Unabridged Dictionary - Letter G

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   G (?)

   1.  G  is  the  seventh  letter  of  the English alphabet, and a vocal
   consonant.  It  has  two sounds; one simple, as in gave, go, gull; the
   other  compound  (like that of j), as in gem, gin, dingy. See Guide to
   Pronunciation,  231-6, 155, 176, 178, 179, 196, 211, 246.

     NOTE: The fo rm of  G  is  from the Latin, in the alphabet which it
     first  appeared  as a modified form of C. The name is also from the
     Latin,  and probably comes to us through the French. Etymologically
     it  is  most  closely  related to a c hard, k y, and w; as in corn,
     grain,  kernel; kin L. genus, Gr. garden, yard; drag, draw; also to
     ch  and  h;  as  in  get,  prehensile; guest, host (an army); gall,
     choler; gust, choose. See C.

   2.  (Mus.)  G  is  the  name of the fifth tone of the natural or model
   scale;  --  called  also  sol  by the Italians and French. It was also
   originally used as the treble clef, and has gradually changed into the
   character  represented in the margin. See Clef. G# (G sharp) is a tone
   intermediate between G and A.


   Gab  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Gaff.]  (Steam  Engine) The hook on the end of an
   eccentric rod opposite the strap. See. Illust. of Eccentric.


   Gab,  n.  [OE. gabbe gabble, mocking, fr. Icel. gabb mocking, mockery,
   or  OF.  gab,  gabe;  perh.  akin  to E. gape, or gob. Cf. Gab, v. i.,
   Gibber.]  The  mouth;  hence,  idle  prate;  chatter;  unmeaning talk;
   loquaciousness.   [Colloq.]  Gift  of  gab,  facility  of  expression.


   Gab, v. i. [OE. gabben to jest, lie, mock, deceive, fr. Icel. gabba to
   mock, or OF. gaber. See 2d Gab, and cf. Gabble.]

   1. To deceive; to lie. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. To talk idly; to prate; to chatter. Holinshed.


   Gab"ar*age (?), n. A kind of coarse cloth for packing goods. [Obs.]

                             Gabardine, Gaberdine

   Gab`ar*dine",  Gab`er*dine"  (,  n. [Sp. gabardina; cf. It. gavardina,
   OF.  galvardine, calvardine, gavardine, galeverdine; perh. akin to Sp.
   &  OF. gaban a sort of cloak or coat for rainy weather, F. caban great
   coat  with  a  hood and sleeves, It. gabbano and perh. to E. cabin.] A
   coarse  frock  or  loose  upper  garment formerly worn by Jews; a mean
   dress. Shak.


   Gab"ber (?), n.

   1. A liar; a deceiver. [Obs.]

   2. One addicted to idle talk.


   Gab"ble (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gabbled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gabbling
   (?).] [Freq. of gab. See Gab, v. i.]

   1.  To  talk  fast,  or  to talk without meaning; to prate; to jabber.

   2.  To  utter  inarticulate  sounds with rapidity; as, gabbling fowls.


   Gab"ble, n.

   1. Loud or rapid talk without meaning.

     Forthwith a hideous gabble rises loud Among the builders. Milton.

   2. Inarticulate sounds rapidly uttered; as of fowls.


   Gab"bier (?), n. One who gabbles; a prater.


   Gab"bro  (?), n. [It.] (Geol.) A name originally given by the Italians
   to  a  kind of serpentine, later to the rock called euphotide, and now
   generally  used for a coarsely crystalline, igneous rock consisting of
   lamellar   pyroxene   (diallage)   and   labradorite,  with  sometimes
   chrysolite (olivine gabbro).


   Ga"bel (?), n. [F. gabelle, LL. gabella, gabulum, gablum; of uncertain
   origin.  Cf.Gavel  tribute.]  (O.  Eng. Law) A rent, service, tribute,
   custom, tax, impost, or duty; an excise. Burrill.

     He  enables  St.  Peter to pay his gabel by the ministry of a fish.
     Jer. Taylor.


   Ga"bel*er (?), n. (O. Eng. Law) A collector of gabels or taxes.


   Ga`belle"  (?), n. [F. See Gabel.] A tax, especially on salt. [France]
   Brande & C.


   Ga*belle"man (?), n. A gabeler. Carlyle.


   Gab`er*dine" (?), n. See Gabardine.


   Gab"er-lun`zie  (?),  n.  [Gael.  gabair  talker  + lunndair idler.] A
   beggar with a wallet; a licensed beggar. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.


   Gab"ert (?), n. [Cf.F.gabare, Arm. kobar, gobar.] A lighter, or vessel
   for inland navigation. [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Ga"bi*on  (?),  n.[F.,  from  It.  gabbione a large cage, gabion, from
   gabbia cage, L. cavea. See Cage.]

   1.  (Fort.)  A  hollow cylinder of wickerwork, like a basket without a
   bottom.  Gabions  are  made of various sizes, and filled with earth in
   building fieldworks to shelter men from an enemy's fire.

   2.  (Hydraul.  Engin.)  An  openwork  frame,  as of poles, filled with
   stones  and  sunk, to assist in forming a bar dyke, etc., as in harbor


   Ga`bi*on*ade" (?), n. [F. gabionnade.]

   1.  (Fort.)  A  traverse  made  with  gabions between guns or on their
   flanks, protecting them from enfilading fire.

   2.  A  structure of gabions sunk in lines, as a core for a sand bar in
   harbor improvements.


   Ga"bi*on*age   (?),   n.   [F.  gabionnage.]  (Mil.)  The  part  of  a
   fortification built of gabions.


   Ga"bi*oned (?), p. a. Furnished with gabions.


   Ga`bion`nade" (?), n. See Gabionade.


   Ga"ble (?), n. A cable. [Archaic] Chapman.


   Ga"ble,  n.  [OE.  gable,  gabil, F. gable, fr. LL. gabalum front of a
   building,  prob. of German or Scand. origin; cf. OHG. gibil, G. giebel
   gable,  Icel.  gafl, Goth. gibla pinnacle; perh. akin to Gr. cephalic,
   or  to  G.  gabel  fork,  AS.  geafl,  E. gaffle, L. gabalus a kind of
   gallows.]  (Arch.) (a) The vertical triangular portion of the end of a
   building,  from  the level of the cornice or eaves to the ridge of the
   roof.  Also,  a  similar  end  when  not  triangular in shape, as of a
   gambrel  roof  and the like. Hence: (b) The end wall of a building, as
   distinguished  from  the  front  or rear side. (c) A decorative member
   having  the  shape  of a triangular gable, such as that above a Gothic
   arch in a doorway. Bell gable. See under Bell. -- Gable roof, a double
   sloping  roof  which forms a gable at each end. -- Gable wall. Same as
   Gable (b). -- Gable window, a window in a gable.


   Ga"blet  (?), n. (Arch.) A small gable, or gable-shaped canopy, formed
   over a tabernacle, niche, etc.


   Gab"lock  (?),  n. [See Gavelock.] A false spur or gaff, fitted on the
   heel of a gamecock. Wright.


   Ga"by  (?),  n.  [Icel.  gapi  a  rash,  reckless  man.  Cf.  Gafe.] A
   simpleton; a dunce; a lout. [Colloq.]


   Gad (?), n. [OE. gad, Icel. gaddr goad, sting; akin to Sw. gadd sting,
   Goth. gazds, G. gerte switch. See Yard a measure.]

   1. The point of a spear, or an arrowhead.

   2.  A  pointed  or  wedge-shaped instrument of metal, as a steel wedge
   used in mining, etc.

     I  will  go get a leaf of brass, And with a gad of steel will write
     these words. Shak.

   3. A sharp-pointed rod; a goad.

   4. A spike on a gauntlet; a gadling. Fairholt.

   5. A wedge-shaped billet of iron or steel. [Obs.]

     Flemish steel . . . some in bars and some in gads. Moxon.

   6. A rod or stick, as a fishing rod, a measuring rod, or a rod used to
   drive cattle with. [Prov. Eng. Local, U.S.] Halliwell. Bartlett.
   Upon  the  gad, upon the spur of the moment; hastily. [Obs.] "All this
   done upon the gad!" Shak.
   Gad,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gadded; p. pr. & vb. n. Gadding.] [Prob. fr.
   gad,  n., and orig. meaning to drive about.] To walk about; to rove or
   go  about,  without  purpose;  hence, to run wild; to be uncontrolled.
   "The gadding vine." Milton. 

     Why gaddest thou about so much to change thy way? Jer. ii. 36.


   Gad"a*bout` (?), n. A gadder [Colloq.]


   Gad"bee` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The gadfly.


   Gad"der (?), n. One who roves about idly, a rambling gossip.


   Gad"ding, a. & n. Going about much, needlessly or without purpose.

     Envy is a gadding passion, and walketh the streets. Bacon.

     The good nuns would check her gadding tongue. Tennyson.

   Gadding  car,  in quarrying, a car which carries a drilling machine so
   arranged as to drill a line of holes.


   Gad"ding*ly (?), adv. In a roving, idle manner.


   Gad"dish (?), a. Disposed to gad. -- Gad"dish*nes, n. "Gaddishness and
   folly." Abp. Leighton.


   Gade  (?),  n. [Cf. Cod the fish.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A small British fish
   (Motella argenteola) of the Cod family. (b) A pike, so called at Moray
   Firth; -- called also gead. [Prov. Eng.]

   Page 607

                                 Gadere, Gadre

   Gad"er*e (?), Gad"re (, v. t. & i. To gather. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gad"fly`  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gadflies  (#).  [Gad  + fly.] (Zo\'94l.) Any
   dipterous insect of the genus Oestrus, and allied genera of botflies.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e sheep gadfly (Oestrus ovis) deposits its young in
     the  nostrils  of  sheep,  and  the larv\'91 develop in the frontal
     sinuses.  The common species which infests cattle (Hypoderma bovis)
     deposits  its  eggs  upon or in the skin where the larv\'91 or bots
     live  and  produce  sores called wormels. The gadflies of the horse
     produce the intestinal parasites called bots. See Botfly, and Bots.
     The  true horseflies are often erroneously called gadflies, and the
     true gadflies are sometimes incorrectly called breeze flies.

   Gadfly  petrel  (Zo\'94l.),  one of several small petrels of the genus


   Gadhel"ic (g&amac;l"&icr;k), a. [See Gaelic.] Of or pertaining to that
   division  of  the  Celtic languages, which includes the Irish, Gaelic,
   and Manx. J. Peile.


   Gad"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or  derived  from, the cod
   (Gadus);  --  applied  to  an  acid obtained from cod-liver oil, viz.,
   gadic acid.


   Gad`i*ta`ni*an (?), a. [L. Gaditanus, fr. Gades Cadiz.] Of or relating
   to Cadiz, in Spain. -- n. A native or inhabitant of Cadiz.


   Gad"ling  (?), n. [Gad, n. + -ling.] (Medi\'91val Armor) [R.] See Gad,
   n., 4.


   Gad"ling, a. [See Gad, v. i.] Gadding about. [Obs.]


   Gad"ling, n. A roving vagabond. [Obs.] Rom. of R.


   Gadman (?), n. A gadsman.


   Ga"doid  (?; 277), a. [NL. gadus cod + -oid: cf. F. gado\'8bde gadoid,
   Gr.  gade.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  family of fishes
   (Gadid\'91)  which  includes  the cod, haddock, and hake. -- n. One of
   the Gadid\'91. [Written also gadid.]


   Gad`o*lin"i*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Gadolinite.] (Chem.) A rare earth,
   regarded  by  some  as an oxide of the supposed element gadolinium, by
   others  as only a mixture of the oxides of yttrium, erbium, ytterbium,


   Gad`o*lin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to or containing gadolinium.


   Gad"o*lin*ite (?), n. [Named after Gadolin, a Russian chemist.] (Min.)
   A  mineral of a nearly black color and vitreous luster, and consisting
   principally of the silicates of yttrium, cerium, and iron.


   Gad`o*lin"i*um  (?),  n. [NL. See Gadolinite.] (Chem.) A supposed rare
   metallic  element,  with  a  characteristic spectrum, found associated
   with  yttrium  and other rare metals. Its individuality and properties
   have not yet been determined.


   Gads"man (?), n. One who uses a gad or goad in driving.


   Gad"u*in  (?),  n.[NL.  gadus  codfish.]  (Chem.)  A  yellow  or brown
   amorphous substance, of indifferent nature, found in cod-liver oil.


   Gad"wall  (?),  n. [Gad to walk about + well.] (Zo\'94l.) A large duck
   (Anas strepera), valued as a game bird, found in the northern parts of
   Europe and America; -- called also gray duck. [Written also gaddwell.]


   Gael (?), n.sing. & pl. [See Gaelic.] (Ethnol.) A Celt or the Celts of
   the  Scotch  Highlands or of Ireland; now esp., a Scotch Highlander of
   Celtic origin.


   Gael"ic (?; 277), a. [Gael. G\'85idhealach, Gaelach, from G\'85idheal,
   Gael,  a  Scotch  Highlander.] (Ethnol.) Of or pertaining to the Gael,
   esp. to the Celtic Highlanders of Scotland; as, the Gaelic language.


   Gael"ic  (?), n. [Gael. Gaelig, G\'85ilig.] The language of the Gaels,
   esp. of the Highlanders of Scotland. It is a branch of the Celtic.


   Gaff  (?), n. [OE. gaffe, F. gaffe an iron hook with which seamen pull
   great  fishes  into their ships; cf. Ir. gaf, gafa hook; perh. akin to
   G. gabel fork, Skr. gabhasti. CF. Gaffle, Gable.]

   1.  A  barbed  spear  or  a  hook  with a handle, used by fishermen in
   securing heavy fish.

   2.  (Naut.)  The spar upon which the upper edge of a fore-and-aft sail
   is extended.

   3. Same as Gaffle, 1. Wright.


   Gaff,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Gaffed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gaffing.] To
   strike  with a gaff or barbed spear; to secure by means of a gaff; as,
   to gaff a salmon.


   Gaf"fer  (?), n. [Possibly contr. fr. godfather; but prob. fr. gramfer
   for grandfather. Cf. Gammer.]

   1. An old fellow; an aged rustic.

     Go to each gaffer and each goody. Fawkes.

     NOTE: &hand; Ga  ffer wa  s or iginally a  re spectful ti tle, no w
     degenerated  into  a term of familiarity or contempt when addressed
     to an aged man in humble life.

   2. A foreman or overseer of a gang of laborers. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gaf"fle  (?),  n. [Cf. AS. geafl fork, LG., D., Sw., & Dan. gaffel, G.
   gabel, W. gafl, Ir. & Gael. gabhal. Cf. Gaff.]

   1. An artificial spur or gaff for gamecocks.

   2. A lever to bend crossbows.


   Gaff`-top"sail (?), n. (Naut.) A small triangular sail having its foot
   extended upon the gaff and its luff upon the topmast.


   Gag (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gagged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gagging (?).]
   [Prob.  fr.  W.  cegio  to  choke or strangle, fr. ceg mouth, opening,

   1.  To  stop  the mouth of, by thrusting sometimes in, so as to hinder
   speaking;  hence, to silence by authority or by violence; not to allow
   freedom of speech to. Marvell.

     The  time  was  not  yet  come when eloquence was to be gagged, and
     reason to be hood winked. Maccaulay.

   2. To pry or hold open by means of a gag.

     Mouths gagged to such a wideness. Fortescue (Transl. ).

   3. To cause to heave with nausea.


   Gag, v. i.

   1. To heave with nausea; to retch.

   2.  To  introduce  gags  or  interpolations.  See  Gag, n., 3. [Slang]
   Cornill Mag.


   Gag, n.

   1. Sometimes thrust into the mouth or throat to hinder speaking.

   2. A mouthful that makes one retch; a choking bit; as, a gag of mutton
   fat. Lamb.

   3. A speech or phrase interpolated offhand by an actor on the stage in
   his  part  as  written, usually consisting of some seasonable or local
   allusion. [Slang]
   Gag  rein  (Harness), a rein for drawing the bit upward in the horse's
   mouth. -- Gag runner (Harness), a loop on the throat latch guiding the
   gag rein.


   Gag"ate  (?;  48),  n.  [L.  gagates. See Jet a black mineral.] Agate.
   [Obs.] Fuller.


   Gage (?), n. [F. gage, LL. gadium, wadium; of German origin; cf. Goth.
   wadi, OHG. wetti, weti, akin to E. wed. See Wed, and cf. Wage, n.]

   1.  A  pledge  or pawn; something laid down or given as a security for
   the performance of some act by the person depositing it, and forfeited
   by nonperformance; security.

     Nor without gages to the needy lend. Sandys.

   2.  A  glove,  cap,  or the like, cast on the ground as a challenge to
   combat,  and  to  be  taken  up  by  the  accepter of the challenge; a
   challenge; a defiance. "There I throw my gage." Shak.


   Gage  (?), n. [So called because an English family named Gage imported
   the  greengage  from  France, in the last century.] A variety of plum;
   as, the greengage; also, the blue gage, frost gage, golden gage, etc.,
   having more or less likeness to the greengage. See Greengage.


   Gage,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gaged (?); p. pr & vb. n. Gaging (?).] [Cf.
   F. gager. See Gage, n., a pledge.]

   1. To give or deposit as a pledge or security for some act; to wage or
   wager; to pawn or pledge. [Obs.]

     A moiety competent Was gaged by our king. Shak.

   2. To bind by pledge, or security; to engage.

     Great  debts  Wherein my time, sometimes too prodigal, Hath left me
     gaged. Shak.


   Gage, n. A measure or standart. See Gauge, n.


   Gage, v. t. To measure. See Gauge, v. t.

     You shall not gage me By what we do to-night. Shak.


   Ga"ger (?), n. A measurer. See Gauger.


   Gag"ger (?), n.

   1. One who gags.

   2.  (Founding)  A piece of iron imbedded in the sand of a mold to keep
   the sand in place.


   Gag"gle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gaggled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gaggling
   (?).]  [Of  imitative  origin;  cf.  D. gaggelen, gagelen, G. gackeln,
   gackern,  MHG. g, E. giggle, cackle.] To make a noise like a goose; to
   cackle. Bacon.


   Gag"gle,  n.  [Cf.  Gaggle  v.  i.]  (Zo\'94l.) A flock of wild geese.
   [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Gag"tooth` (?), n.; pl. Gagteeth (. A projecting tooth. [Obs.]


   Gag"-toothed" (?), a. Having gagteeth. [Obs.]


   Gahn"ite  (?),  n.  [Named after Gahn, a Swedish chemist.] (Min.) Zinc
   spinel; automolite.


   Ga*id"ic  (?), a. [Gr. (Chem.) Pertaining to hypogeic acid; -- applied
   to an acid obtained from hypogeic acid.


   Gai"e*ty (?), n. Same as Gayety.


   Gail"er (?), n. A jailer. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gail`lard"  (?),  a.  [F.  See Galliard.] Gay; brisk; merry; galliard.


   Gail*liarde"  (?),  n.  [See  Galliard  a  dance.] A lively French and
   Italian dance.


   Gai"ly (?), adv. [From Gay.] Merrily; showily. See gaily.


   Gain (?), n. [Cf. W. gan a mortise.] (Arch.) A square or beveled notch
   cut  out  of a girder, binding joist, or other timber which supports a
   floor beam, so as to receive the end of the floor beam.


   Gain,  a.  [OE.  gein,  gain, good, near, quick; cf. Icel. gegn ready,
   serviceable,   and   gegn,   adv.,   against,  opposite.  CF.  Ahain.]
   Convenient;   suitable;   direct;   near;   handy;   dexterous;  easy;
   profitable; cheap; respectable. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]


   Gain (?), n. [OE. gain, gein, ga, gain, advantage, Icel. gagn; akin to
   Sw.  gagn,  Dan.  gavn, cf. Goth. gageigan to gain. The word was prob.
   influenced by F. gain gain, OF. gaain. Cf. Gain, v. t.]

   1.  That  which is gained, obtained, or acquired, as increase, profit,
   advantage, or benefit; -- opposed to loss.

     But  what  things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ.
     Phil. iii. 7.

     Godliness with contentment is great gain. 1 Tim. vi. 6.

     Every one shall share in the gains. Shak.

   2.  The  obtaining  or  amassing  of  profit  or valuable possessions;
   acquisition; accumulation. "The lust of gain." Tennyson.


   Gain,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gaining.] [From
   gain,  n.  but.  prob.  influenced  by  F.  gagner  to earn, gain, OF.
   gaaignier  to  cultivate,  OHG. weidin, weidinen to pasture, hunt, fr.
   weida  pasturage,  G. weide, akin to Icel. vei hunting, AS. wa, cf. L.
   venari to hunt, E. venison. See Gain, n., profit.]

   1.  To  get, as profit or advantage; to obtain or acquire by effort or
   labor; as, to gain a good living.

     What  is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose
     his own soul? Matt. xvi. 26.

     To gain dominion, or to keep it gained. Milton.

     For fame with toil we gain, but lose with ease. Pope.

   2.  To come off winner or victor in; to be successful in; to obtain by
   competition;  as,  to  gain a battle; to gain a case at law; to gain a

   3.  To  draw  into  any  interest  or  party; to win to one's side; to

     If  he  shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. Matt. xviii.

     To gratify the queen, and gained the court. Dryden.

   4.  To  reach;  to  attain  to; to arrive at; as, to gain the top of a
   mountain; to gain a good harbor.

     Forded Usk and gained the wood. Tennyson.

   5.  To  get,  incur,  or  receive,  as loss, harm, or damage. [Obs. or

     Ye should . . . not have loosed from Crete, and to have gained this
     harm and loss. Acts xxvii. 21.

   Gained  day,  the  calendar  day gained in sailing eastward around the
   earth.  --  To  gain  ground,  to  make  progress;  to  advance in any
   undertaking;  to  prevail;  to  acquire strength or extent. -- To gain
   over,  to draw to one's party or interest; to win over. -- To gain the
   wind  (Naut.),  to reach the windward side of another ship. Syn. -- To
   obtain; acquire; get; procure; win; earn; attain; achieve. See Obtain.
   --  To Gain, Win. Gain implies only that we get something by exertion;
   win,  that  we  do  it  in  competition  with  others.  A person gains
   knowledge,  or  gains  a  prize,  simply by striving for it; he wins a
   victory, or wins a prize, by taking it in a struggle with others.


   Gain  (?),  v.  i.  To have or receive advantage or profit; to acquire
   gain;  to  grow rich; to advance in interest, health, or happiness; to
   make progress; as, the sick man gains daily.

     Thou  hast  greedily  gained  of  thy neighbors by extortion. Ezek.
     xxii. 12.

   Gaining  twist,  in  rifled  firearms,  a  twist of the grooves, which
   increases regularly from the breech to the muzzle. To gain on OR upon.
   (a)  To  encroach  on;  as, the ocean gains on the land. (b) To obtain
   influence  with.  (c) To win ground upon; to move faster than, as in a
   race or contest. (d) To get the better of; to have the advantage of.

     The  English have not only gained upon the Venetians in the Levant,
     but have their cloth in Venice itself. Addison.

     My  good behavior had so far gained on the emperor, that I began to
     conceive hopes of liberty. Swift.


   Gain"a*ble (?), a. [CF. F. gagnable. See Gain, v. t.] Capable of being
   obtained or reached. Sherwood.


   Gain"age  (?,  48),  n.  [OF.  gaignage  pasturage,  crop, F. gaignage
   pasturage. See Gain, v. t.] (O. Eng. Law) (a) The horses, oxen, plows,
   wains or wagons and implements for carrying on tillage. (b) The profit
   made by tillage; also, the land itself. Bouvier.


   Gain"er (?), n. One who gains. Shak.


   Gain"ful  (?),  a.  Profitable;  advantageous;  lucrative.  "A gainful
   speculation." Macaulay. -- Gain"ful*ly, adv. -- Gain"ful*ness, n.


   Gain"giv`ing (?), n. [See Again, and Give.] A misgiving. [Obs.]


   Gain"less,   a.   Not   producing   gain;  unprofitable.  Hammond.  --
   Gain"less/ness, n.


   Gain"ly,   adv.   [See   Gain,   a.]  Handily;  readily;  dexterously;
   advantageously. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


   Gain"pain` (?), n.[F. gagner to gain + pain bread.] Bread-gainer; -- a
   term applied in the Middle Ages to the sword of a hired soldier.


   Gain`say" (? OR ?; 277), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gainsaid (? OR ?); p. pr.
   &  vb.  n. Gainsaying.] [OE. geinseien, ageinseien. See Again, and Say
   to  utter.]  To  contradict;  to  deny;  to controvert; to dispute; to

     I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all your adversaries shall
     not be able to gainsay nor resist. Luke xxi. 15.

     The  just  gods  gainsay  That  any  drop  thou borrow'dst from thy
     mother, My sacred aunt, should by my mortal sword Be drained. Shak.


   Gain`say"er  (?),  n.  One  who  gainsays, contradicts, or denies. "To
   convince the gainsayers." Tit. i. 9.


   Gain"some (?), a.

   1. Gainful.

   2. Prepossessing; well-favored. [Obs.] Massinger.


   'Gainst (?), prep. A contraction of Against.


   Gain"stand`  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Gainstood; p. pr. & vb. n.
   gainstanding.] [See Again, and Stand.] To withstand; to resist. [Obs.]

     Durst  . . . gainstand the force of so many enraged desires. Sir P.


   Gain"strive`  (?),  v.  t.  & i. [See Again, and Strive.] To strive or
   struggle against; to withstand. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Gair"fowl` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Garefowl.

                  Gairish, a., Gairishly, adv., Gairish/ness

   Gair"ish (?), a., Gair"ish*ly, adv., Gair"ish/ness, n. Same as Garish,
   Garishly, Garishness.


   Gait (?), n. [See Gate a way.]

   1. A going; a walk; a march; a way.

     Good gentleman, go your gait, and let poor folks pass. Shak.

   2. Manner of walking or stepping; bearing or carriage while moving.

     'T is Cinna; I do know him by his gait. Shak.


   Gait"ed  (?),  a.  Having  (such)  a gait; -- used in composition; as,
   slow-gaited; heavy-gaited.


   Gait"er (?), n. [F. gu\'88tre, cf. Armor. gweltren; or perh. of German
   origin, and akin to E. wear, v.]

   1. A covering of cloth or leather for the ankle and instep, or for the
   whole leg from the knee to the instep, fitting down upon the shoe.

   Page 608

   2. A kind of shoe, consisting of cloth, and covering the ankle.


   Gai"ter (?), v. t. To dress with gaiters.

                                Gaitre, Gaytre

   Gai"tre, Gay"tre (, n. [OE. Cf. Gatten tree.] The dogwood tree. [Obs.]


   Ga"la  (?),  n.  [F.  gala  show,  pomp, fr. It. gala finery, gala; of
   German  origin. See Gallant.] Pomp, show, or festivity. Macaulay. Gala
   day, a day of mirth and festivity; a holiday.


   Ga*lac"ta-gogue  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Med.) An agent exciting secretion of


   Ga*lac"tic (?), a. [Gr. Galaxy, and cf. Lactic.]

   1. Of or pertaining to milk; got from milk; as, galactic acid.

   2. Of or pertaining to the galaxy or Milky Way.
   Galactic  circle  (Astron.), the great circle of the heavens, to which
   the  course  of the galaxy most nearly conforms. Herschel. -- Galactic
   poles, the poles of the galactic circle.


   Ga*lac"tin  (?), n. [Gr. Lactin.] (Chem.) (a) An amorphous, gelatinous
   substance  containing nitrogen, found in milk and other animal fluids.
   It  resembles  peptone,  and is variously regarded as a coagulating or
   emulsifying  agent. (b) A white waxy substance found in the sap of the
   South  American  cow  tree  (Galactodendron).  (c) An amorphous, gummy
   carbohydrate  resembling  gelose,  found  in  the  seeds of leguminous
   plants,  and  yielding  on  decomposition  several  sugars,  including


   Ga*lac`to*den*sim"e*ter    (?),   n.   [Gr.   densimeter.]   Same   as


   Gal`ac*tom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter:  cf. F. galactom\'8atre. Cf.
   Lactometer.] An instrument for ascertaining the quality of milk (i.e.,
   its  richness  in  cream)  by  determining  its  specific  gravity;  a


   Gal`ac*toph"a*gist (?), n. [Gr. One who eats, or subsists on, milk.


   Gal`ac*toph"a*gous (?), a. [Gr. galactophade.] Feeding on milk.


   Gal`ac*toph"o*rous   (?),  a.  [Gr.  galactophore.  Cf.  Lactiferous.]
   (Anat.) Milk-carrying; lactiferous; -- applied to the ducts of mammary


   Ga*lac`to*poi*et"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. (Med.) Increasing the flow of milk;
   milk-producing. -- n. A galactopoietic substance.


   Ga*lac"tose  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  white,  crystalline sugar, C6H12O6,
   isomeric  with  dextrose, obtained by the decomposition of milk sugar,
   and  also from certain gums. When oxidized it forms mucic acid. Called
   also  lactose  (though  it  is  not  lactose  proper).<-- lactose is a
   dimeric form of galactose, converted to galactose by acid or enzymatic
   activity (beta-galactosidase) -->


   Ga*lage" (?), n. (Obs.) See Galoche. Spenser.


   Ga*la"go  (?),  n.; pl. Galagos (#). [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus
   of African lemurs, including numerous species.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e gr and galago (Galago crassicaudata) is about the
     size  of a cat; the mouse galago (G. murinus)is about the size of a

                               Galanga, Galangal

   Ga*lan"ga   (?),  Ga*lan"gal  (?),  n.[OE.  galingale,  OF.  galingal,
   garingal,  F.  galanga (cf. Sp. galanga), prob. fr. Ar. khalanj. ] The
   pungent  aromatic  rhizome  or tuber of certain East Indian or Chinese
   species  of  Alpinia  (A.  Galanga  and  A.  officinarum)  and  of the
   K\'91mpferia Galanga), -- all of the Ginger family.


   Gal"an*tine  (? or ?), n. [F. galantine.] A dish of veal, chickens, or
   other  white meat, freed from bones, tied up, boiled, and served cold.

                                 Galapee tree

   Gal"a*pee`  tree" (?), (Bot.) The West Indian Sciadophyllum Brownei, a
   tree with very large digitate leaves.


   Ga*la"tian  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Galatia or its inhabitants. --
   A  native or inhabitant of Galatia, in Asia Minor; a descendant of the
   Gauls who settled in Asia Minor.


   Gal"ax*y  (?), n.; pl. Galaxies (#). [F. galaxie, L. galaxias, fr. Gr.
   lac. CF. Lacteal.]

   1.  (Astron.)  The  Milky  Way; that luminous tract, or belt, which is
   seen  at night stretching across the heavens, and which is composed of
   innumerable  stars,  so  distant  and blended as to be distinguishable
   only  with  the  telescope. The term has recently been used for remote
   clusters of stars. Nichol.

   2. A splendid assemblage of persons or things.

                               Galban, Galbanum

   Gal"ban,  Gal"ba*num  (?),  n.  [L.  galbanum,  Gr.  klekb'n:  cf.  F.
   galbanum.]  A  gum  resin  exuding  from  the stems of certain Asiatic
   umbelliferous  plants, mostly species of Ferula. The Bubon Galbanum of
   South  Africa furnishes an inferior kind of galbanum. It has an acrid,
   bitter  taste,  a  strong,  unpleasant  smell, and is used for medical
   purposes, also in the arts, as in the manufacture of varnish.


   Gale  (?),  n.  [Prob.  of Scand.. origin; cf. Dan. gal furious, Icel.
   galinn,  cf.  Icel. gala to sing, AS. galan to sing, Icel. galdr song,
   witchcraft,  AS.  galdor  charm,  sorcery, E. nightingale; also, Icel.
   gjla gust of wind, gola breeze. Cf. Yell.]

   1.  A  strong  current  of  air;  a  wind between a stiff breeze and a
   hurricane. The most violent gales are called tempests.

     NOTE: &hand; Ga  les ha  ve a  ve locity of  fr om ab out ei ghteen
     ("moderate") to about eighty ("very heavy") miles an our.

   Sir. W. S. Harris.

   2. A moderate current of air; a breeze.

     A little gale will soon disperse that cloud. Shak.

     And  winds  of  gentlest  gale Arabian odors fanned From their soft
     wings. Milton.

   3. A state of excitement, passion, or hilarity.

     The  ladies, laughing heartily, were fast getting into what, in New
     England, is sometimes called a gale. Brooke (Eastford).

   Topgallant  gale (Naut.), one in which a ship may carry her topgallant


   Gale (?), v. i. (Naut.) To sale, or sail fast.


   Gale, n [OE. gal. See Gale wind.] A song or story. [Obs.] Toone.


   Gale, v. i. [AS. galan. See 1st Gale.] To sing. [Obs.] "Can he cry and
   gale." Court of Love.


   Gale,  n  [AS.  gagel,  akin to D. gagel.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus
   Myrica,  growing  in wet places, and strongly resembling the bayberry.
   The sweet gale (Myrica Gale) is found both in Europe and in America.


   Gale,  n. [Cf. Gabel.] The payment of a rent or annuity. [Eng.] Mozley
   & W. Gale day, the day on which rent or interest is due.


   Ga"le*a (?), n.[L., a helmet. ]

   1. (Bot.) The upper lip or helmet-shaped part of a labiate flower.

   2. (Surg.) A kind of bandage for the head.

   3. (Pathol.) Headache extending all over the head.

   4. (Paleon.) A genus of fossil echini, having a vaulted, helmet-shaped

   5.  (Zo\'94l.)  The anterior, outer process of the second joint of the
   maxillae in certain insects.


   Gal"e*as (?), n. See Galleass.

                               Galeate, Galeated

   Ga"le*ate  (?),  Ga"le*a`ted  (?),  a.  [L.  galeatus, p.p. of galeare

   1. Wearing a helmet; protected by a helmet; covered, as with a helmet.

   2.  (Biol.)  Helmeted; having a helmetlike part, as a crest, a flower,
   etc.; helmet-shaped.


   Ga"le*i  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Galeus, name of one genus, fr. Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.)  That  division  of  elasmobranch fishes which includes the


   Ga*le"na  (?), n.[L. galena lead ore, dross that remains after melting
   lead:  cf.  F.  gal\'8ane  sulphide  of  lead ore, antidote to prison,
   stillness of the sea, calm, tranquility.]

   1. (Med.) A remedy or antidose for poison; theriaca. [Obs.] Parr.

   2.  (Min.) Lead sulphide; the principal ore of lead. It is of a bluish
   gray  color  and  metallic luster, and is cubic in crystallization and
   False galena. See Blende.

                              Galenic, Galenical

   Ga*len"ic  (?),  Ga*len"ic*al  (,  a.  Pertaining  to,  or containing,

                              Galenic, Galenical

   Ga*len"ic,  Ga*len"ic*al, an. [From Galen, the physician.] Relating to
   Galen or to his principles and method of treating diseases. Dunglison.
   Galenic  pharmacy,  that  branch  of  pharmacy  which  relates  to the
   preparation   of   medicines   by   infusion,   decoction,   etc.,  as
   distinguished from those which are chemically prepared.


   Ga"len*ism (?), n. The doctrines of Galen.


   Ga*len*ist, n. A follower of Galen.


   Ga*le"nite (?), n. (Min.) Galena; lead ore.


   Ga`le-o*pi*the"cus  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of flying
   Insectivora, formerly called flying lemurs. See Colugo.


   Gal`er*ic"u-late  (?),  a.  [L.  galericulum, dim. of galerum a hat or
   cap, fr. galea helmet.] Covered as with a hat or cap. Smart.


   Gal"er*ite  (?),  n.  [L.  galerum  a  hat,  cap: cf. F. gal\'82rite.]
   (Paleon.) A cretaceous fossil sea urchin of the genus Galerites.


   Ga*li"cian  (?),  a.  [Cf.  Sp.  Galiciano, Gallego, fr. L. Gallaecus,
   Gallaicus,  fr.  Gallaeci a people in Western Spain.] Of or pertaining
   to  Galicia,  in Spain, or to Galicia, the kingdom of Austrian Poland.
   -- n. A native of Galicia in Spain; -- called also Gallegan.


   Gal`i*le"an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Galileo; as, the Galilean
   telescope. See Telescope.


   Gal`i*le"an   (?),   a.  [L.  Galilaeus,  fr.  Galilaea  Galilee,  Gr.
   galil\'82en.] Of or relating to Galilee.


   Gal`i*le"an, n.

   1.  A  native  or  inhabitant  of  Galilee,  the  northern province of
   Palestine under the Romans.

   2.  (Jewish  Hist.)  One  of the party among the Jews, who opposed the
   payment of tribute to the Romans; -- called also Gaulonite.

   3.  A  Christian  in  general;  --  used  as  a  term  of  reproach by
   Mohammedans and Pagans. Byron.


   Gal"i*lee  (?), n. [Supposed to have been so termed in allusion to the
   scriptural  "Galilee  of the Gentiles." cf. OF. galil\'82e.] (Arch.) A
   porch  or  waiting  room,  usually at the west end of an abbey church,
   where  the monks collected on returning from processions, where bodies
   were  laid  previous to interment, and where women were allowed to see
   the  monks to whom they were related, or to hear divine service. Also,
   frequently  applied  to  the  porch  of a church, as at Ely and Durham
   cathedrals. Gwilt.


   Gal`i*ma"tias (?), n. [F.] Nonsense; gibberish; confused and unmeaning
   talk; confused mixture.

     Her  dress,  like  her  talk, is a galimatias of several countries.


   Gal"in*gale (?), n. [See Galangal.] (Bot.) A plant of the Sedge family
   (Cyperus  longus)  having  aromatic roots; also, any plant of the same
   genus. Chaucer.

     Meadow, set with slender galingale. Tennyson.


   Gal"i*ot  (?), n. [OE. galiote, F. galiote. See Galley.] (Naut.) (a) A
   small  galley,  formerly  used  in the Mediterranean, built mainly for
   speed.  It  was  moved  both  by  sails and oars, having one mast, and
   sixteen  or  twenty seats for rowers. (b) A strong, light-draft, Dutch
   merchant  vessel,  carrying  a  mainmast and a mizzenmast, and a large
   gaff mainsail.


   Gal"i*pot  (?), n. [F. galipot; cf. OF. garipot the wild pine or pitch
   tree.]  An impure resin of turpentine, hardened on the outside of pine
   trees  by  the  spontaneous  evaporation  of  its  essential oil. When
   purified, it is called yellow pitch, white pitch, or Burgundy pitch.


   Gall  (?),  n.[OE.  galle, gal, AS. gealla; akin to D. gal, OS. & OHG.
   galla,  Icel. gall, SW. galla, Dan. galde, L. fel, Gr. yellow. Yellow,
   and cf. Choler]

   1.  (Physiol.)  The  bitter,  alkaline, viscid fluid found in the gall
   bladder, beneath the liver. It consists of the secretion of the liver,
   or bile, mixed with that of the mucous membrane of the gall bladder.

   2. The gall bladder.

   3. Anything extremely bitter; bitterness; rancor.

     He hath . . . compassed me with gall and travail. Lam. iii. 5.

     Comedy diverted without gall. Dryden.

   4. Impudence; brazen assurance. [Slang]
   Gall  bladder (Anat.), the membranous sac, in which the bile, or gall,
   is  stored  up, as secreted by the liver; the cholecystis. See Illust.
   of  Digestive  apparatus.  -- Gall duct, a duct which conveys bile, as
   the  cystic  duct,  or the hepatic duct. -- Gall sickness, a remitting
   bilious  fever  in  the  Netherlands.  Dunglison. -- Gall of the earth
   (Bot.),  an  herbaceous composite plant with variously lobed and cleft
   leaves, usually the Prenanthes serpentaria.


   Gall  (?),  n.  [F. galle, noix de galle, fr. L. galla.] (Zo\'94l.) An
   excrescence  of any form produced on any part of a plant by insects or
   their  larvae.  They are most commonly caused by small Hymenoptera and
   Diptera  which puncture the bark and lay their eggs in the wounds. The
   larvae  live  within  the  galls. Some galls are due to aphids, mites,
   etc. See Gallnut.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ga lls, or  gallnuts, of commerce are produced by
     insects  of the genus Cynips, chiefly on an oak (Quercus infectoria
     or  Lusitanica)  of  Western Asia and Southern Europe. They contain
     much  tannin,  and  are used in the manufacture of that article and
     for making ink and a black dye, as well as in medicine.

   Gall  insect (Zo\'94l.), any insect that produces galls. -- Gall midge
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  small  dipterous insect that produces galls. -- Gall
   oak,  the oak (Quercus infectoria) which yields the galls of commerce.
   --  Gall  of  glass,  the neutral salt skimmed off from the surface of
   melted  crown glass;- called also glass gall and sandiver. Ure.-- Gall
   wasp. (Zo\'94l.) See Gallfly.


   Gall, v. t. (Dyeing) To impregnate with a decoction of gallnuts. Ure.


   Gall,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Galled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Galling.] [OE.
   gallen;  cf.  F.  galer  to scratch, rub, gale scurf, scab, G. galle a
   disease in horses' feet, an excrescence under the tongue of horses; of
   uncertain origin. Cf. Gall gallnut.]

   1.  To fret and wear away by friction; to hurt or break the skin of by
   rubbing; to chafe; to injure the surface of by attrition; as, a saddle
   galls the back of a horse; to gall a mast or a cable.

     I am loth to gall a new-healed wound. Shak.

   2. To fret; to vex; as, to be galled by sarcasm.

     They  that  are  most  galled  with my folly, They most must laugh.

   3.  To  injure; to harass; to annoy; as, the troops were galled by the
   shot of the enemy.

     In  our  wars  against the French of old, we used to gall them with
     our  longbows,  at  a  greater distance than they could shoot their
     arrows. Addison.


   Gall, v. i. To scoff; to jeer. [R.] Shak.


   Gall, n. A wound in the skin made by rubbing.


   Gal"lant  (?),  a.  [F. gallant, prop. p. pr. of OF. galer to rejoice,
   akin  to  OF. gale amusement, It. gala ornament; of German origin; cf.
   OHG.  geil merry, luxuriant, wanton, G. geil lascivious, akin to AS. g
   wanton,  wicked,  OS.  g  merry,  Goth. gailjan to make to rejoice, or
   perh. akin to E. weal. See Gala, Galloon.]

   1. Showy; splendid; magnificent; gay; well-dressed.

     The town is built in a very gallant place. Evelyn.

     Our royal, good and gallant ship. Shak.

   2.  Noble  in  bearing  or  spirit;  brave; high-spirited; courageous;
   heroic; magnanimous; as, a gallant youth; a gallant officer.

     That gallant spirit hath aspired the clouds. Shak.

     The gay, the wise, the gallant, and the grave. Waller.

   Syn. -- Gallant, Courageous, Brave. Courageous is generic, denoting an
   inward spirit which rises above fear; brave is more outward, marking a
   spirit  which  braves  or  defies  danger; gallant rises still higher,
   denoting  bravery on extraordinary occasions in a spirit of adventure.
   A courageous man is ready for battle; a brave man courts it; a gallant
   man dashes into the midst of the conflict.


   Gal*lant"  (?;  277),  a. Polite and attentive to ladies; courteous to
   women; chivalrous.


   Gal*lant" (?; 277), n.

   1.  A  man of mettle or spirit; a gay; fashionable man; a young blood.

   2. One fond of paying attention to ladies.

   3.  One  who  wooes;  a  lover;  a  suitor; in a bad sense, a seducer.

     NOTE: &hand; In the first sense it is by some ortho\'89pists (as in
     Shakespeare) accented on the first syllable.


   Gal*lant"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gallanted;  p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To attend or wait on, as a lady; as, to gallant ladies to the play.

   2.  To  handle with grace or in a modish manner; as, to gallant a fan.
   [Obs.] Addison.


   Gal*lant"ly (?), adv. In a polite or courtly manner; like a gallant or


   Gal"lant*ly (?), adv. In a gallant manner.


   Gal"lant*ness (?), n. The quality of being gallant.

   Page 609


   Gal"lant*ry (?), n.; pl. Gallantries (#). [F. galanterie.]

   1. Splendor of appearance; ostentatious finery. [Archaic]

     Guess  the  gallantry  of  our  church  by this . . . when the desk
     whereon the priest read was inlaid with plates of silver. Fuller.

   2. Bravery; intrepidity; as, the troops behaved with great gallantry.

   3.  Civility  or polite attention to ladies; in a bed sense, attention
   or  courtesy designed to win criminal favors from a female; freedom of
   principle or practice with respect to female virtue; intrigue.

   4. Gallant persons, collectively. [R.]

     Helenus, Antenor, and all the gallantry of Troy. Shak.

   Syn. -- See Courage, and Heroism.


   Gal"late  (?;  277),  n. [Cf. F. gallate. See Gall gallnut.] (Chem.) A
   salt of gallic acid.


   Gal"la*ture  (?;  135),  n.  [From  L.  gallus a cock.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   tread, treadle, or chalasa of an egg.


   Gal"le*ass (?; 135), n. [F. gal\'82asse, gal\'82ace; cf. It. galeazza,
   Sp.  galeaza; LL. galea a galley. See Galley.] (Naut.) A large galley,
   having  some  features of the galleon, as broadside guns; esp., such a
   vessel  used  by  the  southern nations of Europe in the 16th and 17th
   centuries.   See  Galleon,  and  Galley.  [Written  variously  galeas,
   gallias, etc.]

     NOTE: &hand; "T he ga lleasses .  .  . were a third larger than the
     ordinary  galley,  and  rowed  each by three hundred galley slaves.
     They  consisted  of  an enormous towering structure at the stern, a
     castellated  structure  almost equally massive in front, with seats
     for the rowers amidships."


                               Gallegan, Gallego

   Gal*le"gan  (?),  Gal*le"go  (?  or  ?), n. [Sp. Gallego.] A native or
   inhabitant of Galicia, in Spain; a Galician.


   Gal"le*\'8bn  (?),  n.  [Pyrogallol  +  phthale\'8bn.]  (Chem.)  A red
   crystalline  dyestuff,  obtained  by  heating  together pyrogallic and
   phthalic acids.


   Gal"le*on  (?),  n.  [Sp. galeon, cf. F. galion; fr. LL. galeo, galio.
   See  Galley.]  (Naut.)  A  sailing  vessel  of  the 15th and following
   centuries,  often  having  three  or  four  decks, and used for war or
   commerce.  The  term  is  often rather indiscriminately applied to any
   large sailing vessel.

     The  gallens  .  . . were huge, round-stemmed, clumsy vessels, with
     bulwarks  three or four feet thick, and built up at stem and stern,
     like castels. Motley.


   Gal"le*ot (?), n. (Naut.) See Galiot.


   Gal"ler*y  (?),  n.;  pl Galleries (#). [F. galerie, It. galleria, fr.
   LL. galeria gallery, perh. orig., a festal hall, banquetting hall; cf.
   OF. galerie a rejoicing, fr. galer to rejoice. Cf. Gallant, a.]

   1.  A  long  and  narrow  corridor, or place for walking; a connecting
   passageway,  as  between  one  room  and another; also, a long hole or
   passage excavated by a boring or burrowing animal.

   2.  A  room for the exhibition of works of art; as, a picture gallery;
   hence, also, a large or important collection of paintings, sculptures,

   3.  A long and narrow platform attached to one or more sides of public
   hall  or  the  interior  of  a  church,  and  supported by brackets or
   columns;  --  sometimes  intended  to  be  occupied  by  musicians  or
   spectators,  sometimes designed merely to increase the capacity of the

   4.  (Naut.)  A  frame,  like  a  balcony, projecting from the stern or
   quarter of a ship, and hence called stern galery or quarter gallry, --
   seldom found in vessels built since 1850.

   5.  (Fort.)  Any communication which is covered overhead as well as at
   the sides. When prepared for defense, it is a defensive galery.

   6. (Mining) A working drift or level.
   Whispering gallery. See under Whispering.


   Gal"le*tyle  (?),  n.  [OE. gallytile. Cf. Gallipot.] A little tile of
   glazed earthenware. [Obs.] "The substance of galletyle." Bacon.


   Gal"ley  (?),  n.;  pl. Galleys (#). [OE. gale, galeie (cf. OF. galie,
   gal\'82e, LL. galea, LGr.

   1.  (Naut.) A vessel propelled by oars, whether having masts and sails
   or  not;  as:  (a)  A  large  vessel for war and national purposes; --
   common  in  the  Middle Ages, and down to the 17th century. (b) A name
   given  by  analogy  to  the  Greek,  Roman,  and other ancient vessels
   propelled  by  oars.  (c)  A  light,  open  boat used on the Thames by
   customhouse  officers,  press gangs, and also for pleasure. (d) One of
   the small boats carried by a man-of-war.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ty pical galley of the Mediterranean was from one
     hundred  to two hundred feet long, often having twenty oars on each
     side.  It  had two or three masts rigged with lateen sails, carried
     guns  at prow and stern, and a complement of one thousand to twelve
     hundred men, and was very efficient in mediaeval walfare. Galleons,
     galliots,  galleasses,  half  galleys, and quarter galleys were all
     modifications of this type.

   2.  The  cookroom  or  kitchen  and  cooking apparatus of a vessel; --
   sometimes on merchant vessels called the caboose.

   3.  (Chem.)  An  oblong  oven  or  muffle with a battery of retorts; a
   gallery furnace.

   4. [F. gal\'82e; the same word as E. galley a vessel.] (Print.) (a) An
   oblong  tray  of  wood  or brass, with upright sides, for holding type
   which  has been set, or is to be made up, etc. (b) A proof sheet taken
   from type while on a galley; a galley proof.
   Galley  slave, a person condemned, often as a punishment for crime, to
   work  at  the  oar  on  board a galley. "To toil like a galley slave."
   Macaulay.--  Galley  slice (Print.), a sliding false bottom to a large
   galley. Knight.


   Gal"ley-bird`  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) The European
   green woodpecker; also, the spotted woodpecker. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gal"ley-worm` (?), n. [Prob. so called because the numerous legs along
   the  sides  move rhythmically like the oars of a galley.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   chilognath  myriapod  of  the  genus  Iulus, and allied genera, having
   numerous  short  legs  along the sides; a milliped or "thousand legs."
   See Chilognatha.


   Gall"fly` (?), n.; pl. Gallflies (. (Zo\'94l.) An insect that deposits
   its  eggs  in plants, and occasions galls, esp. any small hymenopteran
   of the genus Cynips and allied genera. See Illust. of Gall.


   Gal`ly*am"bic  (?),  a.  [L.  galliambus a song used by the priests of
   Cybele;  Gallus  (a  name  applied to these priests) + iambus] (Pros.)
   Consisting  of two iambic dimeters catalectic, the last of which lacks
   the final syllable; -- said of a kind of verse.


   Gal"li*an (?), a. [See Gallic.] Gallic; French. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gal"liard  (?),  a. [OE., fr. F. gaillard, perh. of Celtic origin; cf.
   Ir.  & Gael. galach valiant, or AS. gagol, geagl, wanton, lascivious.]
   Gay; brisk; active. [Obs.]


   Gal"liard, n. A brisk, gay man. [Obs.]

     Selden is a galliard by himself. Cleveland.


   Gal"liard,  n.  [F.  gaillarde,  cf. Sp. gallarda. See Galliard, a.] A
   gay, lively dance. Cf. Gailliarde.

     Never a hall such a galliard did grace. Sir. W. Scott.


   Gal`liard*ise  (?),  n.  [F.  gaillardise. See Galliard, a.] Excessive
   gayety; merriment. [Obs.]

     The mirth and galliardise of company. Sir. T. Browne.


   Gal"liard*ness, n. Gayety. [Obs.] Gayton.


   Gal"li*ass (?), n. Same as Galleass.


   Gal"lic  (?), a. [From Gallium.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or containing,


   Gal"lic  (277),  a.  [From  Gall  the  excrescence.] Pertaining to, or
   derived  from,  galls, nutgalls, and the like. Gallic acid (Chem.), an
   organic  acid, very widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom, being
   found   in   the   free  state  in  galls,  tea,  etc.,  and  produced
   artificially.  It  is  a white, crystalline substance, C6H2(HO)3.CO2H,
   with  an astringent taste, and is a strong reducing agent, as employed
   in  photography.  It  is usually prepared from tannin, and both give a
   dark color with iron salts, forming tannate and gallate of iron, which
   are the essential ingredients of common black ink.


   Gal"lic  (?),  a.  [L.  Gallicus belonging to the Gauls, fr. Galli the
   Gauls,  Gallia  Gaul, now France: cf. F. gallique.] Pertaining to Gaul
   or France; Gallican.


   Gal"li*can  (?), a. [L. Gallicanus: cf. F. gallican.] Of or pertaining
   to Gaul or France; Gallic; French; as, the Gallican church or clergy.


   Gal"li*can, n. An adherent to, and supporter of, Gallicanism. Shipley.


   Gal"li*can*ism (?), n. The principles, tendencies, or action of those,
   within  the Roman Catholic Church in France, who (esp. in 1682) sought
   to restrict the papal authority in that country and increase the power
   of the national church. Schaff-Herzog Encyc.


   Gal"li*cism  (?), n. [F. gallicisme.] A mode of speech peculiar to the
   French; a French idiom; also, in general, a French mode or custom.


   Gal"li*cize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gallicized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gallicizing (?).] To conform to the French mode or idiom.


   Gal"lied  (?),  p. p. & a. (Naut.) Worried; flurried; frightened. Ham.
   Nav. Encyc.


   Gal"li*form  (?),  a. (Zo\'94l.) Like the Gallinae (or Galliformes) in


   Gal`li*gas"kins  (?),  n.  pl.  [Prob.  corrupted  fr.  It.  Grechesco
   Grecian,  a name which seems to have been given in Venice, and to have
   been  afterwards confused with Gascony, as if they came from Gascony.]
   Loose  hose  or breeches; leather leg quards. The word is used loosely
   and often in a jocose sense.


   Gal`li*ma"ti*a  (?  OR  ?),  n.  Senseless  talk.  [Obs.  or  R.]  See


   Gal`li*mau"fry  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gallimaufries (#). [F. galimafr\'82e a
   sort of ragout or mixed hash of different meats.]

   1. A hash of various kinds of meats, a ragout.

     Delighting in hodge-podge, gallimaufries, forced meat. King.

   2. Any absurd medley; a hotchpotch.

     The Mahometan religion, which, being a gallimaufry made up of many,
     partakes much of the Jewish. South.


   Gal"lin  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  substance  obtained by the reduction of


   Gal"li*nace*ae  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Gallinaceous.] (Zo\'94l.) Same as


   Gal`li*na"cean  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Gallinae or gallinaceous


   Gal`li*na"ceous  (?),  a.[L.  gallinaceus, fr. gallina hen, fr. gallus
   cock.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Resembling the domestic fowls and pheasants; of or
   pertaining to the Gallinae.


   Gal*li"nae  (?),  n.;  pl. [NL., fr. L. gallina a hen, gallus a cock.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  An  order  of  birds, including the common domestic fowls,
   pheasants,  grouse,  quails,  and  allied  forms;  -- sometimes called


   Gall"ing   (?),  a.  Fitted  to  gall  or  chafe;  vexing;  harassing;
   irritating. -- Gall"ing*ly, adv.


   Gal"li*nip`per (?), n. A large mosquito.


   Gal"li*nule (?), n. [L. gallinula chicken, dim. of gallina hen: cf. F.
   gallinule.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  several  wading  birds, having long,
   webless  toes, and a frontal shield, belonging to the family Rallidae.
   They  are  remarkable for running rapidly over marshes and on floating
   plants. The purple gallinule of America is Ionornis Martinica, that of
   the  Old  World  is Porphyrio porphyrio. The common European gallinule
   (Gallinula  chloropus) is also called moor hen, water hen, water rail,
   moor coot, night bird, and erroneously dabchick. Closely related to it
   is the Florida gallinule (Gallinula galeata).

     NOTE: &hand; Th e pu rple gallinule of Southern Europe and Asia was
     formerly believed to be able to detect and report adultery, and for
     that reason, chiefly, it was commonly domesticated by the ancients.


   Gal"li*ot (?), n. See Galiot.

                                 Gallipoli oil

   Gal*lip"o*li  oil`  (?).  An  inferior kind of olive oil, brought from
   Gallipoli, in Italy.


   Gal"li*pot  (?), n. [Prob. fr. OD. gleypot, the first part of which is
   possibly  akin to E. glad. See Glad, and Pot.] A glazed earthen pot or
   vessel,  used  by druggists and apothecaries for containing medicines,


   Gal"li*um (?), n. [NL., fr. L. Gallia France.] (Chem.) A rare metallic
   element, found in certain zinc ores. It is white, hard, and malleable,
   resembling aluminium, and remarcable for its low melting point (86

     NOTE: &hand; The element was predicted with most of its properties,
     under  the name ekaluminium, by the Russian chemist Mendelejeff, on
     the  basis of the Periodic law. This prediction was verified in its
     discovery  by  the  French  chemist  Lecoq  de  Boisbaudran  by its
     characteristic  spectrum (two violet lines), in an examination of a
     zinc blende from the Pyrenees.


   Gal"li*vant  (?), v. i. [From Gallant.] To play the beau; to wait upon
   the  ladies;  also,  to  roam  about for pleasure without any definite
   plan. [Slang] Dickens.


   Gal"li*vat  (?),  n.[Prob.  fr.  Pg.  galeota; cf. E. galiot, galley.]
   (Naut.)  A  small  armed  vessel,  with sails and oars, -- used on the
   Malabar coast. A. Chalmers.


   Gal"li*wasp`  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) A West Indian
   lizard (Celestus occiduus), about a foot long, imagined by the natives
   to be venomous.


   Gall"nut`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A round gall produced on the leaves and
   shoots of various species of the oak tree. See Gall, and Nutgall.


   Gal`lo*ma"ni*a  (?), n. [L. Galli Gauls + mania madness.] An excessive
   admiration of what is French. -- Gal`lo*ma"ni*ac (#), n.


   Gal"lon (?), n. [OF galon, jalon, LL. galo, galona, fr. galum a liquid
   measure;  cf.  F.  jale  large bowl. Cf. Gill a measure.] A measure of
   capacity,  containing  four  quarts;  --  used,  for the most part, in
   liquid measure, but sometimes in dry measure.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e standart gallon of the Unites States contains 231
     cubic  inches,  or  8.3389 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at
     its  maximum  density, and with the barometer at 30 inches. This is
     almost exactly equivalent to a cylinder of seven inches in diameter
     and  six  inches in height, and is the same as the old English wine
     gallon.  The  beer  gallon,  now  little used in the United States,
     contains  282 cubic inches. The English imperial gallon contains 10
     pounds avoirdupois of distilled water at 62


     Gal*loon" (?), n. [From F. or Sp. galon. See Gala. ]

     1.  A narrow tapelike fabric used for binding hats, shoes, etc., --
     sometimes made ornamental.

     2.  A  similar  bordering or binding of rich material, such as gold

     Silver  and  gold  galloons,  with  the  like  glittering  gewgaws.


     Gal*looned` (?), a. Furnished or adorned with galloon.


     Gal"lop  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Galloped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
     Galloping.] [OE. galopen, F. galoper, of German origin; cf. assumed
     Goth.  ga-hlaupan  to run, OHG. giloufen, AS. gehle\'a0pan to leap,
     dance,  fr.  root  of  E. leap, and a prefix; or cf. OFlem. walop a
     gallop. See Leap, and cf. 1st Wallop.]

     1. To move or run in the mode called a gallop; as a horse; to go at
     a gallop; to run or move with speed.

     But gallop lively down the western hill. Donne.

   Page 610

   2. To ride a horse at a gallop.

   3.   Fig.:  To  go  rapidly  or  carelessly,  as  in  making  a  hasty

     Such superficial ideas he may collect in galloping over it. Locke.


   Gal"lop (?), v. t. To cause to gallop.


   Gal"lop,  n.  [Cf. F. galop. See Gallop, v. i., and cf. Galop.] A mode
   of  running  by  a  quadruped,  particularly  by  a  horse, by lifting
   alternately  the  fore  feet and the hind feet, in successive leaps or
   bounds. Hand gallop, a slow or gentle gallop.


   Gal"lo*pade` (?), n. [F. galopade. See Gallop, n.]

   1. I horsemanship, a sidelong or curveting kind of gallop.

   2. A kind of dance; also, music to the dance; a galop.


   Gal`lo*pade"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Gallopaded; p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To gallop, as on horseback.

   2. To perform the dance called gallopade.


   Gal"lop*er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, gallops.


   (Mil.)  A carriage on which very small guns were formerly mounted, the
   gun resting on the shafts, without a limber. Farrow. Galloper gun
   ,  a  light  gun,  supported  on  a  galloper, -- formerly attached to
   British infantry regiments.


   Gal"lo*pin (?), n.[F. galopin. See Gallop, v. i.] An under servant for
   the kitchen; a scullion; a cook's errand boy. [Obs.] Halliwell.


   Gal"lop*ing  (?),  a.  Going  at  a gallop; progressing rapidly; as, a
   galloping horse.


   Gal`lo*tan"nic  (?), a. [Gall nutgall + tannic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to
   the  tannin  or  nutgalls.  Gallotannic  acid.  See Tannic acid, under


   Gal"low  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  AS.  \'begelwan to stupefy.] To fright or
   terrify. See Gally, v. t. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gal"lo*way  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  horse of a breed raised at
   Galloway, Scotland; -- called also garran, and garron.


   Gal"low*glass`  (?),  n.  [Ir.  galloglach. Cf. Gillie.] A heavy-armed
   foot  soldier from Ireland and the Western Isles in the time of Edward


   Gal"lows  (?),  n.  sing.;  pl. Gallowses (#) OR Gallows. [OE. galwes,
   pl., AS. galga, gealga, gallows, cross; akin to D. galg gallows, OS. &
   OHG. galgo, G. galgen, Icel. g\'belgi, Sw. & Dan. galge, Goth. galga a
   cross.  Etymologically  and historically considered, gallows is a noun
   in  the  plural  number,  but  it  is used as a singular, and hence is
   preceded by a; as, a gallows.]

   1.  A  frame from which is suspended the rope with which criminals are
   executed  by  hanging,  usually  consisting of two upright posts and a
   crossbeam on the top; also, a like frame for suspending anything.

     So they hanged Haman on the gallows. Esther vii. 10.

     If I hang, I'll make a fat pair of gallows. Shak.

     O, there were desolation of gaolers and gallowses Shak.

   2. A wretch who deserves the gallows. [R.] Shak.

   3. (Print.) The rest for the tympan when raised.

   4. pl. A pair of suspenders or braces. [Colloq.]
   Gallows  bird, a person who deserves the gallows. [Colloq.] -- Gallows
   bitts  (Naut.),  one  of  two  or  more  frames  amidships on deck for
   supporting  spare  spars; -- called also gallows, gallows top, gallows
   frame,  etc. -- Gallows frame. (a) The frame supporting the beam of an
   engine.  (b)  (Naut.)  Gallows  bitts. -- Gallows, OR Gallow tree, the

     At length him nail\'82d on a gallow tree. Spenser.


   Gall"stone`  (?),  n.  A  concretion,  or calculus, formed in the gall
   bladder or biliary passages. See Calculus, n., 1.


   Gal"ly  (?), v. t. [See Gallow, v. t.] To frighten; to worry. [Obs. or
   Prov. Eng.] T. Brown.


   Gall"y (?), a. Like gall; bitter as gall. Cranmer.


   Gal"ly (?), n. See Galley, n., 4.


   Gal`ly*gas"kins, n. pl. See Galligaskins.

                               Galoche, Galoshe

   Ga*loche",  Ga*loshe"  (,  [OE.  galoche,  galache,  galage,  shoe, F.
   galoche  galoche,  perh.  altered fr. L. gallica a Gallic shoe, or fr.
   LL. calopedia wooden shoe, or shoe with a wooden sole, Gr.

   1. A clog or patten. [Obs.]

     Nor were worthy [to] unbuckle his galoche. Chaucer.

   2. Hence: An overshoe worn in wet weather.

   3.  A gaiter, or legging, covering the upper part of the shoe and part
   of the leg.


   Ga*loot"  (?),  n.  A noisy, swaggering, or worthless fellow; a rowdy.
   [Slang, U. S.]


   Gal"op  (?), n. [F.] (Mus.) A kind of lively dance, in 2-4 time; also,
   the music to the dance.


   Ga*lore"  (?),  n.  &  a.  [Scot. gelore, gilore, galore, fr. Gael. gu
   le\'95r, enough; gu- to, also an adverbial prefix + le\'95r, le\'95ir,
   enough;  or  fr.  Ir.  goleor,  the  same word.] Plenty; abundance; in


   Ga*loshe" (?), n. Same as Galoche.


   Galpe (?), v. i. To gape,; to yawn. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gal"some  (?),  a.  [Gall bitterness + some.] Angry; malignant. [Obs.]
   Bp. Morton.


   Galt (?), n [See Gault.] Same as Gault.


   Gal*van"ic  (?),  a.  [From  Galvani,  a  professor  of  physiology at
   Bologna,  on account of his connection (about 1780) with the discovery
   of  dynamical  or  current  electricity:  cf.  F.  galvanique.]  Of or
   pertaining to, or exhibiting the phenomena of, galvanism; employing or
   producing  electrical currents. Galvanic battery (Elec.), an apparatus
   for  generating  electrical  currents  by the mutual action of certain
   liquids  and  metals;  --  now  usually  called  voltaic  battery. See
   Battery.  -- Galvanic circuit OR circle. (Elec.) See under Circuit. --
   Galvanic pile (Elec.), the voltaic pile. See under Voltaic.


   Gal"va*nism  (?),  n  [From Galvani: cf. F. galvanisme. See Galvanic.]
   (Physics)  (a)  Electricity  excited  by  the mutual action of certain
   liquids  and metals; dynamical electricity. (b) The branch of physical
   science  which  treats  of dynamical elecricity, or the properties and
   effects of electrical currents.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e wo rds ga lvanism an d galvanic, formerly in very
     general use, are now rarely employed. For the latter, voltaic, from
     the name of Volta, is commonly used.


   Gal"va*nist (?), n. One versed in galvanism.


   Gal"va*niza`tion (?), n. The act of process of galvanizing.


   Gal"va*nize  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Galvanized (?); p pr. & vb. n.
   Galvanizing (?).] [Cf. F. galvaniser.]

   1.  To  affect  with galvanism; to subject to the action of electrical

   2. To plate, as with gold, silver, etc., by means of electricity.

   3.  To restore to consciousness by galvanic action (as from a state of
   suspended  animation);  hence,  to stimulate or excite to a factitious
   animation or activity.

   4. To coat, as iron, with zinc. See Galvanized iron.
   Galvanized  iron,  formerly,  iron  coated  with  zink  by  electrical
   deposition;  now more commonly, iron coated with zink by plunging into
   a  bath of melted zink, after its surface has been cleaned by friction
   with the aid of dilute acid.


   Gal"va*ni`zer (?), n. One who, or that which, galvanize.


   Gal*van`o*caus"tic  (?),  a. [Galvanic + caustic.] Relating to the use
   of galvanic heat as a caustic, especially in medicine.


   Gal*van`o*cau"ter*y  (?),  n.  (Med.)  Cautery  effected by a knife or
   needle heated by the passage of a galvanic current.


   Gal`va*nog"ly*phy (?), n. [Galvanic + Gr. Same as Glyphography.


   Gal*van"o*graph (?), n. [Galvanic + -graph.] (Engraving) A copperplate
   produced  by the method of galvanography; also, a picture printed from
   such a plate.


   Gal*van`o*graph"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to galvanography.


   Gal`va*nog"ra*phy (?), n. [Galvanic + -graphy.]

   1.   The   art   or  process  of  depositing  metals  by  electricity;

   2.  A  method  of producing by means of electrotyping process (without
   etching)  copperplates which can be printed from in the same manner as
   engraved plates.


   Gal`va*nol"o*gist   (?),   n.  One  who  describes  the  phenomena  of
   galvanism; a writer on galvanism.


   Gal`va*nol"o*gy (?) n. [Galvanic + -logy.] A treatise on galvanism, or
   a description of its phenomena.


   Gal`va*nom"e*ter  (?), n. [Galvanic + -meter: cf. F. galvanom\'8atre.]
   (Elec.)  An  instrument or apparatus for measuring the intensity of an
   electric  current,  usually  by  the  deflection of a magnetic needle.
   Differential   galvanometer.   See   under  Differental,  a.  --  Sine
   galvanometer,  Cosine  galvanometer,  Tangent  galvanometer (Elec.), a
   galvanometer  in  which  the sine, cosine, or tangent respectively, of
   the  angle  through  which the needle is deflected, is proportional to
   the strength of the current passed through the instrument.


   Gal*van`o*met"ric  (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  measured  by, a


   Gal`va*nom"e*try  (?), n. The art or process of measuring the force of
   electric currents.


   Gal*van`o*plas"tic  (?), a. [Galvanic + -plastic.] Of or pertaining to
   the  art  or  process of electrotyping; employing, or produced by, the
   process  of  electolytic  deposition;  as, a galvano-plastic copy of a
   medal or the like.


   Gal*van"o*plas`ty  (?),  n. [Cf. F. galanoplastie.] The art or process
   of electrotypy.


   Gal*van`o*punc"ture (?), n. (Med.) Same as Electro-puncture.


   Gal*van`o*scope  (?),  n.  [Galvanic  +  -scope: cf. F. galvanoscope.]
   (Elec.)  An  instrument  or  apparatus  for  detecting the presence of
   electrical currents, especially such as are of feeble intensity.


   Gal*van`o*scop"ic (?), a Of or pertaining to a galvanoscope.


   Gal`va*nos"co*py   (?),   n   (Physiol.)   The  use  of  galvanism  in
   physiological experiments.


   Gal`va*not"o*nus  (?),  n. [NL., fr. E. galvanic + GR. (Physiol.) Same
   as Electrotonus.


   Gal`va*not"ro*pism  (?),  n.  [Galvanic + Gr. (Bot.) The tendency of a
   root to place its axis in the line of a galvanic current.


   Gal"wes (?), n. Gallows. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                  Gama grass

   Ga"ma  grass`  (?).  [From  Gama,  a  cluster of the Maldive Islands.]
   (Bot.)  A  species  of  grass (Tripsacum dactyloides) tall, stout, and
   exceedingly productive; cultivated in the West Indies, Mexico, and the
   Southern  States  of  North  America as a forage grass; -- called also
   sesame grass.


   Ga*mash"es  (?),  n.  pl.  [F.  gamaches.]  High  boots or buskins; in
   Scotland,  short spatterdashes or riding trousers, worn over the other


   Gam"ba (?), n. A viola da gamba.


   Gam*ba"does  (?), n. pl. [I. or Sp. gamba leg. See Gambol, n.] Same as

     His  thin  legs  tenanted  a pair of gambadoes fastened at the side
     with rusty clasps. Sir W. Scott.


   Gam"be*son (?), n. Same as Gambison.


   Gam"bet  (?),  n. [Fr. gambette, or It. gambetta.] (Zo\'94l.) Any bird
   of the genuis Totanus. See Tattler.


   Gam"bier  (?),  n.  [Malayan.]  (a)  The  inspissated juice of a plant
   (Uncaria Gambir) growing in Malacca. It is a powerful astringent, and,
   under  the  name of Terra Japonica, is used for chewing with the Areca
   nut,  and  is  exported  for tanning and dyeing. (b) Catechu. [Written
   also gambeer and gambir.]


   Gam"bi*son  (?), n. [OF. gambeson, gambaison, fr. gambais, wambais, of
   German  origin:  cf.  MHG.  wambeis,  G. wams doublet, fr. OHG. wamba,
   stomach.  See Womb.] A defensive garment formerly in use for the body,
   made of cloth stuffed and quilted.


   Gam"bist (?), n. [It. gamba leg.] (Mus.) A performer upon the viola di
   gamba. See under Viola.


   Gam"bit  (?),  n.  [F. gambit, cf. It. gambitto gambit, a tripping up.
   See Gambol, n.] (Chess Playing) A mode of opening the game, in which a
   pawn  is sacrificed to gain an attacking position. <-- Hence, Fig. any
   stratagem;  in  conversation,  a  remark,  often  prepared in advance,
   calculated  to  provoke  discussion,  amuse,  or  make  a  point  =  a
   conversational gambit -->


   Gam"ble (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gambled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gambling
   (?).]  [Dim. of game. See 2d Game.] To play or game for money or other


   Gamble,  v.  t.  To  lose or squander by gaming; -- usually with away.
   "Bankrupts  or  sots  who  have  gambled or slept away their estates."


   Gam"bler (?), n. One who gambles.


   Gam*boge"  (?), n. A concrete juice, or gum resin, produced by several
   species  of  trees  in  Siam,  Ceylon,  and  Malabar. It is brought in
   masses,  or  cylindrical  rolls, from Cambodia, or Cambogia, -- whence
   its  name.  The  best  kind  is  of a dense, compact texture, and of a
   beatiful  reddish  yellow. Taking internally, it is a strong and harsh
   cathartic ad emetic. [Written also camboge.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e se veral ki nds of  ga mboge, bu t all are
     derived  from  species  of  Garcinia, a genus of trees of the order
     Guttifer\'91.  The  best  Siam  gamboge  is  thought  to  come from
     Garcinia  Hanburii. Ceylon gamboge is from G. Morella. G. pictoria,
     of  Western  India,  yields  gamboge, and also a kind of oil called
     gamboge butter.

                              Gambogian, Gambogic

   Gam*bo"gi*an  (?),  Gambogic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to, resembling, or
   containing, gamboge.


   Gam"bol  (?), n. [OE. gambolde, gambaulde, F. gambade, gambol, fr. It.
   gambata kick, fr. L. gamba leg, akin to F. jambe, OF. also, gambe, fr.
   L.  gamba,  hoof or perh. joint: cf. Gr. cam crooked; perh. akin to E.
   chamber:  cf.F.  gambiller  to  kick  about. Cf. Jamb, n., Gammon ham,
   Gambadoes.]  A  skipping or leaping about in frolic; a hop; a sportive
   prank. Dryden.


   Gam"bol  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Gamboled (?), or Gambolled; p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Gamboling  or  Gambolling.]  To  dance and skip about in sport; to
   frisk; to skip; to play in frolic, like boys or lambs.


   Gam"brel  (?),  n  [OF.  gambe,  jambe  leg,  F.  jambe.  Cf. Cambrel,
   Chambrel, and see Gambol. n.]

   1. The hind leg of a horse.

   2.  A  stick  crooked  like a horse's hind leg; -- used by butchers in
   suspending slaughtered animals.
   Gambrel  roof  (Arch.),  a  curb  roof  having the same section in all
   parts,  with  a  lower  steeper slope and an upper and flatter one, so
   that each gable is pentagonal in form.


   Gam"brel v. t. To truss or hang up by means of a gambrel. Beau. & Fl.


   Gam*broon" (?), n. A kind of twilled linen cloth for lining. Simmonds.


   Game  (?),  a.  [Cf. W. cam crooked, and E. gambol, n.] Crooked; lame;
   as, a game leg. [Colloq.]


   Game, n. [OE. game, gamen, AS. gamen, gomen, play, sport; akin to OS.,
   OHG.,  &  Icel.  gaman, Dan. gammen mirth, merriment, OSw. gamman joy.
   Cf. Gammon a game, Backgammon, Gamble v. i.]

   1. Sport of any kind; jest, frolic.

     We have had pastimes here, and pleasant game. Shak.

   2.  A  contest,  physical  or  mental, according to certain rules, for
   amusement,  recreation,  or for winning a stake; as, a game of chance;
   games of skill; field games, etc.

     But  war's  a game, which, were their subject wise, Kings would not
     play at. Cowper.

     NOTE: &hand; Am ong the ancients, especially the Greeks and Romans,
     there  were  regularly  recurring  public  exhibitions of strength,
     agility,  and  skill under the patronage of the government, usually
     accompanied  with  religious ceremonies. Such were the Olympic, the
     Pythian, the Nemean, and the Isthmian games.

   3.  The  use  or  practice  of  such a game; a single match at play; a
   single contest; as, a game at cards.

     Talk the game o'er between the deal. Lloyd.

   4.  That  which is gained, as the stake in a game; also, the number of
   points  necessary  to  be  scored in order to win a game; as, in short
   whist five points are game.

   5.  (Card Playing) In some games, a point credited on the score to the
   player whose cards counts up the highest.

   6.  A  scheme  or art employed in the pursuit of an object or purpose;
   method of procedure; projected line of operations; plan; project.

     Your murderous game is nearly up. Blackw. Mag.

     It  was  obviously  Lord  Macaulay's  game  to blacken the greatest
     literary  champion  of  the  cause  he  had  set himself to attack.

   7. Animals pursued and taken by sportsmen; wild meats designed for, or
   served at, table.

     Those  species  of animals . . . distinguished from the rest by the
     well-known appellation of game. Blackstone.

   Confidence  game.  See  under  Confidence. -- To make game of, to make
   sport of; to mock. Milton.


   Game, a.

   1.  Having  a resolute, unyielding spirit, like the gamecock; ready to
   fight to the last; plucky.

     I  was  game  .  .  .  .I felt that I could have fought even to the
     death. W. Irving.

   2.  Of or pertaining to such animals as are hunted for game, or to the
   act or practice of hunting.
   Game  bag,  a  sportsman's bag for carrying small game captured; also,
   the whole quantity of game taken. -- Game bird, any bird commonly shot
   for  food,  esp.  grouse, partridges, quails, pheasants, wild turkeys,
   and  the  shore  or  wading  birds,  such as plovers, snipe, woodcock,
   curlew,  and  sandpipers. The term is sometimes arbitrarily restricted
   to  birds hunted by sportsmen, with dogs and guns. -- Game egg, an egg
   producing  a  gamecock.  -- Game laws, laws regulating the seasons and
   manner of taking game for food or for sport. -- Game preserver, a land
   owner  who  regulates the killing of game on his estate with a view to
   its  increase.  [Eng.]  -- To be game. (a) To show a brave, unyielding
   spirit.  (b)  To  be  victor  in  a game. [Colloq.] -- To die game, to
   maintain a bold, unyielding spirit to the last; to die fighting.

   Page 611


   Game (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gamed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gaming.] [OE.
   gamen, game, to rejoice, AS. gamenian to play. See Game, n.]

   1.  To  rejoice;  to  be  pleased;  --  often  used,  in  Old English,
   impersonally with dative. [Obs.]

     God  loved  he best with all his whole hearte At alle times, though
     him gamed or smarte. Chaucer.

   2. To play at any sport or diversion.

   3.  To  play  for  a stake or prize; to use cards, dice, billiards, or
   other  instruments,  according  to  certain  rules, with a view to win
   money  or  other thing waged upon the issue of the contest; to gamble.
   <-- sic!? -->


   Game"cock` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The male game fowl.

                                   Game fowl

   Game"  fowl`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  A  handsome  breed of the common fowl,
   remarkable for the great courage and pugnacity of the males.


   Game"ful (?), a. Full of game or games.


   Game"keep`er  (?),  n.  One  who has the care of game, especially in a
   park or preserve. Blackstone.


   Game"less, a. Destitute of game.


   Game"ly, adv. In a plucky manner; spiritedly.


   Game"ness, n. Endurance; pluck.


   Game"some (?), a. Gay; sportive; playful; frolicsome; merry. Shak.

     Gladness of the gamesome crowd. Byron.

   -- Game"some*ly, adv. -- Game"some*ness, n.


   Game"ster (?), n. [Game + -ster.]

   1. A merry, frolicsome person. [Obs.] Shak.

   2.  A  person  who  plays at games; esp., one accustomed to play for a
   stake; a gambler; one skilled in games.

     When  lenity  and cruelty play for a kingdom, the gentlest gamester
     is the soonest winner. Shak.

   3. A prostitute; a strumpet. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gam"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. (Biol.) Pertaining to, or resulting from, sexual
   connection; formed by the union of the male and female elements.


   Gam"in (?), n. [F.] A neglected and untrained city boy; a young street

     In  Japan,  the  gamins  run  after  you,  and  say,  'Look  at the
     Chinaman.' L. Oliphant.


   Gam"ing  (?),  n.  The  act or practice of playing games for stakes or
   wagers; gambling.


   Gam"ma (?), n. The third letter (G) of the Greek alphabet.


   Gam*ma"di*on  (?),  n. A cross formed of four capital gammas, formerly
   used  as  a  mysterious ornament on ecclesiastical vestments, etc. See


   Gam"mer  (?), n. [Possibly contr. fr. godmother; but prob. fr. grammer
   for   grandmother.  Cf.  Gaffer.]  An  old  wife;  an  old  woman;  --
   correlative of gaffer, an old man.


   Gam"mon  (?),  n. [OF. gambon, F. jambon, fr. OF. gambe leg, F. jambe.
   See  Gambol,  n.,  and cf. Ham.] The buttock or tight of a hog, salted
   and smoked or dried; the lower end of a flitch. Goldsmith.


   Gam"mon,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gameed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gameing.] To
   make bacon of; to salt and dry in smoke.


   Gam"mon, n. [See 2d Game.]

   1. Backgammon.

   2. An imposition or hoax; humbug. [Colloq.]


   Gam"mon, v. t.

   1.  To  beat  in the game of backgammon, before an antagonist has been
   able  to  get his "men" or counters home and withdraw any of them from
   the board; as, to gammon a person.

   2. To impose on; to hoax; to cajole. [Colloq.] Hood.


   Gam"mon,  v.  t.  [Etymol. unknown.] (Naut.) To fasten (a bowsprit) to
   the  stem  of  a  vessel by lashings of rope or chain, or by a band of
   iron. Totten.


   Gam"mon*ing, n. [From 5th Gammon.] (Naut.) The lashing or iron band by
   which  the bowsprit of a vessel is secured to the stem to opposite the
   lifting  action  of  the forestays. Gammoning fashion, in the style of
   gammoning  lashing,  that  is,  having  the  turns of rope crossed. --
   Gammoning  hole  (Naut.), a hole cut through the knee of the head of a
   vessel for the purpose of gammoning the bowsprit.


   Gam"mon*ing, n. [From 4th Gammon.] The act of imposing upon or hoaxing
   a person. [Colloq.]


   Gam`o*gen"e*sis  (?),  n.  [Gr.  genesis.]  (Biol.)  The production of
   offspring   by  the  union  of  parents  of  different  sexes;  sexual
   reproduction; -- the opposite of agamogenesis.


   Gam`o*ge*net"ic   (?),   a.   (Biol.)   Relating  to  gamogenesis.  --
   Gam`o*ge*net"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Gam`o*mor"phism   (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Biol.)  That  stage  of  growth  or
   development  in  an  organism,  in which the reproductive elements are
   generated and matured in preparation for propagating the species.


   Gam`o*pet"al*ous  (?), a. [Gr. petalous: cf. F. gamop\'82tale.] (Bot.)
   Having  the  petals  united  or  joined  so  as to form a tube or cup;


   Ga*moph"yl*lous (?), a. [Gr. (Bot.) Composed of leaves united by their
   edges (coalescent). Gray.


   Gam`o*sep"al*ous  (?), a. [Gr. sepal.] (Bot.) Formed of united sepals;


   Gam"ut  (?), n. [F. gamme + ut the name of a musical note. F. gamme is
   fr. the name of the Greek letter Gamma, and Ut.] (Mus.) The scale.


   Gam"y (?), a.

   1.  (Cookery)  Having  the  flavor of game, esp. of game kept uncooked
   till near the condition of tainting; high-flavored.

   2.  (Sporting)  Showing  an  unyielding  spirit  to  the last; plucky;
   furnishing  sport; as, a gamy trout. <-- NOTE irregular format for pos
   ### -->


   Gan (?), imp. &of; Gin. [See Gin, v.] Began; commenced.

     NOTE: &hand; Ga n wa s fo rmerly us ed wi th the infinitive to form
     compound  imperfects, as did is now employed. Gan regularly denotes
     the singular; the plural is usually denoted by gunne or gonne.

     This man gan fall (i.e., fell) in great suspicion. Chaucer.

     The little coines to their play gunne hie (i.e., hied). Chaucer.

     NOTE: Later writers use gan both for singular and plural.

     Yet at her speech their rages gan relent. Spenser.


   Ganch  (?),  v. t. [Cf. F. ganche, n., also Sp. & Pg. gancho hook, It.
   gancio.]  To drop from a high place upon sharp stakes or hooks, as the
   Turks dropped malefactors, by way of punishment.

     Ganching,  which  is to let fall from on high upon hooks, and there
     to hang until they die. Sandys.


   Gan"der  (?),  n. [AS. gandra, ganra, akin to Prov. G. gander, ganter,
   and E. goose, gannet. See Goose.] The male of any species of goose.


   Gane (?), v. i. [See Yawn.] To yawn; to gape. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ga*ne"sa (?), n. (Hind. Myth.) The Hindoo god of wisdom or prudence.

     NOTE: &hand; He  is  re presented as a short, fat, red-colored man,
     with a large belly and the head of an elephant.



   Gang  (?),  v. i. [AS. gangan, akin to OS. & OHG. gangan, Icel. ganga,
   Goth.  gaggan;  cf.  Lith. to walk, Skr. ja leg. &root;48. CF. Go.] To
   go; to walk.

     NOTE: &hand; Ob solete in English literature, but still used in the
     North of England, and also in Scotland.


   Gang,  n. [Icel. gangr a going, gang, akin to AS., D., G., & Dan. gang
   a going, Goth. gaggs street, way. See Gang, v. i.]

   1. A going; a course. [Obs.]

   2. A number going in company; hence, a company, or a number of persons
   associated  for  a  particular  purpose; a group of laborers under one
   foreman;  a  squad;  as,  a  gang  of sailors; a chain gang; a gang of

   3.  A  combination  of  similar  implements  arranged so as, by acting
   together,  to  save  time  or  labor; a set; as, a gang of saws, or of

   4. (Naut.) A set; all required for an outfit; as, a new gang of stays.

   5. [Cf. Gangue.] (Mining) The mineral substance which incloses a vein;
   a matrix; a gangue.
   Gang  board,  OR Gang plank. (Naut.) (a) A board or plank, with cleats
   for steps, forming a bridge by which to enter or leave a vessel. (b) A
   plank  within  or  without  the  bulwarks of a vessel's waist, for the
   sentinel  to  walk  on.  --  Gang cask, a small cask in which to bring
   water aboard ships or in which it is kept on deck. -- Gang cultivator,
   Gang  plow,  a cultivator or plow in which several shares are attached
   to  one  frame, so as to make two or more furrows at the same time. --
   Gang days, Rogation days; the time of perambulating parishes. See Gang
   week  (below).  --  Gang  drill, a drilling machine having a number of
   drills  driven  from  a  common  shaft.  --  Gang  master, a master or
   employer  of a gang of workmen. -- Gang plank. See Gang board (above).
   --  Gang plow. See Gang cultivator (above). -- Gang press, a press for
   operating  upon  a  pile  or  row  of objects separated by intervening
   plates.  --  Gang saw, a saw fitted to be one of a combination or gang
   of  saws  hung together in a frame or sash, and set at fixed distances
   apart.  --  Gang  tide.  See  Gang  week  (below).  --  Gang  tooth, a
   projecting  tooth. [Obs.] Halliwell. -- Gang week, Rogation week, when
   formerly  processions  were  made  to  survey  the bounds of parishes.
   Halliwell.  --  Live  gang, OR Round gang, the Western and the Eastern
   names, respectively, for a gang of saws for cutting the round log into
   boards  at  one operation. Knight. -- Slabbing gang, an arrangement of
   saws which cuts slabs from two sides of a log, leaving the middle part
   as a thick beam.


   Gang"er (?), n. One who oversees a gang of workmen. [R.] Mayhew.


   Gan*get"ic  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or inhabiting, the Ganges; as, the
   Gangetic shark.


   Gang"-flow`er  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The common English milkwort (Polygala
   vulgaris), so called from blossoming in gang week. Dr. Prior.


   Gan"gion  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  A  short line attached to a
   trawl. See Trawl, n.

                              Gangliac, Ganglial

   Gan"gli*ac  (?),  Gan"gli*al  (?),  a. (Anat.) Relating to a ganglion;

                             Gangliate, Gangliated

   Gan"gli*ate (?), Gan"gli*a`ted (?), a. (Anat.) Furnished with ganglia;
   as, the gangliated cords of the sympathetic nervous system.

                            Gangliform, Ganglioform

   Gan"gli*form` (?), Gan"gli*o*form` (?), a. [Ganglion + -form.] (Anat.)
   Having the form of a ganglion.


   Gan"gli*on (?), n.; pl. L. Ganglia (#), E. Ganglions (#). [L. ganglion
   a  sort  of  swelling  or  excrescence,  a  tumor  under the skin, Gr.

   1.  (Anat.)  (a)  A  mass  or  knot of nervous matter, including nerve
   cells,  usually forming an enlargement in the course of a nerve. (b) A
   node, or gland in the lymphatic system; as, a lymphatic ganglion.

   2.  (Med.)  A  globular, hard, indolent tumor, situated somewhere on a
   tendon, and commonly formed by the effusion of a viscid fluid into it;
   -- called also weeping sinew.
   Ganglion cell, a nerve cell. See Illust. under Bipolar.
   Gan"gli*on*a*ry (?), a. [Cf. F. ganglionnarie.] (Anat.) Ganglionic. 


   Gan`gli*on"ic  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. ganglionique.] (Anat.) Pertaining to,
   containing,  or  consisting  of,  ganglia  or  ganglion  cells;  as, a
   ganglionic artery; the ganglionic columns of the spinal cord.


   Gan"grel  (?), a. [Cf. Gang, v. i.] Wandering; vagrant. [Scot.] Sir W.


   Gan"gre*nate (?), v. t. To gangrene. [Obs.]


   Gan"grene (?), n. [F. gangr\'8ane, L. gangraena, fr. Gr. gras, gar, to
   devour,  and E. voracious, also canker, n., in sense 3.] (Med.) A term
   formerly restricted to mortification of the soft tissues which has not
   advanced  so  far  as  to  produce  complete loss of vitality; but now
   applied to mortification of the soft parts in any stage.


   Gan"grene,  v.  t.  &  i. [imp. & p. p. Gangrened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gangrening.]  [Cf.  F.  gangr\'82ner.]  To  produce gangrene in; to be
   affected with gangrene.


   Gan`gre*nes"cent (?), a. Tending to mortification or gangrene.


   Gan"gre*nous  (?), a. [Cf. F. gangr\'82neux.] Affected by, or produced
   by, gangrene; of the nature of gangrene.


   Gangue (?), n. [F. gangue, fr. G. gang a metallic vein, a passage. See
   Gang,  n.]  (Mining)  The  mineral or earthy substance associated with
   metallic ore.


   Gang"way` (?), n. [See Gang, v. i.]

   1.  A  passage  or  way  into  or  out  of any inclosed place; esp., a
   temporary way of access formed of planks.

   2.  In  the English House of Commons, a narrow aisle across the house,
   below  which  sit  those  who  do  not  vote  steadly  either with the
   government or with the opposition.

   3.  (Naut.)  The  opening  through  the  bulwarks of a vessel by which
   persons enter or leave it.

   4.  (Naut.) That part of the spar deck of a vessel on each side of the
   booms,  from  the  quarter-deck  to  the  forecastle; -- more properly
   termed the waist. Totten.
   Gangway  ladder,  a  ladder  rigged  on  the  side  of a vessel at the
   gangway.  -- To bring to the gangway, to punish (a seaman) by flogging
   him at the gangway.


   Gan"il (?), n. [F.] A kind of brittle limestone. [Prov. Eng.] Kirwan.

                              Ganister, Gannister

   Gan"is*ter   (?),   Gan"nis*ter,  n.  (Mech.)  A  refractory  material
   consisting of crushed or ground siliceous stone, mixed with fire clay;
   --  used  for  lining  Bessemer converters; also used for macadamizing


   Gan"ja  (?),  n.  [Hind.  g\'benjh\'be.] The dried hemp plant, used in
   India  for  smoking.  It  is  extremely  narcotic and intoxicating.<--
   marijuana, hashish -->


   Gan"net  (?),  n. [OE. gant, AS. ganet, ganot, a sea fowl, a fen duck;
   akin  to  D. gent gander, OHG. ganazzo. See Gander, Goose.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One  of  several species of sea birds of the genus Sula, allied to the

     NOTE: &hand; Th e common gannet of Europe and America (S. bassana),
     is  also  called  solan  goose,  chandel  goose,  and gentleman. In
     Florida the wood ibis is commonly called gannet.

   Booby gannet. See Sula.


   Gan`o*ceph"a*la  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Paleon.) A group of fossil
   amphibians  allied to the labyrinthodonts, having the head defended by
   bony, sculptured plates, as in some ganoid fishes.


   Gan`o*ceph"a*lous   (?),   a.   (Paleon.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the


   Ga"noid  (?),  a. [Gr. -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to Ganoidei.
   -- n. One of the Ganoidei. Ganoid scale (Zo\'94l.), one kind of scales
   of the ganoid fishes, composed of an inner layer of bone, and an outer
   layer  of shining enamel. They are often so arranged as to form a coat
   of mail.


   Ga*noid"al (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Ganoid.


   Ga*noi"de*i  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  See  Ganoid.]  (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   subclasses  of  fishes.  They  have  an arterial cone and bulb, spiral
   intestinal  valve,  and  the optic nerves united by a chiasma. Many of
   the  species  are  covered  with  bony  plates, or with ganoid scales;
   others have cycloid scales.

     NOTE: &hand; They were numerous, and some of them of large size, in
     early geological periods; but they are represented by comparatively
     few  living  species,  most  of  which inhabit fresh waters, as the
     bowfin, gar pike, bichir, Ceratodus, paddle fish, and sturgeon.


   Ga*noid"i*an (?), a. & n. (Zo\'94l.) Ganoid.


   Ga"no*ine (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A peculiar bony tissue beneath the enamel
   of a ganoid scale.


   Gan"sa (?), n. Same as Ganza. Bp. Hall.


   Gant"let  (?),  n. [Gantlet is corrupted fr. gantlope; gantlope is for
   gatelope, Sw. gatlopp, orig., a running down a lane; gata street, lane
   +  lopp  course,  career,  akin to l\'94pa to run. See Gate a way, and
   Leap.] A military punishment formerly in use, wherein the offender was
   made  to  run  between two files of men facing one another, who struck
   him  as he passed. To run the gantlet, to suffer the punishment of the
   gantlet;  hence,  to  go  through  the  ordeal  of severe criticism or
   controversy, or ill-treatment at many hands.

     Winthrop ran the gantlet of daily slights. Palfrey.

     NOTE: &hand; Written also, but less properly, gauntlet.


   Gant"let, n. A glove. See Gauntlet.


   Gant"line`  (?),  n.  A  line  rigged  to  a mast; -- used in hoisting
   rigging; a girtline.

   Page 612


   Gant"lope` (?), n. See Gantlet. [Obs.]


   Gan"try (?), n. See Gauntree.


   Gan"za (?), n. [Sp. gansa, ganso, goose; of Gothic origin. See Gannet,
   Goose.]  A  kind  of  wild  goose,  by a flock of which a virtuoso was
   fabled to be carried to the lunar world. [Also gansa.] Johnson.


   Gaol  (?), n. [See Jail.] A place of confinement, especially for minor
   offenses  or provisional imprisonment; a jail. [Preferably, and in the
   United  States  usually,  written  jail.]  Commission  of general gaol
   delivery,  an  authority  conferred upon judges and others included in
   it,  for trying and delivering every prisoner in jail when the judges,
   upon  their  circuit,  arrive  at the place for holding court, and for
   discharging  any  whom  the  grand jury fail to indict. [Eng.] -- Gaol
   delivery. (Law) See Jail delivery, under Jail.


   Gaol"er (?), n. The keeper of a jail. See Jailer.


   Gap  (?),  n.  [OE.  gap; cf. Icel. gap an empty space, Sw. gap mouth,
   breach,  abyss,  Dan.  gab  mouth, opening, AS. geap expanse; as adj.,
   wide,  spacious. See Gape.] An opening in anything made by breaking or
   parting;  as,  a gap in a fence; an opening for a passage or entrance;
   an opening which implies a breach or defect; a vacant space or time; a
   hiatus; a mountain pass.

     Miseries ensued by the opening of that gap. Knolles.

     It would make a great gap in your own honor. Shak.

   Gap  lathe  (Mach.),  a  turning lathe with a deep notch in the bed to
   admit  of turning a short object of large diameter. -- To stand in the
   gap,  to  expose  one's  self for the protection of something; to make
   defense  against  any  assailing danger; to take the place of a fallen
   defender  or  supporter.  -- To stop a gap, to secure a weak point; to
   repair a defect.


   Gap, v. t.

   1. To notch, as a sword or knife.

   2. To make an opening in; to breach.

     Their masses are gapp'd with our grape. Tennyson.


   Gape (?; in Eng, commonly ?; 277), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gaped (? or ?);
   p.  pr.  &  vb.  n. Gaping] [OE. gapen, AS. geapan to open; akin to D.
   gapen  to  gape, G. gaffen, Icel. & Sw. gapa, Dan. gabe; cf. Skr. jabh
   to snap at, open the mouth. Cf. Gaby, Gap.]

   1.  To  open the mouth wide; as: (a) Expressing a desire for food; as,
   young birds gape. Dryden.(b) Indicating sleepiness or indifference; to

     She  stretches,  gapes, unglues her eyes, And asks if it be time to
     rise. Swift.

   (c) Showing self-forgetfulness in surprise, astonishment, expectation,

     With gaping wonderment had stared aghast. Byron.

   (d) Manifesting a desire to injure, devour, or overcome.

     They have gaped upon me with their mouth. Job xvi. 10.

   2. To pen or part widely; to exhibit a gap, fissure, or hiatus.

     May that ground gape and swallow me alive! Shak.

   3.  To  long,  wait  eagerly, or cry aloud for something; -- with for,
   after, or at.

     The hungry grave for her due tribute gapes. Denham.

   Syn. -- To gaze; stare; yawn. See Gaze.


   Gape, n.

   1. The act of gaping; a yawn. Addison.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The width of the mouth when opened, as of birds, fishes,

                                   The gapes

   The  gapes.  (a)  A fit of yawning. (b) A disease of young poultry and
   other  birds,  attended  with much gaping. It is caused by a parasitic
   nematode  worm (Syngamus trachealis), in the windpipe, which obstructs
   the breathing. See Gapeworm.


   Gap"er (?), n.

   1. One who gapes.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) A European fish. See 4th Comber. (b) A large edible
   clam  (Schizoth\'91rus Nuttalli), of the Pacific coast; -- called also
   gaper  clam.  (c)  An  East  Indian  bird  of the genus Cymbirhynchus,
   related to the broadbills.


   Gape"seed` (?), n. Any strange sight. Wright.


   Gapes"ing (? OR ?), n. Act of gazing about; sightseeing. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gape"worm`  (? OR ?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The parasitic worm that causes the
   gapes in birds. See Illustration in Appendix.


   Gap"ing*stock`  (?  OR  ?),  n.  One  who is an object of open-mouthed

     I  was  to  be  a  gapingstock and a scorn to the young volunteers.


   Gap"-toothed` (?), a. Having interstices between the teeth. Dryden.


   Gar  (?), n. [Prob. AS. g\'ber dart, spear, lance. The name is applied
   to  the fish on account of its long and slender body and pointed head.
   Cf.  Goad,  Gore,  v.]  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) Any slender marine fish of the
   genera  Belone  and  Tylosurus.  See  Garfish.  (b)  The gar pike. See
   Alligator  gar  (under  Alligator), and Gar pike. Gar pike, OR Garpike
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  large, elongated ganoid fish of the genus Lepidosteus,
   of  several  species, inhabiting the lakes and rivers of temperate and
   tropical America.


   Gar,  v.  t. [Of Scand. origin. See Gear, n.] To cause; to make. [Obs.
   or Scot.] Spenser.


   Gar"an*cin  (?; 104), n. [F. garance madder, LL. garantia.] (Chem.) An
   extract  of  madder  by  sulphuric  acid.  It  consists essentially of


   Garb  (?), n. [OF. garbe looks, countenance, grace, ornament, fr. OHG.
   garaw\'c6, garw\'c6, ornament, dress. akin to E. gear. See Gear, n.]

   1.  (a)  Clothing  in  general. (b) The whole dress or suit of clothes
   worn by any person, especially when indicating rank or office; as, the
   garb  of a clergyman or a judge. (c) Costume; fashion; as, the garb of
   a gentleman in the 16th century.

   2.  External  appearance,  as expressive of the feelings or character;
   looks; fashion or manner, as of speech.

     You thought, because he could not speak English in the native garb,
     he could not therefore handle an English cudgel. Shak.


   Garb (?), n. [F. gerbe, OF. also garbe, OHG. garba, G. garbe; cf. Skr.
   grbh  to  seize,  E.  grab.]  (Her.)  A  sheaf of grain (wheat, unless
   otherwise specified).


   Garb, v. t. To clothe; array; deck.

     These black dog-Dons Garb themselves bravely. Tennyson.


   Gar"bage  (?;  48),  n.  [OE. also garbash, perh. orig., that which is
   purged  or  cleansed  away;  cf.  OF.  garber to make fine, neat, OHG.
   garawan  to  make  ready, prepare, akin to E. garb dress; or perh. for
   garbleage,  fr.  garble;  or  cf.  OF. garbage tax on sheaves, E. garb
   sheaf.]  Offal,  as  the bowels of an animal or fish; refuse animal or
   vegetable   matter   from   a   kitchen;  hence,  anything  worthless,
   disgusting, or loathsome. Grainger.


   Gar"bage, v. t. To strip of the bowels; to clean. "Pilchards . . . are
   garbaged." Holland.


   Garbed (?), a. Dressed; habited; clad.


   Gar"bel (?), n. (Naut.) Same as Garboard.


   Gar"bel,  n.  [Cf.  Garble,  v. t.] Anything sifted, or from which the
   coarse parts have been taken. [Obs.]


   Gar"ble  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Garbled  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Garbling.] [Formerly, to pick out, sort, OF. grabeler, for garbeler to
   examine  precisely, garble spices, fr. LL. garbellare to sift; cf. Sp.
   garbillar  to  sift,  garbillo  a  coarse sieve, L. cribellum, dim. of
   cribrum  sieve, akin to cernere to separate, sift (cf. E. Discern); or
   perh. rather from Ar. gharb\'bel, gharbil, sieve.]

   1. To sift or bolt, to separate the fine or valuable parts of from the
   coarse  and useless parts, or from dros or dirt; as, to garble spices.

   2.  To  pick out such parts of as may serve a purpose; to mutilate; to
   pervert; as, to garble a quotation; to garble an account.


   Gar"ble, n.

   1. Refuse; rubbish. [Obs.] Wolcott.

   2.  pl.  Impurities separated from spices, drugs, etc.; -- also called


   Gar"bler (?), n. One who garbles.


   Gar"board  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  One  of  the planks next the keel on the
   outside,  which form a garboard strake. Garboard strake OR streak, the
   first range or strake of planks laid on a ship's bottom next the keel.


   Gar"boil  (?),  n.  [OF. garbouil; cf. Sp. garbullo, It. garbuglio; of
   uncertain  origin;  the  last part is perh. fr. L. bullire to boil, E.
   boil.] Tumult; disturbance; disorder. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gar*cin"i*a  (?),  n.  [NL.]  (Bot.)  A genus of plants, including the
   mangosteen  tree  (Garcinia  Mangostana),  found in the islands of the
   Indian Archipelago; -- so called in honor of Dr. Garcin.


   Gard  (?), n. [See Garde, Yard] Garden. [Obs.] "Trees of the gard." F.


   Gard, v. & n. See Guard.


   Gar"dant  (?),  a.  [F. See Guardant.] (Her.) Turning the head towards
   the spectator, but not the body; -- said of a lion or other beast.


   Gar"den  (?;  277),  n. [OE. gardin, OF. gardin, jardin, F. jardin, of
   German  origin; cf. OHG. garto, G. garten; akin to AS. geard. See Yard
   an inclosure.]

   1. A piece of ground appropriates to the cultivation of herbs, fruits,
   flowers, or vegetables.

   2. A rich, well-cultivated spot or tract of country.

     I  am  arrived from fruitful Lombardy, The pleasant garden of great
     Italy. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Garden is often used adjectively or in self-explaining
     compounds;  as,  garden  flowers, garden tools, garden walk, garden
     wall, garden house or gardenhouse.

   Garden  balsam,  an  ornamental plant (Impatiens Balsamina). -- Garden
   engine,  a  wheelbarrow  tank and pump for watering gardens. -- Garden
   glass.  (a)  A  bell  glass  for  covering  plants.  (b)  A  globe  of
   dark-colored  glass,  mounted  on  a  pedestal, to reflect surrounding
   objects;  -- much used as an ornament in gardens in Germany. -- Garden
   house  (a)  A summer house. Beau & Fl. (b) A privy. [Southern U.S.] --
   Garden  husbandry,  the  raising  on  a  small scale of seeds, fruits,
   vegetables,  etc.,  for  sale.  --  Garden mold OR mould, rich, mellow
   earth which is fit for a garden. Mortimer. -- Garden nail, a cast nail
   used, for fastening vines to brick walls. Knight. -- Garden net, a net
   for covering fruits trees, vines, etc., to protect them from birds. --
   Garden  party, a social party held out of doors, within the grounds or
   garden  attached  to  a  private  residence.  --  Garden  plot, a plot
   appropriated  to a garden. Garden pot, a watering pot. -- Garden pump,
   a  garden  engine;  a barrow pump. -- Garden shears, large shears, for
   clipping trees and hedges, pruning, etc. -- Garden spider, (Zo\'94l.),
   the  diadem spider (Epeira diadema), common in gardens, both in Europe
   and  America.  It  spins  a geometrical web. See Geometric spider, and
   Spider web. -- Garden stand, a stand for flower pots. -- Garden stuff,
   vegetables  raised in a garden. [Colloq.] -- Garden syringe, a syringe
   for  watering  plants,  sprinkling  them with solutions for destroying
   insects,  etc.  --  Garden  truck,  vegetables  raised for the market.
   [Colloq.]  --  Garden  ware,  garden  truck.  [Obs.] Mortimer. -- Bear
   garden,  Botanic  garden, etc. See under Bear, etc. -- Hanging garden.
   See  under  Hanging.  -- Kitchen garden, a garden where vegetables are
   cultivated  for  household  use.  --  Market garden, a piece of ground
   where  vegetable  are  cultivated  to be sold in the markets for table


   Gar"den, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gardened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gardening.]
   To  lay  out  or cultivate a garden; to labor in a garden; to practice


   Gar"den, v. t. To cultivate as a garden.


   Gar"den*er (?), n. One who makes and tends a garden; a horticulturist.


   Garde"ni*a  (?),  n.  [NL.]  (Bot.) A genus of plants, some species of
   which  produce  beautiful  and  fragrant  flowers; Cape jasmine; -- so
   called in honor of Dr. Alexander Garden.


   Gar"den*ing   (?),  n.  The  art  of  occupation  of  laying  out  and
   cultivating gardens; horticulture.


   Gar"den*less (?), a. Destitute of a garden. Shelley.


   Gar"den*ly (?), a. Like a garden. [R.] W. Marshall.


   Gar"den*ship, n. Horticulture. [Obs.]


   Gar"don (?), n. [F] (Zo\'94l.) A European cyprinoid fish; the id.


   Gar`dy*loo" (?), n. [F. gare l'eau beware of the water.] An old cry in
   throwing  water,  slops, etc., from the windows in Edingburgh. Sir. W.


   Gare (?), n. [Cf. Gear.] Coarse wool on the legs of sheep. Blount.


   Gare"fowl`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The great auk; also, the razorbill. See
   Auk. [Written also gairfowl, and gurfel.]


   Gar"fish`  (?), n. [See Gar, n.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A European marine fish
   (Belone  vulgaris); -- called also gar, gerrick, greenback, greenbone,
   gorebill,  hornfish,  longnose,  mackerel  guide,  sea needle, and sea
   pike.  (b)  One  of  several  species  of  similar fishes of the genus
   Tylosurus, of which one species (T. marinus) is common on the Atlantic
   coast. T. Caribb\'91us, a very large species, and T. crassus, are more
   southern;  --  called also needlefish. Many of the common names of the
   European garfish are also applied to the American species.


   Gar"ga*lize  (?),  v. t. [Cf. Gargle, Gargarize.] To gargle; to rinse.
   [Obs.] Marston.


   Gar"ga*ney   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   A   small  European  duck  (Anas
   querquedula); -- called also cricket teal, and summer teal.


   Gar*gan"tu*an  (?;  135),  a.  [From Gargantua, an allegorical hero of
   Rabelais.]   Characteristic   of   Gargantua,  a  gigantic,  wonderful
   personage; enormous; prodigious; inordinate.


   Gar"ga*rism  (?),  n.  [F.  gargarisme, L. gargarisma. See Gargarize.]
   (Med.) A gargle.


   Gar"ga*rize (?), v. t. [F. gargarizare, fr. Gr. To gargle; to rinse or
   wash, as the mouth and throat. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Garget  (?),  n. [OE. garget, gargate, throat, OF. gargate. Cf. Gorge.
   The etymol. of senses 2, 3, & 4 is not certain.]

   1. The throat. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  A  diseased condition of the udders of cows, etc., arising from an
   inflammation of the mammary glands.

   3.  A distemper in hogs, indicated by staggering and loss of appetite.

   4. (Bot.) See Poke.


   Gar"gil  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Garget,  Gargoyle.]  A  distemper  in  geese,
   affecting the head.


   Gar"gle (?), n. (Arch.) See Gargoyle.


   Gar"gle,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Garggled (?), p. pr. & vb. n. Gargling (
   [F. gargouiller to dabble, paddle, gargle. Cf. Gargoyle, Gurgle.]

   1.  To  wash  or rinse, as the mouth or throat, particular the latter,
   agitating  the  liquid  (water  or  a  medicinal  preparation)  by  an
   expulsion of air from the lungs.

   2. To warble; to sing as if gargling [Obs.] Waller.


   Gar"gle,  n. A liquid, as water or some medicated preparation, used to
   cleanse the mouth and throat, especially for a medical effect.


   Gar"gol (?), n. [Cf. Gargil.] A distemper in swine; garget. Mortimer.


   Gar`gou*lette"  (?),  n.  [F.] A water cooler or jug with a handle and
   spout; a gurglet. Mollett.


   Gar"goyle  (?),  n.  [OE.  garguilie,  gargouille, cf. Sp. g\'a0rgola,
   prob.  fr.  the  same  source  as  F.  gorge  throat, influenced by L.
   gargarizare to gargle. See Gorge and cf. Gargle, Gargarize.] (Arch.) A
   spout  projecting  from  the  roof  gutter of a building, often carved
   grotesquely. [Written also gargle, gargyle, and gurgoyle.]


   Gar"gyle (?), n. (Arch.) See Gargoyle.


   Ga`ri*bal"di (?), n.

   1.  A jacket worn by women; -- so called from its resemblance in shape
   to the red shirt worn by the Italians patriot Garibaldi.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) A California market fish (Pomancentrus rubicundus) of a
   deep scarlet color.


   Gar"ish  (?),  a.  [Cf.  OE. gauren to stare; of uncertain origin. Cf.

   1.  Showy;  dazzling;  ostentatious; attracting or exciting attention.
   "The  garish  sun."  "A  garish flag." Shak. "In . . . garish colors."
   Asham. "The garish day." J. H. Newman.

     Garish like the laughters of drunkenness. Jer. Taylor.

   2. Gay to extravagance; flighty.

     It makes the mind loose and garish. South.

   -- Gar"ish*ly, adv. -- Garish*ness, n. Jer. Taylor.


   Gar"land (?), n. [OE. garland, gerlond, OF. garlande, F. guirlande; of
   uncertain origin; cf. OHG. wiara, wiera, crown, pure gold, MHG. wieren
   to adorn.]

   1. The crown of a king. [Obs.] Graffon.

   2.  A  wreath  of  chaplet made of branches, flowers, or feathers, and
   sometimes  of  precious stones, to be worn on the head like a crown; a
   coronal; a wreath. Pope.

   Page 613

   3. The top; the thing most prized. Shak.

   4. A book of extracts in prose or poetry; an anthology.

     They [ballads] began to be collected into little miscellanies under
     the name of garlands. Percy.

   5.  (Naut.) (a) A sort of netted bag used by sailors to keep provision
   in.  (b) A grommet or ring of rope lashed to a spar for convenience in


   Gar"land  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Garlanded;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Garlanding.] To deck with a garland. B. Jonson.


   Gar"land*less, a. Destitute of a garland. Shelley.


   Gar"lic  (?),  n.  [OE.  garlek, AS. g\'berle\'a0c; gar spear, lance +
   le\'a0c leek. See Gar, n., and Leek.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  plant of the genus Allium (A. sativum is the cultivated
   variety),  having  a  bulbous root, a very strong smell, and an acrid,
   pungent  taste.  Each root is composed of several lesser bulbs, called
   cloves  of  garlic,  inclosed  in a common membranous coat, and easily

   2. A kind of jig or farce. [Obs.] Taylor (1630).
   Garlic  mustard,  a  European  plant  of  the Mustard family (Alliaria
   officinalis)  which has a strong smell of garlic. -- Garlic pear tree,
   a  tree  in Jamaica (Crat\'91va gynandra), bearing a fruit which has a
   strong scent of garlic, and a burning taste.


   Gar"lick*y (?), a. Like or containing garlic.


   Gar"ment  (?), n. [OE. garnement, OF. garnement, garniment, fr. garnir
   to  garnish. See Garnish.] Any article of clothing, as a coat, a gown,

     No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto old garment. Matt. ix. 16.


   Gar"ment*ed,  p. a. Having on a garment; attired; enveloped, as with a
   garment. [Poetic]

     A lovely lady garmented in light From her own beauty. Shelley.


   Gar"men*ture (?), n. Clothing; dress.


   Gar"ner (?), n. [OE. garner, gerner, greiner, OF. gernier, grenier, F.
   grenier,  fr.  L.  granarium,  fr.  granum.  See  1st  Grain,  and cf.
   Granary.]  A  granary;  a  building or place where grain is stored for


   Gar"ner, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Garnered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Garnering.]
   To  gather  for  preservation; to store, as in a granary; to treasure.


   Gar"net (?), n. [OE. gernet, grenat, OF. grenet,grenat, F. grenat, LL.
   granatus,  fr. L. granatum pomegranate, granatus having many grains or
   seeds, fr. granum grain, seed. So called from its resemblance in color
   and  shape  to  the grains or seeds of the pomegranate. See Grain, and
   cf.  Grenade,  Pomegranate.]  (Min.)  A  mineral having many varieties
   differing  in  color  and  in  their  constituents,  but with the same
   crystallization  (isometric),  and  conforming  to  the  same  general
   chemical  formula. The commonest color is red, the luster is vitreous,
   and  the  hardness  greater  than that of quartz. The dodecahedron and
   trapezohedron are the common forms.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere are also white, green, yellow, brown, and black
     varieties.  The garnet is a silicate, the bases being aluminia lime
     (grossularite,  essonite,  or cinnamon stone), or aluminia magnesia
     (pyrope),  or  aluminia  iron  (almandine),  or  aluminia manganese
     (spessartite), or iron lime (common garnet, melanite, allochroite),
     or chromium lime (ouvarovite, color emerald green). The transparent
     red  varieties  are  used  as  gems.  The  garnet was, in part, the
     carbuncle  of  the  ancients.  Garnet  is  a very common mineral in
     gneiss and mica slate.

