves (Jeffersonia diphylla); twinleaf.


   Jef`fer*so"ni*an  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or characteristic of, Thomas
   Jefferson or his policy or political doctrines. Lowell.


   Jef"fer*son*ite  (?),  n.  [Named  after  Thomas  Jefferson.] (Min.) A
   variety  of  pyroxene  of  olive-green  color  passing  into brown. It
   contains zinc.


   Jeg (?), n. (Mach.) See Jig, 6.


   Je*ho"vah  (?),  n.  [Heb. usually y&ecr;h&omac;v\'beh (with the vowel
   points  of  &acr;d&omac;n\'bei  Lord), sometimes (to avoid repetition)
   y&ecr;h&omac;vih  (with  the  vowel points of &ecr;l&omac;h\'c6m God);
   but  only  the  four Heb, consonants yhvh are conceded to be certainly
   known.]  A  Scripture  name  of  the  Supreme  Being,  by which he was
   revealed  to  the  Jews  as  their  covenant  God  or Sovereign of the
   theocracy;  the  "ineffable  name" of the Supreme Being, which was not
   pronounced by the Jews.


   Je*ho"vist (?), n.

   1.  One  who  maintains  that the vowel points of the word Jehovah, in
   Hebrew, are the proper vowels of that word; -- opposed to adonist.

   2.  The  writer of the passages of the Old Testament, especially those
   of  the  Pentateuch, in which the Supreme Being is styled Jehovah. See

     The  characteristic manner of the Jehovist differs from that of his
     predecessor   [the   Elohist].  He  is  fuller  and  freer  in  his
     descriptions;  more  reflective  in  his  assignment of motives and
     causes; more artificial in mode of narration. S. Davidson.


   Je`ho*vis"tic  (?),  a. Relating to, or containing, Jehovah, as a name
   of  God;  -- said of certain parts of the Old Testament, especially of
   the Pentateuch, in which Jehovah appears as the name of the Deity. See


   Je"hu  (?), n. [From Jehu, son of Nimshi. 2 Kings ix. 20.] A coachman;
   a driver; especially, one who drives furiously. [Colloq.]


   Je*ju"nal (?), a. Pertaining to the jejunum.


   Je*june"  (?), a. [L. jejunus fasting, hungry, dry, barren, scanty; of
   unknown origin.]

   1. Lacking matter; empty; void of substance.

   2.  Void  of  interest; barren; meager; dry; as, a jejune narrative. -
   Je*june"ly, adv. -- Je*june"ness, n. Bacon.


   Je*fu"ni*ty (?), n. The quality of being jejune; jejuneness.


   Je*ju"num (?), n. [NL., fr. L. jejunus empty, dry.] (Anat.) The middle
   division of the small intestine, between the duodenum and ileum; -- so
   called because usually found empty after death.


   Jel"er*ang  (?),  n.  [Native  name.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  large,  handsome
   squirrel  (Sciurus  Javensis),  native  of  Java and Southern Asia; --
   called also Java squirrel.


   Jell (?), v. i. To jelly. [Colloq.]


   Jel"lied (?), a. Brought to the state or consistence of jelly.


   Jel"ly  (?),  n.; pl. Jellies (#). [ Formerly gelly, gely, F. gel\'82e
   jelly,  frost, fr. geler to freeze. L. gelare; akin to gelu frost. See

   1.  Anything brought to a gelatinous condition; a viscous, translucent
   substance  in  a  condition  between  liquid  and  solid;  a stiffened
   solution of gelatin, gum, or the like.

   2.  The  juice  of  fruits  or  meats  boiled with sugar to an elastic
   consistence; as, currant jelly; calf's-foot jelly.
   Jelly  bag, a bag through which the material for jelly is strained. --
   Jelly  mold,  a  mold for forming jelly in ornamental shapes. -- Jelly
   plant   (Bot.),   Australian  name  of  an  edible  seaweed  (Eucheuma
   speciosum),  from which an excellent jelly is made. J. Smith. -- Jelly
   powder,  an explosive, composed of nitroglycerin and collodion cotton;
   -- so called from its resemblance to calf's-foot jelly.


   Jel"ly, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jellied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jellying.] To
   become jelly; to come to the state or consistency of jelly.


   Jel"ly*fish`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of the acalephs, esp. one of
   the larger species, having a jellylike appearance. See Medusa.


   Jem"i*dar`  (?), n. [Per. & Hind. jama-d\'ber.] The chief or leader of
   a  hand  or  body  of  persons;  esp., in the native army of India, an
   officer  of  a rank corresponding to that of lieutenant in the English
   army. [Written also jemadar, jamadar.]

                                  Jemlah goat

   Jem"lah goat` (?). (Zo\'94l.) The jharal.


   Jem"mi*ness (?), n. Spruceness. [Slang, Eng.] Pegge (1814).


   Jem"my (?), a. [Cf. Gim, and Gimp, a.] Spruce. [Slang, Eng.] Smart.


   Jem"my, n.

   1. A short crowbar. See Jimmy.

   2. A baked sheep's head. [Slang, Eng.] Dickens.


   Je*ni"quen (?), n. [Sp. jeniquen.] (Bot.) A Mexican name for the Sisal
   hemp  (Agave  rigida,  var.  Sisalana); also, its fiber. [Written also


   Je"nite (?), n. (Min.) See Yenite.


   Jen"kins  (?),  n. name of contempt for a flatterer of persons high in
   social  or  official  life;  as,  the Jenkins employed by a newspaper.
   [Colloq. Eng. & U.S.] G. W. Curtis.

   Page 799


   Jen"net  (?),  n. [F. genet, Sp. jinete, orig., a mounted soldier, Ar.
   zen\'beta  a  tribe  of  Barbary  celebrated for its cavalry.] A small
   Spanish horse; a genet.


   Jen"net*ing,  n.  [Prob. fr. a dim. of Jean John, so named as becoming
   ripe  about  St.  John's day, June 24. F. Jean is fr. L. Johannes. See
   Zany.]  A  variety  of  early  apple.  See  Juneating.  [Written  also


   Jen"ny (?), n.; pl. Jennies (.

   1. A familiar or pet form of the proper name Jane.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A familiar name of the European wren.
   Jenny ass (Zo\'94l.), a female ass.


   Jen"ny,  n.  [A  corruption of gin an engine; influenced by Jenny, the
   proper name. See Gin an engine, and cf. Ginny-carriage.] A machine for
   spinning a number of threads at once, -- used in factories.


   Jent"ling  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A fish of the genus Leuciscus; the blue
   chub of the Danube.


   Jeof"ail (?), n. [F. j'ai failli I have failed.] (Law) An oversight in
   pleading, or the acknowledgment of a mistake or oversight. Blackstone.


   Jeop"ard  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Jeoparded;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Jeoparding.] [From Jeopardy.] To put in jeopardy; to expose to loss or
   injury; to imperil; to hazard. Sir T. North.

     A people that jeoparded their lives unto the death. Judg. v. 18.

   Syn. -- To hazard; risk; imperil; endanger; expose.


   Jeop"ard*er (?), n. One who puts in jeopardy. [R.]


   Jeop"ard*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jeopardized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Jeopardizing (?).] To expose to loss or injury; to risk; to jeopard.

     That he should jeopardize his willful head Only for spite at me. H.


   Jeop"ard*ous (?), a. Perilous; hazardous.

     His goodly, valiant, and jeopardous enterprise. Fuller.

   -- Jeop"ard*ous*ly, adv. Huloet.


   Jeop"ard*y  (?), n. [OE. jupartie, juperti, jeuparti, OF. jeu parti an
   even  game,  a game in which the chances are even; OF. jeu, ju, F. jeu
   (L.  jocus  jest)  +  F.  partier to divide, L. partire to divide. See
   Joke, and Part.] Exposure to death, loss, or injury; hazard; danger.

     There  came  down a storm of wind on the lake; and they were filled
     with water, and were in jeopardy. Luke viii. 23.

     Look to thyself, thou art in jeopardy. Shak.

   Syn. -- Danger; peril; hazard; risk. See Danger.


   Jeop"ard*y, v. t. To jeopardize. [R.] Thackeray.


   Jer*bo"a  (?),  n.  [Ar. yarb.] (Zo\'94l.) Any small jumping rodent of
   the genus Dipus, esp. D. \'92gyptius, which is common in Egypt and the
   adjacent  countries.  The  jerboas have very long hind legs and a long
   tail. [Written also gerboa.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  al so ap plied to  ot her small jumping
     rodents, as the Pedetes Caffer, of the Cape of Good Hope.

   Jerboa  kangaroo  (Zo\'94l.),  small  Australian  kangaroo  (Bettongia
   penicillata), about the size of a common hare.


   Jer*eed"  (?), n. [Ar. jer\'c6d. Cf. Djereed.] A blunt javelin used by
   the  people  of  the  Levant, especially in mock fights. [Written also
   jerreed, jerid.] Byron.

                              Jeremiad, Jeremiade

   Jer`e*mi"ad,  Jer`e*mi"ade,  n.  [From  Jeremiah,  the prophet: cf. F.
   j\'82r\'82miade.]  A  tale  of sorrow, disappointment, or complaint; a
   doleful story; a dolorous tirade; -- generally used satirically.

     He has prolonged his complaint into an endless jeremiad. Lamb.


   Jer"fal`con (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The gyrfalcon.


   Jer"guer (?), n. See Jerquer.


   Jer*id" (?), n. Same as Jereed.


   Jerk  (?),  v.  t.  [Corrupted from Peruv. charqui dried beef.] To cut
   into  long  slices  or  strips  and dry in the sun; as, jerk beef. See


   Jerk,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jerked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jerking.] [Akin
   to yerk, and perh. also to yard a measure.]

   1. To beat; to strike. [Obs.] Florio.

   2. To give a quick and suddenly arrested thrust, push, pull, or twist,
   to; to yerk; as, to jerk one with the elbow; to jerk a coat off.

   3. To throw with a quick and suddenly arrested motion of the hand; as,
   to jerk a stone.


   Jerk, v. i.

   1.  To  make  a  sudden  motion;  to  move with a start, or by starts.

   2. To flout with contempt.


   Jerk, n.

   1. A short, sudden pull, thrust, push, twitch, jolt, shake, or similar

     His jade gave him a jerk. B. Jonson.

   2. A sudden start or spring.

     Lobsters . . . swim backwards by jerks or springs. Grew.


   Jerk"er (?), n.

   1. A beater. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

   2. One who jerks or moves with a jerk.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) A North American river chub (Hybopsis biguttatus).


   Jer"kin  (?),  n. [Dim. of D. jurk a frock.] A jacket or short coat; a
   close waistcoat. Shak.


   Jer"kin, n. (Zo\'94l.) A male gyrfalcon.


   Jerk"ing  (?),  n.  The  act  of pulling, pushing, or throwing, with a
   jerk. -- Jerk"ing*ly, adv.


   Jer"kin*head`  (?),  n.  (Arch.)  The  hipped  part of a roof which is
   hipped only for a part of its height, leaving a truncated gable.


   Jerk"y  (?),  a.  Moving  by jerks and starts; characterized by abrupt
   transitions; as, a jerky vehicle; a jerky style.


   Jer*moon"al (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The Himalayan now partridge.


   Je*ron"y*mite  (?),  n. (Eccl. Hist.) One belonging of the medi\'91val
   religious   orders   called  Hermits  of  St.  Jerome.  [Written  also


   Jer`o*pig"i*a (?), n. See Geropigia.


   Jer"quer (?), n. [Cf. F. chercher to search, E. search.] A customhouse
   officer  who  searches ships for unentered goods. [Eng.] [Written also


   Jer"quing  (?), n. The searching of a ship for unentered goods. [Eng.]
   [Written also jerguer.]


   Jer"quing (?), n. The searching of a ship for unentered goods. [Eng.]


   Jer"ry-built`  (?),  a.  Built  hastily  and  of  bad  materials;  as,
   jerry-built houses. [Colloq. Eng.]


   Jer"sey  (?),  n.;  pl.  Jerseys (#). [From Jersey, the largest of the
   Channel Islands.]

   1. The finest of wool separated from the rest; combed wool; also, fine
   yarn of wool.

   2.  A kind of knitted jacket; hence, in general, a closefitting jacket
   or upper garment made of an elastic fabric (as stockinet).

   3. One of a breed of cattle in the Island of Jersey. Jerseys are noted
   for the richness of their milk.


   Je*ru"sa*lem  (?), n. [Gr. Y.] The chief city of Palestine, intimately
   associated with the glory of the Jewish nation, and the life and death
   of Jesus Christ. Jerusalem artichoke [Perh. a corrupt. of It. girasole
   i.e., sunflower, or turnsole. See Gyre, Solar.] (Bot.) (a) An American
   plant,  a perennial species of sunflower (Helianthus tuberosus), whose
   tubers  are  sometimes used as food. (b) One of the tubers themselves.
   --  Jerusalem  cherry  (Bot.), the popular name of either of either of
   two  species  of  Solanum  (S.  Pseudo-capsicum  and S. capsicastrum),
   cultivated as ornamental house plants. They bear bright red berries of
   about  the  size  of  cherries.  --  Jerusalem oak (Bot.), an aromatic
   goosefoot   (Chenopodium   Botrys),  common  about  houses  and  along
   roadsides.  --  Jerusalem  sage  (Bot.),  a perennial herb of the Mint
   family  (Phlomis  tuberosa).  --  Jerusalem  thorn  (Bot.),  a  spiny,
   leguminous  tree  (Parkinsonia  aculeata),  widely  dispersed  in warm
   countries,  and  used  for  hedges.  -- The New Jerusalem, Heaven; the
   Celestial City.


   Jer"vine  (?),  n.  [Prob. fr. Sp. yerba herb, OSp., the poison of the
   veratrum.]  (Chem.)  A  poisonous  alkaloid  resembling veratrine, and
   found  with  it  in  white  hellebore (Veratrum album); -- called also


   Jess (?), n.; pl. Jesses (#). [OF. gies, giez, prop. pl. of giet, get,
   jet, F. jet, a throwing, jess. See Jet a shooting forth.] (falconry) A
   short  strap  of  leather  or silk secured round the leg of a hawk, to
   which  the  leash  or  line,  wrapped  round  the falconer's hand, was
   attached when used. See Illust. of Falcon.

     Like  a  hawk,  which feeling freed From bells and jesses which did
     let her flight. Spenser.


   Jes"sa*mine (?), n. (Bot.) Same as Jasmine.


   Jes"sant  (?),  a. (Her.) Springing up or emerging; -- said of a plant
   or animal.


   Jes"se  (?),  n.  [LL.Jesse, the father of David, fr. Gr. Yishai.] Any
   representation or suggestion of the genealogy of Christ, in decorative
   art;  as:  (a) A genealogical tree represented in stained glass. (b) A
   candlestick  with  many branches, each of which bears the name of some
   one  of  the descendants of Jesse; -- called also tree of Jesse. Jesse
   window  (Arch.),  a  window of which the glazing and tracery represent
   the tree of Jesse.


   Jessed (?), a. (Her.) Having jesses on, as a hawk.


   Jest  (?), n. [OE. jeste, geste, deed, action, story, tale, OF. geste,
   LL.  gesta, orig., exploits, neut. pl. from L. gestus, p. p. of gerere
   to  bear,  carry,  accomplish,  perform; perh. orig., to make to come,
   bring, and perh. akin to E. come. Cf. Gest a deed, Register, n.]

   1. A deed; an action; a gest. [Obs.]

     The jests or actions of princes. Sir T. Elyot.

   2. A mask; a pageant; an interlude. [Obs.] Nares.

     He  promised  us,  in honor of our guest, To grace our banquet with
     some pompous jest. Kyd.

   3.  Something  done  or said in order to amuse; a joke; a witticism; a
   jocose or sportive remark or phrase. See Synonyms under Jest, v. i.

     I must be sad . . . smile at no man's jests. Shak.

     The  Right  Honorable  gentleman  is indebted to his memory for his
     jests, and to his imagination for his facts. Sheridan.

   4. The object of laughter or sport; a laughingstock.

     Then let me be your jest; I deserve it. Shak.

   In jest, for mere sport or diversion; not in truth and reality; not in

     And given in earnest what I begged in jest. Shak.

   --  Jest  book,  a  book  containing a collection of jests, jokes, and
   amusing anecdotes; a Joe Miller.


   Jest, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jested; p. pr. & vb. n. Jesting.]

   1.  To  take part in a merrymaking; -- especially, to act in a mask or
   interlude. [Obs.] Shak.

   2.  To  make  merriment by words or actions; to joke; to make light of

     He jests at scars that never felt a wound. Shak.

   Syn. -- To joke; sport; rally. -- To Jest, Joke. One jests in order to
   make  others  laugh; one jokes to please himself. A jest is usually at
   the expense of another, and is often ill-natured; a joke is a sportive
   sally  designed to promote good humor without wounding the feelings of
   its  object.  "Jests are, therefore, seldom harmless; jokes frequently
   allowable.  The  most  serious subject may be degraded by being turned
   into a jest." Crabb.


   Jest"er, n. [Cf. Gestour.]

   1. A buffoon; a merry-andrew; a court fool.

     This . . . was Yorick's skull, the king's jester. Shak.

     Dressed in the motley garb that jesters wear. Longfellow.

   2. A person addicted to jesting, or to indulgence in light and amusing

     He ambled up and down With shallow jesters. Shak.


   Jest"ful (?), a. Given to jesting; full of jokes.


   Jest"ing, a. Sportive; not serious; fit for jests.

     He will find that these are no jesting matters. Macaulay



   Jest"ing,  n. The act or practice of making jests; joking; pleasantry.
   Eph. v. 4.


   Jest"ing*ly, adv. In a jesting manner.


   Jes"u*it (?), n. [F. J\'82suite, Sp. Jesuita: cf. It. Gesuita.]

   1.  (R.  C.  Ch.) One of a religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola,
   and approved in 1540, under the title of The Society of Jesus.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e order consists of Scholastics, the Professed, the
     Spiritual  Coadjutors, and the Temporal Coadjutors or Lay Brothers.
     The  Jesuit  novice after two years becomes a Scholastic, and takes
     his  first  vows  of  poverty, chastity, and obedience simply. Some
     years  after,  at  the  close  of  a second novitiate, he takes his
     second  vows  and  is ranked among the Coadjutors or Professed. The
     Professed  are  bound by a fourth vow, from which only the pope can
     dispense,  requiring them to go wherever the pope may send them for
     missionary  duty.  The  Coadjutors  teach  in  the schools, and are
     employed in general missionary labors. The Society is governed by a
     General  who  holds  office  for  life.  He has associated with him
     "Assistants"  (five  at  the  present time), representing different
     provinces.  The  Society was first established in the United States
     in  1807.  The  Jesuits  have displayed in their enterprises a high
     degree  of  zeal,  learning, and skill, but, by their enemies, have
     been  generally  reputed  to  use  art and intrigue in promoting or
     accomplishing  their purposes, whence the words Jesuit, Jesuitical,
     and the like, have acquired an opprobrious sense.

   2. Fig.: A crafty person; an intriguer.
   Jesuits'  bark,  Peruvian  bark,  or  the  bark  of certain species of
   Cinchona;  --  so  called  because its medicinal properties were first
   made  known  in  Europe  by  Jesuit  missionaries to South America. --
   Jesuits'  drops. See Friar's balsam, under Friar. -- Jesuits' nut, the
   European  water  chestnut. -- Jesuits' powder, powdered cinchona bark.
   --  Jesuits'  tea,  a  Chilian  leguminous  shrub,  used  as a tea and


   Jes"u*it*ed, a. Conforming to the principles of the Jesuits. Milton.


   Jes"u*it*ess, n. [Cf. F. J\'82suitesse.] (R. C. Hist.) One of an order
   of  nuns  established on the principles of the Jesuits, but suppressed
   by Pope Urban in 1633.

                             Jesuitic, Jesuitical

   Jes`u*it"ic (?), Jes`u*it"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. j\'82suitique.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  Jesuits,  or  to their principles and

   2. Designing; cunning; deceitful; crafty; -- an opprobrious use of the
   word. Dryden.


   Jes`u*it"ic*al*ly, adv. In a jesuitical manner.


