Unabridged Dictionary - Letter F

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   F (&ecre;f).

   1.  F  is  the  sixth  letter  of the English alphabet, and a nonvocal
   consonant.  Its  form and sound are from the Latin. The Latin borrowed
   the form from the Greek digamma w
   consonant.   The  form  and  value  of  Greek  letter  came  from  the
   Ph\'d2nician,   the   ultimate   source   being   probably   Egyptian.
   Etymologically  fis  most  closely  related  to p,k,v, and b; as in E.
   five, Gr. f, L. lupus, Gr. fox, vixen ; fragile, break ; fruit, brook,
   v. t.; E. bear, L. ferre. See Guide to Pronunciation, &root; 178, 179,
   188, 198, 230.

   2.  (Mus.) The name of the fourth tone of the model scale, or scale of
   C. F sharp (F #) is a tone intermediate between F and G.
   F clef, the bass clef. See under Clef.


   Fa  (?),  n. [It.] (Mus.) (a) A syllable applied to the fourth tone of
   the diatonic scale in solmization. (b) The tone F.


   Fa*ba"ceous (?), a. [L. fabaceus, fr. faba bean.] Having the nature of
   a bean; like a bean.


   Fa*bel"la  (?),  n.;  pl. Fabellae (-l. [NL., dim. of L. faba a bean.]
   (Anat.)  One  of the small sesamoid bones situated behind the condyles
   of the femur, in some mammals.


   Fa"bi*an  (?),  a.  [L.  Fabianus,  Fabius,  belonging to Fabius.] Of,
   pertaining  to, or in the manner of, the Roman general, Quintus Fabius
   Maximus  Verrucosus;  cautious; dilatory; avoiding a decisive contest.
   Fabian policy, a policy like that of Fabius Maximus, who, by carefully
   avoiding  decisive  contests,  foiled  Hannibal, harassing his army by
   marches,  countermarches,  and  ambuscades;  a  policy  of  delays and


   Fa"ble  (?),  n.  [F., fr. L. fabula, fr. fari to speak, say. See Ban,
   and cf. Fabulous, Fame.]

   1.  A  Feigned  story  or  tale,  intended  to  instruct  or  amuse; a
   fictitious narration intended to enforce some useful truth or precept;
   an apologue. See the Note under Apologue.

     Jotham's fable of the trees is the oldest extant. Addison


   2. The plot, story, or connected series of events, forming the subject
   of an epic or dramatic poem.

     The  moral is the first business of the poet; this being formed, he
     contrives  such  a  design  or fable as may be most suitable to the
     moral. Dryden.

   3.  Any  story  told to excite wonder; common talk; the theme of talk.
   "Old wives' fables. " 1 Tim. iv. 7.

     We grew The fable of the city where we dwelt. Tennyson.

   4. Fiction; untruth; falsehood.

     It would look like a fable to report that this gentleman gives away
     a great fortune by secret methods. Addison.


   Fa"ble,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fabled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fabling (?).]
   To  compose  fables;  hence,  to  write or speak fiction ; to write or
   utter what is not true. "He Fables not." Shak.

     Vain now the tales which fabling poets tell. Prior.

     He fables, yet speaks truth. M. Arnold.


   Fa"ble, v. t. To fiegn; to invent; to devise, and speak of, as true or
   real; to tell of falsely.

     The hell thou fablest. Milton.


   Fa"bler  (?),  n. A writer of fables; a fabulist; a dealer in untruths
   or falsehoods. Br. Hall.


   Fa`bli`au" (?), n.; pl. Fabliaux . [F., fr. OF.fablel, dim. of fable a
   fable.]  (Fr.  Lit.) One of the metrical tales of the Trouv\'8ares, or
   early poets of the north of France.


   Fab"ric  (?), n. [L. fabrica fabric, workshop: cf. F. fabrique fabric.
   See Forge.]

   1. The structure of anything; the manner in which the parts of a thing
   are  united;  workmanship;  texture;  make;  as  cloth  of a beautiful

   2.  That  which is fabricated; as : (a) Framework; structure; edifice;

     Anon  out  of  the  earth  a  fabric  huge Rose like an exhalation.

   (b)  Cloth  of  any  kind  that  is  woven or knit from fibers, either
   vegetable or animal; manufactured cloth; as, silks or other fabrics.

   3. The act of constructing; construction. [R.]

     Tithe  was  received  by  the  bishop,  .  . . for the fabricof the
     churches for the poor. Milman.

   4.  Any  system  or  structure  consisting of connected parts; as, the
   fabric of the universe.

     The whole vast fabric of society. Macaulay.


   Fab"ric,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fabricked  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Fabricking.]  To  frame;  to built; to construct. [Obs.] "Fabric their
   mansions." J. Philips.


   Fab"ri*cant (?), n. [F.] One who fabricates; a manufacturer. Simmonds.


   Fab"ri*cate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fabricated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fabricating  (?).]  [L.  fabricatus,  p.p. of fabricari, fabricare, to
   frame, build, forge, fr. fabrica. See Fabric, Farge.]

   1.  To form into a whole by uniting its parts; to frame; to construct;
   to build; as, to fabricate a bridge or ship.

   2.  To  form  by  art  and  labor;  to manufacture; to produce; as, to
   fabricate woolens.

   3. To invent and form; to forge; to devise falsely; as, to fabricate a
   lie or story.

     Our  books  were  not fabricated with an accomodation to prevailing
     usages. Paley.


   Fab`ri*ca"tion (?), n. [L. fabricatio; cf. F. fabrication.]

   1.  The  act  of  fabricating, framing, or constructing; construction;
   manufacture;  as,  the  fabrication  of  a  bridge,  a  church,  or  a
   government. Burke.

   2. That which is fabricated; a falsehood; as, the story is doubtless a
   fabrication. Syn. -- See Fiction.


   Fab"ri*ca`tor  (?),  n. [L.] One who fabricates; one who constructs or

     The fabricator of the works of Ossian. Mason.


   Fab"ri*ca`tress (?), n. A woman who fabricates.


   Fab"rile  (?),  a.  [L.  fabrilis,  fr.  faber  workman.  See  Forge.]
   Pertaining  to  a  workman, or to work in stone, metal, wood etc.; as,
   fabrile skill.


   Fab"u*list  (?),  n. [Cf. F. fabuliste, fr. L. fabula. See Fable.] One
   who invents or writes fables.


   Fab"u*lize  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Fabulized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fabulizing (?).] [Cf. F. fabuliser. See Fable.] To invent, compose, or
   relate fables or fictions. G. S. Faber.


   Fab`u*los"i*ty (?), n. [L. fabulositas: cf. F. fabulosit\'82.]

   1. Fabulousness. [R.] Abp. Abbot.

   2. A fabulous or fictitious story. [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   Fab"u*lous (?), a. [L. fabulosus; cf. F. fabuleux. See Fable.]

   1.  Feigned, as a story or fable; related in fable; devised; invented;
   not real; fictitious; as, a fabulous description; a fabulous hero.

     The fabulous birth of Minerva. Chesterfield.

   2. Passing belief; exceedingly great; as, a fabulous price. Macaulay.
   Fabulous age, that period in the history of a nation of which the only
   accounts  are  myths  and  unverified legends; as, the fabulous age of
   Greek and Rome. -- Fab"u*lous*ly (#), adv. -- Fab"u*lous*ness, n.
   Fab"ur*den (?), n. [F. foux bpirdon. See False, and Burden a verse.] 

   1.  (Mus.)  (a)  A  species  of  counterpoint with a drone bass. (b) A
   succession of chords of the sixth. [Obs.]

   2. A monotonous refrain. [Obs.] Holland.


   Fac  (?),  n.  [Abbrev. of facsimile.] A large ornamental letter used,
   esp.  by  the  early printers, at the commencement of the chapters and
   other divisions of a book. Brande & C.


   Fa`\'87ade" (?), n. [F., fr. It. facciata, fr. fassia face, L. facies.
   See Face.] (Arch.) The front of a building; esp., the principal front,
   having  some  architectural pretensions. Thus a church is said to have
   its facade unfinished, though the interior may be in use.


   Face  (?), n. [F., from L. facies form, shape, face, perh. from facere
   to make (see Fact); or perh. orig. meaning appearance, and from a root
   meaning to shine, and akin to E. fancy. Cf. Facetious.]

   1.  The  exterior  form  or  appearance  of  anything; that part which
   presents  itself  to  the view; especially, the front or upper part or
   surface;  that  which  particularly  offers  itself  to  the view of a

     A mist . . . watered the whole face of the ground. Gen. ii. 6.

     Lake Leman wooes me with its crystal face. Byron.

   2.  That  part of a body, having several sides, which may be seen from
   one  point,  or  which is presented toward a certain direction; one of
   the bounding planes of a solid; as, a cube has six faces.

   3.  (Mach.)  (a)  The  principal  dressed surface of a plate, disk, or
   pulley;  the principal flat surface of a part or object. (b) That part
   of  the  acting surface of a cog in a cog wheel, which projects beyond
   the pitch line. (c) The width of a pulley, or the length of a cog from
   end to end; as, a pulley or cog wheel of ten inches face.

   4.  (Print.) (a) The upper surface, or the character upon the surface,
   of a type, plate, etc. (b) The style or cut of a type or font of type.

   5.  Outside  appearance;  surface show; look; external aspect, whether
   natural, assumed, or acquired.

     To set a face upon their own malignant design. Milton.

     This would produce a new face of things in Europe. Addison.

     We  wear  a  face  of  joy,  because  We  have  been  glad of yore.

   6.  That  part  of  the  head, esp. of man, in which the eyes, cheeks,
   nose, and mouth are situated; visage; countenance.

     In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread. Gen. iii. 19.

   7. Cast of features; expression of countenance; look; air; appearance.

     We set the best faceon it we could. Dryden.

   8. (Astrol.) Ten degrees in extent of a sign of the zodiac. Chaucer.

   9.  Maintenance  of  the countenance free from abashment or confusion;
   confidence; boldness; shamelessness; effrontery.

     This  is  the  man  that  has  the face to charge others with false
     citations. Tillotson.

   10.  Presence; sight; front; as in the phrases, before the face of, in
   the  immediate presence of; in the face of, before, in, or against the
   front  of;  as, to fly in the face of danger; to the face of, directly
   to; from the face of, from the presenceof.

   11.  Mode of regard, whether favorable or unfavorable; favor or anger;
   mostly in Scriptural phrases.

     The Lord make his face to shine upon thee. Num. vi. 25.

     My face [favor] will I turn also from them. Ezek. vii. 22.

   12.  (Mining)  The end or wall of the tunnel, drift, or excavation, at
   which work is progressing or was last done.

   13.  (Com.) The exact amount expressed on a bill, note, bond, or other
   mercantile  paper,  without any addition for interest or reduction for
   discount.<-- = face value --> McElrath.

     NOTE: &hand; Fa ce is  us ed ei ther ad jectively or  as  part of a
     compound;  as,  face  guard or face-guard; face cloth; face plan or
     face-plan; face hammer.

   Face  ague  (Med.),  a  form  of  neuralgia,  characterized  by  acute
   lancinating  pains  returning  at intervals, and by twinges in certain
   parts  of the face, producing convulsive twitches in the corresponding
   muscles; -- called also tic douloureux. -- Face card, one of a pack of
   playing  cards  on which a human face is represented; the king, queen,
   or  jack.  --  Face  cloth, a cloth laid over the face of a corpse. --
   Face  guard, a mask with windows for the eyes, worn by workman exposed
   to  great  heat,  or  to flying particles of metal, stone, etc., as in
   glass  works,  foundries,  etc. -- Face hammer, a hammer having a flat
   face.  --  Face  joint (Arch.), a joint in the face of a wall or other
   structure.  --  Face mite (Zo\'94ll.), a small, elongated mite (Demdex
   folliculorum),  parasitic  in  the hair follicles of the face. -- Face
   mold,  the  templet  or pattern by which carpenters, ect., outline the
   forms  which  are to be cut out from boards, sheet metal, ect. -- Face
   plate.  (a)  (Turning)  A plate attached to the spindle of a lathe, to
   which  the work to be turned may be attached. (b) A covering plate for
   an  object,  to  receive wear or shock. (c) A true plane for testing a
   dressed surface. Knight. -- Face wheel. (Mach.) (a) A crown wheel. (b)
   A  Wheel  whose  disk  face  is  adapted for grinding and polishing; a
   lap.<--  face  value  = face, 13. Also used metaphorically, = apparent
   value:  "Take at its face value" --> Cylinder face (Steam Engine), the
   flat part of a steam cylinder on which a slide valve moves. -- Face of
   an  anvil,  its  flat upper surface. -- Face of a bastion (Fort.), the
   part  between  the  salient  and  the  shoulder angle. -- Face of coal
   (Mining),  the  principal  cleavage  plane,  at  right  angles  to the
   stratification.  -- Face of a gun, the surface of metal at the muzzle.
   -- Face of a place (Fort.), the front comprehended between the flanked
   angles  of  two  neighboring  bastions.  Wilhelm.  -- Face of a square
   (Mil.),  one  of  the sides of a battalion when formed in a square. --
   Face  of  a  watch,  clock,  compass, card etc., the dial or graduated
   surface  on  which  a  pointer indicates the time of day, point of the
   compass,  etc. -- Face to face. (a) In the presence of each other; as,
   to  bring  the  accuser  and the accused face to face. (b) Without the
   interposition  of  any  body or substance. "Now we see through a glass
   darkly; but then face to face." 1 Cor. xiii. 12. (c) With the faces or
   finished  surfaces  turned inward or toward one another; vis \'85 vis;
   --  opposed  to  back  to  back. -- To fly in the face of, to defy; to
   brave; to withstand. -- To make a face, to distort the countenance; to
   make a grimace. Shak.


   Face (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Faced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Facing (?).]

   1.  To  meet  in front; to oppose with firmness; to resist, or to meet
   for  the  purpose  of stopping or opposing; to confront; to encounter;
   as, to face an enemy in the field of battale.

     I'll face This tempest, and deserve the name of king. Dryden.

   2. To Confront impudently; to bully.

     I will neither be facednor braved. Shak.

   3.  To  stand  opposite to; to stand with the face or front toward; to
   front upon; as, the apartments of the general faced the park.

     He  gained  also  with  his forces that part of Britain which faces
     Ireland. Milton.

   4.  To cover in front, for ornament, protection, etc.; to put a facing
   upon; as, a building faced with marble.

   5.  To line near the edge, esp. with a different material; as, to face
   the front of a coat, or the bottom of a dress.

   6.  To  cover with better, or better appearing, material than the mass
   consists of, for purpose of deception, as the surface of a box of tea,
   a barrel of sugar, etc.

   7.  (Mach.) To make the surface of (anything) flat or smooth; to dress
   the  face of (a stone, a casting, etc.); esp., in turning, to shape or
   smooth  the  flat  surface  of,  as distinguished from the cylindrical

   8.  To  cause  to  turn or present a face or front, as in a particular
   To  face  down,  to put down by bold or impudent opposition. "He faced
   men  down."  Prior.  --  To  face  (a thing) out, to persist boldly or
   impudently  in an assertion or in a line of conduct. "That thinks with
   oaths to face the matter out." Shak
   Face, v. i.
   1.  To  carry  a  false appearance; to play the hypocrite. "To lie, to
   face, to forge." Spenser.
   2. To turn the face; as, to face to the right or left.
     Face about, man; a soldier, and afraid! Dryden.
   3. To present a face or front.


   Faced  (?),  a.  Having  (such)  a  face,  or  (so  many)  faces;  as,
   smooth-faced, two-faced.


   Fa"ser (?), n.

   1.  One  who faces; one who puts on a false show; a bold-faced person.

     There be no greater talkers, nor boasters, nor fasers. Latimer.

   2.  A  blow  in  the face, as in boxing; hence, any severe or stunning
   check or defeat, as in controversy. [Collog.]

     I should have been a stercoraceous mendicant if I had hollowed when
     I got a facer. C. Kingsley.

   Page 536


   Fac"et (?), n. [F. facette, dim. of face face. See Face.]

   1. A little face; a small, plane surface; as, the facets of a diamond.
   [Written also facette.]

   2.  (Anat.) A smooth circumscribed surface; as, the articular facet of
   a bone.

   3. (Arch.) The narrow plane surface between flutings of a column.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the  numerous  small  eyes  which make up the
   compound eyes of insects and crustaceans.


   Fac"et, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Faceted; p. pr. & vb. n. Faceting.] To cut
   facets or small faces upon; as, to facet a diamond.


   Fa*cete" (?), a. [L. facetus elegant, fine, facetious; akin to facies.
   See Face, and cf. Facetious.] Facetious; witty; humorous. [Archaic] "A
   facete discourse." Jer. Taylor.

     "How to interpose" with a small, smart remark, sentiment facete, or
     unctuous anecdote. Prof. Wilson.

   -- Fa*cete"ly, adv. -- Fa*cete"ness, n.


   Fac"et*ed (?), a. Having facets.


   Fa*ce"ti*\'91  (,  n.  pl.  [L.,  fr.  facetus.  See Facete.] Witty or
   humorous writings or saying; witticisms; merry conceits.


   Fa*ce"tious (?), a. [Cf. F. fac\'82tieux. See Faceti\'91.]

   1.  Given  to  wit  and  good  humor;  merry; sportive; jocular; as, a
   facetious companion.

   2.  Characterized  by  wit  and  pleasantry;  exciting laughter; as, a
   facetious story or reply. -- Fa*ce"tious*ly, adv. -- Fa*ce"tious*ness,


   Fa*cette" (?), n. [F.] See Facet, n.


   Face"work`  (?), n. The material of the outside or front side, as of a
   wall or building; facing.


   Fa"ci*a (?), n. (Arch.) See Fascia.


   Fa"cial (?), a. [LL. facialis, fr. L. facies face : cf. F. facial.] Of
   or  pertaining  to the face; as, the facial artery, vein, or nerve. --
   Fa"cial*ly, adv. Facial angle (Anat.), the angle, in a skull, included
   between  a  straight  line  (ab,  in the illustrations), from the most
   prominent  part  of  the  forehead  to the front efge of the upper jaw
   bone,  and  another (cd) from this point to the center of the external
   auditory opening. See Gnathic index, under Gnathic.


   Fa"ci*end  (?), n. [From neut. of L. faciendus, gerundive of facere to
   do.] (Mach.) The multiplicand. See Facient,



   Fa"cient  (?), n. [L. faciens, -- entis, p. pr. of facere to make, do.
   See Fact.]

   1.  One  who  does anything, good or bad; a doer; an agent. [Obs.] Br.

   2. (Mach.) (a) One of the variables of a quantic as distinguished from
   a coefficient. (b) The multiplier.

     NOTE: &hand; The terms facient, faciend, and factum, may imply that
     the  multiplication involved is not ordinary multiplication, but is
     either  some  specified operation, or, in general, any mathematical
     operation. See Multiplication.


   Fa"ci*es (?), n. [L., from, face. See Face.]

   1. The anterior part of the head; the face.

   2.  (Biol.)  The  general  aspect  or  habit of a species, or group of
   species, esp. with reference to its adaptation to its environment.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.) The face of a bird, or the front of the head, excluding
   the bill.
   Facies Hippocratica. (Med.) See Hippocratic.


   Fac"ile  (?)  a.  [L.  facilis,  prop., capable of being done or made,
   hence,  facile, easy, fr. facere to make, do: cf. F. facile. Srr Fact,
   and cf. Faculty.]

   1.  Easy  to  be  done  or  performed:  not  difficult; performable or
   attainable with little labor.

     Order . . . will render the work facile and delightful. Evelyn.

   2.  Easy  to  be  surmounted  or  removed; easily conquerable; readily

     The facile gates of hell too slightly barred. Milton.

   3.  Easy of access or converse; mild; courteous; not haughty, austere,
   or distant; affable; complaisant.

     I meant she should be courteous, facile, sweet. B. Jonson.

   4.  Easily  persuaded  to  good  or bad; yielding; ductile to a fault;
   pliant; flexible.

     Since  Adam, and his facile consort Eve, Lost Paradise, deceived by
     me. Milton.

     This  is  treating  Burns  like  a  child,  a person of so facile a
     disposition  as  not  to  be trusted without a keeper on the king's
     highway. Prof. Wilson.

   5.  Ready;  quick; expert; as, he is facile in expedients; he wields a
   facile pen. -- Fac"ile-ly, adv. -- Fac"ile*ness, n.


   Fa*cil"i*tate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Facilitated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Facilitating  (?).] [Cf. F. faciliter. See Facility.] To make easy
   or  less  difficult;  to free from difficulty or impediment; to lessen
   the labor of; as, to facilitate the execution of a task.

     To  invite  and  facilitate that line of proceeding which the times
     call for. I. Taylor.


   Fa*cil`i*ta"tion (?), n. The act of facilitating or making easy.


   Fa*cil"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl. Facilities (#). [L. facilitas, fr. facilis
   easy: cf. F. facilitFacile.]

   1.  The  quality  of  being easily performed; freedom from difficulty;
   ease; as, the facility of an operation.

     The  facility  with which government has been overturned in France.


   2.  Ease  in  performance;  readiness  proceeding  from  skill or use;
   dexterity;  as, practice gives a wonderful facility in executing works
   of art.

   3.  Easiness to be persuaded; readiness or compliance; -- usually in a
   bad sense; pliancy.

     It is a great error to take facility for good nature. L'Estrange.

   4. Easiness of access; complaisance; affability.

     Offers himself to the visits of a friend with facility. South.

   5.  That  which  promotes the ease of any action or course of conduct;
   advantage;  aid;  assistance;  --  usually  in the plural; as, special
   facilities  for study. Syn. -- Ease; expertness; readiness; dexterity;
   complaisance;  condescension;  affability.  --  Facility,  Expertness,
   Readiness.  These  words have in common the idea of performing any act
   with  ease  and  promptitude.  Facility supposes a natural or acquired
   power of dispatching a task with lightness and ease. Expertness is the
   kind  of  facility  acquired  by  long  practice.  Readiness marks the
   promptitude  with  which  anything  is  done.  A  merchant needs great
   facility  in  dispatching  business;  a  bunker,  great  expertness in
   casting  accounts;  both  need  great  readiness  in  passing from one
   employment to another. "The facility which we get of doing things by a
   custom  of  doing,  makes  them  often pass in us without our notice."
   Locke.  "The  army  was celebrated for the expertness and valor of the
   soldiers." "A readiness obey the known will of God is the surest means
   to enlighten the mind in respect to duty."


   Fa"cing (?), n.

   1.  A  covering  in  front, for ornament or other purpose; an exterior
   covering  or  sheathing; as, the facing of an earthen slope, sea wall,
   etc. , to strengthen it or to protect or adorn the exposed surface.

   2.  A  lining  placed  near  the  edge  of  a  garment for ornament or

   3. (Arch.) The finishing of any face of a wall with material different
   from  that of which it is chiefly composed, or the coating or material
   so used.

   4.  (Founding)  A  powdered  substance,  as charcoal, bituminous coal,
   ect., applied to the face of a mold, or mixed with the sand that forms
   it, to give a fine smooth surface to the casting.

   5. (Mil.) (a) pl. The collar and cuffs of a military coat; -- commonly
   of  a  color  different  from  that  of  the coat. (b) The movement of
   soldiers  by  turning  on their heels to the right, left, or about; --
   chiefly in the pl.
   Facing brick, front or pressed brick.


   Fa"cing*ly, adv. In a facing manner or position.


   Fa*cin"o*rous  (?),  a.  [L.  facinorous, from facinus deed, bad deed,
   from  facere  to make, do.] Atrociously wicked. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor. --
   Fa*cin"o*rous*ness, n. [Obs.]


   Fac"ound  (?),  n.  [F.  faconde,  L.  facundia.  See Facund.] Speech;
   eloquence. [Obs.]

     Her facound eke full womanly and plain. Chaucer.


   Fac*sim"i*le (?), n.; pl. Facsimiles (-l. [L. fac simile make like; or
   an  abbreviation  of factum simile made like; facere to make + similes
   like.  See Fact, and Simile.] A copy of anything made, either so as to
   be  deceptive  or so as to give every part and detail of the original;
   an   exact  copy  or  likeness.  Facsimile  telegraph,  a  telegraphic
   apparatus reproducing messages in autograph.


   Fac*sim"i*le, (


   Fact  (?),  n. [L. factum, fr. facere to make or do. Cf. Feat, Affair,
   Benefit, Defect, Fashion, and -fy.]

   1. A doing, making, or preparing. [Obs.]

     A  project  for  the fact and vending Of a new kind of fucus, paint
     for ladies. B. Jonson.

   2.  An  effect  produced  or  achieved; anything done or that comes to
   pass; an act; an event; a circumstance.

     What  might  instigate  him to this devilish fact, I am not able to
     conjecture. Evelyn.

     He who most excels in fact of arms. Milton.

   3.  Reality; actuality; truth; as, he, in fact, excelled all the rest;
   the fact is, he was beaten.

   4.  The assertion or statement of a thing done or existing; sometimes,
   even  when  false,  improperly  put, by a transfer of meaning, for the
   thing done, or supposed to be done; a thing supposed or asserted to be
   done; as, history abounds with false facts.

     I do not grant the fact. De Foe.

     This  reasoning  is  founded  upon  a fact which is not true. Roger

     NOTE: &hand; Th eTerm fa ct ha s in  jurisprudence peculiar uses in
     contrast with low; as, attorney at low, and attorney in fact; issue
     in  low,  and  issue  in  fact.  There  is also a grand distinction
     between  low  and  fact with reference to the province of the judge
     and  that  of  the jury, the latter generally determining the fact,
     the former the low.

   Burrill  Bouvier.  Accessary  before,  OR  after,  the fact. See under
   Accessary.  --  Matter  of  fact, an actual occurrence; a verity; used
   adjectively:  of or pertaining to facts; prosaic; unimaginative; as, a
   matter-of-fact  narration.  Syn.  --  Act;  deed;  performance; event;
   incident; occurrence; circumstance.
   Fac"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  factio  a  doing, a company of persons acting
   together, a faction: cf. F. faction See Fashion.] 

   1.  (Anc.  Hist.)  One  of  the  divisions  or  parties of charioteers
   (distinguished by their colors) in the games of the circus.

   2.  A  party,  in  political  society, combined or acting in union, in
   opposition  to  the  government,  or  state;  --  usually applied to a
   minority, but it may be applied to a majority; a combination or clique
   of  partisans  of any kind, acting for their own interests, especially
   if greedy, clamorous, and reckless of the common good.

   3. Tumult; discord; dissension.

     They  remained  at  Newbury  in  great  faction  among  themselves.

   Syn. -- Combination; clique; junto. See Cabal.


   Fac"tion*a*ry  (?),  a. [Cf. F. factionnaire, L. factionarius the head
   of  a  company  of  charioteers.]  Belonging  to  a  faction;  being a
   partisan; taking sides. [Obs.]

     Always factionary on the party of your general. Shak.


   Fac"tion*er (-?r), n. One of a faction. Abp. Bancroft.


   Fac"tion*ist, n. One who promotes faction.


   Fac"tious (?). a. [L. factiosus: cf. F. factieux.]

   1.  Given  to faction; addicted to form parties and raise dissensions,
   in  opposition to government or the common good; turbulent; seditious;
   prone to clamor against public measures or men; -- said of persons.

     Factious for the house of Lancaster. Shak.

   2.  Pertaining  to  faction;  proceeding  from faction; indicating, or
   characterized  by,  faction;  --  said  of  acts  or  expressions; as,
   factious quarrels.

     Headlong zeal or factious fury. Burke.

   -- Fac"tious*ly, adv. -- Fac"tious-ness, n.


   Fac*ti"tious  (?), a. [L. factitius, fr. facere to make. See Fact, and
   cf.  Fetich.]  Made  by  art,  in distinction from what is produced by
   nature;  artificial;  sham; formed by, or adapted to, an artificial or
   conventional,  in  distinction  from  a natural, standard or rule; not
   natural;  as,  factitious  cinnabar  or jewels; a factitious taste. --
   Fac-ti"tious*ly, adv. -- Fac*ti"tious-ness, n.

     He  acquires  a  factitious  propensity,  he  forms an incorrigible
     habit, of desultory reading. De Quincey.

   Syn.  --  Unnatural.  --  Factitious, Unnatural. Anything is unnatural
   when  it  departs  in  any  way from its simple or normal state; it is
   factitious  when  it is wrought out or wrought up by labor and effort,
   as,  a  factitious  excitement. An unnatural demand for any article of
   merchandise  is  one which exceeds the ordinary rate of consumption; a
   factitious  demand is one created by active exertions for the purpose.
   An  unnatural  alarm  is  one  greater  than  the occasion requires; a
   factitious alarm is one wrought up with care and effort.


   Fac"ti*tive (?). a. [See Fact.]

   1. Causing; causative.

   2.  (Gram.)  Pertaining to that relation which is proper when the act,
   as  of  a  transitive  verb,  is not merely received by an object, but
   produces  some change in the object, as when we say, He made the water

     Sometimes  the  idea of activity in a verb or adjective involves in
     it a reference to an effect, in the way of causality, in the active
     voice  on  the  immediate  objects, and in the passive voice on the
     subject  of  such  activity.  This  second  object  is  called  the
     factitive object. J. W. Gibbs.


   Fac"tive  (?),  a. Making; having power to make. [Obs.] "You are . . .
   factive, not destructive." Bacon.


   Fac"to  (?),  adv. [L., ablative of factum deed, fact.] (Law) In fact;
   by the act or fact. De facto. (Law) See De facto.


   Fac"tor (?), n. [L. factor a doer: cf. F. facteur a factor. See Fact.]

   1.  (Law)  One  who  transacts  business  for  another;  an  agent;  a
   substitute;  especially,  a  mercantile agent who buys and sells goods
   and transacts business for others in commission; a commission merchant
   or  consignee. He may be a home factor or a foreign factor. He may buy
   and  sell in his own name, and he is intrusted with the possession and
   control  of the goods; and in these respects he differs from a broker.
   Story. Wharton.

     My  factor  sends  me  word,  a  merchant's fled That owes me for a
     hundred tun of wine. Marlowe.

   2. A steward or bailiff of an estate. [Scot.] Sir W. Scott.

   3.  (Math.)  One  of the elements or quantities which, when multiplied
   together, from a product.

   4.  One of the elements, circumstances, or influences which contribute
   to produce a result; a constituent.

     The materal and dynamical factors of nutrition. H. Spencer.


   Fac"tor,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Factored  (-t?rd); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Factoring.] (Mach.) To resolve (a quantity) into its factors.


   Fac"tor*age  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  factorage.]  The allowance given to a
   factor,  as  a  compensation  for  his  services;  --  called  also  a


   Fac"tor*ess (?), n. A factor who is a woman. [R.]


   Fac*to"ri*al (?), a.

   1. Of or pertaining to a factory. Buchanan.

   2. (Math.) Related to factorials.


   Fac*to"ri*al,  n.  (Math.)  (a)  pl.  A name given to the factors of a
   continued  product when the former are derivable from one and the same
   function  F(x)  by  successively  imparting  a  constant  increment or
   decrement  h  to the independent variable. Thus the product F(x).F(x +
   h).F(x  +  2h) . . . F[x + (n-1)h] is called a factorial term, and its
   several  factors  take  the  name  of  factorials. Brande & C. (b) The
   product of the consecutive numbers from unity up to any given number.


   Fac"tor*ing (?), n. (Math.) The act of resolving into factors.


   Fac"tor*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Factorized (-?zd); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Factorizing (-?"z?ng).] (Law) (a) To give warning to; -- said of a
   person in whose hands the effects of another are attached, the warning
   being  to  the  effect  that he shall not pay the money or deliver the
   property  of  the defendant in his hands to him, but appear and answer
   the  suit of the plaintiff. (b) To attach (the effects of a debtor) in
   the hands of a third person ; to garnish. See Garnish. [Vt. & Conn.]


   Fac"tor*ship, n. The business of a factor.


   Fac"to*ry (?), n.; pl. Factories (-r. [Cf. F. factorerie.]

   1.  A  house  or place where factors, or commercial agents, reside, to
   transact  business  for  their  employers.  "The  Company's factory at
   Madras." Burke.

   2.  The  body  of  factors  in  any place; as, a chaplain to a British
   factory. W. Guthrie.

   3.  A  building,  or  collection  of  buildings,  appropriated  to the
   manufacture  of  goods;  the  place  where  workmen  are  employed  in
   fabricating  goods,  wares,  or  utensils; a manufactory; as, a cotton
   Factory  leg  (Med.),  a variety of bandy leg, associated with partial
   dislocation  of  the  tibia,  produced in young children by working in


   Fac*to"tum  (?),  n.; pl. Factotums (-t. [L., do everything; facere to
   do  +  totus  all  :  cf.  F. factotum. See Fact, and Total.] A person
   employed to do all kinds of work or business. B. Jonson.


   Fac"tu*al (?), a. Relating to, or containing, facts. [R.]

   Page 537


   Fac"tum (?), n.; pl. Facta (#). [L. See Fact.]

   1.  (Law)  A  man's  own  act  and deed; particularly: (a) (Civil Law)
   Anything  stated  and  made  certain.  (b)  (Testamentary Law) The due
   execution of a will, including everything necessary to its validity.

   2. (Mach.) The product. See Facient, 2.


   Fac"ture  (?),  n. [F. facture a making, invoice, L. factura a making.
   See Fact.]

   1.  The  act  or  manner of making or doing anything; -- now used of a
   literary, musical, or pictorial production. Bacon.

   2. (Com.) An invoice or bill of parcels.


   Fac"u*l\'91  (?), n. pl. [L., pl. of facula a little torch.] (Astron.)
   Groups  of  small  shining  spots  on the surface of the sun which are
   brighter  than  the other parts of the photosphere. They are generally
   seen  in  the  neighborhood  of the dark spots, and are supposed to be
   elevated portions of the photosphere. Newcomb.


   Fac"u*lar  (?)  a.  (Astron.) Of or pertaining to the facul\'91. R. A.


   Fac"ul*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Faculties (#). [F. facult, L. facultas, fr.
   facilis easy (cf. facul easily), fr. fecere to make. See Fact, and cf.

   1.  Ability  to act or perform, whether inborn or cultivated; capacity
   for  any  natural  function;  especially,  an original mental power or
   capacity  for  any  of  the  well-known  classes  of  mental activity;
   psychical  or  soul capacity; capacity for any of the leading kinds of
   soul activity, as knowledge, feeling, volition; intellectual endowment
   or gift; power; as, faculties of the mind or the soul.

     But  know  that  in  the  soul Are many lesser faculties that serve
     Reason as chief. Milton.

     What  a piece of work is a man ! how noble in reason ! how infinite
     in faculty ! Shak.

   2. Special mental endowment; characteristic knack.

     He  had  a  ready  faculty, indeed, of escaping from any topic that
     agitated his too sensitive and nervous temperament. Hawthorne.

   3. Power; prerogative or attribute of office. [R.]

     This Duncan Hath borne his faculties so meek. Shak.

   4.  Privilege  or  permission, granted by favor or indulgence, to do a
   particular thing; authority; license; dispensation.

     The  pope  .  .  .  granted  him a faculty to set him free from his
     promise. Fuller.

     It  had  not  only faculty to inspect all bishops' dioceses, but to
     change  what laws and statutes they should think fit to alter among
     the colleges. Evelyn.

   5. A body of a men to whom any specific right or privilege is granted;
   formerly, the graduates in any of the four departments of a university
   or  college  (Philosophy,  Law,  Medicine,  or  Theology), to whom was
   granted   the  right  of  teaching  (profitendi  or  docendi)  in  the
   department  in  which  they  had studied; at present, the members of a
   profession itself; as, the medical faculty; the legal faculty, ect.

   6.  (Amer.  Colleges)  The  body  of  person to whom are intrusted the
   government  and  instruction  of a college or university, or of one of
   its departments; the president, professors, and tutors in a college.
   Dean  of faculty. See under Dean. -- Faculty of advocates. (Scot.) See
   under   Advocate.   Syn.   --   Talent;  gift;  endowment;  dexterity;
   expertness; cleverness; readiness; ability; knack.


   Fac"und (?), a. [L. facundus, fr. fari to speak.] Eloquent. [Archaic]


   Fa*cun"di*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  facundiosus.] Eloquement; full of words.


   Fa*cun"di*ty  (?), n. [L. facunditas.] Eloquence; readiness of speech.


   Fad (?), n. [Cf. Faddle.] A hobby ; freak; whim. -- Fad"dist, n.

     It is your favorite fad to draw plans. G. Eliot.


   Fad"dle  (?), v. i. [Cf. Fiddle, Fiddle-faddle.] To trifle; to toy. --
   v. t. To fondle; to dandle. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Fade  (?)  a.  [F.,  prob. fr. L. vapidus vapid, or possibly fr,fatuus
   foolish,   insipid.]   Weak;  insipid;  tasteless;  commonplace.  [R.]
   "Passages that are somewhat fade." Jeffrey.

     His  masculine  taste  gave  him  a  sense  of  something  fade and
     ludicrous. De Quincey.


   Fade  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Faded; p. pr. & vb. n. Fading.] [OE.
   faden, vaden, prob. fr. fade, a.; cf. Prov. D. vadden to fade, wither,
   vaddigh languid, torpid. Cf. Fade, a., Vade.]

   1. To become fade; to grow weak; to lose strength; to decay; to perish
   gradually; to wither, as a plant.

     The earth mourneth and fadeth away. Is. xxiv. 4.

   2.  To lose freshness, color, or brightness; to become faint in hue or
   tint;  hence,  to  be  wanting  in  color.  "Flowers that never fade."

   3. To sink away; to disappear gradually; to grow dim; to vanish.

     The stars shall fade away. Addison

     He makes a swanlike end, Fading in music. Shak.


   Fade,  v.  t. To cause to wither; to deprive of freshness or vigor; to
   wear away.

     No winter could his laurels fade. Dryden.


   Fad"ed  (?),  a.  That has lost freshness, color, or brightness; grown
   dim. "His faded cheek." Milton.

     Where the faded moon Made a dim silver twilight. Keats.


   Fad"ed*ly, adv. In a faded manner.

     A dull room fadedly furnished. Dickens.


   Fade"less, a. Not liable to fade; unfading.


   Fa"der (?), n. Father. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fadge  (?),  v. i. [Cf. OE. faden to flatter, and AS. f to join, unit,
   G.  f\'81gen,  or AS. \'bef\'91gian to depict; all perh. form the same
   root as E. fair. Cf. Fair, a., Fay to fit.] To fit; to suit; to agree.

     They shall be made, spite of antipathy, to fadge together. Milton.

     Well, Sir, how fadges the new design ? Wycherley.


   Fadge  (?),  n.  [Etymol. uncertain.] A small flat loaf or thick cake;
   also, a fagot. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


   Fad"ing  (?),  a. Losing freshness, color, brightness, or vigor. -- n.
   Loss   of   color,   freshness,  or  vigor.  --  Fad"ing*ly,  adv.  --
   Fad"ing*ness, n.


   Fad"ing,  n.  An Irish dance; also, the burden of a song. "Fading is a
   fine jig." [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Fad"me (?), n. A fathom. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fad"y (?), a. Faded. [R.] Shenstone.


   F\'91"cal (?), a. See Fecal.


   F\'91"ces  (?), n.pl. [L. faex, pl. faeces, dregs.] Excrement; ordure;
   also,  settlings;  sediment  after  infusion or distillation. [Written
   also feces.]


   F\'91c"u*la (?), n. [L.] See Fecula.


   Fa"\'89r*y (?), n. & a. Fairy. [Archaic] Spenser.


   Faf"fle  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf.  Famble, Maffle.] To stammer. [Prov. Eng.]


   Fag (?) n. A knot or coarse part in cloth. [Obs.]


   Fag,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Fagged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fagging (?).]
   [Cf.  LG.  fakk wearied, weary, vaak slumber, drowsiness, OFries. fai,
   equiv. to f\'bech devoted to death, OS. f, OHG. feigi, G. feig, feige,
   cowardly,  Icel. feigr fated to die, AS. f, Scot. faik, to fail, stop,
   lower the price; or perh. the same word as E. flag to droop.]

   1. To become weary; to tire.

     Creighton  withheld  his  force  till  the Italian began to fag. G.

   2. To labor to wearness; to work hard; to drudge.

     Read, fag, and subdue this chapter. Coleridge.

   3.  To  act  as  a  fag,  or  perform menial services or drudgery, for
   another, as in some English schools.
   To  fag  out,  to become untwisted or frayed, as the end of a rope, or
   the edge of canvas.


   Fag, v. t.

   1. To tire by labor; to exhaust; as, he was almost fagged out.

   2. Anything that fatigues. [R.]

     It is such a fag, I came back tired to death. Miss Austen.

   Brain fag. (Med.) See Cerebropathy.


   Fag"*end" (?), n.

   1. An end of poorer quality, or in a spoiled condition, as the coarser
   end of a web of cloth, the untwisted end of a rope, ect.

   2. The refuse or meaner part of anything.

     The fag-end of business. Collier.


   Fag"ging  (?), n. Laborious drudgery; esp., the acting as a drudge for
   another at an English school.


   Fag"ot  (?) n. [F., prob. aug. of L. fax, facis, torch, perh. orig., a
   bundle of sticks; cf. Gr. Fagotto.]

   1.  A  bundle  of  sticks, twigs, or small branches of trees, used for
   fuel,  for  raising  batteries,  filling ditches, or other purposes in
   fortification; a fascine. Shak.

   2.  A  bundle of pieces of wrought iron to be worked over into bars or
   other shapes by rolling or hammering at a welding heat; a pile.

   3. (Mus.) A bassoon. See Fagotto.

   4.  A  person  hired  to  take the place of another at the muster of a
   company. [Eng.] Addison.

   5. An old shriveled woman. [Slang, Eng.]
   Fagot  iron,  iron,  in  bars  or masses, manufactured from fagots. --
   Fagot  vote,  the vote of a person who has been constituted a voter by
   being made a landholder, for party purposes. [Political cant, Eng.]


   Fag"ot  (?) v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fagoted; p. pr. & vb. n. Fagoting.] To
   make  a  fagot  of;  to  bind  together in a fagot or bundle; also, to
   collect promiscuously. Dryden.


   Fa*got"to  (?),  n.  [It. See Fagot.] (Mus.) The bassoon; -- so called
   from  being  divided  into  parts  for ease of carriage, making, as it
   were, a small fagot.


   Fa"ham  (?),  n.  The leaves of an orchid (Angraecum fragrans), of the
   islands of Bourbon and Mauritius, used (in France) as a substitute for
   Chinese tea.


   Fahl"band`  (?), n. [G., fr. fahl dun-colored + band a band.] (Mining)
   A stratum in crystalline rock, containing metallic sulphides. Raymond.

                               Fahlerz, Fahlband

   Fahl"erz  (?), Fahl"band (?), n. [G. fahlerz; fahl dun-colored, fallow
   + erz ore.] (Min.) Same as Tetrahedrite.


   Fah"lun*ite  (?),  n.  [From  Falhun,  a  place  in  Sweden.] (Min.) A
   hydration of iolite.


   Fah"ren*heit  (?)  a.  [G.]  Conforming  to  the scale used by Gabriel
   Daniel Fahrenheit in the graduation of his thermometer; of or relating
   to Fahrenheit's thermometric scale. -- n. The Fahrenheit termometer or

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Fa hrenheit th ermometer is so graduated that the
     freezing  point  of  water  is  at 32 degrees above the zero of its
     scale,  and  the boiling point at 212 degrees above. It is commonly
     used in the United States and in England.


   Fa`\'8b*ence"  (?),  n. [F., fr. Faenza, a town in Italy, the original
   place  of  manufacture.]  Glazed  earthenware;  esp.,  that  which  is
   decorated in color.


   Fail (?) v. i. [imp. & p. p. Failed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Failing.] [F.
   failir, fr. L. fallere, falsum, to deceive, akin to E. fall. See Fail,
   and cf. Fallacy, False, Fault.]

   1.  To  be  wanting;  to  fall short; to be or become deficient in any
   measure or degree up to total absence; to cease to be furnished in the
   usual  or expected manner, or to be altogether cut off from supply; to
   be lacking; as, streams fail; crops fail.

     As the waters fail from the sea. Job xiv. 11.

     Till Lionel's issue fails, his should not reign. Shak.

   2.  To  be affected with want; to come short; to lack; to be deficient
   or unprovided; -- used with of.

     If  ever  they fail of beauty, this failure is not be attributed to
     their size. Berke.

   3. To fall away; to become diminished; to decline; to decay; to sink.

     When  earnestly  they  seek Such proof, conclude they then begin to
     fail. Milton.

   4.  To  deteriorate in respect to vigor, activity, resources, etc.; to
   become weaker; as, a sick man fails.

   5. To perish; to die; -- used of a person. [Obs.]

     Had the king in his last sickness failed. Shak.

   6.  To  be  found  wanting  with  respect to an action or a duty to be
   performed,  a  result  to  be  secured,  etc.; to miss; not to fulfill

     Take heed now that ye fail not to do this. Ezra iv. 22.

     Either my eyesight fails, or thou look'st pale. Shak.

   7.  To  come  short  of a result or object aimed at or desired ; to be
   baffled or frusrated.

     Our envious foe hath failed. Milton.

   8. To err in judgment; to be mistaken.

     Which  ofttimes  may  succeed, so as perhaps Shall grieve him, if I
     fail not. Milton.

   9.  To  become  unable  to  meet  one's engagements; especially, to be
   unable  to  pay one's debts or discharge one's business obligation; to
   become bankrupt or insolvent.


   Fail (?), v. t.

   1.  To  be  wanting  to  ;  to  be insufficient for; to disappoint; to

     There shall not fail thee a man on the throne. 1 Kings ii. 4.

   2. To miss of attaining; to lose. [R.]

     Though that seat of earthly bliss be failed. Milton.


   Fail, n. [OF. faille, from failir. See Fail, v. i.]

   1.  Miscarriage;  failure;  deficiency; fault; -- mostly superseded by
   failure  or failing, except in the phrase without fail. "His highness'
   fail of issue." Shak.

   2. Death; decease. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fail"ance  (?),  n.  [Of.  faillance,  fr.  faillir.]  Fault; failure;
   omission. [Obs.] Bp. Fell.


   Fail"ing, n.

   1.  A  failing  short;  a  becoming  deficient;  failure;  deficiency;
   imperfection; weakness; lapse; fault; infirmity; as, a mental failing.

     And  ever  in  her mind she cas about For that unnoticed failing in
     herself. Tennyson.

   2. The act of becoming insolvent of bankrupt. Syn. -- See Fault.


   Faille  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  soft  silk,  heavier than a foulard and not


   Fail"ure (?), n. [From Fail.]

   1.  Cessation  of  supply, or total defect; a failing; deficiency; as,
   failure of rain; failure of crops.

   2. Omission; nonperformance; as, the failure to keep a promise.

   3. Want of success; the state of having failed.

   4.  Decau,  or  defect  from  decay; deterioration; as, the failure of
   memory or of sight.

   5.  A  becoming  insolvent;  bankruptcy;  suspension  of  payment; as,
   failure in business.

   6. A failing; a slight fault. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Fain  (?), a. [OE. fain, fagen, AS. f\'91gen; akin to OS. fagan, Icel.
   faginn glad; AS. f\'91gnian to rejoice, OS. fagan&omac;n, Icel. fagna,
   Goth.  fagin&omac;n,  cf. Goth. fah&emac;ds joy; and fr. the same root
   as E. fair. Srr Fair, a., and cf. Fawn to court favor.]

   1. Well-pleased; glad; apt; wont; fond; inclined.

     Men and birds are fain of climbing high. Shak.

     To  a  busy  man,  temptation  is fainto climb up together with his
     business. Jer. Taylor.

   2. Satisfied; contented; also, constrained. Shak.

     The  learned  Castalio  was  fain to make trechers at Basle to keep
     himself from starving. Locke.


   Fain, adv. With joy; gladly; -- with wold.

     He  would  fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine
     did eat. Luke xv. 16.

     Fain Would I woo her, yet I dare not. Shak.


   Fain, v. t. & i. To be glad ; to wish or desire. [Obs.]

     Whoso fair thing does fain to see. Spencer.


   Fai`n\'82`ant"  (?),  a.  [F.; fait he does + n\'82ant nothing.] Doing
   nothing;  shiftless.  --  n. A do-nothing; an idle fellow; a sluggard.
   Sir W. Scott.


   Faint  (?),  a. [Compar. Fainter (-?r); superl. Faintest.] [OE. faint,
   feint,  false,  faint,  F.  feint,  p.p. of feindre to feign, suppose,
   hesitate. See Faign, and cf. Feint.]

   1.  Lacking strength; weak; languid; inclined to swoon; as, faint with
   fatigue, hunger, or thirst.

   2.   Wanting  in  courage,  spirit,  or  energy;  timorous;  cowardly;
   dejected;  depressed;  as,  "Faint  heart  ne'er  won  fair lady." Old

   3.  Lacking  distinctness;  hardly  perceptible;  striking  the senses
   feebly;  not bright, or loud, or sharp, or forcible; weak; as, a faint
   color, or sound.

   4.  Performed,  done,  or  acted,  in  a  weak  or  feeble manner; not
   exhibiting  vigor,  strength,  or  energy;  slight; as, faint efforts;
   faint resistance.

     The faint prosecution of the war. Sir J. Davies.


   Faint,  n. The act of fainting, or the state of one who has fainted; a
   swoon. [R.] See Fainting, n.

     The saint, Who propped the Virgin in her faint. Sir W. Scott.


   Faint, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fainted; p. pr. & vb. n. Fainting.]

   1.  To  become  weak  or  wanting  in  vigor;  to grow feeble; to lose
   strength and color, and the control of the bodily or mental functions;
   to swoon; -- sometimes with away. See Fainting, n.

     Hearing the honor intended her, she fainted away. Guardian.

     If  I send them away fasting . . . they will faint by the way. Mark
     viii. 8.

   Page 538

   2.  To  sink  into  dejection;  to  lose  courage or spirit; to become
   depressed or despondent.

     If thou faint in the day of adversity, thy strength is small. Prov.
     xxiv. 10.

   3. To decay; to disappear; to vanish.

     Gilded clouds, while we gaze upon them, faint before the eye. Pope.


   Faint  (?),  v. t. To cause to faint or become dispirited; to depress;
   to weaken. [Obs.]

     It faints me to think what follows. Shak.


   Faint"*heart`ed  (?), a. Wanting in courage; depressed by fear; easily
   discouraged or frightened; cowardly; timorous; dejected.

     Fear not, neither be faint-hearted. Is. vii. 4.

   -- Faint"*heart`ed*ly, adv. -- Faint"*heart`ed*ness, n.


   Faint"ing  (?), n. Syncope, or loss of consciousness owing to a sudden
   arrest of the blood supply to the brain, the face becoming pallid, the
   respiration feeble, and the heat's beat weak. Fainting fit, a fainting
   or swoon; syncope. [Colloq.]


   Faint"ish, a. Slightly faint; somewhat faint. -- Faint"ish*ness, n.


   Faint"ling  (?), a. Timorous; feeble-minded. [Obs.] "A fainting, silly
   creature." Arbuthnot.


   Faint"ly, adv. In a faint, weak, or timidmanner.


   Faint"ness, n.

   1.  The  state  of being faint; loss of strength, or of consciousness,
   and self-control.

   2. Want of vigor or energy. Spenser.

   3.  Feebleness,  as  of  color  or  light;  lack  of distinctness; as,
   faintness of description.

   4. Faint-heartedness; timorousness; dejection.

     I will send a faintness into their hearts. Lev. xxvi. 36.


   Faints (?), n.pl. The impure spirit which comes over first and last in
   the  distillation  of  whisky;  --  the former being called the strong
   faints,  and the latter, which is much more abundant, the weak faints.
   This crude spirit is much impregnated with fusel oil. Ure.


   Faint"y (?), a. Feeble; languid. [R.] Dryden.


   Fair  (?), a. [Compar. Fairer (?); superl. Fairest.] [OE. fair, fayer,
   fager,  AS. f\'91ger; akin to OS. & OHG. fagar, Isel. fagr, Sw. fager,
   Dan.  faver,  Goth.  fagrs  fit,  also to E. fay, G. f\'81gen, to fit.
   fegen  to  sweep, cleanse, and prob. also to E. fang, peace, pact, Cf.
   Fang, Fain, Fay to fit.]

   1. Free from spots, specks, dirt, or imperfection; unblemished; clean;

     A fair white linen cloth. Book of Common Prayer.

   2. Pleasing to the eye; handsome; beautiful.

     Who  can not see many a fair French city, for one fair French made.

   3. Without a dark hue; light; clear; as, a fair skin.

     The northern people large and fair-complexioned. Sir M. Hale.

   4. Not overcast; cloudless; clear; pleasant; propitious; favorable; --
   said of the sky, weather, or wind, etc.; as, a fair sky; a fair day.

     You wish fair winds may waft him over. Prior.

   5.  Free  from  obstacles  or  hindrances; unobstructed; unincumbered;
   open;  direct;  --  said of a road, passage, etc.; as, a fair mark; in
   fair sight; a fair view.

     The  caliphs  obtained  a mighty empire, which was in a fair way to
     have enlarged. Sir W. Raleigh.

   6.  (Shipbuilding)  Without  sudden  change of direction or curvature;
   smooth;  fowing;  --  said of the figure of a vessel, and of surfaces,
   water lines, and other lines.

   7. Characterized by frankness, honesty, impartiality, or candor; open;
   upright;  free  from  suspicion  or  bias; equitable; just; -- said of
   persons,  character,  or conduct; as, a fair man; fair dealing; a fair
   statement. "I would call it fair play." Shak.

   8.  Pleasing;  favorable;  inspiring  hope  and confidence; -- said of
   words, promises, etc.

     When fair words and good counsel will not prevail on us, we must be
     frighted into our duty. L' Estrange.

   9. Distinct; legible; as, fair handwriting.

   10. Free from any marked characteristic; average; middling; as, a fair

     The news is very fair and good, my lord. Shak.

   Fair  ball.  (Baseball)  (a)  A ball passing over the home base at the
   height  called  for by the batsman, and delivered by the pitcher while
   wholly  within the lines of his position and facing the batsman. (b) A
   batted  ball  that  falls inside the foul lines; -- called also a fair
   hit.  --  Fair  maid.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The  European pilchard (Clupea
   pilchardus)  when  dried.  (b) The southern scup (Stenotomus Gardeni).
   [Virginia]  --  Fair  one,  a  handsome woman; a beauty, -- Fair play,
   equitable  or impartial treatment; a fair or equal chance; justice. --
   From fair to middling, passable; tolerable. [Colloq.] -- The fair sex,
   the female sex. Syn. -- Candid; open; frank; ingenuous; clear; honest;
   equitable; impartial; reasonable. See Candid.


   Fair,  adv.  Clearly;  openly;  frankly; civilly; honestly; favorably;
   auspiciously; agreeably. Fair and square, justly; honestly; equitably;
   impartially.  [Colloq.]  --  To  bid  fair. See under Bid. -- To speak
   fair, to address with courtesy and frankness. [Archaic]


   Fair, n.

   1. Fairness, beauty. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. A fair woman; a sweetheart.

     I have found out a gift for my fair. Shenstone.

   3. Good fortune; good luck.

     Now fair befall thee ! Shak.

   The fair, anything beautiful; women, collectively. "For slander's mark
   was ever yet the fair." Shak.
   Fair, v. t. 

   1. To make fair or beautiful. [Obs.]

     Fairing the foul. Shak.

   2. (Shipbuilding) To make smooth and flowing, as a vessel's lines.


   Fair,  n. [OE. feire, OF. feire, F. foire, fr. L. fariae, pl., days of
   rest, holidays, festivals, akin to festus festal. See Feast.]

   1.  A gathering of buyers and sellers, assembled at a particular place
   with  their  merchandise  at a stated or regular season, or by special
   appointment, for trade.

   2.  A  festival,  and  sale  of fancy articles. erc., usually for some
   charitable object; as, a Grand Army fair.

   3.  A  competitive  exhibition  of  wares,  farm  products,  etc., not
   primarily   for   purposes  of  sale;  as,  the  Mechanics'  fair;  an
   agricultural fair.
   After the fair, Too late. [Colloq.]


   Fair"-haired` (?), a. Having fair or light-colored hair.


   Fair"hood (?), n. Fairness; beauty. [Obs.] Foxe.


   Fair"i*ly (?), adv. In the manner of a fairy.

     Numerous as shadows haunting fairily The brain. Keats.


   Fair"ing,  n. A present; originally, one given or purchased at a fair.
   Gay.  Fairing  box,  a  box  receiving savings or small sums of money.
   Hannah More.


   Fair"ish, a. Tolerably fair. [Colloq.] W. D. Howells.


   Fair"-lead`er (?), n. (Naut.) A block, or ring, serving as a guide for
   the running rigging or for any rope.


   Fair"ly, adv.

   1.  In  a  fairmanner;  clearly;  openly;  plainly; fully; distinctly;

     Even  the  nature of Mr. Dimmesdale's disease had never fairly been
     revealed to him. Hawthorne.

   2.  Favorably;  auspiciously; commodiously; as, a town fairly situated
   for foreign traade.

   3. Honestly; properly.

     Such  means  of  comfort or even luxury, as lay fairly within their
     grasp. Hawthorne.

   4. Softly; quietly; gently. [Obs.] Milton.


   Fair"-mind`ed   (?),  a.  Unprejudiced;  just;  judicial;  honest.  --
   Fair"*mind`ed*ness, n.


   Fair"-na`tured (?), a. Well-disposed. "A fair-natured prince." Ford.


   Fair"ness,  n.  The state of being fair, or free form spots or stains,
   as  of  the  skin;  honesty, as of dealing; candor, as of an argument,


   Faair"-spo`ken  (?),  a.  Using fair speech, or uttered with fairness;
   bland;  civil;  courteous;  plausible.  "A marvelous fair-spoken man."


   Fair"way`  (?),  n.  The navigable part of a river, bay, etc., through
   which  vessels  enter or depart; the part of a harbor or channel ehich
   is  kept open and unobstructed for the passage of vessels. Totten. <--
   [2]. That part of a golf course between the tee and the green which is
   of closely mowed grass, as contrasted to the rough. -->


   Fair"-weath`er (?), a.

   1. Made or done in pleasant weather, or in circumstances involving but
   little exposure or sacrifice; as, a fair-weather voyage. Pope.

   2.  Appearing  only  when times or circumstances are prosperous; as, a
   fair-weather friend.
   Fair-weather  sailor,  a  make-believe or inexperienced sailor; -- the
   nautical equivalent of carpet knight.
   Fair"-world` (?) n. State of prosperity. [Obs.] 

     They think it was never fair-world with them since. Milton.


   Fair"y  (?),  n.;  pl. Fairies (#). [OE. fairie, faierie, enchantment,
   fairy  folk,  fairy,  OF. faerie enchantment, F. f\'82er, fr. LL. Fata
   one of the goddesses of fate. See Fate, and cf. Fay a fairy.] [Written
   also fa\'89ry.]

   1. Enchantment; illusion. [Obs.] Chaucer.

     The  God  of  her has made an end, And fro this worlde's fairy Hath
     taken her into company. Gower.

   2. The country of the fays; land of illusions. [Obs.]

     He [Arthur] is a king y-crowned in Fairy. Lydgate.

   3.  An  imaginary  supernatural  being or spirit, supposed to assume a
   human  form (usually diminutive), either male or female, and to meddle
   for good or evil in the affairs of mankind; a fay. See Elf, and Demon.

     The fourth kind of spirit [is] called the Fairy. K. James.

     And  now  about the caldron sing, Like elves and fairies in a ring.

   5. An enchantress. [Obs.] Shak.
   Fairy  of the mine, an imaginary being supposed to inhabit mines, etc.
   German  folklore  tells of two species; one fierce and malevolent, the
   other gentle, See Kobold.

     No  goblin  or swart fairy of the mine Hath hurtful power over true
     virginity. Milton.


   Fair"y, a.

   1. Of or pertaining to fairies.

   2. Given by fairies; as, fairy money. Dryden.
   Fairy  bird  (Zo\'94l.), the Euoropean little tern (Sterna minuta); --
   called   also  sea  swallow,  and  hooded  tern.  --  Fairy  bluebird.
   (Zo\'94l.)  See under Bluebird. -- Fairy martin (Zo\'94l.), a European
   swallow  (Hirrundo  ariel)  that  builds  flask-shaped nests of mud on
   overhanging  cliffs.  -- Fairy rings OR circles, the circles formed in
   grassy  lawns  by  certain  fungi  (as  Marasmius  Oreades),  formerly
   supposed  to  be  caused by fairies in their midnight dances. -- Fairy
   shrimp   (Zo\'94l.),   a  European  fresh-water  phyllopod  crustacean
   (Chirocephalus  diaphanus);  --  so  called  from its delicate colors,
   transparency,  and  graceful motions. The name is sometimes applied to
   similar American species. -- Fairy stone (Paleon.), an echinite.


   Fair"y*land` (?) n. The imaginary land or abode of fairies.


   Fair"y*like`  (?),  a.  Resembling a fairy, or what is made or done be
   fairies; as, fairylike music.


   Faith (?), n. [OE. feith, fayth, fay, OF. feid, feit, fei, F. foi, fr.
   L.  fides;  akin  to  fidere  to  trust,  Gr. th is perhaps due to the
   influence  of  such words as truth, health, wealth. See Bid, Bide, and
   cf. Confide, Defy, Fealty.]

   1.  Belief; the assent of the mind to the truth of what is declared by
   another,  resting solely and implicitly on his authority and veracity;
   reliance on testimony.

   2.  The assent of the mind to the statement or proposition of another,
   on  the  ground  of  the  manifest  truth  of what he utters; firm and
   earnest belief, on probable evidence of any kind, especially in regard
   to important moral truth.

     Faith,  that  is,  fidelity,  --  the fealty of the finite will and
     understanding to the reason. Coleridge.

   3.  (Theol.)  (a)  The  belief  in  the  historic  truthfulness of the
   Scripture  narrative,  and  the  supernatural origin of its teachings,
   sometimes  called  historical and speculative faith. (b) The belief in
   the  facts and truth of the Scriptures, with a practical love of them;
   especially,  that  confiding and affectionate belief in the person and
   work  of Christ, which affects the character and life, and makes a man
   a true Christian, -- called a practical, evangelical, or saving faith.

     Without faith it is impossible to please him [God]. Heb. xi. 6.

     The faith of the gospel is that emotion of the mind which is called
     "trust"  or  "confidence"  exercised  toward the moral character of
     God, and particularly of the Savior. Dr. T. Dwight.

     Faith  is an affectionate, practical confidence in the testimony of
     God. J. Hawes.

   4.  That  which  is  believed  on  any  subject,  whether  in science,
   politics,  or  religion;  especially  (Theol.),  a system of religious
   belief   of  any  kind;  as,  the  Jewish  or  Mohammedan  faith;  and
   especially,  the  system  of truth taught by Christ; as, the Christian
   faith; also, the creed or belief of a Christian society or church.

     Which  to  believe  of  her,  Must  be  a faith that reason without
     miracle Could never plant in me. Shak.

     Now preacheth the faith which once he destroyed. Gal. i. 23.

   5.  Fidelity  to one's promises, or allegiance to duty, or to a person
   honored and beloved; loyalty.

     Children in whom is no faith. Deut. xxvii. 20.

     Whose  failing,  while  her  faith to me remains, I should conceal.

   6. Word or honor pledged; promise given; fidelity; as, he violated his

     For you alone I broke me faith with injured Palamon. Dryden.

   7. Credibility or truth. [R.]

     The faith of the foregoing narrative. Mitford.