   Garnet   berry  (Bot.),  the  red  currant;  --  so  called  from  its
   transparent   red  color.  --  Garnet  brown  (Chem.),  an  artificial
   dyestuff,  produced as an explosive brown crystalline substance with a
   green or golden luster. It consists of the potassium salt of a complex
   cyanogen derivative of picric acid.


   Gar"net,  n. [Etymol. unknown.] (Naut.) A tackle for hoisting cargo in
   our out. Clew garnet. See under Clew.


   Gar`net*if"er*ous  (?),  a.  [1st garnet + -ferous.] (Min.) Containing


   Gar"ni*er*ite  (?),  n.  [Named  after  the French geologist Garnier.]
   (Min.)  An  amorphous mineral of apple-green color; a hydrous silicate
   of nickel and magnesia. It is an important ore of nickel.


   Gar"nish  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Garnished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Garnishing.]  [OE.  garnischen,  garnissen,  OF.  garnir  to  provide,
   strengthen,  prepare,  garnish,  warn,  F. garnir to provide, furnish,
   garnish,  --  of  German origin; cf. OHG. warn\'d3n to provide, equip;
   akin  to  G.  wahren  to  watch, E. aware, ware, wary, and cf. also E.
   warn. See Wary, -ish, and cf. Garment, Garrison.]

   1.  To  decorate  with ornamental appendages; to set off; to adorn; to

     All within with flowers was garnished. Spenser.

   2. (Cookery) To ornament, as a dish, with something laid about it; as,
   a dish garnished with parsley.

   3. To furnish; to supply.

   4. To fit with fetters. [Cant] Johnson.

   5.  (Law) To warn by garnishment; to give notice to; to garnishee. See
   Garnishee, v. t. Cowell.


   Gar"nish, n.

   1.  Something  added  for  embellishment;  decoration; ornament; also,
   dress; garments, especially such as are showy or decorated.

     So are you, sweet, Even in the lovely garnish of a boy. Shak.

     Matter and figure they produce; For garnish this, and that for use.

   2.  (Cookery)  Something set round or upon a dish as an embellishment.
   See Garnish, v. t., 2. Smart.

   3. Fetters. [Cant]

   4. A fee; specifically, in English jails, formerly an unauthorized fee
   demanded by the old prisoners of a newcomer. [Cant] Fielding.
   Garnish bolt (Carp.), a bolt with a chamfered or faceted head. Knight.


   Gar`nish*ee"  (?),  n.  (Law) One who is garnished; a person upon whom
   garnishment  has been served in a suit by a creditor against a debtor,
   such  person  holding  property  belonging to the debtor, or owing him

     NOTE: &hand; Th e or der by  wh ich wa rning is  ma de is  called a
     garnishee order.


   Gar`nish*ee",  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Garnisheed (-&emac;d); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Garnisheeing.] (Law) (a) To make (a person) a garnishee; to warn by
   garnishment; to garnish. (b) To attach (the fund or property sought to
   be secured by garnishment); to trustee.


   Gar"nish*er (?), n. One who, or that which, garnishes.


   Gar"nish*ment  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF. garnissement protection, guarantee,

   1. Ornament; embellishment; decoration. Sir H. Wotton.

   2.  (Law)  (a)  Warning,  or  legal  notice, to one to appear and give
   information  to  the  court  on any matter. (b) Warning to a person in
   whose  hands the effects of another are attached, not to pay the money
   or deliver the goods to the defendant, but to appear in court and give
   information as garnishee.

   3. A fee. See Garnish, n., 4.


   Gar"ni*ture  (?),  n.  [F.  garniture.  See Garnish, v. t.] That which
   garnishes; ornamental appendage; embellishment; furniture; dress.

     The pomp of groves and garniture of fields. Beattie.


   Ga*roo"kuh  (?),  n.  A  small  fishing vessel met with in the Persian


   Ga"rous (?), a. [From Garum.] Pertaining to, or resembling, garum. Sir
   T. Browne.

                              Gar pike OR Garpike

   Gar" pike` OR Gar"pike`. (Zo\'94l.) See under Gar.


   Gar"ran  (?),  n.  [Gael.  garr\'a0n, gearr\'a0n, gelding, work horse,
   hack.] (Zo\'94l.) See Galloway. [Scot. garron or gerron. Jamieson.]


   Gar"ret  (?),  n.  [OE. garite, garette, watchtower, place of lookout,
   OF.  garite, also meaning, a place of refuge, F. gu\'82rite a place of
   refuge, donjon, sentinel box, fr. OF. garir to preserve, save, defend,
   F.  gu\'82rir  to  cure; of German origin; cf. OHG. werian to protect,
   defend, hinder, G. wehren, akin to Goth. warjan to hinder, and akin to
   E. weir, or perhaps to wary. See Weir, and cf. Guerite.]

   1. A turret; a watchtower. [Obs.]

     He  saw  men  go up and down on the garrets of the gates and walls.
     Ld. Berners.

   2. That part of a house which is on the upper floor, immediately under
   or within the roof; an attic.

     The tottering garrets which overhung the streets of Rome. Macaulay.


   Gar"ret*ed, a. Protected by turrets. [Obs.] R. Carew.


   Gar`ret*eer"  (?),  n.  One  who  lives  in a garret; a poor author; a
   literary hack. Macaulay.


   Gar"ret*ing  (?), n. Small splinters of stone inserted into the joints
   of coarse masonry. Weale.


   Gar"ri*son  (?), n. [OE. garnisoun, F. garnison garrison, in OF. & OE.
   also,  provision,  munitions,  from  garnir  to garnish. See Garnish.]
   (Mil.) (a) A body of troops stationed in a fort or fortified town. (b)
   A  fortified place, in which troops are quartered for its security. In
   garrison,  in  the condition of a garrison; doing duty in a fort or as
   one of a garrison.


   Gar"ri*son,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Garrisoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Garrisoning.]  (Mil.)  (a) To place troops in, as a fortification, for
   its defense; to furnish with soldiers; as, to garrison a fort or town.
   (b)  To  secure  or  defend  by  fortresses manned with troops; as, to
   garrison a conquered territory.


   Gar"ron (?), n. Same as Garran. [Scot.]


   Gar"rot  (?),  n.  [F.  Cf.  Garrote.] (Surg.) A stick or small wooden
   cylinder  used  for  tightening  a  bandage,  in order to compress the
   arteries of a limb.


   Gar"rot, n. (Zo\'94l.) The European golden-eye.


   Gar*rote"  (?),  n.  [Sp.  garrote,  from garra claw, talon, of Celtic
   origin;  cf.  Armor.  &  W.  gar  leg,  ham,  shank. Cf. Garrot stick,
   Garter.]  A  Spanish  mode of execution by strangulation, with an iron
   collar  affixed  to  a post and tightened by a screw until life become
   extinct;  also,  the  instrument  by  means of which the punishment is


   Gar*rote",  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Garroted; p. pr. & vb. n. Garroting.]
   To  strangle  with  the  garrote;  hence, to seize by the throat, from
   behind, with a view to strangle and rob.


   Gar*rot"er  (?), n. One who seizes a person by the throat from behind,
   with a view to strangle and rob him.


   Gar*ru"li*ty   (?),   n.   [L.   garrulitas:   cf.  F.  garrulit\'82.]
   Talkativeness; loquacity.


   Gar"ru*lous  (?),  a.  [L. garrulus, fr. garrire to chatter, talk; cf.
   Gr. Call.]

   1.  Talking  much,  especially  about  commonplace  or trivial things;
   talkative; loquacious.

     The most garrulous people on earth. De Quincey.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) Having a loud, harsh note; noisy; -- said of birds; as,
   the  garrulous  roller.  Syn.  --  Garrulous, Talkative, Loquacious. A
   garrulous   person   indulges  in  long,  prosy  talk,  with  frequent
   repetitions  and  lengthened details; talkative implies simply a great
   desire  to  talk;  and  loquacious a great flow of words at command. A
   child  is  talkative;  a lively woman is loquacious; an old man in his
   dotage is garrulous. -- Gar"ru*lous*ly, adv. -- Gar"ru*lous*ness, n.


   Gar*ru"pa  (?),  n.  [Prob.  fr.  Pg.  garupa crupper. Cf. Grouper the
   fish.]  (Zo\'94l.) One of several species of California market fishes,
   of the genus Sebastichthys; -- called also rockfish. See Rockfish.


   Gar"ter  (?), n. [OE. gartier, F. jarreti\'8are, fr. OF. garet bend of
   the  knee,  F.  jarret;  akin  to Sp. garra claw, Prov. garra leg. See

   1. A band used to prevent a stocking from slipping down on the leg.

   2.  The  distinguishing  badge  of  the highest order of knighthood in
   Great  Britain,  called  the Order of the Garter, instituted by Edward
   III.; also, the Order itself.

   3. (Her.) Same as Bendlet.
   Garter  fish (Zo\'94l.), a fish of the genus Lepidopus, having a long,
   flat  body,  like  the  blade of a sword; the scabbard fish. -- Garter
   king-at-arms,   the   chief   of  the  official  heralds  of  England,
   king-at-arms  to  the  Order  of  the  Garter; -- often abbreviated to
   Garter.  --  Garter snake (Zo\'94l.), one of several harmless American
   snakes  of  the  genus Eut\'91nia, of several species (esp. E. saurita
   and  E.  sirtalis);  one  of the striped snakes; -- so called from its
   conspicuous stripes of color.


   Gar"ter  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gartered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To bind with a garter.

     He . . . could not see to garter his hose. Shak.

   2. To invest with the Order of the Garter. T. Warton.


   Garth (?), n. [Icel. gar yard. See Yard.]

   1. A close; a yard; a croft; a garden; as, a cloister garth.

     A  clapper  clapping  in  a  garth  To  scare  the fowl from fruit.

   2. A dam or weir for catching fish.


   Garth, n. [Girth.] A hoop or band. [Prov. Eng.]


   Ga"rum  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. A sauce made of small fish. It was prized
   by the ancients.


   Gar"vie  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) The spart; -- called also garvie herring,
   and garvock. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]


   Gas  (?),  n.;  pl. Gases (#). [Invented by the chemist Van Helmont of
   Brussels, who died in 1644.]

   1.  An  a\'89riform  fluid;  --  a  term  used at first by chemists as
   synonymous  with  air,  but  since restricted to fluids supposed to be
   permanently  elastic,  as  oxygen, hydrogen, etc., in distinction from
   vapors,  as  steam, which become liquid on a reduction of temperature.
   In  present usage, since all of the supposed permanent gases have been
   liquified  by  cold  and  pressure,  the  term  has resumed nearly its
   original signification, and is applied to any substance in the elastic
   or a\'89riform state.

   2.  (Popular  Usage) (a) A complex mixture of gases, of which the most
   important  constituents  are  marsh  gas,  olefiant gas, and hydrogen,
   artificially  produced by the destructive distillation of gas coal, or
   sometimes  of  peat, wood, oil, resin, etc. It gives a brilliant light
   when burned, and is the common gas used for illuminating purposes. (b)
   Laughing gas. (c) Any irrespirable a\'89riform fluid. <-- 3. gasoline.

     NOTE: &hand; Ga s is  often used adjectively or in combination; as,
     gas fitter or gasfitter; gas meter or gas-meter, etc.

   Air  gas  (Chem.),  a  kind  of  gas  made by forcing air through some
   volatile  hydrocarbon,  as  the  lighter  petroleums.  The  air  is so
   saturated  with  combustible  vapor as to be a convenient illuminating
   and  heating agent. -- Gas battery (Elec.), a form of voltaic battery,
   in which gases, especially hydrogen and oxygen, are the active agents.
   --  Gas  carbon,  Gas  coke,  etc. See under Carbon, Coke, etc. -- Gas
   coal,  a  bituminous or hydrogenous coal yielding a high percentage of
   volatile  matters,  and  therefore  available  for  the manufacture of
   illuminating gas. R. W. Raymond. -- Gas engine, an engine in which the
   motion  of  the  piston  is  produced  by  the  combustion  or  sudden
   production  or  expansion of gas; -- especially, an engine in which an
   explosive  mixture  of gas and air is forced into the working cylinder
   and  ignited  there by a gas flame or an electric spark.<-- = internal
   combustion  engine  -->  -- Gas fitter, one who lays pipes and puts up
   fixtures  for gas. -- Gas fitting. (a) The occupation of a gas fitter.
   (b)  pl.  The  appliances  needed  for  the introduction of gas into a
   building, as meters, pipes, burners, etc. -- Gas fixture, a device for
   conveying  illuminating  or  combustible  gas  from  the  pipe  to the
   gas-burner,  consisting  of  an  appendage  of cast, wrought, or drawn
   metal, with tubes upon which the burners, keys, etc., are adjusted. --
   Gas  generator, an apparatus in which gas is evolved; as: (a) a retort
   in  which  volatile hydrocarbons are evolved by heat; (b) a machine in
   which  air  is  saturated  with  the  vapor  of  liquid hydrocarbon; a
   carburetor; (c) a machine for the production of carbonic acid gas, for
   a\'89rating  water,  bread,  etc.  Knight.  --  Gas  jet,  a  flame of
   illuminating gas. -- Gas machine, an apparatus for carbureting air for
   use as illuminating gas. -- Gas meter, an instrument for recording the
   quantity  of  gas  consumed in a given time, at a particular place. --
   Gas  retort, a retort which contains the coal and other materials, and
   in  which  the  gas  is  generated,  in the manufacture of gas. -- Gas
   stove,  a  stove  for cooking or other purposes, heated by gas. -- Gas
   tar,  coal tar. -- Gas trap, a drain trap; a sewer trap. See 4th Trap,
   5.  --  Gas washer (Gas Works), an apparatus within which gas from the
   condenser  is  brought  in  contact with a falling stream of water, to
   precipitate  the  tar  remaining  in  it.  Knight. -- Gas water, water
   through which gas has been passed for purification; -- called also gas
   liquor  and  ammoniacal  water,  and  used  for the manufacture of sal
   ammoniac,  carbonate  of ammonia, and Prussian blue. Tomlinson. -- Gas
   well, a deep boring, from which natural gas is discharged. Raymond. --
   Gas   works,  a  manufactory  of  gas,  with  all  the  machinery  and
   appurtenances;  a place where gas is generated for lighting cities. --
   Laughing  gas.  See  under  Laughing.  --  Marsh gas (Chem.), a light,
   combustible,  gaseous  hydrocarbon,  CH4, produced artificially by the
   dry  distillation  of  many  organic  substances,  and  occurring as a
   natural  product  of decomposition in stagnant pools, whence its name.
   It  is an abundant ingredient of ordinary illuminating gas, and is the
   first  member of the paraffin series. Called also methane, and in coal
   mines,  fire  damp.  -- Natural gas, gas obtained from wells, etc., in
   Pennsylvania,  Ohio,  and  elsewhere,  and  largely  used for fuel and
   illuminating  purposes.  It is chiefly derived from the Coal Measures.
   -- Olefiant gas (Chem.). See Ethylene. -- Water gas (Chem.), a kind of
   gas  made by forcing steam over glowing coals, whereby there results a
   mixture  of  hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This gives a gas of intense
   heating  power, but destitute of light-giving properties, and which is
   charged  by passing through some volatile hydrocarbon, as gasoline.<--
   = synthesis gas -->

   Page 614


   Gas`a*lier"  (?),  n. [Formed from gas, in imitation of chandelier.] A
   chandelier arranged to burn gas.


   Gas"-burn`er  (?),  n. The jet piece of a gas fixture where the gas is
   burned as it escapes from one or more minute orifices.


   Gas"coines (?), n. pl. See Gaskins, 1. Lyly.


   Gas"con  (?; F. ?), a. [F.] Of or pertaining to Gascony, in France, or
   to the Gascons; also, braggart; swaggering. -- n. A native of Gascony;
   a boaster; a bully. See Gasconade.


   Gas`con*ade"  (?),  n.  [F.  gasconnade,  from Gascon an inhabitant of
   Gascony,  the  people  of  which  were noted for boasting.] A boast or
   boasting; a vaunt; a bravado; a bragging; braggodocio. Swift.


   Gas`con*ade",  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gasconaded;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Gasconading.] To boast; to brag; to bluster.


   Gas`con*ad"er (?), n. A great boaster; a blusterer.


   Gas"coynes (?), n. pl. Gaskins. Beau & Fl.


   Gas*e"i*ty (? OR ?), n. State of being gaseous. [R] Eng. Cyc.


   Gas"e*ous (? OR ?; 277), a. [From Gas. Cf. F. gazeux.]

   1. In the form, or of the nature, of gas, or of an a\'89riform fluid.

   2.  Lacking  substance  or  solidity;  tenuous.  "Unconnected, gaseous
   information." Sir J. Stephen.


   Gash  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Gashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gashing.]
   [For  older  garth or garse, OF. garser to scarify, F. gercer to chap,
   perh.  from  an  assumed  LL.  carptiare,  fr. L. carpere, carptum, to
   pluck, separate into parts; cf. LL. carptare to wound. Cf. Carpet.] To
   make  a  gash,  or  long,  deep  incision  in;  --  applied chiefly to
   incisions in flesh.

     Grievously gashed or gored to death. Hayward.


   Gash,  n.  A deep and long cut; an incision of considerable length and
   depth, particularly in flesh.


   Gash"ful  (?),  a.  Full  of  gashes;  hideous;  frightful.  [Obs.] "A
   gashful, horrid, ugly shape." Gayton.


   Gas`i*fi*ca"tion   (?),  n.  [See  Gasify.]  The  act  or  process  of
   converting into gas.


   Gas"i*form, a. Having a form of gas; gaseous.


   Gas"i*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Gasified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gasifying.] [Gas + -fy.] To convert into gas, or an a\'89riform fluid,
   as by the application of heat, or by chemical processes.


   Gas"i*fy  (?), v. i. To become gas; to pass from a liquid to a gaseous
   state. Scientific American.


   Gas"ket  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. garcette, It. gaschetta, Sp. cajeta caburn,
   garceta reef point.]

   1.  (Naut.)  A  line  or band used to lash a furled sail securely. Sea
   gaskets  are  common  lines;  harbor gaskets are plaited and decorated
   lines or bands. Called also casket.

   2.  (Mech.)  (a) The plaited hemp used for packing a piston, as of the
   steam engine and its pumps. (b) Any ring or washer of packing.


   Gas"kins (?), n.pl. [Cf. Galligaskins.]

   1. Loose hose or breeches; galligaskins. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. Packing of hemp. Simmonds.

   3. A horse's thighs. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.


   Gas"light` (?), n.

   1. The light yielded by the combustion of illuminating gas.

   2. A gas jet or burner.


   Gas"o*gen (?), n. [Gas + -gen.]

   1.  An  apparatus  for  the generation of gases, or for impregnating a
   liquid with a gas, or a gas with a volatile liquid.

   2.  A  volatile  hydrocarbon,  used  as an illuminant, or for charging
   illuminating gas.


   Gas`o*lene (?), n. See Gasoline.


   Gas`o*lier" (?), n. Same as Gasalier.


   Gas"o*line  (?  OR  ?;  104),  n.  A  highly volatile mixture of fluid
   hydrocarbons,  obtained from petroleum, as also by the distillation of
   bituminous  coal.  It  is  used  in  making  air  gas,  and  in giving
   illuminating power to water gas. See Carburetor.<-- used as a fuel for
   most  automobiles  and  for  other  vehicles  with  a gasoline-powered
   internal combustion engine -->


   Gas*om"e*ter  (?  OR  ?),  n.  [Gas + -meter. Cf. F. gazom\'8atre.] An
   apparatus  for holding and measuring of gas; in gas works, a huge iron
   cylinder closed at one end and having the other end immersed in water,
   in which it is made to rise or fall, according to the volume of gas it
   contains, or the pressure required.

                          Gasometric OR, Gasometrical

   Gas`o*met"ric  (?  OR ?), Gas`o*met"ric*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to
   the measurement of gases; as, gasometric analysis.


   Gas*om"e*try  (?  OR  ?),  n.  The art or practice of measuring gases;
   also,  the  science which treats of the nature and properties of these
   elastic fluids. Coxe.


   Gas"o*scope  (?),  n.  [Gas  + -scope.] An apparatus for detecting the
   presence  of  any  dangerous  gas, from a gas leak in a coal mine or a
   dwelling house.


   Gasp  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Gasped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gasping.]
   [OE. gaspen, gaispen, to yawn, gasp, Icel. geispa to yawn; akin to Sw.
   g\'84spa, Dan. gispe to gasp.]

   1.  To  open  the  mouth  wide in catching the breath, or in laborious
   respiration;  to  labor  for  breath; to respire convulsively; to pant

     She gasps and struggles hard for life. Lloyd.

   2. To pant with eagerness; to show vehement desire.

     Quenching the gasping furrows' thirst with rain. Spenser.


   Gasp,  v.  t.  To  emit or utter with gasps; -- with forth, out, away,

     And with short sobs he gasps away his breath. Dryden.


   Gasp,  n.  The  act  of  opening  the  mouth convulsively to catch the
   breath;  a  labored  respiration; a painful catching of the breath. At
   the last gasp, at the point of death. Addison.


   Gas"per*eau (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The alewife. [Local, Canada]


   Gas*se"ri*an (?), a. Relating to Casserio (L. Gasserius), the discover
   of  the  Gasserian  ganglion.  Gasserian  ganglion  (Anat.),  a  large
   ganglion, at the root of the trigeminal, or fifth cranial, nerve.


   Gas"sing (?), n.

   1.  (Manuf.)  The  process of passing cotton goods between two rollers
   and exposing them to numerous minute jets of gas to burn off the small
   fibers; any similar process of singeing.

   2. Boasting; insincere or empty talk. [Slang]


   Gas"sy  (?), a. Full of gas; like gas. Hence: [Colloq.] Inflated; full
   of boastful or insincere talk.


   Gast  (?),  v. t. [OE. gasten, g to frighten, akin to Goth. usgaisjan.
   See  Aghast,  Ghastly,  and cf. Gaze.] To make aghast; to frighten; to
   terrify. See Aghast. [Obs.] Chaucer. Shak.


   Gast"er (?), v. t. To gast. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Gas`te*ro*my*ce"tes  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  from Gr. (Bot.) An order of
   fungi, in which the spores are borne inside a sac called the peridium,
   as in the puffballs.


   Gas"ter*o*pod (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Gastropod.


   Gas`te*rop`o*da (?), n. pl. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Gastropoda.


   Gas`ter*op"o*dous (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Gastropodous.

                                Gastful, Gastly

   Gast"ful, Gast"ly (, a. [Obs.] See Ghastful, Ghastly.


   Gas"tight` (?), a. So tightly fitted as to preclude the escape of gas;
   impervious to gas.


   Gast"ness (?), n. See Ghastness. [Obs.]


   Gas*tor"nis  (?),  n.  [NL., from Gaston M. Plante, the discover + Gr.
   (Paleon.) A genus of large eocene birds from the Paris basin.


   Gas*tr\'91"a  (?), n. [NL., from Gr. (Biol.) A primeval larval form; a
   double-walled  sac from which, according to the hypothesis of Haeckel,
   man  and  all  other  animals,  that  in  the  first  stages  of their
   individual  evolution  pass through a two-layered structural stage, or
   gastrula   form,  must  have  descended.  This  idea  constitutes  the
   Gastr\'91a theory of Haeckel. See Gastrula.


   Gas*tral"gi*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Med.) Pain in the stomach or
   epigastrium, as in gastric disorders.


   Gas"tric (?), a. [Gr. gastrique.] Of, pertaining to, or situated near,
   the stomach; as, the gastric artery. Gastric digestion (Physiol.), the
   conversion  of  the  albuminous  portion  of  food in the stomach into
   soluble  and  diffusible  products  by  the  solvent action of gastric
   juice.  --  Gastric  fever  (Med.),  a  fever  attended with prominent
   gastric symptoms; -- a name applied to certain forms of typhoid fever;
   also, to catarrhal inflammation of the stomach attended with fever. --
   Gastric juice (Physiol.), a thin, watery fluid, with an acid reaction,
   secreted  by a peculiar set of glands contained in the mucous membrane
   of the stomach. It consists mainly of dilute hydrochloric acid and the
   ferment  pepsin. It is the most important digestive fluid in the body,
   but  acts  only on proteid foods. -- Gastric remittent fever (Med.), a
   form of remittent fever with pronounced stomach symptoms.


   Gas*tril"o*quist (?), n. [Gr. gasth`r, gastro`s, stomach + L. loqui to
   speak.] One who appears to speak from his stomach; a ventriloquist.


   Gas*tril"o*quous (?), a. Ventriloquous. [R.]


   Gas*tril"o*quy  (?),  n. A voice or utterance which appears to proceed
   from the stomach; ventriloquy.


   Gas*tri"tis (?), n. [NL., from. Gr. -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the
   stomach, esp. of its mucuos membrane.


   Gas"tro-  (?).  A combining form from the Gr. gastrocolic, gastrocele,


   Gas`troc*ne"mi*us  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  Gr. (Anat.) The muscle which
   makes the greater part of the calf of the leg.


   Gas`tro*col"ic  (?),  a. [Gastro- + colic.] (Anat.) Pertaining to both
   the stomach and the colon; as, the gastrocolic, or great, omentum.


   Gas`tro*disc (?), n. [Gastro- + disc.] (Biol.) That part of blastoderm
   where the hypoblast appears like a small disk on the inner face of the


   Gas`tro*du"o*de"nal  (?), a. [Gastro- + -duodenal.] (Anat.) Pertaining
   to the stomach and duodenum; as, the gastroduodenal artery.


   Gas`tro*du`o*de*ni"tis  (?),  n.  [NL. See Gastroduodenal, and -itis.]
   (Med.) Inflammation of the stomach and duodenum. It is one of the most
   frequent causes of jaundice.


   Gas`tro*el`y*trot"o*my  (?), n. [Gastro- + Gr (Surg.) The operation of
   cutting  into  the  upper  part  of  the  vagina,  through the abdomen
   (without opening the peritoneum), for the purpose of removing a fetus.
   It is a substitute for the C\'91sarean operation, and less dangerous.


   Gas`tro*en*te"ric  (?),  a.  [Gastro-  +  -enteric.]  (Anat.  &  Med.)


   Gas`tro*en`te*ri"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Gastroenrteric, and -itis.]
   (Med.)  Inflammation  of  the  lining  membrane of the stomach and the


   Gas`tro*ep`i*plo"ic  (?),  a.  [Gastro-  +  -epiploic.]  (Anat.) Of or
   pertaining to the stomach and omentum.


   Gas`tro*he*pat"ic  (?),  a. [Gastro- + -hepatic.] (Med.) Pertaining to
   the  stomach  and  liver;  hepatogastric;  as,  the  gastrohepatic, or
   lesser, omentum.


   Gas`tro*hys`ter*ot"o*my  (?),  n.  [Gastro-  +  GR.  to  cut.] (Surg.)
   C\'91sarean section. See under C\'91sarean.


   Gas`tro*in*tes"ti*nal  (?), a. [Gastro- + -intestinal.] (Anat. & Med.)
   Of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines; gastroenteric.


   Gas`tro*lith  (?),  n.  [Gastro- + -lith.] (Zo\'94l.) See Crab's eyes,
   under Crab.


   Gas*trol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr gastrologie.] The science which treats of
   the structure and functions of the stomach; a treatise of the stomach.


   Gas`tro*ma*la"ci*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Med.) A softening of the
   coats of the stomach; -- usually a post-morten change.


   Gas`tro*man"cy  (?),  n.  [Gastro-  +  -mancy:  cf.  F.  gastromancy.]
   (Antiq.) (a) A kind of divination, by means of words seemingly uttered
   from  the stomach. (b) A species of divination, by means of glasses or
   other  round,  transparent vessels, in the center of which figures are
   supposed to appear by magic art.


   Gas`tro*my"ces  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Biol.) The fungoid growths
   sometimes found in the stomach; such as Torula, etc.


   Gas"tro*myth (?), n. [Gastro- + Gr. One whose voice appears to proceed
   from the stomach; a ventriloquist. [Obs.]

                            Gastronome, Gastronomer

   Gas"tro*nome  (?),  Gas*tron"o*mer (?), n. [F. gastronome, fr. Gr. One
   fond of good living; an epicure. Sir W. Scott.

                          Gastronomic, Gastronomical

   Gas`tro*nom"ic  (?),  Gas`tro*nom"ic*al  (, a. [Cf. F. gastronomique.]
   Pertaining to gastromony.


   Gas*tron"o*mist (?), n. A gastromomer.


   Gas*tron"o*my  (?),  n.  [Gr. gastronomie.] The art or science of good
   eating; epicurism; the art of good cheer.


   Gas`tro*phren"ic  (?),  a. [Gastro- + -phrenic.] (Anat.) Pertaining to
   the stomach and diaphragm; as, the gastrophrenic ligament.


   Gas`tro*pneu*mat"ic  (?), a. [Gastro- + pneumatic.] (Anat.) Pertaining
   to  the  alimentary  canal  and  air  passages,  and  to  the cavities
   connected with them; as, the gastropneumatic mucuos membranes.


   Gas"tro*pod  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) One of the Gastropoda. [Written also


   Gas*trop"o*da (?), n. pl., [NL., fr. Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   classes  of  Mollusca, of great extent. It includes most of the marine
   spiral  shells,  and  the  land and fresh-water snails. They generally
   creep  by means of a flat, muscular disk, or foot, on the ventral side
   of the body. The head usually bears one or two pairs of tentacles. See
   Mollusca. [Written also Gasteropoda.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Ga stropoda ar e di vided in to three subclasses;
     viz.:    (a)   The   Streptoneura   or   Dioecia,   including   the
     Pectinibranchiata,  Rhipidoglossa,  Docoglossa, and Heteropoda. (b)
     The  Euthyneura,  including  the Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia. (c)
     The Amphineura, including the Polyplacophora and Aplacophora.


   Gas*trop"o*dous (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Gastropoda.


   Gas*tror"a*phy  (?),  n. [Gr.gastrorrhaphie.] (Surg.) The operation of
   sewing up wounds of the abdomen. Quincy.


   Gas"tro*scope  (?),  n.  [Gastro-  + -scope.] (Med.) An instrument for
   viewing or examining the interior of the stomach.


   Gas`tro*scop"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to gastroscopy.


   Gas*tros"co*py  (?),  n. (Med.) Examination of the abdomen or stomach,
   as with the gastroscope.


   Gas`tro*splen"ic  (?),  n.  [Gastro- + splenic.] (Anat.) Pertaining to
   the stomach and spleen; as, the gastrosplenic ligament.


   Gas*tros"tege  (?),  n.  [Gastro-  +  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) One of the large
   scales on the belly of a serpent.


   Gas*tros"to*my  (?), n. [Gastro- + Gr. (Surg.) The operation of making
   a permanent opening into the stomach, for the introduction of food.


   Gas*trot"o*my  (?),  n.  [Gastro + Gr. gastrotomie.] (Surg.) A cutting
   into, or opening of, the abdomen or the stomach.


   Gas*trot"ri*cha (?), n. pl., [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of small
   wormlike  animals,  having  cilia  on  the  ventral side. The group is
   regarded  as  an  ancestral  or synthetic one, related to rotifers and


   Gas*trot"ro*cha  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A form of annelid
   larva having cilia on the ventral side.


   Gas`tro*vas"cu*lar  (?),  a.  [Gastro- + -vascular.] (Zo\'94l.) Having
   the  structure,  or  performing  the  functions, both of digestive and
   circulatory organs; as, the gastrovascular cavity of c&oe;lenterates.


   Gas"tru*la  (?), n.; pl. Gastrul\'91 (#) [NL., dim. fr. Gr. (Biol.) An
   embryonic  form having its origin in the invagination or pushing in of
   the  wall  of  the planula or blastula (the blastosphere) on one side,
   thus  giving  rise  to  a double-walled sac, with one opening or mouth
   (the  blastopore)  which leads into the cavity (the archenteron) lined
   by  the inner wall (the hypoblast). See Illust. under Invagination. In
   a  more  general  sense,  an ideal stage in embryonic development. See
   Gastr\'91a. -- a. Of or pertaining to a gastrula.

   Page 615


   Gas`tru*la"tion  (?),  n.  (Biol.)  The  process  of  invagination, in
   embryonic development, by which a gastrula is formed.


   Gas*tru"ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) See Stomatopoda.


   Gas*tru"rous (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the Gastrura.


   Gat (?), imp. of Get. [Obs.]


   Gate  (?),  n. [OE. et, , giat, gate, door, AS. geat, gat, gate, door;
   akin  to  OS.,  D.,  & Icel. gat opening, hole, and perh. to E. gate a
   way, gait, and get, v. Cf. Gate a way in the wall, 3d Get.]

   1.  A  large  door or passageway in the wall of a city, of an inclosed
   field  or  place,  or  of  a  grand  edifice,  etc.; also, the movable
   structure of timber, metal, etc., by which the passage can be closed.

   2. An opening for passage in any inclosing wall, fence, or barrier; or
   the  suspended  framework  which  closes  or  opens  a  passage. Also,
   figuratively, a means or way of entrance or of exit.

     Knowest  thou  the way to Dover? Both stile and gate, horse way and
     footpath. Shak.

     Opening a gate for a long war. Knolles.

   3.  A  door, valve, or other device, for stopping the passage of water
   through a dam, lock, pipe, etc.

   4.  (Script.) The places which command the entrances or access; hence,
   place of vantage; power; might.

     The gates of hell shall not prevail against it. Matt. xvi. 18.

   5.  In  a  lock tumbler, the opening for the stump of the bolt to pass
   through or into.

   6. (Founding) (a) The channel or opening through which metal is poured
   into  the  mold;  the ingate. (b) The waste piece of metal cast in the
   opening; a sprue or sullage piece. [Written also geat and git.]
   Gate  chamber,  a  recess  in  the  side  wall  of a canal lock, which
   receives  the opened gate. -- Gate channel. See Gate, 5. -- Gate hook,
   the  hook-formed  piece of a gate hinge. -- Gate money, entrance money
   for  admission  to  an  inclosure.  -- Gate tender, one in charge of a
   gate,  as  at  a  railroad crossing. -- Gate valva, a stop valve for a
   pipe,  having  a sliding gate which affords a straight passageway when
   open.  --  Gate vein (Anat.), the portal vein. -- To break gates (Eng.
   Univ.), to enter a college inclosure after the hour to which a student
   has  been  restricted.  --  To  stand in the gate, OR gates, to occupy
   places or advantage, power, or defense.


   Gate, v. t.

   1. To supply with a gate.

   2.  (Eng.  Univ.)  To punish by requiring to be within the gates at an
   earlier hour than usual.


   Gate,  n. [Icel. gata; akin to SW. gata street, lane, Dan. gade, Goth.
   gatw\'94, G. gasse. Cf. Gate a door, Gait.]

   1. A way; a path; a road; a street (as in Highgate). [O. Eng. & Scot.]

     I  was  going  to be an honest man; but the devil has this very day
     flung first a lawyer, and then a woman, in my gate. Sir W. Scott.

   2. Manner; gait. [O. Eng. & Scot.]


   Gat"ed (?), a. Having gates. Young.


   Gate"house` (?), n. A house connected or associated with a gate.


   Gate"less, a. Having no gate.


   Gate"man (?), n. A gate keeper; a gate tender.


   Gate"post` (?), n.

   1.  A post to which a gate is hung; -- called also swinging OR hinging

   2. A post against which a gate closes; -- called also shutting post.


   Gate"way`  (?),  n. A passage through a fence or wall; a gate; also, a
   frame,  arch,  etc.,  in  which  a  gate in hung, or a structure at an
   entrance or gate designed for ornament or defense.


   Gate"wise` (?), adv. In the manner of a gate.

     Three circles of stones set up gatewise. Fuller.


   Gath"er  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gathered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gathering.]  [OE.  gaderen,  AS. gaderian, gadrian, fr. gador, geador,
   together,  fr.  g\'91d  fellowship;  akin  to  E.  good, D. gaderen to
   collect,  G. gatte husband, MHG. gate, also companion, Goth. gadiliggs
   a sister's son. &root;29. See Good, and cf. Together.]

   1. To bring together; to collect, as a number of separate things, into
   one  place,  or  into  one  aggregate body; to assemble; to muster; to

     And  Belgium's  capital  had  gathered  them  Her  beauty  and  her
     chivalry. Byron.

     When  he  had  gathered  all  the  chief priests and scribes of the
     people together. Matt. ii. 4.

   2. To pick out and bring together from among what is of less value; to
   collect, as a harvest; to harvest; to cull; to pick off; to pluck.

     A rose just gathered from the stalk. Dryden.

     Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? Matt. vii. 16.

     Gather us from among the heathen. Ps. cvi. 47.

   3.  To accumulate by collecting and saving little by little; to amass;
   to gain; to heap up.

     He that by usury and unjust gain increaseth his substance, he shall
     gather it for him that will pity the poor. Prov. xxviii. 8.

     To  pay  the  creditor  .  .  . he must gather up money by degrees.

   4.  To  bring closely together the parts or particles of; to contract;
   to compress; to bring together in folds or plaits, as a garment; also,
   to  draw  together,  as  a  piece  of cloth by a thread; to pucker; to
   plait; as, to gather a ruffle.

     Gathering his flowing robe, he seemed to stand In act to speak, and
     graceful stretched his hand. Pope.

   5. To derive, or deduce, as an inference; to collect, as a conclusion,
   from circumstances that suggest, or arguments that prove; to infer; to

     Let me say no moreGather the sequel by that went before. Shak.

   6. To gain; to win. [Obs.]

     He gathers ground upon her in the chase. Dryden.

   7. (Arch.) To bring together, or nearer together, in masonry, as where
   the  width  of  a  fireplace is rapidly diminished to the width of the
   flue, or the like.

   8. (Naut.) To haul in; to take up; as, to gather the slack of a rope.
   To  be gathered to one's people, OR to one's fathers to die. Gen. xxv.
   8. -- To gather breath, to recover normal breathing after being out of
   breath;  to  get  breath;  to  rest.  Spenser. -- To gather one's self
   together, to collect and dispose one's powers for a great effort, as a
   beast  crouches  preparatory  to  a leap. -- To gather way (Naut.), to
   begin to move; to move with increasing speed.


   Gath"er (?), v. i.

   1.  To  come  together;  to collect; to unite; to become assembled; to

     When small humors gather to a gout. Pope.

     Tears  from the depth of some divine despair Rise in the heart, and
     gather to the eyes. Tennyson.

   2. To grow larger by accretion; to increase.

     Their snowball did not gather as it went. Bacon.

   3. To concentrate; to come to a head, as a sore, and generate pus; as,
   a boil has gathered.

   4. To collect or bring things together.

     Thou knewest that I reap where I sowed not, and gather where I have
     not strewed. Matt. xxv. 26.


   Gath"er, n.

   1.  A  plait  or fold in cloth, made by drawing a thread through it; a

   2.  (Carriage  Making) The inclination forward of the axle journals to
   keep the wheels from working outward.

   3.  (Arch.)  The  soffit  or  under surface of the masonry required in
   gathering. See Gather, v. t., 7.


   Gath"er*a*ble   (?),  a.  Capable  of  being  gathered  or  collected;
   deducible from premises. [R.] Godwin.


   Gath"er*er (?), n.

   1. One who gathers or collects.

   2. (Sewing Machine) An attachment for making gathers in the cloth.


   Gath"er*ing, n.

   1. The act of collecting or bringing together.

   2.  That  which is gathered, collected, or brought together; as: (a) A
   crowd;  an  assembly; a congregation. (b) A charitable contribution; a
   collection. (c) A tumor or boil suppurated or maturated; an abscess.


   Gath"er*ing,   a.   Assembling;  collecting;  used  for  gathering  or
   concentrating.  Gathering  board  (Bookbinding),  a  table or board on
   which signatures are gathered or assembled, to form a book. Knight. --
   Gathering  coal,  a  lighted coal left smothered in embers over night,
   about  which  kindling  wood  is gathered in the morning. -- Gathering
   hoop,  a  hoop  used  by  coopers  to draw together the ends of barrel
   staves, to allow the hoops to be slipped over them. -- Gathering peat.
   (a)  A piece of peat used as a gathering coal, to preserve a fire. (b)
   In  Scotland, a fiery peat which was sent round by the Borderers as an
   alarm signal, as the fiery cross was by the Highlanders.

                                  Gatling gun

   Gat"ling  gun`  (.  [From  the  inventor,  R.J.  Gatling.] An American
   machine  gun, consisting of a cluster of barrels which, being revolved
   by a crank, are automatically loaded and fired.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e im proved Gatling gun can be fired at the rate of
     1,200 shots per minute.


                                  Gatten tree

   Gat"ten  tree` (?). [Cf. Prov. E. gatter bush.] (Bot.) A name given to
   the  small trees called guelder-rose (Viburnum Opulus), cornel (Cornus
   sanguinea), and spindle tree (Euonymus Europ\'91us).


   Gat"-toothed`  (?),  a.  [OE.  gat goat + tooth. See Goat the animal.]
   Goat-toothed; having a lickerish tooth; lustful; wanton. [Obs.]


   Gauche (?), n. [F.]

   1. Left handed; hence, awkward; clumsy.

   2.  (Geom.)  Winding;  twisted;  warped;  --  applied  to  curves  and


   Gauche`rie" (?), n. [F.] An awkward action; clumsiness; boorishness.


   Gau"cho  (?),  n., pl. Gauchos ( [Sp.] On of the native inhabitants of
   the  pampas,  of Spanish-American descent. They live mostly by rearing


   Gaud  (?),  n.  [OE. gaude jest, trick, gaudi bead of a rosary, fr. L.
   gaudium joy, gladness. See Joy.]

   1. Trick; jest; sport. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. Deceit; fraud; artifice; device. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   3.  An  ornament;  a  piece  of  worthless finery; a trinket. "An idle
   gaud." Shak.


   Gaud,  v.  i.  [Cf. F. se gaudir to rejoice, fr. L. gaudere. See Gaud,
   n.]  To  sport or keep festival. [Obs.] "Gauding with his familiars. "
   [Obs.] Sir T. North.


   Gaud,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gauded; p. pr. & vb. n. Gauding.] To bedeck
   gaudily; to decorate with gauds or showy trinkets or colors; to paint.
   [Obs.] "Nicely gauded cheeks." Shak.


   Gaud"-day` (?), n. See Gaudy, a feast.


   Gaud"er*y  (?),  n.  Finery;  ornaments;  ostentatious  display.  [R.]
   "Tarnished gaudery." Dryden.


   Gaud"ful (?), a. Joyful; showy. [Obs.]


   Gaud"i*ly (?), adv. In a gaudy manner. Guthrie.


   Gaud"i*ness, n. The quality of being gaudy. Whitlock.


   Gaud"ish, a. Gaudy. "Gaudish ceremonies." Bale.


   Gaud"less, a. Destitute of ornament. [R.]


   Gaud"y (?), a. [Compar. Gaudier (?); superl. Gauidiest.]

   1. Ostentatiously fine; showy; gay, but tawdry or meretricious.

     Costly  thy habit as thy purse can buy, But not expressed in fancy;
     rich, not gaudy. Shak.

   2. Gay; merry; festal. Tennyson.

     Let's have one other gaudy night. Shak.


   Gaud"y,  n.;  pl. Gaudies (#) [See Gaud, n.] One of the large beads in
   the rosary at which the paternoster is recited. [Obs.] Gower.


   Gaud"y, n. A feast or festival; -- called also gaud-day and gaudy day.
   [Oxford Univ.] Conybeare.


   Gaud"y*green`  (?),  a.  OR  n. [OE. gaude grene.] Light green. [Obs.]
   Chaucer. Spenser.


   Gauf"fer  (?),  v.  t.  [F. gaufrer to figure cloth, velvet, and other
   stuffs,  fr.  gaufre  honeycomb, waffle; of German origin. See Waffle,
   Wafer,  and  cf. Goffer, Gopher an animal.] To plait, crimp, or flute;
   to goffer, as lace. See Goffer.


   Gauf"fer*ing (?), n. A mode of plaiting or fluting. Gauffering iron, a
   kind of fluting iron for fabrics. -- Gauffering press (Flower Manuf.),
   a press for crimping the leaves and petals into shape.


   Gauf"fre  (?),  n.  [See Gopher.] (Zo\'94l.) A gopher, esp. the pocket


   Gauge  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Gauged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gauging
   (?)]  [OF.  gaugier, F. jauger, cf. OF. gauge gauge, measuring rod, F.
   jauge;  of  uncertain  origin;  perh. fr. an assumed L. qualificare to
   determine  the  qualities  of  a  thing (see Qualify); but cf. also F.
   jalon  a  measuring stake in surveying, and E. gallon.] >[Written also

   1. To measure or determine with a gauge.

   2. To measure or to ascertain the contents or the capacity of, as of a
   pipe, barrel, or keg.

   3.  (Mech.)  To  measure the dimensions of, or to test the accuracy of
   the form of, as of a part of a gunlock.

     The vanes nicely gauged on each side. Derham.

   4. To draw into equidistant gathers by running a thread through it, as
   cloth or a garment.

   5.  To measure the capacity, character, or ability of; to estimate; to
   judge of.

     You shall not gauge me By what we do to-night. Shak.


   Gauge, n. [Written also gage.]

   1.  A  measure;  a  standard  of  measure;  an instrument to determine
   dimensions, distance, or capacity; a standard.

     This  plate  must  be a gauge to file your worm and groove to equal
     breadth by. Moxon.

     There is not in our hands any fixed gauge of minds. I. Taylor.

   2. Measure; dimensions; estimate.

     The  gauge  and  dimensions  of  misery,  depression, and contempt.

   3.  (Mach. & Manuf.) Any instrument for ascertaining or regulating the
   dimensions  or  forms  of  things; a templet or template; as, a button
   maker's gauge.

   4.  (Physics) Any instrument or apparatus for measuring the state of a
   phenomenon,  or for ascertaining its numerical elements at any moment;
   --  usually applied to some particular instrument; as, a rain gauge; a
   steam gauge.

   5.  (Naut.)  (a)  Relative  positions  of  two  or  more  vessels with
   reference  to  the wind; as, a vessel has the weather gauge of another
   when  on  the  windward  side of it, and the lee gauge when on the lee
   side  of  it.  (b)  The  depth  to  which a vessel sinks in the water.

   6. The distance between the rails of a railway.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e st andard gauge of railroads in most countries is
     four feet, eight and one half inches. Wide, or broad, gauge, in the
     United  States,  is six feet; in England, seven feet, and generally
     any  gauge  exceeding  standard gauge. Any gauge less than standard
     gauge  is now called narrow gauge. It varies from two feet to three
     feet six inches.

   7.  (Plastering)  The  quantity  of  plaster of Paris used with common
   plaster to accelerate its setting.

   8. (Building) That part of a shingle, slate, or tile, which is exposed
   to  the weather, when laid; also, one course of such shingles, slates,
   or tiles.
   Gauge  of  a  carriage, car, etc., the distance between the wheels; --
   ordinarily  called the track. -- Gauge cock, a stop cock used as a try
   cock for ascertaining the height of the water level in a steam boiler.
   --  Gauge concussion (Railroads), the jar caused by a car-wheel flange
   striking  the  edge  of  the  rail. -- Gauge glass, a glass tube for a
   water  gauge.  --  Gauge lathe, an automatic lathe for turning a round
   object having an irregular profile, as a baluster or chair round, to a
   templet  or  gauge.  --  Gauge point, the diameter of a cylinder whose
   altitude  is one inch, and contents equal to that of a unit of a given
   measure;  --  a  term  used  in  gauging  casks,  etc. -- Gauge rod, a
   graduated  rod,  for measuring the capacity of barrels, casks, etc. --
   Gauge  saw,  a  handsaw,  with  a  gauge to regulate the depth of cut.
   Knight.  --  Gauge  stuff, a stiff and compact plaster, used in making
   cornices,  moldings,  etc.,  by  means of a templet. -- Gauge wheel, a
   wheel at the forward end of a plow beam, to determine the depth of the
   furrow.  --  Joiner's  gauge,  an  instrument  used  to  strike a line
   parallel  to the straight side of a board, etc. -- Printer's gauge, an
   instrument  to  regulate  the  length  of  the page. -- Rain gauge, an
   instrument  for  measuring the quantity of rain at any given place. --
   Salt   gauge,  or  Brine  gauge,  an  instrument  or  contrivance  for
   indicating  the degree of saltness of water from its specific gravity,
   as  in  the boilers of ocean steamers. -- Sea gauge, an instrument for
   finding  the  depth  of the sea. -- Siphon gauge, a glass siphon tube,
   partly filled with mercury, -- used to indicate pressure, as of steam,
   or  the  degree of rarefaction produced in the receiver of an air pump
   or  other vacuum; a manometer. -- Sliding gauge. (Mach.) (a) A templet
   or  pattern  for  gauging the commonly accepted dimensions or shape of
   certain parts in general use, as screws, railway-car axles, etc. (b) A
   gauge  used  only for testing other similar gauges, and preserved as a
   reference,  to  detect wear of the working gauges. (c) (Railroads) See
   Note  under  Gauge, n., 5. -- Star gauge (Ordnance), an instrument for
   measuring  the  diameter  of  the bore of a cannon at any point of its
   length.  --  Steam  gauge, an instrument for measuring the pressure of
   steam,  as  in  a boiler. -- Tide gauge, an instrument for determining
   the  height  of the tides. -- Vacuum gauge, a species of barometer for
   determining the relative elasticities of the vapor in the condenser of
   a  steam  engine  and  the  air. -- Water gauge. (a) A contrivance for
   indicating  the height of a water surface, as in a steam boiler; as by
   a  gauge  cock or glass. (b) The height of the water in the boiler. --
   Wind  gauge,  an instrument for measuring the force of the wind on any
   given  surface;  an anemometer. -- Wire gauge, a gauge for determining
   the diameter of wire or the thickness of sheet metal; also, a standard
   of size. See under Wire.

   Page 616


   Gauge"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being gauged.


   Gauged  (?),  p.  a.  Tested or measured by, or conformed to, a gauge.
   Gauged brick, brick molded, rubbed, or cut to an exact size and shape,
   for  arches  or  ornamental  work.  -- Gauged mortar. See Gauge stuff,
   under Gauge, n.


   Gau"ger  (?),  n.  One  who gauges; an officer whose business it is to
   ascertain the contents of casks.


   Gau"ger-ship, n. The office of a gauger.

                                  Gauging rod

   Gau"ging rod`. See Gauge rod, under Gauge, n.


   Gaul (?), n. [F. Gaule, fr. L. Gallia, fr. Gallus a Gaul.]

   1.  The  Anglicized  form  of  Gallia, which in the time of the Romans
   included France and Upper Italy (Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul).

   2. A native or inhabitant of Gaul.


   Gaul"ish (?), a. Pertaining to ancient France, or Gaul; Gallic. [R.]


   Gault  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Norw.  gald hard ground, Icel. gald hard snow.]
   (Geol.)  A  series  of  beds of clay and marl in the South of England,
   between the upper and lower greensand of the Cretaceous period.


   Gaul*the"ri*a  (?),  n. [NL.] (Bot.) A genus of ericaceous shrubs with
   evergreen  foliage,  and,  often,  edible  berries.  It  includes  the
   American  winter-green (Gaultheria procumbens), and the larger-fruited
   salal of Northwestern America (Gaultheria Shallon).


   Gaunt  (?),  a.  [Cf. Norw. gand a thin pointed stick, a tall and thin
   man,  and  W.  gwan  weak.]  Attenuated, as with fasting or suffering;
   lean; meager; pinched and grim. "The gaunt mastiff." Pope.

     A  mysterious  but visible pestilence, striding gaunt and fleshless
     across our land. Nichols.


   Gaunt"let (?), n. (Mil.) See Gantlet.


   Gaunt"let  (?),  n.  [F.  gantelet, dim. of gant glove, LL. wantus, of
   Teutonic  origin;  cf.  D. want, Sw. & Dan. vante, Icel. v\'94ttr, for

   1. A glove of such material that it defends the hand from wounds.

     NOTE: &hand; The gauntlet of the Middle Ages was sometimes of chain
     mail,  sometimes  of  leather  partly  covered with plates, scales,
     etc.,  of  metal  sewed  to  it, and, in the 14th century, became a
     glove of small steel plates, carefully articulated and covering the
     whole hand except the palm and the inside of the fingers.

   2. A long glove, covering the wrist.

   3. (Naut.) A rope on which hammocks or clothes are hung for drying.
   To  take  up the gauntlet, to accept a challenge. -- To throw down the
   gauntlet,  to  offer  or  send  a challenge. The gauntlet or glove was
   thrown down by the knight challenging, and was taken up by the one who
   accepted the challenge; -- hence the phrases.


   Gaunt"lett*ed, a. Wearing a gauntlet.


   Gaunt"ly, adv. In a gaunt manner; meagerly.

                               Gauntree, Gauntry

   Gaun"tree  (?),  Gaun"try  (?), n. [F. chantier, LL. cantarium, fr. L.
   canterius trellis, sort of frame.]

   1.  A  frame  for  supporting barrels in a cellar or elsewhere. Sir W.

   2.  (Engin.)  A  scaffolding  or  frame  carrying  a  crane  or  other
   structure. Knight.


   Gaur  (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) An East Indian species of wild
   cattle  (Bibos  gauris),  of  large size and an untamable disposition.
   [Spelt also gour.]


   Gaure (?), v. i. To gaze; to stare. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gauze (?), n. [F. gaze; so called because it was first introduced from
   Gaza,  a  city  of Palestine.] A very thin, slight, transparent stuff,
   generally  of  silk;  also, any fabric resembling silk gauze; as, wire
   gauze; cotton gauze. Gauze dresser, one employed in stiffening gauze.


   Gauze, a. Having the qualities of gauze; thin; light; as, gauze merino


   Gauz"i*ness (?), n. The quality of being gauzy; flimsiness. Ruskin.


   Gauz"y (?), a. Pertaining to, or resembling, gauze; thin and slight as


   Gave (?), imp. of Give.


   Gav"el (?), n. A gable. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Gav"el,  n.  [OF.  gavelle,  F.  javelle,  prob.  dim. from L. capulus
   handle,  fr.  capere  to  lay  hold  of, seize; or cf. W. gafael hold,
   grasp.  Cf.  Heave.] A small heap of grain, not tied up into a bundle.


   Gav"el, n. [Etymol. uncertain.]

   1.  The  mallet of the presiding officer in a legislative body, public
   assembly, court, masonic body, etc.

   2. A mason's setting maul. Knight.


   Gav"el,  n.  [OF. gavel, AS. gafol, prob. fr. gifan to give. See Give,
   and cf. Gabel tribute.] (Law) Tribute; toll; custom. [Obs.] See Gabel.


   Gav"el*et  (?),  n.  [From  Gavel  tribute.]  (O. Eng. Law) An ancient
   special  kind  of cessavit used in Kent and London for the recovery of
   rent. [Obs.]


   Gav"el*kind`  (?),  n. [OE. gavelkynde, gavelkende. See Gavel tribute,
   and  Kind, n.] (O. Eng. Law) A tenure by which land descended from the
   father  to  all his sons in equal portions, and the land of a brother,
   dying  without  issue,  descended  equally  to  his brothers. It still
   prevails in the county of Kent. Cowell.


   Gav"e*loche (?), n. Same as Gavelock.


   Gav"e*lock (?), n. [OE. gaveloc a dart, AS. gafeluc; cf. Icel. gaflok,
   MHG.  gabil,  OF.  gavelot, glavelot, F. javelot, Ir. gabhla spear, W.
   gaflach fork, dart, E. glave, gaff]

   1. A spear or dart. [R. & Obs.]

   2. An iron crow or lever. [Scot. & North of Eng.]


   Ga"ver*ick  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  European  red  gurnard  (Trigla
   cuculus). [Prov. Eng.]


   Ga"vi\'91  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. L. gavia a sea mew.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   division of birds which includes the gulls and terns.


   Ga"vi*al  (?),  n.  [Hind.  ghariu: cf. F. gavial.] (Zo\'94l.) A large
   Asiatic  crocodilian  (Gavialis  Gangeticus); -- called also nako, and
   Gangetic crocodile.

     NOTE: &hand; The gavial has a long, slender muzzle, teeth of nearly
     uniform  size,  and  feet completely webbed. It inhabits the Ganges
     and  other  rivers  of  India.  The name is also applied to several
     allied fossil species.


   Gav"ot  (? OR ?; 277), n. [F. gavotte, fr. Gavots, a people inhabiting
   a  mountainous  district  in  France,  called  Gap.]  (Mus.) A kind of
   difficult  dance;  a  dance  tune,  the air of which has two brisk and
   lively, yet dignified, strains in common time, each played twice over.
   [Written also gavotte.]


   Gaw"by (?), n. A baby; a dunce. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gawk (?), n. [OE. gok, gowk, cuckoo, fool, Icel. gaukr cuckoo; akin to
   OHG. gouh, G. gauch cuckoo, fool, AS. g\'82ac cuckoo, Sw. g\'94k, Dan.

   1. A cuckoo. Johnson.

   2. A simpleton; a booby; a gawky. Carlyle.


   Gawk, v. i. To act like a gawky.


   Gawk"y  (?),  a.  [Compar. Gawkier (?); superl. Gawkiest.] Foolish and
   awkward;  clumsy;  clownish; as, gawky behavior. -- n. A fellow who is
   awkward from being overgrown, or from stupidity, a gawk.


   Gawn  (?),  n.  [Corrupted  fr. gallon.] A small tub or lading vessel.
   [Prov. Eng.] Johnson.


   Gawn"tree (?), n. See Gauntree.


   Gay  (?), a. [Compar. Gayer (?); superl. Gayest.] [F. gai, perhaps fr.
   OHG.  g  swift,  rapid, G. g\'84h, j\'84h, steep, hasty; or cf. OHG. w
   beatiful, good. Cf. Jay.]

   1.  Excited  with  merriment;  manifesting  sportiveness  or  delight;
   inspiring delight; livery; merry.

     Belinda smiled, and all the world was gay. Pope.

     Gay hope is theirs by fancy fed. Gray.

   2. Brilliant in colors; splendid; fine; richly dressed.

     Why is my neighbor's wife so gay? Chaucer.

     A bevy of fair women, richly gay In gems and wanton dressMilton.

   3.  Loose; dissipated; lewd. [Colloq.] Syn. -- Merry; gleeful; blithe;
   airy;  lively;  sprightly, sportive; light-hearted; frolicsome; jolly;
   jovial; joyous; joyful; glad; showy; splendid; vivacious.


   Gay, n. An ornament [Obs.] L'Estrange.


   Gay"al (?), n. [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A Southern Asiatic species of
   wild cattle (Bibos frontalis).


   Gay"di*ang  (?), n. (Naut.) A vessel of Anam, with two or three masts,
   lofty  triangular  sails,  and  in  construction somewhat resembling a
   Chinese junk.


   Gay"e*ty   (?),  n.;  pl.  Gayeties  (.  [Written  also  gaiety.]  [F.
   gaiet\'82. See Gay, a.]

   1.  The  state  of being gay; merriment; mirth; acts or entertainments
   prompted by, or inspiring, merry delight; -- used often in the plural;
   as, the gayeties of the season.

   2.  Finery;  show; as, the gayety of dress. Syn. -- Liveliness; mirth;
   animation; vivacity; glee; blithesomeness; sprightliness; jollity. See


   Gay"lus-site`  (?),  n.  [Named after Gay-Lussac, the French chemist.]
   (Min.)  A  yellowish  white,  translucent  mineral,  consisting of the
   carbonates of lime and soda, with water.


   Gay"ly (?), adv.

   1. With mirth and frolic; merrily; blithely; gleefully.

   2.  Finely;  splendidly;  showily;  as, ladies gayly dressed; a flower
   gayly blooming. Pope.


   Gayne (?), v. i. [See Gain.] To avail. [Obs.]


   Gay"ness (?), n. Gayety; finery. [R.]


   Gay"some (?), a. Full of gayety. Mir. for Mag.


   Gay"tre (?), n. [See Gaitre.] The dogwood tree. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gaze (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gazed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gazing.] [OE.
   gasen,  akin  to  dial.  Sw.  gasa,  cf.  Goth. us-gaisjan to terrify,
   us-geisnan  to be terrified. Cf. Aghast, Ghastly, Ghost, Hesitate.] To
   fixx  the eyes in a steady and earnest look; to look with eagerness or
   curiosity, as in admiration, astonishment, or with studious attention.

     Why stand ye gazing up into heaven? Acts i. 11.

   Syn.  --  To gape; stare; look. -- To Gaze, Gape, Stare. To gaze is to
   look  with fixed and prolonged attention, awakened by excited interest
   or  elevated  emotion; to gape is to look fixedly, with open mouth and
   feelings of ignorant wonder; to stare is to look with the fixedness of
   insolence  or of idiocy. The lover of nature gazes with delight on the
   beauties of the landscape; the rustic gapes with wonder at the strange
   sights of a large city; the idiot stares on those around with a vacant


   Gaze, v. t. To view with attention; to gaze on . [R.]

     And gazed a while the ample sky. Milton.


   Gaze, n.

   1.  A  fixed  look;  a  look  of  eagerness,  wonder, or admiration; a
   continued look of attention.

     With secret gaze Or open admiration him behold. Milton.

   2. The object gazed on.

     Made of my enemies the scorn and gaze. Milton.

   At gaze (a) (Her.) With the face turned directly to the front; -- said
   of  the  figures of the stag, hart, buck, or hind, when borne, in this
   position, upon an escutcheon. (b) In a position expressing sudden fear
   or  surprise; -- a term used in stag hunting to describe the manner of
   a  stag when he first hears the hounds and gazes round in apprehension
   of some hidden danger; hence, standing agape; idly or stupidly gazing.

     I  that  rather  held  it better men should perish one by one, Than
     that  earth  should  stand  at  gaze  like Joshua's moon in Ajalon!


   Ga*zee"bo  (?),  n.  [Humorously  formed  from gaze.] A summerhouse so
   situated as to command an extensive prospect. [Colloq.]


   Gaze"ful (?), a. Gazing. [R.] Spenser.


   Gaze"hound`  (?),  n. A hound that pursues by the sight rather than by
   the scent. Sir W. Scott.


   Ga"zel (?), n. The black currant; also, the wild plum. [Prov. Eng.]


   Ga*zel" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Gazelle.


   Ga*zelle"  (?),  n.  [F. gazelle, OF. also, gazel; cf. Sp. gacela, Pr.
   gazella, It. gazella; all fr. Ar. ghaz a wild goat.] (Zo\'94l.) One of
   several  small,  swift,  elegantly  formed species of antelope, of the
   genus Gazella, esp. G. dorcas; -- called also algazel, corinne, korin,
   and  kevel.  The  gazelles  are  celebrated  for  the  luster and soft
   expression of their eyes. [Written also gazel.] <-- subtypes -->

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e co mmon sp ecies of  No rthern Af rica (G azella
     dorcas);  the  Arabian  gazelle, or ariel (G. Arabica); the mohr of
     West Africa (G. mohr); the Indian (G. Bennetti); the ahu or Persian
     (G. subgutturosa); and the springbok or tsebe (G. euchore) of South
     Africa, are the best known.


   Gaze"ment (?), n. View. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Gaz"er (?), n. One who gazes.


   Ga*zet  (?),  n.  [It..  gazeta, gazzetta, prob. dim. of L. gaza royal
   treasure.]  A  Venetian  coin, worth about three English farthings, or
   one and a half cents. [Obs.]


   Ga*zette"  (?),  n.  [F.  gazette,  It. gazzetta, perh. from gazetta a
   Venetian  coin  (see  Gazet), said to have been the price of the first
   newspaper  published  at Venice; or perh. dim. of gazza magpie, a name
   perh.  applied  to  the  first newspaper; cf. OHG. agalstra magpie, G.
   elster.]  A  newspaper;  a printed sheet published periodically; esp.,
   the   official  journal  published  by  the  British  government,  and
   containing legal and state notices.


   Ga*zette",  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Gazetted; p. pr. & vb. n. Gazetting.]
   To  announce  or  publish  in a gazette; to announce officially, as an
   appointment, or a case of bankruptcy.


   Gaz`et*teer" (?), n. [Cf. F. gazetier.]

   1.  A  writer  of  news,  or  an  officer appointed to publish news by
   authority. Johnson.

   2. A newspaper; a gazette. [Obs.] Burke.

   3.   A   geographical   dictionary;   a  book  giving  the  names  and
   descriptions, etc., of many places.

   4. An alphabetical descriptive list of anything.


   Gaz"ing*stock`  (?),  n.  A  person  or  thing  gazed at with scorn or
   abhorrence; an object of curiosity or contempt. Bp. Hall.


   Gaz"o*gene  (?),  n.  [F. gazog\'8ane; gaz gas + -g\'8ane, E. -gen.] A
   portable  apparatus  for  making soda water or a\'89rated liquids on a
   small scale. Knight.


   Ga*zon"  (?), n. [F. gazon turf, fr. OHG. waso, G. wasen.] (Fort.) One
   of  the  pieces of sod used to line or cover parapets and the faces of


   Ge- (?). An Anglo-Saxon prefix. See Y-.


   Geal  (?),  v.  i.  [F. geler, fr. L. gelare, fr. gelu. See Gelid.] To
   congeal. [Obs. or Scot.]


   Gean (?), n. [F. guigne the fruit of the gean; cf. OHG. w\'c6hsila, G.
   weichsel.]  (Bot.)  A  species of cherry tree common in Europe (Prunus
   avium); also, the fruit, which is usually small and dark in color.


   Ge`an*ti*cli"nal  (?),  n. [Gr. anticlinal.] (Geol.) An upward bend or
   flexure  of  a considerable portion of the earth's crust, resulting in
   the  formation  of a class of mountain elevations called anticlinoria;
   -- opposed to geosynclinal.


   Gear  (?),  n.  [OE. gere, ger, AS. gearwe clothing, adornment, armor,
   fr.  gearo,  gearu,  ready,  yare;  akin  to  OHG. garaw\'c6, garw\'c6
   ornament, dress. See Yare, and cf. Garb dress.]

   1. Clothing; garments; ornaments.

     Array thyself in thy most gorgeous gear. Spenser.

   2. Goods; property; household stuff. Chaucer.

     Homely gear and common ware. Robynson (More's Utopia)

   3.  Whatever  is  prepared  for  use  or  wear;  manufactured stuff or

     Clad in a vesture of unknown gear. Spenser.

   4. The harness of horses or cattle; trapping.

   5. Warlike accouterments. [Scot.] Jamieson.

   6. Manner; custom; behavior. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   7. Business matters; affairs; concern. [Obs.]

     Thus go they both together to their gear. Spenser.

   8.  (Mech.)  (a)  A  toothed wheel, or cogwheel; as, a spur gear, or a
   bevel  gear;  also, toothed wheels, collectively. (b) An apparatus for
   performing  a special function; gearing; as, the feed gear of a lathe.
   (c) Engagement of parts with each other; as, in gear; out of gear.

   9. pl. (Naut.) See 1st Jeer (b).

   10. Anything worthless; stuff; nonsense; rubbish. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]

     That  servant  of  his  that confessed and uttered this gear was an
     honest man. Latimer.

   Bever  gear.  See  Bevel  gear.  --  Core gear, a mortise gear, or its
   skeleton.  See  Mortise wheel, under Mortise. -- Expansion gear (Steam
   Engine),  the  arrangement of parts for cutting off steam at a certain
   part  of  the  stroke,  so  as  to  leave  it  to  act upon the piston
   expansively;  the cut-off. See under Expansion. -- Feed gear. See Feed
   motion,  under  Feed, n. -- Gear cutter, a machine or tool for forming
   the  teeth  of gear wheels by cutting. -- Gear wheel, any cogwheel. --
   Running  gear.  See  under  Running.  --  To throw in, OR out of, gear
   (Mach.),  to  connect or disconnect (wheelwork or couplings, etc.); to
   put in, or out of, working relation.

   Page 617


   Gear (?) v. t. [imp. & p. p. Geared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gearing.]

   1. To dress; to put gear on; to harness.

   2. (Mach.) To provide with gearing.
   Double  geared,  driven  through twofold compound gearing, to increase
   the force or speed; -- said of a machine.


   Gear, v. i. (Mach.) To be in, or come into, gear.


   Gear"ing, n.

   1. Harness.

   2.  (Mach.)  The  parts  by which motion imparted to one portion of an
   engine  or machine is transmitted to another, considered collectively;
   as,  the  valve  gearing  of  locomotive engine; belt gearing; esp., a
   train of wheels for transmitting and varying motion in machinery.
   Frictional gearing. See under Frictional. -- Gearing chain, an endless
   chain  transmitted  motion  from  one  sprocket  wheel to another. See
   Illust. of Chain wheel. -- Spur gearing, gearing in which the teeth or
   cogs  are  ranged  round  either  the  concave  or  the convex surface
   (properly  the  latter)  of  a  cylindrical wheel; -- for transmitting
   motion between parallel shafts, etc.


   Gea"son  (?),  a.  [OE.  gesen,  geson,  rare,  scanty,  AS. g barren,
   wanting. Cf. Geest.] Rare; wonderful. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Geat  (?),  n.  [See  Gate  a  door.]  (Founding) The channel or spout
   through  which molten metal runs into a mold in casting. [Written also
   git, gate.]


   Ge`car*cin"i*an  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  land crab of the genus
   Gecarcinus, or of allied genera.


   Geck  (?),  n.  [D.  gek fool, fop; akin to G. geck; cf. Icel. gikkr a
   pert, rude person.]

   1. Scorn, derision, or contempt. [Prov. Eng.]

   2. An object of scorn; a dupe; a gull. [Obs.]

     To become the geck and scorn O'the other's villainy. Shak.


   Geck, v. t. [Cf. OD. ghecken, G. gecken. See Geck, n.]

   1. To deride; to scorn; to mock. [Prov. Eng.]

   2. To cheat; trick, or gull. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Geck, v. i. To jeer; to show contempt. Sir W. Scott.


   Geck"o (?), n.; pl. Geckoes (#). [Cf. F. & G. gecko; -- so called from
   the  sound  which  the  animal  utters.]  (Zo\'94l.) Any lizard of the
   family  Geckonid\'91.  The  geckoes  are  small,  carnivorous,  mostly
   nocturnal  animals  with  large  eyes and vertical, elliptical pupils.
   Their  toes are generally expanded, and furnished with adhesive disks,
   by  which  they  can run over walls and ceilings. They are numerous in
   warm  countries,  and a few species are found in Europe and the United
   States. See Wall gecko, Fanfoot.


   Geck*o"tian (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A gecko.

                                   Ged, Gedd

   Ged, Gedd (, n. The European pike.


   Gee (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Geed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Geeing.]

   1. To agree; to harmonize. [Colloq. or Prov. Eng.] Forby.

   2.  [Cf. G. j\'81, interj., used in calling to a horse, It. gi\'95, F.
   dia,  used  to  turn a horse to the left.] To turn to the off side, or
   from  the  driver  (i.e., in the United States, to the right side); --
   said  of  cattle,  or  a team; used most frequently in the imperative,
   often  with  off,  by  drivers  of oxen, in directing their teams, and
   opposed to haw, or hoi. [Written also jee.]

     NOTE: &hand; In  England, the teamster walks on the right-hand side
     of  the cattle; in the United States, on the left-hand side. In all
     cases,  however, gee means to turn from the driver, and haw to turn
     toward him.

   Gee ho, OR Gee whoa. Same as Gee.


   Gee,  v.  t.  [See  Gee to turn.] To cause (a team) to turn to the off
   side, or from the driver. [Written also jee.]

                                 Geer, Geering

   Geer (?), Geer"ing. [Obs.] See Gear, Gearing.


   Geese (?), n., pl. of Goose.


   Geest  (?),  n.  [Cf.  LG.  geest,  geestland, sandy, dry and, OFries.
   g&emac;st,   g&amac;st,   g&emac;stlond,   g&amac;stlond,  fr.  Fries.
   g&amac;st barren. Cf. Geason.] Alluvial matter on the surface of land,
   not of recent origin. R. Jameson.


   Geet (?), n. [See Jet.] Jet. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Geez  (?),  n.  The  original  native  name  for  the ancient Ethiopic
   language or people. See Ethiopic.


   Ge*hen"na  (?),  n.  [L. Gehenna, Gr. G.] (Jewish Hist.) The valley of
   Hinnom,  near Jerusalem, where some of the Israelites sacrificed their
   children  to Moloch, which, on this account, was afterward regarded as
   a  place  of  abomination, and made a receptacle for all the refuse of
   the   city,  perpetual  fires  being  kept  up  in  order  to  prevent
   pestilential  effluvia.  In the New Testament the name is transferred,
   by an easy metaphor, to Hell.

     The  pleasant  valley  of  Hinnom.  Tophet thence And black Gehenna
     called, the type of Hell. Milton.


   Ge"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, earthy or
   vegetable mold. Geic acid. (Chem.) See Humin.


   Ge"in (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) See Humin.

                                 Geissler tube

   Geis"sler  tube`  (?).  (Elec.)  A  glass  tube provided with platinum
   electrodes,  and  containing  some  gas  under very low tension, which
   becomes luminous when an electrical discharge is passed through it; --
   so called from the name of a noted maker in germany. It is called also
   Pl\'81cker tube, from the German physicist who devised it.


   Gei"to*nog"a*my (?), n. [Gr. (Bot.) Fertilization of flowers by pollen
   from other flowers on the same plant.


   Gel"a*ble  (?),  a.  [L. gelare to congeal: cf. F. gelable. See Geal.]
   Capable of being congealed; capable of being converted into jelly.


   Gel"a*da  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A baboon (Gelada Ruppelli) of Abyssinia,
   remarkable for the length of the hair on the neck and shoulders of the
   adult male.


   Ge*las"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Pertaining  to laughter; used in laughing.
   "Gelastic muscles." Sir T. Browne.


   Ge*lat"i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Gelatin + L. -ficare. (in comp.) to make.
   See -fy.] (Physiol. Chem.) The formation of gelatin.


   Gel`a*tig"e*nous   (?),  n.  [Gelatin  +  -genous.]  (Physiol.  Chem.)
   Producing, or yielding, gelatin; gelatiniferous; as, the gelatigeneous

                               Gelatin, Gelatine

   Gel"a*tin, Gel"a*tine (, n. [F. g\'82latine, fr. L. gelare to congeal.
   See  Geal.]  (Chem.)  Animal  jelly;  glutinous material obtained from
   animal  tissues by prolonged boiling. Specifically (Physiol. Chem.), a
   nitrogeneous  colloid,  not  existing  as such in the animal body, but
   formed  by  the  hydrating  action of boiling water on the collagen of
   various  kinds  of  connective  tissue  (as tendons, bones, ligaments,
   etc.).  Its  distinguishing  character  is  that  of dissolving in hot
   water,  and  forming a jelly on cooling. It is an important ingredient
   of  calf's-foot  jelly,  isinglass, glue, etc. It is used as food, but
   its nutritious qualities are of a low order.

     NOTE: &hand; Both spellings, gelatin and gelatine, are in good use,
     but  the  tendency of writers on physiological chemistry favors the
     form  in  -in,  as  in  the  United States Dispensatory, the United
     States  Pharmacop\'d2ia,  Fownes'  Watts' Chemistry, Brande & Cox's

   Blasting  gelatin, an explosive, containing about ninety-five parts of
   nitroglycerin  and  five  of  collodion.  --  Gelatin  process, a name
   applied  to  a  number  of processes in the arts, involving the use of
   gelatin.  Especially:  (a)  (Photog.)  A  dry-plate  process  in which
   gelatin  is  used  as  a  substitute  for  collodion as the sensitized
   material.  This is the dry-plate process in general use, and plates of
   extreme  sensitiveness  are  produced  by it. (b) (Print.) A method of
   producing  photographic copies of drawings, engravings, printed pages,
   etc.,  and also of photographic pictures, which can be printed from in
   a  press  with ink, or (in some applications of the process) which can
   be  used as the molds of stereotype or electrotype plates. (c) (Print.
   or  Copying)  A  method  of producing facsimile copies of an original,
   written  or  drawn  in aniline ink upon paper, thence transferred to a
   cake  of  gelatin  softened  with glycerin, from which impressions are
   taken upon ordinary paper. -- Vegetable gelatin. See Gliadin.


   Ge*lat"i*nate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gelatinated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Gelatinating.]  To  convert  into  gelatin,  or  into  a substance
   resembling jelly.


   Ge*lat"i*nate, v. i. To be converted into gelatin, or into a substance
   like jelly.

     Lapis  lazuli,  if  calcined,  does not effervesce, but gelatinates
     with the mineral acids. Kirwan.


   Ge*lat`i*na"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of  process  of  converting into
   gelatin, or a substance like jelly.


   Gel"a*tine (?), n. Same as Gelatin.


   Gel`a*tin*if"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Gelatin  +  -ferous.] (Physiol. Chem.)
   Yielding gelatin on boiling with water; capable of gelatination.


   Gel`a*tin"i*form (?), a. Having the form of gelatin.


   Ge*lat`i*ni*za"tion (?), n. Same as Gelatination.


   Ge*lat"i*nize (?), v. t.

   1. To convert into gelatin or jelly. Same as Gelatinate, v. t.

   2. (Photog.) To coat, or otherwise treat, with gelatin.


   Ge*lat"i*nize (?), v. i. Same as Gelatinate, v. i.


   Ge*lat"i*nous  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  g\'82latineux.]  Of  the nature and
   consistence of gelatin or the jelly; resembling jelly; viscous.


   Ge*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  gelatio  a freezing, fr. gelare to freeze.]
   (Astron.)  The  process  of  becoming  solid by cooling; a cooling and


   Geld  (?), n. [AS. gild, gield, geld, tribute, payment, fr. gieldan to
   pay, render. See Yield.] Money; tribute; compensation; ransom.[Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd occurs in old law books in composition, as
     in  danegeld,  or  danegelt,  a tax imposed by the Danes; weregeld,
     compensation for the life of a man, etc.


   Geld  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gelded  or Gelt (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gelding.]  [Icel. gelda to castrate; akin to Dan. gilde, Sw. g\'84lla,
   and  cf.  AS.  gilte  a  young sow, OHG. galt dry, not giving milk, G.
   gelt, Goth. gilpa siclke.]

   1. To castrate; to emasculate.

   2. To deprive of anything essential.

     Bereft and gelded of his patrimony. Shak.

   3.  To  deprive  of  anything  exceptionable; as, to geld a book, or a
   story; to expurgate. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Geld"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being gelded.


   Geld"a*ble, a. [From Geld money.] Liable to taxation. [Obs.] Burrill.


   Geld"er (?), n. One who gelds or castrates.


   Gel"der-rose (?), n. Same as Guelder-rose.


   Geld"ing  (?),  n.  [Icel. gelding a gelding, akin to geldingr wether,
   eunuch,  Sw. g\'84lling gelding, Dan. gilding eunuch. See Geld, v. t.]
   A  castrated  animal; -- usually applied to a horse, but formerly used
   also of the human male.

     They  went  down  both  into the water, Philip and the gelding, and
     Philip baptized him. Wyclif (Acts viii. 38).


   Geld"ing, p. pr. a. & vb. n.. from Geld, v. t.


   Gel"id  (?),  a. [L. gelidus, fr. gelun frost, cold. See Cold, and cf.
   Congeal,  Gelatin,  Jelly.]  Cold;  very cold; frozen. "Gelid founts."


   Ge*lid"i*ty (?), n. The state of being gelid.


   Gel"id*ly (?), adv. In a gelid manner; coldly.


   Gel"id*ness, n. The state of being gelid; gelidity.


   Gel"ly (?), n. Jelly. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Ge*los"copy (?), n. [Gr. -scopy.] Divination by means of laughter.


   Ge*lose"   (?),   n.   [See  Gelatin.]  (Chem.)  An  amorphous,  gummy
   carbohydrate, found in Gelidium, agar-agar, and other seaweeds.


   Gel*se"mic (?), a. Gelseminic.


   Gel"se*mine  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  An  alkaloid  obtained from the yellow
   jasmine  (Gelsemium  sempervirens),  as a bitter white semicrystalline
   substance; -- called also gelsemia.


   Gel`se*min"ic  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to, or derived from, the
   yellow  jasmine (Gelsemium sempervirens); as, gelseminic acid, a white
   crystalline substance resembling esculin.


   Gel*se"mium (?), n. [NL., fr. It. gelsomino jasmine.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  genus  of  climbing  plants. The yellow (false) jasmine
   (Gelsemium sempervirens) is a native of the Southern United States. It
   has showy and deliciously fragrant flowers.

   2.  (Med.)  The  root  of the yellow jasmine, used in malarial fevers,


   Gelt (?), n. [See 1st Geld.] Trubute, tax. [Obs.]

     All  these the king granted unto them . . . free from all gelts and
     payments, in a most full and ample manner. Fuller.


   Gelt, n. [See Gelt, v. t.] A gelding. [Obs.] Mortimer.


   Gelt, n. Gilding; tinsel. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Gem  (?),  n.  [OE.  gemme  precious  stone,  F. gemme, fr. L. gemma a
   precious stone, bud.]

   1. (Bot.) A bud.

     From  the  joints  of  thy  prolific stem A swelling knot is raised
     called a gem. Denham.

   2.  A  precious  stone  of  any  kind,  as  the  ruby, emerald, topaz,
   sapphire,  beryl,  spinel,  etc., especially when cut and polished for
   ornament; a jewel. Milton.

   3.  Anything of small size, or expressed within brief limits, which is
   regarded  as  a  gem  on  account  of  its beauty or value, as a small
   picture, a verse of poetry, a witty or wise saying.
   Artificial  gem,  an  imitation  of  a gem, made of glass colored with
   metallic oxide. Cf. Paste, and Strass.


   Gem v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gemmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gemming]

   1.  To  put  forth  in the form of buds. "Gemmed their blossoms." [R.]

   2. To adorn with gems or precious stones.

   3.  To  embellish  or  adorn,  as with gems; as, a foliage gemmed with

     England is . . . gemmed with castles and palaces. W. Irving.


   Ge*ma"ra (?), n. [Heb.] (Jewish Law) The second part of the Talmud, or
   the commentary on the Mishna (which forms the first part or text).


   Ge*mar"ic (?), a. Pertaining to the Gemara.


   Ge*ma"rist  (?),  n.  One  versed  in  the  Gemara, or adhering to its


   Gem"el  (?), a. [OF. gemel twin, F. jumeau, L. gemellus twin, doubled,
   dim.  of geminus. See Gemini, and cf. Gimmal.] (Her.) Coupled; paired.
   Bars  gemel  (Her.),  two  barrulets  placed near and parallel to each


   Gem"el (?), n.

   1. One of the twins. [Obs.] Wyclif.

   2.  (Heb.)  One  of  the  barrulets placed parallel and closed to each
   other. Cf. Bars gemel, under Gemel, a.

     Two gemels silver between two griffins passant. Strype.

   Gemel hinge (Locksmithing), a hinge consisting of an eye or loop and a
   hook.  --  Gemel  ring,  a  ring with two or more links; a gimbal. See
   Gimbal. -- Gemel window, a window with two bays.


   Gem`el*lip"a-rous  (?),  a.  [L.  gemellipara,  fem.,  gemellus twin +
   parere to bear, produce.] Producing twins. [R.] Bailey.


   Gem"i*nal (?), a. [L. geminus twin.] A pair. [Obs.] Drayton.


   Gem"i*nate  (?),  a.  [L.  geminatus,  p.p. of genimare to double. See
   Gemini.]  (Bot.)  In  pairs or twains; two together; binate; twin; as,
   geminate flowers. Gray.


   Gem"i*nate (?), v. t. To double. [R.] B. Jonson.


   Gem`i*na"tion   (?),  n.  [L.  geminatio.]  A  doubling;  duplication;
   repetition. [R.] Boyle.


   Gem"i*ni (?), n. pl. [L., twins, pl. of geminus; cf. Skr. j related as
   brother   or   sister.]  (Astron.)  A  constellation  of  the  zodiac,
   containing  the  two  bright  stars Castor and Pollux; also, the third
   sign of the zodiac, which the sun enters about May 20th.


   Gem`i*ni*flo"rous  (?),  a.  [L. geminus twin + flos, floris, flower.]
   (Bot.) Having the flowers arranged in pairs.


   Gem"i*nous (?), a. [L. geminus.] Double; in pairs. Sir T. Browne.


   Gemi*ny (?), n. [See Gemini.] Twins; a pair; a couple. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gem`i*to"res (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. gemere, gemitum, to sign, moan.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A division of birds including the true pigeons.


   Gem"ma (?), n.; pl. Gemm\'91 (#). [L., a bud.]

   1. (Bot.) A leaf bud, as distinguished from a flower bud.

   2.  (Biol.)  A  bud  spore;  one  of  the  small spores or buds in the
   reproduction  of  certain  Protozoa, which separate one at a time from
   the parent cell.


   Gem*ma"ceous  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to gems or to gemm\'91; of the
   nature of, or resembling, gems or gemm\'91.


   Gem"ma*ry (?), a. [L. gemmarius. See Gem.] Of or pertaining to gems.

   Page 618


   Gem"ma*ry  (?),  n.  A  receptacle  for jewels or gems; a jewel house;
   jewels or gems, collectively.


   Gem"mate (?), a. [L. gemmatus, p. p. of gemmare to put forth buds, fr.
   gemma bud.] (Bot.) Having buds; reproducing by buds.


   Gem"ma*ted (?), a. Having buds; adorned with gems or jewels.


   Gem*ma"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. gemmation.]

   1.  (Biol.)  The  formation  of  a  new  individual,  either animal or
   vegetable, by a process of budding; an asexual method of reproduction;
   gemmulation; gemmiparity. See Budding.

   2. (Bot.) The arrangement of buds on the stalk; also, of leaves in the


   Gem"me*ous  (?),  a. [L. gemmeus. See Gem.] Pertaining to gems; of the
   nature of gems; resembling gems. Pennant.


   Gem*mif"er*ous  (?), a. [L. gemma bud + -ferous: cf. F. gemmif\'8are.]
   Producing gems or buds; (Biol.) multiplying by buds.


   Gem`mi*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [L. gemma bud + -ficare (in comp.) to make.
   See -fy.] (Biol.) The production of a bud or gem.


   Gem`mi*flo"rate  (?), a. [L. gemma bud + flos, floris, flower.] (Bot.)
   Having flowers like buds.


   Gem"mi*ness  (?),  n. The state or quality of being gemmy; spruceness;

                             Gemmipara Gemmipares

   Gem*mip"a*ra  (?)  Gem*mip"a*res  (?)  n. pl. [NL., fr. L. gemma bud +
   parere  to  produce.] (Zo\'94l.) Animals which increase by budding, as


   Gem`mi*par"i*ty  (?),  n.  (Biol.) Reproduction by budding; gemmation.
   See Budding.


   Gem*mip"a*rous  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. gemmipare.] (Biol.) Producing buds;
   reproducing by buds. See Gemmation, 1.


   Gem*mos"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  gemmosus  set  with jewels. See Gem.] The
   quality or characteristics of a gem or jewel. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Gem`mu*la"tion  (?),  n. [From L. gemmula, dim. of gemma bud.] (Biol.)
   See Gemmation.


   Gem"mule (?), n. [L. gemmula, dim. of gemma: cf. F. gemmule. See Gem.]

   1.  (Bot.)  (a)  A  little  leaf  bud,  as  the  plumule  between  the
   cotyledons. (b) One of the buds of mosses. (c) One of the reproductive
   spores of alg\'91. (d) An ovule.

   2.  (Biol.)  (a) A bud produced in generation by gemmation. (b) One of
   the   imaginary   granules  or  atoms  which,  according  to  Darwin's
   hypothesis  of pangenesis, are continually being thrown off from every
   cell  or  unit,  and  circulate freely throughout the system, and when
   supplied   with   proper   nutriment  multiply  by  self-division  and
   ultimately develop into cells like those from which they were derived.
   They  are supposed to be transmitted from the parent to the offspring,
   but  are  often transmitted in a dormant state during many generations
   and are then developed. See Pangenesis.


   Gem`mu*lif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Gemmule + -ferous.] Bearing or producing
   gemmules or buds.


   Gem"my (?), a. [From Gem, n.]

   1. Full of gems; bright; glittering like a gem.

     The gemmy bridle glittered free. Tennyson.

   2. Spruce; smart. [Colloq. Eng.]


   Ge*mote"  (?), n. [As. gem an assembly. See Meet, v. t.] (AS. Hist.) A
   meeting;  -- used in combination, as, Witenagemote, an assembly of the
   wise men.


   Gems (?), n. [G.] (Zo\'94l.) The chamois.


   Gems"bok  (?),  n.  [D.;  akin  to G. gemsbock the male or buck of the
   chamois;  gemse  chamois,  goat of the Alps + bock buck.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   South  African  antelope  (Oryx  Capensis), having long, sharp, nearly
   straight horns.


   Gems"-horn`  (?),  n.  [G., prop., chamois horn.] (Mus.) An organ stop
   with conical tin pipes.


   Ge*mul"  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  South American deer (Furcifer
   Chilensis), with simple forked horns. [Written also guemul.]


   -gen  (?).  [(1)  From  Gr.  -gen-, from the same root as ge`nos race,
   stock (see Genus). (2) From Gr. suffix -genh`s born. Cf. F. -g\'8ane.]

   1.  A  suffix  used  in  scientific  words  in the sense of producing,
   generating: as, amphigen, amidogen, halogen.

   2. A suffix meaning produced, generated; as, exogen.


   Ge"na  (?),  [L.,  the cheek.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) The cheek; the feathered
   side  of  the  under  mandible  of a bird. (b) The part of the head to
   which the jaws of an insect are attached.


   Ge*nappe"  (?),  n. [From Genappe, in Belgium.] A worsted yarn or cord
   of peculiar smoothness, used in the manufacture of braid, fringe, etc.


   Gen`darme" (?), n.; pl. Gendarmes (#), or Gens d'armes. [F.]

   1. (Mil.) One of a body of heavy cavalry. [Obs.] [France]

   2. An armed policeman in France. Thackeray.


   Gen*darm"er*y (?), n. [F. gendarmerie.] The body of gendarmes.


   Gen"der  (?), n. [OF. genre, gendre (with excrescent d.), F.genre, fr.
   L. genus, generis, birth, descent, race, kind, gender, fr. the root of
   genere,  gignere,  to beget, in pass., to be born, akin to E. kin. See
   Kin, and cf. Generate, Genre, Gentle, Genus.]

   1. Kind; sort. [Obs.] "One gender of herbs." Shak.

   2. Sex, male or female. [Obs. or Colloq.]

   3.  (Gram.) A classification of nouns, primarily according to sex; and
   secondarily  according  to  some fancied or imputed quality associated
   with sex.

     Gender  is a grammatical distinction and applies to words only. Sex
     is natural distinction and applies to living objects. R. Morris.

     NOTE: &hand; Ad jectives an d pr onouns ar e said to vary in gender
     when  the  form  is  varied according to the gender of the words to
     which they refer.


   Gen"der  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gendered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gendering.]  [OF.  gendrer, fr. L. generare. See Gender, n.] To beget;
   to engender.


   Gen"der, v. i. To copulate; to breed. [R.] Shak.


   Gen"der*less, a. Having no gender.


   Gen`e*a*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Gr. genesis.] (Biol.) Alternate generation.
   See under Generation.


   Gen`e*a*log"ic (?), a. Genealogical.


   Gen`e*a*log"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.  F.  g\'82n\'82alogique.]  Of  or
   pertaining to genealogy; as, a genealogical table; genealogical order.
   --  Gen`e*a*log"ic*al*ly,  adv. Genealogical tree, a family lineage or
   genealogy drawn out under the form of a tree and its branches.


   Gen`e*al"o*gist  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. g\'82n\'82alogiste.] One who traces
   genealogies or the descent of persons or families.


   Gen`e*al"o*gize  (?),  v. i. To investigate, or relate the history of,


   Gen`e*al"o*gy (?), n.; pl. Genealogies (#). [OE. genealogi, genelogie,
   OF. genelogie, F. g\'82n\'82alogie, L. genealogia, fr. Gr. genus) +

   1.  An account or history of the descent of a person or family from an
   ancestor;  enumeration  of ancestors and their children in the natural
   order of succession; a pedigree.

   2.  Regular descent of a person or family from a progenitor; pedigree;


   Gen"e*arch (?), n. [Gr. The chief of a family or tribe.


   Gen"e*ra (?), n. pl. See Genus.


   Gen`er*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Capability of being generated. Johnstone.


   Gen"er*a*ble  (?),  a. [L. generabilis.] Capable of being generated or
   produced. Bentley.


   Gen"er*al (?), a. [F. g\'82n\'82ral, fr. L. generalis. See Genus.]

   1.  Relating to a genus or kind; pertaining to a whole class or order;
   as, a general law of animal or vegetable economy.

   2.   Comprehending   many  species  or  individuals;  not  special  or
   particular;  including  all  particulars;  as,  a general inference or

   3. Not restrained or limited to a precise import; not specific; vague;
   indefinite; lax in signification; as, a loose and general expression.

   4.  Common  to many, or the greatest number; widely spread; prevalent;
   extensive,  though  not  universal;  as,  a general opinion; a general

     This general applause and cheerful sShak.

   5.  Having  a  relation  to  all;  common  to the whole; as, Adam, our
   general sire. Milton.

   6. As a whole; in gross; for the most part.

     His general behavior vain, ridiculous. Shak.

   7. Usual; common, on most occasions; as, his general habit or method.

     NOTE: &hand; The word general, annexed to a name of office, usually
     denotes  chief or superior; as, attorney-general; adjutant general;
     commissary general; quartermaster general; vicar-general, etc.

   General agent (Law), an agent whom a principal employs to transact all
   his business of a particular kind, or to act in his affairs generally.
   --  General assembly. See the Note under Assembly. -- General average,
   General  Court.  See  under  Average,  Court. -- General court-martial
   (Mil.),  the  highest military and naval judicial tribunal. -- General
   dealer  (Com.),  a shopkeeper who deals in all articles in common use.
   --  General  demurrer (Law), a demurrer which objects to a pleading in
   general  terms,  as  insufficient,  without  specifying  the  defects.
   Abbott.  --  General  epistle,  a canonical epistle. -- General guides
   (Mil.),  two sergeants (called the right, and the left, general guide)
   posted opposite the right and left flanks of an infantry battalion, to
   preserve  accuracy  in  marching. Farrow. -- General hospitals (Mil.),
   hospitals  established to receive sick and wounded sent from the field
   hospitals.  Farrow.  General  issue  (Law), an issue made by a general
   plea,  which  traverses  the  whole declaration or indictment at once,
   without  offering any special matter to evade it. Bouvier. Burrill. --
   General  lien  (Law), a right to detain a chattel, etc., until payment
   is  made  of  any balance due on a general account. -- General officer
   (Mil.),  any  officer  having a rank above that of colonel. -- General
   orders  (Mil.),  orders  from  headquarters  published  to  the  whole
   command.  --  General  practitioner,  in  the  United  States, one who
   practices  medicine  in  all its branches without confining himself to
   any  specialty; in England, one who practices both as physician and as
   surgeon.  --  General  ship, a ship not chartered or let to particular
   parties.  --  General  term  (Logic),  a  term  which is the sign of a
   general  conception  or notion. -- General verdict (Law), the ordinary
   comprehensive  verdict  in  civil actions, "for the plaintiff" or "for
   the  defendant".  Burrill.  --  General  warrant (Law), a warrant, now
   illegal,  to  apprehend suspected persons, without naming individuals.
   Syn.  General,  Common,  Universal.  Common  denotes primarily that in
   which  many share; and hence, that which is often met with. General is
   stronger,   denoting   that  which  pertains  to  a  majority  of  the
   individuals  which  compose  a  genus, or whole. Universal, that which
   pertains  to all without exception. To be able to read and write is so
   common  an  attainment  in the United States, that we may pronounce it
   general,   though  by  no  means  universal.  Gen"er*al  (?),  n.  [F.
   g\'82n\'82ral. See General., a.]

   1.  The whole; the total; that which comprehends or relates to all, or
   the chief part; -- opposed to particular.

     In  particulars  our  knowledge  begins,  and  so spreads itself by
     degrees to generals. Locke.

   2.  (Mil.)  One  of  the  chief  military  officers of a government or
   country;  the  commander  of an army, of a body of men not less than a
   brigade.  In  European  armies,  the  highest military rank next below
   field marshal.

     NOTE: &hand; In the United States the office of General of the Army
     has  been  created  by  temporary  laws,  and has been held only by
     Generals  U.  S.  Grant,  W.  T. Sherman, and P. H. Sheridan. <-- =
     5-star  general. Eisenhower? MacArthur? Pershing? -->Popularly, the
     title  General  is  given  to various general officers, as General,
     Lieutenant  general,  Major  general, Brigadier general, Commissary
     general,  etc.  See  Brigadier  general,  Lieutenant general, Major
     general, in the Vocabulary.

   3. (Mil.) The roll of the drum which calls the troops together; as, to
   beat the general.

   4.  (Eccl.)  The  chief  of an order of monks, or of all the houses or
   congregations under the same rule.

   5. The public; the people; the vulgar. [Obs.] Shak.
   In general, in the main; for the most part.


   Gen`e*ra"li*a (?), n. pl. [Neut. pl., fr. L. generalis.] Generalities;
   general terms. J. S. Mill.


   Gen`er*al*is"si*mo  (?),  n.  [It.,  superl.  of generale general. See
   General, a.] The chief commander of an army; especially, the commander
   in  chief  of  an army consisting of two or more grand divisions under
   separate commanders; -- a title used in most foreign countries.


   Gen`er*al"i*ty  (?), n.; pl. Generalities (#). [L. generalitas: cf. F.
   g\'82n\'82ralit\'82. Cf. Generalty.]

   1.  The  state  of  being general; the quality of including species or
   particulars. Hooker.

   2.   That   which   is   general;  that  which  lacks  specificalness,
   practicalness, or application; a general or vague statement or phrase.

     Let us descend from generalities to particulars. Landor.

     The  glittering  and  sounding  generalities of natural right which
     make up the Declaration of Independence. R. Choate.

   3. The main body; the bulk; the greatest part; as, the generality of a
   nation, or of mankind.


   Gen"er*al*i`za*ble (?), a. Capable of being generalized, or reduced to
   a general form of statement, or brought under a general rule.

     Extreme cases are . . . not generalizable. Coleridge


   Gen`er*al*i*za"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. g\'82n\'82ralisation.]

   1. The act or process of generalizing; the act of bringing individuals
   or  particulars  under  a  genus  or  class;  deduction  of  a general
   principle from particulars.

     Generalization is only the apprehension of the one in the many. Sir
     W. Hamilton.

   2. A general inference.


   Gen"er*al*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Generalized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Generalizing (?).] [Cf. F. g\'82n\'82raliser.]

   1.  To  bring  under a genus or under genera; to view in relation to a
   genus or to genera.

     Copernicus  generalized  the  celestial motions by merely referring
     them  to  the  moon's motion. Newton generalized them still more by
     referring  this  last  to the motion of a stone through the air. W.

   2.  To  apply to other genera or classes; to use with a more extensive
   application;  to  extend  so  as to include all special cases; to make
   universal in application, as a formula or rule.

     When  a  fact  is  generalized,  our  discontent  is quited, and we
     consider the generality itself as tantamount to an explanation. Sir
     W. Hamilton.

   3.  To derive or deduce (a general conception, or a general principle)
   from particulars.

     A  mere  conclusion  generalized  from  a great multitude of facts.


   Gen"er*al*ize,  v.  i.  To form into a genus; to view objects in their
   relations to a genus or class; to take general or comprehensive views.


   Gen"er*al*ized  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Comprising structural characters
   which  are  separated  in  more  specialized  forms;  synthetic; as, a
   generalized type.


   Gen"er*al*i`zer  (,  n.  One who takes general or comprehensive views.


   Gen"er*al*ly, adv.

   1.  In  general;  commonly;  extensively, though not universally; most

   2.  In  a  general  way, or in general relation; in the main; upon the
   whole; comprehensively.

     Generally speaking, they live very quietly. Addison.

   3. Collectively; as a whole; without omissions. [Obs.]

     I  counsel  that all Israel be generally gathered unto thee. 2 Sam.
     xvii. ll.


   Gen"er*al*ness,   n.  The  condition  or  quality  of  being  general;
   frequency; commonness. Sir P. Sidney.


   Gen"er*al*ship, n.

   1.  The  office  of  a  general;  the  exercise  of the functions of a
   general; -- sometimes, with the possessive pronoun, the personality of
   a general.

     Your generalship puts me in mind of Prince Eugene. Goldsmith.

   2. Military skill in a general officer or commander.

   3. Fig.: Leadership; management.

     An artful stroke of generalship in Trim to raise a dust. Sterne.


   Gen"er*al*ty (?), n. Generality. [R.] Sir M. Hale.


   Gen"er*ant  (?),  a.  [L.  generans,  p. pr. of generare.] Generative;
   producing; esp. (Geom.), acting as a generant.


   Gen"er*ant, n.

   1. That which generates. Glanvill.

   2. (Geom.) A generatrix.


   Gen"er*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Generated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Generating.]  [L. generatus, p. p. of generare to generate, fr. genus.
   See Genus, Gender.]

   1.  To  beget; to procreate; to propagate; to produce (a being similar
   to  the  parent);  to  engender;  as,  every  animal generates its own

   2. To cause to be; to bring into life. Milton.

   3.  To  originate,  especially  by  a  vital  or  chemical process; to
   produce; to cause.

     Whatever  generates a quantity of good chyle must likewise generate
     milk. Arbuthnot.

   4. (Math.) To trace out, as a line, figure, or solid, by the motion of
   a point or a magnitude of inferior order.

   Page 619


   Gen`er*a"tion  (?),  n.  [OE.  generacioun, F. g\'82n\'82ration, fr.L.

   1. The act of generating or begetting; procreation, as of animals.

   2.  Origination  by  some  process,  mathematical, chemical, or vital;
   production;  formation;  as,  the  generation  of sounds, of gases, of
   curves, etc.

   3. That which is generated or brought forth; progeny; offspiring.

   4. A single step or stage in the succession of natural descent; a rank
   or  remove  in genealogy. Hence: The body of those who are of the same
   genealogical  rank  or  remove  from  an  ancestor; the mass of beings
   living  at  one  period;  also,  the  average  lifetime of man, or the
   ordinary  period  of time at which one rank follows another, or father
   is  succeeded  by child, usually assumed to be one third of a century;
   an age.

     This is the book of the generations of Adam. Gen. v. 1.

     Ye  shall  remain  there  [in  Babylon]  many years, and for a long
     season, namely, seven generations. Baruch vi. 3.

     All generations and ages of the Christian church. Hooker.

   5. Race; kind; family; breed; stock.

     Thy mother's of my generation; what's she, if I be a dog? Shak.

   6.  (Geom.)  The formation or production of any geometrical magnitude,
   as  a  line,  a  surface, a solid, by the motion, in accordance with a
   mathematical  law,  of a point or a magnitude; as, the generation of a
   line  or  curve  by  the  motion of a point, of a surface by a line, a
   sphere by a semicircle, etc.

   7.  (Biol.)  The aggregate of the functions and phenomene which attend

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e fo ur mo des of  ge neration in the animal
     kingdom:  scissiparity or by fissiparous generation, gemmiparity or
     by budding, germiparity or by germs, and oviparity or by ova.

   Alternate  generation  (Biol.),  alternation  of  sexual  with asexual
   generation,  in which the products of one process differ from those of
   the  other,  --  a  form  of  reproduction  common  both to animal and
   vegetable  organisms.  In the simplest form, the organism arising from
   sexual generation produces offspiring unlike itself, agamogenetically.
   These,  however,  in  time acquire reproductive organs, and from their
   impregnated  germs  the  original  parent  form is reproduced. In more
   complicated   cases,   the   first   series   of   organisms  produced
   agamogenetically  may give rise to others by a like process, and these
   in  turn to still other generations. Ultimately, however, a generation
   is  formed  which  develops  sexual  organs,  and the original form is
   reproduced.  -- Spontaneous generation (Biol.), the fancied production
   of living organisms without previously existing parents from inorganic
   matter, or from decomposing organic matter, a notion which at one time
   had many supporters; abiogenesis.


   Gen"er*a*tive  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. g\'82n\'82ratif.] Having the power of
   generating,  propagating,  originating, or producing. "That generative
   particle." Bentley.


   Gen"er*a`tor (?), n. [L.]

   1. One who, or that which, generates, begets, causes, or produces.

   2. An apparatus in which vapor or gas is formed from a liquid or solid
   by  means  of heat or chemical process, as a steam boiler, gas retort,
   or vessel for generating carbonic acid gas, etc.

   3.  (Mus.) The principal sound or sounds by which others are produced;
   the  fundamental  note  or  root  of  the common chord; -- called also
   generating tone.


   Gen`er*a"trix  (?),  n.; pl. L. Generatrices (#), E. Generatrixes (#).
   [L.]  (Geom.)  That  which  generates;  the point, or the mathematical
   magnitude,  which,  by  its  motion, generates another magnitude, as a
   line, surface, or solid; -- called also describent.

                              Generic, Generical

   Ge*ner"ic  (?),  Ge*ner"ic*al  (?), a. [L. genus, generis, race, kind:
   cf. F. g\'82n\'82rique. See Gender.]

   1.  (Biol.)  Pertaining  to  a  genus or kind; relating to a genus, as
   distinct  from  a  species,  or  from  another  genus;  as,  a generic
   description; a generic difference; a generic name.

   2.  Very  comprehensive; pertaining or appropriate to large classes or
   their characteristics; -- opposed to specific.


   Ge*ner"ic*al*ly,  adv.  With regard to a genus, or an extensive class;
   as,  an  animal  generically  distinct from another, or two animals or
   plants generically allied.


   Ge*ner"ic*al*ness, n. The quality of being generic.


   Ge*ner`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. genus kind, class + -ficare (in comp.)
   to make. See -fy.] The act or process of generalizing.

     Out  of  this the universal is elaborated by generification. Sir W.


   Gen`er*os"i*ty (?), n. [L. generositas: cf. F. g\'82n\'82rosit\'82.]

   1. Noble birth. [Obs.] Harris (Voyages).

   2. The quality of being noble; noble-mindedness.

     Generosity  is  in nothing more seen than in a candid estimation of
     other men's virtues and good qualities. Barrow.

   3. Liberality in giving; munificence. Syn. -- Magnanimity; liberality.


   Gen"er*ous (?), a. [F. g\'82n\'82reux, fr. L. generous of noble birth,
   noble,   excellent,  magnanimous,  fr.  genus  birth,  race:  cf.  It.
   generoso. See 2d Gender.]

   1. Of honorable birth or origin; highborn. [Obs.]

     The generous and gravest citizens. Shak.

   2.  Exhibiting  those  qualities  which  are  popularly  reregarded as
   belonging  to  high  birth;  noble;  honorable; magnanimous; spirited;
   courageous.  "The generous critic." Pope. "His generous spouse." Pope.
   "A generous pack [of hounds]." Addison.

   3.  Open-handed; free to give; not close or niggardly; munificent; as,
   a generous friend or father.

   4.  Characterized by generosity; abundant; overflowing; as, a generous
   table. Swift.

   5.  Full  of  spirit  or strength; stimulating; exalting; as, generous
   wine.  Syn.  -- Magnanimous; bountiful. See Liberal. -- Gen"er*ous*ly,
   adv. -- Gen"er*ous*ness, n.

                                 Genesee epoch

   Gen`e*see" ep"och (?). (Geol.) The closing subdivision of the Hamilton
   period  in  the  American  Devonian  system;  -- so called because the
   formations of this period crop out in Genesee, New York.


   Ge*ne"sial (?), a. Of or relating to generation.


   Ge*ne`si*ol"gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -logy.]  The  doctrine  or  science of


   Gen"e*sis (?), n. [L., from Gr. genus birth, race. See Gender.]

   1.  The  act  of producing, or giving birth or origin to anything; the
   process or mode of originating; production; formation; origination.

     The origin and genasis of poor Sterling's club. Carlyle.

   2.  The  first  book  of  the Old Testament; -- so called by the Greek
   translators,  from  its  containing the history of the creation of the
   world and of the human race.

   3. (Geom.) Same as Generation.

                                Genet, Genette

   Gen"et (?), Ge*nette" (, n. [F. genette, Sp. gineta, fr. Ar. jarnei

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  One of several species of small Carnivora of the genus
   Genetta,  allied  to  the  civets,  but  having  the scent glands less
   developed, and without a pouch.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon ge net (G enetta vu lgaris) of  So uthern
     Europe,  Asia  Minor,  and North Africa, is dark gray, spotted with
     black. The long tail is banded with black and white. The Cape genet
     (G.  felina),  and  the  berbe  (G.  pardina),  are related African

   2.  The  fur  of  the  common genet (Genetta vulgaris); also, any skin
   dressed in imitation of this fur.


   Gen"et (?), n. [See Jennet.] A small-sized, well-proportioned, Spanish
   horse; a jennet. Shak.


   Ge*neth"li*ac  (?), a. [L. genethliacus, Gr. Pertaining to nativities;
   calculated  by  astrologers; showing position of stars at one's birth.


   Ge*neth"li*ac, n.

   1. A birthday poem.

   2. One skilled in genethliacs.


   Gen`eth*li"a*cal (?), a. Genethliac.


   Ge*neth"li*acs  (?),  n.  The  science  of  calculating nativities, or
   predicting  the  future events of life from the stars which preside at
   birth. Jhonson.


   Ge*neth`li*al"o*gy  (?), n. [Gr. Divination as to the destinies of one
   newly born; the act or art of casting nativities; astrology.


   Ge*neth`li*at"ic  (?),  n.  One  who  calculates  nativities.  Sir  W.


   Ge*net"ic (?), a. Same as Genetical.


   Ge*net"ic*al  (?), a. [See Genesis.] Pertaining to, concerned with, or
   determined  by,  the  genesis  of  anything,  or  its  natural mode of
   production or development.

     This  historical,  genetical  method  of  viewing  prior systems of
     philosophy. Hare.


   Ge*net"ic*al*ly, adv. In a genetical manner.


   Ge*ne"va  (?),  n.  The  chief  city  of  Switzerland. Geneva Bible, a
   translation  of  the Bible into English, made and published by English
   refugees  in  Geneva  (Geneva,  1560;  London, 1576). It was the first
   English  Bible  printed  in  Roman  type  instead of the ancient black
   letter,  the  first which recognized the division into verses, and the
   first  which ommited the Apocrypha. In form it was a small quarto, and
   soon  superseded the large folio of Cranmer's translation. Called also
   Genevan  Bible.  --  Geneva  convention  (Mil.),  an agreement made by
   representatives  of  the great continental powers at Geneva and signed
   in  1864,  establishing  new  and more humane regulation regarding the
   treatment of the sick and wounded and the status of those who minister
   to  them  in  war. Ambulances and military hospitals are made neutral,
   and  this  condition  affects  physicians,  chaplains, nurses, and the
   ambulance  corps.  Great  Britain  signed  the  convention in 1865. --
   Geneva  cross (Mil.), a red Greek cross on a white ground; -- the flag
   and badge adopted in the Geneva convention.


   Ge*ne"va  (?),  n.  [F.  geni\'8avre  juniper, juniper berry, gin, OF.
   geneivre  juniper,  fr. L. juniperus the juniper tree: cf. D. jenever,
   fr.  F.  geni\'8avre.  See  Juniper, and cf. Gin a liquor.] A strongly
   alcoholic  liquor,  flavores with juniper berries; -- made in Holland;
   Holland gin; Hollands.


   Ge*ne"van  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  Geneva,  in  Switzerland;


   Ge*ne"van, n.

   1. A native or inhabitant of Geneva.

   2. A supported of Genevanism.


   Ge*ne"van*ism  (?),  n.  [From  Geneva,  where Calvin resided.] Strict
   Calvinism. Bp. Montagu.


   Gen`e*vese"  (?),  a.  [Cf.  L.  Genevensis,  F.  g\'82nevois.]  Of or
   pertaining  to  Geneva,  in  Switzerland; Genevan. -- n. sing. & pl. A
   native  or  inhabitant  of  Geneva;  collectively,  the inhabitants of
   Geneva; people of Geneva.


   Ge*ni"al (?), a. (Anat.) Same as Genian.


   Gen"ial (?), a. [L. genialis: cf. OF. genial. See Genius.]

   1.  Contributing  to,  or  concerned  in,  propagation  or production;
   generative; procreative; productive. "The genial bed." Milton.

     Creator Venus, genial power of love. Dryden.

   2.  Contributing  to,  and  sympathizing  with, the enjoyment of life;
   sympathetically  cheerful  and  cheering;  jovial and inspiring joy or
   happiness; exciting pleasure and sympathy; enlivening; kindly; as, she
   was of a cheerful and genial disposition.

     So much I feel my genial spirits droop. Milton.

   3.  Belonging  to  one's genius or natural character; native; natural;
   inborn. [Obs.]

     Natural incapacity and genial indisposition. Sir T. Browne.

   4. Denoting or marked with genius [R.]

     Men  of  genius have often attached the highest value to their less
     genial works. Hare.

   Genial  gods  (Pagan  Mythol.),  the  powers  supposed to preside over
   marriage and generation.


   Ge`ni*al"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L. genialitas.] The quality of being genial;
   sympathetic cheerfulness; warmth of disposition and manners.


   Gen"ial*ly (?), adv.

   1. By genius or nature; naturally. [Obs.]

     Some men are genially disposed to some opinions. Glanvill.

   2. Gayly; cheerfully. Johnson.


   Gen"ial*ness, n. The quality of being genial.


   Ge*ni"an  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Chin.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the chin;
   mental; as, the genian prominence.


   Ge*nic"u*late (?), a. [L. geniculatus, fr. geniculum little knee, knot
   or  joint,  dim.  of  genu knee. See Knee.] Bent abruptly at an angle,
   like the knee when bent; as, a geniculate stem; a geniculate ganglion;
   a geniculate twin crystal.


   Ge*nic"u*late  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Geniculated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Geniculating.] To form joints or knots on. [R.] Cockeram.


   Ge*nic"u*la`ted (?), a. Same as Geniculate.


   Ge*nic`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. geniculatio a kneeling.]

   1. The act of kneeling. [R.] Bp. Hall.

   2. The state of being bent abruptly at an angle.


   G\'82`nie (?), n. [F.] See Genius.


   Ge"ni*o  (?), n. [It. See Genius.] A man of a particular turn of mind.
   [R.] Tatler.


   Ge`ni*o*hy"oid  (?),  a.  [Gr. hyoid.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the
   chin and hyoid bone; as, the geniohyoid muscle.


   Gen"i*pap  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  edible  fruit  of a West Indian tree
   (Genipa Americana) of the order Rubiace\'91. It is oval in shape, as a
   large  as  a  small  orange,  of  a pale greenish color, and with dark
   purple juice.


   Ge*nis"ta  (?), n. [L., broom.] (Bot.) A genus of plants including the
   common broom of Western Europe.


   Gen"i*tal (?), a. [L. genitalis, fr. genere, gignere, to beget: cf. F.
   g\'82nital.   See   Gender.]  Pertaining  to  generation,  or  to  the
   generative organs. Genital cord (Anat.), a cord developed in the fetus
   by  the  union  of portions of the Wolffian and M\'81llerian ducts and
   giving rise to parts of the urogenital passages in both sexes.