   Jes"u*it*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. j\'82suitisme.]

   1. The principles and practices of the Jesuits.

   2.  Cunning;  deceit;  deceptive practices to effect a purpose; subtle
   argument; -- an opprobrious use of the word.


   Jes`u*it*oc"ra*cy  (?),  n.  [Jesuit  +  -cracy,  as  in aristocracy.]
   Government  by  Jesuits; also, the whole body of Jesuits in a country.
   [R.] C. Kingsley.


   Jes"u*it*ry (?), n. Jesuitism; subtle argument. [R.] Carlyle.


   Je"sus  (?),  n.  [L. Jesus, Gr. Y\'82sh; Y\'beh Jehovah + h to help.]
   The  Savior;  the  name of the Son of God as announced by the angel to
   his  parents;  the  personal  name  of  Our  Lord, in distinction from
   Christ, his official appellation. Luke i. 31.

     Thou  shalt  call his name Jesus; for he shall save his people from
     their sins. Matt. i. 21.

     NOTE: &hand;The form Jesu is often used, esp. in the vocative.

     Jesu, do thou my soul receive. Keble.

   The Society of Jesus. See Jesuit.


   Jet (?), n. Same as 2d Get. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Jet,  n.  [OF.  jet,  jayet,  F.  ja\'8bet,  jais, L. gagates, fr. Gr.
   [written  also  jeat,  jayet.]  (Min.) A variety of lignite, of a very
   compact  texture and velvet black color, susceptible of a good polish,
   and  often wrought into mourning jewelry, toys, buttons, etc. Formerly
   called  also  black amber. Jet ant (Zo\'94l.), a blackish European ant
   (Formica fuliginosa), which builds its nest of a paperlike material in
   the trunks of trees.


   Jet,  n.  [F.  jet,  OF. get, giet, L. jactus a throwing, a throw, fr.
   jacere to throw. Cf. Abject, Ejaculate, Gist, Jess, Jut.]

   1. A shooting forth; a spouting; a spurt; a sudden rush or gush, as of
   water  from  a  pipe,  or  of  flame from an orifice; also, that which
   issues in a jet.

   2. Drift; scope; range, as of an argument. [Obs.]

   3. The sprue of a type, which is broken from it when the type is cold.
   Jet  propeller  (Naut.), a device for propelling vessels by means of a
   forcible  jet  of  water  ejected from the vessel, as by a centrifugal
   pump. -- Jet pump, a device in which a small jet of steam, air, water,
   or  other  fluid,  in  rapid  motion, lifts or otherwise moves, by its
   impulse, a larger quantity of the fluid with which it mingles.


   Jet,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Jetted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jetting.] [F.
   jeter,  L.  jactare,  freq.  fr.  jacere to throw. See 3d Jet, and cf.

   1.  To strut; to walk with a lofty or haughty gait; to be insolent; to
   obtrude. [Obs.]

     he jets under his advanced plumes! Shak.

     To jet upon a prince's right. Shak.

   2. To jerk; to jolt; to be shaken. [Obs.] Wiseman.

   3. To shoot forward or out; to project; to jut out.


   Jet, v. t. To spout; to emit in a stream or jet.

     A dozen angry models jetted steam. Tennyson.


   Jet"-black` (?), a. Black as jet; deep black.

                                   Jet d'eau

   Jet`  d'eau"  (?),  pl. Jets d'eau (. [F., a throw of water. See Jet a
   shooting  forth.]  A  stream of water spouting from a fountain or pipe
   (especially  from  one  arranged  to  throw water upward), in a public
   place or in a garden, for ornament.


   Jet"e*rus (?), n. (Bot.) A yellowness of the parts of plants which are
   normally green; yellows.

                                Jetsam, Jetson

   Jet"sam  (?),  Jet"son  (?), n. [F. jeter to throw: cf. OF. getaison a
   throwing. Cf. Flotsam, Jettison.]

   1.  (Mar.  Law)  Goods  which  sink when cast into the sea, and remain
   under  water;  --  distinguished  from flotsam, goods which float, and
   ligan, goods which are sunk attached to a buoy.

   2. Jettison. See Jettison, 1.

   Page 800

   Page 800

   <--  remainder  of  previous  definition (Jetsam) at top of p. 800 was
   transferred  to  the  file  W700-799 --> <-- jet set. an international
   group  of  wealthy  individuals who travel frequently to international
   resorts.  -- the group is not organized, but membership defined solely
   by  frequent  travel  for  pleasure -- [from jet plane, the conveyance
   used   in  their  travels.]  jet-setter  a  member  of  the  jet  set.
   jet-setting. frequent international travel for pleasure, as contrasted
   with business. -->


   Jet"teau (?), n. See Jet d'eau. [R.] Addison.


   Jet"tee (?), n. See Jetty, n. Burke.


   Jet"ter (?), n. One who struts; one who bears himself jauntily; a fop.
   [Obs.] Palsgrave.


   Jet"ti*son (?). n. [See Jetsam.]

   1. (Mar. Law) The throwing overboard of goods from necessity, in order
   to lighten a vessel in danger of wreck.

   2. See Jetsam, 1.


   Jet"ton (?), n. [F. jeton.] A metal counter used in playing cards.


   Jet"ty (?), a. Made of jet, or like jet in color.

     The people . . . are of a jetty. Sir T. Browne.


   Jet"ty,  n.; pl. Jetties (#). [F.jet\'82e a pier, a jetty, a causeway.
   See Jet a shooting forth, and cf. Jutty.]

   1. (Arch.) A part of a building that jets or projects beyond the rest,
   and overhangs the wall below.

   2. A wharf or pier extending from the shore.

   3.  (Hydraul.  Engin.)  A structure of wood or stone extended into the
   sea  to influence the current or tide, or to protect a harbor; a mole;
   as, the Eads system of jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi River.
   Jetty  ad  (Naut.), a projecting part at the end of a wharf; the front
   of a wharf whose side forms one of the cheeks of a dock.


   Jet"ty, v. i. To jut out; to project. [Obs.] Florio.

                                 Jeu d'esprit

   Jeu" d'es`prit" (?). [F., play of mind.] A witticism.


   Jew  (?),  n. [OF. Juis, pl., F. Juif, L. Judaeus, Gr. Y Judah, son of
   Jacob.  Cf. Judaic.] Originally, one belonging to the tribe or kingdom
   of  Judah;  after the return from the Babylonish captivity, any member
   of  the  new  state;  a  Hebrew; an Israelite. Jew's frankincense, gum
   styrax,  or benzoin. -- Jew's mallow (Bot.), an annual herb (Corchorus
   olitorius)  cultivated  in Syria and Egypt as a pot herb, and in India
   for  its  fiber.  -- Jew's pitch, asphaltum; bitumen. -- The Wandering
   Jew, an imaginary personage, who, for his cruelty to the Savior during
   his  passion,  is  doomed  to wander on the earth till Christ's second


   Jew"bush`   (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  euphorbiaceous  shrub  of  the  genus
   Pedilanthus   (P.  tithymaloides),  found  in  the  West  Indies,  and
   possessing powerful emetic and drastic qualities.


   Jew"el  (?),  n.  [OE.  juel, jowel, OF. jouel, juel, joiel, F. joyau,
   dim. of OF. joie joy, jewel, F. joie joy. See Joy.]

   1.  An  ornament of dress usually made of a precious metal, and having
   enamel or precious stones as a part of its design.

     Plate of rare device, and jewels Of rich and exquisite form. Shak.

   2. A precious stone; a gem. Shak.

   3.  An  object regarded with special affection; a precious thing. "Our
   prince (jewel of children)." Shak.

   4.  A  bearing  for a pivot a pivot in a watch, formed of a crystal or
   precious stone, as a ruby.
   Jewel  block  (Naut.), block at the extremity of a yard, through which
   the halyard of a studding sail is rove.


   Jew"el,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jeweled (?), or Jewelled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Jeweling, or Jewelling.] To dress, adorn, deck, or supply with jewels,
   as a dress, a sword hilt, or a watch; to bespangle, as with jewels.<--
   Most common p.p. = bejeweled, bejewelled -->

     The long gray tufts . . . are jeweled thick with dew. M. Arnold.


   Jew"el*er  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.joaillier.]  One  who makes, or deals in,
   jewels,   precious   stones,  and  similar  ornaments.  [Written  also
   jeweller.] Jeweler's gold. See under Gold.


   Jew"el*ler*y (?), n. See Jewelry. Burke.


   Jew"el*ry (?), n. [Cf. F. joaillerie.]

   1. The art or trade of a jeweler. Cotgrave.

   2. Jewels, collectively; as, a bride's jewelry.


   Jew"el*weed` (?), n. (Bot.) See Impatiens.


   Jew"ess, n., fem. of Jew. A Hebrew woman.


   Jew"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.)

   1. A very large serranoid fish (Promicrops itaiara) of Florida and the
   Gulf  of  Mexico.  It often reaches the weight of five hundred pounds.
   Its  color  is  olivaceous  or  yellowish,  with numerous brown spots.
   Called also guasa, and warsaw.

   2. A similar gigantic fish (Stereolepis gigas) of Southern California,
   valued as a food fish.

   3. The black grouper of Florida and Texas.

   4. A large herringlike fish; the tarpum.


   Jew*ise" (?), n. Same as Juise. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Jew"ish   (?),   a.   Of   or  pertaining  to  the  Jews  or  Hebrews;
   characteristic   of   or   resembling   the  Jews  or  their  customs;
   Israelitish. -- Jew"ish*ly, adv. -- Jew"ish*ness, n.


   Jew"ry (?), n. [OE. Jewerie, OF. Juierie, F. Juiverie.] Judea; also, a
   district inhabited by Jews; a Jews' quarter. Chaucer.

     Teaching throughout all Jewry. Luke xxiii. 5.


   Jew's"-ear`   (?),   n.   (Bot.)   A   species   of  fungus  (Hirneola
   Auricula-Jud\'91,  OR Auricula), bearing some resemblance to the human


   Jew's-harp` (?), n. [Jew + harp; or possibly a corrupt. of jaw's harp;
   cf. G. maultrommel, lit., mouthdrum.]1. An instrument of music, which,
   when  placed between the teeth, gives, by means of a bent metal tongue
   struck  by  the  finger,  a sound which is modulated by the breath; --
   called also Jew's-trump.

   2. (Naut.) The shackle for joining a chain cable to an anchor.

                             Jew's-stone, Jewstone

   Jew's-stone`  (?),  Jew"stone` (?), n. (Paleon.) A large clavate spine
   of a fossil sea urchin.


   Jez"e*bel (?), n. [From Jezebel, Heb. Izebel, the wife of Ahab king of
   Israel.] A bold, vicious woman; a termagant. Spectator.


   Jha"ral (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A wild goat (Capra Jemlaica)
   which  inhabits  the  loftiest mountains of India. It has long, coarse
   hair, forming a thick mane on its head and neck.


   Jib  (?),  n.  [Named from its shifting from side to side. See Jib, v.
   i.., Jibe.]

   1. (Naut.) A triangular sail set upon a stay or halyard extending from
   the  foremast  or  fore-topmast to the bowsprit or the jib boom. Large
   vessels  often  carry  several  jibe; as, inner jib; outer jib; flying
   jib; etc.

   2.  (Mach.)  The  projecting  arm  of  a crane, from which the load is
   Jib  boom  (Naut.), a spar or boom which serves as an extension of the
   bowsprit.  It  is sometimes extended by another spar called the flying
   jib  boom.  [Written  also  gib  boom.]  -- Jib crane (Mach.), a crane
   having a horizontal jib on which a trolley moves, bearing the load. --
   Jib  door  (Arch.), a door made flush with the wall, without dressings
   or  moldings; a disguised door. -- Jib header (Naut.), a gaff-topsail,
   shaped  like  a  jib;  a jib-headed topsail. -- Jib topsail (Naut.), a
   small  jib  set above and outside of all the other jibs. -- The cut of
   one's jib, one's outward appearance. [Colloq.] Sir W. Scott. 


   Jib  (?), v. i. [Connected with jibe; cf. OF. giber to shake.] To move
   restively  backward or sidewise, -- said of a horse; to balk. [Written
   also jibb.] [Eng.]


   Jib"ber (?), n. A horse that jibs. [Eng.]


   Jibe  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jibed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jibing (?).]
   [Cf.  Dan.  gibbe,  D. gijpen, v. i., and dial. Sw. gippa to jerk. Cf.
   Jib, n. & v. i.] (Naut.) To shift, as the boom of a fore-and-aft sail,
   from  one side of a vessel to the other when the wind is aft or on the
   quarter. See Gybe.


   Jibe, v. i.

   1.  (Naut.) To change a ship's course so as to cause a shifting of the
   boom. See Jibe, v. t., and Gybe.

   2. To agree; to harmonize. [Colloq.] Bartlett.


   Jif"fy  (?),  n.  [Perh.  corrupt. fr. gliff.] [Written also giffy.] A
   moment;  an instant; as, I will be ready in a jiffy. [Colloq.] J. & H.


   Jig  (?),  n.  [OF.  gigue  a stringed instrument, a kind of dance, F.
   gigue  dance, tune, gig; of German origin; cf. MHG. g\'c6ge fiddle, G.
   geige. Cf. Gig a fiddle, Gig a whirligig.]

   1. (Mus.) A light, brisk musical movement.

     Hot and hasty, like a Scotch jib. Shak.

   3.  A  light,  humorous  piece  of  writing, esp. in rhyme; a farce in
   verse; a ballad. [Obs.]

     A  jig  shall be clapped at, and every rhyme Praised and applauded.
     Beau. & Fl.

   4. A piece of sport; a trick; a prank. [Obs.]

     Is't  not  a  fine  jig, A precious cunning, in the late Protector?
     Beau & Fl.

   5. A trolling bait, consisting of a bright spoon and a hook attached.

   6.  (Mach.) (a) A small machine or handy tool; esp.: (Metal Working) A
   contrivance  fastened to or inclosing a piece of work, and having hard
   steel  surfaces  to  guide  a tool, as a drill, or to form a shield or
   templet  to  work  to,  as  in  filing. (b) (Mining) An apparatus or a
   machine for jigging ore.
   Drill jig, a jig for guiding a drill. See Jig,

   6 (a). --
   Jig  drilling,  Jig  filing  (Metal Working), a process of drilling or
   filing  in  which  the  action of the tool is directed or limited by a
   jig.   --  Jig  saw,  a  sawing  machine  with  a  narrow,  vertically
   reciprocating  saw,  used  to  cut  curved  and  irregular  lines,  or
   ornamental patterns in openwork, a scroll saw; -- called also gig saw.


   Jig, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jigged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jigging (?).]

   1. To sing to the tune of a jig.

     Jig off a tune at the tongue's end. Shak.

   2. To trick or cheat; to cajole; to delude. Ford.

   3.  (Mining)  To  sort  or  separate, as ore in a jigger or sieve. See
   Jigging, n.

   4.  (Metal  Working) To cut or form, as a piece of metal, in a jigging


   Jig, v. i. To dance a jig; to skip about.

     You jig, you amble, and you lisp. Shak.


   Jig"ger  (?),  n. [A corrupt. of chigre.] (Zo\'94l.) A species of flea
   (Sarcopsylla,  OR  Pulex,  penetrans), which burrows beneath the skin.
   See Chigoe.


   Jig"ger, n. [See Jig, n. & v.]

   1.  One  who,  or that which, jigs; specifically, a miner who sorts or
   cleans ore by the process of jigging; also, the sieve used in jigging.

   2.  (Pottery)  (a)  A  horizontal  table carrying a revolving mold, on
   which  earthen  vessels  are shaped by rapid motion; a potter's wheel.
   (b) A templet or tool by which vessels are shaped on a potter's wheel.

   3. (Naut.) (a) A light tackle, consisting of a double and single block
   and  the  fall, used for various purposes, as to increase the purchase
   on a topsail sheet in hauling it home; the watch tackle. Totten. (b) A
   small   fishing   vessel,  rigged  like  a  yawl.  [New  Eng.]  (c)  A
   supplementary sail. See Dandy, n., 2 (b).

   4.  A  pendulum rolling machine for slicking or graining leather; same
   as Jack, 4 (i).
   Jigger  mast.  (Naut.) (a) The after mast of a four-masted vessel. (b)
   The small mast set at the stern of a yawlrigged boat.


   Jig"ging  (?),  n.  (Mining)  The  act  or  using  a  jig;  the act of
   separating  ore  with a jigger, or wire-bottomed sieve, which is moved
   up  and  down  in  water.  Jigging machine. (a) (Mining) A machine for
   separating  ore  by  the  process  of  jigging.  (b) (Metal Working) A
   machine with a rotary milling cutter and a templet by which the action
   of the cutter is guided or limited; -- used for forming the profile of
   an irregularly shaped piece; a profiling machine.


   Jig"gish (?), a.

   1. Resembling, or suitable for, a jig, or lively movement. Tatler.

   2. Playful; frisky. [R.]

     She is never sad, and yet not jiggish. Habington.


   Jig"gle  (?), v. i. [Freq. of jig.] To wriggle or frisk about; to move
   awkwardly; to shake up and down.


   Jig"jog` (?), n. A jolting motion; a jogging pace.


   Jig"jog, a. Having a jolting motion.


   Jill  (?),  n. [See Gill sweetheart.] A young woman; a sweetheart. See
   Gill. Beau. & Fl.


   Jill"-flirt`  (?),  n.  A  light,  giddy, or wanton girl or woman. See


   Jilt (?), n. [Contr. fr. Scot. jillet a giddy girl, a jill-flirt, dim.
   of  jill  a  jill.]  A  woman  who  capriciously deceives her lover; a
   coquette; a flirt. Otway.


   Jilt,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Jilted; p. pr. & vb. n. Jilting.] To cast
   off capriciously or unfeeling, as a lover; to deceive in love. Locke.


   Jilt,  v.  i.  To  play  the  jilt;  to practice deception in love; to
   discard lovers capriciously. Congreve.


   Jim"crack` (?), n. See Gimcrack.


   Jim"-crow` (?), n. (Mach.)

   1. A machine for bending or straightening rails.

   2. A planing machine with a reversing tool, to plane both ways.


   Jim"my  (?), n.; pl. Jimmies (#). [Cf. Jemmy.] A short crowbar used by
   burglars in breaking open doors. [Written also jemmy.]


   Jimp (?), a. [Cf. Gimp, a.] Neat; handsome; elegant. See Gimp.

                                  Jimson weed

   Jim"son weed` (?). See Jamestown weed. [Local, U.S.]

                                   Jin, Jinn

   Jin,  Jinn (?), n. See Jinnee. "Solomon is said to have had power over
   the jin." Balfour (Cyc. of India).


   Jin*gal"  (?),  n. [Hind. jang\'bel a swivel, a large musket.] A small
   portable  piece of ordnance, mounted on a swivel. [Written also gingal
   and jingall.] [India]


   Jin"gle (?), v. i. [OE. gingelen, ginglen; prob. akin to E. chink; cf.
   also E. jangle.]

   1. To sound with a fine, sharp, rattling, clinking, or tinkling sound;
   as, sleigh bells jingle. [Written also gingle.]

   2.  To  rhyme  or  sound  with  a  jingling  effect.  "Jingling street
   ballads." Macaulay.


   Jin"gle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Jingled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jingling
   (?).]  To cause to give a sharp metallic sound as a little bell, or as
   coins shaken together; to tinkle.

     The bells she jingled, and the whistle blew. Pope.


   Jin"gle, n.

   1.  A  rattling,  clinking,  or  tinkling sound, as of little bells or
   pieces of metal.

   2. That which makes a jingling sound, as a rattle.

     If  you  plant  where  savages are, do not only entertain them with
     trifles and jingles,but use them justly. Bacon.

   3.  A correspondence of sound in rhymes, especially when the verse has
   little  merit;  hence,  the verse itself." The least jingle of verse."
   Jingle shell. See Gold shell (b), under Gold.


   Jin"gler (?), n. One who, or that which, jingles.


   Jin"gling  (?), n. The act or process of producing a jingle; also, the
   sound itself; a chink. "The jingling of the guinea." Tennyson.


   Jin"gling*ly, adv. So as to jingle. Lowell.