   Act  of  faith.  See  Auto-da-f\'82. -- Breach of faith, Confession of
   faith, etc. See under Breach, Confession, etc. -- Faith cure, a method
   or  practice  of treating diseases by prayer and the exercise of faith
   in  God.  -- In good faith, with perfect sincerity. <-- faith healing,
   faith healer = faith cure. -->


   Faith (?), interj. By my faith; in truth; verily.


   Faithed (?), a. Having faith or a faith; honest; sincere. [Obs.] "Make
   thy words faithed." Shak.


   Faith"ful (?), a.

   1.  Full of faith, or having faith; disposed to believe, especially in
   the declarations and promises of God.

     You are not faithful, sir. B. Jonson.

   2. Firm in adherence to promises, oaths, contracts, treaties, or other

     The  faithful  God, which keepeth covenant and mercy with them that
     love him. Deut. vii. 9.

   3.  True  and  constant in affection or allegiance to a person to whom
   one  is  bound by a vow, be ties of love, gratitude, or honor, as to a
   husband, a prince, a friend; firm in the observance of duty; loyal; of
   true fidelity; as, a faithful husband or servant.

     So  spake  the  seraph Abdiel, faithful found, Among the faithless,
     faithful only he. Milton.

   4.  Worthy  of  confidence  and  belief; conformable to truth ot fact;
   exact; accurate; as, a faithful narrative or representation.

     It is a faithful saying. 2 Tim. ii. 11.

   The  Faithful,  the  adherents of any system of religious belief; esp.
   used  as  an  epithet  of  the  followers of Mohammed. Syn. -- Trusty;
   honest;  upright;  sincere;  veracious;  trustworthy. -- Faith"ful*ly,
   adv. -Faith"ful*ness, n.


   Faith"less, a.

   1. Not believing; not giving credit.

     Be not faithless, but believing. John xx. 27.

   2.  Not  believing  on God or religion; specifically, not believing in
   the Christian religion. Shak.

   3. Not observant of promises or covenants.

   4.  Not  true  to  allegiance,  duty, or vows; perfidious; trecherous;
   disloyal; not of true fidelity; inconstant, as a husband or a wife.

     A most unnatural and faithless service. Shak.

   5.  Serving  to disappoint or deceive; delusive; unsatisfying. "Yonder
   faithless  phantom." Goldsmith. -- Faith"less*ly, adv.Faith"less*ness,


   Fai"tour (?), n. [OF. faitor a doer, L. factor. See Factor.] A doer or
   actor; particularly, an evil doer; a scoundrel. [Obs.]

     Lo! faitour, there thy meed unto thee take. Spenser.


   Fake (?), n. [Cf. Scot. faik fold, stratum of stone, AS. f\'91c space,
   interval,  G.  fach  compartment,  partition, row, and E. fay to fit.]
   (Naut.)  One  of  the  circles or windings of a cable or hawser, as it
   lies in a coil; a single turn or coil.


   Fake,  v.  t.  (Naut.)  To  coil (a rope, line, or hawser), by winding
   alternately  in  opposite  directions,  in layers usually of zigzag or
   figure  of  eight  form,, to prevent twisting when running out. Faking
   box,  a  box  in  which  a long rope is faked; used in the life-saving
   service for a line attached to a shot.


   Fake,  v. t. [Cf. Gael. faigh to get, acquire, reach, or OD. facken to
   catch or gripe.] [Slang in all its senses.]

   1. To cheat; to swindle; to steal; to rob.

   2. To make; to construct; to do.

   3.  To  manipulate fraudulently, so as to make an object appear better
   or  other  than  it  really  is; as, to fake a bulldog, by burning his
   upper lip and thus artificially shortening it.


   Fake, n. A trick; a swindle. [Slang]


   Fa"kir  (?),  n. [Ar. faq\'c6r poor.] An Oriental religious ascetic or
   begging monk. [Written also faquir anf fakeer.]


   Fa"la*na"ka  (?),  n.  [Native name.] (Zo\'94l.) A viverrine mammal of
   Madagascar  (Eupleres  Goudotii),  allied to the civet; -- called also


   Fal*cade" (f&acr;l*k&amac;d"), n. [F., ultimately fr. L. falx, falcis,
   a  sickle  or  scythe.]  (Man.)  The action of a horse, when he throws
   himself  on  his  haunches  two or three times, bending himself, as it
   were, in very quick curvets. Harris.

   Page 539

                               Falcate, Falcated

   Fal"cate  (?),  Fal"ca*ted  (?),  a. [L. falcatus, fr. falx, falcis, a
   sickle or scythe.] Hooked or bent like a sickle; as, a falcate leaf; a
   falcate  claw;  --  said also of the moon, or a planet, when horned or


   Fal*ca"tion  (?), n. The state of being falcate; a bend in the form of
   a sickle. Sir T. Browne.


   Fal"cer  (?),  n.  [From L. falx, falcis, a sickle.] (Zo\'94l.) One of
   the mandibles of a spider.


   Fal"chion  (?),  n.  [OE.  fauchon, OF. fauchon, LL. f\'84lcio, fr. L.
   falx,  falcis,  a  sickle,  cf.  Gr.  falcon;  cf.  It.  falcione. Cf.

   1. A broad-bladed sword, slightly curved, shorter and lighter than the
   ordinary sword; -- used in the Middle Ages.

   2. A name given generally and poetically to a sword, especially to the
   swords of Oriental and fabled warriors.


   Fal*cid"i*an  (?),  a.  [L.  Falcidius.]  Of  or pertaining to Publius
   Falcidius,  a Roman tribune. Falcidian law (Civil Law), a law by which
   a testator was obliged to leave at least a fourth of his estate to the
   heir. Burrill.


   Fal"ci*form  (?),  a.  [L.  falx,  falcis,  a  sickle  + -form: cf. F.
   falciforme.]  Having  the  shape  of  a scithe or sickle; resembling a
   reaping hook; as, the falciform ligatment of the liver.


   Fal"con  (?), n. [OE. faucon, faucoun, OF. faucon, falcon, faucon, fr.
   LL.  falco,  perh. from L. falx, falcis, a sickle or scythe, and named
   from its curving talons. Cf. Falchion.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) One of a family (Falconid\'91) of raptorial birds,
   characterized  by  a  short,  hooked  beak, strong claws, and powerful
   flight.  (b) Any species of the genus Falco, distinguished by having a
   toothlike  lobe  on  the upper mandible; especially, one of this genus
   trained to the pursuit of other birds, or game.

     In   the   language   of  falconry,  the  female  peregrine  (Falco
     peregrinus) is exclusively called the falcon. Yarrell.

   2. (Gun.) An ancient form of cannon.
   Chanting falcon. (Zo\'94l.) See under Chanting.


   Fal"con*er  (?),  n.  [OE.  fauconer,  OF.  falconier,  fauconier,  F.
   fauconnier.  See  Falcon.]  A  person  who  breeds or trains hawks for
   taking birds or game; one who follows the sport of fowling with hawks.


   Fal"co*net  (?), n. [Dim. of falcon: cf. F. fauconneau, LL. falconeta,
   properly, a young falcon.]

   1. One of the smaller cannon used in the 15th century and later.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  One  of several very small Asiatic falcons of the
   genus Microhierax. (b) One of a group of Australian birds of the genus
   Falcunculus, resembling shrikes and titmice.


   Fal"con*gen`til  (?),  n. [F. faucon-gentil. See Falcon, and Genteel.]
   (Zo\'94l.) The female or young of the goshawk (Astur palumbarius).


   Fal"co*nine (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Like a falcon or hawk; belonging to the


   Fal"con*ry (?), n. [Cf. F. fauconnerie. See Falcon.]

   1. The art of training falcons or hawks to pursue and attack wild fowl
   or game.

   2. The sport of taking wild fowl or game by means of falcons or hawks.


   Fal"cu*la  (?),  n.  [L.,  a  small  sickle, a billhook.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   curved and sharp-pointed claw.


   Fal"cu*late  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Curved  and  sharppointed,  like  a
   falcula, or claw of a falcon.


   Fald"age  (?), n. [LL. faldagium, fr. AS. fald, E. fold. Cf. Foldage.]
   (O.  Eng.  Law) A privilege of setting up, and moving about, folds for
   sheep,  in any fields within manors, in order to manure them; -- often
   reserved to himself by the lord of the manor. Spelman.


   Fald"fee`  (?), n. [AS. fald (E.fold) + E. fee. See Faldage.] (O. Eng.
   Law)  A  fee  or rent paid by a tenant for the privilege of faldage on
   his own ground. Blount.


   Fald"ing, n. A frieze or rough-napped cloth. [Obs.]


   Fal"dis*to*ry  (?),  n.  [LL.  faldistorium,  faldestorium,  from OHG.
   faldstuol;  faldan,  faltan,  to  fold  (G.  falten) + stuol stool. So
   called  because  it  could  be  folded or laid together. See Fold, and
   Stool,  and  cf.  Faldstool, Fauteuil.] The throne or seat of a bishop
   within the chancel. [Obs.]


   Fald"stool`  (?),  n.  [See  Faldistory.] A folding stool, or portable
   seat,  made  to fold up in the manner of a camo stool. It was formerly
   placed in the choir for a bishop, when he offciated in any but his own
   cathedral church. Fairholt.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e modern practice of the Church of England, the
     term  faldstool  is given to the reading desk from which the litany
     is  read.  This  esage  is  a relic of the ancient use of a lectern
     folding like a camp stool.


   Fa*ler"ni*an (?), a. Of or pertaining to Mount Falernus, in Italy; as,


   Falk  (f&add;k),  n. (Zo\'94l.) The razorbill. [Written also falc, and
   faik.] [Prov. Eng.]


   Fall  (f&add;l),  v. i. [imp. Fell (?); p. p. Fallen (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Falling.]  [AS.  feallan; akin to D. vallen, OS. & OHG. fallan, G.
   fallen, Icel. Falla, Sw. falla, Dan. falde, Lith. pulti, L. fallere to
   deceive,  Gr.  sfa`llein  to  cause  to  fall,  Skr.  sphal, sphul, to
   tremble. Cf. Fail, Fell, v. t., to cause to fall.]

   1.  To Descend, either suddenly or gradually; particularly, to descend
   by  the  force  of gravity; to drop; to sink; as, the apple falls; the
   tide falls; the mercury falls in the barometer.

     I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven. Luke x. 18.

   2.  To  cease  to  be  erect; to take suddenly a recumbent posture; to
   become  prostrate;  to  drop;  as,  a  child totters and falls; a tree
   falls; a worshiper falls on his knees.

     I fell at his feet to worship him. Rev. xix. 10.

   3.  To find a final outlet; to discharge its waters; to empty; -- with
   into; as, the river Rhone falls into the Mediterranean.

   4.  To  become  prostrate  and  dead;  to  die;  especially, to die by
   violence, as in battle.

     A thousand shall fall at thy side. Ps. xci. 7.

     He rushed into the field, and, foremost fighting, fell. Byron.

   5.  To cease to be active or strong; to die away; to lose strength; to
   subside; to become less intense; as, the wind falls.

   6. To issue forth into life; to be brought forth; -- said of the young
   of certain animals. Shak.

   7.  To  decline  in  power,  glory,  wealth,  or importance; to become
   insignificant;  to lose rank or position; to decline in weight, value,
   price etc.; to become less; as, the falls; stocks fell two points.

     I  am  a  poor  falle  man, unworthy now To be thy lord and master.

     The  greatness of these Irish lords suddenly fell and vanished. Sir
     J. Davies.

   8. To be overthrown or captured; to be destroyed.

     Heaven  and  earth  will  witness,  If  Rome must fall, that we are
     innocent. Addison.

   9.  To descend in character or reputation; to become degraded; to sink
   into  vice, error, or sin; to depart from the faith; to apostatize; to

     Let  us  labor therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall
     after the same example of unbelief. Heb. iv. 11.

   10.  To  become  insnared or embarrassed; to be entrapped; to be worse
   off than before; asm to fall into error; to fall into difficulties.

   11.  To  assume a look of shame or disappointment; to become or appear
   dejected; -- said of the countenance.

     Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. Gen. iv. 5.

     I have observed of late thy looks are fallen. Addison.

   12.  To  sink; to languish; to become feeble or faint; as, our spirits
   rise and fall with our fortunes.

   13.  To pass somewha suddenly, and passively, into a new state of body
   or  mind;  to  become;  as, to fall asleep; to fall into a passion; to
   fall in love; to fall into temptation.

   14.  To  happen; to to come to pass; to light; to befall; to issue; to

     The Romans fell on this model by chance. Swift.

     Sit  still,  my daughter, until thou know how the matter will fall.
     Ruth. iii. 18.

     They do not make laws, they fall into customs. H. Spencer.

   15. To come; to occur; to arrive.

     The vernal equinox, which at the Nicene Council fell on the 21st of
     March, falls now [1694] about ten days sooner. Holder.

   16.  To  begin  with haste, ardor, or vehemence; to rush or hurry; as,
   they fell to blows.

     They now no longer doubted, but fell to work heart and soul. Jowett
     (Thucyd. ).

   17.   To   pass  or  be  transferred  by  chance,  lot,  distribution,
   inheritance,  or  otherwise;  as,  the estate fell to his brother; the
   kingdom fell into the hands of his rivals.

   18. To belong or appertain.

     If  to  her  share  some  female errors fall, Look on her face, and
     you'll forget them all. Pope.

   19.  To  be dropped or uttered carelessly; as, an unguarded expression
   fell from his lips; not a murmur fell from him.
   To fall abroad of (Naut.), to strike against; -- applied to one vessel
   coming  into  collision  with another. -- To fall among, to come among
   accidentally or unexpectedly. -- To fall astern (Naut.), to move or be
   driven  backward;  to  be  left behind; as, a ship falls astern by the
   force of a current, or when outsailed by another. -- To fall away. (a)
   To  lose  flesh; to become lean or emaciated; to pine. (b) To renounce
   or  desert  allegiance;  to revolt or rebel. (c) To renounce or desert
   the  faith;  to  apostatize.  "These . . . for a while believe, and in
   time  of  temptation  fall  away."  Luke  viii.  13. (d) To perish; to
   vanish;  to  be  lost.  "How  .  . . can the soul . . . fall away into
   nothing?"  Addison. (e) To decline gradually; to fade; to languish, or
   become faint. "One color falls away by just degrees, and another rises
   insensibly."  Addison.  --  To fall back. (a) To recede or retreat; to
   give  way.  (b)  To  fail  of  performing a promise or purpose; not to
   fulfill.  -- To fall back upon. (a) (Mil.) To retreat for safety to (a
   stronger  position  in  the rear, as to a fort or a supporting body of
   troops).  (b)  To have recourse to (a reserved fund, or some available
   expedient  or  support).  -- To fall calm, to cease to blow; to become
   calm.  --  To  fall down. (a) To prostrate one's self in worship. "All
   kings shall fall down before him." Ps. lxxii. 11. (b) To sink; to come
   to the ground. "Down fell the beauteous youth." Dryden. (c) To bend or
   bow,  as a suppliant. (d) (Naut.) To sail or drift toward the mouth of
   a  river  or  other outlet. -- To fall flat, to produce no response or
   result;  to  fail of the intended effect; as, his speech fell flat. --
   To  fall  foul  of.  (a)  (Naut.)  To have a collision with; to become
   entangled  with  (b)  To  attack;  to make an assault upon. -- To fall
   from,  to recede or depart from; not to adhere to; as, to fall from an
   agreement  or  engagement; to fall from allegiance or duty. -- To fall
   from grace (M. E. Ch.), to sin; to withdraw from the faith. -- To fall
   home  (Ship  Carp.),  to curve inward; -- said of the timbers or upper
   parts  of  a  ship's side which are much within a perpendicular. -- To
   fall in. (a) To sink inwards; as, the roof fell in. (b) (Mil.) To take
   one's  proper  or assigned place in line; as, to fall in on the right.
   (c) To come to an end; to terminate; to lapse; as, on the death of Mr.
   B.,  the  annuuity,  which  he  had  so long received, fell in. (d) To
   become  operative.  "The  reversion,  to  which  he had been nominated
   twenty  years before, fell in." Macaulay. -- To fall into one's hands,
   to  pass,  often  suddenly  or  unexpectedly,  into one's ownership or
   control;  as,  to  spike  cannon when they are likely to fall into the
   hands of the enemy. -- To fall in with. (a) To meet with accidentally;
   as, to fall in with a friend. (b) (Naut.) To meet, as a ship; also, to
   discover or come near, as land. (c) To concur with; to agree with; as,
   the measure falls in with popular opinion. (d) To comply; to yield to.
   "You  will  find  it difficult to persuade learned men to fall in with
   your  projects." Addison. -- To fall off. (a) To drop; as, fruits fall
   off  when  ripe. (b) To withdraw; to separate; to become detached; as,
   friends  fall  off  in  adversity.  "Love cools, friendship falls off,
   brothers divide." Shak. (c) To perish; to die away; as, words fall off
   by  disuse. (d) To apostatize; to forsake; to withdraw from the faith,
   or from allegiance or duty.
     Those  captive  tribes  .  . . fell off From God to worship calves.
   (e)  To  forsake;  to  abandon;  as,  his  customers  fell off. (f) To
   depreciate;  to  change  for the worse; to deteriorate; to become less
   valuable,  abundant,  or  interesting;  as, a falling off in the wheat
   crop;  the magazine or the review falls off. "O Hamlet, what a falling
   off  was  there!" Shak. (g) (Naut.) To deviate or trend to the leeward
   of  the  point  to  which the head of the ship was before directed; to
   fall  to  leeward. -- To fall on. (a) To meet with; to light upon; as,
   we  have fallen on evil days. (b) To begin suddenly and eagerly. "Fall
   on,  and  try the appetite to eat." Dryden. (c) To begin an attack; to
   assault;  to assail. "Fall on, fall on, and hear him not." Dryden. (d)
   To drop on; to descend on. -- To fall out. (a) To quarrel; to begin to
     A  soul  exasperated in ills falls out With everything, its friend,
     itself. Addison.
   (b)  To happen; to befall; to chance. "There fell out a bloody quarrel
   betwixt  the  frogs and the mice." L'Estrange. (c) (Mil.) To leave the
   ranks,  as  a  soldier. -- To fall over. (a) To revolt; to desert from
   one side to another. (b) To fall beyond. Shak. -- To fall short, to be
   deficient;  as,  the corn falls short; they all fall short in duty. --
   To  fall  through,  to come to nothing; to fail; as, the engageent has
   fallen  through. -- To fall to, to begin. "Fall to, with eager joy, on
   homely  food."  Dryden. -- To fall under. (a) To come under, or within
   the   limits  of;  to  be  subjected  to;  as,  they  fell  under  the
   jurisdiction  of the emperor. (b) To come under; to become the subject
   of;  as, this point did not fall under the cognizance or deliberations
   of  the  court;  these  things  do  not  fall  under  human  sight  or
   observation.  (c) To come within; to be ranged or reckoned with; to be
   subordinate to in the way of classification; as, these substances fall
   under a different class or order. -- To fall upon. (a) To attack. [See
   To  fall on.] (b) To attempt; to have recourse to. "I do not intend to
   fall upon nice disquisitions." Holder. (c) To rush against. 

     NOTE: &hand; Fa ll primarily denotes descending motion, either in a
     perpendicular   or   inclined   direction,  and,  in  most  of  its
     applications,  implies, literally or figuratively, velocity, haste,
     suddenness,  or  violence.  Its  use  is  so  various,  and so mush
     diversified  by  modifying  words, that it is not easy to enumerate
     its senses in all its applications.


   Fall (?), v. t.

   1. To let fall; to drop. [Obs.]

     For every tear he falls, a Trojan bleeds. Shak.

   2. To sink; to depress; as, to fall the voice. [Obs.]

   3. To diminish; to lessen or lower. [Obs.]

     Upon  lessening  interest  to  four per cent, you fall the price of
     your native commodities. Locke.

   4. To bring forth; as, to fall lambs. [R.] Shak.

   5.  To  fell;  to  cut  down; as, to fall a tree. [Prov. Eng. & Local,


   Fall, n.

   1.  The  act  of  falling;  a  dropping  or descending be the force of
   gravity; descent; as, a fall from a horse, or from the yard of ship.

   2.  The  act of dropping or tumbling from an erect posture; as, he was
   walking on ice, and had a fall.

   3. Death; destruction; overthrow; ruin.

     They thy fall conspire. Denham.

     Pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit before a fall.
     Prov. xvi. 18.

   4.  Downfall; degradation; loss of greatness or office; termination of
   greatness,  power,  or  dominion; ruin; overthrow; as, the fall of the
   Roman empire.

     Beholds thee glorious only in thy fall. Pope.

   5.  The  surrender  of  a  besieged fortress or town ; as, the fall of

   6.  Diminution  or  decrease  in price or value; depreciation; as, the
   fall of prices; the fall of rents.

   7.  A sinking of tone; cadence; as, the fall of the voice at the close
   of a sentence.

   8. Declivity; the descent of land or a hill; a slope.

   9.  Descent  of  water;  a cascade; a cataract; a rush of water down a
   precipice  or  steep;  --  usually  in  the  plural,  sometimes in the
   singular; as, the falls of Niagara.

   10.  The  discharge  of a river or current of water into the ocean, or
   into  a  lake or pond; as, the fall of the Po into the Gulf of Venice.

   11.  Extent  of  descent;  the  distance which anything falls; as, the
   water of a stream has a fall of five feet.

   12. The season when leaves fall from trees; autumn.

     What  crowds  of patients the town doctor kills, Or how, last fall,
     he raised the weekly bills. Dryden.

   13.  That  which falls; a falling; as, a fall of rain; a heavy fall of

   14. The act of felling or cutting down. "The fall of timber." Johnson.

   15.  Lapse or declinsion from innocence or goodness. Specifically: The
   first  apostasy;  the act of our first parents in eating the forbidden
   fruit; also, the apostasy of the rebellious angels.

   16.  Formerly,  a kind of ruff or band for the neck; a falling band; a
   faule. B. Jonson.

   17.  That part (as one of the ropes) of a tackle to which the power is
   applied in hoisting.
   Fall herring (Zo\'94l.), a herring of the Atlantic (Clupea mediocris);
   --  also called tailor herring, and hickory shad. -- To try a fall, to
   try a bout at wrestling. Shak.


   Fal*la"cious (?), a. [L. fallaciosus, fr. fallacia: cf. F. fallacieux.
   See  Fallacy.] Embodying or pertaining to a fallacy; illogical; fitted
   to   deceive;   misleading;  delusive;  as,  fallacious  arguments  or
   reasoning. -- Fal*la"cious*ly, adv. -Fal*la"cious*ness, n.

   Page 540


   Fal"la*cy (?), n.; pl. Fallacies (#). [OE. fallace, fallas, deception,
   F.  fallace,  fr.  L.  fallacia,  fr. fallax deceitful, deceptive, fr.
   fallere to deceive. See Fail.]

   1.  Deceptive  or false appearance; deceitfulness; that which misleads
   the eye or the mind; deception.

     Winning  by conquest what the first man lost, By fallacy surprised.

   2.  (Logic)  An  argument, or apparent argument, which professes to be
   decisive  of  the  matter  at  issue,  while  in  reality it is not; a
   sophism.  Syn. -- Deception; deceit; mistake. -- Fallacy, Sophistry. A
   fallacy  is an argument which professes to be decisive, but in reality
   is  not;  sophistry  is  also  false reasoning, but of so specious and
   subtle  a  kind  as to render it difficult to expose its fallacy. Many
   fallacies  are  obvious,  but  the  evil  of  sophistry  lies  in  its
   consummate  art.  "Men  are  apt to suffer their minds to be misled by
   fallacies which gratify their passions. Many persons have obscured and
   confounded the nature of things by their wretched sophistry; though an
   act be never so sinful, they will strip it of its guilt." South.


   Fal"*lals`  (?),  n.pl.  Gay  ornaments;  frippery; gewgaws. [Colloq.]


   Fal"lax  (?),  n.  [L.  fallax deceptive. See Fallacy.] Cavillation; a
   caviling. [Obs.] Cranmer.


   Fall"en (?), a. Dropped; prostrate; degraded; ruined; decreased; dead.

     Some ruined temple or fallen monument. Rogers.


   Fal"len*cy  (?),  n.  [LL.  fallentia, L. fallens p.pr of fallere.] An
   exception. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.


   Fall"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, falls.

   2. (Mach.) A part which acts by falling, as a stamp in a fulling mill,
   or  the  device  in  a spinning machine to arrest motion when a thread


   Fall"fish`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A fresh-water fish of the United States
   (Semotilus bullaris); -- called also silver chub, and Shiner. The name
   is also applied to other allied species.


   Fal`li*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  The  state  of being fallible; liability to
   deceive  or  to be deceived; as, the fallibity of an argument or of an


   Fal"li*ble  (?), a. [LL. fallibilis, fr. L. fallere to deceive: cf. F.
   faillible.  See  Fail.]  Liable  to  fail,  mistake, or err; liable to
   deceive  or to be deceived; as, all men are fallible; our opinions and
   hopes are fallible.


   Fal"li*bly, adv. In a fallible manner.


   Fall"ing (?), a. & n. from Fall, v. i. Falling away, Falling off, etc.
   See  To  fall  away,  To  fall off, etc., under Fall, v. i. -- Falling
   band,  the  plain,  broad, linen collar turning down over the doublet,
   worn  in  the  early  part  of  the  17th century. -- Falling sickness
   (Med.),  epilepsy. Shak. -- Falling star. (Astron.) See Shooting star.
   -- Falling stone, a stone falling through the atmosphere; a meteorite;
   an  a\'89rolite.  -- Falling tide, the ebb tide. -- Falling weather, a
   rainy season. [Colloq.] Bartlett.


   Fal*lo"pi*an  (?),  a.  [From  Fallopius,  or Fallopio, a physician of
   Modena,  who  died  in 1562.] (Anat.) Pertaining to, or discovered by,
   Fallopius;  as,  the  Fallopian tubes or oviducts, the ducts or canals
   which conduct the ova from the ovaries to the uterus.


   Fal"low (?), a. [AS. fealu, fealo, pale yellow or red; akin to D. vaal
   fallow,  faded,  OHG. falo, G. falb, fahl, Icel. f\'94lr, and prob. to
   Lith.  palvas,  OSlav.  plavpallidus  pale,  pallere  to  be pale, Gr.
   palita. Cf. Pale, Favel, a., Favor.]

   1. Pale red or pale yellow; as, a fallow deer or greyhound. Shak.

   2.   [Cf.   Fallow,  n.]  Left  untilled  or  unsowed  after  plowing;
   uncultivated; as, fallow ground.
   Fallow  chat,  Fallow  finch  (Zo\'94l.),  a  small European bird, the
   wheatear (Saxicola \'91nanthe). See Wheatear.


   Fal"low,  n.  [So called from the fallow, or somewhat yellow, color of
   naked  ground;  or perh. akin to E. felly, n., cf. MHG. valgen to plow
   up, OHG. felga felly, harrow.]

   1. Plowed land. [Obs.]

     Who . . . pricketh his blind horse over the fallows. Chaucer.

   2. Land that has lain a year or more untilled or unseeded; land plowed
   without being sowed for the season.

     The plowing of fallows is a benefit to land. Mortimer.

   3. The plowing or tilling of land, without sowing it for a season; as,
   summer  fallow,  properly conducted, has ever been found a sure method
   of destroying weeds.

     Be  a  complete  summer fallow, land is rendered tender and mellow.
     The  fallow  gives  it a better tilth than can be given by a fallow
     crop. Sinclair.

   Fallow  crop,  the  crop  taken  from  a green fallow. [Eng.] -- Green
   fallow,  fallow  whereby land is rendered mellow and clean from weeds,
   by cultivating some green crop, as turnips, potatoes, etc. [Eng.]


   Fal"low  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fallowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fallowing.]  [From Fallow, n.] To plow, harrow, and break up, as land,
   without  seeding, for the purpose of destroying weeds and insects, and
   rendering  it  mellow;  as,  it  is profitable to fallow cold, strong,
   clayey land.

                                  Fallow deer

   Fal"low  deer`  (?). [So called from its fallow or pale yellow color.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A European species of deer (Cervus dama), much smaller than
   the  red  deer.  In  summer  both  sexes are spotted with white. It is
   common in England, where it is often domesticated in the parks.


   Fal"low*ist  (?),  n.  One  who favors the practice of fallowing land.
   [R.] Sinclair.


   Fal"low*ness, n. A well or opening, through the successive floors of a
   warehouse  or  manufactory, through which goods are raised or lowered.
   [U.S.] Bartlett.


   Fal"sa*ry  (?),  n.  [L.  falsarius,  fr.  falsus.  See  False,  a.] A
   falsifier of evidence. [Obs.] Sheldon.


   False  (?), a. [Compar. Falser (?); superl. Falsest.] [L. falsus, p.p.
   of  fallere  to  deceive;  cf.  OF.  faus, fals, F. faux, and AS. fals
   fraud. See Fail, Fall.]

   1.  Uttering  falsehood; unveracious; given to deceit; dishnest; as, a
   false witness.

   2.  Not  faithful or loyal, as to obligations, allegiance, vows, etc.;
   untrue;  treacherous;  perfidious;  as,  a  false  friend,  lover,  or
   subject; false to promises.

     I to myself was false, ere thou to me. Milton.

   3.  Not according with truth or reality; not true; fitted or likely to
   deceive or disappoint; as, a false statement.

   4.  Not  genuine or real; assumed or designed to deceive; counterfeit;
   hypocritical;  as,  false  tears;  false  modesty; false colors; false

     False face must hide what the false heart doth know. Shak.

   5.  Not  well founded; not firm or trustworthy; erroneous; as, a false
   claim; a false conclusion; a false construction in grammar.

     Whose false foundation waves have swept away. Spenser.

   6.  Not  essential  or  permanent,  as  parts of a structure which are
   temporary or supplemental.

   7. (Mus.) Not in tune.
   False  arch (Arch.), a member having the appearance of an arch, though
   not  of  arch  construction. -- False attic, an architectural erection
   above  the  main cornice, concealing a roof, but not having windows or
   inclosing  rooms.  -- False bearing, any bearing which is not directly
   upon  a  vertical  support; thus, the weight carried by a corbel has a
   false  bearing. -- False cadence, an imperfect or interrupted cadence.
   -- False conception (Med.), an abnormal conception in which a mole, or
   misshapen  fleshy  mass,  is  produced instead of a properly organized
   fetus.  --  False  croup  (Med.),  a spasmodic affection of the larynx
   attended  with the symptoms of membranous croup, but unassociated with
   the  deposit of a fibrinous membrane. -- False door OR window (Arch.),
   the  representation of a door or window, inserted to complete a series
   of  doors or windows or to give symmetry. -- False fire, a combustible
   carried by vessels of war, chiefly for signaling, but sometimes burned
   for  the  purpose  of  deceiving  an enemy; also, a light on shore for
   decoying  a  vessel  to  destruction.  -- False galena. See Blende. --
   False  imprisonment  (Law),  the  arrest  and imprisonment of a person
   without  warrant  or  cause,  or  contrary  to  law;  or  the unlawful
   detaining  of  a  person in custody. -- False keel (Naut.), the timber
   below  the  main  keel,  used  to  serve  both  as a protection and to
   increase  the  shio's lateral resistance. -- False key, a picklock. --
   False  leg.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  Proleg.  --  False  membrane (Med.), the
   fibrinous  deposit  formed  in croup and diphtheria, and resembling in
   appearance  an  animal  membrane.  --  False papers (Naut.), documents
   carried  by  a ship giving false representations respecting her cargo,
   destination,  ect.,  for  the  purpose  of deceiving. -- False passage
   (Surg.),  an  unnatural passage leading off from a natural canal, such
   as the urethra, and produced usually by the unskillful introduction of
   instruments.   --  False  personation  (Law),  the  intentional  false
   assumption  of the name and personality of another. -- False pretenses
   (Law),  false  representations  concerning  past  or present facts and
   events,  for the purpose of defrauding another. -- False rail (Naut.),
   a  thin  piece  of timber placed on top of the head rail to strengthen
   it.  --  False  relation  (Mus.), a progression in harmony, in which a
   certain  note  in a chord appears in the next chord prefixed by a flat
   or sharp. -- False return (Law), an untrue return made to a process by
   the  officer  to  whom  it  was delivered for execution. -- False ribs
   (Anat.),  the  asternal rebs, of which there are five pairs in man. --
   False  roof (Arch.), the space between the upper ceiling and the roof.
   Oxford  Gloss.  -- False token, a false mark or other symbol, used for
   fraudulent purposes. -- False scorpion (Zo\'94l.), any arachnid of the
   genus  Chelifer. See Book scorpion. -- False tack (Naut.), a coming up
   into  the  wind  and  filling  away  again  on the same tack. -- False
   vampire  (Zo\'94l.),  the Vampyrus spectrum of South America, formerly
   erroneously  supposed  to  have  blood-sucking  habits; -- called also
   vampire,  and  ghost vampire. The genuine blood-sucking bats belong to
   the  genera  Desmodus  and  Diphylla.  See  Vampire.  -- False window.
   (Arch.)  See  False  door, above. -- False wing. (Zo\'94l.) See Alula,
   and  Bastard  wing,  under  Bastard.  --  False  works (Civil Engin.),
   construction  works  to  facilitate  the erection of the main work, as
   scaffolding, bridge centering, etc.


   False,  adv.  Not  truly;  not honestly; falsely. "You play me false."


   False,  v.  t. [L. falsare to falsify, fr. falsus: cf. F. fausser. See
   False, a.]

   1. To report falsely; to falsify. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2. To betray; to falsify. [Obs.]

     [He] hath his truthe falsed in this wise. Chaucer.

   3. To mislead by want of truth; to deceive. [Obs.]

     In his falsed fancy. Spenser.

   4.  To  feign;  to pretend to make. [Obs.] "And falsed oft his blows."


   False"-faced` (?), a. Hypocritical. Shak.


   False"-heart` (?), a. False-hearted. Shak.


   False"-heart`ed,  a.  Hollow  or  unsound  at  the  core; treacherous;
   deceitful;   perfidious.   Bacon.   --  False"*heart`ed*ness,  n.  Bp.


   False"hood (?), n. [False + -hood]

   1.  Want  of truth or accuracy; an untrue assertion or representation;
   error; misrepresentation; falsity.

     Though  it be a lie in the clock, it is but a falsehood in the hand
     of the dial when pointing at a wrong hour, if rightly following the
     direction of the wheel which moveth it. Fuller.

   2. A deliberate intentional assertion of what is known to be untrue; a
   departure from moral integrity; a lie.

   3. Treachery; deceit; perfidy; unfaithfulness.

     Betrayed by falsehood of his guard. Shak.

   4. A counterfeit; a false appearance; an imposture.

     For his molten image is falsehood. Jer. x. 14.

     No falsehood can endure Touch of celestial temper. Milton.

   Syn. -- Falsity; lie; untruth; fiction; fabrication. See Falsity.


   False"ly  (?),  adv.  In  a  false  manner;  erroneously;  not  truly;
   perfidiously or treacherously. "O falsely, falsely murdered." Shak.

     Oppositions of science, falsely so called. 1 Tim. vi. 20.

     Will ye steal, murder . . . and swear falsely ? Jer. vii. 9.


   False"ness,  n.  The  state  of  being false; contrariety to the fact;
   inaccuracy;   want   of  integrity  or  uprightness;  double  dealing;
   unfaithfulness;  treachery;  perfidy; as, the falseness of a report, a
   drawing, or a singer's notes; the falseness of a man, or of his word.


   Fals"er (?), n. A deceiver. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fal*set"to  (?),  n.;  pl.  Falsettos  (#). [It. falsetto, dim. fr. L.
   falsus.  See  False.] A false or artificial voice; that voice in a man
   which  lies  above  his  natural voice; the male counter tenor or alto
   voice. See Head voice, under Voice.


   Fal"si*cri"men (?). [L.] (Civ. Law) The crime of falsifying.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is term in the Roman law included not only forgery,
     but every species of fraud and deceit. It never has been used in so
     extensive  a  sense  in modern common law, in which its predominant
     significance  is  forgery,  though  it  also  includes  perjury and
     offenses of a like character.

   Burrill. Greenleaf.


   Fal"si*fi`a*ble  (?),  a.  [Cf.  OF.  falsifiable.]  Capable  of being
   falsified, counterfeited, or corrupted. Johnson.


   Fal`si*fi*ca"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. falsification.]

   1.  The  act  of  falsifying,  or  making false; a counterfeiting; the
   giving to a thing an appearance of something which it is not.

     To counterfeit the living image of king in his person exceedeth all
     falsifications. Bacon.

   2. Willful misstatement or misrepresentation.

     Extreme  necessity  .  .  .  forced  him upon this bold and violent
     falsification of the doctrine of the alliance. Bp. Warburton.

   3.  (Equity)  The showing an item of charge in an account to be wrong.


   Fal"si*fi*ca`tor  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  falsificateur.] A falsifier. Bp.


   Fal"si*fi`er  (?),  n.  One  who  falsifies,  or  gives  to  a thing a
   deceptive appearance; a liar.


   Fal"si*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Falsified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Falsifying.] [L. falsus false + -ly: cf. F. falsifier. See False, a.]

   1. To make false; to represent falsely.

     The  Irish  bards use to forge and falsify everything as they list,
     to please or displease any man. Spenser.

   2. To counterfeit; to forge; as, to falsify coin.

   3. To prove to be false, or untrustworthy; to confute; to disprove; to
   nullify; to make to appear false.

     By  how  much  better than my word I am, By so much shall I falsify
     men's hope. Shak.

     Jews  and  Pagans  united  all  their  endeavors,  under Julian the
     apostate, to baffie and falsify the prediction. Addison.

   4.  To  violate;  to break by falsehood; as, to falsify one's faith or
   word. Sir P. Sidney.

   5. To baffie or escape; as, to falsify a blow. Bulter.

   6.  (Law)  To  avoid  or  defeat;  to  prove  false,  as  a  judgment.

   7.  (Equity) To show, in accounting, (an inem of charge inserted in an
   account) to be wrong. Story. Daniell.

   8.  To  make  false by multilation or addition; to tamper with; as, to
   falsify a record or document.


   Fal"si*fy, v. i. To tell lies; to violate the truth.

     It is absolutely and universally unlawful to lie and falsify.



     Fals"ism  (?),  n.  That  which is evidently false; an assertion or
     statement  the  falsity of which is plainly apparent; -- opposed to


     Fal"si*ty   (?),   n.;pl.  Falsities  (#).  [L.  falsitas:  cf.  F.
     fausset\'82, OF. also, falsit\'82. See False, a.]

     1. The quality of being false; coutrariety or want of conformity to

     Probability  does  not  make any alteration, either in the truth or
     falsity of things. South.

     2. That which is false; falsehood; a lie; a false assertion.

     Men often swallow falsities for truths. Sir T. Brown.

     Syn. -- Falsehood; lie; deceit. -- Falsity, Falsehood, Lie. Falsity
     denotes the state or quality of being false. A falsehood is a false
     declaration   designedly   made.  A  lie  is  a  gross,  unblushing
     falsehood. The falsity of a person's assertion may be proved by the
     evidence  of  others  and  thus the charge of falsehood be fastened
     upon him.


     Fal"ter  (?),  v.  t.  To  thrash in the chaff; also, to cleanse or
     sift, as barley. [Prov. Eng.] Halliwell.


     Fal"ter,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Faltered  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
     Faltering.] [OE. falteren, faltren, prob. from fault. See Fault, v.
     & n.]

     1.  To  hesitate;  to speak brokenly or weakly; to stammer; as, his
     tongue falters.

     With faltering speech and visage incomposed. Milton.

     2.  To  tremble;  to  totter;  to  be  unsteady. "He found his legs
     falter." Wiseman.

     3. To hesitate in purpose or action.

     Ere her native king Shall falter under foul rebellion's arms. Shak.

     4.  To  fail  in distinctness or regularity of exercise; -- said of
     the mind or of thought.

     Here  indeed  the power of disinct conception of space and distance
     falters. I. Taylor.


     Fal"ter, v. t. To utter with hesitation, or in a broken, trembling,
     or weak manner.

     And here he faltered forth his last farewell. Byron.

     Mde me most happy, faltering "I am thine." Tennyson.

     Page 541


     Fal"ter   (?),  n.  [See  Falter,  v.  i.]  Hesitation;  trembling;
     feebleness;  an  uncertain  or broken sound; as, a slight falter in
     her voice.

     The falter of an idle shepherd's pipe. Lowell.


     Fal"ter*ing,  a.  Hesitating;  trembling.  "With faltering speech."
     Milton. -- n. Falter; halting; hesitation. -- Fal"ter*ing*ly, adv.


     Fa`luns"  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Geol.) A series of strata, of the Middle
     Tertiary  period, of France, abounding in shells, and used by Lyell
     as the type of his Miocene subdivision.


     Fal"we (?), a. & n. Fallow. [Obs.] Chaucer.


     Falx  (?),  n.  [L., a sickle.] (Anat.) A curved fold or process of
     the  dura  mater  or the peritoneum; esp., one of the partitionlike
     folds of the dura mater which extend into the great fissures of the


     Fam"ble  (?),  v.  i.  [OE.  falmelen; cf. SW. famla to grope, Dan.
     famle  to  grope,  falter,  hesitate,  Isel. f\'belma to grope. Cf.
     Famble.] To stammer. [Obs.] Nares.


     Fam"ble,  n.  [Cf.  Famble,  v.] A hand [Slang & Obs.] "We clap our
     fambles." Beau. & Fl.


     Fame  (?),  n.  [OF.  fame, L. fama, fr. fari to speak, akin to Gr.
     Ban, and cf. Fable, Fate, Euphony, Blame.]

     1. Public report or rumor.

     The fame thereof was heard in Pharaoh's house. Gen. xlv. 16.

     2. Report or opinion generally diffused; renown; public estimation;
     celebrity,  either  favorable  or  unfavorable;  as,  the  fame  of

     I find thou art no less than fame hath bruited. Shak.

     Syn. -- Notoriety; celebrity; renown; reputation.


     Fame, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Famed (?),; p. pr. & vb. n. Faming.]

     1. To report widely or honorably.

     The  field  where  thou  art  famed  To  have wrought such wonders.

     2. To make famous or renowned.

     Those Hesperian gardens famed of old. Milton.


     Fame"less, a. Without fame or renown. -- Fame"less*ly, adv.


     Fa*mil`iar  (?),  a.  [OE.  familer,  familier, F. familier, fr. L.
     familiaris, fr. familia family. See Family.]

     1. Of or pertaining to a family; domestic. "Familiar feuds." Byron.

     2.  Closely  acquainted or intimate, as a friend or companion; well
     versed  in,  as  any  subject  of  study;  as,  familiar  with  the

     3.  Characterized  by,  or  exhibiting,  the  manner of an intimate
     friend;  not  formal;  unconstrained;  easy; accessible. "In loose,
     familiar strains." Addison.

     Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar. Shak.

     4.  Well  known;  well understood; common; frequent; as, a familiar

     That  war,  or  peace, or both at once, may be As things acquainted
     and familiar to us. Shak.

     There is nothing more familiar than this. Locke.

     5. Improperly acquainted; wrongly intimate. Camden.

     Familiar spirit

   , a demon or evil spirit supposed to attend at call. 1 Sam. xxviii. 3,


   Fa*mil"iar, n.

   1. An intimate; a companion.

     All my familiars watched for my halting. Jer. xx. 10.

   2. An attendant demon or evil spirit. Shak.

   3.  (Court  of  Inquisition)  A  confidential  officer employed in the
   service  of  the  tribunal, especially in apprehending and imprisoning
   the accused.


   Fa*mil`iar"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl. Familiarities (#). [OE. familarite, F.
   familiarit\'82fr. L. faniliaritas. See Familiar.]

   1.  The  state  of  being familiar; intimate and frequent converse, or
   association;  unconstrained  intercourse;  freedom  from  ceremony and
   constraint; intimacy; as, to live in remarkable familiarity.

   2.  Anything said or done by one person to another unceremoniously and
   without  constraint;  esp.,  in  the  pl.,  such  actions and words as
   propriety   and   courtesy   do   not   warrant;  liberties.  Syn.  --
   Acquaintance; fellowship; affability; intimacy. See Acquaintance.


   Fa*mil`iar*i*za"tion  (?),  n.  The act or process of making familiar;
   the  result  of  becoming familiar; as, familiarization with scenes of


   Fa*mil"iar*ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Familiarized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Familiarizing (?).] [Cf. F. familiariser.]

   1.  To  make  familiar or intimate; to habituate; to accustom; to make
   well known by practice or converse; as, to familiarize one's self with
   scenes of distress.

   2.  To  make  acquainted,  or  skilled,  by  practice or study; as, to
   familiarize one's self with a business, a book, or a science.


   Fa"mil"iar*ly, adv. In a familiar manner.


   Fa*mil"iar*ness, n. Familiarity. [R.]


   Fa*mil"ia*ry  (?),  a. [L. familiaris. See Familiar.] Of or pertaining
   to a family or household; domestic. [Obs.] Milton.


   Fam"i*lism (?), n. The tenets of the Familists. Milton.


   Fam"i*list  (?),  n.  [From  Family.]  (Eccl. Hist.) One of afanatical
   Antinomian  sect originating in Holland, and existing in England about
   1580,  called  the  Family  of  Love,  who held that religion consists
   wholly in love.


   Fam"i*lis*ter*y  (?),  n.; pl. Familisteries (. [F. familist\'8are.] A
   community  in  which  many  persons  unite  as  in one family, and are
   regulated by certain communistic laws and customs.

                           Familistic, Familistical

   Fam`i*listic  (?),  Fam`i*lis"tic*al  (?), a. Pertaining to Familists.


   Fam"i*ly  (?), n.; pl. Families (#). [L. familia, fr. famulus servant;
   akin  to  Oscan  famel  servant,  cf. faamat he dwells, Skr. dh\'beman
   house,  fr.  dh\'beto  set,  make,  do: cf. F. famille. Cf. Do, v. t.,
   Doom, Fact, Feat.]

   1. The collective body of persons who live in one house, and under one
   head  or  manager;  a  household,  including  parents,  children,  and
   servants, and, as the case may be, lodgers or boarders.

   2.  The  group  comprising  a  husband  and  wife  and their dependent
   children,  constituting  a  fundamental  unit  in  the organization of

     The  welfare  of  the  family  underlies the welfare of society. H.

   3.  Those  who  descend  from one common progenitor; a tribe, clan, or
   race; kindred; house; as, the human family; the family of Abraham; the
   father of a family.

     Go ! and pretennd your family is young. Pope.

   4. Course of descent; genealogy; line of ancestors; lineage.

   5. Honorable descent; noble or respectable stock; as, a man of family.

   6. A groupe of kindred or closely related individuals; as, a family of
   languages; a family of States; the chlorine family.

   7.  (Biol.) A groupe of organisms, either animal or vegetable, related
   by  certain  points  of  resemblance in structure or development, more
   comprehensive  than  a  genus, because it is usually based on fewer or
   less  pronounced  points  of  likeness. In zo\'94logy a family is less
   comprehesive  than an order; in botany it is often considered the same
   thing as an order.
   Family  circle.  See  under Circle. -- Family man. (a) A man who has a
   family;  esp.,  one  who  has a wife and children living with him andd
   dependent  upon  him.  (b)  A  man  of  domestic habits. "The Jews are
   generally, when married, most exemplary family men." Mayhew. -- Family
   of  curves  OR surfaces (Geom.), a group of curves or surfaces derived
   from  a single equation. -- In a family way, like one belonging to the
   family.  "Why don't we ask him and his ladies to come over in a family
   way,  and  dine with some other plain country gentlefolks?" Thackeray.
   -- In the family way, pregnant. [Colloq.]


   Fam"ine (?), n. [F. famine, fr. L. fames hunger; cf. Gr. h\'beni loss,
   lack,  h\'be  to  leave.]  General scarcity of food; dearth; a want of
   provisions; destitution. "Worn with famine." Milton.

     There was a famine in the land. Gen. xxvi. 1.

   Famine fever (Med.), typhus fever.


   Fam"ish  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Famished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Famishing.]  [OE. famen; cf. OF. afamer, L. fames. See Famine, and cf.

   1. To starve, kill, or destroy with hunger. Shak.

   2.  To  exhaust  the  strength or endurance of, by hunger; to distress
   with hanger.

     And  when  all  the land of Egypt was famished, the people cried to
     Pharaoh for bread. Cen. xli. 55.

     The pains of famished Tantalus he'll feel. Dryden.

   3.  To kill, or to cause to suffer extremity, by deprivation or denial
   of anything necessary.

     And famish him of breath, if not of bread. Milton.

   4. To force or constrain by famine.

     He had famished Paris into a surrender. Burke.


   Fam"ish, v. i.

   1. To die of hunger; to starve.

   2.  To  suffer  extreme  hunger  or  thirst,  so as to be exhausted in
   strength, or to come near to perish.

     You are all resolved rather to die than to famish? Shak.

   3.  To  suffer  extremity  from  deprivation  of anything essential or

     The Lord will not suffer the soul of the righteous to famish. Prov.
     x. 3.


   Fam"ish*ment (?), n. State of being famished.


   Fa*mos"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  famositas  infamy: cf. F. famosit\'82. See
   Famous.] The state or quality of being famous. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Fa"mous  (?), a. [L. famosus, fr. fama fame: cf. F. fameux. See Fame.]
   Celebrated  in  fame  or  public  report;  renowned;  mach  talked of;
   distinguished  in  story;  --  used  in  either a good or a bad sense,
   chiefly  the  former; often followed by for; as, famous for erudition,
   for eloquence, for military skill; a famous pirate.

     Famous for a scolding tongue. Shak.

   Syn.  -- Noted; remarkable; signal; conspicuous; celebrated; renowned;
   illustrious;  eminent;  transcendent;  excellent. -- Famous, Renowned,
   Illustrious.  Famous  is applied to a person or thing widely spoken of
   as extraordinary; renowned is applied to those who are named again and
   again  with honor; illustrious, to those who have dazzled the world by
   the splendor of their deeds or their virtues. See Distinguished.


   Fa"moused (?), a. Renowned. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fa"mous*ly  (?),  adv.  In a famous manner; in a distinguished degree;
   greatly; splendidly.

     Then  this  land  was famously enriched With politic grave counsel.


   Fa"mous*ness, n. The state of being famous.


   Fam"u*lar  (?), n. [Cf. L. famularis of servants.] Domestic; familiar.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fam"u*late  (?),  v.  i. [L. famulatus, p.p. of famulari to serve, fr.
   famulus servant.] To serve. [Obs.]


   Fam"u*list  (?), n. [L. famulus servant.] A collegian of inferior rank
   or  position,  corresponding to the sizar at Cambridge. [Oxford Univ.,


   Fan (?), n. [AS. fann, fr. L. vannus fan, van for winnowing grain; cf.
   F. van. Cf. Van a winnowing machine, Winnow.]

   1. An instrument used for producing artificial currents of air, by the
   wafting  or revolving motion of a broad surface; as: (a) An instrument
   for cooling the person, made of feathers, paper, silk, etc., and often
   mounted  on sticks all turning about the same pivot, so as when opened
   to  radiate  from  the  center and assume the figure of a section of a
   circle.  (b)  (Mach.)  Any  revolving vane or vanes used for producing
   currents  of  air,  in  winnowing  grain, blowing a fire, ventilation,
   etc., or for checking rapid motion by the resistance of the air; a fan
   blower;  a fan wheel. (c) An instrument for winnowing grain, by moving
   which the grain is tossed and agitated, and the chaff is separated and
   blown  away.  (d)  Something  in  the  form of a fan when spread, as a
   peacock's  tail, a window, etc. (e) A small vane or sail, used to keep
   the  large  sails  of  a smock windmill always in the direction of the

     Clean  provender, which hath been winnowed with the shovel and with
     the fan. Is. xxx. 24.

   2.  That  which  produces  effects  analogous to those of a fan, as in
   exciting   a   flame,   etc.;   that  which  inflames,  heightens,  or
   strengthens; as, it served as a fan to the flame of his passion.

   3. A quintain; -- from its form. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   Fan blower, a wheel with vanes fixed on a rotating shaft inclosed in a
   case  or  chamber,  to  create  a  blast  of air (fan blast) for forge
   purposes,  or  a  current  for draft and ventilation; a fanner. -- Fan
   cricket  (Zo\'94l.),  a  mole  cricket. -- Fan light (Arch.), a window
   over  a  door;  --  so called from the semicircular form and radiating
   sash  bars  of  those  windows  which are set in the circular heads of
   arched  doorways.  --  Fan  shell  (Zo\'94l.), any shell of the family
   Pectinid\'91.  See  Scallop,  n.,  1.  --  Fan  tracery  (Arch.),  the
   decorative  tracery  on  the  surface of fan vaulting. -- Fan vaulting
   (Arch.),  an  elaborate  system of vaulting, in which the ribs diverge
   somewhat  like  the  rays  of  a  fan,  as  in  Henry VII.'s chapel in
   Westminster Abbey. It is peculiar to English Gothic. -- Fan wheel, the
   wheel of a fan blower. -- Fan window. Same as Fan light (above).
   Fan (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fanned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fanning (?).]
   [Cf. OF. vanner, L. vannere. See Fan, n., Van a winnowing machine.] 

   1. To move as with a fan.

     The air . . . fanned with unnumbered plumes. Milton.

   2.  To cool and refresh, by moving the air with a fan; to blow the air
   on the face of with a fan.

   3. To ventilate; to blow on; to affect by air put in motion.

     Calm as the breath which fans our eastern groves. Dryden.

   4.  To  winnow; to separate chaff from, and drive it away by a current
   of air; as, to fan wheat. Jer. li. 2.

   5.  To  excite  or  stir  up to activity, as a fan axcites a flame; to
   stimulate; as, this conduct fanned the excitement of the populace.
   Fanning  machine,  OR Fanning mill, a machine for separating seed from
   chaff, etc., by a blast of air; a fanner.


   Fa`nal"  (?),  n. [F.] A lighthouse, or the apparatus placed in it for
   giving light.


   Fa*nat"ic  (?),  a.  [L. fanaticus inspired by divinity, enthusiastic,
   frantic,  fr.  fanum fane: cf. F. fanatique. See Fane.] Pertaining to,
   or   indicating,   fanaticism;   extravagant   in   opinions;   ultra;
   unreasonable;   excessively   enthusiastic,  especially  on  religious
   subjects; as, fanatic zeal; fanatic notions.

     But  Faith, fanatic Faith, once wedded fast To some dear falsehood,
     hugs it to the last. T. Moore.


   Fa*nat"ic,  n. A person affected by excessive enthusiasm, particularly
   on  religious  subjects; one who indulges wild and extravagant notions
   of religion.

     There  is  a  new  word, coined within few months, called fanatics,
     which,  by  the  close  stickling thereof, seemeth well cut out and
     proportioned  to  signify what is meant thereby, even the sectaries
     of our age. Fuller (1660).

     Fanatics  are  governed  rather  by  imagination  than by judgment.


   Fa*nat"ic*al  (?),  a.  Characteristic of, or relating to, fanaticism;
   fanatic. -Fa*nat"ic*al*ly, adv. -- Fa*nat"ic*al*ness, n.


   Fa*nat"i*cism   (?),   n.   [Cf.   Fanatism.]   Excessive  enthusiasm,
   unreasoning  zeal,  or  wild  and extravagant notions, on any subject,
   especially  religion; religious frenzy.<-- and politics, terrorism -->
   Syn. -- See Superstition.


   Fa*nat"i*cize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fanaticized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Fanaticizing (?).] To cause to become a fanatic.


   Fan"a*tism  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. fanatisme. Cf. Fanaticism.] Fanaticism.
   [R.] Gibbon.


   Fan"cied (?), a. [From Fancy, v. t.] Formed or conceived by the fancy;
   unreal; as, a fancied wrong.


   Fan"ci*er (?), n.

   1.  One  who  is  governed  by  fancy.  "Not reasoners, but fanciers."

   2.  One  who  fancies  or  has a special liking for, or interest in, a
   particular object or class or objects; hence, one who breeds and keeps
   for sale birds and animals; as, bird fancier, dog fancier, etc.


   Fan"ci*ful (?), a.

   1.  Full  of  fancy;  guided  by  fancy,  rather  than  by  reason and
   experience; whimsical; as, a fanciful man forms visionary projects.

   2.  Conceived  in  the  fancy;  not  consistent  with facts or reason;
   abounding  in  ideal  qualities  or  figures; as, a fanciful scheme; a
   fanciful theory.

   3. Curiously shaped or constructed; as, she wore a fanciful headdress.

     Gather up all fancifullest shells. Keats.

   Syn.   --   Imaginative;  ideal;  visionary;  capricious;  chimerical;
   whimsical;  fantastical; wild. -- Fanciful, Fantastical, Visionary. We
   speak of that as fanciful which is irregular in taste and judgment; we
   speak  of  it as fantastical when it becomes grotesque and extravagant
   as  well  as  irregular; we speak of it as visionary when it is wholly
   unfounded in the nature of things. Fanciful notions are the product of
   a  heated  fancy,  without  any  tems  are  made  up of oddly assorted
   fancies,  aften of the most whimsical kind; visionary expectations are
   those  which  can  never  be  realized in fact. -- Fan"ci*ful*ly, adv.
   -Fan"ci*ful*ness, n.

   Page 542


   Fan"*ci*less  (?),  a.  Having no fancy; without ideas or imagination.

     A  pert  or  bluff important wight, Whose brain is fanciless, whose
     blood is white. Armstrong.


   Fan"cy  (?),  n.;  pl. Fancies (#). [Contr. fr. fantasy, OF. fantasie,
   fantaisie,  F.  fantaisie,  L.  phantasia, fr. Gr. bh\'beto shine. Cf.
   Fantasy, Fantasia, Epiphany, Phantom.]

   1. The faculty by which the mind forms an image or a representation of
   anything  perceived  before; the power of combining and modifying such
   objects  into new pictures or images; the power of readily and happily
   creating and recalling such objects for the purpose of amusement, wit,
   or embellishment; imagination.

     In  the soul Are many lesser faculties, that serve Reason as chief.
     Among these fancy next Her office holds. Milton.

   2.  An  image  or  representation  of  anything  formed  in  the mind;
   conception; thought; idea; conceit.

     How  now, my lord ! why do you keep alone, Of sorriest fancies your
     companoins making ? Shak.

   3. An opinion or notion formed without much reflection; caprice; whim;

     I  have  always  had a fancy that learning might be made a play and
     recreation to children. Locke.

   4.  Inclination;  liking, formed by caprice rather than reason; as, to
   strike one's fancy; hence, the object of inclination or liking.

     To fit your fancies to your father's will. Shak.

   5.  That which pleases or entertains the taste or caprice without much
   use or value.

     London pride is a pretty fancy for borders. Mortimer.

   6. A sort of love song or light impromptu ballad. [Obs.] Shak.
   The fancy, all of a class who exhibit and cultivate any peculiar taste
   or  fancy;  hence, especially, sporting characters taken collectively,
   or  any  specific class of them, as jockeys, gamblers, prize fighters,

     At  a  great  book  sale  in  London, which had congregated all the
     fancy. De Quincey.

   Syn. -- Imagination; conceit; taste; humor; inclination; whim; liking.
   See Imagination.


   Fan"cy, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fancied (?), p. pr. & vb. n. Fancying (.]

   1.  To  figure  to one's self; to believe or imagine something without

     If  our  search has reached no farther than simile and metaphor, we
     rather fancy than know. Locke.

   2. To love. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fan"cy, v. t.

   1. To form a conception of; to portray in the mind; to imagine.

     He whom I fancy, but can ne'er express. Dryden.

   2.  To  have a fancy for; to like; to be pleased with, particularly on
   account   of  external  appearance  or  manners.  "We  fancy  not  the
   cardinal." Shak.

   3. To believe without sufficient evidence; to imagine (something which
   is unreal).

     He  fancied  he  was  welcome,  because  those arounde him were his
     kinsmen. Thackeray.


   Fan"cy, a.

   1. Adapted to please the fancy or taste; ornamental; as, fancy goods.

   2. Extravagant; above real value.

     This  anxiety  never  degenerated into a monomania, like that which
     led  his  [Frederick  the  Great's]  father to pay fancy prices for
     giants. Macaulay.

   Fancy  ball,  a  ball  in  which porsons appear in fanciful dresses in
   imitation  of  the costumes of different persons and nations. -- Fancy
   fair,  a  fair  at  which  articles  of  fancy  and ornament are sold,
   generally  for  some  charitable  purpose.  -- Fancy goods, fabrics of
   various  colors,  patterns,  etc.,  as ribbons, silks, laces, etc., in
   distinction  from  those  of a simple or plain color or make. -- Fancy
   line  (Naut.),  a  line rove through a block at the jaws of a gaff; --
   used  to  haul  it  down.  Fancy  roller  (Carding Machine), a clothed
   cylinder  (usually  having  straight teeth) in front of the doffer. --
   Fancy  stocks,  a species of stocks which afford great opportunity for
   stock   gambling,   since  they  have  no  intrinsic  value,  and  the
   fluctuations in their prices are artificial. -- Fancy store, one where
   articles of fancy and ornament are sold. -- Fancy woods, the more rare
   and expensive furniture woods, as mahogany, satinwood, rosewood, etc.


   Fan"cy-free`  (?),  a.  Free  from  the  power  of  love.  "In  maiden
   meditation, fancy-free." Shak.


   Fan"cy*mon`ger (?), n. A lovemonger; a whimsical lover. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fan"cy-sick` (?), a. Love-sick. Shak.


   Fan"cy*work`  (?),  n.  Ornamental  work  with  a  needle  or hook, as
   embroidery, crocheting, netting, etc.


   Fand (?), obs. imp. of Find. Spenser.


   Fan*dan"go  (?), n.; pl. Fandangoes (#). [Sp. A name brought, together
   with the dance, from the West Indies to Spain.]

   1.  A  lively  dance,  in 3-8 or 6-8 time, much practiced in Spain and
   Spanish America. Also, the tune to which it is danced.

   2. A ball or general dance, as in Mexico. [Colloq.]


   Fane  (?),  n. [L. fanum a place dedicated to some deity, a sanctuary,
   fr.  fari  to  speak.  See  Fame.]  A  temple;  a place consecrated to
   religion; a church. [Poet.]

     Such to this British Isle, her Christian fanes. Wordsworth.


   Fane, n. [See Vane.] A weathercock. [Obs.]


   Fa*ne"ga  (?),  n.  [Sp.]  A dry measure in Spain and Spanish America,
   varying from 1 De Colange.


   Fan"fare`  (?),  n.  [F.  Cf. Fanfaron.] A flourish of trumpets, as in
   coming into the lists, etc.; also, a short and lively air performed on
   hunting horns during the chase.

     The  fanfare  announcing  the  arrival  of  the  various  Christian
     princes. Sir W. Scott.


   Fan"fa*ron  (?),  n. [F., fr. Sp. fanfarron; cf. It. fanfano, and OSp.
   fanfa  swaggering, boasting, also Ar. farf\'ber talkative.] A bully; a
   hector; a swaggerer; an empty boaster. [R.] Dryden.


   Fan*far`on*ade"  (?),  n.  [F. fanfaronnade, fr. Sp. fanfarronada. See
   Fanfaron.] A swaggering; vain boasting; ostentation; a bluster. Swift.


   Fan"foot`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) A species of gecko having the toes
   expanded   into   large  lobes  for  adhesion.  The  Egyptian  fanfoot
   (Phyodactylus  gecko)  is  believed,  by the natives, to have venomous
   toes. (b) Any moth of the genus Polypogon.