   Gen"i*tals  (?),  n.  pl.  [From  Genital,  a.: cf. L. genitalia.] The
   organs of generation; the sexual organs; the private parts.


   Gen"i*ting  (?),  n.  [See  Jenneting.] A species of apple that ripens
   very early. Bacon.


   Gen`i*ti"val  (?),  a.  Possessing  genitive  from;  pertaining to, or
   derived   from,   the  genitive  case;  as,  a  genitival  adverb.  --
   Gen`i*ti"val*ly, adv.


   Gen"i*tive  (?), a. [L. genitivus, fr. gignere, genitum, to beget: cf.
   F.  g\'82nitif. See Gender.] (Gram.) Of or pertaining to that case (as
   the  second  case  of Latin and Greek nouns) which expresses source or
   possession. It corresponds to the possessive case in English.


   Gen"i*tive,  n.  (Gram.)  The  genitive  case.  Genitive  absolute,  a
   construction  in  Greek similar to the ablative absolute in Latin. See
   Ablative absolute.


   Gen`i*to*cru"ral (?), a. [Genital + crural.] (Anat.) Pertaining to the
   genital  organs  and  the  thigh;  -- applied especially to one of the
   lumbar nerves.


   Gen"i*tor (?), n. [L.]

   1. One who begets; a generator; an originator. Sheldon.

   2. pl. The genitals. [Obs.] Holland.


   Gen`i*to*u"ri*na*ry   (?),   a.   [Genital  +  urinary.]  (Anat.)  See


   Gen"i*ture  (?),  n.  [L.  genitura:  cf. F. g\'82niture.] Generation;
   procreation; birth. Dryden.


   Gen"ius  (?),  n.;  pl. E. Geniuses (#); in sense 1, L. Genii (#). [L.
   genius,  prop.,  the  superior  or  divine  nature  which is innate in
   everything,  the  spirit,  the  tutelar deity or genius of a person or
   place,  taste,  talent,  genius, from genere, gignere, to beget, bring
   forth. See Gender, and cf. Engine.]

   1.  A  good  or  evil  spirit,  or  demon, supposed by the ancients to
   preside over a man's destiny in life; a tutelary deity; a supernatural
   being; a spirit, good or bad. Cf. Jinnee.

     The unseen genius of the wood. Milton.

     We  talk  of genius still, but with thought how changed! The genius
     of  Augustus  was  a  tutelary demon, to be sworn by and to receive
     offerings on an altar as a deity. Tylor.

   2.  The  peculiar  structure  of  mind  with  whoch each individual is
   endowed  by  nature;  that  disposition  or  aptitude of mind which is
   peculiar  to  each  man,  and which qualifies him for certain kinds of
   action  or special success in any pursuit; special taste, inclination,
   or disposition; as, a genius for history, for poetry, or painting.

   3. Peculiar character; animating spirit, as of a nation, a religion, a

   4.  Distinguished  mental  superiority;  uncommon  intellectual power;
   especially, superior power of invention or origination of any kind, or
   of forming new combinations; as, a man of genius.

     Genius  of  the  highest  kind  implies an unusual intensity of the
     modifyng power. Coleridge.

   5.  A  man  endowed  with  uncommon  vigor  of mind; a man of superior
   intellectual  faculties;  as,  Shakespeare  was a rare genius. Syn. --
   Genius,  Talent.  Genius  implies  high  and peculiar gifts of nature,
   impelling  the  mind  to  certain favorite kinds of mental effort, and
   producing  new  combinations  of  ideas, imagery, etc. Talent supposes
   general  strength  of  intellect,  with  a peculiar aptitude for being
   molded  and  directed  to  specific  employments and valuable ends and
   purposes.  Genius  is  connected  more  or  less  with the exercise of
   imagination, and reaches its ends by a kind of intuitive power. Talent
   depends more on high mental training, and a perfect command of all the
   faculties, memory, judgment, sagacity, etc. Hence we speak of a genius
   for  poetry,  painting.  etc., and a talent for business or diplomacy.
   Among  English orators, Lord Chatham was distinguished for his genius;
   William  Pitt  for  his  pre\'89minent  talents,  and  especially  his
   unrivaled talent for debate.

   Page 620

   Genius  loci  (  [L.],  the  genius  or presiding divinity of a place;
   hence,  the  pervading  spirit  of  a  place  or  institution, as of a
   college, etc.


   Gen`o*ese"  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to Genoa, a city of Italy. -- n.
   sing.  & pl. A native or inhabitant of Genoa; collectively, the people
   of Genoa.


   Ge*nouil`l\'8are" (?), n. [F.]

   1. (Anc. Armor) A metal plate covering the knee.

   2.  (Fort.) That part of a parapet which lies between the gun platform
   and the bottom of an embrasure.


   -ge*nous.  [-gen + -ous.] A suffix signifying producing, yielding; as,
   alkaligenous; endogenous.


   Genre  (?),  n.  [F.  See  Gender.]  (Fine  Arts) A style of painting,
   sculpture, or other imitative art, which illustrates everyday life and


   Gens (?), n.; pl. Gentes (#). [L. See Gentle, a.] (Rom. Hist.)

   1. A clan or family connection, embracing several families of the same
   stock,  who  had  a  common name and certain common religious rites; a
   subdivision of the Roman curia or tribe.

   2.   (Ethnol.)   A  minor  subdivision  of  a  tribe,  among  American
   aborigines.  It includes those who have a common descent, and bear the
   same totem.


   Gent  (?),  a.  [OF.  gent,  fr.  L. genitus born, or (less prob.) fr.
   gentilis. See Genteel.]

   1. Gentle; noble; of gentle birth. [Obs.]

     All of a knight [who] was fair and gent. Chaucer.

   2. Neat; pretty; fine; elegant. [Obs.] Spenser.

     Her body gent and small. Chaucer.


   Gen*teel" (?), a. [F. gentil noble, pretty, graceful. See Gentle.]

   1.  Possessing  or  exhibiting  the  qualities  popularly  regarded as
   belonging  to high birth and breeding; free from vulgarity, or lowness
   of  taste  or  behavior;  adapted  to  a  refined or cultivated taste;
   polite; well-bred; as, genteel company, manners, address.

   2.  Graceful in mien or form; elegant in appearance, dress, or manner;
   as, the lady has a genteel person. Law.

   3.  Suited  to  the  position of lady or a gentleman; as, to live in a
   genteel allowance. Syn. -- Polite; well-bred; refined; polished.


   Gen*teel"ish, a. Somewhat genteel.


   Gen*teel"ly, adv. In a genteel manner.


   Gen*teel"ness, n. The quality of being genteel.

                               Genterie, Gentrie

   Gen"ter*ie  (?), Gen"trie (, n. [OE. See Gentry.] Nobility of birth or
   of character; gentility. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gen"tian (?), n. [OE. genciane, F. gentiane, L. gentiana, fr. Gentius,
   an  Illyrian king, said to have discovered its properties.] (Bot.) Any
   one  of  a  genus (Gentiana) of herbaceous plants with opposite leaves
   and a tubular four- or five-lobed corolla, usually blue, but sometimes
   white, yellow, or red. See Illust. of Capsule.

     NOTE: &hand; Ma ny sp ecies ar e fo und on the highest mountains of
     Europe, Asia, and America, and some are prized for their beauty, as
     the Alpine (Gentiana verna, Bavarica, and excisa), and the American
     fringed  gentians  (G. crinita and G. detonsa). Several are used as
     tonics,   especially  the  bitter  roots  of  Gentiana  lutea,  the
     officinal gentian of the pharmacop&oe;ias.

   Horse  gentian,  fever  root.  -- Yellow gentian (Bot.), the officinal
   gentian (Gentiana lutea). See Bitterwort.


   Gen`tian*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of
   plants (Gentianace\'91) of which the gentian is the type.


   Gen`tian*el"la (?), n. [See Gentian.] A kind of blue color. Johnson.


   Gen`ti*an"ic  (?),  a.  Pertaining to or derived from the gentian; as,
   gentianic acid.


   Gen"tian*ine  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  bitter,  crystallizable  substance
   obtained from gentian.


   Gen"tian*ose`  (?),  n. (Chem.) A crystallizable, sugarlike substance,
   with a slightly sweetish taste, obtained from the gentian.


   Gen"til (?), a. & n. Gentle. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gen"tile (?), n. [L. gentilis belonging to the same clan, stock, race,
   people,  or nation; in opposition to Roman, a foreigner; in opposition
   to  Jew or Christian, a heathen: cf. F. gentil. See Gentle, a.] One of
   a non-Jewish nation; one neither a Jew nor a Christian; a worshiper of
   false gods; a heathen.

     NOTE: &hand; The Hebrews included in the term g\'d3yim, or nations,
     all the tribes of men who had not received the true faith, and were
     not  circumcised.  The  Christians  translated  g\'d3yim  by the L.
     gentes,  and  imitated  the Jews in giving the name gentiles to all
     nations who were neither Jews nor Christians. In civil affairs, the
     denomination was given to all nations who were not Romans.

   Syn. -- Pagan; heathen. See Pagan.


   Gen"tile, a.

   1.  Belonging to the nations at large, as distinguished from the Jews;
   ethnic; of pagan or heathen people.

   2.  (Gram.)  Denoting  a  race  or  country;  as,  a  gentile  noun or


   Gen"tile-fal`con (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Falcon-gentil.


   Gen`ti*lesse"  (?), n. [OF. gentilesse, gentelise, F. gentillesse. See
   Gentle. a.] Gentleness; courtesy; kindness; nobility. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gen"til*ish (?), a. Heathenish; pagan.


   Gen"til*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. gentilisme.]

   1. Hethenism; paganism; the worship of false gods.

   2. Tribal feeling; devotion to one's gens.

                           Gentilitial, Gentilitious

   Gen`ti*li"tial  (?),  Gen`ti*li"tious  (?),  a.  [L.  gentilitius. See
   Gentile.] [Obs.]

   1. Peculiar to a people; national. Sir T. Browne.

   2. Hereditary; entailed on a family. Arbuthnot.


   Gen*til"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  gentilitas  the relationship of those who
   belong  to  the  same  clan,  also,  heathenism:  cf.  F. gentilit\'82
   heathenism. See Gentile.]

   1. Good extraction; dignity of birth. Macaulay.

     He . . . mines my gentility with my education. Shak.

   2. The quality or qualities appropriate to those who are well born, as
   self-respect,  dignity,  courage,  courtesy,  politeness  of manner, a
   graceful and easy mien and behavior, etc.; good breeding.

   3.  The  class in society who are, or are expected to be, genteel; the
   gentry. [R.] Sir J. Davies.

   4. Paganism; heathenism. [Obs.] Hooker.


   Gen"til*ize (?), v. i. [See Gentile.]

   1. To live like a gentile or heathen. [Obs.] Milton.

   2. To act the gentleman; -- with it (see It, 5). [Obs.]


   Gen"til*ize,  v. i. To render gentile or gentlemanly; as, to gentilize
   your unworthy sones. [R.] Sylvester.


   Gen"til*ly  (?),  adv.  [From Gentil, a.] In a gentle or hoble manner;
   frankly. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gen`ti*o*pi"krin  (?),  n.  [Gentian  +  Gr. (Chem.) A bitter, yellow,
   crystalline  substance, regarded as a glucoside, and obtained from the


   Gen"ti*sin (?), n. (Chem.) A tasteless, yellow, crystalline substance,
   obtained from the gentian; -- called also gentianin.


   Gen"tle  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Gentler  (?); superl. Gentlest (?).] [OE.
   gentil, F. gentil noble, pretty, graceful, fr. L. gentilis of the same
   clan  or  race,  fr. gens, gentis, tribe, clan, race, orig. that which
   belongs  together by birth, fr. the root of genere, gignere, to beget;
   hence  gentle, properly, of birth or family, that is, of good or noble
   birth. See Gender, and cf. Genteel, Gentil, Gentile, Gentoo, Jaunty.]

   1. Well-born; of a good family or respectable birth, though not noble.

     British society is divided into nobility, gentry, and yeomanry, and
     families are either noble, gentle, or simple. Johnson's Cyc.

     The  studies  wherein  our  noble  and gentle youth ought to bestow
     their time. Milton.

   2.  Quiet  and  refined  in manners; not rough, harsh, or stern; mild;
   meek;  bland;  amiable;  tender;  as,  a  gentle  nature,  temper,  or
   disposition; a gentle manner; a gentle address; a gentle voice.

   3.  A  compellative  of  respect,  consideration, or conciliation; as,
   gentle reader. "Gentle sirs." "Gentle Jew." "Gentle servant." Shak.

   4.  Not  wild,  turbulent,  or  refractory;  quiet  and  docile; tame;
   peaceable; as, a gentle horse.

   5.  Soft; not violent or rough; not strong, loud, or disturbing; easy;
   soothing;  pacific;  as,  a  gentle  touch;  a  gentle gallop. "Gentle
   music." Sir J. Davies.

     O sleep! it is a gentle thing. Coleridge.

   The  gentle craft, the art or trade of shoemaking. Syn. -- Mild; meek;
   placid;   dovelike;  quiet;  peaceful;  pacific;  bland;  soft;  tame;
   tractable;  docile.  -- Gentle, Tame, Mild, Meek. Gentle describes the
   natural  disposition;  tame,  that  which is subdued by training; mild
   implies  a  temper  which  is, by nature, not easily provoked; meek, a
   spirit which has been schooled to mildness by discipline or suffering.
   The  lamb is gentle; the domestic fowl is tame; John, the Apostle, was
   mild; Moses was meek.


   Gen"tle, n.

   1. One well born; a gentleman. [Obs.]

     Gentles, methinks you frown. Shak.

     2. A trained falcon. See Falcon-gentil.

     3. (Zo\'94l.) A dipterous larva used as fish bait.


     Gent"le, v. t.

     1.  To  make  genteel; to raise from the vulgar; to ennoble. [Obs.]

     2. To make smooth, cozy, or agreeable. [R. or Poet.]

     To  gentle  life's  descent,  We  shut  our eyes, and think it is a
     plain. Young.

     3. To make kind and docile, as a horse. [Colloq.]

                            Gentlefolk, Gentlefolks

     Gen"tle*folk`  (?),  Gen"tle*folks`  (, n. pl. Persons of gentle or
     good  family  and  breeding. [Generally in the United States in the
     plural form.] Shak.


     Gen"tle-heart`ed (?), a. Having a kind or gentle disposition. Shak.
     -- Gen"tle-heart`ed*ness, n.


     Gen"tle*man  (?),  n.;  pl. Gentlemen (#). [OE. gentilman nobleman;
     gentil noble + man man; cf. F. gentilhomme.]

     1.  A man well born; one of good family; one above the condition of
     a yeoman.

     2. One of gentle or refined manners; a well-bred man.

     3. (Her.) One who bears arms, but has no title.

     4. The servant of a man of rank.

     The count's gentleman, one Cesario. Shak.

     5.  A man, irrespective of condition; -- used esp. in the plural (=
     citizens; people), in addressing men in popular assemblies, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; In  Gr eat Britain, the term gentleman is applied in a
     limited  sense to those having coats of arms, but who are without a
     title, and, in this sense, gentlemen hold a middle rank between the
     nobility  and yeomanry. In a more extended sense, it includes every
     man  above  the  rank of yeoman, comprehending the nobility. In the
     United  States,  the  term  is applied to men of education and good
     breeding of every occupation.

   Gentleman  commoner,  one  of  the  highest  class of commoners at the
   University of Oxford. -- Gentleman usher, one who ushers visitors into
   the presence of a sovereign, etc. -- Gentleman usher of the black rod,
   an  usher belonging to the Order of the Garter, whose chief duty is to
   serve   as   official   messenger   of   the   House   of   Lords.  --
   Gentlemen-at-arms,  a band of forty gentlemen who attend the sovereign
   on state occasions; formerly called gentlemen pensioners. [Eng.]
   Gen"tle*man*hood  (?),  n.  The qualities or condition of a gentleman.
   [R.] Thackeray. 

                          Gentlemanlike, Gentlemanly

   Gen"tle*man*like`  (?),  Gen"tle*man*ly  (?),  a.  Of,  pertaining to,
   resembling, or becoming, a gentleman; well-behaved; courteous; polite.


   Gen"tle*man*li*ness   (?),   n.   The   state  of  being  gentlemanly;
   gentlemanly conduct or manners.


   Gen"tle*man*ship, n. The carriage or quality of a gentleman.


   Gen"tle*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state of being gentle, well-born,
   mild,  benevolent,  docile,  etc.;  gentility;  softness  of  manners,
   disposition, etc.; mildness.


   Gen"tle*ship,  n.  The  deportment  or  conduct of a gentleman. [Obs.]


   Gent"lesse (?), n. Gentilesse; gentleness. [Obs.]


   Gen"tle*wom`an (?), n.; pl. Gentlewomen (.

   1.  A  woman  of  good  family  or of good breeding; a woman above the
   vulgar. Bacon.

   2. A woman who attends a lady of high rank. Shak.


   Gen"tly (?), adv. In a gentle manner.

     My mistress gently chides the fault I made. Dryden.


   Gen*too"  (?),  n.; pl. Gentoos (#). [Pg. gentio gentile, heathen. See
   Gentile.] A native of Hindostan; a Hindoo. [Archaic]


   Gen"try  (?),  n.  [OE.  genterie, gentrie, noble birth, nobility, cf.
   gentrise,  and  OF.  gentelise,  genterise,  E.  gentilesse,  also OE.
   genteleri high-mindedness. See Gent, a., Gentle, a.]

   1.  Birth;  condition;  rank  by  birth.  [Obs.]  "Pride  of gentrie."

     She  conquers him by high almighty Jove, By knighthood, gentry, and
     sweet friendship's oath. Shak.

   2.  People of education and good breeding; in England, in a restricted
   sense, those between the nobility and the yeomanry. Macaulay.

   3. Courtesy; civility; complaisance. [Obs.]

     To show us so much gentry and good will. Shak.


   Gen"ty  (?),  a.  [From  F.  gentil.  Cf. Jaunty.] Neat; trim. [Scot.]


   Ge"nu  (?),  n.;  pl. Genua (#). [L., the knee.] (Anat.) (a) The knee.
   (b)  The  kneelike  bend,  in the anterior part of the callosum of the


   Gen`u*flect"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Genuflected; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Genuflecting.] [See Genuflection.] To bend the knee, as in worship.


   Gen`u*flec"tion (?), n. [F. g\'82nuflexion, fr. LL. genuflexio, fr. L.
   genu knee + flexio a bending, fr. flectere, flexum, to bend. See Knee,
   Flexible.]  The  act of bending the knee, particularly in worship. Bp.


   Gen"u*ine  (?),  a.  [L.  genuinus,  fr. genere, gignere, to beget, in
   pass.,  to  be  born: cf. F. g\'82nuine. See Gender.] Belonging to, or
   proceeding  from,  the original stock; native; hence, not counterfeit,
   spurious, false, or adulterated; authentic; real; natural; true; pure;
   as,  a  genuine  text; a genuine production; genuine materials. "True,
   genuine   night."   Dryden.  Syn.  --  Authentic;  real;  true;  pure;
   unalloyed;  unadulterated.  See  Authentic.  --  Gen"u*ine*ly, adv. --
   Gen"u*ine*ness, n.

     The  evidence,  both internal and external, against the genuineness
     of these letters, is overwhelming. Macaulay.


   Ge"nus  (?), n.; pl. Genera (#). [L., birth, race, kind, sort; akin to
   Gr. Gender, and cf. Benign.]

   1.  (Logic)  A  class  of  objects  divided  into  several subordinate
   species;  a  class  more extensive than a species; a precisely defined
   and  exactly divided class; one of the five predicable conceptions, or
   sorts of terms.

   2. (Biol.) An assemblage of species, having so many fundamental points
   of  structure in common, that in the judgment of competent scientists,
   they may receive a common substantive name. A genus is not necessarily
   the  lowest  definable  group  of species, for it may often be divided
   into  several  subgenera. In proportion as its definition is exact, it
   is  natural genus; if its definition can not be made clear, it is more
   or less an artificial genus.

     NOTE: &hand; Th us in  the animal kingdom the lion, leopard, tiger,
     cat, and panther are species of the Cat kind or genus, while in the
     vegetable  kingdom all the species of oak form a single genus. Some
     genera  are  represented  by  a  multitude  of  species, as Solanum
     (Nightshade) and Carex (Sedge), others by few, and some by only one
     known species.

   Subaltern  genus  (Logic),  a genus which may be a species of a higher
   genus,  as  the genus denoted by quadruped, which is also a species of
   mammal. -- Summum genus [L.] (Logic), the highest genus; a genus which
   can not be classed as a species, as being .
   Ge"nys (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) See Conys.
                           Geocentric, Geocentrical
   Ge`o*cen"tric  (?),  Ge`o*cen"tric*al  (?),  a. [Gr. g\'82ocentrique.]
   (Astron.)  (a) Having reference to the earth as center; in relation to
   or  seen  from  the earth, -- usually opposed to heliocentric, as seen
   from  the  sun;  as, the geocentric longitude or latitude of a planet.
   (b)  Having  reference to the center of the earth. Geocentric latitude
   (of  place) the angle included between the radius of the earth through
   the place and the plane of the equator, in distinction from geographic
   latitude. It is a little less than the geographic latitude.
   Ge`o*cen"tric*al*ly, adv. In a geocentric manner. 


   Ge*oc"ro*nite  (?),  n. [Gr. geokronit.] (Min.) A lead-gray or grayish
   blue  mineral with a metallic luster, consisting of sulphur, antimony,
   and lead, with a small proportion of arsenic.


   Ge`o*cyc"lic (?), a. [Gr.

   1.  Of,  pertaining to, or illustrating, the revolutions of the earth;
   as, a geocyclic machine.

   2. Circling the earth periodically.


   Ge"ode (?), n. [F. g\'82ode, L. geodes, fr. Gr. (Min.) (a) A nodule of
   stone, containing a cavity, lined with crystals or mineral matter. (b)
   The cavity in such a nodule.

   Page 621


   Ge`o*deph"a*gous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  Living  in the earth; --
   applied to the ground beetles.

                             Geodesic, Geodesical

   Ge`o*des"ic  (?),  Ge`o*des"ic*al  (?),  a. [Cf. F. g\'82od\'82sique.]
   (Math.) Of or pertaining to geodetic.


   Ge`o*des"ic, n. A geodetic line or curve.


   Ge*od"e*sist (?), n. One versed in geodesy.


   Ge*od"e*sy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  g\'82od\'82sie.]  (Math.)  That  branch of
   applied  mathematics  which  determines,  by means of observations and
   measurements,  the  figures and areas of large portions of the earth's
   surface,  or  the general figure and dimenshions of the earth; or that
   branch  of surveying in which the curvature of the earth is taken into
   account, as in the surveys of States, or of long lines of coast.

                             Geodetic, Geodetical

   Ge`o*det"ic  (?),  Ge`o*det"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to gebdesy;
   obtained  or  determined  by  the  operations  of  geodesy; engaged in
   geodesy;   geodesic;   as,  geodetic  surveying;  geodetic  observers.
   Geodetic  line  OR  curve, the shortest line that can be drawn between
   two  points  on  the elipsoidal surface of the earth; a curve drawn on
   any  given  surface so that the osculating plane of the curve at every
   point  shall  contain the normal to the surface; the minimum line that
   can be drawn on any surface between any two points.


   Ge`o*det"ic*al*ly, adv. In a geodetic manner; according to geodesy.


   Ge`o*det"ics (?), n. Same as Geodesy.


   Ge`o*dif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Geode + -ferous.] (Min.) Producing geodes;
   containing geodes.


   Ge"o*duck  (?),  n. [American Indian name.] (Zo\'94l.) A gigantic clam
   (Glycimeris  generosa)  of  the Pacific coast of North America, highly
   valued as an article of food.


   Ge`og*no"sis  (?),  n. [See Geognosy.] Knowledge of the earth. [R.] G.


   Ge"og*nost  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. g\'82ognoste.] One versed in geognosy; a
   geologist. [R.]

                           Geognostic, Geognostical

   Ge`og*nos"tic  (?), Ge`og*nos"tic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. g\'82ognostique.]
   Of  or  pertaining  to geognosy, or to a knowledge of the structure of
   the earth; geological. [R.]


   Ge*og"no*sy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  g\'82ognosie.] That part of geology which
   treats  of  the  materials  of  the earth's structure, and its general
   exterior and interior constitution.

                             Geogonic, Geogonical

   Ge`o*gon"ic  (?), Ge`o*gon"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. g\'82ogonique.] Of or
   pertaining to geogony, or to the formation of the earth.


   Ge*og"o*ny  (?),  n.  [Gr.  g\'82ogonie.]  The branch of science which
   treats of the formation of the earth.


   Ge*og"ra*pher (?), n. One versed in geography.

                           Geographic, Geographical

   Ge`o*graph"ic  (?),  Ge`o*graph"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L. geographicus, Gr.
   g\'82ographique.]   Of   or   pertaining  to  geography.  Geographical
   distribution.  See  under  Distribution.  -- Geographic latitude (of a
   place),  the  angle included between a line perpendicular or normal to
   the  level surface of water at rest at the place, and the plane of the
   equator;  differing slightly from the geocentric latitude by reason of
   the  difference  between  the  earth's  figure  and  a true sphere. --
   Geographical  mile.  See  under  Mile.  -- Geographical variation, any
   variation  of  a  species  which  is  dependent  on  climate  or other
   geographical conditions.


   Ge`o*graph"ic*al*ly,   adv.   In  a  geographical  manner  or  method;
   according to geography.


   Ge*og"ra*phy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Geographies  (#).  [F. g\'82ographie, l.
   geographia, fr. Gr. Graphic.]

   1.  The  science  which  treats  of  the  world and its inhabitants; a
   description  of  the  earth,  or a portion of the earth, including its
   structure,  fetures,  products, political divisions, and the people by
   whom it is inhabited.

   2. A treatise on this science.
   Astronomical,  or  Mathematical,  geography  treats  of the earth as a
   planet,  of  its shape, its size, its lines of latitude and longitude,
   its  zones, and the phenomena due to to the earth's diurnal and annual
   motions.  --  Physical  geography  treats  of  the conformation of the
   earth's  surface,  of the distribution of land and water, of minerals,
   plants,  animals,  etc.,  and applies the principles of physics to the
   explanation  of  the  diversities  of  climate,  productions,  etc. --
   Political geography treats of the different countries into which earth
   is  divided  with  regard to political and social and institutions and


   Ge*ol"a*try (?), n. [Gr. The worship of the earth. G. W. Cox.

   CAPTION: The Geological Series.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e science of geology, as treating of the history of
     the  globe,  involves  a  description of the different strata which
     compose  its crust, their order of succession, characteristic forms
     of  animal  and  vegetable life, etc. The principal subdivisions of
     geological time, and the most important strata, with their relative
     positions, are indicated in the following diagram.

   <--  illustration  of  geological periods, with rock layers, takes one
   column from top to bottom of the page here -->

                              Geologer, Geologian

   Ge*ol"o*ger (?), Ge`o*lo"gi*an (?), n. A geologist.

                             Geologic, Geological

   Ge`o*log"ic  (?), Ge`o*log"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. g\'82ologique.] Of or
   pertaining to geology, or the science of the earth.


   Ge`o*log"ic*al*ly, adv. In a geological manner.


   Ge*ol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. G\'82ologiste.] One versed in the science
   of geology.


   Ge*ol"o*gize  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Geologized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Geologizing  (?).]  To study geology or make geological investigations
   in the field; to discourse as a geologist.

     During midsummer geologized a little in Shropshire. Darwin.


   Ge*ol"o*gy   (?),   n.;   pl.   Geologies  (#).  [Gr.  -logy:  cf.  F.

   1.  The  science  which  treats:  (a)  Of  the  structure  and mineral
   constitution  of  the globe; structural geology. (b) Of its history as
   regards  rocks,  minerals, rivers, valleys, mountains, climates, life,
   etc.;  historical  geology. (c) Of the causes and methods by which its
   structure,  features,  changes,  and  conditions  have  been produced;
   dynamical geology. See Chart of The Geological Series.

   2. A treatise on the science.


   Ge*om"a*lism  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Biol.)  The  tendency of an organism to
   respond, during its growth, to the force of gravitation.


   Ge"o*man`cer (?), n. One who practices, or is versed in, geomancy.


   Ge"o*man`cy   (?),   n.  [OE.  geomance,  geomancie,  F.  g\'82omance,
   g\'82omancie,  LL. geomantia, fr. Gr. A kind of divination by means of
   figures  or  lines, formed by little dots or points, originally on the
   earth, and latterly on paper.

                            Geomantic, Geomantical

   Ge`o*man"tic  (?),  Ge`o*man"tic*al  (?),  a. [Cf. F. g\'82omantique.]
   Pertaining or belonging to geomancy.


   Ge*om"e*ter  (?),  n.  [F. g\'82om\'8atre, L. geometres, geometra, fr.
   Gr. Meter measure.]

   1. One skilled in geometry; a geometrician; a mathematician. I. Watts.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Any species of geometrid moth; a geometrid.


   Ge*om"e*tral (?), a. [Cf. F. g\'82om\'82tral.] Pertaining to geometry.

                            Geometric, Geometrical

   Ge`o*met"ric   (?),  Ge`o*met"ric*al  (?),  a.  [L.  geometricus;  Gr.
   g\'82om\'82trique.]  Pertaining  to,  or  according  to  the  rules or
   principles  of,  geometry;  determined  by geometry; as, a geometrical
   solution of a problem.

     NOTE: &hand; Ge ometric is  often used, as opposed to algebraic, to
     include  processes  or  solutions  in  which  the  propositions  or
     principles  of  geometry  are  made  use  of  rather  than those of

     NOTE: &hand; Ge ometrical is  of ten us ed in a limited or strictly
     technical  sense, as opposed to mechanical; thus, a construction or
     solution  is  geometrical which can be made by ruler and compasses,
     i.  e.,  by means of right lines and circles. Every construction or
     solution  which  requires any other curve, or such motion of a line
     or  circle  as  would generate any other curve, is not geometrical,
     but  mechanical.  By another distinction, a geometrical solution is
     one  obtained  by  the rules of geometry, or processes of analysis,
     and  hence is exact; while a mechanical solution is one obtained by
     trial,  by actual measurements, with instruments, etc., and is only
     approximate and empirical.

   Geometrical curve. Same as Algebraic curve; -- so called because their
   different  points  may  be constructed by the operations of elementary
   geometry.  -- Geometric lathe, an instrument for engraving bank notes,
   etc.,  with  complicated patterns of interlacing lines; -- called also
   cycloidal  engine.  --  Geometrical  pace,  a measure of five feet. --
   Geometric  pen,  an  instrument for drawing geometric curves, in which
   the  movements  of  a  pen  or  pencil  attached to a revolving arm of
   ajustable  length  may  be indefinitely varied by changing the toothed
   wheels  which  give  motion to the arm. -- Geometrical plane (Persp.),
   the  same  as  Ground  plane . -- Geometrical progression, proportion,
   ratio.  See  under  Progression,  Proportion and Ratio. -- Geometrical
   radius,  in  gearing,  the  radius  of the pitch circle of a cogwheel.
   Knight.  --  Geometric  spider  (Zo\'94l.),  one  of  many  species of
   spiders,  which  spin  a geometrical web. They mostly belong to Epeira
   and  allied  genera,  as  the  garden  spider.  See  Garden spider. --
   Geometric  square, a portable instrument in the form of a square frame
   for  ascertaining  distances  and  heights  by  measuring  angles.  --
   Geometrical  staircase,  one  in which the stairs are supported by the
   wall  at  one  end  only.  -- Geometrical tracery, in architecture and
   decoration, tracery arranged in geometrical figures.

   Page 622


   Ge`o*met"ric*al*ly  (?),  adv.  According  to  the  rules  or  laws of


   Ge*om`e*tri"cian  (?),  n.  One  skilled  in  geometry;  a geometer; a


   Ge*om"e*trid  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Pertaining  or  belonging  to  the


   Ge*om"e*trid,  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  numerous genera and species of
   moths,  of  the  family  Geometrid\'91;  --  so  called  because their
   larv\'91  (called  loopers, measuring worms, spanworms, and inchworms)
   creep  in  a  looping manner, as if measuring. Many of the species are
   injurious to agriculture, as the cankerworms.


   Ge*om"e*trize  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Geometrized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.   Geometrizing   (?).]  To  investigate  or  apprehend  geometrical
   quantities  or  laws; to make geometrical constructions; to proceed in
   accordance with the principles of geometry.

     Nature  geometrizeth,  and  observeth  order  in all things. Sir T.


   Ge*om"e*try  (?),  n;  pl.  Geometries  (#)  [F.  g\'82om\'82trie,  L.
   geometria, fr. Gr. Geometer.]

   1.  That  branch  of  mathematics  which  investigates  the relations,
   properties,  and  measurement  of solids, surfaces, lines, and angles;
   the   science   which  treats  of  the  properties  and  relations  of
   magnitudes; the science of the relations of space.

   2. A treatise on this science.
   Analytical,  OR  Co\'94rdinate,  geometry, that branch of mathematical
   analysis  which has for its object the analytical investigation of the
   relations  and  properties  of  geometrical magnitudes. -- Descriptive
   geometry,  that  part of geometry which treats of the graphic solution
   of  all  problems  involving three dimensions. -- Elementary geometry,
   that  part  of  geometry  which  treats  of  the  simple properties of
   straight  lines,  circles,  plane  surface,  solids  bounded  by plane
   surfaces,  the  sphere,  the  cylinder,  and the right cone. -- Higher
   geometry,  that  pert  of geometry which treats of those properties of
   straight  lines,  circles,  etc.,  which  are  less  simple  in  their
   relations,  and  of  curves  and  surfaces  of  the  second and higher


   Ge*oph"a*gism  (?), n. [Gr. The act or habit of eating earth. See Dirt
   eating, under Dirt. Dunglison.


   Ge*oph"a*gist (?), n. One who eats earth, as dirt, clay, chalk, etc.


   Ge*oph"a*gous (?), a. Earth-eating.


   Ge*oph"i*la  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The division of
   Mollusca which includes the land snails and slugs.

                             Geoponic, Geoponical

   Ge`o*pon"ic   (?),   Ge`o*pon"ic*al   (?),   a.  [Gr.  g\'82oponique.]
   Pertaining to tillage of the earth, or agriculture.


   Ge`o*pon"ics  (?),  n.  [Gr.  g\'82oponique.]  The  art  or science of
   cultivating the earth; agriculture. Evelin.


   Ge`o*ra"ma  (?),  n.  [Gr.  g\'82orama.]  A  hollow globe on the inner
   surface of which a map of the world is depicted, to be examined by one
   standing inside.


   Geor"die  (?), n. A name given by miners to George Stephenson's safety
   lamp. Raymond.


   George  (?),  n.  [F. George, or Georges, a proper name, fr. Gr. work.
   See Work.]

   1.  A figure of St. George (the patron saint of England) on horseback,
   appended to the collar of the Order of the Garter. See Garter.

   2. A kind of brown loaf. [Obs.] Dryden.

                                 George noble

   George"  no`ble (?). [So called from the image of St. George on it.] A
   gold noble of the time of Henry VIII. See Noble, n.


   Geor"gi*an (?), a.

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to Georgia, in Asia, or to Georgia, one of the
   United States.

   2.  Of  or  relating to the reigns of the four Georges, kings of Great
   Britan; as, the Georgian era. <-- five? -->


   Geor"gi*an, n. A native of, or dweller in, Georgia.


   Geor"gic  (?),  n.  [L. georgicum (sc. carmen), and georgica, pl., Gr.
   g\'82orgiques,   pl.  See  Georgic,  a.]  A  rural  poem;  a  poetical
   composition  on  husbandry,  containing  rules  for cultivating lands,
   etc.; as, the Georgics of Virgil.

                              Georgic, Georgical

   Geor"gic (?), Geor"gic*al (?), a. [L. georgicus, Gr. g\'82orgique. See
   George.] Relating to agriculture and rural affairs.

                                Georgium Sidus

   Geor"gi*um  Si`dus  (?).  [NL., the star of George (III. of England).]
   (Astron.)  The  planet  Uranus,  so  named  by  its discoverer, Sir W.


   Ge*os"co*py  (?),  n.  [Gr. -scopy: cf. F. g\'82oscopie.] Knowledge of
   the earth, ground, or soil, obtained by inspection. Chambers.


   Ge`o*se*len"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Pertaining  to  the  earth  and  moon;
   belonging  to  the  joint  action or mutual relations of the earth and
   moon; as, geoselenic phenomena.


   Ge`o*stat"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  static.]  (Civil Engin.) Relating to the
   pressure  exerted  by  earth  or similar substance. Geostatic arch, an
   arch having a form adapted to sustain pressure similar to that exerted
   by earth. Rankine.


   Ge`o*syn*cli"nal (?), n. [Gr. synclinal.] (Geol.) the downward bend or
   subsidence   of  the  earth's  crust,  which  allows  of  the  gradual
   accumulation of sediment, and hence forms the first step in the making
   of a mountain range; -- opposed to geanticlinal.


   Ge`o*ther*mom"e*ter (?), n. [Gr. thermometer.] (Physics) A thermometer
   specially  constructed for measuring temperetures at a depth below the
   surface of the ground.


   Ge*ot"ic (?) a. [Gr. Belonging to earth; terrestrial. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Ge`o*trop"ic  (?),  a.  [See  Geotropism.]  (Biol.)  Relating  to,  or
   showing, geotropism.


   Ge*ot"ro*pism  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Biol.) A disposition to turn or incline
   towards  the  earth;  the  influence  of  gravity  in  determining the
   direction of growth of an organ.

     NOTE: &hand; In plants, organs which grow towards the center of the
     earth are said to be positively geotropic, and those growing in the
     opposite  direction negatively geotropic. In animals, geotropism is
     supposed  by some to have an influence either direct or indirect on
     the plane of division of the ovum.


   Ge*phyr"e*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of marine
   Annelida,  in  which the body is imperfectly, or not at all, annulated
   externally, and is mostly without set\'91.


   Ge*phyr"e*an  (?),  a. (Zo\'94l.) Belonging to the Gephyrea. -- n. One
   of the Gerphyrea.


   Ge*phyr"e*oid (?), a. & n. [Gephyrea + -oid.] Gephyrean.


   Ge*pound" (?), n. See Gipoun. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ge"rah  (?),  n.  [Heb. g, lit., a bean.] (Jewish Antiq.) A small coin
   and weight; 1-20th of a shekel.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e silver gerah is supposed to have been worth about
     three cents; the gold about fifty-four cents; the weight equivalent
     to about thirteen grains.


   Ge*ra`ni*a"ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of or pertaining to a natural order of
   pants (Geraniace\'91) which includes the genera Geranium, Pelargonium,
   and many others.

                              Geraniine, Geranine

   Ge*ra"ni*ine (?), Ger"a*nine (?), n. [See Geranium.]

   1.  (Med.) A valuable astringet obtained from the root of the Geranium
   maculatum or crane's-bill.

   2.  (Chem.) A liquid terpene, obtained from the crane's-bill (Geranium
   maculatum),  and  having  a  peculiar  mulberry  odor.  [Written  also


   Ge*ra"ni*um (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. g\'82ranium. See Crane, n.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  genus  of plants having a beaklike tours or receptacle,
   around   which   the   seed  capsules  are  arranged,  and  membranous
   projections,  or  stipules,  at  the  joints. Most of the species have
   showy flowers and a pungent odor. Called sometimes crane's-bill.

   2. (Floriculture) A cultivated pelargonium.

     NOTE: &hand; Ma ny pl ants re ferred to  th e genus Geranium by the
     earlier  botanists  are  now  separated  from  it under the name of
     Pelargonium,   which   includes   all   the   commonly   cultivated
     "geraniums", mostly natives of South Africa.


   Ge"rant  (?),  n.  [F.  g\'82rant.] The manager or acting partner of a
   company, joint-stock association, etc.


   Gerbe  (?),  n. [F., prop. a sheaf.] (Pyrotechny) A kind of ornamental
   firework. Farrow.

                               Gerbil, Gerbille

   Ger"bil  (?), Ger`bille" (?), n. [F. gerbille. Cf. Jerboa.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One of several species of small, jumping, murine rodents, of the genus
   Gerbillus.  In  their  leaping  powers  they resemble the jerboa. They
   inhabit Africa, India, and Southern Europe.


   Ger*bo"a (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The jerboa.


   Gere (?), n. Gear. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ge"rent  (?),  a.  [L.  gerens,  p.  pr.  of  gerere to bear, manage.]
   Bearing; carrying. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Ger"fal`con (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Gyrfalcon.


   Ger"ful  (?),  a.  [Cf.  OF.  girer  to twirl, E. gyrate.] Changeable;
   capricious. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                               Gerland, Gerlond

   Ger"land (?), Ger"lond, n. A garland. [Obs.]


   Ger"lind (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A salmon returning from the sea the second
   time. [Prov. Eng.]


   Germ  (?),  n.  [F. germe, fr. L. germen, germinis, sprout, but, germ.
   Cf. Germen, Germane.]

   1.  (Biol.) That which is to develop a new individual; as, the germ of
   a  fetus,  of a plant or flower, and the like; the earliest form under
   which an organism appears.

     In  the  entire  process  in which a new being originates . . . two
     distinct   classes  of  action  participate;  namely,  the  act  of
     generation   by  which  the  germ  is  produced;  and  the  act  of
     development,  by  which  that  germ  is  evolved  into the complete
     organism. Carpenter.

   2.  That from which anything springs; origin; first principle; as, the
   germ of civil liberty.
   Disease  germ  (Biol.),  a  name  applied  to  certain  tiny bacterial
   organisms   or   their  spores,  such  as  Anthrax  bacillus  and  the
   Micrococcus  of  fowl  cholera, which have been demonstrated to be the
   cause  of  certain  diseases.  See  Germ theory (bellow). -- Germ cell
   (Biol.),  the germ, egg, spore, or cell from which the plant or animal
   arises.  At  one  time  a  part  of the body of the parent, it finally
   becomes  detached,and  by a process of multiplication and growth gives
   rise  to  a mass of cells, which ultimately form a new individual like
   the  parent. See Ovum. -- Germ gland. (Anat.) See Gonad. -- Germ stock
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  special process on which buds are developed in certain
   animals.  See Doliolum. -- Germ theory (Biol.), the theory that living
   organisms  can  be  produced  only  by the evolution or development of
   living  germs or seeds. See Biogenesis, and Abiogenesis. As applied to
   the origin of disease, the theory claims that the zymotic diseases are
   due  to  the rapid development and multiplication of various bacteria,
   the  germs  or  spores  of  which are either contained in the organism
   itself,  or  transferred  through  the  air or water. See Fermentation


   Germ (?), v. i. To germinate. [R.] J. Morley.


   Ger*main" (?), a. [Obs.] See Germane.


   Ger"man  (?),  a.  [OE.  german,  germain, F. germain, fr. L. germanus
   full,  own  (said  of brothers and sisters who have the same parents);
   akin to germen germ. Cf. Germ, Germane.] Nearly related; closely akin.

     Wert thou a leopard, thou wert german to the lion. Shak.

   Brother  german.  See  Brother german. -- Cousins german. See the Note
   under Cousin.


   Ger"man, n.; pl. Germans (#) [L. Germanus, prob. of Celtis origin.]

   1. A native or one of the people of Germany.

   2. The German language.

   3.  (a)  A  round  dance,  often  with  a waltz movement, abounding in
   capriciosly  involved  figures. (b) A social party at which the german
   is danced.
   High  German,  the  Teutonic  dialect of Upper or Southern Germany, --
   comprising  Old  High  German,  used from the 8th to the 11th century;
   Middle  H. G., from the 12th to the 15th century; and Modern or New H.
   G.,  the  language  of  Luther's  Bible  version  and of modern German
   literature.  The  dialects of Central Germany, the basis of the modern
   literary  language,  are  often called Middle German, and the Southern
   German  dialects  Upper  German; but High German is also used to cover
   both  groups.  -- Low German, the language of Northern Germany and the
   Netherlands,  --  including  Friesic; Anglo-Saxon or Saxon; Old Saxon;
   Dutch  or  Low  Dutch,  with  its  dialect,  Flemish; and Plattdeutsch
   (called also Low German), spoken in many dialects.
   Ger"man, a. [L. Germanus. See German, n.] Of or pertaining to Germany.
   German Baptists. See Dunker. -- German bit, a wood-boring tool, having
   a long elliptical pod and a scew point. -- German carp (Zo\'94l.), the
   crucian  carp.  --  German  millet  (Bot.),  a kind of millet (Setaria
   Italica,  var.),  whose  seed  is  sometimes  used for food. -- German
   paste,  a  prepared  food for caged birds. -- German process (Metal.),
   the process of reducing copper ore in a blast furnace, after roasting,
   if  necessary.  Raymond.  --  German  sarsaparilla,  a  substitute for
   sarsaparilla extract. -- German sausage, a polony, or gut stuffed with
   meat  partly  cooked.  -- German silver (Chem.), a silver-white alloy,
   hard  and tough, but malleable and ductile, and quite permanent in the
   air.  It contains nickel, copper, and zinc in varying proportions, and
   was  originally made from old copper slag at Henneberg. A small amount
   of  iron  is  sometimes  added  to  make  it  whiter and harder. It is
   essentially identical with the Chinese alloy packfong. It was formerly
   much  used  for  tableware,  knife handles, frames, cases, bearings of
   machinery,  etc., but is now largely superseded by other white alloys.
   --  German  steel (Metal.), a metal made from bog iron ore in a forge,
   with   charcoal  for  fuel.  --  German  text  (Typog.),  a  character
   resembling modern German type, used in English printing for ornamental
   headings, etc., as in the words,

     NOTE: &hand; This line is German Text.

   -- German tinder. See Amadou.


   Ger*man"der   (?),   n.   [OE.   germaunder,   F.  germandr\'82e,  It.
   calamandrea,  L.  chamaedrys, fr. Gr.Humble, and Tree.] (Bot.) A plant
   of  the genus Teucrium (esp. Teucrium Cham\'91drys or wall germander),
   mintlike herbs and low shrubs. American germander, Teucrium Canadense.
   --   Germander  chickweed,  Veronica  agrestis.  --  Water  germander,
   Teucrium Scordium. -- Wood germander, Teucrium Scorodonia.


   Ger*mane"  (?),  a. [See German akin, nearly related.] Literally, near
   akin; hence, closely allied; appropriate or fitting; relevant.

     The phrase would be more germane to the matter. Shak.

     [An amendment] must be germane. Barclay (Digest).


   Ger*man"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or containing, germanium.


   Ger*man"ic, a. [L. Germanicus: cf. F. germanique. See German, n.]

   1. Of or pertaining to Germany; as, the Germanic confederacy.

   2. Teutonic. [A loose sense]


   Ger"man*ism (?), n. [Cf. F. germanisme.]

   1. An idiom of the German language.

   2.  A  characteristic  of  the  Germans; a characteristic German mode,
   doctrine, etc.; rationalism. J. W. Alexander.


   Ger*ma"ni*um  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. L. Germania Germany.] (Chem.) A rare
   element,  recently  discovered (1885), in a silver ore (argyrodite) at
   Freiberg. It is a brittle, silver-white metal, chemically intermediate
   between  the  metals  and  nonmetals, resembles tin, and is in general
   identical  with  the  predicted  ekasilicon.  Symbol Ge. Atomic weight


   Ger`man*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of Germanizing. M. Arnold.


   Ger"man*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Germanized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Germanizing  (?).]  To  make  German,  or  like  what is distinctively
   German; as, to Germanize a province, a language, a society.


   Ger"man*ize, v. i. To reason or write after the manner of the Germans.


   Ger*ma"ri*um  (?), n. [NL. See Germ.] (Zo\'94l.) An organ in which the
   ova are developed in certain Turbellaria.

   Page 623


   Ger"men (?), n.; pl. E. Germens (#), L. Germina (#). [L.] See Germ.


   Ger"mi*ci`dal (?), a. Germicide.


   Ger"mi*cide (?), a. [Germ +L. caedere to kill.] (Biol.) Destructive to
   germs;  --  applied  to  any agent which has a destructive action upon
   living  germs,  particularly  bacteria,  or bacterial germs, which are
   considered  the  cause  of many infectious diseases. -- n. A germicide


   Ger"mi*nal  (?), a. [See Germ.] Pertaining or belonging to a germ; as,
   the  germinal  vesicle.  Germinal  layers  (Biol.),  the two layers of
   cells,  the ectoblast and entoblast, which form respectively the outer
   covering  and  inner wall of the gastrula. A third layer of cells, the
   mesoblast,  which  is  formed  later  and  lies  between these two, is
   sometimes  included. -- Germinal membrane. (Biol.) Same as Blastoderm.
   --  Germinal  spot  (Biol.),  the  nucleolus  of the ovum. -- Germinal
   vesicle, (Biol.) , the nucleus of the ovum of animals.


   Ger`mi*nal"  (?),  n.  [F. See Germ .] The seventh month of the French
   republican  calendar [1792 -- 1806]. It began March 21 and ended April
   19. See Vend\'90miaire.


   Ger"mi*nant  (?),  a.  [L. germinans, p. pr.] Sprouting; sending forth
   germs or buds.


   Ger"mi*nate  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Germinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Germinating.]  [L.  germinatus,  p.  p.  of  germinare  to sprout, fr.
   germen.  See Germ.] To sprout; to bud; to shoot; to begin to vegetate,
   as a plant or its seed; to begin to develop, as a germ. Bacon.


   Ger"mi*nate, v. t. To cause to sprout. Price (1610).


   Ger`mi*na"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  germinatio:  cf.  F.  germination.] The
   process  of  germinating;  the  beginning of vegetation or growth in a
   seed  or  plant;  the  first  development  of  germs, either animal or
   vegetable. Germination apparatus, an apparatus for malting grain.


   Ger"mi*na*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. germinatif.] Pertaining to germination;
   having power to bud or develop. Germinative spot, Germinative vesicle.
   (Biol.) Same as Germinal spot, Germinal vesicle, under Germinal.
   Ger`mi*par"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Germ  +  L.  parere  to  produce.] (Biol.)
   Reproduction by means of germs.
   Germ"less, a. Without germs.
   Ger"mo*gen  (?),  n.  [Germ + -gen.] (Biol.) (a) A polynuclear mass of
   protoplasm,  not  divided  into separate cells, from which certain ova
   are  developed.  Balfour.  (b) The primitive cell in certain embryonic
   forms. Balfour. 

                                  Germ plasm

   Germ" plasm` (?), (Biol.) See Plasmogen, and Idioplasm.


   Germ"ule (?), n. [Dim. fr. germ.] (Biol.) A small germ.


   Gern  (?), v. t. [See Grin.] To grin or yawn. [Obs.] "[/He] gaped like
   a gulf when he did gern." Spenser.


   Ger"ner (?), n. A garner. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ger`o*co"mi*a (?), n. [NL.] See Gerocomy.


   Ger`o*com"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to gerocomy. Dr. John Smith.


   Ge*roc"o*my  (?),  n.  [F. g\'82rocomie, fr. Gr. That part of medicine
   which treats of regimen for old people.


   Ge*ron"tes  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Gr. Antiq.) Magistrates in
   Sparta,  who  with the ephori and kings, constituted the supreme civil


   Ger`on*toc"ra*cy (?), n. [Gr. Government by old men. [R.] Gladstone.


   Ger`o*pig"i*a   (?),   n.   [Pg.  geropiga.]  A  mixture  composed  of
   unfermented  grape  juice,  brandy,  sugar,  etc., for adulteration of
   wines. [Written also jerupigia.]


   -ger*ous (?). [L. -ger, fr. gerere to bear, carry. See Jest.] A suffix
   signifying bearing, producing; as, calcigerous; dentigerous.


   Ger`ry*man"der  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Gerrymandered (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Gerrymandering.]  To  divide (a State) into districts for the
   choice of representatives, in an unnatural and unfair way, with a view
   to  give  a political party an advantage over its opponent. [Political
   Cant, U. S.]

     NOTE: &hand; This was done in Massachusetts at a time when Elbridge
     Gerry  was governor, and was attributed to his influence, hence the
     name; though it is now known that he was opposed to the measure.



   Ger"und (?), n. [L. gerundium, fr. gerere to bear, carry, perform. See
   Gest a deed, Jest.] (Lat. Gram.)

   1.  A  kind  of verbal noun, having only the four oblique cases of the
   singular number, and governing cases like a participle.

   2.  (AS. Gram.) A verbal noun ending in -e, preceded by to and usually
   denoting purpose or end; -- called also the dative infinitive; as, "Ic
   h\'91bbe  mete  t\'93  etanne" (I have meat to eat.) In Modern English
   the  name  has  been  applied  to  verbal  or participal nouns in -ing
   denoting a transitive action; e. g., by throwing a stone.


   Ge*run"di*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to, or resembling, a gerund; as, a
   gerundial use.


   Ge*run"dive  (?),  a. [L. gerundivus.] Pertaining to, or partaking of,
   the  nature  of  the  gerund; gerundial. -- n. (Lat. Gram.) The future
   passive participle; as, amandus, i. e., to be loved.


   Ge*run"dive*ly,  adv. In the manner of a gerund; as, or in place of, a


   Ger"y (?), a. [See Gerful.] Changeable; fickle. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ges"ling (?), n. A gosling. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gesse (?), v. t. & i. To guess. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gest (?), n. A guest. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gest (?), n. [OF. geste exploit. See Jest.]

   1.  Something  done  or  achieved;  a deed or an action; an adventure.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  An  action  represented  in  sports, plays, or on the stage; show;
   ceremony. [Obs.] Mede.

   3.  A  tale  of  achievements  or  adventures;  a  stock story. [Obs.]
   Chaucer. Spenser.

   4. Gesture; bearing; deportment. [Archaic]

     Through his heroic grace and honorable gest. Spenser.


   Gest (?), n. [Cf. Gist a resting place.]

   1.  A  stage  in traveling; a stop for rest or lodging in a journey or
   progress; a rest. [Obs.] Kersey.

   2.  A  roll  recting the several stages arranged for a royal progress.
   Many of them are extant in the herald's office. [Obs.] Hanmer.


   Ges"tant  (?),  a.  [L.  gestans,  p. pr. of gestare.] Bearing within;
   laden;  burdened;  pregnant.  [R.]  "Clouds  gestant  with heat." Mrs.


   Ges*ta"tion  (?),  n. [L. gestatio a bearing, carrying, fr. gestare to
   bear,  carry,  intens.  fr. gerere, gestum, to bear: cf. F. gestation.
   See Gest deed, Jest.]

   1. The act of wearing (clothes or ornaments). [Obs.]

   2.  The act of carrying young in the womb from conception to delivery;

   3. Exercise in which one is borne or carried, as on horseback, or in a
   carriage,  without  the  exertion of his own powers; passive exercise.


   Ges"ta*to*ry  (?), a. [L. gestatorius that serves for carrying: cf. F.

   1. Pertaining to gestation or pregnancy.

   2. Capable of being carried or worn. [Obs. or R.]


   Geste (?), v. i. To tell stories or gests. [Obs.]


   Ges"tic (?), a. [See Gest a deed, Gesture.]

   1. Pertaining to deeds or feats of arms; legendary.

     And the gay grandsire, skilled in gestic lore. Goldsmith.

   2.  Relating  to  bodily  motion;  consisting  of  gestures;  --  said
   especially with reference to dancing.

     Carried away by the enthusiasm of the gestic art. Sir W. Scott.


   Ges*tic"u*late (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gesticulated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.   Gesticulating.]   [L.  gesticulatus,  p.  p.  of  gesticulari  to
   gesticulate,  fr.  gesticulus  a mimic gesture, gesticulation, dim. of
   gestus  gesture,  fr.  gerere,  gestum,  to  bear,  carry, peform. See
   Gestic.] To make gestures or motions, as in speaking; to use postures.
   Sir T. Herbert.


   Ges*tic"u*late, v. t. To represent by gesture; to act. [R.] B. Jonson.


   Ges*tic`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. gesticulatio: cf. F. gesticulation.]

   1.  The act of gesticulating, or making gestures to express passion or
   enforce sentiments.

   2.  A  gesture;  a  motion  of  the  body  or limbs in speaking, or in
   representing   action   or   passion,   and  enforcing  arguments  and
   sentiments. Macaulay.

   3. Antic tricks or motions. B. Jonson.


   Ges*tic"u*la`tor (?), n. [L.] One who gesticulates.


   Ges*tic"u*la*to*ry (?), a. Representing by, or belonging to, gestures.
   T. Warton.


   Ges"tour  (?),  n.  [See Gest a deed.] A reciter of gests or legendary
   tales; a story-teller. [Obs.]

     Minstrels and gestours for to tell tales. Chaucer.


   Ges"tur*al (?), a. Relating to gesture.


   Ges"ture  (?),  n. [LL. gestura mode of action, fr. L. gerere, gestum,
   to bear, behave, perform, act. See Gest a deed.]

   1.  Manner  of  carrying  the  body;  position  of  the body or limbs;
   posture. [Obs.]

     Accubation,  or  lying  down  at  meals, was a gesture used by many
     nations. Sir T. Browne.

   2.  A  motion of the body or limbs expressive of sentiment or passion;
   any  action or posture intended to express an idea or a passion, or to
   enforce or emphasize an argument, assertion, or opinion.

     Humble and reverent gestures. Hooker.

     Grace  was  in  all  her steps, heaven in her eye, In every gesture
     dignity and love. Milton.


   Ges"ture,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gestured  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Gesturing.]  To  accompany  or  illustrate  with gesture or action; to

     It is not orderly read, nor gestured as beseemeth. Hooker.


   Ges"ture, v. i. To make gestures; to gesticulate.

     The players . . . gestured>/qex> not undecently withal. Holland.


   Ges"ture*less, a. Free from gestures.


   Ges"ture*ment  (?),  n.  Act of making gestures; gesturing. [Obs.] Bp.


   Get (?), n. Jet, the mineral. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Get (?), n. [OF. get.]

   1. Fashion; manner; custom. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. Artifice; contrivance. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Get  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  Got (?) (Obs. Gat (); p. p. Got (Obsolescent
   Gotten  (?));  p. pr. & vb. n. Getting.] [OE. geten, AS. gitan, gietan
   (in  comp.);  akin to Icel. geta, Goth. bigitan to find, L. prehendere
   to  seize,  take,  Gr.  Comprehend,  Enterprise,  Forget, Impregnable,

   1.  To procure; to obtain; to gain possession of; to acquire; to earn;
   to  obtain  as  a  price  or reward; to come by; to win, by almost any
   means;  as,  to  get  favor by kindness; to get wealth by industry and
   economy;  to  get  favor  by  kindness;  to get wealth by industry and
   economy; to get land by purchase, etc.

   2.  Hence,  with have and had, to come into or be in possession of; to
   have. Johnson.

     Thou hast got the face of man. Herbert.

   3. To beget; to procreate; to generate.

     I had rather to adopt a child than get it. Shak.

   4.  To  obtain mental possession of; to learn; to commit to memory; to
   memorize;  as  to  get  a  lesson; also with out; as, to get out one's
   Greek lesson.

     It  being  harder  with him to get one sermon by heart, than to pen
     twenty. Bp. Fell.

   5. To prevail on; to induce; to persuade.

     Get him to say his prayers. Shak.

   6.  To  procure to be, or to cause to be in any state or condition; --
   with a following participle.

     Those things I bid you do; get them dispatched. Shak.

   7. To betake; to remove; -- in a reflexive use.

     Get thee out from this land. Gen. xxxi. 13.

     He . . . got himself . . . to the strong town of Mega. Knolles.

     NOTE: &hand; Ge t, as  a  transitive verb, is combined with adverbs
     implying  motion,  to  express the causing to, or the effecting in,
     the  object  of  the  verb,  of the kind of motion indicated by the
     preposition;  thus,  to  get  in, to cause to enter, to bring under
     shelter;  as, to get in the hay; to get out, to make come forth, to
     extract;  to  get  off, to take off, to remove; to get together, to
     cause to come together, to collect.

   To  get by heart, to commit to memory. -- To get the better of, To get
   the best of, to obtain an advantage over; to surpass; to subdue. -- To
   get up, to cause to be established or to exit; to prepare; to arrange;
   to  construct;  to  invent;  as, to get up a celebration, a machine, a
   book, an agitation. Syn. -- To obtain; gain; win; acquire. See Obtain.
   Get (?), v. i. 

   1.  To make acquisition; to gain; to profit; to receive accessions; to
   be increased.

     We mourn, France smiles; we lose, they daily get. Shak.

   2.  To  arrive  at,  or  bring one's self into, a state, condition, or
   position;  to  come to be; to become; -- with a following adjective or
   past  participle  belonging  to  the  subject  of the verb; as, to get
   sober; to get awake; to get beaten; to get elected.

     To get rid of fools and scoundrels. Pope.

     His chariot wheels get hot by driving fast. Coleridge.

     NOTE: &hand; It [get] gives to the English language a middle voice,
     or  a  power  of  verbal  expression  which  is  neither active nor
     passive.  Thus  we say to get acquitted, beaten, confused, dressed.

     NOTE: &hand; Get, as an intransitive verb, is used with a following
     preposition,  or  adverb of motion, to indicate, on the part of the
     subject of the act, movement or action of the kind signified by the
     preposition  or adverb; or, in the general sense, to move, to stir,
     to make one's way, to advance, to arrive, etc.; as, to get away, to
     leave  to  escape;  to  disengage  one's self from; to get down, to
     descend,  esp.  with  effort,  as  from  a  literal  or  figurative
     elevation;  to  get  along,  to  make  progress; hence, to prosper,
     succeed,  or  fare;  to  get in, to enter; to get out, to extricate
     one's  self,  to  escape;  to  get  through,  to traverse; also, to
     finish,  to be done; to get to, to arrive at, to reach; to get off,
     to  alight,  to descend from, to dismount; also, to escape, to come
     off clear; to get together, to assemble, to convene.

   To  get ahead, to advance; to prosper. -- To get along, to proceed; to
   advance;  to  prosper.  --  To get a mile (or other distance), to pass
   over  it in traveling. -- To get among, to go or come into the company
   of; to become one of a number. -- To get asleep, to fall asleep. -- To
   get astray, to wander out of the right way. -- To get at, to reach; to
   make way to. To get away with, to carry off; to capture; hence, to get
   the  better of; to defeat. -- To get back, to arrive at the place from
   which  one  departed; to return. -- To get before, to arrive in front,
   or  more forward. -- To get behind, to fall in the rear; to lag. -- To
   get  between,  to  arrive  between.  --  To  get beyond, to pass or go
   further  than;  to exceed; to surpass. "Three score and ten is the age
   of man, a few get beyond it." Thackeray. -- To get clear, to disengage
   one's  self;  to  be  released,  as  from  confinement, obligation, or
   burden;  also,  to  be  freed  from danger or embarrassment. -- To get
   drunk,  to  become  intoxicated.  --  To  get  forward, to proceed; to
   advance;  also,  to  prosper; to advance in wealth. -- To get home, to
   arrive  at one's dwelling, goal, or aim. -- To get into. (a) To enter,
   as,  "she  prepared to get into the coach." Dickens. (b) To pass into,
   or  reach;  as,  "  as, " a language has got into the inflated state."
   Keary.  --  To  get  loose  OR  free,  to  disengage one's self; to be
   released  from confinement. -- To get near, to approach within a small
   distance.  -- To get on, to proceed; to advance; to prosper. -- To get
   over.  (a)  To  pass  over,  surmount,  or overcome, as an obstacle or
   difficulty.  (b)  To recover from, as an injury, a calamity. -- To get
   through.  (a)  To  pass  through something. (b) To finish what one was
   doing. -- To get up. (a) To rise; to arise, as from a bed, chair, etc.
   (b) To ascend; to climb, as a hill, a tree, a flight of stairs, etc.


   Get, n. Offspring; progeny; as, the get of a stallion.


   Get"en (?), obs. p. p. of Get. Chaucer.


   Geth (?), the original third pers. sing. pres. of Go. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Get"-pen`ny  (?), n. Something which gets or gains money; a successful
   affair. [Colloq.] Chapman.


   Get"ta*ble (?), a. That may be obtained. [R.]


   Get"ter  (?),  n.  One  who gets, gains, obtains, acquires, begets, or


   Get"ter*up`,  n.  One who contrives, makes, or arranges for, anything,
   as a book, a machine, etc. [Colloq.]

     A diligent getter-up of miscellaneous works. W. Irving.


   Get"ting (?), n.

   1. The act of obtaining or acquiring; acquisition.

     With all thy getting, get understanding. Prov. iv. 7.

   2. That which is got or obtained; gain; profit.


   Get"-up  (?), n. General composition or structure; manner in which the
   parts of a thing are combined; make-up; style of dress, etc. [Colloq.]
   H. Kingsley.


   Gew"gaw  (?), n. [OE. gigawe, gugawe, gewgaude, prob. the same word as
   OE.  givegove  gewgaw, apparently a reduplicated form fr. AS. gifan to
   give;  cf. also F. joujou plaything, and E. gaud, n. See Give, and cf.
   Giffgaff.]  A  showy trifle; a toy; a splendid plaything; a pretty but
   worthless bauble.

     A heavy gewgaw called a crown. Dryden.


   Gew"gaw, a. Showy; unreal; pretentious.

     Seeing his gewgaw castle shine. Tennyson.


   Gey"ser  (?), n. [Icel. geysir, fr. geysa to rush furiously, fr. gj to
   gush.  Cf.  Gush.]  A  boiling  spring  which throws forth at frequent
   intervals  jets  of water, mud, etc., driven up by the expansive power
   of steam.

     NOTE: &hand; Ge ysers were first known in Iceland, and later in New
     Zealand.  In  the  Yellowstone region in the United States they are
     numerous,  and some of them very powerful, throwing jets of boiling
     water  and  steam  to  a  height  of  200 feet. They are grouped in
     several   areas  called  geyser  basins.  The  mineral  matter,  or
     geyserite,  with  which geyser water is charged, forms geyser cones
     about the orifice, often of great size and beauty.

   Page 624


   Gey"ser*ite  (?),  n.  [From  Geyser.] (Min.) A loose hydrated form of
   silica,  a variety of opal, deposited in concretionary cauliflowerlike
   masses, around some hot springs and geysers.


   Ghar"ry (?), n. [Hind. g\'be.] Any wheeled cart or carriage. [India]


   Ghast  (?),  v.  t. [OE. gasten. See Ghastly, a.] To strike aghast; to
   affright. [Obs.]

     Ghasted by the noise I made. Full suddenly he fled. Shak.


   Ghast"ful  (?),  a.  [See Ghastly, a.] Fit to make one aghast; dismal.
   [Obs.] -- Ghast"ful*ly, adv.


   Ghast"li*ness (?), n. The state of being ghastly; a deathlike look.


   Ghast"ly  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Ghastlier (?); superl. Ghastliest.] [OE.
   gastlich,  gastli,  fearful,  causing fear, fr. gasten to terrify, AS.
   g\'91stan. Cf. Aghast, Gast, Gaze, Ghostly.]

   1. Like a ghost in appearance; deathlike; pale; pallid; dismal.

     Each turned his face with a ghastly pang. Coleridge.

     His  face  was  so  ghastly  that  it could scarcely be recognized.

   2. Horrible; shocking; dreadful; hideous.

     Mangled with ghastly wounds through plate and mail. Milton.


   Ghast"ly, adv. In a ghastly manner; hideously.

     Staring full ghastly like a strangled man. Shak.


   Ghast"ness, n. Ghastliness. [Obs.] Shak.

                                  Ghat Ghaut

   Ghat Ghaut (?), n. [Hind. gh\'bet.]

   1. A pass through a mountain. [India] J. D. Hooker.

   2. A range of mountains. Balfour (Cyc. of Ind. ).

   3.  Stairs  descending  to  a river; a landing place; a wharf. [India]


   Gha*wa"zi  (?), n. pl. [Etymol. uncertain.] Egyptian dancing girls, of
   a lower sort than the almeh.

                                 Gheber Ghebre

   Ghe"ber Ghe"bre (?), n. [Pers. ghebr: cf. F. Gu\'8abre. Cf. Giaour.] A
   worshiper of fire; a Zoroastrian; a Parsee.


   Ghee  (?),  n.  [Hind.  gh\'c6  clarified  butter,  Skr.  gh.]  Butter
   clarified  by  boiling, and thus converted into a kind of oil. [India]


   Gher"kin  (?),  n.  [D. agurkje, a dim. akin to G. gurke, Dan. ag; cf.
   Pol. og\'a2rek, Bohem. okurka, LGr. al-khiy\'ber, Per. khiy\'ber.]

   1. (Bot.) A kind of small, prickly cucumber, much used for pickles.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) See Sea gherkin.


   Ghess (?), v. t. & i. See Guess. [Obs.]


   Ghet"to (?), n. [It.] The Jews'quarter in an Italian town or city.

     I went to the Ghetto, where the Jews dwell. Evelyn.

   <--  2. by extension, any section of a town inhabited predominantly by
   members   of  a  specific  ethnic,  national  or  racial  group,  such
   segregation  usually  arising  from  social  or  economic pressure. 3.
   (fig.)  any  isolated  group of people. 4. (fig) any group isolated by
   external  pressures,  with an implication of inferiority. Ghettoize v.


   Ghib"el*line  (?),  n. [It. Ghibellino; of German origin.] (It. Hist.)
   One  of  a  faction  in  Italy,  in the 12th and 13th centuries, which
   favored  the  German emperors, and opposed the Guelfs, or adherents of
   the poses. Brande & C.


   Ghole (?), n. See Ghoul.


   Ghost  (?),  n.  [OE.  gast,  gost,  soul, spirit, AS. g\'best breath,
   spirit,  soul;  akin  to  OS.  g spirit, soul, D. geest, G. geist, and
   prob. to E. gaze, ghastly.]

   1. The spirit; the soul of man. [Obs.]

     Then gives her grieved ghost thus to lament. Spenser.

   2.  The  disembodied  soul; the soul or spirit of a deceased person; a
   spirit appearing after death; an apparition; a specter.

     The mighty ghosts of our great Harrys rose. Shak.

     I  thought  that  I  had  died  in  sleep, And was a blessed ghost.

   3.  Any  faint shadowy semblance; an unsubstantial image; a phantom; a
   glimmering; as, not a ghost of a chance; the ghost of an idea.

     Each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor. Poe.

   4. A false image formed in a telescope by reflection from the surfaces
   of one or more lenses.
   Ghost  moth  (Zo\'94l.),  a  large European moth (Hepialus humuli); so
   called  from  the  white  color of the male, and the peculiar hovering
   flight;  --  called  also great swift. -- Holy Ghost, the Holy Spirit;
   the  Paraclete;  the  Comforter;  (Theol.)  the  third  person  in the
   Trinity. -- To give up OR yield up the ghost, to die; to expire.

     And he gave up the ghost full softly. Chaucer.

     Jacob . . . yielded up the ghost, and was gathered unto his people.
     Gen. xlix. 33.


   Ghost, v. i. To die; to expire. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.


   Ghost,  v.  t.  To  appear  to  or haunt in the form of an apparition.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Ghost"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  pale  ubspotted  variety  of the


   Ghost"less, a. Without life or spirit. [R.]


   Ghost"like` (?), a. Like a ghost; ghastly.


   Ghost"li*ness, n. The quality of being ghostly.


   Ghost"ly, a. [OE. gastlich, gostlich, AS. g\'bestlic. See Ghost.]

   1.  Relating  to  the  soul;  not  carnal or secular; spiritual; as, a
   ghostly confessor.

     Save  and defend us from our ghostly enemies. Book of Common Prayer
     [Ch. of Eng. ]

     One of the gostly children of St. Jerome. Jer. Taylor.

   2. Of or pertaining to apparitions. Akenside.


   Ghost"ly, adv. Spiritually; mystically. Chaucer.


   Ghost*ol"o*gy (?), n. Ghost lore. [R.]

     It  seemed  even  more unaccountable than if it had been a thing of
     ghostology and witchcraft. Hawthorne.


   Ghoul  (?),  n. [Per. gh an imaginary sylvan demon, supposed to devour
   men  and animals: cf. Ar. gh, F. goule.] An imaginary evil being among
   Eastern  nations,  which  was  supposed  to  feed  upon  human bodies.
   [Written also ghole .] Moore.


   Ghoul"ish, a. Characteristic of a ghoul; vampirelike; hyenalike.


   Ghyll  (?),  n.  A ravine. See Gill a woody glen. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]


   Gial`lo*li"no  (?),  n. [It., from giallo yellow, prob. fr. OHG. gelo,
   G.  gelb;  akin  to  E.  yellow.]  A  term variously employed by early
   writers  on art, though commonly designating the yellow oxide of lead,
   or massicot. Fairholt.


   Giam"beux  (?),  n.  pl.  [See  Jambeux.] Greaves; armor for the legs.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Gi"ant  (?),  n.  [OE.  giant,  geant,  geaunt,  OF. jaiant, geant, F.
   g\'82ant,  L.  gigas,  fr.  Gr.  gender,  genesis. See Gender, and cf.

   1. A man of extraordinari bulk and stature.

     Giants of mighty bone and bold emprise. Milton.

     2.  A  person  of  extraordinary  strength  or  powers,  bodily  or

     3. Any animal, plant, or thing, of extraordinary size or power.

   Giant's Causeway, a vast collection of basaltic pillars, in the county
   of Antrim on the northern coast of Ireland.


   Gi"ant,  a.  Like  a giant; extraordinary in size, strength, or power;
   as, giant brothers; a giant son. Giant cell. (Anat.) See Myeloplax. --
   Giant  clam (Zo\'94l.), a bivalve shell of the genus Tridacna, esp. T.
   gigas,  which  sometimes  weighs  500 pounds. The shells are sometimes
   used  in  churches to contain holy water. -- Giant heron (Zo\'94l.), a
   very  large African heron (Ardeomega goliath). It is the largest heron
   known.  --  Giant kettle, a pothole of very large dimensions, as found
   in  Norway  in connection with glaciers. See Pothole. -- Giant powder.
   See  Nitroglycerin.  --  Giant  puffball  (Bot.), a fungus (Lycoperdon
   giganteum),  edible  when  young,  and  when  dried used for stanching
   wounds.   --   Giant  salamander  (Zo\'94l.),  a  very  large  aquatic
   salamander  (Megalobatrachus  maximus),  found  in  Japan.  It  is the
   largest  of  living  Amphibia,  becoming  a  yard long. -- Giant squid
   (Zo\'94l.),  one of several species of very large squids, belonging to
   Architeuthis and allied genera. Some are over forty feet long.


   Gi"ant*ess, n. A woman of extraordinary size.


   Gi"ant*ize  (?),  v. i. [Cf. F. g\'82antiser.] To play the giant. [R.]


   Gi"ant*ly, a. Appropriate to a giant. [Obs.] Usher.


   Gi"ant*ry (?), n. The race of giants. [R.] Cotgrave.


   Gi"ant*ship, n. The state, personality, or character, of a giant; -- a
   compellation for a giant.

     His giantship is gone somewhat crestfallen. Milton.


   Giaour  (?),  n.  [Turk.  giaur an infidel, Per. gawr, another form of
   ghebr  fire  worshiper.  Cf.  Kaffir,  Gheber .] An infidel; -- a term
   applied   by   Turks  to  disbelievers  in  the  Mohammedan  religion,
   especially Christrians. Byron.


   Gib  (?),  n. [Abbreviated fr. Gilbert, the name of the cat in the old
   story of "Reynard the Fox". in the "Romaunt of the Rose", etc.] A male
   cat; a tomcat. [Obs.]


   Gib, v. i. To act like a cat. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Gib  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.] A piece or slip of metal or wood,
   notched  or  otherwise, in a machine or structure, to hold other parts
   in  place  or  bind  them together, or to afford a bearing surface; --
   usually  held  or adjusted by means of a wedge, key, or screw. Gib and
   key, OR Gib and cotter (Steam Engine), the fixed wedge or gib, and the
   driving  wedge,key,  or  cotter,  used  for tightening the strap which
   holds the brasses at the end of a connecting rod.
   Gib,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Gibbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gibbing.] To
   secure  or fasten with a gib, or gibs; to provide with a gib, or gibs.
   Gibbed  lathe, an engine lathe in which the tool carriage is held down
   to the bed by a gib instead of by a weight.
   Gib (?), v. i. To balk. See Jib, v. i. Youatt. 


   Gib*bar"tas (?), n. [Cf. Ar. jebb\'ber giant; or L. gibber humpbacked:
   cf.  F. gibbar.] (Zo\'94l.) One of several finback whales of the North
   Atlantic;  --  called  also  Jupiter  whale.  [Written  also jubartas,
   gubertas, dubertus.]


   Gib"ber (?), n. [From Gib to balk.] A balky horse. Youatt.


   Gib"ber  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gibbered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gibbering.]  [Akin  to  jabber,  and  gabble.]  To  speak  rapidly and
   inarticulately. Shak.


   Gib"ber*ish  (?), n. [From Gibber, v. i.] Rapid and inarticulate talk;
   unintelligible language; unmeaning words; jargon.

     He,  like  a  gypsy, oftentimes would go; All kinds of gibberish he
     had learnt to known. Drayton.

     Such  gibberish  as  children may be heard amusing themselves with.


   Gib"ber*ish, a. Unmeaning; as, gibberish language.


   Gib"bet  (?),  n.  [OE.  gibet,  F.  gibet,  in OF. also club, fr. LL.
   gibetum;;  cf.  OF. gibe sort of sickle or hook, It. giubbetto gibbet,
   and giubbetta, dim. of giubba mane, also, an under waistcoat, doublet,
   Prov. It. gibba (cf. Jupon); so that it perhaps originally signified a
   halter,  a  rope  round  the  neck  of malefactors; or it is, perhaps,
   derived  fr.  L.  gibbus  hunched, humped, E. gibbous; or cf. E. jib a

   1.  A kind of gallows; an upright post with an arm projecting from the
   top,  on which, formerly, malefactors were hanged in chains, and their
   bodies allowed to remain asa warning.

   2.  The  projecting  arm of a crane, from which the load is suspended;
   the jib.


   Gib"bet, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gibbeted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gibbeting.]

   1. To hang and expose on a gibbet.

   2. To expose to infamy; to blacken.

     I'll gibbet up his name. Oldham.


   Gib"bier (?), n. [F. gibier.] Wild fowl; game. [Obs.] Addison.


   Gib"bon  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. gibbon.] (Zo\'94l.) Any arboreal ape of the
   genus  Hylobates, of which many species and varieties inhabit the East
   Indies and Southern Asia. They are tailless and without cheek pouches,
   and have very long arms, adapted for climbing. <-- common subtypes -->

     NOTE: &hand; Th e wh ite-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), the crowned
     (H.  pilatus),  the  wou-wou  or  singing  gibbon  (H. agilis), the
     siamang, and the hoolock. are the most common species.

                                   Gib boom

   Gib" boom` (?). See Jib boom.


   Gib*bose"  (?),  a.  [L. gibbosus, fr. gibbus, gibba, hunch, hump. Cf.
   Gibbous.] Humped; protuberant; -- said of a surface which presents one
   or more large elevations. Brande & C.


   Gib*bost"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  gibbosit\'82.]  The  state of being
   gibbous or gibbose; gibbousness.


   Gib"bous (?), a. [Cf. F. gibbeux. See Gibbose.]

   1.  Swelling  by  a regular curve or surface; protuberant; convex; as,
   the moon is gibbous between the half-moon and the full moon.

     The bones will rise, and make a gibbous member. Wiseman.

   2. Hunched; hump-backed. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne. -- Gib"bous*ly, adv. --
   Gib"bous*ness, n.


   Gibbs"ite  (?),  n.  [Named  after  George Gibbs.] (Min.) A hydrate of


   Gib"-cat`  (?), n. A male cat, esp. an old one. See lst Gib. n. [Obs.]


   Gibe (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gibed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gibing.] [Cf.
   Prov.  F.  giber,  equiv.  to  F.  jouer  to play, Icel. geipa to talk
   nonsense,  E. jabber.] To cast reproaches and sneering expressions; to
   rail;  to  utter  taunting,  sarcastic  words;  to flout; to fleer; to

     Fleer and gibe, and laugh and flout. Swift.


   Gibe,  v.  i. To reproach with contemptuous words; to deride; to scoff
   at; to mock.

     Draw  the  beasts  as I describe them, From their features, while I
     gibe them. Swift.


   Gibe,  n. An expression of sarcastic scorn; a sarcastic jest; a scoff;
   a taunt; a sneer.

     Mark the fleers, the gibes, and notable scorns. Shak.

     With solemn gibe did Eustace banter me. Tennyson.


   Gib"el (?), n. [G. gibel, giebel.] (Zo\'94l.) A kind of carp (Cyprinus
   gibelio); -- called also Prussian carp.


   Gib"er (?) n. One who utters gibes. B. Jonson.


   Gib"fish` (?), n. The male of the salmon. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.


   Gib"ing*ly (?), adv. In a gibing manner; scornfully.


   Gib"let (?), a. Made of giblets; as, a giblet pie.


   Gib"lets  (?), n. pl. [OE. gibelet, OF. gibelet game: cf. F. gibelotte
   stewed  rabbit.  Cf.  Gibbier.] The inmeats, or edible viscera (heart,
   gizzard, liver, etc.), of poultry.


   Gib"staff` (?), n. [Prov. E. gib a hooked stick + E. staff.]

   1. A staff to guage water, or to push a boat.

   2.  A  staff  formerly  used  in  fighting beasts on the stage. [Obs.]


   Gid  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Giddy,  a.]  A disease of sheep, characterized by
   vertigo; the staggers. It is caused by the presence of the CC.


   Gid"di*ly (?), adv. In a giddy manner.


   Gid"di*ness, n. The quality or state of being giddy.


   Gid"dy (?), a. [Compar. Giddier (?); superl. Giddiest.] [OE. gidi mad,
   silly,  AS.  gidig,  of  unknown  origin,  cf.  Norw.  gidda to shake,

   1. Having in the head a sensation of whirling or reeling about; having
   lost  the  power  of preserving the balance of the body, and therefore
   wavering and inclined to fall; lightheaded; dizzy.

     By giddy head and staggering legs betrayed. Tate.

   2.  Promoting  or  inducing  giddiness;  as,  a  giddy height; a giddy
   precipice. Prior.

     Upon the giddy footing of the hatches. Shak.

   3.  Bewildering  on  account  of  rapid  turning;  running  round with
   celerity; gyratory; whirling.

     The giddy motion of the whirling mill. Pope.

   4.  Characterized  by inconstancy; unstable; changeable; fickle; wild;
   thoughtless;  heedless.  "Giddy, foolish hours." Rowe. "Giddy chance."

     Young heads are giddy and young hearts are warm. Cowper.


   Gid"dy, v. i. To reel; to whirl. Chapman.


   Gid"dy, v. t. To make dizzy or unsteady. [Obs.]


   Gid"dy-head`  (?),  n.  A person without thought fulness, prudence, or
   judgment. [Colloq.] Burton.


   Gid"dy-head`ed (?), a. Thoughtless; unsteady.


   Gid"dy-paced` (?), a. Moving irregularly; flighty; fickle. [R.] Shak.


   Gie (?), v. t. To guide. See Gye . [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gie (?), v. t. To give. [Scot.] Burns.


   Gier"-ea`gle (?), n. [Cf. D. gier vulture, G. gier, and E. gyrfalcon.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A bird referred to in the Bible (Lev. xi. 18and Deut. xiv.
   17) as unclean, probably the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus).


   Gier"-fal`con  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Gier-eagle,  Gyrfalcon.] (Zo\'94l.) The


   Gie"seck*ite  (?),  n.  [Named  after Karl Giesecke.] (Min.) A mineral
   occurring  in  greenish gray six-sided prisms, having a greasy luster.
   It is probably a pseudomorph after el\'91olite.


   Gif (?), conj. [AS. See If.] If. [Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; Gi f is  th e old form of if, and frequently occurs in
     the earlier English writers. See If.

   Page 625

                               Giffard injector

   Gif"fard in*ject"or (?). (Mach.) See under Injector.


   Giff"gaff  (?),  n.  [Reduplicated  fr.  give.]  Mutial accommodation;
   mutual giving. [Scot.]


   Gif"fy (?), n. [Obs.] See Jiffy.


   Gift  (?), n. [OE. gift, yift, yeft, AS. gift, fr. gifan to give; akin
   to  D.  & G. gift, Icel. gift, gipt, Goth. gifts (in comp.). See Give,
   v. t.]

   1.  Anything  given; anything voluntarily transferred by one person to
   another without compensation; a present; an offering.

     Shall  I  receive  by  gift,  what of my own, . . . I can command ?

   2.  The act, right, or power of giving or bestowing; as, the office is
   in the gift of the President.

   3. A bribe; anything given to corrupt.

     Neither  take  a  gift, for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise.
     Deut. xvi. 19.

   4.  Some quality or endowment given to man by God; a pre\'89minent and
   special  talent  or  aptitude;  power; faculty; as, the gift of wit; a
   gift for speaking.

   5.  (Law)  A  voluntary transfer of real or personal property, without
   any  consideration.  It  can  be perfected only by deed, or in case of
   personal  property,  by  an  actual  delivery  of possession. Bouvier.
   Gift  rope  (Naut),  a  rope extended to a boat for towing it; a guest
   rope.  Syn.  --  Present; donation; grant; largess; benefaction; boon;
   bounty;  gratuity;  endowment;  talent;  faculty.  --  Gift,  Present,
   Donation. These words, as here compared, denote something gratuitously
   imparted  to  another out of one's property. A gift is something given
   whether  by a superior or an inferior, and is usually designed for the
   relief  or benefit of him who receives it. A present is ordinarly from
   an  equal  or  inferior,  and  is  always  intended as a compliment or
   expression  of kindness. Donation is a word of more dignity, denoting,
   properly,  a  gift  of  considerable  value, and ordinarly a gift made
   either  to  some public institution, or to an individual on account of
   his services to the public; as, a donation to a hospital, a charitable
   society, or a minister.


   Gift,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Gifted; p. pr. & vb. n. Gifting.] To endow
   with some power or faculty.

     He was gifted . . . with philosophical sagacity. I. Taylor.


   Gift"ed*ness, n. The state of being gifted. Echard.


   Gid (?), n. [Cf. OF. gigue. See Jig, n.] A fiddle. [Obs.]


   Gig  (?),  v.  t. [Prob. fr. L. gignere to beget.] To engender. [Obs.]


   Gig, n. A kind of spear or harpoon. See Fishgig.


   Gig, v. t. To fish with a gig.


   Gig, n. [OE. gigge. Cf. Giglot.] A playful or wanton girl; a giglot.


   Gig,  n.  [Cf. Icel. g fiddle, MHG. g, G. geige, Icel. geiga to take a
   wrong direction, rove at random, and E. jig.]

   1. A top or whirligig; any little thing that is whirled round in play.

     Thou disputest like an infant; go, whip thy gig. Shak.

   2.  A  light  carriage, with one pair of wheels, drawn by one horse; a
   kind of chaise.

   3. (Naut.) A long, light rowboat, generally clinkerbuilt, and designed
   to  be fast; a boat appropriated to the use of the commanding officer;
   as, the captain's gig.

   4.  (Mach.)  A  rotatory cylinder, covered with wire teeth or teasels,
   for teaseling woolen cloth.
   Gig  machine,  Gigging machine, Gig mill, OR Napping machine. See Gig,
   4. -- Gig saw. See Jig saw.


   Gi`gan*te"an (?), a. [L. giganteus, fr. gigas, antis. See Giant.] Like
   a giant; mighty; gigantic. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


   Gi`gan*tesque"   (?),   a.   [F.]   Befitting   a   giant;  bombastic;

     The  sort  of mock-heroic gigantesque With which we bantered little
     Lilia first. Tennyson.


   Gi*gan"tic (?), a. [L. gigas, -antis, giant. See Giant.]

   1. Of extraordinary size; like a giant.

   2.  Such  as  a  giant might use, make, or cause; immense; tremendous;
   extraordinarly; as, gigantic deeds; gigantic wickedness. Milton.

     When  descends  on  the  Atlantic  The  gigantic  Strom wind of the
     equinox. Longfellow.


   Gi*gan"tic*al, a. Bulky, big. [Obs.] Burton. -- Gi*gan"tic*al*ly, adv.


   Gi*gan"ti*cide (?), n. [. gigas, -antis, giant + caedere to kill.] The
   act of killing, or one who kills, a giant. Hallam.


   Gi*gan"tine (?), a. Gigantic. [Obs.] Bullokar.


   Gi`gan*tol"og*y  (?),  n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. gigantologie.] An account
   or description of giants.


   Gi`gan*tom"a*chy  (?), n. [L. gigantoma, fr. Gr. gigantomachie.] A war
   of giants; especially, the fabulous war of the giants against heaven.

                                  Gide, Guide

   Gide  (?),  Guide,  n.  [OF.  guide, guiche.] (Anc. Armor) The leather
   strap  by  which the shield of a knight was slung across the shoulder,
   or across the neck and shoulder. Meyrick (Ancient Armor).


   Gi*ge"ri*um  (?),  n.; pl. Gigeria (#). [NL., fr. L. gigeria, pl., the
   cooked entrails of poultry.] (Anat.) The muscular stomach, or gizzard,
   of birds.


   Gig"get (?), n. Same as Gigot.

     Cut the slaves to giggets. Beau. & Fl.


   Gig"gle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Giggled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Giggling
   (?).]  [Akin  to gaggle: cf. OD. ghichelen, G. kichern.] To laugh with
   short  catches  of the breath or voice; to laugh in a light, affected,
   or silly manner; to titter with childish levity.

     Giggling  and  laughing  with all their might At the piteous hap of
     the fairy wight. J. R. Drake.


   Gig"gle  (?),  n.  A kind of laugh, with short catches of the voice or
   breath; a light, silly laugh.


   Gig"gler (?), n. One who giggles or titters.


   Gig"gly (?), a. Prone to giggling. Carlyle.


   Gig"got (?), n. See Gigot. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Gig"gyng (?), n. [See Gige.] The act of fastending the gige or leather
   strap to the shield. [Obs.] "Gigging of shields." Chaucer.

                                Giglot, Giglet

   Gig"lot  (?),  Gig"let  (?),  n. [Cf. Icel. gikkr a pert, rude person,
   Dan.  giek  a fool, silly man, AS. gagol, g\'91gl, lascivious, wanton,
   MHG.  gogel wanton, giege fool, and E. gig a wanton person.] A wanton;
   a lascivious or light, giddy girl. [Obs.]

     The giglet is willful, and is running upon her fate. Sir W. Scott.


   Gig"lot  (?),  a.  Giddi;  light; inconstant; wanton. [Obs.] "O giglot
   fortune!" Shak.

                                 Gigot, Giggot

   Gig"ot,  Gig"got (, n. [F., fr. OF. gigue fiddle; -- on account of the
   resemblance in shape. See Jig, n.]

   1. A leg of mutton.

   2. A small piece of flesh; a slice. [Obs.]

     The rest in giggots cut, they spit. Chapman.

                                 Gila monster

   Gi"la  mon"ster (?). (Zo\'94l.) A large tuberculated lizard (Heloderma
   suspectum) native of the dry plains of Arizona, New Mexico, etc. It is
   the only lizard known to have venomous teeth.


   Gild  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Gilded  or Gilt (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gilding.] [AS. gyldan, from gold gold. &root;234. See Gold.]

   1.  To  overlay  with  a thin covering of gold; to cover with a golden
   color; to cause to look like gold. "Gilded chariots." Pope.

     No more the rising sun shall gild the morn. Pope.

   2. To make attractive; to adorn; to brighten.

     Let  oft  good  humor,  mild and gay, Gild the calm evening of your
     day. Trumbull.

   3.  To  give a fair but deceptive outward appearance to; to embellish;
   as, to gild a lie. Shak.

   4. To make red with drinking. [Obs.]

     This grand liquior that hath gilded them. Shak.


   Gild"ale`  (?),  n. [AS. gilgan to pay + E. ale. See Yield, v. t., and
   Ale.] A drinking bout in which every one pays an equal share. [Obs.]


   Gild"en (?), a. Gilded. Holland.


   Gild"er (?), n. One who gilds; one whose occupation is to overlay with


   Gil"der (?), n. A Dutch coin. See Guilder.


   Guild"ing (?), n.

   1. The art or practice of overlaying or covering with gold leaf; also,
   a thin coating or wash of gold, or of that which resembles gold.

   2. Gold in leaf, powder, or liquid, for application to any surface.

   3.  Any superficial coating or appearance, as opposed to what is solid
   and genuine.
   Gilding metal, a tough kind of sheet brass from which cartridge shells
   are made.


   Gile (?), n. [See Guile.] Guile. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gill  (?),  n.  [Dan.  gi\'91lle,  gelle;  akin  to  Sw. g\'84l, Icel.
   gj\'94lnar gills; cf. AS. geagl, geahl, jaw.]

   1. (Anat.) An organ for aquatic respiration; a branchia.

     Fishes perform respiration under water by the gills. Ray.

     NOTE: &hand; Gi lls are usually lamellar or filamentous appendages,
     through  which  the blood circulates, and in which it is exposed to
     the  action  of the air contained in the water. In vertebrates they
     are  appendages  of the visceral arches on either side of the neck.
     In invertebrates they occupy various situations.

   2.  pl.  (Bot.)  The  radiating,  gill-shaped plates forming the under
   surface of a mushroom.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  The fleshy flap that hangs below the beak of a fowl; a

   4. The flesh under or about the chin. Swift.

   5.  (Spinning)  One  of  the  combs of closely ranged steel pins which
   divide  the  ribbons  of  flax  fiber  or  wool  into  fewer  parallel
   filaments. [Prob. so called from F. aiguilles, needles. Ure.]
   Gill  arches,  Gill  bars.  (Anat.)  Same as Branchial arches. -- Gill
   clefts. (Anat.) Same as Branchial clefts. See under Branchial. -- Gill
   cover,  Gill  lid.  See  Operculum.  -- Gill frame, OR Gill head (Flax
   Manuf.),  a  spreader;  a machine for subjecting flax to the action of
   gills.  Knight. -- Gill net, a flat net so suspended in the water that
   its  meshes  allow  the  heads of fish to pass, but catch in the gills
   when  they seek to extricate themselves. -- Gill opening, OR Gill slit
   (Anat.), an opening behind and below the head of most fishes, and some
   amphibians,  by  which the water from the gills is discharged. In most
   fishes  there  is a single opening on each side, but in the sharks and
   rays  there  are  five,  or more, on each side. -- Gill rakes, OR Gill
   rakers  (Anat.),  horny filaments, or progresses, on the inside of the
   branchial  arches  of  fishes,  which help to prevent solid substances
   from being carried into gill cavities.


   Gill,  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.]  A two-wheeled frame for transporting
   timber. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gill, n. A leech. [Also gell.] [Scot.] Jameison.


   Gill,  n.  [Icel.  gil.]  A  woody  glen; a narrow valley containing a
   stream. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]


   Gill (?), n. [OF. gille, gelle, a sort of measure for wine, LL. gillo,
   gello., Cf. Gallon.] A measure of capacity, containing one fourth of a


   Gill (?), n. [Abbrev. from Gillian.]

   1.  A young woman; a sweetheart; a flirting or wanton girl. "Each Jack
   with his Gill." B. Jonson.

   2.  (Bot.)  The ground ivy (Nepeta Glechoma); -- called also gill over
   the ground, and other like names.

   3. Malt liquor medicated with ground ivy.
   Gill ale. (a) Ale flavored with ground ivy. (b) (Bot.) Alehoof.


   Gill"-flirt`  (?),  n. A thoughtless, giddy girl; a flirt-gill. Sir W.


   Gill"house`, n. A shop where gill is sold.

     Thee shall each alehouse, thee each gillhouse mourn. Pope.


   Gil"li*an  (?),  n. [OE. Gillian, a woman's name, for Julian, Juliana.
   Cf. Gill a girl.] A girl; esp., a wanton; a gill. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

                                 Gillie Gilly

   Gil"lie Gil"ly (?), n. [Gael. gille, giolla, boy, lad.] A boy or young
   man; a manservant; a male attendant, in the Scottish Highlands. Sir W.


   Gil"ly*flow`er  (?),  n.  [OE.  gilofre,  gilofer, clove, OF. girofre,
   girofle,  F. girofle: cf. F. girofl\'82e gillyflower, fr. girofle, Gr.
   foliage. Cf. Caryophyllus, July-flower.] (Bot.)

   1.   A  name  given  by  old  writers  to  the  clove  pink  (Dianthus
   Caryophyllus)  but  now  to  the  common  stock  (Matthiola incana), a
   cruciferous  plant with showy and fragrant blossoms, usually purplish,
   but often pink or white.

   2.  A  kind of apple, of a roundish conical shape, purplish red color,
   and having a large core. [Written also gilliflower.]
   Clove  gillflower,  the  clove  pink. -- Marsh gillyflower, the ragged
   robin  (Lychnis  Flos-cuculi).  --  Queen's,  OR  Winter, gillyflower,
   damewort.  --  Sea gillyflower, the thrift (Armeria vulgaris). -- Wall
   gillyflower,   the   wallflower   (Cheiranthus   Cheiri).   --   Water
   gillyflower, the water violet.


   Gil"our (?), n. [OF.] A guiler; deceiver. [Obs.]


   Gilse (?), n. [W. gleisiad, fr. glas blue.] (Zo\'94l.) See Grilse.


   Gilt (?), n. [See Geld, v. t.] (Zo\'94l.) A female pig, when young.


   Gilt, imp. & p. p. of Gild.


   Gilt,  p.  p.  &  a.  Gilded; covered with gold; of the color of gold;
   golden yellow. "Gilt hair" Chaucer.


   Gilt, n.

   1. Gold, or that which resembles gold, laid on the surface of a thing;
   gilding. Shak.

   2. Money. [Obs.] "The gilt of France." Shak.

                             Gilt-edge, Gilt-edged

   Gilt"-edge` (?), Gilt"-edged` (?), a.

   1. Having a gilt edge; as, gilt-edged paper.

   2.  Of  the best quality; -- said of negotiable paper, etc. [Slang, U.


   Gilt"head`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A marine fish. The name is applied to
   two  species: (a) The Pagrus, OR Chrysophrys, auratus, a valuable food
   fish  common  in  the  Mediterranean (so named from its golden-colored
   head);  --  called  also  giltpoll. (b) The Crenilabrus melops, of the
   British coasts; -- called also golden maid, conner, sea partridge.


   Gilt"if  (?),  a.  [For  gilti, by confusion with -if, -ive, in French
   forms. See Guilty.] Guilty. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gilt"tail` (?), n. A yellow-tailed worm or larva.


   Gim (?), a. [Cf. Gimp, a.] Neat; spruce. [Prov.]

                              Gimbal, OR Gimbals

   Gim"bal  (?),  OR  Gim"bals  (,  n. [See Gimmal, n.] A contrivance for
   permitting  a  body  to  incline  freely  in  all  directions,  or for
   suspending  anything,  as  a  barometer,  ship's compass, chronometer,
   etc.,  so  that  it  will  remain plumb, or level, when its support is
   tipped,  as  by  the rolling of a ship. It consists of a ring in which
   the body can turn on an axis through a diameter of the ring, while the
   ring  itself  is  so  pivoted  to its support that it can turn about a
   diameter  at  right  angles  to  the  first.  Gimbal  joint (Mach.), a
   universal joint embodying the principle of the gimbal. -- Gimbal ring,
   a  single  gimbal, as that by which the cockeye of the upper millstone
   is supported on the spindle.


   Gim"blet (?), n. & v. See Gimlet.


   Gim"crack`  (?),  n. [OE., a spruce and pert pretender, also, a spruce
   girl,  prob.  fr.  gim  +  crack lad, boaster.] A trivial mechanism; a
   device; a toy; a pretty thing. Arbuthnot.


   Gim"let   (?),  n.  [Also  written  and  pronounced  gimbled  (]  [OF.
   guimbelet,  guibelet,  F. gibelet, prob. fr. OD. wimpel, weme, a bore,
   wemelen  to  bore,  to wimble. See Wimble, n.] A small tool for boring
   holes.  It  has  a  leading screw, a grooved body, and a cross handle.
   Gimlet eye, a squint-eye. [Colloq.] Wright.


   Gim"let, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gimleted; p. pr. & vb. n. Gimleting.]

   1. To pierce or make with a gimlet.

   2.  (Naut.) To turn round (an anchor) by the stock, with a motion like
   turning a gimlet.


   Gim"mal  (?),  n.  [Prob.  the  same word as gemel. See Gemel, and cf.

   1. Joined work whose parts move within each other; a pair or series of
   interlocked rings.

   2. A quaint piece of machinery; a gimmer. [Obs.]


   Gom"mal, a. Made or consisting of interlocked ringas, gimmal mail.

     In  their  pale  dull  mouths  the gimmal bit Lies foul with chewed
     grass. Shak.

   Gimmal joint. See Gimbal joint, under Gimbal.

                                Gimmer, Gimmor

   Gim"mer,  Gim"mor  (,  n.  [Cf.  Gimmal,  n.]  A  piece  of mechanism;
   mechanical device or contrivance; a gimcrack. [Obs.] Bp. Hall. Shak.

   Page 626


   Gimp (?), a. [W. gwymp fair, neat, comely.] Smart; spruce; trim; nice.
   [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]


   Gimp,  n. [OF. guimpe, guimple, a nun's wimple, F. guimpe, OHG. wimpal
   a  veil G. wimpel pennon, pendant. See Wimple, n.] A narrow ornamental
   fabric  of  silk,  woolen,  or  cotton, often with a metallic wire, or
   sometimes  a  coarse cord, running through it; -- used as trimming for
   dresses, furniture, etc.

     Gimp nail, an upholsterer's small nail.


     Gimp, v. t. To notch; to indent; to jag.


     Gin (?), prep. [AS. ge\'a0n. See Again.] Against; near by; towards;
     as, gin night. [Scot.] A. Ross (1778).


     Gin, conj. [See Gin, prep.] If. [Scotch] Jamieson.


     Gin  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Gan (?), Gon (Gun (p. pr. & vb. n.
     Ginning.] [OE. ginnen, AS. ginnan (in comp.), prob. orig., to open,
     cut  open,  cf.  OHG.  inginnan to begin, open, cut open, and prob.
     akin  to  AS.  g\'c6nan  to yawn, and E. yawn. Yawn, v. i., and cf.
     Begin.]  To  begin;  -- often followed by an infinitive without to;
     as, gan tell. See Gan. [Obs. or Archaic] "He gan to pray." Chaucer.


     Gin (?), n. [Contr. from Geneva. See 2d Geneva.] A strong alcoholic
     liquor,  distilled  from  rye and barley, and flavored with juniper
     berries;   --   also  called  Hollands  and  Holland  gin,  because
     originally,  and  still  very extensively, manufactured in Holland.
     Common gin is usually flavored with turpentine.


     Gin (?), n. [A contraction of engine.]

     1. Contrivance; artifice; a trap; a snare. Chaucer. Spenser.

     2. (a) A machine for raising or moving heavy weights, consisting of
     a  tripod  formed  of  poles  united  at  the top, with a windlass,
     pulleys,   ropes,  etc.  (b)  (Mining)  A  hoisting  drum,  usually
     vertical; a whim.

     3. A machine for separating the seeds from cotton; a cotton gin.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  al so given to an instrument of torture
     worked with screws, and to a pump moved by rotary sails.

   Gin block, a simple form of tackle block, having one wheel, over which
   a  rope  runs;  --  called  also  whip gin, rubbish pulley, and monkey
   wheel.  --  Gin power, a form of horse power for driving a cotton gin.
   --  Gin race, OR Gin ring, the path of the horse when putting a gin in
   motion.  Halliwell. -- Gin saw, a saw used in a cotton gin for drawing
   the  fibers  through  the grid, leaving the seed in the hopper. -- Gin
   wheel.  (a) In a cotton gin, a wheel for drawing the fiber through the
   grid; a brush wheel to clean away the lint. (b) (Mining) the drum of a


   Gin, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ginned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ginning.]

   1. To catch in a trap. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

   2. To clear of seeds by a machine; as, to gin cotton.


   Ging (?), n. Same as Gang, n., 2. [Obs.]

     There is a knot, a ging, a pack, a conspiracy against me. Shak.


   Gin*gal" (?), n. See Jingal.


   Gin"ger  (?),  n.  [OE.  ginger,  gingever,  gingivere,  OF. gengibre,
   gingimbre,  F. gingembre, L. zingiber, zingiberi, fr. Gr. zenjeb\'c6l,
   fr. Skr. , prop., hornshaped; horn + v\'89ra body.]

   1.  (Bot.) A plant of the genus Zingiber, of the East and West Indies.
   The species most known is Z. officinale.

   2.  The  hot and spicy rootstock of Zingiber officinale, which is much
   used in cookery and in medicine.
   Ginger  beer  OR  ale,  a mild beer impregnated with ginger. -- Ginger
   cordial,  a  liquor  made from ginger, raisins, lemon rind, and water,
   and  sometimes  whisky  or  brandy.  --  Ginger  pop.  See Ginger beer
   (above).  -- Ginger wine, wine impregnated with ginger. -- Wild ginger
   (Bot.),  an  American herb (Asarum Canadense) with two reniform leaves
   and a long, cordlike rootstock which has a strong taste of ginger.


   Gin"ger*bread`  (?),  n.  A  kind  of  plain  sweet cake seasoned with
   ginger,  and  sometimes  made in fanciful shapes. Gingerbread that was
   full  fine."  Chaucer.  Gingerbread  tree (Bot.), the doom palm; -- so
   called  from  the  resemblance  of  its fruit to gingerbread. See Doom
   Palm.   --   Gingerbread   work,  ornamentation,  in  architecture  or
   decoration, of a fantastic, trivial, or tawdry character.


   Gin"ger*ly,  adv.  [Prov.  E.  ginger  brittle,  tender; cf. dial. Sw.
   gingla, g\'84ngla, to go gently, totter, akin to E. gang.] Cautiously;
   timidly; fastidiously; daintily.

     What is't that you took up so gingerly ? Shak.


   Gin"ger*ness, n. Cautiousness; tenderness.


   Ging"ham  (?),  n.  [F.  guingan;  cf.  Jav.  ginggang;  or  perh. fr.
   Guingamp,  in  France.]  A  kind  of cotton or linen cloth, usually in
   stripes  or  checks,  the yarn of which is dyed before it is woven; --
   distinguished from printed cotton or prints.


   Ging"ing  (?),  n.  (Mining) The lining of a mine shaft with stones or
   bricks to prevent caving.


   Gin"gi*val (?), a. [L. gingiva the gum.] Of or pertaining to the gums.


   Gin"gle (?), n. & v. [Obs.] See Jingle.


   Gin"gly*form (?), a. (Anat.) Ginglymoid.


   Gin`gly*mo"di  (?),  n. [NL.; cf. Gr. Ginglymoid.] (Zo\'94l.) An order
   of  ganoid  fishes,  including  the  modern  gar pikes and many allied
   fossil  forms.  They have rhombic, ganoid scales, a heterocercal tail,
   paired  fins without an axis, fulcra on the fins, and a bony skeleton,
   with  the  vertebr\'91  convex  in front and concave behind, forming a
   ball and socket joint. See Ganoidel.

                           Ginglymoid, Ginglymoidal

   Gin"gly*moid   (?),   Gin`gly*moid"al   (?),   a.   [Gr.  ginglymoide,
   ginglymo\'8bdal.]  (Anat.)  Pertaining to, or resembling, a ginglymus,
   or hinge joint; ginglyform.


   Gin"gly*mus  (?),  n.; pl. Ginglymi (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) A hinge
   joint;  an articulation, admitting of flexion and extension, or motion
   in two directions only, as the elbow and the ankle.


   Gin"house` (?), n. A building where cotton is ginned.


   Gink"go  (?),  n.;  pl.  Ginkgoes (#). [Chin., silver fruit.] (Bot.) A
   large  ornamental tree (Ginkgo biloba) from China and Japan, belonging
   to  the  Yew  suborder of Conifer\'91. Its leaves are so like those of
   some maidenhair ferns, that it is also called the maidenhair tree.


   Gin"nee (?), n.; pl. Ginn (. See Jinnee.


   Gin"net (?), n. See Genet, a horse.


   Gin"ning (?), n. [See Gin, v. i.] Beginning. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gin"ny-car`riage   (,  n.  A  small,  strong  carriage  for  conveying
   materials on a railroad. [Eng.]


   Gin"seng  (?),  n.  [Chinese.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Aralia, the
   root  of  which  is highly valued as a medicine among the Chinese. The
   Chinese  plant (Aralia Schinseng) has become so rare that the American
   (A.  quinquefolia) has largely taken its place, and its root is now an
   article  of  export from America to China. The root, when dry, is of a
   yellowish  white  color,  with  a  sweetness  in  the  taste  somewhat
   resembling   that   of  licorice,  combined  with  a  slight  aromatic


   Gin"shop`  (?),  n. A shop or barroom where gin is sold as a beverage.


   Gip (?), v. t. To take out the entrails of (herrings).


   Gip, n. A servant. See Gyp. Sir W. Scott.


   Gi*poun"  (?),  n. [See Jupon.] A short cassock. [Written also gepoun,
   gypoun, jupon, juppon.] [Obs.]

                                Gipser, Gipsire

   Gip"ser  (?),  Gip"sire  (?), n. [F. gibeci\'8are a game pouch or game
   pocket. Cf. Gibbier.] A kind of pouch formerly worn at the girdle. Ld.

     A  gipser  all of silk, Hung at his girdle, white as morn\'82 milk.


   Gip"sy (?), n. a.. See Gypsy.


   Gip"sy*ism (?), n. See Gypsyism.


   Gi*raffe"  (?),  n.  [F.  girafe,  Sp.  girafa,  from  Ar.  zur\'befa,
   zar\'befa.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  African ruminant (Camelopardalis giraffa)
   related  to the deers and antelopes, but placed in a family by itself;
   the  camelopard.  It is the tallest of animals, being sometimes twenty
   feet from the hoofs to the top of the head. Its neck is very long, and
   its fore legs are much longer than its hind legs.


   Gir"an*dole (?), n. [F. See Gyrate.]

   1. An ornamental branched candlestick.

   2. A flower stand, fountain, or the like, of branching form.

   3. (Pyrotechny) A kind of revolving firework.

   4. (Fort.) A series of chambers in defensive mines. Farrow.

                               Girasole Girasol

   Gir"a*sole  Gir"a*sol  (?),  n.  [It.  girasole, or F. girasol, fr. L.
   gyrare to turn around + sol sun.]

   1. (Bot.) See Heliotrope. [Obs.]

   2. (Min.) A variety of opal which is usually milk white, bluish white,
   or sky blue; but in a bright light it reflects a reddish color.


   Gird (?), n. [See Yard a measure.]

   1. A stroke with a rod or switch; a severe spasm; a twinge; a pang.

     Conscience . . . is freed from many fearful girds and twinges which
     the atheist feels. Tillotson.

   2. A cut; a sarcastic remark; a gibe; a sneer.

     I thank thee for that gird, good Tranio. Shak.


   Gird, v. t. [See Gird, n., and cf. Girde, v.]

   1. To strike; to smite. [Obs.]

     To slay him and to girden off his head. Chaucer.

   2. To sneer at; to mock; to gibe.

     Being moved, he will not spare to gird the gods. Shak.


   Gird,  v.  i.  To  gibe;  to sneer; to break a scornful jest; to utter
   severe sarcasms.

     Men of all sorts take a pride to gird at me. Shak.


   Gird  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Girt (?) or Girded; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Girding.]  [OE.  girden,  gurden,  AS. gyrdan; akin to OS. gurdian, D.
   gorden, OHG. gurten, G. g\'81rten, Icel. gyr, Sw. gjorda, Dan. giorde,
   Goth.  biga\'a1rdan  to begird, and prob. to E. yard an inclosure. Cf.
   Girth, n. & v., Girt, v. t.]

   1. To encircle or bind with any flexible band.

   2. To make fast, as clothing, by binding with a cord, girdle, bandage,

   3. To surround; to encircle, or encompass.

     That Nyseian isle, Girt with the River Triton. Milton.

   4. To clothe; to swathe; to invest.

     I girded thee about with fine linen. Ezek. xvi. 10.

     The Son . . . appeared Girt with omnipotence. Milton.

   5.  To  prepare; to make ready; to equip; as, to gird one's self for a

     Thou hast girded me with strength. Ps. xviii. 39.

   To  gird  on,  to  put on; to fasten around or to one securely, like a
   girdle; as, to gird on armor or a sword.
     Let  not  him  that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he that
     putteth it off. 1 Kings xx. 11.
   --  To  gird  up,  to  bind  tightly  with  a  girdle;  to support and
   strengthen, as with a girdle.

     He girded up his loins, and ran before Ahab. 1 Kings xviii. 46.

     Gird up the loins of your mind. 1 Pet. i. 13.

   --  Girt  up;  prepared  or equipped, as for a journey or for work, in
   allusion  to the ancient custom of gathering the long flowing garments
   into  the  girdle  and  tightening  it  before  any  exertion;  hence,
   adjectively,  eagerly  or  constantly  active; strenuous; striving. "A
   severer, more girt-up way of living." J. C. Shairp.


   Gird"er (?), n. [From Gird to sneer at.] One who girds; a satirist.


   Gird"er, n. [From Gird to encircle.]

   1. One who, or that which, girds.

   2. (Arch. & Engin.) A main beam; a stright, horizontal beam to span an
   opening  or  carry weight, such as ends of floor beams, etc.; hence, a
   framed  or  built-up  member  discharging the same office, technically
   called  a  compound  girder.  See  Illusts. of Frame, and Doubleframed
   floor, under Double.
   Bowstring  girder,  Box girder, etc. See under Bowstring, Box, etc. --
   Girder   bridge.  See  under  Bridge.  --  Lattice  girder,  a  girder
   consisting  of  longitudinal bars united by diagonal crossing bars. --
   Half-lattice girder, a girder consisting of horizontal upper and lower
   bars  connected  by  a  series of diagonal bars sloping alternately in
   opposite  directions so as to divide the space between the bars into a
   series  of  triangles. Knight. -- Sandwich girder, a girder consisting
   of  two  parallel  wooden  beams,  between which is an iron plate, the
   whole clamped together by iron bolts.


   Gird"ing, n. That with which one is girded; a girdle.

     Instead of a stomacher, a girding of sackcloth. Is. iii. 24.


   Gir"dle (?), n. A griddle. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]


   Gir"dle,  n.  [OE.  gurdel, girdel, AS. gyrdel, fr. gyrdan; akin to D.
   gordel, G. g\'81rtel, Icel. gyr. See Gird, v. t., to encircle, and cf.
   Girth, n.]

   1.  That which girds, encircles, or incloses; a circumference; a belt;
   esp., a belt, sash, or article of dress encircling the body usually at
   the waist; a cestus.

     Within the girdle of these walls. Shak.

     Their breasts girded with golden girdles. Rev. xv. 6.

   2. The zodiac; also, the equator. [Poetic] Bacon.

     From the world's girdle to the frozen pole. Cowper.

     That gems the starry girdle of the year. Campbell.

   3.  (Jewelry)  The  line  ofgreatest  circumference of a brilliant-cut
   diamond,  at  which  it  is  grasped  by  the  setting. See Illust. of
   Brilliant. Knight.

   4. (Mining) A thin bed or stratum of stone. Raymond.