   Jin"go  (?),  n.;  pl.  Jingoes  (#).  [Said to be a corruption of St.

   1. A word used as a jocular oath. "By the living jingo." Goldsmith.

   2.  A  statesman  who  pursues, or who favors, aggressive, domineering
   policy in foreign affairs. [Cant, Eng.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th is se nse ar ose fr om a  do ggerel so ng which was
     popular  during  the  Turco-Russian war of 1877 and 1878. The first
     two lines were as follows: --

     We  don't  want  to  fight,  but  by Jingo if we do, We 've got the
     ships, we 've got the men, we 've got the money too.


   Jin"go*ism (?), n. The policy of the Jingoes, so called. See Jingo, 2.
   [Cant, Eng.]


   Jin"nee  (?),  n.;  pl. Jinn (#). [Ar.] (Arabian & Mohammedan Myth.) A
   genius  or  demon;  one  of  the  fabled genii, good and evil spirits,
   supposed to be the children of fire, and to have the power of assuming
   various forms. [Written also jin, djinnee, etc.]

     NOTE: &hand; Jinn is also used as sing., with pl. jinns (.

                                  Jinny road

   Jin"ny  road`  (?).  [Cf.  Gin  an engine, Ginnycarriage.] (Mining) An
   inclined road in a coal mine, on which loaded cars descend by gravity,
   drawing up empty ones. Knight.


   Jin*rik"i*sha  (?),  n.  [Jap. jin man + riki power + sha carriage.] A
   small, two-wheeled, hooded vehicle drawn by one more men. [Japan]


   Jip"po  (?), n. [Abbrev. fr. juppon.] A waistcoat or kind of stays for


   Jo  (?),  n.;  pl.  Joes  (#).  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  A sweetheart; a
   darling. [Scot.] Burns.


   Job  (?),  n.  [Prov.  E.  job, gob, n., a small piece of wood, v., to
   stab,  strike;  cf. E. gob, gobbet; perh. influenced by E. chop to cut
   off, to mince. See Gob.]

   1. A sudden thrust or stab; a jab.

   2.  A piece of chance or occasional work; any definite work undertaken
   in gross for a fixed price; as, he did the job for a thousand dollars.

   3.  A  public transaction done for private profit; something performed
   ostensibly  as a part of official duty, but really for private gain; a
   corrupt official business.

   4.  Any  affair  or  event  which  affects one, whether fortunately or
   unfortunately. [Colloq.]

   Page 801

   5. A situation or opportunity of work; as, he lost his job. [Colloq.]

     NOTE: &hand; Jo b is  us ed adjectively to signify doing jobs, used
     for  jobs,  or let on hire to do jobs; as, job printer; job master;
     job horse; job wagon, etc.

   By  the  job,  at  a stipulated sum for the work, or for each piece of
   work done; -- distinguished from time work; as, the house was built by
   the  job. -- Job lot, a quantity of goods, usually miscellaneous, sold
   out  of the regular course of trade, at a certain price for the whole;
   as,  these articles were included in a job lot. -- Job master, one who
   lest  out  horses and carriages for hire, as for family use. [Eng.] --
   Job  printer,  one  who  does  miscellaneous printing, esp. circulars,
   cards, billheads, etc. -- Odd job, miscellaneous work of a petty kind;
   occasional work, of various kinds, or for various people.


   Job (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jobbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jobbing.]

   1. To strike or stab with a pointed instrument. L'Estrange.

   2. To thrust in, as a pointed instrument. Moxon.

   3.  To  do or cause to be done by separate portions or lots; to sublet
   (work); as, to job a contract.

   4.  (Com.)  To  buy and sell, as a broker; to purchase of importers or
   manufacturers  for  the  purpose  of  selling to retailers; as, to job

   5.  To hire or let by the job or for a period of service; as, to job a
   carriage. Thackeray.


   Job, v. i.

   1. To do chance work for hire; to work by the piece; to do petty work.

     Authors of all work, to job for the season. Moore.

   2.  To  seek  private  gain  under pretense of public service; to turn
   public matters to private advantage.

     And judges job, and bishops bite the town. Pope.

   3. To carry on the business of a jobber in merchandise or stocks.


   Job  (?),  n.  The hero of the book of that name in the Old Testament;
   the  typical  patient  man.  Job's  comforter.  (a)  A false friend; a
   tactless   or  malicious  person  who,  under  pretense  of  sympathy,
   insinuates  rebukes.  (b)  A  boil. [Colloq.] -- Job's news, bad news.
   Carlyle.  --  Job's tears (Bot.), a kind of grass (Coix Lacryma), with
   hard, shining, pearly grains.


   Jo*ba"tion  (?), n. [Prov. E. job to scold, to reprove, perh. fr. Job,
   the proper name.] A scolding; a hand, tedious reproof. [Law] Grose.


   Job"ber (?), n.

   1. One who works by the job.

   2. A dealer in the public stocks or funds; a stockjobber. [Eng.]

   3.  One  who buys goods from importers, wholesalers, or manufacturers,
   and sells to retailers.

   4.  One  who  turns  official or public business to private advantage;
   hence,  one who performs low or mercenary work in office, politics, or


   Job"ber*nowl`  (?),  n. [OE. jobbernoule, fr. jobarde a stupid fellow;
   cf. E. noll.] A blockhead. [Colloq. & Obs.] H. Taylor.


   Job"ber*y (?), n.

   1. The act or practice of jobbing.

   2.  Underhand  management; official corruption; as, municipal jobbery.


   Job"bing (?), a.

   1. Doing chance work or add jobs; as, a jobbing carpenter.

   2.  Using  opportunities  of  public  service  for private gain; as, a
   jobbing politician. London Sat. Rev.
   Jobbing  house,  a mercantile establishment which buys from importers,
   wholesalers or manufacturers, and sells to retailers. [U.S.]


   Jo"cant*ry  (?),  n. [L. jocans, p. pr. of jocare to jest, fr. jocus a
   jest.] The act or practice of jesting. [Obs.]


   Jock"ey  (?), n.; pl. Jockeys (#). [Dim. of Jack, Scot. Jock; orig., a
   boy who rides horses. See 2d Jack.]

   1. A professional rider of horses in races. Addison.

   2. A dealer in horses; a horse trader. Macaulay.

   3. A cheat; one given to sharp practice in trade.


   Jock"ey, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jockeyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jockeying.]

   1. " To jostle by riding against one." Johnson.

   2.  To  play  the jockey toward; to cheat; to trick; to impose upon in
   trade; as, to jockey a customer.


   Jock"ey, v. i. To play or act the jockey; to cheat.


   Jock"ey*ing  (?),  n.  The  act  or  management  of  one  who jockeys;
   trickery. Beaconsfield.


   Lock"ey*ism (?), n. The practice of jockeys.


   Lock"ey*ship,  n.  The  art,  character, or position, of a jockey; the
   personality of a jockey.

     Go flatter Sawney for his jockeyship. Chatterton.

     Where can at last his jockeyship retire? Cowper.


   Jo*cose" (?), a. [L jocosus, fr. jocus joke. See Joke.] Given to jokes
   and  jesting;  containing  a  joke,  or  abounding  in  jokes;  merry;
   sportive; humorous.

     To  quit  their  austerity  and  be  jocose  and  pleasant  with an
     adversary. Shaftesbury.

     All . . . jocose or comical airs should be excluded. I. Watts.

   Syn. -- Jocular; facetious; witty; merry; pleasant; waggish; sportive;
   funny; comical. -- Jo*cose"ly, adv. -- Jo*cose"ness, n.

     Spondanus imagines that Ulysses may possibly speak jocosely, but in
     truth Ulysses never behaves with levity. Broome.

     He  must  beware  lest  his  letter  should  contain  anything like
     jocoseness;  since  jesting is incompatible with a holy and serious
     life. Buckle.


   Jo`co*se"ri*ous  (?),  a.  [Jocose  +  serious.]  Mingling  mirth  and
   seriousness. M. Green.


   Jo*cos"i*ty (?), n. A jocose act or saying; jocoseness. Sir T. Browne.


   Joc"u*lar  (?), a. [L. jocularis, fr. joculus, dim. of jocus joke. See

   1. Given to jesting; jocose; as, a jocular person.

   2. Sportive; merry. "Jocular exploits." Cowper.

     The style is serious and partly jocular. Dryden.


   Joc`u*lar"i*ty (?), n. Jesting; merriment.


   Joc"u*lar*ly (?), adv. In jest; for sport or mirth; jocosely.


   Joc"u*la*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  jocularius. Cf. Jocular.] Jocular; jocose;
   sportive. Bacon.


   Joc"u*la`tor  (?),  n.  [L.  See  Juggler.]  A jester; a joker. [Obs.]


   Joc"u*la*to*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  joculatorius.]  Droll; sportive. [Obs.]


   Joc"und  (?),  [L.  jocundus,  jucundus, orig., helpful, fr. juvare to
   help. See Aid.] Merry; cheerful; gay; airy; lively; sportive.

     Night's  candles are burnt out, and jocund day Stands tiptoe on the
     misty mountain tops. Shak.

     Rural sports and jocund strains. Prior.

   -- Joc"und*ly (#), adv. -- Joc"und*ness, n.


   Joc"und, adv. Merrily; cheerfully. Gray.


   Jo*cun"di*ty  (?),  n.  [L. jocunditas jucunditas. See Jocund, and cf.
   Jucundity.]   The   state   or   quality   of  being  jocund;  gayety;


   Joe (?), n. See Johannes.

                                  Joe Miller

   Joe"  Mil"ler  (?). [From Joseph Miller, a comic actor, whose name was
   attached,  after his death, to a popular jest book published in 1739.]
   A jest book; a stale jest; a worn-out joke. [Colloq.]

     It  is  an old Joe Miller in whist circles, that there are only two
     reasons  that  can  justify  you  in  not  returning trumps to your
     partner's  lead;  i.  e.,  first,  sudden illness; secondly, having
     none. Pole.

                                 Joe-Pye weed

   Joe`-Pye"  weed`  (?).  (Bot.)  A  tall  composite  plant of the genus
   Eupatorium (E. purpureum), with purplish flowers, and whorled leaves.


   Jog (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jogged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jogging (?).]
   [OE. joggen; cf. W. gogi to shake, and also E. shog, shock, v.]

   1.  To  push or shake with the elbow or hand; to jostle; esp., to push
   or  touch,  in  order to give notice, to excite one's attention, or to

     Now  leaps  he  upright,  jogs  me,  and  cries:  Do you see Yonder
     well-favored youth? Donne.

     Sudden I jogged Ulysses, who was laid Fast by my side. Pope.

   2.  To suggest to; to notify; to remind; to call the attention of; as,
   to jog the memory.

   3. To cause to jog; to drive at a jog, as a horse. See Jog, v. i.


   Jog, v. i. To move by jogs or small shocks, like those of a slow trot;
   to  move  slowly,  leisurely,  or  monotonously;  --  usually with on,
   sometimes with over.

     Jog on, jog on, the footpath way. Shak.

     So hung his destiny, never to rot,

     While he might still jog on and keep his trot. Milton


     The good old ways our sires jogged safely over. R. Browning.


     Jog, n.

     1.  A  slight  shake;  a  shake  or push intended to give notice or
     awaken attention; a push; a jolt.

     To give them by turns an invisible jog. Swift.

     2.  A rub; a slight stop; an obstruction; hence, an irregularity in
     motion  of from; a hitch; a break in the direction of a line or the
     surface of a plane. Glanvill.

   Jog  trot,  a  slow,  regular, jolting gait; hence, a routine habit or
   method, persistently adhered to. T. Hook.


   Jog"ger (?), n. One who jogs. Dryden.


   Jog"ging (?), n. The act of giving a jog or jogs; traveling at a jog.


   Jog"gle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Joggled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Joggling
   (?).] [Freq. of jog.]

   1. To shake slightly; to push suddenly but slightly, so as to cause to
   shake or totter; to jostle; to jog.

   2.  (Arch.)  To  join  by  means  of joggles, so as to prevent sliding
   apart; sometimes, loosely, to dowel.

     The struts of a roof are joggled into the truss posts. Gwilt.


   Jog"gle, v. i. To shake or totter; to slip out of place.


   Jog"gle,  n.  [Arch.]  A  notch or tooth in the joining surface of any
   piece  of  building  material  to  prevent  slipping;  sometimes,  but
   incorrectly,  applied  to  a  separate  piece fitted into two adjacent
   stones,  or  the  like.  Joggle  joint (Arch.), a joint in any kind of
   building material, where the joining surfaces are made with joggles.


   Jo`han*ne"an  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to John, esp. to the Apostle
   John or his writings. M. Stuart.


   Jo*han"nes  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. Y, Y, i. e., one whom Jehovah has
   blessed;  hence  F. Jean, E. John.] (Numis.) A Portuguese gold coin of
   the  value  of eight dollars, named from the figure of King John which
   it bears;- often contracted into joe; as, a joe, or a half joe.


   Jo*han"nis*ber`ger  (?),  n.  [G.]  A  fine white wine produced on the
   estate of Schloss (or Castle) Johannisberg, on the Rhine.


   John  (?),  n.  [See  Johannes.] A proper name of a man. John-apple, a
   sort  of  apple ripe about St. John's Day. Same as Apple-john. -- John
   Bull,  an  ideal  personification of the typical characteristics of an
   Englishman,  or  of  the  English  people.  --  John  Bullism, English
   character.  W.  Irving.  -- John Doe (Law), the name formerly given to
   the  fictitious  plaintiff  in  an action of ejectment. Mozley & W. --
   John  Doree,  John  Dory.  [John  (or F. jaune yellow) + Doree, Dory.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  An  oval, compressed, European food fish (Zeus faber). Its
   color is yellow and olive, with golden, silvery, and blue reflections.
   It  has  a  round dark spot on each side. Called also dory, doree, and
   St. Peter's fish.


   John"a*dreams` (?), n. A dreamy, idle fellow. Shak.


   John"ny (?), n.; pl. Johnnies (.

   1. A familiar diminutive of John.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A sculpin. [Local cant]
   Johny Crapaud (, a jocose designation of a Frenchman, or of the French
   people, collectively.


   John"ny*cako`  (?),  n.  A  kind  of  bread  made of the meal of maize
   (Indian  corn),  mixed  with water or milk, etc., and baked. [U.S.] J.


   John`son*ese" (?), n. The literary style of Dr. Samuel Johnson, or one
   formed  in  imitation  of  it; an inflated, stilted, or pompous style,
   affecting classical words. E. Everett.

                                 Johnson grass

   John"son  grass`  (?). [Named after W. Johnson of Alabama, who planted
   it   about   1840-1845.]   (Bot.)  A  tall  perennial  grass  (Sorghum
   Halepense),  valuable  in  the Southern and Western States for pasture
   and  hay. The rootstocks are large and juicy and are eagerly sought by
   swine.  Called  also  Cuba  grass,  Means grass, Evergreen millet, and
   Arabian millet.


   John*so"ni*an  (?),  a. Pertaining to or resembling Dr. Johnson or his
   style; pompous; inflated.


   John*so"ni*an*ism  (?),  n.  A manner of acting or of writing peculiar
   to, or characteristic of, Dr. Johnson. [Written also Johnsonism.]


   John's"-wort` (?), n. See St. John's-wort.


   Join  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Joined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Joining.]
   [OE.  joinen,  joignen,  F.  joindre,  fr.  L.  jungere  to yoke, bind
   together,  join;  akin  to  jugum  yoke.  See  Yoke, and cf. Conjugal,
   Junction, Junta.]

   1.  To bring together, literally or figuratively; to place in contact;
   to  connect; to couple; to unite; to combine; to associate; to add; to

     Woe unto them that join house to house. Is. v. 8.

     Held up his left hand, which did flame and burn Like twenty torches
     joined. Shak.

     Thy tuneful voice with numbers join. Dryden.

   2.  To  associate  one's  self  to; to be or become connected with; to
   league  one's  self  with; to unite with; as, to join a party; to join
   the church.

     We jointly now to join no other head. Dryden.

   3. To unite in marriage.

     He that joineth his virgin in matrimony. Wyclif.

     What, therefore, God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
     Matt. xix. 6.

   4. To enjoin upon; to command. [Obs. & R.]

     They join them penance, as they call it. Tyndale.

   5.  To  accept,  or  engage  in,  as a contest; as, to join encounter,
   battle, issue. Milton.
   To  join  battle,  To  join issue. See under Battle, Issue. Syn. -- To
   add; annex; unite; connect; combine; consociate; couple; link; append.
   See Add.


   Join,  v. i. To be contiguous, close, or in contact; to come together;
   to unite; to mingle; to form a union; as, the hones of the skull join;
   two rivers join.

     Whose house joined hard to the synagogue. Acts xviii. 7.

     Should  we  again break thy commandments, and join in affinity with
     the people of these abominations? Ezra ix. 14.

     Nature and fortune joined to make thee great. Shak.


   Join,  n. (Geom.) The line joining two points; the point common to two
   intersecting lines. Henrici.


   Join"ant  (?),  a.  [OF.  &  F.  joignant, p. pr. of joindre to join.]
   Adjoining. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Join"der (?), n. [F. joindre. See Join, v. t.]

   1. The act of joining; a putting together; conjunction.

     Confirmed by mutual joinder of your hands. Shak.

   2.  (Law)  (a)  A  joining of parties as plaintiffs or defendants in a
   suit.  (b)  Acceptance  of  an  issue  tendered  in law or fact. (c) A
   joining  of  causes  of  action  or defense in civil suits or criminal


   Join"er, n.

   1. One who, or that which, joins.

   2.  One whose occupation is to construct articles by joining pieces of
   wood;  a  mechanic  who  does  the  woodwork  (as doors, stairs, etc.)
   necessary  for  the  finishing  of  buildings. "One Snug, the joiner."

   3.  A wood-working machine, for sawing, plaining, mortising, tenoning,
   grooving, etc. Syn. -- See Carpenter.


   Join"er*y  (?),  n.  The  art,  or  trade,  of a joiner; the work of a

     A piece of joinery . . . whimsically dovetailed. Burke.


   Join"hand`  (?),  n.  Writing in which letters are joined in words; --
   distinguished from writing in single letters. Addison.


   Joint (?), n. [F. joint, fr. joindre, p. p. joint. See Join.]

   1.  The  place or part where two things or parts are joined or united;
   the  union  of  two  or  more  smooth  or even surfaces admitting of a
   close-fitting  or junction; junction as, a joint between two pieces of
   timber; a joint in a pipe.

   2.  A  joining  of  two  things  or parts so as to admit of motion; an
   articulation,  whether  movable or not; a hinge; as, the knee joint; a
   node or joint of a stem; a ball and socket joint. See Articulation.

     A  scaly  gauntlet now, with joints of steel, Must glove this hand.

     To tear thee joint by joint. Milton.

   3.  The  part  or  space included between two joints, knots, nodes, or
   articulations;  as, a joint of cane or of a grass stem; a joint of the

   4.  Any  one  of the large pieces of meat, as cut into portions by the
   butcher for roasting.

   5.  (Geol.)  A  plane  of  fracture,  or  divisional  plane, of a rock
   transverse to the stratification.

   6.  (Arch.)  The  space  between  the  adjacent surfaces of two bodies
   joined  and  held together, as by means of cement, mortar, etc.; as, a
   thin joint.

   7. The means whereby the meeting surfaces of pieces in a structure are
   secured together.
   Coursing  joint  (Masonry),  the  mortar  joint between two courses of
   bricks  or  stones.  -- Fish joint, Miter joint, Universal joint, etc.
   See  under  Fish,  Miter, etc. -- Joint bolt, a bolt for fastening two
   pieces, as of wood, one endwise to the other, having a nut embedded in
   one  of the pieces. -- Joint chair (Railroad), the chair that supports
   the  ends  of abutting rails. -- Joint coupling, a universal joint for
   coupling shafting. See under Universal. -- Joint hinge, a hinge having
   long  leaves;  a  strap  hinge.  --  Joint splice, a re\'89nforce at a
   joint,  to  sustain  the parts in their true relation. -- Joint stool.
   (a)  A stool consisting of jointed parts; a folding stool. Shak. (b) A
   block  for supporting the end of a piece at a joint; a joint chair. --
   Out  of  joint,  out  of place; dislocated, as when the head of a bone
   slips  from  its socket; hence, not working well together; disordered.
   "The time is out of joint." Shak.