   Fang  (?),  v.  t.  [OE. fangen, fongen, fon (g orig. only in p.p. and
   imp.  tense),  AS.  f;  akin  to  D.  vangen, OHG. f\'behan, G. fahen,
   fangen,  Isel.  f\'be,  Sw.  f,  f, Dan. fange, faae, Goth. fahan, and
   prob. to E. fair, peace, pact. Cf. Fair, a.]

   1. To catch; to seize, as with the teeth; to lay hold of; to gripe; to
   clutch. [Obs.] Shak.

     He's in the law's clutches; you see he's fanged. J. Webster.

   2. To enable to catch or tear; to furnish with fangs. "Chariots fanged
   with scythes." Philips.


   Fang, n. [From Fang, v. t.; cf. AS. fang a taking, booty, G. fang.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  The tusk of an animal, by which the prey is seized and
   held or torn; a long pointed tooth; esp., one of the usually erectile,
   venomous teeth of serpents. Also, one of the falcers of a spider.

     Since I am a dog, beware my fangs. Shak.

   2. Any shoot or other thing by which hold is taken.

     The protuberant fangs of the yucca. Evelyn.

   3.  (Anat.)  The root, or one of the branches of the root, of a tooth.
   See Tooth.

   4.  (Mining)  A  niche  in  the  side  of an adit or shaft, for an air
   course. Knight.

   5. (Mech.) A projecting tooth or prong, as in a part of a lock, or the
   plate  of  a  belt  clamp, or the end of a tool, as a chisel, where it
   enters the handle.

   6. (Naut.) (a) The valve of a pump box. (b) A bend or loop of a rope.
   In  a  fang,  fast entangled. -- To lose the fang, said of a pump when
   the  water  has gone out; hence: To fang a pump, to supply it with the
   water necessary to make it operate. [Scot.]


   Fanged  (?),  a.  Having fangs or tusks; as, a fanged adder. Also used


   Fan"gle  (?),  n.  [From  Fang, v. t.; hence, prop., a taking up a new
   thing.]  Something  new-fashioned;  a  foolish innovation; a gewgaw; a
   trifling ornament.


   Fan"gle, v. t. To fashion. [Obs.]

     To control and new fangle the Scripture. Milton.


   Fan"gled  (?),  a.  New  made;  hence, gaudy; showy; vainly decorated.
   [Obs.,  except  with  the  prefix  new.]  See Newfangled. "Our fangled
   world." Shak.


   Fan"gle*ness (?), n. Quality of being fangled. [Obs.]

     He them in new fangleness did pass. Spenser.


   Fang"less  (?),  a.  Destitute  of  fangs or tusks. "A fangless lion."


   Fan"got  (?),  n.  [Cf. It. fagotto, fangotto, a bundle. Cf. Fagot.] A
   quantity of wares, as raw silk, etc., from one hundred weight.


   Fan"ion (?), n. [See Fanon.]

   1. (Mil.) A small flag sometimes carried at the head of the baggage of
   a brigade. [Obs.]

   2. A small flag for marking the stations in surveying.


   Fan"like`  (?), a. Resembling a fan; -- specifically (Bot.), folded up
   like a fan, as certain leaves; plicate.


   Fan"nel (?), n. [Dim., from same source as fanon.] Same as Fanon.


   Fan"ner (?), n.

   1. One who fans. Jer. li. 2.

   2. A fan wheel; a fan blower. See under Fan.


   Fan"*nerved`  (?),  a.  (Bot.  &  Zo\'94l.) Having the nerves or veins
   arranged  in a radiating manner; -- said of certain leaves, and of the
   winfs of some insects.


   Fan"on  (?),  n.  [F.  fanon, LL. fano, fr. OHG. fano banner cloth, G.
   fahne  banner.  See  Vane,  and  cf. Fanion, Confalon.] (Eccl.) A term
   applied  to various articles, as: (a) A peculiar striped scarf worn by
   the pope at mass, and by eastern bishops. (b) A maniple. [Written also
   fannel, phanon, etc.]

                                   Fan palm

   Fan"  palm`  (?).  (Bot.)  Any  palm tree having fan-shaped or radiate
   leaves; as the Cham\'91rops humilis of Southern Europe; the species of
   Sabal  and  Thrinax  in the West Indies, Florida, etc.; and especially
   the  great  talipot tree (Corypha umbraculifera) of Ceylon and Malaya.
   The  leaves  of  the  latter are often eighteen feet long and fourteen
   wide,  and are used for umbrellas, tents, and roofs. When cut up, they
   are used for books and manuscripts.


   Fan"tail`  (?),  n.  (Zool.)  (a) A variety of the domestic pigeon, so
   called  from  the  shape  of  the tail. (b) Any bird of the Australian
   genus  Rhipidura,  in  which  the  tail is spread in the form of a fan
   during flight. They belong to the family of flycatchers.


   Fan"-tailed`  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having an expanded, or fan-shaped,
   tail; as, the fan-tailed pigeon.


   Fan*ta"si*a  (?), n. [It. See Fancy.] (Mus.) A continuous composition,
   not  divided  into  what  are  called  movements,  or  governed by the
   ordinary  rules  of  musical  design,  but in which the author's fancy
   roves unrestricted by set form.


   Fan"ta*sied   (?),   a.   [From   Fantasy.]  Filled  with  fancies  or
   imaginations. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fan"tasm (?), n. [See Phantasm, Fancy.] Same as Phantasm.


   Fan"tast  (?),  n.  One  whose  manners  or  ideas are fantastic. [R.]


   Fan*tas"tic (?), a. [F. fantastique, fr. Gr. Fancy.]

   1.  Existing  only  in  imagination;  fanciful;  imaginary;  not real;

   2. Having the nature of a phantom; unreal. Shak.

   3.  Indulging  the  vagaries of imagination; whimsical; full of absurd
   fancies; capricious; as, fantastic minds; a fantastic mistress.

   4.  Resembling  fantasies  in  irregularity, caprice, or eccentricity;
   irregular; oddly shaped; grotesque.

     There  at  the  foot of yonder nodding beech, That wreathes its old
     fantastic roots so high. T. Gray.

   Syn.   --   Fanciful;   imaginative;   ideal;  visionary;  capricious;
   chimerical; whimsical; queer. See Fanciful.


   Fan*tas"tic,  n.  A person given to fantastic dress, manners, etc.; an
   eccentric person; a fop. Milton.

     Our fantastics, who, having a fine watch, take all ocasions to drow
     it out to be seen. Fuller.


   Fan*tas"tic*al   (?),  a.  Fanciful;  unreal;  whimsical;  capricious;


   Fan*tas`ti*cal"i*ty (?), n. Fantastically. [Obs.]


   Fan*tas"tic*al*ly (?), adv. In a fantastic manner.

     the  letter  A,  in  scarlet,  fantastically  embroidered with gold
     thread, upon her bosom. Hawthorne.


   Fan*tas"tic-al*ness, n. The quality of being fantastic.


   Fan*tas"ti*cism   (?),   n.   The   quality   of   being  fantastical;
   fancifulness; whimsicality. Ruskin.


   Fan*tas"tic*ly (?), adv. Fantastically. [Obs.]


   Fan*tas"tic*ness, n. Fantasticalness. [Obs.]


   Fan*tas"tic*co (?), n. [It.] A fantastic. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fan"ta*sy (?), n.; pl. Fantasies (#). [See Fancy.]

   1. Fancy; imagination; especially, a whimsical or fanciful conception;
   a vagary of the imagination; whim; caprice; humor.

     Is not this something more than fantasy ? Shak.

     A thousand fantasies Being to throng into my memory. Milton.

   2. Fantastic designs.

     Embroidered   with   fantasies   and  flourishes  of  gold  thread.


   Fan"ta*sy,  v. t. To have a fancy for; to be pleased with; to like; to
   fancy. [Obs.] Cavendish.

     Which he doth most fantasy. Robynson (More's Utopia).


   Fan`toc*ci"ni  (?), n. pl. [It., dim. fr. fante child.] Puppets caused
   to  perform evolutions or dramatic scenes by means of machinery; also,
   the representations in which they are used.


   Fan"tom (?), n. See Phantom. Fantom corn, phantom corn. Grose.


   Fap (?), a. Fuddled. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fa*quir" (?), n. See Fakir.


   Far (?), n. [See Farrow.] (Zo\'94l.) A young pig, or a litter of pigs.


   Far,  a.  [Farther  (#)  and  Farthest (#) are used as the compar. and
   superl.  of  far, although they are corruptions arising from confusion
   with  further  and  furthest.  See Further.] [OE. fer, feor, AS. feor;
   akin  to OS. fer, D. ver, OHG. ferro, adv., G. fern, a., Icel. fjarri,
   Dan. fjirn, Sw. fjerran, adv., Goth. fa\'c6rra, adv., Gr. paras, adv.,
   far,  and  prob. to L. per through, and E. prefix for-, as in forgive,
   and also to fare. CF. Farther, Farthest.]

   1. Distant in any direction; not near; remote; mutually separated by a
   wide space or extent.

     They said, . . . We be come from a far country. Josh. ix. 6.

     The nations far and near contend in choice. Dryden.

   2.  Remote  from  purpose; contrary to design or wishes; as, far be it
   from me to justify cruelty.

   3.  Remote  in  affection  or  obedience;  at  a  distance, morally or
   spiritually; t enmity with; alienated.

     They that are far from thee ahsll perish. Ps. lxxiii. 27.

   4. Widely different in nature or quality; opposite in character.

     He  was  far  from  ill  looking,  though  he thought himself still
     farther. F. Anstey.

   5. The more distant of two; as, the far side (called also off side) of
   a  horse,  that  is,  the right side, or the one opposite to the rider
   when he mounts.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e di stinction between the adjectival and adverbial
     use of far is sometimes not easily discriminated.

   By  far,  by  much; by a great difference. -- Far between, with a long
   distance   (of  space  or  time)  between;  at  long  intervals.  "The
   examinations are few and far between." Farrar.
   Far, adv. 

   1.  To  a  great  extent  or  distance  of  space;  widely; as, we are
   separated far from each other.

   2. To a great distance in time from any point; remotely; as, he pushed
   his researches far into antiquity.

   3. In great part; as, the day is far spent.

   4. In a great proportion; by many degrees; very much; deeply; greatly.

     Who  can find a virtuous woman ? for her price is far above rubies.
     Prov. xxxi. 10.

   As far as, to the extent, or degree, that. See As far as, under As. --
   Far  off.  (a)  At  a  great  distance,  absolutely or relatively. (b)
   Distant  in  sympathy  or  affection;  alienated.  "But now, in Christ
   Jesus,  ye  who  some  time were far off are made nigh by the blood of
   Christ."  Eph.  ii. 13. -- Far other, different by a great degree; not
   the same; quite unlike. Pope. -- Far and near, at a distance and close
   by; throughout a whole region. -- Far and wide, distantly and broadly;
   comprehensively. "Far and wide his eye commands." Milton. -- From far,
   from a great distance; from a remote place.

     NOTE: &hand; Far often occurs in self-explaining compounds, such as
     far-extended, far-reaching, far-spread.

   Page 543


   Far"*a*bout`  (?),  n.  A  going  out of the way; a digression. [Obs.]


   Far"ad  (?),  n.  [From  Michael  Faraday,  the  English electrician.]
   (Elec.)  The  standard  unit of electrical capacity; the capacity of a
   condenser whose charge, having an electro-motive force of one volt, is
   equal  to the amount of electricity which, with the same electromotive
   force,  passes  through  one  ohm  in one second; the capacity, which,
   charged with one coulomb, gives an electro-motive force of one volt.


   Far*ad"ic   (?),   a.   Of  or  pertaining  to  Michael  Faraday,  the
   distinguished  electrician;  -- applied especially to induced currents
   of  electricity,  as produced by certain forms of inductive apparatus,
   on account of Faraday's investigations of their laws.

                            Faradism, Faradization

   Far"a*dism  (?),  Far`a*di*za"tion  (?),  n. (Med.) The treatment with
   faradic or induced currents of electricity for remedial purposes.


   Far"and (?), n. See Farrand, n.


   Far"an*dams (?), n. A fabrik made of silk and wool or hair. Simmonds.


   Far"ant*ly (?), a. [See Farrand.] Orderly; comely; respectable. [Obs.]


   Farce (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Farced (?), p. pr. & vb. n. Farcing (.]
   [F.  Farcir,  L.  farcire;  akin  to  Gr.  Force  to stuff, Diaphragm,
   Frequent, Farcy, Farse.]

   1.  To  stuff with forcemeat; hence, to fill with mingled ingredients;
   to fill full; to stuff. [Obs.]

     The  first  principles of religion should not be farced with school
     points and private tenets. Bp. Sanderson.

     His tippet was aye farsed full of knives. Chaucer.

   2. To render fat. [Obs.]

     If thou wouldst farce thy lean ribs. B. Jonson.

   3. To swell out; to render pompous. [Obs.]

     Farcing his letter with fustian. Sandys.


   Farce,  n. [F. farce, from L. farsus (also sometimes farctus), p.p. pf
   farcire. See Farce, v. t.]

   1.  (Cookery)  Stuffing,  or  mixture  of  viands,  like  that used on
   dressing a fowl; forcemeat.

   2.  A low style of comedy; a dramatic composition marked by low humor,
   generally  written  with  little  regard  to regularity or method, and
   abounding with ludicrous incidents and expressions.

     Farce  is  that  in  poetry  which "grotesque" is in a picture: the
     persons  and  action  of a farce are all unnatural, and the manners
     false. Dryden.

   3.  Ridiculous  or empty show; as, a mere farce. "The farce of state."


   Farce"ment (?), n. Stuffing; forcemeat. [Obs.]

     They spoil a good dish with . . . unsavory farcements. Feltham.


   Far"ci*cal  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  farce;  appropriated  to  farce;
   ludicrous; unnatural; unreal.

     They deny the characters to be farcical, because they are Gay.

   -- Far"ci*cal*ly, adv. -Far"ci*cal*ness, n.


   Far"ci*cal,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the disease called farcy. See
   Farcy, n.


   Far"ci*lite  (?),  n.  [Farce+-lite.]  (Min.)  Pudding  stone.  [Obs.]

                               Farcimen, Farcin

   Far"ci*men (?), Far"cin (?), n. (Far.) Same as Farcy.


   Far"cing (?), n. (Cookery) Stuffing; forcemeat.


   Farc"tate  (?),  a.  [L.  farctus,  p.p. of farcire. See Farce, v. t.]
   (Bot.)  Stuffed; filled solid; as, a farctate leaf, stem, or pericarp;
   -- opposed to tubular or hollow. [Obs.]


   Far"cy  (?), n. [F. farcin; cf. L. farciminum a disease of horses, fr.
   farcire. See Farce.] (Far.) A contagious disease of horses, associated
   with painful ulcerating enlargements, esp. upon the head and limbs. It
   is  of  the  same  nature as glanders, and is often fatal. Called also
   farcin, and farcimen.

     NOTE: &hand; Farcy, although more common in horses, is communicable
     to other animals and to human beings.

   Farcy  bud,  a  hard, prominent swelling occurrinng upon the cutaneous
   surface  in  farcy,  due  to  the  obstruction and inflammation of the
   lymphatic vessels, and followed by ulceration. Youatt.


   Fard  (?), n. [F., prob. fr. OHG. gifarit, gifarwit p.p. of farwjan to
   color,  tinge,  fr.  farawa  color, G. farbe.] Paint used on the face.
   [Obs.] "Painted with French fard." J. Whitaker.


   Fard, v. t. [F. farder to paint one's face.] To paint; -- said esp. of
   one's face. [Obs.] Shenstone.


   Far`dage" (?), n. [F. See Fardel.] (Naut.) See Dunnage.


   Far"del  (?),  n.  [OF.  fardel, F. fardeau; cf. Sp. fardel, fardillo,
   fardo,  LL.  fardellus;  prob. fr. Ar. fard one of the two parts of an
   object  divisible  into  two, hence, one of the two parts of a camel's
   load.  Cf.  Furl.]  A  bundle  or little pack; hence, a burden. [Obs.]

     A fardel of never-ending misery and suspense. Marryat.


   Far"del, v. t. To make up in fardels. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Far"ding-bag`  (?),  n.  [Of  uncertain origin; cf. Fardel.] The upper
   stomach of a cow, or other ruminant animal; the rumen.


   Far"ding*dale (?), n. A farthingale. [Obs.]


   Far"ding*deal (?), n. [See Farthing, and Deal a part.] The fourth part
   of  an  acre  of  land. [Obs.] [Written also farding dale, fardingale,


   Fare (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Faring.] [AS.
   faran to travel, fare; akin to OS., Goth., & OHG. faran to travel, go,
   D.  varen,  G.  fahren,  OFries.,  Isel.,  &  Sw. fara, Dan. fare, Gr.
   peritus experienced, portus port, Skr. par to bring over. &root;78. Cf
   Chaffer, Emporium, Far, Ferry, Ford, Peril, Port a harbor, Pore, n.]

   1. To go; to pass; to journey; to travel.

     So on he fares, and to the border comes Of Eden. Milton.

   2. To be in any state, or pass through any experience, good or bad; to
   be  attended  with any circummstances or train of events, fortunate or
   unfortunate; as, he fared well, or ill.

     So fares the stag among the enraged hounds. Denham.

     I bid you most heartily well to fare. Robynson (More's Utopia).

     So fared the knight between two foes. Hudibras.

   3.  To  be  treated  or entertained at table, or with bodily or social
   comforts; to live.

     There  was  a certain rich man wwhich . . . fared sumptuously every
     day. Luke xvi. 19.

   4.  To happen well, or ill; -- used impersonally; as, we shall see how
   it will fare with him.

     Sso fares it when with truth falsehood contends. Milton.

   5. To behave; to conduct one's self. [Obs.]

     She ferde [fared] as she would die. Chaucer.


   Fare (?), n. [AS. faru journey, fr. faran. See Fare, v.]

   1. A journey; a passage. [Obs.]

     That nought might stay his fare. Spenser.

   2.  The price of passage or going; the sum paid or due for conveying a
   person  by  land or water; as, the fare for crossing a river; the fare
   in a coach or by railway.

   3. Ado; bustle; business. [Obs.]

     The warder chid and made fare. Chaucer.

   4. Condition or state of things; fortune; hap; cheer.

     What fare? what news abroad ? Shak.

   5.  Food;  provisions  for  the table; entertainment; as, coarse fare;
   delicious fare. "Philosophic fare." Dryden.

   6.  The  person  or  persons conveyed in a vehicle; as, a full fare of
   passengers. A. Drummond.

   7. The catch of fish on a fishing vessel.
   Bill  of fare. See under Bill. -- Fare indicator OR register, a device
   for  recording  the number of passengers on a street car, etc. -- Fare
   wicket.  (a)  A  gate  or  turnstile  at the entrance of toll bridges,
   exhibition  grounds,  etc.,  for  registering  the  number  of persons
   passing  it. (b) An opening in the door of a street car for purchasing
   tickets of the driver or passing fares to the conductor. Knight.


   Far"en (?), obs. p. p. of Fare, v. i. Chaucer.


   Fare`well"  (?),  interj. [Fare (thou, you) + well.] Go well; good-by;
   adieu;  -- originally applied to a person departing, but by custom now
   applied  both  to  those  who depart and those who remain. It is often
   separated  by the pronoun; as, fare you well; and is sometimes used as
   an  expression of separation only; as, farewell the year; farewell, ye
   sweet groves; that is, I bid you farewell.

     So farewell hope, and with hope, farewell fear. Milton.

     Fare  thee  well!  and  if  forever,  Still forever fare thee well.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e pr imary ac cent is sometimes placed on the first
     syllable, especially in poetry.


   Fare`well" (?), n.

   1.  A wish of happiness or welfare at parting; the parting compliment;
   a good-by; adieu.

   2.  Act  of  departure;  leave-taking; a last look at, or reference to

     And takes her farewell of the glorious sun. Shak.

     Before I take my farewell of the subject. Addison.


   Fare"well`  (?),  a.  Parting;  valedictory;  final;  as,  a  farewell
   discourse; his farewell bow.

     Leans in his spear to take his farewell view. Tickell.

   Farewell  rock  (Mining),  the Millstone grit; -- so called because no
   coal is found worth working below this stratum. It is used for hearths
   of furnaces, having power to resist intense heat. Ure.


   Far"fet` (?), a. [Far + fet, p. p. of Fette.] Farfetched. [Obs.]

     York with his farfet policy. Shak.


   Far"fetch`  (?),  v.  t. [Far + fetch.] To bring from far; to seek out
   studiously. [Obs.]

     To farfetch the name of Tartar from a Hebrew word. Fuller.


   Far"fetch`,  n.  Anything  brought  from  far,  or  brought about with
   studious   care;   a  deep  strategem.  [Obs.]  "Politic  farfetches."


   Far"fetched` (?), a.

   1. Brought from far, or from a remote place.

     Every  remedy contained a multitude of farfetched and heterogeneous
     ingredients. Hawthorne.

   2.  Studiously  sought; not easily or naturally deduced or introduced;
   forced; strained.


   Fa*ri"na  (?),  n.  [L.,  meal, flour, fr. far a sort of grain, spelt;
   akin to E. barley.]

   1.  A fine flour or meal made from cereal grains or from the starch or
   fecula  of  vegetables,  extracted  by  various processes, and used in

   2. (Bot.) Pollen. [R.] Craig.


   Far`i*na"ceous (?), a. [L. farinaceus.]

   1. Consisting or made of meal or flour; as, a farinaceous diet.

   2. Yielding farina or flour; as, ffarinaceous seeds.

   3.  Like  meal;  mealy;  pertainiing to meal; as, a farinaceous taste,
   smell, or appearance.


   Far`i*nose" (?), a. [L. farinosus: cf. F. farineux.]

   1. Yielding farinaa; as, farinose substances.

   2. (Bot. & Zo\'94l.)Civered with a sort of white, mealy powder, as the
   leaves of some poplars, and the body of certain insects; mealy.


   Farl (?), v. t. Same as Furl. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Far"lie  (?),  n.  [OE.  ferlish  wonder,  as  adj.,  strange, sudden,
   fearful,  AS. f\'d6rl\'c6c sudden. See Fear.] An unusual or unexpected
   thing; a wonder. See Fearly. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Drayton.


   Farm  (?),  n.  [OE.  ferme  rent,  lease, F. ferme, LL. firma, fr. L.
   firmus firm, fast, firmare to make firm or fast. See Firm, a. & n.]

   1.  The rent of land, -- originally paid by reservation of part of its
   products. [Obs.]

   2. The term or tenure of a lease of land for cultivation; a leasehold.

     It  is  great  willfulness in landlords to make any longer farms to
     their tenants. Spenser.

   3. The land held under lease and by payment of rent for the purpose of

   4.  Any  tract  of  land  devoted  to agricultural purposes, under the
   management of a tenant or the owner.

     NOTE: &hand; In  En glish the ideas of a lease, a term, and a rent,
     continue to be in a great degree inseparable, even from the popular
     meaning of a farm, as they are entirely so from the legal sense.


   5.  A district of country leased (or farmed) out for the collection of
   the revenues of government.

     The province was devided into twelve farms. Burke.

   6.  (O.  Eng. Law) A lease of the imposts on particular goods; as, the
   sugar farm, the silk farm.

     Whereas  G.  H. held the farm of sugars upon a rent of 10,000 marks
     per annum. State Trials (1196).


   Farm (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Farmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Farming.]

   1. To lease or let for an equivalent, as land for a rent; to yield the
   use of to proceeds.

     We are enforced to farm our royal realm. Shak.

   2. To give up to another, as an estate, a business, the revenue, etc.,
   on  condition  of  receiving in return a percentage of what it yields;
   as, to farm the taxes.

     To farm their subjects and their duties toward these. Burke.

   3. To take at a certain rent or rate.

   4. To devote (land) to agriculture; to cultivate, as land; to till, as
   a farm.
   To farm let, To let to farm, to lease on rent.


   Farm, v. i. To engage in the business of tilling the soil; to labor as
   a farmer.


   Farm"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being farmed.


   Farm"er (?), n. [Cf. F. fermier.] One who farms; as: (a) One who hires
   and cultivates a farm; a cultivator of leased ground; a tenant. Smart.
   (b)  One who is devoted to the tillage of the soil; one who cultivates
   a  farm;  an  agriculturist;  a  husbandman.  (c) One who takes taxes,
   customs,  excise,  or  other duties, to collect, either paying a fixed
   annuual  rent  for  the  privilege;  as, a farmer of the revenues. (d)
   (Mining)  The  lord of the field, or one who farms the lot and cope of
   the  crown. Farmer-general [F. fermier-general], one to whom the right
   of  levying  certain  taxes, in a particular district, was farmed out,
   under  the  former  French  monarchy,  for  a  given sum paid down. --
   Farmers'  satin, a light material of cotton and worsted, used for coat
   linings. McElrath. -- The king's farmer (O. Eng. Law), one to whom the
   collection of a royal revenue was farmed out. Burrill.


   Farm"er*ess, n. A woman who farms.


   Farm"er*ship, n. Skill in farming.


   Farm"er*y  (?),  n. The buildings and yards necessary for the business
   of a farm; a homestead. [Eng.]


   Farm"house`, n. A dwelling house on a farm; a farmer's residence.


   Farm"ing,  a.  Pertaining  to  agriculture; devoted to, adapted to, or
   engaged  in,  farming;  as,  farming  tools;  farming  land; a farming


   Farm"ing, n. The business of cultivating land.


   Far"most` (?), a. Most distant; farthest.

     A spacious cave within its farmost part. Dryden.


   Farm"stead  (?), n. A farm with the building upon it; a homestead on a
   farm. Tennyson.

     With its pleasant groves and farmsteads. Carlyle.


   Farm"stead*ing, n. A farmstead. [Scot.] Black.


   Farm"yard`  (?),  n.  The yard or inclosure attached to a barn, or the
   space inclosed by the farm buildings.


   Far"ness  (?), n. [From Far, a.] The state of being far off; distance;
   remoteness. [R.] Grew.


   Far"o  (?), n. [Said to be so called because the Egyptian king Pharaoh
   was  formerly  represented  upon one of the cards.] A gambling game at
   cardds,  in  whiich  all  the other players play against the dealer or
   banker, staking their money upon the order in which the cards will lie
   and  be  dealt  from  the  pack.  Faro  bank,  the  capital  which the
   proprietor  of a farotable ventures in the game; also, the place where
   a game of faro is played. Hoyle.


   Fa`ro*ese`  (?),  n.  sing.  &  pl.  An  inhabitant, or, collectively,
   inhabitants, of the Faroe islands.


   Far"*off` (?), a. Remote; as, the far-off distance. Cf. Far-off, under
   Far, adv.


   Far*rag-i*nous  (?),  a.  [See  Farrago.] Formed of various materials;
   mixed; as, a farraginous mountain. [R.] Kirwan.

     AA  farraginous  concurrence of all conditions, tempers, sexes, and
     ages. Sir T. Browne.


   Far*ra"go  (?),  n.  [L.  farrago,  -aginis, mi8xed fodder for cattle,
   mash,  medley,  fr. far a sort of grain. See Farina.] A mass ccomposed
   of various materials confusedly mixed; a medley; a mixture.

     A  confounded  farrago of doubts, fears, hopes, wishes, and all the
     flimsy furniture of a country miss's brain. Sheridan.


   Far"fand  (?),  n.  [OE.  farand  beautiful;  cf. Gael. farranta neat,
   stout,  stately;  or  perh. akin to E. fare.] Manner; custom; fashion;
   humor. [Prov. Eng.] [Written also farand.] Grose.


   Far`re*a"tion (?), n. [L. farreatio.] Same as Confarreation.


   Far"ri*er  (?),  n.  [OE.  farrour,  ferrer, OF. ferreor, ferrier, LL.
   Ferrator,  ferrarius  equorum,  from ferrare to shoe a horse, ferrum a
   horseshoe, fr. L. ferrum iron. Cf. Ferreous.]

   1. A shoer of horses; a veterinary surgeon.


   Far"ri*er,  v. i. To practice as a farrier; to carry on the trade of a
   farrier. [Obs.] Mortimer.


   Far"ri*er*y (?), n.

   1. The art of shoeing horses.

   2. The art of preventing, curing, or mitigating diseases of horses and
   cattle; the veterinary art.

   3. The place where a smith shoes horses.

   Page 544


   Far"row  (?),  n. [AS. fearh a little pig; a akin to OHG. farh, farah,
   pig,  dim. farheli little pig, G. fercel, D. varken pig, Lith. parszas
   OIr. orc,L. porcus, Gr. Pork.] A little of pigs. Shak.


   Far"fow,  v.  t.  &  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Farrowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Farrowing.] To bring forth (young); -- said only of swine. Tusser.


   Far"row,  a.  [Cf.  Scot.  ferry  cow  a cow that is not with calf, D.
   vaarkoe,  vaars,  heifer,  G.  f\'84rse, AS. fearr bull, G. farre. Cf.
   Heifer.]  Not  producing young in a given season or year; -- said only
   of cows.

     NOTE: &hand; If  a  co w ha s had a calf, but fails in a subsequent
     year, she is said to be farrow, or to go farrow.


   Far"ry (?), n. A farrow. [Obs.] Perry.


   Farse  (?), n. [See Farce, n.] (Eccl.) An addition to, or a paraphrase
   of,  some  part  of  the Latin service in the vernacular; -- common in
   English before the Reformation.


   Far"see`ing (?), a.

   1. Able to see to a great distance; farsighted.

   2. Having foresight as regards the future.


   Far"sight`ed (?), a.

   1.  Seeing  to  great  distance; hence, of good judgment regarding the
   remote effects of actions; sagacious.

   2. (Med.) Hypermetropic.


   Far"sight`ed*ness, n.

   1. Quality of bbeing farsighted.

   2. (Med.) Hypermetropia.


   Far"*stretched` (?), a. Streatched beyond ordinary limits.


   Far"ther  (?),  a., compar. of Far. [superl. Farthest (. See Further.]
   [For  farrer,  OE.  ferrer, compar. of far; confused with further. Cf.

   1. More remote; more distant than something else.

   2.  Tending to a greater distance; beyond a certain point; additional;

     Before our farther way the fates allow. Dryden.

     Let me add a farther Truth. Dryden.

     Some farther change awaits us. MIlton.


   Far"ther, adv.

   1. At or to a greater distance; more renotely; beyond; as, let us rest
   with what we have, without looking farther.

   2.  Moreover;  by  way of progress in treating a subject; as, farther,
   let us consider the probable event.
   No farther, (used elliptically for) go no farther; say no more, etc.

     It will be dangerous to go on. No farther ! Shak.


   Far"ther, v. t. To help onward. [R.] See Further.


   Far"ther*ance (?), n. [Obs.] See Furtherence.


   Far"ther*more*" (?), adv. [Obs.] See Furthermore.


   Far"ther*most`  (?),  a.  Most  distant  or  remote;  as, the farthest
   degree. See Furthest.


   Far"thing  (?),  n.  [OE.  furthing,  AS. fe\'a2r, fr. fe\'a2r fourth,
   fe\'a2r, fe\'a2wer, four. See Four.]

   1.  The fourth of a penny; a small copper coin of Great Britain, being
   a cent in United States currency.

   2. A very small quantity or value. [Obs.]

     In her cup was no farthing seen of grease. Chaucer.

   3. A division of hand. [Obs.]

     Thirty  acres  make a farthing land; nine farthings a Cornish acre;
     and four Cornish acres a knight's fee. R. Carew.


   Far"thin*gale  (?), n. [OE. vardingale, fardingale, fr. OF. vertugale,
   verdugade,  F.  vertugade, vertugadin, from Sp. verdugado, being named
   from  its  hoops,  fr. verdugo a young shoot of tree, fr. verde green,
   fr. L. viridis. See Verdant.] A hoop skirt or hoop petticoat, or other
   light, elastic material, used to extend the petticoat.

     We'll  revel it as bravely as the best, . . . With ruffs and cuffs,
     and farthingales and things. Shak.


   Fas"ces  (?), n. pl. [L., pl. of fascis bundle; cf. fascia a band, and
   Gr. , (Rom. Antiq.) A bundle of rods, having among them an ax with the
   blade  projecting,  borne  before  the Roman magistrates as a badge of
   their authority.


   Fas"cet  (?),  n.  (Glass Making) A wire basket on the end of a rod to
   carry glass bottles, etc., to the annealing furnace; also, an iron rod
   to  be  thrust  into  the  mouths  of  bottles,  and used for the same
   purpose; -- calles also pontee and punty.


   Fas"ci*a  (?), n.; pl. Fasci\'91 (#). [L., a band: cf. It. fascia. See
   Fasces, and cf. Fess.]

   1.  A  band,  sash,  or  fillet;  especially, in surgery, a bandage or

   2.  (Arch.) A flat member of an order or building, like a flat band or
   broad  fillet;  especially,  one  of the three bands which make up the
   architrave, in the Ionic order. See Illust. of Column.

   3.   (Anat.)   The  layer  of  loose  tissue,  often  containing  fat,
   immediately  beneath the skin; the stronger layer of connective tissue
   covering and investing all muscles; an aponeurosis.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) A broad well-defined band of color.


   Fas"ci*al (?), a.

   1. Pertaining to the fasces.

   2. (Anat.) Relating to a fascia.

                              Fasciate, Fasciated

   Fas"ci*ate  (?),  Fas"ci*a`ted (?), a. [L. fasciatus, p.p. of fasciare
   to envelop with bands, fr. fascia band. See Fasces.]

   1. Bound with a fillet, sash, or bandage.

   2.  (Bot.)  (a)  Banded  or  compacted  together.  (b)  Flattened  and
   laterally widened, as are often the stems of the garden cockscomb.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) Broadly banded with color.


   Fas`ci*a"tion,  n. The act or manner of binding up; bandage; also, the
   condition of being fasciated.


   Fas"ci*cle  (?),  n.  [L.  fasciculus,  dim. of fascis. See Fasces.] A
   small  bundle  or  collection;  a  compact  cluster; as, a fascicle of
   fibers; a fascicle of flowers or roots.


   Fas"ci*cled  (?),  a. Growing in a bundle, tuft, or close cluster; as,
   the  fascicled leaves of the pine or larch; the fascicled roots of the
   dahlia; fascicled muscle fibers; fascicled tufts of hair.


   Fas*cic"u*lar  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  a  fascicle; fascicled; as, a
   fascicular root.


   Fas*cic"u*lar*ly, adv. In a fascicled manner. Kirwan.

                           Fasciculate, Fasciculated

   Fas*cic"u*late  (?),  Fas*cic"u*la`ted  (?), a. Grouped in a fascicle;


   Fas*cic"u*lus (?), n.; pl. Fasciculi (#). [L. See Fascicle.]

   1. A little bundle; a fascicle.

   2. A division of a book.


   Fas"ci*nate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fascinated (?), p. pr. & vb. n..
   Fascinating (.] [L. fascinare; cf. Gr.

   1.  To  influence  in  an uncontrollable manner; to operate on by some
   powerful or irresistible charm; to bewitch; to enchant.

     It  has  been  almost  universally believed that . . . serpents can
     stupefy  and  fascinate the prey which they are desirous to obtain.
     Griffith (Cuvier).

   2.  To  excite  and  allure  irresistibly  or powerfully; to charm; to
   captivate, as by physical or mental charms.

     there  be none of the passions that have been noted to fascinate or
     bewhich but love and envy. Bacon.

   Syn. -- To charm; enrapture; captivate; enchant; bewitch; attract.


   Fas`ci*na"tion (?), n. [L. fascinatio; cf. F. fascination.]

   1.  The  act  of  fascinating, bewhiching, or enchanting; enchantment;
   witchcraft;  the  exercise  of a powerful or irresistible influence on
   the affections or passions; unseen, inexplicable influence.

     The  Turks hang old rags . . . upon their fairest horses, and other
     goodly creatures, to secure them against fascination. Waller.

   2. The state or condition of being fascinated.

   3. That which fascinates; a charm; a spell.

     There is a certain bewitchery or fascination in words. South.


   Fas*cine"  (?), n. [F., fr. L. fascina a bundle of sticks, fr. fascis.
   See  Fasces.] (Fort. & Engin.) A cylindrical bundle of small sticks of
   wood,  bound  together,  used  in  raising batteries, filling ditches,
   strengthening  ramparts,  and  making parapets; also in revetments for
   river banks, and in mats for dams, jetties, etc.


   Fas"ci*nous  (?),  a.  [L. fascinum witchcraft, akin to fascinare. See
   Fascinate.]   Caused   or  acting  by  witchcraft.  [Obs.]  "Fascinous
   diseases." Harvey.


   Fas*ci"o*la  (?),  n.;pl.  Fasciol\'91  (#). [See Fasciole.] (Anat.) A
   band  of  gray  matter bordering the fimbria in the brain; the dentate
   convolution. Wilder.


   Fas"ci*ole  (?),  n.  [L.  fasciola  a  little  bandage.  See Fascia.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A band of minute tubercles, bearing modified spines, on the
   shells of spatangoid sea urchins. See Spatangoidea.


   Fash  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Fashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fashing.]
   [OF. faschier, F. f, to anger, vex; cf. Pr. fasticar, fastigar, fr. L.
   fastidium  dilike.  See  Fastidious.]  To  vex;  to tease; to trouble.


   Fash, n. Vexation; anxiety; care. [Scot.]

     Without further fash on my part. De Quincey.


   Fash"ion (?), n. [OE. fasoun, facioun, shape, manner, F. facon, orig.,
   a  making, fr. L. factio a making, fr. facere to make. See Fact, Feat,
   and cf. Faction.]

   1. The make or form of anything; the style, shape, appearance, or mode
   of  structure;  pattern, model; as, the fashion of the ark, of a coat,
   of a house, of an altar, etc. ; workmanship; execution.

     The fashion of his countenance was altered. Luke ix. 29.

     I do not like the fashion of your garments. Shak.

   2.  The  prevailing  mode  or  style,  especially  of dress; custom or
   conventional  usage  in  respect  of dress, behavior, etiquette, etc.;
   particularly,  the mode or style usual among persons of good breeding;
   as, to dress, dance, sing, ride, etc., in the fashion.

     The innocent diversions in fashion. Locke.

     As  now  existing, fashion is a form of social regulation analogous
     to  constitutional government as a form of political regulation. H.

   3.  Polite,  fashionable,  or  genteel  life;  social  position;  good
   breeding; as, men of fashion.

   4.  Mode  of  action;  method  of  conduct; manner; custom; sort; way.
   "After his sour fashion." Shak.
   After  a  fashion,  to  a  certain extent; in a sort. -- Fashion piece
   (Naut.),  one  of  the timbers which terminate the transom, and define
   the  shape  of the stern. -- Fashion plate, a pictorial design showing
   the prevailing style or a new style of dress. <-- # in a sort? s.b. of
   a sort? -->


   Fash"ion,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fashioned  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Fashioning.] [Cf. F. faconner.]

   1. To form; to give shape or figure to; to mold.

     Here the loud hammer fashions female toys. Gay.

     Ingenious  art  .  .  .  Steps forth to fashion and refine the age.

   2. To fit; to adapt; to accommodate; -- with to.

     Laws  ought  to  be  fashioned to the manners and conditions of the
     people. Spenser.

   3. To make according to the rule prescribed by custom.

     Fashioned plate sells for more than its weight. Locke.

   4. To forge or counterfeit. [Obs.] Shak.
   Fashioning  needle  (Knitting  Machine), a needle used for widening or
   narrowing the work and thus shaping it.


   Fash"ion*a*ble (?), a.

   1.  Conforming  to the fashion or established mode; according with the
   prevailing form or style; as, a fashionable dress.

   2.  Established  or favored by custom or use; current; prevailing at a
   particular time; as, the fashionable philosophy; fashionable opinions.

   3.  Observant  of  the fashion or customary mode; dressing or behaving
   according to the prevailing fashion; as, a fashionable man.

   4. Genteel; well-bred; as, fashionable society.

     Time  is  like  a fashionable host That slightly shakes his parting
     guest by the hand. Shak.


   Fash"ion*a*ble,  n.  A  person  who  conforms to the fashions; -- used
   chiefly in the plural.


   Fash"ion*a*ble*ness, n. State of being fashionable.


   Fash"ion*a*bly, adv. In a fashionable manner.


   Fash"ioned (?), a.Having a certain style or fashion; as old-fashioned;


   Fash"ion*er  (?),  n.  One  who  fashions,  forms,  ar  gives shape to
   anything. [R.]

     The  fashioner  had  accomplished  his  task,  and the dresses were
     brought home. Sir W. Scott.


   Fash"ion*ist (?), n. An obsequious follower of the modes and fashions.
   [R.] Fuller.


   Fash"ion*less, a. Having no fashion.


   Fash"ion-mon`ger (?), n. One who studies the fashions; a fop; a dandy.


   Fash"ion-mon`ger*ing, a. Behaving like a fashion-monger. [R.] Shak.


   Fas"sa*ite  (?),  n.  (Min.) A variety of pyroxene, from the valley of
   Fassa, in the Tyrol.


   Fast  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Fasting.] [AS.
   f&ae;stan; akin to D. vasten, OHG. fast&emac;n, G. fasten, Icel. & Sw.
   fasta,  Dan.  faste, Goth. fastan to keep, observe, fast, and prob. to
   E. fast firm.]

   1.  To  abstain  from food; to omit to take nourishment in whole or in
   part; to go hungry.

     Fasting he went to sleep, and fasting waked. Milton.

   2.  To practice abstinence as a religious exercise or duty; to abstain
   from food voluntarily for a time, for the mortification of the body or
   appetites, or as a token of grief, or humiliation and penitence.

     Thou didst fast and weep for the child. 2 Sam. xii. 21.

   Fasting day, a fast day; a day of fasting.


   Fast,  n. [OE. faste, fast; cf. AS. f, OHG. fasta, G. faste. See Fast,
   v. i.]

   1. Abstinence from food; omission to take nounrishment.

     Surfeit is the father of much fast. Shak.

   2. Voluntary abstinence from food, for a space of time, as a spiritual
   discipline, or as a token of religious humiliation.

   3. A time of fasting, whether a day, week, or longer time; a period of
   abstinence from food or certain kinds of food; as, an annual fast.
   Fast  day,  a  day  appointed  for fasting, humiliation, and religious
   offices  as  a  means  of invoking the favor of God. -- To break one's
   fast,  to  put  an  end  to  a  period  of  abstinence by taking food;
   especially, to take one's morning meal; to breakfast. Shak.


   Fast,  a.  [Compar.  Faster  (?);  superl.  Fastest  (?).] [OE., firm,
   strong,  not  loose,  AS.  f;  akin  to OS. fast, D. vast, OHG. fasti,
   festi,  G. fest, Isel. fastr, Sw. & Dan. fast, and perh. to E. fetter.
   The  sense  swift  comes  from  the  idea  of keeping close to what is
   pursued; a Scandinavian use. Cf. Fast, adv., Fast, v., Avast.]

   1.  Firmly fixed; closely adhering; made firm; not loose, unstable, or
   easily moved; immovable; as, to make fast the door.

     There is an order that keeps things fast. Burke.

   2.  Firm  against  attack;  fortified  by  nature or art; impregnable;

     Outlaws . . . lurking in woods and fast places. Spenser.

   3.  Firm  in  adherence; steadfast; not easily separated or alienated;
   faithful; as, a fast friend.

   4.  Permanent;  not  liable  to fade by exposure to air or by washing;
   durable; lasting; as, fast colors.

   5. Tenacious; retentive. [Obs.]

     Roses, damask and red, are fast flowers of their smells. Bacon.

   6. Not easily disturbed or broken; deep; sound.

     All this while in a most fast sleep. Shak.

   7. Moving rapidly; quick in mition; rapid; swift; as, a fast horse.

   8.  Given  to  pleasure  seeking; disregardful of restraint; reckless;
   wild; dissipated; dissolute; as, a fast man; a fast liver. Thackeray.
   Fast  and  loose, now cohering, now disjoined; inconstant, esp. in the
   phrases to play at fast and loose, to play fast and loose, to act with
   giddy  or reckless inconstancy or in a tricky manner; to say one thing
   and  do another "Play fast and loose with faith." Shak. Fast and loose
   pulleys (Mach.), two pulleys placed side by side on a revolving shaft,
   which  is  driven  from  another  shaft  by  a  band,  and arranged to
   disengage  and  re\'89ngage  the  machinery  driven  thereby. When the
   machinery  is  to  be stopped, the band is transferred from the pulley
   fixed  to  the  shaft to the pulley which revolves freely upon it, and
   vice  versa.  -- Hard and fast (Naut.), so completely aground as to be
   immovable.  -- To make fast (Naut.), to make secure; to fasten firmly,
   as a vessel, a rope, or a door.

   Page 545


   Fast  (?), adv. [OE. Faste firmly, strongly, quickly, AS. f. See Fast,

   1.  In  a  fast, fixed, or firmly established manner; fixedly; firmly;

     We will bind thee fast. Judg. xv. 13.

   2. In a fast or rapid manner; quickly; swiftly; extravagantly; wildly;
   as, to run fast; to live fast.
   Fast by, OR Fast beside, close or near to; near at hand.

     He,  after  Eve  seduced,  unminded  slunk  Into  the wood fast by.

     Fast by the throne obsequious Fame resides. Pope.


   Fast,  n.  That  which fastens or holds; especially, (Naut.) a mooring
   rope,  hawser,  or chain; -- called, according to its position, a bow,
   head,  quarter,  breast,  or stern fast; also, a post on a pier around
   which hawsers are passed in mooring.


   Fas"ten  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fastened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fastening  (?).]  [AS.  f\'91stnian;  akin  to OHG. festin&omac;n. See
   Fast, a.]

   1.  To  fix firmly; to make fast; to secure, as by a knot, lock, bolt,
   etc.; as, to fasten a chain to the feet; to fasten a door or window.

   2.  To cause to hold together or to something else; to attach or unite
   firmly;  to  cause  to cleave to something , or to cleave together, by
   any  means;  as,  to  fasten  boards  together with nails or cords; to
   fasten anything in our thoughts.

     The  words  Whig  and Tory have been pressed to the service of many
     successions of parties, with very different ideas fastened to them.

   3.  To  cause to take close effect; to make to tell; to lay on; as, to
   fasten a blow. [Obs.] Dryden.

     If I can fasten but one cup upon him. Shak.

   To fasten a charge, OR a crime, upon, to make his guilt certain, or so
   probable as to be generally believed. -- To fasten one's eyes upon, to
   look  upon  steadily  without  cessation. Acts iii. 4. Syn. -- To fix;
   cement; stick; link; affix; annex.


   Fas"ten,  v.  i.  To  fix one's self; to take firm hold; to clinch; to

     A horse leech will hardly fasten on a fish. Sir T. Browne.


   Fas"ten*er (?), n. One who, or that which, makes fast or firm.


   Fas"ten*ing  (?),  n.  Anything  that binds and makes fast, as a lock,
   catch, bolt, bar, buckle, etc.


   Fast"er (?), n. One who abstains from food.


   Fast"-hand`ed    (?),   a.   Close-handed;   close-fisted;   covetous;
   avaricious. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Fas"ti (?), n.pl. [L.]

   1.  The  Roman  calendar,  which  gave the days for festivals, courts,
   etc., corresponding to a modern almanac.

   2. Records or registers of important events.


   Fas*tid`i*os"i*ty (?), n. Fastidiousness; squeamishness. [Obs.] Swift.


   Fas*tid"i*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  fastidiosus  disdainful,  fr.  fastidium
   loathing, aversion, perh. fr. fastus arrogance (of uncertain origin) +
   taedium loathing. Cf. Tedious, Fash.] Difficult to please; delicate to
   fault;  suited  with  difficulty;  squeamish; as, a fastidious mind or
   ear; a fastidious appetite.

     Proud youth ! fastidious of the lower world. Young.

   Syn.  --  Squeamish;  critical;  overnice;  difficult; punctilious. --
   Fastidious,  Squeamish.  We call a person fastidious when his taste or
   feelings  are  offended  by  trifling  defects  or errors; we call him
   squeamish when he is excessively nice or critical on minor points, and
   also  when  he  is  overscrupulous  as  to questions of duty. "Whoever
   examines  his  own  imperfections will cease to be fastidious; whoever
   restrains  his  caprice  and scrupulosity will cease to be squeamish."
   Crabb. -- Fas*tid"i*ous*ly, adv. -- Fas*tid"i*ous*ness, n.

                            Fastigiate, Fastigiated

   Fas*tig"i*ate  (?),  Fas*tig"i*a`ted  (?), a. [L. fastigium gable end,
   top, height, summit.]

   1. Narrowing towards the top.

   2.  (Bot.)  Clustered,  parallel,  and upright, as the branches of the
   Lombardy poplar; pointed.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  United into a conical bundle, or into a bundle with an
   enlarged head, like a sheaf of wheat.


   Fast"ish  (?),  a.  Rather  fast; also, somewhat dissipated. [Colloq.]


   Fast"ly, adv. Firmly; surely.


   Fast"ness, n. [AS. f\'91stnes, fr. f\'91st fast. See Fast, a.]

   1.  The  state  of being fast and firm; firmness; fixedness; security;

     All . . . places of fastness [are] laid open. Sir J. Davies.

   2. A fast place; a stronghold; a fortress or fort; a secure retreat; a
   castle; as, the enemy retired to their fastnesses in the mountains.

   3. Conciseness of style. [Obs.] Ascham.

   4. The state of being fast or swift.


   Fas"tu*ous  (?), a. [L. fastuosus, from fastus haughtiness, pride: cf.
   F.    fastueux.]    Proud;   haughty;   disdainful.   [Obs.]   Barrow.
   Fas"tu*ous*ness, n. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.


   Fat (?), n. [See Vat, n.]

   1. A large tub, cistern, or vessel; a vat. [Obs.]

     The fats shall overflow with wine and oil. Joel ii. 24.

   2.  A measure of quantity, differing for different commodities. [Obs.]


   Fat,  a.  [Compar.  Fatter (?); superl. Fattest (?).] [AS. f&aemac;tt;
   akin  to  D.  vet, G. fett, feist, Icel. feitr, Sw. fet, Dan. fed, and
   perh.  to  Gr.  pi^dax spring, fountain, pidy`ein to gush forth, pi`wn
   fat, Skr. pi to swell.]

   1.  Abounding  with  fat;  as:  (a)  Fleshy; characterized by fatness;
   plump; corpulent; not lean; as, a fat man; a fat ox. (b) Oily; greasy;
   unctuous; rich; -- said of food.

   2.  Exhibiting  the  qualities  of a fat animal; coarse; heavy; gross;
   dull; stupid.

     Making our western wits fat and mean. Emerson.

     Make the heart of this people fat. Is. vi. 10.

   3. Fertile; productive; as, a fat soil; a fat pasture.

   4.  Rich;  producing  a large income; desirable; as, a fat benefice; a
   fat office; a fat job.

     Now parson of Troston, a fat living in Suffolk. Carlyle.

   5. Abounding in riches; affluent; fortunate. [Obs.]

     Persons grown fat and wealthy by long impostures. Swift.

   6.  (Typog.) Of a character which enables the compositor to make large
   wages;  -- said of matter containing blank, cuts, or many leads, etc.;
   as, a fat take; a fat page.
   Fat lute, a mixture of pipe clay and oil for filling joints.


   Fat (?), n.

   1.  (Physiol.  Chem.) An oily liquid or greasy substance making up the
   main  bulk of the adipose tissue of animals, and widely distributed in
   the seeds of plants. See Adipose tissue, under Adipose.

     NOTE: &hand; An imal fa ts ar e co mposed ma inly of three distinct
     fats,  tristearin,  tripalmitin,  and  triolein,  mixed  in varying
     proportions. As olein is liquid at ordinary temperatures, while the
     other  two  fats  are  solid,  it  follows  that the consistency or
     hardness  of fats depends upon the relative proportion of the three
     individual fats. During the life of an animal, the fat is mainly in
     a liquid state in the fat cells, owing to the solubility of the two
     solid  fats  in  the  more  liquid  olein  at the body temperature.
     Chemically,  fats are composed of fatty acid, as stearic, palmitic,
     oleic,  etc.,  united  with  glyceryl.  In  butter  fat,  olein and
     palmitin  predominate,  mixed  with  another  fat characteristic of
     butter,  butyrin.  In  the  vegetable  kingdom  many  other fats or
     glycerides  are  to be found, as myristin from nutmegs, a glyceride
     of lauric acid in the fat of the bay tree, etc.

   2.  The best or richest productions; the best part; as, to live on the
   fat of the land.

   3.  (Typog.)  Work.  containing  much  blank,  or its equivalent, and,
   therefore, profitable to the compositor.
   Fat  acid.  (Chem.)  See  Sebacic  acid, under Sebacic. -- Fat series,
   Fatty  series  (Chem.),  the  series of the paraffine hydrocarbons and
   their  derivatives;  the  marsh gas or methane series. -- Natural fats
   (Chem.),  the  group  of  oily  substances  of  natural occurrence, as
   butter,  lard,  tallow,  etc.,  as  distinguished from certain fatlike
   substance of artificial production, as paraffin. Most natural fats are
   essentially mixtures of triglycerides of fatty acids.


   Fat, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fatted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. atting (?).] [OE.
   fatten,  AS.  f. See Fat, a., and cf. Fatten.] To make fat; to fatten;
   to  make  plump  and  fleshy  with  abundant food; as, to fat fowls or

     We fat all creatures else to fat us. Shak.


   Fat, v. i. To grow fat, plump, and fleshy.

     An old ox fats as well, and is as good, as a young one. Mortimer.


   Fa"tal, a. [L. fatalis, fr. fatum: cf. F. fatal. See Fate.]

   1.  Proceeding  from,  or  appointed  by,  fate or destiny; necessary;
   inevitable. [R.]

     These thing are fatal and necessary. Tillotson.

     It was fatal to the king to fight for his money. Bacon.

   2. Foreboding death or great disaster. [R.]

     That  fatal screech owl to our house That nothing sung but death to
     us and ours. Shak.

   3.   Causing   death  or  destruction;  deadly;  mortal;  destructive;
   calamitous;  as,  a fatal wound; a fatal disease; a fatal day; a fatal


   Fa"tal*ism  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. fatalisme.] The doctrine that all things
   are subject to fate, or that they take place by inevitable necessity.


   Fa"tal*ist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  fataliste.] One who maintains that all
   things happen by inevitable necessity.


   Fa`tal*is"tic  (?),  a.  Implying,  or  partaking  of  the  nature of,


   Fa*tal"i*ty   (?),  n.;pl.  Fatalities  (#).  [L.  fatalitas:  cf.  F.

   1.  The  state  of being fatal, or proceeding from destiny; invincible
   necessity, superior to, and independent of, free and rational control.

     The  Stoics  held  a  fatality,  and a fixed, unalterable course of
     events. South.

   2.  The state of being fatal; tendency to destruction or danger, as if
   by decree of fate; mortaility.

     The  year  sixty-three  is  conceived  to  carry  with  it the most
     considerable fatality. Ser T. Browne.

     By a strange fatality men suffer their dissenting. Eikon Basilike.

   3.  That  which  is  decreed by fate or which is fatal; a fatal event.


   Fa"tal*ly (?), adv.

   1. In a manner proceeding from, or determined by, fate. Bentley.

   2.  In a manner issuing in death or ruin; mortally; destructively; as,
   fatally deceived or wounded.


   Fa"tal*ness, . Quality of being fatal. Johnson.

                                 Fata Morgana

   Fa"ta  Mor*ga"na  (?).  [It.; -- so called because this phenomenon was
   looked  upon  as  the  work  of  a  fairy  (It.  fata)  of the name of
   Morg\'a0na.  See  Fairy.]  A  kind  of mirage by which distant objects
   appear  inverted,  distorted,  displaced, or multiplied. It is noticed
   particularly at the Straits of Messina, between Calabria and Sicily.


   Fat"back` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The menhaden.


   Fat"-brained` (?), a. Dull of apprehension.


   Fate  (?),  n.  [L.  fatum  a  prophetic  declaration, oracle, what is
   ordained  by  the gods, destiny, fate, fr. fari to speak: cf. OF. fat.
   See Fame, Fable, Ban, and cf. 1st Fay, Fairy.]

   1.  A  fixed  decree  by  which the order of things is prescribed; the
   immutable  law  of  the  universe;  inevitable necessity; the force by
   which all existence is determined and conditioned.

     Necessity  and  chance  Approach  not  me; and what I will is fate.

     Beyond  and  above  the  Olympian  gods  lay  the silent, brooding,
     everlasting  fate  of  which  victim  and  tyrant  were  alike  the
     instruments. Froude.

   2.  Appointed  lot;  allotted  life;  arranged or predetermined event;
   destiny; especially, the final lot; doom; ruin; death.

     The great, th'important day, big with the fate Of Cato and of Rome.

     Our  wills  and fates do so contrary run That our devices still are
     overthrown. Shak.

     The  whizzing  arrow  sings,  And  bears thy fate, Antinous, on its
     wings. Pope.

   3.  The  element  of chance in the affairs of life; the unforeseen and
   unestimated  conitions  considered as a force shaping events; fortune;
   esp.,  opposing circumstances against which it is useless to struggle;
   as, fate was, or the fates were, against him.

     A brave man struggling in the storms of fate. Pope.

     Sometimes  an  hour  of Fate's serenest weather strikes through our
     changeful sky its coming beams. B. Taylor.

   4.  pl.  [L. Fata, pl. of fatum.] (Myth.) The three goddesses, Clotho,
   Lachesis,  and Atropos, sometimes called the Destinies, or Parc\'91who
   were  supposed  to  determine  the  course  of  human  life.  They are
   represented, one as holding the distaff, a second as spinning, and the
   third as cutting off the thread.

     NOTE: &hand; Am ong all nations it has been common to speak of fate
     or  destiny  as  a  power  superior  to gods and men -- swaying all
     things  irresistibly.  This  may  be  called  the fate of poets and
     mythologists.  Philosophical  fate  is  the  sum of the laws of the
     universe,  the  product  of  eternal  intelligence  and  the  blind
     properties  of  matter.  Theological fate represents Deity as above
     the  laws of nature, and ordaining all things according to his will
     -- the expression of that will being the law. Krauth-Fleming.

   Syn. -- Destiny; lot; doom; fortune; chance.


   Fat"ed (?), p. p. & a.

   1.  Decreed  by  fate;  destined;  doomed;  as, he was fated to rule a
   factious people.

     One midnight Fated to the purpose. Shak.

   2.  Invested  with the power of determining destiny. [Obs.] "The fated
   sky." Shak.

   3. Exempted by fate. [Obs. or R.] Dryden.


   Fate"ful  (?), a. . Having the power of serving or accomplishing fate.
   "The fateful steel." J. Barlow.

   2. Significant of fate; ominous.

     The fateful cawings of the crow. Longfellow.

   -- Fate"ful*ly, adv.- Fate"ful*ness, n.


   Fat"head`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A cyprinoid fish of the Mississippi
   valley  (Pimephales promelas); -- called also black-headed minnow. (b)
   A labroid food fish of California; the redfish.


   Fa"ther (?), n. [OE. fader, AS. f\'91der; akin to OS. fadar, D. vader,
   OHG. fatar, G. vater, Icel. Fa Sw. & Dan. fader, OIr. athir, L. pater,
   Gr.  pitr,  perh.  fr.  Skr.  p\'be  protect. Papa, Paternal, Patriot,
   Potential, Pablum.]

   1. One who has begotten a child, whether son or daughter; a generator;
   a male parent.

     A wise son maketh a glad father. Prov. x. 1.

   2.   A  male  ancestor  more  remote  than  a  parent;  a  progenitor;
   especially, a first ancestor; a founder of a race or family; -- in the
   plural, fathers, ancestors.

     David slept with his fathers. 1 Kings ii. 10.

     Abraham, who is the father of us all. Rom. iv. 16.

   3.   One  who  performs  the  offices  of  a  parent  by  maintenance,
   affetionate care, counsel, or protection.

     I was a father to the poor. Job xxix. 16.

     He  hath  made  me  a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house.
     Gen. xiv. 8.

   4. A respectful mode of address to an old man.

     And Joash the king og Israel came down unto him [Elisha], . . . and
     said, O my father, my father! 2 Kings xiii. 14.

   5. A senator of ancient Rome.

   6.  A  dignitary  of  the church, a superior of a convent, a confessor
   (called  also  father confessor), or a priest; also, the eldest member
   of a profession, or of a legislative assembly, etc.

     Bless you, good father friar ! Shak.

   7.  One of the chief esslesiastical authorities of the first centuries
   after  Christ; -- often spoken of collectively as the Fathers; as, the
   Latin, Greek, or apostolic Fathers.

   8.  One  who,  or that which, gives origin; an originator; a producer,
   author,  or  contriver;  the first to practice any art, profession, or
   occupation; a distinguished example or teacher.

     The father of all such as handle the harp and organ. Gen. iv. 21.

     Might be the father, Harry, to that thought. Shak.

     The father of good news. Shak.

   9.  The  Supreme Being and Creator; God; in theology, the first person
   in the Trinity.

     Our Father, which art in heaven. Matt. vi. 9.

     Now  had  the  almighty  Father from above . . . Bent down his eye.

   Adoptive  father,  one who adopts the child of another, treating it as
   his  own.  --  Apostolic  father,  Conscript  fathers,  etc. See under
   Apostolic, Conscript, etc. -- Father in God, a title given to bishops.
   --  Father  of  lies,  the  Devil.  --  Father  of the bar, the oldest
   practitioner  at  the  bar.  --  Fathers of the city, the aldermen. --
   Father  of  the  Faithful.  (a)  Abraham.  Rom. iv. Gal. iii. 6-9. (b)
   Mohammed,  or  one  of  the  sultans, his successors. -- Father of the
   house,  the  member  of  a  legislative  body  who has had the longest
   continuous  service.  -- Most Reverend Father in God, a title given to
   archbishops and metropolitans, as to the archbishops of Canterbury and
   York.  --  Natural  father,  the  father  of an illegitimate child. --
   Putative  father,  one  who  is  presumed  to  be  the  father  of  an
   illegitimate  child;  the  supposed father. -- Spiritual father. (a) A
   religious teacher or guide, esp. one instrumental in leading a soul to
   God. (b) (R. C. Ch.) A priest who hears confession in the sacrament of
   penance. -- The Holy Father (R. C. Ch.), the pope.


   Fa"ther  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fathered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To make one's self the father of; to beget.

     Cowards father cowards, and base things sire base. Shak.

   2. To take as one's own child; to adopt; hence, to assume as one's own
   work;  to  acknowledge  one's  self  author  of  or responsible for (a
   statement, policy, etc.).

     Men of wit Often fathered what he writ. Swift.

   3. To provide with a father. [R.]

     Think  you  I  am no stronger than my sex, Being so fathered and so
     husbanded ? Shak.

   To  father  on  OR  upon,  to  ascribe  to,  or  charge upon, as one's
   offspring  or  work; to put or lay upon as being responsible. "Nothing
   can  be  so  uncouth or extravagant, which may not be fathered on some
   fetch of wit, or some caprice of humor." Barrow.
   Page 546


   Fa"ther*hood  (?),  n.  The  state of being a father; the character or
   authority of a father; paternity.


   Fa"ther-in-law`  (?),  n.;  pl.  Fathers-in-law (. The father of one's
   husband or wife; -- correlative to son-in-law and daughter-in-law.

     NOTE: &hand; A  man who marries a woman having children already, is
     sometimes, though erroneously, called their father-in-law.


   Fa"ther*land"  (?),  n.  [Imitated  fr.  D. vaderland. See Father, and
   Land.]  One's  native  land;  the  native  land  of  one's  fathers or


   Fa"ther-lash`er  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  European marine fish (Cottus
   bubalis), allied to the sculpin; -- called also lucky proach.


   Fa"ther*less, a.