   5. (Zo\'94l.) The clitellus of an earthworm.
   Girdle  bone  (Anat.),  the  sphenethmoid.  See under Sphenethmoid. --
   Girdle   wheel,   a  spinning  wheel.  --  Sea  girdle  (Zo\'94l.),  a
   ctenophore.  See  Venus's  girdle, under Venus. -- Shoulder, Pectoral,
   AND Pelvic, girdle. (Anat.) See under Pectoral, and Pelvic. -- To have
   under the girdle, to have bound to one, that is, in subjection.


   Gir"dle,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Girdled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Girdling

   1. To bind with a belt or sash; to gird. Shak.

   2. To inclose; to environ; to shut in.

     Those sleeping stones, That as a waist doth girdle you about. Shak.

   3.  To  make  a cut or gnaw a groove around (a tree, etc.) through the
   bark and alburnum, thus killing it. [U. S.]


   Gir"dler (?), n.

   1. One who girdles.

   2. A maker of girdles.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  American  longicorn  beetle (Oncideres cingulatus)
   which lays its eggs in the twigs of the hickory, and then girdles each
   branch  by  gnawing  a  groove  around  it, thus killing it to provide
   suitable food for the larv\'91.


   Gir"dle*stead (?), n. [Girdle + stead place.]

   1. That part of the body where the girdle is worn. [Obs.]

     Sheathed, beneath his girdlestead. Chapman.

   2. The lap. [R.]

     There fell a flower into her girdlestead. Swinburne.


   Gire (?), n. [Obs.] See Gyre.


   Gir"kin (?), n. [Obs.] See Gherkin.


   Girl  (?),  n.  [OE. girle, gerle, gurle, a girl (in sense 1): cf. LG.
   g\'94r child.]

   1. A young person of either sex; a child. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. A female child, from birth to the age of puberty; a young maiden.

   3. A female servant; a maidservant. [U. S.]

   4. (Zo\'94l.) A roebuck two years old. [Prov. Eng.]


   Girl"hood (?), n. State or time of being a girl.


   Girl"ish,  a.  Like, or characteristic of, a girl; of or pertaining to
   girlhood; innocent; artless; immature; weak; as, girlish ways; girlish
   grief. -- Girl"ish*ly, adv. -- Girl"ish*ness, n.


   Gir"lond (?), n. [See Garland, n.] A garland; a prize. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Girn (?), v. i. [See Grin, n.] To grin. [Obs.]


   Gi*ron"dist  (?),  n.  [F.  Girondiste.]  A  member  of  the  moderate
   republican  party  formed  in the French legislative assembly in 1791.
   The Girondists were so called because their leaders were deputies from
   the department of La Gironde.


   Gi*ron"dist,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to the Girondists. [Written also


   Gir"rock  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Prov.  F.  chicarou.]  (Zo\'94l.) A garfish.


   Girt (?), imp. & p. p. of Gird.


   Girt,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Girted; p. pr. & vb. n. Girting.] [From
   Girt, n., cf. Girth, v.] To gird; to encircle; to invest by means of a
   girdle; to measure the girth of; as, to girt a tree.

     We  here  create thee the first duke of Suffolk, And girt thee with
     the sword. Shak.


   Girt,  a.  (Naut.)  Bound by a cable; -- used of a vessel so moored by
   two  anchors that she swings against one of the cables by force of the
   current or tide.

   Page 627


   Girt (?), n. Same as Girth.


   Girth  (?),  n.  [Icel.  gj\'94r  girdle,  or ger girth; akin to Goth.
   ga\'a1rda girdle. See Gird to girt, and cf. Girdle, n.]

   1.  A band or strap which encircles the body; especially, one by which
   a saddle is fastened upon the back of a horse.

   2.  The  measure  round  the  body,  as  at  the  waist  or belly; the
   circumference of anything.

     He's  a lu sty, jolly fellow, that lives well, at least three yards
     in the girth. Addison.

   3. A small horizontal brace or girder.


   Girth,  v.  t.  [From  Girth,  n.,  cf. Girt, v. t.] To bind as with a
   girth. [R.] Johnson.


   Girt"line` (?), n. (Naut.) A gantline. Hammock girtline, a line rigged
   for hanging out hammocks to dry.


   Gis*arm" (?), n. [OF. gisarme, guisarme.] (Medi\'91val Armor) A weapon
   with  a  scythe-shaped blade, and a separate long sharp point, mounted
   on a long staff and carried by foot soldiers.


   Gise (?), v. t. [See Agist.] To feed or pasture. [Obs.]


   Gise (?), n. Guise; manner. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gis"le  (?),  n.  [AS.  g\'c6sel; akin to G. geisel, Icel. g\'c6sl.] A
   pledge. [Obs.] Bp. Gibson.

                            Gismondine, Gismondite

   Gis*mon"dine   (?),  Gis*mon"dite  (?),  n.  [From  the  name  of  the
   discoverer,  Gismondi.]  (Min.) A native hydrated silicate of alumina,
   lime, and potash, first noticed near Rome.


   Gist  (?),  n. [OF. giste abode, lodgings, F. g\'8cte, fr. g\'82sir to
   lie,  L.  jac, prop., to be thrown, hence, to lie, fr. jacre to throw.
   In  the  second  sense fr. OF. gist, F. g\'8ct, 3d pers. sing. ind. of
   g\'82sir  to  lie,  used  in  a proverb, F., c'est l\'85 que g\'8ct le
   li\'8avre,  it  is there that the hare lies, i. e., that is the point,
   the  difficulty.  See  Jet a shooting forth, and cf. Agist, Joist, n.,
   Gest a stage in traveling.]

   1. A resting place. [Obs.]

     These  quails  have  their  set gists; to wit, ordinary resting and
     baiting places. Holland.

   2.  The  main  point,  as  of a question; the point on which an action
   rests; the pith of a matter; as, the gist of a question.


   Git (?), n. (Founding) See Geat.


   Gite (?), n. A gown. [Obs.]

     She came often in a gite of red. Chaucer.


   Gith  (?), n. [Prov. E., corn cockle; cf. W. gith corn cockle.] (Bot.)
   The  corn  cockle;  also  anciently  applied to the Nigella, or fennel


   Git"tern  (?),  n.  [OE.  giterne,  OF. guiterne, ultimately from same
   source  as E. guitar. See Guitar, and cf. Cittern.] An instrument like
   a guitar. "Harps, lutes, and giternes." Chaucer.


   Git"tern, v. i. To play on gittern. Milton.


   Git"tith  (?),  n.  [Heb.] A musical instrument, of unknown character,
   supposed  by  some to have been used by the people of Gath, and thence
   obtained  by  David.  It  is  mentioned  in the title of Psalms viii.,
   lxxxi., and lxxxiv. Dr. W. Smith.


   Guist (?), n. [Obs.] Same as Joust. Spenser.


   Gius"to  (?),  a.  [It.,  fr. L. justus. See Just, a.] (Mus.) In just,
   correct, or suitable time.


   Give  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  Gave  (?); p. p. Given (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Giving.]  [OE.  given,  yiven,  yeven,  AS.  gifan, giefan; akin to D.
   geven,  OS.  g,  OHG.  geban,  Icel. gefa, Sw. gifva, Dan. give, Goth.
   giban. Cf. Gift, n.]

   1.   To   bestow   without  receiving  a  return;  to  confer  without
   compensation;  to  impart,  as a possession; to grant, as authority or
   permission; to yield up or allow.

     For generous lords had rather give than pay. Young.

   2.  To  yield  possesion of; to deliver over, as property, in exchange
   for something; to pay; as, we give the value of what we buy.

     What shall a man give in exchange for his soul ? Matt. xvi. 26.

   3. To yield; to furnish; to produce; to emit; as, flint and steel give

   4. To communicate or announce, as advice, tidings, etc.; to pronounce;
   to  render  or  utter, as an opinion, a judgment, a sentence, a shout,

   5.  To  grant power or license to; to permit; to allow; to license; to

     It is given me once again to behold my friend. Rowe.

     Then give thy friend to shed the sacred wine. Pope.

   6.  To  exhibit  as  a product or result; to produce; to show; as, the
   number  of  men, divided by the number of ships, gives four hundred to
   each ship.

   7.  To  devote;  to  apply; used reflexively, to devote or apply one's
   self;  as, the soldiers give themselves to plunder; also in this sense
   used  very frequently in the past participle; as, the people are given
   to luxury and pleasure; the youth is given to study.

   8.  (Logic  &  Math.)  To  set  forth  as  a known quantity or a known
   relation, or as a premise from which to reason; -- used principally in
   the passive form given.

   9. To allow or admit by way of supposition.

     I give not heaven for lost. Mlton.

   10. To attribute; to assign; to adjudge.

     I don't wonder at people's giving him to me as a lover. Sheridan.

   11.  To excite or cause to exist, as a sensation; as, to give offense;
   to give pleasure or pain.

   12. To pledge; as, to give one's word.

   13.  To  cause;  to  make;  -- with the infinitive; as, to give one to
   understand, to know, etc.

     But  there  the duke was given to understand That in a gondola were
     seen together Lorenzo and his amorous Jessica. Shak.

   To give away, to make over to another; to transfer.

     Whatsoever  we employ in charitable uses during our lives, is given
     away from ourselves. Atterbury.

   -- To give back, to return; to restore. Atterbury. -- To give the bag,
   to cheat. [Obs.]

     I fear our ears have given us the bag. J. Webster.

   --  To  give  birth to. (a) To bear or bring forth, as a child. (b) To
   originate;  to  give  existence to, as an enterprise, idea. -- To give
   chase,  to pursue. -- To give ear to. See under Ear. -- To give forth,
   to  give  out;  to  publish;  to tell. Hayward. -- To give ground. See
   under  Ground,  n. -- To give the hand, to pledge friendship or faith.
   --  To give the hand of, to espouse; to bestow in marriage. -- To give
   the  head.  See under Head, n. -- To give in. (a) To abate; to deduct.
   (b)  To declare; to make known; to announce; to tender; as, to give in
   one's  adhesion  to a party. -- To give the lie to (a person), to tell
   (him)  that  he lies. -- To give line. See under Line. -- To give off,
   to  emit,  as  steam, vapor, odor, etc. -- To give one's self away, to
   make  an  inconsiderate  surrender  of  one's  cause, an unintentional
   disclosure  of  one's purposes, or the like. [Colloq.] -- To give out.
   (a) To utter publicly; to report; to announce or declare.

     One that gives out himself Prince Florizel. Shak.

     Give out you are of Epidamnum. Shak.

   (b)  To  send  out;  to emit; to distribute; as, a substance gives out
   steam  or odors. -- To give over. (a) To yield completely; to quit; to
   abandon.  (b)  To  despair  of. (c) To addict, resign, or apply (one's

     The  Babylonians  had  given themselves over to all manner of vice.
     Grew. --

   To  give  place, to withdraw; to yield one's claim. -- To give points.
   (a)  In  games  of  skill,  to equalize chances by conceding a certain
   advantage;  to  allow  a  handicap.  (b)  To  give useful suggestions.
   [Colloq.]  --  To  give rein. See under Rein, n. -- To give the sack .
   Same as To give the bag. -- To give and take. (a) To average gains and
   losses.  (b)  To  exchange freely, as blows, sarcasms, etc. -- To give
   time (Law), to accord extension or forbearance to a debtor. Abbott. --
   To give the time of day, to salute one with the compliment appropriate
   to  the  hour,  as  "good  morning."  "good  evening", etc. -- To give
   tongue,  in  hunter's phrase, to bark; -- said of dogs. -- To give up.
   (a) To abandon; to surrender. "Don't give up the ship."

     He  has  .  . . given up For certain drops of salt, your city Rome.

   (b) To make public; to reveal.

     I'll not state them By giving up their characters. Beau. & Fl.

   (c) (Used also reflexively.) -- To give up the ghost. See under Ghost.
   --  To  give  one's self up, to abandon hope; to despair; to surrender
   one's  self.  --  To  give way. (a) To withdraw; to give place. (b) To
   yield  to force or pressure; as, the scaffolding gave way. (c) (Naut.)
   To  begin  to  row;  or  to  row  with  increased  energy.  (d) (Stock
   Exchange).  To depreciate or decline in value; as, railroad securities
   gave  way  two  per  cent. -- To give way together, to row in time; to
   keep  stroke.  Syn.  -- To Give, Confer, Grant. To give is the generic
   word, embracing all the rest. To confer was originally used of persons
   in  power,  who gave permanent grants or privileges; as, to confer the
   order  of  knighthood;  and  hence  it  still  denotes  the  giving of
   something  which  might  have been withheld; as, to confer a favor. To
   grant  is to give in answer to a petition or request, or to one who is
   in some way dependent or inferior.


   Give (?), v. i.

   1. To give a gift or gifts.

   2.  To yield to force or pressure; to relax; to become less rigid; as,
   the earth gives under the feet.

   3. To become soft or moist. [Obs.] Bacon .

   4. To move; to recede.

     Now back he gives, then rushes on amain. Daniel.

   5. To shed tears; to weep. [Obs.]

     Whose eyes do never give But through lust and laughter. Shak.

   6. To have a misgiving. [Obs.]

     My mind gives ye're reserved To rob poor market women. J. Webster.

   7. To open; to lead. [A Gallicism]

     This, yielding, gave into a grassy walk. Tennyson.

   To give back, to recede; to retire; to retreat.

     They gave back and came no farther. Bunyan.

   -- To give in, to yield; to succumb; to acknowledge one's self beaten;
   to cease opposition.

     The Scots battalion was enforced to give in. Hayward.

     This  consideration  may  induce  a  translator to give in to those
     general phrases. Pope.

   --  To  give off, to cease; to forbear. [Obs.] Locke. -- To give on OR
   upon.  (a)  To rush; to fall upon. [Obs.] (b) To have a view of; to be
   in  sight  of; to overlook; to look toward; to open upon; to front; to
   face. [A Gallicism: cf. Fr. donner sur.]

     Rooms which gave upon a pillared porch. Tennyson.

     The gloomy staircase on which the grating gave. Dickens.

   --  To give out. (a) To expend all one's strength. Hence: (b) To cease
   from  exertion;  to  fail;  to be exhausted; as, my feet being to give
   out;  the  flour  has  given  out.  --  To  give  over,  to  cease; to
   discontinue; to desist.

     It  would  be well for all authors, if they knew when to give over,
     and to desist from any further pursuits after fame. Addison.

   --  To  give  up,  to  cease from effort; to yield; to despair; as, he
   would never give up.


   Giv"en (?), p. p. & a. from Give, v.

   1.  (Math.  & Logic) Granted; assumed; supposed to be known; set forth
   as a known quantity, relation, or premise.

   2.  Disposed;  inclined;  --  used with an adv.; as, virtuously given.

   3. Stated; fixed; as, in a given time.
   Given  name,  the  Christian  name,  or name given by one's parents or
   guardians,  as  distinguished  from  the  surname, which is inherited.
   Giv"er  (?), n. One who gives; a donor; a bestower; a grantor; one who
   imparts or distributes.
     It  is the giver, and not the gift, that engrosses the heart of the
     Christian. Kollock.
   Gives (?), n. pl. [See Give, n.] Fetters. 


   Giv"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of bestowing as a gift; a conferring or imparting.

   2. A gift; a benefaction. [R.] Pope.

   3. The act of softening, breaking, or yielding. "Upon the first giving
   of the weather." Addison.
   Giving  in,  a  falling  inwards;  a collapse. -- Giving out, anything
   uttered or asserted; an outgiving.

     His  givings  out  were of an infinite distance From his true meant
     design. Shak.


   Giz"zard  (?),  n. [F. g\'82sier, L. gigeria, pl., the cooked entrails
   of poultry. Cf. Gigerium.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The  second, or true, muscular stomach of birds, in which
   the  food is crushed and ground, after being softened in the glandular
   stomach (crop), or lower part of the esophagus; the gigerium.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) A thick muscular stomach found in many invertebrate
   animals. (b) A stomach armed with chitinous or shelly plates or teeth,
   as in certain insects and mollusks.
   Gizzard  shad  (Zo\'94l.),  an  American herring (Dorosoma cepedianum)
   resembling  the  shad, but of little value. -- To fret the gizzard, to
   harass;  to  vex  one's self; to worry. [Low] Hudibras. -- To stick in
   one's gizzard, to be difficult of digestion; to be offensive. [Low]


   Gla*bel"la  (?), n.; pl. Glabell (#). [NL., fr. L. glabellus hairless,
   fr.  glaber  bald.]  (Anat.)  The  space  between  the  eyebrows, also
   including  the corresponding part of the frontal bone; the mesophryon.
   -- Gla*bel"lar (#), a.


   Gla*bel"lum  (?), n.; pl. Glabella (#). [NL. See Glabella.] (Zo\'94l.)
   The median, convex lobe of the head of a trilobite. See Trilobite.


   Gla"brate  (?),  a.  [L. glabrare, fr. glaber smooth.] (Bot.) Becoming
   smooth or glabrous from age. Gray.

                             Glabreate, Glabriate

   Gla"bre*ate  (?),  Gla"bri*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Glabrate.] To make
   smooth, plain, or bare. [Obs.]


   Glab"ri*ty (?), n. [L. glabritas.] Smoothness; baldness. [R.]


   Gla"brous (?), a. [L. glaber; cf. Gr. Smooth; having a surface without
   hairs or any unevenness.


   Gla"cial (?), a. [L. glacialis, from glacies ice: cf. F. glacial.]

   1. Pertaining to ice or to its action; consisting of ice; frozen; icy;
   esp., pertaining to glaciers; as, glacial phenomena. Lyell.

   2.  (Chem.)  Resembling  ice; having the appearance and consistency of
   ice;  --  said  of  certain solid compounds; as, glacial phosphoric or
   acetic acids.
   Glacial  acid  (Chem.),  an  acid  of  such  strength  or purity as to
   crystallize  at an ordinary temperature, in an icelike form; as acetic
   or carbolic acid. -- Glacial drift (Geol.), earth and rocks which have
   been  transported by moving ice, land ice, or icebergs; bowlder drift.
   --  Glacial epoch OR period (Geol.), a period during which the climate
   of  the  modern  temperate  regions  was  polar, and ice covered large
   portions  of  the northern hemisphere to the mountain tops. -- Glacial
   theory OR hypothesis. (Geol.) See Glacier theory, under Glacier.


   Gla"cial*ist,  n.  One  who  attributes the phenomena of the drift, in
   geology, to glaciers.


   Gla"ci*ate  (?), v. i. [L. glaciatus, p. p. of glaciare to freeze, fr.
   glacies ice.] To turn to ice.


   Gla"ci*ate, v. t.

   1. To convert into, or cover with, ice.

   2.  (Geol.)  To  produce  glacial  effects  upon, as in the scoring of
   rocks, transportation of loose material, etc.
   Glaciated rocks, rocks whose surfaces have been smoothed, furrowed, or
   striated, by the action of ice.


   Gla`ci*a"tion (?), n.

   1. Act of freezing.

   2. That which is formed by freezing; ice.

   3.  The  process  of  glaciating, or the state of being glaciated; the
   production of glacial phenomena.


   Gla"cier  (?),  n. [F. glacier, fr. glace ice, L. glacies.] An immense
   field  or  stream  of ice, formed in the region of perpetual snow, and
   moving slowly down a mountain slope or valley, as in the Alps, or over
   an extended area, as in Greenland.

     NOTE: &hand; The mass of compacted snow forming the upper part of a
     glacier  is  called  the  firn,  or  n\'82v\'82; the glacier proper
     consist   of  solid  ice,  deeply  crevassed  where  broken  up  by
     irregularities  in  the  slope  or direction of its path. A glacier
     usually  carries  with  it  accumulations of stones and dirt called
     moraines,  which  are  designated,  according to their position, as
     lateral, medial, or terminal (see Moraine). The common rate of flow
     of  the  Alpine  glaciers  is  from ten to twenty inches per day in
     summer, and about half that in winter.

   Glacier  theory (Geol.), the theory that large parts of the frigid and
   temperate  zones  were  covered  with  ice during the glacial, or ice,
   period,  and  that,  by the agency of this ice, the loose materials on
   the  earth's  surface,  called drift or diluvium, were transported and
   Gla"cious  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to, consisting of or resembling, ice;
   icy. Sir T. Browne.
   Gla"cis  (?),  n.  [F.  glacis;  --  so named from its smoothness. See
   Glacier.] A gentle slope, or a smooth, gently sloping bank; especially
   (Fort.),  that  slope  of  earth  which  inclines from the covered way
   toward the exterior ground or country (see Illust. of Ravelin).
   Page 628
   Glad (?), a. [Compar. Gladder (?); superl. Gladdest (?).] [AS. gl\'91d
   bright,  glad;  akin  to  D.  glad smooth, G. glatt, OHG. glat smooth,
   shining,  Icel.  gla  glad, bright, Dan. & Sw. glad glad, Lith. glodas
   smooth, and prob. to L. glaber, and E. glide. Cf. Glabrous.]
   1.  Pleased;  joyous; happy; cheerful; gratified; -- opposed to sorry,
   sorrowful,  or  unhappy; -- said of persons, and often followed by of,
   at, that, or by the infinitive, and sometimes by with, introducing the
   cause or reason.
     A wise son maketh a glad father. Prov. x. 1.
     He  that is glad at calamities shall not be unpunished. Prov. xvii.
     The Trojan, glad with sight of hostile blood. Dryden.
     He, glad of her attention gained. Milton.

     As we are now glad to behold your eyes. Shak.

     Glad am I that your highness is so armed. Shak.

   Glad on 't, glad of it. [Colloq.] Shak.

   2.  Wearing  a  gay  or bright appearance; expressing or exciting joy;
   producing gladness; exhilarating.

     Her  conversation  More glad to me than to a miser money is. Sir P.

     Glad evening and glad morn crowned the fourth day. Milton.

   Syn.  --  Pleased; gratified; exhilarated; animated; delighted; happy;
   cheerful; joyous; joyful; cheering; exhilarating; pleasing; animating.
   --  Glad,  Delighted,  Gratified.  Delighted  expresses  a much higher
   degree  of  pleasure  than glad. Gratified always refers to a pleasure
   conferred  by  some  human  agent,  and the feeling is modified by the
   consideration  that we owe it in part to another. A person may be glad
   or  delighted to see a friend, and gratified at the attention shown by
   his visits.


   Glad,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Gladded; p. pr. & vb. n. Gladding.] [AS.
   gladian. See Glad, a., and cf. Gladden, v. t.] To make glad; to cheer;
   to gladden; to exhilarate. Chaucer.

     That which gladded all the warrior train. Dryden.

     Each drinks the juice that glads the heart of man. Pope.


   Glad, v. i. To be glad; to rejoice. [Obs.] Massinger.


   Glad"den  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Gladdened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gladdening  (?).] [See Glad, v. t.] To make glad; to cheer; to please;
   to gratify; to rejoice; to exhilarate.

     A secret pleasure gladdened all that saw him. Addison.


   Glad"den, v. i. To be or become glad; to rejoice.

     The vast Pacific gladdens with the freight. Wordsworth.


   Glad"der (?), n. One who makes glad. Chaucer.


   Glade  (?), n. [Prob. of Scand. origin, and akin to glad, a.; cf. also
   W.  golead, goleuad, a lighting, illumination, fr. goleu light, clear,
   bright, goleu fwlch glade, lit., a light or clear defile.]

   1. An open passage through a wood; a grassy open or cleared space in a

     There interspersed in lawns and opening glades. Pope.

   2. An everglade. [Local, U. S.]

   3. An opening in the ice of rivers or lakes, or a place left unfrozen;
   also, smooth ice. [Local, U. S.]
   Bottom  glade.  See under Bottom. -- Glade net, in England, a net used
   for catching woodcock and other birds in forest glades.


   Gla"den  (?),  n.  [AS.  gl\'91dene,  cf.  L.  gladius  a  sword.  Cf.
   Gladiole.]  (Bot.)  Sword  grass;  any plant with sword-shaped leaves,
   esp. the European Iris f\'d2tidissima. [Written also gladwyn, gladdon,
   and glader.]


   Glad"eye` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European yellow-hammer.


   Glad"ful   (?),   a.   Full   of   gladness;  joyful;  glad.  [R.]  --
   Glad"ful*ness, n. [R.] Spenser.

     It followed him with gladful glee. Spenser.


   Glad"i*ate (?), a. [L. gladius sword.] (Bot.) Sword-shaped; resembling
   a sword in form, as the leaf of the iris, or of the gladiolus.


   Glad"i*a`tor (?), n. [L., fr. gladius sword. See Glaive.]

   1.  Originally,  a  swordplayer; hence, one who fought with weapons in
   public, either on the occasion of a funeral ceremony, or in the arena,
   for public amusement.

   2. One who engages in any fierce combat or controversy.

                          Gladiatorial, Gladiatorian

   Glad`i*a*to"ri*al  (?),  Glad`i*a*to"ri*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to
   gladiators, or to contests or combatants in general.


   Glad"i*a`tor*ism (?), n. The art or practice of a gladiator.


   Glad"i*a`tor*ship, n. Conduct, state, or art, of a gladiator.


   Glad"i*a*to*ry (?), a. [L. gladiatorius.] Gladiatorial. [R.]


   Glad"i*a*ture   (?),   n.   [L.   gladiatura.]   Swordplay;   fencing;
   gladiatorial contest. Gayton.


   Glad"i*ole  (?),  n. [L. gladiolus a small sword, the sword lily, dim.
   of  gladius  sword. See Glaive.] (Bot.) A lilylike plant, of the genus
   Gladiolus; -- called also corn flag.


   Gla*di"o*lus (?), n.; pl. L. Gladioli (#), E. Gladioluses (#). [L. See

   1.  (Bot.) A genus of plants having bulbous roots and gladiate leaves,
   and  including  many  species, some of which are cultivated and valued
   for the beauty of their flowers; the corn flag; the sword lily.

   2.  (Anat.)  The  middle  portion  of the sternum in some animals; the


   Gla"di*us  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gladii  (#).  [L., a sword.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   internal shell, or pen, of cephalopods like the squids.


   Glad"ly (?), adv. [From Glad, a.]

   1. Preferably; by choice. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. With pleasure; joyfully; cheerfully; eagerly.

     The common people heard him gladly. Mark xii. 37.


   Glad"ness  (?),  n.  [AS. gl\'91dnes.] State or quality of being glad;
   pleasure; joyful satisfaction; cheerfulness.

     They  .  .  .  did  eat  their meat with gladness and singleness of
     heart. Acts ii. 46.

     NOTE: &hand; Gl adness is  ra rely or  ne ver eq uivalent to mirth,
     merriment,  gayety, and triumph, and it usually expresses less than
     delight. It sometimes expresses great joy.

     The Jews had joy and gladness, a feast and a good day. Esther viii.


   Glad"ship, n. [AS. gl\'91dscipe.] A state of gladness. [Obs.] Gower.


   Glad"some (?), a.

   1. Pleased; joyful; cheerful.

   2.  Causing  joy,  pleasure, or cheerfulness; having the appearance of
   gayety; pleasing.

     Of opening heaven they sung, and gladsome day. Prior.

   -- Glad"some*ly, adv. -- Glad"some*ness, n.

     Hours of perfect gladsomeness. Wordsworth.


   Glad"stone  (?),  n.  [Named  after  Wm. E. Gladstone.] A four-wheeled
   pleasure  carriage  with  two  inside seats, calash top, and seats for
   driver and footman.


   Glad"wyn (?), n. (Bot.) See Gladen.


   Glair  (?),  n.  [F. glaire, glaire d'clarus clear, bright. See Clear,

   1.  The  white of egg. It is used as a size or a glaze in bookbinding,
   for pastry, etc.

   2. Any viscous, transparent substance, resembling the white of an egg.

   3. A broadsword fixed on a pike; a kind of halberd.


   Glair,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Glaired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glairing.] To
   smear with the white of an egg.


   Glaire (?), n. See Glair.


   Glair"e*ous (?), a. Glairy; covered with glair.


   Glair"in  (?),  n.  A  glairy  viscous  substance,  which forms on the
   surface  of  certain  mineral  waters,  or  covers  the sides of their
   inclosures; -- called also baregin.


   Glair"y  (?),  a.  Like  glair, or partaking of its qualities; covered
   with glair; viscous and transparent; slimy. Wiseman.


   Glaive  (?), n. [F. glaive, L. gladius; prob. akin to E. claymore. Cf.

   1.  A  weapon  formerly used, consisting of a large blade fixed on the
   end  of  a  pole,  whose  edge was on the outside curve; also, a light
   lance with a long sharp-pointed head. Wilhelm.

   2. A sword; -- used poetically and loosely.

     The glaive which he did wield. Spenser.


   Gla"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.;cf.  Gr.  gramiae,  Gr.  (Med.) A copious gummy
   secretion  of  the  humor  of  the  eyelids,  in  consequence  of some
   disorder; blearedness; lippitude.


   Gla"mour  (?),  n.  [Scot. glamour, glamer; cf. Icel. gl\'a0meggdr one
   who  is troubled with the glaucoma (?); or Icel. gl\'bem-s weakness of
   sight,  glamour;  gl\'bemr name of the moon, also of a ghost + s sight
   akin to E. see. Perh., however, a corruption of E. gramarye.]

   1.  A  charm  affecting  the eye, making objects appear different from
   what they really are.

   2. Witchcraft; magic; a spell. Tennyson.

   3.  A kind of haze in the air, causing things to appear different from
   what they really are.

     The air filled with a strange, pale glamour that seemed to lie over
     the broad valley. W. Black.

   4. Any artificial interest in, or association with, an object, through
   which it appears delusively magnified or glorified.
   Glamour gift, Glamour might, the gift or power of producing a glamour.
   The  former  is used figuratively, of the gift of fascination peculiar
   to women.

     It  had  much of glamour might To make a lady seem a knight. Sir W.


   Glam"ou*rie (?), n. Glamour. [Scot.]


   Glance  (?),  n.  [Akin  to D. glans luster, brightness, G. glanz, Sw.
   glans,  D.  glands brightness, glimpse. Cf. Gleen, Glint, Glitter, and
   Glance a mineral.]

   1. A sudden flash of light or splendor.

     Swift as the lightning glance. Milton.

   2. A quick cast of the eyes; a quick or a casual look; a swift survey;
   a glimpse.

     Dart not scornful glances from those eyes. Shak.

   3. An incidental or passing thought or allusion.

     How fleet is a glance of the mind. Cowper.

   4.  (Min.)  A name given to some sulphides, mostly dark-colored, which
   have  a  brilliant  metallic luster, as the sulphide of copper, called
   copper glance.
   Glance  coal,  anthracite;  a  mineral  composed chiefly of carbon. --
   Glance  cobalt,  cobaltite,  or  gray  cobalt.  -- Glance copper, c --
   Glance  wood,  a  hard  wood  grown  in  Cuba,  and  used  for gauging
   instruments, carpenters' rules, etc. McElrath.
   Glance,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Glanced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glancing

   1. To shoot or emit a flash of light; to shine; to flash.

     From  art,  from  nature,  from  the schools, Let random influences
     glance,  Like light in many a shivered lance, That breaks about the
     dappled pools. Tennyson.

   2. To strike and fly off in an oblique direction; to dart aside. "Your
   arrow hath glanced". Shak.

     On me the curse aslope Glanced on the ground. Milton.

   3. To look with a sudden, rapid cast of the eye; to snatch a momentary
   or hasty view.

     The  poet's  eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, Doth glance from heaven
     to earth, from earth to heaven. Shak.

   4. To make an incidental or passing reflection; to allude; to hint; --
   often with at.

     Wherein obscurely C\'91sar\'b6s ambition shall be glanced at. Shak.

     He glanced at a certain reverend doctor. Swift.

   5.  To move quickly, appearing and disappearing rapidly; to be visible
   only for an instant at a time; to move interruptedly; to twinkle.

     And  all  along  the  forum and up the sacred seat, His vulture eye
     pursued the trip of those small glancing feet. Macaulay.


   Glance (?), v. t.

   1.  To  shoot or dart suddenly or obliquely; to cast for a moment; as,
   to glance the eye.

   2. To hint at; to touch lightly or briefly. [Obs.]

     In company I often glanced it. Shak.


   Glan"cing (?), a.

   1. Shooting, as light.

     When through the gancing lightnings fly. Rowe.

   2. Flying off (after striking) in an oblique direction; as, a glancing


   Glan"cing*ly,  adv.  In  a glancing manner; transiently; incidentally;
   indirectly. Hakewill.


   Gland  (?),  n.  [F.  glande,  L.  glans,  glandis, acorn; akin to Gr.
   Parable, n.]

   1.  (Anat.)  (a)  An  organ  for secreting something to be used in, or
   eliminated  from,  the body; as, the sebaceous glands of the skin; the
   salivary  glands  of the mouth. (b) An organ or part which resembles a
   secreting,  or  true,  gland,  as the ductless, lymphatic, pineal, and
   pituitary glands, the functions of which are very imperfectly known.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e tr ue se creting glands are, in principle, narrow
     pouches of the mucous membranes, or of the integument, lined with a
     continuation  of  the epithelium, or of the epidermis, the cells of
     which  produce  the secretion from the blood. In the larger glands,
     the  pouches  are tubular, greatly elongated, and coiled, as in the
     sweat  glands,  or  subdivided  and  branched,  making compound and
     racemose glands, such as the pancreas.

   2.  (Bot.) (a) A special organ of plants, usually minute and globular,
   which  often  secretes  some  kind  of  resinous,  gummy,  or aromatic
   product. (b) Any very small prominence.

   3.  (Steam  Mach.)  The  movable  part  of a stuffing box by which the
   packing  is compressed; -- sometimes called a follower. See Illust. of
   Stuffing box, under Stuffing.

   4. (Mach.) The crosspiece of a bayonet clutch.


   Glan"dage  (?), n. [Cf. OF. glandage. See Gland.] A feeding on nuts or
   mast. [Obs.] Crabb.


   Glan"dered (?), a. Affected with glanders; as, a glandered horse. Yu 


   Glan"der*ous  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to glanders; of the nature of
   glanders. Youatt.


   Glan"ders  (?),  n.  [From Gland.] (Far.) A highly contagious and very
   destructive  disease of horses, asses, mules, etc., characterized by a
   constant  discharge of sticky matter from the nose, and an enlargement
   and  induration of the glands beneath and within the lower jaw. It may
   transmitted to dogs, goats, sheep, and to human beings.


   Glan*dif"er*ous  (?),  a. [L. glandifer; glans, glandis, acorn + ferre
   to  bear;  cf.  F.  glandif\'8are.]  Bearing acorns or other nuts; as,
   glandiferous trees.


   Gland"i*form  (?),  a.  [L.  glans,  glandis,  acorn  +  -form: cf. F.
   glandiforme .] Having the form of a gland or nut; resembling a gland.


   Glan"du*lar  (?), a. [Cf. F. glandulaire. See Glandule.] Containing or
   supporting glands; consisting of glands; pertaining to glands.


   Glan`du*la"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. glandulation.] (Bot.) The situation
   and structure of the secretory vessels in plants. Martyn.

     Glandulation  respects  the  secretory  vessels,  which  are either
     glandules, follicles, or utricles. J. Lee.


   Glan"dule  (?), n. [L. glandula, dim. of glans, glandis, acorn: cf. F.
   glandule. See Gland.] A small gland or secreting vessel.


   Glan`du*lif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  glandula  gland  +  -ferous; cf. F.
   glandulif\'8are.] Bearing glandules.


   Glan"du*lose` (?), a. Same as Glandulous.


   Glan`du*los"i*ty  (?), n. Quality of being glandulous; a collection of
   glands. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Glan"du*lous  (?),  a. [L. glandulosus: cf. F. glanduleux.] Containing
   glands; consisting of glands; pertaining to glands; resembling glands.


   Glans (?) n.; pl. Glandes (#). [L. See Gland.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The  vascular body which forms the apex of the penis, and
   the extremity of the clitoris.

   2. (Bot.) The acorn or mast of the oak and similar fruits. Gray.

   3. (Med.) (a) Goiter. (b) A pessary. [Obs.]


   Glare  (gl&acir;r),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Glared (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glaring.]  [OE.  glaren,  gloren; cf. AS. gl\'91r amber, LG. glaren to
   glow  or  burn  like  coals,  D.  gloren  to glimmer; prob. akin to E.

   1. To shine with a bright, dazzling light.

     The cavern glares with new-admitted light. Dryden.

   2. To look with fierce, piercing eyes; to stare earnestly, angrily, or

     And eye that scorcheth all it glares upon. Byron.

   3.  To  be bright and intense, as certain colors; to be ostentatiously
   splendid or gay.

     She glares in balls, front boxes, and the ring. Pope.


   Glare, v. t. To shoot out, or emit, as a dazzling light.

     Every eye Glared lightning, and shot forth pernicious fire. Milton.


   Glare, n.

   1.  A  bright,  dazzling  light;  splendor  that  dazzles  the eyes; a
   confusing and bewildering light.

     The frame of burnished steel that cast a glare. Dryden.

   2. A fierce, piercing look or stare.

     About them round, A lion now he stalks with fiery glare. Milton.

   3. A viscous, transparent substance. See Glair.

   4. A smooth, bright, glassy surface; as, a glare of ice. [U. S. ]


   Glare, a. [See Glary, and Glare, n.] Smooth and bright or translucent;
   --  used  almost  exclusively  of  ice;  as, skating on glare ice. [U.
   S.]<-- used generally of reflections of the sun -->

   Page 629


   Glar"e*ous  (?),  a. [Cf. F. glaireux. See Glair.] Glairy. John Georgy

                            Glariness, Glaringness

   Glar"i*ness (?), Glar"ing*ness, n. A dazzling luster or brilliancy.


   Glar"ing, a. Clear; notorious; open and bold; barefaced; as, a glaring
   crime. -- Glar"ing*ly, adv.


   Glar"y (?), a. Of a dazzling luster; glaring; bright; shining; smooth.

     Bright, crystal glass is glary. Boyle.


   Glass  (?),  n.  [OE. glas, gles, AS. gl\'91s; akin to D., G., Dan., &
   Sw.  glas,  Icel.  glas,  gler,  Dan.  glar; cf. AS. gl\'91r amber, L.
   glaesum. Cf. Glare, n., Glaze, v. t.]

   1.  A  hard, brittle, translucent, and commonly transparent substance,
   white  or  colored,  having  a conchoidal fracture, and made by fusing
   together  sand or silica with lime, potash, soda, or lead oxide. It is
   used  for window panes and mirrors, for articles of table and culinary
   use, for lenses, and various articles of ornament.

     NOTE: &hand; Gl ass is  va riously co lored by the metallic oxides;
     thus,  manganese  colors  it  violet;  copper  (cuprous),  red,  or
     (cupric)  green;  cobalt,  blue; uranium, yellowish green or canary
     yellow;  iron,  green  or  brown;  gold, purple or red; tin, opaque
     white; chromium, emerald green; antimony, yellow.

   2.  (Chem.)  Any  substance having a peculiar glassy appearance, and a
   conchoidal fracture, and usually produced by fusion.

   3.  Anything made of glass. Especially: (a) A looking-glass; a mirror.
   (b)  A  vessel  filled  with  running  sand  for  measuring  time;  an
   hourglass;  and hence, the time in which such a vessel is exhausted of
   its sand.

     She would not live The running of one glass. Shak.

   (c)  A  drinking  vessel;  a tumbler; a goblet; hence, the contents of
   such  a vessel; especially; spirituous liquors; as, he took a glass at
   dinner.  (d)  An  optical glass; a lens; a spyglass; -- in the plural,
   spectacles;   as,   a  pair  of  glasses;  he  wears  glasses.  (e)  A
   weatherglass; a barometer.

     NOTE: &hand; Gl ass is much used adjectively or in combination; as,
     glass  maker,  or  glassmaker;  glass  making or glassmaking; glass
     blower or glassblower, etc.

   Bohemian glass, Cut glass, etc. See under Bohemian, Cut, etc. -- Crown
   glass,  a variety of glass, used for making the finest plate or window
   glass,  and  consisting  essentially of silicate of soda or potash and
   lime, with no admixture of lead; the convex half of an achromatic lens
   is  composed of crown glass; -- so called from a crownlike shape given
   it  in  the  process of blowing. -- Crystal glass, OR Flint glass. See
   Flint glass, in the Vocabulary. -- Cylinder glass, sheet glass made by
   blowing  the  glass  in  the  form  of  a cylinder which is then split
   longitudinally,  opened  out,  and  flattened. -- Glass of antimony, a
   vitreous  oxide  of antimony mixed with sulphide. -- Glass blower, one
   whose  occupation  is to blow and fashion glass. -- Glass blowing, the
   art  of  shaping  glass,  when  reduced  by heat to a viscid state, by
   inflating  it through a tube. -- Glass cloth, a woven fabric formed of
   glass  fibers.  --  Glass  coach, a coach superior to a hackney-coach,
   hired  for  the day, or any short period, as a private carriage; -- so
   called  because  originally private carriages alone had glass windows.
   [Eng.] Smart.

     Glass  coaches  are  [allowed  in English parks from which ordinary
     hacks  are  excluded], meaning by this term, which is never used in
     America, hired carriages that do not go on stands. J. F. Cooper.

   --  Glass  cutter.  (a)  One  who  cuts sheets of glass into sizes for
   window panes, ets. (b) One who shapes the surface of glass by grinding
   and  polishing.  (c)  A tool, usually with a diamond at the point, for
   cutting  glass.  --  Glass cutting. (a) The act or process of dividing
   glass,  as  sheets  of glass into panes with a diamond. (b) The act or
   process  of  shaping the surface of glass by appylying it to revolving
   wheels, upon which sand, emery, and, afterwards, polishing powder, are
   applied;  especially  of  glass  which  is  shaped  into facets, tooth
   ornaments,  and  the  like. Glass having ornamental scrolls, etc., cut
   upon  it,  is  said to be engraved. -- Glass metal, the fused material
   for  making  glass. -- Glass painting, the art or process of producing
   decorative  effects  in  glass  by  painting it with enamel colors and
   combining  the pieces together with slender sash bars of lead or other
   metal.  In  common  parlance,  glass  painting and glass staining (see
   Glass   staining,  below)  are  used  indifferently  for  all  colored
   decorative  work in windows, and the like. -- Glass paper, paper faced
   with  pulvirezed glass, and used for abrasive purposes. -- Glass silk,
   fine  threads  of  glass,  wound,  when in fusion, on rapidly rotating
   heated  cylinders.  --  Glass  silvering,  the process of transforming
   plate  glass  into  mirrors by coating it with a reflecting surface, a
   deposit   of   silver,  or  a  mercury  amalgam.  --  Glass  soap,  OR
   Glassmaker's  soap,  the  black oxide of manganese or other substances
   used  by glass makers to take away color from the materials for glass.
   --  Glass staining, the art or practice of coloring glass in its whole
   substance,  or,  in  the case of certain colors, in a superficial film
   only;  also,  decorative  work  in glass. Cf. Glass painting. -- Glass
   tears. See Rupert's drop. -- Glass works, an establishment where glass
   is made. -- Heavy glass, a heavy optical glass, consisting essentially
   of  a  borosilicate of potash. -- Millefiore glass. See Millefiore. --
   Plate glass, a fine kind of glass, cast in thick plates, and flattened
   by heavy rollers, -- used for mirrors and the best windows. -- Pressed
   glass, glass articles formed in molds by pressure when hot. -- Soluble
   glass (Chem.), a silicate of sodium or potassium, found in commerce as
   a  white,  glassy  mass,  a  stony  powder, or dissolved as a viscous,
   sirupy  liquid;  --  used  for  rendering  fabrics  incombustible, for
   hardening  artificial stone, etc.; -- called also water glass. -- Spun
   glass,  glass  drawn  into  a thread while liquid. -- Toughened glass,
   Tempered  glass,  glass  finely  tempered  or  annealed, by a peculiar
   method  of  sudden cooling by plunging while hot into oil, melted wax,
   or  paraffine,  etc.; -- called also, from the name of the inventor of
   the  process, Bastie glass. -- Water glass. (Chem.) See Soluble glass,
   above. -- Window glass, glass in panes suitable for windows.


   Glass, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Glassed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glassing.]

   1. To reflect, as in a mirror; to mirror; -- used reflexively.

     Happy to glass themselves in such a mirror. Motley.

     Where the Almighty's form glasses itself in tempests. Byron.

   2. To case in glass. [R.] Shak.

   3. To cover or furnish with glass; to glaze. Boyle.

   4. To smooth or polish anything, as leater, by rubbing it with a glass


   Glass"-crab`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) The larval state (Phyllosoma) of the
   genus  Palinurus  and  allied genera. It is remarkable for its strange
   outlines, thinness, and transparency. See Phyllosoma.


   Glass"en (?), a. Glassy; glazed. [Obs.]

     And pursues the dice with glassen eyes. B. Jonson.


   Glass"eye` (?), n.

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A fish of the great lakes; the wall-eyed pike.

   2.  (Far.) A species of blindness in horses in which the eye is bright
   and the pupil dilated; a sort of amaurosis. Youatt.


   Glass"-faced`  (?),  a.  Mirror-faced;  reflecting  the  sentiments of
   another. [R.] "The glass-faced flatterer." Shak.


   Glass"ful  (?),  n.; pl. Glassfuls (. The contents of a glass; as much
   of anything as a glass will hold.


   Glass"ful,  a.  Glassy; shining like glass. [Obs.] "Minerva's glassful
   shield." Marston.


   Glass"-gaz`ing  (?),  a.  Given  to  viewing  one's self in a glass or
   mirror; finical. [Poetic] Shak.


   Glass"house`  (?),  n. A house where glass is made; a commercial house
   that deals in glassware.


   Glass"i*ly (?), adv. So as to resemble glass.


   Glass"i*ness, n. The quality of being glassy.


   Glass"ite  (?),  n.  A  member of a Scottish sect, founded in the 18th
   century  by  John  Glass,  a  minister  of  the  Established Church of
   Scotland,  who  taught that justifying faith is "no more than a simple
   assent   to   the   divine   testimone   passively   recived   by  the
   understanding."  The  English and American adherents of this faith are
   called   Sandemanians,  after  Robert  Sandeman,  the  son-in-law  and
   disciple of Glass.

                          Glass maker, OR Glassmaker

   Glass" mak`er (?), OR Glass"mak`er, n. One who makes, or manufactures,
   glass. -- Glass" mak`ing, OR Glass"mak`ing, n.


   Glass"-rope`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A remarkable vitreous sponge, of the
   genus  Hyalonema,  first  brought  from  Japan.  It  has  a long stem,
   consisting  of  a  bundle of long and large, glassy, siliceous fibers,
   twisted together.


   Glass"-snail`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A small, transparent, land snail, of
   the genus Vitrina.


   Glass"-snake`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A long, footless lizard (Ophiosaurus
   ventralis),  of  the  Southern  United  States;  -- so called from its
   fragility, the tail easily breaking into small pieces. It grows to the
   length  of  three  feet.  The  name is applied also to similar species
   found in the Old World.


   Glass"-sponge`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A siliceous sponge, of the genus
   Hyalonema, and allied genera; -- so called from their glassy fibers or
   spicules;   --  called  also  vitreous  sponge.  See  Glass-rope,  and


   Glass"ware (?), n. Ware, or articles collectively, made of glass.


   Glass"work`  (?),  n.  Manufacture of glass; articles or ornamentation
   made of glass.


   Glass"wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  seashore plant of the Spinach family
   (Salicornia  herbacea),  with succulent jointed stems; also, a prickly
   plant  of the same family (Salsola Kali), both formerly burned for the
   sake of the ashes, which yield soda for making glass and soap.


   Glass"y (?), a.

   1. Made of glass; vitreous; as, a glassy substance. Bacon.

   2.  Resembling glass in its properties, as in smoothness, brittleness,
   or  transparency;  as,  a  glassy stream; a glassy surface; the glassy

   3.  Dull;  wanting  life or fire; lackluster; -- said of the eyes. "In
   his glassy eye." Byron.
   Glassy feldspar (Min.), a variety of orthoclase; sanidine.

                              Glasstonbury thorn

   Glass"ton*bur*y  thorn`  (?). (Bot.) A variety of the common hawthorn.


   Glas"ynge (?), n. Glazing or glass. [Obs.]


   Glau"ber*ite  (?),  n. [From Glauber, a German chemist, died 1668: cf.
   F.  glaub\'82rite,  G. glauberit.] (Min.) A mineral, consisting of the
   sulphates of soda and lime.

                       Glauber's salt OR Glauber's salts

   Glau"ber's  salt`  (?)  OR  Glau"ber's salts` (. [G. glaubersalz, from
   Glauber, a German chemist who discovered it. See Glauberite.] Sulphate
   of  soda, a well-known cathartic. It is a white crystalline substance,
   with a cooling, slightly bitter taste, and is commonly called "salts."

     NOTE: &hand; It  oc curs na turally an d abundantly in some mineral
     springs,  and  in many salt deposits, as the mineral mirabilite. It
     is  manufactured in large quantities as an intermediate step in the
     "soda process," and also for use in glass making.


   Glau*ces"cent  (?),  a.  [See  Glaucous.]  Having  a somewhat glaucous
   appearance or nature; becoming glaucous.


   Glau"cic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Of or pertaining to the Glaucium or horned
   poppy; -- formerly applied to an acid derived from it, now known to be
   fumaric acid.


   Glau"cine (?), a. Glaucous or glaucescent.


   Glau"cine  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  An  alkaloid  obtained  from  the  plant
   Glaucium, as a bitter, white, crystalline substance.


   Glau"co*dot  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Min.) A metallic mineral having a grayish
   tin-white  color,  and  containing  cobalt  and iron, with sulphur and


   Glau*co"ma  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Med.) Dimness or abolition of sight,
   with  a  diminution of transparency, a bluish or greenish tinge of the
   refracting  media  of  the  eye, and a hard inelastic condition of the
   eyeball, with marked increase of tension within the eyeball.


   Glau*co"ma*tous (?), a. Having the nature of glaucoma.


   Glau*com"e*ter (?), n. See Gleucometer.


   Glau"co*nite  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. glauconite, glauconie, fr. L. glaucus.
   See   Glaucous.]  (Min.)  The  green  mineral  characteristic  of  the
   greensand  of the chalk and other formations. It is a hydrous silicate
   of iron and potash. See Greensand.


   Glau"co*phane  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Min.) A mineral of a dark bluish color,
   related  to  amphibole.  It  is  characteristic of certain crystalline


   Glau*co"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) Same as Glaucoma.


   Glau"cous (?), a. [L. glaucus, Gr.

   1.  Of  a  sea-green color; of a dull green passing into grayish blue.

   2. (Bot.) Covered with a fine bloom or fine white powder easily rubbed
   off, as that on a blue plum, or on a cabbage leaf. Gray.


   Glau"cus (?), n. [L., sea green.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of nudibranchiate
   mollusks,  found  in  the  warmer latitudes, swimming in the open sea.
   These mollusks are beautifully colored with blue and silvery white.


   Glaum  (?),  v. i. [Etymol. uncertain.] To grope with the hands, as in
   the dark. [Scot.] To glaum at, to grasp or snatch at; to aspire to.

     Wha glaum'd at kingdoms three. Burns.


   Glave (?), n. See Glaive.


   Glav"er (?), v. i. [Of Celtic origin; cf. W. glafr flattery.]

   1. To prate; to jabber; to babble. [Obs.]

     Here many, clepid filosophirs, glavern diversely. Wyclif.

   2. To flatter; to wheedle. [Obs.]

     Some slavish, glavering, flattering parasite. South.


   Glav"er*er (?), n. A flatterer. [Obs.] Mir. for Mag.


   Glay"more` (?), n. A claymore. Johnson.


   Glase  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Glased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glazing.]
   [OE. glasen, glazen, fr. glas. See Glass.]

   1. To furnish (a window, a house, a sash, a ease, etc.) with glass.

     Two  cabinets  daintily  paved,  richly  handed,  and  glazed  with
     crystalline glass. Bacon.

   2.  To  incrust, cover, or overlay with a thin surface, consisting of,
   or  resembling,  glass;  as,  to  glaze  earthenware; hence, to render
   smooth,  glasslike,  or glossy; as, to glaze paper, gunpowder, and the

     Sorrow's eye glazed with blinding tears. Shak.

   3.  (Paint.) To apply thinly a transparent or semitransparent color to
   (another color), to modify the effect.


   Glaze, v. i. To become glazed of glassy.


   Glaze, n.

   1.  The  vitreous  coating of pottery or porcelain; anything used as a
   coating or color in glazing. See Glaze, v. t., 3. Ure.

   2.  (Cookery)  Broth  reduced  by  boiling  to a gelatinous paste, and
   spread thinly over braised dishes.

   3. A glazing oven. See Glost oven.


   Glaz"en  (?), a. [AS. gl\'91sen.] Resembling glass; glasslike; glazed.
   [Obs.] Wyclif.


   Glaz"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who applies glazing, as in pottery manufacture, etc.; one who
   gives  a  glasslike  or  glossy  surface  to anything; a calenderer or
   smoother of cloth, paper, and the like.

   2.  A  tool  or  machine  used in glazing, polishing, smoothing, etc.;
   amoung  cutlers  and lapidaries, a wooden wheel covered with emery, or
   having a band of lead and tin alloy, for polishing cutlery, etc.


   Gla"zier  (?),  n.  [From  Glaze.] One whose business is to set glass.
   Glazier's diamond. See under Diamond.


   Glaz"ing (?), n.

   1.  The  act  or  art  of  setting  glass;  the art of covering with a
   vitreous or glasslike substance, or of polishing or rendering glossy.

   2. The glass set, or to be set, in a sash, frame. etc.

   3. The glass, glasslike, or glossy substance with which any surface is
   incrusted  or overlaid; as, the glazing of pottery or porcelain, or of

   4. (Paint.) Transparent, or semitransparent, colors passed thinly over
   other colors, to modify the effect.


   Glaz"y  (?),  a.  Having a glazed appearance; -- said of the fractured
   surface of some kinds of pin iron.


   Glead (?), n. A live coal. See Gleed. [Archaic]


   Gleam  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf.  OE.  glem  birdlime,  glue,  phlegm, and E.
   englaimed.] (Falconry) To disgorge filth, as a hawk.


   Gleam, n. [OE. glem, gleam, AS. gl\'91m, prob. akin to E. glimmer, and
   perh. to Gr. Glitter.]

   1.  A  shoot  of  light;  a  small  stream  of light; a beam; a ray; a

     Transient unexpected gleams of joi. Addison.

     At  last  a  gleam Of dawning light turned thitherward in haste His
     [Satan's] traveled steps. Milton.

     A glimmer, and then a gleam of light. Longfellow.

   2. Brightness; splendor.

     In the clear azure gleam the flocks are seen. Pope.


   Gleam, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gleamed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gleaming.]

   1.  To shoot, or dart, as rays of light; as, at the dawn, light gleams
   in the east.

   2.  To  shine;  to  cast light; to glitter. Syn. -- To Gleam, Glimmer,
   Glitter.  To  gleam denotes a faint but distinct emission of light. To
   glimmer  describes  an  indistinct  and  unsteady  giving of light. To
   glitter imports a brightness that is intense, but varying. The morning
   light  gleams  upon  the  earth;  a distant taper glimmers through the
   mist; a dewdrop glitters in the sun. See Flash.


   Gleam, v. t. To shoot out (flashes of light, etc.).

     Dying eyes gleamed forth their ashy lights. Shak.


   Gleam"y,  a.  Darting beams of light; casting light in rays; flashing;

     In  brazed arms, that cast a gleamy ray, Swift through the town the
     warrior bends his way. Pope.

   Page 630


   Glean (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gleaned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gleaning.]
   [OE.  glenen,  OF.  glener, glaner, F. glaner, fr. LL. glenare; cf. W.
   glan clean, glanh to clean, purify, or AS. gelm, gilm, a hand

   1.  To  gather  after a reaper; to collect in scattered or fragmentary
   parcels,  as  the  grain  left  by  a reaper, or grapes left after the

     To glean the broken ears after the man That the main harvest reaps.

   2. To gather from (a field or vineyard) what is left.

   3. To collect with patient and minute labor; to pick out; to obtain.

     Content to glean what we can from . . . experiments. Locke.


   Glean, v. i.

   1. To gather stalks or ears of grain left by reapers.

     And she went, and came, and gleaned in the field after the reapers.
     Ruth ii. 3.

   2. To pick up or gather anything by degrees.

     Piecemeal  they this acre first, then that; Glean on, and gather up
     the whole estate. Pope.


   Glean, n. A collection made by gleaning.

     The gleans of yellow thyme distend his thighs. Dryden.


   Glean, n. Cleaning; afterbirth. [Obs.] Holland.


   Glean"er (?), n.

   1. One who gathers after reapers.

   2. One who gathers slowly with labor. Locke.


   Glean"ing,  n.  The  act  of  gathering  after  reapers; that which is
   collected by gleaning.

     Glenings of natural knowledge. Cook.


   Glebe (?), n. [F. gl\'8abe, L. gleba, glaeba, clod, land, soil.]

   1. A lump; a clod.

   2. Turf; soil; ground; sod.

     Fertile of corn the glebe, of oil, and wine. Milton.

   3.  (Eccl.  Law)  The land belonging, or yielding revenue, to a parish
   church or ecclesiastical benefice.


   Glebe"less, a. Having no glebe.


   Gle*bos"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being glebous. [R.]

                                Glebous, Gleby

   Gleb"ous  (?), Gleb"y (?), a. [Cf. L. glaebosus cloddy.] Pertaining to
   the glebe; turfy; cloddy; fertile; fruitful. "Gleby land." Prior.


   Glede (?), n. [AS. glida, akin to Icel. gle,, Sw. glada. Cf. Glide, v.
   i.] (Zo\'94l.) The common European kite (Milvus ictinus). This name is
   also  sometimes  applied  to  the  buzzard. [Written also glead, gled,
   gleed, glade, and glide.]


   Glede, n. [See Gleed.] A live coal. [Archaic]

     The cruel ire, red as any glede. Chaucer.


   Glee  (?), n. [OE. gle, gleo, AS. gle\'a2w, gle\'a2, akin to Icel. gl:
   cf. Gr.

   1. Music; minstrelsy; entertainment. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  Joy; merriment; mirth; gayety; paricularly, the mirth enjoyed at a
   feast. Spenser.

   3. (Mus.) An unaccompanied part song for three or more solo voices. It
   is not necessarily gleesome.


   Gleed  (?), n. [AS. gl, fr. gl to glow as a fire; akin to D. gloed, G.
   glut,  Icel.  gl.  See  Glow,  v. i.] A live or glowing coal; a glede.
   [Archaic] Chaucer. Longfellow.


   Glee"ful (?), a. Merry; gay; joyous. Shak.


   Gleek  (?),  n.  [Prob. fr. Icel. leika to play, play a trick on, with
   the prefix ge-; akin to AS. gel\'becan, Sw. leka to play, Dan. lege.]

   1. A jest or scoff; a trick or deception. [Obs.]

     Where's the Bastard's braves, and Charles his gleeks ? Shak.

   2. [Cf. Glicke] An enticing look or glance. [Obs.]

     A pretty gleek coming from Pallas' eye. Beau. & Fl.


   Gleek,  v.  i.  To  make sport; to gibe; to sneer; to spend time idly.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Gleek, n. [OF. glic, G. gl\'81ck, fortune. See Luck.]

   1.  A  game  at  cards,  once popular, played by three persons. [Obs.]
   Pepys. Evelyn.

   2.  Three  of the same cards held in the same hand; -- hence, three of
   anything. [Obs.]


   Glee"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gleemen (#). [Glee + man; AS. gle\'a2man.] A
   name anciently given to an itinerant minstrel or musician.


   Gleen  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf. Glance, Glint.] To glisten; to gleam. [Obs.]


   Glee"some (?), a. Merry; joyous; gleeful.


   Gleet  (?), n. [OE. glette, glet, glat, mucus, pus, filth, OF. glete.]
   (Med.)  A  transparent  mucous  discharge  from  the  membrane  of the
   urethra, commonly an effect of gonorrhea. Hoblyn.


   Gleet, v. i.

   1. To flow in a thin, limpid humor; to ooze, as gleet. Wiseman.

   2. To flow slowly, as water. Cheyne.


   Gleet"y (?), a. Ichorous; thin; limpid. Wiseman.


   Gleg  (?),  a.  [Icel.  gl\'94ggr.] Quick of perception; alert; sharp.
   [Scot.] Jamieson.

                                Gleire, Gleyre

   Gleire (?), Gleyre, n. See Glair. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Glen (?), n. [Of Celtic origin; cf. W. glyn a deep valley, Ir. & Gael.
   gleann  valley,  glen.]  A  secluded  and  narrow  valley;  a  dale; a
   depression between hills.

     And wooes the widow's daughter of the glen. Spenser.

                             Glenlivat, Glenlivet

   Glen*liv"at  (?),  Glen*liv"et  (?), n. A kind of Scotch whisky, named
   from the district in which it was first made. W. E. Aytoun.


   Gle"noid  (?),  a.  [Gr. gl\'82no\'8bde.] (Anat.) Having the form of a
   smooth  and  shallow depression; sockas, the glenoid cavity, or fossa,
   of the scapula, in which the head of the humerus articulates.


   Gle*noid"al (?), a. (Anat.) Glenoid.


   Glent (?), n. & v. See Glint.


   Gleu*com"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter:  cf.  F.  gleucom\'8atre.]  An
   instrument  for  measuring  the  specific gravity and ascertaining the
   quantity of sugar contained in must.


   Glew (?), n. See Glue. [Obs.]


   Gley  (?),  v.  i.  [OE.  gli, glien, gleien, to shine, to squint; cf.
   Icel.  glj\'be  to glitter.] To squint; to look obliquely; to overlook
   things. [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Gley (?), adv. Asquint; askance; obliquely.


   Gli"a*din  (?),  n. [Gr. gliadine.] (Chem.) Vegetable glue or gelatin;
   glutin. It is one of the constituents of wheat gluten, and is a tough,
   amorphous substance, which resembles animal glue or gelatin.


   Glib  (?),  a. [Compar. Glibber (?); superl. Glibbest (?).] [Prob. fr.
   D.   glibberen,   glippen,   to  slide,  glibberig,  glipperig,  glib,

   1. Smooth; slippery; as, ice is glib. [Obs.]

   2.  Speaking  or  spoken  smoothly and with flippant rapidity; fluent;
   voluble; as, a glib tongue; a glib speech.

     I want that glib and oily art, To speak and purpose not. Shak.

   Syn. -- Slippery; smooth; fluent; voluble; flippant.


   Glib, v. t. To make glib. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Glib,  n.  [Ir.  &  Gael.  glib a lock of hair.] A thick lock of hair,
   hanging over the eyes. [Obs.]

     The  Irish  have, from the Scythians, mantles and long glibs, which
     is  a  thick  curied bush of hair hanging down over their eyes, and
     monstrously disguising them. Spenser.

     Their wild costume of the glib and mantle. Southey.


   Glib, v. t. [Cf. O. & Prov. E. lib to castrate, geld, Prov. Dan. live,
   LG. & OD. lubben.] To castrate; to geld; to emasculate. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gilb"ber*y (?), a.

   1. Slippery; changeable. [Obs.]

     My love is glibbery; there is no hold on't. Marston.

   2. Moving easily; nimble; voluble. [Obs.]

     Thy lubrical and glibbery muse. B. Jonson.


   Glib"ly, adv. In a glib manner; as, to speak glibly.


   Glib"ness, n. The quality of being glib.


   Glicke  (?), n. [Cf. Gleek, n., 2, and Ir. & Gael. glic wise, cunning,
   crafty.] An ogling look. [Obs.]


   Glid"den (?), obs. p. p. of Glide. Chaucer.

                               Glidder, Gliddery

   Glid"der  (?), Glid"der*y (?), a. [Cf. Glide.] Giving no sure footing;
   smooth; slippery. [Prov. Eng.]

     Shingle, slates, and gliddery stones. R. D. Blackmore.


   Glide (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The glede or kite.


   Glide,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Glided; p. pr. & vb. n. Gliding.] [AS.
   gl\'c6dan;  akin to D. glijden, OHG. gl\'c6tan, G. gleiten, Sw. glida,
   Dan. glide, and prob. to E. glad.]

   1. To move gently and smoothly; to pass along without noise, violence,
   or  apparent  effort;  to  pass  rapidly and easily, or with a smooth,
   silent  motion, as a river in its channel, a bird in the air, a skater
   over ice.

     The river glideth at his own sweet will. Wordsworth.

   2. (Phon.) To pass with a glide, as the voice.


   Glide, n.

   1. The act or manner of moving smoothly, swiftly, and without labor or

     They  prey  at  last ensnared, he dreadful darts, With rapid glide,
     along the leaning line. Thomson.

     Seeing  Orlando,  it  unlink'd itself, And with indented glides did
     slip away. Shak.

   2.  (Phon.)  A  transitional  sound in speech which is produced by the
   changing  of  the  mouth organs from one definite position to another,
   and with gradual change in the most frequent cases; as in passing from
   the  begining  to  the  end  of  a regular diphthong, or from vowel to
   consonant  or  consonant to vowel in a syllable, or from one component
   to  the  other  of  a  double  or  diphthongal consonant (see Guide to
   Pronunciation,  19, 161, 162). Also (by Bell and others), the vanish
   (or  brief  final element) or the brief initial element, in a class of
   diphthongal  vowels,  or  the  brief  final  or  initial  part of some
   consonants (see Guide to Pronunciation,  18, 97, 191).

     NOTE: &hand; Th e on-glide of a vowel or consonant is the glidemade
     in  passing  to  it,  the  off-glide,  one made in passing from it.
     Glides  of the other sort are distinguished as initial or final, or
     fore-glides   and  after-glides.  For  voice-glide,  see  Guide  to
     Pronunciation,  17, 95.


   Glid"en (?), obs. p. p. of Glide. Chaucer.


   Glid"er (?), n. One who, or that which, glides.


   Glid"ing*ly, adv. In a gliding manner.


   Gliff (?), n. [Cf. OE. gliffen, gliften, to look with fear at.]

   1.  A  transient glance; an unexpected view of something that startles
   one; a sudden fear. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.] Halliwell.

   2. A moment: as, for a gliff. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.


   Glike (?), n. [See Gleek a jest.] A sneer; a flout. [Obs.]


   Glim (?), n.

   1. Brightness; splendor. [Obs.]

   2. A light or candle. [Slang] Dickens.
   Douse the glim, put out the light. [Slang]


   Glim"mer  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Glimmered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glimmering.]  [Akin  to  G.  glimmer  a  faint, trembling light, mica,
   glimmern  to glimmer, glimmen to shine faintly, glow, Sw. glimma, Dan.
   glimre,  D.  glimmen,  glimpen.  See Gleam a ray, and cf. Glimpse.] To
   give  feeble  or  scattered rays of light; to shine faintly; to show a
   faint, unsteady light; as, the glimmering dawn; a glimmering lamp.

     The west yet glimmers with some streaks of day. Shak.

   Syn. -- To gleam; to glitter. See Gleam, Flash.


   Glim"mer, n.

   1.  A  faint, unsteady light; feeble, scattered rays of light; also, a

     Gloss of satin and glimmer of pearls. Tennyson.

   2. Mica. See Mica. Woodsward.
   Glimmer gowk, an owl. [Prov. Eng.] Tennyson.


   Glim"mer*ing, n.

   1. Faint, unsteady light; a glimmer. South.

   2. A faint view or idea; a glimpse; an inkling.


   Glimpse (?), n. [For glimse, from the root of glimmer.]

   1. A sudden flash; transient luster.

     LIght as the lightning glimpse they ran. Milton.

   2.  A  short,  hurried view; a transitory or fragmentary perception; a
   quick sight.

     Here hid by shrub wood, there by glimpses seen. S. Rogers.

   3. A faint idea; an inkling.


   Glimpse  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Glimpsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glimpsing.] to appear by glimpses; to catch glimpses. Drayton.


   Glimpse,  v.  t.  To catch a glimpse of; to see by glimpses; to have a
   short or hurried view of.

     Some glimpsing and no perfect sight. Chaucer.


   Glint  (?),  n.  [OE. glent.] A glimpse, glance, or gleam. [Scot.] "He
   saw a glint of light." Ramsay.


   Glint,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Glinted; p. pr. & vb. n. Glinting.] [OE.
   glenten.  Cf. Glance, v. i., Glitter, v. i.] To glance; to peep forth,
   as a flower from the bud; to glitter. Burns.


   Glint, v. t. To glance; to turn; as, to glint the eye.


   Gli*o"ma  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. -oma.] (Med.) A tumor springing from
   the neuroglia or connective tissue of the brain, spinal cord, or other
   portions of the nervous system.


   Gli"res (?), n. pl. [L., dormice.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of mammals; the
   Rodentia. -- Gli"rine (#), a.


   Glis`sade"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. glisser to slip.] A sliding, as down a
   snow slope in the Alps. Tyndall.


   Glis*san"do  (?), n. & a. [As if It. = Fr. glissant sliding.] (Mus.) A
   gliding effect; gliding.


   Glis*sette"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  glisser  to slip.] (Math.) The locus
   described  by any point attached to a curve that slips continuously on
   another  fixed  curve,  the  movable  curve  having no rotation at any


   Glist (?), n. [From Glisten.] Glimmer; mica.


   Glis"ten  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Glistened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glistening  (?).]  [OE.  glistnian,  akin  to  glisnen,  glisien,  AS.
   glisian,  glisnian,  akin  to  E. glitter. See Glitter, v. i., and cf.
   Glister, v. i.] To sparkle or shine; especially, to shine with a mild,
   subdued,  and  fitful  luster; to emit a soft, scintillating light; to
   gleam; as, the glistening stars. Syn. -- See Flash.


   Glis"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Glistered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glistering.]   [OE.   glistren;  akin  to  G.  glistern,glinstern,  D.
   glinsteren, and E. glisten. See Glisten.] To be bright; to sparkle; to
   be brilliant; to shine; to glisten; to glitter.

     All that glisters is not gold. Shak.


   Glis"ter, n. Glitter; luster.


   Glis"ter, n. [Cf. OF. glistere.] Same as Clyster.


   Glis"ter*ing*ly, adv. In a glistering manner.


   Glit"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Glittered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glittering.]  [OE. gliteren; akin to Sw. glittra, Icel. glitra, glita,
   AS.  glitenian,  OS.  gl\'c6tan,  OHG.  gl\'c6zzan, G. gleissen, Goth.
   glitmunjan, and also to E. glint, glisten, and prob. glance, gleam.]

   1.  To  sparkle with light; to shine with a brilliant and broken light
   or showy luster; to gleam; as, a glittering sword.

     The field yet glitters with the pomp of war. Dryden.

   2.  To  be showy, specious, or striking, and hence attractive; as, the
   glittering  scenes of a court. Syn. -- To gleam; to glisten; to shine;
   to sparkle; to glare. See Gleam, Flash.


   Glit"ter,  n.  A  bright, sparkling light; brilliant and showy luster;
   brilliancy;  as,  the  glitter of arms; the glitter of royal equipage.


   Glit"ter*and (?), a. Glittering. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Glit"ter*ing*ly, adv. In a glittering manner.


   Gloam (?), v. i. [See Gloom, Glum.]

   1. To begin to grow dark; to grow dusky.


   To be sullen or morose. [Obs.] 


   Gloam, n. The twilight; gloaming. [R.] Keats.


   Gloam"ing, n. [See Gloom.]

   1.  Twilight;  dusk;  the fall of the evening. [Scot. & North of Eng.,
   and in poetry.] Hogg.

   2. Sullenness; melancholy. [Obs.] J. Still.


   Gloar  (?),  v.  i.  [OD.  gloeren, glueren, gluyeren. Cf. Glower.] To
   squint; to stare. [Obs.]


   Gloat  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Gloated; p. pr. & vb. n. Gloating.]
   [Akin  to  Icel.  glotta to smile scornfully, G. glotzen to gloat.] To
   look steadfastly; to gaz

     In vengeance gloating on another's pain. Byron.


   Glo"bard  (?),  n.  [OE.  globerde,  from  glow.]  A glowworm. [>Obs.]

                               Globate, Globated

   Glo"bate  (?),  Glo"ba*ted  (?),  a. [L. globatus, p. p. of globare to
   make  into  a  ball,  fr.  globus  ball.]  Having the form of a globe;


   Globe  (?), n. [L. globus, perh. akin to L. glomus a ball of yarn, and
   E. clump, golf: cf. F. globe.]

   1. A round or spherical body, solid or hollow; a body whose surface is
   in every part equidistant from the center; a ball; a sphere.

   2.  Anything  which  is nearly spherical or globular in shape; as, the
   globe of the eye; the globe of a lamp.

   3.  The  earth;  the  terraqueous  ball;  --  usually  preceded by the
   definite article. Locke.

   4. A round model of the world; a spherical representation of the earth
   or  heavens;  as,  a  terrestrial  or  celestial globe; -- called also
   artificial globe.

   5.  A body of troops, or of men or animals, drawn up in a circle; -- a
   military  formation  used  by  the  Romans,  answering  to  the modern
   infantry square.

     Him round A globe of fiery seraphim inclosed. Milton.

   Globe  amaranth  (Bot.),  a plant of the genus Gomphrena (G. globosa),
   bearing  round  heads  of variously colored flowers, which long retain
   color   when   gathered.  --  Globe  animalcule,  a  small,  globular,
   locomotive  organism (Volvox globator), once throught to be an animal,
   afterward  supposed to be a colony of microscopic alg\'91. -- Globe of
   compression  (Mil.), a kind of mine producing a wide crater; -- called
   also overcharged mine. -- Globe daisy (Bot.), a plant or flower of the
   genus  Globularing,  common in Europe. The flowers are minute and form
   globular heads. -- Globe sight, a form of front sight placed on target
   rifles.  -- Globe slater (Zo\'94l.), an isopod crustacean of the genus
   Spheroma.  --  Globe  thistle  (Bot.),  a  thistlelike  plant with the
   flowers  in  large  globular  heads  (Cynara  Scolymus); also, certain
   species  of  the  related  genus  Echinops. -- Globe valve. (a) A ball
   valve. (b) A valve inclosed in a globular chamber. Knight.

   Page 631

   Syn.  --  Globe,  Sphere,  Orb,  Ball.  --  Globe denotes a round, and
   usually  a solid body; sphere is the term applied in astronomy to such
   a  body,  or to the concentric spheres or orbs of the old astronomers;
   orb  is  used, especially in poetry, for globe or sphere, and also for
   the pathway of a heavenly body; ball is applied to the heavenly bodies
   concieved of as impelled through space.


   Globe  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Globed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Globing.]
   To gather or form into a globe.


   Globe"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  plectognath  fish  of the genera
   Diodon, Tetrodon, and allied genera. The globefishes can suck in water
   or  air  and  distend the body to a more or less globular form. Called
   also porcupine fish, and sea hedgehog. See Diodon.


   Globe"flow`er  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  (a) A plant of the genus Trollius (T.
   Europ\'91us),  found in the mountainous parts of Europe, and producing
   handsome  globe-shaped flowers. (b) The American plant Trollius laxus.
   Japan globeflower. See Corchorus.


   Globe"-shaped` (?), a. Shaped like a globe.


   Glo*bif"er*ous (?), a. [Globe + -ferous.] (Zo\'94l.) Having a round or
   globular tip.


   Glo*big`e*ri"na (?), n.; pl. Globigerin&ae; (#). [NL., fr. L. globus a
   round   body   +   gerere  to  bear.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus  of  small
   Foraminifera, which live abundantly at or near the surface of the sea.
   Their  dead shells, falling to the bottom, make up a large part of the
   soft  mud,  generally  found  in  depths  below 3,000 feet, and called
   globigerina ooze. See Illust. of Foraminifera.


   Glo*bose" (?), a. [L. globosus.] Having a rounded form resembling that
   of a globe; globular, or nearly so; spherical. Milton.


   Glo*bose"ly, adv. In a globular manner; globularly.


   Glo*bos"i*ty (?), n. [L. globositas: cf. F. globosit\'82.] Sphericity.


   Glo"bous (?), a. [See Globose.] Spherical. Milton.


   Glob"u*lar  (?), a. [Cf. F. globulaire.] Globe-shaped; having the form
   of  a  ball  or  sphere;  spherical, or nearly so; as, globular atoms.
   Milton.  Globular chart, a chart of the earth's surface constructed on
   the principles of the globular projection. -- Globular projection (Map
   Projection),  a  perspective projection of the surface of a hemisphere
   upon  a  plane  parallel  to  the base of the hemisphere, the point of
   sight  being  taken  in  the  axis  produced beyond the surface of the
   opposite  hemisphere a distance equal to the radius of the sphere into
   the  sine  of  45. -- Globular sailing, sailing on the arc of a great
   circle,  or  so  as  to make the shortest distance between two places;
   circular sailing.


   Glob`u*lar"i*ty  (?),  n.  The  state  of  being  globular; globosity;


   Glob"u*lar*ly (?), adv. Spherically.


   Glob"u*lar*ness, n. Sphericity; globosity.


   Glob"ule (?), n. [L. globulus, dim. of globus globe: cf. F. globule.]

   1. A little globe; a small particle of matter, of a spherical form.

     Globules of snow. Sir I. Newton.

     These  minute globules [a mole's eyes] are sunk . . . deeply in the
     skull. Paley.

   2.  (Biol.)  A minute spherical or rounded structure; as blood, lymph,
   and pus corpuscles, minute fungi, spores, etc.

   3. A little pill or pellet used by homeopathists.


   Glob"u*let (?), n. A little globule. Crabb.


   Glob`u*lif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Globule + -ferous.] Bearing globules; in
   geology,  used  of  rocks,  and  denoting  a  variety of concretionary
   structure,  where  the  concretions  are  isolated globules and evenly
   distributed through the texture of the rock.


   Glob`u*lim"e*ter  (?), n. [Globule + -meter.] (Physiol.) An instrument
   for measuring the number of red blood corpuscles in the blood.

     NOTE: &hand; The method depends on the differences of tint obtained
     by mixing a sample of the blood with sodium carbonate solution.


   Glob"u*lin  (?), n. [From Globule: cf. F. globuline.] (Phisiol. Chem.)
   An  albuminous  body,  insoluble  in  water,  but  soluble  in  dilute
   solutions  of  salt.  It is present in the red blood corpuscles united
   with  h\'91matin  to  form  h\'91moglobin.  It  is  also  found in the
   crystalline  lens  of  the  eye,  and in blood serum, and is sometimes
   called  crystallin.  In  the  plural the word is applied to a group of
   proteid  substances  such  as  vitellin, myosin, fibrinogen, etc., all
   insoluble in water, but soluble in dilute salt solutions.


   Glob"u*lite  (?),  n.  [See  Globule.]  (Min.)  A  rudimentary form of
   crystallite, spherical in shape.


   Glob"u*lous   (?),   a.   [Cf.  F.  globuleux.]  Globular;  spherical;
   orbicular. -- Glob"u*lous*ness, n.


   Glob"y   (?),  a.  Resembling,  or  pertaining  to,  a  globe;  round;
   orbicular. "The globy sea." Milton.


   Glo*chid"i*ate  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Bot.)  Having  barbs; as, glochidiate
   bristles. Gray.


   Glo*chid"i*um (?), n.; pl. Glochidia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The
   larva  or  young of the mussel, formerly thought to be a parasite upon
   the parent's gills.


   Glode (?), obs. imp. of Glide. Chaucer.

                                 Glombe, Glome

   Glombe  (?),  Glome  (?),  v.  i. To gloom; to look gloomy, morose, or
   sullen. [Obs.] Surrey.


   Glome (?), n. Gloom. [Obs.]


   Glome  (?),  n.  [L. glomus a ball. Cf. Globe.] (Anat.) One of the two
   prominences  at  the  posterior  extremity  of the frog of the horse's


   Glom"er*ate  (?),  a. [L. glomeratus, p. p. of glomerare to glomerate,
   from  glomus.  See  3d Glome.] Gathered together in a roundish mass or
   dense cluster; conglomerate.


   Glom"er*ate (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Glomerated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Glomerating (?).] To gather or wind into a ball; to collect into a
   spherical form or mass, as threads.


   Glom`er*a"tion (?), n. [L. glomeratio.]

   1.  The  act  of  forming  or gathering into a ball or round mass; the
   state of being gathered into a ball; conglomeration.

   2. That which is formed into a ball; a ball. Bacon.


   Glom"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  glomerosus,  fr.  glomus.  See  3d Glome.]
   Gathered or formed into a ball or round mass. [Obs.] Blount.


   Glom"er*ule (?), n. [Dim. fr. L. glomus ball.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A head or dense cluster of flowers, formed by condensation
   of a cyme, as in the flowering dogwood.

   2. (Anat.) A glomerulus.


   Glo*mer"u*lus (?), n.; pl. Glomeruli (#). [NL., dim. of L. glomus. See
   3d  Glome.]  (Anat.)  The bunch of looped capillary blood vessels in a
   Malpighian capsule of the kidney.


   Glom`u*lif"er*ous (?), a. [L. glomus a ball + -ferous.] (Biol.) Having
   small  clusters  of  minutely  branched coral-like excrescences. M. C.

                               Glonoin Glonoine

   Glon"o*in  Glon"o*ine  (?),  n.  [Glycerin  + oxygen + nitrogen + -in,

   1. Same as Nitroglycerin; -- called also oil of glonoin. [Obs.]

   2. (Med.) A dilute solution of nitroglycerin used as a neurotic.


   Gloom  (gl&oomac;m),  n.  [AS. gl&omac;m twilight, from the root of E.
   glow. See Glow, and cf. Glum, Gloam.]

   1. Partial or total darkness; thick shade; obscurity; as, the gloom of
   a forest, or of midnight.

   2. A shady, gloomy, or dark place or grove.

     Before a gloom of stubborn-shafted oaks. Tennyson .

   3.  Cloudiness or heaviness of mind; melancholy; aspect of sorrow; low
   spirits; dullness.

     A sullen gloom and furious disorder prevailed by fits. Burke.

   4.  In  gunpowder  manufacture,  the  drying  oven.  Syn. -- Darkness;
   dimness;   obscurity;  heaviness;  dullness;  depression;  melancholy;
   dejection; sadness. See Darkness.


   Gloom, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gloomed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glooming.]

   1. To shine or appear obscurely or imperfectly; to glimmer.

   2.  To  become dark or dim; to be or appear dismal, gloomy, or sad; to
   come to the evening twilight.

     The black gibbet glooms beside the way. Goldsmith.

     [This weary day] . . . at last I see it gloom. Spenser.


   Gloom, v. t.

   1. To render gloomy or dark; to obscure; to darken.

     A bow window . . . gloomed with limes. Walpole.

     A black yew gloomed the stagnant air. Tennyson.

   2. To fill with gloom; to make sad, dismal, or sullen.

     Such a mood as that which lately gloomed Your fancy. Tennison.

     What sorrows gloomed that parting day. Goldsmith.


   Gloom"i*ly (?), adv. In a gloomy manner.


   Gloom"i*ness, n. State of being gloomy. Addison.


   Gloom"ing,  n.  [Cf.  Gloaming.] Twilight (of morning or evening); the

     When  the  faint  glooming  in  the  sky  First lightened into day.

     The balmy glooming, crescent-lit. Tennyson.


   Gloomth (?), n. Gloom. [R.] Walpole.


   Gloom"y (?), a. [Compar. Gloomier (?); superl. Gloomiest.]

   1.  Imperfectly  illuminated;  dismal  through  obscurity or darkness;
   dusky;  dim;  clouded;  as,  the  cavern  was  gloomy.  "Though hid in
   gloomiest shade." Milton.

   2.  Affected  with,  or expressing, gloom; melancholy; dejected; as, a
   gloomy  temper  or  countenance.  Syn.  --  Dark;  dim; dusky; dismal;
   cloudy;  moody;  sullen; morose; melancholy; sad; downcast; depressed;
   dejected; disheartened.


   Glop"pen  (?), v. t. & i. [OE. glopnen to be frightened, frighten: cf.
   Icel. gl to look downcast.] To surprise or astonish; to be startled or
   astonished. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Glore (?), v. i. [See Gloar.] To glare; to glower. [Obs.] Halliwell.


   Glo"ri*a (?), n. [L., glory.] (Eccl.) (a) A doxology (beginning Gloria
   Patri,  Glory be to the Father), sung or said at the end of the Psalms
   in the service of the Roman Catholic and other churches. (b) A portion
   of  the  Mass  (Gloria  in Excelsis Deo, Glory be to God on high), and
   also  of  the  communion  service  in  some churches. In the Episcopal
   Church  the  version  in English is used. (c) The musical setting of a


   Glo`ri*a"tion  (?),  n.  [L. gloriatio, from gloriari to glory, boast,
   fr.  gloria  glory.  See  Glory,  n.]  Boast; a triumphing. [Obs.] Bp.

     Internal gloriation or triumph of the mind. Hobbes.


   Glo"ried  (?),  a.  [See Glory.] Illustrious; honorable; noble. [Obs.]


   Glo`ri*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [L. glorificatio: cf. F. glorification. See

   1. The act of glorifyng or of giving glory to. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  The state of being glorifed; as, the glorification of Christ after
   his resurrection.


   Glo"ri*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Glorified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glorifying.] [F. glorifier, L. glorificare; gloria glory + -ficare (in
   comp.) to make. See -fy.]

   1.  To  make  glorious  by  bestowing  glory upon; to confer honor and
   distinction  upon;  to  elevate to power or happiness, or to celestial

     Jesus was not yet glorified. John vii. 39.

   2.  To  make glorious in thought or with the heart, by ascribing glory
   to;  to asknowledge the excellence of; to render homage to; to magnify
   in worship; to adore.

     That we for thee may glorify the Lord. Shak.


   Glo"ri*ole  (?), n. [L. gloriola a small glory, dim. of gloria glory.]
   An aureole. [R.] Msr. Browning.


   Glo`ri*o"sa  (?),  n.  [Nl., fr. L. gloriosus. See Glorious.] (Bot.) A
   genus of climbing plants with very showy lilylike blossoms, natives of


   Glo`ri*o"ser  (?),  n. [From L. gloriosus boastful.] A boaster. [Obs.]


   Glo`ri*o"so (?), n. [It.] A boaster. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Glo"ri*ous  (?),  a.  [OF.  glorios,  glorious,  F.  glorieux,  fr. L.
   gloriosus. See Glory, n.]

   1.  Exhibiting  attributes,  qualities,  or acts that are worthy of or
   receive  glory; noble; praiseworthy; excellent; splendid; illustrious;
   inspiring admiration; as, glorious deeds.

     These are thy glorious works, Parent of good ! Milton.

   2.  Eager  for  glory or distinction; haughty; boastful; ostentatious;
   vainglorious. [Obs.]

     Most miserable Is the desire that's glorious. Shak.

   3. Ecstatic; hilarious; elated with drink. [Colloq.]

     kings may be blest, but Tam was glorious, O'er all the ills of life
     victorious. Burns.

     During  his  office  treason was no crime, The sons of Belial had a
     glorious time. Dryden.

   Syn.  -- Eniment; noble; excellent; renowned; illustrious; celebrated;
   magnificent;    grand;    splendid.    --   Glo"ri*ous*ly,   adv.   --
   Glo"ri*ous*ness, n. Udall.

     Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously. Ex. xv. 21.

     I speak it not gloriously, nor out of affectation. B. Jonson.


   Glo"ry  (?),  n.  [OE.  glorie,  OF. glorie, gloire, F. gloire, fr. L.
   gloria; prob. akin to Gr. glory, praise, to hear. See Loud.]

   1.  Praise,  honor,  admiration,  or  distinction,  accorded by common
   consent to a person or thing; high reputation; honorable fame; renown.

     Glory to God in the highest. Luke ii. 14.

     Spread his glory through all countries wide. Spenser.

   2.  That  quality in a person or thing which secures general praise or
   honor; that which brings or gives renown; an object of pride or boast;
   the occasion of praise; excellency; brilliancy; splendor.

     Think it no glory to swell in tyranny. Sir P. Sidney.

     Jewels lose their glory if neglected. Shak.

     Your sex's glory 't is to shine unknown. Young.

   3. Pride; boastfulness; arrogance.

     In glory of thy fortunes. Chapman.

   4.  The presence of the Divine Being; the manifestations of the divine
   nature and favor to the blessed in heaven; celestial honor; heaven.

     Thou  shalt  guide me with thy counsel, and afterward receive me to
     glory. Ps. lxxiii. 24.

   5.  An  emanation of light supposed to proceed from beings of peculiar
   sanctity.  It  is  represented  in  art  by rays of gold, or the like,
   proceeding from the head or body, or by a disk, or a mere line.

     NOTE: &hand; This is the general term; when confined to the head it
     is  properly called nimbus; when encircling the whole body, aureola
     or aureole.

   Glory  hole,  an  opening in the wall of a glass furnace, exposing the
   brilliant  white  light  of the interior. Knight. -- Glory pea (Bot.),
   the name of two leguminous plants (Clianthus Dampieri and C. puniceus)
   of  Australia  and  New  Zeland.  They  have  showy scarlet or crimson
   flowers.  -- Glory tree (Bot.), a name given to several species of the
   verbenaceous  genus  Clerodendron,  showy flowering shrubs of tropical


   Glo"ry,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Gloried (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glorying.]
   [OE.  glorien,  OF.  glorier,  fr.  L. gloriari, fr. gloria glory. See
   Glory, n.]

   1. To exult with joy; to rejoice.

     Glory ye in his holy name. Ps. cv.

   2. To boast; to be proud.

     God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus
     Christ. Gal. vi. 14

     No one . . . should glory in his prosperity. Richardson.


   Glose (?), n. & v. See Gloze. Chaucer.


   Glos"er (?), n. See Glosser.


   Gloss  (?),  n. [Cf. Icel. glossi a blaze, glys finery, MHG. glosen to
   glow, G. glosten to glimmer; perh. akin to E. glass.]

   1.  Bbrightness  or luster of a body proceeding from a smooth surface;
   polish; as, the gloss of silk; cloth is calendered to give it a gloss.

     It  is  no  part  . . . to set on the face of this cause any fairer
     gloss than the naked truth doth afford. Hooker.

   2. A specious appearance; superficial quality or show.

     To  me  more dear, congenial to my heart, One native charm than all
     the gloss of art. Goldsmith.


   Gloss,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Glossed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glossing.] To
   give a superficial luster or gloss to; to make smooth and shining; as,
   to gloss cloth.

     The glossed and gleamy wave. J. R. Drake.


   Gloss,  n.  [OE.  glose,  F. glose, L. glossa a difficult word needing
   explanation, fr. Gr. Gloze, Glossary, Glottis.]

   1.  A  foreign,  archaic,  technical, or other uncommon word requiring
   explanation. [Obs.]

   2.  An interpretation, consisting of one or more words, interlinear or
   marginal; an explanatory note or comment; a running commentary.

     All  this,  without  a  gloss  or  comment,  He would unriddle in a
     moment. Hudibras.

     Explaining the text in short glosses. T. Baker.

   3. A false or specious explanation. Dryden.

   Page 632


   Gloss (?), v. t.

   1. To render clear and evident by comments; to illustrate; to explain;
   to annotate.

   2. To give a specious appearance to; to render specious and plausible;
   to palliate by specious explanation.

     You have the art to gloss the foulest cause. Philips.


   Gloss (?), v. i.

   1. To make comments; to comment; to explain. Dryden.

   2. To make sly remarks, or insinuations. Prior.


   Glos"sa  (?),  n.; pl. Gloss (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The tongue,
   or lingua, of an insect. See Hymenoptera.


   Glos"sal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the tongue; lingual.


   Glos*san"thrax  (?),  n. [Gr. anthrax: cf. F. glossanthrax.] A disease
   of horses and cattle accompanied by carbuncles in the mouth and on the


   Glos*sa"ri*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to glosses or to a glossary;
   containing a glossary.


   Glos*sa"ri*al*ly, adv. In the manner of a glossary.


   Glos"sa*rist  (?),  n.  A  writer  of  glosses  or  of  a  glossary; a
   commentator; a scholiast. Tyrwhitt.


   Glos"sa*ry (?), n.; pl. Gossaries (#). [L. glossarium, fr. glossa: cf.
   F.  glossaire.  See 3d Gloss.] A collection of glosses or explanations
   of  words  and passages of a work or author; a partial dictionary of a
   work,  an  author,  a  dialect,  art,  or science, explaining archaic,
   technical, or other uncommon words.


   Glos*sa"ta (?), n. pl. [NL. See Glossa.] (Zo\'94l.) The Lepidoptera.


   Glos*sa"tor  (?),  n.  [LL.  See  3d  Gloss.]  A  writer of glosses or
   comments;  a  commentator.  [R.]  "The . . . glossators of Aristotle."


   Gloss"er (?), n. [See lst Gloss.] A polisher; one who gives a luster.


   Gloss"er,  n.  [See  3d  Gloss.]  A  writer of glosses; a scholiast; a
   commentator. L. Addison.


   Glos"sic (?), n. [L. glossa a word requiring a gloss. See 3d Gloss.] A
   system  of  phonetic spelling based upon the present values of English
   letters, but invariably using one symbol to represent one sound only.

     Ingglish Glosik konvaiA. J. Ellis.


   Gloss"i*ly (?), adv. In a glossy manner.


   Gloss"i*ness,  n.  [From  Glossy.]  The  condition or quality of being
   glossy; the luster or brightness of a smooth surface. Boyle.


   Gloss"ist, n. A writer of comments. [Obs.] Milton.


   Glos*si"tis  (?), n. [NL., from Gr. -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the


   Gloss"ly (?), adv. Like gloss; specious. Cowley.


   Glos*soc"o*mon (?), n.[NL., fr. Gr. A kind of hoisting winch.


   Glos`so*ep`i*glot"tic  (?), a. [Gr. epiglottic.] (Anat.) Pertaining to
   both tongue and epiglottis; as, glossoepiglottic folds.


   Glos"sog"ra*pher  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Gloss.]  A  writer  of a glossary; a
   commentator; a scholiast. Hayward.


   Glos`so*graph"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to glossography.


   Glos"sog"ra*phy   (?),   n.   [See   Glossographer.]  The  writing  of
   glossaries, glosses, or comments for illustrating an author.


   Glos`so*hy"al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Anat.) Pertaining to both the hyoidean
   arch  and  the  tongue;  --  applied  to  the  anterior segment of the
   hyoidean  arch in many fishes. -- n. The glossohyal bone or cartilage;
   lingual bone; entoglossal bone.

                            Glossolalia, Glossolaly

   Glos`so*la"li*a (?), Glos*sol"a*ly (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. glossolalie.]
   The gift of tongues. Farrar.


   Glos`so*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to glossology.


   Glas*sol"o*gist (?), n. One who defines and explains terms; one who is
   versed in glossology.


   Glos*sol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. glossologie. See 3d Gloss.]

   1. The definition and explanation of terms; a glossary.

   2.  The  science  of  language;  comparative  philology;  linguistics;


   Glos`so*phar`yn*ge"al  (?), a. [Gr. pharyngeal.] (Anat.) Pertaining to
   both  the  tongue  and the pharynx; -- applied especially to the ninth
   pair  of  cranial  nerves,  which  are  distributed to the pharynx and
   tongue. -- n. One of the glossopharyngeal nerves.


   Gloss"y  (?), a. [Compar. Glossier (?); superl. Glossiest.] [See Gloss

   1. Smooth and shining; reflecting luster from a smooth surface; highly
   polished; lustrous; as, glossy silk; a glossy surface.

   2. Smooth; specious; plausible; as, glossy deceit.

                                  Glost oven

   Glost"  ov`en  (?).  An oven in which glazed pottery is fired; -- also
   called glaze kiln, or glaze.


   Glot"tal  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to, or produced by, the glottis;
   glottic. Glottal catch, an effect produced upon the breath or voice by
   a sudden opening or closing of the glotts. Sweet.

                              Glottic, Glottidean

   Glot"tic  (?),  Glot*tid"e*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to the glottis;


   Glot"tis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. Gloss an explanatory remark.] (Anat.)
   The  opening from the pharynx into the larynx or into the trachea. See


   Glot`to*log"ic*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to glottology.


   Glot*tol"o*gist (?), n. A linguist; a philologist.


   Glot*tol"o*gy   (?),  n.  [Gr.  -logy.]  The  science  of  tongues  or
   languages; comparative philology; glossology.


   Glout  (?),  v.  i. [Scot. Cf. Gloat.] To pout; to look sullen. [Obs.]


   Glout (?), v. t. To view attentively; to gloat on; to stare at. [Obs.]


   Glove (?), n. [OE. glove, glofe, AS. gl; akin to Icel. gl, cf. Goth. l
   palm of the hand, Icel. l.]

   1.  A  cover  for the hand, or for the hand and wrist, with a separate
   sheath  for  each  finder. The latter characteristic distinguishes the
   glove from the mitten.

   2. A boxing glove.
   Boxing  glove.  See under Boxing. -- Glove fight, a pugilistic contest
   in wich the fighters wear boxing gloves. -- Glove money OR silver. (a)
   A  tip  or  gratuity  to servants, professedly to buy gloves with. (b)
   (Eng. Law.) A reward given to officers of courts; also, a fee given by
   the  sheriff of a country to the clerk of assize and judge's officers,
   when   there  are  no  offenders  to  be  executed.  --  Glove  sponge
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  fine  and  soft variety of commercial sponges (Spongia
   officinalis).  --  To  be  hand  and  glove  with,  to  be  intimately
   associated  or  on good terms with. "Hand and glove with traitors." J.
   H.  Newman.  --  To  handle without gloves,<-- with the gloves off, to
   take  the  gloves  off  --> to treat without reserve or tenderness; to
   deal  roughly  with.  [Colloq.]  --  To take up the glove, to accept a
   challenge or adopt a quarrel. -- To throw down the glove, to challenge
   to combat.


   Glove,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Gloved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gloving.] To
   cover with, or as with, a glove.


   Glov"er (?), n. One whose trade it is to make or sell gloves. Glover's
   suture  OR stitch, a kind of stitch used in sewing up wounds, in which
   the thread is drawn alternately through each side from within outward.


   Glow  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Glowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glowing.]
   [AS.  gl;  akin  to  D. gloeijen, OHG. gluoen, G. gl\'81hen, Icel. gl,
   Dan. gloende glowing. Gloom.]

   1.  To  shine with an intense or white heat; to give forth vivid light
   and heat; to be incandenscent.

     Glows in the stars, and blossoms in the trees. Pope.

   2.  To  exhibit  a  strong,  bright color; to be brilliant, as if with
   heat; to be bright or red with heat or animation, with blushes, etc.

     Clad in a gown that glows with Tyrian rays. Dryden.

     And glow with shame of your proceedings. Shak.

   3.  To  feel  hot;  to  have a burning sensation, as of the skin, from
   friction, exercise, etc.; to burn.

     Did  not  his  temples  glow  In the same sultry winds and acrching
     heats? Addison.

     The cord slides swiftly through his glowing hands. Gay.

   4.  To  feel  the heat of passion; to be animated, as by intense love,
   zeal, anger, etc.; to rage, as passior; as, the heart glows with love,
   zeal, or patriotism.

     With pride it mounts, and with revenge it glows. Dryden.

     Burns with one love, with one resentment glows. Pope.


   Glow, v. t. To make hot; to flush. [Poetic]

     Fans,  whose  wind  did seem To glow the delicate cheeks which they
     did cool. Shak.


   Glow, n.

   1. White or red heat; incandscence.

   2.  Brightness or warmth of color; redness; a rosy flush; as, the glow
   of health in the cheeks.

   3.  Intense  excitement  or earnestness; vehemence or heat of passion;

     The red glow of scorn. Shak.

   4.  Heat of body; a sensation of warmth, as that produced by exercise,


   Glow"bard (?), n. [See Globard.] The glowworm. [Obs.]


   Glow"er  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Glowered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glowering.]  [Cf. Gloar.] to look intently; to stare angrily or with a
   scowl. Thackeray.


   Glow"ing*ly  (?),  adv.  In  a  glowing  manner;  with  ardent heat or


   Glow"lamp` (?), n.

   1. (Chem.) An aphlogistic lamp. See Aphlogistic.

   2. (Elect.) An incandescent lamp. See Incandescent, a.


   Glow"worm`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  coleopterous  insect of the genus
   Lampyris;  esp., the wingless females and larv\'91 of the two European
   species (L. noctiluca, and L. splendidula), which emit light from some
   of the abdominal segments.

     Like a glowworm in the night, The which hath fire in darkness, none
     in light. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; The male is winged, and is supposed to be attracted by
     the  light  of  the  female.  In  America, the luminous larv\'91 of
     several species of fireflies and fire beetles are called glowworms.
     Both sexes of these are winged when mature. See Firefly.


   Glox*in"i*a  (?),  n. [NL.] (Bot.) American genus of herbaceous plants
   with  very handsome bell-shaped blossoms; -- named after B. P. Gloxin,
   a German botanist.


   Gloze  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Glozed(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Glozing.]
   [OE. glosen, F. gloser. See gloss explanation.]

   1. To flatter; to wheedle; to fawn; to talk smoothly. Chaucer.

     A false, glozing parasite. South.

     So glozed the tempter, and his proem tuned. Milton.

   2. To give a specious or false meaning; to ministerpret. Shak.


   Gloze, v. t. To smooth over; to palliate.

     By glozing the evil that is in the world. I. Taylor.


   Gloze, n.

   1. Flattery; adulation; smooth speech.

     Now to plain dealing; lay these glozes by. Shak.

   2. Specious show; gloss. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.


   Gloz"er (?), n. A flatterer. [Obs.] Gifford (1580).


   Glu"cic  (?),  a. [Gr. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or obtained from, sugar;
   as, glucic acid.


   Glu*ci"na (?), n. [Cf. F. glycine, glucine. So called because it forms
   sweet  salts. See Glucinum.] (Chem.) A white or gray tasteless powder,
   the oxide of the element glucinum; -- formerly called glucine.


   Glu*cin"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or containing,
   glucinum; as, glucinic oxide.


   Glu*ci"num  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  glucinium, glycium, fr. Gr. Glycerin.]
   (Chem.)  A  rare  metallic  element,  of a silver white color, and low
   specific   gravity   (2.1),  resembling  magnesium.  It  never  occurs
   naturally  in  the  free  state,  but is always combined, usually with
   silica or alumina, or both; as in the minerals phenacite, chrysoberyl,
   beryl  or  emerald, euclase, and danalite. It was named from its oxide
   glucina,  which was known long before the element was isolated. Symbol
   Gl.  Atomic  weight 9.1. Called also beryllium. [Formerly written also
   glucinium.]<-- modern name Beryllium, symbol Be -->


   Glu"co*gen (?), n. [R.] See Glycogen.


   Glu`co*gen"e*sis (?), n. Glycogenesis. [R.]


   Glu*con"ic  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or derived from, glucose. Gluconic
   acid (Chem.), an organic acid, obtained as a colorless, sirupy liquid,
   by  the  oxidation  of  glucose;  --  called  also  maltonic acid, and
   dextronic acid.


   Glu"cose` (?), n. [Gr. Glycerin.]

   1.  A variety of sugar occurring in nature very abundantly, as in ripe
   grapes,  and  in  honey, and produced in great quantities from starch,
   etc.,  by the action of heat and acids. It is only about half as sweet
   as  cane sugar. Called also dextrose, grape sugar, diabetic sugar, and
   starch sugar. See Dextrose.

   2.  (Chem.) Any one of a large class of sugars, isometric with glucose
   proper,  and  including  levulose, galactose, etc.<-- ?Now only one is
   called glucose -- when did this usage diappear? = hexose-->

   3.  The  trade name of a sirup, obtained as an uncrystallizable reside
   in  the  manufacture of glucose proper, and containing, in addition to
   some  dextrose or glucose, also maltose, dextrin, etc. It is used as a
   cheap adulterant of sirups, beers, etc.


   Glu"co*side  (?),  n.  [See Glucose.] (Chem.) One of a large series of
   amorphous or crystalline substances, occurring very widely distributed
   in plants, rarely in animals, and regarded as influental agents in the
   formation  and  disposition  of  the  sugars. They are frequently of a
   bitter  taste,  but, by the action of ferments, or of dilute acids and
   alkalies,  always break down into some characteristic substance (acid,
   aldehyde,  alcohol,  phenole,  or alkaloid) and glucose (or some other
   sugar); hence the name. They are of the nature of complex and compound
   ethers, and ethereal salts of the sugar carbohydrates.


   Glu`co*su"ri*a  (?),  n. [NL., fr. E. glucose + Gr. (Med.) A condition
   in which glucose is discharged in the urine; diabetes mellitus.


   Glue  (?),  n.  [F.  glu, L. glus, akin to gluten, from gluere to draw
   together.  Cf.  Gluten.]  A hard brittle brownish gelatin, obtained by
   boiling  to  a  jelly  the skins, hoofs, etc., of animals. When gently
   heated  with  water, it becomes viscid and tenaceous, and is used as a
   cement  for  uniting  substances.  The  name  is  also  given to other
   adhesive or viscous substances. Bee glue. See under Bee. -- Fish glue,
   a  strong  kind  of  glue  obtained  from  fish  skins  and  bladders;
   isinglass. -- Glue plant (Bot.), a fucoid seaweed (Gloiopeltis tenax).
   -- Liquid glue, a fluid preparation of glue and acetic acid oralcohol.
   --  Marine  glue,  a  solution of caoutchouc in naphtha, with shellac,
   used in shipbuilding.


   Glue,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Glued (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gluing.] [F.
   gluer.  See  Glue,  n.]  To  join with glue or a viscous substance; to
   cause to stick or hold fast, as if with glue; to fix or fasten.

     This  cold, congealed blood That glues my lips, and will not let me
     speak. Shak.


   Glue"pot`  (?),  n. A utensil for melting glue, consisting of an inner
   pot  holding the glue, immersed in an outer one containing water which
   is heated to soften the glue.


   Glu"er (?), n. One who cements with glue.


   Glu"ey (?), a. Viscous; glutinous; of the nature of, or like, glue.


   Glu"ey*ness, n. Viscidity.


   Glu"ish, a. Somewhat gluey. Sherwood.


   Glum (?), n. [See Gloom.] Sullenness. [Obs.] Skelton.


   Glum, a. Moody; silent; sullen.

     I frighten people by my glun face. Thackeray.


   Glum,  v.  i. To look sullen; to be of a sour countenance; to be glum.
   [Obs.] Hawes.


   Glu*ma"ceous  (?),  a. [Cf. F. glumanc\'82. See Glume.] Having glumes;
   consisting of glumes.


   Glu"mal  (?), a. (Bot.) Characterized by a glume, or having the nature
   of a glume.


   Glume  (?),  n. [L. gluma hull, husk, fr. glubere to bark or peel: cf.
   F.  glume  or  gloume.] (Bot.) The bracteal covering of the flowers or
   seeds of grain and grasses; esp., an outer husk or bract of a spikelt.

                              Glumella, Glumelle

   Glu*mel"la (?), Glu"melle (?), n. [F. glumelle, dim. of glume.] (Bot.)
   One  of  the pelets or inner chaffy scales of the flowers or spikelets
   of grasses.


   Glum"ly (?), adv. In a glum manner; sullenly; moodily.


   Glum"my (?), a. [See Gloom.] dark; gloomy; dismal. [Obs.]


   Glum"ness, n. Moodiness; sullenness.


   Glump  (?),  v.  i.  [See  Glum.]  To  manifest  sullenness;  to sulk.

   Page 633


   Glump"y (?), a. Glum; sullen; sulky. [Colloq.] "He was glumpy enough."
   T. Hook.


   Glunch  (?), a. [Cf. Glump.] Frowning; sulky; sullen. Sir W. Scott. --
   n.  A  sullen, angry look; a look of disdain or dislike. [Prov. Eng. &


   Glut (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Glutted; p. pr. & vb. n. Glutting.] [OE.
   glotten,  fr.  OF. glotir, gloutir, L. glutire, gluttire; cf. Gr. gar.
   Cf. Gluttion, Englut.]

   1. To swallow, or to swallow greedlly; to gorge.

     Though  every drop of water swear against it, And gape at widest to
     glut him. Shak.

   2.  To  fill to satiety; to satisfy fully the desire or craving of; to
   satiate; to sate; to cloy.

     His  faithful  heart,  a bloody sacrifice, Torn from his breast, to
     glut the tyrant's eyes. Dryden.

     The  realms of nature and of art were ransacked to glut the wonder,
     lust, and ferocity of a degraded populace. C. Kingsley.

   To  glut the market, to furnish an oversupply of any article of trade,
   so that there is no sale for it.


   Glut, v. i. To eat gluttonously or to satiety.

     Like  three  horses  that  have broken fence, And glutted all night
     long breast-deep in corn. Tennyson.


   Glut, n.

   1. That which is swallowed. Milton

   2.  Plenty,  to  satiety  or repletion; a full supply; hence, often, a
   supply  beyond  sufficiency or to loathing; over abundance; as, a glut
   of the market. <-- "of", not "on" the market! -->

     A glut of those talents which raise men to eminence. Macaulay.

   3. Something that fills up an opening; a clog.

   4.  (a)  A  wooden  wedge  used  in splitting blocks. [Prov. Eng.] (b)
   (Mining)  A  piece of wood used to fill up behind cribbing or tubbing.
   Raymond.  (c)  (Bricklaying)  A  bat, or small piece of brick, used to
   fill out a course. Knight. (d) (Arch.) An arched opening to the ashpit
   of a klin. (e) A block used for a fulcrum.

   5.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  broad-nosed  eel (Anguilla latirostris), found in
   Europe, Asia, the West Indies, etc.


   Glu`ta*con"ic (?), a. [Glutaric + aconitic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   derived  from,  an  acid  intermediate  between  glutaric and aconitic


   Glu*t\'91"us  (?),  n.  [NL. See Gluteal.] (Anat.) The great muscle of
   the  buttock  in man and most mammals, and the corresponding muscle in
   many lower animals.

     NOTE: &hand; In  ma n, the glut\'91us is composed of three distinct
     parts, which extend and abduct the thigh, and help support the body
     in standing.


   Glu*tam"ic  (?),  a.  [Gluten  +  -amic.]  (Chem.) Of or pertaining to
   gluten.  Glutamic  acid,  a  nitrogenous  organic  acid  obtained from
   certain albuminoids, as gluten; -- called also amido-glutaric acid.<--
   one of the natural L-alpha-amino acids found in many proteins C5H9NO4.


   Glu*tar"ic  (?),  a. [Glutamic + tartaric.] (Chem.) Of, pertaining to,
   or designating, an acid so called; as, glutaric ethers. Glutaric acid,
   an  organic  acid  obtained as a white crystalline substance, isomeric
   with  pyrotartaric  acid;  -- called also normal pyrotartaric acid.<--
   one of the natural L-alpha-amino acids found in many proteins -->


   Glu"ta*zine  (?), n. (Chem.) A nitrogenous substance, forming a heavy,
   sandy powder, white or nearly so. It is a derivative of pyridine.


   Glu"te*al  (?), a. [G. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or in the region of, the


   Glu"ten  (?),  n.  [L.,  glue:  cf.  F. gluten. See Glue.] (Chem.) The
   viscid, tenacious substance which gives adhesiveness to dough.

     NOTE: &hand; Gl uten is a complex and variable mixture of glutin or
     gliadin,  vegetable  fibrin, vegetable casein, oily material, etc.,
     and  ia a very nutritious element of food. It may be separated from
     the  flour  of  grain by subjecting this to a current of water, the
     starch and other soluble matters being thus washed out.

   Gluten  bread,  bread containing a large proportion of gluten; -- used
   in  cases  of  diabetes. -- Gluten casein (Chem.), a vegetable proteid
   found  in  the  seeds  of grasses, and extracted as a dark, amorphous,
   earthy  mass.  --  Gluten fibrin (Chem.), a vegetable proteid found in
   the  cereal  grains,  and  extracted  as an amorphous, brownish yellow


   Glu*te"us (?), n. [NL.] (Anat.) Same as Glut&ae;us.


   Glu"tin (?), n. [See Gluten.] (Chem.)

   1. Same as Gliadin.

   2. Sometimes synonymous with Gelatin. [R.]


   Glu"ti*nate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Glutinated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Glutinating.]  [L.  glutinatus, p. p. of glutinare to glue, fr. gluten
   glue.] To unite with glue; to cement; to stick together. Bailey.


   Glu`ti*na"tion (?), n. [L. glutinatio: cf. F. glutination.] The act of
   uniting with glue; sticking together.


   Glu"ti*na*tive  (?),  a.  [L. glutinativus: cf. F. glutinatif.] Having
   the quality of cementing; tenacious; viscous; glutinous.


   Glu`ti*nos"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. glutinosit\'82 .] The quality of being
   glutinous; viscousness. [R.]


   Glu"ti*nous (?), a. [L. glutinosus, fr. gluten glue: cf. F. glutineux.
   See Gluten.]

   1.  Of the nature of glue; resembling glue; viscous; viscid; adhesive;

   2.  (Bot.)  Havig a moist and adhesive or sticky surface, as a leaf or


   Glu"ti*nous*ness (?), n. The quality of being glutinous.


   Glut"ton  (?),  n.  [OE.  glotoun,  glotun,  F. glouton, fr. L. gluto,
   glutto. See Glut.]

   1. One who eats voraciously, or to excess; a gormandizer.

   2. Fig.: One who gluts himself.

     Gluttons in murder, wanton to destroy. Granville.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  carnivorous  mammal  (Gulo  luscus),  of the family
   Mustelid\'91,  about  the  size  of  a  large  badger. It was formerly
   believed to be inordinately voracious, whence the name; the wolverene.
   It is a native of the northern parts of America, Europe, and Asia. <--
   in 1996, spelled Wolverine, and spn = Gulo gulo -->
   Glutton  bird  (Zo\'94l.),  the  giant fulmar (Ossifraga gigantea); --
   called  also  Mother  Carey's  goose,  and  mollymawk. <-- glutton for
   punishment  =  one persistent in an effort in spite of harmful results


   Glut"ton  (?),  a.  Gluttonous; greedy; gormandizing. "Glutton souls."

     A  glutton  monastery in former ages makes a hungry ministry in our
     days. Fuller.


   Glut"ton, v. t. & i. To glut; to eat voraciously. [Obs.]

     Gluttoned at last, return at home to pine. Lovelace.

     Whereon in Egypt gluttoning they fed. Drayton.


   Glut"ton*ish, a. Gluttonous; greedy. Sir P. Sidney.


   Glut"ton*ize (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gluttonized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gluttonizing   (?).]   To  eat  to  excess;  to  eat  voraciously;  to
   gormandize. Hallywell.


   Glut"ton*ous  (?),  a.  Given to gluttony; eating to excess; indulging
   the  appetite;  voracious;  as,  a gluttonous age. -- Glut"ton*ous*ly,
   adv. -- Glut"ton*ous*ness, n.


   Glut"ton*y  (?),  n.; pl. Gluttonies (#). [OE. glotonie, OF. glotonie,
   gloutonnie.]  Excess in eating; extravagant indulgence of the appetite
   for food; voracity.

     Their sumptuous gluttonies, and gorgeous feasts. Milton.


   Glyc"er*ate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of glyceric acid.


   Gly*cer"ic  (?),  a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, glycerin.
   Glyceric  acid  (Chem.),  an  organic  acid,  obtained  by the partial
   oxidation  of glycerin, as a thick liquid. It is a hydroxyl derivative
   of propionic acid, and has both acid and alcoholic properties.