   Page 802


   Joint (?), a. [F., p. p. of joindre. See Join.]

   1. Joined; united; combined; concerted; as joint action.

   2.  Involving  the united activity of two or more; done or produced by
   two or more working together.

     I read this joint effusion twice over. T. Hook.

   3.  United,  joined,  or  sharing  with  another  or  with others; not
   solitary  in  interest or action; holding in common with an associate,
   or  with  associates; acting together; as, joint heir; joint creditor;
   joint debtor, etc. "Joint tenants of the world." Donne.

   4.  Shared  by,  or  affecting  two or more; held in common; as, joint
   property; a joint bond.

     A joint burden laid upon us all. Shak.

   Joint  committee  (Parliamentary  Practice),  a  committee composed of
   members  of  the two houses of a legislative body, for the appointment
   of  which  concurrent  resolutions  of  the  two houses are necessary.
   Cushing. -- Joint meeting, OR Joint session, the meeting or session of
   two  distinct  bodies  as  one;  as,  a  joint  meeting  of committees
   representing  different corporations; a joint session of both branches
   of  a  State legislature to chose a United States senator. "Such joint
   meeting  shall  not  be  dissolved  until  the electoral votes are all
   counted  and  the  result declared." Joint Rules of Congress, U. S. --
   Joint   resolution  (Parliamentary  Practice),  a  resolution  adopted
   concurrently  by  the  two  branches  of  a  legislative body. "By the
   constitution  of the United States and the rules of the two houses, no
   absolute  distinction  is  made  between bills and joint resolutions."
   Barclay  (Digest).  --  Joint rule (Parliamentary Practice), a rule of
   proceeding  adopted  by  the  concurrent  action of both branches of a
   legislative  assembly. "Resolved, by the House of Representatives (the
   Senate  concurring), that the sixteenth and seventeenth joint rules be
   suspended  for  the remainder of the session." Journal H. of R., U. S.
   -- Joint and several (Law), a phrase signifying that the debt, credit,
   obligation,  etc.,  to  which it is applied is held in such a way that
   the  parties  in  interest  are engaged both together and individually
   thus  a joint and several debt is one for which all the debtors may be
   sued  together  or  either of them individually. -- Joint stock, stock
   held   in   company.  --  Joint-stock  company  (Law),  a  species  of
   partnership, consisting generally of a large number of members, having
   a  capital  divided,  or agreed to be divided, into shares, the shares
   owned  by any member being usually transferable without the consent of
   the  rest.  -- Joint tenancy (Law), a tenure by two or more persons of
   estate  by unity of interest, title, time, and possession, under which
   the  survivor  takes the whole. Blackstone. -- Joint tenant (Law), one
   who holds an estate by joint tenancy.


   Joint, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jointed; p. pr. & vb. n. Jointing.]

   1. To unite by a joint or joints; to fit together; to prepare so as to
   fit together; as, to joint boards.

     Pierced through the yielding planks of jointed wood. Pope.

   2. To join; to connect; to unite; to combine.

     Jointing their force 'gainst C\'91sar. Shak.

   3. To provide with a joint or joints; to articulate.

     The fingers are jointed together for motion. Ray.

   4.  To  separate  the joints; of; to divide at the joint or joints; to
   disjoint; to cut up into joints, as meat. "He joints the neck. Dryden.

     Quartering, jointing, seething, and roasting. Holland.


   Joint, v. i. To fit as if by joints; to coalesce as joints do; as, the
   stones joint, neatly.


   Joint"ed,  a. Having joints; articulated; full of nodes; knotty; as, a
   jointed doll; jointed structure. "The jointed herbage." J. Philips. --
   Joint"ed*ly, adv.


   Joint"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, joints.

   2.  A  plane  for  smoothing  the  surfaces  of pieces which are to be
   accurately joined; especially: (a) The longest plane used by a joiner.
   (b)  (Coopering)  A  long  stationary plane, for plaining the edges of
   barrel staves.

   3.  (Masonry)  (a)  A  bent  piece  of iron inserted to strengthen the
   joints of a wall. (b) A tool for pointing the joints in brickwork.


   Joint"-fir`  (?), n. (Bot.) A genus (Ephedra) of leafless shrubs, with
   the  stems  conspicuously  jointed;  -- called also shrubby horsetail.
   There  are  about thirty species, of which two or three are found from
   Texas to California.


   Joint"ing,  n.  The act or process of making a joint; also, the joints
   thus  produced.  Jointing  machine, a planing machine for wood used in
   furniture and piano factories, etc. -- Jointing plane. See Jointer, 2.
   --  Jointing rule (Masonry), a long straight rule, used by bricklayers
   for securing straight joints and faces.


   Joint"less, a. Without a joint; rigid; stiff.


   Joint"ly,  adv. In a joint manner; together; unitedly; in concert; not

     Then jointly to the ground their knees they bow. Shak.


   Joint"ress  (?),  n.  (Law)  A woman who has a jointure. [Written also
   jointuress.] Blackstone.


   Join"ture (?), n. [F. jointure a joint, orig., a joining, L. junctura,
   fr. jungere to join. See Join, and cf. Juncture.]

   1. A joining; a joint. [Obs.]

   2.  (Law)  An  estate  settled  on a wife, which she is to enjoy after
   husband's  decease,  for  her  own  life  at least, in satisfaction of

     The  jointure  that your king must make, Which with her dowry shall
     be counterpoised. Shak.


   Join"ture  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Jointured (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Jointuring.] To settle a jointure upon.


   Join"ture*less, a. Having no jointure.


   Join"tur*ess, n. See Jointress. Bouvier.


   Joint"weed`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A slender, nearly leafless, American herb
   (Polygonum articulatum), with jointed spikes of small flowers.


   Joint"worm` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The larva of a small, hymenopterous fly
   (Eurytoma hordei), which is found in gall-like swellings on the stalks
   of  wheat,  usually at or just above the first joint. In some parts of
   America it does great damage to the crop.


   Joist  (?), n. [OE. giste, OF. giste, F. g\'8cte, fr. gesir to lie, F.
   g\'82sir.  See  Gist.] (Arch.) A piece of timber laid horizontally, or
   nearly  so,  to which the planks of the floor, or the laths or furring
   strips  of a ceiling, are nailed; -- called, according to its position
   or  use, binding joist, bridging joist, ceiling joist, trimming joist,
   etc. See Illust. of Double-framed floor, under Double, a.


   Joist,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Joisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Joisting.] To fit
   or furnish with joists. Johnson.


   Joke, n. [L. jocus. Cf Jeopardy, Jocular, Juggler.]

   1. Something said for the sake of exciting a laugh; something witty or
   sportive  (commonly indicating more of hilarity or humor than jest); a
   jest; a witticism; as, to crack good-natured jokes.

     And gentle dullness ever loves a joke. Pope.

     Or witty joke our airy senses moves To pleasant laughter. Gay.

   2. Something not said seriously, or not actually meant; something done
   in sport.

     Inclose whole downs in walls, 't is all a joke. Pope.

   In  joke, in jest; sportively; not meant seriously. -- Practical joke.
   See under Practical.


   Joke,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Joked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Joking.] To make
   merry  with;  to  make  jokes upon; to rally; to banter; as, to joke a


   Joke,  v.  i. [L. jocari.] To do something for sport, or as a joke; to
   be merry in words or actions; to jest.

     He laughed, shouted, joked, and swore. Macaulay.

   Syn. -- To jest; sport; rally; banter. See Jest.


   Jok"er (?), n.

   1. One who makes jokes or jests.

   2. (Card Playing) See Rest bower, under 2d Bower.


   Jok"ing*ly, adv. In a joking way; sportively.

                                  Jole, Joll

   Jole, Joll (?), v. t. & n. Same as Jowl. Shak.


   Jol*if"  (?),  a.  [See Jolly.] Joyful; merry; pleasant; jolly. [Obs.]


   Jol`li*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [Jolly + L. -ficare (in comp.) to make. See
   -fy.] A merrymaking; noisy festivity. [Colloq.]

     We have had a jollification or so together. Sir W. Scott.


   Jol"li*ly (?), adv. In a jolly manner.


   Jol"lo*ment (?), n. Jollity. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Jol"li*ness, n. Jollity; noisy mirth. Chaucer.


   Jol"li*ty (?), n. [From Jolly: cf. OF. joliet\'82, jolivet\'82.] Noisy
   mirth; gayety; merriment; festivity; boisterous enjoyment. Chaucer.

     All now was turned to jollity and game. Milton.

     He  with  a  proud jollity commanded him to leave that quarrel only
     for him, who was only worthy to enter into it. Sir P. Sidney.

   Syn. -- Merriment; mirth; gayety; festivity; hilarity.


   Jol"ly  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Jollier (?); superl. Jolliest.] [OF. joli,
   jolif,  joyful,  merry,  F.  joli pretty; of Scand. origin, akin to E.
   yule; cf. Icel. j yule, Christmass feast. See Yule.]

   1. Full of life and mirth; jovial; joyous; merry; mirthful.

     Like a jolly troop of huntsmen. Shak.

     "A  jolly  place," said he, "in times of old! But something ails it
     now: the spot is cursed." Wordsworth.

   2. Expressing mirth, or inspiring it; exciting mirth and gayety.

     And with his jolly pipe delights the groves. Prior.

     Their jolly notes they chanted loud and clear. Fairfax.

   3.   Of  fine  appearance;  handsome;  excellent;  lively;  agreeable;
   pleasant. "A jolly cool wind." Sir T. North. [Now mostly colloq.]

     Full jolly knight he seemed, and fair did sit. Spenser.

     The coachman is swelled into jolly dimensions. W. Irving.


   Jol"ly-boat`  (?),  n.  [A corruption of Dan. jolle yawl, or of D. jol
   yawl  +  E.  boat.  See  Yawl the boat.] (Naut.) A boat of medium size
   belonging to a ship.


   Jol"ly*head (?), n. Jollity. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Jolt, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jolted; p. pr. & vb. n. Jolting.] [Prob. fr.
   jole,  joll, jowl, and orig. meaning, to knock on the head. See Jowl.]
   To shake with short, abrupt risings and fallings, as a carriage moving
   on rough ground; as, the coach jolts.


   Jolt,  v. t. To cause to shake with a sudden up and down motion, as in
   a  carriage  going over rough ground, or on a high-trotting horse; as,
   the  horse  jolts  the  rider; fast driving jolts the carriage and the


   Jolt,  n.  A  sudden shock or jerk; a jolting motion, as in a carriage
   moving over rough ground.

     The first jolt had like to have shaken me out. Swift.


   Jolt"er (?), n. One who, or that which, jolts.

                             Jolterhead, Jolthead

   Jolt"er*head`,  Jolt"head`  (?),  n.  [See  Jolt,  Jowl.]  A  dunce; a
   blockhead. Sir T. North.


   Jolt"ing*ly, adv. In a jolting manner.


   Jolt"y (?), a. That jolts; as, a jolty coach. [Colloq.]


   Jo"nah  (?),  n. The Hebrew prophet, who was cast overboard as one who
   endangered the ship; hence, any person whose presence is unpropitious.
   Jonah  crab  (Zo\'94l.), a large crab (Cancer borealis) of the eastern
   coast of the United States, sometimes found between tides, but usually
   in deep water.


   Jo*ne"sian  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Jones. The Jonesian system, a
   system  of transliterating Oriental words by English letters, invented
   by Sir William Jones.

                               Jongleur, Jongler

   Jon"gleur (?), Jon"gler (?), n. [F. jongleur. See Juggler.]

   1.  In  the  Middle  Ages,  a court attendant or other person who, for
   hire,  recited  or  sang  verses,  usually of his own composition. See

     Vivacity and picturesquenees of the jongleur's verse. J R. Green.

   2. A juggler; a conjuror. See Juggler. Milton.

                              Jonquil, Jonquille

   Jon"quil,  Jon"quille, n. [F. jonquille, fr. L. juncus a rush, because
   it has rushlike leaves.] (Bot.) A bulbous plant of the genus Narcissus
   (N.  Jonquilla), allied to the daffodil. It has long, rushlike leaves,
   and  yellow or white fragrant flowers. The root has emetic properties.
   It  is  sometimes  called  the  rush-leaved  daffodil.  See Illust. of


   Jo"ram (?), n. See Jorum.

                                Jordan, Jorden

   Jor"dan  (?),  Jor"den  (?),  n.  [Prob.  fr.  the  river  Jordan, and
   shortened fr. Jordan bottle a bottle of water from the Jordan, brought
   back by pilgrims.]

   1.  A pot or vessel with a large neck, formerly used by physicians and
   alchemists. [Obs.] Halliwell.

   2. A chamber pot. [Obs.] Chaucer. Shak.


   Jo"rum  (?),  n.  [Perh. corrupted fr. jorden an earthen pot.] A large
   drinking vessel; also, its contents. [Colloq. Eng.] Forby.


   Jo"seph  (?),  n.  An  outer garment worn in the 18th century; esp., a
   woman's riding habit, buttoned down the front. Fairholt.

                                Joseph's flower

   Jo"seph's flow"er (?). (Bot.) A composite herb (Tragopogon pratensis),
   of the same genus as the salsify.


   Jo"so (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A small gudgeon.


   Joss  (?), n. [Chinese, corrupt. fr. Pg. deos God, L. deus.] A Chinese
   household  divinity;  a  Chinese  idol.  "Critic  in jars and josses."
   Colman  (1761).  Joss house, a Chinese temple or house for the Chinese
   mode  of  worship.  -- Joss stick, a reed covered with a paste made of
   the dust of odoriferous woods, or a cylinder made wholly of the paste;
   -- burned by the Chinese before an idol.


   Jos"sa  (?),  interj.  A  command  to a horse, probably meaning "stand
   still." [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Jos"tle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jostled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jostling
   (?).]  [A dim. of joust, just, v. See Joust, and cf. Justle.] [Written
   also  justle.]  To  run  against and shake; to push out of the way; to
   elbow;  to  hustle; to disturb by crowding; to crowd against. "Bullies
   jostled him." Macaulay.

     Systems  of  movement, physical, intellectual, and moral, which are
     perpetually jostling each other. I. Taylor.


   Jos"tle, v. i. To push; to crowd; to hustle.

     None jostle with him for the wall. Lamb.


   Jos"tle,  n. A conflict by collisions; a crowding or bumping together;

     The  jostle  of  South  African nationalities and civilization. The


   Jos"tle*ment (?), n. Crowding; hustling.


   Jot (?), n. [L. iota, Gr. i. Heb. y), the smallest letter of the Greek
   alphabet.  Cf.  Iota.]  An  iota;  a  point;  a  tittle;  the smallest
   particle. Cf. Bit, n.

     Till  heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise
     pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. Matt. v. 18.

     Neither will they bate One jot of ceremony. Shak.


   Jot,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Jotted; p. pr. & vb. n. Jotting.] To set
   down; to make a brief note of; -- usually followed by down.


   Jot"ter (?), n.

   1. One who jots down memoranda.

   2. A memorandum book.


   Jougs  (?),  n.  [F.  joug a yoke, L. jugum. See Yoke.] An iron collar
   fastened  to  a  wall  or post, formerly used in Scotland as a kind of
   pillory. [Written also juggs.] See Juke. Sir W. Scott.


   Jou"is*sance  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  jouir  to  enjoy, fr. L. gaudere to
   rejoice.] Jollity; merriment. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Jouk (?), v. i. See Juke.


   Joul (?), v. t. See Jowl.


   Joule  (?),  n.  [From  the  distinguished English physicist, James P.
   Joule.]  (Physics.) A unit of work which is equal to 107 units of work
   in  the C. G. S. system of units (ergs), and is practically equivalent
   to  the  energy  expended  in one second by an electric current of one
   ampere in a resistance of one ohm. One joule is approximately equal to
   0.738 foot pounds. Joule's equivalent. See under Equivalent, n.


   Jounce  (?),  v.  t.  &  i. [imp. & p. p. Jounced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Jouncing  (?).]  [Cf.  Jaunce.] To jolt; to shake, especially by rough
   riding or by driving over obstructions.


   Jounce, n. A jolt; a shake; a hard trot.


   Jour"nal  (?), a. [F., fr. L. diurnalis diurnal, fr. diurnus belonging
   to the day, fr. dies day. See Diurnal.] Daily; diurnal. [Obs.]

     Whiles from their journal labors they did rest. Spenser.


   Jour"nal, n. [F. journal. See Journal, a.]

   1. A diary; an account of daily transactions and events. Specifically:
   (a)  (Bookkeeping) A book of accounts, in which is entered a condensed
   and  grouped  statement of the daily transactions. (b) (Naut.) A daily
   register  of  the  ship's  course  and  distance,  the winds, weather,
   incidents  of  the  voyage, etc. (c) (Legislature) The record of daily
   proceedings,  kept  by  the clerk. (d) A newspaper published daily; by
   extension, a weekly newspaper or any periodical publication, giving an
   account  of  passing events, the proceedings and memoirs of societies,
   etc. ; a periodical; a magazine.

   Page 803

   2.  That  which has occurred in a day; a day's work or travel; a day's
   journey. [Obs. & R.] B. Jonson.

   3.  (Mach.)  That  portion  of  a  rotating  piece,  as a shaft, axle,
   spindle,  etc.,  which  turns in a bearing or box. See Illust. of Axle
   Journal  box, OR Journal bearing (Mach.) the carrier of a journal; the
   box in which the journal of a shaft, axle, or pin turns.


   Jour"nal*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. journalisme.]

   1. The keeping of a journal or diary. [Obs.]

   2.  The  periodical  collection  and  publication of current news; the
   business of managing, editing, or writing for, journals or newspapers;
   as, political journalism.

     Journalism is now truly an estate of the realm. Ed. Rev.


   Jour"nal*ist, n. [Cf. F. journaliste.]

   1. One who keeps a journal or diary. [Obs.] Mickle.

   2.  The  conductor  of  a  public journal, or one whose business it to
   write  for a public journal; an editorial or other professional writer
   for a periodical. Addison.


   Jour"nal*is"tic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  journals or to journalists;
   contained   in,   or   characteristic  of,  the  public  journals;  as
   journalistic literature or enterprise.


   Jour"nal*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Journalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Journalizing (?).] To enter or record in a journal or diary. Johnson.


   Jour"nal*ize,  v.  i. to conduct or contribute to a public journal; to
   follow the profession of a journalist.


   Jour"ney  (?),  n.;  pl.  Journeys (#). [OE. jornee, journee, prop., a
   day's  journey,  OF.  jorn\'82e,  jurn\'82e,  a  day,  a day's work of
   journey, F. journ\'82e, fr. OF. jorn, jurn, jor a day, F. jour, fr. L.
   diurnus. See Journal.]

   1. The travel or work of a day. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     We  have  yet  large day, for scarce the sun Hath finished half his
     journey. Milton.

   2. Travel or passage from one place to another; hence, figuratively, a
   passage through life.

     The good man . . . is gone a long journey. Prov. vii. 19.

     We must all have the same journey's end. Bp. Stillingfleet.

   Syn.  --  Tour;  excursion;  trip; expedition; pilgrimage. -- Journey,
   Tour,  Excursion,  Pilgrimage. The word journey suggests the idea of a
   somewhat  prolonged  traveling for a specific object, leading a person
   to  pass  directly  from  one  point  to another. In a tour, we take a
   roundabout  course  from  place  to place, more commonly for pleasure,
   though  sometimes on business. An excursion is usually a brief tour or
   trip  for  pleasure, health, etc. In a pilgrimage we travel to a place
   hallowed  by  our  religions affections, or by some train of sacred or
   tender  associations.  A  journey  on  important business; the tour of
   Europe; an excursion to the lakes; a pilgrimage to the Holy Land.


   Jour"ney,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Journeyed  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Journeying.]  To  travel  from  place  to  place; to go from home to a

     Abram journeyed, going on still toward the south. Gen. xii. 9. 


   Jour"ney,  v.  t.  To  traverse;  to  travel  over or through. [R.] "I
   journeyed many a land." Sir W. Scott.