   1. Destitute of a living father; as, a fatherless child.

   2. Without a known author. Beau. & Fl.


   Fa"ther*less*ness, n. The state of being without a father.


   Fa"ther*li*ness  (?),  n.  [From Fatherly.] The qualities of a father;
   parantal kindness, care, etc.

                                Father longlegs

   Fa"ther long"legs` (?). (Zo\'94l.) See Daddy longlegs, 2.


   Fa"ther*ly, a.

   1.  Like a father in affection and care; paternal; tender; protecting;

     You have showed a tender, fatherly regard. Shak.

   2. Of or pertaining to a father.


   Fa"ther*ship, n. The state of being a father; fatherhood; paternity.


   Fath"om  (?),  n.  [fadme,  fa&edh;me,  AS.  f\'91&edh;m  fathom,  the
   embracing  arms;  akin  to  OS.  fa&edh;mos  the outstretched arms, D.
   vadem, vaam, fathom, OHG. fadom, fadum, G. faden fathom, thread, Icel.
   fa&edh;mr  fathom,  Sw.  famn,  Dan. favn; cf. Gr. patere to lie open,
   extend. Cf. Patent, Petal.]

   1.  A measure of length, containing six feet; the space to which a man
   can extend his arms; -- used chiefly in measuring cables, cordage, and
   the depth of navigable water by soundings.

   2.  The  measure  or extant of one's capacity; depth, as of intellect;
   profundity; reach; penetration. [R.]

     Another of his fathom they have none To lead their business. Shak.


   Fath"om, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fathomed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fathoming.]

   1.  To  encompass  with the arms extended or encircling; to measure by
   throwing the arms about; to span. [Obs.] Purchas.

   2.  The measure by a sounding line; especially, to sound the depth of;
   to  penetrate,  measure,  and  comprehend;  to  get  to the bottom of.

     The  page  of  life  that  was spread out before me seemed dull and
     commonplace,  only  because  I  had not fathomed its deeper import.


   Fath"om*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being fathomed.


   Fath"om*er (?), n. One who fathoms.


   Fath"om*less, a.

   1. Incapable of being fathomed; immeasurable; that can not be sounded.

     And buckle in a waist most fathomless. Shak.

   2. Incomprehensible.

     The fathomless absurdity. Milton.


   Fa*tid"i*cal (?), a. [L. fatidicus; fatum fate + dicere to say, tell.]
   Having  power  to  foretell future events; prophetic; fatiloquent; as,
   the fatidical oak. [R.] Howell. -- Fa*tid"i*cal*ly, adv.


   Fa*tif"er*ous (?), a. [L. fatifer; fatum fate + ferre to bear, bring.]
   Fate-bringing; deadly; mortal; destructive. [R.] Johnson.


   Fat"i*ga*ble  (?), a. [L. fatigabilis: cf. F. fatigable. See Fatigue.]
   Easily tired. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Fat"i*gate  (?),  a.  [L.  fatigatus,  p.p. of fatigare. See Fatigue.]
   Wearied; tired; fatigued. [Obs.]

     Requickened what in flesh was fatigate. Shak.


   Fat"i*gate  (?),  v.  t.  To weary; to tire; to fatigue. [Obs.] Sir T.


   Fat`i*ga"tion  (?),  n. [L. fatigatio: cf. OF. fatigation.] Weariness.
   [Obs.] W. Montaqu.


   Fa*tigue"  (?),  n.  [F., fr. fatiguer to fatigue, L. fatigare; cf. L.
   affatim sufficiently.]

   1.  Weariness  from  bodily  labor  or  mental  exertion; lassitude or
   exhaustion of strength.

   2.  The  cause  of  weariness;  labor;  toil; as, the fatigues of war.

   3.  The  weakening of a metal when subjected to repeated vibrations or
   Fatigue  call  (Mil.), a summons, by bugle or drum, to perform fatigue
   duties.  --  Fatigue  dress, the working dress of soldiers. -- Fatigue
   duty  (Mil.),  labor exacted from soldiers aside from the use of arms.
   Farrow. -- Fatigue party, a party of soldiers on fatigue duty.


   Fa*tigue",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fatigued  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Fatiguing,  n.] [Cf. F. fatiguer. See Fatigue, n.] To weary with labor
   or  any bodily or mental exertion; to harass with toil; to exhaust the
   strength or endurance of; to tire. Syn. -- To jade; tire; weary; bore.
   See Jade.


   Fa*til"o*quent (?), a. [See Fatiloquist.] Prophetic; fatidical. [Obs.]


   Fa*til"o*quist  (?),  n.  [L.  fatiloquus  declaring fate; fatum fate+
   Loqui to speak.] A fortune teller.

                              Fatimite, Fatimide

   Fat"i*mite  (?), Fat"i*mide (?), a. (Hist.) Descended from Fatima, the
   daughter and only child of Mohammed. -- n. A descendant of Fatima.


   Fa*tis"cence  (?),  n.  [L.  fatiscense, p.pr. of fatiscere to gape or
   crack  open.]  A  gaping  or opening; state of being chinky, or having
   apertures. Kirwan.


   Fat"-kid`neyed (?), a.Gross; lubberly.

     Peace, ye fat-kidneyed rascal ! Shak.


   Fat"ling  (?),  n.  [Fat  +  -ling.] A calf, lamb, kid, or other young
   animal  fattened  for slaughter; a fat animal; -- said of such animals
   as are used for food.

     He sacrificed oxen and fatlings. 2 Sam. vi. 13.


   Fat"ly, adv. Grossly; greasily.


   Fat"ner (?), n. One who fattens. [R.] See Fattener. Arbuthnit.


   Fat"ness, n.

   1.  The quality or state of being fat, plump, or full-fed; corpulency;
   fullness of flesh.

     Their eyes stand out with fatness. Ps. lxxiii. 7.

   2. Hence; Richness; fertility; fruitfulness.

     Rich in the fatness of her plenteous soil. Rowe.

   3. That which makes fat or fertile.

     The clouds drop fatness. Philips.


   Fat"ten  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fattened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fattining (?).] [See Fat, v. t.]

   1.  To  make  fat; to feed for slaughter; to make fleshy or plump with
   fat; to fill full; to fat.

   2.  To  make  fertile  and fruitful; to enrich; as, to fatten land; to
   fatten fields with blood. Dryden.


   Fat"ten,  v.  i.  To  grow  fat or corpulent; to grow plump, thick, or
   fleshy; to be pampered.

     And villains fatten with the brave man's labor. Otway.


   Fat"ten*er  (?),  n.One  who, or that which, fattens; that which gives
   fatness or fertility.


   Fat"ti*ness (?), n.State or quality of being fatty.


   Fat"tish (?), a. Somewhat fat; inclined to fatness.

     Coleridge,  a  puffy, anxious, obstructed-looking, fattish old man.


   Fat"ty (?), a. Containing fat, or having the qualities of fat; greasy;
   gross;  as,  a  fatty  substance.  Fatty  acid (Chem.), any one of the
   paraffin  series  of monocarbonic acids, as formic acid, acetic, etc.;
   --  so  called  because  the  higher  members, as stearic and palmitic
   acids,   occur  in  the  natural  fats,  and  are  themselves  fatlike
   substances.  --  Fatty  clays.  See  under Clay. -- Fatty degeneration
   (Med.),  a  diseased  condition,  in which the oil globules, naturally
   present  in  certain organs, are so multiplied as gradually to destroy
   and replace the efficient parts of these organs. -- Fatty heart, Fatty
   liver, etc. (Med.), a heart, liver, etc., which have been the subjects
   of fatty degeneration or infiltration. -- Fatty infiltration (Med.), a
   condition  in  which  there  is an excessive accumulation of fat in an
   organ,  without  destruction  of any essential parts of the latter. --
   Fatty  tumor  (Med.),  a  tumor consisting of fatty or adipose tissue;


   Fa*tu"i*tous (?), a. Stupid; fatuous.


   Fa*tu"i*ty (?), n. [L. fatuitas, fr. fatuus foolish: cf. F. fatuit\'82
   Cf. Fatuous.] Weakness or imbecility of mind; stupidity.

     Those many forms of popular fatuity. I Taylor.


   Fat"u*ous (?), a. [L. fatuus.]

   1. Feeble in mind; weak; silly; stupid; foolish; fatuitous. Glanvill.

   2. Without reality; illusory, like the ignis fatuus.

     Thence fatuous fires and meteors take their birth. Danham.


   Fat"-wit`ed (?), a. Dull; stupid. Shak.


   Fau`bourg"  (?), n. [F.] A suburb of French city; also, a district now
   within a city, but formerly without its walls.


   Fau"cal  (?),  a.  [L.  fauces  throat.]  Pertaining to the fauces, or
   opening  of the throat; faucial; esp., (Phon.) produced in the fauces,
   as  certain  deep  guttural sounds found in the Semitic and some other

     Ayin  is  the  most  difficult  of  the  faucals.  I.  Taylor  (The


   Fau"ces (?), n.pl. [L.]

   1.  (Anat.) The narrow passage from the mouth to the pharynx, situated
   between the soft palate and the base of the tongue; -- called also the
   isthmus  of  the  fauces. On either side of the passage two membranous
   folds, called the pillars of the fauces, inclose the tonsils.

   2. (Bot.) The throat of a calyx, corolla, etc.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) That portion of the interior of a spiral shell which can
   be seen by looking into the aperture.


   Fau"cet (?), n. [F. fausset, perh. fr. L. fauces throat.]

   1. A fixture for drawing a liquid, as water, molasses, oil, etc., from
   a  pipe,  cask, or other vessel, in such quantities as may be desired;
   --  called also tap, and cock. It consists of a tubular spout, stopped
   with a movable plug, spigot, valve, or slide.

   2. The enlarged end of a section of pipe which receives the spigot end
   of the next section.


   Fau"chion (?), n. See Falchion. [Obs.]


   Fau"cial (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the fauces; pharyngeal.


   Faugh  (?), interj. [Cf. Foh.] An exclamation of contempt, disgust, or


   Faul"chion (?), n. See Falchion.


   Faul"con (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Falcon.


   Fauld (?), n. The arch over the dam of a blast furnace; the tymp arch.


   Faule (?), n. A fall or falling band. [Obs.]

     These laces, ribbons, and these faules. Herrick.


   Fault  (?), n. [OE. faut, faute, F. faute (cf. It., Sp., & Pg. falta),
   fr.  a  verb  meaning to want, fail, freq., fr. L. fallere to deceive.
   See Fail, and cf. Default.]

   1. Defect; want; lack; default.

     One, it pleases me, for fault of a better, to call my friend. Shak.

   2. Anything that fails, that is wanting, or that impairs excellence; a
   failing; a defect; a blemish.

     As patches set upon a little breach Discredit more in hiding of the
     fault. Shak.

   3.  A  moral  failing;  a defect or dereliction from duty; a deviation
   from propriety; an offense less serious than a crime.

   4.  (Geol.  & Mining) (a) A dislocation of the strata of the vein. (b)
   In  coal seams, coal rendered worthless by impurities in the seam; as,
   slate fault, dirt fault, etc. Raymond.

   5. (Hunting) A lost scent; act of losing the scent.

     Ceasing  their clamorous cry till they have singled, With much ado,
     the cold fault cleary out. Shak.

   6. (Tennis) Failure to serve the ball into the proper court.
   At  fault,  unable  to  find  the  scent and continue chase; hance, in
   trouble  ot embarrassment, and unable to proceed; puzzled; thhrown off
   the   track.  --  To  find  fault,  to  find  reason  for  blaming  or
   complaining;  to  express dissatisfaction; to complain; -- followed by
   with  before  the  thing complained of; but formerly by at. "Matter to
   find  fault  at." Robynson (More's Utopia). Syn. -- -- Error; blemish;
   defect;  imperfection;  weakness;  blunder;  failing;  vice. -- Fault,
   Failing, Defect, Foible. A fault is positive, something morally wrong;
   a  failing  is  negative,  some  weakness or failling short in a man's
   character,  disposition,  or habits; a defect is also negative, and as
   applied to character is the absence of anyything which is necessary to
   its completeness or perfection; a foible is a less important weakness,
   which  we  overlook or smile at. A man may have many failings, and yet
   commit  but  few  faults; or his faults and failings may be few, while
   his  foibles  are  obvious  to  all.  The faults of a friend are often
   palliated  or  explained  away  into  mere defects, and the defects or
   foibles  of  an  enemy  exaggerated  into  faults. "I have failings in
   common  with every human being, besides my own peculiar faults; but of
   avarice I have generally held myself guiltless." Fox. "Presumption and
   self-applause are the foibles of mankind." Waterland.
   Fault (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Faulted; p. pr. & vb. n. Faulting.]
   1.  To  charge  with a fault; to accuse; to find fault with; to blame.
     For that I will not fault thee. Old Song.
   2.   (Geol.)   To   interrupt  the  continuity  of  (rock  strata)  by
   displacement  along  a plane of fracture; -- chiefly used in the p.p.;
   as, the coal beds are badly faulted.
   Fault,  v.  i.  To  err;  to  blunder, to commit a fault; to do wrong.

     If  after  Samuel's  death the people had asked of God a king, they
     had not faulted. Latimer.


   Fault"er (?), n. One who commits a fault. [Obs.]

     Behold the faulter here in sight. Fairfax.


   Fault"-find`er  (?),  n.  One  who  makes  a  practice off discovering
   others' faults and censuring them; a scold.


   Fault"-find`ing,  n.  The  act  of  finding  fault or blaming; -- used
   derogatively. Also Adj.


   Fault"ful (?), a. Full of faults or sins. Shak.


   Fault"i*ly (?), adv. In a faulty manner.


   Fault"i*ness, n. Quality or state of being faulty.

     Round, even to faultiness. Shak.


   Fault"ing,  n.  (Geol.)  The  state or condition of being faulted; the
   process by which a fault is produced.


   Fault"less,  a.  Without  fault; not defective or imperfect; free from
   blemish;  free  from  incorrectness,  vice, or offense; perfect; as, a
   faultless poem.

     Whoever thinks a faultless piece to see, Thinks what ne'er was, nor
     is, nor e'er shall be. Pope.

   Syn. -- Blameless; spotless; perfect. See Blameless. -- Fault"less*ly,
   adv.-Fault"less*ness, n.


   Fault"y (?), a.

   1.  Containing  faults,  blemishes, or defects; imperfect; not fit for
   the use intended.

     Created once So goodly and erect, though faulty since. Milton.

   2.  Guilty  of  a  fault,  or  of  faults;  hence, blamable; worthy of
   censure. Shak.

     The king doth speak . . . as one which is faulty. 2 Sam. xiv. 13.


   Faun (?), n. [L. Faunus, fr. favere to be favorable. See Favor.] (Rom.
   Myth.) A god of fields and shipherds, diddering little from the satyr.
   The fauns are usually represented as half goat and half man.

     Satyr or Faun, or Sylvan. Milton.


   Fau"na  (?),  n. [NL.: cf. F. faune. See Faun.] (Zo\'94l.) The animals
   of  any  given  area or epoch; as, the fauna of America; fossil fauna;
   recent fauna.


   Fau"nal (?), a. Relating to fauna.


   Fau"nist (?), n. One who describes the fauna of country; a naturalist.
   Gilbert White.


   Fau"nus (?), n.;pl. Fauni (#). [L.] (Myth.) See Faun.


   Fau"sen (?), n. [Cf. W. llysowen eel, ll sounding in Welsh almost like
   fl.] (Zo\'94l.) A young eel. [Prov. Eng.]


   Fausse`-braye"  (?),  n.  [F. fausse-braie.] (Mil.) A second raampart,
   exterior to, and parallel to, the main rampart, and considerably below
   its level.


   Fau`teuil" (?), n. [F. See Faldistory.]

   1.  An  armchair;  hence  (because  the  members  sit  in fauteuils or
   armchairs), membership in the French Academy.

   2. Chair of a presiding officer.


   Fau"tor  (?),  n. [L., contr. fr. favitor, fr. favere to be favorable:
   cf.  F.  fauteur.  See  Favor.]  A  favorer;  a  patron; one who gives
   countenance or support; an abettor. [Obs.]

     The king and the fautors of his proceedings. Latimer.


   Fau"tress  (?), n. [L. fauutrix: cf. F. fautrice.] A patroness. [Obs.]


   Fau`vette"  (?),  n.  [F.,  dim. fr. fauve fawn-colored.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   small singing bird, as the nightingale and warblers.

   Page 547


   Faux  (?), n.; pl. Fauces (#). [L.] See Fauces. <-- no pos in original
   = n. -->

                                   faux pas

   faux`  pas"  (?).  [F. See False, and Pas.] A false step; a mistake or
   wrong measure.


   Fa*vag"i*nous  (?),  a.  [L.  favus  a  honeycomb.]  Formed  like,  or
   resembling, a honeycomb.


   Fa"vas (?), n. See Favus, n., 2. Fairholt.


   Fa"vel  (?), a. [OF. fauvel, favel, dim. of F. fauve; of German oigin.
   See Fallow, a.] Yellow; fal [Obs.] Wright.


   Fa"vel,  n.  A  horse  of a favel or dun color. To curry favel. See To
   curry favor, under Favor, n.


   Fa"vel,  n.  [OF.  favele, fr. L. fabella short fable, dim. of fabula.
   See Fable.] Flattery; cajolery; deceit. [Obs.] Skeat.


   Fa*vel"la  (?),  n.  [NL.,  prob. from L. favus a honeycomb.] (Bot.) A
   group  of  spores  arranged  without  order  and  covered  with a thin
   gelatinous envelope, as in certain delicate red alg\'91.


   Fa*ve"o*late  (?), a. [L. favus honeycomb.] Honeycomb; having cavities
   or cells, somewhat resembling those of a honeycomb; alveolate; favose.


   Fa*vil"lous  (?),  a.  [L.  favilla sparkling or glowing asges.] Of or
   pertaining to ashes. [Obs.]

     Light and favollous particles. Sir T. Browne.


   Fa*vo"ni*an  (?),  a.  [L.  Favonius the west wind.] Pertaining to the
   west wind; soft; mild; gentle.


   Fa"vor (?), n. [Written also favour.] [OF. favor, F. faveur, L. favor,
   fr.  favere  to  be favorable, cf. Skr. bh\'bevaya to further, foster,
   causative  of  bhBe.  In the phrase to curry favor, favor is prob. for
   favel a horse. See 2d Favel.]

   1.  Kind regard; propitious aspect; countenance; friendly disposition;
   kindness; good will.

     Hath crawled into the favor of the king. Shak.

   2.  The  act of countenancing, or the condition of being countenanced,
   or regarded propitiously; support; promotion; befriending.

     But found no favor in his lady's eyes. Dryden.

     And  Jesus  increased  in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God
     and man. Luke ii. 52.

   3.  A  kind act or office; kindness done or granted; benevolence shown
   by  word  or  deed;  an  act  of  grace or good will, as distinct from
   justice or remuneration.

     Beg one favor at thy gracious hand. Shak.

   4. Mildness or mitigation of punishment; lenity.

     I could not discover the lenity and fabor of this sentence. Swift.

   5. The object of regard; person or thing favored.

     All  these  his  wondrous works, but chiefly man, His chief delight
     and favor. Milton.

   6.  A  gift  or  represent;  something bestowed as an evidence of good
   will; a token of love; a knot of ribbons; something worn as a token of
   affection; as, a marriage favor is a bunch or knot of white ribbons or
   white flowers worn at a wedding.

     Wear thou this favor for me, and stick it in thy cap. Shak.

   7. Appearance; look; countenance; face. [Obs.]

     This boy is fair, of female favor. Shak.

   8. (Law) Partiality; bias. Bouvier.

   9.  A  letter  or epistle; -- so called in civility or compliment; as,
   your favor of yesterday is received.

   10. pl. Love locks. [Obs.] Wright.
   Challenge to the favor OR for favor (Law), the challenge of a juror on
   grounds  not  sufficient  to  constitute  a  principal  challenge, but
   sufficient to give rise to a probable suspicion of favor or bias, such
   as  acquaintance,  business  relation,  etc.  See Principal challenge,
   under  Challenge.  -- In favor of, upon the side of; favorable to; for
   the  advantage  of.  --  In  favor  with,  favored,  countenanced,  or
   encouraged  by. -- To curry favor [see the etymology of Favor, above],
   to  seek  to  gain favor by flattery, caresses, kindness, or officious
   civilities.  --  With  one's  favor, OR By one's favor, with leave; by
   kind permission.

     But, with your favor, I will treat it here. Dryden.

   Syn.  --  Kindness;  countenance;  patronage;  support; lenity; grace;
   gift; present; benefit.


   Fa"vor,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Favored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Favoring.]
   [Written also favour.] [Cf. OF. favorer, favorir. See Favor, n.]

   1.  To  regard  with  kindness;  to  support;  to  aid, or to have the
   disposition  to  aid,  or  to wish success to; to be propitious to; to
   countenance;  to  treat  with  consideration  or  tenderness;  to show
   partiality or unfair bias towards.

     O happy youth! and favored of the skies. Pope.

     He that favoreth Joab, . . . let him go after Joab. 2 Sam. xx. 11.

     [The painter] has favored her squint admirably. Swift.

   2.  To  afford  advantages  for  success to; to facilitate; as, a weak
   place favored the entrance of the enemy.

   3.  To  resemble  in features; to have the aspect or looks of; as, the
   child favors his father.

     The porter owned that the gentleman favored his master. Spectator.


   Fa"vor*a*ble  (?),  a.  [Written  also  favourable.] [F. favorable, L.
   favorabilis favored, popular, pleasing, fr. favor. See Favor, n.]

   1.  Full of favor; favoring; manifesting partiality; kind; propitious;

     Lend favorable ears to our request. Shak.

     Lord, thou hast been favorable unto thy land. Ps. lxxxv. 1.

   2.   Conducive;   contributing;  tending  to  promote  or  facilitate;
   advantageous; convenient.

     A place very favorable for the making levies of men. Clarendon.

     The  temper  of  the  climate, favorable to generation, health, and
     long life. Sir W. Temple.

   3. Beautiful; well-favored. [Obs.] Spenser. -- Fa"vora*ble*ness, n. --
   Fa"vor*a*bly, sdv.

     The  faborableness  of  the  present times to all extertions in the
     cause of liberty. Burke.


   Fa"vored (?), a.

   1. Countenanced; aided; regarded with kidness; as, a favored friend.

   2.  Having  a certain favor or appearance; featured; as, well-favored;
   hard-favored, etc.


   Fa"vored*ly  (?),  adv. In a favored or a favorable manner; favorably.
   [Obs.] Deut. xvii. 1. Arscham.


   Fa"vored*ness, n. Appearance. [Obs.]


   Fa"vor*er  (?),  n.  One  who favors; one who regards with kindness or
   friendship;  a  well-wisher;  one  who  assists or promotes success or
   prosperity. [Written also favourer.]

     And come to us as favorers, not as foes. Shak.


   Fa"vor*ess  (?),  n. A woman who favors or gives countenance. [Written
   also fovouress.]


   Fa"vor*ing, a. That favors. -- Fa"vor*ing*ly, adv.


   Fa"vor*ite  (?),  n.  [OF.  favorit favored, F. favori, fem. favorite,
   p.p.  of OF. favorir, cf. It. favorito, frm. favorita, fr. favorire to
   favor. See Favor.]

   1.  A  person  or thing regarded with peculiar favor; one treated with
   partiality;  one preferred above others; especially, one unduly loved,
   trusted,  and  enriched  with  favors  by  a  person  of  high rank or

     Committing to a wicked favorite All public cares. Milton.

   2.  pl.  Short  curls dangling over the temples; -- fashionable in the
   reign of Charles II. [Obs.] Farquhar.

   3.  (Sporting)  The  competitor  (as a horse in a race) that is judged
   most likely to win; the competitor standing highest in the betting.


   Fa"vor*ite,   a.   Regarded  with  particular  affection,  esteem,  or
   preference;  as,  a  favorite  walk;  a  favorite child. "His favorite
   argument." Macaulay.


   Fa"vor*it*ism  (?),  n. [Cf. F. favoritisme.] The disposition to favor
   and  promote  the interest of one person or family, or of one class of
   men, to the neglect of others having equal claims; partiality.

     A  spirit  of  favoritism  to  the  Bank  of  the United States. A.


   Fa"vor*less, a.

   1.  Unfavored;  not  regarded  with  favor;  having  no countenance or

   2. Unpropitious; unfavorable. [Obs.] "Fortune favorless." Spenser.


   Fa*vose" (?), a. [L. favus honeycomb.]

   1. (Bot.) Honeycombed. See Faveolate.

   2. (Med.) Of or pertaining to the disease called favus.


   Fav"o*site  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Like  or  pertaining  to  the  genus


   Fav`o*si"tes  (?),  n.  [NL.  See Favose.] (Paleon.) A genus of fossil
   corals  abundant  in the Silurian and Devonian rocks, having polygonal
   cells with perforated walls.


   Fa"vus (?), n. [L., honeycomb.]

   1. (Med.) A disease of the scalp, produced by a vegetable parasite.

   2.  A  tile  or  flagstone  cut  into  an hexagonal shape to produce a
   honeycomb pattern, as in a pavement; -- called also favas and sectila.


   Fawe (?), a. [See Fain.] Fain; glad; delighted. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fawk"ner (?), n. [See Falconer.] A falconer. [Obs.] Donne.


   Fawn  (?),  n. [OF. faon the young one of any beast, a fawn, F. faon a
   fawn, for fedon, fr. L. fetus. See Fetus.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A young deer; a buck or doe of the first year. See Buck.

   2. The young of an animal; a whelp. [Obs.]

     [The tigress] . . . followeth . . . after her fawns. Holland.

   3. A fawn color.


   Fawn, a. Of the color of a fawn; fawn-colored.


   Fawn, v. i. [Cf. F. faonner.] To bring forth a fawn.


   Fawn,  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Fawned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fawning.] [OE.
   fawnen,  fainen, fagnien, to rejoice, welcome, flatter, AS. f\'91gnian
   to  rejoice;  akin  to  Icel. fagna to rejoice, welcome. See Fain.] To
   court  favor  by  low  cringing,  frisking, etc., as a dog; to flatter
   meanly; -- often followed by on or upon.

     You showed your teeth like apes, and fawned like hounds. Shak.

     Thou  with  trembling  fear,  Or  like a fawning parasite, obeyest.

     Courtiers who fawn on a master while they betray him. Macaulay.


   Fawn, n. A servile cringe or bow; mean flattery; sycophancy. Shak.


   Fawn"-col`ored (?), a. Of the color of a fawn; light yellowish brown.


   Fawn"er (?), n. One who fawns; a sycophant.


   Fawn"ing*ly, adv. In a fawning manner.


   Faxed  (?), a. [AS. feaxede haired, fr. feax hair. Cf. Paxwax.] Hairy.
   [Obs.] amden.


   Fay  (?),  n.  [F.  f\'82e. See Fate, and cf. Fairy.] A fairy; an elf.
   "Yellow-skirted fays." Milton.


   Fay,  n.  [OF.  fei,  F. foi. See Faith.] Faith; as, by my fay. [Obs.]


   Fay  (f\'be),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. fayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Faying.]
   [OE.  feien,  v.t.  &  i.,  AS.  f\'c7gan  to join, unite; akin to OS.
   f\'d3gian,  D.  voegen,  OHG. fuogen, G. f\'81gen, Sw. foga. See Fair,
   and  cf.  Fadge.] (Shipbuilding) To fit; to join; to unite closely, as
   two pieces of wood, so as to make the surface fit together.


   Fay,  v. i. (Shipbuilding) To lie close together; to fit; to fadge; --
   often  with  in, into, with, or together. Faying surface, that surface
   of  an object which comes with another object to which it is fastened;
   --  said  of  plates,  angle irons, etc., that are riveted together in


   Fay"al*ite  (?), n. [So called from the island Fayal.] (Min.) A black,
   greenish,  or  brownish  mineral  of  the  chrysolite  group.  It is a
   silicate of iron.


   Fa`y*ence" (?), n. See Fa.


   Fay"tour (?), n. See Faitour. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Faze (?), v. t. See Feeze.


   Faz"zo*let` (?), n. [It. fazzoletto.] A handkerchief. [R.] percival.


   Fea"ber*ry  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Prov.  E.  feabe, theabe, thape.] (Bot.) A
   gooseberry. [Prov. Eng.] Prior.


   Feague  (?),  v. t. [Cf. G. fegen to sweep, Icel. f\'91gia to cleanse,
   polish,  E.  fair,  fay,  to fit, fey to cleanse.] To beat or whip; to
   drive. [Obs.] Otway.


   Fe"al (?), a. [OF. feal, feel, feeil, fedeil, F. fid\'8ale, L. fidelis
   faithful, fr. fides faith. See Faith.] Faithful; loyal. [Obs.] Wright.


   Fe"al*ty  (?),  n.  [OE.  faute,  OF.  faut\'82,  fealt\'82, feel\'82,
   feelteit,  fr.  L.  fidelitas, fr. fidelis faithful. See Feal, and cf.

   1.  Fidelity  to one's lord; the feudal obligation by which the tenant
   or  vassal  was  bound to be faithful to his lord; the special oath by
   which this obligation was assumed; fidelity to a superior power, or to
   a  government;  loyality.  It  is  no longer the practice to exact the
   performance  of  fealty, as a feudal obligation. Wharton (Law Dict. ).

   2.  Fidelity;  constancy; faithfulness, as of a friend to a friend, or
   of a wife to her husband.

     He should maintain fealty to God. I. Taylor.

     Makes  wicked  lightnings  of  her eyes, and saps The fealty of our
     friends. tennyson.

     Swore fealty to the new government. Macaulay.

     NOTE: &hand; Fe alty is  di stinguished fr om ho mage, wh ich is an
     acknowledgment of tenure, while fealty implies an oath. See Homage.

   Wharton. Syn. -- Homage; loyality; fidelity; constancy.


   Fear (?), n. A variant of Fere, a mate, a companion. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fear,  n.  [OE.  fer,  feer, fere, AS. f a coming suddenly upon, fear,
   danger;  akin to D. vaar, OHG. f\'bera danger, G. gefahr, Icel. f\'ber
   harm, mischief, plague, and to E. fare, peril. See Fare.]

   1. A painful emotion or passion excited by the expectation of evil, or
   the   apprehension   of   impending   danger;  apprehension;  anxiety;
   solicitude; alarm; dread.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e de grees of this passion, beginning with the most
     moderate,  may  be  thus  expressed,  -- apprehension, fear, dread,
     fright, terror.

     Fear  is an uneasiness of the mind, upon the thought of future evil
     likely to befall us. Locke.

     Where no hope is left, is left no fear. Milton.

   2.  (Script.)  (a)  Apprehension of incurring, or solicitude to avoid,
   God's wrath; the trembling and awful reverence felt toward the Supreme
   Belng. (b) Respectful reverence for men of authority or worth.

     I will put my fear in their hearts. Jer. xxxii. 40.

     I will teach you the fear of the Lord. Ps. xxxiv. 11.

     render  therefore to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due
     . . . fear to whom fear. Rom. xiii. 7.

   3.  That  which  causes,  or  which  is the object of, apprehension or
   alarm; source or occasion of terror; danger; dreadfulness.

     There were they in great fear, where no fear was. Ps. liii. 5.

     The  fear  of  your  adventure  would  counsel  you to a more equal
     enterprise. Shak.

   For  fear,  in  apprehension  lest.  "For fear you ne'er see chain nor
   money more." Shak.
   Fear,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Feared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fearing.] [OE.
   feren, faeren, to frighten, to be afraid, AS. fFear, n.] 

   1.  To feel a painful apprehension of; to be afraid of; to consider or
   expect with emotion of alarm or solicitude.

     I will fear no evil, for thou art with me. Ps. xxiii. 4.

     NOTE: With subordinate clause.

     I greatly fear my money is not safe. Shak.

     I almost fear to quit your hand. D. Jerrold.

   2.  To  have  a  reverential  awe  of;  to  solicitous  to  avoid  the
   displeasure of.

     Leave them to God above; him serve and fear. Milton.

   3. To be anxious or solicitous for. [R.]

     The  sins of the father are to be laid upon the children, therefore
     . . . I fear you. Shak.

   4. To suspect; to doubt. [Obs.]

     Ay what else, fear you not her courage? Shak.

   5.  To  affright;  to terrify; to drive away or prevent approach of by
   fear. z2

     fera their people from doing evil. Robynsin (More's utopia).

     Tush, tush! fear boys with bugs. Shak.

   Syn. -- To apprehend; drad; reverence; venerate.


   Fear,  v.  i.  To  be  in  apprehension of evil; to be afraid; to feel
   anxiety on account of some expected evil.

     I exceedingly fear and quake. Heb. xii. 21.


   Fear"er (?), n. One who fars. Sir P. Sidney.


   Fear"ful (?), a.

   1. Full of fera, apprehension, or alarm; afraid; frightened.

     Anxious  amidst  all  their  success,  and fearful amidat all their
     power. Bp. Warburton.

   2. inclined to fear; easily frightened; without courage; timid.

     What man is there that is fearful and fain-hearted? Deut. xx. 8.

   3. Indicating, or caused by, fear.

     Cold fearful drops stand on my trembling flesh. Shak.

   4.  Inspiring  fear or awe; exciting apprehension or terror; terrible;
   frightful; dreadful.

     This glorious and fearful name, The Lord thy God. Deut. xxviii. 58.

     Death is a fearful thing. Shak.

     In dreams they fearful precipices tread. Dryden.

   Syn. -- Apprehensive; afraid; timid; timorous; ho


   Fera"ful*ly, adv. In a fearful manner.


   Fera"ful*ness, n. The state of being fearful.


   Fera"less,  a.  Free  from  fear.  Syn. -- Bold; courageous; interpid;
   valor -- Fear"less*ly, adv. -- Fera"less*ness, n.


   Fear"naught` (?), n.

   1. A fearless person.

   2.  A stout woolen cloth of great thickness; dreadnaught; also, a warm


   Fear"some (?) a.

   1. Frightful; causing fear [Scotch] "This fearsome wind." Sir W. Scott


   .  Easily  frightened;  timid;  timorous. "A silly fearsome thing." B.

   Page 548


   Fea"si*bil*ity  (?)  n.; pl. Feasibilities (-tiz). [from Feasible] The
   quality  of  being  feasible;  practicability;  also,  that  which  is
   feasible; as, before we adopt a plan, let us consider its feasibility.

     Men   often   swallow   falsities   for   truths,  dubiosities  for
     certainties, possibilities for feasibilities. Sir T. Browne.


   Fea"si*ble  (?)  a.  [F.  faisable,  fr.  faire  to make or do, fr. L.
   facere. See Fact, Feat.]

   1. Capable of being done, executed, or effected; practicable.

     Always  existing before their eyes as a thing feasible in practice.

     It was not feasible to gratify so many ambitions. Beaconsfield.

   2.   Fit   to   be   used  or  tailed,  as  land.  [R.]  R.  Trumbull.
   Fea"si*ble*ness, n. --Fea"si*bly, adv.


   Feast (?), n. [OE. feste festival, holiday, feast, OF. feste festival,
   F.  f\'88te,  fr.  L. festum, pl. festa, fr. festus joyful, festal; of
   uncertain origin. Cf. Fair, n., Festal, F.]

   1.  A  festival;  a  holiday;  a  solemn,  or more commonly, a joyous,

     The seventh day shall be a feast to the Lord. Ex. xiii. 6.

     Now  his  parents  went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the
     passover. Luke ii. 41.

     NOTE: &hand; Ec clesiastical fa sts ar e called immovable when they
     always occur on the same day of the year; otherwise they are called

   2.  A  festive  or  joyous  meal;  a  grand, ceremonious, or sumptuous
   entertainment,  of  which many guests partake; a banquet characterized
   by tempting variety and abundance of food.

     Enough is as good as a feast. Old Proverb.

     Belshazzar  the King made a great feast to a thousand of his lords.
     Dan. v. 1.

   3.  That  which  is partaken of, or shared in, with delight; something
   highly agreeable; entertainment.

     The feast of reason, and the flow of soul. Pope.

   Feast  day,  a  holiday;  a  day  set  as  a  solemn  commemo  Syn. --
   Entertainment;  regale; banquet; treat; carousal; festivity; festival.
   --  Feast,  Banquet, Festival, Carousal. A feast sets before us viands
   superior  in quantity, variety, and abudance; a banquet is a luxurious
   feast;  a  festival  is  the  joyful celebration by good cheer of some
   agreeable  event.  Carousal  is  unrestrained indulgence in frolic and


   Feast,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Feasted; p. pr. & vb. n. Feasting.] [OE.
   festen,  cf.  OF. fester to rest from work, F. f\'88ter to celebrate a
   holiday. See Feast, n.]

   1. To eat sumptuously; to dine or sup on rich provisions, particularly
   in large companies, and on public festivals.

     And his sons went and feasted in their houses. Job. i. 4.

   2. To be highly gratified or delighted.

     With my love's picture then my eye doth feast. Shak.


   Feast, v. t.

   1.  To  entertain  with  sumptuous  provisions;  to treat at the table
   bountifully; as, he was feasted by the king. Hayward.

   2. To delight; to gratify; as, to feast the soul.

     Feast your ears with the music a while. Shak.


   Feast"er (?), n.

   1. One who fares deliciously.

   2. One who entertains magnificently. Johnson.


   Feast"ful  (?),  a.  Festive;  festal;  joyful;  sumptuous; luxurious.
   "Feastful days." Milton. -- Feast"ful*ly, adv.


   Feat  (?), n. [OE. fet, OF. fet, fait, F. fait, factum, fr. L. facere,
   factum, to make or do. Cf. Fact, Feasible, Do.]

   1. An act; a deed; an exploit.

     The warlike feats I have done. Shak.

   2.  A  striking act of strength, skill, or cunning; a trick; as, feats
   of horsemanship, or of dexterity.


   Feat, v. t. To form; to fashion. [Obs.]

     To the more mature, A glass that feated them. Shak.


   Feat, a. [Compar. Feater (?); superl. Featest.] [F. fait made, shaped,
   fit, p.p. of faire to make or do. See Feat, n.] Dexterous in movements
   or service; skillful; neat; nice; pretty. [Archaic]

     Never master had a page . . . so feat. Shak.

     And  look  how  well  my  garments  sit upon me -- Much feater than
     before. Shak.


   Feat"-bod`ied (?), a. Having a feat or trim body. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Feat"e*ous  (?),  a. [Cf. OF. faitis, faitice, fetis, well made, fine,
   L.  facticius  made  by  art.]  Dexterous;  neat.  [Obs.]  Johnson. --
   Feat"e*ous*ly, adv.


   Feath"er  (?),  n. [OE. fether, AS. fe; akin to D. veder, OHG. fedara,
   G.  feder,  Icel.  fj\'94,  Sw.  fj\'84der, Dan. fj\'91der, Gr. pattra
   wing,  feathr,  pat  to  fly,  and  prob.  to  L. penna feather, wing.
   &root;76, 248. Cf. Pen a feather.]

   1.  One of the peculiar dermal appendages, of several kinds, belonging
   to birds, as contour feathers, quills, and down.

     NOTE: &hand; An  or dinary fe ather consists of the quill or hollow
     basal  part  of  the  stem; the shaft or rachis, forming the upper,
     solid  part of the stem; the vanes or webs, implanted on the rachis
     and  consisting  of  a  series of slender lamin\'91 or barbs, which
     usually  bear  barbicels  and  interlocking hooks by which they are
     fastened together. See Down, Quill, Plumage.

   2.  Kind;  nature; species; -- from the proverbial phrase, "Birds of a
   feather," that is, of the same species. [R.]

     I  am  not of that feather to shake off My friend when he must need
     me. Shak.

   3.  The  fringe  of long hair on the legs of the setter and some other

   4. A tuft of peculiar, long, frizzly hair on a horse.

   5. One of the fins or wings on the shaft of an arrow.

   6.  (Mach.  &  Carp.) A longitudinal strip projecting as a fin from an
   object,  to strengthen it, or to enter a channel in another object and
   thereby  prevent  displacement sidwise but permit motion lengthwise; a

   7.  A  thin  wedge  driven  between the two semicylindrical parts of a
   divided plug in a hole bored in a stone, to rend the stone. Knight.

   8.  The  angular  adjustment  of  an  oar  or paddle-wheel float, with
   reference to a horizontal axis, as it leaves or enters the water.

     NOTE: &hand; Feather is used adjectively or in combination, meaning
     composed of, or resembling, a feather or feathers; as, feather fan,
     feather-heeled, feather duster.

   Feather  alum  (Min.),  a  hydrous sulphate of alumina, resulting from
   volcanic action, and from the decomposition of iron pyrites; -- called
   also halotrichite. Ure. -- Feather bed, a bed filled with feathers. --
   Feather  driver,  one  who  prepares  feathers  by beating. -- Feather
   duster,  a  dusting brush of feathers. -- Feather flower, an artifical
   flower made of feathers, for ladies' headdresses, and other ornamental
   purposes.  --  Feather  grass  (Bot.), a kind of grass (Stipa pennata)
   which  has  a  long  feathery awn rising from one of the chaffy scales
   which inclose the grain. -- Feather maker, one who makes plumes, etc.,
   of  feathers, real or artificial. -- Feather ore (Min.), a sulphide of
   antimony  and  lead,  sometimes  found  in  capillary forms and like a
   cobweb,  but  also  massive. It is a variety of Jamesonite. -- Feather
   shot,  OR  Feathered  shot (Metal.), copper granulated by pouring into
   cold  water.  Raymond.  -- Feather spray (Naut.), the spray thrown up,
   like  pairs  of  feathers, by the cutwater of a fast-moving vessel. --
   Feather star. (Zo\'94l.) See Comatula. -- Feather weight. (Racing) (a)
   Scrupulously  exact  weight,  so  that a feather would turn the scale,
   when a jockey is weighed or weighted. (b) The lightest weight that can
   be  put  on  the  back of a horse in racing. Youatt. (c) In wrestling,
   boxing, etc., a term applied to the lightest of the classes into which
   contestants  are  divided;  --  in  contradistinction to light weight,
   middle  weight,  and  heavy  weight.  A  feather in the cap an honour,
   trophy, or mark of distinction. [Colloq.] -- To be in full feather, to
   be  in full dress or in one's best clothes. [Collog.] -- To be in high
   feather,  to  be  in  high spirits. [Collog.] -- To cut a feather. (a)
   (Naut.)  To  make  the water foam in moving; in allusion to the ripple
   which  a  ship  throws  off  from  her  bows.  (b)  To make one's self
   conspicuous.[Colloq.]   --  To  show  the  white  feather,  to  betray
   cowardice,  --  a white feather in the tail of a cock being considered
   an indication that he is not of the true game breed.


   Feath"er  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Feathered (#); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To furnish with a feather or feathers, as an arrow or a cap.

     An  eagle had the ill hap to be struck with an arrow feathered from
     her own wing. L'Estrange.

   2. To adorn, as with feathers; to fringe.

     A  few  birches and oaks still feathered the narrow ravines. Sir W.

   3. To render light as a feather; to give wings to.[R.]

     The Polonian story perhaps may feather some tedions hours. Loveday.

   4. To enrich; to exalt; to benefit.

     They stuck not to say that the king cared not to plume his nobility
     and people to feather himself. Bacon.


   5. To tread, as a cock. Dryden.
   To  feather  one's  nest,  to  provide  for one's self especially from
   property   belonging  to  another,  confided  to  one's  care;  --  an
   expression taken from the practice of birds which collect feathers for
   the  lining  of  their  nests. -- To feather an oar (Naut), to turn it
   when  it  leaves  the  water  so that the blade will be horizontal and
   offer  the  least resistance to air while reaching for another stroke.
   --  To  tar  and feather a person, to smear him with tar and cover him
   with feathers, as a punishment or an indignity.


   Feath"er, v. i.

   1.  To  grow or form feathers; to become feathered; -- often with out;
   as, the birds are feathering out.

   2.  To  curdle  when  poured  into  another liquid, and float about in
   little flakes or "feathers;" as, the cream feathers [Colloq.]

   3. To turn to a horizontal plane; -- said of oars.

     The feathering oar returns the gleam. Tickell.

     Stopping  his  sculls in the air to feather accurately. Macmillan's

   4.  To  have  the  appearance of a feather or of feathers; to be or to
   appear in feathery form.

     A  clump  of  ancient cedars feathering in evergreen beauty down to
     the ground. Warren.

     The ripple feathering from her bows. Tennyson.


   Feath"er-brained/ (?), a. Giddy; frivolous; feather-headed. [Colloq.]


   Feath"ered (?), a.

   1.  Clothed,  covered,  or fitted with (or as with) feathers or wings;
   as, a feathered animal; a feathered arrow.

     Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury. Shak.

     Nonsense  feathered with soft and delicate phrases and pointed with
     pathetic accent. Dr. J. Scott.

   2.  Furnished with anything featherlike; ornamented; fringed; as, land
   feathered with trees.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  a  fringe  of feathers, as the legs of certian
   birds; or of hairs, as the legs of a setter dog.

   4.  (Her.) Having feathers; -- said of an arrow, when the feathers are
   of a tincture different from that of the shaft.


   Feath"er-edge/ (?), n.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  The thin, new growth around the edge of a shell, of an

   2. Any thin, as on a board or a razor.


   Feath"er-edged/  (?),  a. Having a feather-edge; also, having one edge
   thinner than the other, as a board; -- in the United States, said only
   of stuff one edge of which is made as thin as practicable.


   Feath"er-few/ (?), n. (Bot.) Feverfew.


   Feath"er-foil`  (?),  n.  [Feather  +  foil a leaf.] (Bot.) An aquatic
   plant (Hottonia palustris), having finely divided leaves.


   Feath"er-head` (?), n. A frivolous or featherbrained person. [Colloq.]
   H. James.


   Feath"er-head`ed  (?),  a.  Giddy;  frivolous;  foolish.  [Colloq.] G.


   Feath"er-heeled`   (?),  a.  Light-heeled;  gay;  frisky;  frolicsome.


   Feath"er*ness (?), n. The state or condition of being feathery.


   Feath"er*ing, n.

   1. (Arch.) Same as Foliation.

   2. The act of turning the blade of the oar, as it rises from the water
   in rowing, from a vertical to a horizontal position. See To feather an
   oar, under Feather, v. t.

   3. A covering of feathers.
   Feathering  float  (Naut.), the float or paddle of a feathering wheel.
   --  Feathering  screw  (Naut.), a screw propeller, of which the blades
   may be turned so as to move edgewise through the water when the vessel
   is  moving  under  sail  alone.  -- Feathering wheel (Naut.), a paddle
   wheel   whose   floats   turn   automatically   so  as  to  dip  about
   perpendicularly  into the water and leave in it the same way, avoiding
   beating on the water in the descent and lifting water in the ascent.


   Feath"er*less, a. Destitute of feathers.


   Feath"er*ly, a. Like feathers. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Feath"er-pat"ed  (?),  a.  Feather-headed; frivolous. [Colloq.] Sir W.


   Feath"er-veined` (?), a. (Bot.) Having the veins (of a leaf) diverging
   from the two sides of a midrib.


   Feat"er*y  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or resembling, feathers; covered
   with, or as with, feathers; as, feathery spray or snow. Milton.

     Ye feathery people of mid air. Barry Cornwall.


   Feat"ly  (?),  adv.  [From  Feat,  a.]  Neatly;  dexterously;  nimbly.

     Foot featly here and there. Shak.


   Feat"ness, n. Skill; adroitness. [Archaic] Johnson.


   Fea"ture  (?;  135),  n. [OE. feture form, shape, feature, OF. faiture
   fashion, make, fr. L. factura a making, formation, fr. facere, factum,
   to make. See Feat, Fact, and cf. Facture.]

   1.  The  make, form, or outward appearance of a person; the whole turn
   or style of the body; esp., good appearance.

     What needeth it his feature to descrive? Chaucer.

     Cheated of feature by dissembling nature. Shak.

   2.  The make, cast, or appearance of the human face, and especially of
   any  single  part  of  the  face;  a  lineament.  (pl.)  The face, the

     It is for homely features to keep home. Milton.

   3. The cast or structure of anything, or of any part of a thing, as of
   a  landscape, a picture, a treaty, or an essay; any marked peculiarity
   or characteristic; as, one of the features of the landscape.

     And  to  her  service  bind  each  living  creature  Through secret
     understanding of their feature. Spenser.

   4. A form; a shape. [R.]

     So scented the grim feature, and upturned His nostril wide into the
     murky air. Milton.


   Fea"tured (?; 135), a.

   1. Shaped; fashioned.

     How noble, young, how rarely featured! Shak.

   2. Having features; formed into features.

     The well-stained canvas or the featured stone. Young.


   Fea"ture*less (?; 135), a. Having no distinct or distinctive features.


   Fea"ture*ly,   a.   Having  features;  showing  marked  peculiarities;
   handsome. [R.]

     Featurely warriors of Christian chivalry. Coleridge.


   Feaze  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Feazed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Feazing.]
   [Cf.  OE.  faseln to ravel, fr. AS. f\'91s fringe; akin to G. fasen to
   separate  fibers  or  threads,  fasen,  faser,  thread, filament, OHG.
   faso.] To untwist; to unravel, as the end of a rope. Johnson.


   Feaze,  v.  t. [See Feese.<-- now faze-->] To beat; to chastise; also,
   to humble; to harass; to worry. [Obs.] insworth.


   Feaze,  n.  A state of anxious or fretful excitement; worry; vexation.


   Feaz"ings  (?), n. pl. [See Feaze, v. t.] (Naut.) The unlaid or ragged
   end of a rope. Ham. Nav. Encyc.


   Fe*bric"i*tate  (?),  v. i. [L. febricitare, fr. febris. See Febrile.]
   To have a fever. [Obs.] Bailey.


   Fe*bric"u*lose`  (?),  a. [L. febriculosus.] Somewhat feverish. [Obs.]


   Feb`ri*fa"cient (?), a. [L. febris fever + faciens, p.pr. of facere to
   make.] Febrific. Dunglison. -- n. That which causes fever. Beddoes.


   Fe*brif"er*ous (?), a. [L. febris fever + -ferous.] Causing fever; as,
   a febriferous locality.


   Fe*brif"ic  (?),  a. [L. febris fever + ficare (in comp.) to make. See
   fy-.] Producing fever. Dunglison.


   Fe*brif"u*gal  (?  OR  ?),  a.  [See Febrifuge.] Having the quality of
   mitigating or curing fever. Boyle.


   Feb"ri*fuge  (?),  n. [L. febris fever + fugare to put to flight, from
   fugere  to flee: cf. F. f\'82brifuge. see Febrile, Feverfew.] (Med.) A
   medicine serving to mitigate or remove fever. -- a. Antifebrile.


   Fe"brile  (?;  277),  a.  [F.  f\'82brile,  from  L. febris fever. See
   Fever.] Pertaining to fever; indicating fever, or derived from it; as,
   febrile symptoms; febrile action. Dunglison.


   Feb"ru*a*ry  (?),  n.  [L.  Februarius, orig., the month of expiation,
   because  on  the  fifteenth of this month the great feast of expiation
   and  purification  was  held,  fr.  februa, pl., the Roman festival or
   purification;  akin  to februare to purify, expiate.] The second month
   in  the  year, said to have been introduced into the Roman calendar by
   Numa.  In  common  years this month contains twenty-eight days; in the
   bissextile, or leap year, it has twenty-nine days.


   Feb`ru*a"tion  (?),  n.  [L. februatio. See february.] Purification; a
   sacrifice. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fe"cal  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  f\'82cal.  See  Feces.]  relating  to,  or
   containing, dregs, feces, or ordeure; f\'91cal.


   Fec"che (?), v. t. To fetch. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fe"ces (?), n. pl. dregs; sediment; excrement. See F\'92ces.

   Page 549


   Fe"cial  (?),  a.  [L.  fetialis  belonging to the fetiales, the Roman
   priests  who  sanctioned  treaties  and demanded satisfaction from the
   enemy  before  a  formal  declaration  of war.] Pertaining to heralds,
   declarations of war, and treaties of peace; as, fecial law. Kent.


   Fe"ci*fork`  (?), n. [Feces + fork.] (Zo\'94l.) The anal fork on which
   the larv\'91 of certain insects carry their f\'91ces.


   Feck"less  (?),  a.  [Perh.  a  corruption of effectless.] Spiritless;
   weak; worthless. [Scot]


   Fecks (?), n. A corruption of the word faith. Shak.


   Fec"u*la (?), n.; pl. Fecul\'92 [L.fae burnt tartar or salt of tartar,
   dim.  of  faex,  faecis,  sediment,  dregs:  cf.  F.  f\'82cule.]  Any
   pulverulent  matter  obtained  from plants by simply breaking down the
   texture,  washing  with  water,  and  subsidence.  Especially: (a) The
   nutritious  part of wheat; starch or farina; -- called also amylaceous
   fecula. (b) The green matter of plants; chlorophyll.


   Fec"u*lence   (?),   n.   [L.   faeculentia   dregs,   filth:  cf.  F.

   1. The state or quality of being feculent; muddiness; foulness.

   2. That which is feculent; sediment; lees; dregs.


   Fec"u*len*cy (?), n. Feculence.


   Fec"u*lent  (?),  a. [L. faeculentus, fr. faecula: cf. F. f\'82culent.
   See Fecula.] Foul with extraneous or impure substances; abounding with
   sediment or excrementitious matter; muddy; thick; turbid.

     Both his hands most filthy feculent. Spenser.


   Fec"und  (?),  a.  [L.  fecundus,  from  the  root  of  fetus:  cf. F.
   f\'82cond. see Fetus.] Fruitful in children; prolific. Graunt.


   Fec"un*date  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fecundated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fecundating (?).] [L. fecundare, fr. fecundus. See Fecund.]

   1. To make fruitful or prolific. W. Montagu.

   2.  (Biol.)  To  render  fruitful  or  prolific; to impregnate; as, in
   flowers the pollen fecundates the ovum through the stigma.


   Fec`un*da"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. f\'82condation.] (Biol.) The act by
   which,   either  in  animals  or  plants,  material  prepared  by  the
   generative  organs  the  female  organism  is  brought in contact with
   matter  from  the  organs of the male, so that a new organism results;
   impregnation; fertilization.


   Fe*cun"di*fy  (?),  v.  t.  [Fecund  +  -fy.]  To  make  fruitful;  to
   fecundate. Johnson.


   Fe*cun"di*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  fecunditas:  cf.  F. f\'82condit\'82. See

   1.  The  quality or power of producing fruit; fruitfulness; especially
   (Biol.), the quality in female organisms of reproducing rapidly and in
   great numbers.

   2. The power of germinating; as in seeds.

   3.  The  power  of bringing forth in abundance; fertility; richness of
   invention; as, the fecundity of God's creative power. Bentley.


   Fed (?), imp. & p. p. of Feed.


   Fed"a*ry (?), n. A feodary. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fed"er*al  (?),  a.  [L. foedus league, treaty, compact; akin to fides
   faith: cf. F. f\'82d\'82ral. see Faith.]

   1.  Pertaining  to  a  league  or treaty; derived from an agreement or
   covenant between parties, especially between nations; constituted by a
   compact between parties, usually governments or their representatives.

     The  Romans compelled them, contrary to all federal right, . . . to
     part with Sardinia. Grew.

   2. Specifically: (a) Composed of states or districts which retain only
   a  subordinate  and  limited  sovereignty,  as the Union of the United
   States, or the Sonderbund of Switzerland. (b) Consisting or pertaining
   to such a government; as, the Federal Constitution; a Federal officer.
   (c)  Friendly  or devoted to such a government; as, the Federal party.
   see Federalist.
   Federal Congress. See under Congress.


   Fed"er*al, n. See Federalist.


   Fed"er*al*ism  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. f\'82d\'82ralisme.] the principles of
   Federalists or of federal union.


   Fed"er*al*ist,   n.   [Cf.   F.  f\'82d\'82raliste.]  An  advocate  of
   confederation;   specifically   (Amer.   Hist.),   a   friend  of  the
   Constitution  of  the  United  States at its formation and adoption; a
   member  of  the  political  party  which favored the administration of
   president Washington.


   Fed"er*al*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Federalized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Federalizing (?).] [Cf. F. f\'82d\'82raliser.] To unite in compact,
   as  different  States; to confederate for political purposes; to unite
   by or under the Federal Constitution. Barlow.


   Fed"er*a*ry  (?),  n.  [See  Federal.]  A  partner;  a confederate; an
   accomplice. [Obs.] hak.


   Fed"er*ate  (?),  a. [L. foederatus, p.p. of foederare to establish by
   treaty  or  league,  fr.  foedus.  See Federal.] United by compact, as
   sovereignties,  states,  or  nations;  joined in confederacy; leagued;
   confederate; as, federate nations.


   Fed`er*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. f\'82d\'82ration.]

   1. The act of uniting in a league; confederation.

   2.  A  league;  a  confederacy;  a federal or confederated government.


   Fed"er*a*tive  (?),  a. [Cf. F. f\'82d\'82ratif.] Uniting in a league;
   forming a confederacy; federal. "A federative society." Burke.


   Fed"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L. foeditas, fr. foedus foul, fikthy.] Turpitude;
   vileness. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Fee  (?),  n.  [OE.  fe, feh, feoh, cattle, property, money, fiet, AS.
   feoh cattle, property, money; the senses of "property, money," arising
   from  cattle  being  used  in  early  times as a medium of exchange or
   payment,  property  chiefly  consisting  of  cattle;  akin to OS. feuh
   cattle,  property,  D.  vee  cattle, OHG. fihu, fehu, G. vieh, Icel. f
   cattle,  property,  money,  Goth.  fa\'a1hu,  L. pecus cattle, pecunia
   property.  money, Skr. pa cattle, perh. orig., "a fastened or tethered
   animal,"  from  a  root signifying to bind, and perh. akin to E. fang,
   fair,  a.; cf. OF. fie, flu, feu, fleu, fief, F. fief, from German, of
   the  same  origin.  the  sense  fief is due to the French. Feud, Fief,
   Fellow, Pecuniary.]

   1. property; possession; tenure. "Laden with rich fee." Spenser.

     Once did she hold the gorgeous East in fee. Wordsworth.

   2.  Reward  or  compensation  for services rendered or to be rendered;
   especially,  payment for professional services, of optional amount, or
   fixed  by  custom  or  laws;  charge; pay; perquisite; as, the fees of
   lawyers  and  physicians;  the fees of office; clerk's fees; sheriff's
   fees; marriage fees, etc.

     To plead for love deserves more fee than hate. Shak.

   3.  (Feud.  Law) A right to the use of a superior's land, as a stipend
   for services to be performed; also, the land so held; a fief.

   4.  (Eng.  Law)  An  estate  of inheritance supposed to be held either
   mediately  or immediately from the sovereign, and absolutely vested in
   the owner.

     NOTE: &hand; Al l the land in England, except the crown land, is of
     this  kind.  An  absolute  fee,  or fee simple, is land which a man
     holds  to  himself and his heirs forever, who are called tenants in
     fee  simple. In modern writers, by fee is usually meant fee simple.
     A  limited  fee may be a qualitified or base fee, which ceases with
     the  existence  of certain conditions; or a conditional fee, or fee
     tail, which is limited to particular heirs.


   5.  (Amer.  Law)  An estate of inheritance belonging to the owner, and
   transmissible  to  his heirs, absolutely and simply, without condition
   attached to the tenure.
   Fee  estate (Eng. Law), land or tenements held in fee in consideration
   or  some  acknowledgment  or service rendered to the lord. -- Fee farm
   (Law),  land  held  of  another  in fee, in consideration of an annual
   rent, without homage, fealty, or any other service than that mentioned
   in  the  feoffment;  an  estate  in fee simple, subject to a perpetual
   rent.  Blackstone.  --  Fee  farm  rent  (Eng.  Law), a perpetual rent
   reserved  upon  a  conveyance  in fee simple. -- Fee fund (Scot. Law),
   certain  court  dues  out of which the clerks and other court officers
   are  paid.  --  Fee  simple  (Law),  an  absolute  fee;  a fee without
   conditions or limits.

     Buy the fee simple of my life for an hour and a quarter. Shak.

   -- Fee tail (Law), an estate of inheritance, limited and restrained to
   some particular heirs. Burill.


   Fee  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Feed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Feeing.] To
   reward  for  services performed, or to be performed; to recompense; to
   hire or keep in hire; hence, to bribe.

     The patient . . . fees the doctor. Dryden.

     There's  not  a one of them but in his house I keep a servant feed.


   Fee"ble  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Feebler  (?); superl. Feeblest (?).] [OE.
   feble,  OF.  feble,  flebe,  floibe,  floible,  foible,  F. faible, L.
   flebilis to be wept over, lamentable, wretched, fr. flere to weep. Cf.

   1. Deficient in physical strenght; weak; infirm; debilitated.

     Carried all the feeble of them upon asses. 2 Chron. xxviii. 15.

   2.  Wanting  force,  vigor, or efficiency in action or expression; not
   full,  loud,  bright,  strong, rapid, etc.; faint; as, a feeble color;
   feeble motion. "A lady's feeble voice." Shak.


   Fee"ble, v. t. To make feble; to enfeeble. [Obs.]

     Shall that victorious hand be feebled here? Shak.


   Fee"ble-mind"ed  (?),  a. Weak in intellectual power; wanting firmness
   or   constancy;   irresolute;   vacilating;   imbecile.  "comfort  the
   feeble-minded." 1 Thess. v. 14. -- Fee"ble-mind"ed*ness, n.


   Fee"ble*ness,  n.  The quality or condition of being feeble; debility;

     That shakes for age and feebleness. Shak.


   Fee"bly (?), adv. In a feeble manner.

     The  restored church . . . contended feebly, and with half a heart.


   Feed  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Feeding (?).]
   [AS.  f,  fr.  f  food;  akin  to  C?. f, OFries f, f, D. voeden, OHG.
   fuottan, Icel. f\'91, Sw. f\'94da, Dan. f\'94de. Food.]

   1.  To  give  food  to;  to  supply  with  nourishment; to satisfy the
   physical huger of.

     If thine enemy hunger, feed him. Rom. xii. 20.

     Unreasonable reatures feed their young. Shak.

   2. To satisfy; grafity or minister to, as any sense, talent, taste, or

     I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him. Shak.

     Feeding him with the hope of liberty. Knolles.

   3.  To fill the wants of; to supply with that which is used or wasted;
   as,  springs  feed ponds; the hopper feeds the mill; to feed a furnace
   with coal.

   4. To nourish, in a general sense; to foster, strengthen, develop, and

     Thou shalt feed people Israel. 2 Sam. v. 2.

     Mightiest powers by deepest calms are feed. B. Cornwall.

   5.  To graze; to cause to be cropped by feeding, as herbage by cattle;
   as, if grain is too forward in autumn, feed it with sheep.

     Once in three years feed your mowing lands. Mortimer.

   6.   To   give  for  food,  especially  to  animals;  to  furnish  for
   consumption;  as,  to feed out turnips to the cows; to feed water to a
   steam boiler.

   7.  (Mach.)  (a)  To  supply  (the  material to be operated upon) to a
   machine;  as,  to  feed  paper  to  a  printing  press. (b) To produce
   progressive  operation  upon  or  with  (as  in wood and metal working
   machines,  so  that the work moves to the cutting tool, or the tool to
   the work).


   Feed, v. i.

   1. To take food; to eat.

     Her  kid . . . which I afterwards killed because it would not feed.
     De Foe.

   2.  To  subject by eating; to satisfy the appetite; to feed one's self
   (upon something); to prey; -- with on or upon.

     Leaving thy trunk for crows to feed upon. Shak.

   3.  To  be  nourished,  strengthened, or satisfied, as if by food. "He
   feeds upon the cooling shade." Spenser.

   4. To place cattle to feed; to pasture; to graze.

     If  a man . . . shall put in his beast, and shall feed in anotheEx.
     xxii. 5.