   Glyc"er*ide  (?),  n. [See Glycerin.] (Chem.) A compound ether (formed
   from  glycerin).  Some  glycerides exist ready formed as natural fats,
   others are produced artificially.

                              Glycerin, Glycerine

   Glyc"er*in,  Glyc"er*ine  (,  n.  [F. glyc\'82rine, fr. Gr. glykero`s,
   glyky`s,  sweet.  Cf.  Glucose,  Licorice.]  (Chem.)  An oily, viscous
   liquid,  C3H5(OH)3,  colorless  and odorless, and with a hot, sweetish
   taste,  existing  in  the  natural fats and oils as the base, combined
   with various acids, as oleic, margaric, stearic, and palmitic. It is a
   triatomic  alcohol,  and hence is also called glycerol. See Note under

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  obtained from fats by saponification, or, on a
     large  scale,  by the action of superheated steam. It is used as an
     ointment,  as  a  solvent  and  vehicle  for  medicines,  and as an
     adulterant in wine, beer, etc.


   Glyc"er*ite  (?),  n. (Med.) A medicinal preparation made by mixing or
   dissolving a substance in glycerin.


   Glyc"er*ol (?), n. (Chem.) Same as Glycerin.


   Clyc"er*ole (?), n. [F. glyc\'82rol\'82.] (Med.) Same as Glycerite.


   Glyc"er*yl (?), n. [Glycerin + -yl.] (Chem.) A compound radical, C3H5,
   regarded  as  the  essential radical of glycerin. It is metameric with
   allyl. Called also propenyl.


   Glyc"ide  (?),  n. [Glyceric + anhydride.] (Chem.) A colorless liquid,
   obtained  from  certain  derivatives  of  glycerin,  and regarded as a
   partially dehydrated glycerin; -- called also glycidic alcohol.


   Gly*cid"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, glycide;
   as, glycidic acid.


   Gly"cin  (?),  n.  [Gr.  glyky`s  sweet.]  (Physiol.  Chem.)  Same  as


   Gly`co*cho"late  (?), n. [Glycocoll + cholic.] (Physiol. Chem.) A salt
   of glycocholic acid; as, sodium glycocholate.


   Gly`co*chol"ic (?), a. (Physiol. Chem.) Pertaining to, or composed of,
   glycocoll  and  cholic  acid.  Glycocholic  acid  (Physiol.  Chem.), a
   conjugate acid, composed of glycocoll and cholic acid, present in bile
   in the form of a sodium salt. The acid commonly forms a resinous mass,
   but can be crystallized in long, white needles.


   Gly"co*cin  (?),  n.  [Glycocoll  +  -in.]  (Physiol.  Chem.)  Same as


   Gly"co*coll  (?),  n.  [Gr.  glyky`s  sweet  + ko`lla glue.] (Physiol.
   Chem.)  A  crystalline,  nitrogenous  substance,  with  a sweet taste,
   formed  from  hippuric  acid  by  boiling  with hydrochloric acid, and
   present  in  bile  united  with  cholic  acid.  It is also formed from
   gelatin  by  decomposition  with acids. Chemically, it is amido-acetic
   acid. Called also glycin, and glycocin.


   Gly"co*gen (?), n. [Gr. -gen: cf. F. glycog\'8ane.] (Physiol. Chem.) A
   white,  amorphous,  tasteless  substance resembling starch, soluble in
   water  to  an opalescent fluid. It is found abundantly in the liver of
   most  animals,  and  in  small  quantity  in other organs and tissues,
   particularly  in  the  embryo.  It  is quickly changed into sugar when
   boiled  with  dilute  sulphuric  or hydrochloric acid, and also by the
   action  of  amylolytic  ferments.  <-- polysaccharide, used as a sugar
   storage substance in animals -->


   Gly`co*gen"ic  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or caused by, glycogen; as, the
   glycogenic function of the liver.

                            Glycogeny, Glycogenesis

   Gly*cog"e*ny  (?),  Gly`co*gen"e*sis (?), n. (Physiol.) The production
   or formation of sugar from gycogen, as in the liver.


   Gly"col  (?),  n. [Glycerin + -ol. See Glycerin.] (Chem.) (a) A thick,
   colorless   liquid,   C2H4(OH)2,   of   a   sweetish  taste,  produced
   artificially  from certain ethylene compounds. It is a diacid alcohol,
   intermediate  between  ordinary  ethyl  alcohol and glycerin. <-- usu.
   called  ethylene  glycol  -->(b)  Any one of the large class of diacid
   alcohols, of which glycol proper is the type.<-- diol -->


   Gly*col"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, glycol; as,
   glycolic ether; glycolic acid. Glycolic acid (Chem.), an organic acid,
   found  naturally  in unripe grapes and in the leaves of the wild grape
   (Ampelopsis  quinquefolia), and produced artificially in many ways, as
   by  the  oxidation  of  glycol, -- whence its name. It is a sirupy, or
   white  crystalline, substance, HO.CH2.CO2H, has the properties both of
   an  alcohol and an acid, and is a type of the hydroxy acids; -- called
   also hydroxyacetic acid.
   Gly"co*lide  (?),  n.  [Glycol + anhydride.] (Chem.) A white amorphous
   powder,  C4H4O,  obtained  by  heating  and dehydrating glycolic acid.
   [Written also glycollide.] 


   Gly`co*lu"ric  (?), a. [Glycol + uric.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived
   from,  glycol  and  urea;  as,  glycoluric  acid, which is called also
   hydantoic acid.


   Gly`co*lu"ril (?), n. [Glycolyl + uric.] (Chem.) A white, crystalline,
   nitrogenous substance, obtained by the reduction of allanto\'8bn.


   Gly"co*lyl  (?),  n.  [Glycolic  +  -yl.] (Chem.) A divalent, compound
   radical,  CO.CH2,  regarded as the essential radical of glycolic acid,
   and a large series of related compounds.


   Gly*co"ni*an (?), a. & n. Glyconic.


   Gly*con"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr. Glycon.] (Pros.) Consisting of a spondee, a
   choriamb,  and  a  pyrrhic; -- applied to a kind of verse in Greek and
   Latin poetry. -- n. (Pros.) A glyconic verse.


   Gly"co*nin  (?), n. An emulsion of glycerin and the yolk of eggs, used
   as an ointment, as a vehicle for medicines, etc.


   Gly"co*sine   (?),  n.  (Chem.)  An  organic  base,  C6H6N4,  produced
   artificially  as a white, crystalline powder, by the action of ammonia
   on glyoxal.


   Gly`co*su"ri*a (?), n. (Med.) Same as Gluoosuria.


   Glyc`yr*rhi"za (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. Licorice.]

   1.  (Bot.) A genus of papilionaceous herbaceous plants, one species of
   which  (G.  glabra),  is the licorice plant, the roots of which have a
   bittersweet mucilaginous taste.

   2.  (Med.)  The root of Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice root), used as a
   demulcent, etc.


   Glyc`yr*rhi*zim"ic   (?),   a.   (Chem.)   From,   or  pertaining  to,
   glycyrrhizin; as, glycyrrhizimic acid.


   Gly*cyr"rhi*zin  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  glycyrrhizine.  See Glycyrrhiza.]
   (Chem.)  A  glucoside found in licorice root (Glycyrrhiza), in monesia
   bark  (Chrysophyllum),  in the root of the walnut, etc., and extracted
   as a yellow, amorphous powder, of a bittersweet taste.

                                 Glyn, Glynne

   Glyn, Glynne (?), n. A glen. See Glen.

     NOTE: [Obs. si ngly, bu t oc curring of ten in  lo cative na mes in
     Ireland, as Glen does in Scotland.]

     He  could  not  beat  out the Irish, yet he did shut them up within
     those narrow corners and glyns under the mountain's foot. Spenser.


   Gly*ox"al  (?),  n.  [Glycol  +  oxalic  + aldehyde.] (Chem.) A white,
   amorphous,  deliquescent  powder,  (CO.H)2,  obtained  by  the partial
   oxidation  of  glycol.  It  is  a  double aldehyde, between glycol and
   oxalic acid.


   Gly`ox*al"ic  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or  designating,  an
   aldehyde  acid,  intermediate between glycol and oxalic acid. [Written
   also glyoxylic.]


   Gly*ox"a*line  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  white, crystalline, organic base,
   C3H4N2,  produced by the action of ammonia on glyoxal, and forming the
   origin of a large class of derivatives hence, any one of the series of
   which glyoxaline is a type; -- called also oxaline.


   Gly*ox"ime  (?),  n.  [Glyoxal + oxime.] (Chem.) A white, crystalline,
   nitrogenous  substance,  produced  by  the  action of hydroxylamine on
   glyoxal,  and  belonging  to  the  class of oximes; also, any one of a
   group  of  substances resembling glyoxime proper, and of which it is a
   type. See Oxime.


   Glyph  (?),  n.  [Gr.  glyphe.  Cf. Cleave to split.] (Arch.) A sunken
   channel or groove, usually vertical. See Triglyph.


   Glyph"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Fine Arts) Of or pertaining to sculpture or
   carving of any sort, esp. to glyphs.


   Glyph"o*graph  (?),  n. A plate made by glyphography, or an impression
   taken from such a plate.


   Glyph`o*graph"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to glyphography.


   Gly*phog"ra*phy  (?),  n. [Gr. -graphy.] A process similar to etching,
   in  which, by means of voltaic electricity, a raised copy of a drawing
   is made, so that it can be used to print from.


   Glyp"tic (?), a. [See Glyph.]

   1. Of or pertaining to gem engraving.

   2. (Min.) Figured; marked as with figures.


   Glyp"tics  (?), n. [Cf. F. glyptique. See Glyph.] The art of engraving
   on precious stones.


   Glyp"to*don  (?),  n. [Gr. Glyph.] (Paleon.) An extinct South American
   quaternary mammal, allied to the armadillos. It was as large as an ox,
   was covered with tessellated scales, and had fluted teeth. Owen.

   Page 634


   Glyp"to*dont  (?),  n. (Paleon.) One of a family (glyptodontid\'91) of
   extinct  South  American  edentates,  of  which Glyptodon is the type.
   About twenty species are known.


   Glyp`to*graph"ic   (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  glyptographique.]  Relating  to
   glyptography, or the art of engraving on precious stones. [R.]


   Glyp*tog"ra*phy  (?),  n. [Gr. -graphy: cf. F. glyptographie.] The art
   or process of engraving on precious stones. [R.]


   Glyp`to*the"ca  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. A building or room devoted to
   works of sculpture.


   Glys"ter (?), n. (Med.) Same as Clyster.


   Gmel"in*ite  (?), n. [Named after the German chemist Gmelin.] (Min.) A
   rhombohedral  zeolitic  mineral,  related  in  form and composition to


   Gna*pha"li*um  (?),  n.  [Nl.,  from  Gr.  (Bot.) A genus of composite
   plants  with white or colored dry and persistent involucres; a kind of


   Gnar  (?),  n.  [OE. knarre, gnarre, akin to OD. knor, G. knorren. Cf.
   Knar,  Knur, Gnarl.] A knot or gnarl in wood; hence, a tough, thickset
   man; -- written also gnarr. [Archaic]

     He was . . . a thick gnarre. Chaucer.


   Gnar  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gnarred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gnarring.]
   [See  Gnarl.]  To  gnarl;  to  snarl; to growl; -- written also gnarr.

     At  them  he  gan  to  rear  his bristles strong, And felly gnarre.

     A thousand wants Gnarr at the heels of men. Tennison.


   Gnarl (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gnarled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gnarling.]
   [From  older gnar, prob. of imitative origin; cf. G. knarren, knurren.
   D. knorren, Sw. knorra, Dan. knurre.] To growl; to snarl.

     And wolves are gnarling who shall gnaw thee first. Shak.


   Gnarl,  n.  [See  Gnar, n.] a knot in wood; a large or hard knot, or a
   protuberance with twisted grain, on a tree.


   Gnarled   (?),   a.   Knotty;   full  of  knots  or  gnarls;  twisted;

     The unwedgeable and gnarl\'82d oak. Shak.


   Gnarl"y (?), a. Full of knots; knotty; twisted; crossgrained.


   Gnash (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gnashed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Gnashing.]
   [OE.  gnasten,  gnaisten,  cf.  Icel. gnastan a gnashing, gn to gnash,
   Dan.knaske,   Sw.  gnissla,  D.  knarsen,  G.  knirschen.]  To  strike
   together, as in anger or pain; as, to gnash the teeth.


   Gnash, v. i. To grind or strike the teeth together.

     There  they him laid, Gnashing for anguish, and despite, and shame.


   Gnash"ing*ly, adv. With gnashing.


   Gnat (?), n. [AS. gn\'91t.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  blood-sucking  dipterous  fly,  of the genus Culex,
   undergoing  a  metamorphosis  in  water.  The females have a proboscis
   armed  with  needlelike  organs  for  penetrating the skin of animals.
   These  are  wanting in the males. In America they are generally called
   mosquitoes. See Mosquito.

   2.  Any  fly resembling a Culex in form or habits; esp., in America, a
   small  biting  fly  of  the  genus Simulium and allies, as the buffalo
   gnat, the black fly, etc.
   Gnat  catcher  (Zo\'94l.),  one  of  several species of small American
   singing  birds,  of  the  genus Polioptila, allied to the kinglets. --
   Gnat  flower,  the  bee  flower. -- Gnat hawk (Zo\'94l.), the European
   goatsucker;  --  called  also  gnat owl. -- Gnat snapper (Zo\'94l.), a
   bird  that  catches  gnats.  -- Gnat strainer, a person ostentatiously
   punctilious about trifles. Cf. Matt. xxiii. 24.


   Gnath"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the jaw. Gnathic
   index,  in  a  skull, the ratio of the distance from the middle of the
   nasofrontal suture to the basion (taken equal to 100), to the distance
   from  the  basion to the middle of the front edge of the upper jaw; --
   called also alveolar index.

     Skulls  with  the gnathic index below 98 are orthognathous, from 98
     to 103 mesognathous, and above 103 are prognathous. Flower.


   Gna*thid"i*um (?), n.; pl. Gnathidia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The
   ramus  of  the  lower jaw of a bird as far as it is naked; -- commonly
   used in the plural.


   Gnath"ite  (?),  n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Any one of the mouth appendages of
   the   Arthropoda.   They  are  known  as  mandibles,  maxill\'91,  and

                            Gnathonic, Gnathonical

   Gna*thon"ic (?), Gna*thon"ic*al (?), a. [L. Gnatho, name of a parasite
   in the "Eunuchus" of Terence, Gr. Flattering; deceitful. [Obs.]


   Gnath"o*pod   (?),   n.  [Gr.  -pod.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  gnathopodite  or
   maxilliped. See Maxilliped.


   Gna*thop"o*dite   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l,)  Any  leglike  appendage  of  a
   crustacean,  when modified wholly, or in part, to serve as a jaw, esp.
   one of the maxillipeds.


   Gna*thas"te*gite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  a pair of broad
   plates,  developed  from the outer maxillipeds of crabs, and forming a
   cover for the other mouth organs.


   Gna*thos"to*ma  (?),  n. pl. [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A comprehensive
   division  of  vertebrates,  including  all that have distinct jaws, in
   contrast with the leptocardians and marsipobranchs (Cyclostoma), which
   lack them. [Written also Gnathostomata.]


   Gnath`o*the"ca   (?),  n.;  pl.  Gnathothec\'92  (#).  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.) The horney covering of the lower mandible of a bird.


   Gnat"ling (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A small gnat.


   Gnat"worm`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) The aquatic larva of a gnat; -- called
   also, colloquially, wiggler.


   Gnaw  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Gnawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gnawing.]
   [OE.  gnawen,  AS.  gnagan;  akin to D. knagen, OHG. gnagan, nagan, G.
   nagen, Icel. & Sw. gnaga, Dan. gnave, nage. Cf. Nag to tease.]

   1. To bite, as something hard or tough, which is not readily separated
   or  crushed; to bite off little by little, with effort; to wear or eat
   away by scraping or continuous biting with the teeth; to nibble at.

     His bones clean picked; his very bones they gnaw. Dryden.

   2. To bite in agony or rage.

     They gnawed their tongues for pain. Rev. xvi. 10.

   3. To corrode; to fret away; to waste.


   Gnaw,  v. i. To use the teeth in biting; to bite with repeated effort,
   as  in  eating  or removing with the teethsomething hard, unwiedly, or

     I  might  well, like the spaniel, gnaw upon the chain that ties me.
     Sir P. Sidney.


   Gnaw"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, gnaws.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A rodent.


   Gneiss  (?),  n.  [G.]  (Geol.)  A  crystalline rock, consisting, like
   granite,  of  quartz,  feldspar, and mica, but having these materials,
   especially  the  mica,  arranged  in  planes, so that it breaks rather
   easily  into  coarse  slabs  or  flags. Hornblende sometimes takes the
   place  of  the  mica,  and  it  is then called hornblendic OR syenitic
   gneiss. Similar varieties of related rocks are also called gneiss.


   Gneis"sic  (?),  a.  Relating to, or resembling, gneiss; consisting of


   Gneis"soid  (?),  a. [Gneiss+ -old.] Resembling gneiss; having some of
   the  characteristics of gneiss; -- applied to rocks of an intermediate
   character between granite and gneiss, or mica slate and gneiss.


   Gneis"sose` (?), a. Having the structure of gneiss.


   Gnew (?), obs. imp. of Gnaw. Chaucer.


   Gnide (n&imac;d), v. t. [AS. gn&imac;dan.] To rub; to bruise; to break
   in pieces. [Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th  is wo rd is  fo und in  Ty rwhitt's Ch aucer, bu t
     improperly.  The woed, though common in Old English, does not occur
     in Chaucer.

   T. R. Lounsbury.


   Gnof (?), n. Churl; curmudgeon. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gnome  (?), n. [F. gnome, prob. fr. Gr. i. e., of the treasures in the
   inner parts of the earth, or fr. Know.]

   1.  An  imaginary  being,  supposed by the Rosicrucians to inhabit the
   inner  parts  of the earth, and to be the guardian of mines, quarries,

   2. A dwarf; a goblin; a person of small stature or misshapen features,
   or of strange appearance.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  owl (Glaucidium gnoma) of the Western United

   4. [Gr. A brief reflection or maxim. Peacham.

                               Gnomic, Gnomical

   Gnom"ic  (?),  Gnom"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  gnomique. See Gnome maxim.]
   Sententious;  uttering  or  containing  maxims,  or  striking detached
   thoughts; aphoristic.

     A  city long famous as the seat of elegiac and gnomic poetry. G. R.

   Gnomic Poets, Greek poets, as Theognis and Solon, of the sixth century
   B.  C.,  whose  writings  consist  of  short  sententious precepts and


   Gnom"ic*al, a. [See Gnomon.] Gnomonical. Boyle.


   Gnom"ic*al*ly, adv. In a gnomic, didactic, or sententious manner.

                           Gnomologic, Gnomological

   Gno`mo*log"ic (?), Gno`mo*log"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Pertaining to, of the
   nature of, or resembling, a gnomology.


   Gno*mol"o*gy  (?), n. [Gr. gnomologie.] A collection of, or a treatise
   on, maxims, grave sentences, or reflections. [Obs.] Milton.


   Gno"mon (?), n. [L. gnomon, Gr. Gnome.]

   1.  (Dialing) The style or pin, which by its shadow, shows the hour of
   the day. It is usually set parallel to the earth's axis.

   2. (Astron.) A style or column erected perpendicularly to the horizon,
   formerly  used  in astronomocal observations. Its principal use was to
   find the altitude of the sun by measuring the length of its shadow.

   3.  (Geom.)  The  space  included  between  the  boundary lines of two
   similar  parallelograms,  the  one  within the other, with an angle in
   common;  as,  the  gnomon  bcdefg of the parallelograms ac and af. The
   parallelogram bf is the complement of the parallelogram df.

   4. The index of the hour circle of a globe.

                             Gnomonic, Gnomonical

   Gno*mon"ic  (?), Gno*mon"ic*al (?), a. [L. gnomonicus, Gr. gnomonique.
   See  Gnomon.]  Of  or pertaining to the gnomon, or the art of dialing.
   Gnomonic  projection,  a  projection  of the circles of the sphere, in
   which the point of sight is taken at the center of the sphere, and the
   principal plane is tangent to the surface of the sphere. "The gnomonic
   projection derives its name from the connection between the methods of
   describing  it  and  those  for the construction of a gnomon or dial."
   Cyc. of Arts & Sciences.
   Gno*mon"ic*al*ly (?), adv. According to the principles of the gnomonic


   Gno*mon"ics  (?), n. [See Gnomonic.] The art or science of dialing, or
   of  constructing  dials to show the hour of the day by the shadow of a


   Gno"mon*ist (?), n. One skilled in gnomonics. Boyle.


   Gno`mon*ol"o*gy  (?), n. [Gnomon + -logy. Cf. Gnomonology.] A treatise
   on gnomonics.


   Gnos"co*pine  (?), n. [Gr. gignw`skein to know + E. opium?] (Chem.) An
   alkaloid existing in small quantities in opium.


   Gno"sis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. gnw^sis.] (Metaph.) The deeper wisdom;
   knowledge of spiritual truth, such as was claimed by the Gnostics.


   Gnos"tic (?), a.

   1. Knowing; wise; shrewd. [Old Slang]

     I said you were a gnostic fellow. Sir W. Scott.

   2.  (Eccl. Hist.) Of or pertaining to Gnosticism or its adherents; as,
   the Gnostic heresy.


   Gnos"tic, n. [L. gnosticus, Gr. gignw`skein to know: cf. F. gnostique.
   See  Know.]  (Eccl.  Hist.)  One  of the so-called philosophers in the
   first   ages   of  Christianity,  who  claimed  a  true  philosophical
   interpretation  of  the  Christian  religion.  Their  system  combined
   Oriental   theology   and  Greek  philosophy  with  the  doctrines  of
   Christianity.  They held that all natures, intelligible, intellectual,
   and  material,  are  derived  from the Deity by successive emanations,
   which they called Eons.


   Gnos"ti*cism (?), n. The system of philosophy taught by the Gnostics.


   Gnow (?), obs. imp. of Gnaw. Gnawed. Chaucer.


   Gnu  (?),  n.  [Hottentot gnu, or nju: cf. F. gnou.] (Zo\'94l.) One of
   two species of large South African antelopes of the genus Catoblephas,
   having a mane and bushy tail, and curved horns in both sexes. [Written
   also gnoo.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon gn u or  wi ldebeest (Catoblephas gnu) is
     plain  brown;  the  brindled  gnu or blue wildebeest (C. gorgon) is
     larger, with transverse stripes of black on the neck and shoulders.


   Go (?), obs. p. p. of Go. Gone. Chaucer.


   Go,  v. i. [imp. Went (?); p. p. Gone (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Going. Went
   comes from the AS, wendan. See Wend, v. i.] [OE. gan, gon, AS. g\'ben,
   akin  to  D.  gaan,  G. gehn, gehen, OHG. g, g\'ben, SW. g&adeg;, Dan.
   gaae;  cf. Gr. h\'be to go, AS. gangan, and E. gang. The past tense in
   AS.,  eode,  is  from  the  root i to go, as is also Goth. iddja went.
   &root;47a. Cf. Gang, v. i., Wend.]

   1.  To  pass  from  one  place to another; to be in motion; to be in a
   state  not  motionless  or  at  rest;  to  proced; to advance; to make
   progress;  --  used,  in various applications, of the movement of both
   animate  and  inanimate  beings,  by  whatever  means, and also of the
   movements of the mind; also figuratively applied.

   2. To move upon the feet, or step by step; to walk; also, to walk step
   by step, or leisurely.

     NOTE: &hand; In  ol d writers go is much used as opposed to run, or
     ride. "Whereso I go or ride."


     You know that love Will creep in service where it can not go. Shak.

     Thou  must  run to him; for thou hast staid so long that going will
     scarce serve the turn. Shak.

     He  fell  from  running to going, and from going to clambering upon
     his hands and his knees. Bunyan.

     NOTE: &hand; In  Ch aucer go is used frequently with the pronoun in
     the objective used reflexively; as, he goeth him home.

   3.  To be passed on fron one to another; to pass; to circulate; hence,
   with for, to have currency; to be taken, accepted, or regarded.

     The  man  went  among men for an old man in the days of Saul. 1 Sa.
     xvii. 12.

     [The money] should go according to its true value. Locke.

   4.  To  proceed or happen in a given manner; to fare; to move on or be
   carried on; to have course; to come to an issue or result; to succeed;
   to turn out.

     How goes the night, boy ? Shak.

     I  think,  as  the  world  goes,  he was a good sort of man enough.

     Whether  the  cause  goes for me or against me, you must pay me the
     reward. I Watts.

   5.  To  proceed  or  tend toward a result, consequence, or product; to
   tend;  to  conduce;  to  be  an  ingredient;  to  avail;  to apply; to
   contribute; -- often with the infinitive; as, this goes to show.

     Against right reason all your counsels go. Dryden.

     To  master  the foul flend there goeth some complement knowledge of
     theology. Sir W. Scott.

   6. To apply one's self; to set one's self; to undertake.

     Seeing  himself  confronted  by so many, like a resolute orator, he
     went  not  to  denial,  but  to justify his cruel falsehood. Sir P.

     NOTE: &hand; Go , in  th is se nse, is  of ten us ed in the present
     participle  with the auxiliary verb to be, before an infinitive, to
     express a future of intention, or to denote design; as, I was going
     to say; I am going to begin harvest.

   Page 635

   7.  To  proceed by a mental operation; to pass in mind or by an act of
   the memory or imagination; -- generally with over or through.

     By going over all these particulars, you may receive some tolerable
     satisfaction about this great subject. South.

   8. To be with young; to be pregnant; to gestate.

     The fruit she goes with, I pray for heartily, that it may find Good
     time, and live. Shak.

   9.  To  move  from  the  person speaking, or from the point whence the
   action  is  contemplated;  to  pass  away;  to leave; to depart; -- in
   opposition to stay and come.

     I  will let you go, that ye may sacrifice to the Lord your God; . .
     . only ye shall not go very far away. Ex. viii. 28.

   10.  To pass away; to depart forever; to be lost or ruined; to perish;
   to decline; to decease; to die.

     By  Saint George, he's gone! That spear wound hath our master sped.
     Sir W. Scott.

   11.  To  reach; to extend; to lead; as, a line goes across the street;
   his land goes to the river; this road goes to New York.

     His  amorous  expressions  go  no  further  than  virtue may allow.

   12. To have recourse; to resort; as, to go to law.

     NOTE: &hand; Go  is used, in combination with many prepositions and
     adverbs,  to denote motion of the kind indicated by the preposition
     or  adverb, in which, and not in the verb, lies the principal force
     of  the  expression; as, to go against to go into, to go out, to go
     aside, to go astray, etc.

   Go  to,  come;  move;  go away; -- a phrase of exclamation, serious or
   ironical. -- To go a-begging, not to be in demand; to be undesired. --
   To  go  about.  (a) To set about; to enter upon a scheme of action; to
   undertake. "They went about to slay him." Acts ix. 29.
     They never go about . . . to hide or palliate their vices. Swift.
   (b)  (Naut.)  To  tack;  to turn the head of a ship; to wear. -- To go
   abraod. (a) To go to a foreign country. (b) To go out of doors. (c) To
   become public; to be published or disclosed; to be current.

     Then went this saying abroad among the brethren. John xxi. 23.

   --  To  go  against.  (a)  To  march  against; to attack. (b) To be in
   opposition  to;  to  be  disagreeable to. -- To go ahead. (a) To go in
   advance.  (b)  To  go  on;  to make progress; to proceed. -- To go and
   come. See To come and go, under Come. -- To go aside. (a) To withdraw;
   to retire.

     He . . . went aside privately into a desert place. Luke. ix. 10.

   (b) To go from what is right; to err. Num. v. 29.-- To go back on. (a)
   To retrace (one's path or footsteps). (b) To abandon; to turn against;
   to  betray. [Slang, U. S.] -- To go below (Naut), to go below deck. --
   To  go  between, to interpose or mediate between; to be a secret agent
   between parties; in a bad sense, to pander. -- To go beyond. See under
   Beyond.  -- To go by, to pass away unnoticed; to omit. -- To go by the
   board  (Naut.),  to fall or be carried overboard; as, the mast went by
   the board. -- To go down. (a) To descend. (b) To go below the horizon;
   as,  the sun has gone down. (c) To sink; to founder; -- said of ships,
   etc. (d) To be swallowed; -- used literally or figuratively. [Colloq.]

     Nothing  so  ridiculous,  . . . but it goes down whole with him for
     truth. L' Estrange.

   --  To  go  far.  (a)  To go to a distance. (b) To have much weight or
   influence.  --  To go for. (a) To go in quest of. (b) To represent; to
   pass  for. (c) To favor; to advocate. (d) To attack; to assault. [Low]
   (e)  To  sell  for;  to  be  parted  with  for (a price). -- To go for
   nothing,  to  be parted with for no compensation or result; to have no
   value,  efficacy,  or influence; to count for nothing. -- To go forth.
   (a)  To  depart  from  a  place.  (b) To be divulged or made generally
   known; to emanate.

     The  law  shall  go  forth  of  Zion, and the word of the Lord from
     Jerusalem. Micah iv. 2.

   --  To  go  hard  with, to trouble, pain, or endanger. -- To go in, to
   engage  in;  to  take  part.  [Colloq.] -- To go in and out, to do the
   business of life; to live; to have free access. John x. 9. -- To go in
   for.  [Colloq.]  (a)  To  go for; to favor or advocate (a candidate, a
   measure,  etc.).  (b)  To seek to acquire or attain to (wealth, honor,
   preferment,  etc.) (c) To complete for (a reward, election, etc.). (d)
   To make the object of one's labors, studies, etc.

     He  was  as  ready  to  go  in for statistics as for anything else.

   --  To  go  in  to  OR  unto. (a) To enter the presence of. Esther iv.
   16.(b)  To  have sexual intercourse with. [Script.] -- To go into. (a)
   To  speak of, investigate, or discuss (a question, subject, etc.). (b)
   To  participate  in  (a war, a business, etc.). -- To go large. (Naut)
   See under Large. -- To go off. (a) To go away; to depart.

     The leaders . . . will not go off until they hear you. Shak.

   (b)  To  cease;  to  intermit; as, this sickness went off. (c) To die.
   Shak. (d) To explode or be discharged; -- said of gunpowder, of a gun,
   a  mine,  etc. (e) To find a purchaser; to be sold or disposed of. (f)
   To pass off; to take place; to be accomplished.

     The wedding went off much as such affairs do. Mrs. Caskell.

   --  To  go on. (a) To proceed; to advance further; to continue; as, to
   go  on  reading.  (b) To be put or drawn on; to fit over; as, the coat
   will  not  go on. -- To go all fours, to correspond exactly, point for

     It is not easy to make a simile go on all fours. Macaulay.

   --  To  go  out. (a) To issue forth from a place. (b) To go abroad; to
   make an excursion or expedition.

     There are other men fitter to go out than I. Shak.

     What went ye out for to see ? Matt. xi. 7, 8, 9.

   (c) To become diffused, divulged, or spread abroad, as news, fame etc.
   (d)  To expire; to die; to cease; to come to an end; as, the light has
   gone out.

     Life itself goes out at thy displeasure. Addison.

   --  To go over. (a) To traverse; to cross, as a river, boundary, etc.;
   to change sides.

     I must not go over Jordan. Deut. iv. 22.

     Let  me go over, and see the good land that is beyond Jordan. Deut.
     iii. 25.

     Ishmael . . . departed to go over to the Ammonites. Jer. xli. 10.

   (b)  To  read,  or  study; to examine; to review; as, to go over one's

     If  we  go  over the laws of Christianity, we shall find that . . .
     they enjoin the same thing. Tillotson.

   (c)  To  transcend; to surpass. (d) To be postponed; as, the bill went
   over  for  the  session. (e) (Chem.) To be converted (into a specified
   substance   or  material);  as,  monoclinic  sulphur  goes  over  into
   orthorhombic,  by  standing;  sucrose  goes  over  into  dextrose  and
   levulose.  --  To  go  through. (a) To accomplish; as, to go through a
   work.  (b)  To  suffer;  to  endure  to  the  end; as, to go through a
   surgical  operation  or a tedious illness. (c) To spend completely; to
   exhaust,  as a fortune. (d) To strip or despoil (one) of his property.
   [Slang]  (e)  To  botch or bungle a business. [Scot.] -- To go through
   with,  to perform, as a calculation, to the end; to complete. -- To go
   to  ground. (a) To escape into a hole; -- said of a hunted fox. (b) To
   fall  in  battle.  -- To go to naught (Colloq.), to prove abortive, or
   unavailling. -- To go under. (a) To set; -- said of the sun. (b) To be
   known  or  recognized by (a name, title, etc.). (c) To be overwhelmed,
   submerged, or defeated; to perish; to succumb. -- To go up, to come to
   nothing;  to  prove  abortive;  to fail. [Slang] -- To go upon, to act
   upon,  as a foundation or hypothesis. -- To go with. (a) To accompany.
   (b)  To  coincide or agree with. (c) To suit; to harmonize with. -- To
   go (well, ill, OR hard) with, to affect (one) in such manner. -- To go
   without,  to  be,  or  to remain, destitute of. -- To go wrong. (a) To
   take a wrong road or direction; to wander or stray. (b) To depart from
   virtue.  (c)  To  happen unfortunately. (d) To miss success. -- To let
   go, to allow to depart; to quit one's hold; to release.


   Go (?), v. t.

   1.  To  take,  as  a  share  in  an enterprise; to undertake or become
   responsible for; to bear a part in.

     They to go equal shares in the booty. L'Estrange.

   2. To bet or wager; as, I'll go you a shilling. [Colloq.]
   To  go  halves, to share with another equally. -- >To go it, to behave
   in  a wild manner; to be uproarious; to carry on; also, to proceed; to
   make  progress.  [Colloq.] -- To go it alone (Card Playing), to play a
   hand  without  the  assistance  of  one's  partner.<--  to do anything
   without  the  assistance  of  one's  former associates --> -- To go it
   blind. (a) To act in a rash, reckless, or headlong manner. [Slang] (b)
   (Card  Playing)  To bet without having examined the cards.<-- = to bet
   in the blind --> -- To go one's way, to set forth; to depart.


   Go, n.

   1. Act; working; operation. [Obs.]

     So gracious were the goes of marriage. Marston.

   2. A circumstance or occurrence; an incident. [Slang]

     This is a pretty go. Dickens.

   3. The fashion or mode; as, quite the go. [Colloq.]

   4. Noisy merriment; as, a high go. [Colloq.]

   5. A glass of spirits. [Slang]

   6.  Power of going or doing; energy; vitality; perseverance; push; as,
   there is no go in him. [Colloq.]

   7.  (Cribbage)  That condition in the course of the game when a player
   can not lay down a card which will not carry the aggregate count above
   Great  go, Little go, the final and the preliminary examinations for a
   degree.  [Slang,  Eng.  Univ.]  -- No go, a failure; a fiasco. [Slang]
   Thackeray. -- On the go, moving about; unsettled. [Colloq.]


   Go"a  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A species of antelope (Procapra picticauda),
   inhabiting Thibet.


   Goad  (?),  n.  [AS.  g\'bed;  perh. akin to AS. g\'ber a dart, and E.
   gore.  See  Gore, v. t.] A pointed instrument used to urge on a beast;
   hence, any necessity that urges or stimulates.

     The daily goad urging him to the daily toil. Macaulay.


   Goad,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Goaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Goading.] To prick;
   to  drive with a goad; hence, to urge forward, or to rouse by anything
   pungent, severe, irritating, or inflaming; to stimulate.

     That temptation that doth goad us on. Shak.

   Syn.   --  To  urge;  stimulate;  excite;  arouse;  irritate;  incite;


   Goaf  (?);  n.;  pl.  Goafs (#) or Goaves (#). [Cf. lst Gob.] (Mining)
   That  part  of  a  mine  from  which the mineral has been partially or
   wholly  removed;  the waste left in old workings; -- called also gob .
   To  work  the  goaf  OR  gob,  to remove the pillars of mineral matter
   previously left to support the roof, and replace them with props. Ure.


   Goal  (?),  n.  [F.  gaule pole, Prov. F. waule, of German origin; cf.
   Fries.  walu  staff,  stick,  rod,  Goth. walus, Icel. v\'94lr a round
   stick; prob. akin to E. wale.]

   1.  The  mark  set  to  bound  a  race,  and  to  or  around which the
   constestants  run, or from which they start to return to it again; the
   place at which a race or a journey is to end.

     Part  curb  their fiery steeds, or shun the goal With rapid wheels.

   2. The final purpose or aim; the end to which a design tends, or which
   a person aims to reach or attain.

     Each individual seeks a several goal. Pope.

   3.  A  base,  station,  or bound used in various games; in football, a
   line  between  two  posts  across which the ball must pass in order to
   score;  also,  the  act  of kicking the ball over the line between the
   goal posts.
   Goal keeper, the player charged with the defense of the goal.

                                  Goa powder

   Go"a  pow"der  (?). [So called from Goa, on the Malabar coast, whither
   it  was  shipped from Portugal.] A bitter powder (also called araroba)
   found  in  the  interspaces  of  the  wood of a Brazilian tree (Andira
   araroba)  and  used  as  a  medicine.  It  is  the material from which
   chrysarobin is obtained.


   Goar (?), n. Same as lst Gore.


   Goar"ish, a. Patched; mean. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl. 


   Goat  (?),  n.  [OE  goot, got, gat, AS. g\'bet; akin to D. geit, OHG.
   geiz,  G. geiss, Icel. geit, Sw. get, Dan. ged, Goth. gaits, L. haedus
   a  young  goat, kid.] (Zo\'94l.) A hollow-horned ruminant of the genus
   Capra,  of  several  species and varieties, esp. the domestic goat (C.
   hircus), which is raised for its milk, flesh, and skin.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Ca shmere an d An gora varieties of the goat have
     long,  silky  hair, used in the manufacture of textile fabrics. The
     wild  or  bezoar  goat (Capra \'91gagrus), of Asia Minor, noted for
     the  bezoar  stones  found in its stomach, is supposed to be one of
     the  ancestral  species ofthe domestic goat. The Rocky Montain goat
     (Haplocercus montanus) is more nearly related to the antelopes. See

   Goat antelope (Zo\'94l), one of several species of antelopes, which in
   some  respects  resemble  a goat, having recurved horns, a stout body,
   large  hoofs,  and a short, flat tail, as the goral, thar, mazame, and
   chikara.  -- Goat fig (Bot.), the wild fig. -- Goat house. (a) A place
   for  keeping goats. (b) A brothel. [Obs.] -- Goat moth (Zo\'94l.), any
   moth  of  the  genus  Cossus,  esp.  the  large  European  species (C.
   ligniperda),  the  larva of which burrows in oak and willow trees, and
   requires  three  years  to mature. It exhales an odor like that of the
   he-goat.  -- Goat weed (Bot.), a scrophulariaceous plant, of the genus
   Capraria  (C.  biflora).  --  Goat's  bane  (Bot.),  a poisonous plant
   (Aconitum  Lucoctonum),  bearing  pale yellow flowers, introduced from
   Switzerland  into  England; wolfsbane. -- Goat's beard (Bot.), a plant
   of  the genus Tragopogon; -- so named from the long silky beard of the
   seeds.  One  species  is  the  salsify or oyster plant. -- Goat's foot
   (Bot.),  a kind of wood sorrel (Oxalis caprina) growing at the Cape of
   Good   Hope.   --  Goat's  rue  (Bot.),  a  leguminous  plant  (Galega
   officinalis  of Europe, or Tephrosia Virginiana in the United States).
   --   Goat's  thorn  (Bot.),  a  thorny  leguminous  plant  (Astragalus
   Tragacanthus),  found in the Levant. -- Goat's wheat (Bot.), the genus
   Tragopyrum (now referred to Atraphaxis).


   Goat`ee"  (?),  n.  A  part  of a man's beard on the chin or lower lip
   which is allowed to grow, and trimmed so as to resemble the beard of a


   Goat"fish`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A fish of the genus Upeneus, inhabiting
   the Gulf of Mexico. It is allied to the surmullet.


   Goat"herd` (?), n. One who tends goats. Spenser.


   Goat"ish, a. Characteristic of a goat; goatlike.

     Give  your  chaste  body  up  to  the  embraces  Of  goatish  lust.

   -- Goat"ish*ly, adv. -- Goat"ish*ness, n.


   Goat"like` (?), a. Like a goat; goatish.


   Goat"skin`  (?), n. The skin of a goat, or leather made from it. -- a.
   Made of the skin of a goat.


   Goat"suck`er   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   One   of  several  species  of
   insectivorous  birds, belonging to Caprimulgus and allied genera, esp.
   the  European species (Caprimulgus Europ\'91us); -- so called from the
   mistaken  notion  that  it  sucks  goats. The European species is also
   goat-milker,  goat  owl, goat chaffer, fern owl, night hawk, nightjar,
   night churr, churr-owl, gnat hawk, and dorhawk .


   Goaves  (?),  n.  pl.  [See Goaf, n.] (Mining) Old workings. See Goaf.


   Gob (?), n. [Cf. Goaf.] (Mining) Same as Goaf.


   Gob, n. [OF. gob morsel; cf. F. gobe, gobbe, a poisoned morsel, poison
   ball,  gobet  a piece swallowed, gober to swallow greedily and without
   tasting;  cf.  Gael.  & Ir. gob mouth, snout, W. gwp a bird's head and
   neck. Cf. Gobble, Job, n.]

   1.  A  little  mass or collection; a small quantity; a mouthful. [Low]

   2. The mouth. [Prov. Eng.or Low] Wright.


   Gob"bet  (?),  n.  [OE. & F. gobet. See 2d Gob.] A mouthful; a lump; a
   small piece. Spenser.

     [He] had broken the stocks to small gobbets. Wyclif.


   Gob"bet,  v.  t.  To  swallow  greedily;  to swallow in gobbets. [Low]


   Gob"bet*ly, adv. In pieces. [Obs.] Huloet.


   Gob"bing  (?),  n.  [See lst Gob.] (Mining) (a) The refuse thrown back
   into  the  excavation  after  removing the coal. It is called also gob
   stuff.  Brande  &  C.  (b)  The  process  of  packing with waste rock;


   Gob"ble (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gobbled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gobbling
   (?).] [Freq. of 2d gob.]

   1. To swallow or eat greedily or hastily; to gulp.

     Supper gobbled up in haste. Swift.

   2. To utter (a sound) like a turkey cock.

     He . . . gobbles out a note of self-approbation. Goldsmith.

   To  gobble up, to capture in a mass or in masses; to capture suddenly.


   Gob"ble, v. i.

   1. To eat greedily.

   2. To make a noise like that of a turkey cock. Prior.


   Gob"ble, n. A noise made in the throat.

     Ducks and geese . . . set up a discordant gobble. Mrs. Gore.


   Gob"bler (?), n. A turkey cock; a bubbling Jock.


   Gob"e*lin  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to tapestry produced in the so-called
   Gobelin  works,  which  have  been maintained by the French Government
   since 1667.


   Gobe`mouche"  (?), n. [F.] Literally, a fly swallower; hence, once who
   keeps his mouth open; a boor; a silly and credulous person.


   Gob"et (?), n. See Gobbet. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Go"-be*tween`  (?), n. An intermediate agent; a broker; a procurer; --
   usually in a disparaging sense. Shak.


   Go"bi*oid  (?), a. [NL. Gobius + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Like, or pertaining
   to, the goby, or the genus Gobius. -- n. A gobioid fish.


   Gob"let (?), n. [F. gobelet, LL. gobeletus, gobellus; cf. L. cupa tub,
   cask.  See  Cupel.]  A kind of cup or drinking vessel having a foot or
   standard, but without a handle.

     We love not loaded boards and goblets crowned. Denham.


   Gob"lin  (?),  n.  [OE.  gobelin,  F.  gobelin, LL. gobelinus, fr. Gr.
   kobold, E. kobold, cobalt, Armor. gobilin an ignis fatuus, goblin.] An
   evil  or  mischievous  spirit; a playful or malicious elf; a frightful
   phantom; a gnome.

     To whom the goblin, full of wrath, replied. Milton.

   Page 636


   Gob"line`  (?), n. (Naut.) One of the ropes or chains serving as stays
   for  the  dolphin  striker or the bowsprit; -- called also gobrope and


   Gob"lin*ize (?), v. t. To transform into a goblin. [R.] Lowell.


   Go"by  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gobies  (#).  [F.  gobie, L. gobius, gobio, Gr.
   Gudgeon.]  (Zo\'94l.) One of several species of small marine fishes of
   the genus Gobius and allied genera.


   Go"-by`  (?),  n.  A  passing  without  notice;  intentional  neglect;
   thrusting  away;  a  shifting  off;  adieu; as, to give a proposal the

     Some songs to which we have given the go-by. Prof. Wilson.


   Go"cart`  (?),  n.  A framework moving on casters, designed to support
   children while learning to walk.


   God (?), a. & n. Good. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   God  (?),  n. [AS. god; akin to OS. & D. god, OHG. got, G. gott, Icel.
   gu,  go,  Sw.  &  Dan. gud, Goth. gup, prob. orig. a p. p. from a root
   appearing  in Skr. h, p. p. h, to call upon, invoke, implore. Goodbye,
   Gospel, Gossip.]

   1.  A  being  conceived of as possessing supernatural power, and to be
   propitiated  by  sacrifice,  worship,  etc.;  a  divinity; a deity; an
   object of worship; an idol.

     He maketh a god, and worshipeth it. Is. xliv. 15.

     The race of Israel . . . bowing lowly down To bestial gods. Milton.

   2.  The  Supreme  Being; the eternal and infinite Spirit, the Creator,
   and the Sovereign of the universe; Jehovah.

     God  is  a  Spirit;  and  they that worship him must worship him in
     spirit and in truth. John iv. 24.

   3.  A person or thing deified and honored as the chief good; an object
   of supreme regard.

     Whose god is their belly. Phil. iii. 19.

   4.  Figuratively  applied  to  one who wields great or despotic power.
   [R.] Shak.
   Act of God. (Law) See under Act. -- Gallery gods, the occupants of the
   highest  and  cheapest  gallery of a theater. [Colloq.] -- God's acre,
   God's  field,  a  burial place; a churchyard. See under Acre. -- God's
   house.  (a) An almshouse. [Obs.] (b) A church. -- God's penny, earnest
   penny. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl. -- God's Sunday, Easter.


   God, v. t. To treat as a god; to idolize. [Obs.] Shak.


   God"child`  (?),  n. One for whom a person becomes sponsor at baptism,
   and  whom  he  promises  to  see  educated as a Christian; a godson or
   goddaughter. See Godfather.


   God"daugh`ter  (?),  n. [AS. goddohtor.] A female for whom one becomes
   sponsor at baptism.


   God"dess (?), n.

   1. A female god; a divinity, or deity, of the female sex.

     When  the  daughter  of  Jupiter presented herself among a crowd of
     goddesses,  she  was  distinguished  by  her  graceful  stature and
     superior beauty. Addison.

   2. A woman of superior charms or excellence.


   Gode (?), a. & n. Good. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gode"lich (?), a. Goodly. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   God"fa`ther  (?),  n. [AS. godf\'91der. Cf. Gossip.] A man who becomes
   sponsor  for  a  child  at baptism, and makes himself a surety for its
   Christian training and instruction.

     There  shall  be for every Male-child to be baptized, when they can
     be had, two Godfathers and one Godmother; and for every Female, one
     Godfather  and  two  Godmothers;  and  Parents shall be admitted as
     Sponsors,  if  it  is  desired. Book of Common Prayer (Prot. Episc.
     Ch., U. S. ).


   God"fa`ther,  v.  t.  To  act  as  godfather  to;  to take under one's
   fostering care. [R.] Burke.


   God"-fear`ing  (?), a. Having a reverential and loving feeling towards
   God; religious.

     A brave good-fearing man. Tennyson.


   God"head (?), n. [OE. godhed. See -head, and cf. Godhood.]

   1. Godship; deity; divinity; divine nature or essence; godhood.

   2. The Deity; God; the Supreme Being.

     The imperial throne Of Godhead, fixed for ever. Milton.

   3. A god or goddess; a divinity. [Obs.]

     Adoring  first  the  genius  of  the  place,  The nymphs and native
     godheads yet unknown. Dryden.


   God"hood (?), n. [God + -hood. Cf. Godhead.] Divine nature or essence;
   deity; godhead.


   God"ild  (?).  A  corruption of God yield, i. e., God reward or bless.


   God"less,  a.  Having, or acknowledging, no God; without reverence for
   God; impious; wicked. -- God"less*ly, adv. -- God"less*ness, n.


   God"like`  (?),  a. [God + like. Cf. Godly.] Resembling or befitting a
   god  or  God; divine; hence, preeminently good; as, godlike virtue. --
   God"like`ness, n.


   God"li*ly (?), adv. Righteously. H. Wharton.


   God"li*ness, n. [From Godly.] Careful observance of, or conformity to,
   the laws of God; the state or quality of being godly; piety.

     Godliness is profitable unto all things. 1 Tim. iv. 8.


   God"ling (?), n. A diminutive god. Dryden.


   God"ly, a. [God, n. + -ly. Cf. Godlike, Like.] Pious; reverencing God,
   and  his character and laws; obedient to the commands of God from love
   for,  and reverence of, his character; conformed to God's law; devout;
   righteous; as, a godly life.

     For godly sorrow worketh repentance. 2 Cor. vii. 10.


   God"ly (?), adv. Piously; devoutly; righteously.

     All  that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.
     2. Tim. iii. 12.


   God"ly*head (?), n. [Cf. Goodlyhead.] Goodness. [Obs.] Spenser.


   God"moth`er  (?),  n.  [AS.  godm.]  A woman who becomes sponsor for a
   child in baptism. See Godfather


   Go*down"   (?),  n.  [Corruption  of  Malay  g\'bedong  warehouse.]  A
   warehouse. [East Indies]


   Go*droon"  (?),  n.  [F.  godron  a  round plait, godroon.] (Arch.) An
   ornament produced by notching or carving a rounded molding.


   God"send`  (?),  n. Something sent by God; an unexpected acquisiton or
   piece of good fortune.


   God"ship, n. [God, n. + -ship.] The rank or character of a god; deity;
   divinity; a god or goddess.

     O'er hills and dales their godships came. Prior.


   God"sib (?), n. A gossip. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   God"son`  (?), n. [AS. godsunu.] A male for whom one has stood sponsor
   in baptism. See Godfather.


   God"speed` (?), n. Success; prosperous journeying; -- a contraction of
   the phrase, "God speed you." [Written also as two separate words.]

     Receive him not into house, neither bid him God speed. 2 John 10.


   God"ward (?), adv. Toward God. 2 Cor. iii. 4.


   God"wit  (?),  n.  [Prob.  from  AS.  g  good + wiht creature, wight.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  One of several species of long-billed, wading birds of the
   genus Limosa, and family Tringid\'91. The European black-tailed godwit
   (Limosa limosa), the American marbled godwit (L. fedoa), the Hudsonian
   godwit (L. h\'91mastica), and others, are valued as game birds. Called
   also godwin.


   Go"el  (g&omac;"&ecr;l),  a.  [Cf.  Yellow.  &root;49.] Yellow. [Obs.]


   Go`\'89`land"  (?),  n.  [F.  go\'89land.] (Zo\'94l.) A white tropical
   tern (Cygis candida).


   Go`\'89`min"  (?),  n.  [F.  go\'89mon  seaweed.] A complex mixture of
   several substances extracted from Irish moss.


   Go"en (?), p. p. of Go. [Obs.]


   Go"er  (?),  n.  [From  Go.] One who, or that which, goes; a runner or
   walker;  as:  (a)  A  foot. [Obs.] Chapman. (b) A horse, considered in
   reference to his gait; as, a good goer; a safe goer.

     This antechamber has been filled with comers and goers. Macaulay.


   Go"e*ty   (?),   n.  [Gr.  go\'82tie.]  Invocation  of  evil  spirits;
   witchcraft. [Obs.] Hallywell.


   Goff  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. goffe ill-made, awkward, It. goffo, Sp. gofo,
   Prov. G. goff a blockhead, Gr. A silly clown. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Goff, n. A game. See Golf. [Scot.] Halliwell.


   Gof"fer  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Goffered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Goffering.]  [See  Gauffer.]  To  plait, flute, or crimp. See Gauffer.


   Gog  (?),  n.  [Cf.  agog,  F.  gogue  sprightliness,  also W. gogi to
   agitate, shake.] Haste; ardent desire to go. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Gog"gle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Goggled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Goggling
   (?).] [Cf. Ir. & Gael. gog a nod, slight motion.] To roll the eyes; to

     And wink and goggle like an owl. Hudibras.


   Gog"gle, a. Full and rolling, or staring; -- said of the eyes.

     The long, sallow vissage, the goggle eyes. Sir W. Scott.


   Gog"gle, n. [See Goggle, v. i.]

   1. A strained or affected rolling of the eye.

   2.  pl.  (a) A kind of spectacles with short, projecting eye tubes, in
   the front end of which are fixed plain glasses for protecting the eyes
   from  cold,  dust,  etc.  (b)  Colored glasses for relief from intense
   light.  (c) A disk with a small aperture, to direct the sight forward,
   and  cure  squinting.  (d)  Any  screen or cover for the eyes, with or
   without a slit for seeing through.


   Gog"gled (?), a. Prominent; staring, as the eye.


   Gog"gle-eye`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  One of two or more species of
   American  fresh-water  fishes  of  the  family  Centrarchid\'91,  esp.
   Ch\'91nobryttus  antistius,  of Lake Michigan and adjacent waters, and
   Ambloplites  rupestris,  of the Great Lakes and Mississippi Valley; --
   so called from their prominent eyes. (b) The goggler.


   Gog"gle-eyed`  (?), a. Having prominent and distorted or rolling eyes.


   Gog"gler  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  carangoid  oceanic fish (Trachurops
   crumenophthalmus),  having  very  large  and prominent eyes; -- called
   also goggle-eye, big-eyed scad, and cicharra.


   Gog"let (?), n. [Pg. gorgoleta.] See Gurglet.


   Go"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of moving in any manner; traveling; as, the going is bad.

   2. Departure. Milton.

   3. Pregnancy; gestation; childbearing. Crew.

   4. pl. Course of life; behavior; doings; ways.

     His eyes are upon the ways of man, and he seeth all his goings. Job
     xxxiv. 21.

   Going  barrel.  (Horology) (a) A barrel containing the mainspring, and
   having  teeth  on  its  periphery to drive the train. (b) A device for
   maintaining  a  force  to drive the train while the timepiece is being
   wound  up.  --  Going forth. (Script.) (a) Outlet; way of exit. "Every
   going  forth  of the sanctuary." Ezek. xliv. 5. (b) A limit; a border.
   "The  going  forth  thereof shall be from the south to Kadesh-barnea."
   Num.  xxxiv.  4. -- Going out, OR Goings out. (Script.) (a) The utmost
   extremity  or  limit.  "The  border  shall  go down to Jordan, and the
   goings  out  of  it  shall  be  at  the salt sea." Num. xxxiv. 12. (b)
   Departure  or  journeying. "And Moses wrote their goings out according
   to  their  journeys." Num. xxxiii. 2. -- Goings on, behavior; actions;
   conduct; -- usually in a bad sense. 

                                 Goiter Goitre

   Goi"ter  Goi"tre  (?), n. [F. go\'8ctre, L. guttur throat, cf. tumidum
   guttur   goiter,   gutturosus   goitered.  See  Guttural.]  (Med.)  An
   enlargement  of  the  thyroid gland, on the anterior part of the neck;
   bronchocele.  It  is frequently associated with cretinism, and is most
   common   in  mountainous  regions,  especially  in  certain  parts  of

                               Goitered, Goitred

   Goi"tered, Goi"tred (?), a. Affected with goiter.


   Goi"trous  (?),  a.  [F.  go\'8ctreux,  L.  gutturosus.  See  Goiter.]
   Pertaining  to  the goiter; affected with the goiter; of the nature of
   goiter or bronchocele.

     Let  me  not  be  understood as insinuating that the inhabitants in
     general are either goitrous or idiots. W. Coxe.

                              Gold, Golde, Goolde

   Gold  (?),  Golde,  Goolde  (?), n. (Bot.) An old English name of some
   yellow  flower,  --  the marigold (Calendula), according to Dr. Prior,
   but in Chaucer perhaps the turnsole.


   Gold  (?),  n.  [AS. gold; akin to D. goud, OS. & G. gold, Icel. gull,
   Sw.  &  Dan.  guld, Goth. gulp, Russ. & OSlav. zlato; prob. akin to E.
   yellow. Yellow, and cf. Gild, v. t.]

   1.  (Chem.)  A  metallic element, constituting the most precious metal
   used   as   a   common   commercial  medium  of  exchange.  It  has  a
   characteristic  yellow  color, is one of the heaviest substances known
   (specific  gravity 19.32), is soft, and very malleable and ductile. It
   is quite unalterable by heat, moisture, and most corrosive agents, and
   therefore  well  suited  for  its  use  in coin and jewelry. Symbol Au
   (Aurum). Atomic weight 196.7.

     NOTE: &hand; Na tive gold contains usually eight to ten per cent of
     silver, but often much more. As the amount of silver increases, the
     color  becomes  whiter and the specific gravity lower. Gold is very
     widely  disseminated,  as  in the sands of many rivers, but in very
     small quantity. It usually occurs in quartz veins (gold quartz), in
     slate  and  metamorphic  rocks,  or  in  sand  and  alluvial  soil,
     resulting  from  the  disintegration  of such rocks. It also occurs
     associated   with  other  metallic  substances,  as  in  auriferous
     pyrites,  and  is  combined with tellurium in the minerals petzite,
     calaverite, sylvanite, etc. Pure gold is too soft for ordinary use,
     and  is  hardened  by  alloying  with silver and copper, the latter
     giving a characteristic reddish tinge. [See Carat.] Gold also finds
     use  in  gold  foil,  in  the pigment purple of Cassius, and in the
     chloride, which is used as a toning agent in photography.

   2. Money; riches; wealth.

     For me, the gold of France did not seduce. Shak.

   3.  A  yellow  color, like that of the metal; as, a flower tipped with

   4. Figuratively, something precious or pure; as, hearts of gold. Shak.
   Age of gold. See Golden age, under Golden. -- Dutch gold, Fool's gold,
   Gold  dust,  etc.  See  under  Dutch,  Dust,  etc.  -- Gold amalgam, a
   mineral,  found  in  Columbia  and  California,  composed  of gold and
   mercury.  --  Gold  beater,  one whose occupation is to beat gold into
   gold leaf. -- Gold beater's skin, the prepared outside membrane of the
   large  intestine  of  the  ox, used for separating the leaves of metal
   during  the  process  of  gold-beating. -- Gold beetle (Zo\'94l.), any
   small  gold-colored  beetle  of  the family Chrysomelid\'91; -- called
   also golden beetle. -- Gold blocking, printing with gold leaf, as upon
   a  book  cover,  by means of an engraved block. Knight. -- Gold cloth.
   See  Cloth of gold, under Cloth. -- Gold Coast, a part of the coast of
   Guinea, in West Africa. -- Gold cradle. (Mining) See Cradle, n., 7. --
   Gold  diggings,  the places, or region, where gold is found by digging
   in sand and gravel from which it is separated by washing. -- Gold end,
   a  fragment of broken gold or jewelry. -- Gold-end man. (a) A buyer of
   old  gold  or  jewelry. (b) A goldsmith's apprentice. (c) An itinerant
   jeweler. "I know him not: he looks like a gold-end man." B. Jonson. --
   Gold  fever, a popular mania for gold hunting. -- Gold field, a region
   in which are deposits of gold. -- Gold finder. (a) One who finds gold.
   (b)  One  who  empties  privies. [Obs. & Low] Swift. -- Gold flower, a
   composite  plant  with  dry and persistent yellow radiating involucral
   scales,  the Helichrysum St\'d2chas of Southern Europe. There are many
   South  African species of the same genus. -- Gold foil, thin sheets of
   gold,  as used by dentists and others. See Gold leaf. -- Gold knobs OR
   knoppes (Bot.), buttercups. -- Gold lace, a kind of lace, made of gold
   thread.  -- Gold latten, a thin plate of gold or gilded metal. -- Gold
   leaf,  gold  beaten  into  a  film  of  extreme thinness, and used for
   gilding,  etc.  It  is  much  thinner  than  gold  foil.  -- Gold lode
   (Mining), a gold vein. -- Gold mine, a place where gold is obtained by
   mining  operations,  as  distinguished  from  diggings,  where  it  is
   extracted  by  washing.  Cf.  Gold diggings (above). -- Gold nugget, a
   lump  of  gold  as  found  in gold mining or digging; -- called also a
   pepito.  --  Gold  paint. See Gold shell. -- Gold OR Golden, pheasant.
   (Zo\'94l.)  See  under  Pheasant.  --  Gold  plate, a general name for
   vessels,  dishes,  cups,  spoons,  etc.,  made  of  gold.<--  now usu.
   referring  to objects made of a base metal with a layer of gold on the
   surface.  -->  --  Gold of pleasure. [Name perhaps translated from Sp.
   oro-de-alegria.]  (Bot.) A plant of the genus Camelina, bearing yellow
   flowers.  C.  sativa is sometimes cultivated for the oil of its seeds.
   -- Gold shell. (a) A composition of powdered gold or gold leaf, ground
   up  with  gum  water and spread on shells, for artists' use; -- called
   also gold paint. (b) (Zo\'94l.) A bivalve shell (Anomia glabra) of the
   Atlantic  coast;  --  called  also  jingle shell and silver shell. See
   Anomia.  --  Gold  size,  a composition used in applying gold leaf. --
   Gold  solder, a kind of solder, often containing twelve parts of gold,
   two  of  silver,  and  four of copper. -- Gold stick, the colonel of a
   regiment  of  English  lifeguards,  who attends his sovereign on state
   occasions;  --  so  called  from  the gilt rod presented to him by the
   sovereign  when he receives his commission as colonel of the regiment.
   [Eng.]  --  Gold  thread. (a) A thread formed by twisting flatted gold
   over  a thread of silk, with a wheel and iron bobbins; spun gold. Ure.
   (b)  (Bot.)  A small evergreen plant (Coptis trifolia), so called from
   its  fibrous yellow roots. It is common in marshy places in the United
   States.  --  Gold tissue, a tissue fabric interwoven with gold thread.
   --  Gold  tooling,  the  fixing  of  gold leaf by a hot tool upon book
   covers, or the ornamental impression so made. -- Gold washings, places
   where  gold  found  in  gravel  is  separated from lighter material by
   washing.  -- Gold worm, a glowworm. [Obs.] -- Jeweler's gold, an alloy
   containing  three  parts  of gold to one of copper.<-- 18K gold --> --
   Mosaic gold. See under Mosaic.

   Page 637


   Gold"-beat`en (?), a. Gilded. [Obs.]


   Gold"-beat`ing  (?),  n.  The  art  or  process  of  reducing  gold to
   extremely thin leaves, by beating with a hammer. Ure.


   Gold"-bound` (?), a. Encompassed with gold.


   Gold"crest`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The European golden-crested kinglet
   (Regulus  cristatus,  or  R.  regulus);  -- called also golden-crested
   wren,  and  golden  wren.  The  name  is also sometimes applied to the
   American golden-crested kinglet. See Kinglet.


   Gold"cup` (?), n. (Bot.) The cuckoobud.


   Gold"en  (?),  a.  [OE. golden; cf. OE. gulden, AS. gylden, from gold.
   See Gold, and cf. Guilder.]

   1. Made of gold; consisting of gold.

   2. Having the color of gold; as, the golden grain.

   3.  Very  precious;  highly valuable; excellent; eminently auspicious;
   as, golden opinions.
   Golden  age. (a) The fabulous age of primeval simplicity and purity of
   manners in rural employments, followed by the silver, bronze, and iron
   ages.  Dryden. (b) (Roman Literature) The best part (B. C. 81 -- A. D.
   14)  of  the  classical  period  of  Latinity;  the  time when Cicero,
   C\'91sar,  Virgil,  etc., wrote. Hence: (c) That period in the history
   of  a  literature,  etc., when it flourishes in its greatest purity or
   attains   its  greatest  glory;  as,  the  Elizabethan  age  has  been
   considered  the  golden  age  of  English literature. -- Golden balls,
   three  gilt  balls used as a sign of a pawnbroker's office or shop; --
   originally  taken  from  the coat of arms of Lombardy, the first money
   lenders  in  London  having  been  Lombards. -- Golden bull. See under
   Bull, an edict. -- Golden chain (Bot.), the shrub Cytisus Laburnum, so
   named  from  its  long  clusters  of  yellow  blossoms. -- Golden club
   (Bot.),  an  aquatic plant (Orontium aquaticum), bearing a thick spike
   of  minute  yellow  flowers.  --  Golden cup (Bot.), the buttercup. --
   Golden   eagle   (Zo\'94l.),   a  large  and  powerful  eagle  (Aquila
   Chrysa\'89tos)  inhabiting  Europe,  Asia, and North America. It is so
   called  from  the brownish yellow tips of the feathers on the head and
   neck.  A  dark  variety  is  called  the royal eagle; the young in the
   second  year is the ring-tailed eagle. -- Golden fleece. (a) (Mythol.)
   The  fleece  of  gold fabled to have been taken from the ram that bore
   Phryxus  through  the  air  to  Colchis,  and  in quest of which Jason
   undertook the Argonautic expedition. (b) (Her.) An order of knighthood
   instituted  in  1429  by  Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy; -- called
   also  Toison d'Or. -- Golden grease, a bribe; a fee. [Slang] -- Golden
   hair  (Bot.),  a  South  African  shrubby  composite plant with golden
   yellow  flowers, the Chrysocoma Coma-aurea. -- Golden Horde (Hist.), a
   tribe  of Mongolian Tartars who overran and settled in Southern Russia
   early  in  the 18th century. -- Golden Legend, a hagiology (the "Aurea
   Legenda")  written  by  James de Voragine, Archbishop of Genoa, in the
   13th  century, translated and printed by Caxton in 1483, and partially
   paraphrased by Longfellow in a poem thus entitled. -- Golden marcasite
   tin.  [Obs.]  --  Golden  mean,  the  way of wisdom and safety between
   extremes; sufficiency without excess; moderation.

     Angels guard him in the golden mean. Pope.

   --  Golden mole (Zo\'94l), one of several South African Insectivora of
   the family Chrysochlorid\'91, resembling moles in form and habits. The
   fur  is  tinted  with  green,  purple,  and  gold.  --  Golden  number
   (Chronol.),  a  number showing the year of the lunar or Metonic cycle.
   It  is  reckoned  from  1 to 19, and is so called from having formerly
   been written in the calendar in gold. -- Golden oriole. (Zo\'94l.) See
   Oriole.  --  Golden  pheasant. See under Pheasant. -- Golden pippin, a
   kind  of apple, of a bright yellow color. -- Golden plover (Zo\'94l.),
   one  of  several species of plovers, of the genus Charadrius, esp. the
   European   (C.  apricarius,  or  pluvialis;  --  called  also  yellow,
   black-breasted  hill,  AND  whistling,  plover.  The  common  American
   species  (C.  dominicus)  is  also  called frostbird, and bullhead. --
   Golden  robin.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  Baltimore oriole, in Vocab. -- Golden
   rose  (R.  C.  Ch.),  a gold or gilded rose blessed by the pope on the
   fourth  Sunday  in  Lent,  and  sent  to  some  church  or  person  in
   recognition  of  special  services rendered to the Holy See. -- Golden
   rule. (a) The rule of doing as we would have others do to us. Cf. Luke
   vi.  31.  (b)  The  rule  of  proportion,  or rule of three. -- Golden
   samphire  (Bot.),  a composite plant (Inula crithmoides), found on the
   seashore of Europe. -- Golden saxifrage (Bot.), a low herb with yellow
   flowers  (Chrysosplenium  oppositifolium), blossoming in wet places in
   early  spring.  -- Golden seal (Bot.), a perennial ranunculaceous herb
   (Hydrastis  Canadensis),  with  a  thick  knotted  rootstock and large
   rounded leaves. -- Golden sulphide, OR sulphuret, of antimony (Chem.),
   the  pentasulphide  of  antimony, a golden or orange yellow powder. --
   Golden  warbler  (Zo\'94l.), a common American wood warbler (Dendroica
   \'91stiva);  --  called also blue-eyed yellow warbler, garden warbler,
   and  summer  yellow  bird. -- Golden wasp (Zo\'94l.), a bright-colored
   hymenopterous  insect,  of  the  family  Chrysidid\'91. The colors are
   golden, blue, and green. -- Golden wedding. See under Wedding.


   Gold"en-eye`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A duck (Glaucionetta clangula), found
   in  Northern  Europe,  Asia,  and  America. The American variety (var.
   Americana)  is  larger.  Called whistler, garrot, gowdy, pied widgeon,
   whiteside,  curre,  and  doucker.  Barrow's  golden-eye of America (G.
   Islandica) is less common.

                                   Goden ly

   God"en  *ly,  adv.  In  golden  terms  or a golden manner; splendidly;
   delightfully. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gold"en-rod`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  tall  herb  (Solidago Virga-aurea),
   bearing  yellow  flowers  in a graceful elongated cluster. The name is
   common  to  all  the  species  of  the genus Solidago. Golden-rod tree
   (Bot.), a shrub (Bosea Yervamora), a native of the Canary Isles.


   Gold"finch`  (?),  n.  [AS. goldfinc. See Gold, and Finch.] (Zo\'94l.)
   (a) A beautiful bright-colored European finch (Carduelis elegans). The
   name  refers  to  the large patch of yellow on the wings. The front of
   the  head  and throat are bright red; the nape, with part of the wings
   and  tail,  black;  --  called  also  goldspink,  goldie, fool's coat,
   drawbird,  draw-water,  thistle  finch,  and  sweet  William.  (b) The
   yellow-hammer.  (c)  A  small  American  finch  (Spinus  tristis); the
   thistle bird.

     NOTE: &hand; The name is also applied to other yellow finches, esp.
     to several additional American species of Spinus.


   Gold"fin`ny  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of two or more species of European
   labroid  fishes  (Crenilabrus  melops,  and Ctenolabrus rupestris); --
   called also goldsinny, and goldney.


   Gold"fish`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A small domesticated cyprinoid fish
   (Carassius  auratus);  --  so  named  from  its color. It is native of
   China,  and is said to have been introduced into Europe in 1691. It is
   often  kept  as  an  ornament,  in  small  ponds or glass globes. Many
   varieties  are  known.  Called  also golden fish, and golden carp. See
   Telescope  fish,  under  Telescope. (b) A California marine fish of an
   orange or red color; the garibaldi.


   Gold"-ham`mer (?), n. The yellow-hammer.


   Gold"ie  (?),  n.  [From Gold.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) The European goldfinch.
   (b) The yellow-hammer.


   Gold"i*locks` (?), n. Same as Goldylocks.

                                Goldin, Golding

   Gold"in  (?),  Gold"ing  (?),  n. (Bot.) [From the golden color of the
   blossoms.]  A  conspicuous  yellow  flower, commonly the corn marigold
   (Chrysanthemum  segetum).  [This  word  is  variously  corrupted  into
   gouland, gools, gowan, etc.]


   Gold"less (?), a. Destitute of gold.


   Gold"ney (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Gilthead.


   Gold"seed` (?), n. (Bot.) Dog's-tail grass.


   Gold"sin`ny (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Goldfinny.


   Gold"smith` (?), n. [AS. goldsmiGold., and Smith.]

   1. An artisan who manufactures vessels and ornaments, etc., of gold.

   2. A banker. [Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e go ldsmiths of  London formerly received money on
     deposit because they were prepared to keep it safely.

   Goldsmith  beetle  (Zo\'94l.), a large, bright yellow, American beetle
   (Cotalpa lanigera), of the family Scarab\'91id\'91


   Gold"tit` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Verdin.


   Gold"y*locks`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A plant of several species of the genus
   Chrysocoma;  --  so  called  from  the  tufts  of yellow flowers which
   terminate  the  stems;  also,  the  Ranunculus  auricomus,  a  kind of


   Go"let (?), n. The gullet. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Go"let, n. (Zo\'94l.) A California trout. See Malma.


   Golf  (?),  n.  [D.  kolf  club or bat, also a Dutch game played in an
   inclosed  area  with clubs and balls; akin to G. kolben club, but end,
   Icel.  k  tongue  of  a bell. bolt, Sw. kolf bolt, dart, but end, Dan.
   kolv  bolt,  arrow.  Cf. Club, Globe.] A game played with a small ball
   and  a  bat  or  club crooked at the lower end. He who drives the ball
   into  each of a series of small holes in the ground and brings it into
   the last hole with the fewest strokes is the winner. [Scot.] Strutt.


   Golf"er (?), n. One who plays golf. [Scot.]


   Gol"go*tha (?), n. Calvary. See the Note under Calvary.


   Gol"iard  (?), n. [From OF. goliart glutton, buffoon, riotous student,
   Goliard,  LL.  goliardus,  prob.  fr.  L.  gula  throat. Cf. Gules.] A
   buffoon  in  the  Middle  Ages, who attended rich men's tables to make
   sport for the guests by ribald stories and songs.


   Gol"iard*er*y  (?), n. The satirical or ribald poetry of the Goliards.

                                Goliath beetle

   Go*li"ath   bee"tle   (?).   [From  Goliath,  the  Philistine  giant.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Any  species  of  Goliathus,  a  genus  of  very large and
   handsome African beetles.


   Goll  (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A hand, paw, or claw. [Obs.] Sir P.
   Sidney. B. Jonson.


   Go*loe"-shoe` (?), n. A galoche.


   Go*lore" (?), n. See Galore.


   Go*loshe" (?), n. See Galoche.


   Golt"schut (?), n.

   1. A small ingot of gold.

   2. A silver ingot, used in Japan as money.


   Gol"yard*eys (?), n. A buffoon. See Gollard. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Go"man  (?),  n.  [Prob.  fr. good man; but cf. also AS. gumman a man,
   OHG. gomman man, husband.] A husband; a master of a family. [Obs.]

                              Gomarist, Gomarite

   Go"mar*ist  (?), Go"mar*ite (?), n. (Eccl.-Hist.) One of the followers
   of  Francis  Gomar  or Gomarus, a Dutch disciple of Calvin in the 17th
   century, who strongly opposed the Arminians.


   Gom"bo (?), n. See Gumbo.


   Gome  (?), n. [AS. guma; akin to Goth. guma, L. homo. See Bridegroom.]
   A man. [Obs.] P. Plowman.


   Gome,  n. [Cf. Icel. gormr ooze, mud.] The black grease on the axle of
   a cart or wagon wheel; -- called also gorm. See Gorm. [Prov. Eng.]


   Go"mer (?), n. A Hebrew measure. See Homer.


   Go"mer, n. (Gun.) A conical chamber at the breech of the bore in heavy
   ordnance, especially in mortars; -- named after the inventor.


   Gom"me*lin  (?),  n.  [F.  gommeline,  from  gomme  gum.]  (Chem.) See


   Gom*phi"a*sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Med.) A disease of the teeth,
   which causes them to loosen and fall out of their sockets.


   Gom*pho"sis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. gomphose.] (Anat.) A form of union
   or  immovable  articulation  where  a  hard  part is received into the
   cavity of a bone, as the teeth into the jaws.


   Go*mu"ti   (?),  n.  [Malayan  gumuti.]  A  black,  fibrous  substance
   resembling  horsehair,  obtained  from  the leafstalks of two kinds of
   palms,  Metroxylon  Sagu,  and  Arenga  saccharifera,  of  the  Indian
   islands. It is used for making cordage. Called also ejoo.


   Gon (?), imp. & p. p. of Go. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gon"ad  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gonads  (#). [Gr. (Anat.) One of the masses of
   generative  tissue primitively alike in both sexes, but giving rise to
   either  an  ovary  or  a  testis;  a  generative  gland; a germ gland.


   Go"na*kie (?), n. (Bot.) An African timber tree (Acacia Adansonii).


   Go`nan*gi"um  (?),  n.;  pl. L. Gonangia (#), E. Gonangiums (#). [NL.,
   fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) See Gonotheca.


   Gon"do*la  (?),  n.  [It.,  dim. of gonda a gondola; cf. LL. gandeia a
   kind of boat, Gr. gondole gondola, cup.]

   1.  A long, narrow boat with a high prow and stern, used in the canals
   of  Venice.  A  gondola is usually propelled by one or two oarsmen who
   stand  facing  the  prow, or by poling. A gondola for passengers has a
   small  open  cabin  amidships, for their protection against the sun or
   rain.  A  sumptuary  law  of  Venice  required that gondolas should be
   painted black, and they are customarily so painted now.

   2. A flat-bottomed boat for freight. [U. S.]

   3. A long platform car, either having no sides or with very low sides,
   used on railroads. [U. S.]


   Gon"do*let (?), n. [It. gondoletta, dim. of gondola.] A small gondola.
   T. Moore.


   Gon`do*lier"  (?),  n.  [It.  gondoliere: cf. F. gondolier.] A man who
   rows a gondola.


   Gone (?), p. p. of Go.


   Gone"ness,   n.  A  state  of  exhaustion;  faintness,  especially  as
   resulting from hunger. [Colloq. U. S.]

                              Gonfalon, Gonfanon

   Gon"fa*lon  (?),  Gon"fa*non  (?), n. [OE. gonfanoun, OF. gonfanon, F.
   gonfalon,   the  same  word  as  F.  confalon,  name  of  a  religious
   brotherhood,  fr. OHG. gundfano war flag; gund war (used in comp., and
   akin  to  AS.  g\'d4\'eb) + fano cloth, flag; akin to E. vane; cf. AS.
   g\'d4\'ebfana. See Vane, and cf. Confalon.]

   1. The ensign or standard in use by certain princes or states, such as
   the  medi\'91val  republics  of Italy, and in more recent times by the

   2. A name popularly given to any flag which hangs from a crosspiece or
   frame instead of from the staff or the mast itself.

     Standards  and  gonfalons,  'twixt van and rear, Stream in the air.

     Page 638


     Gon`fa*lon*ier"  (?), n. [F. gonfalonier: cf. It. gonfaloniere.] He
     who  bears  the  gonfalon; a standard bearer; as: (a) An officer at
     Rome who bears the standard of the Church. (b) The chief magistrate
     of  any  one  of  several  republics  in  medi\'91veal Italy. (c) A
     Turkish general, and standard keeper.


     Gong (?), n. [AS. gong, gang, a going, passage, drain. See Gang.] A
     privy or jakes. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   Gong farmer, Gong man, a cleaner of privies. [Obs.]


   Gong, n.

   1.  [Malayan (Jav.) g&omac;ng.] An instrument, first used in the East,
   made  of  an alloy of copper and tin, shaped like a disk with upturned
   rim, and producing, when struck, a harsh and resounding noise.

     O'er distant deserts sounds the Tartar gong. Longfellow.

   2.  (Mach.)  A  flat saucerlike bell, rung by striking it with a small
   hammer  which  is  connected  with it by various mechanical devices; a
   stationary  bell,  used  to sound calls or alarms; -- called also gong
   Gong  metal,  an  alloy  (78  parts  of copper, 22 of tin), from which
   Oriental gongs are made.


   Go"ni*a*tite  (?), n. [Gr. (Paleon.) One of an extinct genus of fossil
   cephalopods,  allied to the Ammonites. The earliest forms are found in
   the Devonian formation, the latest, in the Triassic.


   Go*nid"i*al (?), a. (Bot.) Pertaining to, or containing, gonidia.


   Go*nid"i*al,  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to the angles of the
   mouth; as, a gonidial groove of an actinian.


   Go*nid"i*um  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zool.) A special groove or furrow
   at one or both angles of the mouth of many Anthozoa.


   Go*nid"i*um,  n.;  pl.  Gonidia  (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A component
   cell of the yellowish green layer in certain lichens.


   Go*nim"i*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Bot.) Bluish green granules
   which occur in certain lichens, as Collema, Peltigera, etc., and which
   replace the more usual gonidia.


   Gon"i*mous  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Pertaining to, or containing, gonidia or
   gonimia,  as  that  part  of  a  lichen  which  contains  the green or
   chlorophyll-bearing cells.


   Go`ni*om"e*ter   (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter:  cf.  F.  goniom\'8atre.]  An
   instrument for measuring angles, especially the angles of crystals, or
   the  inclination of planes. Contact, OR Hand, goniometer, a goniometer
   having  two  movable arms (ab, cd), between which (at ab) the faces of
   the crystals are placed. These arms turn about a fixed point, which is
   the  center of the graduated circle or semicircle upon which the angle
   is read off. -- Reflecting goniometer, an instrument for measuring the
   angles  of  crystals  by  determining  through  what angular space the
   crystal  must  be  turned so that two rays reflected from two surfaces
   successively shall have the same direction; -- called also Wollaston's
   goniometer, from the inventor.

                          Goniometric, Goniometrical

   Go`ni*o*met"ric  (?),  Go`ni*o*met"ric*al  (,  a.  Pertaining  to,  or
   determined by means of, a goniometer; trigonometric.


   Go`ni*om"e*try  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. goniom\'82trie.] (Math.) The art of
   measuring angles; trigonometry.


   Gon`o*blas"tid (?), n. [See Gonoblastidium.] (Zo\'94l.) A reproductive
   bud of a hydroid; a simple gonophore.


   Gon`o*blas*tid"i*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gonoblastidia  (#). [NL., fr. Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.) A blastostyle.


   Gon`o*ca"lyx  (?),  n.  [Gr.  calyx,] (Zo\'94l.) The bell of a sessile


   Gon`o*cho"rism  (?),  n. [Gr. (a) Separation of the sexes in different
   individuals;   --   opposed   to  hermaphroditism.  (b)  In  ontogony,
   differentiation of male and female individuals from embryos having the
   same  rudimentary  sexual  organs.  (c) In phylogeny, the evolution of
   distinct sexes in species previously hermaphrodite or sexless.


   Gon`o*coc"cus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  coccus.]  (Med.) A vegetable
   micro\'94rganism  of the genus Micrococcus, occurring in the secretion
   in  gonorrhea.  It is believed by some to constitute the cause of this
   disease.<-- now Neisseria gonnorrhoeae -->


   Gon"oph  (?),  n.  [Perh.  fr. Heb. gann\'bebh thief.] A pickpocket or
   thief. [Eng. Slang]<-- also ganef, gonif, goniff --> Dickens.


   Gon"o*phore (?), n. [Gr.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  sexual  zooid  produced  as  a  medusoid bud upon a
   hydroid,  sometimes  becoming  a free hydromedusa, sometimes remaining
   attached.  See Hydroidea, and Illusts. of Athecata, Campanularian, and

   2.  (Bot.) A lengthened receptacle, bearing the stamens and carpels in
   a conspicuous manner.

                            Gonorrhea, Gonorrh\'d2a

   Gon`or*rhe"a,    Gon`or*rh\'d2"a   (?),   n.   [L.   gonorrhoea,   Gr.
   gonorrh\'82e.]   (Med.)  A  contagious  inflammatory  disease  of  the
   genitourinary  tract, affecting especially the urethra and vagina, and
   characterized  by  a  mucopurulent  discharge,  pain in urination, and
   chordee; clap.

                           Gonorrheal, Gonorrh\'d2al

   Gon`or*rhe"al,  Gon`or*rh\'d2"al  (?),  a.  (Med.) Of or pertaining to
   gonorrhea; as, gonorrheal rheumatism.


   Gon"o*some  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -some  body.]  (Zo\'94l.) The reproductive
   zooids of a hydroid colony, collectively.


   Gon`o*the"ca  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gonothec (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A
   capsule  developed  on  certain  hydroids  (Thecaphora), inclosing the
   blastostyle  upon which the medusoid buds or gonophores are developed;
   --  called  also gonangium, and teleophore. See Hydroidea, and Illust.
   of Campanularian.


   Gon`o*zo"oid  (?),  n.  [Gr.  zooid.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  sexual zooid, or
   medusoid  bud of a hydroid; a gonophore. See Hydroidea, and Illust. of


   Go*nyd"i*al  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Pertaining to the gonys of a bird's


   Go"nys  (?), n. [Cf. Genys.] (Zo\'94l.) The keel or lower outline of a
   bird's bill, so far as the mandibular rami are united.


   Goo"ber (?), n. A peanut. [Southern U. S.]


   Good  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Better  (?);  superl. Best (?). These words,
   though  used  as  the  comparative and superlative of good, are from a
   different  root.]  [AS.  G&omac;d, akin to D. goed, OS. g&omac;d, OHG.
   guot,  G.  gut,  Icel. g&omac;&edh;r, Sw. & Dan. god, Goth. g&omac;ds;
   prob.  orig.,  fitting,  belonging  together,  and  akin to E. gather.
   &root;29 Cf. Gather.]

   1. Possessing desirable qualities; adapted to answer the end designed;
   promoting  success,  welfare,  or happiness; serviceable; useful; fit;
   excellent;  admirable;  commendable;  not bad, corrupt, evil, noxious,
   offensive, or troublesome, etc.

     And  God  saw  everything that he had made, and behold, it was very
     good. Gen. i. 31.

     Good company, good wine, good welcome. Shak.

   2.  Possessing moral excellence or virtue; virtuous; pious; religious;
   -- said of persons or actions.

     In all things showing thyself a pattern of good works. Tit. ii. 7.

   3.  Kind;  benevolent; humane; merciful; gracious; polite; propitious;
   friendly;  well-disposed;  --  often  followed  by  to or toward, also
   formerly by unto.

     The men were very good unto us. 1 Sam. xxv. 15.

   4.  Serviceable; suited; adapted; suitable; of use; to be relied upon;
   -- followed especially by for.

     All  quality  that  is  good  for anything is founded originally in
     merit. Collier.

   5.  Clever;  skillful; dexterous; ready; handy; -- followed especially
   by at.

     He . . . is a good workman; a very good tailor. Shak.

     Those  are  generally  good  at flattering who are good for nothing
     else. South.

   6. Adequate; sufficient; competent; sound; not fallacious; valid; in a
   commercial  sense,  to be depended on for the discharge of obligations
   incurred; having pecuniary ability; of unimpaired credit.

     My reasons are both good and weighty. Shak.

     My  meaning  in  saying  he  is  a  good  man  is  . . . that he is
     sufficient . . . I think I may take his bond. Shak.

   7.  Real;  actual; serious; as in the phrases in good earnest; in good

     Love no man in good earnest. Shak.

   8.  Not small, insignificant, or of no account; considerable; esp., in
   the  phrases  a  good deal, a good way, a good degree, a good share or
   part, etc.

   9. Not lacking or deficient; full; complete.

     Good  measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over.
     Luke vi. 38.

   10.  Not blemished or impeached; fair; honorable; unsullied; as in the
   phrases a good name, a good report, good repute, etc.

     A good name is better than precious ointment. Eccl. vii. 1.

   As good as. See under As. -- For good, OR For good and all, completely
   and finally; fully; truly.

     The good woman never died after this, till she came to die for good
     and all. L'Estrange.

   --  Good  breeding, polite or polished manners, formed by education; a
   polite education.

     Distinguished by good humor and good breeding. Macaulay.

   --  Good  cheap,  literally,  good  bargain; reasonably cheap. -- Good
   consideration  (Law).  (a) A consideration of blood or of natural love
   and  affection. Blackstone. (b) A valuable consideration, or one which
   will  sustain  a  contract.  -- Good fellow, a person of companionable
   qualities. [Familiar] -- Good folk, or Good people, fairies; brownies;
   pixies,  etc.  [Colloq.  Eng.  & Scot.] -- Good for nothing. (a) Of no
   value;  useless; worthless. (b) Used substantively, an idle, worthless

     My  father  always  said  I  was born to be a good for nothing. Ld.

   --  Good  Friday,  the Friday of Holy Week, kept in some churches as a
   fast, in memoory of our Savior's passion or suffering; the anniversary
   of  the  crucifixion.  --  Good  humor,  OR  Good-humor, a cheerful or
   pleasant  temper  or  state  of  mind. -- Good nature, OR Good-nature,
   habitual  kindness  or  mildness of temper or disposition; amiability;
   state of being in good humor.

     The  good  nature  and  generosity which belonged to his character.

     The  young  count's  good nature and easy persuadability were among
     his best characteristics. Hawthorne.

   --  Good people. See Good folk (above). -- Good speed, good luck; good
   success;  godspeed;  --  an old form of wishing success. See Speed. --
   Good  turn, an act of kidness; a favor. -- Good will. (a) Benevolence;
   well  wishing;  kindly  feeling.  (b) (Law) The custom of any trade or
   business;  the  tendency  or inclination of persons, old customers and
   others,  to  resort to an established place of business; the advantage
   accruing from tendency or inclination.

     The  good will of a trade is nothing more than the probability that
     the old customers will resort to the old place. Lord Eldon.

   --  In  good time. (a) Promptly; punctually; opportunely; not too soon
   nor  too  late. (b) (Mus.) Correctly; in proper time. -- To hold good,
   to  remain  true  or  valid;  to  be  operative; to remain in force or
   effect; as, his promise holds good; the condition still holds good. --
   To  make  good,  to  fulfill;  to establish; to maintain; to supply (a
   defect   or   deficiency);  to  indemmify;  to  prove  or  verify  (an
   accusation); to prove to be blameless; to clear; to vindicate.

     Each word made good and true. Shak.

     Of no power to make his wishes good. Shak.

     I . . . would by combat make her good. Shak.

     Convenient numbers to make good the city. Shak.

   --  To  think  good,  to  approve; to be pleased or satisfied with; to
   consider expedient or proper.

     If  ye think good, give me my price; and if not, forbear. Zech. xi.

     NOTE: &hand; Go od, in  th e sense of wishing well, is much used in
     greeting  and leave-taking; as, good day, good night, good evening,
     good morning, etc.


   Good (?), n.

   1.   That  which  possesses  desirable  qualities,  promotes  success,
   welfare,   or   happiness,   is  serviceable,  fit,  excellent,  kind,
   benevolent, etc.; -- opposed to evil.

     There be many that say, Who will show us any good ? Ps. iv. 6.

   2.   Advancement   of  interest  or  happiness;  welfare;  prosperity;
   advantage; benefit; -- opposed to harm, etc.

     The  good  of the whole community can be promoted only by advancing
     the good of each of the members composing it. Jay.

   3.  pl. Wares; commodities; chattels; -- formerly used in the singular
   in  a  collective  sense.  In law, a comprehensive name for almost all
   personal  property  as  distinguished  from  land  or  real  property.

     He hath made us spend much good. Chaucer.

     Thy lands and goods Are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate Unto the
     state of Venice. Shak.

   Dress goods, Dry goods, etc. See in the Vocabulary. -- Goods engine, a
   freight  locomotive. [Eng.] -- Goods train, a freight train. [Eng.] --
   Goods wagon, a freight car [Eng.] See the Note under Car, n., 2.


   Good, adv. Well, -- especially in the phrase as good, with a following
   as  expressed  or  implied;  equally well with as much advantage or as
   little harm as possible.

     As good almost kill a man as kill a good book. Milton.

   As good as, in effect; virtually; the same as.

     They  who  counsel  ye  to such a suppressing, do as good as bid ye
     suppress yourselves. Milton.


   Good, v. t.

   1. To make good; to turn to good. [Obs.]

   2. To manure; to improve. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.

                               Good-by, Good-bye

   Good`-by", Good`-bye" (?), n. OR interj. [A contraction of God be with
   ye  (God  be  w&icr;  ye,  God bw' ye, God bwye).] Farewell; a form of
   address used at parting. See the last Note under By, prep. Shak.


   Good`-den"  (?),  interj. [Corrupt. of good e'en, for good evening.] A
   form of salutation. [Obs.] Shak.


   Good`-fel"low*ship (?), n. Agreeable companionship; companionableness.


   Good"geon (?), n. (Naut.) Same as Gudgeon, 5.


   Good`-hu"mored   (?),  a.  Having  a  cheerful  spirit  and  demeanor;
   good-tempered. See Good-natured.


   Good`-hu"mored*ly,  adv.  With  a  cheerful  spirit;  in a cheerful or
   good-tempered manner.


   Good"ish  (?),  a.  Rather  good  than the contrary; not actually bad;

     Goodish pictures in rich frames. Walpole.


   Good"less, a. Having no goods. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Good"lich (?), a. Goodly. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Good"li*ness  (?),  n. [From Goodly.] Beauty of form; grace; elegance;

     Her goodliness was full of harmony to his eyes. Sir P. Sidney.


   Good"-look`ing (?), a. Handsome.


   Good"ly, adv. Excellently. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Good"ly,  a.  [Compar. Goodlier (?); superl. Goodliest.] [OE. godlich,
   AS. g. See Good, and Like.]

   1. Pleasant; agreeable; desirable.

     We have many goodly days to see. Shak.

   2. Of pleasing appearance or character; comely; graceful; as, a goodly
   person; goodly raiment, houses.

     The goodliest man of men since born. Milton.

   3. Large; considerable; portly; as, a goodly number.

     Goodly and great he sails behind his link. Dryden.

                            Goodlyhead, Goodlyhood

   Good"ly*head  (?),  Good"ly*hood  (?)  n. Goodness; grace; goodliness.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Good"man (?), n. [Good + man]

   1.  A  familiar  appellation  of  civility, equivalent to "My friend",
   "Good sir", "Mister;" -- sometimes used ironically. [Obs.]

     With you, goodman boy, an you please. Shak.

   2.  A  husband;  the  master  of  a  house or family; -- often used in
   speaking familiarly. [Archaic] Chaucer.

     Say  ye  to  the  goodman  of  the  house,  .  .  .  Where  is  the
     guest-chamber ? Mark xiv. 14.

   Page 639

     NOTE: &hand; In the early colonial records of New England, the term
     goodman  is frequently used as a title of designation, sometimes in
     a  respectful  manner,  to denote a person whose first name was not
     known,  or when it was not desired to use that name; in this use it
     was  nearly  equivalent  to Mr. This use was doubtless brought with
     the first settlers from England.


   Good`-na"tured  (?), a. Naturally mild in temper; not easily provoked.
   Syn.   --   Good-natured,  Good-tempered,  Good-humored.  Good-natured
   denotes  a disposition to please and be pleased. Good-tempered denotes
   a  habit  of mind which is not easily ruffied by provocations or other
   disturbing  influences.  Good-humored  is  applied to a spirit full of
   ease and cheerfulness, as displayed in one's outward deportment and in
   social  intercourse.  A  good-natured man recommends himself to all by
   the  spirit  which  governs him. A good-humored man recommends himself
   particularly  as  a  companion. A good-tempered man is rarely betrayed
   into anything which can disturb the serenity of the social circle.


   Good`-na"tured*ly, adv. With maldness of temper.


   Good"ness  (?),  n.  [AS.  g.] The quality of being good in any of its
   various  senses;  excellence;  virtue;  kindness; benevolence; as, the
   goodness  of  timber,  of  a  soil, of food; goodness of character, of
   disposition, of conduct, etc.

                                   Good now

   Good"  now"  (?).  An  exclamation  of  wonder, surprise, or entreaty.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Goods (?), n. pl. See Good, n., 3.


   Good"ship, n. Favor; grace. [Obs.] Gower.


   Good`-tem"pered  (?),  a.  Having a good temper; not easily vexed. See


   Good"wife` (?), n. The mistress of a house. [Archaic] Robynson (More's


   Good"y (?), n.; pl. Goodies (.

   1. A bonbon, cake, or the like; -- usually in the pl. [Colloq.]

   2. (Zo\'94l.) An American fish; the lafayette or spot.


   Good"y,  n.;  pl. Goodies (#). [Prob. contr. from goodwife.] Goodwife;
   -- a low term of civility or sport.


   Gode"-year  (?), n. [See Goujere.] The venereal disease; -- often used
   as a mild oath. [Obs.] Shak.


   Good"y-good`y,  a.  Mawkishly or weakly good; exhibiting goodness with
   silliness. [Colloq.]


   Good"y*ship,  n.  The state or quality of a goody or goodwife [Jocose]

                                 Gooroo, Guru

   Goo*roo",  Gu*ru" (, n. [Hind. gur a spiritual parent or teacher, Skr.
   guru  heavy,  noble,  venerable,  teacher.  Cf.  Grief.]  A  spiritual
   teacher, guide, or confessor amoung the Hindoos. Malcom.


   Goos"an`der  (?),  n.  [OE.  gossander, a tautological word formed fr.
   goose  + gander. Cf. Merganser.] (Zo\'94l.) A species of merganser (M.
   merganser)  of  Northern Europe and America; -- called also merganser,
   dundiver, sawbill, sawneb, shelduck, and sheldrake. See Merganser.


   Goose  (?), n.; pl. Geese (#). [OE. gos, AS. g, pl. g; akin to D. & G.
   gans,  Icel.  g\'bes,  Dan.  gaas,  Sw.  g, Russ. guse. OIr. geiss, L.
   anser,  for  hanser,  Gr. hamsa. &root;233. Cf. Gander, Gannet, Ganza,
   Gosling.] (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  Any  large  web-footen  bird  of  the  subfamily  Anserin\'91, and
   belonging  to  Anser,  Branta,  Chen,  and  several allied genera. See

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon do mestic go ose is believed to have been
     derived  from  the  European  graylag goose (Anser anser). The bean
     goose  (A.  segetum),  the  American  wild  or Canada goose (Branta
     Canadensis),  and  the  bernicle  goose (Branta leucopsis) are well
     known  species. The American white or snow geese and the blue goose
     belong  to  the  genus  Chen.  See  Bernicle,  Emperor goose, under
     Emperor, Snow goose, Wild goose, Brant.

   2.  Any  large  bird  of other related families, resembling the common

     NOTE: &hand; The Egyptian or fox goose (Alopochen \'92gyptiaca) and
     the  African spur-winged geese (Plectropterus) belong to the family
     Plectropterid\'91.  The  Australian  semipalmated  goose (Anseranas
     semipalmata) and Cape Barren goose (Cereopsis Nov\'91-Hollandi\'91)
     are  very  different from northern geese, and each is made the type
     of a distinct family. Both are domesticated in Australia.

   3.  A  tailor's  smoothing  iron,  so  called  from  its handle, which
   resembles the neck of a goose.

   4. A silly creature; a simpleton.

   5.  A  game played with counters on a board divided into compartments,
   in some of which a goose was depicted.

     The  pictures  placed  for ornament and use, The twelve good rules,
     the royal game of goose. Goldsmith.

   A  wild  goose chase, an attempt to accomplish something impossible or
   unlikely of attainment. -- Fen goose. See under Fen. -- Goose barnacle
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  pedunculated barnacle of the genus Anatifa or Lepas;
   --  called  also duck barnacle. See Barnacle, and Cirripedia. -- Goose
   cap,  a  silly person. [Obs.] Beau. & . -- Goose corn (Bot.), a coarse
   kind of rush (Juncus squarrosus). -- Goose feast, Michaelmas. [Colloq.
   Eng.]  --  Goose  flesh,  a peculiar roughness of the skin produced by
   cold  or  fear;  --  called  also goose skin.<-- and goose pimples and
   goose bumps --> -- Goose grass. (Bot.) (a) A plant of the genus Galium
   (G.  Aparine),  a favorite food of geese; -- called also catchweed and
   cleavers.  (b)  A  species of knotgrass (Polygonum aviculare). (c) The
   annual  spear  grass (Poa annua). -- Goose neck, anything, as a rod of
   iron or a pipe, curved like the neck of a goose; specially (Naut.), an
   iron  hook  connecting  a  spar  with  a mast. -- Goose quill, a large
   feather  or quill of a goose; also, a pen made from it. -- Goose skin.
   See  Goose  flesh,  above.  --  Goose tongue (Bot.), a composite plant
   (Achillea  ptarmica),  growing  wild  in  the  British islands. -- Sea
   goose.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  Phalarope.  --  Solan  goose.  (Zo\'94l.) See


   Goose"ber*ry  (?), n.; pl. Gooseberries (#), [Corrupted for groseberry
   or  groiseberry,  fr. OF. groisele, F. groseille, -- of German origin;
   cf.  G.  krausbeere,  kr\'84uselbeere  (fr. kraus crisp), D. kruisbes,
   kruisbezie   (as   if  crossberry,  fr.  kruis  cross;  for  kroesbes,
   kroesbezie,  fr.  kroes  crisp),  Sw.  krusb\'84r  (fr. krus, krusing,
   crisp).  The  first  part  of  the  word is perh. akin to E. curl. Cf.
   Grossular, a.]

   1.  (Bot.)  Any  thorny  shrub  of  the  genus Ribes; also, the edible
   berries  of  such  shrub.  There  are  several species, of which Ribes
   Grossularia is the one commonly cultivated.

   2. A silly person; a goose cap. Goldsmith.
   Barbadoes  gooseberry, a climbing prickly shrub (Pereskia aculeata) of
   the  West  Indies, which bears edible berries resembling gooseberries.
   --  Coromandel  gooseberry. See Carambola. -- Gooseberry fool. See lst
   Fool.  --  Gooseberry  worm  (Zo\'94l.),  the  larva  of  a small moth
   (Dakruma  convolutella).  It  destroys  the  gooseberry  by eating the


   Goose"fish` (?), n. (Z\'94ll.) See Angler.


   Goose"foot`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  genus  of herbs (Chenopodium) mostly
   annual weeds; pigweed.


   Goos"er*y (?), n.; pl. Gooseries (.

   1. A place for keeping geese.

   2. The characteristics or actions of a goose; silliness.

     The finical goosery of your neat sermon actor. Milton.


   Goose"wing`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  One of the clews or lower corners of a
   course  or  a  topsail when the middle part or the rest of the sail is


   Goose"winged`  (?), a. (Naut.) (a) Having a "goosewing." (b) Said of a
   fore-and-aft  rigged vessel with foresail set on one side and mainsail
   on the other; wing and wing.


   Goos"ish, a. Like a goose; foolish. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Goost (?), n. Ghost; spirit. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Goot (?), n. A goat. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Go"-out`  (?), n. A sluice in embankments against the sea, for letting
   out the land waters, when the tide is out. [Written also gowt.]


   Go"pher (?), n. [F. gaufre waffle, honeycomb. See Gauffer.] (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  One  of  several  North  American  burrowing rodents of the genera
   Geomys  and Thomomys, of the family Geomyid\'91; -- called also pocket
   gopher and pouched rat. See Pocket gopher, and Tucan.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me wa s originally given by French settlers to
     many burrowing rodents, from their honeycombing the earth.

   2.  One of several western American species of the genus Spermophilus,
   of   the   family  Sciurid\'91;  as,  the  gray  gopher  (Spermophilus
   Franklini)  and  the  striped  gopher (S. tridecemlineatus); -- called
   also   striped   prairie   squirrel,   leopard   marmot,  and  leopard
   spermophile. See Spermophile.

   3.  A  large  land  tortoise (Testudo Carilina) of the Southern United
   States, which makes extensive burrows.

   4.  A  large burrowing snake (Spilotes Couperi) of the Southern United
   Gopher  drift  (Mining),  an irregular prospecting drift, following or
   seeking the ore without regard to regular grade or section. Raymond.
                                  Gopher wood
   Go"pher  wood`  (?). [Heb. g&omac;pher.] A species of wood used in the
   construction of Noah's ark. Gen. vi. 14. 


   Go*rac"co (?), n. A paste prepared from tobacco, and smoked in hookahs
   in Western India.


   Go"ral  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) An Indian goat antelope (Nemorhedus goral),
   resembling the chamois.


   Go"ra*my (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Gourami.


   Gor"-bel`lied (?), a. Bog-bellied. [Obs.]


   Gor"-bel`ly,  n.  [Gore  filth,  dirt  +  belly.] A prominent belly; a
   big-bellied person. [Obs.]


   Gorce  (?),  n. [OF. gort, nom. gorz, gulf, L. gurges whirlpool, gulf,
   stream.  See  Gorge.]  A pool of water to keep fish in; a wear. [Obs.]
   <--  "wear"  here  is  in the sense of "weir". But why the less-common
   word? -->


   Gor"cock`  (?),  n. [Prob. from gore blood.] (Zo\'94l.) The moor cock,
   or red grouse. See Grouse. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gor"crow`  (?),  n.  [AS.  gor  dung,  dirt.  See  Gore  blood, dirt.]
   (Zo\'94l.) The carrion crow; -- called also gercrow. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gord  (?),  n.  [Written  also  gourd.] [Perh. hollow, and so named in
   allusion  to a gourd.] An instrument of gaming; a sort of dice. [Obs.]
   Beau. & Fl.


   Gor`di*a"ce*a  (?), n. pl. [NL. See Gordian, 1.] (Zo\'94l.) A division
   of  nematoid  worms, including the hairworms or hair eels (Gordius and
   Mermis). See Gordius, and Illustration in Appendix.


   Gor"di*an (?), a.

   1.  Pertaining  to Gordius, king of Phrygia, or to a knot tied by him;
   hence, intricate; complicated; inextricable.
   Gordian  knot,  an  intricate  knot tied by Gordius in the thong which
   connected  the  pole  of  the  chariot with the yoke. An oracle having
   declared  that  he  who  should  untie  it  should  be master of Asia,
   Alexander the Great averted the ill omen of his inability to loosen it
   by cutting it with his sword. Hence, a Gordian knot is an inextricable
   difficulty;  and  to cut the Gordian knot is to remove a difficulty by
   bold and energetic measures.
   2. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the Gordiacea.
   Gor"di*an, n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Gordiacea.
   Gor"di*us  (?),  n.  [NL. See Gordian, 1.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of long,
   slender,  nematoid  worms,  parasitic  in insects until near maturity,
   when  they  leave the insect, and live in water, in which they deposit
   their  eggs;  --  called also hair eel, hairworm, and hair snake, from
   the  absurd,  but  common  and  widely  diffused, notion that they are
   metamorphosed horsehairs. 


   Gore  (?),  n.  [AS. gor dirt, dung; akin to Icel. gor, SW. gorr, OHG.
   gor, and perh. to E. cord, chord, and yarn; cf. Icel. g\'94rn, garnir,

   1. Dirt; mud. [Obs.] Bp. Fisher.

   2.  Blood;  especially,  blood that after effusion has become thick or
   clotted. Milton.


   Gore,  n.  [OE.  gore, gare, AS. g angular point of land, fr. g spear;
   akin to D. geer gore, G. gehre gore, ger spear, Icel. geiri gore, geir
   spear, and prob. to E. goad. Cf. Gar, n., Garlic, and Gore, v.]

   1.  A  wedgeshaped  or  triangular piece of cloth, canvas, etc., sewed
   into  a  garment,  sail,  etc.,  to give greater width at a particular

   2. A small traingular piece of land. Cowell.

   3.  (Her.)  One  of  the  abatements.  It is made of two curved lines,
   meeting in an acute angle in the fesse point.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  us ually on  th e si nister si de, an d of the
     tincture  called tenn\'82. Like the other abatements it is a modern
     fancy and not actually used.


   Gore, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Goring.] [OE. gar
   spear,  AS.  g.  See  2d Gore.] To pierce or wound, as with a horn; to
   penetrate with a pointed instrument, as a spear; to stab.

     The low stumps shall gore His daintly feet. Coleridge.


   Gore,  v.  t.  To  cut  in a traingular form; to piece with a gore; to
   provide with a gore; as, to gore an apron.


   Gore"bill`  (?),  n.  [2d gore + bill.] (Zo\'94l.) The garfish. [Prov.


   Gor"fly`  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gorflies  (#).  [Gore (AS. gor) dung + fly.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A dung fly.


   Gorge  (?),  n.  [F. gorge, LL. gorgia, throat, narrow pass, and gorga
   abyss, whirlpool, prob. fr. L. gurgea whirlpool, gulf, abyss; cf. Skr.
   gargara whirlpool, g\'f0 to devour. Cf. Gorget.]

   1.  The  throat;  the  gullet;  the  canal by which food passes to the

     Wherewith he gripped her gorge with so great pain. Spenser.

     Now, how abhorred! . . . my gorge rises at it. Shak.

   2.  A  narrow passage or entrance; as: (a) A defile between mountains.
   (b) The entrance into a bastion or other outwork of a fort; -- usually
   synonymous with rear. See Illust. of Bastion.

   3.  That  which  is gorged or swallowed, especially by a hawk or other

     And all the way, most like a brutish beast,< e spewed up his gorge,
     that all did him detest. Spenser.

   4. A filling or choking of a passage or channel by an obstruction; as,
   an ice gorge in a river.

   5. (Arch.) A concave molding; a cavetto. Gwilt.

   6. (Naut.) The groove of a pulley.
   Gorge circle (Gearing), the outline of the smallest cross section of a
   hyperboloid  of revolution. -- Gorge hook, two fishhooks, separated by
   a piece of lead. Knight.


   Gorge,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Gorged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gorging (?).]
   [F. gorger. See Gorge, n.]

   1.  To  swallow;  especially,  to swallow with greediness, or in large
   mouthfuls or quantities.

     The fish has gorged the hook. Johnson.

   2. To glut; to fill up to the throat; to satiate.

     The giant gorged with flesh. Addison.

     Gorge with my blood thy barbarous appetite. Dryden.


   Gorge, v. i. To eat greedily and to satiety. Milton.


   Gorged (?), a.

   1. Having a gorge or throat.

   2. (Her.) Bearing a coronet or ring about the neck.

   3. Glutted; fed to the full.


   Gor"ge*let (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A small gorget, as of a humming bird.


   Gor"geous  (?),  a. [OF. gorgias beautiful, glorious, vain, luxurious;
   cf.  OF.  gorgias ruff, neck handkerchief, and F. gorge throat, and se
   pengorger  to assume airs. Cf. Gorge, n.] Imposing through splendid or
   various colors; showy; fine; magnificent.

     Cloud-land, gorgeous land. Coleridge.

     Gogeous as the sun at midsummer. Shak.

   -- Gor"geous*ly, adv. -- Gor"geous*ness, n.


   Gor`ge*rin"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. gorge neck.] (Arch.) In some columns,
   that  part of the capital between the termination of the shaft and the
   annulet  of  the  echinus,  or the space between two neck moldings; --
   called  also  neck  of the capital, and hypotrachelium. See Illust. of


   Gor"get (?), n. [OF. gorgete, dim. of gorge throat. See Gorge, n.]

   1.  A piece of armor, whether of chain mail or of plate, defending the
   throat  and upper part of the breast, and forming a part of the double
   breastplate of the 14th century.

   2.  A  piece  of plate armor covering the same parts and worn over the
   buff coat in the 17th century, and without other steel armor.

     Unfix the gorget's iron clasp. Sir W. Scott.

   3.  A  small  ornamental plate, usually crescent-shaped, and of gilded
   copper,  formerly  hung around the neck of officers in full uniform in
   some modern armies.

   4. A ruff worn by women. [Obs.]

   5.  (Surg.)  (a) A cutting instrument used in lithotomy. (b) A grooved
   instrunent used in performing various operations; -- called also blunt
   gorget. Dunglison.

   Page 640

   6.  (Zo\'94l.)  A crescent-shaped, colored patch on the neck of a bird
   or mammal.
   Gorget  hummer  (Zo\'94l.), a humming bird of the genus Trochilus. See


   Gor"gon (?), n. [L. Gorgo, -onis, Gr.

   1.  (Gr.  Myth.)  One  of  three  fabled sisters, Stheno, Euryale, and
   Medusa,  with  snaky  hair  and  of terrific aspect, the sight of whom
   turned  the  beholder  to  stone.  The  name  is particularly given to

   2. Anything very ugly or horrid. Milton.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) The brindled gnu. See Gnu.


   Gor"gon,  a.  Like a Gorgon; very ugly or terrific; as, a Gorgon face.


   Gor`go*na"ce*a (?), n. pl. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) See Gorgoniacea.


   Gor*go"ne*an (?), a. See Gorgonian, 1.


   Gor`go*ne"ion  (?),  n.; pl. Gorgoneia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. Gorgo`neios,
   equiv.  to  Gorgei^os belonging to a Gorgon.] (Arch.) A mask carved in
   imitation of a Gorgon's head. Elmes.


   Gor*go"ni*a (?), n. [L., a coral which hardens in the air.] (Zo\'94l.)

   1. A genus of Gorgoniacea, formerly very extensive, but now restricted
   to  such  species as the West Indian sea fan (Gorgonia flabellum), sea
   plume  (G.  setosa), and other allied species having a flexible, horny

   2. Any slender branched gorgonian.


   Gor*go`ni*a"ce*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Gorgonia.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   principal  divisions of Alcyonaria, including those forms which have a
   firm and usually branched axis, covered with a porous crust, or c

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ax is is  commonly horny, but it may be solid and
     stony  (composed  of  calcium  carbonate),  as  in the red coral of
     commerce, or it may be in alternating horny and stony joints, as in
     Isis. See Alcyonaria, Anthozoa, C.


   Gor*go"ni*an (?), a. [L. Gorgoneus.]

   1.  Pertaining  to,  or  resembling,  a Gorgon; terrifying into stone;

     The rest his look Bound with Gorgonian rigor not to move. Milton.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the Gorgoniacea; as, gorgonian coral.


   Gor*go"ni*an, n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Gorgoniacea.


   Gor"gon*ize  (?),  v.  t. To have the effect of a Gorgon upon; to turn
   into stone; to petrify. [R.]


   Gor"hen`  (?), n. [Gor- as in gorcock + hen.] (Zo\'94l.) The female of
   the gorcock.


   Go*ril"la  (?), n. [An African word; found in a Greek translation of a
   treatise  in  Punic  by  Hanno,  a  Carthaginian.] (Zo\'94l.) A large,
   arboreal,  anthropoid ape of West Africa. It is larger than a man, and
   is  remarkable  for  its  massive skeleton and powerful muscles, which
   give  it  enormous  strength.  In some respects its anatomy, more than
   that of any other ape, except the chimpanzee, resembles that of man.

                            Goring, or Goring cloth

   Gor"ing  (?),  or  Gor"ing cloth` (, n., (Naut.) A piece of canvas cut
   obliquely to widen a sail at the foot.


   Gorm (?), n. Axle grease. See Gome. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gorm, v. t. To daub, as the hands or clothing, with gorm; to daub with
   anything sticky. [Prov. Eng.]


   Gor"ma (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European cormorant.


   Gor"mand  (?),  n.  [F. gourmand; cf. Prov. F. gourmer to sip, to lap,
   gourmacher  to  eat improperly, F. gourme mumps, glanders, Icel. gormr
   mud,  mire,  Prov.  E.  gorm to smear, daub; all perh. akin to E. gore
   blood,  filth.  Cf. Gourmand.] A greedy or ravenous eater; a luxurious
   feeder; a gourmand.


   Gor"mand, a. Gluttonous; voracious. Pope.


   Gor"mand*er (?), n. See Gormand, n. [Obs.]


   Gor"mand*ism (?), n. Gluttony.


   Gor"mand*ize  (?),  v. i. & t. [imp. & p. p. Gormandized (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Gormandizing (?).] [F. gourmandise gluttony. See Gormand.] To
   eat  greedily;  to  swallow  voraciously; to feed ravenously or like a
   glutton. Shak.


   Gor"mand*i`zer  (?),  n.  A  greedy,  voracious  eater;  a  gormand; a

                                 Goroon shell

   Go*roon"  shell`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.) A large, handsome, marine, univalve
   shell (Triton femorale).


   Gorse  (?), n. [OE. & AS. gorst; perh. akin to E. grow, grass.] (Bot.)
   Furze. See Furze.