   Jour"ney-bat`ed (?), a. Worn out with journeying. [Obs.] Shak.


   Jour"ney*er (?), n. One who journeys.


   Jour"ney*man  (?), n.; pl. Journeymen (. Formerly, a man hired to work
   by the day; now, commonly, one who has mastered a handicraft or trade;
   -- distinguished from apprentice and from master workman.

     I  have  thought  some of nature's journeymen had made men, and not
     made them well. Shak.


   Jour"ney*work`  (?), n. Originally, work done by the day; work done by
   a journeyman at his trade.


   Joust  (?),  v. i. [OE. justen, jousten, OF. jouster, jouster, joster,
   F.  jouter,  fr.  L.  juxta near to, nigh, from the root of jungere to
   join.  See  Join,  and  cf.  Jostle.]  To  engage  in  mock  combat on
   horseback, as two knights in the lists; to tilt. [Written also just.]

     For the whole army to joust and tourney. Holland.


   Joust,  n. [OE. juste, jouste, OF. juste, jouste, joste, F. joute. See
   Joust,  v. i.] A tilting match; a mock combat on horseback between two
   knights in the lists or inclosed field. [Written also just.]

     Gorgeous knights at joust and tournament. Milton.


   Joust"er, n. One who jousts or tilts.


   Jove  (?),  n.  [L.  Jupiter,  gen.  Jovis, OL. Jovis, nom. & gen. for
   Djovis; akin to E. Tuesday. See Tuesday, and cf. Jupiter.]

   1. The chief divinity of the ancient Romans; Jupiter.

   2. (Astron.) The planet Jupiter. [R.] Pope.

   3. (Alchemy) The metal tin.
   Bird of Jove, the eagle.


   Jo"vi*al  (?),  a. [F., fr. L. Jovialis pertaining to Jove. The planet
   Jupiter  was thought to make those born under it joyful or jovial. See

   1. Of or pertaining to the god, or the planet, Jupiter. [Obs.]

     Our jovial star reigned at his birth. Shak.

     The  fixed  stars  astrologically  differenced  by the planets, and
     esteemed  Martial  or  Jovial  according to the colors whereby they
     answer these planets. Sir T. Browne.

   2. Sunny; serene. [Obs.] "The heavens always joviall." Spenser.

   3.    Gay;   merry;   joyous;   jolly;   mirth-inspiring;   hilarious;
   characterized  by  mirth  or  jollity;  as,  a  jovial youth; a jovial
   company; a jovial poem.

     Be bright and jovial among your guests. Shak.

     His  odes  are some of them panegyrical, others moral; the rest are
     jovial or bacchanalian. Dryden.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd is  a  re lic of  th e belief in planetary
     influence.   Other  examples  are  saturnine,  mercurial,  martial,
     lunatic, etc.

   Syn.  --  Merry;  joyous;  gay;  festive;  mirthful;  gleeful;  jolly;


   Jo"vi*al*ist (?), n. One who lives a jovial life. Bp. Hall.


   Jo`vi*al"i*ty  (?),  n. [Cf. F. jovialit\'82.] The quality or state of
   being jovial. Sir T. Herbert.


   Jo"vi*al*ly (?), adv. In a jovial manner; merrily; gayly. B. Jonson.


   Jo"vi*al*ness, n. Noisy mirth; joviality. Hewyt.


   Jo"vi*al*ty (?), n. Joviality. [R.] Barrow.


   Jo"vi*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Jove, or Jupiter (either the
   deity or the planet).


   Jo`vi*cen"tric  (?),  a.  [See  Jove, and Center.] (Astron.) Revolving
   around  the  planet Jupiter; appearing as viewed from Jupiter. [R.] J.
   R. Hind.


   Jo*vin"ian*ist (?), n. (Script. Hist.) An adherent to the doctrines of
   Jovinian,  a  monk  of the fourth century, who denied the virginity of
   Mary, and opposed the asceticism of his time.


   Jowl  (?),  n. [For older chole, chaul, AS. ceaft jaw. Cf. Chaps.] The
   cheek; the jaw. [Written also jole, choule, chowle, and geoule.] Cheek
   by  jowl,  with  the  cheeks  close  together;  side by side; in close
   proximity. "I will go with three cheek by jole." Shak. " Sits cheek by
   jowl." Dryden.
   Jowl, v. t. To throw, dash, or knock. [Obs.]
     How the knave jowls it to the ground. Shak.
   Jowl"er (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A dog with large jowls, as the beagle. 


   Jow"ter  (?),  n.  A  mounted peddler of fish; -- called also jouster.
   [Obs.] Carew.


   Joy  (?),  n. [OE. joye, OF. joye, joie, goie, F. joie, L. gaudia, pl.
   of  gaudium  joy,  fr.  gaudere  to rejoice, to be glad; cf. Gr. Gaud,

   1. The passion or emotion excited by the acquisition or expectation of
   good;  pleasurable  feelings  or  emotions  caused  by  success,  good
   fortune, and the like, or by a rational prospect of possessing what we
   love or desire; gladness; exhilaration of spirits; delight.

     Her heavenly form beheld, all wished her joy. Dryden.

     Glides the smooth current of domestic joy. Johnson.

     Who,  for  the  joy  that  was  set  before him, endured the cross,
     despising the shame. Heb. xii. 2. 

     Tears of true joy for his return. Shak.

     Joy is a delight of the mind, from the consideration of the present
     or assured approaching possession of a good. Locke.

   2. That which causes joy or happiness.

     For ye are our glory and joy. 1 Thess. ii. 20.

     A thing of beauty is a joy forever. Keats.

   3. The sign or exhibition of joy; gayety; mirth; merriment; festivity.

     Such joy made Una, when her knight she found. Spenser.

     The roofs with joy resound. Dryden.

     NOTE: &hand; Jo y is used in composition, esp. with participles, to
     from  many  self-explaining  compounds; as, joy-hells, joy-ringing,
     joy-inspiring, joy-resounding, etc.

   Syn. -- Gladness; pleasure; delight; happiness; exultation; transport;
   felicity;   ecstasy;   rapture;   bliss;   gayety;  mirth;  merriment;
   festivity; hilarity.


   Joy,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Joyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Joying.] [OF.
   joir,  F.  jouir.  See Joy, n.] To rejoice; to be glad; to delight; to

     I will joy in the God of my salvation. Hab. iii. 18.

     In whose sight all things joy. Milton.


   Joy, v. t.

   1.  To  give joy to; to congratulate. [Obs.] "Joy us of our conquest."

     To joy the friend, or grapple with the foe. Prior.

   2. To gladden; to make joyful; to exhilarate. [Obs.]

     Neither pleasure's art can joy my spirits. Shak.

   3. To enjoy. [Obs.] See Enjoy.

     Who might have lived and joyed immortal bliss. Milton.


   Joy"ace   (?),   n.   [OF.  joiance.]  Enjoyment;  gayety;  festivity;
   joyfulness. Spenser.

     Some days of joyance are decreed to all. Byron.

     From what hid fountains doth thy joyance flow? Trench.


   Joy"an*cy (?), n. Joyance. [R.] Carlyle.


   Joy"ful  (?),  a. Full of joy; having or causing joy; very glad; as, a
   joyful heart. "Joyful tidings." Shak.

     My soul shall be joyful in my God. Is. lxi. 10.

     Sad for their loss, but joyful of our life. Pope.

   -- Joy"ful*ly, adv. -- Joy"ful*ness, n.


   Joy"less,  a.  Not  having  joy;  not  causing  joy;  unenjoyable.  --
   Joy"less*ly, adv. -- Joy"less*ness, n.

     With downcast eyes the joyless victor sat. Dryden.

     Youth and health and war are joyless to him. Addison.

     [He]  pining  for the lass, Is joyless of the grove, and spurns the
     growing grass. Dryden.


   Joy"ous  (?), a. [OE. joyous, joious, joios, F. joyeux.See Joy.] Glad;
   gay;  merry;  joyful; also, affording or inspiring joy; with of before
   the word or words expressing the cause of joy.

     Is this your joyous city? Is. xxiii. 7.

     They all as glad as birds of joyous prime. Spenser.

     And joyous of our conquest early won. Dryden.

   Syn. -- Merry; lively; blithe; gleeful; gay; glad; mirthful; sportive;
   festive; joyful; happy; blissful; charming; delightful. -- Joy"ous*ly,
   adv. -- Joy"ous*ness, n.


   Joy"some (, a. Causing joyfulness. [R.]

     This all joysome grove. T. Browne.


   Jub  (?),  n.  [Perh.  corrupted fr. jug.] A vessel for holding ale or
   wine; a jug. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ju"ba (?), n.; pl. Jub\'91 (-b&emac;). [L., a mane.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) The mane of an animal.

   2.  (Bot.)  A  loose panicle, the axis of which falls to pieces, as in
   certain grasses.


   Ju"bate  (?),  a.  [L. jubatus having a mane.] (Zo\'94l.) Fringed with
   long, pendent hair.


   Ju`b\'82"  (?), n. [F.] (Arch.) (a) chancel screen or rood screen. (b)
   gallery  above  such a screen, from which certain parts of the service
   were formerly read. See Rood loft, under Rood.


   Ju"bi*lant  (?),  a. [L. jubilans, -antis, p. pr. of jubilare to shout
   for  joy:  cf.  F.  jubila.  See Jubilate.] Uttering songs of triumph;
   shouting   with   joy;   triumphant;  exulting.  "The  jubilant  age."

     While the bright pomp ascended jubilant. Milton.


   Ju"bi*lant*ly, adv. In a jubilant manner.


   Ju"bi*lar  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. jubilaire.] Pertaining to, or having the
   character of, a jubilee. [R.] Bp. Hall.


   Ju`bi*la"te (?), n. [L., imperat. of jubilare to shout for joy.]

   1.  The third Sunday after Easter; -- so called because the introit is
   the  66th  Psalm,  which, in the Latin version, begins with the words,
   "Jubilate Deo."

   2.  A  name  of the 100th Psalm; -- so called from its opening word in
   the Latin version.


   Ju"bi*late  (?), v. i. [L. jubilatus, p. p. of jubilare.] To exult; to
   rejoice. [R.] De Quincey.


   Ju`bi*la"tion  (?), n. [L. jubilatio: cf. F. jubilation.] A triumphant
   shouting; rejoicing; exultation. "Jubilations and hallelujahs." South.


   Ju"bi*lee  (?),  n.  [F. jubil\'82, L. jubilaeus, Gr. y the blast of a
   trumpet,  also the grand sabbatical year, which was announced by sound
   of trumpet.]

   1.  (Jewish  Hist.)  Every fiftieth year, being the year following the
   completion  of  each  seventh  sabbath of years, at which time all the
   slaves  of  Hebrew  blood were liberated, and all lands which had been
   alienated during the whole period reverted to their former owners. [In
   this  sense  spelled  also, in some English Bibles, jubile.] Lev. xxv.

   2.  The  joyful  commemoration held on the fiftieth anniversary of any
   event;  as,  the jubilee of Queen Victoria's reign; the jubilee of the
   American Board of Missions.

   3.  (R.  C. Ch.) A church solemnity or ceremony celebrated at Rome, at
   stated  intervals,  originally  of  one hundred years, but latterly of
   twenty-five;  a  plenary  and  extraordinary  indulgence grated by the
   sovereign pontiff to the universal church. One invariable condition of
   granting  this  indulgence  is the confession of sins and receiving of
   the eucharist.

   4. A season of general joy.

     The town was all a jubilee of feasts. Dryden.

   5. A state of joy or exultation. [R.] "In the jubilee of his spirits."
   Sir W. Scott.


   Ju*cun"di*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  jucunditas, from jucundus.] Pleasantness;
   agreeableness. See Jocundity. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Ju"dah*ite  (?), n. One of the tribe of Judah; a member of the kingdom
   of Judah; a Jew. Kitto.

                               Judaic, Judaical

   Ju*da"ic  (?),  Ju*da"ic*al  (?),  a. [L. Juda\'8bcus, fr. Judaea, the
   country  Judea:  cf. F. Juda\'8bque. See Jew.] Of or pertaining to the
   Jews. "The natural or Judaical [religion]." South.


   Ju*da"ic*al*ly, adv. After the Jewish manner. Milton.


   Ju"da*ism (?), n. [L. Juda\'8bsmus: cf. F. juda\'8bsme.]

   1.  The  religious  doctrines and rites of the Jews as enjoined in the
   laws of Moses. J. S. Mill.

   2. Conformity to the Jewish rites and ceremonies.


   Ju"da*ist, n. One who believes and practices Judaism.


   Ju`da*is"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to Judaism.


   Ju`da*i*za"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of Judaizing; a conforming to the
   Jewish religion or ritual. [R.]


   Ju"da*ize  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Judaized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Judaizing  (?).]  [Cf.  F.  juda\'8bser.] To conform to the doctrines,
   observances, or methods of the Jews; to inculcate or impose Judaism.

     They  .  .  .  prevailed  on  the Galatians to Judaize so far as to
     observe  the  rites  of  Moses  in  various  instances.  They  were
     Judaizing  doctors,  who  taught the observation of the Mosaic law.
     Bp. Bull.


   Ju"da*ize,  v.  t.  To  impose  Jewish  observances  or rites upon; to
   convert to Judaism.

     The heretical Theodotion, the Judaized Symmachus. Milton.


   Ju"da*i`zer  (?),  n.  One  who  conforms  to  or  inculcates Judaism;
   specifically,  pl.  (Ch.  Hist.), those Jews who accepted Christianity
   but  still  adhered to the law of Moses and worshiped in the temple at


   Ju"das  (?), n. The disciple who betrayed Christ. Hence: A treacherous
   person;  one  who  betrays  under  the  semblance of friendship. -- a.
   Treacherous;  betraying.  Judas hole, a peephole or secret opening for
   spying. -- Judas kiss, a deceitful and treacherous kiss. -- Judas tree
   (Bot.),   a   leguminous  tree  of  the  genus  Cercis,  with  pretty,
   rose-colored  flowers in clusters along the branches. Judas is said to
   have  hanged  himself  on  a  tree of this genus (C. Siliquastrum). C.
   Canadensis  and  C.  occidentalis  are  the  American species, and are
   called also redbud.


   Ju"das-col`ored  (?),  a. Red; -- from a tradition that Judas Iscariot
   had red hair and beard.

     There's treachery in that Judas-colored beard. Dryden.


   Jud"dock  (?),  n.  [For  judcock;  jud  (equiv.  to  Prov.  E.  gid a
   jacksnipe, W. giach snipe) + cock.] (Zo\'94l.) See Jacksnipe.

   Page 804


   Ju*de"an  (?), a. [L. Judaeus. See Jew.] Of or pertaining to Judea. --
   n. A native of Judea; a Jew.


   Judge  (?),  n. [OE. juge, OF. & F. juge, fr. OF. jugier, F. juger, to
   judge. See Judge, v. i.]

   1.  (Law)  A public officer who is invested with authority to hear and
   determine  litigated causes, and to administer justice between parties
   in courts held for that purpose.

     The  parts  of a judge in hearing are four: to direct the evidence;
     to  moderate  length,  repetition,  or  impertinency  of speech; to
     recapitulate, select, and collate the material points of that which
     hath been said; and to give the rule or sentence. Bacon.

   2.  One  who has skill, knowledge, or experience, sufficient to decide
   on  the  merits of a question, or on the quality or value of anything;
   one  who  discerns properties or relations with skill and readiness; a
   connoisseur; an expert; a critic.

     A  man  who  is  no  judge of law may be a good judge of poetry, or
     eloquence, or of the merits of a painting. Dryden.

   3. A person appointed to decide in aas, a judge in a horse race.

   4.  (Jewish  Hist.)  One  of  supreme magistrates, with both civil and
   military powers, who governed Israel for more than four hundred years.

   5. pl. The title of the seventh book of the Old Testament; the Book of
   Judge  Advocate (Mil. & Nav.), a person appointed to act as prosecutor
   at  a  court-martial; he acts as the representative of the government,
   as  the  responsible  adviser  of  the  court,  and also, to a certain
   extent,  as  counsel for the accused, when he has no other counsel. --
   Judge-Advocate  General,  in  the  United  States,  the  title  of two
   officers,  one  attached  to the War Department and having the rank of
   brigadier  general,  the  other  attached  to  the Navy Department and
   having  the  rank  of  colonel  of marines or captain in the navy. The
   first  is  chief  of  the  Bureau of Military Justice of the army, the
   other   performs  a  similar  duty  for  the  navy.  In  England,  the
   designation  of  a  member of the ministry who is the legal adviser of
   the  secretary  of state for war, and supreme judge of the proceedings
   of  courts-martial.  Syn.  --  Judge,  Umpire,  Arbitrator, Referee. A
   judge,  in  the  legal  sense,  is a magistrate appointed to determine
   questions of law. An umpire is a person selected to decide between two
   or  more who contend for a prize. An arbitrator is one chosen to allot
   to  two  contestants  their  portion of a claim, usually on grounds of
   equity  and  common sense. A referee is one to whom a case is referred
   for  final  adjustment.  Arbitrations  and  references  are  sometimes
   voluntary, sometimes appointed by a court.


   Judge,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Judged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Judging.] [OE.
   jugen,  OF. jugier, F. juger, L. judicare, fr. judex judge; jus law or
   right  +  dicare  to  proclaim,  pronounce, akin to dicere to say. See
   Just, a., and Diction, and cf. Judicial.]

   1. To hear and determine, as in causes on trial; to decide as a judge;
   to give judgment; to pass sentence.

     The Lord judge between thee and me. Gen. xvi. 5.

     Father,  who  art judge Of all things made, and judgest only right!

   2. To assume the right to pass judgment on another; to sit in judgment
   or  commendation;  to  criticise or pass adverse judgment upon others.
   See Judge, v. t., 3.

     Forbear to judge, for we are sinners all. Shak.

   3.  To  compare  facts  or  ideas,  and  perceive  their relations and
   attributes,  and  thus distinguish truth from falsehood; to determine;
   to discern; to distinguish; to form an opinion about.

     Judge not according to the appearance. John vii. 24.

     She is wise if I can judge of her. Shak.


   Judge, v. t.

   1.  To hear and determine by authority, as a case before a court, or a
   controversy  between  two  parties.  "Chaos [shall] judge the strife."

   2. To examine and pass sentence on; to try; to doom.

     God shall judge the righteous and the wicked. Eccl. iii. 7.

     To  bring  my  whole  cause 'fore his holiness, And to be judged by
     him. Shak.

   3. To arrogate judicial authority over; to sit in judgment upon; to be
   censorious toward.

     Judge not, that ye be not judged. Matt. vii. 1.

   4. To determine upon or deliberation; to esteem; to think; to reckon.

     If ye have judged me to be faithful to the Lord. Acts xvi. 15.

   5. To exercise the functions of a magistrate over; to govern. [Obs.]

     Make us a king to judge us. 1 Sam. viii. 5.


   Judg"er (?), n. One who judges. Sir K. Digby.


   Judge"ship (?), n. The office of a judge.


   Judg"ment (?), n. [OE. jugement, F. jugement, LL. judicamentum, fr. L.
   judicare. See Judge, v. i.]

   1. The act of judging; the operation of the mind, involving comparison
   and  discrimination,  by which a knowledge of the values and relations
   of  thins,  whether of moral qualities, intellectual concepts, logical
   propositions,  or material facts, is obtained; as, by careful judgment
   he  avoided  the  peril;  by  a series of wrong judgments he forfeited

     I  oughte  deme, of skilful jugement, That in the salte sea my wife
     is deed. Chaucer.

   2.  The  power or faculty of performing such operations (see 1); esp.,
   when  unqualified, the faculty of judging or deciding rightly, justly,
   or  wisely;  good  sense;  as, a man of judgment; a politician without

     He  shall  judge  thy  people  with righteousness and thy poor with
     judgment. Ps. lxxii. 2.

     Hernia.  I would my father look'd but with my eyes. Theseus. Rather
     your eyes must with his judgment look. Shak.

   3. The conclusion or result of judging; an opinion; a decision.

     She in my judgment was as fair as you. Shak.

     Who first his judgment asked, and then a place. Pope.