   Feed (?), n.

   1.  That  which is eaten; esp., food for beasts; fodder; pasture; hay;
   grain, ground or whole; as, the best feed for sheep.

   2. A grazing or pasture ground. Shak.

   3.  An allowance of provender given to a horse, cow, etc.; a meal; as,
   a feed of corn or oats.

   4. A meal, or the act of eating. [R.]

     For  such  pleasure  till that hour At feed or fountain never had I
     found. Milton.

   5. The water supplied to steam boilers.

   6. (Mach.) (a) The motion, or act, of carrying forward the stuff to be
   operated  upon,  as  cloth  to  the  needle in a sewing machine; or of
   producing  progressive  operation  upon  any  material  or object in a
   machine,  as,  in a turning lathe, by moving the cutting tool along or
   in  the  work.  (b) The supply of material to a machine, as water to a
   steam  boiler, coal to a furnace, or grain to a run of stones. (c) The
   mechanism by which the action of feeding is produced; a feed motion.
   Feed  bag,  a  nose  bag  containing feed for a horse or mule. -- Feed
   cloth,  an  apron  for  leading  cotton,  wool, or other fiber, into a
   machine,  as  for  carding, etc. -- Feed door, a door to a furnace, by
   which to supply coal. -- Feed head. (a) A cistern for feeding water by
   gravity  to  a steam boiler. (b) (Founding) An excess of metal above a
   mold, which serves to render the casting more compact by its pressure;
   --  also  called  a riser, deadhead, or simply feed or head Knight. --
   Feed  heater.  (a) (Steam Engine) A vessel in which the feed water for
   the boiler is heated, usually by exhaust steam. (b) A boiler or kettle
   in  which  is  heated  food  for  stock.  -- Feed motion, OR Feed gear
   (Mach.),  the  train  of  mechanism that gives motion to the part that
   directly  produces  the  feed  in  a machine. -- Feed pipe, a pipe for
   supplying  the  boiler  of  a  steam engine, etc., with water. -- Feed
   pump, a force pump for supplying water to a steam boiler, etc. -- Feed
   regulator,  a device for graduating the operation of a feeder. Knight.
   --  Feed  screw,  in lathes, a long screw employed to impart a regular
   motion  to  a  tool rest or tool, or to the work. -- Feed water, water
   supplied  to  a  steam  boiler,  etc. -- Feed wheel (Mach.), a kind of
   feeder. See Feeder, n., 8.


   Feed"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who,  or  that  which,  gives  food  or supplies nourishment;

     A couple of friends, his chaplain and feeder. Goldsmith.

   2.  One  who  furnishes  incentives;  an encourager. "The feeder of my
   riots." Shak.

   3.  One  who  eats  or  feeds;  specifically,  an  animal to be fed or

     With eager feeding, food doth choke the feeder. Shak.

   4. One who fattens cattle for slaughter.

   5.  A  stream  that  flows  into  another  body of water; a tributary;
   specifically (Hydraulic Engin.), a water course which supplies a canal
   or reservoir by gravitation or natural flow.

   6.  A  branch  railroad,  stage  line,  or the like; a side line which
   increases the business of the main line.

   7.  (Mining)  (a)  A  small lateral lode falling into the main lode or
   mineral  vein.  Ure.  (b)  A strong discharge of gas from a fissure; a
   blower. Raymond.

   8.  (Mach.)  An  auxiliary  part  of a machine which supplies or leads
   along the material operated upon.

   9.  (Steam  Engine) A device for supplying steam boilers with water as


   Feed"ing, n.

   1.  the  act  of  eating,  or  of  supplying with food; the process of

   2. That which is eaten; food.

   3.  That  which  furnishes  or  affords  food, especially for animals;
   pasture land.
   Feeding bottle. See under Bottle.


   Fee`-faw`-fum"  (?), n. A nonsensical exclamation attributed to giants
   and  ogres;  hence, any expression calculated to impose upon the timid
   and ignorant. "Impudent fee-faw-fums." J. H. Newman.


   Fee"jee (?), a. & n. (Ethnol) See Fijian.


   Feel (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Felt (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Feeling.] [AS.
   f;  akin  to  OS.  gif to perceive, D. voelen to feel, OHG. fuolen, G.
   f\'81hlen,  Icel. f\'belma to grope, and prob. to AS. folm paim of the
   hand, L. palma. Cf. Fumble, Palm.]

   1.  To  perceive  by  the touch; to take cognizance of by means of the
   nerves of sensation distributed all over the body, especially by those
   of  the  skin;  to have sensation excited by contact of (a thing) with
   the body or limbs.

     Who feel Those rods of scorpions and those whips of steel. Creecn.

   2. To touch; to handle; to examine by touching; as, feel this piece of
   silk; hence, to make trial of; to test; often with out.

     Come near, . . . that I may feel thee, my son. Gen. xxvii. 21.

     He hath this to feel my affection to your honor. Shak.

   3.  To  perceive by the mind; to have a sense of; to experience; to be
   affected by; to be sensible of, or sensetive to; as, to feel pleasure;
   to feel pain.

     Teach me to feel another's woe. Pope.

     Whoso keepeth the commandment shall feel no evil thing. Eccl. viii.

     He best can paint them who shall feel them most. Pope.

     Mankind have felt their strength and made it felt. Byron.

   4.  To  take  internal  cognizance  of; to be conscious of; to have an
   inward persuasion of.

     For then, and not till then, he felt himself. Shak.

   5. To perceive; to observe. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   To feel the helm (Naut.), to obey it.

   Page 550


   Feel (?), v. i.

   1. To have perception by the touch, or by contact of anything with the
   nerves of sensation, especially those upon the surface of the body.

   2. To have the sensibilities moved or affected.

     [She] feels with the dignity of a Roman matron. Burke.

     And mine as man, who feel for all mankind. Pope.

   3. To be conscious of an inward impression, state of mind, persuasion,
   physical condition, etc.; to perceive one's self to be; -- followed by
   an adjective describing the state, etc.; as, to feel assured, grieved,

     I then did feel full sick. Shak.

   4.  To know with feeling; to be conscious; hence, to know certainly or
   without misgiving.

     Garlands . . . which I feel I am not worthy yet to wear. Shak.

   5.  To  appear  to  the  touch;  to  give  a perception; to produce an
   impression  by  the  nerves  of sensation; -- followed by an adjective
   describing the kind of sensation.

     Blind men say black feels rough, and white feels smooth. Dryden.

   To  feel  after,  to  search for; to seek to find; to seek as a person
   groping  in  the  dark.  "If haply they might feel after him, and find
   him." Acts xvii. 27. - To feel of, to examine by touching.


   Feel (?), n.

   1. Feeling; perception. [R.]

     To  intercept  and  have  a  more kindly feel of its genial warmth.

   2.  A sensation communicated by touching; impression made upon one who
   touches or handles; as, this leather has a greasy feel.

     The  difference  between  these two tumors will be distinguished by
     the feel. S. Sharp.


   Feel"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, feels.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) One of the sense organs or certain animals (as insects),
   which  are used in testing objects by touch and in searching for food;
   an antenna; a palp.

     Insects  .  .  . perpetually feeling and searching before them with
     their feelers or antenn\'91. Derham.

   3. Anything, as a proposal, observation, etc., put forth or thrown out
   in order to ascertain the views of others; something tentative.


   Feel"ing, a.

   1.  Possessing  great  sensibility;  easily  affected  or moved; as, a
   feeling heart.

   2.   Expressive  of  great  sensibility;  attended  by,  or  evincing,
   sensibility; as, he made a feeling representation of his wrongs.


   Feel"ing, n.

   1.  The  sense  by which the mind, through certain nerves of the body,
   perceives external objects, or certain states of the body itself; that
   one  of  the  five  senses  which  resides  in  the  general nerves of
   sensation  distributed  over  the body, especially in its surface; the
   sense of touch; nervous sensibility to external objects.

     Why  was the sight To such a tender ball as the eye confined, . . .
     And not, as feeling, through all parts diffused? Milton.

   2.  An act or state of perception by the sense above described; an act
   of  apprehending  any object whatever; an act or state of apprehending
   the state of the soul itself; consciousness.

     The  apprehension  of the good Gives but the greater feeling to the
     worse. Shak.

   3.  The  capacity  of  the soul for emotional states; a high degree of
   susceptibility  to emotions or states of the sensibility not dependent
   on the body; as, a man of feeling; a man destitute of feeling.

   4. Any state or condition of emotion; the exercise of the capacity for
   emotion;  any mental state whatever; as, a right or a wrong feeling in
   the  heart;  our  angry  or  kindly feelings; a feeling of pride or of

     A fellow feeling makes one wondrous kind. Garrick.

     Tenderness for the feelings of others. Macaulay.

   5.  That quality of a work of art which embodies the mental emotion of
   the  artist,  and  is  calculated  to  affect similarly the spectator.
   Syn.  --  Sensation;  emotion; passion; sentiment; agitation; opinion.
   See Emotion, Passion, Sentiment.


   Feel"ing*ly, adv. In a feeling manner; pathetically; sympathetically.


   Feere  (?), n. [See Fere, n.] A consort, husband or wife; a companion;
   a fere. [Obs.]


   Feese  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OE.  fesien  to  put  to flight, AS. f\'c7sian,
   f\'dfsian,  f\'dfsan,  fr.  f\'d4s,  prompt,  willing.]  the short run
   before a leap. [Obs.] Nares.


   Feet (?), n. pl. See Foot.


   Feet, n. [See Feat, n.] Fact; performance. [Obs.]


   Feet"less, a. Destitute of feet; as, feetless birds.


   Feeze  (?),  v. t. [For sense 1, cf. F. visser to screw, vis screw, or
   1st E. feaze, v.t.: for sense 2, see Feese.]

   1. To turn, as a screw. [Scot] Jamieson.

   2.  To  beat;  to  chastise; to humble; to worry. [Obs.] [Written also
   feaze, feize, pheese.] Beau. & Fl.
   To feeze up, to work into a passion. [Obs.]


   Feeze, n. Fretful excitement. [Obs.] See Feaze.


   Feh"ling (?), n. (Chem.) See Fehling's solution, under Solution.


   Feh"mic (?), a. See Vehmic.


   Feign (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Feigned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Feigning.]
   [OE.  feinen, F. feindre (p. pr. feignant), fr. L. fingere; akin to L.
   figura  figure,and E. dough. See Dough, and cf. Figure, Faint, Effigy,

   1.  To give a mental existence to, as to something not real or actual;
   to  imagine;  to  invent;  hence, to pretend; to form and relate as if

     There  are  no  such  things done as thou sayest, but thou feignest
     them out of thine own heart. Neh. vi. 8.

     The  poet  Did  feign  that Orpheus drew trees, stones, and floods.

   2.  To represent by a false appearance of; to pretend; to counterfeit;
   as, to feign a sickness. Shak.

   3. To dissemble; to conceal. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Feigned   (?),   a.  Not  real  or  genuine;  pretended;  counterfeit;
   insincere; false. "A feigned friend." Shak.

     Give  ear  unto  my prayer, that goeth not out of feigned lips. Ps.
     xvii. 1.

   -- Feign"ed*ly (#), adv. -- Feign"ed*ness, n.

     Her treacherous sister Judah hath not turned unto me with her whole
     heart, but feignedly. Jer. iii. 10.

   Feigned  issue  (Law), an issue produced in a pretended action between
   two parties for the purpose of trying before a jury a question of fact
   which  it  becomes  necessary  to  settle  in the progress of a cause.
   Burill. Bouvier.


   Feign"er (?), n. One who feigns or pretends.


   Feign"ing,   a.   That  feigns;  insincere;  not  genuine;  false.  --
   Feign"ing*ly, adv.


   Feine (?), v. t. & i. To feign. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Feint  (?),  a.  [F.  feint,  p.p.  of  feindre  to feign. See Feign.]
   Feigned; counterfeit. [Obs.]

     Dressed up into any feint appearance of it. Locke.


   Feint, n. [F. feinte, fr. feint. See Feint, a.]

   1.  That which is feigned; an assumed or false appearance; a pretense;
   a stratagem; a fetch.

     Courtley's letter is but a feint to get off. Spectator.

   2.  A mock blow or attack on one part when another part is intended to
   be struck; -- said of certain movements in fencing, boxing, war, etc.


   Feint, v. i. To make a feint, or mock attack.


   Fei`tsui"  (?), n. (Min.) The Chinese name for a highly prized variety
   of pale green jade. See Jade.


   Feize (?), v. t. See Feeze, v. t.


   Fel"an*ders (?), n. pl. See Filanders.

                              Feldspar, Feldspath

   Feld"spar`  (?), Feld"spath` (?), n. [G. feldspath; feld field + spath
   spar.]  (Min.) A name given to a group of minerals, closely related in
   crystalline  form,  and  all  silicates of alumina with either potash,
   soda,  lime,  or,  in  one  case,  baryta.  They occur in crystals and
   crystalline  masses, vitreous in luster, and breaking rather easily in
   two directions at right angles to each other, or nearly so. The colors
   are usually white or nearly white, flesh-red, bluish, or greenish.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e gr oup in cludes th e mo noclinic (o rthoclastic)
     species   orthoclase  or  common  potash  feldspar,  and  the  rare
     hyalophane  or  baryta feldspar; also the triclinic species (called
     in  general  plagioclase)  microcline,  like  orthoclase  a  potash
     feldspar; anorthite or lime feldspar; albite or soda feldspar; also
     intermediate  between  the last two species, labradorite, andesine,
     oligoclase,  containing  both lime and soda in varying amounts. The
     feldspars  are  essential  constituents  of  nearly all crystalline
     rocks,  as  granite,  gneiss, mica, slate, most kinds of basalt and
     trachyte,  etc.  The  decomposition of feldspar has yielded a large
     part of the clay of the soil, also the mineral kaolin, an essential
     material  in  the making of fine pottery. Common feldspar is itself
     largely used for the same purpose.

                           Feldspathic, Feldspathose

   Feld*spath"ic (?), Feld*spath"ose (?), a. Pertaining to, or consisting
   of, feldspar.


   Fele  (?),  a.  [AS. fela, feola; akin to G. viel, gr. Full, a.] Many.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fe-lic"ify  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  felix  happy  = -fy.] To make happy; to
   felicitate. [Obs.] Quarles.


   Fe*lic"i-tate   (?),   a.  [L.  felicitatus,  p.p.  of  felicitare  to
   felicitate,  fr.  felix, -icis, happy. See felicity.] Made very happy.

     I am alone felicitate In your dear highness' love. Shak.


   Fe*lic"i*tate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Felicitated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. felicitating.] [Cf. F. f\'82liciter.]

   1. To make very happy; to delight.

     What a glorius entertainment and pleasure would fill and felicitate
     his spirit. I. Watts.

   2.  To  express  joy  or  pleasure to; to wish felicity to; to call or
   consider (one's self) happy; to congratulate.

     Every  true  heart  must  felicitate itself that its lot is cast in
     this kingdom. W. Howitt.

   Syn. -- See Congratulate.


   Fe*lic`i*ta"tion   (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  f\'82licitation.]  The  act  of
   felicitating; a wishing of joy or happiness; congratulation.


   Fe*lic"i*tous  (?),  a.  Characterized by felicity; happy; prosperous;
   delightful;   skilful;   successful;  happily  applied  or  expressed;

     Felicitous words and images. M. Arnold.

   -- Fe*lic"i*tous*ly, adv. -- Fe*lic"i*tous*ness, n.


   Fe*lic"i*ty   (?),   n.;   pl.   Felicities  (#).  [OE.  felicite,  F.
   f\'82licit\'82,  fr.  L. felicitas, fr. felix, -icis, happy, fruitful;
   akin to fetus.]

   1.  The  state of being happy; blessedness; blissfulness; enjoyment of

     Our own felicity we make or find. Johnson.

     Finally,  after  this life, to attain everlasting joy and felicity.
     Book of Common Prayer.

   2.  That  which  promotes happiness; a successful or gratifying event;
   prosperity; blessing.

     the felicities of her wonderful reign. Atterbury.

   3.  A  pleasing  faculty  or  accomplishment; as, felicity in painting
   portraits,  or  in  writing  or talking. "Felicity of expression." Bp.
   Warburton.   Syn.   --   Happiness;   bliss;  beatitude;  blessedness;
   blissfulness. See Happiness.


   Fe"line  (?),  a. [L. felinus, fr. feles, felis, cat, prob. orig., the
   fruitful: cf. F. f\'82lin. See Fetus.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) Catlike; of or pertaining to the genus Felis, or family
   Felid\'91; as, the feline race; feline voracity.

   2.  Characteristic  of  cats; sly; stealthy; treacherous; as, a feline
   nature; feline manners.


   Fe"lis  (?),  n. [L., cat.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of carnivorous mammals,
   including  the  domestic  cat,  the  lion, tiger, panther, and similar


   Fell (?), imp. of Fall.


   Fell,  a.  [OE.  fel,  OF.  fel cruel, fierce, perfidious; cf. AS. fel
   (only in comp.) OF. fel, as a noun also accus. felon, is fr. LL. felo,
   of  unknown  origin;  cf.  Arm  fall  evil,  Ir.  feal,  Arm.  falloni
   treachery,  Ir.  &  Gael. feall to betray; or cf. OHG. fillan to flay,
   torment, akin to E. fell skin. Cf. Felon.]

   1. Cruel; barbarous; inhuman; fierce; savage; ravenous.

     While we devise fell tortures for thy faults. Shak.

   2. Eager; earnest; intent. [Obs.]

     I am so fell to my business. Pepys.


   Fell,  n.  [Cf.  L.  fel  gall,  bile,  or  E.  fell, a.] Gall; anger;
   melancholy. [Obs.]

     Untroubled of vile fear or bitter fell. Spenser.


   Fell,  n. [AS. fell; akin to D. vel, OHG. fel, G. fell, Icel. fell (in
   comp.),  Goth  fill  in \'edrutsfill leprosy, L. pellis skin, G. Film,
   Peel,  Pell, n.] A skin or hide of a beast with the wool or hair on; a
   pelt; -- used chiefly in composition, as woolfell.

     We  are  still  handling  our  ewes, and their fells, you know, are
     greasy. Shak.


   Fell  (?),  n.  [Icel.  fell,  fjally; akin to Sw. fj\'84ll a ridge or
   chain  of  mountains,  Dan.  fjeld mountain, rock and prob. to G. fels
   rock, or perh. to feld field, E. field.]

   1. A barren or rocky hill. T. Gray.

   2. A wild field; a moor. Dryton.


   Fell,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Felled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Felling.] [AS.
   fellan,  a  causative  verb fr. feallan to fall; akin to D. vellen, G.
   f\'84llen,  Icel. fella, Sw. f\'84lla, Dan. f\'91lde. See Fall, v. i.]
   To cause to fall; to prostrate; to bring down or to the ground; to cut

     Stand, or I'll fell thee down. Shak.


   Fell,  n.  (Mining)  The  finer  portions  of ore which go through the
   meshes, when the ore is sorted by sifting.


   Fell, v. t. [Cf. Gael. fill to fold, plait, Sw. f\'86ll a hem.] To sew
   or hem; -- said of seams.


   Fell, n.

   1.  (Sewing)  A  form  of  seam joining two pieces of cloth, the edges
   being folded together and the stitches taken through both thicknesses.

   2. (Weaving) The end of a web, formed by the last thread of the weft.


   Fell"a*ble (?), a. Fit to be felled.


   Fel"lah (?), n.; pl. Ar. Fellahin (#), E. Fellahs (#). [Ar.] A peasant
   or  cultivator  of  the  soil among the Egyptians, Syrians, etc. W. M.


   Fell"er  (?), n. One who, or that which, fells, knocks or cuts down; a
   machine for felling trees.


   Fell"er, n. An appliance to a sewing machine for felling a seam.


   Fell"tare`  (?),  n.  [Cf. AS. fealafor, and E. fieldfare.] (Zo\'94l.)
   The fieldfare.


   Fel-lif"lu-ous  (?),  a.  [L.  fellifuus;  fel gall + fluere to flow.]
   Flowing with gall. [R.] Johnson.


   Fel*lin"ic (?), a. [L. fel, fellis, gall.] Of, relating to, or derived
   from, bile or gall; as, fellinic acid.


   Fell"mon`ger  (?),  n.  A dealer in fells or sheepskins, who separates
   the wool from the pelts.


   Fell"ness,  n. [See Fell cruel.] The quality or state of being fell or
   cruel; fierce barbarity. Spenser.


   Fel"loe (?), n. See Felly.


   Fel"lon (?), n. Variant of Felon. [Obs.]

     Those two were foes the fellonest on ground. Spenser.


   Fel"low  (?),  n.  [OE. felawe, felaghe, Icel. f\'c7lagi, fr. f\'c7lag
   companionship,  prop., a laying together of property; f\'c7 property +
   lag a laying, pl. l\'94g law, akin to liggja to lie. See Fee, and Law,
   Lie to be low.]

   1. A companion; a comrade; an associate; a partner; a sharer.

     The fellows of his crime. Milton.

     We are fellows still, Serving alike in sorrow. Shak.

     That  enormous  engine  was  flanked by two fellows almost of equal
     magnitude. Gibbon.

     NOTE: &hand; Commonly used of men, but sometimes of women.

   Judges xi. 37.

   2. A man without good breeding or worth; an ignoble or mean man.

     Worth makes the man, and want of it, the fellow. Pope.

   3. An equal in power, rank, character, etc.

     It is impossible that ever Rome Should breed thy fellow. Shak.

   4.  One  of  a  pair, or of two things used together or suited to each
   other; a mate; the male.

     When  they be but heifers of one year, . . . they are let go to the
     fellow and breed. Holland.

     This was my glove; here is the fellow of it. Shak.

   5. A person; an individual.

     She seemed to be a good sort of fellow. Dickens.

   6.  In  the  English  universities,  a  scholar  who is appointed to a
   foundation  called  a  fellowship,  which  gives  a  title  to certain
   perquisites and privileges.

   7.  In  an American college or university, a member of the corporation
   which  manages its business interests; also, a graduate appointed to a
   fellowship, who receives the income of the foundation.

   8.  A  member of a literary or scientific society; as, a Fellow of the
   Royal Society.

     NOTE: &hand; Fe  llow is   of  ten us  ed in  co mpound wo rds, or 
     adjectively,  signifying  associate, companion, or sometimes equal.
     Usually,  such  compounds  or  phrases  are  self-explanatory;  as,
     fellow-citizen,   or  fellow  citizen;  fellow-student,  or  fellow
     student;  fellow-workman,  or  fellow  workman;  fellow-mortal,  or
     fellow mortal; fellow-sufferer; bedfellow; playfellow; workfellow.

     Were  the  great  duke  himself  here, and would lift up My head to
     fellow pomp amongst his nobles. Ford.


   Fel"low (?), v. t. To suit with; to pair with; to match. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fel"low-com"mon*er (?), n. A student at Cambridge University, England,
   who commons, or dines, at the Fellow's table.


   Fel"low-crea"ture  (?; 135), n. One of the same race or kind; one made
   by the same Creator.

     Reason,  by  which  we  are  raised above our fellow-creatures, the
     brutes. I. Watts.


   Fel"low*feel" (?), v. t. To share through sympathy; to participate in.
   [R.] D. Rodgers.


   Fel"low-feel"ing, n.

   1. Sympathy; a like feeling.

   2. Joint interest. [Obs.] Arbuthnot.


   Fel"low*less, a. Without fellow or equal; peerless.

     Whose well-built walls are rare and fellowless. Chapman.


   Fel"low*like` (?), a. Like a companion; companionable; on equal terms;
   sympathetic. [Obs.] Udall.


   Fel"low*ly, a. Fellowlike. [Obs.] Shak.

   Page 551


   Fel"low*ship (?), n. [Fellow + -ship.]

   1. The state or relation of being or associate.

   2.  Companionship of persons on equal and friendly terms; frequent and
   familiar intercourse.

     In  a  great town, friends are scattered, so that there is not that
     fellowship which is in less neighborhods. Bacon.

     Men are made for society and mutual fellowship. Calamy.

   Page 551

   3. A state of being together; companionship; partnership; association;
   hence, confederation; joint interest.

     The  great  contention  of the sea and skies Parted our fellowship.

     Fellowship in pain divides not smart. Milton.

     Fellowship in woe doth woe assuage. Shak.

     The  goodliest  fellowship  of  famous  knights, Whereof this world
     holds record. Tennyson.

   4. Those associated with one, as in a family, or a society; a company.

     The sorrow of Noah with his fellowship. Chaucer.

     With that a joyous fellowship issued Of minstrels. Spenser.

   5.  (Eng.  &  Amer. Universities) A foundation for the maintenance, on
   certain  conditions, of a scholar called a fellow, who usually resides
   at the university. <-- why "foundation"? stipend is more accurate now.
   This use is sense 4 of this dictionary, an "endowment" -->

   6.  (Arith.)  The rule for dividing profit and loss among partners; --
   called also partnership, company, and distributive proportion.

                                Good fellowship

   Good   fellowship,   companionableness;  the  spirit  and  disposition
   befitting comrades.

     There's  neither  honesty,  manhood,  nor  good fellowship in thee.


   Fel"low*ship (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fellowshiped (; p. pr. & vb. n..
   Fellowshiping.]  (Eccl.)  To  acknowledge  as  of good standing, or in
   communion  according  to  standards of faith and practice; to admit to
   Christian fellowship.


   Fel"ly  (?),  adv.  In  a fell or cruel manner; fiercely; barbarously;
   savagely. Spenser.


   Fel"ly,  n.;  pl. Fellies (. [OE. feli, felwe, felow, AS. felg, felge;
   akin to D. velg, G. felge, OHG. felga felly (also, a harrow, but prob.
   a  different word), Dan. felge.] The exterior wooden rim, or a segment
   of  the  rim,  of  a  wheel,  supported  by  the spokes. [Written also

     Break all the spokes and fellies from her wheel. Shak.


   Fe"lo-de-se`  (?),  n.;  pl. Felos-de-se (#). [LL. felo, E. felon + de
   of,  concerning  + se self.] (Law) One who deliberately puts an end to
   his  own  existence, or loses his life while engaged in the commission
   of an unlawful or malicious act; a suicide. Burrill.


   Fel"on  (?),  n.  [OE.,  adj.,  cruel,  n., villain, ruffian, traitor,
   whitlow,  F. f\'82lon traitor, in OF. also, villain, fr. LL. felo. See
   Fell, a.]

   1. (Law) A person who has committed a felony.

   2. A person guilty or capable of heinous crime.

   3.  (Med.) A kind of whitlow; a painful imflammation of the periosteum
   of  a  finger,  usually  of the last joint. Syn. -- Criminal; convict;
   malefactor; culprit.


   Fel"on,  a.  Characteristic  of a felon; malignant; fierce; malicious;
   cruel; traitorous; disloyal.

     Vain shows of love to vail his felon hate. Pope.


   Fe*lo"ni-ous   (?),  a.  Having  the  quality  of  felony;  malignant;
   malicious;  villainous; traitorous; perfidious; in a legal sense, done
   with intent to commit a crime; as, felonious homicide.

     O  thievish  Night, Why should'st thou, but for some felonious end,
     In thy dark lantern thus close up the stars? Milton.

   -- Fe*lo"ni-ous-ly, adv. -- Fe*lo"ni-ous*ness, n.


   Fel"o*nous   (?),  a.  [Cf.  OF.  feloneus.  Cf.  Felonious.]  Wicked;
   felonious. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fel"on*ry  (?),  n.  A  body  of  felons;  specifically,  the  convict
   population of a penal colony. Howitt.


   Fel"on*wort`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  The  bittersweet  nightshade  (Solanum
   Dulcamara). See Bittersweet.


   Fel"o*ny (?), n.; pl. Felonies (#). [OE. felonie cruelty, OF. felonie,
   F. f\'82lonie treachery, malice. See Felon, n.]

   1.  (Feudal  Law)  An act on the part of the vassal which cost him his
   fee by forfeiture. Burrill.

   2.  (O.Eng.Law)  An  offense which occasions a total forfeiture either
   lands  or  goods,  or both, at the common law, and to which capital or
   other punishment may be added, according to the degree of guilt.

   3.  A  heinous  crime;  especially,  a  crime  punishable  by death or

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rfeiture fo r crime having been generally abolished
     in  the  United  States, the term felony, in American law, has lost
     this  point  of  distinction;  and  its meaning, where not fixed by
     statute, is somewhat vague and undefined; generally, however, it is
     used  to  denote  an  offense  of  a  high grade, punishable either
     capitally  or  by  a  term  of  imprisonment.  In Massachusetts, by
     statute, any crime punishable by death or imprisonment in the state
     prison, and no other, is a felony; so in New York. the tendency now
     is to obliterate the distinction between felonies and misdemeanors;
     and this has been done partially in England, and completely in some
     of  the  States  of the Union. The distinction is purely arbitrary,
     and its entire abolition is only a question of time.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere is no lawyer who would undertake to tell what a
     felony  is,  otherwise  than  by  enumerating  the various kinds of
     offenses  which  are  so  called. originally, the word felony had a
     meaning:  it  denoted  all  offenses  the penalty of which included
     forfeiture  of  goods;  but  subsequent  acts  of  Parliament  have
     declared  various  offenses  to be felonies, without enjoining that
     penalty,  and  have  taken  away  the  penalty  from  others, which
     continue,  nevertheless,  to  be called felonies, insomuch that the
     acts  so  called have now no property whatever in common, save that
     of being unlawful and purnishable.

   J. S. Mill.

                             To compound a felony

   To compound a felony. See under Compound, v. t.


   Fel"site  (?), n. [Cf. Feldspar.] (Min.) A finegrained rock, flintlike
   in  fracture,  consisting  essentially  of  orthoclase  feldspar  with
   occasional grains of quartz.


   Fel*sit"ic (?), a. relating to, composed of, or containing, felsite.

                               Felspar, Felspath

   Fel"spar` (?), Fel"spath` (?), n. (Min.) See Feldspar.


   Fel*spath"ic (?), a. See Feldspathic.


   Fel"stone`  (?),  n.  [From G. feldstein, in analogy with E. felspar.]
   (Min.) See Felsite.


   Felt (?), imp. & p. p. OR a. from Feel.


   Felt  (?), n. [AS. felt; akin to D. vilt, G. filz, and possibly to Gr.
   pilus hair, pileus a felt cap or hat.]

   1.  A  cloth  or stuff made of matted fibers of wool, or wool and fur,
   fulled  or  wrought  into a compact substance by rolling and pressure,
   with lees or size, without spinning or weaving.

     It  were  a  delicate stratagem to shoe A troop of horse with felt.


   2. A hat made of felt. Thynne.

   3. A skin or hide; a fell; a pelt. [Obs.]

     To know whether sheep are sound or not, see that the felt be loose.

                                  Felt grain

   Felt  grain,  the  grain  of timber which is transverse to the annular
   rings  or  plates; the direction of the medullary rays in oak and some
   other timber. Knight.


   Felt, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Felted; p. pr. & vb. n. Felting.]

   1.  To  make into felt, or a feltike substance; to cause to adhere and
   mat together. Sir M. Hale.

   2.  To  cover  with,  or  as with, felt; as, to felt the cylinder of a
   steam emgine.


   Felt"er (?), v. t. To clot or mat together like felt.

     His feltered locks that on his bosom fell. Fairfax.


   Felt"ing, n.

   1.  The  material of which felt is made; also, felted cloth; also, the
   process by which it is made.

   2. The act of splitting timber by the felt grain.


   Fel"try (?), n. [OF. feltre.] See Felt, n. [Obs.]


   Fe*luc"ca  (, n. [It. feluca (cf. Sp. faluca, Pg. falua), fr. Ar. fulk
   ship,  or  harr\'beqah a sort of ship.] (Naut.) A small, swift-sailing
   vessel,  propelled  by  oars  and  lateen sails, -- once common in the

     NOTE: Sometimes it  is  constructed so that the helm may be used at
     either end.


   Fel"wort`  (?),  n.  [Probably  a  corruption  of fieldwort.] (Bot.) A
   European herb (Swertia perennis) of the Gentian family.


   Fe"male (?), n. [OE. femel, femal, F. femelle, fr. L. femella, dim. of
   femina woman. See Feminine.]

   1. An individual of the sex which conceives and brings forth young, or
   (in a wider sense) which has an ovary and produces ova.

     The male and female of each living thing. Drayton.

   2. (Bot.) A plant which produces only that kind of reproductive organs
   which  are  capable  of  developing  into  fruit after impregnation or
   fertilization; a pistillate plant.


   Fe"male, a.

   1.  Belonging  to the sex which conceives and gives birth to young, or
   (in a wider sense) which produces ova; not male.

     As  patient  as  the  female dove When that her golden couplets are
     disclosed. Shak.

   2.  Belonging  to  an  individual of the female sex; characteristic of
   woman; feminine; as, female tenderness. "Female usurpation.'b8 Milton.

     To  the generous decision of a female mind, we owe the discovery of
     America. Belknap.

   3.   (Bot.)   Having  pistils  and  no  stamens;  pistillate;  or,  in
   cryptogamous plants, capable of receiving fertilization.

                                 Female rhymes

   Female  rhymes  (Pros.),  double  rhymes,  or rhymes (called in French
   feminine  rhymes because they end in e weak, or feminine) in which two
   syllables, an accented and an unaccented one, correspond at the end of
   each line.

     NOTE: &hand; A  rh yme, in  wh ich th e fi nal syllables only agree
     (strain,  complain)  is  called  a male rhyme; one in which the two
     final  syllables of each verse agree, the last being short (motion,
     ocean), is called female.

   Brande  &  C.  --  Female screw, the spiral-threaded cavity into which
   another, or male, screw turns. Nicholson.

                                  Female fern

   Female  fern  (Bot.),  a  common species of fern with large decompound
   fronds  (Asplenium  Filixf\'91mina),  growing  in many countries; lady

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na mes ma le fe rn and female fern were anciently
     given  to  two  common ferns; but it is now understood that neither
     has any sexual character.

   Syn. -- Female, Feminine. We apply female to the sex or individual, as
   opposed  to  male;  also,  to the distinctive belongings of women; as,
   female dress, female form, female character, etc.; feminine, to things
   appropriate   to,   or  affected  by,  women;  as,  feminine  studies,
   employments,  accomplishments, etc. "Female applies to sex rather than
   gender,  and  is  a  physiological  rather  than  a  grammatical term.
   Feminine  applies to gender rather than sex, and is grammatical rather
   than physiological." Latham.


   Fe"mal-ist (?), n. A gallant. [Obs.]

     Courting her smoothly like a femalist. Marston.


   Fe"mal-ize  (?), v. t. To make, or to describe as, female or feminine.


   Feme  (?  OR  ?), n. [OF. feme, F. femme.] (Old Law) A woman. Burrill.
   Feme  covert  (Law),  a married woman. See Covert, a., 3. -- Feme sole
   (Law),  a  single  or  unmarried  woman;  a  woman  who has never been
   married,  or  who has been divorced, or whose husband is dead. -- Feme
   sole  trader OR merchant (Eng. Law), a married woman, by the custom of
   London,  engages  in  business  on her own account, inpendently of her


   Fem"er*al (?), n. (Arch.) See Femerell.


   Fem"er-ell  (?),  n.  [OF.  fumeraille  part  of a chimney. See Fume.]
   (Arch.)  A  lantern,  or  louver  covering,  placed  on  a  roof,  for
   ventilation or escape of smoke.


   Fem"i-nal (?), a. Feminine. [Obs.] West.


   Fem`i*nal"i*ty (?), n. Feminity.


   Fem"i-nate (?), a. [L. feminatus effeminate.] Feminine. [Obs.]


   Fem`i-ne"i-ty  (?), n. [L. femineus womanly.] Womanliness; femininity.
   C. Read 


   Fem"i*nine  (?),  a. [L. femininus, fr. femina woman; prob. akin to L.
   fetus, or to Gr. f\'d6mme woman, maid: cf. F. f\'82minin. See Fetus.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  woman, or to women; characteristic of a
   woman; womanish; womanly.

     Her  letters  are  remarkably deficient in feminine ease and grace.

   2.  Having  the  qualities  of a woman; becoming or appropriate to the
   female  sex;  as,  in  a  good  sense, modest, graceful, affectionate,
   confiding;   or,   in   a   bad   sense,   weak,   nerveless,   timid,
   pleasure-loving, effeminate.

     Her heavenly form Angelic, but more soft and feminine. Milton.

     Ninus being esteemed no man of war at all, but altogether feminine,
     and subject to ease and delicacy. Sir W. Raleigh.

                                Feminine rhyme

   Feminine rhyme. (Pros.) See Female rhyme, under Female, a. Syn. -- See
   Female, a.


   Fem"i*nine, n.

   1. A woman. [Obs. or Colloq.]

     They guide the feminines toward the palace. Hakluyt.

   2.  (Gram.)  Any  one  of  those  words  which are the appellations of
   females,  or  which have the terminations usually found in such words;
   as, actress, songstress, abbess, executrix.

     There are but few true feminines in English. Latham.


   Fem"i*nine*ly, adv. In a feminine manner. Byron.


   Fem"i*nine*ness,  n.  The  quality  of  being  feminine;  womanliness;


   Fem`i*nin"i*ty (?), n.

   1. The quality or nature of the female sex; womanliness.

   2. The female form. [Obs.]

     O serpent under femininitee. Chaucer.


   Fe*min"i*ty  (?),  n.  Womanliness;  femininity. [Obs.] "Trained up in
   true feminity." Spenser.


   Fem`i*ni*za"tion  (?), n. The act of feminizing, or the state of being


   Fem"i*nize  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  F.  f\'82miniser.] To make womanish or
   effeminate. Dr. H. More.


   Fem"i*nye  (?),  n.  [OF.  femenie,  feminie, the female sex, realm of
   women.]  The  people  called Amazons. [Obs.] "[The reign of] feminye."


   Femme  (?  OR  ?), n. [F.] A woman. See Feme, n. Femme de chambre (?).
   [F.] A lady's maid; a chambermaid.


   Fem"o*ral  (?),  a.  [L.  femur,  femoris,  thigh: cf. F. f\'82moral.]
   Pertaining  to  the  femur  or thigh; as, the femoral artery. "Femoral
   habiliments." Sir W. Scott.


   Fe"mur  (?), n.; pl. Femora (. [L. thigh.] (Anat.) (a) The thigh bone.
   (b)  The  proximal segment of the hind limb containing the thigh bone;
   the thigh. See Coxa.


   Fen (?), n. [AS. fen, fenn, marsh, mud, dirt; akin to D. veen, OFries.
   fenne, fene, OHG. fenna, G. fenn, Icel. fen, Goth. fani mud.] Low land
   overflowed,  or  covered wholly or partially with water, but producing
   sedge,  coarse  grasses,  or  other  aquatic plants; boggy land; moor;

     'Mid reedy fens wide spread. Wordsworth.

     NOTE: &hand; Fe n is  us ed adjectively with the sense of belonging
     to, or of the nature of, a fen or fens.

   Fen  boat,  a  boat  of  light  draught  used  in marshes. -- Fen duck
   (Zo\'94l.), a wild duck inhabiting fens; the shoveler. [Prov. Eng.] --
   Fen  fowl  (Zo\'94l.), any water fowl that frequent fens. -- Fen goose
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  graylag  goose  of Europe. [Prov. Eng.] -- Fen land,
   swamp land.


   Fence (?), n. [Abbrev. from defence.]

   1.  That  which fends off attack or danger; a defense; a protection; a
   cover; security; shield.

     Let  us  be  backed with God and with the seas, Which he hath given
     for fence impregnable. Shak.

     A fence betwixt us and the victor's wrath. Addison.

   2.  An  inclosure  about  a field or other space, or about any object;
   especially,  an  inclosing structure of wood, iron, or other material,
   intended to prevent intrusion from without or straying from within.

     Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the fold. Milton.

     NOTE: &hand; In  En gland a  he dge, di tch, or  wall, as well as a
     structure of boards, palings, or rails, is called a fence.

   3.  (Locks) A projection on the bolt, which passes through the tumbler
   gates in locking and unlocking.

   4.  Self-defense  by  the  use  of  the sword; the art and practice of
   fencing  and  sword  play;  hence,  skill  in debate and repartee. See

     Enjoy  your  dear  wit,  and  gay  rhetoric, That hath so well been
     taught her dazzing fence. Milton.

     Of dauntless courage and consummate skill in fence. Macaulay.

   5.  A  receiver  of  stolen goods, or a place where they are received.
   [Slang] Mayhew.

                                  Fence month

   Fence  month (Forest Law), the month in which female deer are fawning,
   when  hunting  is  prohibited. Bullokar. -- Fence roof, a covering for
   defense.  "They fitted their shields close to one another in manner of
   a fence roof." Holland. Fence time, the breeding time of fish or game,
   when  they should not be killed. -- Rail fence, a fence made of rails,
   sometimes supported by posts. -- Ring fence, a fence which encircles a
   large  area, or a whole estate, within one inclosure. -- Worm fence, a
   zigzag  fence composed of rails crossing one another at their ends; --
   called  also  snake  fence,  or  Virginia  rail fence. -- To be on the
   fence,  to  be  undecided  or  uncommitted  in respect to two opposing
   parties or policies. [Colloq.]

   Page 552


   Fence, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fenced ( Fencing (?).]

   1. To fend off danger from; to give security to; to protect; to guard.

     To fence my ear against thy sorceries. Milton.

   2.  To  inclose  with  a  fence  or  other protection; to secure by an

     O thou wall! . . . dive in the earth, And fence not Athens. Shak.

     A sheepcote fenced about with olive trees. Shak.

   To  fence the tables (Scot. Church), to make a solemn address to those
   who  present  themselves  to  commune  at  the  Lord's  supper, on the
   feelings  appropriate  to  the  service, in order to hinder, so far as
   possible, those who are unworthy from approaching the table. McCheyne.


   Fence (?), v. i.

   1.  To  make a defense; to guard one's self of anything, as against an
   attack; to give protection or security, as by a fence.

     Vice  is  the more stubborn as well as the more dangerous evil, and
     therefore, in the first place, to be fenced against. Locke.

   2.  To  practice  the art of attack and defense with the sword or with
   the foil, esp. with the smallsword, using the point only.

     He will fence with his own shadow. Shak.

   3.  Hence,  to  fight or dispute in the manner of fencers, that is, by
   thrusting, guarding, parrying, etc.

     They  fence  and push, and, pushing, loudly roar; Their dewlaps and
     their sides are batDryden.

     As when a billow, blown against, Falls back, the voice with which I
     fenced A little ceased, but recommenced. Tennyson.


   Fence"ful (?), a. Affording defense; defensive. [Obs.] Congreve.


   Fence"less,   a.   Without   a  fence;  uninclosed;  open;  unguarded;
   defenseless. Milton.


   Fen"cer  (?),  n. One who fences; one who teaches or practices the art
   of fencing with sword or foil.

     As blunt as the fencer's foils. Shak.


   Fen"ci-ble  (?),  a.  Capable  of  being  defended,  or  of  making or
   affording defense. [Obs.]

     No fort so fencible, nor walls so strong. Spenser.


   Fen"ci*ble,  n.  (Mil.)  A  soldier enlisted for home service only; --
   usually in the pl.


   Fen"cing (?), n.

   1. The art or practice of attack and defense with the sword, esp. with
   the s,allword. See Fence, v. i., 2.

   2.  Disputing  or  debating in a manner resembling the art of fencers.

   3. The materials used for building fences. [U.S.]

   4. The act of building a fence.

   5.  To aggregate of the fences put up for inclosure or protection; as,
   the fencing of a farm.

                                  Fen cricket

   Fen" crick`et (?). (Zo\'94l.) The mole cricket. [Prov. Eng.]


   Fend (?), n. A fiend. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fend  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Fended; p. pr. & vb. n. Fending.]
   [Abbrev.  fr.  defend.]  To  keep  off;  to  prevent  from entering or
   hitting;  to ward off; to shut out; -- often with off; as, to fend off

     With fern beneath to fend the bitter cold. Dryden.

   To  fend  off a boat OR vessel (Naut.), to prevent its running against
   anything with too much violence.


   Fend,  v.  i. To act on the defensive, or in opposition; to resist; to
   parry; to shift off.

     The  dexterous  management  of  terms, and being able to fend . . .
     with them, passes for a great part of learning. Locke.


   Fen"der (?), n. [From Fend, v. t. & i., cf. Defender.] One who or that
   which  defends  or  protects  by warding off harm; as: (a) A screen to
   prevent  coals  or  sparks of an open fire from escaping to the floor.
   (b)  Anything  serving  as a cushion to lessen the shock when a vessel
   comes  in  contact  with  another  vessel  or a wharf. (c) A screen to
   protect   a   carriage  from  mud  thrown  off  the  wheels:  also,  a
   splashboard.  (d) Anything set up to protect an exposed angle, as of a
   house, from damage by carriage wheels.


   Fend"liche (?), a. Fiendlike. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fen"er*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [L.  faeneratus,  p.p.  of faenerari lend on
   interest,  fr.  faenus  interest.]  To  put money to usury; to lend on
   interest. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   Fen`er*a"tion   (?),  n.  [L.  faeneratio.]  The  act  of  fenerating;
   interest. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Fen`es-tel"la  (?),  n.  [L.,  dim.  of  fenestra  (Arch.)  Any  small
   windowlike  opening  or  recess, esp. one to show the relics within an
   altar, or the like.


   Fe*nes"tra  (?),  n.;  pl.  Fenestr\'91 (#). [L., a window.] (Anat.) A
   small  opening;  esp.,  one  of  the  apertures,  closed by membranes,
   between the tympanum and internal ear.


   Fe*nes"tral (?), a. [L. fenestra a window.]

   1. (Arch.) Pertaining to a window or to windows.

   2. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a fenestra.


   Fe*nes"tral,  n.  (Arch.) A casement or window sash, closed with cloth
   or paper instead of glass. Weale.


   Fe*nes"trate  (?),  a.  [L. fenestratus, p.p. of fenestrare to furnish
   with openings and windows.]

   1.  Having  numerous openings; irregularly reticulated; as, fenestrate
   membranes; fenestrate fronds.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  transparent  spots,  as  the  wings of certain


   Fe*nes"tra*ted (?), a.

   1. (Arch.) Having windows; characterized by windows.

   2. Same as Fenestrate.


   Fen`es*tra"tion (?), n.

   1.  (Arch.)  The  arrangement and proportioning of windows; -- used by
   modern  writers  for the decorating of an architectural composition by
   means  of  the  window  (and  door)  openings,  their  ornaments,  and

   2. (Anat.) The state or condition of being fenestrated.


   Fe*nes"trule  (?), n. [L. fenestrula a little window, dim. of fenestra
   a window.] (Zo\'94l.) One of the openings in a fenestrated structure.


   Fen"gite  (?), n. (Min.) A kind of marble or alabaster, sometimes used
   for windows on account of its transparency.


   Fe"ni*an  (?),  n.  [From  the  Finians  or  Fenii, the old militia of
   Ireland,  who  were  so  called  from Fin or Finn, Fionn, or Fingal, a
   popular  hero  of  Irish  traditional  history.]  A member of a secret
   organization,  consisting  mainly of Irishment, having for its aim the
   overthrow of English rule in ireland.


   Fe"ni-an (?), a. Pertaining to Fenians or to Fenianism.


   Fe"ni*an*ism  (?),  n.  The  principles,  purposes, and methods of the


   Fenks  (?),  n. The refuse whale blubber, used as a manure, and in the
   manufacture of Prussian blue. Ure.


   Fen"nec  (?),  n.  [Ar.  fanek.]  (Zo\'94l.) A small, African, foxlike
   animal  (Vulpes  zerda) of a pale fawn color, remarkable for the large
   size of its ears.


   Fen"nel (?), n. [AS. fenol, finol, from L. feniculum, faeniculum, dim.
   of  fenum,  faenum,  hay:  cf.  F.  fenouil. Cf. Fenugreek. Finochio.]
   (Bot.) A perennial plant of the genus F\'91niculum (F.vulgare), having
   very  finely  divided  leaves.  It  is  cultivated  in gardens for the
   agreeable aromatic flavor of its seeds.

     Smell of sweetest fennel. Milton.

     A  sprig  of  fennel was in fact the theological smelling bottle of
     the tender sex. S. G. Goodrich.

   Azorean,  OR  Sweet, fennel, (F\'91niculum dulce). It is a smaller and
   stouter  plant  than  the common fennel, and is used as a pot herb. --
   Dog's  fennel  (Anthemis  Cotula),  a  foul-smelling European weed; --
   called also mayweed. -- Fennel flower (Bot.), an herb (Nigella) of the
   Buttercup  family,  having  leaves  finely  divided, like those of the
   fennel.  N.Damascena  is  common  in  gardens.  N.sativa furnishes the
   fennel  seed, used as a condiment, etc., in India. These seeds are the
   "fitches"  mentioned  in  Isaiah (xxviii. 25). -- Fennel water (Med.),
   the  distilled  water of fennel seed. It is stimulant and carminative.
   --  Giant  fennel (Ferula communis), has stems full of pith, which, it
   is  said,  were  used  to  carry  fire, first, by Prometheus. -- Hog's
   fennel,  a  European  plant  (Peucedanum officinale) looking something
   like fennel.


   Fen"nish (?), a. Abounding in fens; fenny.


   Fen"ny  (?),  a.  [AS.  fennig.]  Pertaining to, or inhabiting, a fen;
   abounding in fens; swampy; boggy. "Fenny snake." Shak.


   Fen"owed (?), a. [AS. fynig musty, fynegean to become musty or filthy:
   cf.  fennig  fenny,  muddy, dirty, fr. fen fen. Cf. Finew.] Corrupted;
   decayed; moldy. See Vinnewed. [Obs.] Dr. Favour.


   Fen"si-ble (?), a. Fencible. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fen"-sucked` (?), a. Sucked out of marches. "Fen-sucked fogs." Shak.


   Fen"u*greek  (?  OR ?), n. [L. faenum Graecum, lit., Greek hay: cf. F.
   fenugrec.  Cf. Fennel.] (Bot.) A plant (trigonella F\'d2num Gr\'91cum)
   cultivated for its strong-smelling seeds, which are "now only used for
   giving  false  importance to horse medicine and damaged hay." J. Smith
   (Pop. Names of Plants, 1881).


   Feod (?), n. A feud. See 2d Feud. Blackstone.


   Feod"al (?), a. Feudal. See Feudal.


   Feo*dal"i*ty  (?), n. Feudal tenure; the feudal system. See Feudality.


   Feod"a*ry (?), n.

   1. An accomplice.

     Art thou a feodary for this act? Shak.

   2. (Eng. Law) An ancient officer of the court of wards. Burrill.


   Feod"a*to*ry (?), n. See Feudatory.


   Feoff  (?;  277),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Feoffed (#); p. pr. & vb. n..
   Feoffing.]  [OE.  feffen,  OF.  feffer,  fieffer, F. fieffer, fr. fief
   fief;  cf. LL. feoffare, fefare. See Fief.] (Law) To invest with a fee
   or feud; to give or grant a corporeal hereditament to; to enfeoff.


   Feoff, n. (Law) A fief. See Fief.


   Feof*fee"  (?;  277),  n.  [OF. feoff\'82.] (Law) The person to whom a
   feoffment is made; the person enfeoffed.


   Feoff"ment (?), n. [OF. feoffement, fieffement; cf. LL. feoffamentum.]
   (Law)  (a)  The  grant  of  a  feud  or  fee. (b) (Eng. Law) A gift or
   conveyance   in   fee   of  land  or  other  corporeal  hereditaments,
   accompanied  by  actual  delivery  of  possession.  Burrill.  (c)  The
   instrument  or  deed  by  which  corporeal hereditaments are conveyed.
   [Obs. in the U.S., Rare in Eng.]

                                Feofor, Feoffer

   Feo"for  (?), Feof"fer (?), n. [OF. feoour.] (Law) One who enfeoffs or
   grants a fee.


   Fer (?), a. & adv. Far. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fe*ra"cious  (?),  a.  [L. ferax, -acis, fr. ferre to bear.] Fruitful;
   producing abudantly. [R.] Thomson.


   Fe*rac"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L. feracitas.] The state of being feracious or
   fruitful. [Obs.] Beattie.


   Fe"r\'91  (?),  n.  pl.  [L.,  wild  animals, fem. pl. of ferus wild.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  group of mammals which formerly included the Carnivora,
   Insectivora,  Marsupialia,  and lemurs, but is now often restricted to
   the Carnivora. <-- no pos in original = adv. -->

                               Fer\'91 natur\'91

   Fe"r\'91  na*tu"r\'91  (?).  [L.]  Of  a  wild  nature;  -- applied to
   animals,  as  foxes,  wild  ducks,  etc.,  in  which  no one can claim


   Fe"ral  (?),  a.  [L.  ferus.  See  Fierce.]  (Bot.  & Zo\'94l.) Wild;
   untamed;  ferine;  not  domesticated;  --  said  of beasts, birds, and
   plants. <-- also feral child, not raised by humans -->


   Fe"ral,  a.  [L.  feralis,  belonging  to the dead.] Funereal; deadly;
   fatal; dangerous. [R.] "Feral accidents." Burton.


   Ferde (?), obs. imp. of Fare. Chaucer.


   Fer`-de-lance"  (?),  n.  [F.,  the  iron  of  a  lance,  lance head.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  large, venomous serpent (Trigonocephalus lanceolatus<--
   now  Bothrops atrox-->) of Brazil and the West Indies. It is allied to
   the rattlesnake, but has no rattle. <-- also in Central America. -->


   Fer"ding  (?),  n.  [See  Farthing.]  A  measure  of land mentioned in
   Domesday  Book.  It is supposed to have consisted of a few acres only.


   Ferd"ness  (?),  n.  [OE.  ferd  fear.  See Fear.] Fearfulness. [Obs.]


   Fere  (?), n. [OE. fere companion, AS. gef&emac;ra, from f&emac;ran to
   go, travel, faran to travel. &root;78. See Fare.] A mate or companion;
   --  often  used  of  a  wife.  [Obs.]  [Written  also fear and feere.]

     And Cambel took Cambrina to his fere. Spenser.

   In fere, together; in company. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fere, a. [Cf. L. ferus wild.] Fierce. [Obs.]


   Fere, n. [See Fire.] Fire. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fere, n. [See Fear.] Fear. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fere, v. t. & i. To fear. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fer`e*to*ry (?), n. [L. feretrum bier, Gr. ferre, E. bear to support.]
   A  portable  bier  or  shrine,  variously adorned, used for containing
   relics of saints. Mollett.


   Fer"forth`  (?),  adv. Far forth. [Obs.] As ferforth as, as far as. --
   So ferforth, to such a degree.


   Fer"forth`ly, adv. Ferforth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fer"gu*son*ite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A mineral of a brownish black color,
   essentially  a  tantalo-niobate  of yttrium, erbium, and cerium; -- so
   called after Robert Ferguson.


   Fe"ri*a  (?), n.; pl. Feri\'91 (. (Eccl.) A week day, esp. a day which
   is neither a festival nor a fast. Shipley.


   Fe"ri*al (?), n. Same as Feria.


   Fe"ri*al,  a.  [LL. ferialis, fr. L. ferie holidays: cf. F. f\'82rial.
   See 5th Fair.]

   1. Of or pertaining to holidays. [Obs.] J. Gregory.

   2. Belonging to any week day, esp. to a day that is neither a festival
   nor a fast.


   Fe`ri*a"tion (?), n. [L. feriari to keep holiday, fr. ferie holidays.]
   The act of keeping holiday; cessation from work. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Fe"rie  (?),  n.  [OF.  ferie, fr. L. ferie holidays. See 5th Fair.] A
   holiday. [Obs.] Bullokar.


   Fe"ri*er (?), a., compar. of Fere, fierce. [Obs.]

     Rhenus ferier than the cataract. Marston.


   Fe"rine  (?),  a.  [L.  ferinus,  fr.  ferus  wild. See Fierce.] Wild;
   untamed;  savage;  as,  lions,  tigers,  wolves,  and bears are ferine
   beasts.  Sir  M.  Hale.  --  n.  A  wild  beast;  a  beast of prey. --
   Fe"rine*ly, adv. -- Fe"rine*ness, n.


   Fer*in"gee  (?),  n.  [Per. Farang\'c6, or Ar. Firanj\'c6, properly, a
   Frank.]  The  name  given  to  Europeans  by the Hindos. [Written also


   Fer"i*ty  (?), n. [L. feritas, from ferus wild.] Wildness; savageness;
   fierceness. [Obs.] Woodward.


   Fer"ly  (?),  a.  [AS.  f  sudden, unexpected. See Fear, n.] Singular;
   wonderful; extraordinary. [Obs.] -- n. A wonder; a marvel. [Obs.]

     Who hearkened ever such a ferly thing. Chaucer.


   Fer"ma*cy  (?),  n.  [OE.  See  Pharmacy.]  Medicine; pharmacy. [Obs.]

                                  Ferm, Ferme

   Ferm,  Ferme  (?),  n.[See  Farm.]  Rent  for a farm; a farm; also, an
   abode; a place of residence; as, he let his land to ferm. [Obs.]

     Out of her fleshy ferme fled to the place of pain. Spenser.


   Fer"ment  (?),  n.  [L. fermentum ferment (in senses 1 & 2), perh. for
   fervimentum,  fr.  fervere  to  be  boiling hot, boil, ferment: cf. F.
   ferment. Cf. 1st Barm, Fervent.]

   1. That which causes fermentation, as yeast, barm, or fermenting beer.

     NOTE: &hand; Fe rments ar e of  tw o kinds: (a) Formed or organized
     ferments. (b) Unorganized or structureless ferments. The latter are
     also  called soluble OR chemical ferments, and enzymes. Ferments of
     the  first  class  are  as  a  rule  simple  microscopic  vegetable
     organisms,  and  the  fermentations  which they engender are due to
     their  growth  and development; as, the acetic ferment, the butyric
     ferment,  etc.  See  Fermentation. Ferments of the second class, on
     the  other  hand,  are  chemical  substances,  as a rule soluble in
     glycerin  and precipitated by alcohol. In action they are catalytic
     and,  mainly,  hydrolytic.  Good examples are pepsin of the dastric
     juice,  ptyalin of the salvia, and disease of malt. <-- by 1960 the
     term  "ferment"  to  mean "enzyme" fell out of use. Enzymes are now
     known to be globular proteins, capable of catalyzing a wide variety
     of  chemical  reactions,  not  merely  hydrolytic.  The full set of
     enzymes  causing  production  of  ethyl alcohol from sugar has been
     identified and individually purified and studied. See enzyme -->

   2. Intestine motion; heat; tumult; agitation.

     Subdue and cool the ferment of desire. Rogers.

     the nation is in a ferment. Walpole.

   <-- in a ferment in a state of agitation, applied to human groups. -->

   3.  A  gentle  internal  motion  of  the constituent parts of a fluid;
   fermentation. [R.]

     Down to the lowest lees the ferment ran. Thomson.

   ferment  oils,  volatile  oils produced by the fermentation of plants,
   and  not originally contained in them. These were the quintessences of
   the alchenists. Ure.
   Fer*ment"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fermented;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fermenting.]  [L.  fermentare,  fermentatum:  cf.  F.  fermenter.  See
   Ferment, n.] To cause ferment of fermentation in; to set in motion; to
   excite internal emotion in; to heat. 

     Ye vigorous swains! while youth ferments your blood. Pope.


   Fer*ment", v. i.

   1.  To  undergo  fermentation;  to be in motion, or to be excited into
   sensible internal motion, as the constituent oarticles of an animal or
   vegetable fluid; to work; to effervesce.

   2. To be agitated or excited by violent emotions.

     But finding no redress, ferment an rage. Milton.

     The intellect of the age was a fermenting intellect. De Quincey.


   Fer*ment`a*bil"i*ty (?), n. Capability of fermentation.


   Fer*ment"a*ble  (?), a. [Cf. F. fermentable.] Capable of fermentation;
   as, cider and other vegetable liquors are fermentable.


   Fer*ment"al (?), a. Fermentative. [Obs.]

   Page 553


   Fer`men*ta"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. fermentation.]

   1.  The process of undergoing an effervescent change, as by the action
   of  yeast; in a wider sense (Physiol. Chem.), the transformation of an
   organic  substance  into  new  compounds  by  the action of a ferment,
   either  formed  or  unorganized.  It  differs in kind according to the
   nature  of the ferment which causes it. <-- in industrial microbiology
   --  =  the  production of chemical substances by use of microorganisms

   2.  A  state  of  agitation  or excitement, as of the intellect or the

     It puts the soul to fermentation and activity. Jer. Taylor.

     A univesal fermentation of human thought and faith. C. Kingsley.

   Acetous, OR Acetic, fermentation, a form of oxidation in which alcohol
   is  converted  into vinegar or acetic acid by the agency of a specific
   fungus or ferment (Mycoderma aceti). The process involves two distinct
   reactions,   in   which  the  oxygen  of  the  air  is  essential.  An
   intermediate  product,  aldehyde,  is  formed in the first process. 1.
   C2H6O + O = H2O + C2H4O

     NOTE: Alcohol. Water. Aldehyde.

   2. C2H4O + O = C2H4O2

     NOTE: Aldehyde. Acetic acid.

   --  Alcoholic  fermentation,  the fermentation which saccharine bodies
   undergo  when  brought  in contact with the yeast plant or Torula. The
   sugar  is  converted,  either directly or indirectly, into alcohol and
   carbonic acid, the rate of action being dependent on the rapidity with
   which   the   Torul\'91   develop.  --  Ammoniacal  fermentation,  the
   conversion  of  the urea of the urine into ammonium carbonate, through
   the growth of the special urea ferment. CON2H4 + 2H2O = (NH4)2CO3

     NOTE: Urea. Water. Ammonium carbonate.

     NOTE: Whenever ur ine is  ex posed to  th e air in open vessels for
     several days it undergoes this alkaline fermentation.

   -- Butyric fermentation, the decomposition of various forms of organic
   matter,  through  the  agency  of  a peculiar worm-shaped vibrio, with
   formation of more or less butyric acid. It is one of the many forms of
   fermentation  that  collectively  constitute  putrefaction. See Lactic
   fermentation.  --  Fermentation  by  an unorganized ferment OR enzyme.
   Fermentations  of  this  class are purely chemical reactions, in which
   the  ferment  acts as a simple catalytic agent. Of this nature are the
   decomposition or inversion of cane sugar into levulose and dextrose by
   boiling  with  dilute acids, the conversion of starch into dextrin and
   sugar  by  similar  treatment,  the  conversion  of  starch  into like
   products  by  the action of diastase of malt or ptyalin of saliva, the
   conversion of albuminous food into peptones and other like products by
   the  action of pepsin-hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice or by the
   ferment  of  the  pancreatic  juice. -- Fermentation theory of disease
   (Biol. & Med.), the theory that most if not all, infectious or zymotic
   disease are caused by the introduction into the organism of the living
   germs of ferments, or ferments already developed (organized ferments),
   by which processes of fermentation are set up injurious to health. See
   Germ  theory.  -- Glycerin fermentation, the fermentation which occurs
   on  mixing  a  dilute  solution of glycerin with a peculiar species of
   schizomycetes  and  some carbonate of lime, and other matter favorable
   to  the  growth  of the plant, the glycerin being changed into butyric
   acid,  caproic  acid,  butyl,  and ethyl alcohol. With another form of
   bacterium  (Bacillus  subtilis)  ethyl  alcohol  and  butyric acid are
   mainly  formed.  --  Lactic  fermentation,  the transformation of milk
   sugar  or other saccharine body into lactic acid, as in the souring of
   milk,  through  the agency of a special bacterium (Bacterium lactis of
   Lister).  In  this  change the milk sugar, before assuming the form of
   lactic   acid,   presumably  passes  through  the  stage  of  glucose.
   C12H22O11.H2O = 4C3H6O3

     NOTE: Hydrated milk sugar. Lactic acid.