     The  common,  overgrown  with  fern,  and rough With prickly gorse.

   Gorse  bird  (Zo\'94l.),  the  European  linnet;  -- called also gorse
   hatcher.  [Prov. Eng.] -- Gorse chat (Zo\'94l.), the winchat. -- Gorse
   duck,  the corncrake; -- called also grass drake, land drake, and corn


   Gor"y (?), a. [From Gore.]

   1. Covered with gore or clotted blood.

     Thou  canst  not  say  I  did it; never shake Thy gory locks at me.

   2. Bloody; murderous. "Gory emulation." Shak.


   Gos"hawk`  (?),  n. [AS. g, lit., goosehawk; or Icel. g\'beshaukr. See
   Goose,  and  Hawk  the  bird.]  (Zo\'94l.) Any large hawk of the genus
   Astur,  of  which  many  species and varieties are known. The European
   (Astur  palumbarius)  and  the American (A. atricapillus) are the best
   known species. They are noted for their powerful flight, activity, and
   courage.  The  Australian  goshawk  (A.  Nov\'91-Hollandi\'91) is pure


   Gos"herd  (?),  n. [OE. gosherde. See Goose, and Herd a herdsman.] One
   who takes care of geese.


   Gos"let  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) One of several species of pygmy geese, of
   the  genus  Nettepus.  They  are about the size of a teal, and inhabit
   Africa, India, and Australia.


   Gos"ling (?), n. [AS. g goose + -ling.]

   1. A young or unfledged goose.

   2. A catkin on nut trees and pines. Bailey.


   Gos"pel  (?),  n.  [OE. gospel, godspel, AS. godspell; god God + spell
   story, tale. See God, and Spell, v.]

   1.  Glad  tidings;  especially,  the  good news concerning Christ, the
   Kingdom of God, and salvation.

     And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and
     preaching the gospel of the kingdom. Matt. iv. 23.

     The steadfast belief of the promises of the gospel. Bentley.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  probable that gospel is from. OE. godspel, God
     story, the narrative concerning God; but it was early confused with
     god  spell,  good  story,  good  tidings,  and  was  so used by the
     translators  of  the  Authorized version of Scripture. This use has
     been retained in most cases in the Revised Version.

     Thus  the  literal  sense [of gospel] is the "narrative of God," i.
     e., the life of Christ. Skeat.

   2.  One  of the four narratives of the life and death of Jesus Christ,
   written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.

   3.  A  selection  from  one  of  the  gospels,  for use in a religious
   service; as, the gospel for the day.

   4.  Any  system  of  religious  doctrine;  sometimes,  any  system  of
   political  doctrine  or  social philosophy; as, this political gospel.

   5.  Anything  propounded or accepted as infallibly true; as, they took
   his words for gospel. [Colloq.]

     If  any  one  thinks this expression hyperbolical, I shall only ask
     him  to  read  dipus,  instead of taking the traditional witticisms
     about Lee for gospel. Saintsbury.


   Gos"pel,  a.  Accordant with, or relating to, the gospel; evangelical;
   as, gospel righteousness. Bp. Warburton.


   Gos"pel, v. t. To instruct in the gospel. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gos"pel*er (?), n. [AS. godspellere.] [Written also gospeller.]

   1. One of the four evangelists. Rom. of R.

     Mark the gospeler was the ghostly son of Peter in baptism. Wyclif.

   2.  A follower of Wyclif, the first English religious reformer; hence,
   a Puritan. [Obs.] Latimer.

     The  persecution  was  carried  on  against the gospelers with much
     fierceness by those of the Roman persuasion. Strype.

   3.  A  priest  or  deacon who reads the gospel at the altar during the
   communion service.

     The  Archbishop  of York was the celebrant, the epistoler being the
     dean, and the gospeler the Bishop of Sydney. Pall Mall Gazette.


   Gos"pel*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gospelized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gospelizing (?).] [Written also gospellize.]

   1.  To  form  according to the gospel; as, a command gospelized to us.

   2.  To  instruct  in  the  gospel; to evangelize; as, to gospelize the
   savages. Boyle.


   Goss (?), n. [See Gorse.] Gorse. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gos"sa*mer  (?),  n.  [OE.  gossomer,  gossummer, gosesomer, perh. for
   goose  summer,  from  its downy appearance, or perh. for God's summer,
   cf.  G.  mariengarr gossamer, properly Mary's yarn, in allusion to the
   Virgin Mary. Perhaps the E. word alluded to a legend that the gossamer
   was the remnant of the Virgin Mary's winding sheet, which dropped from
   her  when  she  was  taken  up to heaven. For the use of summer in the
   sense  of  film  or threads, cf. G. M\'84dchensommer, Altweibersommer,
   fliegender Sommer, all meaning, gossamer.]

   1.  A  fine,  filmy  substance,  like cobwebs, floating in the air, in
   calm,  clear  weather,  especially  in  autumn.  It is seen in stubble
   fields and on furze or low bushes, and is formed by small spiders.

   2. Any very thin gauzelike fabric; also, a thin waterproof stuff.

   3. An outer garment, made of waterproof gossamer.
   Gossamer spider (Zo\'94l.), any small or young spider which spins webs
   by which to sail in the air. See Ballooning spider.


   Gos"sa*mer*y (?), a. Like gossamer; flimsy.

     The greatest master of gossamery affectation. De Quincey.


   Gos"san   (?),   n.   (Geol.)  Decomposed  rock,  usually  reddish  or
   ferruginous  (owing  to oxidized pyrites), forming the upper part of a
   metallic vein.


   Gos`san*if"er*ous  (?), a. [Gossan + -ferous.] Containing or producing


   Gos"sat  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  British  marine fish (Motella
   tricirrata);  --  called  also  whistler  and  three-bearded rockling.
   [Prov. Eng.]


   Gos"sib (?), n. A gossip. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.


   Gos"sip (?), n. [OE. gossib, godsib, a relation or sponsor in baptism,
   a  relation  by  a  religious  obligation,  AS. godsibb, fr. god + sib
   alliance,  relation;  akin  to G. sippe, Goth. sibja, and also to Skr.
   sabh\'be assembly.]

   1. A sponsor; a godfather or a godmother.

     Should  a  great lady that was invited to be a gossip, in her place
     send her kitchen maid, 't would be ill taken. Selden.

   2.  A  friend  or  comrade;  a  companion;  a  familiar  and customary
   acquaintance. [Obs.]

     My noble gossips, ye have been too prodigal. Shak.

   3.  One  who  runs  house to house, tattling and telling news; an idle

     The common chat of gossips when they meet. Dryden.

   4. The tattle of a gossip; groundless rumor.

     Bubbles o'er like a city with gossip, scandal, and spite. Tennyson.


   Gos"sip, v. t. To stand sponsor to. [Obs.] Shak.


   Gos"sip, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gossiped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gossiping.]

   1. To make merry. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. To prate; to chat; to talk much. Shak.

   3. To run about and tattle; to tell idle tales.


   Gos"sip*er (?), n. One given to gossip. Beaconsfield.


   Gos"sip*rede  (?), n. [Cf. Kindred.] The relationship between a person
   and his sponsors. [Obs.]


   Gos"sip*ry (?), n.

   1.  Spiritual  relationship or affinity; gossiprede; special intimacy.

   2. Idle talk; gossip. Mrs. Browning.


   Gos"sip*y (?), a. Full of, or given to, gossip.


   Gos*soon"  (?),  n.  [Scot. garson an attendant, fr. F. gar\'87on, OF.
   gars.] A boy; a servant. [Ireland]


   Gos*syp"i*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  L. gossypion, gossipion.] (Bot.) A
   genus  of  plants  which yield the cotton of the arts. The species are
   much  confused.  G.  herbaceum  is the name given to the common cotton
   plant,  while  the  long-stapled  sea-island  cotton is produced by G.
   Barbadense,  a  shrubby variety. There are several other kinds besides


   Got (?), imp. & p. p. of Get. See Get.


   Gote (?), n. [Cf. LG. gote, gaute, canal, G. gosse; akin to giessen to
   pour,  shed, AS. ge\'a2tan, and E. fuse to melt.] A channel for water.
   [Prov. Eng.] Crose.


   Go"ter (?), n. a gutter. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Goth (?), n. [L. Gothi, pl.; cf. Gr.

   1.  (Ethnol.)  One  of an ancient Teutonic race, who dwelt between the
   Elbe  and  the Vistula in the early part of the Christian era, and who
   overran and took an important part in subverting the Roman empire.

     NOTE: &hand; Un der th e re ign of  Valens, they took possession of
     Dacia (the modern Transylvania and the adjoining regions), and came
     to  be  known  as Ostrogoths and Visigoths, or East and West Goths;
     the  former inhabiting countries on the Black Sea up to the Danube,
     and  the  latter  on  this  river  generally.  Some  of  them  took
     possession  of  the  province  of  Moesia,  and  hence  were called
     Moesogoths.  Others,  who  made their way to Scandinavia, at a time
     unknown to history, are sometimes styled Suiogoths.

   2.  One  who  is  rude  or  uncivilized; a barbarian; a rude, ignorant
   person. Chesterfield.


   Go"tham*ist  (?),  n.  A wiseacre; a person deficient in wisdom; -- so
   called  from  Gotham,  in  Nottinghamshire,  England,  noted  for some
   pleasant blunders. Bp. Morton.


   Go"tham*ite (?), n.

   1. A gothamist.

   2. An inhabitant of New York city. [Jocular] Irving.


   Goth"ic (?), a. [L. Gothicus: cf. F. gothique.]

   1. Pertaining to the Goths; as, Gothic customs; also, rude; barbarous.

   2.  (Arch.)  Of  or pertaining to a style of architecture with pointed
   arches,  steep  roofs, windows large in proportion to the wall spaces,
   and,  generally, great height in proportion to the other dimensions --
   prevalent  in Western Europe from about 1200 to 1475 a. d. See Illust.
   of Abacus, and Capital.


   Goth"ic, n.

   1. The language of the Goths; especially, the language of that part of
   the Visigoths who settled in Moesia in the 4th century. See Goth.

     NOTE: &hand; Bishop Ulfilas or Walfila translated most of the Bible
     into  Gothic  about  the  Middle of the 4th century. The portion of
     this  translaton  which  is  preserved is the oldest known literary
     document in any Teutonic language.

   2. A kind of square-cut type, with no hair lines.

     NOTE: &hand; This is Nonpareil GOTHIC.

   3. (Arch.) The style described in Gothic, a., 2.


   Goth"i*cism (?), n.

   1. A Gothic idiom.

   2. Conformity to the Gothic style of architecture.

   3. Rudeness of manners; barbarousness.


   Goth"i*cize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gothicized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gothicizing (?).] To make Gothic; to bring back to barbarism.

                            G\'94thite, or Goethite

   G\'94"thite,  or  Goe"thite  (, n. [After the poet G\'94the.] (Min.) A
   hydrous  oxide of iron, occurring in prismatic crystals, also massive,
   with  a  fibrous, reniform, or stalactitic structure. The color varies
   from yellowish to blackish brown.


   Got"ten (?), p. p. of Get.


   Gouache  (?),  n.  [F.,  It. guazzo.] A method of painting with opaque
   colors, which have been ground in water and mingled with a preparation
   of gum; also, a picture thus painted.


   Goud  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF. gaide, F. gu\'8ade, fr. OHG. weit; or cf. F.
   gaude weld. Cf. Woad.] Woad. [Obs.]


   Gou`dron"  (?), n. [F., tar.] (Mil.) a small fascine or fagot, steeped
   in  wax,  pitch,  and  glue,  used  in  various  ways, as for igniting
   buildings or works, or to light ditches and ramparts. Farrow.


   Gouge  (?),  n.  [F. gouge. LL. gubia, guvia, gulbia, gulvia, gulvium;
   cf. Bisc. gubia bow, gubioa throat.]

   1.  A  chisel, with a hollow or semicylindrical blade, for scooping or
   cutting  holes,  channels, or grooves, in wood, stone, etc.; a similar
   instrument, with curved edge, for turning wood.

   2.  A  bookbinder's  tool  for blind tooling or gilding, having a face
   which forms a curve.

   Page 641

   3.  An incising tool which cuts forms or blanks for gloves, envelopes,
   etc.. from leather, paper, etc. Knight.

   4.  (Mining)  Soft  material  lying between the wall of a vein aud the
   solid vein. Raymond.

   5.  The act of scooping out with a gouge, or as with a gouge; a groove
   or cavity scooped out, as with a gouge.

   6.  Imposition;  cheat;  fraud; also, an impostor; a cheat; a trickish
   person. [Slang, U. S.]
   Gouge bit, a boring bit, shaped like a gouge.


   Bouge  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Gouged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gouging

   1. To scoop out with a gouge.

   2.  To scoop out, as an eye, with the thumb nail; to force out the eye
   of (a person) with the thumb. [K S.]

     NOTE: &hand; A  ba rbarity me ntioned by some travelers as formerly
     practiced  in  the brutal frays of desperadoes in some parts of the
     United States.

   3. To cheat in a bargain; to chouse. [Slang, U. S.]


   Gou"ger (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Plum Gouger.


   Gouge"shell`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A sharp-edged, tubular, marine shell,
   of the genus Vermetus; also, the pinna. See Vermetus.


   Gou"jere  (?),  n. [F. gouge prostitute, a camp trull. Cf. Good-year.]
   The venereal disease. [Obs.]


   Gou"land (?), n. See Golding.

                               Goulards extract

   Gou*lard"s"   ex"tract"  (?).  [Named  after  the  introducer,  Thomas
   Goulard,  a  French  surgeon.]  (Med.)  An  aqueous  solution  of  the
   subacetate  of  lead,  used  as  a  lotion  in  cases of inflammation.
   Goulard's cerate is a cerate containing this extract.


   Gour (?), n. [See Giaour.]

   1. A fire worshiper; a Gheber or Gueber. Tylor.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) See Koulan.


   Gou"ra  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  One of several species of large, crested
   ground  pigeons of the genus Goura, inhabiting New Guinea and adjacent
   islands.  The  Queen  Victoria pigeon (Goura Victoria) and the crowned
   pigeon (G. coronata) are among the beat known species.


   Gou"ra*mi  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A very largo East Indian freshwater fish
   (Osphromenus  gorami),  extensively  reared  in  artificial  ponds  in
   tropical   countries,   and   highly  valued  as  a  food  fish.  Many
   unsuccessful  efforts  have  been  made  to introduce it into Southern
   Europe. [Written also goramy.]


   Gourd  (?),  n. [F. gourde, OF. cougourde, gouhourde, fr. L. cucurbita
   gourd  (cf. NPr. cougourdo); perh. akin to corbin basket, E. corb. Cf.

   1.  (Bot.)  A  fleshy,  three-celled, many-seeded fruit, as the melon,
   pumpkin,  cucumber, etc., of the order Cucurbitace\'91; and especially
   the  bottle gourd (Lagenaria vulgaris) which occurs in a great variety
   of  forms, and, when the interior part is removed, serves for bottles,
   dippers, cups, and other dishes.

   2.  A  dipper or other vessel made from the shell of a gourd; hence, a
   drinking vessel; a bottle. Chaucer.
   Bitter gourd, colocynth.


   Gourd, n. A false die. See Gord.

                                 Gourd, Gourde

   Gourd,  Gourde  n. [Sp. gordo large.] A silver dollar; -- so called in
   Cuba, Hayti, etc. Simmonds.


   Gourd"i*ness (?), n. [From Gourdy.] (Far.) The state of being gourdy.

                                  Gourd tree

   Gourd"  tree"  (?).  (Bot.) A tree (the Crescentia Cujete, or calabash
   tree) of the West Indies and Central America.


   Gourd"worm" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The fluke of sheep. See Fluke.


   Gourd"y  (?),  a. [Either fr. gourd, or fr. F. gourd benumbed.] (Far.)
   Swelled in the legs.


   Gour"mand  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  greedy or ravenous eater; a glutton. See

     That great gourmand, fat Apicius B. Jonson.


   Gour"met"  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  connoisseur  in  eating and drinking; an


   Gour"net (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A fish. See Gurnet.


   Gout (?), n. [F. goutte a drop, the gout, the disease being considered
   as a defluxion, fr. L. gutta drop.]

   1. A drop; a clot or coagulation.

     On thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood. Shak.

   2.  (Med.)  A  constitutional  disease,  occurring  by  paroxysms.  It
   constists  in  an inflammation of the fibrous and ligamentous parts of
   the  joints,  and  almost always attacks first the great toe, next the
   smaller  joints, after which, it may attack the greater articulations.
   It  is  attended  with various sympathettic phenomena, particularly in
   the  digestive  organs.  It  may  also  attack internal organs, as the
   stomach, the intestines, etc. Dunglison.

   3. A disease of cornstalks. See Corn fly, under Corn.
   Cout stones. See Chalkstone, n., 2.


   Co\'96t (?), n. [F., fr. L. gustus taste. See Gusto.] Taste; relish.


   Gout"i*ly (?), adv. In a gouty manner.


   Gout"i*ness, n. The state of being gouty; gout.


   Gout"weed`  (,  Gout"wort` (?) n. [So called from having been formerly
   used in assuaging the pain of the gout.] (Bot.) A coarse umbelliferous
   plant  of  Europe  (\'92gopodium  Podagraria); -- called also bishop's
   weed, ashweed, and herb gerard.


   Gout"y (?), a.

   1. Diseased with, or subject to, the gout; as, a gouty person; a gouty

   2. Pertaining to the gout. "Gouty matter." Blackmore.

   3. Swollen, as if from gout. Derham.

   4. Boggy; as, gouty land. [Obs.] Spenser.
   Gouty bronchitis, bronchitis arising as a secondary disease during the
   progress  of  gout.  --  Gouty  concretions, calculi (urate of sodium)
   formed  in the joints, kidneys, etc., of sufferers from gout. -- Gouty
   kidney, an affection occurring during the progress of gout, the kidney
   shriveling and containing concretions of urate of sodium.


   Gove  (?),  n.  [Also goaf, goof, goff.] A mow; a rick for hay. [Obs.]


   Gov"ern  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Governed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Governing.]  [OF.  governer,  F. gouverner, fr. L. gubernare to steer,
   pilot, govern, Gr. Gubernatorial.]

   1.  To direct and control, as the actions or conduct of men, either by
   established  laws or by arbitrary will; to regulate by authority. "Fit
   to govern and rule multitudes." Shak.

   2.  To  regulate; to influence; to direct; to restrain; to manage; as,
   to govern the life; to govern a horse.

     Govern well thy appetite. Milton.

   3.  (Gram.)  To  require  to be in a particular case; as, a transitive
   verb governs a noun in the objective case; or to require (a particular
   case); as, a transitive verb governs the objective case.


   Gov"ern,  v. i. To exercise authority; to administer the laws; to have
   the control. Dryden.


   Gov"ern*a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Governableness.


   Gov"ern*a*ble (?), a. [Cf. F. gouvernable.] Capable of being governed,
   or subjected to authority; controllable; manageable; obedient. Locke.


   Gov"ern*a*ble*ness,    n.    The    quality   of   being   governable;

                              Governal, Governail

   Gov"ern*al  (?), Gov"ern*ail (, n. [Cf. F. gouvernail helm, rudder, L.
   gubernaculum.] Management; mastery. [Obs.] Chaucer. Spenser.


   Gov"ern*ance (?), n. [F. gouvernance.] Exercise of authority; control;
   government; arrangement. Chaucer. J. H. Newman.


   Gov"ern*ante"  (?),  n. [F. gouvernante. See Govern.] A governess. Sir
   W. Scott.


   Gov"ern*ess  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF. governeresse. See Governor.] A female
   governor;  a  woman  invested  with  authority  to control and direct;
   especially,  one  intrusted with the care and instruction of children,
   -- usually in their homes.


   Gov"ern*ing, a.

   1.  Holding  the  superiority; prevalent; controlling; as, a governing
   wind; a governing party in a state. Jay.

   2. (Gram.) Requiring a particular case.


   Gov"ern*ment (?), n. [F. gouvernement. See Govern.]

   1. The act of governing; the exercise of authority; the administration
   of  laws; control; direction; regulation; as, civil, church, or family

   2.  The  mode  of  governing;  the  system  of  polity in a state; the
   established form of law.

     That  free  government  which  we  have  so  dearly purchased, free
     commonwealth. Milton.

   3. The right or power of governing; authority.

     I here resign my goverment to thee. Shak.

   4. The person or persons authorized to administer the laws; the ruling
   powe; the administratian.

     When  we,  in  England,  speak  of  the  government,  we  generally
     understand  the ministers of the crown for the time being. Mozley &

   5.  The  body  politic  governed  by  one  authority; a state; as, the
   governments of Europe.

   6. Management of the limbs or body. Shak.

   7.  (Gram.)  The  influence  of  a  word  in  regard  to construction,
   requiring that another word should be in a particular case.


   Gov"ern*men"tal  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  gouveernemental.]  Pertaining  to
   government; made by government; as, governmental duties.


   Gov"ern*or  (?),  n.  [OE.  governor,  governour,  OF.  governeor,  F.
   gouverneur, fr. L. gubernator steersman, ruler, governor. See Govern.]

   1.  One  who governs; especially, one who is invested with the supreme
   executive  authority  in a State; a chief ruler or magistrate; as, the
   governor of Pennsylvania. "The governor of the town." Shak.

   2.  One  who  has  the care or guardianship of a young man; a tutor; a

   3. (Naut.) A pilot; a steersman. [R.]

   4.  (Mach.)  A contrivance applied to steam engines, water wheels, and
   other machinery, to maintain nearly uniform speed when the resistances
   and motive force are variable.


     NOTE: &hand; Th e il lustration sh ows a  form of governor commonly
     used  for  steam  engines,  in wich a heavy sleeve (a) sliding on a
     rapidly  revolving  spindle (b), driven by the engine, is raised or
     lowered,  when  the speed varies, by the changing centrifugal force
     of  two  balls  (c  c) to which it is connected by links (d d), the
     balls  being attached to arms (e e) which are jointed to the top of
     the  spindle.  The  sleeve  is connected with the throttle valve or
     cut-off  through  a  lever  (f),  and its motion produces a greater
     supply  of  steam when the engine runs too slowly and a less supply
     when too fast.

   Governor  cut-off (Steam Engine), a variable cut-off gear in which the
   governor  acts  in such a way as to cause the steam to be cut off from
   entering  the  cylinder  at  points  of  the stroke dependent upon the
   engine's  speed.  --  Hydraulic  governor (Mach.), a governor which is
   operated by the action of a liquid in flowing; a cataract.

                               Governor general

   Gov"ern*or  gen"er*al  (?).  A  governor  who has lieutenant or deputy
   governors under him; as, the governor general of Canada, of India.


   Gov"ern*or*ship, n. The office of a governor.


   Gow"an (?), n. [Scot., fr. Gael. gugan bud, flower, daisy.]

   1. The daisy, or mountain daisy. [Scot.]

     And pu'd the gowans fine. Burns.

   2. (Min.) Decomposed granite.


   Gow"an*y  (?),  a.  Having,  abounding  in,  or  decked with, daisies.

     Sweeter than gowany glens or new-mown hay. Ramsay.


   Gowd (?), n. [Cf. Gold.] Gold; wealth. [Scot.]

     The man's the gowd for a' that. Burns.


   Gowd"en (?), a. Golden. [Scot.]


   Gow"die (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Dragont. [Scot.]


   Gowd"nook" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The saury pike; -- called also gofnick.


   Gowk  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Gawk.] To make a, booby of one); to stupefy.
   [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Gowk, n. [See Gawk.] (Zo\'94l.)

   1. The European cuckoo; -- called also gawky.

   2. A simpleton; a gawk or gawky.


   Gowl  (?), v. i. [OE. gaulen, goulen. Cf. Yawl, v. i.] To howl. [Obs.]


   Gown  (?),  n. [OE. goune, prob. from W. gwn gown, loose robe, akin to
   Ir. gunn, Gael. g\'97n; cf. OF. gone, prob. of the same origin.]

   1.  A loose, flowing upper garment; especially: (a) The ordinary outer
   dress  of a woman; as, a calico or silk gown. (b) The official robe of
   certain  professional  men  and  scholars,  as university students and
   officers,  barristers,  judges,  etc.;  hence, the dress of peace; the
   dress of civil officers, in distinction from military.

     He Mars deposed, and arms to gowns made yield. Dryden.

   (c) A loose wrapper worn by gentlemen within doors; a dressing gown.

   2. Any sort of dress or garb.

     He comes . . . in the gown of humility. Shak.


   Gowned (?), p. a. Dressed in a gown; clad.

     Gowned in pure white, that fitted to the shape. Tennyson.

                               Gownsman, Gownman

   Gowns"man (?), Gown"man (, n.; pl. -men (-men). One whose professional
   habit  is  a gown, as a divine or lawyer, and particularly a member of
   an  English  university;  hence,  a  civilian,  in  distinction from a


   Goz"zard (?), n. See Gosherd. [Prov. Eng.]


   Graaf"i*an (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or discovered by, Regnier de
   Graaf,  a  Dutch  physician.  Graafian  follicles  or  vesicles, small
   cavities in which the ova are developed in the ovaries of mammals, and
   by the bursting of which they are discharged.


   Graal (?), n. See Grail., a dish.


   Grab  (?),  n.  [Ar.  &  Hind. ghur crow, raven, a kind of Arab ship.]
   (Naut.) A vessel used on the Malabar coast, having two or three masts.


   Grab  (?),  v.  t.  &  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Grabbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Grabbing.] [Akin to Sw. grabba to grasp. Cf. Grabble, Grapple, Grasp.]
   To gripe suddenly; to seize; to snatch; to clutch.


   Grab, n.

   1. A sudden grasp or seizure.

   2.  An  instrument  for  clutching  objects for the purpose of raising
   them;  --  specially  applied to devices for withdrawing drills, etc.,
   from artesian and other wells that are drilled, bored, or driven.
   Grab  hag,  at fairs, a bag or box holding small articles which are to
   be  drawn, without being seen, on payment of a small sum. [Colloq.] --
   Grab game, a theft committed by grabbing or snatching a purse or other
   piece of property. [Colloq.]


   Grab"ber (?), n. One who seizes or grabs.


   Grab"ble  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Grabbled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Grabbling (.] [Freq. of grab; cf. D. grabbelen.]

   1. To grope; to feel with the hands.

     He  puts  his  hands  into  his  pockets, and keeps a grabbling and
     fumbling. Selden.

   2.  To lie prostrate on the belly; to sprawl on the ground; to grovel.


   Grace  (?),  n.  [F.  gr\'83ce,  L. gratia, from gratus beloved, dear,
   agreeable;  perh.  akin  to  Gr.  hary  to  desire,  and E. yearn. Cf.
   Grateful, Gratis.]

   1.  The  exercise  of  love,  kindness,  mercy,  favor; disposition to
   benefit or serve another; favor bestowed or privilege conferred.

     To bow and sue for grace With suppliant knee. Milton.

   2.  (Theol.)  The  divine  favor  toward  man;  the  mercy  of God, as
   distinguished  from His justice; also, any benefits His mercy imparts;
   divine  love  or  pardon; a state of acceptance with God; enjoyment of
   the divine favor.

     And if by grace, then is it no more of works. Rom. xi. 6.

     My grace is sufficicnt for thee. 2 Cor. xii. 9.

     Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. Rom. v. 20.

     By  whom  also  we  have access by faith into this grace wherein we
     stand. Rom. v.2

   3.  (Law)  (a)  The prerogative of mercy execised by the executive, as
   pardon.  (b)  The  same  prerogative  when  exercised  in  the form of
   equitable relief through chancery.

   4.  Fortune;  luck;  -- used commonly with hard or sorry when it means
   misfortune. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   5.  Inherent excellence; any endowment or characteristic fitted to win
   favor or confer pleasure or benefit.

     He is complete in feature and in mind. With all good grace to grace
     a gentleman. Shak.

     I  have formerly given the general character of Mr. Addison's style
     and  manner as natural and unaffected, easy and polite, and full of
     those  graces  which  a  flowery imagination diffuses over writing.

   Page 642

   6.  Beauty,  physical,  intellectual,  or moral; loveliness; commonly,
   easy elegance of manners; perfection of form.

     Grace  in  women  gains  the  affections  sooner,  and secures them
     longer, than any thing else. Hazlitt.

     I  shall  answer  and thank you again For the gift and the grace of
     the gift. Longfellow.

   7.  pl.  (Myth.)  Graceful  and  beautiful  females, sister goddesses,
   represented  by  ancient writers as the attendants sometimes of Apollo
   but oftener of Venus. They were commonly mentioned as three in number;
   namely,  Aglaia,  Euphrosyne,  and  Thalia,  and  were regarded as the
   inspirers  of the qualities which give attractiveness to wisdom, love,
   and social intercourse.

     The Graces love to weave the rose. Moore.

     The Loves delighted, and the Graces played. Prior.

   8.  The  title of a duke, a duchess, or an archbishop, and formerly of
   the king of England.

     How fares your Grace ! Shak.

   9. (Commonly pl.) Thanks. [Obs.]

     Yielding graces and thankings to their lord Melibeus. Chaucer.

   10. A petition for grace; a blessing asked, or thanks rendered, before
   or after a meal.

   11.  pl.  (Mus.) Ornamental notes or short passages, either introduced
   by  the  performer,  or  indicated  by the composer, in which case the
   notation signs are called grace notes, appeggiaturas, turns, etc.

   12.  (Eng.  Universities) An act, vote, or decree of the government of
   the  institution;  a  degree  or  privilege  conferred by such vote or
   decree. Walton.

   13.  pl.  A  play  designed  to promote or display grace of motion. It
   consists in throwing a small hoop from one player to another, by means
   of two sticks in the hands of each. Called also grace hoop or hoops.
   Act  of  grace.  See  under Act. -- Day of grace (Theol.), the time of
   probation,  when  the  offer  of divine forgiveness is made and may be

     That day of grace fleets fast away. I. Watts.

   -- Days of grace (Com.), the days immediately following the day when a
   bill  or  note  becomes  due,  which days are allowed to the debtor or
   payer  to make payment in. In Great Britain and the United States, the
   days  of  grace  are  three, but in some countries more, the usages of
   merchants being different. -- Good graces, favor; friendship. -- Grace
   cup. (a) A cup or vessel in which a health is drunk after grace. (b) A
   health drunk after grace has been said.

     The grace cup follows to his sovereign's health. Hing.

   -- Grace drink, a drink taken on rising from the table; a grace cup.

     To  [Queen  Margaret,  of  Scotland] . . . we owe the custom of the
     grace drink, she having established it as a rule at her table, that
     whosoever  staid  till  grace  was said was rewarded with a bumper.
     Encyc. Brit.

   --  Grace  hoop,  a hoop used in playing graces. See Grace, n., 13. --
   Grace  note  (Mus.),  an  appoggiatura.  See Appoggiatura, and def. 11
   above.  --  Grace stroke, a finishing stoke or touch; a coup de grace.
   --  Means  of grace, means of securing knowledge of God, or favor with
   God,  as  the preaching of the gospel, etc. -- To do grace, to reflect
   credit upon.

     Content to do the profession some grace. Shak.

   --  To  say  grace, to render thanks before or after a meal. -- With a
   good  grace,  in  a  fit and proper manner grace fully; graciously. --
   With  a  bad  grace,  in  a  forced, reluctant, or perfunctory manner;

     What  might have been done with a good grace would at least be done
     with a bad grace. Macaulay.

   Syn. -- Elegance; comeliness; charm; favor; kindness; mercy. -- Grace,
   Mercy. These words, though often interchanged, have each a distinctive
   and  peculiar  meaning.  Grace,  in  the  strict sense of the term, is
   spontaneous  favor  to the guilty or undeserving; mercy is kindness or
   compassion to the suffering or condemned. It was the grace of God that
   opened a way for the exercise of mercy toward men. See Elegance.


   Grace  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Graced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gracing

   1. To adorn; to decorate; to embellish and dignify.

     Great Jove and Phoebus graced his noble line. Pope.

     We are graced with wreaths of victory. Shak.

   2. To dignify or raise by an act of favor; to honor.

     He  might,  at  his  pleasure,  grace  or disgrace whom he would in
     court. Knolles.

   3. To supply with heavenly grace. Bp. Hall.

   4. (Mus.) To add grace notes, cadenzas, etc., to.


   Graced  (?),  a.  Endowed  with  grace;  beautiful;  full  of  graces;
   honorable. Shak.


   Grace"ful  (?),  a.  Displaying  grace  or  beauty  in form or action;
   elegant;   easy;   agreeable  in  appearance;  as,  a  graceful  walk,
   deportment, speaker, air, act, speech.

     High o'er the rest in arms the graceful Turnus rode. Dryden.

   -- Grace"ful*ly, adv. Grace"ful*ness, n.


   Grace"less, a.

   1.  Wanting  in  grace  or  excellence; departed from, or deprived of,
   divine grace; hence, depraved; corrupt. "In a graceless age." Milton.

   2.  Unfortunate.  Cf.  Grace, n., 4. [Obs.] Chaucer. -- Grace"less*ly,
   adv. -- Grace"less-ness, n.

                              Gracile, Gracillent

   Grac"ile (?), Grac"il*lent (?) a. [L. gracilis, gracilentus.] Slender;
   thin. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Gra*cil"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L. gracilitas; cf. F. gracilit\'82.] State of
   being  gracilent;  slenderness.  Milman.  "Youthful  gracility." W. D.


   Gra"cious (?), a. [F. gracieux, L. gratiosus. See Grace.]

   1. Abounding in grace or mercy; manifesting love,. or bestowing mercy;
   characterized   by  grace;  beneficent;  merciful;  disposed  to  show
   kindness or favor; condescending; as, his most gracious majesty.

     A god ready to pardon, gracious and merciful. Neh. ix. 17.

     So hallowed and so gracious in the time. Shak.

   2.   Abounding   in   beauty,  loveliness,  or  amiability;  graceful;

     Since  the birth of Cain, the first male child, . . . There was not
     such a gracious creature born. Shak.

   3.  Produced  by  divine grace; influenced or controlled by the divine
   influence;   as,   gracious   affections.  Syn.  --  Favorable;  kind;
   benevolent; friendly; beneficent; benignant; merciful.


   Gra"cious*ly (?), adv.

   1. In a gracious manner; courteously; benignantly. Dryden.

   2. Fortunately; luckily. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gra"cious*ness, n. Quality of being gracious.


   Grac"kle  (?),  n.  [Cf.  L.  graculus jackdaw.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) One of
   several  American blackbirds, of the family Icterid\'91; as, the rusty
   grackle   (Scolecophagus  Carolinus);  the  boat-tailed  grackle  (see
   Boat-tail); the purple grackle (Quiscalus quiscula, or Q. versicolor).
   See  Crow  blackbird,  under  Crow.  (b)  An Asiatic bird of the genus
   Gracula. See Myna.


   Gra"date (?), v. t. [See Grade.]

   1.  To  grade or arrange (parts in a whole, colors in painting, etc.),
   so that they shall harmonize.

   2.  (Chem.)  To bring to a certain strength or grade of concentration;
   as, to gradate a saline solution.


   Gra*da"tion (?), n., [L. gradatio: cf. F. gradation. See Grade.]

   1. The act of progressing by regular steps or orderly arrangement; the
   state  of  being  graded  or  arranged  in ranks; as, the gradation of

   2. The act or process of bringing to a certain grade.

   3. Any degree or relative position in an order or series.

     The several gradations of the intelligent universe. I. Taylor.

   4.  (Fine  Arts)  A gradual passing from one tint to another or from a
   darker to a lighter shade, as in painting or drawing.

   6. (Mus.) A diatonic ascending or descending succession of chords.


   Gra*da"tion, v. t. To form with gradations. [R.]


   Gra*da"tion*al   (?),  a.  By  regular  steps  or  gradations;  of  or
   pertaining to gradation.


   Grad"a*to*ry (?), a. [See Grade.]

   1. Proceeding step by step, or by gradations; gradual.

     Could we have seen [Macbeth's] crimes darkening on their progress .
     . . could this gradatory apostasy have been shown us. A. Seward.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) Suitable for walking; -- said of the limbs of an animal
   when adapted for walking on land.


   Grad"a*to*ry, n. [Cf. LL. gradatarium.] (Arch.) A series of steps from
   a cloister into a church.


   Grade  (?),  n.  [F. grade, L. gradus step, pace, grade, from gradi to
   step, go. Cf. Congress, Degree, Gradus.]

   1.  A  step  or  degree  in any series, rank, quality, order; relative
   position  or  standing;  as,  grades of military rank; crimes of every
   grade; grades of flour.

     They also appointed and removed, at their own pleasure, teachers of
     every grade. Buckle.

   2.  In  a  railroad  or  highway:  (a)  The rate of ascent or descent;
   gradient;  deviation  from  a  level  surface to an inclined plane; --
   usually  stated  as so many feet per mile, or as one foot rise or fall
   in  so  many  of  horizontal  distance;  as, a heavy grade; a grade of
   twenty  feet  per  mile,  or  of  1  in  264.  (b) A graded ascending,
   descending, or level portion of a road; a gradient.

   3.  (Stock  Breeding)  The result of crossing a native stock with some
   better  breed.  If  the crossbreed have more than three fourths of the
   better blood, it is called high grade.
   At  grade,  on  the  same level; -- said of the crossing of a railroad
   with another railroad or a highway, when they are on the same level at
   the  point  of  crossing.  --  Down  grade,  a descent, as on a graded
   railroad. -- Up grade, an ascent, as on a graded railroad. -- Equating
   for grades. See under Equate. -- Grade crossing, a crossing at grade.


   Grade, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Graded; p. pr. & vb. n. Grading.]

   1. To arrange in order, steps, or degrees, according to size, quality,
   rank, etc.

   2.  To  reduce  to a level, or to an evenly progressive ascent, as the
   line of a canal or road.

   3.  (Stock  Breeding)  To cross with some better breed; to improve the
   blood of.


   Grade"ly,  a.  [Cf.  AS.  grad  grade, step, order, fr. L. gradus. See
   Grade.]  Decent; orderly. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell. -- adv. Decently; in
   order. [Prov. Eng.]


   Grad"er  (?),  n. One who grades, or that by means of which grading is
   done  or  facilitate.  <-- 2. A vehicle used for levelling earth, esp.
   one with a plow blade suspended from the center, used specifically for
   grading roads. -->


   Gra"di*ent  (?),  a. [L. gradiens, p. pr. of gradi to step, to go. See

   1. Moving by steps; walking; as, gradient automata. Wilkins.

   2.  Rising  or  descending  by regular degrees of inclination; as, the
   gradient line of a railroad.

   3. Adapted for walking, as the feet of certain birsds.


   Gra"di*ent, n.

   1. The rate of regular or graded ascent or descent in a road; grade.

   2.  A  part  of a road which slopes upward or downward; a portion of a
   way not level; a grade.

   3.  The  rate  of increase or decrease of a variable magnitude, or the
   curve which represents it; as, a thermometric gradient.
   Gradient post, a post or stake indicating by its height or by marks on
   it  the  grade  of  a  railroad, highway, or embankment, etc., at that

                                Gradin, Gradine

   Gra"din  (?), Gra*dine" (?), n. [F. gradin, dim. of grade. See Grade.]
   (Arch.)  Any member like a step, as the raised back of an altar or the
   like;  a set raised over another. "The gradines of the amphitheeater."


   Gra*dine" (?), n. [F. gradine.] A toothed chised by sculptors.


   Grad"ing  (?), n. The act or method of arranging in or by grade, or of
   bringing,  as  the  surface of land or a road, to the desired level or


   Gra*di"no  (?),  n.;  pl. Gradinos (#). [It.] (Arch.) A step or raised
   shelf, as above a sideboard or altar. Cf. Superaltar, and Gradin.


   Grad"u*al"  (?);  a.  [Cf; F. graduel. See Grade, and cf. Gradual, n.]
   Proceeding  by steps or degrees; advancing, step by step, as in ascent
   or  descent or from one state to another; regularly progressive; slow;
   as, a gradual increase of knowledge; a gradual decline.

     Creatures  animate  with gradual life Of growth, sense, reason, all
     summed up in man. Milton.


   Grad"u*al,  n.  [LL.  graduale  a  gradual (in sense 1), fr. L. gradus
   step: cf. F. graduel. See Grade, and cf. Grail a gradual.]

   1. (R. C. Ch.) (a) An antiphon or responsory after the epistle, in the
   Mass,  which  was  sung on the steps, or while the deacon ascended the
   steps. (b) A service book containing the musical portions of the Mass.

   2. A series of steps. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Grad"u*al"i*ty  (?),  n. The state of being gradual; gradualness. [R.]
   Sir T. Browne.


   Grad"u*al*ly (?), adv.

   1. In a gradual manner.

   2. In degree. [Obs.]

     Human reason doth not only gradually, but specifically, differ from
     the fantastic reason of brutes. Grew.


   Grad"u*al*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state of being gradual; regular
   progression or gradation; slowness.

     The gradualness of this movement. M. Arnold.

     The  gradualness  of  growth  is a characteristic which strikes the
     simplest observer. H. Drummond.


   Grad"u*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Graduated (?) p. pr. & vb. n.
   Graduating (.] [Cf. F. graduer. See Graduate, n., Grade.]

   1.  To  mark  with  degrees;  to divide into regular steps, grades, or
   intervals,  as  the  scale of a thermometer, a scheme of punishment or
   rewards, etc.

   2.  To  admit  or  elevate  to  a  certain grade or degree; esp., in a
   college  or  university,  to  admit, at the close of the course, to an
   honorable  standing defined by a diploma; as, he was graduated at Yale

   3.  To  prepare gradually; to arrange, temper, or modify by degrees or
   to  a certain degree; to determine the degrees of; as, to graduate the
   heat of an oven.

     Dyers advance and graduate their colors with salts. Browne.

   4.   (Chem.)   To  bring  to  a  certain  degree  of  consistency,  by
   evaporation, as a fluid.
   Graduating  engine,  a  dividing  engine.  See  Dividing engine, under


   Grad"u*ate, v. i.

   1.  To  pass  by  degrees;  to  change  gradually;  to  shade off; as,
   sandstone  which  graduates into gneiss; carnelian sometimes graduates
   into quartz.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) To taper, as the tail of certain birds.

   3.  To take a degree in a college or university; to become a graduate;
   to receive a diploma.

     He graduated at Oxford. Latham.

     He  was  brought  to  their  bar  and asked where he had graduated.


   Grad"u*ate  (?),  n.  [LL.  graduatus, p. p. of graduare to admit to a
   degree, fr. L. gradus grade. See Grade, n.]

   1.  One who has received an academical or professional degree; one who
   has  completed  the  prescribed  course  of  study  in  any  school or
   institution of learning.

   2.  A  graduated  cup,  tube,  or  flask;  a  measuring  glass used by
   apothecaries and chemists. See under Graduated.


   Grad"u*ate, a. [See Graduate, n. & v.] Arrangei by successive steps or
   degrees; graduated.

     Beginning  with  the  genus,  passing  through all the graduate and
     subordinate stages. Tatham.


   Grad"u*a"ted (?), a.

   1. Marked with, or divided into, degrees; divided into grades.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Tapered;  --  said  of  a  bird's  tail when the outer
   feathers are shortest, and the others successively longer.
   Graduated  tube,  bottle,  cap,  OR glass, a vessel, usually of glass,
   having  horizontal marks upon its sides, with figures, to indicate the
   amount  of  the  contents  at  the several levels. -- Graduated spring
   (Railroads), a combination of metallic and rubber springs.


   Grad"u*ate*ship, n. State of being a graduate. Milton.


   Grad"u*a"tion  (?),  n.  [LL.  graduatio promotion to a degree: cf. F.
   graduation division into degrees.]

   1.  The  act  of  graduating,  or  the  state  of being graduated; as,
   graduation  of  a scale; graduation at a college; graduation in color;
   graduation by evaporation; the graduation of a bird's tail, etc.

   2.  The  marks  on  an  instrument  or  vessel  to indicate degrees or
   quantity; a scale.

   3.  The  exposure  of  a liquid in large surfaces to the air, so as to
   hasten its evaporation.


   Grad"u*a"tor (?), n.

   1.  One  who  determines  or  indicates graduation; as, a graduator of

   2.  An  instrument  for dividing any line, right or curve, into small,
   regular intervals.

   3.  An apparatus for diffusing a solution, as brine or vinegar, over a
   large surface, for exposure to the air.


   Gra"dus  (?),  n. [From L. gradus ad Parnassum a step to Parnassus.] A
   dictionary  of  prosody,  designed as an aid in writing Greek or Latin

     He set to work . . . without gradus or other help. T. Hughes.


   Graf  (?),  n. [G. Cf. -grave.] A German title of nobility, equivalent
   to earl in English, or count in French. See Earl.


   Graff (?), n. [OE. grafe, greife, greive. Cf. Margrave.] A steward; an

     [A  prince]  is  nothing but a servant, overseer, or graff, and not
     the head, which is a title belonging only to Christ. John Knox.


   Graff n. & v. See Graft.


   Graff"age  (?),  n.  [Cf. Grave, n.] The scarp of a ditch or moat. "To
   clean the graffages." Miss Mitford.


   Graf"fer  (?),  n.  [See  Greffier.]  (Law.)  a  notary  or scrivener.
   Bowvier. <-- p. 643 -->


   Graf*fi"ti  (?), n. pl. [It., pl. of graffito scratched] Inscriptions,
   figure  drawings,  etc.,  found  on the walls of ancient sepulchers or
   ruins, as in the Catacombs, or at Pompeii.


   Graft  (?),  n. [OE. graff, F. greffe, originally the same word as OF.
   grafe pencil, L. graphium, Gr. carve. So named from the resemblance of
   a  scion  or  shoot  to a pointed pencil. Cf. Graphic, Grammar.] (a) A
   small  shoot or scion of a tree inserted in another tree, the stock of
   which is to support and nourish it. The two unite and become one tree,
   but the graft determines the kind of fruit. (b) A branch or portion of
   a  tree  growing  from  such  a shoot. (c) (Surg.) A portion of living
   tissue used in the operation of autoplasty.


   Graft,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Grafted; p. pr. & vb. n. Grafting.] [F.
   greffer. See Graft, n.]

   1.  To  insert  (a  graft)  in  a  branch  or stem of another tree; to
   propagate by insertion in another stock; also, to insert a graft upon.
   [Formerly written graff.]


   (Surg.)  To implant a portion of (living flesh or akin) in a lesion so
   as to form an organic union. 


   To join (one thing) to another as if by grafting, so as to bring about
   a close union. 

     And graft my love immortal on thy fame ! Pope.


   (Naut.)  To cover, as a ring bolt, block strap, splicing, etc., with a
   weaving of small cord or rope-yarns. 


   Graft,  v.  i.  To insert scions from one tree, or kind of tree, etc.,
   into another; to practice grafting.


   Graft"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who  inserts  scions  on other stocks, or propagates fruit by


   An instrument by which grafting is facilitated. 

   3.  The  original  tree from which a scion has been taken for grafting
   upon another tree. Shak.


   Graft"ing n. 1. (Hort.) The act, art, or process of inserting grafts.

   2.  (Naut.) The act or method of weaving a cover for a ring, rope end,

   3.  (Surg.)  The  transplanting  of  a  portion  of flesh or skin to a
   denuded surface; autoplasty.

   4. (Carp.) A scarfing or endwise attachment of one timber to another.
   Cleft  grafting  (Hort.)  a  method  of grafting in which the scion is
   placed  in  a cleft or slit in the stock or stump made by sawing off a
   branch,  usually  in  such a manaer that its bark evenly joins that of
   the stock. -- Crown, OR Rind, grafting, a method of grafting which the
   alburnum  and  inner  bark are separated, and between them is inserted
   the  lower  end of the scion cut slantwise. -- Saddle grafting, a mode
   of  grafting  in which a deep cleft is made in the end of the scion by
   two sloping cuts, and the end of the stock is made wedge-shaped to fit
   the  cleft  in  the scion, which is placed upon it saddlewise. -- Side
   grafting, a mode of grafting in which the scion, cut quite across very
   obliquely,  so  as  to  give it the form of a slender wedge, is thrust
   down  inside  of  the  bark  of  the  stock  or  stem into which it is
   inserted,  the cut side of the scion being next the wood of the stock.
   --  Skin grafting. (Surg.) See Autoplasty. -- Splice grafting (Hort.),
   a  method  of  grafting  by  cutting  the  ends of the scion and stock
   completely  across  and  obliquely, in such a manner that the sections
   are  of  the  same  shape,  then  lapping the ends so that the one cut
   surface  exactly  fits  the  other,  and  securing  them  by  tying or
   otherwise.  --  Whip  grafting,  tongue  grafting,  the same as splice
   grafting, except that a cleft or slit is made in the end of both scion
   and  stock,  in  the  direction  of the grain and in the middle of the
   sloping  surface, forming a kind of tongue, so that when put together,
   the  tongue  of each is inserted in the slit of the other. -- Grafting
   scissors,  a surgeon's scissors, used in rhinoplastic operations, etc.
   --  Grafting  tool.  (a)  Any tool used in grafting. (b) A very strong
   curved spade used in digging canals. -- Grafting wax, a composition of
   rosin,  beeswax  tallow,  etc., used in binding up the wounds of newly
   grafted trees.

                                 Graham bread

   Gra"ham  bread" (?). [From Sylvester Graham, a lecturer on dietetics.]
   Bread made of unbolted wheat flour. [U. S.] Bartlett.


   Gra"ham*ite  (?),  n. [See Graham bread.] One who follows the dietetic
   system of Graham. [U. S.]


   Grail  (?),  n.  [OF.  greel,  LL. gradale. See Gradual, n.] A book of
   offices in the Roman Catholic Church; a gradual. [Obs.] T. Warton.

     Such as antiphonals, missals, grails, processionals, etc. Strype.


   Grail,  n.  [OF.  graal,  greal, greet, F. graal, gr?al, LL. gradalis,
   gradale, prob. derived fr. L. crater bowl, mixing vessel, Gr. krath`r.
   See  Crater.]  A broad, open dish; a chalice; -- only used of the Holy

     NOTE: &hand;The Holy Grail, according to some legends of the Middle
     Ages,  was the cup used by our Savior in dispensing the wine at the
     last  supper;  and  according  to  others, the platter on which the
     paschal  lamb was served at the last Passover observed by our Lord.
     This  cup,  according  to  the  legend,  if  appoached by any but a
     perfectly pure and holy person, would be borne away and vanish from
     the sight. The quest of the Holy Grail was to be undertaken only by
     a knight who was perfectly chaste in thought, word, and act.


   Grail,  n.  [F. gr≖le hail, from gr\'90s grit, OHG. griex, grioz,
   G.  gries,  gravel, grit. See Grit.] Small particles of earth; gravel.

     Lying down upon the sandy grail. Spenser.


   Grail  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF.  graite slender, F. gr≖te.] One of the
   small feathers of a hawk.


   Graille  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  gr≖le  a  sort of file.] A halfround
   single-cut  file  or  fioat,  having  one curved face and one straight
   face, -- used by comb makers. Knight.


   Grain, v. & n. See Groan. [Obs.]


   Grain  (?),  n. [F. grain, L. granum, grain, seed, small kernel, small
   particle.  See  Corn,  and cf. Garner, n., Garnet, Gram the chick-pea,
   Granule, Kernel.]

   1.  A  single  small  hard seed; a kernel, especially of those plants,
   like wheat, whose seeds are used for food.

   2.  The  fruit of certain grasses which furnish the chief food of man,
   as  corn,  wheat,  rye,  oats, etc., or the plants themselves; -- used

     Storehouses crammed with grain. Shak.

   3. Any small, hard particle, as of sand, sugar, salt, etc.; hence, any
   minute  portion  or  particle; as, a grain of gunpowder, of pollen, of
   starch, of sense, of wit, etc.

     I . . . with a grain of manhood well resolved. Milton.

   4.  The  unit  of  the English system of weights; -- so called because
   considered equal to the average of grains taken from the middle of the
   ears  of  wheat.  7,000  grains  constitute the pound avoirdupois, and
   5,760 grains the pound troy. A grain is equal to .0648 gram. See Gram.

   5.  A reddish dye made from the coccus insect, or kermes; hence, a red
   color of any tint or hue, as crimson, scarlet, etc.; sometimes used by
   the poets as equivalent to Tyrian purple.

     All in a robe of darkest grain. Milton.

     Doing  as  the  dyers  do,  who, having first dipped their silks in
     colors  of less value, then give' them the last tincture of crimson
     in grain. Quoted by Coleridge, preface to Aids to Reflection.

   6.  The  composite particles of any substance; that arrangement of the
   particles  of  any  body which determines its comparative roughness or
   hardness; texture; as, marble, sugar, sandstone, etc., of fine grain.

     Hard box, and linden of a softer grain. Dryden.

   7. The direction, arrangement, or appearance of the fibers in wood, or
   of the strata in stone, slate, etc.

     Knots,  by  the  conflux  of meeting sap, Infect the sound pine and
     divert  his  grain  Tortive  and  errant from his course of growth.

   8.  The  fiber  which  forms  the  substance of wood or of any fibrous

   9.  The  hair side of a piece of leather, or the marking on that side.

   10.  pl.  The  remains  of grain, etc., after brewing or distillation;
   hence, any residuum. Also called draff.

   11.  (Bot.)  A  rounded  prominence  on the back of a sepal, as in the
   common dock. See Grained, a., 4.

   12. Temper; natural disposition; inclination. [Obs.]

     Brothers . . . not united in grain. Hayward.

   13. A sort of spice, the grain of paradise. [Obs.]

     He cheweth grain and licorice, To smellen sweet. Chaucer.

   Against  the  grain,  against  or  across the direction of the fibers;
   hence,  against  one's  wishes  or  tastes; unwillingly; unpleasantly;
   reluctantly;   with   difficulty.   Swift.Saintsbury.--   A  grain  of
   allowance, a slight indulgence or latitude a small allowance. -- Grain
   binder,  an  attachment  to  a  harvester  for  binding the grain into
   sheaves. -- Grain colors, dyes made from the coccus or kermes in sect.
   --  Grain  leather. (a) Dressed horse hides. (b) Goat, seal, and other
   skins  blacked on the grain side for women's shoes, etc. -- Grain moth
   (Zo\'94l.),  one  of several small moths, of the family Tineid\'91 (as
   Tinea granella and Butalis cereAlella), whose larv\'91 devour grain in
   storehouses.  -- Grain side (Leather), the side of a skin or hide from
   which  the  hair has been removed; -- opposed to flesh side. -- Grains
   of  paradise,  the  seeds  of  a  species  of  amomum.  --  grain tin,
   crystalline  tin  ore  metallic  tin  smelted  with charcoal. -- Grain
   weevil  (Zo\'94l.),  a  small red weevil (Sitophilus granarius), which
   destroys  stored wheat and othar grain, by eating out the interior. --
   Grain  worm  (Zo\'94l.),  the larva of the grain moth. See grain moth,
   above.  --  In  grain,  of a fast color; deeply seated; fixed; innate;
   genuine.  "Anguish  in grain." Herbert.-- To dye in grain, to dye of a
   fast  color by means of the coccus or kermes grain [see Grain, n., 5];
   hence,  to  dye  firmly;  also,  to  dye  in  the  wool, or in the raw
   material. See under Dye.

     The  red  roses  flush up in her cheeks . . . Likce crimson dyed in
     grain. Spenser.

   --  To go against the grain of (a person), to be repugnant to; to vex,
   irritate, mortify, or trouble.


   Grain, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Graining.]

   1. To paint in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.

   2. To form (powder, sugar, etc.) into grains.

   3.  To  take  the  hair  off (skins); to soften and raise the grain of
   (leather, etc.).


   Grain, v. i. [F. grainer, grener. See Grain, n.]

   1. To yield fruit. [Obs.] Gower.

   2.  To  form  grains,  or  to assume a granular ferm, as the result of
   crystallization; to granulate.


   Grain (?), n. [See Groin a part of the body.]

   1. A branch of a tree; a stalk or stem of a plant. [Obs.] G. Douglas.

   2.  A  tine,  prong,  or fork. Specifically: (a) One the branches of a
   valley  or  of a river. (b) pl. An iron first speak or harpoon, having
   four or more barbed points.

   3. A blade of a sword, knife, etc.

   4. (Founding) A thin piece of metal, used in a mold to steady a core.


   Grained (?), a.

   1. Having a grain; divided into small particles or grains; showing the
   grain; hence, rough.

   2. Dyed in grain; ingrained.

     Persons  lightly  dipped, not grained, in generous honesty, are but
     pale in goodness. Sir T. Browne.

   3. Painted or stained in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.

   4.  (Bot.)  Having  tubercles or grainlike processes, as the petals or
   sepals of some flowers.


   Grain"er (?), n.

   1.  An  infusion  of  pigeon's  dung used by tanners to neutralize the
   effects  of  lime and give flexibility to skins; -- called also grains
   and bate.

   2. A knife for taking the hair off skins.

   3.  One  who  paints  in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.;
   also, the brush or tool used in graining.


   Grain"field` (?), n. A field where grain is grown.


   Grain"ing, n.

   1. Indentation; roughening; milling, as on edges of coins. Locke.

   2.  A  process  in dressing leather, by which the skin is softened and
   the grain raised.

   3.  Painting  or  staining,  in imitation of the grain of wood, atone,

   4.  (Soap  Making)  The  process of separating soap from spent lye, as
   with salt.


   Grain"ing,  n. (Zo\'94l.) A small European fresh-water fish (Leuciscus
   vulgaris); - called also dobule, and dace.


   Grains (?), n. pl.

   1. See 5th Grain, n., 2 (b).

   2. Pigeon's dung used in tanning. See Grainer. n., 1.


   Grain"y (?), a. Resembling grains; granular.


   Graip (?), n. [Perh. akin to grope, gripe.] A dungfork. [Scot.] Burns.


   Graith (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Greith. Chaucer.


   Graith,  n. Furniture; apparatus or accouterments for work, traveling,
   war, etc. [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Gra"kle (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Grackle.


   Gral"l\'91  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. grallae stilts, for gradulae, fr.
   gradus.  See  Grade.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  order  of  birds which formerly
   included  all the waders. By later writers it is usually restricted to
   the sandpipers, plovers, and allied forms; -- called also Grallatores.


   Gral"la*to"res  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.  from L. grallator one who runs on
   stilts.] (Zol.) See Grall\'91.

                           Grallatorial, Grallatory

   Gral`la*to"ri*al   (?),   Gral"la*to*ry   (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or
   pertaining to the Grallatores, or waders.


   Gral"lic (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the Grall\'91.


   Gral"line (l&imac;n), a. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Grall\'91.


   Gral"loch  (?),  n. Offal of a deer. -- v. t. To remove the offal from
   (a deer).


   -gram  (?). [Gr. ? a thing drawn or written, a letter, fr. gra`fein to
   draw,  write.  See  Graphic.]  A  suffix indicating something drawn or
   written, a drawing, writing; -- as, monogram, telegram, chronogram.


   Gram  (?),  a.  [AS.  gram;  akin to E. grim. &root;35.] Angry. [Obs.]
   Havelok, the Dane.


   Gram,  n.  [Pg. gr?o grain. See Grain.] (Bot.) The East Indian name of
   the  chick-pea  (Cicer  arietinum)  and its seeds; also, other similar
   seeds there used for food.

                                 Gram, Gramme

   Gram,  Gramme  (?), n. [F. gramme, from Gr. ? that which is written, a
   letter,  a  small  weight,  fr.  ? to write. See Graphic.] The unit of
   weight  in  the  metric  system. It was intended to be exactly, and is
   very  nearly,  equivalent  to  the  weight  in  a  vacuum of one cubic
   centimeter of pure water at its maximum density. It is equal to 15.432
   grains.  See  Grain, n., 4. Gram degree, OR Gramme degree (Physics), a
   unit  of  heat,  being  the  amount  of  heat  necessary  to raise the
   temperature  of  one gram of pure water one degree centigrade. -- Gram
   equivalent  (Electrolysis),  that  quantity  of  the  metal which will
   replace one gram of hydrogen.

                                  Grama grass

   Gra"ma  grass`  (?).  [Sp.  grama a sort of grass.] (Bot.) The name of
   several  kinds  of pasture grasses found in the Western United States,
   esp. the Bouteloua oligostachya.


   Gram"a*rye  (?), n. [OE. gramer, grameri, gramori, grammar, magic, OF.
   gramaire, F. grammaire. See Grammar.] Necromancy; magic. Sir W. Scott.


   Gra*mash"es  (?), n. pl. [See Gamashes.] Gaiters reaching to the knee;

     Strong gramashes, or leggings of thick gray cloth. Sir W. Scott.


   Grame (?), n. [See Gram, a.]

   1. Anger; wrath; scorn. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. Sorrow; grief; misery. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gra*mer"cy (?), interj. [F. grand-merci. See Grand, and Mercy.] A word
   formerly used to express thankfulness, with surprise; many thanks.

     Gramercy, Mammon, said the gentle knight. Spenser.

   Page 644


   Gram"i*na"ceous  (?),  a. [L. gramen, graminis, grass.] Pertaining to,
   or resembling, the grasses; gramineous; as, graminaceous plants.


   Gra*min"e*al (?), a. Gramineous.


   Gra*min"e*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  gramineus, fr. gramen, graminis, grass.]
   (Bot.) Like, Or pertaining to, grass. See Grass, n., 2.


   Gram"i*ni*fo"li*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  gramen,  graminis,  grass + folium
   leaf.] (Bot.) Bearing leaves resembling those of grass.


   Gram"i*niv"o*rous  (?), a. [L. gramen, graminis, grass + vorare to eat
   greedily.]  Feeding or subsisting on grass, and the like food; -- said
   of horses, cattle, and other animals.


   Gram"ma*logue   (?),  n.  [Gr.  gra`mma  letter  +  lo`gos  word.  Cf.
   Logogram.]  (Phonography) Literally, a letter word; a word represented
   by a logogram; as, it, represented by |, that is, t. pitman.


   Gram"mar (?), n. [OE. gramere, OF. gramaire, F. grammaire Prob. fr. L.
   gramatica Gr Gramme, Graphic, and cf. Grammatical, Gramarye.]

   1.  The  science which treats of the principles of language; the study
   of  forms  of  speech,  and  their  relations  to one another; the art
   concerned  with  the  right  use  aud  application  of  the rules of a
   language, in speaking or writing.

     NOTE: &hand; The whole fabric of grammar rests upon the classifying
     of words according to their function in the sentence.


   2.  The  art  of  speaking or writing with correctness or according to
   established  usage;  speech  considered  with regard to the rules of a

     The original bad grammar and bad spelling. Macaulay.

   3.  A  treatise  on  the principles of language; a book containing the
   principles and rules for correctness in speaking or writing.

   4.  treatise  on  the  elements  or  principles  of any science; as, a
   grammar of geography.
   Comparative  grammar,  the  science  which determines the relations of
   kindred  languages by examining and comparing their grammatical forms.
   --  Grammar  school. (a) A school, usually endowed, in which Latin and
   Greek  grammar  are  taught,  as  also  other  studies  preparatory to
   colleges  or  universities;  as, the famous Rugby Grammar School. This
   use of the word is more common in England than in the United States.

     When any town shall increase to the number of a hundred families or
     householders,  they  shall  set  up  a  grammar  school, the master
     thereof  being  able to instruct youth so far as they may be fitted
     for the University. Mass. Records (1647).

   (b)  In  the  American system of graded common schools an intermediate
   grade  between  the  primary  school and the high school, in which the
   principles of English grammar are taught.<-- now = primary school -->


   Gram"mar, v. i. To discourse according to the rules of grammar; to use
   grammar. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Gram*ma"ri*an (?), n. [Cf. F. grammairien.]

   1.  One  versed  in  grammar,  or  the  construction  of  languages; a

     NOTE: &hand; "T he te rm was used by the classic ancients as a term
     of honorable distinction for all who were considered learned in any
     art or faculty whatever." Brande & C.

   2. One who writes on, or teaches, grammar.


   Gram*ma"ri*an*ism  (?), n. The principles, practices, or peculiarities
   of grammarians. [R.]


   Gram"mar*less (?), a. Without grammar.


   Gram"mates  (?),  n.  pl. [From Gr. Rudiments; first principles, as of
   grammar. [Obs.] Ford.


   Gram*mat"ic (?), a. Grammatical.


   Gram*mat"ic*al   (?),   a.   [L.   grammaticus,   grammaticalis;   Gr.
   grammatical. See Grammar.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  grammar;  of  the nature of grammar; as, a
   grammatical rule.

   2.  According  to the rules of grammar; grammatically correct; as, the
   sentence  is  not  grammatical;  the  construction is not grammatical.
   --Gram*mat"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Gram*mat"ic*al*ness, n.


   Gram*mat"icas"ter  (?),  n.  [LL.]  A  petty grammarian; a grammatical
   pedant or pretender.

     My noble Neophite, my little grammaticaster. B. Jonson.


   Gram*mat"i*ca"tion (?), n. A principle of grammar; a grammatical rule.
   [Obs.] Dalgarno.


   Gram*mat"i*cism  (?),  n.  A  point  or  principle  of  grammar.  Abp.


   Gram*mat"i*cize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grammaticized (?); p. pr. &
   vb. n. Grammaticizing (?).] To render grammatical. Fuller.


   Gram"ma*tist  (?),  n.  [L. grammatista schoolmaster, Gr. grammatiste.
   See Grammatical.] A petty grammarian. [R] Tooke.


   Gramme (?), n. Same as Gram the weight.

                                Gramme machine

   Gramme"  ma*chine"  (?). (Elec.) A kind of dynamo-electric machine; --
   so named from its French inventor, M. Gramme. Knight.


   Gram"pus (?), n.; pl. Grampuses (#). [Probably corrupted from It. gran
   pesce  great  fish,  or  Sp.  gran  pez, or Pg. gran peixe, all fr. L.
   grandis piscis. See Grand, and Fish. the animal.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  toothed  delphinoid cetacean, of the genus Grampus,
   esp. G. griseus of Europe and America, which is valued for its oil. It
   grows  to be fifteen to twenty feet long; its color is gray with white
   streaks. Called also cowfish. The California grampus is G. Stearnsii.

   2. A kind of tongs used in a bloomery. [U.S.]

                               Granade, Granado

   Gra*nade" (?), Gra*na"do (?), n. See Grenade.


   Grana*dil"la  (?),  n. [Sp., dim. of granada pomegranate. See Grenade,
   Garnet.]  (Bot.)  The fruit of certain species of passion flower (esp.
   Passiflora  quadrangularis) found in Brazil and the West Indies. It is
   as  large as a child's head, and is a good dessert fruit. The fruit of
   Passiflora edulis is used for flavoring ices.


   Gran"a*ry (?), n.; pl. Granaries (#). [L. granarium, fr. granum grain.
   See  Garner.]  A  storehouse or repository for grain, esp. after it is
   thrashed  or  husked;  a  cornbouse;  also (Fig.), a region fertile in
   grain.<--   in   this   sense,   equivalent   to  "breadbasket",  used
   figuratively -->

     The exhaustless granary of a world. Thomson.


   Gran"ate (?), n. See Garnet.


   Gra*na"tin  (?), n. [L. granatum the pomegranate.] (Chem.) Mannite; --
   so called because found in the pomegranate.


   Gran"a*tite (?), n. See Staurolite.


   Grand  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Grander (?); superl. Grandest.] [OE. grant,
   grount,  OF.  grant,  F.  grand,  fr. L. grandis; perh. akin to gravis
   heavy, E. grave, a. Cf. Grandee.]

   1. Of large size or extent; great; extensive; hence, relatively great;
   greatest;  chief;  principal;  as,  a  grand mountain; a grand army; a
   grand mistake. "Our grand foe, Satan." Milton.

     Making so bold . . . to unseal Their grand commission. Shak.

   2.  Great  in  size, and fine or imposing in appearance or impression;
   illustrious,   dignifled,   or  noble  (said  of  persons);  majestic,
   splendid,  magnificent,  or  sublime  (said  of  things);  as, a grand
   monarch;  a  grand  lord;  a  grand  general;  a  grand  view; a grand

     They are the highest models of expression, the unapproached masters
     of the grand style. M. Arnold. 

   3.  Having higher rank or more dignity, size, or importance than other
   persons or things of the same name; as, a grand lodge; a grand vizier;
   a grand piano, etc.

   4.  Standing  in the second or some more remote degree of parentage or
   descent;  -- generalIy used in composition; as, grandfather, grandson,
   grandchild, etc.

     What cause Mov'd our grand parents, in that happy state, Favor'd of
     Heaven so highly, to fall off From their Creator. Milton.

   Grand  action,  a  pianoforte  action,  used in grand pianos, in which
   special devices are employed to obtain perfect action of the hammer in
   striking  and  leaving  the  string. -- Grand Army of the Republic, an
   organized voluntary association of men who served in the Union army or
   navy  during  the  civil  war  in  the  United  States.  The order has
   chapters,  called  Posts,  throughout the country. -- Grand cross. (a)
   The  highest rank of knighthood in the Order of the Bath. (b) A knight
   grand  cross.  -- Grand cordon, the cordon or broad ribbon, identified
   with the highest grade in certain honorary orders; hence, a person who
   holds  that grade. -- Grand days (Eng. Law), certain days in the terms
   which  are  observed  as  holidays  in  the inns of court and chancery
   (Candlemas,  Ascension,  St.  John  Baptist's,  and All Saints' Days);
   called also Dies non juridici. -- Grand duchess. (a) The wife or widow
   of  a  grand duke. (b) A lady having the sovereignty of a duchy in her
   own right. (c) In Russia, a daughter of the Czar. -- Grand duke. (a) A
   sovereign  duke,  inferior  in  rank  to a king; as, the Grand Duke of
   Tuscany. (b) In Russia, a son of the Czar. (c) (Zo\'94l.) The European
   great  horned  owl  or  eagle  owl  (Bubo maximas). -- Grand-guard, OR
   Grandegarde,  a  piece  of plate armor used in tournaments as an extra
   protection  for the left shoulder and breast. -- Grand juror, a member
   of  a  grand jury. -- Grand jury (Law), a jury of not less than twelve
   men,  and  not  more  than  twenty-three, whose duty it is, in private
   session,  to  examine  into  accusations  against persons charged with
   crime,  and  if  they see just cause, then to find bills of indictment
   against  them,  to  be  presented  to  the court; -- called also grand
   inquest.  -- Grand juryman, a grand juror. -- Grand larceny. (Law) See
   under  Larceny.  --  Grand  lodge, the chief lodge, or governing body,
   among  Freemasons  and  other  secret orders. -- Grand master. (a) The
   head  of  one  of  the military orders of knighthood, as the Templars,
   Hospitallers,  etc. (b) The head of the order of Freemasons or of Good
   Templars,  etc.<-- (c) The highest rank for a chess player, awarded by
   a  national or international organization of chess players as a result
   of  winning  games  of  chess  against  other  ranked players in chess
   tournaments  officially sanctioned by that chess organization, such as
   FIDE.  By extension, (Figuratively) a person with the highest level of
   expertise  in  some  field. Also "grandmaster". --> -- Grand paunch, a
   glutton  or  gourmand.  [Obs.] Holland. -- Grand pensionary. See under
   Pensionary. -- Grand piano (Mus.), a large piano, usually harp-shaped,
   in  which  the  wires or strings are generally triplicated, increasing
   the  power,  and all the mechanism is introduced in the most effective
   manner,  regardless  of  the  size  of the instrument. -- Grand relief
   (Sculp.),  alto  relievo.  --  Grand  Seignior. See under Seignior. --
   Grand  stand,  the  principal stand, or erection for spectators, at a,
   race  course,  etc.  --  Grand  vicar  (Eccl.),  a principal vicar; an
   ecclesiastical  delegate in France. -- Grand vizier. See under Vizier.
   Syn.  -- Magnificent; sublime; majestic; dignified; elevated; stately;
   august;   pompous;  lofty;  eralted;  noble.  --  Grand,  Magnificent,
   Sublime.  Grand,  in reference to objects of taste, is applied to that
   which expands the mind by a sense of vastness and majesty; magnificent
   is  applied  to  anything which is imposing from its splendor; sublime
   describes  that  which  is awful and elevating. A cataract is grand; a
   rich  and varied landscape is magnificent; an overhanging precipice is
   sublime.   "Grandeur   admits   of   degrees  and  modifications;  but
   magnificence  is  that which has already reached the highest degree of
   superiority naturally belonging to the object in question." Crabb.


   Gran"dam  (?),  n.  [F.  grande,  fem. of grand + dame. See Grand, and
   Dame.] An old woman; specifically, a grandmother. Shak.


   Grand"aunt"  (?), n. [Cf. F. grand'tante.] The aunt of one's father or


   Grand"child"  (?),  n.  A  son's  or  daughter's child; a child in the
   second degree of descent.


   Grand"daugh"ter (?), n. The daughter of one's son or daughter.


   Gran*dee"  (?),  n. [Sp. grande. See Grand.] A man of elevated rank or
   station;  a  nobleman. In Spain, a nobleman of the first rank, who may
   be covered in the king's presence.


   Gran*dee"ship,  n.  The  rank  or  estate  of  a grandee; lordship. H.


   Gran"deur  (?), n. [F., fr. grand. See Grand.] The state or quality of
   being grand; vastness; greatness; splendor; magnificence; stateliness;
   sublimity;  dignity;  elevation  of thought or expression; nobility of

     Nor  doth  this  grandeur  and majestic show Of luxury . . . allure
     mine eye. Milton.

   Syn.  --  Sublimity;  majesty; stateliness; augustness; loftiness. See


   Gran*dev"i*ty  (?), n. [L. grandaevitas.] Great age; long life. [Obs.]


   Gran*de"vous  (?),  a.  [L. grandaevus; grandig grand+ aevum lifetime,
   age.] Of great age; aged; longlived. [R.] Bailey.


   Grand"-du"cal (?), a. Of or pertaining to a grand duke. H. James.


   Grand"fa"ther  (?),  n.  A father's or mother's father; an ancestor in
   the  next  degree  above  the  father  or  mother  in  lineal  ascent.
   Grandfather longlegs. (Zo\'94l.) See Dady longlegs.


   Grand"fa"ther*ly,  a.  Like  a  grandfather  in  age  or manner; kind;
   benignant; indulgent.

     He was a grandfatherly sort of personage. Hawthorne.


   Gran*dif"ic  (?), a. [L. grandificus; grandis grand + facere to make.]
   Making great. [R.] Bailey.


   Gran*dil"o*quence  (?), n. The use of lofty words or phrases; bombast;
   -- usually in a bad sense.

     The sin of grandiloquence or tall talking. Thackeray,


   Gran*dil"o*quent (?), a. [L. grandis grand + logui to speak.] Speaking
   in a lofty style; pompous; bombastic.


   Gran*dil"o*quous  (?),  a.  [L. grandiloquus; grandis grand + loqui to
   apeak.] Grandiloquent.


   Gran"di*nous  (?),  a.  [L. grandinosus, fr. qrando, grandinis, hail.]
   Consisting of hail; abounding in hail. [R.] Bailey.


   Gran"di*ose" (?), a. [F. grandiose, It. grandioso. See Grand.]

   1.  Impressive  or elevating in effect; vimposing; splendid; striking;
   -- in a good sense.

     The  tone of the parts was to be perpetually kept down in order not
     to impair the grandiose effect of the whole. M. Arnold.

     The grandiose red tulips which grow wild. C. Kingsley.

   2.  Characterized  by  affectation of grandeur or splendor; flaunting;
   turgid; bombastic; -- in a bad sense; as, a grandiose style.


   Gran"di*os"i*ty  (?),  n. [Cf. F. grandiosit\'82, It. grandiosit\'85.]
   The state or quality of being grandiose,


   Grand"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  granditas:  cf. OF. granit\'82. See Grand.]
   Grandness. [Obs.] Camden.


   Graud"ly, adv. In a grand manner.

                              Grandma, Grandmamma

   Grand"ma"  (?), Grand"mam*ma" (?), n. A grand mother. <-- Grandmaster.
   See grand master. -->

                                  Grand mercy

   Grand" mer"cy (?). See Gramercy. [Obs.]


   Grand"moth"er (?), n. The mother of one's father or mother.


   Grand"moth"er*ly,  a.  Like  a  grandmother  in  age  or manner; kind;


   Grand"neph"ew (?), n. The grandson of one's brother or sister.


   Grand"ness, n. Grandeur. Wollaston.


   Grand"niece" (?), n. The granddaughter of one's brother or sister.

                              Grandpa, Grandpapa

   Grand"pa" (?), Grand"pa*pa" (?), n. A grandfather.


   Grand"sire"   (?),   n.   [OF.   grantsire.   See  Grand,  and  Sire.]
   Specifically, a grandfather; more generally, any ancestor.


   Grand"son" (?), n. A son's or daughter's son.


   Graad"un"cle (?), n. [Cf. F. grand-oncle.] father's or mother's uncle.


   Grane (?), v. & n. See Groan. [Obs.]


   Grange  (?), n. [F. grange barn, LL. granea, from L. granum grain. See
   Grain a kernel.]

   1. A building for storing grain; a granary. [Obs.] Milton.

   2.  A  farmhouse,  with  the  barns  and  other  buildings for farming

     And  eke  an  officer  out  for to ride, To see her granges and her
     bernes wide. Chaucer.

     Nor burnt the grange, nor bussed the milking maid. Tennyson.

   3.  A  farmhouse  of  a monastery, where the rents and tithes, paid in
   grain, were deposited. [Obs.]

   4.  A  farm;  generally,  a  farm  with  a  house  at  a distance from

   5. An association of farmers, designed to further their interests, aud
   particularly   to   bring   producers   and   consumers,  farmers  and
   manufacturers,  into direct commercial relations, without intervention
   of  middlemen  or traders. The first grange was organized in 1867. [U.


   Gran"ger (?), n.

   1. A farm steward. [Obs.]

   2. A member of a grange. [U. S.]


   Gran"ger*ism  (?),  n.  [So  called from the Rev. James Granger, whose
   "Biographical  History  of  England"  (1769)  was  a favorite book for
   illustration   in   this  manner.]  The  practice  of  illustrating  a
   particular book by engravings collected from other books.


   Gran"ger*ite (?), n. One who collects illustrations from various books
   for the decoration of one book.


   Gran"ger*ize (?), v. t. & i. To collect (illustrations from books) for
   decoration of other books. G. A. Sala. 


   Gra*nif"er*ous (?), a. [L. qranifer; granum grain + ferre to bear: cf.
   F. granif\'8are.] Bearing grain, or seeds like grain. Humble.


   Gran"i*form  (?),  a.  [L.  granum  grain + -form; cf. F. graniforme.]
   Formed like of corn.


   Gra*nil"la  (?),  n.  [Sp.,  small  seed.]  Small  grains  or  dust of
   cochineal or the coccus insect.


   Gran"ite  (?), n. [It. granito granite, adj., grainy, p. p. of granire
   to  make  grainy,  fr.  L.  granum  grain;  cf. F. granit. See Grain.]
   (Geol.)  A crystalline, granular rock, consisting of quartz, feldspar,
   and  mica,  and  usually of a whitish, grayish, or flesh-red color. It
   differs  from gneiss in not having the mica in planes, and therefor in
   being destitute of a schistose structure.

     NOTE: &hand; Va rieties co ntaining hornblende are common. See also
     the Note under Mica.

   <-- p. 645 --> Gneissoid granite, granite in which the mica has traces
   of  a  regular  arrangement. -- Graphic granite, granite consisting of
   quartz  and  feldspar  without mica, and having the quartz crystals so
   arranged  in  the  transverse  section  like  oriental  characters. --
   Porphyritic granite, granite containing feldspar in distinct crystals.
   --   Hornblende  granite,  or  Syenitic  granite,  granite  containing
   hornblende  as  well  as  mica,  or,  according  to  some  authorities
   hornblende  replacing  the  mica.  --  Granite  ware.  (a)  A  kind of
   stoneware.  (b)  A  Kind of ironware, coated with an enamel resembling


   Gra*nit"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. granitique.]

   1.  Like  granite  in  composition,  color, etc.; having the nature of
   granite; as, granitic texture.

   2. Consisting of granite; as, granitic mountains.


   Gra*nit"ic*al (?), a. Granitic.


   Gra*nit`i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Granite + L. -ficare (in comp.) to make.
   See -fy.] The act or the process of forming into granite. Humble.


   Gra*nit"i*form  (?),  a. [Granite + -form.] (Geol.) Resembling granite
   in structure or shape.


   Gran"i*toid (?), a. [Granite + -oid: cf. F. granito\'8bde.] Resembling
   granite  in  granular  appearance;  as,  granitoid gneiss; a granitoid


   Gra*niv"o*rous  (?),  a.  [L.  granum grain + vorare to devour: cf. F.
   granivore.]   Eating  grain;  feeding  or  subsisting  on  seeds;  as,
   granivorous  birds.  <--  seed-eating.  not  same  as graminivorous? =
   feeding on grass or the seeds of grass. latter is for beasts. --> Gay.


   Gran"nam (?), n. A grandam. [Colloq.]


   Gran"ny  (?),  n.  A grandmother; a grandam; familiarly, an old woman.
   Granny's  bend,  OR  Granny's knot (Naut.), a kind of insecure knot or
   hitch; a reef knot crossed the wrong way.


   Gran`o*lith"ic  (?),  n.  [L. granum a grain (or E. granite) + -lith +
   -ic.] A kind of hard artificial stone, used for pavements.


   Grant  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Granted; p. pr. & vb. n. Granting.]
   [OE.  graunten, granten, OF. graanter, craanter, creanter, to promise,
   yield,  LL. creantare to promise, assure, for (assumed LL.) credentare
   to  make  believe,  fr.  L. credens, p. pr. of credere to believe. See
   Creed, Credit.]

   1.  To  give  over;  to  make conveyance of; to give the possession or
   title of; to convey; -- usually in answer to petition.

     Grant me the place of this threshing floor. 1 Chrcn. xxi. 22.

   2.  To bestow or confer, with or without compensation, particularly in
   answer to prayer or request; to give.

     Wherefore did God grant me my request. Milton.

   3.  To  admit  as true what is not yet satisfactorily proved; to yield
   belief to; to allow; to yield; to concede.

     Grant that the Fates have firmed by their decree. Dryden.

   Syn.--  To  give;  confer;  bestow;  convey;  transfer;  admit; allow;
   concede. See Give.


   Grant, v. i. To assent; to consent. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Grant,  n. [OE. grant, graunt, OF. graant, creant, promise, assurance.
   See Grant, v. t.]

   1.  The  act  of  granting;  a  bestowing  or  conferring; concession;
   allowance; permission.

   2. The yielding or admission of something in dispute.

   3. The thing or property granted; a gift; a boon.

   4.  (Law)  A  transfer  of property by deed or writing; especially, au
   appropriation  or  conveyance  made  by the government; as, a grant of
   land  or  of money; also, the deed or writing by which the transfer is

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rmerly, in  En glish law, the term was specifically
     applied   to  transfrrs  of  incorporeal  hereditaments,  expectant
     estates, and letters patent from government and such is its present
     application  in  some of the United States. But now, in England the
     usual  mode  of transferring realty is by grant; and so, in some of
     the  United  States,  the  term  grant is applied to conveyances of
     every kind of real property.

   Bouvier. Burrill.


   Grant"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being granted.


   Gran*tee"  (?),  n.  (Law) The person to whom a grant or conveyance is

     His grace will not survive the poor grantee he despises. Burke.


   Grant"er (?), n. One who grants.


   Grant"or  (?),  n.  (Law)  The person by whom a grant or conveyance is


   Gran"u*lar (?), a. [Cf. F. granulaire. See Granule.] Consisting of, or
   resembling,  grains;  as,  a  granular  substance. Granular limestone,
   crystalline limestone, or marble, having a granular structure.


   Gran"u*lar*ly (?), adv. In a granular form.


   Gran"u*la*ry (?), a. Granular.


   Gran"u*late  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Granulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Granulating (?).] [See Granule.]

   1.  To  form  into  grains  or  small masses; as, to granulate powder,
   sugar, or metal.

   2.  To  raise  in  granules  or small asperities; to make rough on the


   Gran"u*late, v. i. To collect or be formed into grains; as, cane juice
   granulates into sugar.

                             Granulate, Granulated

   Gran"u*late (?), Gran"u*la`ted (?), a.

   1.  Consisting  of,  or  resembling,  grains;  crystallized in grains;
   granular; as, granulated sugar.

   2. Having numerous small elevations, as shagreen.
   Granulated  steel,  a  variety  of  steel made by a particular process
   beginning with the granulation of pig iron.


   Gran`u*la"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. granulation.]

   1. The act or process of forming or crystallizing into grains; as, the
   granulation of powder and sugar.

   2. The state of being granulated.

   3.  (Med.) (a) One of the small, red, grainlike prominences which form
   on  a  raw  surface  (that of wounds or ulcers), and are the efficient
   agents  in  the  process  of  healing.  (b)  The act or process of the
   formation of such prominences.


   Gran"ule  (?),  n. [L. granulum, dim. of granum grain: cf. F. granule.
   See Grain a kernel.] A little grain a small particle; a pellet.


   Gran`u*lif"er*ous (?), a. [Granule + -ferous.] Full of granulations.


   Gra*nu"li*form  (?),  a.  [Granule  + -form.] (Min.) Having a granular
   structure; granular; as, granuliform limestone.


   Gran"u*lite  (?), n. [From Granule.] (Geol.) A whitish, granular rock,
   consisting  of  feldspar  and  quartz  intimately  mixed; -- sometimes
   called whitestone, and leptynite.


   Gran"u*lose`  (?),  n.  [From  Granule.]  (Physiol.  Chem.)  The  main
   constituent  of  the  starch grain or granule, in distinction from the
   framework  of  cellulose.  Unlike  cellulose,  it  is  colored blue by
   iodine,  and  is converted into dextrin and sugar by boiling acids and
   amylolytic ferments.


   Gran"u*lous (?), a. [Cf. F. granuleux.] Full of grains; abounding with
   granular substances; granular.


   Grape  (?),  n.  [OF.  grape,  crape,  bunch  or cluster of grapes, F.
   grappe,  akin  to  F. grappin grapnel, hook; fr. OHG. chrapfo hook, G.
   krapfen,  akin to E. cramp. The sense seems to have come from the idea
   of clutching. Cf. Agraffe, Cramp, Grapnel, Grapple.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  well-known  edible berry growing in pendent clusters or
   bunches on the grapevine. The berries are smooth-skinned, have a juicy
   pulp,  and  are  cultivated  in great quantities for table use and for
   making wine and raisins.

   2. (Bot.) The plant which bears this fruit; the grapevine.

   3. (Man.) A mangy tumor on the leg of a horse.

   4. (Mil.) Grapeshot.
   Grape  borer. (Zo\'94l.) See Vine borer. -- Grape curculio (Zo\'94l.),
   a  minute  black  weevil  (Craponius in\'91qualis) which in the larval
   state  eats the interior of grapes. -- Grape flower, OR Grape hyacinth
   (Bot.),  a  liliaceous  plant  (Muscari  racemosum)  with  small  blue
   globular  flowers  in a dense raceme. -- Grape fungus (Bot.), a fungus
   (Oidium   Tuckeri)   on  grapevines;  vine  mildew.  --  Grape  hopper
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  Small  yellow  and  red hemipterous insect, often very
   injurious  to the leaves of the grapevine. -- Grape moth (Zo\'94l.), a
   small  moth  (Eudemis  botrana),  which  in  the larval state eats the
   interior  of grapes, and often binds them together with silk. -- Grape
   of  a  cannon, the cascabel or knob at the breech. -- Grape sugar. See
   Glucose.  --  Grape  worm  (Zo\'94l.), the larva of the grape moth. --
   Soar  grapes,  things which persons affect to despise because they can
   not  possess  them;  --  in allusion to sop's fable of the fox and the

                                  Grape fruit

   Grape" fruit`. The shaddock.


   Grape"less, a. Wanting grapes or the flavor of grapes.


   Grap"er*y  (?), n. A building or inclosure used for the cultivation of


   Grape"shot` (?), n. (Mil.) A cluster, usually nine in number, of small
   iron  balls, put together by means of cast-iron circular plates at top
   and  bottom, with two rings, and a central connecting rod, in order to
   be  used as a charge for a cannon. Formerly grapeshot were inclosed in
   canvas bags.


   Grape"stone` (?), n. A seed of the grape.


   Grape"vine`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  vine or climbing shrub, of the genus
   Vitis,  having  small  green flowers and lobed leaves, and bearing the
   fruit called grapes.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon gr apevine of  th e Ol d Wo rld is  Vitis
     vinifera,  and is a native of Central Asia. Another variety is that
     yielding  small seedless grapes commonly called Zante currants. The
     northern  Fox  grape  of the United States is the V. Labrusca, from
     which,  by cultivation, has come the Isabella variety. The southern
     Fox  grape,  or Muscadine, is the V. vulpina. The Frost grape is V.
     cordifolia,  which  has very fragrant flowers, and ripens after the
     early frosts.


   -graph  (  [From  Gr.  gra`fein  to  write.  See  Graphic.]  A  suffix
   signifying something written, a writing; also, a writer; as autograph,
   crystograph, telegraph, photograph.

                              Graphic, Graphical

   Graph"ic  (?),  Graph"ic*al  (?), a. [L. graphicus, Gr. graphique. See

   1. Of or pertaining to the arts of painting and drawing.

   2. Of or pertaining to the art of writing.

   3. Written or engraved; formed of letters or lines.

     The  finger of God hath left an inscription upon all his works, not
     graphical, or composed of letters. Sir T. Browne. 

   4. Well delineated; clearly and vividly described.

   5.  Having  the  faculty of, or characterized by, clear and impressive
   description; vivid; as, a gruphic writer.
   Graphic  algebra,  a  branch  of  algebra  in which, the properties of
   equations  are  treated  by  the  use of curves and straight lines. --
   Graphic  arts,  a  name  given to those fine arts which pertain to the
   representation  on a fiat surface of natural objects; as distinguished
   from music, etc., and also from sculpture. -- Graphic formula. (Chem.)
   See  under  Formula. -- Graphic granite. See under Granite. -- Graphic
   method,  the  method of scientific analysis or investigation, in which
   the  relations  or laws involved in tabular numbers are represented to
   the  eye  by means of curves or other figures; as the daily changes of
   weather by means of curves, the abscissas of which represent the hours
   of   the   day,   and  the  ordinates  the  corresponding  degrees  of
   temperature.  --  Graphical  statics  (Math.), a branch of statics, in
   which the magnitude, direction, and position of forces are represented
   by straight lines -- Graphic tellurium. See Sylvanite.>


   Graph"ic*al*ly (?), adv. In a graphic manner; vividly.

                          Graphicness, Graphicalness

   Graph"ic*ness,  Graph"ic*al*ness,  n.  The  quality  or state of being


   Graph"ics  (?),  n. The art or the science of drawing; esp. of drawing
   according  to  mathematical  rules, as in perspective, projection, and
   the like.


   Graph"i*scope (?), n. See Graphoscope.


   Graph"ite (?), n. [Gr. graphite. See Graphic.] (Min.) Native carbon in
   hexagonal  crystals, also foliated or granular massive, of black color
   and  metallic  luster, and so soft as to leave a trace on paper. It is
   used  for pencils (improperly called lead pencils), for crucibles, and
   as  a  lubricator,  etc. Often called plumbago or black lead. Graphite
   battery  (Elec.),  a  voltaic battery consisting of zinc and carbon in
   sulphuric acid, or other exciting liquid.


   Gra*phit"ic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  containing,  derived  from, or
   resembling,  graphite.  Graphitic  acid  (Chem.),  an organic acid, so
   called  because  obtained  by  the  oxidation  of graphite; -- usually
   called  mellitic  acid.  --  Graphitic  carbon, in iron or steel, that
   portion of the carbon which is present as graphite. Raymond.

                           Graphitoid, Graphitoidal

   Graph"i*toid  (?),  Graph"i*toid"al  (?),  a.  Resembling  graphite or


   Graph"o*lite  (?),  n. [Gr. -lite: cf. F. grapholithe.] Any species of
   slate suitable to be written on.


   Gra*phol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -logy:  cf. F. graphologie.] The art of
   judging  of  a  person's character, disposition, and aptitude from his


   Graph"o*scope   (?),  n.  [Gr.  -scope.]  An  optical  instrument  for
   magnifying  engravings,  photographs,  etc.,  usually having one large
   lens and two smaller ones.


   Graph"o*type  (?), n. [Gr. -type.] (Engraving) A process for producing
   a  design  upon  a  surface  in relief so that it can be printed from.
   Prepared  chalk  or  oxide of zinc is pressed upon a smooth plate by a
   hydraulic  press,  and the design is drawn upon this in a peculiar ink
   which  hardens the surface wherever it is applied. The surface is then
   carefully rubbed or brushed, leaving the lines in relief.


   -gra*phy  (?).  [Gr. Graphic.] A suffix denoting the art of writing or
   describing;  also,  the writing or description itself; a treatise; as,
   calligraphy, biography, geography.


   Grap"nel  (?),  n. [OE. grapenel, dim. fr. F. grappin the grapple of a
   ship;  of German origin. See Grape.] (Naut.) A small anchor, with four
   or  five  flukes or claws, used to hold boats or small vessels; hence,
   any  instrument designed to grapple or hold; a grappling iron; a grab;
   -- written also grapline, and crapnel.


   Grap"ple  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Grappled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Grappling (?).] [F. grappiller, OF. graypil the grapple of a ship, fr.
   graper  to  pluck,  prop.,  to  seize,  clutch;  of German origin. See

   1.  To seize; to lay fast hold of; to attack at close quarters: as, to
   grapple an antagonist.

   2. To fasten, as with a grapple; to fix; to join indissolubly.

     The gallies were grappled to the Centurion. Hakluyt.

     Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel. Shak.


   Grap"ple, v. i. To use a grapple; to contend in close fight; to attach
   one's self as if by a grapple, as in wrestling; to close; to seize one
   another.  To  grapple with, to enter into contest with, resolutely and

     And in my standard bear the arms of York, To grapple with the house
     of Lancaster. Shak.


   Grap"ple, n. [See Grapple, v. t., and cf. Crapple.]

   1.  A  seizing  or seizure; close hug in contest; the wrestler's hold.

   2.  (a)  An  instrument,  usually  with  hinged claws, for seizing and
   holding fast to an object; a grab. (b) (Naut.) A grappling iron.

     The iron hooks and grapples keen. Spenser.

   Grapple plant (Bot.), a South African herb (Herpagophytum leptocarpum)
   having  the  woody  fruits  armed with long hooked or barbed thorns by
   which  they  adhere  to  cattle, causing intense annoyance. -- Grapple
   shot (Life-saving Service), a projectile, to which are attached hinged
   claws to catch in a ship's rigging or to hold in the ground; -- called
   also anchor shot.


   Grapple*ment  (?),  n.  A  grappling;  close  fight or embrace. [Obs.]

   Page 646


   Grap"pling (?), n.

   1.  A  laying fast ho1d of; also, that by which anything is seized and
   held, a grapnel.

   2. A grapple; a struggle. A match for yards in fight, in grappling for
   the bear. Dryden.
   Grappling  iron,  a  hooked iron used for grappling and holding fast a
   vessel  or  other  object. -- Grappling tongs, broad-mouthed tongs for
   gathering oysters.


   Grap"soid  (?),  a. [NL. Grapsus + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the
   genus Grapsus or the family Grapsid\'91. -- n. A grapsoid crab.


   Grap"to*lite  (?),  n.  [NL,  Graptolithus,  from Gr. (Paleon.) One of
   numerous  species  of  slender  and  delicate  fossils,  of  the genus
   Graptolites  and  allied  genera,  found  in  the Silurian rocks. They
   belong to an extinct group (Graptolithina) supposed to be hydroids.


   Grap"to*lit`ic  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to graptolites; containing
   graptolites; as, a graptolitic slate.


   Grap"y (?), a. Composed of, or resembling, grapes.

     The grapy clusters. Addison.


   Grasp (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grasper (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Qraspine.]
   [OE.  graspen;  prob.  akin  to LG. grupsen, or to E. grope. Cf. Grab,

   1.  To  seize  and  hold  by clasping or embracing with the fingers or
   arms; to catch to take possession of.

     Thy hand is made to grasp a palmer's staff. Shak.

   2.  To  lay  hold of with the mind; to become thoroughly acquainted or
   conversant with; to comprehend.


   Grasp,  v.  i.  To  effect a grasp; to make the motion of grasping; to
   clutch; to struggle; to strive.

     As  one  that  grasped  And  tugged  for  life  and was by strength
     subdued. Shak.

   To  grasp  at,  to catch at; to try to seize; as, Alexander grasped at
   universal empire,


   Grasp, n.

   1.  A gripe or seizure of the hand; a seizure by embrace, or infolding
   in the arms. "The grasps of love." Shak.

   2.  Reach of the arms; hence, the power of seizing and holding; as, it
   was beyond his grasp.

   3. Forcible possession; hold.

     The whole space that's in the tyrant's grasp. Shak.

   4.  Wide-reaching  power  of intellect to comprehend subjects and hold
   them under survey.

     The  foremost  minds  of  the  next . . . era were not, in power of
     grasp, equal to their predecessors. Z. Taylor.

   5. The handle of a sword or of an oar.


   Grasp"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being grasped.


   Graap"er (?), n. One who grasps or seizes; one who catches or holds.


   Grasp"ing, a.

   1. Seizing; embracing; catching.

   2.  Avaricious;  greedy of gain; covetous; close; miserly; as, he is a
   grasping man. -- Grasp"ing*ly, adv. -- Grasp"ing*ness, n.


   Grasp"less, a. Without a grasp; relaxed.

     From   my   graspless   hand  Drop  friendship's  precious  pearls.


   Grass  (?), n. [OE. gras, gres, gers, AS, qr, g; akin to OFries. gres,
   gers,  OS., D., G., Icel., & Goth. gras, Dan. gr, Sw. gr, and prob. to
   Z. grcen, grow. Cf. Graze.]

   1.  Popularly: Herbage; the plants which constitute the food of cattle
   and other beasts; pasture.

   2.  (Bot.)  An endogenous plant having simple leaves, a stem generally
   jointed  and  tubular,  the  husks  or  glumes  in pairs, and the seed

     NOTE: &hand; Th is de finition in cludes wh eat, rye, oats, barley,
     etc.,  and excludes clover and some other plants which are commonly
     called  by the name of grass. The grasses form a numerous family of

   3. The season of fresh grass; spring. [Colloq.]

     Two years old next grass. Lathsm.

   4. Metaphorically used for what is transitory.

     Surely the people is grass. Is. xl. 7.

     NOTE: &hand; The following list includes most of the grasses of the
     United  States  of  special interest, except cereals. Many of these
     terms  will  be  found  with  definitions  in  the  Vocabulary. See
     Illustrations in Appendix.

   Barnyard  grass, for hay. South. Panicum Grus-galli. Bent, pasture and
   hay. Agrostis, several species. Bermuda grass, pasture. South. Cynodon
   Dactylon.  Black  bent.  Same as Switch grass (below). Blue bent, hay.
   North  and  West.  Andropogon  provincialis.  Blue grass, pasture. Poa
   compressa.  Blue  joint,  hay.  Northwest.  Aqropyrum glaucum. Buffalo
   grass,  grazing. Rocky Mts., etc. (a) Buchlo\'89 dectyloides. (b) Same
   as  Grama  grass  (below).  <--  here spelled "gramma" in original -->
   Bunch  grass, grazing. Far West. Eriocoma, Festuca, Stips, etc. Chess,
   OR  Cheat,  a  weed. Bromus secalinus, etc. Couch grass. Same as Quick
   grass  (below).  Crab  grass,  (a)  Hay,  in  South. A weed, in North.
   Panicum  sanguinale.  (b)  Pasture  and  hay.  South. Eleusine Indica.
   Darnel  (a)  Bearded,  a  noxious weed. Lolium temulentum. (b) Common.
   Same  as  Rye  grass  (below).  Drop  seed,  fair  for forage and hay.
   Muhlenbergia,  several species. English grass. Same as Redtop (below).
   Fowl  meadow  grass.  (a)  Pasture  and hay. Poa serotina. (b) Hay, on
   moist land. Gryceria nervata. Gama grass, cut fodder. South. Tripsacum
   dactyloides.  <--  spelled here (as in modern dictionaries) "Grama" in
   original,  but  references  are  to "gramma" --> Grama grass, grazing.
   West  and  Pacific  slope.  Bouteloua  oligostachya,  etc. Great bunch
   grass,  pasture  and  hay.  Far West. Festuca scabrella. Guinea grass,
   hay.  South. Panicum jumentorum. Herd's grass, in New England Timothy,
   in  Pennsylvania  and  South  Redtop. Indian grass. Same as Wood grass
   (below).  Italian  rye grass, forage and hay. Lolium Italicum. Johnson
   grass,  grazing  aud  hay.  South  and  Southwest.  Sorghum Halepense.
   Kentucky  blue  grass, pasture. Poa pratensis. Lyme grass, coarse hay.
   South.   Elymus,  several  species.  Manna  grass,  pasture  and  hay.
   Glyceria,  several  species.  Meadow  fescue, pasture and hay. Festuca
   elatior.   Meadow  foxtail,  pasture,  hay,  lawn.  North.  Alopecurus
   pratensis.  Meadow  grass,  pasture,  hay, lawn. Poa, several species.
   Mesquite,  OR  Muskit  grass.  Same  as  Grama grass (above). <-- here
   spelled  "gramma"  in  original  --> Nimble Will, a kind of drop seed.
   Muhlenbergia   diffsa.   Orchard  grass,  pasture  and  hay.  Dactylis
   glomerata.  Porcupine  grass,  troublesome  to sheep. Northwest. Stipa
   spartea. Quaking grass, ornamental. Briza media and maxima. Quitch, or
   Quick,  grass,  etc., a weed. Agropyrum repens. Ray grass. Same as Rye
   grass  (below). Redtop, pasture and hay. Agrostis vulgaris. Red-topped
   buffalo  grass,  forage. Northwest. Poa tenuifolia. Reed canary grass,
   of  slight value. Phalaris arundinacea. Reed meadow grass, hay. North.
   Glyceria  aquatica. Ribbon grass, a striped leaved form of Reed canary
   grass.  Rye  grass,  pasture,  hay. Lolium perenne, var. Seneca grass,
   fragrant  basket  work, etc. North. Hierochloa borealis. Sesame grass.
   Same  as  Gama grass (above). Sheep's fescue, sheep pasture, native in
   Northern  Europe  and  Asia.  Festuca  ovina. Small reed grass, meadow
   pasture  and  hay.  North.  Deyeuxia  Canadensis. Spear grass, Same as
   Meadow  grass  (above).  Squirrel-tail  grass, troublesome to animals.
   Seacoast and Northwest. Hordeum jubatum. Switch grass, hay, cut young.
   Panicum  virgatum.  Timothy, cut young, the best of hay. North. Phleum
   pratense.  Velvet  grass,  hay  on  poor  soil. South. Holcus lanatus.
   Vernal  grass,  pasture, hay, lawn. Anthoxanthum odoratum. Wire grass,
   valuable  in  pastures.  Poa compressa. Wood grass, Indian grass, hay.
   Chrysopogon nutans.
     NOTE: &hand; Many plants are popularly called grasses which are not
     true  grasses  botanically  considered,  such as black grass, goose
     grass, star grass, etc.
   Black  grass,  a  kind of small rush (Juncus Gerardi), growing in salt
   marshes,  used  for  making  salt  hay.  -- Grass of the Andes, an oat
   grass,  the Arrhenatherum avenaceum of Europe.-- Grass of Parnassus, a
   plant  of  the  genus  Parnassia  growing  in wet ground. The European
   species  is  P.  palustris;  in  the  United  States there are several
   species. -- Grass bass (Zo\'94l.), the calico bass. -- Grass bird, the
   dunlin.  --  Grass  cloth,  a cloth woven from the tough fibers of the
   grass-cloth  plant.  --  Grass-cloth  plant,  a  perennial herb of the
   Nettle  family  (B\'d2hmeria  nivea  or  Urtica nivea), which grows in
   Sumatra, China, and Assam, whose inner bark has fine and strong fibers
   suited  for  textile purposes. -- Grass finch. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A common
   American  sparrow  (Po\'94c\'91tes  gramineus);  -- called also vesper
   sparrow and bay-winged bunting. (b) Any Australian finch, of the genus
   Po\'89phila, of which several species are known. -- Grass lamb, a lamb
   suckled by a dam running on pasture land and giving rich milk.-- Grass
   land, land kept in grass and not tilled. -- Grass moth (Zo\'94l.), one
   of  many  small  moths  of the genus Crambus, found in grass. -- Grass
   oil, a fragrant essential volatile oil, obtained in India from grasses
   of  the genus Andropogon, etc.; -- used in perfumery under the name of
   citronella, ginger grass oil, lemon grass oil, essence of verbena etc.
   --  Grass  owl  (Zo\'94l.),  a  South African owl (Strix Capensis). --
   Grass  parrakeet  (Zo\'94l.),  any  of  several  species of Australian
   parrots,  of  the  genus  Euphemia;  --  also  applied  to  the  zebra
   parrakeet.  -- Grass plover (Zo\'94l.), the upland or field plover. --
   Grass  poly  (Bot.),  a  species of willowwort (Lythrum Hyssopifolia).
   Johnson.  --  Crass  quit (Zo\'94l.), one of several tropical American
   finches  of  the  genus  Euetheia. The males have most of the head and
   chest  black  and  often marked with yellow.-- Grass snake. (Zo\'94l.)
   (a)  The  common  English, or ringed, snake (Tropidonotus natrix). (b)
   The common green snake of the Northern United States. See Green snake,
   under Green. -- Grass snipe (Zo\'94l.), the pectoral sandpiper (Tringa
   maculata)  --  called  also  jacksnipe  in  America.  --  Grass spider
   (Zo\'94l.),  a common spider (Agelena n\'91via), which spins flat webs
   on   grass,  conspicuous  when  covered  with  dew.  --  Grass  sponge
   (Zo\'94l.), an inferior kind of commercial sponge from Florida and the
   Bahamas.  --  Grass  table.  (Arch.)  See Earth table, under Earth. --
   Grass vetch (Bot.), a vetch (Lathyrus Nissolia), with narrow grasslike
   leaves.  --  Grass  widow.  [Cf.  Prov.  R.  an  unmarried  mother, G.
   strohwittwe  a  mock  widow,  Sw.  gr\'84senka  a grass widow.] (a) An
   unmarried woman who is a mother. [Obs.] (b) A woman separated from her
   husband by abandonment or prolonged absence; a woman living apart from
   her  husband.  [Slang.] -- Grass wrack (Bot.) eelgrass. -- To bring to
   grass (Mining.), to raise, as ore, to the surface of the ground. -- To
   put  to  grass,  To put out to grass, to put out to graze a season, as


   Grass (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grassed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Grassing.]

   1. To cover with grass or with turf.

   2. To expose, as flax, on the grass for bleaching, etc.

   3.  To  bring  to  the  grass or ground; to land; as, to grass a fish.


   Grass (?), v. i. To produce grass. [R.] Tusser>/au>. 


   Gras*sa"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  grassatio,  from grassari to go about.] A
   wandering about with evil intentions; a rioting. [Obs. & R.] Feltham.


   Grass"-green` (?), a.

   1. Green with grass.

   2. Of the color of grass; clear and vivid green.


   Grass"-grown` (?), a. Overgrown with grass; as, a grass-grown road.


   Grass"hop`per (?), n.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  jumping,  orthopterous  insect,  of  the families
   Acridid\'91   and  Locustid\'91.  The  species  and  genera  are  very
   numerous. The former family includes the Western grasshopper or locust
   (Caloptenus spretus), noted for the great extent of its ravages in the
   region  beyond  the  Mississippi.  In  the  Eastern  United States the
   red-legged (Caloptenus femurrubrum and C. atlanis) are closely related
   species,  but  their  ravages  are  less  important.  They are closely
   related  to  the  migratory  locusts of the Old World. See Locust. <--
   atlanis in original. Atlantis? -->

     NOTE: &hand; Th e me adow or  gr een gr asshoppers be long to  th e
     Locustid\'91.  They  have  long  antenn\'91, large ovipositors, and
     stridulating  organs  at  the  base  of  the wings in the male. The
     European  great  green grasshopper (Locusta viridissima) belongs to
     this  family.  The  common  American green species mostly belong to
     Xiphidium, Orchelimum, and Conocephalus.

   2. In ordinary square or upright pianos of London make, the escapement
   lever  or jack, so made that it can be taken out and replaced with the
   key; -- called also the hopper. Grove.
   Grasshopper  engine,  a  steam  engine  having a working beam with its
   fulcrum  at  one  end,  the  steam  cylinder at the other end, and the
   connecting  rod  at  an  intermediate  point.  --  Grasshopper lobster
   (Zo\'94l.)  a  young  lobster.  [Local,  U. S.] -- Grasshopper warbler
   (Zo\'94l.), cricket bird.


   Grass"i*ness (?), n. [From Grassy.] The state of abounding with grass;
   a grassy state.


   Grass"less, a. Destitute of grass.


   Grass"plot`  (?), n. A plot or space covered with grass; a lawn. "Here
   on this grassplot." Shak.

                                  Grass tree

   Grass"  tree"  (?).  (Bot.)  (a)  An  Australian  plant  of  the genus
   Xanthorrh\'d2a,  having  a  thick  trunk  crowned with a dense tuft of
   pendulous,  grasslike  leaves,  from the center of which arises a long
   stem, bearing at its summit a dense flower spike looking somewhat like
   a  large  cat-tail. These plants are often called "blackboys" from the
   large  trunks  denuded  and blackened by fire. They yield two kinds of
   fragrant  resin,  called  Botany-bay  gum,  and  Gum  Acaroides. (b) A
   similar Australian plant (Kingia australis).


   Grass"y (?) a.

   1.  Covered  with  grass;  abounding  with  grass;  as, a grassy lawn.

   2. Resembling grass; green.


   Grate (?), a. [L. gratus agreeable, grateful: cf. It. & Sp. grato. See
   Grace,  and  cf.  Agree.] Serving to gratify; agreeable. [Obs.] Sir T.


   Grate, n. [LL.. grata, fr. L. crates hurdle; or It. grata, of the same
   origin. Sae Crate, Hurdle.]

   1.  A  structure  or  frame  containing  parallel or crosed bars, with
   interstices;  a kind of latticework, such as is used ia the windows of
   prisons and cloisters. "A secret grate of iron bars." Shak.

   2.  A  frame or bed, or kind of basket, of iron bars, for holding fuel
   while burning.
   Grate  surface  (Steam,  Boiler)  the area of the surface of the grate
   upon which the fuel lies in the furnace.


   Grate,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Grated; p. pr. &. vb. n. Grating.] To
   furnish  with  grates;  to protect with a grating or crossbars; as, to
   grate a window.


   Grate,  v.  t. [OF grater to scrape, scratch, F. gratter, LL. gratare,
   cratare;  of  German  origin;  cf.  OHG.  chrazz&omac;n G. kratzen, D.
   krassen, Sw. Kratta, and perh. E. scratch.]

   1.  To  rub roughly or harshly, as one body against another, causing a
   harsh  sound;  as,  to  grate the teeth; to produce (a harsh sound) by

     On their hinges grate Harsh thunder. Milton.

   2.  To  reduce  to  small  particles by rubbing with anything rough or
   indented; as, to grate a nutmeg.

   3. To fret; to irritate; to offend.

     News, my good lord Rome . . . grates me. Shak.


   Grate, v. i.

   1. To make a harsh sound by friction.

     I had rather hear a brazen canstick turned, Or a dry wheel grate on
     the exletree. Shak.

   2.  To  produce  the  effect of rubbing with a hard rough material; to
   cause  wearing,  tearing, or bruising. Hence; To produce exasperation,
   soreness, or grief; to offend by oppression or importunity.

     This grated harder upon the hearts of men. South.

   <-- p. 647 this page badly done -- in need of careful proofing -->


   Grat"ed  (?),  a.  [From 2d Grate.] Furnished with a grate or grating;
   as, grated windows.


   Grate"ful  (?), a. [Grate, a. + full; cf. F. gr\'82 thanks, good will,
   fr. L. gratum, neut. of gratus agreeable, grateful. See Grate, a.]

   1. Having a due sense of benefits received; kindly disposed toward one
   from whom a favor has been received; willing to acknowledge and repay,
   or give thanks for, benefits; as, a grateful heart.

     A grateful mind By owing, owes not, but still pays. Milton.

   2.  Affording pleasure; pleasing to the senses; gratifying; delicious;
   as, a grateful present; food grateful to the palate; grateful sleep.

     Now  golden  fruits on loaded branches shine, And grateful clusters
     swell. Pope.

   Syn.   --   Thankful;  pleasing;  acceptable;  gratifying;  agreeable;
   welcome;    delightful;    delicious.   --   Grate"ful*ly,   adv.   --
   Grate"ful*ness, n.


   Grat"er  (?),  a.  [From  Qrate,  v.]  One who, or that which, grates;
   especially,  an  instrument or utensil with a rough, indented surface,
   for  rubbing  off  small  particles  of any substance; as a grater for


   Gra*tic"u*la"tion   (?),  n.  [F.  graticulation,  craticulation,  fr.
   graticuler,   craticuler,   to   square,   fr.  graticule,  craticule,
   graticule, L. craticula, dim. of crates wickerwork. See 2d Grate.] The
   division of a design or draught into squares, in order the more easily
   to reproduce it in larger or smaller dimensions.


   Grat"i*cule  (?), n. [F. See Graticulation.] A design or draught which
   has  been  divided  into  squares,  in  order to reproduce it in other


   Grat"i*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [L. gratificatio: cf. F. gratification.]

   1.  The act of gratifying, or pleasing, either the mind, the taste, or
   the  appetite;  as, the gratification of the palate, of the appetites,
   of the senses, of the desires, of the heart.

   2.  That  which  affords  pleasure; satisfaction; enjoyment; fruition:

   3. A reward; a recompense; a gratuity. Bp. Morton.


   Glat"i*fied  (?),  a.  Pleased;  indulged according to desire. Syn. --
   Glad; pleased. See Glad.


   Grat"i*fi"er (?), n. One who gratifies or pleases.


   Grat"i*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Gratified (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gratifying  (#).]  [F.  gratifier,  L.  gratificari; gratus pleasing +
   -ficare (in comp.) to make. See -fy.]

   1.  To please; to give pleasure to; to satisfy; to soothe; to indulge;
   as,  to  gratify the taste, the appetite, the senses, the desires, the
   mind, etc.

     For who would die to gratify a foe? Dryden.

   2. To requite; to recompense. [Obs.]

     It remains . . . To gratify his noble service. Shak.

   Syn.  -- To indulge; humor please; delight; requite; recompense. -- To
   Gratify,  Indulge,  Humor.  Gratify,  is  the  generic  term,  and has
   reference  simply  to  the  pleasure communicated. To indulge a person
   implies  that  we  concede  something  to his wishes or his weaknesses
   which he could not claim, and which had better, perhaps, be spared. To
   humor  is  to  adapt  ourselves  to  the  varying moods, and, perhaps,
   caprices, of others. We gratify a child by showing him the sights of a
   large  city; we indulge him in some extra expense on such an occasion;
   we humor him when he is tired and exacting.


   Grat"ing (?), n. [See 2d Grate.]