   4. The act of determining, as in courts of law, what is conformable to
   law  and  justice; also, the determination, decision, or sentence of a
   court,  or  of a judge; the mandate or sentence of God as the judge of

     In  judgments between rich and poor, consider not what the poor man
     needs, but what is his own. Jer. Taylor.

     Most heartily I do beseech the court To give the judgment. Shak.

   5.  (Philos.)  (a)  That act of the mind by which two notions or ideas
   which  are  apprehended  as  distinct  are compared for the purpose of
   ascertaining  their  agreement  or disagreement. See 1. The comparison
   may  be threefold: (1) Of individual objects forming a concept. (2) Of
   concepts  giving  what  is  technically  called a judgment. (3) Of two
   judgments  giving an inference. Judgments have been further classed as
   analytic, synthetic, and identical. (b) That power or faculty by which
   knowledge  dependent  upon  comparison and discrimination is acquired.
   See 2.

     A  judgment  is  the  mental  act by which one thing is affirmed or
     denied of another. Sir W. Hamilton.

     The  power  by  which  we  are  enabled to perceive what is true or
     false,  probable  or improbable, is called by logicians the faculty
     of judgment. Stewart.

   6.  A calamity regarded as sent by God, by way of recompense for wrong
   committed;  a  providential  punishment.  "Judgments  are prepared for
   scorners."  Prov. xix. 29. "This judgment of the heavens that makes us
   tremble." Shak.

   7. (Theol.) The final award; the last sentence.

     NOTE: &hand; Judgment, abridgment, acknowledgment, and lodgment are
     in    England    sometimes    written,    judgement,   abridgement,
     acknowledgement, and lodgement.

     NOTE: &hand; Ju dgment is  used adjectively in many self-explaining
     combinations; as, judgment hour; judgment throne.

   Judgment  day  (Theol.),  the  last day, or period when final judgment
   will  be  pronounced  on  the  subjects  of God's moral government. --
   Judgment  debt  (Law),  a  debt  secured  to the creditor by a judge's
   order.  --  Judgment  hall,  a hall where courts are held. -- Judgment
   seat,  the seat or bench on which judges sit in court; hence, a court;
   a  tribunal.  "We shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ."
   Rom.  xiv.  10.  -- Judgment summons (Law), a proceeding by a judgment
   creditor  against  a  judgment  debtor  upon  an unsatisfied judgment.
   Arrest  of  judgment. (Law) See under Arrest, n. -- Judgment of God, a
   term  formerly applied to extraordinary trials of secret crimes, as by
   arms  and  single  combat, by ordeal, etc.; it being imagined that God
   would  work miracles to vindicate innocence. See under Ordeal. Syn. --
   Discernment;  decision;  determination;  award;  estimate;  criticism;
   taste;    discrimination;    penetration;    sagacity;   intelligence;
   understanding. See Taste.


   Ju"di*ca*ble  (?),  a.  [L.  judicabilis. See Judge, v. i.] Capable of
   being judged; capable of being tried or decided upon. Jer. Taylor.


   Ju"di*ca*tive  (?),  a.  Having  power  to  judge;  judicial;  as, the
   judicative faculty. Hammond.


   Ju"di*ca*to*ry   (?),   a.   [L.   judicatorius.]  Pertaining  to  the
   administration   of   justice;   dispensing   justice;  judicial;  as,
   judicatory tribunals. T. Wharton.

     Power to reject in an authoritative or judicatory way. Bp. Hall.


   Ju"di*ca*to*ry (277), n. [L. judicatorium.]

   1. A court of justice; a tribunal. Milton.

   2. Administration of justice.

     The supreme court of judicatory. Clarendon.


   Ju"di*ca*ture (?; 135), n. [F., fr. LL. judicatura.]

   1.  The state or profession of those employed in the administration of
   justice; also, the dispensing or administration of justice.

     The  honor  of  the judges in their judicature is the king's honor.

   2. A court of justice; a judicatory. South.

   3.  The right of judicial action; jurisdiction; extent jurisdiction of
   a judge or court.

     Our  Savior  disputes not here the judicature, for that was not his
     office, but the morality, of divorce. Milton.


   Ju*di"cial  (?),  a.  [L. judicialis, fr. judicium judgment, fr. judex
   judge: cf. OF. judicial. See Judge.]

   1.  Pertaining  or  appropriate  to  courts of justice, or to a judge;
   practiced or conformed to in the administration of justice; sanctioned
   or  ordered  by  a  court; as, judicial power; judicial proceedings; a
   judicial sale. "Judicial massacres." Macaulay.

     Not a moral but a judicial law, and so was abrogated. Milton.

   2. Fitted or apt for judging or deciding; as, a judicial mind.

   3.  Belonging  to  the  judiciary,  as distinguished from legislative,
   administrative, or executive. See Executive.

   4. Judicious. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Ju*di"cial*ly,  adv.  In  a judicial capacity or judicial manner. "The
   Lords . . . sitting judicially." Macaulay.


   Ju*di"cia*ry  (?; 277), a. [L. judiciarius, fr. judicium judgment: cf.
   F. judiciare. See Judicial.] Of or pertaining to courts of judicature,
   or legal tribunals; judicial; as, a judiciary proceeding. Bp. Burnet.


   Ju*di"cia*ry,  n.  [Cf. LL. judiciaria, F. judiciaire.] That branch of
   government  in which judicial power is vested; the system of courts of
   justice   in  a  country;  the  judges,  taken  collectively;  as,  an
   independent judiciary; the senate committee on the judiciary.


   Ju*di"cious  (?),  a.  [F.  judicieux,  fr.  L. judicium judgment. See
   Judicial.] Of or relating to a court; judicial. [Obs.]

     His last offenses to us Shall have judicious hearing. Shak.

   2.  Directed  or  governed  by  sound judgment; having sound judgment;
   wise; prudent; sagacious; discreet.

     He  is  noble,  wise,  judicious,  and  best  knows The fits o' the
     season. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Prudent;  discreet;  rational;  wise;  skillful; discerning;
   sagacious; well-advised.


   Ju*di"cious*ly,  adv.  In  a  judicious  manner;  with  good judgment;


   Ju*di"cious*ness,   n.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  judicious;
   sagacity; s


   Jug  (?), n. [Prob. fr. Jug, a corruption of, or nickname for, Joanna;
   cf. 2d Jack, and Jill. See Johannes.]

   1.  A vessel, usually of coarse earthenware, with a swelling belly and
   narrow mouth, and having a handle on one side.

   2. A pitcher; a ewer. [Eng.]

   3. A prison; a jail; a lockup. [Slang] Gay.


   Jug (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jugged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jugging (?).]

   1.  To seethe or stew, as in a jug or jar placed in boiling water; as,
   to jug a hare.

   2. To commit to jail; to imprison. [Slang]


   Jug, v. i. (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  To  utter  a  sound  resembling  this  word,  as certain birds do,
   especially the nightingale.

   2.  To  nestle  or  collect together in a covey; -- said of quails and


   Ju"gal (?), a. [L. jugalis, fr. jugum yoke.]

   1. Relating to a yoke, or to marriage. [Obs.]

   2.  (Anat.)  Pertaining  to,  or in the region of, the malar, or cheek


   Ju*ga"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [Neut.  pl. of L. jugatus, p. p. of jugare to
   join.]  (Numis.)  The  figures of two heads on a medal or coin, either
   side by side or joined.


   Ju"ga*ted (?), a. (Bot.) Coupled together.


   Juge (?), n. A judge. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Jug"e*ment (?), n. Judgment. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ju"ger (?), n. [L. jugerum.] A Roman measure of land, measuring 28,800
   square feet, or 240 feet in length by 120 in breadth.


   Jug"ger (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) An East Indian falcon. See Lugger.


   Jug"ger*naut`  (?),  n. [Skr. jagann\'betha lord of the world.] One of
   the  names  under  which  Vishnu,  in  his  incarnation as Krishna, is
   worshiped   by  the  Hindoos.  [Written  also  Juggernnath,  Jaganath,
   Jaganatha, etc.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e principal seat of the worship of Juggernaut is at
     P\'96ri  in  Orissa.  At  certain  times the idol is drawn from the
     temple  by  the  multitude,  on  a  high  car  with sixteen wheels.
     Formerly,  fanatics  sometimes threw themselves under the wheels to
     be crushed as a sacrifice to the god.


   Jug"gle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Juggled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Juggling
   (?).] [OE. juglen; cf. OF. jogler, jugler, F. jongler. See Juggler.]

   1.  To play tricks by sleight of hand; to cause amusement and sport by
   tricks of skill; to conjure.

   2. To practice artifice or imposture.

     Be these juggling fiends no more believed. Shak.


   Jug"gle, v. t. To deceive by trick or artifice.

     Is't  possible  the  spells  of  France should juggle Men into such
     strange mysteries? Shak.


   Jug"gle, n.

   1. A trick by sleight of hand.

   2. An imposture; a deception. Tennyson.

     A juggle of state to cozen the people. Tillotson.

   3.  A  block  of timber cut to a length, either in the round or split.


   Jug"gler   (?),  n.  [OE.  jogelour,  juglur,  OF.  jogleor,  jugleor,
   jongleor, F. jongleur, fr. L. joculator a jester, joker, fr. joculus a
   little  jest  or  joke,  dim.  of  jocus jest, joke. See Joke, and cf.
   Jongleur, Joculator.]

   1.  One  who  practices  or  exhibits  tricks  by sleight of hand; one
   skilled in legerdemain; a conjurer.

     As nimble jugglers that deceive the eye. Shak.

     Jugglers and impostors do daily delude them. Sir T. Browne.

   2. A deceiver; a cheat. Shak.


   Jug"gler*ess, n.

   1. A female juggler. T. Warton.


   Jug"gler*y (?), n. [OE. & OF. joglerie, F. jonglerie.]

   1. The art or act of a juggler; sleight of hand.

   2. Trickery; imposture; as, political jugglery.


   Jug"gling (?), a. Cheating; tricky. -- Jug"gling*ly, adv.


   Jug"gling, n. Jugglery; underhand practice.


   Juggs (?), n. pl. See Jougs. [Scot.]


   Jug"lan*din (?), n. [L. juglans, -andis, a walnut: cf. F. juglandine.]
   (Chem.)  An  extractive  matter  contained  in  the juice of the green
   shucks  of  the  walnut  (Juglans regia). It is used medicinally as an
   alterative, and also as a black hair dye.


   Jug"lan*dine  (?),  n.  An  alkaloid found in the leaves of the walnut
   (Juglans regia).


   Jug"lans  (?),  n.  [L.,  walnut.]  (Bot.)  A genus of valuable trees,
   including the true walnut of Europe, and the America black walnut, and


   Ju"glone  (?),  n.  [L.  juglans  the walnut + -one.] (Chem.) A yellow
   crystalline  substance resembling quinone, extracted from green shucks
   of  the  walnut  (Juglans  regia);  --  called  also nucin. <-- (MI11)
   C10H6O3. 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthalenedione -->


   Ju"gu*lar  (?),  a.  [L. jugulum the collar bone, which joins together
   the  shoulders and the breast, the throat, akin to jungere to yoke, to
   join: cf. F. jugulaire. See Join.]

   1. (Anat.) (a) Of or pertaining to the throat or neck; as, the jugular
   vein.  (b)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  jugular vein; as, the jugular

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having the ventral fins beneath the throat; -- said of
   certain fishes.


   Ju"gu*lar, n. [Cf. F. jugulaire. See Jugular, a.]

   1. (Anat.) One of the large veins which return the blood from the head
   to the heart through two chief trunks, an external and an internal, on
   each side of the neck; -- called also the jugular vein.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) Any fish which has the ventral fins situated forward of
   the  pectoral fins, or beneath the throat; one of a division of fishes


   Ju"gu*late  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Jugulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Jugulating  (?).] [L. jugulatus, p. p. of jugulare, fr. jugulatum. See
   Jugular.] To cut the throat of. [R.] Jacob Bigelow.


   Ju"gu*lum  (?),  n.; pl. Jugula (#). [L.] (Zo\'94l.) The lower throat,
   or that part of the neck just above the breast.


   Ju"gum  (?),  n.; pl. L. Juga (#), E. Jugums (#). [L., a yoke, ridge.]
   (Bot.)  (a)  One  of  the  ridges  commonly  found  on  the  fruit  of
   umbelliferous plants. (b) A pair of the opposite leaflets of a pinnate

   Page 805


   Juice  (?),  n.  [OE. juse, F.jus broth, gravy, juice, L. jus; akin to
   Skr.   y.]  The  characteristic  fluid  of  any  vegetable  or  animal
   substance;  the  sap  or part which can be expressed from fruit, etc.;
   the fluid part which separates from meat in cooking.

     An animal whose juices are unsound. Arbuthnot.

     The juice of July flowers. B. Jonson.

     The juice of Egypt's grape. Shak.

     Letters which Edward Digby wrote in lemon juice. Macaulay.

     Cold water draws the juice of meat. Mrs. Whitney.


   Juice (?), v. t. To moisten; to wet. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Juice"less, a. Lacking juice; dry. Dr. H. More.


   Jui"ci*ness  (?),  n.  The state or quality of being juicy; succulence


   Jui"cy  (?),  a.  [Compar. Juicier; superl. Juiciest.] A bounding with
   juice; succulent. Bacon.


   Ju*ise"  (?),  n.  [OF.  juise.  L. judicium. See Judicial.] Judgment;
   justice; sentence. [Obs.]

     Up [on] pain of hanging and high juise. Chaucer.


   Ju"jube (?), n. [F., fr. L. zizyphum, Gr. z\'c6zf, zizaf, zayzaf.] The
   sweet  and edible drupes (fruits) of several Mediterranean and African
   species  small trees, of the genus Zizyphus, especially the Z. jujuba,
   Z.  vulgaris, Z. mucronata, and Z. Lotus. The last named is thought to
   have  furnished  the  lotus  of the ancient Libyan Lotophagi, or lotus
   eaters.  Jujube  paste,  the dried or inspissated jelly of the jujube;
   also, a confection made of gum arabic sweetened.


   Juke  (?), v. i. [from Scottish jouk to bow.] To bend the neck; to bow
   or duck the head. [Written also jook and jouk.]

     The  money  merchant  was so proud of his trust that he went juking
     and tossing of his head. L' Estrange.


   Juke, n. The neck of a bird. [Prov. Eng.]


   Juke,  v.  i.  [F.  juc a roost, perch, jucher to roost, to perch.] To
   perch on anything, as birds do. [Obs.]


   Ju*la"ceous  (?),  a.  [See  Julus.]  (Bot.) Like an ament, or bearing
   aments; amentaceous.


   Ju"lep  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  Sp.  julepe,  fr.  Ar.  &  Per. jul\'beb,
   jull\'beb,  fr.  Per.  gul\'beb rose water and julep; gul rose + \'beb

   1.  A  refreshing  drink  flavored with aromatic herbs; esp. (Med.), a
   sweet,  demulcent,  acidulous,  or  mucilaginous  mixture,  used  as a
   vehicle. Milton.

     Honey in woods, juleps in brooks. H. Vaughan.

   2.  A  beverage  composed  of brandy, whisky, or some other spirituous
   liquor,  with  sugar,  pounded ice, and sprigs of mint; -- called also
   mint julep. [U.S.]


   Jul"ian  (?;  277)  a.  [L.  Julianus, fr. Julius. Cf. July, Gillian.]
   Relating  to,  or  derived from, Julius C\'91sar. Julian calendar, the
   calendar as adjusted by Julius C\'91sar, in which the year was made to
   consist  of  365  days,  each  fourth  year having 366 days. -- Julian
   epoch,  the epoch of the commencement of the Julian calendar, or 46 b.
   c.  -- Julian period, a chronological period of 7,980 years, combining
   the  solar,  lunar, and indiction cycles (28 x 19 x 15 = 7,980), being
   reckoned  from  the  year  4713  B.  C., when the first years of these
   several  cycles  would  coincide, so that if any year of the period be
   divided  by  28,  19,  or  15,  the  remainder will be the year of the
   corresponding  cycle.  The  Julian period was proposed by Scaliger, to
   remove  or  avoid ambiguities in chronological dates, and was so named
   because  composed  of  Julian  years.  -- Julian year, the year of 365
   days,  6  hours,  adopted  in  the  Julian  calendar, and in use until
   superseded  by  the  Gregorian year, as established in the reformed or
   Gregorian calendar.


   Ju`li*enne"  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  kind of soup containing thin slices or
   shreds of carrots, onions, etc.


   Ju"li*form  (?),  a.  [Julus  +  -form.]  (Bot.)  Having  the shape or
   appearance of a julus or catkin.


   Ju"lus  (?),  n.; pl.Juli (#). [Of the same origin as iulus.] (Bot.) A
   catkin or ament. See Ament.


   Ju*ly"  (?), n.; pl. Julies (#). [L.Julius; -- named from Caius Julius
   C\'91sar,  who  was  born  in this month: cf. F. Juillet.] The seventh
   month of the year, containing thirty-one days.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is mo nth was called Quintilis, or the fifth month,
     according  to  the old Roman calendar, in which March was the first
     month of the year.


   Ju*ly"-flow`er (?), n. See Gillyflower.


   Ju"mart (?), n. [F.] The fabled offspring of a bull and a mare. Locke.


   Jum"ble (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Jumbled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jumbling
   (?).]  [Prob. fr. jump, i. e., to make to jump, or shake.] To mix in a
   confused  mass;  to  put  or  throw  together  without order; -- often
   followed by together or up.

     Why  dost  thou  blend  and  jumble  such inconsistencies together?

     Every clime and age Jumbled together. Tennyson.


   Jum"ble,  v. i. To meet or unite in a confused way; to mix confusedly.


   Jum"ble, n.

   1.  A  confused  mixture;  a  mass  or collection without order; as, a
   jumble of words.

   2. A small, thin, sugared cake, usually ring-shaped.


   Jum"ble*ment (?), n. Confused mixture. [Low]


   Jum"bler (?), n. One who confuses things.


   Jum"bling*ly (?), adv. In a confused manner.


   Ju"ment  (?), n. [L. jumentum a beast of burden: cf. F. jument a mare,
   OF.,  a  beast  of  burden.]  A  beast; especially, a beast of burden.

     Fitter for juments than men to feed on. Burton.


   Jump  (?), n. [Cf. F. jupe a long petticoat, a skirt. Cf. Juppon.] (a)
   A kind of loose jacket for men. (b) pl. A bodice worn instead of stays
   by women in the 18th century.


   Jump,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jumped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jumping.] [Akin
   to OD. gumpen, dial. G. gumpen, jumpen.]

   1.  To  spring free from the ground by the muscular action of the feet
   and  legs; to project one's self through the air; to spring; to bound;
   to leap.

     Not  the worst of the three but jumps twelve foot and a half by the
     square. Shak.

   2.  To  move  as  if  by  jumping;  to  bounce;  to jolt. "The jumping
   chariots." Nahum iii. 2.

     A flock of geese jump down together. Dryden.

   3.  To  coincide;  to agree; to accord; to tally; -- followed by with.
   "It jumps with my humor." Shak.
   To  jump at, to spring to; hence, fig., to accept suddenly or eagerly;
   as, a fish jumps at a bait; to jump at a chance.
   Jump (?), v. t.
   1. To pass by a spring or leap; to overleap; as, to jump a stream.
   2. To cause to jump; as, he jumped his horse across the ditch.
   3. To expose to danger; to risk; to hazard. [Obs.]

     To jump a body with a dangerous physic. Shak.

   4.  (Smithwork)  (a) To join by a butt weld. (b) To thicken or enlarge
   by endwise blows; to upset.

   5. (Quarrying) To bore with a jumper.
   To  jump  a  claim, to enter upon and take possession of land to which
   another  has  acquired a claim by prior entry and occupation. [Western
   U. S. & Australia] See Claim, n., 3. -- To jump one's bail, to abscond
   while at liberty under bail bonds. [Slang, U. S.]


   Jump, n.

   1.  The  act  of  jumping;  a  leap; a spring; a bound. "To advance by
   jumps." Locke.

   2. An effort; an attempt; a venture. [Obs.]

     Our fortune lies Upon thisjump. Shak.

   3. The space traversed by a leap.

   4. (Mining) A dislocation in a stratum; a fault.