     NOTE: In the lactic fermentation of dextrose or glucose, the lactic
     acid  which is formed is very prone to undergo butyric fermentation
     after  the  manner  indicated  in  the  following equation: 2C3H6O3
     (lactic  acid) = C4H8O2 (butyric acid) + 2CO2 (carbonic acid) + 2H2
     (hydrogen gas).

   -- Putrefactive fermentation. See Putrefaction.


   Fer*ment"a*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. fermentatif.] Causing, or having power
   to  cause,  fermentation;  produced by fermentation; fermenting; as, a
   fermentative     process.     --     Fer*ment"a*tive*ly,    adv.    --
   Fer*ment"a*tive*ness, n.


   Fer"mer*ere  (?),  n.  [OF. enfermerier, fr. enfermerie infirmary. See
   Infirmary.]  The  officer in a religious house who had the care of the
   infirmary. [Obs.]


   Fer"mil*let  (?),  n. [OF., dim. of fermeil, fermail, clasp, prob. fr.
   OF.  &  F. fermer to make fast, fr. ferme fast. See Firm.] A buckle or
   clasp. [Obs.] Donne.


   Fern (?), adv. Long ago. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fern,  a. [AS. fyrn.] Ancient; old. [Obs.] "Pilgrimages to . . . ferne
   halwes." [saints]. Chaucer.


   Fern  (?),  n.  [AS.  fearn; akin to D. varen, G. farn, farnkraut; cf.
   Skr.  par\'c9a  wing,  feather, leaf, sort of plant, or Lith. papartis
   fern.] (Bot.) An order of cryptogamous plants, the Filices, which have
   their  fructification  on  the  back of the fronds or leaves. They are
   usually  found  in  humid soil, sometimes grow epiphytically on trees,
   and in tropical climates often attain a gigantic size.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e plants are asexual, and bear clustered sporangia,
     containing  minute  spores,  which germinate and form prothalli, on
     which  are  borne  the  true  organs  of reproduction. The brake or
     bracken, the maidenhair, and the polypody are all well known ferns.

   Christmas  fern.  See  under  Christmas.  --  Climbing  fern (Bot.), a
   delicate North American fern (Lygodium palmatum), which climbs several
   feet  high  over  bushes,  etc.,  and  is  much sought for purposes of
   decoration.  --  Fern owl. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The European goatsucker. (b)
   The short-eared owl. [Prov. Eng.] -- Fern shaw, a fern thicket. [Eng.]
   R. Browning.


   Fern"er*y (?), n. A place for rearing ferns.


   Fern"ti*cle  (?),  n.  A  freckle  on the skin, resembling the seed of
   fern. [Prov. Eng.]


   Fern"y (?), a. Abounding in ferns.


   Fe*ro"cious  (?),  a.  [L. ferox, -ocis, fierce: cf. F. f\'82roce. See
   Ferocity.]   Fierce;   savage;  wild;  indicating  cruelty;  ravenous;
   rapacious; as, ferocious look or features; a ferocious lion.

     The humbled power of a ferocious enemy. Lowth.

   Syn.  --  Ferocious,  Fierce,  Savage, Barbarous. When these words are
   applied   to  human  feelings  or  conduct,  ferocious  describes  the
   disposition;  fierce, the haste and violence of an act; barbarous, the
   coarseness and brutality by which it was marked; savage, the cruel and
   unfeeling  spirit  which  it showed. A man is ferocious in his temper,
   fierce  in  his  actions,  barbarous in the manner of carrying out his
   purposes,  savage in the spirit and feelings expressed in his words or
   deeds. -- Fe*ro"cious*ly, adv. -- Fe*ro"cious*ness, n.

     It [Christianity] has adapted the ferociousness of war. Blair.


   Fe*roc"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L. ferocitas, fr. ferox, -ocis, fierce, kin to
   ferus  wild:  cf.  F.  ferocit\'82.  See  Fierce.]  Savage wildness or
   fierceness; fury; cruelty; as, ferocity of countenance.

     The pride and ferocity of a Highland chief. Macaulay.


   Fer*o"her  (?), n. (Arch\'91ol.) A symbol of the solar deity, found on
   monuments exhumed in Babylon, Nineveh, etc.


   Fe"rous  (?),  a.  [L.  ferus.  See Fierce.] Wild; savage. [R.] Arthur


   -fer*ous  (?).  [L.  -fer.  fr. ferre to bear. See Bear to support.] A
   suffix   signifying  bearing,  producing,  yielding;  as,  auriferous,
   yielding gold; chyliferous, producing chyle.


   Fer*ran"dine  (?  OR  ?),  n.  [F.; cf. OF. ferrant iron-gray, from L.
   ferrum iron.] A stuff made of silk and wool.

     I did buy a colored silk ferrandine. Pepys.


   Fer*ra"ra  (?),  n.  A  sword  bearing  the mark of one of the Ferrara
   family  of  Italy.  These  swords  were highly esteemed in England and
   Scotland in the 16th and 17th centuries.


   Fer`ra*rese"  (?),  a. Pertaining to Ferrara, in Italy. -- n., sing. &
   pl. A citizen of Ferrara; collectively, the inhabitants of Ferrara.


   Fer"ra*ry  (?),  n. [L. ferraria iron works. See Ferreous.] The art of
   working in iron. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Fer"rate (?), n. [L. ferrum iron.] (Chem.) A salt of ferric acid.

                                 Ferre, Ferrer

   Fer"re (?), Fer"rer (?), a. & adv. Obs. compar. of Fer.


   Fer"re*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  ferreus,  fr.  ferrum  iron.  Cf.  Farrier,
   Ferrous.]  Partaking  of,  made of, or pertaining to, iron; like iron.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Fer"rest (?), a. & adv. Obs. superl. of Fer. Chaucer.


   Fer"ret  (?),  n. [F. furet, cf. LL. furo; prob. fr. L. fur thief (cf.
   Furtive);  cf. Arm. fur wise, sly.] (Zo\'94l.) An animal of the Weasel
   family (Mustela OR Putorius furo), about fourteen inches in length, of
   a pale yellow or white color, with red eyes. It is a native of Africa,
   but has been domesticated in Europe. Ferrets are used to drive rabbits
   and rats out of their holes.


   Fer"ret,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Ferreted; p. pr. & vb. n. Ferreting.]
   [Cf.  F.  fureter.  See  Ferret, n.] To drive or hunt out of a lurking
   place,  as  a  ferret  does  the  cony;  to  search out by patient and
   sagacious efforts; -- often used with out; as, to ferret out a secret.

     Master Fer! I'll fer him, and firk him, and ferret him. Shak.


   Fer"ret,  n.  [Ital. foretto, dim. of fiore flower; or F. fleuret. Cf.
   Floret.]  A  kind of narrow tape, usually made of woolen; sometimes of
   cotton or silk; -- called also ferreting.


   Fer"ret,  n.  [F.  feret, dim. or fer iron, L. ferrum.] (Glass Making)
   The  iron  used  for trying the melted glass to see if is fit to work,
   and for shaping the rings at the mouths of bottles.


   Fer"ret*er (?), n. One who ferrets. Johnson.


   Fer"ret-eye`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) The spur-winged goose; -- so called
   from the red circle around the eyes.


   Fer*ret"to (?), n. [It. ferretto di Spagna, dim. of ferro iron, fr. L.
   ferrum.] Copper sulphide, used to color glass. Hebert.


   Fer"ri-  (.  (Chem.)  A  combining  form  indicating ferric iron as an
   ingredient; as, ferricyanide.


   Fer"ri*age  (?; 48), n. [From Ferry.] The price or fare to be paid for
   passage at a ferry.


   Fer"ric  (?),  a.  [L.  ferrum  iron:  cf.  F. ferrique. See Ferrous.]
   Pertaining to, derived from, or containing iron. Specifically (Chem.),
   denoting  those  compounds  in which iron has a higher valence than in
   the  ferrous  compounds;  as,  ferric  oxide; ferric acid. Ferric acid
   (Chem.),  an  acid,  H2FeO4, which is not known in the free state, but
   forms  definite  salts,  analogous  to the chromates and sulphates. --
   Ferric  oxide  (Chem.),  sesquioxide  of  iron,  Fe2O3;  hematite. See


   Fer`ri*cy"a*nat  (?),  n.  [Ferri-  +  cyanate.]  (Chem.)  A  salt  of
   ferricyanic acid; a ferricyanide.


   Fer`ri*cy*an"ic  (?),  a. [Ferri- + cyanic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or
   derived  from,  a  ferricyanide.  Ferricyanic  acid  (Chem.),  a brown
   crystalline    substance,   H6(CN)12Fe2,   obtained   from   potassium
   ferricyanide, and regarded as the type of the ferricyanides; -- called
   also hydro-ferricyanic acid, hydrogen ferricyanide, etc.


   Fer`ri*cy"a*nide  (?;  104),  n.  [Ferri- + cyanide.] (Chem.) One of a
   complex  series of double cyanides of ferric iron and some other base.
   Potassium  ferricyanide (Chem.), red prussiate of potash; a dark, red,
   crystalline  salt,  K6(CN)12Fe2,  consisting  of the double cyanide of
   potassium   and   ferric   iron.   From  it  is  derived  the  ferrous
   ferricyanate, Turnbull's blue.
   Fer"ri*er (?), n. A ferryman. Calthrop. 


   Fer*rif"er*ous   (?),   a.   [L.   ferrum   iron  +  -ferous:  cf.  F.
   ferrif\'8are.] Producing or yielding iron.


   Fer`ri*prus"si*ate  (?  OR  ?;  see  Prussiate,  277),  n.  [Ferri-  +
   prussiate.] (Chem.) A ferricyanate; a ferricyanide. [R.]


   Fer`ri*prus"sic  (?  OR  ?;  see Prussik, 277), a. [Ferri- + prussic.]
   (Chem.) Ferricyanic. [R.]


   Fer"ro-  (.  (Chem.)  A  prefix, or combining form, indicating ferrous
   iron as an ingredient; as, ferrocyanide.


   Fer`ro*cal"cite  (?),  n.  [Ferro-  + calcite.] Limestone containing a
   large  percentage  of  iron  carbonate,  and  hence  turning  brown on


   Fer`ro*cy"a*nate  (?),  n.  [Ferro-  +  cyanate: cf. F. ferrocyanate.]
   (Chem.) A salt of ferrocyanic acid; a ferrocyanide.


   Fer`ro*cy*an"ic  (?),  a.  [Ferro-  +  cyanic:  cf. F. ferrocyanique.]
   (Chem.)  Pertaining  to, derived from, or designating, a ferrocyanide.
   ferrocyanic acid (Chem.), a white crystalline substance, H4(CN)6Fe, of
   strong  acid  properties,  obtained  from  potassium ferrocyanide, and
   regarded   as   the   type   of  the  ferrocyanides;  --  called  also
   hydro-ferrocyanic acid, hydrogen ferrocyanide. etc.


   Fer`ro*cy"a*nide  (? OR ?; 104), n. [Ferro- + cyanide.] (Chem.) One of
   a  series  of  complex  double cyanides of ferrous iron and some other
   base.  Potassium  ferrocyanide  (Chem.), yellow prussiate of potash; a
   tough,  yellow, crystalline salt, K4(CN)6Fe, the starting point in the
   manufacture  of  almost  all  cyanogen compounds, and the basis of the
   ferric ferrocyanate, prussian blue. It is obtained by strongly heating
   together potash, scrap iron, and animal matter containing nitrogen, as
   horn, leather, blood, etc., in iron pots.
   Fer`ro*prus"si*ate  (?  OR  ?  OR; see Prussiate, 277), n. ) [Ferro- +
   prussiate.] (Chem.) A ferrocyanate; a ferocyanide. [R.]


   Fer`ro*prus"sic  (?  OR  ?;  see Prussic, 277), a. [Ferro- + prussic.]
   (Chem.) Ferrocyanic.


   Fer*ro"so- (. (Chem.) See Ferro-.


   Fer"ro*type  (?),  n. [L. ferrum iron + -type.] A photographic picture
   taken  on  an  iron plate by a collodion process; -- familiarly called


   Fer"rous  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. ferreux. See Ferreous.] (Chem.) Pertaining
   to,  or derived from, iron; -- especially used of compounds of iron in
   which the iron has its lower valence; as, ferrous sulphate.


   Fer*ru"gi*na`ted (?), a. [See Ferrugo.] Having the color or properties
   of the rust of iron.


   Fer`ru*gin"e*ous (?), a. Ferruginous. [R.]


   Fer*ru"gi*nous  (?),  a.  [L.  ferruginus,  ferrugineus,  fr. ferrugo,
   -ginis, iron rust: cf. F. ferrugineux. See Ferrugo.]

   1. Partaking of iron; containing particles of iron. Boyle.

   2.  Resembling  iron  rust  in  appearance  or color; brownish red, or
   yellowish red.


   Fer*ru"go  (?),  n.  [L.,  iron  rust,  fr. ferrum iron.] A disease of
   plants caused by fungi, commonly called the rust, from its resemblance
   to iron rust in color.


   Fer"rule (? OR ?; 277), n. [Formerly verrel, F. virole, fr. L. viriola
   little  bracelet,  dim. of viriae, pl., bracelets; prob. akin to viere
   to twist, weave, and E. withe. The spelling with f is due to confusion
   with L. ferrum iron.]

   1.  A  ring  or  cap of metal put round a cane, tool, handle, or other
   similar object, to strengthen it, or prevent splitting and wearing.

   2. (Steam Boilers) A bushing for expanding the end of a flue to fasten
   it tightly in the tube plate, or for partly filling up its mouth.


   Fer*ru"mi*nate  (?),  v.  t.  [L. ferruminatus, p.p. of ferruminare to
   cement,  solder,  fr.  ferrumen cement, fr. ferrum iron.] To solder or
   unite, as metals. [R.] Coleridge.


   Fer*ru`mi*na"tion (?), n. [L. ferruminatio: cf. F. ferrumination.] The
   soldering ir uniting of me [R.] Coleridge.


   Fer"ry  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Ferried  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Ferrying.]  [OE.  ferien to convey, AS. ferian, from faran to go; akin
   to  Icel. ferja to ferry, Goth. farjan to sail. See Fare.] To carry or
   transport over a river, strait, or other narrow water, in a boat.


   Fer"ry, v. i. To pass over water in a boat or by a ferry.

     They ferry over this Lethean sound Both to and fro. Milton.


   Fer"ry,  n.;  pl.  Ferries  (#).  [OE.  feri; akin to Icel. ferja, Sw.
   f\'84rja, Dan. f\'91rge, G. f\'84hre. See Ferry, v. t.]

   1.  A place where persons or things are carried across a river, arm of
   the sea, etc., in a ferryboat.

     It can pass the ferry backward into light. Milton.

     To row me o'er the ferry. Campbell.

   2.  A  vessel  in  which passengers and goods are conveyed over narrow
   waters; a ferryboat; a wherry.

   3.  A  franchise or right to maintain a vessel for carrying passengers
   and freight across a river, bay, etc., charging tolls.
   Ferry bridge, a ferryboat adapted in its structure for the transfer of
   railroad  trains  across  a  river or bay. -- Ferry railway. See under


   Fer"ry*boat`  (?),  n. A vessel for conveying passengers, merchandise,
   etc., across streams and other narrow waters.


   Fer"ry*man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Ferrymen (. One who maintains or attends a


   Fers (?), a. Fierce. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ferthe (?), a. Fourth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fer"tile  (?  OR  ?; 277), a. [L. fertilis, fr. ferr to bear, produce:
   cf. F. fertile. See Bear to support.]

   1.  Producing  fruit  or  vegetation  in  abundance; fruitful; able to
   produce abundantly; prolific; fecund; productive; rich; inventive; as,
   fertile land or fields; a fertile mind or imagination.

     Though he in a fertile climate dwell. Shak.

   2.  (Bot.)  (a) Capable of producing fruit; fruit-bearing; as, fertile
   flowers. (b) Containing pollen; -- said of anthers.

   3. produced in abundance; plenteous; ample.

     Henceforth,  my  early  care . . . Shall tend thee, and the fertile
     burden ease Of thy full branches. Milton.

   Syn.  --  Fertile,  Fruitful.  Fertile  implies  the inherent power of
   production; fruitful, the act. The prairies of the West are fertile by
   nature,  and  are turned by cultivation into fruitful fields. The same
   distinction  prevails when these words are used figuratively. A man of
   fertile  genius  has by nature great readiness of invention; one whose
   mind  is  fruitful  has  resources  of  thought  and  a  readiness  of
   application which enable him to think and act effectively.

   Page 554


   Fer"tile*ly (? OR ?; 277), adv. In a fertile or fruitful manner.


   fer"tile*ness, n. Fertility. Sir P. Sidney.


   Fer*til"i*tate (?), v. t. To fertilize; to fecundate. Sir T. Browne.


   Fer*til"i*ty  (?),  n. [L. fertilitas: cf. F. fertilit\'82.] The state
   or quality of being fertile or fruitful; fruitfulness; productiveness;
   fecundity;   richness;  abundance  of  resources;  fertile  invention;
   quickness;  readiness;  as,  the fertility of soil, or of imagination.
   "fertility of resource." E. Everett.

     And  all  her  husbandry  doth  lie  on heaps Corrupting in its own
     fertility. Shak.

     Thy  very  weeds  are  beautiful;  thy  waste  More rich than other
     climes' fertility. Byron.


   Fer`ti*li*za"tion (?), n.

   1. The act or process of rendering fertile.

   2.  (Biol.) The act of fecundating or impregnating animal or vegetable
   germs;  esp.,  the  process by which in flowers the pollen renders the
   ovule   fertile,   or  an  analogous  process  in  flowerless  plants;
   fecundation; impregnation.
   Close  fertilization  (Bot.),  the  fertilization of pistils by pollen
   derived  from the stamens of the same blossom. -- Cross fertilization,
   fertilization by pollen from some other blossom. See under Cross, a.


   Fer"ti*lize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fertilized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fertilizing (?).] [Cf. F. fertiliser.]

   1.  To  make fertile or enrich; to supply with nourishment for plants;
   to  make  fruitful or productive; as, to fertilize land, soil, ground,
   and meadows.

     And fertilize the field that each pretends to gain. Byron.

   2. To fecundate; as, to fertilize flower. A. R. Wallace.


   Fer"ti*lizer (?), n.

   1.  One  who  fertilizes;  the  agent  that  carries  the  fertilizing
   principle, as a moth to an orchid. A. R. Wallace.

   2.  That which renders fertile; a general name for commercial manures,
   as guano, phosphate of lime, etc.


   Fer"u*la  (?),  n.  [L.  ferula  giant fennel (its stalks were used in
   punishing  schoolboys),  rod, whip, fr. ferire to strike; akin to OHG.
   berjan, Icel. berja. Cf. Ferule.]

   1. A ferule. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

   2. The imperial scepter in the Byzantine or Eastern Empire.


   Fer`u*la"ceous  (?),  a.  [L.  ferulaceus,  fr.  ferula  rod:  cf.  F.
   f\'82rulac\'82.]  Pertaining to reeds and canes; having a stalk like a
   reed; as, ferulaceous plants.


   Fer"u*lar (?), n. A ferule. [Obs.] Milton.


   Fer"ule (? OR ?; 277), n. [L. ferula: cf. F. f\'82rule. See Ferula.] A
   flat  piece of wood, used for striking, children, esp. on the hand, in


   Fer"ule  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Feruled  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Feruling.] To punish with a ferule.


   Fe*ru"lic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, asafetida
   (Ferula asaf\'d2tida); as, ferulic acid. [Written also ferulaic.]


   Fer"vence (?), n. Heat; fervency. [Obs.]


   Fer"ven*cy (?), n. [Cf. OF. fervence. See Fervent.] The state of being
   fervent or warm; ardor; warmth of feeling or devotion; eagerness.

     When  you  pray,  let it be with attention, with fervency, and with
     perseverance. Wake.


   Fer"vent  (?),  a. [F. fervent, L. fervens, -entis. p.pr. of fervere o
   the boiling hot, to boil, glow.]

   1. Hot; glowing; boiling; burning; as, a fervent summer.

     The elements shall melt with fervent heat. 2 Pet. iii. 10.

   2.  Warm  in  feeling; ardent in temperament; earnest; full of fervor;
   zealous; glowing.

     Not slothful in business; fervent in spirit. Rom. iii. 11.

     So spake the fervent angel. Milton.

     A fervent desire to promote the happiness of mankind. Macaulay.

   -- Fer"vent*ly, adv. -- Fer"vent*ness, n.

     Laboring fervently for you in prayers. Col. iv. 12.


   Fer*ves"cent  (?),  a.  [L.  fervescens, p.pr. of fervescere to become
   boiling hot, incho., fr. fervere. See Fervent.] Growing hot.


   Fer"vid (?), a. [L. fervidus, fr. fervere. See Fervent.]

   1. Very hot; burning; boiling.

     The mounted sun Shot down direct his fervid rays. Milton.

   2. Ardent; vehement; zealous.

     The fervid wishes, holy fires. Parnell.

   -- Fer"vid*ly, adv. -- Fer"vid*ness, n.


   Fer"vor  (?),  n.  [Written  also  fervour.]  [OF. fervor, fervour, F.
   ferveur, L. fervor, fr. fervere. See Fervent.]

   1. Heat; excessive warmth.

     The fevor of ensuing day. Waller.

   2.  Intensity  of  feeling or expression; glowing ardor; passion; holy
   zeal; earnestness. Hooker.

     Winged with fervor of her love. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Fervor,  Ardor.  Fervor  is  a  boiling heat, and ardor is a
   burning  heat.  Hence,  in  metaphor,  we  commonly use fervor and its
   derivatives  when  we conceive of thoughts or emotions under the image
   of  ebullition,  or  as pouring themselves forth. Thus we speak of the
   fervor  of  passion,  fervid  declamation, fervid importunity, fervent
   supplication,  fervent  desires,  etc. Ardent is used when we think of
   anything  as  springing  from  a  deepseated  glow of soul; as, ardent
   friendship,  ardent  zeal,  ardent devotedness; burning with ardor for
   the fight.


   Fes"cen*nine  (?),  a.  [L.  Fescenninus,  fr.  Fescennia,  a  city of
   Etruria.] Pertaining to, or resembling, the Fescennines. -- n. A style
   of low, scurrilous, obscene poetry originating in fescennia.


   Fes"cue  (?),  n.  [OE.  festu,  OF. festu, F. f\'82tu, fr. L. festuca
   stalk, straw.]

   1.  A  straw,  wire, stick, etc., used chiefly to point out letters to
   children when learning to read. "Pedantic fescue.' Sterne.

     To come under the fescue of an imprimatur. Milton.

   2. An instrument for playing on the harp; a plectrum. [Obs.] Chapman.

   3. The style of a dial. [Obs.]

   4. (Bot.) A grass of the genus Festuca.
   Fescue  grass  (Bot.), a genus of grasses (Festuca) containing several
   species of importance in agriculture. Festuca ovina is sheep's fescue;
   F. elatior is meadow fescue.


   Fes"cue  (?),  v.  i.  & t. [imp. & p. p. Fescued (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fescuing.] To use a fescue, or teach with a fescue. Milton.


   Fes"els  (?),  n.  pl.  [Written  also fasels.] See Phasel. [Obs.] May

                                  Fess, Fesse

   Fess,  Fesse (?), n. [OF. fesse, faisse, F. fasce, fr. L. fascia band.
   See  Fascia.] (Her.) A band drawn horizontally across the center of an
   escutcheon, and containing in breadth the third part of it; one of the
   nine  honorable ordinaries. Fess point (Her.), the exact center of the
   escutcheon. See Escutcheon.


   Fes"si*tude  (?),  n. [L. fessus wearied, fatigued.] Weariness. [Obs.]


   Fess"wise (?), adv. In the manner of fess.


   Fest (?), n. [See Fist.] The fist. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                                  Fest, Feste

   Fest, Fes"te (?), n.A feast. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fes"tal  (?),  a.  [L.  festum  holiday,  feast.  See  feast.]  Of  or
   pertaining to a holiday or a feast; joyous; festive.

     You bless with choicer wine the festal day. Francis.


   Fes"tal*ly, adv. Joyously; festively; mirthfully.


   Fes"ten*nine (?), n. A fescennine.


   Fes"ter  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Festered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Festering.]  [OE.  festern,  fr.  fester,  n.; or fr. OF. festrir, fr.
   festre, n. See Fester, n.]

   1.  To generate pus; to become imflamed and suppurate; as, a sore or a
   wound festers.

     Wounds immedicable Rankle, and fester, and gangrene. Milton.

     Unkindness  may  give a wound that shall bleed and smart, but it is
     treachery that makes it fester. South.

     Hatred  .  .  . festered in the hearts of the children of the soil.

   2.  To  be  inflamed;  to  grow  virulent,  or  malignant;  to grow in
   intensity; to rankle.


   Fes`ter, v. t. To cause to fester or rankle.

     For  which  I burnt in inward, swelt'ring hate, And fstered ranking
     malice in my breast. Marston.


   Fes"ter, n. [OF. festre, L. fistula a sort of ulcer. Cf. Fistula.]

   1. A small sore which becomes inflamed and discharge corrupt matter; a

   2. A festering or rankling.

     The fester of the chain their necks. I. Taylor.


   Fes"ter*ment (?), n. A festering. [R.] Chalmers.


   Fest"eye  (?), v. t. [OF. festier, festeer, F. festoyer.] To feast; to
   entertain. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fes"ti*nate  (?),  a.  [L.  festinatus,  p.p. of festinare to hasten.]
   Hasty; hurried. [Obs.] -- Fes"ti*nate*ly, adv. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fes`ti*na"tion  (?),  n.  [L. festinatio.] Haste; hurry. [Obs.] Sir T.


   Fes"ti*val (?), a. [OF. festival, fr. L. festivum festive jollity, fr.
   festivus  festive,  gay.  See Festive.] Pertaining to a fest; festive;
   festal; appropriate to a festival; joyous; mirthful.

     I cannot woo in festival terms. Shak.


   Fes"ti-val,  n.  A time of feasting or celebration; an anniversary day
   of joy, civil or religious.

     The morning trumpets festival proclaimed. Milton.

   Syn. -- Feast; banquet; carousal. See Feast.


   Fes"tive  (?),  a. [L. festivus, fr. festum holiday, feast. See feast,
   and  cf.  Festivous.]  Pertaining  to,  or  becoming, a feast; festal;
   joyous; gay; mirthful; sportive. -- Fes"tive*ly, adv.

     The  glad  circle round them yield their souls To festive mirth and
     wit that knows no gall. Thomson.


   Fes*tiv"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Festivities  (#). [L. festivitas: cf. F.

   1.  The  condition  of  being  festive;  social joy or exhilaration of
   spirits at an entertaintment; joyfulness; gayety.

     The unrestrained festivity of the rustic youth. Bp. Hurd.

   2. A festival; a festive celebration. Sir T. Browne.


   Fes"ti*vous  (?),  a.  [See  Festive.] Pertaining to a feast; festive.
   [R.] Sir W. Scott.


   Fest"lich  (?), a. [See Feast, n.] Festive; fond of festive occasions.
   [Obs.] "A festlich man." Chaucer.


   Fes*toon"  (?), n. [F. feston (cf. Sp. feston, It. festone), prob. fr.
   L. festum festival. See Feast.]

   1.  A  garland  or  wreath  hanging  in  a  depending  curve,  used in
   decoration for festivals, etc.; anything arranged in this way.

   2.  (Arch.  &  Sculp.)  A  carved  ornament consisting of flowers, and
   leaves,  intermixed  or  twisted  together,  wound  with a ribbon, and
   hanging or depending in a natural curve. See Illust. of Bucranium.


   Fes*toon",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Festooned  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Festooning.] To form in festoons, or to adorn with festoons.


   Fes*toon"y  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  consisting  of,  or resembling,
   festoons. Sir J. Herschel.


   Fes*tu*cine  (?  OR ?), a. [L. festula stalk, straw. Cf. Fescue.] Of a
   straw color; greenish yellow. [Obs.]

     A little insect of a festucine or pale green. Sir T. Browne.


   Fes"tu*cous  (?),  a.  Formed  or  consisting  of straw. [Obs.] Sir T.


   Fes"tue (?), n. [See Fescue.] A straw; a fescue. [Obs.] Holland.


   Fet  (?),  n.  [Cf.  feat, F. fait, and It. fett slice, G. fetzen rag,
   Icel. fat garment.] A piece. [Obs.] Dryton.


   Fet,  v.  t.  [OE.  fetten,  feten,  AS.  fetian; akin to AS. f\'91t a
   journey,  and to E. foot; cf. G. fassen to seize. &root; 77. See Foot,
   and cf. Fetch.] To fetch. [Obs.]

     And from the other fifty soon the prisoner fet. Spenser.


   Fet, p. p. of Fette. Fetched. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fe"tal  (?),  a.  [From  Fetus.]  Pertaining  to, or connected with, a
   fetus; as, fetal circulation; fetal membranes.


   Fe*ta"tion (?), n. The formation of a fetus in the womb; pregnancy.


   Fetch  (?;  224),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Fetched 2; p. pr. & vb. n..
   Fetching.] [OE. fecchen, AS. feccan, perh. the same word as fetian; or
   cf.  facian  to  wish  to get, OFries. faka to prepare. &root; 77. Cf.
   Fet, v. t.]

   1.  To  bear  toward  the person speaking, or the person or thing from
   whose  point  of  view the action is contemplated; to go and bring; to

     Time will run back and fetch the age of gold. Milton.

     He  called  to her, and said, Fetch me, I pray thee, a little water
     in  a vessel, that I may drink. And as she was going to fetch it he
     called to her, and said, Bring me, I pray thee, a morsel of bred in
     thine hand. 1 Kings xvii. 11, 12.

   2. To obtain as price or equivalent; to sell for.

     Our  native  horses  were  held  in  small  esteem, and fetched low
     prices. Macaulay.

   3.  To  recall  from  a swoon; to revive; -- sometimes with to; as, to
   fetch a man to.

     Fetching men again when they swoon. Bacon.

   4. To reduce; to throw.

     The  sudden  trip  in  wrestling  that fetches a man to the ground.

   5.  To  bring to accomplishment; to achieve; to make; to perform, with
   certain  objects;  as, to fetch a compass; to fetch a leap; to fetch a

     I'll fetch a turn about the garden. Shak.

     He fetches his blow quick and sure. South.

   6.  To  bring or get within reach by going; to reach; to arrive at; to
   attain; to reach by sailing.

     Meantine  flew our ships, and straight we fetched The siren's isle.

   7. To cause to come; to bring to a particular state.

     They could n't fetch the butter in the churn. W. Barnes.

   To  fetch  a compass (Naut.), to make a sircuit; to take a circuitious
   route  going  to a place. -- To fetch a pump, to make it draw water by
   pouring water into the top and working the handle. -- To fetch headway
   OR  sternway  (Naut.),  to  move  ahead or astern. -- To fetch out, to
   develop.  "The  skill  of  the  polisher  fetches  out  the colors [of
   marble]"  Addison.  -- To fetch up. (a) To overtake. [Obs.] "Says [the
   hare],  I can fetch up the tortoise when I please." L'Estrange. (b) To
   stop suddenly.
   fetch,  v.  i.  To  bring one's self; to make headway; to veer; as, to
   fetch  about;  to fetch to windward. Totten. To fetch away (Naut.), to
   break loose; to roll slide to leeward. -- To fetch and carry, to serve
   obsequiously, like a trained spaniel.


   Fetch, n.

   1.  A  stratagem by which a thing is indirectly brought to pass, or by
   which  one  thing  seems  intended  and  another  is done; a trick; an

     Every little fetch of wit and criticism. South.

   2. The apparation of a living person; a wraith.

     The very fetch and ghost of Mrs. Gamp. Dickens.

   Fetch  candle,  a  light  seen  at  night, superstitiously believed to
   portend a person's death.


   Fethc"er (?), n. One wo fetches or brings.


   Fete (?), n. [See feat.] A feat. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fete, n. pl. [See Foot.] Feet. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   F\'88te  (?),  n.  [F.  See Feast.] A festival. F\'88te champ\'88tre (
   [F.], a festival or entertainment in the open air; a rural festival.


   F\'88te (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. F\'88ted; p. pr. & vb. n. F\'88ting.]
   [Cf. F. f\'88ter.] To feast; to honor with a festival.

                                Fetich, Fetish

   Fe"tich,  Fe"tish  (?),  n.[F.  f\'82tiche,  from Pg. feiti, adj., n.,
   sorcery,  charm,  fr. L. facticius made by art, artifical, factitious.
   See Factitious.]

   1.  A  material  object  supposed  among  certain  African  tribes  to
   represent  in  such  a way, or to be so connected with, a supernatural
   being,  that  the  possession  of  it  gives to the possessor power to
   control that being.

   2. Any object to which one is excessively devoted.

                             fetichism, Fetishism

   fe"tich*ism,  Fe"tish*ism  (?  OR  ?); 277), n.[Cf. F. f\'82tichisme.]
   [Written also feticism.]

   1. The doctrine or practice of belief in fetiches.

   2.  Excessive devotion to one object or one idea; abject superstition;
   blind adoration.

     The  real  and  absolute  worship  of  fire  falls  into  two great
     divisions,  the  first belonging rather to fetichism, the second to
     polytheism proper. Tylor.

                             Fetichist, Fetishist

   Fe"tich*ist, Fe"tish*ist, n.A believer in fetiches.

     He was by nature a fetichist. H. Holbeach.

                           Fetichistic, Fetishistic

   Fe`tich*is"tic  (?),  Fe`tish*is"tic,  a. Pertaining to, or involving,

     A  man  of  the  fifteenth  century,  inheriting its strange web of
     belief  and unbelief, of epicurean levity and fetichistic dread. G.


   Fe"ti*cide  (?  OR  ?),  n.  [Written  also  f\'d2ticide.] [Fetus + L.
   caedere  to  kill.]  (Med.  & Law) The act of killing the fetus in the
   womb; the offense of procuring an abortion.


   Fe"ti*cism (?), n. See Fetichism.


   Fet"id  (?  OR ?; 277), a. [L. fetidus, foetidus, fr. fetere, foetere,
   to have an ill smell, to stink: cf. F. f\'82tide.] Having an offensive
   smell; stinking.

     Most putrefactions . . . smell either fetid or moldy. Bacon.


   Fet*id"i*ty (? OR ?), n. Fetidness.


   Fet"id*ness, n. The quality or state of being fetid.


   Fe*tif"er*ous (?), a. [Fetus + -ferous.] Producing young, as animals.

   Page 555


   Fe"tis (?), a. [OF. fetis, faitis. Cf. Factitious.] Neat; pretty; well
   made; graceful. [Obs.]

     Full fetis was her cloak, as I was ware. Chaucer.


   Fe"tise*ly (?), adv. Neatly; gracefully; properly. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                             Fetish, n., Fetishism

   Fe"tish  (?),  n., Fe"tish*ism (, n., Fe`tish*is"tic (, a. See Fetich,
   n., Fetichism, n., Fetichistic, a.


   Fet"lock  (?),  n. [OE. fetlak, fitlock, cf. Icel. fet pace, step, fit
   webbed foot of water birds, akin to E. foot. &root; 77. See Foot.] The
   cushionlike  projection, bearing a tuft of long hair, on the back side
   of  the leg above the hoof of the horse and similar animals. Also, the
   joint  of  the  limb at this point (between the great pastern bone and
   the metacarpus), or the tuft of hair.

     Their wounded steeds Fret fetlock deep in gore. Shak.


   Fe"tor  (?),  n.  [L.  fetor,  foetor. See Fetid.] A strong, offensive
   smell; stench; fetidness. Arbuthnot.


   Fet"te  (?  OR  ?),  v.t.  [imp. Fette, p.p. Fet.] [See Fet, v. t.] To
   fetch. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fet"ter  (?), n. [AS. fetor, feter; akin to OS. feter, pl., OD. veter,
   OHG.  fezzera,  Icel.  fj\'94turr,  L.  pedi, Gr. foot. &root; 77. See
   Foot.] [Chiefly used in the plural, fetters.]

   1.  A  chain  or  shackle  for the feet; a chain by which an animal is
   confined by the foot, either made fast or disabled from free and rapid
   motion; a bond; a shackle.

     [They] bound him with fetters of brass. Judg. xvi. 21.

   2. Anything that confines or restrains; a restraint.

     Passion's too fierce to be in fetters bound. Dryden.


   Fet"ter, v. t. [imp. & p.p. Fettered (n. Fettering.] 1. To put fetters
   upon; to shakle or confine the feet of with a chain; to bind.

     My heels are fettered, but my fist is free. Milton.

   2.  To  reastrain  from motion; to impose restrains on; to confine; to
   enchain; as, fettered by obligations.

     My  conscience!  thou  art fettered More than my shanks and wrists.


   Fet"tered  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.) Seeming as if fettered, as the feet pf
   certain animals which bend backward, and appear unfit for walking.


   Fet"ter*er (?), n. One who fetters. Landor.


   Fet"ter*less, a. Free from fetters. Marston.


   Fet"tle  (?),  v.  t. [OE. & Prov. E., to fettle (in sense 1), fettle,
   n.,  order, repair, preparation, dress; prob. akin to E. fit. See Fit,
   a.] 1. To repair; to prepare; to put in order. [Prov. Eng.] Carlyle.

   2.  (Metal.) To cover or line with a mixture of ore, cinders, etc., as
   the hearth of a puddling furnace.


   Fet"tle,  v.  i.  To  make preparations; to put things in order; to do
   trifling business. [Prov. Eng.] Bp. Hall.


   Fet"tle,  n. The act of fettling. [Prov. Eng.] Wright. In fine fettle,
   in good spirits.


   Fet"tling (?), n.

   1.  (Metal.)  A mixture of ore, cinders, etc., used to line the hearth
   of a puddling furnace. [Eng.] [It is commonly called fix in the United

   2.  (Pottery)  The  operation  of  shaving or smoothing the surface of
   undried clay ware.


   Fet"u*ous (?), a. Neat; feat. [Obs.] Herrick.


   Fe"tus  (?), n.; pl. Fetuses (#). [L. fetus, foetus, a bringing forth,
   brood,  offspring, young ones, cf. fetus fruitful, fructified, that is
   or was filled with young; akin to E. fawn a deer, fecundity, felicity,
   feminine, female, and prob. to do, or according to others, to be.] The
   young  or  embryo  of  an  animal  in  the  womb, or in the egg; often
   restricted  to  the  later stages in the development of viviparous and
   oviparous  animals,  embryo  being  applied  to  the  earlier  stages.
   [Written also f\'d2tus.]


   Fet"wah  (?),  n.  [Ar.] A written decision of a Turkish mufti on some
   point of law.<-- written also fatwah --> Whitworth.


   Feu  (?), n. [See 2d Feud, and Fee.] (Scots Law) A free and gratuitous
   right  to  lands  made  to  one  for service to be performed by him; a
   tenure where the vassal, in place of military services, makes a return
   in grain or in money. Burrill.


   Feu"ar  (?),  n.  [From  Feu.] (Scots Law) One who holds a feu. Sir W.


   Feud (?), n. [OE. feide, AS. f, fr. f\'beh hostile; akin to OHG. f, G.
   fehde, Sw. fejd, D. feide; prob. akin to E. fiend. See Foe.]

   1.  A  combination  of kindred to avenge injuries or affronts, done or
   offered to any of their blood, on the offender and all his race.

   2.  A  contention or quarrel; especially, an inveterate strife between
   families,  clans, or parties; deadly hatred; contention satisfied only
   by bloodshed.

     Mutual feuds and battles betwixt their several tribes and kindreds.

   Syn. -- Affray; fray; broil; contest; dispute; strife.


   Feud,  n.  [LL.  feudum,  feodum  prob. of same origin as E. fief. See
   Fief,  Fee.]  (Law) A stipendiary estate in land, held of superior, by
   service;  the right which a vassal or tenant had to the lands or other
   immovable  thing  of  his  lord, to use the same and take the profists
   thereof  hereditarily,  rendering  to  his  superior  such  duties and
   services  as belong to military tenure, etc., the property of the soil
   always remaining in the lord or superior; a fief; a fee.


   Feu"dal (?), a. [F. f\'82odal, or LL. feudalis.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining to feuds, fiefs, or feels; as, feudal rights or
   services; feudal tenures.

   2.  Consisting  of, or founded upon, feuds or fiefs; embracing tenures
   by military services; as, the feudal system.


   Feu"dal*ism  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  f\'82odalisme.]  The feudal system; a
   system  by which the holding of estates in land is made dependent upon
   an  obligation  to  render  military  service  to  the  kind or feudal
   superior; feudal principles and usages.


   Feu"dal*ist, n. An upholder of feudalism.


   Feu*dal"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. f\'82odalit\'82.] The state or quality of
   being feudal; feudal form or constitution. Burke.


   Fe`dal*i*za/tion (?), n. The act of reducing to feudal tenure.


   Feu"dal*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Feudalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Feudalizing   (?).]  To  reduce  toa  feudal  tenure;  to  conform  to


   Feu"dal*ly, adv. In a feudal manner.


   Feu"da*ry  (?),  a. [LL. feudarius, fr. feudum. See 2d Feud.] Held by,
   or pertaining to, feudal tenure.


   Feu"da*ry, n.

   1. A tenant who holds his lands by feudal service; a feudatory. Foxe.

   2. A feodary. See Feodary.


   Feu"da*ta*ty  (?),  a.  & n. [LL. feudatarius: cf. F. feudataire.] See


   Feu"da*to*ry  (?),  n.; pl. Feudatories (. A tenant or vassal who held
   his  lands of a superior on condition of feudal service; the tenant of
   a feud or fief.

     The grantee . . . was styled the feudatory or vassal. Blackstone.

     [He] had for feudatories great princes. J. H. Newman.


   Feu"dto*ry,  a.  Held  from  another on some conditional tenure; as, a
   feudatory title. Bacon. <-- no pos in original = n. -->

                                  Feu de joie

   Feu` de joie" (?). [F., lit., fire of joy.] A fire kindled in a public
   place in token of joy; a bonfire; a firing of guns in token of joy.


   Feud"ist (?), n. [Cf. F. feudiste.] A writer on feuds; a person versed
   in feudal law. Spelman.


   Feu`illants" (?), n. pl. A reformed branch of the Bernardines, founded
   in 1577 at Feuillans, near Toulouse, in France.


   Feuille"mort` (?), a. [F. feuille morte a dead leaf.] Having the color
   of a faded leaf. Locke.


   Feu`ille*ton"  (? OR ?), n. [F., from feulle leaf.] A part of a French
   newspaper   (usually  the  bottom  of  the  page),  devoted  to  light
   literature,  criticism,  etc.;  also, the article or tale itself, thus


   Feuill"ton*ist  (?),  n. [F. feuilletoniste.] A writer of feuilletons.
   F. Harrison.


   feu"ter  (,  v.  t.  [OE. feutre rest for a lance, OF. feutre, fautre,
   feltre,  felt, cushion, rest for a lance, fr. LL. filtrum, feltrum; of
   German  origin, and akin to E. felt. See Felt, and cf. Filter.] To set
   close; to fix in rest, as a spear. Spenser.


   Feu"ter*er (?), n. [Either fr. G. f\'81tterer feeder, or corrupted fr.
   OF. vautrier, vaultrier; fr. vaultre, viautre, a kind of hound, fr. L.
   vertragus, vertraga, a greyhound. The last is of Celtic origin.] A dog
   keeper. [Obs.] Massinger.


   Fe"ver  (?), n. [OE. fever, fefer, AS. fefer, fefor, L. febris: cf. F.
   fi\'8avre. Cf. Febrile.]

   1.  (Med.)  A  diseased state of the system, marked by increased heat,
   acceleration of the pulse, and a general derangement of the functions,
   including  usually,  thirst  and  loss  of appetite. Many diseases, of
   which fever is the most prominent symptom, are denominated fevers; as,
   typhoid fever; yellow fever.

     NOTE: &hand; Re mitting fe vers su bside or  ab ate at  in tervals;
     intermitting  fevers  intermit  or  entirely  cease  at  intervals;
     continued or continual fevers neither remit nor intermit.

   2.  Excessive  excitement  of  the  passions  in consequence of strong
   emotion;  a condition of great excitement; as, this quarrel has set my
   blood in a fever.

     An envious fever Of pale and bloodless emulation. Shak.

     After life's fitful fever he sleeps well. Shak.

   Brain fever, Continued fever, etc. See under Brain, Continued, etc. --
   Fever  and  ague,  a  form  of  fever recurring in paroxysms which are
   preceded by chills. It is of malarial origin. -- Fever blister (Med.),
   a  blister or vesicle often found about the mouth in febrile states; a
   variety  of  herpes.  -- Fever bush (Bot.), the wild allspice or spice
   bush.  See Spicewood. -- Fever powder. Same as Jame's powder. -- Fever
   root (Bot.), an American herb of the genus Triosteum (T. perfoliatum);
   --  called  also feverwort amd horse gentian. -- Fever sore, a carious
   ulcer or necrosis. Miner.


   Fe"ver, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fevered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fevering.] To
   put into a fever; to affect with fever; as, a fevered lip. [R.]

     The white hand of a lady fever thee. Shak.


   Fe"ver*et (?), n. A slight fever. [Obs.] Ayliffe.


   Fe"ver*few  (?),  n.  [AS.  feferfuge,  fr.  L. febrifugia. See fever,
   Fugitive,  and cf. Febrifuge.] (Bot.) A perennial plant (Pyrethrum, OR
   Chrysanthemum,  Parthenium)  allied to camomile, having finely divided
   leaves  and  white  blossoms; -- so named from its supposed febrifugal


   Fe"ver*ish, a.

   1. Having a fever; suffering from, or affected with, a moderate degree
   of  fever;  showing  increased  heat  and  thirst;  as, the patient is

   2. Indicating, or pertaining to, fever; characteristic of a fever; as,
   feverish symptoms.

   3. Hot; sultry. "The feverish north." Dryden.

   4.  Disordered  as  by  fever;  excited;  restless;  as,  the feverish
   condition of the commercial world.

     Strive to keep up a frail and feverish bing. Milton.

   -- Fe"ver*ish*ly, adv. -- Fe"ver*ish*ness, n.


   Fe"ver*ous (?), a. [Cf.F. fi\'82vreux.]

   1. Affected with fever or ague; feverish.

     His heart, love's feverous citadel. Keats.

   2.  Pertaining  to,  or  having  the  nature of, fever; as, a feverous

     All maladies . . . all feverous kinds. Milton.

   3. Having the tendency to produce fever; as, a feverous disposition of
   the year. [R.] Bacon.


   Fe"ver*ous*ly, adv. Feverishly. [Obs.] Donne.


   Fe"ver*wort` (?), n. See Fever root, under Fever.


   Fe"ver*y (?), a. Feverish. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Few (?), a. [Compar. Fewer (?); superl. Fewest.] [OE. fewe, feawe, AS.
   fe\'a0,  pl.  fe\'a0we;  akin to OS. f\'beh, OHG. f\'b5, Icel. f\'ber,
   Sw.  f\'86,  pl.,  Dan.  faa,  pl.,  Goth.  faus,  L.  paucus, cf. Gr.
   Paucity.]  Not  many;  small,  limited,  or  confined  in  number;  --
   indicating  a  small  portion  of  units  or individuals constituing a
   whole;  often,  by  ellipsis of a noun, a few people. "Are not my days
   few?" Job x. 20.

     Few know and fewer care. Proverb.

     NOTE: &hand; Few is often used partitively; as, few of them.

   A  few, a small number. -- In few, in a few words; briefly. Shak. - No
   few,  not few; more than a few; many. Cowper. - The few, the minority;
   -- opposed to the many or the majority.
   Fe"wel (?), n. [See Fuel.] Fuel. [Obs.] Hooker.
   Few"met (?), n. See Fumet. [Obs.] B. Jonson.
   Few"ness, n. 

   1. The state of being few; smallness of number; paucity. Shak.

   2. Brevity; conciseness. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fey (?), a. [AS. f, Icel. feigr, OHG. feigi.] Fated; doomed. [Old Eng.
   & Scot.]


   Fey (?), n. [See Fay faith.] Faith. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fey (?), v. t. [Cf. Feague.] To cleanse; to clean out. [Obs.] Tusser.


   Feyne (?), v. t. To feign. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Feyre (?), n. A fair or market. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fez (?), n. [F., fr. the town of Fez in Morocco.] A felt or cloth cap,
   usually  red  and  having  a tassel, -- a variety of the tarboosh. See
   Tarboosh. B. Taylor.


   Fia"cre (?), n. [F.] A kind of French hackney coach.


   Fi"ance  (?),  v.  t.  [F.  fiancer.  See  Affiance.]  To  betroth; to
   affiance. [Obs.] Harmar.


   Fi`an`c\'82" (?), n. [F.] A betrothed man.


   Fi`an`c\'82e" (?), n. [F.] A betrothed woman.


   Fi"ants  (?), n. [F. fiente dung.] The dung of the fox, wolf, boar, or


   Fi"ar (? OR ?), n. [See Feuar.]

   1.  (Scots  Law)  One  in  whom  the  property of an estate is vested,
   subject to the estate of a life renter.

     I am fiar of the lands; she a life renter. Sir W. Scott.

   2.  pl.  The  price  of  grain,  as  legally fixed, in the counties of
   Scotland, for the current year.


   Fi*as"co  (?),  n.;  pl.  Fiascoes (#). [It.] A complete or ridiculous
   failure,  esp.  of  a  musical  performance,  or  of  any  pretentious


   Fi"at  (?),  n.  [L., let it be done, 3d pers. sing., subj. pres., fr.
   fieri, used as pass. of facere to make. Cf. Be.]

   1.  An  authoritative  command  or order to do something; an effectual

     His fiat laid the corner stone. Willis.

   2.  (Eng.  Law) (a) A warrant of a judge for certain processes. (b) An
   authority  for  certain  proceedings  given  by  the Lord Chancellor's
   Fiat  money,  irredeemable  paper  currency,  not  resting on a specie
   basis,  but deriving its purchasing power from the declaratory fiat of
   the government issuing it.


   Fi*aunt" (?), n. Commission; fiat; order; decree. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fib  (?), n. [Prob. fr. fable; cf. Prov. E. fibble-fabble nonsense.] A
   falsehood; a lie; -- used euphemistically.

     They are very serious; they don't tell fibs. H. James.


   Fib,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fibbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fibbing (?).] To
   speak falsely. [Colloq.]


   Fib, v. t. To tell a fib to. [R.] De Quincey.


   Fib"ber (?), n. One who tells fibs.

                                 Fiber, Fibre

   Fi"ber, Fi"bre, (, n. [F. fibre, L. fibra.]

   1.  One  of  the delicate, threadlike portions of which the tissues of
   plants  and  animals are in part constituted; as, the fiber of flax or
   of muscle.

   2.  Any  fine, slender thread, or threadlike substance; as, a fiber of
   spun glass; especially, one of the slender rootlets of a plant.

   3. Sinew; strength; toughness; as, a man of real fiber.

     Yet had no fibers in him, nor no force. Chapman.

   4.  A  general  name for the raw material, such as cotton, flax, hemp,
   etc., used in textile manufactures.
   Fiber gun, a kind of steam gun for converting, wood, straw, etc., into
   fiber. The material is shut up in the gun with steam, air, or gas at a
   very  high  pressure which is afterward relieved suddenly by letting a
   lid  at  the  muzzle  fly open, when the rapid expansion separates the
   fibers.  --  Fiber  plants  (Bot.),  plants  capable of yielding fiber
   useful in the arts, as hemp, flax, ramie, agave, etc.

                                Fibered, Fibred

   Fi"bered, Fi"bred (?), a. Having fibers; made up of fibers.

                           Fiber-faced, Fibre-faced

   Fi"ber-faced`,  Fi"bre-faced`  (?), a. Having a visible fiber embodied
   in  the  surface  of;  --  applied esp. to a kind of paper for checks,
   drafts, etc.

                             Fiberless, Fibreless

   Fi"ber*less,  Fi"bre*less, a. Having no fibers; destitute of fibers or


   Fi"bri*form  (?  OR  ?), a. [L. fibra a fiber + -form.] (Biol.) Having
   the form of a fiber or fibers; resembling a fiber.


   Fi"bril (?), n. [F. fibrille, dim. of fibre, L. fibra.] A small fiber;
   the branch of a fiber; a very slender thread; a fibrilla. Cheyne.


   Fi*bril"la  (?),  n.;  pl. Fibrill\'92 (#). [NL. See Fibril.] A minute
   thread of fiber, as one of the fibrous elements of a muscular fiber; a


   Fi"bril*lar  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  fibrils  or fibers; as,
   fibrillar twitchings.


   Fi"bril*la*ry (? OR ?), a. Of of pertaining to fibrils.


   Fi"bril*la`ted (? OR ?), a. Furnished with fibrils; fringed.


   Fi`bril*la"tion  (?),  n.  The  state  of  being  reduced  to  fibers.


   Fi*bril"lose  (?  OR  ?),  a. Covered with hairlike appendages, as the
   under  surface  of  some  lichens; also, composed of little strings or
   fibers; as, fibrillose appendages.

   Page 556


   Fi*bril"lous  (?  OR  ?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  fibraleux.] Pertaining to, or
   composed of, fibers.


   Fi"brin (?), n. [Cf. F. fibrine. See Fiber.] (Physiol. Chem.)

   1.  A  white, albuminous, fibrous substance, formed in the coagulation
   of  the blood either by decomposition of fibrinogen, or from the union
   of fibrinogen and paraglobulin which exist separately in the blood. It
   is  insoluble  in  water,  but  is  readily  digestible in gastric and
   pancreatic juice.

   2.  The  white,  albuminous  mass remaining after washing lean beef or
   other  meat  with  water  until  all  coloring  matter is removed; the
   fibrous portion of the muscle tissue; flesh fibrin.

   3.  An albuminous body, resembling animal fibrin in composition, found
   in cereal grains and similar seeds; vegetable fibrin.
   Fibrin  factors  (Physiol.),  the  albuminous bodies, paraglobulin and
   fibrinigen  in  the blood, which, by the action of the fibrin ferment,
   are  changed  into fibrin, in coagulation. -- Fibrin ferment (Physiol.
   Chem.),  a  ferment  which  makes  its appearance in the blood shortly
   after  it  is  shed, and is supposed to be the active agent in causing
   coagulation of the blood, with formation of fibrin.


   Fi`bri*na"tion  (?),  n.  (Med.)  The  state of acquiring or having an
   excess of fibrin.


   Fi"brine (?), a. Belonging to the fibers of plants.


   Fi*brin"o*gen  (?), n. [Fibrin + -gen.] (Physiol. Chem.) An albuminous
   substance  existing  in  the  blood, and in other animal fluids, which
   either  alone or with fibrinoplastin or paraglobulin forms fibrin, and
   thus causes coagulation.


   Fi`bri*nog"e*nous  (?),  a.  (Physiol.  Chem.) Possessed of properties
   similar to fibrinogen; capable of forming fibrin.


   Fi`bri*no*plas"tic   (?),   a.  (Physiol.Chem.)  Like  fibrinoplastin;
   capable of forming fibrin when brought in contact with fibrinogen.


   Fi`bri*no*plas"tin (?), n. [Fibrin + Gr. (Physiol.Chem.) An albuminous
   substance, existing in the blood, which in combination with fibrinogen
   forms fibrin; -- called also paraglobulin.


   Fi"bri*nous  (?  OR ?; 277), a. Having, or partaking of the properties
   of, fibrin; as, fibrious exudation.


   Fi`bro*car"ti*lage  (?), n. [L. fibra a fiber + E. cartilage.] (Anat.)
   A  kind  of  cartilage  with  a fibrous matrix and approaching fibrous
   connective tissue in structure. -- Fi`bro*car`ti*lag"i*nous (#), a.


   Fi`bro*chon*dros"te*al  (?), a. [L. fibra a fiber + gr. (Anat.) Partly
   fibrous, partly cartilaginous, and partly osseous. St. George Mivart.


   Fi"broid  (?),  a.  [L.  fibra  a  fiber + -oid.] (Med.) Resembling or
   forming fibrous tissue; made up of fibers; as, fibroid tumors. -- n. A
   fibroid tumor; a fibroma. Fibroid degeneration, a form of degeneration
   in  which  organs  or  tissues  are  converted into fibroid tissue. --
   Fibroid  phthists, a form of pulmonary consumption associated with the
   formation  of  fibrous tissue in the lungs, and the gradual atrophy of
   the lungs, from the pressure due to the contraction of this tissue.


   Fi"bro*in  (?  OR  ?),  n.  [L.  fibra  a fiber.] (Chem.) A variety of
   gelatin;  the  chief  ingredient  of  raw  silk,  extracted as a white
   amorphous mass.


   Fi"bro*lite  (?  OR  ?),  n.  [L.  fibra  a  fiber  +  -lite:  cf.  F.
   fibrolithe.]  (Min.)  A  silicate  of  alumina, of fibrous or columnar
   structure.  It  is  like  andalusite  in  composition;  -- called also
   sillimanite, and bucholizite.


   Fi*bro"ma (?), n. [NL. See Fiber, and -oma.] (Med.) A tumor consisting
   mainly of fibrous tissue, or of same modification of such tissue.


   Fi`bro*spon"gi*\'91 (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. fibra a fiber + spongia a
   sponge.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An  order  of sponges having a fibrous skeleton,
   including the commercial sponges.


   Fi"brous  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  fibreux.]  Containing, or consisting of,
   fibers;  as,  the  fibrous  coat of the cocoanut; the fibrous roots of
   grasses. -- Fi"brous*ness, n.


   Fi`bro*vas"cu*lar  (?),  a.  [L.  fibra a fiber + E. vascular.] (Bot.)
   Containing woody fiber and ducts, as the stems of all flowering plants
   and ferns; -- opposed to cellular.


   Fib"ster (?), n. One who tells fibs. [Jocular]


   Fib"u*la (?), n.; pl. Fibul\'92 (#). [L., clasp, buckle.]

   1. A brooch, clasp, or buckle.

     Mere fibul\'91, without a robe to clasp. Wordsworth.

   2.  (Anat.)  The outer and usually the smaller of the two bones of the
   leg, or hind limb, below the knee.

   3. (Surg.) A needle for sewing up wounds.


   Fib"u-lar (?), a. Pertaining to the fibula.


   Fib`u*la"re  (?), n.; pl. Fibularia (#). [NL. See Fibula.] (Anat.) The
   bone  or  cartilage  of the tarsus, which articulates with the fibula,
   and corresponds to the calcaneum in man and most mammals.


   Fice  (?),  n.  A  small  dog; -- written also fise, fyce, fiste, etc.
   [Southern U.S.]


   Fi*ch\'82 (?), a. (Her.) See Fitch\'90.


   Fict"tel*ite  (?),  n.  (Min.) A white crystallized mineral resin from
   the Fichtelgebirge, Bavaria.


   Fich"u  (?), n. [F., neckerchief.] A light cape, usually of lace, worn
   by  women,  to  cover  the  neck  and  throat,  and  extending  to the


   Fic"kle  (?),  a.  [OE. fikel untrustworthy, deceitful, AS. ficol, fr.
   fic,  gefic,  fraud, deceit; cf. f\'becen deceit, OS. f, OHG. feichan,
   Icel. feikn portent. Cf. Fidget.] Not fixed or firm; liable to change;
   unstable;  of  a  changeable  mind;  not  firm  in opinion or purpose;
   inconstant; capricious; as, Fortune's fickle wheel. Shak.

     They know how fickle common lovers are. Dryden.

   Syn.   --  Wavering;  irresolute;  unsettled;  vacillating;  unstable;
   inconsonant;   unsteady;  variable;  mutable;  changeful;  capricious;
   veering; shifting.


   Fic"kle*ness  (?),  n.  The  quality  of  being  fickle;  instability;
   inconsonancy. Shak.


   Fic"kly (?), adv. In a fickle manner. [Obs.] Pepys.


   Fi"co  (?),  n.; pl. Ficoes (#). [It., a fig, fr. L.ficus. See Fig.] A
   fig;  an insignificant trifle, no more than the snap of one's thumb; a
   sign of contempt made by the fingers, expressing. A fig for you.

     Steal! foh, a fico for the phrase. Shak.


   Fic"tile  (?),  a.  [L.  fictilis. See Fiction.] Molded, or capable of
   being  molded,  into form by art; relating to pottery or to molding in
   any soft material.

     Fictile earth is more fragile than crude earth. Bacon.

     The earliest specimens of Italian fictile art. C. Wordsworth.

   Fictile  ware,  ware  made  of  any material which is molded or shaped
   while  soft;  hence,  pottery  of  any  sort.  -- Fic"tile*ness, n. --
   Fic*til"i*ty (#), n.


   Fic"tion  (?), n. [F. fiction, L. fictio, fr. fingere, fictum to form,
   shape, invent, feign. See Feign.]

   1. The act of feigning, inventing, or imagining; as, by a mere fiction
   of the mind. Bp. Stillingfleet.

   2. That which is feigned, invented, or imagined; especially, a feigned
   or  invented  story,  whether  oral or written. Hence: A story told in
   order to deceive; a fabrication; -- opposed to fact, or reality.

     The  fiction  of  those  golden  apples  kept  by  a dragon. Sir W.

     When  it  could  no  longer  be  denied  that  her  flight had been
     voluntary,  numerous  fictions  were  invented  to  account for it.

   3.  Fictitious  literature; comprehensively, all works of imagination;
   specifically, novels and romances.

     The  office  of  fiction  as  a  vehicle  of  instruction and moral
     elevation  has  been recognized by most if not all great educators.
     Dict. of Education.

   4.  (Law) An assumption of a possible thing as a fact, irrespective of
   the question of its truth. Wharton.

   5.  Any  like  assumption  made  for  convenience, as for passing more
   rapidly  over  what  is not disputed, and arriving at points really at
   issue.  Syn.  -- Fabrication; invention; fable; falsehood. -- Fiction,
   Fabrication.  Fiction  is opposed to what is real; fabrication to what
   is  true.  Fiction  is  designed  commonly  to amuse, and sometimes to
   instruct;  a fabrication is always intended to mislead and deceive. In
   the  novels  of Sir Walter Scott we have fiction of the highest order.
   The   poems  of  Ossian,  so  called,  were  chiefly  fabrications  by


   Fic"tion*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or  characterized by, fiction;
   fictitious; romantic."Fictional rather than historical." Latham.


   Fic"tion*ist, n. A writer of fiction. [R.] Lamb.


   Fic"tious (?), a. Fictitious. [R.] Prior.


   Fic*ti"tious  (?), a. [L. fictitius. See Fiction.] Feigned; imaginary;
   not  real;  fabulous;  counterfeit; false; not genuine; as, fictitious

     The human persons are as fictitious as the airy ones. Pope.

   -- Fic*ti"tious*ly, adv. -- Fic*ti"tious*ness, n.


   Fic"tive  (?), a. [Cf. F. fictif.] Feigned; counterfeit. "The fount of
   fictive tears." Tennyson.


   Fic"tor (?), n. [L.] An artist who models or forms statues and reliefs
   in any plastic material. [R.] Elmes.


   Fi"cus (?), n. [L., a fig.] A genus of trees or shrubs, one species of
   which (F. Carica) produces the figs of commerce; the fig tree.

     NOTE: &hand; Fi cus In dica is  th e banyan tree; F. religiosa, the
     peepul tree; F. elastica, the India-rubber tree.


   Fid (?), n. [Prov. E. fid a small, thick lump.]