   1.  A  partition,  covering,  or  frame  of  parallel or cross bars; a
   latticework  resembling a window grate; as, the grating of a prison or

   2.  (Optics) A system of close equidistant and parallel lines lines or
   bars, especially lines ruled on a polished surface, used for producing
   spectra by diffraction; -- called also diffraction grating.

   3.  pl.  (Naut.)  The  strong  wooden  lattice  used to cover a hatch,
   admitting light and air; also, a movable Lattice used for the flooring
   of boats.


   Grat"ing,  a.  [See  Grate to rub harshy.] That grates; making a harsh
   sound; harsh. -- Grat"ing*ly, adv.


   Grat"ing, n. A harsh sound caused by attrition.


   Gra*ti"o*lin  (?),  n.  (Chem.) One of the essential principles of the
   hedge hyssop (Gratiola officinalis).


   Gra"tis  (?),  adv.  [L., contr. fr. gratiis out of favor or kindness,
   without  recompense,  for  nothing,  fr. gratia favor. See Grace.] For
   nothing; without fee or recompense; freely; gratuitously.


   Grat"i*tude   (?),  n.  [F.  gratitude,  LL.  gratitudo,  from  gratus
   agreeable,  grateful. See Grate, a.] The state of being grateful; warm
   and friendly feeling toward a benefactor; kindness awakened by a favor
   received; thankfulness.

     The debt immense of endless gratitude. Milton.


   Gra*tu"i*tous  (?)  a. [L. gratuitus, from gratus pleasing. See Grate,
   a., Gratis.]

   1.  Given  without  an  equivalent  or  recompense;  conferred without
   valuable  consideration;  granted  without  pay,  or  without claim or
   merit; not required by justice.

     We mistake the gratuitous blessings of Heaven for the fruits of our
     own industry. L'Estrange.

   2.  Not  called  for  by  the circumstances; without reason, cause, or
   proof;  adopted  or asserted without any good ground; as, a gratuitous

     Acts of gratuitous self-humiliation. De Quincye.

   -- Gra*tu"i*tous*ly, adv. -- Gra*tu"i*tous*ness, n.


   Gra*tu"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gtratuities  (#). [F. gratuit\'82, or LL.

   1.  Something  given  freely  or  without  recompense;  a free gift; a
   present. Swift.

   2.  Something voluntarily given in return for a favor or service, as a
   recompense  or  acknowledgment.  <-- usually money. In particular, the
   money  given  to  a  waiter, cab driver, bellhop, etc. as a reward for
   good service = tip -->


   Grat"u*late  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grqatulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gratulating  (?).] [L. gratulatus, p. p. of gratulari to congratulate,
   fr.  gratus  pleasing,  agreeable.  See  Grate,  a.]  To  salute  with
   declaration of joy; to congratulate. [R.] Shak.


   Grat"u*late (?), a. Worthy of gratulation. [Obs.]

     There's more behind that is more gratulate. Shak.


   Grat"u*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  gratulatio.]  The act of gratulating or
   felicitating; congratulation.

     I shall turn my wishes into gratulations. South.


   Grat"u*la*to*ry  (?), a. [L. gratulatorius.] Expressing gratulation or
   joy; congratulatory.

     The usual groundwork of such gratulatory odes. Bp. Horsley.


   Graunt (?), v. & n. [Obs.] See Grant. Chaucer.


   Grau"wack*e (?), n. [G.] Graywacke.


   Gra*va"men  (?),  n.; pl. L. Gravamina (#), E. Gravamens (#). [L., fr.
   gravare  to  load,  burden,  fr. gravis heavy, weighty. See Grave, a.]
   (Law)  The  grievance  complained  of;  the  substantial  cause of the
   action;  also,  in  general,  the  ground  or  essence of a complaint.


   -grave  (?).  A  final  syllable  signifying a ruler, as in landgrave,
   margrave. See Margrave.


   Grave (?), v. t. (Naut.) To clean, as a vessel's bottom, of barnacles,
   grass,  etc.,  and pay it over with pitch; -- so called because graves
   or greaves was formerly used for this purpose.


   Grave,  a. [Compar. Graver (gr&amac;v"&etil;r); superl. Gravest.] [F.,
   fr. L. gravis heavy; cf. It. & Sp. grave heavy, grave. See Grief.]

   1. Of great weight; heavy; ponderous. [Obs.]

     His shield grave and great. Chapman.

   2. Of importance; momentous; weighty; influential; sedate; serious; --
   said  of  character, relations, etc.; as, grave deportment, character,
   influence, etc.

     Most potent, grave, and reverend seigniors. Shak.

     A grave and prudent law, full of moral equity. Milton.

   3.  Not light or gay; solemn; sober; plain; as, a grave color; a grave

   4.  (Mus.)  (a) Not acute or sharp; low; deep; -- said of sound; as, a
   grave note or key.

     The thicker the cord or string, the more grave is the note or tone.
     Moore (Encyc. of Music).

   (b)  Slow  and  solemn in movement. Grave accent. (Pron.) See the Note
   under  Accent,  n.,  2.  Syn.  -- Solemn; sober; serious; sage; staid;
   demure;  thoughtful;  sedate; weighty; momentous; important. -- Grave,
   Sober, Serious, Solemn. Sober supposes the absence of all exhilaration
   of  spirits,  and  is  opposed  to  gay or flighty; as, sober thought.
   Serious  implies  considerateness  or  reflection,  and  is opposed to
   jocose  or sportive; as, serious and important concerns. Grave denotes
   a  state of mind, appearance, etc., which results from the pressure of
   weighty  interests,  and is opposed to hilarity of feeling or vivacity
   of  manner;  as,  a qrave remark; qrave attire. Solemn is applied to a
   case  in  which  gravity is carried to its highest point; as, a solemn
   admonition; a solemn promise.


   Grave, v. t. [imp. Graved (gr&amac;vd); p. p. Graven (gr&amac;v"'n) or
   Graved;  p. pr. & vb. n. Graving.] [AS. grafan to dig, grave, engrave;
   akin to OFries. greva, D. graven, G. graben, OHG. & Goth. graban, Dan.
   grabe,  Sw.  gr&aum;fva, Icel. grafa, but prob. not to Gr. gra`fein to
   write, E. graphic. Cf. Grave, n., Grove, n.]

   1. To dig. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     He  hath  graven  and  digged up a pit. Ps. vii. 16 (Book of Common

   2.  To carve or cut, as letters or figures, on some hard substance; to

     Thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the
     children of Israel. Ex. xxviii. 9.

   3.  To  carve  out  or  give  shape  to,  by cutting with a chisel; to
   sculpture; as, to grave an image.

     With gold men may the hearte grave. Chaucer.

   4. To impress deeply (on the mind); to fix indelibly.

     O! may they graven in thy heart remain. Prior.

   5. To entomb; to bury. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Lie full low, graved in the hollow ground. Shak.


   Grave,  v.  i.  To  write or delineate on hard substances, by means of
   incised lines; to practice engraving.


   Grave,  n.  [AS.  gr?f,  fr.  grafan to dig; akin to D. & OS. graf, G.
   grab,  Icel.  gr\'94f, Russ. grob' grave, coffin. See Grave to carve.]
   An  excavation  in  the earth as a place of burial; also, any place of
   interment; a tomb; a sepulcher. Hence: Death; destruction.

     He bad lain in the grave four days. John xi. 17.

   Grave wax, adipocere.


   Grave"clothes`  (,  n.  pl. The clothes or dress in which the dead are


   Grave"dig`ger (?), n.

   1. A digger of graves.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) See Burying beetle, under Bury, v. t.


   Grav"el  (?), n. [OF. gravele, akin to F. gr?ve a sandy shore, strand;
   of  Celtic  origin;  cf.  Armor.  grouan gravel, W. gro coarse gravel,
   pebbles, and Skr. gr&amac;van stone.]

   1.  Small  stones,  or  fragments  of stone; very small pebbles, often
   intermixed with particles of sand.

   2.  (Med.) A deposit of small calculous concretions in the kidneys and
   the  urinary  or  gall  bladder; also, the disease of which they are a
   Gravel powder, a coarse gunpowder; pebble powder.


   Grav"el,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Graveled (?) or Gravelled; p. pr. & vb.
   n. Graveling or Gravelling.]

   1. To cover with gravel; as, to gravel a walk.

   2.  To  run  (as  a ship) upon the gravel or beach; to run aground; to
   cause to stick fast in gravel or sand.

     When  we  were  fallen into a place between two seas, they graveled
     the ship. Acts xxvii. 41 (Rhemish version).

     Willam  the  Conqueror . . . chanced as his arrival to be graveled;
     and  one  of his feet stuck so fast in the sand that he fell to the
     ground. Camden.

   3. To check or stop; to embarrass; to perplex. [Colloq.]

     When you were graveled for lack of matter. Shak.

     The  physician was so graveled and amazed withal, that he had not a
     word more to say. Sir T. North.

   4.  To  hurt  or  lame (a horse) by gravel lodged between the shoe and


   Grave"less (?), a. Without a grave; unburied.

                           Graveling, or Gravelling

   Grav"el*ing (?), or Grav"el*ling, n.

   1. The act of covering with gravel.

   2. A layer or coating of gravel (on a path, etc.).

                           Graveling, or Gravelling

   Grav"el*ing,  or Grav"el*ling, n. (Zo\'94l.) A salmon one or two years
   old, before it has gone to sea.


   Grav"el*li*ness (?), n. State of being gravelly.


   Grav"el*ly  (?), a. Abounding with gravel; consisting of gravel; as, a
   gravelly soil.


   Grav"el-stone"  (?),  n.  A  pebble,  or  small  fragment  of stone; a


   Grave"ly (?), adv. In a grave manner.


   Grav"en  (?),  p. p. of Grave, v. t. Carved. Graven image, an idol; an
   object  of  worship carved from wood, stone, etc. "Thou shalt not make
   unto thee any graven image." Ex. xx. 4.


   Grave"ness, n. The quality of being grave.

     His sables and his weeds, Importing health and graveness. Shak.


   Gra"ven*stein"  (?), n. [So called because it came from Gravenstein, a
   place  in  Schleswig.  Downing.]  A  kind  of  fall apple, marked with
   streaks of deep red and orange, and of excellent flavor and quality.


   Gra*ve"o*lence  (?),  n.  [L. graveolentia: cf. F. grav\'82olence. See
   Graveolent.] A strong and offensive smell; rancidity. [R.] Bailey.


   Gra*ve"o*lent  (?), a. [L. graveolens; gravis heavy + olere to smell.]
   Having a rank smell. [R.] Boyle.


   Graver (?), n.

   1.  One who graves; an engraver or a sculptor; one whose occupation is
   te cut letters or figures in stone or other hard material.

   2. An ergraving or cutting tool; a burin.


   Grav"er*y  (?),  n.  The  act, process, or art, of graving or carving;

     Either of picture or gravery and embossing. Holland.


   Graves (?), n. pl. The sediment of melted tallow. Same as Greaves.

                                Graves' disease

   Graves"'  dis*ease" (?). [So called after Dr. Graves, of Dublin.] Same
   as Basedow's disease.


   Grave"stone  (?),  n.  A  stone  laid  over, or erected near, a grave,
   usually  with  an  inscription,  to preserve the memory of the dead; a


   Grave"yard" (?), n. A yard or inclosure for the interment of the dead;
   a cemetery.


   Grav"ic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to, or causing, gravitation; as, gravic
   forces; gravic attraction. [R.]


   Grav"id (?), a. [L. gravidus, fr. gravis heavy, loaded. See Grave, a.]
   Being  with  child; heavy with young; pregnant; fruitful; as, a gravid
   uterus; gravid piety. " His gravid associate." Sir T. Herbert.


   Grav"i*da"ted  (?),  a.  [L.  gravidatus,  p. p. of gravidare to load,
   impregnate. See Gravid.] Made pregnant; big. [Obs.] Barrow.


   Grav"i*da"tion (?), n. Gravidity. [Obs.]


   Gra*vid"i*ty  (?),  n. [L. graviditas.] The state of being gravidated;
   pregnancy. [R.]


   Grav"i*grade  (?),  a.  [L.  gravis  heavy  + gradus step.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Slow-paced. -- n. One of the pachyderms.


   Gra*vim"e*ter   (?),   n.   [L.   gravis   heavy   +  -meter:  cf.  F.
   gravim\'8atre.]  (Physics) An instrument for ascertaining the specific
   gravity of bodies.


   Grav"i*met"ric  (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Of  or pertaining to measurement by
   weight;   measured   by  weight.  --  Grav"i*met"ric*al*ly  (#),  adv.
   Gravimetric  analysis  (Chem.),  analysis  in which the amounts of the
   coastituents   are  determined  by  weight;  --  in  distinction  from
   volumetric analysis.


   Grav"ing  (?),  n. [From Grave to clean.] The act of cleaning a ship's
   bottom. Graving dock. (Naut.) See under Dock.


   Grav"ing, n. [From Grave to dig.]

   l.  The  act  or  art  of  carving figures in hard substances, esp. by
   incision or in intaglio.

   2. That which is graved or carved. [R.]

     Skillful to . . . grave any manner of graving. 2 Chron. ii. 14.

   3. Impression, as upon the mind or heart.

     New gravings upon their souls. Eikon Basilike


   Grav"i*tate  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gravitated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Gravitating  (?).]  [Cf. F. graviter. See Gravity.] To obey the law of
   gravitation;  to exert a force Or pressure, or tend to move, under the
   influence  of  gravitation;  to  tend  in  any direction or toward any

     Why  does  this  apple  fall  to  the  ground?  Because  all bodies
     gravitate toward each other. Sir W. Hamilton.

     Politicians  who  naturally  gravitate  towards the stronger party.


   Grav"i*ta"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. gravitation. See Gravity.]

   1. The act of gravitating.

   2. (Pysics) That species of attraction or force by which all bodies or
   particles  of  matter  in  the universe tend toward each other; called
   also  attraction  of gravitation, universal gravitation, and universal
   gravity. See Attraction, and Weight.
   Law  of  gravitatian,  that  law  in accordance with which gravitation
   acts,  namely,  that  every  two  bodies  or portions of matter in the
   universe  attract each other with a force proportional directly to the
   quantity of matter they contain, and inversely to the squares of their


   Grav`i*tation*al  (?),  a.  (Physics) Of or pertaining to the force of
   gravity; as, gravitational units.


   Gravi*ta*tive  (?),  a.  Causing  to  gravitate;  tending to a center.


   Grav"i*ty  (?), n.; pl. Gravities (#). [L. gravitas, fr. gravis heavy;
   cf. F. gravit\'82. See Grave, a., Grief.]

   1. The state of having weight; beaviness; as, the gravity of lead.

   2.  Sobriety of character or demeanor. "Men of gravity and learning."<
   Shak.  <-- p. 648 needs proofing ##proof - especially italicized words
   (aso in etymologies) are not properly marked-->

   3.   Importance,   significance,  dignity,  etc;  hence,  seriousness;
   enormity; as, the gravity of an offense.

     They derive an importance from . . . the gravity of the place where
     they were uttered. Burke.

   4.  (Physics)  The  tendency  of  a  mass of matter toward a center of
   attraction;  esp.,  the  tendency  of  a body toward the center of the
   earth; terrestrial gravitation.

   5. (Mus.) Lowness of tone; -- opposed to acuteness.
   Center  of  gravity See under Center. -- Gravity battery, See Battery,
   n.,  4.  -- Specific gravity, the ratio of the weight of a body to the
   weight  of an equal volume of some other body taken as the standard or
   unit.  This  standard is usually water for solids and liquids, and air
   for  gases. Thus, 19, the specific gravity of gold, expresses the fact
   that, bulk for bulk, gold is nineteen times as heavy as water.


   Gra"vy  (?),  n;  pl.  Gravies  (#).  [OE. greavie; prob. fr. greaves,
   graves, the sediment of melted tallow. See Greaves.]

   1.  The juice or other liquid matter that drips from flesh in cooking,
   made into a dressing for the food when served up.

   2. Liquid dressing for meat, fish, vegetables, etc.


   Gray (?), a. [Compar. Grayer (; superl. Grayest.] [OE. gray, grey, AS.
   gr?g,  gr?g; akin to D. graauw OHG. gr?o, G. grau, Dan. graa, Dw. gr?,
   Icel. grdr.] [Written also grey.]

   1.  White  mixed  with  black,  as the color of pepper and salt, or of
   ashes,  or of hair whitened by age; sometimes, a dark mixed color; as,
   the soft gray eye of a dove.

     These gray and dun colors may be also produced by mixing whites and
     blacks. Sir I. Newton.

   2. Gray-haired; gray-headed; of a gray color; hoary.

   3. Old; mature; as, gray experience. Ames.
   Gray antimony (Min.), stibnite. -- Gray buck (Zo\'94l.), the chickara.
   --  Gray cobalt (Min.), smaltite. -- Gray copper (Min.), tetrahedrite.
   --  Gray  duck  (Zo\'94l.),  the  gadwall;  also applied to the female
   mallard.  --  Gray  falcon  (Zo\'94l.)  the  peregrine falcon. -- Gray
   Friar.  See  Franciscan, and Friar. -- Gray hen (Zo\'94l.), the female
   of  the  blackcock  or black grouse. See Heath grouse. -- Gray mill or
   millet  (Bot.),  a  name  of several plants of the genus Lithospermum;
   gromwell. -- Gray mullet (Zo\'94l.) any one of the numerous species of
   the  genus  Mugil,  or family Mugilid&ae;, found both in the Old World
   and  America; as the European species (M. capito, and M. auratus), the
   American  striped  mullet  (M. albula), and the white or silver mullet
   (M.  Braziliensis).  See  Mullet. -- Gray owl (Zo\'94l.), the European
   tawny or brown owl (Syrnium aluco). The great gray owl (Ulula cinerea)
   inhabits   arctic   America.  --  Gray  parrot  (Zo\'94l.),  a  parrot
   (Psittacus  erithacus),  very commonly domesticated, and noted for its
   aptness  in  learning to talk. -- Gray pike. (Zo\'94l.) See Sauger. --
   Gray  snapper (Zo\'94l.), a Florida fish; the sea lawyer. See Snapper.
   --  Gray  snipe  (Zo\'94l.),  the dowitcher in winter plumage. -- Gray
   whale   (Zo\'94l.),   a   rather  large  and  swift  California  whale
   (Rhachianectes  glaucus), formerly taken in large numbers in the bays;
   -- called also grayback, devilfish, and hardhead.


   Gray, n.

   1.  A  gray  color; any mixture of white and black; also, a neutral or
   whitish tint.

   2.  An  animal or thing of gray color, as a horse, a badger, or a kind
   of salmon.

     Woe  worth  the  chase,  woe worth the day. That coats thy life, my
     gallant gray. Sir W. Scott.


   Gray"back`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The California gray whale. (b) The
   redbreasted sandpiper or knot. (c) The dowitcher. (d) The body louse.


   Gray"beard` (?), n. An old man. Shak.


   Gray"fly` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The trumpet fly. Milton.


   Gray"hound` (-hound`), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Greyhound.


   Gray"ish, a. Somewhat gray.


   Gray"lag`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The common wild gray goose (Anser anser)
   of  Europe,  believed  to  be the wild form of the domestic goose. See
   Illust. of Goose.


   Gray"ling (?), n. [From Gray, a.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  European  fish  (Thymallus vulgaris), allied to the
   trout,  but  having  a very broad dorsal fin; -- called also umber. It
   inhabits cold mountain streams, and is valued as a game fish.

     And  here  and  there a lusty trout, And here and there a grayling.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) An American fish of the genus Thymallus, having similar
   habits  to  the  above; one species (T. Ontariensis), inhabits several
   streams   in   Michigan;  another  (T.  montanus),  is  found  in  the
   Yellowstone region.


   Gray"ness, n. The quality of being gray.


   Gtray"stone`  (?),  n.  (Geol.)  A  grayish  or greenish compact rock,
   composed of feldspar and augite, and allied to basalt.


   Gray"wacke`  (?), n. [G. grauwacke; grau gray + wacke wacke. See Gray,
   and  Wacke,  and  cf. Grauwacke.] (Geol.) A conglomerate or grit rock,
   consisting of rounded pebbles sand firmly united together.

     NOTE: &hand; This term, derved from the grauwacke of German miners,
     was  formerly  applied  in geology to different grits and slates of
     the Silurian series; but it is now seldom used.


   Graze  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grazed (p. pr. & vb. n. Grazing.] [OE.
   grasen, AS. grasian, fr. gr?s grass. See Grass.]

   1.  To  feed  or  supply  (cattle, sheep, etc.) with grass; to furnish
   pasture for.

     A field or two to graze his cows. Swift.

   2.  To  feed  on;  to  eat  (growing  herbage);  to  eat grass from (a
   pasture); to browse.

     The lambs with wolves shall graze the verdant mead. Pope.

   3. To tend (cattle, etc.) while grazing.

     When Jacob grazed his uncle Laban's sheep. Shak.

   4.  To  rub  or touch lightly the surface of (a thing) in passing; as,
   the bullet grazed the wall.


   Graze, v. i.

   1.  To  eat grass; to feed on growing herbage; as, cattle graze on the

   2.  To yield grass for grazing. The ground cortinueth the wet, whereby
   it will never graze to purpose. Bacon.

   3. To touch something lightly in passing.


   Graze, n.

   1. The act of grazing; the cropping of grass. [Colloq.]

     Turning him out for a grace on the common. T. Hughes. 

   2. A light touch; a slight scratch.


   Graz"er  (?),  n.  One  that grazes; a creature which feeds on growing
   grass or herbage.

     The cackling goose, Close grazer, finds wherewith to ease her want.
     J. Philips. 


   Gra"zier (?), n. One who pastures cattle, and rears them for market.

     The inhabitants be rather . . . graziers than plowmen. Stow.


   Graz"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of one who, or that which, grazes.

   2. A pasture; growing grass.


   Gra"zi*o"so  (?),  adv.  [It.,  adj. See Gracious.] (Mus.) Gracefully;
   smoothly; elegantly.


   Gre (?), n. See Gree, a step. [Obs.]


   Gre, n. See Gree, good will. [Obs.]


   Grease  (gres),  n.  [OE.  grese, grece, F. graisse; akin to gras fat,
   greasy, fr. LL. grassus thick, fat, gross, L. crassus. Cf. Crass.]

   1.  Animal  fat,  as  tallow or lard, especially when in a soft state;
   oily or unctuous matter of any kind.

   2.  (Far.) An inflammation of a horse's heels, suspending the ordinary
   greasy  secretion  of  the part, and producing dryness and scurfiness,
   followed by cracks, ulceration, and fungous excrescences.
   Grease  bush.  (Bot.)  Same  as  Grease  wood  (below). -- Grease moth
   (Zo\'94l.),  a  pyralid  moth  (Aglossa  pinguinalis) whose larva eats
   greasy  cloth,  etc.  --  Grease  wood (Bot.), a scraggy, stunted, and
   somewhat  prickly  shrub  (Sarcobatus  vermiculatus)  of  the  Spinach
   family,  very  abundant in alkaline valleys from the upper Missouri to
   California.  The  name  is  also  applied  to other plants of the same
   family, as several species of Atriplex and Obione.


   Grease (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Greased (grezd or gresd); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Greasing.]

   1. To smear, anoint, or daub, with grease or fat; to lubricate; as, to
   grease the wheels of a wagon.

   2. To bribe; to corrupt with presents.

     The greased advocate that grinds the poor. Dryden.

   3. To cheat or cozen; to overreach. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl. 

   4. (Ear.) To affect (a horse) with grease, the disease.
   To grease in the hand, to corrupt by bribes. Usher.


   Greas"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, greases; specifically, a person employed to
   lubricate the working parts of machinery, engines, carriages, etc.

   2. A nickname sometimes applied in contempt to a Mexican of the lowest
   type. [Low, U. S.]


   Greas"i*ly (?), adv.

   1. In a greasy manner.

   2. In a gross or indelicate manner. [Obs.]

     You talk greasily; your lips grow foul. Shak.


   Greas"i*ness,  n.  The  quality  or  state  of being greasy, oiliness;
   unctuousness; grossness.


   Greas"y (?), a. [Compar. Greasier (

   1.  Composed  of,  or  characterized by, grease; oily; unctuous; as, a
   greasy dish.

   2. Smeared or defiled with grease.

     With greasy aprons, rules, and hammers. Shak.

   3.  Like grease or oil; smooth; seemingly unctuous to the touch, as is
   mineral soapstone.

   4. Fat of body; bulky. [R.] Shak.

   5. Gross; indelicate; indecent. [Obs.] Marston.

   6.  (Far.) Affected with the disease called grease; as, the heels of a
   horse. See Grease, n., 2.


   Great (?), a. [Compar. Greater (; superl. Greatest.] [OE. gret, great,
   AS.  gre?t; akin to OS. & LG. gr?t, D. groot, OHG. gr?z, G. gross. Cf.
   Groat the coin.]

   1.  Large in space; of much size; big; immense; enormous; expanded; --
   opposed  to  small  and  little; as, a great house, ship, farm, plain,
   distance, length.

   2.  Large in number; numerous; as, a great company, multitude, series,

   3.  Long  continued;  lengthened in duration; prolonged in time; as, a
   great while; a great interval.

   4.  Superior;  admirable; commanding; -- applied to thoughts, actions,
   and feelings.

   5.  Endowed  with  extraordinary  powers;  uncommonly  gifted; able to
   accomplish  vast results; strong; powerful; mighty; noble; as, a great
   hero, scholar, genius, philosopher, etc.

   6.  Holding  a chief position; elevated: lofty: eminent; distingushed;
   formost;  principal; as, great men; the great seal; the great marshal,

     He doth object I am too great of birth. Shak.

   7.  Entitled to earnest consideration; weighty; important; as, a great
   argument, truth, or principle.

   8. Pregnant; big (with young).

     The ewes great with young. Ps. lxxviii. 71.

   9.  More  than ordinary in degree; very considerable in degree; as, to
   use great caution; to be in great pain.

     We have all Great cause to give great thanks. Shak.

   10.  (Genealogy) Older, younger, or more remote, by single generation;
   --  often  used before grand to indicate one degree more remote in the
   direct  line  of de scent; as, great-grandfather (a grandfather's or a
   grand- mother's father), great-grandson, etc.
   Great  bear  (Astron.),  the constellation Ursa Major. -- Great cattle
   (Law),  all  manner  of cattle except sheep and yearlings. Wharton. --
   Great charter (Eng. Hist.), Magna Charta. -- Great circle of a sphere,
   a  circle  the plane of which passes through the center of the sphere.
   --  Great circle sailing, the process or art of conducting a ship on a
   great  circle  of the globe or on the shortest arc between two places.
   --  Great  go, the final examination for a degree at the University of
   Oxford,  England;  --  called  also  greats. T. Hughes. -- Great guns.
   (Naut.)  See under Gun. -- The Great Lakes the large fresh-water lakes
   (Lakes  Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) which lie on the
   northern  borders of the United States. -- Great master. Same as Grand
   master, under Grand. -- Great organ (Mus.), the largest and loudest of
   the three parts of a grand organ (the others being the choir organ and
   the  swell,  and sometimes the pedal organ or foot keys), It is played
   upon  by  a  separate  keyboard, which has the middle position. -- The
   great  powers (of Europe), in modern diplomacy, Great Britain, France,
   Germany,  Austria, Russia, and Italy. -- Great primer. See under Type.
   --  Great  scale  (Mus.), the complete scale; -- employed to designate
   the  entire  series of musical sounds from lowest to highest. -- Great
   sea,  the  Mediterranean  sea.  In  Chaucer  both  the  Black  and the
   Mediterranean  seas  are  so  called. -- Great seal. (a) The principal
   seal  of a kingdom or state. (b) In Great Britain, the lord chancellor
   (who is custodian of this seal); also, his office.<-- #sp in original,
   "Britain"  was "Britian" --> -- Great tithes. See under Tithes. -- The
   great,  the  eminent, distinguished, or powerful. -- The Great Spirit,
   among  the  North American Indians, their chief or principal deity. --
   To be great (with one), to be intimate or familiar (with him). Bacon.


   Great (?), n. The whole.; the gross; as, a contract to build a ship by
   the great.


   Great"-bel`lied  (?),  a.  Having a great belly, bigbellied; pregnant;
   teeming. Shak.


   Great"coat" (?), n. An overcoat.


   Great"en (?), v. t. To make great; to aggrandize; to cause to increase
   in size; to expand. [R.]

     A minister's [business] is to greaten and exalt [his king]. Ken.


   Great"en, v. i. To become large; to dilate. [R.]

     My blue eyes greatening in the looking-glass. Mrs. Browning. 


   Great"-grand"child`   (?),   n.   The   child  of  one's  grandson  or


   Great"-grand"daugh`ter  (?),  n.  [See Great, 10.] A daughter of one's
   grandson or granddaughter.


   Great"-grand"fa`ther  (?),  n.  [See  Great,  10.] The father of one's
   grandfather or grandmother.


   Great"-grand"moth`er  (?),  n.  The  mother  of  one's  grandfather or


   Great"-grand"son`  (?), n. [See Great, 10.] A son of one's grandson or


   Great"-heart`ed (?), a.

   1. High-spirited; fearless. [Obs.] Clarendon.

   2. Generous; magnanimous; noble.


   Great"-heart`ed*ness,   n.   The   quality   of   being  greathearted;
   high-mindedness; magnanimity.


   Great"ly, adv.

   1. In a great degree; much.

     I will greatly multiply thy sorrow. Gen. iii. 16.

   2. Nobly; illustriously; magnanimously.

     By a high fate thou greatly didst expire. Dryden.


   Great"ness, n. [AS. gre\'a0tnes.]

   1.  The  state, condition, or quality of being great; as, greatness of
   size, greatness of mind, power, etc.

   2.  Pride;  haughtiness. [Obs.]It is not of pride or greatness that he
   cometh not aboard your ships. Bacon.


   Greave (?), n. A grove. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Greave,  n.  [OF. greees; cf. Sp. grevas.] Armor for the leg below the
   knee; -- usually in the plural.


   Greave,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Greaved (gr&emac;vd); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Greaving.]  [From  Greaves.]  (Naut.)  To  clean (a ship's bottom); to


   Greaves  (gr&emac;vz),  n.  pl.  [Cf.  dial.  Sw.  grevar greaves, LG.
   greven,  G.  griebe,  also AS. greofa pot. Cf. Gravy.] The sediment of
   melted tallow. It is made into cakes for dogs' food. In Scotland it is
   called cracklings. [Written also graves.]


   Grebe  (gr&emac;b), n. [F. gr?be, fr. Armor. krib comb; akin to kriben
   crest,  W. crib comb, crest. So called in allusion to the crest of one
   species.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One of several swimming birds or divers, of the
   genus  Colymbus  (formerly  Podiceps), aud allied genera, found in the
   northern  parts  of America, Europe, and Asia. They have strong, sharp
   bills, and lobate toes.


   Gre"cian"  (?),  a.  [Cf.  Greek.]  Of or pertaining to Greece; Greek.
   Grecian bend, among women, an affected carriage of the body, the upper
   part  being  inclined  forward.  [Collog.]  -- Grecian fire. See Greek
   fire, under Greek.


   Gre"cian, n.

   1. A native or naturalized inhabitant of Greece; a Greek.

   2. A jew who spoke Greek; a Hellenist. Acts vi. 1.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Gr eek wo rd re ndered Gr ecian in the Authorized
     Version  of  the  New  Testament  is  translated Grecian Jew in the
     Revised Version.

   6.  One  well versed in the Greek language, literature, or history. De


   Gre"cism (?), n. [Cf. F. gr\'82cisme.] An idiom of the Greek language;
   a  Hellenism.  Addison.  <--  p.  649  most  of  page  has no marks in
   etymology or in "as" sections (italics not marked) -->


   >  Gre"cize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Grecized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Grecizing.] [Cf. F. gr\'82ciser.]

   1.  To  render  Grecian;  also,  to cause (a word or phrase in another
   language) to take a Greek form; as, the name is Grecized. T. Warton.

   2. To translate into Greek.

                              Grecize, Grecianize

   >  Gre"cize,  Gre"cian*ize  (,  v.  i. To conform to the Greek custom,
   especially in speech.


   >  Gre"co-Ro"man  (?), a. Having characteristics that are partly Greek
   and partly Roman; as, Greco-Roman architecture.


   >  Grecque  (gr&ecr;k),  n.  [F.]  An ornament supposed to be of Greek
   origin, esp. a fret or meander,


   > Gree (?), n. [F. gr\'82. See Grateful, and cf. Agree.]

   1.  Good  will;  favor;  pleasure;  satisfaction; -- used esp. in such
   phrases  as:  to  take  in  gree;  to accept in gree; that is, to take
   favorably. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Accept in gree, my lord, the words I spoke. Fairfax.

   2. Rank; degree; position. [Obs. or Scot.] Chaucer.

     He is a shepherd great in gree. Spnser.

   3.  The  prize;  the honor of the day; as, to bear the gree, i. e., to
   carry off the prize. [Obs. or Scot.] Chaucer.


   > Gree, v. i. [From Agree.] To agree. [Obs.] Fuller.


   >  Gree,  n.;  pl.  Grees (gr&emac;z); obs. plurals Greece (gr&emac;s)
   Grice  (gr?s  or gr?s), Grise, Grize (gr?z or gr?z), etc. [OF. gr\'82,
   F. grade. See Grade.] A step.


   > Greece (?), n. pl. See Gree a step. [Obs.]


   >  Greed  (?),  n. [Akin to Goth. gr?dus hunger, Icel. gr&amac;&edh;r.
   &root;34.  See  Greedy.] An eager desire or longing; greediness; as, a
   greed of gain.


   > Greed"i*ly (?), adv. In a greedy manner.


   >  Greed"i*ness,  n.  [AS  gr?dignes.]  The  quality  of being greedy;
   vehement and selfish desire.

     Fox in stealth, wolf in greediness. Shak.

   Syn.-- Ravenousness; voracity; eagerness; avidity.


   >   Greed"y   (?),  a.  [Compar.  Greedier  (-&icr;-&etil;r);  superl.
   Greediest.]  [OE.  gredi,  AS.  gr?dig, gr?dig; akin to D. gretig, OS.
   gr?dag, OHG. gr?tag, Dan. graadig, OSw. gradig, gr?dig, Icel. gra?ugr,
   Goth. gr?dags greedy, gr?d?n to be hungry; cf. Skr. grdh to be greedy.
   Cf. Greed.]

   1. Having a keen appetite for food or drink; ravenous; voracious; very
   hungry; -- followed by of; as, a lion that is greedy of his prey.

   2.  Having  a  keen desire for anything; vehemently desirous; eager to
   obtain; avaricious; as, greedy of gain.


   > Greed"y-gut" (?), n. A glutton. [Low] Todd.


   > Gree"gree" (?), n. An African talisman or Gri'gri' charm. A greegree
   man, an African magician or fetich priest.


   >  Greek  (?),  a.  [AS.  grec,  L.  Graecus,  Gr. ?: cf. F. grec. Cf.
   Grecian.]  Of  or  pertaining  to Greece or the Greeks; Grecian. Greek
   calends. See under Calends. -- Greek Church (Eccl. Hist.), the Eastern
   Church;  that  part  of  Christendom which separated from the Roman or
   Western  Church  in  the ninth century. It comprises the great bulk of
   the  Christian  population of Russia (of which this is the established
   church), Greece, Moldavia, and Wallachia. The Greek Church is governed
   by patriarchs and is called also the Byzantine Church. -- Greek cross.
   See  Illust.  (10) Of Cross. -- Greek Empire. See Byzantine Empire. --
   Greek  fire,  a  combustible  composition which burns under water, the
   constituents  of  which  are  supposed  to  be asphalt, with niter and
   sulphur. Ure. -- Greek rose, the flower campion.


   > Greek, n.

   1.  A  native,  or  one of the people, of Greece; a Grecian; also, the
   language of Greece.

   2. A swindler; a knave; a cheat. [Slang]

     Without  a  confederate  the  . . . game of baccarat does not . . .
     offer many chances for the Greek. Sat. Rev.

   3. Something unintelligible; as, it was all Greek to me. [Colloq.]


   > Greek"ess (?), n. A female Greek. [R.]


   > Greek"ish, a. [Cf. AS. Gr&emac;cisc.] Peculiar to Greece.


   >  Greek"ling  (?),  n.  A  little  Greek,  or  one of small esteem or
   pretensions. B. Jonson. 


   > Green (?), a. [Compar. Greener (; superl. Greenest.] [OE. grene, AS.
   gr?ne;  akin  to D. groen, OS. gr?ni, OHG. gruoni, G. gr?n, Dan. & Sw.
   gr?n, Icel. gr?nn; fr. the root of E. grow. See Grow.]

   1.  Having  the color of grass when fresh and growing; resembling that
   color  of the solar spectrum which is between the yellow and the blue;
   verdant; emerald.

   2. Having a sickly color; wan.

     To look so green and pale. Shak.

   3.  Full  of  life  aud  vigor; fresh and vigorous; new; recent; as, a
   green manhood; a green wound.

     As valid against such an old and beneficent government as against .
     . . the greenest usurpation. Burke.

   4.  Not  ripe;  immature; not fully grown or ripened; as, green fruit,
   corn, vegetables, etc.

   5. Not roasted; half raw. [R.]

     We say the meat is green when half roasted. L. Watts. 

   6.  Immature  in  age or experience; young; raw; not trained; awkward;
   as, green in years or judgment.

     I  might  be  angry with the officious zeal which supposes that its
     green conceptions can instruct my gray hairs. Sir W. Scott. 

   7.  Not  seasoned;  not  dry; containing its natural juices; as, green
   wood, timber, etc. Shak.
   Green  brier  (Bot.),  a  thorny  climbing shrub (Emilaz rotundifolia)
   having a yellowish green stem and thick leaves, with small clusters of
   flowers,  common  in  the  United States; -- called also cat brier. --
   Green  con  (Zo\'94l.),  the  pollock.  --  Green  crab (Zo\'94l.), an
   edible,  shore  crab (Carcinus menas) of Europe and America; -- in New
   England  locally named joe-rocker. -- Green crop, a crop used for food
   while in a growing or unripe state, as distingushed from a grain crop,
   root  crop,  etc. -- Green diallage. (Min.) (a) Diallage, a variety of
   pyroxene.  (b)  Smaragdite.  --  Green dragon (Bot.), a North American
   herbaceous   plant  (Aris\'91ma  Dracontium),  resembling  the  Indian
   turnip;  --  called also dragon root. -- Green earth (Min.), a variety
   of  glauconite,  found  in  cavities  in amygdaloid and other eruptive
   rock, and used as a pigment by artists; -- called also mountain green.
   --  Green  ebony.  (a)  A  south American tree (Jacaranda ovalifolia),
   having  a  greenish wood, used for rulers, turned and inlaid work, and
   in  dyeing.  (b) The West Indian green ebony. See Ebony. -- Green fire
   (Pyrotech.), a composition which burns with a green flame. It consists
   of  sulphur  and potassium chlorate, with some salt of barium (usually
   the  nitrate),  to  which  the color of the flame is due. -- Green fly
   (Zo\'94l.), any green species of plant lice or aphids, esp. those that
   infest  greenhouse plants. -- Green gage, (Bot.) See Greengage, in the
   Vocabulary.  --  Green  gland (Zo\'94l.), one of a pair of large green
   glands  in  Crustacea,  supposed  to serve as kidneys. They have their
   outlets  at  the  bases  of  the  larger  antenn\'91. -- Green hand, a
   novice. [Colloq.] -- Green heart (Bot.), the wood of a lauraceous tree
   found  in  the West Indies and in South America, used for shipbuilding
   or  turnery.  The  green  heart of Jamaica and Guiana is the Nectandra
   Rodi\'d2i,  that  of Martinique is the Colubrina ferruginosa. -- Green
   iron  ore  (Min.)  dufrenite. -- Green laver (Bot.), an edible seaweed
   (Ulva  latissima);  --  called  also  green  sloke.  -- Green lead ore
   (Min.),  pyromorphite.  -- Green linnet (Zo\'94l.), the greenfinch. --
   Green  looper  (Zo\'94l.),  the  cankerworm.  --  Green marble (Min.),
   serpentine.  --  Green  mineral,  a  carbonate  of  copper,  used as a
   pigment.  See  Greengill.  --  Green  monkey (Zo\'94l.) a West African
   long-tailed  monkey (Cercopithecus callitrichus), very commonly tamed,
   and  trained to perform tricks. It was introduced into the West Indies
   early  in  the  last  century,  and has become very abundant there. --
   Green  salt  of  Magnus  (Old  Chem.),  a dark green crystalline salt,
   consisting  of  ammonia  united with certain chlorides of platinum. --
   Green  sand  (Founding)  molding  sand  used for a mold while slightly
   damp,  and  not dried before the cast is made. -- Green sea (Naut.), a
   wave that breaks in a solid mass on a vessel's deck. -- Green sickness
   (Med.),  chlorosis.  --  Green  snake  (Zo\'94l.), one of two harmless
   American  snakes  (Cyclophis  vernalis,  and  C. \'91stivus). They are
   bright  green  in  color. -- Green turtle (Zo\'94l.), an edible marine
   turtle.  See Turtle. -- Green vitriol. (a) (Chem.) Sulphate of iron; a
   light  green  crystalline  substance,  very  extensively  used  in the
   preparation of inks, dyes, mordants, etc. (b) (Min.) Same as copperas,
   melanterite  and  sulphate of iron. -- Green ware, articles of pottery
   molded  and shaped, but not yet baked. -- Green woodpecker (Zo\'94l.),
   a common European woodpecker (Picus viridis); -- called also yaffle.


   > Green (gren), n.

   1.  The  color  of  growing  plants;  the  color of the solar spectrum
   intermediate between the yellow and the blue.

   2.  A  grassy  plain  or  plat; a piece of ground covered with verdant
   herbage; as, the village green.

     O'er the smooth enameled green. Milton.

   3.  Fresh  leaves  or  branches  of trees or other plants; wreaths; --
   usually in the plural.

     In  that soft season when descending showers Call forth the greens,
     and wake the rising flowers. Pope.

   4.  pl.  Leaves  and  stems  of young plants, as spinach, beets, etc.,
   which in their green state are boiled for food.

   5. Any substance or pigment of a green color.
   Alkali green (Chem.), an alkali salt of a sulphonic acid derivative of
   a  complex  aniline  dye,  resembling  emerald  green;  -- called also
   Helvetia green.-- Berlin green. (Chem.) See under Berlin. -- Brilliant
   green  (Chem.),  a  complex  aniline  dye, resembling emerald green in
   composition.  --  Brunswick  green an oxychloride of copper. -- Chrome
   green. See under Chrome. -- Emerald green. (Chem.) (a) A complex basic
   derivative  of  aniline  produced  as  a  metallic,  green crystalline
   substance,  and  used  for  dyeing silk, wool, and mordanted vegetable
   fiber  a  brilliant  green; -- called also aldehyde green, acid green,
   malachite green, Victoria green, solid green, etc. It is usually found
   as  a  double  chloride, with zinc chloride, or as an oxalate. (b) See
   Paris  green  (below).  --  Gaignet's  green  (Chem.)  a green pigment
   employed   by  the  French  artist,  Adrian  Gusgnet,  and  consisting
   essentially  of  a basic hydrate of chromium. -- Methyl green (Chem.),
   an  artificial  rosaniline  dyestuff,  obtained  as  a green substance
   having  a  brilliant  yellow  luster;  --  called also light-green. --
   Mineral  green. See under Mineral. -- Mountain green. See Green earth,
   under  Green,  a.  --  Paris  green (Chem.), a poisonous green powder,
   consisting  of  a  mixture  of several double salts of the acetate and
   arsenite  of  copper. It has found very extensive use as a pigment for
   wall   paper,   artificial  flowers,  etc.,  but  particularly  as  an
   exterminator   of   insects,   as  the  potato  bug;  --  called  also
   Schweinfurth  green,  imperial green, Vienna green, emerald qreen, and
   mitis  green.  -- Scheele's green (Chem.), a green pigment, consisting
   essentially  of  a  hydrous arsenite of copper; -- called also Swedish
   green.  It may enter into various pigments called parrot green, pickel
   green, Brunswick green, nereid green, or emerald green.


   >  Green,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Greened  (great): p. pr. & vb. n.
   Greening.] To make green.

     Great spring before Greened all the year. Thomson.

   <-- THe Greening of America [Reich] -->


   > Green, v. i. To become or grow green. Tennyson.

     By greening slope and singing flood. Whittier.


   >  Green"back"  (?),  n.  One  of the legal tender notes of the United
   States;  --  first  issued in 1862, and having the devices on the back
   printed with green ink, to prevent alterations and counterfeits.


   >  Green"back"er (?), n. One of those who supported greenback or paper
   money, and opposed the resumption of specie payments. [Colloq. U. S.]


   >  Green"bone  (?),  n.  [So  named  because  the bones are green when
   boiled.]  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  Any  garfish (Belone or Tylosurus). (b) The
   European eelpout.


   >  Green"-broom`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  plant  of the genus Genista (G.
   tinctoria); dyer's weed; -- called also greenweed.


   >  Green"cloth`  (-kl&ocr;th`;  115),  n.  A board or court of justice
   formerly  held  in  the  counting  house  of  the  British sovereign's
   household,  composed  of the lord steward and his officers, and having
   cognizance  of  matters  of  justice  in  the household, with power to
   correct  offenders  and keep the peace within the verge of the palace,
   which extends two hundred yards beyond the gatees.


   > Green"er*y (?), n. Green plants; verdure.

     A  pretty  little  one-storied  abode,  so  rural,  so smothered in
     greenery. J. Ingelow.


   > Green"-eyed (?), a.

   1. Having green eyes.

   2.  Seeing  everything  through  a medium which discolors or distorts.
   "Green-eyed jealousy." Shak.


   > Green"finch` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  A  European  finch (Ligurinus chloris); -- called also green bird,
   green linnet, green grosbeak, green olf, greeny, and peasweep.

   2.  The  Texas  sparrow (Embernagra rufivirgata), in which the general
   color is olive green, with four rufous stripes on the head.


   > Green"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Bluefish, and Pollock.


   >  Green"gage`  (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of plum of medium size, roundish
   shape,  greenish  flesh,  and delicious flavor. It is called in France
   Reine Claude, after the queen of Francis I. See Gage.


   >  Green"gill` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) An oyster which has the gills tinged
   with  a  green pigment, said to be due to an abnormal condition of the


   >  Green"gro`cer  (?),  n. A retailer of vegetables or fruits in their
   fresh or green state.


   >  Green"head`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) The mallard. (b) The striped
   bass. See Bass.

                             Greenhead, Greenhood

   >  Green"head  (?), Green"hood (?), n. A state of greenness; verdancy.


   >  Green"horn` (?), n. A raw, inexperienced person; one easily imposed
   upon. W. Irving. 


   >  Green"house`  (?), n. A house in which tender plants are cultivated
   and sheltered from the weather.


   >  Green"ing,  n.  A greenish apple, of several varieties, among which
   the  Rhode Island greening is the best known for its fine-grained acid
   flesh and its excellent keeping quality.


   >  Green"ish,  a.  Somewhat  green;  having  a  tinge  of green; as, a
   greenish yellow. -- Green"ish*ness, n.


   > Green"land*er (?), n. A native of Greenland.


   >  Green"-leek`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) An Australian parrakeet (Polytelis
   Barrabandi); -- called also the scarlet-breasted parrot.


   >  Green"let  (?),  n.  l. (Zo\'94l.) One of numerous species of small
   American  singing  birds,  of  the  genus  Vireo,  as the solitary, or
   blue-headed     (Vireo    solitarius);    the    brotherly-love    (V.
   Philadelphicus);    the    warbling    greenlet   (V.   gilvus);   the
   yellow-throated greenlet (V. flavifrons) and others. See Vireo.

   2.  (Zo\'94l,)  Any species of Cyclorhis, a genus of tropical American
   birds allied to the tits.


   > Green"ly, adv. With a green color; newly; freshly, immaturely. -- a.
   Of a green color. [Obs.]


   > Green"ness, n. [AS. gr?nnes. See Green.]

   1.  The  quality of being green; viridity; verdancy; as, the greenness
   of grass, or of a meadow.

   2. Freshness; vigor; newness.

   3.  Immaturity;  unripeness; as, the greenness of fruit; inexperience;
   as, the greenness of youth.


   >  Green"ock*ite  (?),  n.  [Named after Lord Greenock.] (Min.) Native
   cadmium  sulphide,  a  mineral occurring in yellow hexagonal crystals,
   also as an earthy incrustation.


   >  Green"room`  (gr&emac;n"room`),  n. The retiring room of actors and
   actresses in a theater.


   >  Green"sand`  (-s,  n.  (Geol.)  A  variety  of  sandstone,  usually
   imperfectly consolidated, consisting largely of glauconite, a silicate
   of  iron  and  potash of a green color, mixed with sand and a trace of
   phosphate of lime.

     NOTE: &hand;Greensand is  often called marl, because it is a useful
     fertilizer.  The  greensand  beds of the American Cretaceous belong
     mostly to the Upper Cretaceous.


   >  Green"shank`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  European  sandpiper or snipe
   (Totanus canescens); -- called also greater plover.


   >  Green"-stall`  (?), n. A stall at which greens and fresh vegetables
   are exposed for sale.


   >  Green"stone`  (gr&emac;n"st&omac;n`), n. [So called from a tinge of
   green in the color.] (Geol.) A name formerly applied rather loosely to
   certain dark-colored igneous rocks, including diorite, diabase, etc.


   > Green"sward` (-sward') n. Turf green with grass.


   >  Greenth  (gr&emac;nth),  n.  [Cf.  Growth.] The state or quality of
   being green; verdure. [R.]

     The greenth of summer. G. Eliot.


   > Green"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) See Greenbroom.


   > Green"wood` (?), n. A forest as it appears is spring and summer.


   >  Green"wood`,  a.  Pertaining to a greenwood; as, a greenwood shade.


   > Greet (?), a. Great. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   >  Greet,  v. i. [OE. greten, AS. gr?tan, gr?lan; akin to Icel. grata,
   Sw.  gi?ta,  Dan.  gr?de, Goth. gr?ctan; cf. Skr. hr?d to sound, roar.
   &root;50.]  To  weep; to cry; to lament. [Obs. or Scot.] [Written also
   greit.] Spenser.


   > Greet, n. Mourning. [Obs.] Spenser.


   >  Greet, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Greeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Greeting.] [OE.
   greten,  AS.  gr?tan  to  address,  approach;  akin  to OS. gr, LG\'3e
   gr\'94ten, D. groeten, OHG. gruozzen, G. gr\'81ssen. &root;50.]

   1.  To  address  with  salutations  or  expressions of kind wishes; to
   salute;  to  hail;  to  welcome;  to  accost  with  friendship; to pay
   respects   or   compliments  to,  either  personally  or  through  the
   intervention of another, or by writing or token.

     My lord, the mayor of London comes to greet you. Shak.

   2. To come upon, or meet, as with something that makes the heart glad.

     In vain the spring my senses greets. Addison.

   3.  To  accost; to address. Pope. <-- p. 650 Needs proof-reading . . .
   the etymologies and other italics are not marked -->


   > Greet (?), v. i. To meet and give salutations.

     There  greet  in silence, as the dead are wont, And sleep in peace.


   > Greet, n. Greeting. [Obs.] F. Beaumont. 


   > Greet"er (?), n. One who greets or salutes another.


   > Greet"er, n. One who weeps or mourns. [Obs.]


   >  Greet"ing, n. Expression of kindness or joy; salutation at meeting;
   a compliment from one absent.

     Write  to  him  .  .  .  gentle adieus and greetings. Shak. Syn. --
     Salutation; salute; compliment. 


     > Greeve (?), n. See Grieve, an overseer.


     > Greeze (?), n. A step. See Gree, a step. [Obs.]

     The top of the ladder, or first greeze, is this. Latimer.


     >  Gref"fi*er  (?), n. [F., from LL. grafarius, graphiarius, fr. L.
     graphium,  a  writing  style;  cf.  F.  greffe a record office. See
     Graft,  and cf. Graffer.] A registrar or recorder; a notary. [Obs.]
     Bp. Hall.


     > Gre"gal (?), a. [L. gregalis, fr. grex, gregis, herd.] Pertaining
     to, or like, a flock.

     For this gregal conformity there is an excuse. W. S. Mayo.


     >  Gre*ga"ri*an (?), a. Gregarious; belonging to the herd or common
     sort; common. [Obs.] "The gregarian soldiers." Howell.


     >  \"d8Greg`a*ri"n\"91  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gregarina the typical
     genus,  fr.  L.  gregarius. See Gregarious.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of
     Protozoa,  allied to the Rhizopoda, and parasitic in other animals,
     as  in  the earthworm, lobster, etc. When adult, they have a small,
     wormlike  body inclosing a nucleus, but without external organs; in
     one  of  the  young  stages,  they are am\'d2biform; -- called also
     Gregarinida, and Gregarinaria.


     >   Greg"a*rine   (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the
     Gregarin\'91. -- n. One of the Gregarin\'91.


     > \"d8Greg`a*rin"i*da (?) Gregarin\'91.


     >  Gre*ga"ri*ous (?), a. [L. gregarius, fr. grex, gregis, herd; cf.
     Gr.  jar to approach. Cf. Congregate, Egregious.] Habitually living
     or  moving  in  flocks or herds; tending to flock or herd together;
     not habitually solitary or living alone. Burke.

     No birds of prey are gregarious. Ray.

     <--  2. (of people) enjoying companionship; sociable; not solitary.
     3.  (of  plants) growing in clusters. --> -- Gre*ga"ri*ous*ly, adv.
     -- Gre-ga'ri-ous-ness, n.


     >  Grege  (?),  Greg"ge  (,  v. t. [OE. gregier to burden.] To make
     heavy; to increase. [Obs.] Wyclif.

                                Greggoe, Grego

     >  Greg"goe  (?), Gre"go (?), n. [Prob. fr, It. Greco Greek, or Sp.
     Griego, or Pg. Grego.] A short jacket or cloak, made of very thick,
     coarse  cloth,  with a hood attached, worn by the Greeks and others
     in the Levant. [Written also griego.]


     > Gre*go"ri*an (?), a. [NL. Gregorianus, fr. Gregorius Gregory, Gr.
     gr\'82gorien.]  Pertaining  to, or originated by, some person named
     Gregory, especially one of the popes of that name.

   Gregorian  calendar, the calendar as reformed by Pope Gregory XIII. in
   1582,  including  the  method  of  adjusting  the  leap years so as to
   harmonize  the  civil  year with the solar, and also the regulation of
   the  time  of  Easter  and  the movable feasts by means of epochs. See
   Gregorian  year  (below).  --  Gregorian  chant (Mus.), plain song, or
   canto  fermo,  a  kind  of  unisonous  music,  according  to the eight
   celebrated church modes, as arranged and prescribed by Pope Gregory I.
   (called  "the  Great")  in  the  6th  century. -- Gregorian modes, the
   musical scales ordained by Pope Gregory the Great, and named after the
   ancient  Greek  scales, as Dorian, Lydian, etc. -- Gregorian telescope
   (Opt.),  a  form  of  reflecting  telescope,  named  from  Prof. James
   Gregory,  of  Edinburgh,  who  perfected  it  in 1663. A small concave
   mirror in the axis of this telescope, having its focus coincident with
   that  of  the  large  reflector, transmits the light received from the
   latter back through a hole in its center to the eyepiece placed behind
   it.  --  Gregorian  year,  the  year  as now reckoned according to the
   Gregorian  calendar. Thus, every year, of the current reckoning, which
   is  divisible  by 4, except those divisible by 100 aud not by 400, has
   366  days;  all  other  years  have 365 days. See Bissextile, and Note
   under Style, n., 7.


   >  Greil"lade (?), n. (Metal.) Iron ore in coarse powder, prepared for
   reduction by the Catalan process.


   >  Grei"sen (?), n. (Min.) A crystalline rock consisting of quarts and
   mica, common in the tin regions of Cornwall and Saxony.


   > Greit (?), v. i. See Greet, to weep.


   >  Greith  (?), v. t. [Icel. grct?a: cf. AS. ger?dan to arrange; pref.
   ge-  +  r ready. Cf. Ready.] To make ready; -- often used reflexively.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   > Greith, n. [Icel. grci?i. See Greith, v.] Goods; furniture. [Obs.]

     NOTE: See Graith.


   >  Gre"mi*al  (?), a. [L. gremium lap, bosom.] Of or pertaining to the
   lap or bosom. [R.]


   > Gre"mi*al, n.

   1. A bosom friend. [Obs.] Fuller.

   2.  (Ecol.) A cloth, often adorned with gold or silver lace, placed on
   the  bishop's  lap  while he sits in celebrating mass, or in ordaining


   >  Gre*nade"  (?),  n.  [F.  grenade  a pomegranate, a grenade, or Sp.
   granada;  orig.,  filled with seeds. So called from the resemblanse of
   its  shape  to  a  pomegranate.  See  Carnet,  Grain a kernel, and cf.
   Pomegranate.] (Min.) A hollow ball or shell of iron filled with powder
   of  other  explosive,  ignited by means of a fuse, and thrown from the
   hand  among  enemies.  Hand  grenade.  (a)  A small grenade of iron or
   glass,  usually  about two and a half inches in diameter, to be thrown
   from  the  hand into the head of a sap, trenches, covered way, or upon
   besiegers   mounting  a  breach.  (b)  A  portable  fire  extinguisher
   consisting  of  a  glass bottle containing water and gas. It is thrown
   into  the flames. Called also fire grenade. Rampart grenades, grenades
   of various sizes, which, when used, are rolled over the pararapet in a


   > Gren`a*dier" (?), n. [F. grenadier. See Grenade.]

   1.  (Mil.)  Originaly,  a  soldier  who  carried  and  threw grenades;
   afterward,  one  of  a company attached to each regiment or battalion,
   taking  post on the right of the line, and wearing a peculiar uniform.
   In  modern  times,  a  member  of  a  special regiment or corps; as, a
   grenadier of the guard of Napoleon I. one of the regiment of Grenadier
   Guards of the British army, etc.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Any marine fish of the genus Macrurus, in which the body
   and tail taper to a point; they mostly inhabit the deep sea; -- called
   also onion fish, and rat-tail fish.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  bright-colored  South  African grosbeak (Pyromelana
   orix), having the back red and the lower parts black.


   > Gren`a*dil"lo (?), n. [Sp. granadillo.] A handsome tropical American
   wood,  much  used  for  making  flutes  and other wind instruments; --
   called also Grenada cocos, or cocus, and red ebony.


   > Gren`a*dine" (?), n. [F.]

   1. A thin gauzelike fabric of silk or wool, for women's wear.

   2.  A  trade  name  for  a  dyestuff, consisting essentially of impure
   fuchsine. <-- 3. a liqueur -->


   > Gre*na"do (?), n. Same as Grenade.


   > Grene (?), a. Green. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   > Gres (?), n. Grass. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                            Gressorial, Gressorious

   >  Gres*so"ri*al  (?),  Gres*so"ri*ous  (?),  a. [L. gressus, p. p. of
   gradi  to  step,  go.] (Zool.) Adapted for walking; anisodactylous; as
   the feet of certain birds and insects. See Illust. under Aves.

                                  Gret, Grete

   > Gret (?), Grete (, a. Great. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   > Gret"to (?), obs. imp. of Greet, to salute.


   > Greve (?), n. A grove. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   > Grew (?), imp. of Grow.

                              Grewsome, Grue'some

   >  Grew"some  (?), Grue'some, a. [From a word akin to Dan. gru horror,
   terror  +  -some;  cf.  D.  gruwzaam,  G.  grausam. Cf. Grisly.] Ugly;

     Grewsome sights of war. C. Kingsley.


   > Grey (?), a. See Gray (the correct orthography).


   >  Grey"hound`  (?),  n.  [OE. graihund, greihound, greahund, grihond,
   Icel.  greyhundr;  grey  greyhound  + hundr dog; cf. AS. gr?ghund. The
   origin of the first syllable is unknown.] A slender, graceful breed of
   dogs, remarkable for keen sight and swiftness. It is one of the oldest
   varieties  known,  and  is figured on the Egyptian monuments. [Written
   also grayhound.]


   > Grey"lag` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Graylag.


   >  Grib"ble  (?),  n.  [Cf. Prov. E. grib to bite.] (Zo\'94l.) A small
   marine  isopod  crustacean  (Limnoria lignorum or L. terebrans), which
   burrows  into and rapidly destroys submerged timber, such as the piles
   of wharves, both in Europe and America.


   >  Grice  (?), n. [OE. gris, grise; of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. gr?ss,
   Sw.  gris,  Dan.  grus,  also  Gr.  ?,  Skr. ghrshvi, boar. Cf. Grise,
   Griskin.] A little pig. [Written also grise.] [Scot.]


   > Grice (?), n. See Gree, a step. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   > Grid (?), n. A grating of thin parallel bars, similar to a gridiron.


   >  Grid"dle  (?), n. [OE. gredil, gredl, gridel, of Celtic origin; cf.
   W.  greidell,  Ir.  greideal,  greideil, griddle, gridiron, greadaim I
   burn, scorch. Cf. Gridiron.]

   1. An iron plate or pan used for cooking cakes.

   2. A sieve with a wire bottom, used by miners.


   >  Grid"dle*cake`  (?),  n. A cake baked or fried on a griddle, esp. a
   thin batter cake, as of buckwheat or common flour.


   >  Gride  (?),  e.  i. [imp. & p. p. Grided; p. pr. & vb. n. Griding.]
   [For gird, properly, to strike with a rod. See Yard a measure, and cf.
   Grid  to  strike,  sneer.]  To  cut  with  a grating sound; to cut; to
   penetrate or pierce harshly; as, the griding sword. Milton.

     That through his thigh the mortal steel did gride. Spenser.


   > Grade, n. A harsh scraping or cutting; a grating.

     The grade of hatchets fiercely thrown. On wigwam log, and tree, and
     stone. Whittier.


   > Grid"e*lin (?), n. [F. gris de lin gray of flax, flax gray.] A color
   mixed  of  white,  and red, or a gray violet. [Written also gredaline,
   grizelin.] Dryden.


   >  Grid"i`ron (?), n. [OE. gredire, gredirne, from tthe same source as
   E. griddle, but the ending wass confused with E. iron. See Griddle.]

   1. A grated iron utensil for broiling flesh and fish over coals.

   2.  (Naut.)  An  openwork  frame  on  which  vessels  are  placed  for
   examination, cleaning, and repairs. <--

   3. (Sport) A football field. -->
   Gridiron  pendulum.  See  under  Pendulum.  --  Gridiron  valve (Steam
   Engine),   a   slide   valve   with   several   parallel  perforations
   corresponding to openings in the seat on which the valve moves.


   > Grief (?), n. [OE. grief, gref, OF. grief, gref, F. grief, L. gravis
   heavy;  akin  to Gr. ?, Skr. guru, Goth. ka?rus. Cf. Barometer, Grave,
   a., Grieve, Gooroo.]

   1.  Pain of mind on account of something in the past; mental suffering
   arising  from any cause, as misfortune, loss of friends, misconduct of
   one's self or others, etc.; sorrow; sadness.

     The  mother  was so afflicted at the loss of a fine boy, . . . that
     she died for grief of it. Addison.

   2.  Cause  of sorrow or pain; that which afficts or distresses; trial;

     Be factious for redress of all these griefs. Shak.

   3. Physical pain, or a cause of it; malady. [R.]

     This  grief  (cancerous  ulcers)  hastened  the  end of that famous
     mathematician, Mr. Harriot. Wood.

   To come to grief, to meet with calamity, accident, defeat, ruin, etc.,
   causing grief; to turn out badly. [Colloq.] Syn. -- Affiction; sorrow;
   distress; sadness; trial; grievance. Grief, Sorrow, Sadness. Sorrow is
   the generic term; grief is sorrow for some definite cause -- one which
   commenced,  at  least,  in the past; sadness is applied to a permanent
   mood  of the mind. Sorrow is transient in many cases; but the grief of
   a  mother  for  the  loss  of  a  favorite  child too often turns into
   habitual  sadness.  "Grief  is sometimes considered as synonymous with
   sorrow; and in this case we speak of the transports of grief. At other
   times  it expresses more silent, deep, and painful affections, such as
   are  inspired  by  domestic  calamities,  particularly  by the loss of
   friends  and  relatives,  or  by the distress, either of body or mind,
   experienced by those whom we love and value." Cogan.See Affliction.


   > Grief"ful (?), a. Full of grief or sorrow. Sackvingle.


   > Grief"less, a. Without grief. Huloet.


   > Grie"go (?), n. See Greggoe.


   > Griev"a*ble (?), a. Lamentable. [Obs.]


   > Griev'ance (?), n. [OF. grcvance. See Grieve, v. t.]

   1.  A  cause  of  uneasiness and complaint; a wrong done and suffered;
   that  which  gives  ground  for remonstrance or resistance, as arising
   from injustice, tyranny, etc.; injury.

   2. Grieving; grief; affliction.

     The . . . grievance of a mind unreasonably yoked. Milton.

   Syn. -- Burden; oppression; hardship; trouble.


   >  Griev"an*cer  (?),  n. One who occasions a grievance; one who gives
   ground for complaint. [Obs.]

     Petition . . . against the bishops as grand grievancers. Fuller.

                                Grieve, Greeve

   > Grieve (?), Greeve, n. [AS. ger. Cf. Reeve an officer.] A manager of
   a farm, or overseer of any work; a reeve; a manorial bailiff. [Scot.]

     Their children were horsewhipped by the grieve. Sir W. Scott.


   >  Grieve  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Grieved (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Grieving.] [OE. greven, OF. grever, fr. L. gravare to burden, oppress,
   fr. gravis heavy. See Grief.]

   1.  To  occasion  grief  to;  to  wound  the sensibilities of; to make
   sorrowful; to cause to suffer; to affect; to hurt; to try.

     Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God. Eph. iv. 30.

     The maidens grieved themselves at my concern. Cowper,

   2. To sorrow over; as, to grieve one's fate. [R.]


   >  Grieve, v. i. To feel grief; to be in pain of mind on account of an
   evil; to sorrow; to mourn; -- often followed by at, for, or over.

     Do not you grieve at this. Shak.


   > Griev"er (?), n. One who, or that which, grieves.


   >  Griev"ing,  a.  Sad;  sorrowful;  causing  grief.  -- n. The act of
   causing grief; the state of being grieved. -- Griev'ing-ly, adv. Shak.


   > Griev"ous (?), a. [OF. grevous, grevos, LL. gravosus. See Grief.]

   1.  Causing  grief  or  sorrow;  painful;  afflictive;  hard  to bear;
   offensive; harmful.

     The famine was grievous in the land. Gen. xii. 10.

     The thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight. Gen. xxi 11.

   2.  Characterized  by great atrocity; heinous; aggravated; flagitious;
   as, a grievous sin. Gen. xviii. 20. 

   3.  Full of, or expressing, grief; showing great sorrow or affliction;
   as, a grievous cry. -- Griev"ous*ly, adv. -- Griev"ous*ness, n.


   > Griff (?), n. [Cf. Gripe.]

   1. Grasp; reach. [Obs.]

     A vein of gold ore within one spade's griff. Holland.

   2.  [Cf.  F.  griffe,  G.  griff,  prop.,  a  grasping.]  (Weaving) An
   arrangement  of parallel bars for lifting the hooked wires which raise
   the warp threads in a loom for weaving figured goods. Knight.


   >  Griffe  (?),  n. [F.] The offspring of a mulatto woman and a negro;
   also, a mulatto. [Local, U. S.]


   > Grif"fin (?), n. An Anglo-Indian name for a person just arrived from
   Europe. H. Kingsley.

                               Griffin, Griffon

   >  Grif"fin  (?), Grif"fon (?), n. [OE. griffin, griffon, griffoun, F.
   griffon, fr. L. gryphus, equiv to gryps, Gr.

   1.  (Myth.)  A fabulous monster, half lion and half eagle. It is often
   represented in Grecian and Roman works of art.

   2. (Her.) A representation of this creature as an heraldic charge.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  species of large vulture (Gyps fulvus) found in the
   mountainous parts of Southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia Minor; --
   called  also gripe, and grype. It is supposed to be the "eagle" of the
   Bible. The bearded griffin is the lammergeir. [Written also gryphon.]

   Page 651

   4. An English early apple.


   Grig  (?),  n.  [Cf. Sw. kr\'84k little creature, reptile; or D. kriek
   cricket, E. cricket.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A cricket or grasshopper. [Prov. Eng.] (b) Any small
   eel. (c) The broad-nosed eel See Glut. [Prov. Eng.]

   2. Heath. [Prov. Eng.] Audrey.
   As merry as a grig [etymology uncertain], a saying supposed by some to
   be  a  corruption  of  "As  merry  as  a  Greek; " by others, to be an
   allusion to the cricket.


   Gril  (?),  a.  [OE. gril harsh; akin to G. grell offending the ear or
   eye,  shrill,  dazzling,  MHG. grel angry; cf. AS. gallan to provoke.]
   Harah; hard; severe; stern; rough. [Obs.] Rom. of R. 


   Grill, n. [F. gril. See Grill, v. t.]

   1. A gridiron.

     [They] make grills of [wood] to broil their meat. Cotton.

   2. That which is broiled on a gridiron, as meat, fish, etc.


   Grill, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grilled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Grilling.] [F.
   griller,  fr. gril gridiron, OF. gra\'8bl, L. craticulum for craticula
   fine  hurdlework,  a small gridiron, dim. of crates hurdle. See Grate,

   1.  To  broil  on  a  grill  or  gridiron. Boiling of men in caldrons,
   grilling them on gridirons. Marvell.

   2. To torment, as if by broiling. Dickens.


   Gril*lade" (, n. [F. See Grill, v. t.] The act of grilling; also, that
   which is grilled.


   Gril"lage  (?), n. [F.] (Hydraulic Eagin.) A framework of sleepers and
   crossbeams forming a foundation in marshy or treacherous soil.


   Grille (?), a. [F. See Grill, v. t.] A lattice or grating.

     The grille which formed part of the gate. L. Oliphant. 


   Gril"ly  (?),  v.  t. [See Grill, v. t.] To broil; to grill; hence, To
   harass. [Obs.] Hudibras.


   Grilse  (?),  n.  [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) A young salmon after
   its first return from the sea.


   Grim  (?), a. [Compar. Grimmer (-mer); superl. Grimmest (.] [AS. grim;
   akin  to  G.  grimm,  equiv.  to G. & D. grimmig, Dan. grim, grum, Sw.
   grym,  Icel.  grimmr,  G.  gram  grief,  as  adj., hostile; cf. Gr. Of
   forbidding  or  fear-inspiring  aspect;  fierce;  stern; surly; cruel;
   frightful; horrible.

     Whose grim aspect sets every joint a-shaking. Shak


     The ridges of grim war. Milton.

   Syn.--   Fierce;  ferocious;  furious;  horrid;  horrible;  frightful;
   ghastly; grisly; hideous; stern; sullen; sour.


   Gri*mace"  (?),  n.  [F.,  prob.  of Teutonic origin; cf. AS. gr mask,
   specter,  Ical. gr mask, hood, perh. akin to E. grin.] A distortion of
   the  countenance, whether habitual, from affectation, or momentary aad
   occasional,  to  express  some  feeling,  as contempt, disapprobation,
   complacency, etc.; a smirk; a made-up face.

     Moving  his face into such a hideons grimace, that every feature of
     it appeared under a different distortion. Addison.

     NOTE: &hand; "H alf the French words used affectedly by Melantha in
     Dryden's  "Marriage a-la-Mode," as innovations in our language, are
     now  in  common usa: chagrin, double--entendre, \'82claircissement,
     embarras,  \'82quivoque, foible, grimace, na\'8bvete, ridicule. All
     these words, which she learns by heart to use occasionally, are now
     in common use."

   I. Disraeli. 


   Gri*mace",  v.  i.  To  make  grimaces; to distort one's face; to make
   faces. H. Martineau.


   Gri*maced" (?), a. Distorted; crabbed.


   Gri*mal"kin  (?), n. [For graymalkin; gray + malkin.] An old cat, esp.
   a she-cat. J. Philips. 


   Grime  (?), n. [Cf. Dan. grim, griim, lampblack, soot, grime, Icel. gr
   mask,  sort  of  hood,  OD.  grijmsel,  grimsel,  soot,  smut,  and E.
   grimace.]  Foul  matter;  dirt,  rubbed in; sullying blackness, deeply


   Grime, v. t. To sully or soil deeply; to dirt. Shak.


   Grim"i*ly (?), adv. In a grimy manner.


   Grim"i*ness n. The state of being grimy.


   Grim"ly (?), a. Grim; hideous; stern. [R.]

     In  glided Margaret's grimly ghost, And stood at William's feet. D.


   Grim"ly, adv. In a grim manner; fiercely. Shak.


   Grimme  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. grimme.] (Zo\'94l.) A West African antelope
   (Cephalophus  rufilotus)  of  a  deep  bay  color, with a broad dorsal
   stripe of black; -- called also conquetoon.


   Grim"ness  (?),  n.  [AS.  grimnes.]  Fierceness  of  look; sternness;
   crabbedness; forbiddingness.


   Grim"sir (?), n. A stern man. [Obs.] Burton.


   Grim"y (?), a. [Compar. Grimier (?); superl. Grimiest.] Full of grime;
   begrimed; dirty; foul.


   Grin (?), n. [AS. grin.] A snare; a gin. [Obs.]

     Like a bird that hasteth to his grin. Remedy of Love.


   Grin, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Grinned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Grinning.] [OE.
   grinnen,  grennen,  AS.  grennian,  Sw.  grina; akin to D. grijnen, G.
   greinen, OHG. grinan, Dan. grine. Groan.]

   1. To show the teeth, as a dog; to shsrl.

   2.  To  set the teeth together and open the lips, or to open the mouth
   and  withdraw  the  lips  from  the  teeth,  so as to show them, as in
   laughter, acorn, or pain.

     The pangs of death do make him grin. Shak.


   Grin, v. t. To express by grinning.

     Grinned horrible a ghastly smile.Milton.


     Grin,  n.  The  act  of  closing  the teeth and showing them, or of
     withdrawing  the  lips  and  showing  the teeth; a hard, forced, or
     smeering smile. I.Watts.

     He showed twenty teeth at a grin. Addison.


     Grind  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Ground  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
     Grinding.] [AS. grindan; perh. akin to L. frendere to gnash, grind.
     Cf. Grist.]

     1.  To  reduce  to  powder  by  friction, as in a mill, or with the
     teeth;  to  crush into small fragments; to produce as by the action
     of millstones.

     Take the millstones, and grind meal. Is. xivii. 2.

     2.  To  wear down, polish, or sharpen, by friction; to make smooth,
     sharp, or pointed; to whet, as a knife or drill; to rub against one
     another, as teeth, etc.

     3. To oppress by severe exactions; to harass.

     To grind the subject or defraud the prince. Dryden.

     4. To study hard for examination. [College Slang]


     Grind (?), v. i.

     1.  To  perform  the  operation  of grinding something; to turn the

     Send thee Into the common prison, there to grind. Milton.

     2. To become ground or pulverized by friction; as, this corn grinds

     3.  To  become  polished or sharpened by friction; as, glass grinds
     smooth; steel grinds to a sharp edge.

     4. To move with much difficulty or friction; to grate.

     5.  To  perform  hard  aud distasteful service; to drudge; to study
     hard, as for an examination. Farrar.


     Grind, n.

     1. The act of reducing to powder, or of sharpening, by friction.

     2.  Any  severe  continuous  work  or  occupation;  esp.,  hard and
     uninteresting study. [Colloq.] T. Hughes.

     3. A hard student; a dig. [College Slang]


     Grind"ed, obs. p. p. of Grind. Ground. Sir W. Scott. 


     Grin*de"li*a  (?),  n.  [NL. Named after D. H. Grindel, a Russian.]
     (Med.) The dried stems and leaves of tarweed (Grindelia), used as a
     remedy in asthma and bronchitis.


     Grind"er (?), n.

     1. One who, or that which, grinds.

     2.  One of the double teeth, used to grind or masticate the food; a

     3.   (Zo\'94l.)  The  restless  flycatcher  (Seisura  inquieta)  of
     Australia;  --  called also restless thrush and volatile thrush. It
     makes a noise like a scissors grinder, to which the name alludes.

   Grinder's  asthma, phthisis, OR rot (Med.), a lung disease produced by
   the  mechanical  irritation  of the particles of steel and stone given
   off in the operation of grinding.


   Grind"er*y   (?),  n.  Leather  workers'  materials.  [Eng.]  Grindery
   warehouse,  a shop where leather workers' materials and tools are kept
   on sale. [Eng.]


   Grind"ing,  a.  & n. from Grind. Grinding frame, an English name for a
   cotton  spinning  machine.  --  Grinding mill. (a) A mill for grinding
   grain. (b) A lapidary's lathe.


   Grind"ing*ly, adv. In a grinding manner. [Colloq.]


   Grin"dle (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The bowfin; -- called also Johnny Grindle.
   [Local, U. S.]

                                 Grindle stone

   Grin"dle stone" (?). A grindstone. [Obs.]


   Grind"let (?), n. A small drain.


   Grind"stone` (?), n. A flat, circular stone, revolving on an axle, for
   grinding  or  sharpening  tools,  or  shaping or smoothing objects. To
   hold,  pat,  OR bring one's nose to the grindstone, to oppress one; to
   keep one in a condition of servitude.

     They  might  be  ashamed,  for  lack  of  courage,  to  suffer  the
     Laced\'91monians  to  hold  their  noses  to the grindstone. Sir T.


   Grin"ner (?), n. One who grins. Addison.


   Grin"ning*ly, adv. In a grinning manner.


   Grint (?), 3d pers. sing. pres. of Grind, contr. from grindeth. [Obs.]


   Grin"te (?), obs. imp. of Grin, v. i., 1.

     [He] grinte with his teeth, so was he wroth. Chaucer.


   Grint"ing (?), n. Grinding. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Grip  (?),  n. [L. gryps, gryphus. See Griffin, Grype.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   griffin. [Obs.]


   Grip,  n.  [Cf.  AS.  grip  furrow,  hitch, D. greb.] A small ditch or
   furrow. Ray.


   Grip, v. t. To trench; to drain.


   Grip, n. [AS. gripe. Cf. Grip, v. t., Gripe, v. t.]

   1.  An  energetic  or  tenacious  grasp;  a  holding fast; strength in

   2.  A peculiar mode of clasping the hand, by which members of a secret
   association recognize or greet, one another; as, a masonic grip.

   3.  That by which anything is grasped; a handle or gripe; as, the grip
   of a sword.

   4. A device for grasping or holding fast to something.


   Grip,  v.  t. [From Grip a grasp; or P. gripper to seize; -- of German
   origin. See Gripe, v. t.] To give a grip to; to grasp; to gripe.


   Gripe (?), n. [See Grype.] (Zo\'94l.) A vulture; the griffin. [Obs.]

     Like a white hind under the gripe's sharp claws. Shak.

   Gripe's egg, an alchemist's vessel. [Obs.] E. Jonson. 


   Gripe,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Griped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Griping.] [AS.
   gripan;  akin  to  D.  grijpen,  G. greifen, OHG. gr, Icel. gripa, Sw.
   gripe, Dan. gribe, Goth. greipan; cf. Lith. graibyti, Russ. grabite to
   plunder, Skr. grah, grabh, to seize. Cf. Grip, v. t., Grope.]

   1.  To  catch  with  the  hand;  to clasp closely with the fingers; to

   2. To seize and hold fast; to embrace closely.

     Wouldst  thou  gripe  both  gain  and  pleasure  ? Robynson (More's

   3.  To  pinch;  to  distress.  Specifically,  to  cause  pinching  and
   spasmodic  pain  to  the  bowels  of,  as  by  the  effects of certain
   purgative or indigestible substances.

     How inly sorrow gripes his soul. Shak.


   Gripe, v. i.

   1.  To  clutch, hold, or pinch a thing, esp. money, with a gripe or as
   with a gripe.

   2. To suffer griping pains. Jocke.

   3.  (Naut.)  To  tend  to come up into the wind, as a ship which, when
   sailing  closehauled, requires constant labor at the helm. R. H. Dana,
   Jr. <-- 4. to complain -->


   Gripe, n.

   1. Grasp; seizure; fast hold; clutch.

     A barren scepter in my gripe. Shak.

   2.  That on which the grasp is put; a handle; a grip; as, the gripe of
   a sword.

   3.  (Mech.) A device for grasping or holding anything; a brake to stop
   a wheel.

   4.  Oppression;  cruel exaction; affiction; pinching distress; as, the
   gripe of poverty.

   5.  Pinching  and spasmodic pain in the intestines; -- chiefly used in
   the plural.

   6.  (Naut.)  (a)  The piece of timber which terminates the keel at the
   fore end; the forefoot. (b) The compass or sharpness of a ship's stern
   under  the  water, having a tendency to make her keep a good wind. (c)
   pl.  An  assemblage  of  ropes,  dead-eyes,  and  hocks,  fastened  to
   ringbolts  in  the deck, to secure the boats when hoisted; also, broad
   bands  passed  around  a  boat  to secure it at the davits and prevent
   Gripe  penny,  a  miser;  a  niggard<--  ;  a  pinchpenny?  -->. D. L.


   Gripe"ful (?), a. Disposed to gripe; extortionate.


   Grip"er (?), a. One who gripes; an oppressor; an extortioner. Burton.


   Grip"ing*ly (?), adv. In a griping or oppressive manner. Bacon.


   Gri"man (?), n. The man who manipulates a grip.


   Grippe  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Med.)  The  influenza  or  epidemic  catarrh.


   Grip"per (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, grips or seizes.

   2. pl. In printing presses, the fingers or nippers.


   Grip"ple (?), n. A grasp; a gripe. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Grip"ple,  a.  [Dim. fr. gripe.] Griping; greedy; covetous; tenacious.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Grip"ple*ness, n. The quality of being gripple. [Obs.]


   Grip"sack` (?), n. A traveler's handbag. [Colloq.]


   Gris  (?),  a.  [OF. & F., fr. LL. griseus; of German origin; cf. MHG.
   gris, G. greis, hoary. Cf. Grizzle.] Gray. [R.] Chaucer.


   Gris (?), n. [OF., fr. gris gray. Cf. G. grauwerk (lit. gray work) the
   gray  skin  of  the  Siberian squirrel. See Gris, a.] A costly kind of
   fur. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gris  (gr&icr;s),  n.  sing.  &  pl.  [See Grice a pig.] A little pig.
   [Obs.] Piers Plowman.


   Gri"saille` (?), n. [F., from gris gray.]

   1.  (Fine  Arts)  Decorative  painting  in gray monochrome; -- used in
   English especially for painted glass.

   2. A kind of French fancy dress goods. Knight.


   Gris"am`ber (?), n. [See Ambergris.] Ambergris. [Obs.] Milton.


   Grise (gr&imac;s), n. See Grice, a pig. [Prov. Eng.]


   Grise  (gr&imac;s OR gr&emac;s), n. [Prop. pl. of gree a step.] A step
   (in a flight of stairs); a degree. [Obs.]

     Every grise of fortune Is smoothed by that below. Shak.


   Gris"e*ous  (?),  a.  [LL.  griseus.  See  Gris.] Of a light color, or
   white, mottled with black or brown; grizzled or grizzly. Maunder.


   Gri*sette"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. grisette a gray woolen cloth, fr. gris
   gray.  Grisettes  were  so called because they wore gray gowns made of
   this  stuff.  See  Gars.]  A French girl or young married woman of the
   lower  class;  more  frequently,  a young working woman who is fond of
   gallantry. Sterne.


   Gris"kin (?), n. [Grise a pig + -kin.] The spine of a hog. [Obs.]


   Gri"sled (?), a. [Obs.] See Grizzled.


   Gris"li*ness (?), n. The quality or state of being grisly; horrid. Sir
   P. Sidney.


   Gris"ly  (?),  a. [OE, grisly, grislich, AS. grislic, gryslic, fr. gro
   shudder;  cf.  OD.  grijselick horrible, OHG. grisenl?ch, and also AS.
   gre?san  to frighten, and E. gruesome.] Frightful; horrible; dreadful;
   harsh;  as,  grisly  locks;  a  grisly  specter.  "Grisly  to behold."

     A man of grisly and stern gravity. Robynson (More's Utopia).

   Grisly bear. (Zo\'94l.) See under Grizzly.


   Gri"son  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  grison gray, gray-haired, gris gray. See
   Gris.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A South American animal of the family Mustelidae
   (Galictis  vittata). It is about two feet long, exclusive of the tail.
   Its  under  parts are black. Also called South American glutton. (b) A
   South American monkey (Lagothrix infumatus), said to be gluttonous.


   Gri"sons (?), n. pl. [F.] (Geog.) (a) Inhabitants of the eastern Swiss
   Alps. (b) sing. The largest and most eastern of the Swiss cantons.


   Grist (?), n. [AS. grist, fr. grindan. See Grind.]

   1.  Ground corn; that which is ground at one time; as much grain as is
   carried to the mill at one time, or the meal it produces.

     Get grist to the mill to have plenty in store. Tusser. Q.

   2. Supply; provision. Swift.

   3.  In  rope  making,  a given size of rope, common grist being a rope
   three  inches in circumference, with twenty yarns in each of the three
   strands. Knight.
   All  is  grist  that comes to his mill, all that he has anything to do
   with  is a source of profit. [Colloq.] -- To bring grist to the maill,
   to  bring  profitable  business  into  one's  hands; to be a source of
   profit. [Colloq.] Ayliffe.


   Gris"tle  (?),  n.  [OE. gristel, gristil, AS. gristl; akin to OFries.
   gristel,  grestel.  Perh.  a  dim.  of  grist  but  cf. OHG. krustila,
   krostela. Cf. Grist.] (Anat.) Cartilage. See Cartilage. Bacon.


   Gris"tly  (?),  a. (Anat.) Consisting of, or containing, gristle; like
   gristle; cartilaginous.


   Grist"mill"  (?), n. A mill for grinding grain; especially, a mill for
   grinding  grists, or portions of grain brought by different customers;
   a custom mill.


   Grit (?), n. [OE, greet, greot, sand, gravel, AS. gre\'a2t grit, sant,
   dust;  akin  to OS griott, OFries. gret gravel, OHG. grioz, G. griess,
   Icel.  grj\'d3t,  and  to E. groats, grout. See Groats, Grout, and cf.
   Grail gravel.]

   1. Sand or gravel; rough, hard particles.

   2. The coarse part of meal.

   Page 652

   3.  pl. Grain, esp. oats or wheat, hulled and coarsely ground; in high
   milling, fragments of cracked wheat smaller than groats.

   4.  (Geol.)  A hard, coarse-grained siliceous sandstone; as, millstone
   grit;  -- called also gritrock and gritstone. The name is also applied
   to a finer sharp-grained sandstone; as, grindstone grit.

   5. Structure, as adapted to grind or sharpen; as, a hone of good grit.

   6. Firmness of mind; invincible spirit; unyielding courage; fortitude.
   C. Reade. E. P. Whipple. 


   Grit (?), v. i. To give forth a grating sound, as sand under the feet;
   to grate; to grind.

     The sanded floor that grits beneath the tread. Goldsmith.


   Grit,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Gritted; p. pr. &, vb. n. Gritting.] To
   grind;  to  rub  harshly  together;  to  grate; as, to grit the teeth.


   Grith  (?),  n.  [AS.  gri\'eb  peace;  akin  to  Icel.  grid.] Peace;
   security; agreement. [Obs.] Gower.

                              Gritrock, Gritstone

   Grit"rock` (?), Grit"stone` (?) n. (Geol.) See Grit, n., 4.


   Grit"ti*ness (?), n. The quality of being gritty.


   Grit"ty (?), a.

   1.  Containing  sand or grit; consisting of grit; caused by grit; full
   of hard particles.

   2. Spirited; resolute; unyielding. [Colloq., U. S.]


   Griv"et (?), n. [Cf. F. grivet.] (Zo\'94l.) A monkey of the upper Nile
   and  Abyssinia  (Cercopithecus  griseoviridis), having the upper parts
   dull green, the lower parts white, the hands, ears, and face black. It
   was known to the ancient Egyptians. Called also tota.


   Grize (?), n. Same as 2d Grise. [Obs.]


   Griz"e*lin (?), a. See Gridelin.


   Griz"zle  (?),  n.  [F. gris: cf. grisaille hair partly gray, fr. gris
   gray.  See  Gris, and cf. Grisaille.] Gray; a gray color; a mixture of
   white and black. Shak.


   Griz"zled  (?),  a.  Gray; grayish; sprinkled or mixed with gray; of a
   mixed white and black.

     Grizzled hair flowing in elf locks. Sir W. Scott.


   Grlz"zly (?), a. Somewhat gray; grizzled.

     Old squirrels that turn grizzly. Bacon.

   Grizzly bear (Zo\'94l.), a large and ferocious bear (Ursus horribilis)
   of Western North America and the Rocky Mountains. It is remarkable for
   the great length of its claws.


   Griz"zly, n.; pl. Grizzlies (.

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A grizzly bear. See under Grizzly, a.

   2. pl. In hydraulic mining, gratings used to catch and throw out large
   stones from the sluices. [Local, U. S.] Raymond.


   Groan (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Groaned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Groaning.]
   [OE.  gronen,  granen,  granien,  AS.  gr, fr. the root of grennian to
   grin. \'fb35. See 2d Grin, and cf. Grunt.]

   1.  To give forth a low, moaning sound in breathing; to utter a groan,
   as in pain, in sorrow, or in derision; to moan.

     For we . . . do groan, being burdened. 2 Cor. v. 4.

     He heard the groaning of the oak. Sir W. Scott. 

   2. To strive after earnestly, as with groans.

     Nothing but holy, pure, and clear, Or that which groaneth to be so.


   Groan, v. t. To affect by groans.


   Groan,  n.  A  low,  moaning  sound;  usually,  a deep, mournful sound
   uttered  in pain or great distress; sometimes, an expression of strong
   disapprobation; as, the remark was received with groans.

     Such groans of roaring wind and rain. Shak.

     The wretched animal heaved forth such groans. Shak.


   Groan"ful (?), a. Agonizing; sad. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Groat  (?),  n. [LG. gr\'d3te, orig., great, that is, a great piece of
   coin, larger than other coins in former use. See Great.]

   1. An old English silver coin, equal to four pence.

   2. Any small sum of money.


   Groats  (?),  n.  pl.  [OE.  grot, AS. gr\'betan; akin to Icel. grautr
   porridge,  and to E. gritt, grout. See Grout.] Dried grain, as oats or
   wheat,  hulled  and  broken  or  crushed;  in  high  milling,  cracked
   fragments of wheat larger than grits. Embden groats, crushed oats.


   Gro"cer (?), n. [Formerly written grosser, orig., one who sells by the
   gross,  or deals by wholesale, fr. F. grossier, marchand grossier, fr.
   gros  large,  great.  See  Gross.]  A  trader who deals in tea, sugar,
   spices,  coffee,  fruits, and various other commodities. Grocer's itch
   (Med.), a disease of the akin, caused by handling sugar and treacle.


   Gro"cer*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Groceries (#). [F. grosserie wholesale. See

   1.  The  commodities sold by grocers, as tea, coffee, spices, etc.; --
   in the United States almost always in the plural form, in this sense.

     A deal box . . . to carry groceries in. Goldsmith.

     The  shops  at  which  the best families of the neighborhood bought
     grocery and millinery. Macaulay.

   2. A retail grocer's shop or store. [U.s.];


   Grog  (?),  n. [So named fronm "Old Grog" a nickmname given to Admiral
   Vernon, in allusion to his wearing a grogram cloak in foul weather. He
   is said to have been the first to dilute the rum of the sailors (about
   1745).]  A  mixture  of  spirit  and  water  not sweetened; hence, any
   intoxicating  liquor.  Grog  blossom, a redness on the nose or face of
   persons who drink ardent spirits to excess. [Collog.]


   Grog"ger*y (?), n.; pl. Groggeries (#). A grogshop. [Slang, U. S.]


   Grog"gi*ness (?), n.

   1. State of being groggy.

   2. (Man.) Tenderness or stiffness in the foot of a horse, which causes
   him to move in a hobbling manner.


   Grog"gy (?), a.

   1. Overcome with grog; tipsy; unsteady on the legs. [Colloq.]

   2.  Weakened  in a fight so as to stagger; -- said of pugilists. [Cant
   or Slang]

   3.  (Man.) Moving in a hobbling manner, owing to ten der feet; -- said
   of a horse. Youatt.

                               Grogram, Grogran

   Grog"ram (?), Grog"ran (?), n. [OF. gros-grain, lit., gros-grain, of a
   coarse texture. See Gross, and Grain a kernel, and cf. Grog.] A coarse
   stuff made of silk and mohair, or of coarse silk.


   Grog"shop`  (?),  n.  A shop or room where strong liquors are sold and
   drunk; a dramshop.


   Groin (?), n. [F. groin, fr. grogner to grunt, L. grunnire.] The snout
   of a swine. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Groin,  v.  i.  [F.  grogner to grunt, grumble.] To grunt to growl; to
   snarl; to murmur. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Bears that groined coatinually. Spenser.


   Groin,  n.  [Icel.  grein  distinction,  division, branch; akin to Sw.
   gren,  branch,  space  between  the legs, Icel. greina to distinguish,
   divide, Sw. grena to branch, straddle. Cf. Grain a branch.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The  line  between  the lower part of the abdomen and the
   thigh, or the region of this line; the inguen.

   2.  (Arch.)  The  projecting  solid angle formed by the meeting of two
   vaults, growing more obtuse as it approaches the summit.

   3. (Math.) The surface formed by two such vaults.

   4.  A  frame  of  woodwork  across  a  beach  to accumulate and retain
   shingle. [Eng.] Weale.


   Groin,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Groined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Groining.]
   (Arch.) To fashion into groins; to build with groins.

     The  hand  that  rounded  Peter's  dome,  And groined the aisles of
     Christian Rome, Wrought in a sad sincerity. Emerson.


   Groined  (?),  a.  (Arch.) Built with groins; as, a groined ceiling; a
   groined vault. <-- Illustr. of Groined Arch. -->


   Grom"et (?), n. Same as Grommet.


   Grom"ill (?), n. (Bot.) See Gromwell.


   Grom"met  (?), n. [F. gourmette curb, curb chain, fr. gourmer to curb,
   thump, beat; cf. Armor. gromm a curb, gromma to curb.]

   1.  A  ring  formed by twisting on itself a single strand of an unlaid
   rope; also, a metallic eyelet in or for a sail or a mailbag. Sometimes
   written grummet.

   2. (Mil.) A ring of rope used as a wad to hold a cannon ball in place.


   Grom"well  (?),  n.  [Called  also gromel, grommel, graymill, and gray
   millet,  all  prob. fr. F. gr?mil, cf. W. cromandi.] (Bot.) A plant of
   the  genus  Lithospermum  (L. arvense), anciently used, because of its
   stony  pericarp,  in  the  cure  of gravel. The German gromwell is the
   Stellera. [Written also gromill.]


   Grond (?), obs. imp. of Grind. Chaucer.


   Gron"te (?), obs. imp. of Groan. Chaucer.


   Groom (?), n. [Cf. Scot. grome, groyme, grume, gome, guym, man, lover,
   OD.  grom boy, youth; perh. the r is an insertion as in E. bridegroom,
   and the word is the same as AS. guma man. See Bridegroom.]

   1.  A  boy or young man; a waiter; a servant; especially, a man or boy
   who has charge of horses, or the stable. Spenser.

   2.  One of several officers of the English royal household, chiefly in
   the  lord  chamberlain's department; as, the groom of the chamber; the
   groom of the stole.

   3.  A  man  recently  married,  or  about to be married; a bridegroom.
   Groom  porter, formerly an officer in the English royal household, who
   attended  to  the  furnishing  of  the king's lodgings and had certain


   Groom,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Groomed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Grooming.] To
   tend or care for, or to curry or clean, as a, horse.


   Groom"er  (?), n. One who, or that which, grooms horses; especially, a
   brush  rotated  by a flexible or jointed revolving shaft, for cleaning


   Grooms"man  (?), n.; pl. Groomsmen (. A male attendant of a bridegroom
   at his wedding; -- the correlative of bridesmaid<-- = best man -->.


   Groop"er (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Grouper.


   Groove (?), n. [D. groef, groeve; akin to E. grove. See Grove.]

   1.  A  furrow,  channel,  or  long  hollow,  such  as may be formed by
   cutting,  molding,  grinding,  the  wearing force of flowing water, or
   constant travel; a depressed way; a worn path; a rut.

   2.  Hence:  The  habitual  course  of  life,  work,  or affairs; fixed

     The gregarious trifling of life in the social groove. J. Morley.

   3. [See Grove.] (Mining) A shaft or excavation. [Prov. Eng.]


   Groove,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grooved (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Groving.] To
   cut  a  groove  or  channel  in;  to form into channels or grooves; to


   Groov"er (?), n.

   1. One who or that which grooves.

   2. A miner. [Prov. Eng.] Holloway.


   Groov"ing (?), n. The act of forming a groove or grooves; a groove, or
   collection  of  grooves.  <--  Groovy [colloq] = marvelous, wonderful,
   excellent; hip -->


   Grope  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Groped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Groping.]
   [OE.  gropen,  gropien,  grapien,  AS.  gr  to touch, grope, fr. gr to
   gripe. See Gripe.]

   1. To feel with or use the hands; to handle. [Obs.]

   2.  To search or attempt to find something in the dark, or, as a blind
   person,  by  feeling;  to  move  about hesitatingly, as in darkness or
   obscurity; to feel one's way, as with the hands, when one can not see.

     We grope for the wall like the blind. Is. lix. 10.

     To  grope  a little longer among the miseries and sensualities ot a
     worldly life. Buckminster.


   Grope, v. t.

   1.  To  search  out  by  feeling in the dark; as, we groped our way at

   2. To examine; to test; to sound. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     Felix  gropeth  him,  thinking to have a bribe. Genevan Test. (Acts
     xxiv. ).


   Grop"er  (?), n. One who gropes; one who feels his way in the dark, or
   searches by feeling.


   Grop"ing-ly, adv. In a groping manner.


   Gros (?), n. [F. See Gross.] A heavy silk with a dull finish; as, gros
   de Naples; gros de Tours.


   Gros"beak  (?),  n. [Gross + beak: cf. F. gros-bec.] (Zo\'94l.) One of
   various  species  of  finches  having  a large, stout beak. The common
   European grosbeak or hawfinch is Coccothraustes vulgaris.

     NOTE: &hand; Am  ong th e be st kn own Am erican sp ecies ar e th e
     rose-breasted  (Habia  Ludoviciana); the blue (Guiraca c\'d2rulea);
     the  pine  (Pinicola  enucleator);  and  the  evening grosbeak. See
     Hawfinch,  and  Cardinal grosbeak, Evening grosbeak, under Cardinal
     and Evening.

   [Written  also grossbeak.] <-- illustr. Rose-breasted Grosbeak, (Habia
   Ludoviciana). -->


   Grosch"en  (?),  n.  [G.]  A small silver coin and money of account of
   Germany, worth about two cents. It is not included in the new monetary
   system of the empire.


   Gros"grain`  (?), a. [F. Cf. Grogram.] Of a coarse texture; -- applied
   to silk with a heavy thread running crosswise.


   Gross  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Grosser  (; superl. Grossest.] [F. gros, L.
   grossus,  perh.  fr.  L. crassus thick, dense, fat, E. crass, cf. Skr.
   grathita  tied  together,  wound  up,  hardened.  Cf. Engross, Grocer,

   1. Great; large; bulky; fat; of huge size; excessively large. "A gross
   fat man." Shak.

     A gross body of horse under the Duke. Milton.

   2. Coarse; rough; not fine or delicate.

   3.  Not  easily  aroused  or  excited;  not sensitive in perception or
   feeling; dull; witless.

     Tell her of things that no gross ear can hear. Milton.

   4.  Expressing, Or originating in, animal or sensual appetites; hence,
   coarse, vulgar, low, obscene, or impure.

     The  terms  which are delicate in one age become gross in the next.

   5. Thick; dense; not attenuated; as, a gross medium.

   6.  Great;  palpable; serious; vagrant; shameful; as, a gross mistake;
   gross injustice; gross negligence.

   7.  Whole;  entire;  total;  without  deduction; as, the gross sum, or
   gross amount, the gross weight; -- opposed to net.
   Gross  adventure  (Law)  the  loan of money upon bottomry, i. e., on a
   mortgage of a ship. -- Gross average (Law), that kind of average which
   falls  upon the gross or entire amount of ship, cargo, and freight; --
   commonly  called general average. Bouvier. Burrill. -- Gross receipts,
   the  total  of  the  receipts,  before  they  are  diminished  by  any
   deduction, as for expenses; -- distinguished from net profits. Abbott.
   --  Gross  weight  the  total  weight of merchandise or goods, without
   deduction  for  tare,  tret,  or waste; -- distinguished from neat, or
   net, weight.
   Gross, n. [F. gros (in sense 1), grosse (in sense 2) See Gross, a.]
   1.  The  main  body;  the chief part, bulk, or mass. "The gross of the
   enemy." Addison.
     For  the gross of the people, they are considered as a mere herd of
     cattle. Burke.
   2.  sing. & pl. The number of twelve dozen; twelve times twelve; as, a
   gross of bottles; ten gross of pens.
   Advowson in gross (Law), an advowson belonging to a person, and not to
   a  manor.  --  A great gross, twelve gross; one hundred and forty-four
   dozen.  --  By  the gross, by the quantity; at wholesale. -- Common in
   gross.  (Law)  See  under Common, n. -- In the gross, In gross, in the
   bulk, or the undivided whole; all parts taken together.


   Gross"beak` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Grosbeak.


   Gross"-head`ed (?), a. Thick-skulled; stupid.


   Gross`i*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [Gross + L. ficare (in comp.) to make. See

   1. The act of making gross or thick, or the state of becoming so.

   2.  (Bot.)  The  swelling  of the ovary of plants after fertilization.


   Gross"ly, adv. In a gross manner; greatly; coarsely; without delicacy;
   shamefully; disgracefully.


   Gross"ness,  n.  The  state  or  quality  of  being  gross; thickness;
   corpulence; coarseness; shamefulness.

     Abhor  the  swinish  grossness  that  delights to wound the' ear of
     delicacy. Dr. T. Dwight. 


   Gros"su*lar  (?), a. [NL. grossularius, from Grossularia a subgenus of
   Ribes,  including  the  gooseberry, fr. F. groseille. See Gooseberry.]
   Pertaining too, or resembling, a gooseberry; as, grossular garnet.


   Gros"su*lar,  n.  [See Grossular, a.] (Min.) A translucent garnet of a
   pale  green  color  like  that  of  the  gooseberry;  --  called  also


   Gros`su*la"ria (?), n. [NL. See Grossular.] (Min.) Same as Grossular.


   Gros"su*lin  (?),  n.  [See  Grossular.]  (Chem.)  A  vegetable jelly,
   resembling pectin, found in gooseberries (Ribes Grossularia) and other

   Page 653


   Grot  (?),  n. [F. grotte, It. grotta. See Grotto.] A grotto. [Poetic]

                                  Grot, Grote

   Grot, Grote (, n. A groat. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gro*tesgue"  (?),  a.  [F.,  fr. It. grottesco, fr. grotta grotto. See
   Grotto.]  Like  the  figures  found  in  ancient grottoes; grottolike;
   wildly or strangely formed; whimsical; extravagant; of irregular forms
   and  proportions;  fantastic;  ludicrous;  antic.  "Grotesque design."
   Dryden. "Grotesque incidents." Macaulay.


   Gro*tesque, n.

   1.  A  whimsical  figure, or scene, such as is found in old crypts and
   grottoes. Dryden.

   2. Artificial grotto-work.


   Gro*tesque"ly, adv. In a grotesque manner.


   Gro*tesque"ness, n. Quality of being grotesque.


   Grot"to  (?),  n.; pl. Grottoes (#). [Formerly grotta, fr. It. grotta,
   LL.  grupta,  fr.  L.  crypta a con cealed subterranran passage vault,
   cavern,  Gr.  Grot,  Crypt.] A natural covered opening in the earth; a
   cave; also, an artificial recess, cave, or cavernlike apartment.


   Grot"to-work`  (?), n. Artificial and ornamental rockwork in imitation
   of a grotto. Cowper.


   Ground  (?),  n. [OE. ground, grund, AS. grund; akin to D. grond, OS.,
   G.,  Sw.,  &  Dan.  grund,  Icel.  grunnr  bottom,  Goth.  grundus (in
   composition);  perh. orig. meaning, dust, gravel, and if so perh. akin
   to E. grind.]

   1.  The  surface  of  the earth; the outer crust of the globe, or some
   indefinite portion of it.

     There was not a man to till the ground. Gen. ii. 5.

     The fire ran along upon the ground. Ex. ix. 23. 

   Hence: A floor or pavement supposed to rest upon the earth.

   2.  Any  definite  portion  of the earth's surface; region; territory;
   country.  Hence:  A  territory  appropriated to, or resorted to, for a
   particular  purpose;  the  field  or place of action; as, a hunting or
   fishing ground; a play ground.

     From . . . old Euphrates, to the brook that parts Egypt from Syrian
     ground. Milton.

   3.  Land;  estate;  possession; field; esp. (pl.), the gardens, lawns,
   fields,  etc., belonging to a homestead; as, the grounds of the estate
   are well kept.

     Thy next design is on thy neighbor's grounds. Dryden. 4. 

   4.   The  basis  on  which  anything  rests;  foundation.  Hence:  The
   foundation  of knowledge, belief, or conviction; a premise, reason, or
   datum;  ultimate or first principle; cause of existence or occurrence;
   originating force or agency; as, the ground of my hope.

   5.  (Paint.  & Decorative Art) (a) That surface upon which the figures
   of  a  composition  are set, and which relieves them by its plainness,
   being  either of one tint or of tints but slightly contrasted with one
   another;  as,  crimson  Bowers  on  a  white  ground.  See Background,
   Foreground,  and  Middle-ground. (b) In sculpture, a flat surface upon
   which  figures  are  raised  in  relief. (c) In point lace, the net of
   small  meshes  upon  which  the  embroidered  pattern  is applied; as,
   Brussels ground. See Brussels lace, under Brussels.

   6. (Etching) A gummy composition spread over the surface of a metal to
   be  etched, to prevent the acid from eating except where an opening is
   made by the needle.

   7.  (Arch.)  One  of the pieces of wood, flush with the plastering, to
   which moldings, etc., are attached; -- usually in the plural.

     NOTE: &hand; Gr ounds ar e us ually put up first and the plastering
     floated flush with them.

   8.  (Mus.)  (a)  A  composition in which the bass, consisting of a few
   bars  of  independent  notes,  is  continually  repeated  to a varying
   melody.  (b)  The  tune  on which descants are raised; the plain song.
   Moore (Encyc.).

     On that ground I'll build a holy descant. Shak.

   9.  (Elec.)  A conducting connection with the earth, whereby the earth
   is made part of an electrical circuit.

   10.  pl.  Sediment  at  the bottom of liquors or liquids; dregs; lees;
   feces; as, coffee grounds.

   11. The pit of a theater. [Obs.] B. Jonson. 
   Ground  angling,  angling  with  a  weighted  line without a float. --
   Ground  annual  (Scots Law), an estate created in land by a vassal who
   instead  of  selling his land outright reserves an annual ground rent,
   which  becomes a perpetual charge upon the land. -- Ground ash. (Bot.)
   See  Groutweed. -- Ground bailiff (Mining), a superintendent of mines.
   Simmonds. -- Ground bait, bits of bread, boiled barley or worms, etc.,
   thrown  into  the water to collect the fish, Wallon. -- Ground bass OR
   base (Mus.), fundamental base; a fundamental base continually repeated
   to  a  varied  melody.  --  Ground  beetle (Zo\'94l.), one of numerous
   species  of  carnivorous  beetles  of  the  family Carabid\'91, living
   mostly  in  burrows or under stones, etc. -- Ground chamber, a room on
   the  ground  floor. -- Ground cherry. (Bot.) (a) A genus (Physalis) of
   herbaceous  plants  having an inflated calyx for a seed pod: esp., the
   strawberry  tomato (P. Alkekengi). See Alkekengl. (b) A European shrub
   (Prunus  Cham\'91cerasus),  with  small,  very  acid  fruit. -- Ground
   cuckoo.  (Zo\'94l.)  See Chaparral cock. -- Ground cypress. (Bot.) See
   Lavender  cotton.  --  Ground  dove  (Zo\'94l.),  one of several small
   American pigeons of the genus Columbigallina, esp. C. passerina of the
   Southern  United States, Mexico, etc. They live chiefly on the ground.
   --  Ground  fish  (Zo\'94l.),  any  fish which constantly lives on the
   botton  of the sea, as the sole, turbot, halibut. -- Ground floor, the
   floor  of  a  house  most nearly on a level with the ground; -- called
   also  in  America, but not in England, the first floor. -- Ground form
   (Gram.),  the  stem  or  basis of a word, to which the other parts are
   added  in  declension or conjugation. It is sometimes, but not always,
   the  same  as  the  root.<-- = lemma --> -- Ground furze (Bot.), a low
   slightly  thorny,  leguminous  shrub  (Ononis  arvensis) of Europe and
   Central  Asia,;  --  called  also  rest-harrow. -- Ground game, hares,
   rabbits,  etc.,  as  distinguished  from  winged  game. -- Ground hele
   (Bot.),  a  perennial  herb  (Veronica  officinalis)  with  small blue
   flowers,  common  in  Europe  and  America,  formerly  thought to have
   curative  properties.  -- Ground of the heavens (Astron.), the surface
   of  any  part  of  the  celestial  sphere  upon which the stars may be
   regarded  as  projected.  --  Ground  hemlock  (Bot.),  the yew (Taxus
   baccata var. Canadensisi) of eastern North America, distinguished from
   that of Europe by its low, straggling stems. -- Ground hog. (Zo\'94l.)
   (a)  The woodchuck or American marmot (Arctomys monax). See Woodchuck.
   (b)  The  aardvark.  --  Ground  hold  (Naut.),  ground tackle. [Obs.]
   Spenser.  --  Ground  ice, ice formed at the bottom of a body of water
   before  it  forms  on  the  surface.  -- Ground ivy. (Bot.) A trailing
   plant;  alehoof.  See Gill. -- Ground joist, a joist for a basement or
   ground  floor;  a.  sleeper.  --  Ground lark (Zo\'94l.), the European
   pipit. See Pipit. -- Ground laurel (Bot.). See Trailing arbutus, under
   Arbutus.  -- Ground line (Descriptive Geom.), the line of intersection
   of  the  horizontal  and  vertical  planes  of  projection.  -- Ground
   liverwort (Bot.), a flowerless plant with a broad flat forking thallus
   and the fruit raised on peduncled and radiated receptacles (Marchantia
   polymorpha).  --  Ground mail, in Scotland, the fee paid for interment
   in  a  churchyard.  -- Ground mass (Geol.), the fine-grained or glassy
   base  of  a  rock,  in which distinct crystals of its constituents are
   embedded.  --  Ground  parrakeet (Zo\'94l.), one of several Australian
   parrakeets,  of the genera Callipsittacus and Geopsittacus, which live
   mainly  upon  the ground. -- Ground pearl (Zo\'94l.), an insect of the
   family Coccid\'91 (Margarodes formicarum), found in ants' nests in the
   Bahamas, and having a shelly covering. They are strung like beads, and
   made into necklaces by the natives. -- Ground pig (Zo\'94l.), a large,
   burrowing,  African  rodent  (Aulacodus  Swinderianus)  about two feet
   long,  allied  to  the porcupines but with harsh, bristly hair, and no
   spines; -- called also ground rat. -- Ground pigeon (Zo\'94l.), one of
   numerous species of pigeons which live largely upon the ground, as the
   tooth-billed pigeon (Didunculus strigirostris), of the Samoan Islands,
   and  the crowned pigeon, or goura. See Goura, and Ground dove (above).
   -- Ground pine. (Bot.) (a) A blue-flowered herb of the genus Ajuga (A.
   Cham\'91pitys),  formerly included in the genus Teucrium or germander,
   and  named from its resinous smell. Sir L. Hill. (b) A long, creeping,
   evergreen  plant of the genus Lycopodium (L. clavatum); -- called also
   club  moss.  (c)  A  tree-shaped evergreen plant about eight inches in
   height,  of the same genus (L. dendroideum) found in moist, dark woods
   in  the  northern  part  of  the  United  States. Gray. -- Ground plan
   (Arch.),  a plan of the ground floor of any building, or of any floor,
   as distinguished from an elevation or perpendicular section. -- Ground
   plane,  the  horizontal plane of projection in perspective drawing. --
   Ground  plate.  (a)  (Arch.)  One  of the chief pieces of framing of a
   building;  a timber laid horizontally on or near the ground to support
   the  uprights; a ground sill or groundsel. (b) (Railroads) A bed plate
   for  sleepers or ties; a mudsill. (c) (Teleg.) A metallic plate buried
   in  the  earth  to conduct the electric current thereto. Connection to
   the pipes of a gas or water main is usual in cities. Knight. -- Ground
   plot, the ground upon which any structure is erected; hence, any basis
   or  foundation;  also,  a  ground  plan.  --  Ground  plum  (Bot.),  a
   leguminous   plant   (Astragalus   caryocarpus)   occurring  from  the
   Saskatchewan  to  Texas,  and  having  a succulent plum-shaped pod. --
   Ground  rat.  (Zo\'94l.)  See Ground pig (above). -- Ground rent, rent
   paid  for  the  privilege of building on another man's land. -- Ground
   robin.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  Chewink. -- Ground room, a room on the ground
   floor; a lower room. Tatler. -- Ground sea, the West Indian name for a
   swell  of  the ocean, which occurs in calm weather and without obvious
   cause,  breaking on the shore in heavy roaring billows; -- called also
   rollers,  and  in  Jamaica,  the North sea. -- Ground sill. See Ground
   plate  (a)  (above).  --  Ground  snake  (Zo\'94l.), a small burrowing
   American  snake  (Celuta  am\'d2na).  It  is salmon colored, and has a
   blunt tail. -- Ground squirrel. (Zo\'94l.) (a) One of numerous species
   of  burrowing  rodents  of  the genera Tamias and Spermophilus, having
   cheek  pouches. The former genus includes the Eastern striped squirrel
   or  chipmunk  and some allied Western species; the latter includes the
   prairie  squirrel  or striped gopher, the gray gopher, and many allied
   Western  species.  See  Chipmunk,  and  Gopher. (b) Any species of the
   African genus Xerus, allied to Tamias. -- Ground story. Same as Ground
   floor   (above).   --  Ground  substance  (Anat.),  the  intercellular
   substance,  or  matrix,  of  tissues.  -- Ground swell. (a) (Bot.) The
   plant groundsel. [Obs.] Holland. (b) A broad, deep swell or undulation
   of  the  ocean,  caused  by  a long continued gale, and felt even at a
   remote  distance  after  the gale has ceased. -- Ground table. (Arch.)
   See  Earth  table,  under  Earth. -- Ground tackle (Naut.), the tackle
   necessary  to  secure  a  vessel  at  anchor. Totten. -- Ground thrush
   (Zo\'94l.),  one  of numerous species of bright-colored Oriental birds
   of  the  family  Pittid\'91. See Pitta. -- Ground tier. (a) The lowest
   tier of water casks in a vessel's hold. Totten. (b) The lowest line of
   articles  of  any kind stowed in a vessel's hold. (c) The lowest range
   of  boxes  in  a theater. -- Ground timbers (Shipbuilding) the timbers
   which  lie  on  the keel and are bolted to the keelson; floor timbers.
   Knight.  --  Ground tit. (Zo\'94l.) See Ground wren (below). -- Ground
   wheel, that wheel of a harvester, mowing machine, etc., which, rolling
   on  the  ground,  drives  the  mechanism. -- Ground wren (Zo\'94l.), a
   small  California  bird  (Cham\'91a  fasciata) allied to the wrens and
   titmice. It inhibits the arid plains. Called also gronnd tit, and wren
   lit. -- To bite the ground, To break ground. See under Bite, Break. --
   To  come  to the ground, To fall to the ground, to come to nothing; to
   fail;  to  miscarry.  --  To  gain  ground. (a) To advance; to proceed
   forward  in confict; as, an army in battle gains ground. (b) To obtain
   an  advantage;  to have some success; as, the army gains ground on the
   enemy.  (c)  To gain credit; to become more prosperous or influential.
   --  To get, OR To gather, ground, to gain ground. [R.] "Evening mist .
   . . gathers ground fast." Milton.
     There is no way for duty to prevail, and get ground of them, but by
     bidding higher. South.
   -- To give ground, to recede; to yield advantage.