   5.  (Arch.) An abrupt interruption of level in a piece of brickwork or
   From  the  jump, from the start or beginning. [Colloq.] -- Jump joint.
   (a)  A  butt  joint.  (b)  A  flush joint, as of plank in carvel-built
   vessels.  --  Jump  seat.  (a) A movable carriage seat. (b) A carriage
   constructed  with  a  seat which may be shifted so as to make room for
   second or extra seat. Also used adjectively; as, a jump-seat wagon.


   Jump,  a. Nice; exact; matched; fitting; precise. [Obs.] "Jump names."
   B. Jonson.


   Jump, adv. Exactly; pat.[Obs.] Shak.


   Jump"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, jumps.

   2. A long drilling tool used by masons and quarrymen.

   3.  A  rude  kind of sleigh; -- usually, a simple box on runners which
   are  in  one  piece  with the poles that form the thills. [U.S.] J. F.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  larva  of  the  cheese fly. See Cheese fly, under

   5.  (Eccl.)  A name applied in the 18th century to certain Calvinistic
   Methodists  in  Wales  whose  worship  was  characterized  by  violent

   6. (Horology) spring to impel the star wheel, also a pawl to lock fast
   a wheel, in a repeating timepiece.
   Baby  jumper.  See  in  the  Vocabulary.  --  Bounty jumper. See under


   Jump"er,  n.  [See 1st Jump.] A loose upper garment; as: (a) A sort of
   blouse  worn by workmen over their ordinary dress to protect it. (b) A
   fur garment worn in Arctic journeys.


   Jump"ing,  p.  a. & vb. n. of Jump, to leap. Jumping bean, a seed of a
   Mexican   Euphorbia,  containing  the  larva  of  a  moth  (Carpocapsa
   saltitans).  The larva by its sudden movements causes the seed to roll
   to  roll  and  jump about. -- Jumping deer (Zo\'94l.), a South African
   rodent  (Pedetes Caffer), allied to the jerboa. -- Jumping jack, a toy
   figure  of  a  man,  jointed  and  made  to  jump or dance by means of
   strings.  --  Jumping louse (Zo\'94l.), any of the numerous species of
   plant  lice  belonging to the family Psyllid\'91, several of which are
   injurious  to fruit trees. -- Jumping mouse (Zo\'94l.), North American
   mouse (Zapus Hudsonius), having a long tail and large hind legs. It is
   noted  for  its jumping powers. Called also kangaroo mouse. -- Jumping
   mullet  (Zo\'94l.),  gray  mullet.  --  Jumping  shrew (Zo\'94l.), any
   African insectivore of the genus Macroscelides. They are allied to the
   shrews,  but  have  large  hind  legs  adapted for jumping. -- Jumping
   spider  (Zo\'94l.),  spider  of  the  genus Salticus and other related
   genera;  one  of the Saltigrad\'91; -- so called because it leaps upon
   its prey.


   Jump"weld` (?), v. t. See Buttweld, v. t.


   Jun*ca"ceous  (?),  a.  [See  Juncate.]  (Bot.)  Of. pertaining to, or
   resembling,  a  natural  order  of  plants (Juncace\'91), of which the
   common rush (Juncus) is the type.


   Jun"cate (?), n. See Junket.[Obs.] Spenser.


   Jun"cite (?), n. [L. juncus a rush.] (Paleon.) A fossil rush.


   Jun"co  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any bird of the genus Junco, which includes
   several species of North American finches; -- called also snowbird, or
   blue snowbird.


   Jun"cous  (?),  a.  [L.  juncosus, fr. juncus a rush.] Full of rushes:
   resembling rushes; juncaceous. [R.] Johnson.


   Junc"tion  (?),  n. [L. junctio, fr. jungere, junctum, to join: cf. F.
   jonction. See Join.]

   1.  The  act  of  joining,  or  the  state  of  being  joined;  union;
   combination; coalition; as, the junction of two armies or detachments;
   the junction of paths.

   2.  The  place  or point of union, meeting, or junction; specifically,
   the place where two or more lines of railway meet or cross.
   Junction  plate  (Boilers),  a covering or break-join plate riveted to
   and  uniting  the edges of sheets which make a butt joint. -- Junction
   rails  (Railroads), the switch, or movable, rails, connecting one line
   of track with another.


   Junc"ture (?), n. [L.junctura, fr. jungere to join. See Jointure.]

   1.  A joining; a union; an alliance. [Obs.] "Devotional compliance and
   juncture of hearts." Eikon Basilike.

   2.  The  line  or  point  at  which two bodies are joined; a joint; an
   articulation;  a  seam; as, the junctures of a vessel or of the bones.

   3.  A  point  of  time;  esp.,  one  made  critical  or important by a
   concurrence   of   circumstances;   hence,   a  crisis;  an  exigency.
   "Extraordinary junctures." Addison.

     In  such  a  juncture,  what  can  the  most  plausible and refined
     philosophy offer? Berkeley.


   June  (?),  n.  [L. Junius: cf. F. Juin. So called either from Junius,
   the  name of a Roman gens, or from Juno, the goddess.] The sixth month
   of the year, containing thirty days.

     And  what  is so rare as a day in June? Then, if ever, come perfect
     days. Lowell.

   June  beetle, June bug (Zo\'94l.), any one of several species of large
   brown  beetles  of  the  genus  Lachnosterna and related genera; -- so
   called because they begin to fly, in the northern United States, about
   the first of June. The larv\'91 of the June beetles live under ground,
   and  feed  upon the roots of grasses and other plants. Called also May
   bug  or  May  beetle.  --  June  grass  (Bot.), a New England name for
   Kentucky blue grass. See Blue glass, and Illustration in Appendix.
   June"a*ting (?), n. A kind of early apple. [Written also jenneting.] 


   June"ber`ry  (?),  n. (Bot.) (a) The small applelike berry of American
   trees  of  genus  Amelanchier;  --  also called service berry. (b) The
   shrub  or  tree  which bears this fruit; -- also called shad bush, and
   had tree.


   Jun`ger*man"ni*a  (?),  n.;  pl. Jungermanni\'91 (#). [NL. Named after
   Ludwig  Jungermann,  a  German  botanist.]  (Bot.)  A genus of hepatic
   mosses, now much circumscribed, but formerly comprising most plants of
   the order, which is sometimes therefore called Jungermanniace\'91.


   Jun"gle (?), n. [Hind. jangal desert, forest, jungle; Skr. ja desert.]
   A  dense  growth  of brushwood, grasses, reeds, vines, etc.; an almost
   impenetrable  thicket  of  trees,  canes,  and reedy vegetation, as in
   India,  Africa, Australia, and Brazil. <-- (Fig.) 2. a place of danger
   or  ruthless  competition  for  survival. "It's a jungle out there" 3.
   anything  which  causes  difficulty  due  to intricacy; as a jungle of
   environmental regulations. (MW10) -->

     The  jungles  of India are of bamboos, canes, and other palms, very
     difficult to penetrate. Balfour (Cyc. of India).

   Jungle  bear  (Zo\'94l.),  the  aswail  or  sloth  bear. -- Jungle cat
   (Zo\'94l.), the chaus. -- Jungle cock (Zo\'94l.), the male of a jungle
   fowl.  --  Jungle  fowl.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) Any wild species of the genus
   Gallus,  of  which  several  species  inhabit  India  and the adjacent
   islands;  as,  the  fork-tailed  jungle  fowl  (G. varius) of Java, G.
   Stanleyi of Ceylon, and G. Bankiva of India.
     NOTE: The l  atter, w hich r esembles t he d omestic g amecock, i s
     supposed  to be one of the original species from which the domestic
     fowl was derived.
   (b)  An  Australian  grallatorial  bird  (Megapodius tumulus) which is
   allied  to  the  brush  turkey, and, like the latter, lays its eggs in
   mounds  of  vegetable  matter,  where  they  are  hatched  by the heat
   produced by decomposition. 


   Jun"gly  (?), a. Consisting of jungles; abounding with jungles; of the
   nature of a jungle.


   Jun"ior (?), a. [L. contr. fr. juvenior, compar. of juvenis young. See

   1. Less advanced in age than another; younger.

     NOTE: &hand; Ju nior is  ap plied to distinguish the younger of two
     persons bearing the same name in the same family, and is opposed to
     senior  or  elder.  Commonly  applied  to  a  son  who has the same
     Christian name as his father.

   2.  Lower  in  standing  or  in  rank;  later  in office; as, a junior
   partner; junior counsel; junior captain.

   3.  Composed  of juniors, whether younger or a lower standing; as, the
   junior  class;  of  or pertaining to juniors or to a junior class. See
   Junior, n., 2.

   4. Belonging to a younger person, or an earlier time of life.

     Our first studies and junior endeavors. Sir T. Browne.


   Jun"ior, n.

   1. A younger person.

     His junior she, by thirty years. Byron.

   2.  Hence: One of a lower or later standing; specifically, in American
   colleges,  one  in  the third year of his course, one in the fourth or
   final  year  being designated a senior; in some seminaries, one in the
   first  year,  in  others,  one  in  the second year, of a three years'


   Jun*ior"i*ty (?), n. The state or quality of being junior.


   Ju"ni*per (?), n. [L. juniperus, prop., youth-producing, and so called
   from  its  evergreen  appearance,  from  the roots of E. juvenile, and
   parent.  Cf.  Gin  the liquor.] (Bot.) Any evergreen shrub or tree, of
   the genus Juniperus and order Conifer\'91.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e common juniper (J. communis) is a shrub of a low,
     spreading  form,  having  awl-shaped,  rigid  leaves  in  whorls of
     threes,  and bearing small purplish blue berries (or galbuli), of a
     warm, pungent taste, used as diuretic and in flavoring gin. A resin
     exudes  from  the  bark,  which  has  erroneously  been  considered
     identical with sandarach, and is used as pounce. The oil of juniper
     is acrid, and used for various purposes, as in medicine, for making
     varnish,  etc.  The  wood of several species is of a reddish color,
     hard and durable, and is used in cabinetwork under the names of red
     cedar, Bermuda cedar, etc.

   Juniper  worm  (Zo\'94l.),  the  larva of a geometrid moth (Drepanodes
   varus).  It feeds upon the leaves of the juniper, and mimics the small
   twigs both in form and color, in a remarkable manner.


   Ju"ni*per*in  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A yellow amorphous substance extracted
   from juniper berries.


   Ju"ni*per*ite  (?),  n.  (Paleon.)  One  of  the  fossil  Conifer\'91,
   evidently allied to the juniper.

   Page 806


   Junk  (?),  n.  A  fragment of any solid substance; a thick piece. See
   Chunk. [Colloq.] Lowell.


   Junk,  n.  [Pg.  junco junk, rush, L. juncus a bulrush, of which ropes
   were made in early ages. Cf. Junket.]

   1.  Pieces of old cable or old cordage, used for making gaskets, mats,
   swabs,  etc., and when picked to pieces, forming oakum for filling the
   seams of ships.

   2.  Old  iron,  or other metal, glass, paper, etc., bought and sold by
   junk dealers.

   3. (Naut.) Hard salted beef supplied to ships.
   Junk bottle , a stout bottle made of thick dark-colored glass. -- Junk
   dealer,  a  dealer in old cordage, old metal, glass, etc. -- Junk hook
   (Whaling), a hook for hauling heavy pieces of blubber on deck. -- Junk
   ring.  (a)  A  packing  of  soft  material round the piston of a steam
   engine.  (b)  A metallic ring for retaining a piston packing in place;
   (c)  A  follower.  --  Junk shop, a shop where old cordage, and ship's
   tackle,  old iron, old bottles, old paper, etc., are kept for sale. --
   Junk  vat (Leather Manuf.), a large vat into which spent tan liquor or
   ooze is pumped. -- Junk wad (Mil.), a wad used in proving cannon; also
   used in firing hot shot.


   Junk,  n.  [Pg.  junco;  cf.  Jav.  & Malay jong, ajong, Chin. chwan.]
   (Naut.)  A large vessel, without keel or prominent stem, and with huge
   masts  in  one  piece, used by the Chinese, Japanese, Siamese, Malays,
   etc., in navigating their waters.


   Jun"ker (?), n. [G. Cf. Yonker.] A young German noble or squire; esp.,
   a member of the aristocratic party in Prussia.


   Jun"ker*ism  (?),  n.  The  principles  of  the  aristocratic party in


   Jun"ket (?), n. [Formerly also juncate, fr. It. giuncata cream cheese,
   made  in  a  wicker or rush basket, fr. L. juncus a rush. See 2d Junk,
   and cf. Juncate.]

   1. A cheese cake; a sweetmeat; any delicate food.

     How Faery Mab the junkets eat. Milton.

     Victuals varied well in taste, And other junkets. Chapman.

   2. A feast; an entertainment.

     A new jaunt or junket every night. Thackeray.


   Jun"ket,  v.  i.  To  feast;  to banquet; to make an entertainment; --
   sometimes  applied opprobriously to feasting by public officers at the
   public cost.

     Job's children junketed and feasted together often. South.


   Jun"ket,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Junketed; p. pr. & vb. n. Junketing.] To
   give entertainment to; to feast.

     The  good  woman  took  my lodgings over my head, and was in such a
     hurry to junket her neighbors. Walpole.


   Jun"ket*ing, n. A feast or entertainment; a revel.

     All  those  snug  junketings and public gormandizings for which the
     ancient   magistrates   were   equally  famous  with  their  modern
     successors. W. Irving.

     The  apostle  would  have  no reveling or junketing upon the altar.


   Jun"ket*ries (?), n. pl. Sweetmeats. [Obs.]


   Ju"ne (?), n.; pl. Junos (#). [L.]

   1.  (Rom.  Myth.) The sister and wife of Jupiter, the queen of heaven,
   and  the  goddess  who  presided over marriage. She corresponds to the
   Greek Hera.

     Sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes. Shak.

   2. (Astron.) One of the early discovered asteroids.
   Bird of June, the peacock.


   Jun"ta  (?), n.; pl. Juntas (#). [Sp., fr. L. junctus joined, p. p. of
   jungere  to join. See Join, and cf. Junto.] A council; a convention; a
   tribunal; an assembly; esp., the grand council of state in Spain.


   Jun"to  (?),  n.;  pl.  Juntos  (#).  [Sp. junto united. See Junta.] A
   secret  council  to deliberate on affairs of government or politics; a
   number  of  men combined for party intrigue; a faction; a cabal; as, a
   junto of ministers; a junto of politicians.

     The puzzling sons of party next appeared, In dark cabals and mighty
     juntos met. Thomson.


   Jun"ar*tie (?), n. Jeopardy. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                  Jupati palm

   Ju`pa*ti"  palm`  (?).  (Bot.)  A  great  Brazilian  palm tree (Raphia
   t\'91digera), used by the natives for many purposes.


   Jupe (?), n. Same as Jupon.


   Ju"pi*ter (?), n. [L., fr. Jovis pater. See Jove.]

   1.  (Rom.  Myth.) The supreme deity, king of gods and men, and reputed
   to  be  the  son of Saturn and Rhea; Jove. He corresponds to the Greek

   2. (Astron.) One of the planets, being the brightest except Venus, and
   the  largest  of them all, its mean diameter being about 85,000 miles.
   It  revolves  about  the  sun  in  4,332.6 days, at a mean distance of
   5.2028 from the sun, the earth's mean distance being taken as unity.
   Jupiter's beard. (Bot.) (a) A South European herb, with cymes of small
   red  blossoms  (Centranthus  ruber).  (b)  The  houseleek (Sempervivum
   tectorum);  --  so  called  from  its  massive inflorescence, like the
   sculptured   beard  of  Jove.  Prior.  (c)  the  cloverlike  Anthyllis
   Barba-Jovis.  --  Jupiter's  staff  (Bot.),  the common mullein; -- so
   called from its long, rigid spike of yellow blossoms.

                                 Jupon, Juppon

   Ju*pon"  (?), Jup*pon" (?), n. [F. jupon, fr. jupe skirt, Sp. aljuba a
   Moorish  garment,  Ar.  jubba.]  [Written variously jupe, jump, juppo,

   1.  A  sleeveless  jacket  worn over the armor in the 14th century. It
   fitted closely, and descended below the hips. Dryden.

   2. A petticoat. Halliwell.


   Ju"ra  (?),  n.  [F.  & L.] 1. A range of mountains between France and

   2. (Geol.) The Jurassic period. See Jurassic.


   Ju"ral (?), a. [L.jus, juris, right.]

   1. Pertaining to natural or positive right. [R.]

     By  the adjective jural we shall denote that which has reference to
     the doctrine of rights and obligations; as by the adjective "moral"
     we  denote  that  which  has  reference  to the doctrine of duties.

   2. (Law) Of or pertaining to jurisprudence.


   Ju`ra*men"tum (?), n.; pl. Juramenta (. [L.] (Roman & Old Eng. Law) An


   Ju*ras"sic  (?),  a.  (Geol.)  Of  the  age  of  the  middle Mesozoic,
   including,  as divided in England and Europe, the Lias, O\'94lite, and
   Wealden;  -- named from certain rocks of the Jura mountains. -- n. The
   Jurassic period or formation; -- called also the Jura.


   Ju"rat  (?), n. [Prov. F. jurat, fr. L. juratus sworn, p. p. of jurare
   to swear. See Jury, n.]

   1.  A  person under oath; specifically, an officer of the nature of an
   alderman, in certain municipal corporations in England. Burrill.

   2. (Law) The memorandum or certificate at the end of an asffidavit, or
   a  bill  or  answer  in  chancery,  showing when, before whom, and (in
   English practice), where, it was sworn or affirmed. Wharton. Bouvier.


   Ju"ra*to*ry  (?),  a.  [L.  juratorius,  fr.  jurare  to swear: cf. F.
   juratoire.]  Relating  to or comprising an oath; as, juratory caution.


   Ju`ra-tri"as  (?), n. (Geol.) A term applied to many American Mesozoic
   strata,  in  which  the  characteristics  of the Jurassic and Triassic
   periods appear to be blended. -- Ju`ra-tri*as"sic (#), a.


   Jur*dic"ci*on (?), n. Jurisdiction. [Obs.]


   Jur"don (?), n. Jordan. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ju"rel  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A yellow carangoid fish of the Atlantic and
   Gulf  coasts  (Caranx  chrysos),  most abundant southward, where it is
   valued  as  a  food  fish; -- called also hardtail, horse crevall\'82,
   jack,   buffalo   jack,  skipjack,  yellow  mackerel,  and  sometimes,
   improperly, horse mackerel. Other species of Caranx (as C. fallax) are
   also sometimes called jurel.

                              Juridic, Juridical

   Ju*rid"ic  (?),  Ju*rid"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L. juridicus relating to the
   administration  of  justice;  jus,  juris,  right,  law  +  dicare  to
   pronounce: cf. F. juridique. See Just, a., and Diction.] Pertaining to
   a  judge  or  to jurisprudence; acting in the distribution of justice;
   used  in  courts  of  law; according to law; legal; as, juridical law.
   "This juridical sword." Milton.

     The body corporate of the kingdom, in juridical construction, never
     dies. Burke.

   Juridical days, days on which courts are open.


   Ju*rid*ic*al*ly, adv. In a juridical manner.


   Ju`ris*con"sult  (?),  n.  [L.  jurisconsultus;  jus,  juris,  right +
   consulere,  consultum,  to consult: cf. F. jurisconsulte.] (Law) A man
   learned  in the civil law; an expert in juridical science; a professor
   of jurisprudence; a jurist.


   Ju`ris*dic"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  jurisdictio;  jus, juris, right, law +
   dictio  a  saying, speaking: cf. OF. jurisdiction, F. juridiction. See
   Just, a., and Diction.]

   1. (Law) The legal power, right, or authority of a particular court to
   hear  and  determine  causes, to try criminals, or to execute justice;
   judicial  authority over a cause or class of causes; as, certain suits
   or  actions,  or  the  cognizance  of  certain  crimes, are within the
   jurisdiction  of a particular court, that is, within the limits of its
   authority or commission.

   2.  The  authority  of  a  sovereign power to govern or legislate; the
   right  of  making  or enforcing laws; the power or right of exercising

     To live exempt From Heaven's high jurisdiction. Milton.