   1.  (Naut.) A square bar of wood or iron, used to support the topmast,
   being passed through a hole or mortise at its heel, and resting on the
   trestle trees.

   2. A wooden or metal bar or pin, used to support or steady anything.

   3.  A  pin of hard wood, tapering to a point, used to open the strands
   of a rope in splicing.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e ha nd fi ds an d st anding fids (which are
     larger  than  the  others,  and  stand  upon  a flat base). An iron
     implement for this purpose is called a marline spike.

   4. (Mil.) A block of wood used in mounting and dismounting heavy guns.


   Fi*dal"go  (?),  n. [Pg. See Hidalgo.] The lowest title of nobility in
   Portugal, corresponding to that of Hidalgo in Spain.


   Fid"dle  (?),  n. [OE. fidele, fithele, AS. fi; akin to D. vedel, OHG.
   fidula, G. fiedel, Icel. fi, and perh. to E. viol. Cf. Viol.]

   1.  (Mus.) A stringed instrument of music played with a bow; a violin;
   a kit.

   2. (Bot.) A kind of dock (Rumex pulcher) with fiddle-shaped leaves; --
   called also fiddle dock.

   3. (Naut.) A rack or frame of bars connected by strings, to keep table
   furniture in place on the cabin table in bad weather. Ham. Nav. Encyc.
   Fiddle   beetle   (Zo\'94l.),  a  Japanese  carabid  beetle  (Damaster
   blaptoides);  --  so called from the form of the body. -- Fiddle block
   (Naut.), a long tackle block having two sheaves of different diameters
   in  the  same  plane,  instead  of  side by side as in a common double
   block.  Knight. -- Fiddle bow, fiddlestick. -- Fiddle fish (Zo\'94l.),
   the  angel  fish.  -- Fiddle head, an ornament on a ship's bow, curved
   like  the volute or scroll at the head of a violin. -- Fiddle pattern,
   a  form of the handles of spoons, forks, etc., somewhat like a violin.
   -- Scotch fiddle, the itch. (Low) -- To play first, OR second, fiddle,
   to take a leading or a subordinate part. [Colloq.]


   Fid"dle,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Fiddled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fiddling

   1. To play on a fiddle.

     Themistocles  .  .  . said he could not fiddle, but he could make a
     small town a great city. Bacon.

   2. To keep the hands and fingers actively moving as a fiddler does; to
   move the hands and fingers restlessy or in busy idleness; to trifle.

     Talking, and fiddling with their hats and feathers. Pepys.


   Fid"dle (?), v. t. To play (a tune) on a fiddle.


   Fid"dle*dee*dee`   (?),   interj.   An  exclamatory  word  or  phrase,
   equivalent to nonsense! [Colloq.]


   Fod"dle-fad`dle  (?),  n. A trifle; trifling talk; nonsense. [Colloq.]


   Fid"dle-fad`dle, v. i. To talk nonsense. [Colloq.] Ford.


   Fid"dler (?), n. [AS. fi.]

   1. One who plays on a fiddle or violin.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  burrowing  crab  of  the  genus  Gelasimus, of many
   species.  The male has one claw very much enlarged, and often holds it
   in  a  position  similar  to  that in which a musician holds a fiddle,
   hence  the  name;  --  called  also  calling  crab,  soldier crab, and
   fighting crab.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  The common European sandpiper (Tringoides hypoleucus);
   -- so called because it continually oscillates its body.
   Fiddler crab. (Zo\'94l.) See Fiddler, n., 2.


   Fid"dle-shaped`  (?), a. (Bot.) Inversely ovate, with a deep hollow on
   each side. Gray.


   Fid"dle*stick` (?), n. The bow, strung with horsehair, used in playing
   the fiddle; a fiddle bow.


   Fid"dle*string` (?), n. One of the catgut strings of a fiddle.


   Fid"dle*wood` (?), n. [Corrupted fr. F. bois-fid\'8ale, lit., faithful
   wood;  --  so  called  from  its durability.] The wood of several West
   Indian trees, mostly of the genus Citharexylum.


   Fi`de*jus"sion (?), n. [L. fidejussio, from fidejubere to be surety or
   bail;  fides  faith  + jubere to order: cf. F. fid\'82jussion.] (Civil
   Law)  The  act  or  state  of  being  bound  as  surety  for  another;


   Fi`de*jus"sor  (?),  n.  [L.:  cf.  F.  fid\'82jusseur.] (Civil Law) A
   surety;  one  bound  for  another,  conjointly  with him; a guarantor.


   Fi*del"i*ty (?), n. [L. fidelitas: cf. F. fid\'82lit\'82. See Fealty.]
   Faithfulness;  adherence  to  right;  careful  and exact observance of
   duty,  or  discharge  of  obligations.  Especially: (a) Adherence to a
   person or party to which one is bound; loyalty.

     Whose courageous fidelity was proof to all danger. Macaulay.

     The  best  security  for  the  fidelity  of men is to make interest
     coincide with duty. A. Hamilton.

   (b)  Adherence  to  the  marriage  contract.  (c)  Adherence to truth;
   veracity; honesty.

     The principal thing required in a witness is fidelity. Hooker.

   Syn. -- Faithfulness; honesty; integrity; faith; loyalty; fealty.


   Fi"des  (?),  n.  [L.,  faith.]  (Roman  Muth.) Faith personified as a
   goddess; the goddess of faith.


   Fidge (?), n. & i. See Fidget. [R.] Swift.


   Fidg"et (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fidgeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Fodgeting.]
   [From  Fidge;  cf.  OE.  fiken  to  fidget,  to flatter, Icel. fika to
   hasten,  Sw. fika to hunt after, AS. befician to deceive. Cf. Fickle.]
   To  move  uneasily  one  way and the other; to move irregularly, or by
   fits and starts. Moore.


   Fidg"et, n.

   1. Uneasiness; restlessness. Cowper.

   2. pl. A general nervous restlessness, manifested by incessant changes
   of position; dysphoria. Dunglison.


   Fidg"et*i*ness (?), n. Quality of being fidgety.


   Fidg"et*y (?), a. Restless; uneasy. Lowell.


   Fid"i*a  (?),  n. [NL., prob. fr. L. fidus trusty.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus
   of  small  beetles,  of  which  one  species  (the grapevine Fidia, F.
   longipes) is very injurious to vines in America.


   Fi*dic"i*nal  (?),  a.  [L.  fidicinus,  fr.  fidicen,  -inis,  a lute
   player.] (Mus.) Of or pertaining to a stringed instrument.


   Fi*du"cial (?), a. [L. fiducia trust, confidence; akin to fides faith.
   See Faith.]

   1.  Having  faith  or  trust;  confident;  undoubting; firm. "Fiducial
   reliance on the promises of God." Hammond.

   2.  Having  the  nature  of  a  trust;  fiduciary; as, fiducial power.
   Fiducial  edge  (Astron. & Surv.), the straight edge of the alidade or
   ruler  along which a straight line is to be drawn. -- Fiducial line OR
   point (Math. & Physics.), a line or point of reference, as for setting
   a graduated circle or scale used for measurments.


   Fi*du"cial*ly, adv. With confidence. South.


   Fi*di"ci*a*ry  (?  OR  ?),  a.  [L.  fiduciarus,  fr.  fiducia: cf. F.
   fiduciaire. See Fiducial.]

   1.  Involving  confidence  or  trust; confident; undoubting; faithful;
   firm; as, in a fiduciary capacity. "Fiduciary obedience." Howell.

   2. Holding, held, or founded, in trust. Spelman.


   Fi*du"ci*a*ry, n.

   1. One who holds a thing in trust for another; a trustee.

     Instrumental  to  the  conveying  God's  blessing  upon those whose
     fiduciaries they are. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  (Theol.) One who depends for salvation on faith, without works; an
   Antinomian. Hammond.


   Fie (?), interj. [OE. fi; cf. D. fif. G. pfui, Icel. f, Sw. & Dan. fy,
   F.  fi,  L. fi, phy.] An exclamation denoting contempt or dislike. See
   Fy. Fuller.


   Fief  (?), n. [F. fief; of German origin, and the same word as E. fee.
   See  Fee, and cf. Feud, a tief.] (Law) An estate held of a superior on
   condition  of military service; a fee; a feud. See under Benefice, n.,

   Page 557


   Field (?), n. [OE. feld, fild, AS. feld; akin to D. veld, G. feld, Sw.
   f\'84lt,  Dan. felt, Icel. fold field of grass, AS. folde earth, land,
   ground, OS. folda.]

   1.  Cleared  land;  land  suitable  for tillage or pasture; cultivated
   ground; the open country.

   2.  A  piece  of land of considerable size; esp., a piece inclosed for
   tillage or pasture.

     Fields which promise corn and wine. Byron.

   3. A place where a battle is fought; also, the battle itself.

     In this glorious and well-foughten field. Shak.

     What though the field be lost? Milton.

   4.  An open space; an extent; an expanse. Esp.: (a) Any blank space or
   ground  on which figures are drawn or projected. (b) The space covered
   by an optical instrument at one view.

     Without covering, save yon field of stars. Shak.

     Ask of yonder argent fields above. Pope.

   5.  (Her.)  The whole surface of an escutcheon; also, so much of it is
   shown  unconcealed  by  the different bearings upon it. See Illust. of
   Fess, where the field is represented as gules (red), while the fess is
   argent (silver).

   6.  An  unresticted or favorable opportunity for action, operation, or
   achievement; province; room.

     Afforded a clear field for moral experiments. Macaulay.

   7. A collective term for all the competitors in any outdoor contest or
   trial, or for all except the favorites in the betting.

   8.  (Baseball) That part of the grounds reserved for the players which
   is outside of the diamond; -- called also outfield.

     NOTE: &hand; Fi eld is  of ten us ed ad jectively in  th e sense of
     belonging  to, or used in, the fields; especially with reference to
     the  operations  and  equipments  of an army during a campaign away
     from  permanent camps and fortifications. In most cases such use of
     the   word   is   sufficiently  clear;  as,  field  battery;  field
     fortification;  field  gun; field hospital, etc. A field geologist,
     naturalist,  etc.,  is  one who makes investigations or collections
     out of doors. A survey uses a field book for recording field notes,
     i.e.,  measurment,  observations, etc., made in field work (outdoor
     operations). A farmer or planter employs field hands, and may use a
     field roller or a field derrick. Field sports are hunting, fishing,
     athletic games, etc.

   Coal  field (Geol.) See under Coal. -- Field artillery, light ordnance
   mounted  on  wheels,  for  the  use of a marching army. -- Field basil
   (Bot.), a plant of the Mint family (Calamintha Acinos); -- called also
   basil  thyme.  -- Field colors (Mil.), small flags for marking out the
   positions  for squadrons and battalions; camp colors. -- Field cricket
   (Zo\'94l.),  a large European cricket (Gryllus campestric), remarkable
   for  its loud notes. -- Field day. (a) A day in the fields. (b) (Mil.)
   A  day  when  troops  are  taken  into  the  field  for instruction in
   evolutions.  Farrow.  (c) A day of unusual exertion or display; a gala
   day.  --  Field  driver,  in  New England, an officer charged with the
   driving  of  stray  cattle to the pound. -- Field duck (Zo\'94l.), the
   little  bustard  (Otis  tetrax),  found  in  Southern Europe. -- Field
   glass.   (Optics)  (a)  A  binocular  telescope  of  compact  form;  a
   lorgnette;  a race glass. (b) A small achromatic telescope, from 20 to
   24  inches long, and having 3 to 6 draws. (c) See Field lens. -- Field
   lark.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The skylark. (b) The tree pipit. -- Field lens
   (Optics),  that  one  of  the  two  lenses  forming the eyepiece of an
   astronomical  telescope  or  compound  microscope  which is nearer the
   object  glass;  --  called also field glass. -- Field madder (Bot.), a
   plant  (Sherardia  arvensis)  used in dyeing. -- Field marshal (Mil.),
   the  highest military rank conferred in the British and other European
   armies.  --  Field mouse (Zo\'94l.), a mouse inhabiting fields, as the
   campagnol  and the deer mouse. See Campagnol, and Deer mouse. -- Field
   officer (Mil.), an officer above the rank of captain and below that of
   general.   --   Field  officer's  court  (U.S.Army),  a  court-martial
   consisting of one field officer empowered to try all cases, in time of
   war,  subject  to  jurisdiction  of  garrison  and  regimental courts.
   Farrow.   --   Field   plover  (Zo\'94l.),  the  black-bellied  plover
   (Charadrius  squatarola);  also  sometimes  applied  to the Bartramian
   sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda). -- Field spaniel (Zo\'94l.), a small
   spaniel used in hunting small game. -- Field sparrow. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A
   small  American  sparrow  (Spizella  pusilla).  (b) The hedge sparrow.
   [Eng.]  --  Field  staff>  (Mil.), a staff formerly used by gunners to
   hold  a lighted match for discharging a gun. -- Field vole (Zo\'94l.),
   the  European  meadow mouse. -- Field of ice, a large body of floating
   ice; a pack. -- Field, OR Field of view, in a telescope or microscope,
   the  entire  space within which objects are seen. -- Field magnet. see
   under  Magnet.  -- Magnetic field. See Magnetic. -- To back the field,
   OR  To  bet  on the field. See under Back, v. t. -- To keep the field.
   (a)  (Mil.)  To  continue  a  campaign.  (b)  To maintain one's ground
   against  all  comers. -- To lay, OR back, against the field, to bet on
   (a  horse,  etc.)  against all comers. -- To take the field (Mil.), to
   enter upon a campaign.


   Field (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fielded; p. pr. & vb. n. Fielding.]

   1. To take the field. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2.  (Ball Playing) To stand out in the field, ready to catch, stop, or
   throw the ball.


   Field, v. t. (Ball Playing) To catch, stop, throw, etc. (the ball), as
   a fielder.


   Field"ed, a. Engaged in the field; encamped. [Obs.]

     To help fielded friends. Shak.


   Field"en (?), a. Consisting of fields. [Obs.]

     The fielden country also and plains. Holland.


   Field"er  (?),  n.  (Ball  Playing) A ball payer who stands out in the
   field to catch or stop balls.


   Field"fare` (?; 277), n. [OE. feldfare, AS. feldfare; field + faran to
   travel.]  (Zo\'94l.)  a  small thrush (Turdus pilaris) which breeds in
   northern  Europe  and  winters  in  Great Britain. The head, nape, and
   lower part of the back are ash-colored; the upper part of the back and
   wing coverts, chestnut; -- called also fellfare.


   Field"ing, n. (Ball Playing) The act of playing as a fielder.


   Field"piece`  (?),  n.  A  cannon  mounted on wheels, for the use of a
   marching army; a piece of field artillery; -- called also field gun.


   Field"work` (?), n. (Mil.) Any temporary fortification thrown up by an
   army in the field; -- commonly in the plural.

     All   works   which  do  not  come  under  the  head  of  permanent
     fortification are called fieldworks. Wilhelm.


   Field"y (?), a. Open, like a field. [Obs.] Wyclif.


   Fiend (?), n. [OE. fend, find, fiend, feond, fiend, foe, AS. fe\'a2nd;
   akin  to OS. f\'c6ond, D. vijand enemy, OHG. f\'c6ant, G. feind, Icel.
   fj\'bend,  Sw.  &  Dan.  fiende,  Goth. fijands; orig. p.pr. of a verb
   meaning to hate, AS. fe\'a2n, fe\'a2gan, OHG. f\'c6, Goth. fijan, Skr.
   p\'c6y  to  scorn;  prob.  akin to E. feud a quarrel. \'fb81. Cf. Foe,
   Friend.]  An  implacable  or  malicious  foe;  one who is diabolically
   wicked  or  cruel;  an  infernal being; -- applied specifically to the
   devil or a demon.

     Into  this wild abyss the wary fiend Stood on the brink of Hell and
     looked a while. Milton.

     O  woman! woman! when to ill thy mind Is bent, all hell contains no
     fouler fiend. Pope.


   Fiend"ful  (?),  a.  Full  of  fiendish  spirit  or  arts. Marlowe. --
   Fiend"ful*ly, adv.


   Fiend"ish  (?),  a.  Like  a  fiend;  diabolically  wicked  or  cruel;
   infernal;  malignant;  devilish;  hellish.  --  Fiend"ish*ly,  adv. --
   Fiend"ish*ness, n.


   Fiend"like` (?), a. Fiendish; diabolical. Longfellow.


   Fiend"ly, a. [AS. fe\'a2ndlic.] Fiendlike; monstrous; devilish. [Obs.]


   Fi`e*ras"fer  (?),  n.  [NL.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus  of small, slender
   fishes,  remarkable  for  their habit of living as commensals in other
   animals. One species inhabits the gill cavity of the pearl oyster near
   Panama; another lives within an East Indian holothurian.


   Fierce (?), a. [Compar. Fiercer (?); superl. Fiercest (?).] [OE. fers,
   fiers,  OF.  fier,  nom.  fiers, fierce, savage, cruel, F. fier proud,
   from  L.  ferus wild, savage, cruel; perh. akin to E. bear the animal.
   Cf. Feral, Ferocity.]

   1. Furious; violent; unrestrained; impetuous; as, a fierce wind.

     His fierce thunder drove us to the deep. Milton.

   2.  Vehement in anger or cruelty; ready or eager to kill or injure; of
   a nature to inspire terror; ferocious. "A fierce whisper." Dickens. "A
   fierce tyrant." Pope.

     The fierce foe hung upon our broken rear. Milton.

     Thou huntest me as a fierce lion. Job. x. 16.

   3.  Excessively  earnest, eager, or ardent. Syn. -- Ferocious; savage;
   cruel;   vehement;  impetuous;  barbarous;  fell.  See  Ferocious.  --
   Fierce"ly, adv. -- Fierce"ness, n.

                                 Fieri facias

   Fi"e*ri fa"ci*as (?). [L., cause it to be done.] (Law) A judicial writ
   that lies for one who has recovered in debt or damages, commanding the
   sheriff  that  he  cause  to  be  made of the goods, chattels, or real
   estate of the defendant, the sum claimed. Blackstone. Cowell.


   Fi"er*i*ness  (?),  n.  The  quality  of  being fiery; heat; acrimony;
   irritability; as, a fieriness of temper. Addison.


   Fi"er*y (? OR ?), a. [Formerly written firy, fr. fire.]

   1.  Consisting of, containing, or resembling, fire; as, the fiery gulf
   of Etna; a fiery appearance.

     And fiery billows roll below. I. Watts.

   2. Vehement; ardent; very active; impetuous.

     Hath thy fiery heart so parched thine entrails? Shak.

     The fiery spirit of his forefathers. W. Irwing.

   3. Passionate; easily provoked; irritable.

     You kniw the fiery quality of the duke. Shak.

   4. Unrestrained; fierce; mettlesome; spirited.

     One curbed the fiery steed. Dryden.

   5.  heated  by fire, or as if by fire; burning hot; parched; feverish.

     The sword which is made fiery. Hooker.

   Fiery  cross,  a cross constructed of two firebrands, and pitched upon
   the  point  of  a  spear;  formerly in Scotland borne by a runner as a
   signal for the clan to take up arms. Sir W. Scott.


   Fife  (?),  n. [F. fifre, OHG. pf\'c6fa, LL. pipa pipe, pipare to play
   on  the pipe, fr. L. pipire, pipare, to peep, pip, chirp, as a chiken.
   See  Pipe.]  (Mus.) A small shrill pipe, resembling the piccolo flute,
   used  chiefly  to  accompany  the  drum  in military music. Fife major
   (Mil.),  a  noncommissioned  officer  who superintends the fifers of a
   regiment.  --  Fife  rail.  (Naut.)  (a) A rail about the mast, at the
   deck,  to hold belaying pins, etc. (b) A railing around the break of a
   poop deck.


   Fife,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fifed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. fifing.] To play
   on a fife.


   Fif"er (?), n. One who plays on a fife.


   Fif"teen`  (?),  a.  [OE. fiftene, AS. f\'c6ft, f\'c6ft. See Five, and
   Ten, and cf. Fifty.] Five and ten; one more than fourteen.


   Fif"teen`, n.

   1. The sum of five and ten; fifteen units or objects.

   2. A symbol representing fifteen units, as 15, or xv.


   Fif"teenth`  (?),  a.  [OE. fiftenthe; cf. fiftethe, AS. f\'c6fte. See

   1. Next in order after the fourteenth; -- the ordinal of fifteen.

   2. Consisting of one of fifteen equal parts or divisions of a thing.


   Fif"teenth`, n.

   1.  One  of  fifteen  equal parts or divisions; the quotient of a unit
   divided by fifteen.

   2.  A  species  of  tax upon personal property formerly laid on towns,
   boroughs,  etc.,  in  England,  being  one  fifteenth part of what the
   personal property in each town, etc., had been valued at. Burrill.

   3. (Mus.) (a) A stop in an organ tuned two octaves above the diaposon.
   (b) An interval consisting of two octaves.


   Fifth (?), a. [OE. fifte, fifthe, AS. f\'c6fta. See Five.]

   1. Next in order after the fourth; -- the ordinal of five.

   2. Consisting of one of five equal divisions of a thing.
   Fifth  monarchy  men (Hist.), a fanatical sect in England, of the time
   of  the  commonwealth,  who  maintained  that  there  would be a fifth
   universal  monarchy,  during  which  Christ  would  reign  on  earth a
   thousand  years.  --  Fifth wheel, a horizontal wheel or segment above
   the  fore axle of a carriage and beneath the body, forming an extended
   support to prevent careening.


   Fifth (?), n.

   1.  The quotient of a unit divided by five; one of five equal parts; a
   fifth part.<-- a fifth of whiskey = a fifth of a gallon -->

   2.  (Mus.)  The interval of three tones and a semitone, embracing five
   diatonic degrees of the scale; the dominant of any key.


   Fifth"ly, adv. In the fifth place; as the fifth in order.


   Fif"ti*eth (?), a. [AS. f\'c6ftigo. See Fifty.]

   1. Next in order after the forty-ninth; -- the ordinal of fifty.

   2. Consisting of one of fifty equal parts or divisions.


   Fif"ti*eth,  n.  One  of  fifty  equal  parts;  the quotient of a unit
   divided by fifty.


   Fif"ty  (?),  a.  [AS.  f\'c6ftig;  akin  to OHG. finfzug, fimfzug, G.
   f\'81nfzig,  funfzig,  Goth.  fimftigjus.  See  Five, and Ten, and cf.
   Fifteen.] Five times ten; as, fifty men.


   Fif"ty, n.; pl. Fifties (.

   1. The sum of five tens; fifty units or objects.

   2. A symbol representing fifty units, as 50, or l.


   Fig  (?),  n.  [F. figue the fruit of the tree, Pr. figa, fr. L. ficus
   fig tree, fig. Cf. Fico.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A small fruit tree (Ficus Carica) with large leaves, known
   from  the  remotest  antiquity.  It  was  probably  native  from Syria
   westward to the Canary Islands.

   2.  The fruit of a fig tree, which is of round or oblong shape, and of
   various colors.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fruit of a fig tree is really the hollow end of a
     stem,  and  bears  numerous achenia inside the cavity. Many species
     have  little, hard, inedible figs, and in only a few does the fruit
     become  soft  and  pulpy.  The fruit of the cultivated varieties is
     much  prized  in its fresh state, and also when dried or preserved.
     See Caprification.

   3. A small piece of tobacco. [U.S.]

   4.  The  value of a fig, practically nothing; a fico; -- used in scorn
   or contempt. "A fig for Peter." Shak.
   Cochineal  fig. See Conchineal fig. -- Fig dust, a preparation of fine
   oatmeal  for feeding caged birds. -- Fig faun, one of a class of rural
   deities or monsters supposed to live on figs. "Therefore shall dragons
   dwell  there  with the fig fauns." Jer. i. 39. (Douay version). -- Fig
   gnat  (Zo\'94l.),  a  small  fly  said to be injurious to figs. -- Fig
   leaf,  the leaf tree; hence, in allusion to the first clothing of Adam
   and  Eve  (Genesis  iii.7),  a  covering  for a thing that ought to be
   concealed;  esp.,  an  inadequate  covering;  a  symbol  for  affected
   modesty.  --  Fig  marigold  (Bot.), the name of several plants of the
   genus  Mesembryanthemum,  some  of which are prized for the brilliancy
   and beauty of their flowers. -- Fig tree (Bot.), any tree of the genus
   Ficus, but especially F. Carica which produces the fig of commerce.


   Fig, v. t. [See Fico, Fig, n.]

   1. To insult with a fico, or contemptuous motion. See Fico. [Obs.]

     When  Pistol  lies, do this, and fig me like The bragging Spaniard.

   2. To put into the head of, as something useless o [Obs.] L'Estrange.


   Fig, n. Figure; dress; array. [Colloq.]

     Were  they  all  in  full  fig,  the females with feathers on their
     heads, the males with chapeaux bras? Prof. Wilson.


   Fi`ga`ro"  (?),  n.  [From  the  name  of  the barber in Beaumarchais'
   "Barber of Seville."] An adroi


   Fig"a*ry  (?),  n. [Corrupted fr. vagary.] A frolic; a vagary; a whim.
   [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Fig"eat`er  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) A large beetle (Allorhina nitida)
   which  in  the  Southern  United  States destroys figs. The elytra are
   velvety green with pale borders. (b) A bird. See Figpecker.


   Fig"ent (?), a. Fidgety; restless. [Obs.]

     Such a little figent thing. Beau. & Fl.


   Fig"gum  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.] A juggler's trick; conjuring.

     The devil is the author of wicked figgum. B. Jonson.


   Fight  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fought (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fighting.]
   [OE.  fihten, fehten, AS. feohtan; akin to D. vechten, OHG. fehtan, G.
   fechten,  Sw.  f\'84kta,  Dan.  fegte,  and  perh.  to E. fist; cf. L.
   pugnare to fight, pugnus fist.]

   1. To strive or contened for victory, with armies or in single combat;
   to  attempt to defeat, subdue, or destroy an enemy, either by blows or
   weapons; to contend in arms; -- followed by with or against.

     You do fight against your country's foes. Shak.

     To fight with thee no man of arms will deign. Milton.

   2.  To act in opposition to anything; to struggle against; to contend;
   to strive; to make resistance.
   To  fight  shy,  to avoid meeting fairly or at close quarters; to keep
   out of reach.


   Fight, v. t.

   1.  To  carry on, or wage, as a conflict, or battle; to win or gain by
   struggle, as one's way; to sustain by fighting, as a cause.

     He had to fight his way through the world. Macaulay.

     I have fought a good fight. 2 Tim. iv. 7.

   2.  To  contend  with  in  battle; to war against; as, they fought the
   enemy  in  two pitched battles; the sloop fought the frigate for three

   3.  To  cause to fight; to manage or maneuver in a fight; as, to fight
   cocks; to fight one's ship.
   To  fight  it  out, to fight until a decisive and conclusive result is

   Page 558


   Fight, n. [OE. fight, feht, AS. feoht. See Fight, v. i.]

   1.  A  battle;  an  engagement; a contest in arms; a combat; a violent
   conflict  or  struggle  for  victory,  between  individuals or between
   armies, ships, or navies, etc.

     Who now defies thee thrice to single fight. Milton.

   2. A struggle or contest of any kind.

   3. Strength or disposition for fighting; pugnacity; as, he has a great
   deal of fight in him. [Colloq.]

   4. A screen for the combatants in ships. [Obs.]

     Up with your fights, and your nettings prepare. Dryden.

   Running fight, a fight in which the enemy is continually chased; also,
   one  which  continues  without definite end or result. Syn. -- Combat;
   engagement;   contest;  struggle;  encounter;  fray;  affray;  action;
   conflict. See Battle.


   Fight"er  (?),  n.  [AS.  feohtere.]  One  who  fights; a combatant; a
   warrior. Shak.


   Fight"ing, a.

   1. Qualified for war; fit for battle.

     An host of fighting men. 2 Chron. xxvi. 11.

   2. Occupied in war; being the scene of a battle; as, a fighting field.
   A  fighting  chance,  one  dependent  upon  the  issue  of a struggle.
   [Colloq.]  --  Fighting crab (Zo\'94l.), the fiddler crab. -- Fighting
   fish  (Zo\'94l.),  a  remarkably  pugnacious  East  Indian fish (Betta
   pugnax), reared by the Siamese for spectacular fish fights.


   Fight"ing*ly, adv. Pugnaciously.


   Fight"wite`  (?),  n.  [Fight  +  wite.]  (O.Eng. Law) A mulct or fine
   imposed  on  a person for making a fight or quarrel to the disturbance
   of the peace.


   Fig"ment  (?),  n.  [L. figmentum, fr. fingere to form, shape, invent,
   feign.  See  Feign.]  An  invention;  a  fiction; something feigned or

     Social figments, feints, and formalism. Mrs. Browning.

     It carried rather an appearance of figment and invention . . . than
     of truth and reality. Woodward.


   Pig"peck`er (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European garden warbler (Sylvia, OR
   Currica, hortensis); -- called also beccafico and greater pettychaps.


   Fig"-shell`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A marine univalve shell of the genus
   Pyrula, or Ficula, resembling a fig in form.

                              Figulate, Figulated

   Fig"u*late  (?),  Fig"u*la`ted (?), a. [L. figulatus, p.p. of figulare
   to  shape, fr. figulus potter, fr. fingere to shape.] Made of potter's
   clay; molded; shaped. [R.] Johnson.


   Fig"u*line (? OR ?), n. [F., fr. L. figulina pottery, fr. figulus. See
   Figulate.]  A  piece  of  pottery  ornamented  with representations of
   natural objects.

     Whose  figulines and rustic wares Scarce find him bread from day to
     day. Longfellow.


   Fig`ur*a*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. figurabilit\'82.] The quality of
   being figurable. Johnson.


   Fig`ur*a*ble  (?),  a. [L. figurare to form, shape, fr. figura figure:
   cf.  F.  figurable.  See  Figure.] Capable of being brought to a fixed
   form or shape.

     Lead is figurable, but water is not. Johnson.


   Fig"ur*al (?), a. [From Figure.]

   1.  Represented  by  figure or delineation; consisting of figures; as,
   figural ornaments. Sir T. Browne.

   2. (Mus.) Figurate. See Figurate.
   Figural numbers. See Figurate numbers, under Figurate.


   Fig"u*rant`  (?  OR  ?),  n. masc. [F., prop. p.pr. of figurer figure,
   represent,  make  a  figure.] One who dances at the opera, not singly,
   but  in  groups  or  figures; an accessory character on the stage, who
   figures  in its scenes, but has nothing to say; hence, one who figures
   in any scene, without taking a prominent part.


   Fig"u*rante`  (? OR ?), n. fem. [F.] A female figurant; esp., a ballet


   Fig"ur*ate (?), a. [L. figuratus, p.p. of figurare. See Figure.]

   1. Of a definite form or figure.

     Plants are all figurate and determinate, which inanimate bodies are
     not. Bacon.

   2. Figurative; metaphorical. [Obs.] Bale.

   3.  (Mus.) Florid; figurative; involving passing discords by the freer
   melodic  movement  of  one or more parts or voices in the harmony; as,
   figurate counterpoint or descant.
   Figurate  counterpoint OR descant (Mus.), that which is not simple, or
   in  which  the  parts do not move together tone for tone, but in which
   freer  movement of one or more parts mingles passing discords with the
   harmony;  -- called also figural, figurative, and figured counterpoint
   or  descant  (although  the term figured is more commonly applied to a
   bass  with numerals written above or below to indicate the other notes
   of  the  harmony).  -- Figurate numbers (Math.), numbers, or series of
   numbers,  formed  from any arithmetical progression in which the first
   term is a unit, and the difference a whole number, by taking the first
   term, and the sums of the first two, first three, first four, etc., as
   the successive terms of a new series, from which another may be formed
   in  the  same  manner,  and so on, the numbers in the resulting series
   being  such  that  points representing them are capable of symmetrical
   arrangement  in  different geometrical figures, as triangles, squares,
   pentagons, etc.

     NOTE: In the following example, the two lower lines are composed of
     figurate  numbers,  those  in the second line being triangular, and
     represented thus: -- . 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. . . . 1, 3, 6, 10, etc. . .
     . . . . . etc. 1, 4, 10, 20, etc . . . . . . . . . . . . 


   Fig"ur*a`ted (?), a. Having a determinate form.


   Fig"ur*ate*ly (?), adv. In a figurate manner.


   Fig`u*ra"tion (?), n. [L. figuratio.]

   1.  The  act  of giving figure or determinate form; determination to a
   certain form. Bacon.

   2. (Mus.) Mixture of concords and discords.


   Fig"ur*a*tive   (?),   a.  [L.  figurativus:  cf.  F.  figuratif.  See

   1.   Representing   by   a   figure,   or   by  resemblance;  typical;

     This,   they  will  say,  was  figurative,  and  served,  by  God's
     appointment, but for a time, to shadow out the true glory of a more
     divine sanctity. Hooker.

   2.  Used  in  a sense that is tropical, as a metaphor; not literal; --
   applied to words and expressions.

   3.  Ambounding  in  figures  of  speech; flowery; florid; as, a highly
   figurative description.

   4.  Relating  to  the  representation  of  form  or figure by drawing,
   carving, etc. See Figure, n., 2.

     They  belonged  to  a  nation dedicated to the figurative arts, and
     they wrote for a public familiar with painted form. J. A. Symonds.

   Figurative     counterpointdescant.    See    under    Figurate.    --
   Fig"ur*a*tive*ly, adv. -- Fig"ur*a*tive*ness, n.


   Fig"ure  (?; 135), n. [F., figure, L. figura; akin to fingere to form,
   shape, feign. See Feign.]

   1. The form of anything; shape; outline; appearance.

     Flowers have all exquisite figures. Bacon.

   2.  The representation of any form, as by drawing, painting, modeling,
   carving, embroidering, etc.; especially, a representation of the human
   body; as, a figure in bronze; a figure cut in marble.

     A coin that bears the figure of an angel. Shak.

   3.  A pattern in cloth, paper, or other manufactured article; a design
   wrought out in a fabric; as, the muslin was of a pretty figure.

   4.  (Geom.) A diagram or drawing; made to represent a magnitude or the
   relation of two or more magnitudes; a surface or space inclosed on all
   sides;  --  called  superficial when inclosed by lines, and solid when
   inclosed by surface; any arrangement made up of points, lines, angles,
   surfaces, etc.

   5.  The  appearance  or  impression made by the conduct or carrer of a
   person; as, a sorry figure.

     I made some figure there. Dryden.

     Gentlemen of the best figure in the county. Blackstone.

   6. Distinguished appearance; magnificence; conspicuous representation;
   splendor; show.

     That he may live in figure and indulgence. Law.

   7.  A  character  or symbol representing a number; a numeral; a digit;
   as, 1, 2,3, etc.

   8.  Value, as expressed in numbers; price; as, the goods are estimated
   or sold at a low figure. [Colloq.]

     With nineteen thousand a year at the very lowest figure. Thackeray.

   9.  A  person,  thing, or action, conceived of as analogous to another
   person,  thing,  or  action,  of  which  it  thus  becomes  a  type or

     Who is the figure of Him that was to come. Rom. v. 14.

   10. (Rhet.) A mode of expressing abstract or immaterial ideas by words
   which  suggest  pictures  or images from the physical world; pictorial
   language;  a  trope;  hence,  any  deviation from the plainest form of

     To represent the imagination under the figure of a wing. Macaulay.

   11.  (Logic)  The  form  of  a  syllogism with respect to the relative
   position of the middle term.

   12.  (Dancing)  Any one of the several regular steps or movements made
   by a dancer.

   13.  (Astrol.)  A  horoscope;  the  diagram  of  the  aspects  of  the
   astrological houses. Johnson.

   14.  (Music) (a) Any short succession of notes, either as melody or as
   a  group  of  chords,  which  produce  a  single complete and distinct
   impression.  Grove.  (b)  A  form  of  melody or accompaniment kept up
   through   a   strain  or  passage;  a  musical  or  motive;  a  florid

     NOTE: &hand; Fi gures ar e often written upon the staff in music to
     denote  the  kind  of  measure.  They  are usually in the form of a
     fraction,  the  upper  figure  showing  how  many notes of the kind
     indicated  by  the lower are contained in one measure or bar. Thus,
     2/4  signifies  that  the  measure  contains two quarter notes. The
     following  are  the principal figures used for this purpose: -- <--
     the  "figures"  illustrated here have a bar through each number and
     cannot  be  represented  as  simple  fractions,  thus  the  special
     "musfig"  field  notation. The following numbers are contained in a
     single line of large (ca. 14 pt.) bold type --> 2/22/42/8 4/22/44/8
     3/23/43/8 6/46/46/8

   Academy  figure, Canceled figures, Lay figure, etc. See under Academy,
   Cancel,  Lay, etc. -- Figure caster, OR Figure flinger, an astrologer.
   This  figure  caster."  Milton.  --  Figure  flinging, the practice of
   astrology.  --  Figure-of-eight knot, a knot shaped like the figure 8.
   See  Illust.  under  Knot.  -- Figure painting, a picture of the human
   figure,  or  the  act  or art of depicting the human figure. -- Figure
   stone  (Min.),  agalmatolite. -- Figure weaving, the art or process of
   weaving  figured  fabrics.  --  To  cut  a  figure, to make a display.
   [Colloq.] Sir W. Scott.


   Fig"ure,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Figured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Figuring.]
   [F. figurer, L. figurare, fr. figura. See Figure, n.]

   1.  To represent by a figure, as to form or mold; to make an image of,
   either palpable or ideal; also, to fashion into a determinate form; to

     If love, alas! be pain I bear,

     No thought can figure, and no tongue declare.Prior.

     2. To embellish with design; to adorn with figures.

     The  vaulty  top of heaven Figured quite o'er with burning meteors.

     3. To indicate by numerals; also, to compute.

     As through a crystal glass the figured hours are seen. Dryden.

     4. To represent by a metaphor; to signify or symbolize.

     Whose white vestments figure innocence. Shak.

     5. To prefigure; to foreshow.

     In this the heaven figures some event. Shak.

     6.  (Mus.) (a) To write over or under the bass, as figures or other
     characters,  in  order  to indicate the accompanying chords. (b) To

     To figure out

   , to solve; to compute or find the result of. -- To figure up, to add;
   to reckon; to compute the amount of.


   Fig"ure, v. t.

   1. To make a figure; to be distinguished or conspicious; as, the envoy
   figured at court.

     Sociable, hospitable, eloquent, admired, figuring away brilliantly.
     M. Arnold.

   2.  To calculate; to contrive; to scheme; as, he is figuring to secure
   the nomination. [Colloq.]


   Fig"ured (?), a.

   1. Adorned with figures; marked with figures; as, figured muslin.

   2. Not literal; figurative. [Obs.] Locke.

   3. (Mus.) (a) Free and florid; as, a figured descant. See Figurate, 3.
   (b) Indicated or noted by figures.
   Figured bass. See Continued bass, under Continued.


   Fig"ure*head` (?), n.

   1. (Naut.) The figure, statue, or bust, on the prow of a ship.

   2.  A  person  who  allows  his  name  to  be used to give standing to
   enterprises  in  which  he  has  no  responsible interest or duties; a
   nominal, but not real, head or chief.


   Fi*gu"ri*al (?), a. Represented by figure or delineation. [R.] Craig.


   Fi`gu`rine"  (?  OR  ?), n. [F., dim. of figure.] A very small figure,
   whether  human  or of an animal; especially, one in terra cotta or the
   like;  --  distinguished  from  statuette,  which  is applied to small
   figures in bronze, marble, etc.


   Fig"ur*ist  (?), n. One who uses or interprets figurative expressions.


   Fig"wort`  (?), n. (Bot.) A genus of herbaceous plants (Scrophularia),
   mostly found in the north temperate zones. See Brownwort.


   Fi"ji*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  Fiji islands or their
   inhabitants.  --  n.  A  native  of  the  Fiji  islands. [Written also
   Feejeean, Feejee.]


   Fike (?), n. See Fyke.


   Fil (?), obs. imp. of Fall, v. i. Fell. Chaucer.


   Fi*la"ceous  (?  OR  ?),  a.  [L.  filum thread.] Composed of threads.


   Fil"a*cer  (?), n. [OE. filace a file, or thread, on which the records
   of  the courts of justice were strung, F. filasse tow of flax or hemp,
   fr. L. filum thread.] (Eng. Law) A former officer in the English Court
   of  Common  Pleas; -- so called because he filed the writs on which he
   made out process. [Obs.] Burrill.


   Fil"a*ment (?), n. [F. filament, fr. L. filum thread. See File a row.]
   A  thread or threadlike object or appendage; a fiber; esp. (Bot.), the
   threadlike part of the stamen supporting the anther.


   Fil`a*men"ta*ry  (?),  a.  Having  the  character  of, or formed by, a


   Fil"a*metoid` (?), a. [Filament + -oid.] Like a filament.


   Fil`a*men"tous (?), a. [Cf. F. filamenteux.] Like a thread; consisting
   of threads or filaments. Gray.


   Fil"an*der (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A species of kangaroo (Macropus Brunii),
   inhabiting New Guinea.


   Fil"an*ders   (?),  n.  pl.  [F.  filandres,  fr.  L.  filum  thread.]
   (Falconry)  A disease in hawks, characterized by the presence of small
   threadlike  worms,  also  of  filaments  of coagulated blood, from the
   rupture of a vein; -- called also backworm. Sir T. Browne.


   Fi"lar  (?),  a.  [L. filum a thread.] Of or pertaining to a thread or
   line; characterized by threads stretched across the field of view; as,
   a filar microscope; a filar micrometer.


   Fi*la"ri*a (?), n. [NL., fr. L. filum a thread.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   slender, nematode worms of many species, parasitic in various animals.
   See Guinea worm.


   Fil"a*to*ry  (?), n. [LL. filatorium place for spinning, fr. filare to
   spin, fr. L. filum a thread.] A machine for forming threads. [Obs.] W.


   Fil"a*ture  (?;  135),  n.  [LL.  filatura, fr. filare to spin: cf. F.
   filature. See Filatory.]

   1.  A  drawing  out  into  threads;  hence,  the  reeling of silk from
   cocoons. Ure.

   2.  A  reel  for drawing off silk from cocoons; also, an establishment
   for reeling silk.


   Fil"bert  (?),  n.  [Perh.  fr.  fill + bread, as filling the bread or
   husk; cf. G. bartnuss (lit., bread nut) filbert; or perh. named from a
   St.Philibert,  whose day, Aug. 22, fell in the nutting season.] (Bot.)
   The  fruit  of  the  Corylus  Avellana  or  hazel.  It is an oval nut,
   containing  a  kernel  that  has  a  mild,  farinaceous,  oily  taste,
   agreeable to the palate.

     NOTE: &hand; In  En gland fi lberts ar e us ually la rge hazelnuts,
     especially  the  nuts  from  selected  and  cultivated  trees.  The
     American hazelnuts are of two other species.

   Filbert  gall (Zo\'94l.), a gall resembling a filbert in form, growing
   in  clusters  on  grapevines. It is produced by the larva of a gallfly


   Filch (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Filched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Filching.]
   [Cf.  AS. feol to stick to, OHG. felhan, felahan, to hide, Icel. fela,
   Goth.  filhan  to hide, bury, Prov. E. feal to hide slyly, OE. felen.]
   To steal or take privily (commonly, that which is of little value); to

     Fain would they filch that little food away. Dryden.

     But he that filches from me my good name, Robs me of that which not
     enriches him, And makes me poor indeed. Shak.


   Filch"er (?), n. One who filches; a thief.


   Filch"ing*ly, adv. By pilfering or petty stealing.

   Page 559


   File  (?),  n. [F. file row (cf. Pr., Sp., Pg., & It. fila), LL. fila,
   fr. L. filum a thread. Cf. Enfilade, Filament, Fillet.]

   1.  An  orderly  succession;  a  line;  a  row; as: (a) (Mil) A row of
   soldiers  ranged  one behind another; -- in contradistinction to rank,
   which  designates  a  row  of  soldiers  standing  abreast;  a  number
   consisting  the  depth  of  a  body  of troops, which, in the ordinary
   modern  formation,  consists  of  two  men, the battalion standing two
   deep, or in two ranks.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e number of files in a company describes its width,
     as  the  number  of  ranks  does its depth; thus, 100 men in "fours
     deep" would be spoken of as 25 files in 4 ranks. Farrow.

   (b)   An  orderly  collection  of  papers,  arranged  in  sequence  or
   classified  for preservation and reference; as, files of letters or of
   newspapers;  this  mail  brings English files to the 15th instant. (c)
   The line, wire, or other contrivance, by which papers are put and kept
   in order.

     It is upon a file with the duke's other letters. Shak.

   (d)  A  roll  or  list.  "A  file  of  all  the gentry." Shak. <-- (e)
   (computer)  a  collection  of  data on a recording medium treated as a
   unit  for  the  purpose of recording or reading, accesible by use of a
   file name. -->

   2. Course of thought; thread of narration. [Obs.]

     Let me resume the file of my narration. Sir H. Wotton.

   File  firing, the act of firing by file, or each file independently of
   others.  --  File  leader,  the  soldier at the front of any file, who
   covers  and leads those in rear of him. -- File marching, the marching
   of a line two deep, when faced to the right or left, so that the front
   and rear rank march side by side. Brande & C. --Indian file, OR Single
   file,  a  line of men marching one behind another; a single row. -- On
   file,  preserved  in  an orderly collection. -- Rank and file. (a) The
   body  of soldiers constituing the mass of an army, including corporals
   and  privates.  Wilhelm.  (b) Those who constitute the bulk or working
   members of a party, society, etc., in distinction from the leaders.


   File (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Filed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Filing.]

   1.  To  set  in  order;  to  arrange, or lay away, esp. as papers in a
   methodical manner for preservation and reverence; to place on file; to
   insert in its proper place in an arranged body of papers.

     I  would  have my several courses and my dishes well filed. Beau. &

   2.  To  bring  before a court or legislative body by presenting proper
   papers in a regular way; as, to file a petition or bill. Burrill.

   3.  (Law)  To  put  upon the files or among the records of a court; to
   note on (a paper) the fact date of its reception in court.

     To  file  a  paper,  on  the part of a party, is to place it in the
     official  custody  of the clerk. To file, on the part of the clerk,
     is  to indorse upon the paper the date of its reception, and retain
     it  in  his  office,  subject  to  inspection  by whomsoever it may
     concern. Burrill.


   File,  v.  i.  [Cf.  F.  filer.] (Mil.) To march in a file or line, as
   soldiers,  not  abreast, but one after another; -- generally with off.
   To file with, to follow closely, as one soldier after another in file;
   to keep pace.

     My endeavors Have ever come too short of my desires, Yet filed with
     my abilities. Shak.


   File  (?),  n. [AS. fe\'a2l; akin to D. viji, OHG. f\'c6la, f\'c6hala,
   G.  feile,  Sw. fil, Dan. fiil, cf. Icel. , Russ. pila, and Skr. pi to
   cut out, adorn; perh. akin to E. paint.]

   1.  A  steel  instrument,  having  cutting  ridges  or  teeth, made by
   indentation  with  a  chisel,  used  for  abrading  or smoothing other
   substances, as metals, wood, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; A  file differs from a rasp in having the furrows made
     by  straight  cuts of a chisel, either single or crossed, while the
     rasp  has  coarse,  single  teeth, raised by the pyramidal end of a
     triangular punch.

   2.  Anything  employed  to  smooth,  polish,  or  rasp,  literally  or

     Mock the nice touches of the critic's file. Akenside.

   3. A shrewd or artful person. [Slang] Fielding.

     Will is an old file spite of his smooth face. Thackeray.

   Bastard  file,  Cross  file,  etc.  See  under Bastard, Cross, etc. --
   Cross-cut file, a file having two sets of teeth crossing obliquely. --
   File  blank, a steel blank shaped and ground ready for cutting to form
   a  file.  -- File cutter, a maker of files. -- Second-cut file, a file
   having teeth of a grade next finer than bastard. -- Single-cut file, a
   file having only one set of parallel teeth; a float. -- Smooth file, a
   file having teeth so fine as to make an almost smooth surface.


   File, v. t.

   1.  To  rub, smooth, or cut away, with a file; to sharpen with a file;
   as, to file a saw or a tooth.

   2. To smooth or polish as with a file. Shak.

     File your tongue to a little more courtesy.Sir W.Scott.


     File,  v.  t.  [OE. fulen, filen, foulen, AS. f, fr. fFoul, and cf.
     Defile, v.t.] To make f [Obs.]

     All his hairy breast with blood was filed.Spenser.

     For Banquo's issue have I filed mind.Shak.


     File"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) Any plectognath fish of the genera
     Monacanthus,  Alutera, balistes, and allied genera; -- so called on
     account  of the roughly granulated skin, which is sometimes used in
     place of sandpaper.


     Fil"e*mot (?), n. See Feullemort. Swift.


     Fil"er (?), n. One who works with a file.


     Fil"ial  (?), a. [L. filialis, fr. filius son, filia daughter; akin
     to e. female, feminine. Cf. Fitz.]

     1.  Of  or  pertaining to a son or daughter; becoming to a child in
     relation to his parents; as, filial obedience.

     2. Bearing the relation of a child.

     And thus the filial Godhead answering spoke. Milton.


     Fil"ial*ly (?), adv. In a filial manner.


     Fil"i*ate  (?),  v.  t.  To  adopt as son or daughter; to establish
     filiation between. [R.] Southey.


     Fil`i*a"tion  (?),  n.  [LL.  filiatio,  fr.  L. filius son: cf. F.
     filiation. See Filial.]

     1.  The  relationship  of  a  son  or  child to a parent, esp. to a

     The relation of paternity and filiation. Sir M. Hale.

     2.  (Law)  The  assignment  of  a  bastard child to some one as its
     ather; affiliation. Smart.


     Fil"i*beg  (?), n. [Gael. feileadhbeag, i.e., little kilt; feileadh
     kilt  +  beag  little,  small; cf. filleadh a plait, fold.] Same as
     Kilt. [Written also philibeg.]


     Fil"i*bus`ter  (?), n. [Sp. flibuster, flibustero, corrupted fr. E.
     freebooter.   See   Freebooter.]  A  lawless  military  adventurer,
     especially  one  in  quest  of plunder; a freebooter; -- originally
     applied  to  buccaneers  infesting the Spanish American coasts, but
     introduced  into common English to designate the followers of Lopez
     in  his  expedition  to  Cuba  in  1851, and those of Walker in his
     expedition to Nicaragua, in 1855.


     Fil"i*bus*ter,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fillibustered (?); p. pr. & vb.
     n. Filibustering.]

     1. To act as a filibuster, or military freebooter. Bartlett.

     2.  To  delay  legislation, by dilatory motions or other artifices.
     [political cant or slang, U.S.] Bartlett.


     Fil"i*bus`ter*ism  (?),  n.  The  characteristics or practices of a
     filibuster. Bartlett.


     Fil"i*cal (?), a. Belonging to the Filices, r ferns.


     Fi*lic"ic (?), a. [L. filix, -icis, a fern.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
     or derived from, ferns; as, filicic acid.


     Fil"i*cide  (?),  n.  [L.  filius  son, filia daughter + caedere to
     kill.]  The  act of murdering a son or a daughter; also, parent who
     commits such a murder.


     Fi*lic"i*form  (?),  a.  [L.  filix,  -icis,  fern  + -form: cf. F.
     filiciforme]  Shaped  like a fern or like the parts of a fern leaf.


     Fil"i*coid   (?),  a.  [L.  filix,  -icis,  fern  +  -oid:  cf.  F.
     filicoi\'8bde.] (Bot.) Fernlike, either in form or in the nature of
     the method of reproduction.


     Fil"i*coid, n. (Bot.) A fernlike plant. Lindley.


     Fi*li"e*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  filietas.]  The  relation  of a son to a
     father; sonship; -- the correlative of paternity. J. S. Mill.


     Fi*lif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  filum  a thread + -ferous.] Producing
     threads. Carpenter.


     Fil"i*form  (?),  a.  [L.  filum thread + -form: cf. F. filiforme.]
     Having  the  shape  of  a  thread  or  filament;  as,  the filiform
     papill\'91 of the tongue; a filiform style or peduncle. See Illust.
     of Antenn\'92.

                             Filigrain, Filigrane

     Fil"i*grain, Fil"i*grane (?), n. [Sp. filigrana (cf. It. filigrana,
     E. filigrane), fr. L. filuma thread + granum grain. See File a row,
     and Grain, and cf. Filigree.] Filigree. [Archaic]

     With her head . . . touches the crown of filigrane. Longfellow.


     Fil"i*graned (?), a. See Filigreed. [Archaic]


     Fil"i*gree  (?),  n.  [Corrupted  fr.  filigrane.] Ornamental work,
     formerly  with  grains or breads, but now composed of fine wire and
     used  chiefly  in  decorating  gold and silver to which the wire is
     soldered,  being  arranged  in designs frequently of a delicate and
     intricate arabesque pattern.


     Fil"i*gree,  a.  Relating  to,  composed of, or resembling, work in
     filigree;  as,  a  filigree basket. Hence: Fanciful; unsubstantial;
     merely decorative.

     You ask for reality, not fiction and filigree work. J. C. Shairp.


     Fil"i*greed (?), a. Adorned with filigree. Tatler.


     Fil"ing  (?),  n.  A  fragment or particle rubbed off by the act of
     filing; as, iron filings.


     Fil`i*pen"du*lous  (?;  135),  a.  [L.  filum  a  thread + pendulus
     hanging,  fr. pend to hang.] (Bot.) Suspended by, or strung upon, a
     thread;  --  said  of  tuberous  swellings  in the middle or at the
     extremities of slender, threadlike rootlets.


     Fill  (?),  n.  [See  Thill.]  One  of  the  thills  or shafts of a
     carriage. Mortimer.

     Fill horse

     , a thill horse. Shak.


     Fill,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Filled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Filling.]
     [OE.  fillen, fullen, AS. fyllan, fr. full full; akin to D. vullen,
     G.  f\'81llen,  Icel.  fylla, Sw. fylla, Dan. fylde, Goth. fulljan.
     See Full, a.]

     1.  To  make  full;  to  supply  with  as  much  as  can be held or
     contained;  to  put  or pour into, till no more can be received; to
     occupy the whole capacity of.

     The rain also filleth the pools. Ps. lxxxiv. 6.

     Jesus  saith  unto  them,  Fill  the waterpots with water. Anf they
     filled them up to the brim. John ii. 7.

     2.  To  furnish an abudant supply to; to furnish with as mush as is
     desired  or  desirable;  to  occupy  the  whole  of; to swarm in or

     And  God  blessed them, saying. Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill
     the waters in the seas. Gen. i. 22.

     The Syrians filled the country. 1 Kings xx. 27.

     3. To fill or supply fully with food; to feed; to satisfy.

     Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fillso
     great a multitude? Matt. xv. 33.

     Things that are sweet and fat are more filling. Bacon.

     4.  To  possess  and  perform the duties of; to officiate in, as an
     incumbent;  to  occupy;  to  hold;  as,  a king fills a throne; the
     president  fills the office of chief magistrate; the speaker of the
     House fills the chair.

     5. To supply with an incumbent; as, to fill an office or a vacancy.
     A. Hamilton.

     6.  (Naut.) (a) To press and dilate, as a sail; as, the wind filled
     the  sails. (b) To trim (a yard) so that the wind shall blow on the
     after side of the sails.

     7. (Civil Engineering) To make an embankment in, or raise the level
     of (a low place), with earth or gravel.

   To  fill  in, to insert; as, he filled in the figures. -- To fill out,
   to  extend  or  enlarge to the desired limit; to make complete; as, to
   fill  out  a  bill.  -- To fill up, to make quite full; to fill to the
   brim  or  entirely; to occupy completely; to complete. "The bliss that
   fills up all the mind." Pope. "And fill up that which is behind of the
   afflictions of Christ." Col. i. 24.
   Fill (?), v. i. 

   1.  To  become  full;  to have the whole capacity occupied; to have an
   abundant supply; to be satiated; as, corn fills well in a warm season;
   the sail fills with the wind.

   2. To fill a cup or glass for drinking.

     Give me some wine; fill full. Shak.

   To  back  and  fill.  See  under Back, v. i. -- To fill up, to grow or
   become quite full; as, the channel of the river fills up with sand.
   Fill,  n.  [AS.  fyllo.  See  Fill,  v.  t.] A full supply, as much as
   supplies  want;  as much as gives complete satisfaction. "Ye shall eat
   your fill." Lev. xxv. 19. 

     I'll bear thee hence, where I may weep my fill. Shak.


   Fill"er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or that which, fills; something used for

     'T is mere filer, to stop a vacancy in the hexameter. Dryden.

     They  have  six  diggers to four fillers, so as to keep the fillers
     always at work. Mortimer.


   Fill"er, n. [From 1st Fill.] A thill horse. [Prov. Eng.]


   Fil"let  (?),  n.  [OE.  filet, felet, fr. OF. filet thread, fillet of
   meat, dim. of fil a thread, fr. L. filum. See Fille a row.]

   1.  A little band, especially one intended to encircle the hair of the

     A belt her waist, a fillet binds her hair. Pope.

   2.  (Cooking)  A  piece  of  lean meat without bone; sometimes, a long
   strip rolled together and tied.

     NOTE: &hand; A fillet of beef is the under side of the sirlom; also
     called tenderloin. A fillet of veal or mutton is the fleshy part of
     the  thigh.  A fillet of fish is a slice of flat fish without bone.
     "Fillet of a fenny snake."


   3. A thin strip or ribbon; esp.: (a) A strip of metal from which coins
   are  punched. (b) A strip of card clothing. (c) A thin projecting band
   or strip.

   4.  (Mach.)  A  concave  filling  in of a re\'89ntrant angle where two
   surfaces meet, forming a rounded corner.

   5. (Arch.) A narrow flat member; especially, a flat molding separating
   other  moldings;  a  reglet; also, the space between two flutings in a
   shaft. See Illust. of Base, and Column.

   6.  (Her.) An ordinary equaling in breadth one fourth of the chief, to
   the lowest portion of which it corresponds in position.

   7. (Mech.) The thread of a screw.

   8. A border of broad or narrow lines of color or gilt.

   9. The raised molding about the muzzle of a gun.

   10. Any scantling smaller than a batten.

   11.  (Anat.) A fascia; a band of fibers; applied esp. to certain bands
   of white matter in the brain.

   12.  (Man.)  The  loins  of  a horse, beginning at the place where the
   hinder part of the saddle rests.
   Arris fillet. See under Arris.


   Fil"let,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Filleted; p. pr. & vb. n. Filleting.] To
   bind, furnish, or adorn with a fillet.


   Fil"let*ing, n.

   1.  (Arch.)  The  protecting  of  a joint, as between roof and parapet
   wall,  with  mortar,  or  cement, where flashing is employed in better

   2.   The   material   of   which  fillets  are  made;  also,  fillets,


   Fil"li*beg (?), n. A kilt. See Filibeg.


   Fil"li*bus`ter (?), n. See Filibuster.


   Fill"ing (?), n.

   1.  That  which  is  used  to  fill a cavity or any empty space, or to
   supply a deficiency; as, filling for a cavity in a tooth, a depression
   in  a  roadbed,  the  space  between  exterior  and  interior walls of
   masonry,  the  pores of open-grained wood, the space between the outer
   and inner planks of a vessel, etc.

   2. The woof in woven fabrics.

   3. (Brewing) Prepared wort added to ale to cleanse it.
   Back filling. (Arch.) See under Back, a.


   Fil"lip  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Filliped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Filliping.] [For filp, flip. Cf. Flippant.]

   1.  To  strike  with  the nail of the finger, first placed against the
   ball of the thumb, and forced from that position with a sudden spring;
   to snap with the finger. "You filip me o' the head." Shak.

   2. To snap; to project quickly.

     The use of the elastic switch to fillip small missiles with. Tylor.


   Fil"lip, n.

   1. A jerk of the finger forced suddenly from the thumb; a smart blow.

   2. Something serving to rouse or excite.

     I take a glass of grog for a filip. Dickens.


   Fil"li*peen` (?), n. See Philopena.


   Fil"lis*ter (?), n.

   1.  The  rabbet  on the outer edge of a sash bar to hold the glass and
   the putty. Knight.

   2. A plane for making a rabbet.
   Fillister  screw  had, a short cylindrical screw head, having a convex


   Fil"ly  (?), n.; pl. Fillies (#). [Cf. Icel. fylia, fr. foli foal. See

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A female foal or colt; a young mare. Cf. Colt, Foal.

     Neighing in likeness of a filly foal. Shak.

   2. A lively, spirited young girl. [Colloq.] Addison.


   Film  (?),  n. [AS. film skin, fr. fell skin; akin to fylmen membrane,
   OFries. filmene skin. See Fell skin.]

   1.  A  thin  skin; a pellicle; a membranous covering, causing opacity;
   hence, any thin, slight covering.

     He from thick films shall purge the visual ray. Pope.

   2. A slender thread, as that of a cobweb.

     Her whip of cricket's bone, the lash of film. Shak.


   Film, v. t. To cover with a thin skin or pellicle.

     It will but skin and film the ulcerous place. Shak.


   Film"i*ness (?), n. State of being filmy.


   Film"y (?), a. Composed of film or films.

     Whose filmy cord should bind the struggling fly. Dryden.


   Fil`o*plu*ma"ceous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  the  structure  of a


   Fil"o*plume  (?),  n.  [L.  filum  a  thread  pluma  a  soft feather.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  hairlike  feather;  a  father  with a slender scape and
   without a web in most or all of its length.

   Page 560


   Fi"lose`  (?),  a.  [L.  filum  a thread.] Terminating in a threadlike


   Fil"ter (?), n. [F. filtre, the same word as feutre felt, LL. filtrum,
   feltrum, felt, fulled wool, this being used for straining liquors. See
   Feuter.]  Any  porous  substance,  as cloth, paper, sand, or charcoal,
   through  which water or other liquid may passed to cleanse it from the
   solid  or  impure  matter  held  in  suspension;  a  chamber or device
   containing  such  substance;  a  strainer;  also, a similar device for
   purifying  air.  Filter  bed,  a pond, the bottom of which is a filter
   composed  of sand gravel. -- Filter gallery, an underground gallery or
   tunnel,  alongside  of  a  stream,  to  collect the water that filters
   through  the  intervening sand and gravel; -- called also infiltration


   Fil"ter,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Filtered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Filtering]
   [Cf.  F.  filter.  See  Filter,  n.,  and  cf. Filtrate.] To purify or
   defecate,  as  water  or other liquid, by causing it to pass through a
   filter.  Filtering paper, OR Filter paper, a porous unsized paper, for


   Fil"ter, v. i. To pass through a filter; to percolate.


   Fil"ter, n. Same as Philter.


   Filth  (?),  n. [OE. filthe, ful\'ebe, AS. f, fr. f\'d4l foul; akin to
   OHG. f\'d4lida. See Foul, and cf. File.]

   1. Foul matter; anything that soils or defiles; dirt; nastiness.

   2.  Anything  that sullies or defiles the moral character; corruption;

     To  purify  the  soul from the dross and filth of sensual delights.

   Filth disease (Med.), a disease supposed to be due to pollution of the
   soil or water.


   Filth"i*ly (?), adv. In a filthy manner; foully.


   Filth"i*ness, n.

   1. The state of being filthy.

     Let  us  cleanse  ourselves  from  all  filthiness of the flesh and
     spirit. 2 Cor. vii. 1.

   2.  That  which  is  filthy,  or  makes  filthy;  foulness; nastiness;
   corruption; pollution; impurity.

     Carry forth the filthiness out of the holy place. 2 Chron. xxix. 5.