     These nine . . . began to give me ground. Shak.

   --To lose ground, to retire; to retreat; to withdraw from the position
   taken;  hence,  to  lose  advantage;  to lose credit or reputation; to
   decline.  -- To stand one's ground, to stand firm; to resist attack or
   encroachment.  Atterbury.  --  To  take  the ground to touch bottom or
   become stranded; -- said of a ship.


   Ground (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grounded; p. pr. & vb. n. Grounding.]

   1. To lay, set, or run, on the ground.

   2.  To found; to fix or set, as on a foundation, reason, or principle;
   to furnish a ground for; to fix firmly.

     Being rooted and grounded in love. Eph. iii. 17.

     So  far  from  warranting  any inference to the existence of a God,
     would,  on  the  contrary, ground even an argument to his negation.
     Sir W. Hamilton 

   3. To instruct in elements or first principles.

   4.  (Elec.)  To connect with the ground so as to make the earth a part
   of an electrical circuit.

   5.  (Fine  Arts) To cover with a ground, as a copper plate for etching
   (see  Ground,  n.,  5);  or as paper or other materials with a uniform
   tint as a preparation for ornament.


   Ground,  v.  i. To run aground; to strike the bottom and remain fixed;
   as, the ship grounded on the bar.


   Ground,  imp. & p. p. of Grind. Ground cock, a cock, the plug of which
   is  ground  into  its  seat, as distinguished from a compression cock.
   Knight.  --  Ground  glass,  glass  the transparency of which has been
   destroyed  by  having  its  surface  roughened  by grinding. -- Ground
   joint, a close joint made by grinding together two pieces, as of metal
   with emery and oil, or of glass with fine sand and water.


   Ground"age  (?), n. A local tax paid by a ship for the ground or space
   it occupies while in port. Bouvier.


   Ground"ed*ly,  adv.  In  a  grounded  or  firmly  established  manner.


   Ground"en (?), obs. p. p. of Grind. Chaucer.


   Ground"ing,  n.  The act, method, or process of laying a groundwork or
   foundation;  hence,  elementary  instruction;  the  act  or process of
   applying  a  ground, as of color, to wall paper, cotton cloth, etc.; a


   Ground"less,  a.  [AS.  grundle\'a0s  bottomless.]  Without  ground or
   foundation;  wanting  cause  or  reason  for  support; not authorized;
   false;  as,  groundless  fear;  a  groundless  report or assertion. --
   Ground"less*ly, adv. -- Ground"less*ness, n.


   Ground"ling, n. [Ground + -ling.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  fish  that keeps at the bottom of the water, as the

   2.  A  spectator  in  the  pit of a theater, which formerly was on the
   ground, and without floor or benches.

     No comic buffoon to make the groundlings laugh. Coleridge.


   Ground"ly, adv. Solidly; deeply; thoroughly. [Obs.]

     Those  whom  princes do once groundly hate, Let them provide to die
     as sure us fate. Marston.


   Ground"nut`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  (a) The fruit of the Arachis hypog\'91a
   (native   country   uncertain);   the  peanut;  the  earthnut.  (b)  A
   leguminous, twining plant (Apios tuberosa), producing clusters of dark
   purple  flowers  and having a root tuberous and pleasant to the taste.
   (c)  The dwarf ginseng (Aralia trifolia). [U. S.] Gray. (d) A European
   plant  of  the  genus Bunium (B. flexuosum) having an edible root of a
   globular  shape  aud  sweet,  aromatic taste; -- called also earthnut,
   earth chestnut, hawknut, and pignut.


   Ground"sel  (?), n. [OE. grundswilie, AS. gpundeswylige, grundeswelge,
   earlier  gundiswilge;  gund matter, pus + swelgan to swallow. So named
   as  being  good for a running from the eye. See Swallow, v.] (Bot.) An
   annual  composite plant (Senecio vulgaris) one of the most common, and
   widely distributed weeds on the globe.


   Ground"sel (?), n. [Ground + sill.] See Ground


   Ground"sill` (?), plate (a), under Ground.


   Ground"work`  (?),  n.  That  which forms the foundation or support of
   anything;   the  basis;  the  essential  or  fundamental  part;  first
   principle. Dryden.


   Group  (?),  n. [F groupe, It. gruppo, groppo, cluster, bunch, packet,
   group;  of G. origin: cf. G. krepf craw, crop, tumor, bunch. See Crop,

   1.  A  cluster,  crowd, or throng; an assemblage, either of persons or
   things, collected without any regular form or arrangement; as, a group
   of men or of trees; a group of isles.

   2.  An assemblage of objects in a certain order or relation, or having
   some resemblance or common characteristic; as, groups of strata.

   3. (Biol.) A variously limited assemblage of animals or planta, having
   some  resemblance, or common characteristics in form or structure. The
   term has different uses, and may be made to include certain species of
   a genus, or a whole genus, or certain genera, or even several orders.

   4.  (Mus.)  A  number  of eighth, sixteenth, etc., notes joined at the
   stems;  --  sometimes rather indefinitely applied to any ornament made
   up of a few short notes.


   Group,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Grouped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Grouping.]
   [Cf.  F.  grouper.  See  Group,  n.] To form a group of; to arrange or
   combine  in  a  group  or  in  groups,  often with reference to mutual
   relation and the best effect; to form an assemblage of.

     The  difficulty  lies in drawing and disposing, or, as the painters
     term it, in grouping such a multitude of different objects. Prior.

   Grouped  columns  (Arch.),  three or moro columns placed upon the same


   Group"er  (?),  n.  [Corrupted  fr.  Pg. garupa crupper. Cf. Garbupa.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  One of several species of valuable food fishes of the
   genus  Epinephelus, of the family Serranid\'91, as the red grouper, or
   brown  snapper  (E.  morio),  and  the  black  grouper,  or warsaw (E.
   nigritus),  both  from  Florida  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  (b)  The
   tripletail  (Lobotes). (c) In California, the name is often applied to
   the rockfishes. [Written also groper, gruper, and trooper.]

   Page 654


   Group"ing  (?), n. (Fine Arts) The disposal or relative arrangement of
   figures  or  objects,  as  in, drawing, painting, and sculpture, or in
   ornamental design.


   Grouse  (?),  n.  sing. & pl. [Prob. after the analogy of mouse, mice,
   fr.  the  earlier  grice,  OF. griesche meor hen: cf. F. piegri\'8ache
   shrike.]  (Zo\'94l.) Any of the numerous species of gallinaceous birds
   of  the  family Tetraonid\'91, and subfamily Tetraonin\'91, inhabiting
   Europe,  Asia,  and  North  America.  They  have plump bodies, strong,
   well-feathered  legs,  and usually mottled plumage. The group includes
   the ptarmigans (Lagopus), having feathered feet.

     NOTE: &hand; Among the European species are the red grouse (Lagopus
     Scoticus) and the hazel grouse (Bonasa betulina). See Capercaidzie,
     Ptarmigan,  and  Heath  grouse.  Among  the most important American
     species  are  the  ruffed  grouse, or New England partridge (Bonasa
     umbellus);  the sharp-tailed grouse (Pedioc\'91tes phasianellus) of
     the  West; the dusky blue, or pine grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) of
     the  Rocky  Mountains;  the  Canada grouse, or spruce partridge (D.
     Canadensis).  See  also  Prairie  hen, and Sage cock. The Old World
     sand  grouse  (Pterocles,  etc.) belong to a very different family.
     See Pterocletes, and Sand grouse.


   Grouse, v. i. To seek or shoot grouse.


   Grou"ser  (?),  n.  (Dredging,  Pile  Driving,  etc.) A pointed timber
   attached  to  a boat and sliding vertically, to thrust into the ground
   as a means of anchorage.


   Grout  (?),  n.  [AS. grut; akin to grytt, G. gr\'81tze, griess, Icel.
   grautr, Lith. grudas corn, kernel, and Z. groats.]

   1. Coarse meal; ground malt; pl. groats.

   2. Formerly, a kind of beer or ale. [Eng.]

   3. pl. Lees; dregs; grounds. [Eng.] "Grouts of tea." Dickens.

   4.  A thin, coarse mortar, used for pouring into the joints of masonry
   and  brickwork;  also,  a  finer  material, used in finishing the best
   ceilings. Gwilt.


   Grout, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Grouted; p. pr. & vb. n. Grouting.] To fill
   up or finish with grout, as the joints between stones.


   Graut"head` (?), n. [Obs.] See Growthead.


   Grout"ing, n. The process of filling in or finishing with grout; also,
   the grout thus filled in. Gwilt.


   Grout"nol  (?), n. [See Groat, and Noll, n.] [Obs.] Same as Growthead.
   Beau. & Fl. 


   Grout"y (?), a. Cross; sulky; sullen. [Colloq.]


   Grove  (?),  n. [AS. graf, fr. grafan to dig. The original sense seems
   to have been a lane cut through trees. See Grave, v., and cf. Groove.]
   A  smaller  group  of  trees  than  a  forest,  and without underwood,
   planted,  or  growing naturally as if arranged by art; a wood of small

     NOTE: &hand; Th e He brew wo rd As herah, re ndered gr ove in  th e
     Authorized  Version  of  the  Bible,  is  left  untranslated in the
     Revised  Version.  Almost  all  modern  interpreters  agree that by
     Asherah an idol or image of some kind is intended.


   Grov"el  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Groveled (?) or Grovelled; p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Groveling  or  Grovelling.] [From OE. grovelinge, grufelinge,
   adv., on the face, prone, which was misunderstood as a p. pr.; cf. OE.
   gruf,   groff,  in  the  same  sense;  of  Scand.  origin,  cf.  Icel.
   gr&umac;fa,  in  &amac;  gr&umac;fu  on the face, prone, gr&umac;fa to

   1.  To  creep  on  the  earth,  or with the face to the ground; to lie
   prone,  or  move uneasily with the body prostrate on the earth; to lie
   fiat on one's belly, expressive of abjectness; to crawl.

     To creep and grovel on the ground. Dryden.

   2.  To tend toward, or delight in, what is sensual or base; to be low,
   abject, or mean.


   Grov"el*er  (?),  n.  One who grovels; an abject wretch. [Written also


   Grov"el*ing,  a. Lying prone; low; debased. [Written also grovelling.]
   "A groveling creature." Cowper.


   Grov"y  (?), a. Pertaining to, or resembling, a grove; situated in, or
   frequenting, groves. Dampier.


   Grow  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  Grew  (?);  p.  p. Grown (; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Growing.] [AS. grawan; akin to D. groeijen, Icel. groa, Dan. groe, Sw.
   gro. Cf. Green, Grass.]

   1.  To  increase in size by a natural and organic process; to increase
   in  bulk  by  the  gradual  assimilation of new matter into the living
   organism; -- said of animals and vegetables and their organs.

   2.  To  increase  in  any  way;  to  become larger and stronger; to be
   augmented; to advance; to extend; to wax; to accrue.

     Winter began to grow fast on. Knolles.

     Even  just  the  sum  that  I  do  owe  to  you Is growing to me by
     Antipholus. Shak.

   3. To spring up and come to matturity in a natural way; to be produced
   by  vegetation;  to  thrive;  to  flourish;  as,  rice  grows  in warm

     Where law faileth, error groweth. Gower.

   4.  To  pass  from one state to another; to result as an effect from a
   cause; to become; as, to grow pale.

     For his mind Had grown Suspicion's sanctuary. Byron.

   5. To become attached of fixed; to adhere.

     Our knees shall kneel till to the ground they grow. Shak.

   Growing cell, or Growing slide, a device for preserving alive a minute
   object  in water continually renewed, in a manner to permit its growth
   to  be  watched  under  the  microscope. -- Grown over, covered with a
   growth.  -- To grow out of, to issue from, as plants from the soil, or
   as a branch from the main stem; to result from.

     These   wars  have  grown  out  of  commercial  considerations.  A.

   --  To  grow  up,  to arrive at full stature or maturity; as, grown up
   children.  -- <-- ##error here in original: duplication of: To grow up
   --> To grow together, to close and adhere; to become united by growth,
   as  flesh  or  the  bark of a tree severed. Howells.Syn. -- To become;
   increase; enlarge; augment; improve; expand; extend.


   Grow  (?),  v.  t.  To cause to grow; to cultivate; to produce; as, to
   grow  a  crop;  to  grow  wheat, hops, or tobacco. Macaulay.Syn. -- To
   raise; to cultivate. See Raise, v. t., 3. 


   Grow"a*ble (?), a. Capable of growth.


   Grow"an  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Arm. grouan gravel, Corn. grow gravel, sand.]
   (Mining.)  A  decomposed  granite, forming a mass of gravel, as in tin
   lodes in Cornwall.


   Grow"er (?), n. One who grows or produces; as, a grower of corn; also,
   that  which  grows  or  increases;  as, a vine may be a rank or a slow


   Growl (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Growled (?); p. pr. & vb. e. Growling.]
   [D.  grollen  to  grunt,  murmur,  be  angry; akin to G. grollen to be
   angry.] To utter a deep guttural sound, sa an angry dog; to give forth
   an angry, grumbling sound. Gay.


   Growl, v. t. To express by growling. Thomson.


   Growl, n. The deep, threatening sound made by a surly dog; a grumbling


   Growl"er (?), n.

   1. One who growls.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The large-mouthed black bass. [Local]

   3. A four-wheeled cab. [Slang, Eng.]


   Growl"ing*ly, adv. In a growling manner.


   Grown (?), p. p. of Grow.


   Growse  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf.  gruesome, grcwsome, and G. grausen to make
   shudder, shiver.] To shiver; to have chills. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Ray.


   Growth (?), n. [Icel. groGrow.]

   1.  The  process  of  growing;  the gradual increase of an animal or a
   vegetable  body;  the  development from a seed, germ, or root, to full
   size or maturity; increase in size, number, frequency, strength, etc.;
   augmentation;  advancement;  production;  prevalence or influence; as,
   the  growth of trade; the growth of power; the growth of intemperance.
   Idle weeds are fast in growth. Shak.

   2.  That  which  has  grown or is growing; anything produced; product;
   consequence; effect; result.

     Nature multiplies her fertile growth. Milton.


   Growt"head`  (?),  n.  [Lit.,  greathead.] A lazy person; a blockhead.
   [Obs.] Tusser.


   Growth"ful (?), a. Having capacity of growth. [R.] J. Hamilton.


   Groyne (?), n. [Obs.] See Groin.

                                 Grozing iron

   Gro"zing i"ron (?).

   1.  A  tool  with  a  hardened steel point, formerly used instead of a
   diamond for cutting glass.

   2.  (Plumbing)  A  tool  for smoothing the solder joints of lead pipe.


   Grub  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Grubbed (?), p. pr. & vb. n. Grubbing
   (.] [OE. grubbin., cf. E. grab, grope.]

   1.  To  dig  in  or  under the ground, generally for an object that is
   difficult to reach or extricate; to be occupied in digging.

   2. To drudge; to do menial work. Richardson.


   Grub, v. t.

   1. To dig; to dig up by the roots; to root out by digging; -- followed
   by up; as, to grub up trees, rushes, or sedge.

     They do not attempt to grub up the root of sin. Hare.

   2. To supply with food. [Slang] Dickens.


   Grub, n.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  larva  of  an  insect, especially of a beetle; --
   called   also   grubworm.  See  Illust.  of  Goldsmith  beetle,  under

     Yet your butterfly was a grub. Shak.

   2. A short, thick man; a dwarf. [Obs.] Carew.

   3. Victuals; food. [Slang] Halliwell.
   Grub  ax  OR axe, a kind of mattock used in grubbing up roots, etc. --
   Grub  breaker. Same as Grub hook (below). -- Grub hoe, a heavy hoe for
   grubbing.  --  Grub  hook,  a plowlike implement for uprooting stumps,
   breaking roots, etc. -- Grub saw, a handsaw used for sawing marble. --
   Grub  Street, a street in London (now called Milton Street), described
   by  Dr.  Johnson  as  "much  inhabited  by writers of small histories,
   dictionaries,  and  temporary  poems,  whence  any  mean production is
   called  grubstreet."  As  an adjective, suitable to, or resembling the
   production of, Grub Street.
     I 'd sooner ballads write, and grubstreet lays. Gap.

   Grub"ber,  n.  One who, or that which, grubs; especially, a machine or
   tool of the nature of a grub ax, .grub hook, etc.


   Grub"bla  (?), v. t. & i. [Freq. of grub, but cf. grabble.] To feel or
   grope in the dark. [Obs.] Dryden.


   Grub"by, a. [From Grub.] Dirty; unclean. [Colloq.]

     The grubby game of marbles. Lond. Sat. Rev.


   Grub"by,  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any species of Cottus; a sculpin. [Local, U.


   Grub"worm (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Grub, n., 1.

     And gnats and grubworms crowded on his view. C. Smart.


   Grucche (?), v. i. [See Grudge.] To murmur; to grumble. [Obs.]

     What aileth you, thus for grucche and groan. Chaucer.


   Grudge  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Grudger  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Grudging.]  [OE.  grutchen,  gruchen, grochen, to murmur, grumble, OF.
   grochier,  grouchier,  grocier,  groucier; cf. Icel. krytja to murmur,
   krutr a murmur, or E. grunt.]

   1.  To  look  upon  with  desire to possess or to appropriate; to envy
   (one)  the  possession  of;  to  begrudge;  to  covet;  to  give  with
   reluctance;  to  desire  to  get back again; -- followed by the direct
   object only, or by both the direct and indirect objects.

     Tis not in thee To grudge my pleasures, to cut off my train. Shak.

     I  have  often  heard the Presbyterians say, they did not grudge us
     our employments. Swift.

     They have grudged us contribution. Shak.

   2. To hold or harbor with malicioua disposition or purpose; to cherish
   enviously. [Obs.]

     Perish they That grudge one thought against your majesty ! Shak.


   Grudge (?), v. i.

   1.  To  be  covetous  or  envious;  to  show discontent; to murmur; to
   complain; to repine; to be unwilling or reluctant.

     Grudge not one against another. James v. 9. 

     He eats his meat without grudging. Shak.

   2. To feel compunction or grief. [Obs.] Bp. Fisher. 


   Grudge, n.

   1. Sullen malice or malevolence; cherished malice, enmity, or dislike;
   ill will; an old cause of hatred or quarrel.

     Esau  had  conceived a mortal grudge and eumity against hie brother
     Jacob. South.

     The  feeling may not be envy; it may not be imbittered by a grudge.
     I. Taylor. 

   2. Slight symptom of disease. [Obs.]

     Our  shaken  monarchy,  that  now lies . . . struggling againat the
     grudges of more dreaded calamities. Milton.

   Syn. -- Pique; aversion; dislike; ill will; hatred; spite. See Pique.


   Grudge"ful  (?),  a.  Full of grudge; envious. "Grudgeful discontent."

                              Grudgeons, Gurgeons

   Grud"geons  (?), Gur"geons (, n. pl. [Prob. from P. grugir to craunch;
   cf. D. gruizen to crush, grind, and E. grout.] Coarse meal. [Obs.]


   Gruddg"er (?), n. One who grudges.


   Grudg"ing*ly, adv. In a grudging manner.


   Grudg"ing*ness,  n. The state or quality of grudging, or of being full
   of grudge or unwillingness.


   Gru"el (?), n. [OF. gruel, F. gruau; of German origin; cf. OHG. gruzzi
   groats, G. gr\'81tze, As. grut. See Grout.] A light, liquid food, made
   by  boiling  meal  of  maize, oatmeal, or fiour in water or milk; thin


   Gru"el*ly, a. Like gruel; of the consistence of gruel.


   Grue"some (?), a. Same as Grewsome. [Scot.]


   Gruf  (?), adv. [Cf. Grovel.] Forwards; with one's face to the ground.

     They fellen gruf, and cryed piteously. Chaucer.


   Gruff (?), a. [Compar. Gruffer (; superl. Gruffest.] [D. grof; akin to
   G.  grob,  OHG.  gerob,  grob,  Dan. grov, Sw. grof, perh. akin to AS.
   rc\'a2fan  to break, Z. reavc, rupture, g- standing for the AS. prefix
   ge-,  Goth.  ga-.]  Of a rough or stern manner, voice, or countenance;
   sour; surly; severe; harsh. Addison.

     Gruff, disagreeable, sarcastic remarks. Thackeray.

   -- Gruff"ly, adv. -- Gruff"ness, n.

                                  Grugru palm

   Gru"gru  palm"  (?).  (Bot.)  A  West Indian name for several kinds of
   palm. See Macaw tree, under Macaw. [Written also grigri palm.]

                                  Grugru worm

   Gru"gru  worm"  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  The  larva  or grub of a large South
   American  beetle  (Calandra palmarum), which lives in the pith of palm
   trees  and  sugar  cane.  It  is  eaten by the natives, and esteemed a


   Grum  (?), a. [Cf. Dan. grum furious, Sw. grym, AS. gram, and E. grim,
   and grumble.

   1.  Morose;  severe  of  countenance;  sour;  surly; glum; grim. "Nick
   looked sour and grum." Arbuthnof.

   2. Low; deep in the throat; guttural; rumbling; as,


   Grum"ble  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Grunbled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Grumbling (?).] [Cf. LG. grummeln, grumman, D. grommelen, grommen, and
   F.  grommeler,  of German origin; cf. W. grwm, murmur, grumble, surly.
   &root;35. Cf. Grum, Grim.]

   1. To murmur or mutter with discontent; to make ill-natured complaints
   in a low voice and a surly manner.

     L'Avare,  not  using  half his store, Still grumbles that he has no
     more. Prior.

   2.  To  growl;  to  snarl in deep tones; as, a lion grumbling over his

   3.  To  rumble;  to make a low, harsh, and heavy sound; to mutter; as,
   the distant thunder grumbles.


   Grum"ble, v. t. To express or utter with grumbling.


   Grum"ble, n.

   1. The noise of one that grumbles.

   2. A grumbling, discontented disposition.

     A bad case of grumble. Mrs. H. H. Jacksn. 


   Grum"bler (?), n. One who grumbles.


   Grum"bling*ly, adv. In a grumbling manner.


   Grume (?), n. [OF. grume, cf. F. grumeau a little heap, clot of blood,
   dim.  fr.  L.  grumus.]  A  thick,  viscid fluid; a clot, as of blood.


   Grumb"ly (?), adv. In a grum manner.


   Gru*mose" (?), a. (Bot.) Clustered in grains at intervals; grumous.


   Gru"mous (?), a. [Cf. F. grumeleux. See Grume.]

   1.  Resembling  or  containing  grume;  thick; concreted; clotted; as,
   grumous blood.

   2. (Bot.) See Grumose.


   Gru"mous*ness, n. The state of being grumous.


   gRUMPI*LY (?), ADV. In a surly manner; sullenly. [Colloq.]


   gRUMPY  (?), a. [Cf. Grumblle, and Grum.] Surly; dissatisfied; grouty.
   [Collog.] Ferby.


   Grun"del  (?),  n.  [See  Groundling.] (Zo\'94l.) A groundling (fish).
   [Prov. Eng.]


   Grundsel (?), n. Grounsel. [Obs.]


   Grunt  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Grunted; p. pr. & vb. n. Grunting.]
   [OE.  grunten;  akin  to  As.  grunian,  G.  grunzen, Dan. grynte, Sw.
   grymta;  all prob. of imitative; or perh. akin to E. groan.] To make a
   deep, short noise, as a hog; to utter a short groan or a deep guttural

     Who  would  fardels  bear,  To  grunt and sweat under a weary life.

   Grunting ox (Zo\'94l.), the yak.

   Page 655


   Grunt (?), n.

   1. A deep, guttural sound, as of a hog.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any one of several species of American food fishes, of
   the  genus H\'91mulon, allied to the snappers, as, the black grunt (A.
   Plumieri),  and  the redmouth grunt (H. aurolineatus), of the Southern
   United  States;  --  also  applied  to  allied  species  of the genera
   Pomadasys, Orthopristis, and Pristopoma. Called also pigfish, squirrel
   fish, and grunter; -- so called from the noise it makes when taken.


   Grunt"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or  that  which, grunts; specifically, a hog. "Bristled
   grunters." Tennyson.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of several American marine fishes. See Sea robin,
   and Grunt, n., 2.

   3. (Brass Founding) A hook used in lifting a crucible.


   Grunt"ing*ly, adv. In a grunting manner.


   Grua"tle  (?),  v. i. [Freq. of grunt.] To grunt; to grunt repeatedly.


   Grunt"ling (?), n. A young hog.


   Grutch (?), v. See Grudge. [Obs.] Hudibras.

                               Gruy\'8are cheese

   Gru"y\'8are`  cheese\'b6 (Gruy\'8are, Switzerland. It is a firm cheese
   containing  numerous  cells,  and  is  known  in  the United States as


   Gry (?), n. [Gr

   1. A measure equal to one tenth of a line. [Obs.] Locke.

   2. Anything very small, or of little value. [R.]


   Gryde (?), v. i. To gride. See Gride. Spenser.


   Gryf"on (?), n. [Obs.] See Griffin. Spenser.


   Gryl"lus (?), n. [L., locust.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of insects including
   the common crickets.


   Grype (?), v. t. To gripe. [Obs.] See Gripe. Spenser.


   Grype,  n.  [Gr.  gry`f,  grypo`s, griffin. See Griffin.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   vulture; the griffin. [Written also gripe.] [Obs.]


   Gry*ph\'91"a  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. I gryphus, or qryps, gen. gryphis, a
   griffin.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of cretaceous fossil shells allied to the


   Gryph"ite  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. gryphite.] (Paleon.) A shell of the genus


   Gryph"on (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The griffin vulture.


   Grys"bok  (?)  n. [D. grijs gray + bok buck.] (Zo\'94l.) A small South
   African  antelope  (Neotragus melanotis). It is speckled with gray and
   chestnut, above; the under parts are reddish fawn.


   Gua*cha"ro  (?), n. [Cf. Sp. gu\'a0charo sickly, dropsical, guacharaca
   a  sort  of  bird.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A nocturnal bird of South America and
   Trinidad  (Steatornis  Caripensis,  or  S. steatornis); -- called also

     NOTE: &hand; It resembles the goatsuckers and nighthawks, but feeds
     on  fruits,  and  nests  in  caverns.  A pure oil, used in place of
     butter, is extracted from the young by the natives.


   Gua"cho (?), n.; pl. Guachos ( [Spanish American.]

   1.  One  of the mixed-blood (Spanish-Indian) inhabitants of the pampas
   of South America; a mestizo.

   2. An Indian who serves as a messenger.


   Gua"co  (?),  n.  [Sp.] (Bot.) (a) A plant (Aristolochia anguicida) of
   Carthagena,  used  as  an  antidote to serpent bites. Lindley. (b) The
   Mikania Guaco, of Brazil, used for the same purpose.


   Gua"iac   (?),  a.  [See  Guaiacum.]  Pertaining  to,  or  resembling,
   guaiacum. -- n. Guaiacum.


   Gua"ia*cum (?), n. [NL., fr. Sp. guayaco, from native name in Hayti.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  genus  of  small,  crooked  trees,  growing in tropical

   2.   The  heart  wood  or  the  resin  of  the  Guaiacum  offinale  or
   lignum-vit\'91,  a  large tree of the West Indies and Central America.
   It is much used in medicine. [Written also guaiac.]


   Guan (?), n. ((Zo\'94l.) Any one of many species of large gallinaceous
   birds  of  Certal  and  South  America, belonging to Penelope, Pipile,
   Ortalis,   and  allied  genera.  Several  of  the  species  are  often


   Gua"na (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Iguana.


   Gua*na"co (?), n.; pl. Guanacos (#). [Sp. guanaco, Peruv. huanacu. Cf.
   Huanaco.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South  American  mammal  (Auchenia huanaco),
   allied  to  the  llama,  but  of  larger  size and more graceful form,
   inhabiting the southern Andes and Patagonia. It is supposed by some to
   be the llama in a wild state. [Written also huanaco.]


   Gua"ni*dine  (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A strongly alkaline base, CN3H5,
   formed  by  the  oxidation  of guanin, and also obtained combined with
   methyl  in  the decomposition of creatin. Boiled with dilute sulphuric
   acid, it yields urea and ammonia.<-- NH2.CNH.NH2 -->


   Gua*nif"er*ous (?), a. [Guano + -ferous.] Yielding guano. Ure.


   Gua"nin  (?),  n.  (Physiol.  Chem.) A crystalline substance (C5H5N5O)
   contained  in  guano. It is also a constituent of the liver, pancreas,
   and other glands in mammals.


   Gua"no  (?), n.; pl. Guanos (#). [Sp. guano, fr. Peruv. huanu dung.] A
   substance   found  in  great  abundance  on  some  coasts  or  islands
   frequented  by  sea fowls, and composed chiefly of their excrement. It
   is  rich  in  phosphates  and  ammonia,  and  is  used  as  a powerful


   Gua"ra  (?), n. [Braz. guar\'a0.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) The scarlet ibis. See
   Ibis.  (b)  A large-maned wild dog of South America (Canis jubatus) --
   named from its cry.


   Gua"ra*na`  (?),  n.  [Pg.]  (Med.)  A  preparation  from the seeds of
   Paullinia  sorbilis,  a  woody  climber  of  Brazil, used in making an
   astringent drink, and also in the cure of headache.


   Gua"ra*nine`  (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid extracted from guarana. Same
   as Caffeine.


   Guar`an*tee"  (?),  n.;  pl.  Guarantees  (#).  [For  guaranty,  prob.
   influenced  by words like assignee, lessee, etc. See Guaranty, and cf.

   1.  In  law  and  common usage: A promise to answer for the payment of
   some  debt, or the performance of some duty, in case of the failure of
   another  person, who is, in the first instance, liable to such payment
   or performance; an engagement which secures or insures another against
   a contingency; a warranty; a security. Same as Guaranty.

     His interest seemed to be a guarantee for his zeal. Macaulay.

   2. One who binds himself to see an undertaking of another performed; a
   guarantor. South.

     NOTE: &hand; Guarantor is the correct form in this sense.

   3.  (Law) The person to whom a guaranty is made; -- the correlative of
   guarantor.  Syn.  -- Guarantee, Warranty. A guarantee is an engagement
   that  a  certain act will be done or not done in future. A warranty is
   an  engagement  as to the qualities or title of a thing at the time of
   the engagement.


   Guar"an*tee`,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. guaranteed (?); p, pr. & vb. n.
   Guaranteeing.]  [From  Guarantee,  n.]  In  law  and  common usage: to
   undertake  or engage for the payment of (a debt) or the performance of
   (a  duty)  by  another  person;  to undertake to secure (a possession,
   right,  claim, etc.) to another against a specified contingency, or at
   all  avents;  to  give  a  guarantee concerning; to engage, assure, or
   secure  as  a  thing  that  may  be  depended  on;  to warrant; as, to
   guarantee the execution of a treaty.

     The  United  States  shall guarantee to every State in this Union a
     republican form of government. Constitution of the U. S.


   Guar"an*tor`  (?), n. [See Guaranty, and cf. Warrantor.] (Law) (a) One
   who  makes  or  gives  a  guaranty; a warrantor; a surety. (b) One who
   engages to secure another in any right or possession.


   Guar"an*ty  (?),  n.;  pl. Guaranies (#). [OF. guarantie, garantie, F.
   garantie,  OF.  guarantir,  garantir,  to  warrant,  to  guaranty,  E.
   garantir,  fr.  OF. guarant, garant, a warranter, F. garant; of German
   origin,  and  from  the  same  word  as warranty. See Warrant, and cf.
   Warranty,  Guarantee.]  In  law  and  common  usage: An undertaking to
   answer  for  the  payment  of  some  debt,  or the performance of some
   contract  or duty, of another, in case of the failure of such other to
   pay or perform; a guarantee; a warranty; a security.


   Guar"an*ty,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Guarantied (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Guarantying.]  [From  Guaranty,  n.]  In  law  and  common  usage:  To
   undertake  or  engage  that another person shall perform (what he hass
   stipulated); to undertake to be answerable for (the debt or default of
   another);  to engage to answer for the performance of (some promise or
   duty  by  another)  in  case of a failure by the latter to perform; to
   undertake  to  secure  (something)  to  another,  as  in the case of a
   contingency. See Guarantee, v. t.

     NOTE: &hand; Gu aranty ag rees in form with warranty. Both guaranty
     and  guarantee  are  well authorized by legal writers in the United
     States.  The  prevailing  spelling,  at  least  for  the  verb,  is


   Guard  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Guarded; p. pr. &, vb. n. Gurding.]
   [OF.  guarder,  garder,  warder, F. garder, fr. OHG. wart to be on the
   watch, await, G. marten. See Ward, v. & n., and cf. Guard, n.]

   1.  To  protect  from  danger;  to secure against surprise, attack, or
   injury;  to  keep  in  safety;  to  defend; to shelter; to shield from
   surprise   or  attack;  to  protect  by  attendance;  toaccompany  for
   protection; to vare for.

     For Heaven still guards the right. Shak.

   2.  To  keep  watch  over, in order to prevent escape or restrain from
   acts of violence, or the like.

   3.  To  protect the edge of, esp. with an ornamental border; hence, to
   face or ornament with lists, laces, etc. <-- (

     The  body of your discourse it sometime guarded with fragments, and
     the guards are but slightly basted on neither. Shak.

   4. To fasten by binding; to gird. [Obs.] B. Jonson. Syn. -- To defend,
   protect, shield; keep; watch.


   Guard  (g&aum;rd),  v. i. To watch by way of caution or defense; to be
   caution;  to  be  in  a  state  or  position of defense or safety; as,
   careful persons guard against mistakes.


   Guard,  n.  [OF.  guarde,  F.  garde; of German origin; cf. OHG. wart,
   marto,  one  who  watches, mata a watching, Goth. wardja watchman. See
   Guard, v. t.]

   1.  One  who,  or that which, guards from injury, danger, exposure, or
   attack; defense; protection.

     His greatness was no guard to bar heaven's shaft. Shak.

   2.  A man, or body of men, stationed to protect or control a person or
   position; a watch; a sentinel.

     The guard which kept the door of the king's house. Kings xiv. 27.

     3.  One  who  has  charge  of  a  mail  coach or a railway train; a
     conductor. [Eng.]

     4.  Any fixture or attachment designed to protect or secure against
     injury, soiling, or defacement, theft or loss; as: (a) That part of
     a  sword  hilt  which protects the hand. (b) Ornamental lace or hem
     protecting the edge of a garment. (c) A chain or cord for fastening
     a  watch  to  one's person or dress. (d) A fence or rail to prevent
     falling  from the deck of a vessel. (e) An extension of the deck of
     a  vessel  beyond  the hull; esp., in side-wheel steam vessels, the
     framework  of  strong timbers, which curves out on each side beyond
     the  paddle wheel, and protects it and the shaft against collision.
     (f)  A  plate  of metal, beneath the stock, or the lock frame, of a
     gun or pistol, having a loop, called a bow, to protect the trigger.
     (g)  (Bookbinding)  An interleaved strip at the back, as in a scrap
     book, to guard against its breaking when filled.

     5.  A  posture  of  defense  in  fencing,  and in bayonet and saber

     6. An expression or admission intended to secure against objections
     or censure.

     They  have expressed themselves with as few guards and restrictions
     as I. Atterbury. 

     7. Watch; heed; care; attention; as, to keep guard.

     8.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  fibrous sheath which covers the phragmacone of
     the Belemnites.

     NOTE: &hand; Guard is often used adjectively or in combination; as,
     guard boat or guardboat; guardroom or guard room; guard duty.

   Advanced  guard,  Coast guard, etc. See under Advanced, Coast, etc. --
   Grand guard (Mil.), one of the posts of the second line belonging to a
   system  of  advance posts of an army. Mahan. -- Guard boat. (a) A boat
   appointed  to  row  the  rounds among ships of war in a harbor, to see
   that  their  officers  keep  a good lookout. (b) A boat used by harbor
   authorities  to  enforce  the observance of quarantine regulations. --
   Guard  cells  (Bot.),  the  bordering  cells  of  stomates;  they  are
   crescent-shaped   and   contain   chlorophyll.  --  Guard  chamber,  a
   guardroom.  --  Guard  detail  (Mil.men  from a company regiment etc.,
   detailed  for  guard  duty. -- Guard duty (Mil.), the duty of watching
   patrolling,  etc., performed by a sentinel or sentinels. -- Guard lock
   (Engin.),  a  tide  lock  at the mouth of a dock or basin. -- Guard of
   honor  (Mil.),  a  guard  appointed to receive or to accompany eminent
   persons.  --  Guard rail (Railroads), a rail placed on the inside of a
   main  rail,  on  bridges,  at  switches,  etc., as a safeguard against
   derailment.  --  Guard ship, a war vessel appointed to superintend the
   marine  affairs  in  a  harbor,  and  also, in the English service, to
   receive  seamen  till  they  can be distributed among their respective
   ships.  --  Life  guard  (Mil.), a body of select troops attending the
   person  of a prince or high officer. -- Off one's guard, in a careless
   state;  inattentive;  unsuspicious  of danger. -- On guard, serving in
   the  capacity of a guard; doing duty as a guard or sentinel; watching.
   --  On  one's guard, in a watchful state; alert; vigilant. -- To mount
   guard  (Mil.),  to  go  on  duty as a guard or sentinel. -- To run the
   guard/mcol>,  to  pass  the  watch  or sentinel without leave. Syn. --
   Defense;   shield;   protection;   safeguard;  convoy;  escort;  care;
   attention; watch; heed.


   Guard"a*ble  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. gardable. See Guard, v. t.] Capable of
   being guarded or protected.


   Guard"age  (?), n. [Cf. OF. wardage. See Guard, v. t.] Wardship [Obs.]


   Guard"ant (?), a. [OF. guardant, p. pr. of guard. See Guard, v. t.]

   1. Acting as guardian. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. (Her.) Same as Gardant.


   Guard"ant, n. A guardian. [Obs.] Shak.


   Guard"ed,  a.  Cautious;  wary; circumspect; as, he was guarded in his
   expressions;  framed or uttered with caution; as, his expressions were
   guarded. -- Guard"edly, adv. -- Guard"ed*ness, n.


   Guard"en*age  (?),  n.  Guardianship.  [Obs.  &  R.] " His tuition and
   guardenage." Holland.


   Guard"er (?), n. One who guards.


   Guard"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The garfish.


   Guard"ful  (?),  a.  Cautions;  wary;  watchful.  [Obs. or Poetic.] --
   Guard"ful*ly, adv.


   Guard"house` (?), n. (Mil.) A building which is occupied by the guard,
   and in which soldiers are confined for misconduct; hence, a lock-up.


   Guard"i*an (?), n. [OF. guardain, gardien, F. gardien, LL. guardianus.
   See Guard, v. t., and cf. Wasden.]

   1.  One  who  guards, preserves, or secures; one to whom any person or
   thing  is  committed  for  protection,  security, or preservation from
   injury; a warden.

   2.  (Law) One who has, or is entitled to, the custody of the person or
   property  of  an  infant,  a minor without living parents, or a person
   incapable of managing his own affairs.

     Of  the  several  species  of guardians, the first are guardians by
     nature.  --  viz., the father and (in some cases) the mother of the
     child. Blockstone.

   Guardian  ad litem ( (Law), a guardian appointed by a court of justice
   to conduct a particular suit. -- Guardians of the poor, the members of
   a board appointed or elected to care for the relief of the poor within
   a township, or district.

   Page 656


   Guard"i*an  (?),  a.  Performing,  or  appropriate to, the office of a
   protector; as, a guardian care. Feast of Guardian Angels (R. C. Ch.) a
   church  festival instituted by Pope Paul V., and celebrated on October
   2d.  -- Guardian angel. (a) The particular spiritual being believed in
   some  branches  of  the  Christian  church  to  have  guardianship and
   protection  of  each human being from birth. (b) Hence, a protector or
   defender  in  general. O. W. Holmes. -- Guardian spirit, in the belief
   of  many  pagan  nations,  a  spirit,  often of a deceased relative or
   friend,  that presides over the interests of a household, a city, or a


   Guard"i*an*age (?), n. Guardianship. [Obs.]


   Guard"i*ance (?), n. Guardianship. [Obs.]


   Guard"i*an*ess (?), n. A female guardian.

     I have placed a trusty, watchful guardianess. Beau. & Fl.


   Guard"i*an*less, a. Without a guardian. Marston.


   Guard"i*an*ship,  n.  The  office,  duty,  or  care,  of  a  guardian;
   protection; care; watch.


   Guard"less (?), a. Without a guard or defense; unguarded. Chapman.


   Guard"room`  (?),  n. (Mil.) The room occupied by the guard during its
   term of duty; also, a room where prisoners are confined.


   Guards (g&aum;rdz), n. pl. A body of picked troops; as, "The Household


   Guard"ship, n. Care; protection. [Obs.] Swift.


   Guards"man (?), n.; pl. Guardsmen (.

   1. One who guards; a guard.

   2.  A  member,  either officer or private, of any military body called


   Guar"ish (?), v. t. [OF. guarir, garir, F. gu\'82rir.] To heal. [Obs.]

                                Guatemala grass

   Gua`te*ma"la grass" (?). (Bot.) See Teosinte.


   Gua"va  (?),  n. [Sp. guayaba the guava fruit, guayabo the guava tree;
   prob. fr. the native West Indian name.] A tropical tree, or its fruit,
   of  the genus Psidium. Two varieties are well known, the P. pyriferum,
   or  white guava, and P. pomiferum, or red guava. The fruit or berry is
   shaped  like  a  pomegranate,  but  is  much  smaller.  It is somewhat
   astringent, but makes a delicious jelly.


   Gu"ber*nance (?), n. Government. [Obs.]


   Gu"ber*nate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  gubernatus,  p.  p.  of gubernare. See
   Govern.] To govern. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   Gu"ber*na`tion   (?),  n.  [L.  gubernatio.]  The  act  of  governing;
   government [Obs.] I. Watts. 


   Gu"ber*na*tive (?), a. Governing. [Obs.]


   Gu"ber*na*to`ri*al  (?),  a.  [L. gubernator governor. See Gabernate.]
   Pertaining to a governor, or to government.


   Gud"geon (?), n. [OE. gojon, F. goujon, from L. gobio, or gob, Gr. 1st
   Goby. ]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small European freshwater fish (Gobio fluviatilis),
   allied  to  the  carp. It is easily caught and often used for food and
   for  bait.  In  America  the  killifishes  or minnows are often called

   2. What may be got without skill or merit.

     Fish  not,  with  this melancholy bait, For this fool gudgeon, this
     opinion. Shak.

   3. A person easily duped or cheated. Swift.

   4.  (Mach.)  The  pin of iron fastened in the end of a wooden shaft or
   axle,  on which it turns; formerly, any journal, or pivot, or bearing,
   as  the  pintle  and  eye  of  a  hinge, but esp. the end journal of a

   6.  (Naut.) A metal eye or socket attached to the sternpost to receive
   the pintle of the rudder.
   Ball gudgeon. See under Ball.


   Gud"geon,  v. t. To deprive fraudulently; to cheat; to dupe; to impose
   upon. [R.]

     To  be gudgeoned of the opportunities which had been given you. Sir
     IV. Scott.


   Gue (?), n. A sharper; a rogue. [Obs.] J. Webstar. 

                                 Gueber Guebre

   Gue"ber Gue"bre (?), n. Same as Gheber.


   Guel"der*rose'  (?),  n.  [Supposed  to  be  brought from Guelderland;
   hence,  D.  Geldersche  roos, G. Gelderische rose, F. rose de Gueldre,
   It.  rose  di  Gueldra,  Sp.  rosa  de  Gueldres.] (Bot.) A cultivated
   variety of a species of Viburnum (V. Opulus), bearing large bunches of
   white flowers; -- called also snowball tree.

                                 Guelph, Guelf

   Guelph,  Guelf  (?),  n.  [It. Guelfo, from Welf, the name of a German
   family.]  (Hist.)  One  of a faction in Germany and Italy, in the 12th
   and  13th centuries, which supported the House of Guelph and the pope,
   and opposed the Ghibellines, or faction of the German emperors.

                               Guelphic, Guelfic

   Guelph"ic,  Guelf"ic  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to the family or the
   facttion of the Guelphs.


   Guenon"  (?),  n.  [F.] (Zo\'94l.) One of several long-tailed Oriental
   monkeys, of the genus Cercocebus, as the green monkey and grivet.


   Gue`parde" (?), n. [Cf. F. gu\'82pard.] (Zo\'94l.) The cheetah.


   Guer"don  (?),  n. [OF. guerdon, guerredon, LL. widerdonum (influenced
   by  L.  donum  gift,  cf.  Donation  ),  fr. OHG. widarl; widar again,
   against  (G.  wider  wieder)  +  l&omac;n reward, G. lohn, akin to AS.
   le\'a0n  Goth.  laun. See Withers.] A reward; requital; recompense; --
   used in both a good and a bad sense. Macaulay.

     So  young as to regard men's frown or smile As loss or guerdon of a
     glorious lot. Byron.

     He  shall,  by thy revenging hand, at once receive the just guerdon
     of all his former villainies. Knolles.


   Guer"don (?), v. t. [OF. guerdonner, guerredonner. See Guerdon, n.] To
   give guerdon to; to reward; to be a recompense for. [R.]

     Him we gave a costly bribe To guerdon silence. Tennyson.


   Guer"don*a*ble  (?), a. [Cf. OF. guerredonable.] Worthy of reward. Sir
   G. Buck. 


   Guer"don*less, a. Without reward or guerdon.


   Gue*re"za  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A beautiful Abyssinian monkey (Colobus
   guereza),  having  the body black, with a fringe of long, silky, white
   hair  along  the sides, and a tuft of the same at the end of the tail.
   The frontal band, cheeks, and chin are white.


   Gue*ril"la (?), a. See Guerrilla.


   Guer"ite  (?),  n.  [F. gu\'82rite.] (Fort.) A projecting turret for a
   sentry,  as  at  the  salient  angles of works, or the acute angles of

                                 Guernsey lily

   Guern"sey  lil"y (?). (Bot.) A South African plant (Nerine Sarniensis)
   with handsome lilylike flowers, naturalized on the island of Guernsey.


   Guer*ril"la (?), n. [Sp., lit., a little war, skirmish, dim. of guerra
   war, fr. OHG. werra discord, strife. See War.]

   1.  An  irregular  mode of carrying on war, by the constant attacks of
   independent bands, adopted in the north of Spain during the Peninsular

   2.  One  who carries on, or assists in carrying on, irregular warfare;
   especially,  a  member  of  an  independent  band engaged in predatory
   excursions in war time.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm gu errilla is the diminutive of the Spanish
     word  guerra,  war, and means petty war, that is, war carried on by
     detached  parties;  generally  in  the mountains. . . . A guerrilla
     party  means,  an  irregular  band  of  armed  men,  carrying on an
     irregular  war,  not  being able, according to their character as a
     guerrilla  party,  to carry on what the law terms a regular war. F.


   Guer*ril"la,  a.  Pertaining  to,  or  engaged  in, warfare carried on
   irregularly and by independent bands; as, a guerrilla party; guerrilla


   Guess (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Guessed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Guessing.]
   [OE.  gessen;  akin  to Dan. gisse, Sw. gissa, Icel. gizha, D. gissen:
   cf.  Dan.  giette  to  guess,  Icel.  geta  to get, to guess. Probably
   originally, to try to get, and akin to E. get. See Get.]

   1.  To  form  an  opinion  concerning,  without  knowledge or means of
   knowledge; to judge of at random; to conjecture.

     First, if thou canst, the harder reason guess. Pope.

   2.   To   judge  or  form  an  opinion  of,  from  reasons  that  seem
   preponderating, but are not decisive.

     We may then guess how far it was from his design. Milton.

     Of  ambushed  men,  whom,  by  their arms and dress, To be Taxallan
     enemies I guess. Dryden.

   3. To solve by a correct conjecture; to conjecture rightly; as, he who
   guesses the riddle shall have the ring; he has guessed my designs.

   4. To hit upon or reproduce by memory. [Obs.]

     Tell me their words, as near as thou canst guess them. Shak.

   5.  To  think;  to  suppose; to believe; to imagine; -- followed by an
   objective clause.

     Not all together; better far, I guess, That we do make our entrance
     several ways. Shak.

     But in known images of life I guess The labor greater. Pope.

   Syn.  --  To  conjecture;  suppose;  surmise;  suspect; divine; think;
   imagine;  fancy. -- To Guess, Think, Reckon. Guess denotes, to attempt
   to  hit  upon  at random; as, to guess at a thing when blindfolded; to
   conjecture or form an opinion on hidden or very slight grounds: as, to
   guess  a  riddle;  to guess out the meaning of an obscure passage. The
   use  of  the  word  guess  for  think  or believe, although abundantly
   sanctioned  by good English authors, is now regarded as antiquated and
   objectionable by discriminating writers. It may properly be branded as
   a  colloguialism  and  vulgarism  when  used respecting a purpose or a
   thing  about  which  there  is no uncertainty; as, I guess I 'll go to


   Guess,  v.  i.  To  make a guess or random judgment; to conjecture; --
   with at, about, etc

     This is the place, as well as I may guess. Milton.


   Guess,  n.  An  opinion  as  to anything, formed without sufficient or
   decisive  evidence  or  grounds; an attempt to hit upon the truth by a
   random judgment; a conjecture; a surmise.

     A  poet  must  confess His art 's like physic -- but a happy guess.


   Guess"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being guessed.


   Guess"er  (?),  n.  One who guesses; one who forms or gives an opinion
   without means of knowing.


   Guess"ing*ly, adv. By way of conjecture. Shak.


   Guess"ive (?), a. Conjectural. [Obs.] Feltham.

                                  Guess rope

   Guess" rope" (?). (Naut.) A guess warp.

                                  Guess warp

   Guess"  warp" (?). (Naut.) A rope or hawser by which a vessel is towed
   or  warped along; -- so called because it is necessary to guess at the
   length  to  be  carried in the boat making the attachment to a distant


   Guess"work`  (?),  n.  Work  performed, or results obtained, by guess;


   Guest  (?),  n.  [OE.  gest,  AS. g\'91st, gest; akin to OS., D., & G.
   gust, Icel gestr, Sw. g\'84st, Dan. Gj\'84st, Goth. gast, Russ. goste,
   and  to  L.  hostis enemy, stranger; the meaning stranger is the older
   one, but the root is unknown. Cf. Host an army, Hostile.]

   1.  A  visitor; a person received and entertained in one's house or at
   one's table; a visitor entertained without pay.

     To cheer his gueste, whom he had stayed that night. Spenser.

     True  friendship's  laws  are  by  this  rule  exprest. Welcome the
     coming, speed the parting guest. Pope.


   Guest (?), v. t. To receive or entertain hospitably. [Obs.] Sylvester.


   Guest, v. i. To be, or act the part of, a guest. [Obs.]

     And tell me, best of princes, who he was That guested here so late.

                                  Guest rope

   Guest"  rope"  (?). (Naut.) The line by which a boat makes fast to the
   swinging boom. Ham. Nav. Encyc. 


   Guest"wise" (?), adv. In the manner of a guest.


   Gue'vi  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  several  very small species and
   varieties  of African antelopes, of the genus Cephalophus, as the Cape
   guevi or kleeneboc (C. pyg. m\'91a); -- called also pygmy antelope.


   Guf*faw"  (, n. A loud burst of laughter, a horse laugh. "A hearty low
   guffaw." Carlyle.


   Guf"fer (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The eelpout; guffer eel.


   Gug"gle (?), v. i. See Gurgle.


   Guhr  (?),  n.  [G.]  A loose, earthy deposit from water, found in the
   cavities  or  clefts  of  rocks,  mostly  white,  but sometimes red or
   yellow, from a mixture of clay or ocher. P. Cleaveland.


   Gui"ac (?), n. Same as Guaiac.


   Gui"a*col   (?),  n.  [Guiac  +  -ol.]  (Chem.)  A  colorless  liquid,
   C6H4,OCH3.OH<--  ##comma  in  original.  error?  -->,  resembling  the
   phenols,  found  as a constituent of woodtar creosote, aud produced by
   the dry distillation of guaiac resin.


   Gui"a*cum (?), n. Same as Guaiacum.


   Guib   (?),   n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  West  African  antelope  (Tragelaphus
   scriptus),  curiously marked with white stripes and spots on a reddish
   fawn  ground,  and  hence  called  harnessed  antelope; -- called also


   Gui"co*war (?), n. [Mahratta g&amac;ekw&amac;r, prop., a cowherd.] The
   title  of  the  sovereign  of  Guzerat, in Western India; -- generally
   called the Guicowar of Baroda, which is the capital of the country.


   Guid"a*ble  (?),  a.  Capable of being guided; willing to be guided or
   counseled. Sprat.


   Guid"age (?), n. [See Guide.]

   1. The reward given to a guide for services. [R.] Ainsworth.

   2. Guidance; lead; direction. [R.] Southey.


   Guid"ance  (?),  n.  [See  Guide.]  The  act or result of guiding; the
   superintendence  or  assistance  of  a guide; direction; government; a

     His studies were without guidance and without plan. Macaulay.


   Guide  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Guided; p. pr. & vb. n. Guiding.] [OE.
   guiden,  gyden,  F. guiaer, It. guidare; prob. of Teutonic origin; cf.
   Goth.  ritan to watch over, give heed to, Icel. viti signal, AS. witan
   to  know.  The  word prob. meant, to indicate, point to, and hence, to
   show the way. Cf. Wit, Guy a rope, Gye.]

   1.  To  lead  or  direct  in a way; to conduct in a course or path; to
   pilot; as, to guide a traveler.

     I wish . . . you 'ld guide me to your sovereign's court. Shak.

   2.  To  regulate  and  manage; to direct; to order; to superintend the
   training  or education of; to instruct and influence intellectually or
   morally; to train.

     He will guide his affairs with discretion. Ps. cxii. 5.

     The meek will he guide in judgment. Ps. xxv. 9. 


   Guide, n. [OE. giae, F. guide, It. guida. See Guide, v. t.]

   1. A person who leads or directs another in his way or course, as in a
   strange  land;  one  who  exhibits  points of interest to strangers; a
   conductor; also, that which guides; a guidebook.

   2. One who, or that which, directs another in his conduct or course of
   lifo; a director; a regulator.

     He will be our guide, even unto death. Ps. xlviii. 14.

   3.  Any  contrivance, especially one having a directing edge, surface,
   or  channel, for giving direction to the motion of anything, as water,
   an instrument, or part of a machine, or for directing the hand or eye,
   as  of  an  operator;  as:  (a)  (Water Wheels) A blade or channel for
   directing  the  flow  of  water  to the wheel buckets. (b) (Surgery) A
   grooved  director  for  a  probe  or  knife. (c) (Printing) A strip or
   device  to  direct  the  compositor's  eye  to  the line of copy he is

   4. (Mil.) A noncommissioned officer or soldier placed on the directiug
   flank  of  each  subdivision of a column of troops, or at the end of a
   line,  to  mark  the  pivots,  formations,  marches, and alignments in
   tactics. Farrow.
   Guide  bar  (Mach.), the part of a steam engine on which the crosshead
   slides,  and by which the motion of the piston rod is kept parallel to
   the  cylinder,  being  a substitute for the parallel motion; -- called
   also  guide,  and  slide  bar.  -- Guide block (Steam Engine), a block
   attached in to the crosshead to work in contact with the guide bar. --
   Guide   meridian.  (Surveying)  See  under  Meridian.  --  Guide  pile
   (Engin.),  a  pile  driven  to mark a place, as a point to work to. --
   Guide  pulley  (Mach.), a pulley for directing or changing the line of
   motion  of  belt;  an  idler.  Knight.  --  Guide rail (Railroads), an
   additional  rail,  between  the  others, gripped by horizontal driving
   wheels on the locomotive, as a means of propulsion on steep gradients.


   Guide"board`  (?),  n.  A  board,  as  upon a guidepost having upon it
   directions or information as to the road. Lowell.


   Guide"book`   (?),  n.  A  book  of  directions  and  information  for
   travelers, tourists, etc.


   Guide"less, a. Without a guide. Dryden.


   Guide"post` (?), n. A post at the fork of a road, with a guideboard on
   it, to direct travelers.


   Guid"er (?), n. A guide; a director. Shak.


   Guid"er*ess (?), n. A female guide. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Guid"guid`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A South American ant bird of the genus
   Hylactes; -- called also barking bird.


   Gui"don (?), n. [F. guidon, It. guidone. See Guide, v. t.]

   1.  A  small  flag  or  streamer, as that carried by cavalry, which is
   broad  at  one  end  and  nearly pointed at the other, or that used to
   direct the movements of a body of infantry, or to make signals at sea;
   also, the flag of a guild or fraternity. In the United States service,
   each company of cavalry has a guidon.

     The  pendants  and guidons were carried by the officer of the army.

   Page 657

   2. One who carries a flag. Johnson.

   3.  One  of  a community established at Rome, by Charlemagne, to guide
   pilgrims to the Holy Land.


   Gulge (?), n. [Obs.] See Gige.


   Guild (?), n. [OE. gilds, AS. gild, gield, geld, tribute, a society or
   company  where  payment  was  made for its charge and support, fr. AS.
   gildan, gieldan, to pay. See Yield, v. t.]

   1.  An  association  of men belonging to the same class, or engaged in
   kindred  pursuits,  formed  for  mutual aid and protection; a business
   fraternity or corporation; as, the Stationers' Guild; the Ironmongers'
   Guild.  They  were  originally licensed by the government, and endowed
   with special privileges and authority.

   2. A guildhall. [Obs.] Spenser.

   3.  A  religious  association  or  society,  organized  for charitable
   purposes or for assistance in parish work.


   Guild"a*ble (?), a. Liable to a tax. [Obs.]


   Guil"der  (?),  n.  [D.  gulden,  orig.,  golden. Cf. Golden.] A Dutch
   silver coin worth about forty cents; -- called also florin and gulden.


   Guild"hall`  (?),  n.  The  hall  where a guild or corporation usually
   assembles; a townhall.


   Guile  (?),  n. [OE. guile, gile, OF. guile; of German origin, and the
   same  word  as E. wile. See Wile.] Craft; deceitful cunning; artifice;
   duplicity; wile; deceit; treachery.

     Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile. John i. 47.

     To wage by force or guile eternal war. Milton.


   Guile,  v.  t.  [OF. guiler. See Guile, n.] To disguise or conceal; to
   deceive or delude. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Guile"ful  (?), a. Full of guile; characterized by cunning, deceit, or
   treachery; guilty. -- Guile"ful*ly, adv. -- Guile"ful*ness, n.


   Guile"less,  a.  Free  from  guile;  artless.  --  Guile"less*ly, adv.
   Guile"less*ness, n.


   Guil"or  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF. guileor.] A deceiver; one who deludes, or
   uses guile. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Guil"le*met` (?), n. [F.] A quotation mark. [R.]


   Guil"le*mot`  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of several northern sea
   birds,  allied to the auks. They have short legs, placed far back, and
   are expert divers and swimmers.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e common guillemots, or murres, belong to the genus
     Uria  (as  U.  troile);  the  black  or  foolish guillemot (Cepphus
     grylle,  formerly  Uria  grylle),  is  called  also  sea pigeon and
     eligny. See Murre.


   Guil`le*vat"  [?], n. [F. guilloire (fr. guiller to work, ferment)+ E.
   vat.] A vat for fermenting liquors.


   Guil"loche`  (?),  n.  [F.  guillochis; -- said to be fr. Guillot, the
   inventor of a machine for carving it.] (Arch.) An ornament in the form
   of two or more bands or strings twisted over each other in a continued
   series,   leaving  circular  openings  which  are  filled  with  round


   Guil*loched" (?), a. Waved or engine-turned. Mollett.


   Guil"lo*tine`  (?),  n.  [F.,  from Guillotin, a French physician, who
   proposed, in the Constituent Assembly of 1789, to abolish decapitation
   with  the  ax  or  sword.  The  instrument was invented by Dr. Antoine
   Louis, and was called at first Louison or Louisette. Similar machines,
   however, were known earlier.]

   1.  A  machine  for  beheading a person by one stroke of a heavy ax or
   blade,  which  slides in vertical guides, is raised by a cord, and let
   fall upon the neck of the victim.

   2.  Any  machine  or instrument for cutting or shearing, resembling in
   its action a guillotine.


   Guil"lo*tine`  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Guillotined (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Guillotining.] [Cf. F. guillotiner.] To behead with the guillotine.


   Guilt  (?),  n.  [OE. gilt, gult, AS. gylt, crime; probably originally
   signifying,  the  fine or mulct paid for an offence, and afterward the
   offense  itself,  and akin to AS. gieldan to pay, E. yield. See Yield,
   v. t.]

   1.  The  criminality  and  consequent exposure to punishment resulting
   from  willful  disobedience  of law, or from morally wrong action; teh
   state  of  one  who  has  broken  a  moral  or  political  law; crime;
   criminality; offense against right.

     Satan  had  not answer, but stood struck With guilt of his own sin.

   2. Exposure to any legal penalty or forfeiture.

     A ship incurs guilt by the violation of a blockade. Kent.


   Guilt"i*ly (?), adv. In a guilty manner.


   Guilt"i*ness, n. The quality or state of being guilty.


   Guilt"less, a.

   1. Free from guilt; innocent.

     The  Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
     Ex. xx. 7.

   2. Without experience or trial; unacquainted (with).

     Such  gardening  tools,  as  art,  yet rude, Guiltless of fire, had
     formed. Milton.

   -- Guilt"less*ly, adv. -- Guilt"less*ness, n.


   Guilt"-sick`   (?),  a.  Made  sick  by  consciousness  of  guilt.  "A
   guilt-sick conscience." Beau. c& El. 


   Guilt"y  (?), a. [Compar. Gultier (?); superl. Guiltiest.] [AS. gyltig
   liable. See Guilt.]

   1.  Having  incurred  guilt;  criminal;  morally  delinquent;  wicked;
   chargeable  with,  or  responsible  for,  something censurable; justly
   exposed  to  penalty;  --  used  with  of, and usually followed by the
   crime, sometimes by the punishment.

     They answered and said, He is guilty of death. Matt. xxvi. 66.

     Nor he, nor you, were guilty of the strife. Dryden.

   2. Evincing or indicating guilt; involving guilt; as, a guilty look; a
   guilty act; a guilty feeling.

   3. Conscious; cognizant. [Obs.] B. Jonson. 

   4. Condemned to payment. [Obs. & R.] Dryden.


   Guilt"y*like` (?), adv. Guiltily. [Obs.] Shak.


   Guin"ea (?), n.

   1.  A  district  on  the  west coast of Africa (formerly noted for its
   export  of gold and slaves) after which the Guinea fowl, Guinea grass,
   Guinea peach, etc., are named.

   2.  A  gold coin of England current for twenty-one shillings sterling,
   or about five dollars, but not coined since the issue of sovereigns in

     The  guinea,  so  called  from  the Guinea gold out of which it was
     first  struck,  was  proclaimed  in  1663,  and  to  go  for twenty
     shillings;  but  it  never went for less than twenty-one shillings.

   Guinea corn. (Bot.) See Durra. -- Guinea Current (Geog.), a current in
   the  Atlantic  Ocean  setting southwardly into the Bay of Benin on the
   coast   of  Guinea.--  Guinea  dropper  one  who  cheats  by  dropping
   counterfeit   guineas.   [Obs.]   Gay.  --  Guinea  fowl,  Guinea  hen
   (Zo\'94l.),  an African gallinaceous bird, of the genus Numida, allied
   to  the pheasants. The common domesticated species (N. meleagris), has
   a  colored fleshy horn on each aide of the head, and is of a dark gray
   color,  variegated with small white spots. The crested Guinea fowl (N.
   cristata)  is  a  finer  species.--  Guinea  grains  (Bot.), grains of
   Paradise, or amomum. See Amomum. -- Guinea grass (Bot.), a tall strong
   forage  grass  (Panicum  jumentorum)  introduced. from Africa into the
   West Indies and Southern United States. -- Guinea-hen flower (Bot.), a
   liliaceous flower (Fritillaria Meleagris) with petals spotted like the
   feathers  of  the  Guinea  hen.  --  Guinea peach. See under Peach. --
   Guinea pepper (Bot.), the pods of the Xylopia aromatica, a tree of the
   order  Anonace\'91,  found in tropical West Africa. They are also sold
   under the name of Piper \'92thiopicum. --Guinea pig.

     NOTE: [Prob. a mistake for Guiana pig.]

   (a)  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small Brazilian rodent (Cavia cobaya), about seven
   inches  in  length  and usually of a white color, with spots of orange
   and  black.<--  called  also  cavy -- used commonly as an experimental
   animal  in  laboratory  research.  (c).  metaphorically, any animal or
   person  used  in  an  experiment;  --  often applied to people who are
   unwillingly  or  unknowingly  subjected  by authorities to policies or
   procedures  which  might  cause  bodily  or  mental  harm.  -->  (b) A
   contemptuous  sobriquet.  Smollett<--  obs  in this sense now. -->. --
   Guinea  plum  (Bot.),  the  fruit of Parinarium excelsum, a large West
   African  tree  of the order Chrysobalane\'91, having a scarcely edible
   fruit  somewhat  resembling a plum, which is also called gray plum and
   rough-skin plum. -- Guinea worm (Zo\'94l.), a long and slender African
   nematoid  worm  (Filaria Medinensis) of a white color. It lives in the
   cellular tissue of man, beneath the skin, and produces painful sores.


   Gui*pure"  (?),  n. [F.] A term used for lace of different kinds; most
   properly  for  a lace of large pattern and heavy material which has no
   ground  or  mesh,  but  has  the  pattern  held together by connecting
   threads called bars or brides.


   Guir"land (?), n. [Obs.] See Garland.


   Guise  (?),  n.  [OE.  guise,  gise,  way,  manner, F. guise, fr. OHG.
   w\'c6sa, G. weise. See Wise, n.]

   1.  Customary  way  of  speaking  or  acting; custom; fashion; manner;
   behavior; mien; mode; practice; -- often used formerly in such phrases
   as:  at  his  own guise; that is, in his own fashion, to suit himself.

     The  swain  replied, "It never was our guise To slight the poor, or
     aught humane despise." Pope.

   2.  External  appearance in manner or dress; appropriate indication or
   expression; garb; shape.

     As then the guise was for each gentle swain. Spenser.

     A  .  . . specter, in a far more terrific guise than any which ever
     yet have overpowered the imagination. Burke.

   3. Cover; cloak; as, under the guise of patriotism.


   Guis"er  (?),  n.  [From  Guise.]  A  person  in disguise; a masker; a
   mummer. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]


   Gui*tar"  (?),  n.  [F.  guitare;  cf.  Pr.,  Sp.,  & Pg.guitarra, It.
   chitarra;  all  fr.  Gr.  cithara.  Cf.  Cittern, Gittern.] A stringed
   instrument of music resembling the lute or the violin, but larger, and
   having  six strings, three of silk covered with silver wire, and three
   of catgut, -- played upon with the fingers.


   Guit"guit`  (?),  n.  [So  called  from  its  note.] (Zo\'94l.) One of
   several  species  of  small  tropical  American  birds  of  the family
   C\'d2rebid\'91, allied to the creepers; -- called also quit. See Quit.


   Gu"la  (?),  n.;  pl.  L.  Gul\'92 (#), E. Gulas (#). [L., the throat,

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) The upper front of the neck, next to the chin; the
   upper  throat.  (b)  A  plate  which  in  most  insects  supports  the

   2. (Arch.) A capping molding. Same as Cymatium.


   Gu"lar  (?), a. [Cf. F. gulaire.] (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the gula or
   throat; as, gular plates. See Illust. of Bird, and Bowfin.


   Gu"laund (?), n. [Icel. gul-\'94nd.] An arctic sea bird.


   Gulch (?), n.

   1. Act of gulching or gulping. [Obs.]

   2. A glutton. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

   3. A ravine, or part of the deep bed of a torrent when dry; a gully.


   Gulch,  v. t. [OE. gulchen; cf. dial. Sw. g\'94lka to gulch, D. gulzig
   greedy, or E. gulp.] To swallow greedily; to gulp down. [Obs.]


   Guid (?), n. A flower. See Gold. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gul"den (?), n. See Guilder.


   Gule (?), v. t. To give the color of gules to.


   Gule (?), n. The throat; the gullet. [Obs.]

     Throats so wide and gules so gluttonous. Gauden.


   Gules (?), n. [OE. goules, F. gueules, the same word as gueule throat,
   OF.  gole,  goule, L. gula. So named from the red color of the throat.
   See Gullet, and cf. Gula.] (Her.) The tincture red, indicated in seals
   and engraved figures of escutcheons by parallel vertical lines. Hence,
   used poetically for a red color or that which is red.

     His sev'n-fold targe a field of gules did stain In which two swords
     he bore; his word, "Divide and reign." P. Fletcher. 

     Follow  thy  drum; With man's blood paint the ground; gules, gules.

     Let's march to rest and set in gules, like suns. Beau. & Fl.


   Gulf (?), n. [F. golfe, It. golfo, fr. Gr. bosom, bay, gulf, LGr.

   1. A hollow place in the earth; an abyss; a deep chasm or basin,

     He then surveyed Hell and the gulf between. Milton.

     Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed. Luke xvi. 26.

   2. That which swallows; the gullet. [Obs.] Shak.

   3.  That  which  swallows  irretrievably; a whirlpool; a sucking eddy.

     A gulf of ruin, swallowing gold. Tennyson.

   4.  (Geog.)  A  portion  of an ocean or sea extending into the land; a
   partially land-locked sea; as, the Gulf of Mexico.

   5. (Mining) A large deposit of ore in a lode.
   Gulf Stream (Geog.), the warm ocean current of the North Atlantic.

     NOTE: It or iginates in the westward equatorial current, due to the
     trade  winds,  is deflected northward by Cape St. Roque through the
     Gulf  of  Mexico, and flows parallel to the coast of North America,
     turning  eastward  off the island of Nantucket. Its average rate of
     flow  is  said  to  be  about  two miles an hour. The similar Japan
     current,  or  Kuro-Siwo, is sometimes called the Gulf Stream of the

   -- Gulf weed (Bot.), a branching seaweed (Sargassum bacciferum, or sea
   grape),  having  numerous  berrylike air vessels, -- found in the Gulf
   Stream, in the Sargasso Sea, and elsewhere.


   Gulf"y (?), a. Full of whirlpools or gulfs. Chapman.


   Gul"gul  (?),  n.  [Hind.  galgal.]  A  cement  made in India from sea
   shells,  pulverized  and  mixed  with  oil,  and  spread over a ship's
   bottom, to prevent the boring of worms.


   Gu"list (?), n. [L. gulo.] A glutton. [Obs.]


   Gull  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Gulled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gulling.]
   [Prob.  fr.  gull  the bird; but cf. OSw. gylla to deceive, D. kullen,
   and  E.  cullibility.]  To deceive; to cheat; to mislead; to trick; to

     The rulgar, gulled into rebellion, armed. Dryden.

     I'm not gulling him for the emperor's service. Coleridge.


   Gull, n.

   1. A cheating or cheat; trick; fraud. Shak.

   2. One easily cheated; a dupe. Shak.


   Gull,  n.  [Of Celtic origin; cf. Corn. gullan, W. gwylan.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One  of  many  species of long-winged sea birds of the genus Larus and
   allied genera.

     NOTE: &hand; Am ong the best known American species are the herring
     gull  (Larus  argentatus), the great black-backed gull (L. murinus)
     the   laughing  gull  (L.  atricilla),  and  Bonaparte's  gull  (L.
     Philadelphia). The common European gull is Larus canus.

   Gull  teaser (Zo\'94l.), the jager; -- also applied to certain species
   of terns.


   Gull"age (?), n. Act of being gulled. [Obs.]

     Had  you  no  quirk.  To avoid gullage, sir, by such a creature? B.


   Gull"er (?), n. One who gulls; a deceiver.


   Gull"er*y  (?),  n.  An  act,  or  the practice, of gulling; trickery;
   fraud. [R.] "A mere gullery." Selden.


   Gul"let  (?),  n. [OE. golet, OF. Goulet, dim. of gole, goule, throat,
   F.  gueule,  L. gula; perh. akin to Skr. gula, G. kenle; cf. F. goulet
   the neck of a bottle, goulotte channel gutter. Cf. Gules, Gully.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The  tube  by  which  food and drink are carried from the
   pharynx to the stomach; the esophagus.

   2.  Something  shaped  like  the  food  passage, or performing similar
   functions; as: (a) A channel for water. (b) (Engin.) A preparatory cut
   or  channel  in  excavations,  of  sufficient width for the passage of
   earth wagons. (c) A concave cut made in the teeth of some saw blades.

   Page 658


   Gul"let*ing  (?),  n.  (Engin.)  A  system  of  excavating by means of
   gullets or channels.


   Gul"li*ble   (?),   a.   Easily   gulled;   that   may  be  duped.  --
   Gul"li*bii`i*ty (#), n. Burke.


   Gull"ish (?), a. Foolish; stupid. [Obs.] Gull"ish*ness, n. [Obs.]


   Gul"ly  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gulles (#). [Etymol. uncertain] A large knife.
   [Scot.] Sir W. Scott. 


   Gul"ly, n.; pl. Gullies (#). [Formerly gullet.]

   1.  A  channel  or  hollow  worn in the earth by a current of water; a
   short deep portion of a torrent's bed when dry.

   2. A grooved iron rail or tram plate. [Eng.]
   Gully  gut,  a  glutton.  [Obs.]  Chapman.  -- Gully hole, the opening
   through which gutters discharge surface water.


   Gul"ly, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gullied (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Gullying.] To
   wear  into  a  gully  or  into  gullies.<--  =  wear down, not wear as
   clothing! -->


   Gul"ly, v. i. To flow noisily. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Gu*los"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  gulositas,  fr.  gulosus  gluttonous.  See
   Gullet.] Excessive appetite; greediness; voracity. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

   Gulp  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Gulped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gulping.]
   [D.  gulpen,  cf.  OD.  golpe  gulf.]  To swallow eagerly, or in large
   draughts; to swallow up; to take down at one swallow.

     He does not swallow, but he gulps it down. Cowper.

     The old man . . . glibly gulped down the whole narrative. Fielding.

   To gulp up, to throw up from the stomach; to disgorge.


   Gulp, n.

   1.  The  act  of  taking a large mouthful; a swallow, or as much as is
   awallowed at once.

   2. A disgorging. [Colloq.]


   Gulph (?), n. [Obs.] See Gulf.


   Gult (?), n. Guilt. See Guilt. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gult"y (?), a. Guilty. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Gul"y  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  gules; red. "Those fatal guly
   dragons." Milton.


   Gum (?), n. [OE. gome, AS. gama palate; akin Co G. gaumen, OHG. goumo,
   guomo,  Icel.  g,  Sw. gom; cf. Gr. The dense tissues which invest the
   teeth,  and  cover  the  adjacent  parts of the jaws. Gum rash (Med.),
   strophulus  in  a teething child; red gum. -- Gum stick, a smooth hard
   substance for children to bite upon while teething.


   Gum,  v.  t.  To deepen and enlarge the spaces between the teeth of (a
   worn saw). See Gummer.


   Gum, n. [OE. gomme, gumme, F. gomme, L. gummi and commis, fr. Gr. kam;
   cf. It. gomma.]

   1.  A vegetable secretion of many trees or plants that hardens when it
   exudes,  but  is soluble in water; as, gum arabic; gum tragacanth; the
   gum of the cherry tree. Also, with less propriety, exudations that are
   not soluble in water; as, gum copal and gum sandarac, which are really

   2. (Bot.) See Gum tree, below.

   3.  A  hive made of a section of a hollow gum tree; hence, any roughly
   made  hive;  also,  a vessel or bin made of a hollow log. [Southern U.

   4. A rubber overshoe. [Local, U. S.]
   Black  gum, Blue gum, British gum, etc. See under Black, Blue, etc. --
   Gum   Acaroidea,  the  resinous  gum  of  the  Australian  grass  tree
   (Xanlhorrh\'d2a). -- Gum animal (Zo\'94l.), the galago of West Africa;
   --  so  called  because  it feeds on gums. See Galago. -- Gum animi or
   anim\'82. See Anim\'82. -- Gum arabic, a gum yielded mostly by several
   species  of  Acacia (chiefly A. vera and A. Arabica) growing in Africa
   and  Southern  Asia; -- called also gum acacia. East Indian gum arabic
   comes from a tree of the Orange family which bears the elephant apple.
   -- Gum butea, a gum yielded by the Indian plants Butea frondosa and B.
   superba,  and  used locally in tanning and in precipitating indigo. --
   Gum  cistus,  a  plant  of  the  genus  Cistus (Cistus ladaniferus), a
   species  of  rock  rose.-- Gum dragon. See Tragacanth. -- Gum elastic,
   Elastic  gum. See Caoutchouc. -- Gum elemi. See Elemi. -- Gum juniper.
   See Sandarac. -- Gum kino. See under Kino. -- Gum lac. See Lac. -- Gum
   Ladanum,  a fragrant gum yielded by several Oriental species of Cistus
   or  rock  rose. -- Gum passages, sap receptacles extending through the
   parenchyma  of certain plants (Amygdalace\'91, Cactace\'91, etc.), and
   affording  passage  for gum. -- Gum pot, a varnish maker's utensil for
   melting  gum  and  mixing  other  ingredients. -- Gum resin, the milky
   juice  of  a  plant  solidified  by  exposure  to  air; one of certain
   inspissated saps, mixtures of, or having properties of, gum and resin;
   a  resin containing more or less mucilaginous and gummy matter. -- Gum
   sandarac.  See  Sandarac. -- Gum Senegal, a gum similar to gum arabic,
   yielded  by  trees  (Acacia  Verek and A. Adansoni\'84) growing in the
   Senegal  country,  West  Africa. -- Gum tragacanth. See Tragacanth. --
   Gum  tree,  the  name given to several trees in America and Australia:
   (a)  The black gum (Nyssa multiflora), one of the largest trees of the
   Southern  States, bearing a small blue fruit, the favorite food of the
   opossum.  Most  of  the  large  trees become hollow. (b) A tree of the
   genus Eucalyptus. See Eucalpytus. (c) The sweet gum tree of the United
   States  (Liquidambar  styraciflua),  a  large  and beautiful tree with
   pointedly  lobed leaves and woody burlike fruit. It exudes an aromatic
   terebinthine  juice.  --  Gum  water,  a  solution of gum, esp. of gum
   arabic, in water. -- Gum wood, the wood of any gum tree, esp. the wood
   of the Eucalyptus piperita, of New South Wales.


   Gum,  v. t. [imp. &. p. Gummed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gumming.] To smear
   with  gum;  to close with gum; to unite or stiffen by gum or a gumlike
   substance; to make sticky with a gumlike substance.

     He frets likke a gummed velvet.Shak.


     Gum, v. i. To exude or from gum; to become gummy.


     Gum"bo (?), n. [Written aalso gombo.]

     1.  A  soup  thickened with the mucilaginous pods of the okra; okra

     2. The okra plant or its pods.


     Gum"boil  (?),  n.  (Med.)  A small suppurting inflamed spot on the


     Gum"ma  (?),  n.;  pl.  Gummata  (#). [NL. So called from its gummy
     contents  See  Gum.]  (Med.)  A  kind  of  soft  tumor,  usually of
     syphilitic origin.


     Gum*ma"tous (?), a. (Med.) Belonging to, or resembling, gumma.


     Gum"mer (?), n. [From 2d Gum.] A punch-cutting tool, or machine for
     deepening and enlarging the spaces between the teeth of a worn saw.


     Gum*mif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  gummi gum + -ferous.] Producing gum;


     Gum"mi*ness   (?),   n.  The  state  or  quality  of  being  gummy;


     Gum"mite  (?),  n.  [So  called  because  it  occurs  in rounded or
     flattened  pieces  which  look like gum.] (Min.) A yellow amorphous
     mineral,  essentially  a hydrated oxide of uranium derived from the
     alteration of uraninite.


     Gum*mos"i*ty  (?),  n.  Gumminess; a viscous or adhesive quality or
     nature. [R.] Floyer.


     Gum"mous (?), a. [L. gummosus; cf. F. gommeux.]

     1. Gumlike, or composed of gum; gummy.

     2. (Med.) Of or pertaining to a gumma.


     Gum"my  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Gummer  (Gummirst.]  Consisting of gum;
     viscous; adhesive; producing or containing gum; covered with gum or
     a substance resembling gum.

     Kindles the gummy bark of fir or pine. Milton.

     Then rubs his gummy eyes. Dryden.

   Gummy tumor (Med.), a gumma.


   Gump  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Sw. & Dan. gump buttocks, rump, Icel. gumprg.] A
   dolt; a dunce. [Low.] Holloway.


   Gump"tion  (?),  n. [OE. gom, gome, attention; akin to AS. ge\'a2mian,
   gyman,  to  regard,  observe,  gyme  care,  OS.  gomean to heed, Goth.
   gaumjan to see, notice.]

   1.  Capacity; shrewdness; common sense. [Colloq.]<-- in MW10 marked as
   chiefly dial. -->

     One does not have gumption till one has been properly cheated. Lord

   2. (Paint.) (a) The art of preparing colors. Sir W. Scott. (b) Megilp.
   Fairholt. <-- 3. initiative = primary modern usage -->


   Gun  (?), n. [OE. gonne, gunne; of uncertain origin; cf. Ir., Gael.) A
   LL.  gunna, W. gum; possibly (like cannon) fr. L. canna reed, tube; or
   abbreviated  fr.  OF.  mangonnel,  E.  mangonel, a machine for hurling

   1.  A  weapon  which  throws  or  propels a missile to a distance; any
   firearm  or  instrument  for  throwing projectiles by the explosion of
   gunpowder,  consisting of a tube or barrel closed at one end, in which
   the  projectile  is  placed, with an explosive charge behind, which is
   ignited  by  various  means.  Muskets,  rifles,  carbines, and fowling
   pieces  are  smaller  guns,  for  hand use, and are called small arms.
   Larger  guns  are  called  cannon,  ordnance, fieldpieces, carronades,
   howitzers, etc. See these terms in the Vocabulary.

     As  swift  as  a  pellet  out of a gunne When fire is in the powder
     runne. Chaucer.

     The  word  gun  was in use in England for an engine to cast a thing
     from a man long before there was any gunpowder found out. Selden.

   2. (Mil.) A piece of heavy ordnance; in a restricted sense, a cannon.

   3. pl. (Naut.) Violent blasts of wind.

     NOTE: &hand; Gu ns ar e classified, according to their construction
     or  manner  of  loading  as rifled or smoothbore, breech-loading or
     muzzle-loading,  cast  or built-up guns; or according to their use,
     as field, mountain, prairie, seacoast, and siege guns.

   Armstrong  gun,  a  wrought iron breech-loading cannon named after its
   English  inventor,  Sir  William  Armstrong.  -- Great gun, a piece of
   heavy  ordnance;  hence  (Fig.),  a person superior in any way. -- Gun
   barrel,  the barrel or tube of a gun. -- Gun carriage, the carriage on
   which a gun is mounted or moved. -- Gun cotton (Chem.), a general name
   for  a  series  of  explosive  nitric ethers of cellulose, obtained by
   steeping  cotton  in  nitric  and  sulphuric acids. Although there are
   formed  substances  containing  nitric  acid radicals, yet the results
   exactly  resemble ordinary cotton in appearance. It burns without ash,
   with  explosion  if  confined,  but quietly and harmlessly if free and
   open,  and  in  small  quantity.  Specifically,  the lower nitrates of
   cellulose which are insoluble in ether and alcohol in distinction from
   the  highest  (pyroxylin)  which  is  soluble.  See Pyroxylin, and cf.
   Xyloidin.  The  gun  cottons  are  used  for  blasting and somewhat in
   gunnery:  for  making  celluloid when compounded with camphor; and the
   soluble  variety  (pyroxylin) for making collodion. See Celluloid, and
   Collodion.   Gun   cotton   is   frequenty   but   improperly   called
   nitrocellulose.  It  is  not a nitro compound, but an ethereal salt of
   nitric  acid.  --  Gun  deck. See under Deck. -- Gun fire, the time at
   which the morning or the evening gun is fired. -- Gun metal, a bronze,
   ordinarily  composed  of nine parts of copper and one of tin, used for
   cannon, etc. The name is also given to certain strong mixtures of cast
   iron.  --  Gun  port  (Naut.),  an  opening  in a ship through which a
   cannon's  muzzle  is  run  out  for firing. -- Gun tackle (Naut.), the
   blocks  and  pulleys  affixed  to  the  side of a ship, by which a gun
   carriage  is  run  to  and  from  the gun port. -- Gun tackle purchase
   (Naut.), a tackle composed of two single blocks and a fall. Totten. --
   Krupp  gun,  a  wrought  steel  breech-loading cannon, named after its
   German inventor, Herr Krupp. -- Machine gun, a breech-loading gun or a
   group  of such guns, mounted on a carriage or other holder, and having
   a  reservoir  containing  cartridges  which are loaded into the gun or
   guns and fired in rapid succession, sometimes in volleys, by machinery
   operated  by  turning a crank. Several hundred shots can be fired in a
   minute with accurate aim. The Gatling gun, Gardner gun, Hotchkiss gun,
   and  Nordenfelt  gun,  named  for  their  inventors,  and  the  French
   mitrailleuse, are machine guns. -- To blow great guns (Naut.), to blow
   a gale. See Gun, n., 3.


   Gun  (?),  v. i. To practice fowling or hunting small game; -- chiefly
   in  participial form; as, to go gunning. <-- gun for = pursue with the
   intent  to  kill;  Fig.,  to  make  effort  to harm someone, also used
   humorously;  (MW10:  "to  aim  at  or  go  after with determination or
   effort") -->


   Gu"na (g&oomac;"n&adot;), n. [Skr. guna quality.] In Sanskrit grammar,
   a lengthening of the simple vowels a, i, e, by prefixing an a element.
   The  term  is  sometimes used to denote the same vowel change in other


   Gu"nar*chy (?), n. See Gynarchy.


   Gun"boat`  (?),  n.  (Nav.) A vessel of light draught, carrying one or
   more guns.


   Gun"cot`ton (?). See under Gun.


   Gun"de*let (?), n. [Obs.] See Gondola. Marston.


   Gun"flint`  (?), n. A sharpened flint for the lock of a gun, to ignite
   the charge. It was in common use before the introduction of percussion
   caps. <-- used in the flintlock -->


   Gun"jah (?), n. (Bot.) See Ganja.


   Gun"lock`  (?), n. The lock of a gun, for producing the discharge. See


   Gun"nage (?), n. The number of guns carried by a ship of war.


   Gun"nel (?), n. [See Gunwale.]

   1. A gunwale.

   2.   (Zo\'94l.)   A  small,  eel-shaped,  marine  fish  of  the  genus
   Mur\'91noides;  esp.,  M.  gunnellus  of Europe and America; -- called
   also gunnel fish, butterfish, rock eel.


   Gun"ner (?), n.

   1. One who works a gun, whether on land or sea; a cannoneer.

   2.  A  warrant  officer in the navy having charge of the ordnance on a

   3.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) The great northern diver or loon. See Loon. (b) The
   sea bream. [Prov. Eng. or Irish]
   Gunner's  daughter,  the  gun  to  which  men  or boys were lashed for
   punishment. [Sailor's slang] W. C. Russell.


   Gun"ner*y  (?),  n.  That branch of military science which comprehends
   the  theory  of  projectiles, and the manner of constructing and using


   Gun"nie (?), n. (Mining.) Space left by the removal of ore.


   Gun"ning  (?), n. The act or practice of hunting or shooting game with
   a gun.

     The art of gunning was but little practiced. Goldsmith.

                            Gunny, n., Gunny cloth

   Gun"ny (?), n., Gun"ny cloth` (. [Hind. gon, gon,, a sack, sacking.] A
   strong,  coarse kind of sacking, made from the fibers (called jute) of
   two plants of the genus Corchorus (C. olitorius and C. capsularis), of
   India.  The  fiber  is  also used in the manufacture of cordage. Gunny
   bag, a sack made of gunny, used for coarse commodities.


   Gu*noc"ra*cy (?), n. See Gyneocracy.


   Gun"pow`der  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A black, granular, explosive substance,
   consisting  of  an intimate mechanical mixture of niter, charcoal, and
   sulphur. It is used in gunnery and blasting.

     NOTE: &hand; Gunpowder consists of from 70 to 80 per cent of niter,
     with  10  to  15  per  cent  of  each of the other ingredients. Its
     explosive  energy is due to the fact that it contains the necessary
     amount  of  oxygen  for  its  own  combustion,  and liberates gases
     (chiefly  nitrogen  and carbon dioxide), which occupy a thousand or
     fifteen  hundred  times  more space than the powder which generated

   Gunpowder pile driver, a pile driver, the hammer of which is thrown up
   by  the explosion of gunpowder. -- Gunpowder plot (Eng. Hist.), a plot
   to destroy the King, Lords, and Commons, in revenge for the penal laws
   against  Catholics.  As Guy Fawkes, the agent of the conspirators, was
   about  to fire the mine, which was placed under the House of Lords, he
   was  seized,  Nov.  5,  1605. Hence, Nov. 5 is known in England as Guy
   Fawkes  Day.  -- Gunpowder tea, a species of fine green tea, each leaf
   of which is rolled into a small ball or pellet.


   Gun"reach`  (?),  n.  The reach or distance to which a gun will shoot;


   Gun"room` (, n. (Naut.) An apartment on the after end of the lower gun
   deck  of  a  ship  of  war,  usually  occupied  as  a  messroom by the
   commissioned  officers,  except the captain; -- called wardroom in the
   United States navy.


   Gun"shot` (?), n.

   1. Act of firing a gun; a shot.

   2.  The  distance  to which shot can be thrown from a gun, so as to be
   effective; the reach or range of a gun.

     Those  who  are come over to the royal party are supposed to be out
     of gunshot. Dryden.


   Gun"shot`, a. Made by the shot of a gun: as. a gunshot wound.


   Gun"smith  (?),  n.  One  whose  occupation is to make or repair small
   firearms; an armorer.

                           Gunsmithery, Gunsmith ing

   Gunsmith`er*y  (?),  Gun"smith`  ing,  n.  The  art  or  business of a


   Gun"stick  (?), n. A stick to ram down the charge of a musket, etc.; a
   rammer or ramrod. [R.]


   Gun"stock` (?), n. The stock or wood to which the barrel of a hand gun
   is fastened.


   Gun"stome` (?), n. A cannon ball; -- so called because originally made
   of stone. [Obs.] Shak.

   Page 659

                                  Gunter rig

   Gun"ter  rig` (?). (Naut.) A topmast arranged with metal bands so that
   it will readily slide up and down the lower mast.

                                Gunter's chain

   Gun"ter's  chain`  (?).  (Surveying)  The  chain  ordinarily  used  in
   measuring land. See Chain, n., 4, and Gunter's scale.

                                 Gunter's line

   Gun"ter's  line`  (?).  A logarithmic line on Gunter's scale, used for
   performing  the multiplication and division of numbers mechanically by
   the dividers; -- called also line of lines, and line of numbers.

                               Gunter's quadrant

   Gun"ter's  quad`rant  (?). A thin quadrant, made of brass, wood, etc.,
   showing  a stereographic projection on the plane of the equator. By it
   are  found  the  hour  of  the day, the sun's azimuth, the altitude of
   objects in degrees, etc. See Gunter's scale.

                                Gunter's scale

   Gun"ter's  scale`  (?).  A  scale  invented  by the Rev. Edmund Gunter
   (1581-1626),  a professor of astronomy at Gresham College, London, who
   invented also Gunter's chain, and Gunter's quadrant.

     NOTE: &hand; Gunter's scale is a wooden rule, two feet long, on one
     side  of  which are marked scales of equal parts, of chords, sines,
     tangents,  rhombs, etc., and on the other side scales of logarithms
     of  these  various  parts,  by  means  of  which  many  problems in
     surveying and navigation may be solved, mechanically, by the aid of
     dividers alone.


   Gun"wale  (?),  n.  [Gun  + wale. So named because the upper guns were
   pointed from it.] (Naut.) The upper edge of a vessel's or boat's side;
   the  uppermost  wale  of  a ship (not including the bulwarks); or that
   piece  of timber which reaches on either side from the quarter-deck to
   the  forecastle,  being  the  uppermost bend, which finishes the upper
   works of the hull. [Written also gunnel.]


   Gurge (?), n. [L. gurges.] A whirlpool. [Obs.]

     The  plain,  wherein  a black bituminous gurge Boils out from under
     ground. Milton.


   Gurge, v. t. [See Gorge.] To swallow up. [Obs.]


   Gur"geons (?), n. pl. [Obs.] See Grudgeons.


   Gur"gle  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Gurgled (?);p. pr. & vb. n. Gurgling
   (?).]  [Cf.  It.  gorgogliare  to  gargle,  bubble up, fr. L. gurgulio
   gullet.  Cf.  Gargle,  Gorge.]  To run or flow in a broken, irregular,
   noisy current, as water from a bottle, or a small stream among pebbles
   or stones.

     Pure  gurgling rills the lonely desert trace, And waste their music
     on the savage race. Young.


   Gur"gle,  n.  The act of gurgling; a broken, bubbling noise. "Tinkling
   gurgles." W. Thompson.


   Gur"glet  (?), n. [See Goglet.] A porous earthen jar for cooling water
   by evaporation.


   Gur"gling-ly` (?), adv. In a gurgling manner.


   Gur"goyle (?), n. See Gargoyle.


   Gur"jun   (?),  n.  A  thin  balsam  or  wood  oil  derived  from  the
   Diptcrocarpus  l\'91vis,  an East Indian tree. It is used in medicine,
   and as a substitute for linseed oil in the coarser kinds of paint.


   Gurl (?), n. A young person of either sex. [Obs.] See Girl. Chaucer.


   Gur"let  (?),  n.  (Masonry)  A  pickax  with  one sharp point and one
   cutting edge. Knight.


   Gur"my (?), n. (Mining) A level; a working.

                                Gurnard, Gurnet

   Gur"nard (?), Gur"net (?) n. [OF. gornal, gournal, gornart, perh. akin
   to  F.  grogner  to  grunt;  cf. Ir. guirnead gurnard.] (Zo\'94l.) One
   ofseveral  European  marine  fishes,  of  the  genus Trigla and allied
   genera, having a large and spiny head, with mailed cheeks. Some of the
   species are highly esteemed for food. The name is sometimes applied to
   the  American sea robins. [Written also gournet.] Plyling gurnard. See
   under Flying.


   Gur"ni*ad (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Gwiniad.


   Gur"ry  (?),  n.  An  alvine evacuation; also, refuse matter. [Obs. or
   Local] Holland.


   Gur"ry`, n. [Hind. garh\'c6.] A small fort. [India]


   Gurt  (?),  n. (Mining) A gutter or channel for water, hewn out of the
   bottom of a working drift. Page.


   Gurts (?), n. pl. [Cf. Grout.] Groatts. [Obs.]


   Gush  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Gushed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gushing.]
   [OE.  guschen,  cf. Icel. gusa and gjsa, also D. gucsen; perh. akin to
   AS.  ge\'a2tan to pour, G. giessen, Goth. giutan, E. gut. Cf. Found to

   1. To issue with violence and rapidity, as a fluid; to rush forth as a
   fluid from confinement; to flow copiously.

     He smote the rock that the waters gushed out. Ps ixxviii 20.

     A sea of blood gushed from the gaping wound. Spenser.

   2.  To  make  a  sentimental  or  untimely exhibition of affection; to
   display enthusiasm in a silly, demonstrative manner. [Colloq.]


   Gush, v. t.

   1.  A  sudden  and violent issue of a fluid from an inclosed plase; an
   emission  of  a  liquid in a large quantity, and with force; the fluid
   thus  emitted; a rapid outpouring of anything; as, a gush of song from
   a bird.

     The gush of springs, An fall of lofty foundains. Byron.

   2. A sentimental exhibition of affection or enthusiasm, etc.; effusive
   display of sentiment. [Collog.]


   Gush"er (?), n. One who gushes. [Colloq.]


   Gush"ing, a.

   1.  Rushing  forth  with  violence, as a fluid; flowing copiously; as,
   gushing waters. "Gushing blood." Milton.

   2.  Emitting  copiously,  as  tears  or words; weakly and unreservedly
   demonstrative in matters of affection; sentimental. [Colloq.]


   Gush"ing*ly (?), adv.

   1. In a gushing manner; copiously. Byron.

   2. Weakly; sentimentally; effusively. [Colloq.]


   Gus"set  (?),  n. [F. gousset armpit, fob, gusset, dim. of gousse pod,
   husk; cf. It. guscio shell, or W. cwysed gore, gusset.]

   1.  A  small  piece of cloth inserted in a garment, for the purpose of
   strengthening some part or giving it a tapering enlargement.

     Seam and gusset and band. Hood.

   2.  Anything resembling a gusset in a garment; as: (a) (Armor) A small
   piece  of  chain  mail at the openings of the joints beneath the arms.
   (b)  (Mach.)  A kind of bracket, or angular piece of iron, fastened in
   the  angles  of  a  structure to give strength or stiffness; esp., the
   part joining the barrel and the fire box of a locomotive boiler.

   3.  (Her.)  An  abatement  or  mark  of  dishonor  in  a coat of arms,
   resembling a gusset.


   Gust (?), n. [Icel. gustr a cool breeze. Cf. Gush.]

   1.  A  sudden  squall;  a  violent  blast  of wind; a sudden and brief
   rushing  or driving of the wind. Snow, and hail, stormy gust and flaw.

   2. A sudden violent burst of passion. Bacon.


   Gust, n. [L. gustus; cf. It. & Sp. gusto. &root;46.]

   1. The sense or pleasure of tasting; relish; gusto.

     An  ox  will  relish the tender flesh of kids with as much gust and
     appetite. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  Gratification  of any kind, particularly that which is exquisitely
   relished; enjoyment.

     Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust. Pope.

   3. Intellectual taste; fancy.

     A  choice of it may be made according to the gust and manner of the
     ancients. Dryden.


     Gust,  v.  t.  [Cf. L. gustare, It. gustare, Sp. gustar. See GUST a
     relish.] To taste; to have a relish for. [Obs.]


     Gust"a*ble (?), a. [See Gust, v.] [Obs.]

     1. Capable of being tasted; tastable.

     This  position  informs  us  of  a  vulgar  error, terming the gall
     bitter; whereas there is nothing gustable sweeter. Harvey.

     2. Pleasant to the taste; toothsome; savory.

     A  gustable thing, seen or smelt, excites the appetite, and affects
     the glands and parts of the mouth. Derham.


     Gust"a*ble, n. Anything that can be tasted. [Obs.]


     Gus"tard (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The great bustard.


     Gus*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  gustatio: cf. F. gustation.] The act of
     tasting. [R.] Sir T. Browne. 


     Gusta*to*ry  (?), a. Pertaining to, or subservient to, the sense of
     taste;  as,  the  gustatory  nerve  which supplies the front of the


     Gust"ful  (?),  a.  Tasteful;  well-tasted. [Obs.] Sir K. Digby. --
     Gust"ful*ness, n. [Obs.] Barrow.


     Gust"ful, a. Gusty. [R.]

     A gustful April morn. Tennyson.


     Gust"less, a. Tasteless; insipid. [R.]


     Gus"to  (?),  n. [It. or Sp., fr. L. gustus; akin to E. choose. Cf.
     2d  GUST,  GOUR.]  Nice  or keen appreciation or enjoyment; relish;
     taste; fancy. Dryden.


     Gus*to"so  (?),  a.  &  adv.  [It.] (Mus.) Tasteful; in a tasteful,
     agreeable manner.


     Gust"y  (?),  a. Subject to, or characterized by, gusts or squalls;
     windy; stormy; tempestuous.

     Upon a raw and gusty day. Shak.


     Gut  (?),  n.  [OE.  gut, got, AS. gut, prob. orig., a channel, and
     akin to ge\'a2tan to pour. See FOUND to cast.]

     1. A narrow passage of water; as, the Gut of Canso.

     2. An intenstine; a bowel; the whole alimentary canal; the enteron;
     (pl.) bowels; entrails.

     3. One of the prepared entrails of an animal, esp. of a sheep, used
     for various purposes. See Catgut.

     4.  The  sac  of silk taken from a silkworm (when ready to spin its
     cocoon),  for  the  purpose  of drawing it out into a thread. This,
     when dry, is exceedingly strong, and is used as the snood of a fish

   Blind gut. See C\'92cum, n. (b).


   Gut, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Gutted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gutting.]

   1. To take out the bowels from; to eviscerate.

   2.  To  plunder  of  contents;  to  destroy  or remove the interior or
   contents of; as, a mob gutted the bouse.

     Tom  Brown, of facetious memory, having gutted a proper name of its
     vowels, used it as freely as he pleased. Addison.


   Gut"ta (?), n.; pl. Gutt\'92 (#). [L.]

   1. A drop.

   2. (Arch.) One of a series of ornaments, in the form of a frustum of a
   cone,  attached  to  the  lower part of the triglyphs, and also to the
   lower  faces  of  the  mutules,  in  the  Doric  order; -- called also
   campana, and drop.
   Gutta  serena  [L.,  lit.  serene or clear drop] (Med.), amaurosis. --
   Gutt\'91  band>  (Arch.),  the  listel or band from which the gutt\'91


   Gut"ta-per`cha  (?),  n. [Malay gutah gum + pertja the tree from which
   is  it  procured.] A concrete juice produced by various trees found in
   the  Malayan  archipelago,  especially by the Isonandra, OR Dichopsis,
   Gutta.  It becomes soft, and unpressible at the tamperature of boiling
   water,  and,  on  cooling, retains its new shape. It dissolves in oils
   and  ethers,  but not in water. In many of its properties it resembles
   caoutchouc,  and  it is extensively used for many economical purposes.
   The Mimusops globosa of Guiana also yields this material.


   Gut"tate  (?),  a. [L. guttatus. Cf. Gutty.] Spotted, as if discolored
   by drops.


   Gut"ta*ted  (?), a. [See Guttate.] Besprinkled with drops, or droplike
   spots. Bailey.


   Gut"ta*trap  (?),  n.  The  inspissated  juice  of a tree of the genus
   Artocarpus  (A.  incisa, or breadfruit tree), sometimes used in making
   birdlime, on account of its glutinous quality.


   Gut"ter  (?),  n.  [OE. gotere, OF. goutiere, F. goutti\'8are, fr. OF.
   gote, goute, drop, F. goutte, fr. L. gutta.]

   1.  A  channel  at the eaves of a roof for conveying away the rain; an
   eaves channel; an eaves trough.

   2.  A  small channel at the roadside or elsewhere, to lead off surface

     Gutters running with ale. Macaulay.

   3. Any narrow channel or groove; as, a gutter formed by erosion in the
   vent of a gun from repeated firing.
   Gutter  member  (Arch.),  an architectural member made by treating the
   outside  face of the gutter in a decorative fashion, or by crowning it
   with  ornaments,  regularly  spaced,  like a diminutive battlement. --
   Gutter  plane,  a  carpenter's plane with a rounded bottom for planing
   out  gutters.  --  Gutter  snipe,  a neglected boy running at large; a
   street  Arab. [Slang] -- Gutter stick (Printing), one of the pieces of
   furniture which separate pages in a form.


   Gut*ter, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Guttered (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Guttering.]

   1. To cut or form into small longitudinal hollows; to channel. Shak.

   2. To supply with a gutter or gutters. [R.] Dryden.


   Gut"ter,  v. i. To become channeled, as a candle when the flame flares
   in the wind.


   Gut"ti*fer`  (?), n. [NL., fr. L. gutta drop+ ferre to bear.] (Bot.) A
   plant that exudes gum or resin.


   Gut*tif"er*ous (?), a. (Bot.) (a) Yielding gum or resinous substances.
   (b)  Pertaining  to a natural order of trees and shrubs (Guttifer\'91)
   noted for their abounding in a resinous sap.


   Gut"ti*form  (?), a. [L. gutta a drop + -form.] Drop-shaped, as a spot
   of color.


   Gut"tle (?), v. t. & i. [From GUT, n.] To put into the gut; to swallow
   greedily; to gorge; to gormandize. [Obs.] L'Estrange. Dryden.


   Gut"tler (?), n. A greedy eater; a glutton. [Obs.]


   Gut"tu*lous (?), a. [L. guttula a little drop, dim. of gutta drop.] In
   droplike form. [Obs.]

     In its [hail's] guttulous descent from the air. Sir T. Browne.


   Gut"tur*al  (?),  a.  [L.  guttur  throat:  cf.  F.  gutural.]  Of  or
   pertaining  to  the  throat;  formed  in  the  throat; relating to, or
   characteristic of, a sound formed in the throat.

     Children are occasionally born with guttural swellings. W. Guthrie.

     In such a sweet, guttural accent. Landor.


   Gut"tur*al,  n.  A sound formed in the throat; esp., a sound formed by
   the  aid  of  the  back  of  the  tongue, much retracted, and the soft
   palate; also, a letter representing such a sound.


   Gut"tur*al*ism  (?),  n.  The  quality  of  being  guttural;  as,  the
   gutturalism of A [in the 16th cent.] Earle.


   Gut"tur*al"i*ty  (?),  n. The quality of being guttural. [R.] "The old
   gutturality of k." Earle.


   Gut"tur*al*ize  (?),  v.  t.  To  speak gutturally; to give a guttural
   sound to.


   Gut"tur*al*ly, adv. In a guttural manner.


   Gut"tur*al*ness, n. The quality of being guttural.


   Gut"tur*ine  (?),  a.  [L.  guttur  throat.] Pertaining to the throat.
   [Obs.] "Gutturine tumor." Ray.


   Gut"tur*ize  (?),  v. t. [L. guttur throat.] To make in the throat; to
   gutturalize. [R.]

     For which the Germans gutturize a sound. Coleridge.


   Gut"tur*o-  (?). A combining form denoting relation to the throat; as,
   gutturo-nasal,   having   both  a  guttural  and  a  nasal  character;


   Gut"ty (?), a. [L. gutta drop: cf. F. goutt\'82. Cf. Guttated.] (Her.)
   Charged or sprinkled with drops.


   Gut"wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  plant,  Globularia  Alypum,  a violent
   purgative, found in Africa.


   Guy  (?),  n.  [Sp.  guia  guide, a guy or small rope used on board of
   ships  to keep weighty things in their places; of Teutonic origin, and
   the  same word as E. guide. See Guide, and cf. Gye.] A rope, chain, or
   rod  attached  to anything to steady it; as: a rope to steady or guide
   an  object  which  is  being hoisted or lowered; a rope which holds in
   place the end of a boom, spar, or yard in a ship; a chain or wire rope
   connecting a suspension bridge with the land on either side to prevent
   lateral  swaying; a rod or rope attached to the top of a structure, as
   of  a  derrick,  and  extending  obliquely  to the ground, where it is


   Guy, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Guyed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Guying.] To steady
   or guide with a guy.


   Guy, n.

   1.  A grotesque effigy, like that of Guy Fawkes, dressed up in England
   on the fifth of November, the day of the Gunpowder Plot.

     The lady . . . who dresses like a guy. W. S. Gilbert.

   2. A person of queer looks or dress. Dickens.


   Guy,  v.  t.  To  fool;  to  baffle;  to  make (a person) an object of
   ridicule. [Local & Collog U.S.]


   Guyle (?), v. t. To guile. [Obs.] Spenser.

   Page 660


   Guze  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Gules.]  (Her.) A roundlet of tincture sanguine,
   which is blazoned without mention of the tincture.


   Guz"zle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Guzzled (?), p. pr. & vb. n. Guzzling
   (.]  [OP.  gosillier, prob. orig., to pass through the throat; akin to
   F.  gosier  throat;  cf.  It.  gozzo a bird's crop.] To swallow liquor
   greedily; to drink much or frequently.

     Those that came to guzzle in his wine cellar. Milton.

     Well-seasoned  bowls  the  gossip's  spirits  raise, Who, while she
     guzzles, chats the doctor's praise. Roscommon.

     To fat the guzzling hogs with floods of whey. Gay.


   Guz"zle,  v.  t.  To swallow much or often; to swallow with immoderate
   gust;  to  drink  greedily  or  continually; as, one who guzzles beer.


   Guz"zle, n. An insatiable thing or person.

     That sink of filth, that guzzle most impure. Marston.


   Guz"zler (?), n. An immoderate drinker.


   Gwin"i*ad  (?),  n. [W. gwyniad a whiting, the name of various fishes,
   fr.  gwyn  white.] (Zool.) A fish (Coregonus ferus) of North Wales and
   Northern  Europe,  allied to the lake whitefish; -- called also powan,
   and schelly. [Written also gwyniad, guiniad, gurniad.]


   Gy"all (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Gayal.

                                   Gyb, Gybe

   Gyb (?), Gybe (, n. (Naut.) See Jib. [Obs.]


   Gybe (?), n. & v. See Gibe.


   Gybe,  v.  t.  &  i. [imp. & p. p. Gybed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Gybing.]
   [See  Jibe.]  (Naut.) To shift from one side of a vessel to the other;
   --  said of the boom of a fore-and-aft sail when the vessel is steered
   off the wind until the sail fills on the opposite side. [Also jibe.]


   Gye  (?), v. t. [OF. guier; of German origin. See Guide, and cf. Guy.]
   To guide; to govern. [Obs.]

     Discreet enough his country for to gye. Chaucer.


   Gyle  (?),  n.  [F. guiller to ferment. Cf. Guillevat.] Fermented wort
   used for making vinegar. Gyle tan (Brewing), a large vat in which wort


   Gym"nal (?), a. & n. Same as Gimmal.


   Gym*na"si*arch  (?),  n.  [L.  gymnasiarchus,  Gr. gymnasiarque.] (Gr.
   Antiq.)  An  Athenian  officer  who  superintended  the  gymnasia, and
   provided the oil and other necessaries at his own expense.


   Gym*na"si*um  (?) n.; pl. E. Gymnasiums (#), L. Gymnasia (#). [L., fr.

   1.  A  place  or  building  where  athletic exercises are performed; a
   school for gymnastics.

   2.  A  school  for  the  higher  branches of literature and science; a
   preparatory  school for the university; -- used esp. of German schools
   of this kind.

     More like ordinary schools of gymnasia than universities. Hallam.


   Gym"nast  (,  n.  [Gr.  gymnaste.  See  Gymnasium.] One who teaches or
   practices gymnastic exercises; the manager of a gymnasium; an athlete.

                            Gymnastic, Gymnastical

   Gym*nas"tic   (?),   Gym*nas"tic*al   (?),  a.  [L.  gymnasticus,  Gr.
   gymnastique. See Gymnasium.] Pertaining to athletic exercises intended
   for  health,  defense, or diversion; -- said of games or exercises, as
   running,  leaping,  wrestling, throwing the discus, the javelin, etc.;
   also,   pertaining   to  disciplinary  exercises  for  the  intellect;
   athletic; as, gymnastic exercises, contests, etc.


   Gym*nas"tic, n. A gymnast. [Obs.]


   Gym*nas"tic*al*ly, adv. In a gymnastic manner.


   Gym*nas"tics  (?),  n.  Athletic or disciplinary exercises; the art of
   performing  gymnastic  exercises; also, disciplinary exercises for the
   intellect or character.

                               Gymnic, Gymnical

   Gym"nic  (?),  Gym"nic*al  (?)  a.  [L.  gymnicus,  Gr.  gymnique. See
   Gymmasium.] Athletic; gymnastic. [Obs.]

     Have  they  not  swordplayers,  and  every  sort Of gymnic artists,
     wrestlers, riders, runners ? Milton.


   Gym"nic, n. Athletic exercise. [Obs.] Burton.


   Gym"nite (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) A hydrous silicate of magnesia.


   Gym"no*blas`te*a  (?),  n. pl. [NL. fr. Gr. gymno`s naked + (Zo\'94l.)
   The  Athecata; -- so called because the medusoid buds are not inclosed
   in a capsule.


   Gym"no*blas"tic   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Of  or  pertaining  to  the


   Gym`no*car"pous (?), a. [Gr. gymno`s naked + (Bot.) Naked-fruited, the
   fruit either smooth or not adherent to the perianth. Gray.


   Gym*noch"ro*a  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. gymno`s naked + (Zo\'94l.) A
   division of Hydroidea including the hydra. See Hydra.


   Gym*noc"la*dus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. gymno`s naked + (Bot.) A genus of
   leguminous plants; the Kentucky coffee tree. The leaves are cathartic,
   and the seeds a substitute for coffee.


   Gym"no*co`pa  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. Gr. gymno`s naked + (Zo\'94l.) A
   group of transparent, free-swimming Annelida, having setae only in the
   cephalic appendages.


   Gym"no*cyte  (?),  n.  [Gr.  gymno`s nake + (Biol.) A cytode without a
   proper cell wall, but with a nucleus. Haeckel.


   Gym"no*cy`tode  (?),  n.  [Gr.  gymno`s  naked + E. cytode.] (Biol.) A
   cytode without either a cell wall or a nucleus. Haeckel.


   Gym"no*dont  (?),  n.  [Gr.  gymno`s naked + (Zool.) One of a group of
   plectognath   fishes   (Gymnodontes),   having   the  teeth  and  jaws
   consolidated into one or two bony plates, on each jaw, as the diodonts
   and tetradonts. See Bur fish, Globefish, Diodon.


   Gym"no*gen  (?),  n. [Gr. gymno`s naked + -gen.] (Bot.) One of a class
   of  plants, so called by Lindley, because the ovules are fertilized by
   direct contact of the pollen. Same as Gymnosperm.


   Gym"no*glos`sa  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. gymno`s naked + (Zo\'94l.) A
   division of gastropods in which the odontophore is without teeth.

                         Gymnol\'91ma, Gymnol\'91mata

   Gym"no*l\'91`ma  (?),  Gym*no*l\'91"ma*ta  (?),  n.  pl. [Nl., fr. Gr.
   gymno`s naked + (Zo\'94l.) An order of Bryozoa, having no epistome.


   Gym"no*no`ti  (?),  n. pl. [NL. fr. Gr. gymno`s naked + (Zo\'94l.) The
   order  of  fishes  which  includes the Gymnotus or electrical eel. The
   dorsal fin is wanting.