     You  wrought  to  be  a  legate;  by  which  power  You  maim'd the
     jurisdiction of all bishops. Shak.

   3.  Sphere  of authority; the limits within which any particular power
   may  be  exercised,  or  within  which  a  government  or  a court has

     NOTE: &hand; Ju risdiction, in its most general sense, is the power
     to  make, declare, or apply the law. When confined to the judiciary
     department,  it is what we denominate the judicial power, the right
     of  administering  justice through the laws, by the means which the
     laws  have  provided  for  that purpose. Jurisdiction is limited to
     place or territory, to persons, or to particular subjects.



   Ju`ris*dic"tion*al    (?),    a.   [Cf.   LL.   jurisdictionalis,   F.
   juridictionnel.]  Of  or pertaining to jurisdiction; as jurisdictional
   rights. Barrow.


   Ju`ris*dic"tive (?), a. Having jurisdiction. Milton.


   Ju`ris*pru"dence  (?), n. [L. jurisprudentia; jus, juris, right, law +
   prudentia  a  foreseeing,  knowledge  of  a  matter,  prudence: cf. F.
   jurisprudence.  See  Just, a., and Prudence.] The science of juridical
   law;  the knowledge of the laws, customs, and rights of men in a state
   or community, necessary for the due administration of justice.

     The   talents   of   Abelard   were   not   confined  to  theology,
     jurisprudence, philosophy. J. Warton.

   Medical  jurisprudence,  that  branch  of juridical law which concerns
   questions of medicine.


   Ju`ris*pru"dent (?), a.[See Jurisprudence.] Understanding law; skilled
   in jurisprudence. G. West.


   Ju`ris*pru"dent,  n.  [Cf.  F.  jurisprudent.]  One  skilled in law or
   jurisprudence. [R.] De Quincey.


   Ju`ris*pru*den"tial   (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  jurisprudence.


   Ju`rist  (?),  n.  [F. juriste, LL. jurista, fr. L. jus, juris, right,
   law. See Just, a.] One who professes the science of law; one versed in
   the  law,  especially  in  the  civil  law;  a  writer  on  civil  and
   international law.

     It has ever been the method of public jurists to Burke.

                             Juristic, Juristical

   Ju*ris"tic (?), Ju*ris"tic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a jurist, to
   the  legal  profession, or to jurisprudence. [R.] "Juristic ancestry."


   Ju"ror  (?),  n.  [F. jureur one who takes oath, L. jurator a swearer,
   fr. jurare, jurari, to swear. See Jury, n.]

   1. (Law) A member of a jury; a juryman.

     I shall both find your lordship judge and juror. Shak.

   2. A member of any jury for awarding prizes, etc.


   Ju"ry  (?),  a.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  (Naut.)  For temporary use; --
   applied  to  a  temporary contrivance. Jury mast, a temporary mast, in
   place  of one that has been carried away, or broken. -- Jury rudder, a
   rudder constructed for temporary use.


   Ju"ry  (?),  n.; pl. Juries (#). [OF. jur\'82e an assize, fr. jurer to
   swear, L. jurare, jurari; akin to jus, juris, right, law. See Just,a.,
   and cf. Jurat, Abjure.]

   1.  (Law)  A  body  of men, usually twelve, selected according to law,
   impaneled and sworn to inquire into and try any matter of fact, and to
   render  their  true verdict according to the evidence legally adduced.
   See Grand jury under Grand, and Inquest.

     The jury, passing on the prisoner's life. Shak.

   2. A committee for determining relative merit or awarding prizes at an
   exhibition or competition; as, the art jury gave him the first prize.
   Jury of inquest, a coroner's jury. See Inquest.


   Ju"ry*man  (?),  n.; pl. Jurymen (. One who is impaneled on a jury, or
   who serves as a juror.


   Ju"ry-rigged`  (?), a. (Naut.) Rigged for temporary service. See Jury,


   Jus"si  (?),  n.  A delicate fiber, produced in the Philippine Islands
   from an unidentified plant, of which dresses, etc., are made.


   Just (?), a. [F. juste, L. justus, fr. jus right, law, justice; orig.,
   that  which  is  fitting;  akin to Skr. yu to join. Cf. Injury, Judge,
   Jury, Giusto.]

   1.  Conforming or conformable to rectitude or justice; not doing wrong
   to  any; violating no right or obligation; upright; righteous; honest;
   true;  --  said  both  of persons and things. "O just but severe law!"

     There  is  not  a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth
     not. Eccl. vii. 20.

     Just balances, just weights, . . . shall ye have. Lev. xix. 36.

     How should man be just with God? Job ix. 2.

     We know your grace to be a man. Just and upright. Shak.

   2. Not transgressing the requirement of truth and propriety; conformed
   to  the  truth  of  things, to reason, or to a proper standard; exact;
   normal;  reasonable;  regular;  due;  as,  a  just  statement;  a just

     Just of thy word, in every thought sincere. Pope.

     The  prince  is  here  at  hand: pleaseth your lordship To meet his
     grace just distance 'tween our armies. Shak.

     He was a comely personage, a little above just stature.q> Bacon.

     Fire fitted with just materials casts a constant heat. Jer. Taylor.

     When all The war shall stand ranged in its just array. Addison.

     Their named alone would make a just volume. Burton.

   3.  Rendering  or  disposed  to render to each one his due; equitable;
   fair; impartial; as, just judge.

     Men  are commonly so just to virtue and goodness as to praise it in
     others, even when they do not practice it themselves. Tillotson.

   Just   intonation.  (Mus.)  (a)  The  correct  sounding  of  notes  or
   intervals;  true  pitch.  (b)  The  giving all chords and intervals in
   their   purity   or   their   exact  mathematical  ratio,  or  without
   temperament;  a  process  in  which  the number of notes and intervals
   required  in  the  various keys is much greater than the twelve to the
   octave used in systems of temperament. H. W. Poole. Syn. -- Equitable;
   upright;   honest;  true;  fair;  impartial;  proper;  exact;  normal;
   orderly; regular.
   Just, adv. 

   1.  Precisely; exactly; -- in place, time, or degree; neither more nor
   less than is stated.

     And having just enough, not covet more. Dryden.

     The  god  Pan guided my hand just to the heart of the beast. Sir P.

     To-night, at Herne's oak, just 'twixt twelve and one. Shak.

   2. Closely; nearly; almost.

     Just at the point of death. Sir W. Temple.

   3.  Barely; merely; scarcely; only; by a very small space or time; as,
   he just missed the train; just too late.

     A  soft Etesian gale But just inspired and gently swelled the sail.

   Just now, the least possible time since; a moment ago.


   Just, v. i. [See Joust.] To joust. Fairfax.


   Just, n. A joust. Dryden.


   Jus"tice (?), n. [F., fr. L. justitia, fr. justus just. See Just, a.]

   1.  The  quality  of  being  just;  conformity  to  the  principles of
   righteousness and rectitude in all things; strict performance of moral
   obligations; practical conformity to human or divine law; integrity in
   the dealings of men with each other; rectitude; equity; uprightness.

     Justice  and judgment are the haditation of thy throne. Ps. ixxxix.

     The   king-becoming   graces,   As   justice,  verity,  temperance,
     stableness, . . . I have no relish of them. Shak.

   2.  Conformity  to  truth  and  reality  in expressing opinions and in
   conduct;  fair  representation  of  facts respecting merit or demerit;
   honesty;  fidelity;  impartiality; as, the justice of a description or
   of a judgment; historical justice.

   3.  The  rendering  to  every  one  his  due or right; just treatment;
   requital of desert; merited reward or punishment; that which is due to
   one's conduct or motives.

     This  even-handed  justice Commends the ingredients of our poisoned
     chalice To our own lips. Shak.

   4.  Agreeableness  to  right;  equity;  justness; as, the justice of a

   Page 807

   5.  A  person  duly  commissioned to hold courts, or to try and decide
   controversies and administer justice.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is ti tle is  given to the judges of the common law
     courts in England and in the United States, and extends to judicial
     officers and magistrates of every grade.

   Bed  of  justice.  See  under  Bed.  --  Chief  justice.  See  in  the
   Vocabulary.  --  Justice  of  the  peace  (Law), a judicial officer or
   subordinate  magistrate appointed for the conservation of the peace in
   a  specified  district,  with other incidental powers specified in his
   commission.   In  the  United  States  a  justice  of  the  peace  has
   jurisdiction to adjudicate certain minor cases, commit offenders, etc.
   Syn.   --   Equity;   law;   right;   rectitude;  honesty;  integrity;
   uprightness;  fairness; impartiality. -- Justice, Equity, Law. Justice
   and  equity  are  the  same; but human laws, though designed to secure
   justice,  are of necessity imperfect, and hence what is strictly legal
   is  at  times far from being equitable or just. Here a court of equity
   comes  in to redress the grievances. It does so, as distinguished from
   courts  of  law; and as the latter are often styled courts of justice,
   some  have  fancied  that  there  is  in  this case a conflict between
   justice  and  equity.  The real conflict is against the working of the
   law;  this a court of equity brings into accordance with the claims of
   justice.  It would be an unfortunate use of language which should lead
   any  one to imagine he might have justice on his side while practicing
   iniquity  (inequity).  Justice,  Rectitude.  Rectitude,  in its widest
   sense,  is  one  of  the  most  comprehensive  words  in our language,
   denoting  absolute  conformity  to  the rule of right in principle and
   practice.  Justice  refers more especially to the carrying out of law,
   and   has  been  considered  by  moralists  as  of  three  kinds:  (1)
   Commutative justice, which gives every man his own property, including
   things pledged by promise. (2) Distributive justice, which gives every
   man  his exact deserts. (3) General justice, which carries out all the
   ends  of law, though not in every case through the precise channels of
   commutative  or distributive justice; as we see often done by a parent
   or a ruler in his dealings with those who are subject to his control.


   Jus"tice (?), v. t. To administer justice to. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Jus"tice*a*ble  (?),  a. Liable to trial in a court of justice. [Obs.]


   Jus"tice*hood (?), n. Justiceship. B. Jonson.


   Jus"tice*ment  (?),  n. Administration of justice; procedure in courts
   of justice. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Jus"ti*cer  (?), n. One who administers justice; a judge. [Obs.] "Some
   upright justicer." Shak.


   Jus"tice*ship (?), n. The office or dignity of a justice. Holland.


   Jus*ti"ci*a*ble  (?),  a.  [Cf.  LL.  justitiabilis,  F. justiciable.]
   Proper to be examined in a court of justice. Bailey.


   Jus*ti"ci*ar (?), n. Same as Justiciary.


   Jus*ti"ci*a*ry  (?),  n.  [Cf.  LL.  justitiarius,  F.  justicier. See
   Justice.]  (Old  Eng.  Law)  An  old name for the judges of the higher
   English courts.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ch ief justiciary, or justiciar, in early English
     history, was not only the chief justice of the kingdom, but also ex
     officio regent in the king's absence.

   Court  of  justiciary  (Scots Law), the supreme criminal court, having
   jurisdiction over the whole of Scotland.

                              Justico, Justicoat

   Jus"ti*co  (?),  Jus"ti*coat`  (?), n. [F. justaucorps, lit., close to
   the body.] Formerly, a close coat or waistcoat with sleeves.


   Jus"ti*fi`a*ble  (?), a. [Cf. F. justifiable. See Justify.] Capable of
   being justified, or shown to be just.

     Just are the ways of God, An justifiable to men. Milton.

   Syn.  --  Defensible;  vindicable; warrantable; excusable; exculpable;
   authorizable. -- Jus"ti*fi`a*ble*ness, n. -- Jus"ti*fi`a*bly, adv.


   Jus`ti*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [L. justificatio: cf. F. justification. See

   1. The act of justifying or the state of being justified; a showing or
   proving  to  be  just  or conformable to law, justice, right, or duty;
   defense;  vindication;  support; as, arguments in justification of the
   prisoner's conduct; his disobedience admits justification.

     I  hope,  for  my  brother's justification, he wrote this but as an
     essay or taste of my virtue. Shak.

   2.  (Law)  The  showing  in  court of a sufficient lawful reason why a
   party charged or accused did that for which he is called to answer.

   3. (Theol.) The act of justifying, or the state of being justified, in
   respect to God's requirements.

     Who  was  delivered  for our offenses, and was raised again for our
     justification. Rom. iv. 25.

     In  such  righteousness  To  them  by  faith imputed, they may find
     Justification toward God, and peace Of conscience. Milton.

   4.  (Print.) Adjustment of type by spacing it so as to make it exactly
   fill  a  line,  or of a cut so as to hold it in the right place; also,
   the leads, quads, etc., used for making such adjustment.


   Jus*tif"i*ca*tive  (?; 277), a. [Cf. F. justificatif.] Having power to
   justify; justificatory.


   Jus"ti*fi*ca`tor (?), n. [LL. justificator: cf. F. justificateur.] One
   who justifies or vindicates; a justifier. Johnson.


   Jus*tif"i*ca*to*ry (?; 277), a. Vindicatory; defensory; justificative.


   Jus"ti*fi`er  (?), n. One who justifies; one who vindicates, supports,
   defends, or absolves.

     Justifiers of themselves and hypocrites. Strype.

     That  he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in
     Jesus. Rom. iii. 26.


   Jus"ti*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Justified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Justifying  (?).] [F. justifier, L. justificare; justus just + -ficare
   (in comp.) to make. See Just, a., and -fy.]

   1. To prove or show to be just; to vindicate; to maintain or defend as
   conformable to law, right, justice, propriety, or duty.

     That  to  the  height  of  this great argument I may assert eternal
     providence, And justify the ways of God to men. Milton.

     Unless  the  oppression  is so extreme as to justify revolution, it
     would not justify the evil of breaking up a government. E. Everett.

   2.  To pronounce free from guilt or blame; to declare or prove to have
   done  that  which  is  just,  right,  proper,  etc.;  to  absolve;  to
   exonerate; to clear.

     I can not justify whom the law condemns. Shak.

   3.  (Theol.)  To  treat  as  if  righteous  and  just;  to  pardon; to
   exculpate; to absolve.

     By  him  all that believe are justified from all things, from which
     ye could not be justified by the law of Moses. Acts xiii. 39.

   4. To prove; to ratify; to confirm. [Obs.] Shak.

   5. (Print.) To make even or true, as lines of type, by proper spacing;
   to adjust, as type. See Justification, 4. Syn. -- To defend; maintain;
   vindicate; excuse; exculpate; absolve; exonerate.


   Jus"ti*fy, v. i.

   1.  (Print.) To form an even surface or true line with something else;
   to  fit  exactly.  <--  esp.  in printing, to align (text) at the left
   (left  justify)  or right (right justify) margins of a column or page,
   or at both margins -->

   2.  (Law)  To  take  oath  to  the ownership of property sufficient to
   qualify one's self as bail or surety.


   Jus*tin"i*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Institutes or laws of the
   Roman Justinian.


   Jus"tle  (?), v. i. [Freq. of joust, just, v. i. See Joust, v. i., and
   cf.  Jostle.]  To  run  or strike against each other; to encounter; to
   clash; to jostle. Shak.

     The  chariots  shall  rage  in  the  streets; they shall justle one
     against another in the broad ways. Nahum ii. 4.


   Jus"tle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Justled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Justling
   (?).] To push; to drive; to force by running against; to jostle.

     We  justled  one  another  out,  and  disputed the post for a great
     while. Addison.


   Jus"tle, n. An encounter or shock; a jostle.


   Just"ly  (?),  adv. [From Just, a.] In a just manner; in conformity to
   law,  justice,  or  propriety; by right; honestly; fairly; accurately.
   "In equal balance justly weighed." Shak.

     Nothing can justly be despised that can not justly be blamed: where
     there is no choice there can be no blame. South.


   Just"ness,  n.  The  quality  of  being  just;  conformity  to  truth,
   propriety, accuracy, exactness, and the like; justice; reasonableness;
   fairness;  equity;  as,  justness  of  proportions;  the justness of a
   description or representation; the justness of a cause.

     In  value  the satisfaction I had in seeing it represented with all
     the justness and gracefulness of action. Dryden.

     NOTE: &hand; Justness is properly applied to things, and justice to
     persons; but the distinction is not always observed.

   Syn.   --   Accuracy;   exactness;  correctness;  propriety;  fitness;
   reasonableness; equity; uprightness; justice.


   Jut  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Jutted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Jutting.] [A
   corruption of jet.]

   1.  To  shoot out or forward; to project beyond the main body; as, the
   jutting  part  of  a  building.  "In  jutting  rock and curved shore."

     It seems to jut out of the structure of the poem. Sir T. Browne.

   2. To butt. [Obs.] "The jutting steer." Mason.


   Jut, n.

   1. That which projects or juts; a projection.

   2. A shove; a push. [Obs.] Udall.


   Jute (?), n. [Hind. j, Skr. j matted hair; cf. ja matted hair, fibrous
   roots.]  The  coarse,  strong  fiber  of  the  East  Indian  Corchorus
   olitorius,  and  C.  capsularis;  also, the plant itself. The fiber is
   much used for making mats, gunny cloth, cordage, hangings, paper, etc.


   Jutes  (?),  n.  pl.  sing. Jute. (Ethnol.) Jutlanders; one of the Low
   German tribes, a portion of which settled in Kent, England, in the 5th


   Jut"land*er (?), n. A native or inhabitant of Jutland in Denmark.


   Jut"land*ish,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to Jutland, or to the people of


   Jut"ting   (?),   a.   Projecting,   as  corbels,  cornices,  etc.  --
   Jut"ting*ly, adv.


   Jut"ty  (?),  n.  [See  Jetty,  Jut, Jet.] A projection in a building;
   also, a pier or mole; a jetty. Shak.


   Jut"ty, v. t. & i. To project beyond. [Obs.] Shak.


   Ju"ve*nal  (?),  n.  [L.  juvenalis  youthful,  juvenile,  fr. juvenis
   young.] A youth. [Obs.] Shak.


   Ju`ve*nes"cence (?), n. A growing young.


   Ju`ve*nes"cent  (?), a. [L. juvenescens, p. pr. of juvenescere to grow
   young again, from juvenis young.] Growing or becoming young.


   Ju"ve*nile  (?; 277), a. [L. juvenilis, from juvenis young; akin to E.
   young: cf. F. juv\'82nile, juv\'82nil. See Young.]

   1.   Young;   youthful;   as,   a  juvenile  appearance.  "A  juvenile
   exercitation." Glanvill.

   2.  Of  or  pertaining to youth; as, juvenile sports. Syn. -- Puerile;
   boyish; childish. See Youthful.


   Ju"ve*nile,  n.  A  young  person  or  youth;  --  used  sportively or
   familiarly. C. Bront\'82.


   Ju"ve*nile*ness,   n.   The   state  or  quality  of  being  juvenile;


   Ju`ve*nil"i*ty  (?), n.; pl. Juvenilities (#). [L. juvenilitas: cf. F.

   1. Youthfulness; adolescence. Glanvill.

   2. The manners or character of youth; immaturity. Glanvill.


   Ju"vi*a  (?), n. (Bot.) A Brazilian name for the lofty myrtaceous tree
   (Bertholetia  excelsa)  which produces the large seeds known as Brazil


   Ju*wan"sa (?), n. (Bot.) The camel's thorn. See under Camel.


   Ju*wise" (?), n. [Obs.] Same as Juise. Chaucer.


   Jux`ta*pose"   (?),   v.  t.  [Cf.  Juxtaposit,  Pose.]  To  place  in
   juxtaposition. Huxley.


   Jux`ta*pos"it  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Juxtaposited; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Juxtapositing.]  [L. juxta near + positus, p. p. of ponere to put.] To
   place in close connection or contiguity; to juxtapose. Derham.


   Jux`ta*po*si"tion  (?),  n.  [L. juxta near + positio position: cf. F.
   juxtaposition.  See  Just,  v.  i.,  and Position.] A placing or being
   placed in nearness or contiguity, or side by side; as, a juxtaposition
   of words.

     Parts that are united by a a mere juxtaposition. Glanvill.

     Juxtaposition is a very unsafe criterion of continuity. Hare.


   Jun"old (?), a. [Obs.] See Gimmal.

   Page 808