   Filth"y  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Filthier (?); superl. Filthiest.] Defiled
   with  filth,  whether material or moral; nasty; dirty; polluted; foul;
   impure; obscene. "In the filthy-mantled pool." Shak.

     He which is filthy let him be filthy still. Rev. xxii. 11.

   Syn. -- Nasty; foul; dirty; squalid; unclean; sluttish; gross; vulgar;
   licentious. See Nasty.


   Fil"trate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Filtrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Filtrating. (] [Cf. LL. filtrare. See Filter.] To filter; to defecate;
   as liquid, by straining or percolation. Arbuthnot.


   Fil"trate  (?),  n. That which has been filtered; the liquid which has
   passed through the filter in the process of filtration.


   Fil*tra"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  filtration.]  The  act or process of
   filtering;  the mechanical separation of a liquid from the undissolved
   particles floating in it.

                          Finble, n., OR Fimble hemp

   Fin"ble,  n., OR Fim"ble hemp` (?).[Corrupted from female hemp.] Light
   summer hemp, that bears no seed.


   Fim"bri*a  (?),  n.;  pl.  Fimbri\'91  (#). [L., fringe. See Fringle.]
   (Anat.)  (a)  pl.  A  fringe,  or  fringed border. (b) A band of white
   matter bordering the hippocampus in the brain. -- Fim"bri*al (#), a.


   Fim*bri*ate  (?),  a.  [L.  fimbriatus  fibrous,  fringed, fr. fimbria
   fiber,  fringe.  See Fringe.] Having the edge or extremity bordered by
   filiform  processes  thicker  than  hairs;  fringed; as, the fimbriate
   petals of the pink; the fimbriate end of the Fallopian tube.


   Fim"bri*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Fimbriated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fimbriating.] To hem; to fringe. Fuller.


   Fim"bri*a`ted (?), a.

   1. Having a fringed border; fimbriate.

   2.  (Her.)  Having  a  very narrow border of another tincture; -- said
   esp. of an ordinary or subordinary.


   Fim"bri*cate (?), a.

   1. Fringed; jagged; fimbriate.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  fringed, on one side only, by long, straight hairs, as
   the antenn\'91 of certain insects.


   Fin  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Finned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Finning.]
   [Cf. Fin of a fish.] To carve or cut up, as a chub.


   Fin,  n.  [See Fine, n.] End; conclusion; object. [Obs.] "She knew eke
   the fin of his intent." Chaucer.


   Fin, n.[OE. finne, fin, AS. finn; akin to D. vin, G. & Dan. finne, Sw.
   fena, L. pinna, penna, a wing, feather. cf. pen a feather.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  An organ of a fish, consisting of a membrane supported
   by  rays,  or  little  bony  or cartilaginous ossicles, and serving to
   balance and propel it in the water.

     NOTE: &hand; Fi shes move through the water chiefly by means of the
     caudal fin or tail, the principal office of the other fins being to
     balance  or  direct  the  body,  though they are also, to a certain
     extent, employed in producing motion.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  membranous, finlike, swimming organ, as in pteropod
   and heteropod mollusks.

   3. A finlike organ or attachment; a part of an object or product which
   protrudes  like a fin, as: (a) The hand. [Slang] (b) (Com.) A blade of
   whalebone.  [Eng.]  McElrath.  (c)  (Mech.)  A mark or ridge left on a
   casting  at  the junction of the parts of a mold. (d) (Mech.) The thin
   sheet  of  metal  squeezed out between the collars of the rolls in the
   process of rolling. Raymond. (e) (Mech.) A feather; a spline.

   4. A finlike appendage, as to submarine boats.
   Apidose  fin. (Zo\'94l.) See under Adipose, a. -- Fin ray (Anat.), one
   of  the  hornlike,  cartilaginous, or bony, dermal rods which form the
   skeleton of the fins of fishes. -- Fin whale (Zo\'94l.), a finback. --
   Paired  fins  (Zo\'94l.), the pectoral and ventral fins, corresponding
   to  the  fore  and  hind  legs  of the higher animals. -- Unpaired, OR
   Median, fins (Zo\'94l.), the dorsal, caudal, and anal fins.


   Fin"a*ble  (?),  a.  [From  Fine.]  Liable or subject to a fine; as, a
   finable person or offense. Bacon.


   Fi"nal  (?),  a.  [F., fr. L. finalis, fr. finis boundary, limit, end.
   See Finish.]

   1.  Pertaining  to the end or conclusion; last; terminating; ultimate;
   as, the final day of a school term.

     Yet despair not of his final pardon. Milton.

   2.  Conclusive; decisive; as, a final judgment; the battle of Waterloo
   brought the contest to a final issue.

   3. Respecting an end or object to be gained; respecting the purpose or
   ultimate end in view.
   Final  cause.  See  under  Cause. Syn. -- Final, Conclusive, Ultimate.
   Final  is  now appropriated to that which brings with it an end; as, a
   final  adjustment;  the  final  judgment,  etc. Conclusive implies the
   closing  of  all  discussion,  negotiation,  etc.;  as,  a  conclusive
   argument or fact; a conclusive arrangement. In using ultimate, we have
   always reference to something earlier or proceeding; as when we say, a
   temporary  reverse  may  lead  to  an ultimate triumph. The statements
   which  a  man  finally makes at the close of a negotiation are usually
   conclusive as to his ultimate intentions and designs.


   Fi*na"le  (?),  n. [It. See Final.] Close; termination; as: (a) (Mus.)
   The last movement of a symphony, sonata, concerto, or any instrumental
   composition.  (b)  The  last  composition  performed  in any act of an
   opera. (c) The closing part, piece, or scene in any public performance
   or exhibition.


   Fi*nal"i*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Finalities  (#).  [L. finalitas the being

   1.  The  state  of  being  final,  finished,  or  complete; a final or
   conclusive arrangement; a settlement. Baxter.

   2. The relation of end or purpose to its means. Janet.


   Fi"nal*ly (?), adv.

   1.  At  the end or conclusion; ultimately; lastly; as, the contest was
   long, but the Romans finally conquered.

     Whom patience finally must crown. Milton.

   2. Completely; beyond recovery.

     Not  any house of noble English in Ireland was utterly destroyed or
     finally rooted out. Sir J. Davies.


   Fi*nance"  (?),  n. [F., fr. LL. financia payment of money, money, fr.
   finare to pay a fine or subsidy (cf. OF. finer to finish, pay), fr. L.
   finis end. See Fine, n., Finish.]

   1.  The  income  of  a  ruler  or  of a state; revennue; public money;
   sometimes,  the  income of an individual; often used in the plural for
   funds; available money; resources.

     All the finances or revenues of the imperial crown. Bacon.

   2. The science of raising and expending the public revenue. "Versed in
   the details of finance." Macaulay.


   Fi*nan"cial   (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  finance.  "Our  financial  and
   commercial system." Macaulay.


   Fi*nan"cial*ist, n. A financier.


   Fi*nan"cial*ly, adv. In a dfinancial manner. Burke.


   Fin`an*cier" (?; 277), n. [Cf. F. financier.]

   1.  One  charged  with  the  administration of finance; an officer who
   administers the public revenue; a treasurer. Burke.

   2.  One  skilled  in  financial  operations; one acquainted with money


   Fin`an*cier",  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Financiered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Financiering.] To conduct financial operations.


   Fin"a*ry (?), n. (Iron Works) See Finery.


   Fi"na*tive  (?),  a.  Conclusive;  decisive; definitive; final. [Obs.]
   Greene (1593).


   Fin"back`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  whale  of the genera Sibbaldius,
   Bal\'91noptera,  and allied genera, of the family Bal\'91nopterid\'91,
   characterized  by  a prominent fin on the back. The common finbacks of
   the New England coast are Sibbaldius tectirostris and S. tuberosus.


   Finch  (?),  n.;  pl.  Fishes  (#).  [AS.  finc; akin to D. vink, OHG.
   fincho,  G.  fink;  cf.  W. pinc a finch; also E. spink.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   small singing bird of many genera and species, belonging to the family

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e wo rd is  of ten us ed in  co mposition, as  in 
     chaffinch, goldfinch, grassfinch, pinefinch, etc.

   Bramble  finch.  See  Brambling.  -- Canary finch, the canary bird. --
   Copper  finch.  See Chaffinch. -- Diamond finch. See under Diamond. --
   Finch falcon (Zo\'94l.), one of several very small East Indian falcons
   of  the  genus  Hierax.  -- To pull a finch, to swindle an ignorant or
   unsuspecting  person.  [Obs.]  "Privily  a  finch  eke could he pull."
   Finch"backed`  (?),  a.  Streaked  or  spotted on the back; -- said of
   Finched (?), a. Same as Finchbacked.
   Find  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Found (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Finding.]
   [AS.  findan;  akin  to  D. vinden, OS. & OHG. findan, G. finden, Dan.
   finde,  icel.  & Sw. finna, Goth. fin; and perh. to L. petere to seek,
   Gr. pat to fall, fly, E. petition.] 

   1.  To meet with, or light upon, accidentally; to gain the first sight
   or  knowledge  of,  as of something new, or unknown; hence, to fall in
   with, as a person.

     Searching  the  window for a flint, I found This paper, thus sealed
     up. Shak.

     In woods and forests thou art found. Cowley.

   2.  To  learn  by  experience or trial; to perceive; to experience; to
   discover by the intellect or the feelings; to detect; to feel. "I find
   you passing gentle." Shak.

     The torrid zone is now found habitable. Cowley.

   3.  To  come  upon  by  seeking;  as,  to  find something lost. (a) To
   discover  by sounding; as, to find bottom. (b) To discover by study or
   experiment  direct  to  an  object  or end; as, water is found to be a
   compound  substance.  (c)  To gain, as the object of desire or effort;
   as, to find leisure; to find means. (d) To attain to; to arrive at; to

     Seek, and ye shall find. Matt. vii. 7.

     Every mountain now hath found a tongue. Byron.

   4.  To  provide  for;  to  supply;  to  furnish;  as, to find food for
   workemen; he finds his nephew in money.

     Wages \'9c14 and all found. London Times.

     Nothing a day and find yourself. Dickens.

   <-- obsolete?? -->

   5.  To arrive at, as a conclusion; to determine as true; to establish;
   as,  to find a verdict; to find a true bill (of indictment) against an
   accused person.

     To find his title with some shows of truth. Shak.

   To  find  out, to detect (a thief); to discover (a secret) -- to solve
   or  unriddle  (a  parable  or  enigma);  to understand. "Canst thou by
   searching  find out God?" Job. xi. 7. "We do hope to find out all your
   tricks."  Milton.  --  To find fault with, to blame; to censure. -- To
   find  one's self, to be; to fare; -- often used in speaking of health;
   as, how do you find yourself this morning?
   Find  (?),  v.  i. (Law) To determine an issue of fact, and to declare
   such  a determination to a court; as, the jury find for the plaintiff.


   Find, n. Anything found; a discovery of anything valuable; especially,
   a  deposit,  discovered by arch\'91ologists, of objects of prehistoric
   or unknown origin.


   Find"a*ble (?), a. Capable of beong found; discoverable. Fuller.


   Find"er (?), n. One who, or that which, finds; specifically (Astron.),
   a  small telescope of low power and large field of view, attached to a
   larger telescope, for the purpose of finding an object more readily.


   Find"fault` (?), n. A censurer or caviler. [Obs.]


   Find"fault`ing,  a.  Apt  to censure or cavil; faultfinding; captious.
   [Obs.] Whitlock.


   Find"ing, n.

   1. That which is found, come upon, or provided; esp. (pl.), that which
   a  journeyman  artisan  finds  or  provides  for  himself;  as  tools,
   trimmings, etc.

     When a man hath been laboring . . . in the deep mines of knowledge,
     hath furnished out his findings in all their equipage. Milton.

   2.  Support;  maintenance;  that  which  is provided for one; expence;

   3.  (Law)  The result of a judicial examination or inquiry, especially
   into  some  matter  of  fact;  a  verdict;  as, the finding of a jury.

     After his friends finding and his rent. Chaucer.


   Fin"dy   (?),   a.   [AS.  finding  heavy;  cf.  Dan.  fyndig  strong,
   energetical,  fynd  strength,  energy,  emphasis.]  Full; heavy; firm;
   solid; substemtial. [Obs.]

     A cold May and a windy Makes the barn fat amd findy. Old Prover


   Fine  (?),  a. [Compar. Finer (?); superl. Finest.] [F. fin, LL. finus
   fine,  pure,  fr.  L.  finire  to finish; cf. finitus, p.p., finished,
   completed (hence the sense accomplished, perfect.) See Finish, and cf.

   1.   Finished;  brought  to  perfection;  refined;  hence,  free  from
   impurity;   excellent;   superior;   elegant;  worthy  of  admiration;
   accomplished; beautiful.

     The gain thereof [is better] than fine gold. Prov. iii. 14.

     A cup of wine that's brisk and fine. Shak.

     Not  only  the  finest gentleman of his time, but one of the finest
     scholars. Felton.

     To soothe the sick bed of so fine a being [Keats]. Leigh Hunt.

   2.  Aiming  at  show  or  effect; loaded with ornament; overdressed or
   overdecorated; showy.

     He gratified them with occasional . . . fine writing. M. Arnold.

   3. Nice; delicate; subtle; exquisite; artful; skillful; dexterous.

     The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine! Pope.

     The  nicest  and  most  delicate  touches of satire consist in fine
     raillery. Dryden.

     He has as fine a hand at picking a pocket as a woman. T. Gray.

   4.  Not  coarse,  gross,  or  heavy; as: (a) Not gross; subtile; thin;

     The eye standeth in the finer medium and the object in the grosser.

   (b)  Not  coarse;  comminuted;  in  small  particles; as, fine sand or
   flour.  (c) Not thick or heavy; slender; filmy; as, a fine thread. (d)
   Thin;  attenuate;  keen;  as, a fine edge. (e) Made of fine materials;
   light; delicate; as, fine linen or silk.

   5.  Having  (such)  a proportion of pure metal in its composition; as,
   coins nine tenths fine.

   6. (Used ironically.)

     Ye have made a fine hand, fellows. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Fi  ne is   of ten co mpounded wi th pa rticiples an d
     adjectives,    modifying    them    adverbially;   a,   fine-drawn,
     fine-featured, fine-grained, fine-spoken, fine-spun, etc.

   Fine   arch   (Glass  Making),  the  smaller  fritting  furnace  of  a
   glasshouse. Knight. -- Fine arts. See the Note under Art. -- Fine cut,
   fine  cut  tobacco;  a  kind of chewing tobacco cut up into shreds. --
   Fine  goods,  woven  fabrics of fine texture and quality. McElrath. --
   Fine  stuff,  lime,  or  a  mixture  of  lime,  plaster, etc., used as
   material  for  the  finishing  coat  in  plastering.  --  To sail fine
   (Naut.),  to  sail  as  close  to  the wind as possible. Syn. -- Fine,
   Beautiful.  When  used  as  a  word  of praise, fine (being opposed to
   coarse)  denotes  no "ordinary thing of its kind." It is not as strong
   as  beautiful,  in  reference  to  the single attribute implied in the
   latter  term;  but when we speak of a fine woman, we include a greater
   variety  of particulars, viz., all the qualities which become a woman,
   --  breeding,  sentiment, tact, etc. The term is equally comprehensive
   when  we  speak  of  a fine garden, landscape, horse, poem, etc.; and,
   though  applied  to  a  great variety of objects, the word has still a
   very   definite  sense,  denoting  a  high  degree  of  characteristic

   Page 561


   Fine,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Fined (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fining.] [From
   Fine, a.]

   1. To make fine; to refine; to purify, to clarify; as, to fine gold.

     It hath been fined and refined by . . . learned men. Hobbes.

   2.  To  make  finer, or less coarse, as in bulk, texture, etc.; as. to
   fine the soil. L. H. Bailey.

   3.  To  change  by  fine gradations; as (Naut.), to fine down a ship's
   lines, to diminish her lines gradually.

     I  often  sate  at  home  On  evenings,  watching  how  they  fined
     themselves With gradual conscience to a perfect night. Browning.


   Fine (?), n. [OE. fin, L. finis end, also in LL., a final agreement or
   concord  between  the  lord and his vassal; a sum of money paid at the
   end,  so  as  to  make  an end of a transaction, suit, or prosecution;
   mulct;  penalty;  cf. OF. fin end, settlement, F. fin end. See Finish,
   and cf. Finance.]

   1.  End;  conclusion;  termination;  extinction.  [Obs.] "To see their
   fatal fine." Spenser.

     Is this the fine of his fines? Shak.

   2.  A  sum  of  money  paid as the settlement of a claim, or by way of
   terminating  a  matter  in  dispute;  especially,  a  payment of money
   imposed upon a party as a punishment for an offense; a mulct.

   3.  (Law) (a) (Feudal Law) A final agreement concerning lands or rents
   between persons, as the lord and his vassal. Spelman. (b) (Eng. Law) A
   sum  of  money  or  price  paid  for  obtaining  a  benefit, favor, or
   privilege,  as  for  admission  to  a  copyhold,  or  for obtaining or
   renewing a lease.
   Fine for alienation (Feudal Law), a sum of money paid to the lord by a
   tenant  whenever  he  had  occasion  to make over his land to another.
   Burrill.  --  Fine  of lands, a species of conveyance in the form of a
   fictitious suit compromised or terminated by the acknowledgment of the
   previous  owner  that  such  land  was  the  right of the other party.
   Burrill.  See  Concord,  n.,  4.  -- In fine, in conclusion; by way of
   termination or summing up.


   Fine,  v. t. [From Fine, n.] To impose a pecuniary penalty upon for an
   offense  or breach of law; to set a fine on by judgment of a court; to
   punish by fine; to mulct; as, the trespassers were fined ten dollars.


   Fine, v. i. To pay a fine. See Fine, n., 3 (b). [R.]

     Men  fined  for  the  king's  good will; or that he would remit his
     anger; women fined for leave to marry. Hallam.


   Fine,  v.  t. & i. [OF. finer, F. finir. See Finish, v. t.] To finish;
   to cease; or to cause to cease. [Obs.]


   Fine"draw`  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Finedrawn (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Finedrawing.]  To sew up, so nicely that the seam is not perceived; to
   renter. Marryat.


   Fine"draw`er (?), n. One who finedraws.


   Fine"drawn`  (?),  a.  Drawn out with too much subtilty; overnice; as,
   finedrawn speculations.


   Fi*neer"  (?),  v. i. To run in dept by getting goods made up in a way
   unsuitable  for  the  use  of others, and then threatening not to take
   them except on credit. [R.] Goldsmith.


   Fi*neer", v. t. To veneer.


   Fine"less (?), a. [Fine end + -less.] Endless; boundless. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fine"ly, adv. In a fine or finished manner.


   Fine"ness, n. [From Fine, a.]

   1. The quality or condition of being fine.

   2.  Freedom  from  foreign matter or alloy; clearness; purity; as, the
   fineness of liquor.

     The fineness of the gold, and chargeful fashion. Shak.

   3.  The  proportion  of  pure  silver  or gold in jewelry, bullion, or

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fi neness of  Un ited States coin is nine tenths,
     that  of  English gold coin is eleven twelfths, and that of English
     silver coin is

     4.  Keenness or sharpness; as, the fineness of a needle's point, or
     of the edge of a blade.


     Fin"er (?), n. One who fines or purifies.


     Fin"er*y (?), n.

     1. Fineness; beauty. [Obs.]

     Don't choose your place of study by the finery of the prospects. I.

     2.  Ornament;  decoration; especially, excecially decoration; showy
     clothes; jewels.

     Her mistress' cast-off finery. F. W. Robertson.

     3.  [Cf.  Refinery.]  (Iron Works) A charcoal hearth or furnace for
     the  conversion  of  cast  iron  into  wrought  iron,  or into iron
     suitable for puddling.


     Fine"spun`  (?),  a. Spun so as to be fine; drawn to a fine thread;
     attenuated; hence, unsubstantial; visionary; as, finespun theories.


     Fi`nesse" (? OR ?), n. [F., fr. fin fine. See Fine, a.]

     1. Subtilty of contrivance to gain a point; artifice; stratagem.

     This  is  the  artificialest  piece of finesse to persuade men into
     slavery. Milton.

     2. (Whist Playing) The act of finessing. See Finesse, v. i., 2.


     Fi*nesse"  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Finessed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

     1. To use artifice or stratagem. Goldsmith.

     2. (Whist Playing) To attempt, when second or third player, to make
     a  lower  card answer the purpose of a higher, when an intermediate
     card  is  out, risking the chance of its being held by the opponent
     yet to play.


     Fine"still`  (?), v. t. To distill, as spirit from molasses or some
     saccharine preparation.


     Fine"still`er (?), n. One who finestills.


     Fin"ew (?), n. [See Fenowed.] Moldiness. [R.]


     Fin"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) (a) A finback whale. (b) (pl.) True
     fish, as distinguished from shellfish.


     Fin"foot`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  South  American bird (heliornis
     fulica)  allied  to the grebes. The name is also applied to several
     related species of the genus Podica.


     Fin"-foot`ed,  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  Having palmate feet. (b) Having
     lobate toes, as the coot and grebe.


     Fin"ger  (?), n. [AS. finger; akin to D. vinger, OS. & OHG. fingar,
     G. finger, Icel. fingr, Sw. & Dan. finger, Goth. figgrs; of unknown
     origin; perh. akin to E. fang.]

     1.  One of the five terminating members of the hand; a digit; esp.,
     one of the four extermities of the hand, other than the thumb.

     2. Anything that does work of a finger; as, the pointer of a clock,
     watch,  or  other  registering  machine; especially (Mech.) a small
     projecting  rod, wire, or piece, which is brought into contact with
     an object to effect, direct, or restrain a motion.

     3.  The  breadth  of  a  finger,  or the fourth part of the hand; a
     measure of nearly an inch; also, the length of finger, a measure in
     domestic  use in the United States, of about four and a half inches
     or one eighth of a yard.

     A piece of steel three fingers thick. Bp. Wilkins.

     4.  Skill  in  the use of the fingers, as in playing upon a musical
     instrument. [R.]

     She has a good finger. Busby.

   Ear finger, the little finger. -- Finger alphabet. See Dactylology. --
   Finger  bar,  the horizontal bar, carrying slotted spikes, or fingers,
   through  which  the  vibratory  knives  of mowing and reaping machines
   play.  --  Finger  board  (Mus.),  the  part  of a stringed instrument
   against  which  the  fingers  press  the strings to vary the tone; the
   keyboard  of  a piano, organ, etc.; manual. -- Finger bowl OR glass, a
   bowl  or  glass  to  hold  water  for rinsing the fingers at table. --
   Finger  flower (Bot.), the foxglove. -- Finger grass (Bot.), a kind of
   grass  (Panicum sanguinale) with slender radiating spikes; common crab
   grass.  See  Crab grass, under Crab. -- Finger nut, a fly nut or thumb
   nut.  --  Finger  plate,  a  strip of metal, glass, etc., to protect a
   painted  or  polished  door from finger marks. -- Finger post, a guide
   post  bearing  an  index finger. -- Finger reading, reading printed in
   relief so as to be sensible to the touch; -- so made for the blind. --
   Finger shell (Zo\'94l.), a marine shell (Pholas dactylus) resembling a
   finger   in  form.  --  Finger  sponge  (Zo\'94l.),  a  sponge  having
   finger-shaped  lobes,  or branches. -- Finger stall, a cover or shield
   for  a  finger.  --  Finger  steel,  a steel instrument for whetting a
   currier's  knife.  To burn one's fingers. See under Burn. -- To have a
   finger  in, to be concerned in. [Colloq.] -- To have at one's fingers'
   ends, to be thoroughly familiar with. [Colloq.]


   Fin"ger  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fingered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To touch with the fingers; to handle; to meddle with.

     Let the papers lie; You would be fingering them to anger me. Shak.

   2. To touch lightly; to toy with.

   3.  (Mus.)  (a)  To perform on an instrument of music. (b) To mark the
   notes of (a piece of music) so as to guide the fingers in playing.

   4. To take thievishly; to pilfer; to purloin. Shak.

   5. To execute, as any delicate work.


   Fin"ger,  v. i. (Mus.) To use the fingers in playing on an instrument.


   Fin"gered (?), a.

   1. Having fingers.

   2. (Bot.) Having leaflets like fingers; digitate.

   3.  (Mus.) Marked with figures designating which finger should be used
   for each note.


   Fin"ger*er (?), n. One who fingers; a pilferer.


   Fin"ger*ing, n.

   1. The act or process of handling or touching with the fingers.

     The mere sight and fingering of money. Grew.

   2.  The manner of using the fingers in playing or striking the keys of
   an  instrument  of  music;  movement  or  management of the fingers in
   playing on a musical instrument, in typewriting, etc.

   3.  The  marking of the notes of a piece of music to guide or regulate
   the action or use of the fingers.

   4. Delicate work made with the fingers. Spenser.


   Fin"ger*ling  (?), n. [Finger + -ling.] (Zo\'94l.) A young salmon. See


   Fin"gle-fan`gle (?), n. [From fangle.] A trifle. [Low] Hudibras.


   Fin"gri*go  (?), n.; pl. Fingrigos (#). [So called in Jamaica.] (Bot.)
   A prickly, climbing shrub of the genus Pisonia. The fruit is a kind of


   Fin"*i*al  (?), n. [L. finire to finish, end. See Finish.] (Arch.) The
   knot  or  bunch of foliage, or foliated ornament, that forms the upper
   extremity  of  a  pinnacle  in  Gothic  architecture;  sometimes,  the
   pinnacle itself.


   Fin"i*cal  (?),  a.  [From Fine, a.] Affectedly fine; overnice; unduly
   particular; fastidious. "Finical taste." Wordsworth.

     The gross style consists in giving no detail, the finical in giving
     nothing else. Hazlitt.

   Syn.  --  Finical, Spruce, Foppish. These words are applied to persons
   who are studiously desirous to cultivate finery of appearance. One who
   is  spruce  is elaborately nice in dress; one who is finical shows his
   affectation  in  language  and  manner as well as in dress; one who is
   foppish  distinguishes  himself by going to the extreme of the fashion
   in  the cut of his clothes, by the tawdriness of his ornaments, and by
   the  ostentation  of  his manner. "A finical gentleman clips his words
   and  screws  his  body  into  as  small a compass as possible, to give
   himself  the  air of a delicate person; a spruce gentleman strives not
   to have a fold wrong in his frill or cravat, nor a hair of his head to
   lie  amiss;  a  foppish  gentleman  seeks  .  .  .  to  render himself
   distinguished   for   finery."   Crabb.   --   Fin"i*cal*ly,  adv.  --
   Fin"i*cal*ness, n.


   Fin`i*cal"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being finical; finicalness.

                              Finicking, Finicky

   Fin"ick*ing (?), Fin"ick*y, a.Finical; unduly particular. [Colloq.]


   Fi*nif"ic  (?  OR  ?),  n. [L. finis end + facere to make.] A limiting
   element or quality. [R.]

     The essential finific in the form of the finite. Coleridge.


   Fin"i*fy  (?  OR  ?),  v.  t. [Fine, a. + -fy.] To make fine; to dress
   finically. [Obs.]

     Hath so pared and finified them [his feet.] B. Jonson.


   Fin"i*kin  (?),  a.  [Fine, a. + -kin.] Precise in trifles; idly busy.
   [Colloq.] Smart.


   Fin"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of imposing a fin

   2.  The  process  of fining or refining; clarification; also (Metal.),
   the conversion of cast iron into suitable for puddling, in a hearth or
   charcoal fire.

   3.  That  which  is  used  to  refine;  especially,  a  preparation of
   isinglass, gelatin, etc., for clarifying beer.
   Fining pot, a vessel in which metals are refined. Prov. xvii. 3.


   Fi"nis  (?), n. [L.] An end; conclusion. It is often placed at the end
   of a book.


   Fin"ish  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Finished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Finishing.] [F. finir (with a stem finiss- in several forms, whence E.
   -ish:  see  -ish.),fr.  L.  finire  to  limit,  finish, end, fr. finis
   boundary, limit, end; perh. for fidnis, and akin findere to cleave, E.

   1.  To  arrive at the end of; to bring to an end; to put an end to; to
   make an end of; to terminate.

     And heroically hath finished A life heroic. Milton.

   2.  To bestow the last required labor upon; to complete; to bestow the
   utmost possible labor upon; to perfect; to accomplish; to polish. Syn.
   -- To end; terminate; close; conclude; complete; accomplish; perfect.


   Fin"ish, v. i.

   1. To come to an end; to terminate.

     His days may finish ere that hapless time. Shak.

   2. To end; to die. [R.] Shak.


   Fin"ish, n.

   1. That which finishes, puts an end to

   2.  (Arch.)  The  joiner  work  and  other finer work required for the
   completion  of  a  building,  especially  of  the interior. See Inside
   finish, and Outside finish.

   3.  (Fine Arts) (a) The labor required to give final completion to any
   work;  hence, minute detail, careful elaboration, or the like. (b) See
   Finishing coat, under Finishing.

   4.  The  result  of  completed  labor, as on the surface of an object;
   manner  or  style  of  finishing;  as, a rough, dead, or glossy finish
   given to cloth, stone, metal, etc.

   5. Completion; -- opposed to start, or beginning.


   Fin"ished  (?),  a.  Polished  to  the  highest  degree of excellence;
   complete; perfect; as, a finished poem; a finished education. Finished
   work  (Mach.),  work  that  is  made  smooth  or  polished, though not
   necessarily completed.


   Fin"ish*er (?), n.

   1. One who finishes, puts an end to, completes, or perfects; esp. used
   in the trades, as in hatting, weaving, etc., for the workman who gives
   a  finishing  touch  to  the work, or any part of it, and brings it to

     O prophet of glad tidings, finisher Of utmost hope! Milton.

   2.  Something that gives the finishing touch to, or settles, anything.


   Fin"ish*ing,  n.  The  act or process of completing or perfecting; the
   final work upon or ornamentation of a thing.


   Fin"ish*ing, a. Tending to complete or to render fit for the market or
   for use. Finishing coat. (a) (Plastering) the final coat of plastering
   applied  to  walls  and ceilings, usually white and rubbed smooth. (b)
   (Painting)  The final coat of paint, usually differently mixed applied
   from  the  others. -- Finishing press, a machine for pressing fabrics.
   --  Finishing rolls (Iron Working), the rolls of a train which receive
   the  bar  from  roughing  rolls,  and reduce it to its finished shape.


   Fi"nite (?), a. [L. finitus, p.p. of finire. See Finish, and cf. Fine,
   a.] Having a limit; limited in quantity, degree, or capacity; bounded;
   --  opposed to infinite; as, finite number; finite existence; a finite
   being; a finite mind; finite duration.


   Fi"nite*less, a Infinite. [Obs.] Sir T. browne.


   Fi"nite*ly, adv. In a finite manner or degree.


   Fi"nite*ness, n. The state of being finite.


   Fin"i*tude (?), n. [L. finire. See Finish.] Limitation. Cheyne.


   Fin"land*er (?), n. A native or inhabitant of Finland.


   Fin"less, a. (Zo\'94l.) destitute of fins.


   Fin"let  (?),  n.  [Fin  +  -let.] A little fin; one of the parts of a
   divided fin.


   Fin"like` (?), a. Resembling a fin.


   Finn (?), a. A native of Finland; one of the FinnFinns.

                                 Finnan haddie

   Fin"nan  had"die  (?).  [See  Haddock.]  Haddock  cured in peat smoke,
   originally  at  Findon  (pron.  f\'ccn"an), Scotland. the name is also
   applied  to  other  kinds  of  smoked  haddock.  [Written  also finnan


   Finned  (?),  a.  Having a fin, or fins, or anything resembling a fin.


   Fin"ner (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A finback whale.


   Finn"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Finns.


   Fin"ni*kin  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  variety  of  pigeon, with a crest
   somewhat resembling the mane of a horse. [Written also finikin.]


   Finn"ish  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to Finland, to the Finns, or to
   their  language.  --  n.  A  Northern Turanian group of languages; the
   language of the Finns.


   Finns  (?),  n.  pl.;  sing.  Finn.  (Ethnol.) (a) Natives of Finland;
   Finlanders.  (b)  A  branch of the Mongolian race, inhabiting Northern
   and  Eastern  Europe,  including  the  Magyars,  Bulgarians, Permians,
   Lapps, and Finlanders. [Written also Fins.]


   Fin"ny (?), a.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) Having, or abounding in, fins, as fishes; pertaining to

   2. Abounding in fishes.

     With patient angle trolls the finny deep. Goldsmoth.


   Fi*no"chi*o  (?;  277),  n.  [It.  finocchio fennel, LL. fenuclum. See
   Fennel.]  (Bot.)  An umbelliferous plant (F\'d2niculum dulce) having a
   somewhat  tuberous  stem; sweet fennel. The blanched stems are used in
   France and Italy as a culinary vegetable.

   Page 562


   Fi"nos  (?),  n.  pl. [Sp., pl., fr. fino fine.] Second best wool from
   Merino sheep. Gardner.


   Fin"pike` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The bichir. See Crossopterygii.


   Fint (?), 3d pers. sing. pr. of Find, for findeth. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fin"-toed`  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having toes connected by a membrane;
   palmiped; palmated; also, lobate.


   Fiord (fyi or y consonant,  272), n. [Dan. & Norw. fiord. See Frith.]
   A narrow inlet of the sea, penetrating between high banks or rocks, as
   on the coasts of Norway and Alaska. [Written also fjord.]


   Fi"o*rin  (?), n. [Cf. Ir. fiothran a sort of grass.] (Bot.) A species
   of creeping bent grass (Agrostis alba); -- called also fiorin grass.


   Fi"o*rite (?), n. (Min.) A variety of opal occuring in the cavities of
   volcanic  tufa,  in smooth and shining globular and botryoidal masses,
   having a pearly luster; -- so called from Fiora, in Ischia.


   Fio`ri*tu"re  (?),  n. pl. [It., pl. of fioritura a flowering.] (Mus.)
   Little  flowers  of  ornament  introduced into a melody by a singer or
   player. <-- no pos in original. = n. -->

                                 Fippenny bit

   Fip"pen*ny  bit` (? OR ?). [Corruption of five penny bit.] The Spanish
   half  real, or one sixteenth of a dollar, -- so called in Pennsylvania
   and the adjacent States. [Obs.]

     NOTE: &hand; Be fore the act of Congress, Feb. 21, 1857, caused the
     adoption  of  decimal  coins  and the withdrawal of foreign coinage
     from  circulation,  this coin passed currently for 6 cents, and was
     called  in  New  England  a fourpence ha'penny or fourpence; in New
     York  a  sixpence;  in  Pennsylvania, Virginia, etc., a fip; and in
     Louisiana, a picayune.


   Fip"ple  (f&etil;r), n. [perh. fr. L. fibula a clasp, a pin; cf. Prov.
   E.  fible  a  stick  used  to  stir  pottage.] A stopper, as in a wind
   instrument of music. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Fir (?), n. [Dan. fyr, fyrr; akin to Sw. furu, Icel. fura, AS. furh in
   furhwudu  fir  wood,  G. f\'94hre, OHG. forha pine, vereheih a sort of
   oak,  L.  quercus (Bot.) A genus (Abies) of coniferous trees, often of
   large size and elegant shape, some of them valued for their timber and
   others  for  their  resin. The species are distinguished as the balsam
   fir, the silver fir, the red fir, etc. The Scoth fir is a Pinus.

     NOTE: &hand; Fi r in  the Bible means any one of several coniferous
     trees,  including,  cedar,  cypress,  and probably three species of

   J. D. Hooker.


   Fire  (?),  n.  [OE. fir, fyr, fur AS. fr; akin to D. vuur, OS. & OHG.
   fiur,  G.  feuer,  Icel.  f,  f, Gr. purus pure, E. pure Cf. Empyrean,

   1.  The  evolution  of  light  and  heat  in the combustion of bodies;
   combustion; state of ignition.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e form of fire exhibited in the combustion of gases
     in an ascending stream or current is called flame. Anciently, fire,
     air,  earth,  and water were regarded as the four elements of which
     all things are composed.

   2. Fuel in a state of combustion, as on a hearth, or in

   3. The burning of a house or town; a conflagration.

   4. Anything which destroys or affects like fire.

   5.   Ardor  of  passion,  whether  love  or  hate;  excessive  warmth;
   consumingviolence of temper.

     he had fire in his temper.Atterbury.

     6.  Liveliness  of  imagination  or  fancy;  intellectual and moral
     enthusiasm; capacity for ardor and zeal.

     And bless their critic with a poet's fire.Pope.

     7. Splendor; brilliancy; luster; hence, a star.

     Stars, hide your fires.Shak.

     As in a zodiac

     representing the heavenly fires.Milton.

     8. Torture by burning; severe trial or affliction.

     9.  The  discharge of firearms; firing; as, the troops were exposed
     to a heavy fire.

     Blue fire


     Red fire


   Green   fire   (Pyrotech.),   compositions   of   various  combustible
   substances,  as  sulphur,  niter, lampblack, etc., the flames of which
   are   colored  by  various  metallic  salts,  as  those  of  antimony,
   strontium,  barium,  etc.  --  Fire  alarm  (a)  A signal given on the
   breaking  out of a fire. (b) An apparatus for giving such an alarm. --
   Fire annihilator, a machine, device, or preparation to be kept at hand
   for  extinguishing fire by smothering it with some incombustible vapor
   or gas, as carbonic acid. -- Fire balloon. (a) A balloon raised in the
   air  by  the  buoyancy  of  air  heated  by a fire placed in the lower
   part<--  =  hot-air  balloon  -->. (b) A balloon sent up at night with
   fireworks which ignite at a regulated height. Simmonds. -- Fire bar, a
   grate  bar.  --  Fire  basket, a portable grate; a cresset. Knight. --
   Fire  beetle.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  in  the  Vocabulary.  -- Fire blast, a
   disease  of plants which causes them to appear as if burnt by fire. --
   Fire  box, the chamber of a furnace, steam boiler, etc., for the fire.
   --  Fire brick, a refractory brick, capable of sustaining intense heat
   without  fusion,  usually  made of fire clay or of siliceous material,
   with some cementing substance, and used for lining fire boxes, etc. --
   Fire brigade, an organized body of men for extinguished fires. -- Fire
   bucket.  See  under  Bucket. -- Fire bug, an incendiary; one who, from
   malice  or  through  mania,  persistently  sets  fire  to  property; a
   pyromaniac.  [U.S.]  --  Fire clay. See under Clay. -- Fire company, a
   company  of  men  managing  an  engine in extinguishing fires. -- Fire
   cross.  See  Fiery cross. [Obs.] Milton. -- Fire damp. See under Damp.
   --  Fire  dog.  See  Firedog,  in the Vocabulary. -- Fire drill. (a) A
   series  of  evolutions  performed  by  fireman  for  practice.  (b) An
   apparatus for producing fire by friction, by rapidly twirling a wooden
   pin  in  a  wooden  socket; -- used by the Hindoos during all historic
   time,  and  by  many  savage peoples. -- Fire eater. (a) A juggler who
   pretends  to  eat  fire. (b) A quarrelsome person who seeks affrays; a
   hotspur. [Colloq.] -- Fire engine, a portable forcing pump, usually on
   wheels,  for  throwing  water  to  extinguish  fire. -- Fire escape, a
   contrivance  for  facilitating  escape from burning buildings. -- Fire
   gilding  (Fine  Arts),  a  mode of gilding with an amalgam of gold and
   quicksilver,  the  latter metal being driven off afterward by heat. --
   Fire gilt (Fine Arts), gold laid on by the process of fire gilding. --
   Fire  insurance,  the  act or system of insuring against fire; also, a
   contract by which an insurance company undertakes, in consideration of
   the  payment  of  a  premium  or  small  percentage  --  usually  made
   periodically  --  to  indemnify an owner of property from loss by fire
   during  a specified period. -- Fire irons, utensils for a fireplace or
   grate, as tongs, poker, and shovel. -- Fire main, a pipe for water, to
   be  used  in  putting  out  fire.  --  Fire master (Mil), an artillery
   officer  who formerly supervised the composition of fireworks. -- Fire
   office,  an  office at which to effect insurance against fire. -- Fire
   opal,  a  variety of opal giving firelike reflections. -- Fire ordeal,
   an  ancient  mode  of  trial, in which the test was the ability of the
   accused  to  handle or tread upon red-hot irons. Abbot. -- Fire pan, a
   pan  for  holding or conveying fire, especially the receptacle for the
   priming  of  a  gun. -- Fire plug, a plug or hydrant for drawing water
   from  the  main  pipes  in a street, building, etc., for extinguishing
   fires.  --  Fire  policy,  the  writing  or  instrument expressing the
   contract  of insurance against loss by fire. -- Fire pot. (a) (Mil.) A
   small earthen pot filled with combustibles, formerly used as a missile
   in  war.  (b)  The  cast iron vessel which holds the fuel or fire in a
   furnace.  (c)  A  crucible.  (d) A solderer's furnace. -- Fire raft, a
   raft  laden  with  combustibles,  used  for setting fire to an enemy's
   ships.  --  Fire  roll,  a  peculiar beat of the drum to summon men to
   their  quarters in case of fire. -- Fire setting (Mining), the process
   of  softening  or  cracking  the working face of a lode, to facilitate
   excavation,  by  exposing  it  to the action of fire; -- now generally
   superseded  by  the use of explosives. Raymond. -- Fire ship, a vessel
   filled  with  combustibles,  for  setting fire to an enemy's ships. --
   Fire  shovel, a shovel for taking up coals of fire. -- Fire stink, the
   stench  from  decomposing  iron  pyrites,  caused  by the formation of
   sulphureted  hydrogen.  Raymond.  --  Fire  surface, the surfaces of a
   steam  boiler which are exposed to the direct heat of the fuel and the
   products  of  combustion;  heating  surface.  --  Fire  swab,  a  swab
   saturated  with  water,  for cooling a gun in action and clearing away
   particles  of  powder,  etc.  Farrow.  -- Fire teaser, in England, the
   fireman of a steam emgine. -- Fire water, ardent spirits; -- so called
   by  the  American Indians. -- Fire worship, the worship of fire, which
   prevails  chiefly  in Persia, among the followers of Zoroaster, called
   Chebers,  or  Guebers,  and among the Parsees of India. -- Greek fire.
   See  under  Greek.  --  On  fire,  burning; hence, ardent; passionate;
   eager;  zealous.  --  Running fire, the rapid discharge of firearms in
   succession  by a line of troops. -- St. Anthony's fire, erysipelas; --
   an eruptive fever which St. Anthony was supposed to cure miraculously.
   Hoblyn.  --  St. Elmo's fire. See under Saint Elmo. -- To set on fire,
   to  inflame; to kindle. -- To take fire, to begin to burn; to fly into
   a passion.


   Fire (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fired (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fring.]

   1.  To set on fire; to kindle; as, to fire a house or chimney; to fire
   a pile.

   2. To subject to intense heat; to bake; to burn in a kiln; as, to fire

   3. To inflame; to irritate, as the passions; as, to fire the soul with
   anger, pride, or revenge.

     Love had fired my mind. Dryden.

   4.  To animate; to give life or spirit to; as, to fire the genius of a
   young man.

   5. To feed or serve the fire of; as, to fire a boiler.

   6. To light up as if by fire; to illuminate.

     [The sun] fires the proud tops of the eastern pines. Shak.

   7.  To  cause  to  explode; as, to fire a torpedo; to disharge; as, to
   fire a musket or cannon; to fire cannon balls, rockets, etc.

   8. To drive by fire. [Obs.]

     Till my bad angel fire my good one out. Shak.

   9. (Far.) To cauterize.
   To   fire  up,  to  light  up  the  fires  of,  as  of  an  engine.<--
   figuratively, to start up any machine -->


   Fire, v. i.

   1. To take fire; to be kindled; to kindle.

   2. To be irritated or inflamed with passion.

   3. To discharge artillery or firearms; as, they fired on the town.
   To  fire up, to grow irritated or angry. "He . . . fired up, and stood
   vigorously on his defense." Macaulay.
   Fire"arm`  (?),  n.  A  gun,  pistol,  or  any  weapon  from a shot is
   discharged by the force of an explosive substance, as gunpowder. 


   Fire"back`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) One of several species of pheasants of
   the  genus Euplocamus, having the lower back a bright, fiery red. They
   inhabit Southern Asia and the East Indies.


   Fire"ball`  (?),  n.  (a)  (Mil.)  A  ball filled with powder or other
   combustibles,  intended  to  be thrown among enemies, and to injure by
   explosion; also, to set fire to their works and light them up, so that
   movements  may  be  seen.  (b) A luminous meteor, resembling a ball of
   fire  passing  rapidly  through  the  air, and sometimes exploding.<--
   large  mass  of  fire  caused  by a large explosion, as of inflammable
   liquids or a nuclear explosion -->


   Fire"bare` (?), n. A beacon. [Obs.] Burrill.

                                  Fire beetle

   Fire"  bee`tle  (?).  (Zo\'94l.)  A  very  brilliantly luminous beetle
   (Pyrophorus  noctilucus),  one  of  the  elaters, found in Central and
   South  America;  --  called  also  cucujo. The name is also applied to
   other species. See Firefly.


   Fire"bird` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The Baltimore oriole.


   Fire"board`  (?),  n.  A  chimney board or screen to close a fireplace
   when not in use.


   Fire"bote` (?), n. (O.Eng.Law) An allowance of fuel. See Bote.


   Fire"brand` (?), n.

   1. A piece of burning wood. L'Estrange.

   2.  One  who  inflames factions, or causes contention and mischief; an
   incendiary. Bacon.


   Fire"crack`er (?), n. See Cracker., n., 3.


   Fire"crest`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  European kinglet (Regulus
   ignicapillus),  having a bright red crest; -- called also fire-crested


   Fire"dog` (?), n. A support for wood in a fireplace; an andiron.


   Fire"drake`  (?),  n.  [AS.  f; f fire + draca a dragon. See Fire, and
   Drake a dragon.] [Obs.]

   1. A fiery dragon. Beau. & Fl.

   2. A fiery meteor; an ignis fatuus; a rocket.

   3. A worker at a furnace or fire. B. Jonson.


   Fire"-fanged`  (?),  a.  [Fire  +  fanged seized.] Injured as by fire;
   burned;  -- said of manure which has lost its goodness and acquired an
   ashy hue in consequence of heat generated by decomposition.


   Fire"fish`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  singular marine fish of the genus
   Pterois,  family  Scorp\'91nid\'91, of several species, inhabiting the
   Indo-Pacific region. They are usually red, and have very large spinose
   pectoral and dorsal fins.


   Fire"flaire`  (?),  n.  [Fire  +  Prov. E. flaire a ray.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   European  sting ray of the genus Trygon (T. pastinaca); -- called also
   fireflare and fiery flaw.


   Fire"flame`   (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  European  band  fish  (Cepola


   Fire"fly`  (?),  n.;  pl.  Fireflies (. (Zo\'94l.) Any luminous winged
   insect, esp. luminous beetles of the family Lampyrid\'91.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon Am erican sp ecies be long to  the genera
     Photinus  and Photuris, in which both sexes are winged. The name is
     also applied to luminous species of Elaterid\'91. See Fire beetle.


   Fire"less, a. Destitute of fire.


   Fire"lock`, n. An old form of gunlock, as the flintlock, which ignites
   the  priming by a spark; perhaps originally, a matchlock. Hence, a gun
   having such a lock.


   Fire"man (?), n.; pl. Firemen (-men).

   1. A man whose business is to extinguish fires in towns; a member of a
   fire company.

   2. A man who tends the fires, as of a steam engine; a stocker.


   Fire"-new` (?), a. Fresh from the forge; bright; quite new; brand-new.
   Charles reade.

     Your fire-new stamp of honor is scarce current. Shak.


   Fire"place`  (?),  n.  The  part a chimney appropriated to the fire; a
   hearth;  --  usually  an open recess in a wall, in which a fire may be


   Fire"proof` (?), a. Proof against fire; incombustible.


   Fire"prrof`ing  (?),  n.  The  act  or  process  of rendering anything
   incombustible; also, the materials used in the process.


   Fir"er  (?), n. One who fires or sets fire to anything; an incendiary.
   [R.] R. Carew.


   Fire"-set`  (?),  n.  A set of fire irons, including, commonly, tongs,
   shovel, and poker.


   Fire"side`  (?),  n.  A  place near the fire or hearth; home; domestic
   life or retirement.


   Fire"stone` (?; 110), n. [AS. f flint; f fire + st\'ben stone.]

   1. Iron pyrites, formerly used for striking fire; also, a flint.

   2.  A  stone  which will bear the heat of a furnace without injury; --
   especially  applied to the sandstone at the top of the upper greensand
   in the south of England, used for lining kilns and furnaces. Ure.


   Fire"tail`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) The European redstart; -- called also
   fireflirt. [prov. Eng.]


   Fire"ward`en  (?),  n.  An  officer who has authority to direct in the
   extinguishing  of  fires,  or to order what precautions shall be taken
   against fires; -- called also fireward.


   Fire"weed`   (?),   n.  (Bot.)  (a)  An  American  plant  (Erechthites
   hiercifolia),  very  troublesome  in  spots  where  brushwood has been
   burned. (b) The great willow-herb (Epilobium spicatum).


   Fire"wood` (?), n. Wood for fuel.


   Fire"work` (?), n.

   1.  A device for producing a striking display of light, or a figure or
   figures  in plain or colored fire, by the combustion of materials that
   burn in some peculiar manner, as gunpowder, sulphur, metallic filings,
   and  various salts. The most common feature of fireworks is a paper or
   pasteboard  tube  filled  with  the  combustible material. A number of
   these tubes or cases are often combined so as to make, when kindled, a
   great  variety  of  figures  in  fire,  often  variously  colored. The
   skyrocket  is  a  common  form  of firework. The name is also given to
   various combustible preparations used in war.

   2. pl. A pyrotechnic exhibition. [Obs. in the sing.]

     Night before last, the Duke of Richmond gave a firework. Walpole.


   Fire"worm`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  larva of a small tortricid moth
   which  eats  the leaves of the cranberry, so that the vines look as if
   burned; -- called also cranberry worm.


   Fir"ing, n.

   1. The act of disharging firearms.

   2.  The  mode  of  introducing  fuel  into the furnace and working it.

   3. The application of fire, or of a cautery. Dunglison.

   4.  The process of partly vitrifying pottery by exposing it to intense
   heat in a kiln.

   5. Fuel; firewood or coal. [Obs.] Mortimer.
   Firing iron, an instrument used in cauterizing.

   Page 563


   Firk  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf. OE. ferken to proceed, hasten, AS. fercian to
   bring,  assist;  perh.  akin  to  faran  to  go, E. fare.] To beat; to
   strike; to chastise. [Obs.]

     I'll fer him, and firk him, and ferret him. Shak.


   Firk, v. i. To fly out; to turn out; to go off. [Obs.]

     A wench is a rare bait, with which a man

     No sooner's taken but he straight firks mad.B.Jonson.


     Firk, n. A freak; trick; quirk. [Obs.] Ford.


     Fir"kin  (?), n. [From AS. fe\'a2wer four (or an allied word, perh.
     Dutch or Danish) + -kin. See Four.]

     1.  A varying measure of capacity, usually being the fourth part of
     a  barrel;  specifically, a measure equal to nine imperial gallons.

     2. A small wooden vessel or cask of indeterminate size, -- used for
     butter, lard, etc. [U.S.]


     Fir"lot  (?), n. [Scot., the fourth part of a boll of grain, from a
     word  equiv.  to  E.  four  + lot part, portion. See Firkin.] A dry
     measure  formerly  used  in  Scotland; the fourth part of a boll of
     grain  or  meal.  The  Linlithgow  wheat firlot was to the imperial
     bushel  as 998 to 1000; the barley firlot as 1456 to 1000. Brande &


     Firm  (?), a. [Compar. Firmer (?); superl. Firmest.] [OE. ferme, F.
     ferme,  fr.L.  firmus;  cf. Skr. dharman support, law, order, dh to
     hold fast, carry. Cf. Farm, Throne.]

     1.  Fixed;  hence,  closely compressed; compact; substantial; hard;
     solid;  --  applied  to  the matter of bodies; as, firm flesh; firm
     muscles, firm wood.

     2.  Not  easily excited or disturbed; unchanging in purpose; fixed;
     steady;  constant; stable; unshaken; not easily changed in feelings
     or  will;  strong;  as,  a  firm  believer;  a  firm friend; a firm

     Under  spread  ensigns,  moving  nigh,  in slow But firm battalion.

     By one man's firm obediency fully tried. Milton.

     3. Solid; -- opposed to fluid; as, firm land.

     4.  Indicating firmness; as, a firm tread; a firm countenance. Syn.
     --  Compact;  dense;  hard; solid; stanch; robust; strong; sturdly;
     fixed; steady; resolute; constant.


     Firm,  n.  [It.  firma the (firm, sure, or confirming) signature or
     subscription,   or   Pg.  firma  signature,  firm,  cf.  Sp.  firma
     signature;  all  fr.  L. firmus, adj., firm. See Firm, a] The name,
     title,  or  style,  under  which  a  company  transacts business; a
     partnership  of  two  or  more persons; a commercial house; as, the
     firm of Hope & Co.


     Firm,  v. t. [OE. fermen to make firm, F. fermer, fr. L. firmare to
     make firm. See Firm, a.]

     1. To fix; to settle; to confirm; to establish. [Obs.]

     And Jove has firmed it with an awful nod. Dryden.

     2. To fix or direct with firmness. [Obs.]

     He on his card and compass firms his eye. Spenser.


     Fir"ma*ment  (?), n. [L. firmamentum, fr. firmare to make firm: cf.
     F. firmament. See Firm, v. & a.]

     1. Fixed foundation; established basis. [Obs.]

     Custom is the . . . firmament of the law. Jer. Taylor.

     2. The region of the air; the sky or heavens.

     And God said, Let there be a firmament in the miGen. i. 6.

     And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament. Gen. i. 14.

     NOTE: &hand; In  Sc ripture, th e wo rd de notes an expanse, a wide
     extent;  the  great  arch  or  expanse over out heads, in which are
     placed the atmosphere and the clouds, and in which the stars appear
     to be placed, and are really seen.

     3.  (Old Astron.) The orb of the fixed stars; the most rmote of the
     celestial spheres.


     Fir`ma*men"tal  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  the firmament; celestial;
     being of the upper regions. Dryden.


     Fir"man (? OR ?), n.; pl. Firmans (#) or (#). [Pers. ferm\'ben.] In
     Turkey  and  some  other  Oriental  countries,  a decree or mandate
     issued by the sovereign; a royal order or grant; -- generally given
     for  special objects, as to a traveler to insure him protection and
     assistance. [Written also firmaun.]


     Firm"er-chis"el  (?), n. A chisel, thin in proportion to its width.
     It has a tang to enter the handle instead of a socket for receiving
     it. Knight.


     Firm"i*tude  (?), n. [L. firmitudo. See Firm.] Strength; stability.
     [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


     Firm"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  firmitas.] Strength; firmness; stability.
     [Obs.] Chillingworth.


     Firm"less, a.

     1. Detached from substance. [Obs.]

     Does passion still the firmless mind control? Pope.

     2. Infirm; unstable. "Firmless sands." Sylvester.


     Firm"ly, adv. In a firm manner.


     Firm"ness, n. The state or quality of being firm. Syn. -- Firmness,
     Constancy.  Firmness  belongs  to  the  will,  and constancy to the
     affections  and  principles;  the former prevents us from yielding,
     and  the  latter  from  fluctuating.  Without firmness a man has no
     character;  "without  constancy,"  says  Addison, "there is neither
     love, friendship, nor virtue in the world."


     Firms  (?), n. pl. [From Firm, a.] (Arch.) The principal rafters of
     a roof, especially a pair of rafters taken together. [Obs.]


     Fir"ring (?), n. (Arch.) See Furring.


     Fir"ry (?), a. Made of fir; abounding in firs.

     In firry woodlands making moan. Tennyson.


     First  (?),  a. [OE. first, furst, AS. fyrst; akin to Icel. fyrstr,
     Sw.   &   Dan.  f\'94rste,  OHG.  furist,  G.  f\'81rst  prince;  a
     superlatiye  form  of E. for, fore. See For, Fore, and cf. Formeer,

     1.  Preceding  all  others of a series or kind; the ordinal of one;
     earliest; as, the first day of a month; the first year of a reign.

     2. Foremost; in front of, or in advance of, all others.

     3.  Most  eminent  or  exalted; most excellent; chief; highest; as,
     Demosthenes was the first orator of Greece.

     At first blush

   .  See  under  Blush.  --  At  first  hand, from the first or original
   source; without the intervention of any agent.

     It  is  the  intention of the person to reveal it at first hand, by
     way of mouth, to yourself. Dickens.

   --  First  coat (Plastering), the solid foundation of coarse stuff, on
   which  the  rest is placed; it is thick, and crossed with lines, so as
   to  give  a bond for the next coat. -- First day, Sunday; -- so called
   by  the  Friends. -- First floor. (a) The ground floor. [U.S.] (b) The
   floor  next  above  the ground floor. [Eng.] -- First fruit OR fruits.
   (a)  The  fruits of the season earliest gathered. (b) (Feudal Law) One
   year's profits of lands belonging to the king on the death of a tenant
   who  held  directly  from  him.  (c) (Eng. Eccl. Law) The first year's
   whole  profits  of  a  benefice  or spiritual living. (d) The earliest
   effects or results.

     See,  Father,  what  first  fruits  on  earth  are  sprung From thy
     implanted grace in man! Milton.

   --  First  mate,  an  officer in a merchant vessel next in rank to the
   captain.  -- First name, same as Christian name. See under Name, n. --
   First  officer  (Naut.),  in  the merchant service, same as First mate
   (above).  --  First  sergeant  (Mil.),  the  ranking  non-commissioned
   officer  in  a  company;  the orderly sergeant. Farrow. -- First watch
   (Naut.),  the watch from eight to twelve at midnight; also, the men on
   duty  during  that time. -- First water, the highest quality or purest
   luster;  --  said  of  gems, especially of diamond and pearls. Syn. --
   Primary;  primordial;  primitive;  primeval; pristine; highest; chief;
   principal; foremost.


   First (?), adv. Before any other person or thing in time, space, rank,
   etc.; -- much used in composition with adjectives and participles.

     Adam was first formed, then Eve. 1 Tim. ii. 13.

   At  first, At the first, at the beginning or origin. -- First or last,
   at one time or another; at the beginning or end.

     And all are fools and lovers first or last. Dryden.


   First, n. (Mus.) The upper part of a duet, trio, etc., either vocal or
   instrumental; -- so called because it generally expresses the air, and
   has a pre\'89minence in the combined effect.


   First"born`  (?),  a.  First  brought  forth;  first  in  the order of
   nativity;   eldest;  hence,  most  excellent;  most  distinguished  or


   First"-class`  (?),  a. Of the best class; of the highest rank; in the
   first  division;  of  the  best quality; first-rate; as, a first-class
   telescope.  First-class  car  OR  First-class  railway  carriage,  any
   passenger   car  of  the  highest  regular  class,  and  intended  for
   passengers  who  pay the highest regular rate; -- distinguished from a
   second-class car.
   First"-hand`  (?),  a.  Obtained  directly  from the first or original
   source; hence, without the intervention of an agent. 

     One  sphere  there  is  .  .  .  where  the  apprehension of him is
     first-hand  and  direct; and that is the sphere of our own mind. J.


   First"ling (?), n. [First + -ling.]

   1.  The  first  produce  or  offspring; -- said of animals, especially
   domestic animals; as, the firstlings of his flock. Milton.

   2. The thing first thought or done.

     The very firstlings of my heart shall be The firstlings of my hand.


   First"ling, a. Firstborn.

     All the firstling males. Deut. xv. 19.


   First"ly,  adv. In the first place; before anything else; -- sometimes
   improperly used for first.


   First"-rate`  (?),  a.  Of  the  highest  excellence; pre\'89minent in
   quality, size, or estimation.

     Our  only  first-rate body of contemporary poetry is the German. M.

     Hermocrates . . . a man of first-rate ability. Jowett (Thucyd).


   First"-rate`, n. (Naut.) A war vessel of the highest grade or the most
   powerful class.


   Firth (?), n. [Scot. See Frith.] (geog.) An arm of the sea; a frith.

                                   Fir tree

   Fir" tree` (?). See Fir.


   Fisc  (?),  n. [F. fisc, fr. L. fiscus basket, money basket, treasury;
   prob.  akin to fascis bundle. See Fasces.] A public or state treasury.


   Fis"cal  (?),  a.  [F.  fiscal,  L.  fiscalis,  fr. fiscus. See Fisc.]
   Pertaining to the public treasury or revenue.

     The fiscal arreangements of government. A\'3eHamilton.


   Fis"cal, n.

   1. The income of a prince or a state; revenue; exhequer. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2. A treasurer. H. Swinburne.

   3.  A  public  officer  in  Scotland  who prosecutes in petty criminal
   cases; -- called also procurator fiscal.

   4. The solicitor in Spain and Portugal; the attorney-general.


   Fi*set"ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to fustet or fisetin.


   Fis"e*tin  (?),  n.  [G.  fisettholz  a  species of fustic.] (Chem.) A
   yellow  crystalline  substance  extracted from fustet, and regarded as
   its essential coloring principle; -- called also fisetic acid.


   Fish  (?), n. [F. fiche peg, mark, fr. fisher to fix.] A counter, used
   in various games.


   Fish,  n.;  pl.  Fishes  (#), or collectively, Fish. [OE. fisch, fisc,
   fis,  AS.  fisc;  akin  to  D. visch, OS. & OHG. fisk, G. fisch, Icel.
   fiskr,  Sw.  &  Dan.  fisk,  Goth.  fisks,  L.  piscis,  Ir. iasg. Cf.
   Piscatorial.  In some cases, such as fish joint, fish plate, this word
   has prob. been confused with fish, fr. F. fichea peg.]

   1.  A name loosely applied in popular usage to many animals of diverse
   characteristics, living in the water.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) An oviparous, vertebrate animal usually having fins and
   a  covering scales or plates. It breathes by means of gills, and lives
   almost entirely in the water. See Pisces.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e tr ue fishes include the Teleostei (bony fishes),
     Ganoidei,  Dipnoi,  and  Elasmobranchii  or  Selachians (sharks and
     skates).  Formerly  the  leptocardia and Marsipobranciata were also
     included,  but  these  are  now  generally regarded as two distinct
     classes, below the fishes.

   3. pl. The twelfth sign of the zodiac; Pisces.

   4. The flesh of fish, used as food.

   5.  (Naut.)  (a)  A  purchase  used to fish the anchor. (b) A piece of
   timber,  somewhat  in the form of a fish, used to strengthen a mast or

     NOTE: &hand; Fi sh is  us ed ad jectively or  as part of a compound
     word; as, fish line, fish pole, fish spear, fish-bellied.

   Age  of  Fishes.  See  under  Age,  n., 8. -- Fish ball, fish (usually
   salted  codfish)  shared fine, mixed with mashed potato, and made into
   the  form  of  a  small,  round cake. [U.S.] -- Fish bar. Same as Fish
   plate  (below).  --  Fish  beam  (Mech.),  a  beam  one of whose sides
   (commonly the under one) swells out like the belly of a fish. Francis.
   --  Fish crow (Zo\'94l.), a species of crow (Corvus ossifragus), found
   on  the Atlantic coast of the United States. It feeds largely on fish.
   --   Fish  culture,  the  artifical  breeding  and  rearing  of  fish;
   pisciculture.  --  Fish  davit. See Davit. -- Fish day, a day on which
   fish  is  eaten;  a  fast day. -- Fish duck (Zo\'94l.), any species of
   merganser.  --  Fish  fall,  the tackle depending from the fish davit,
   used in hauling up the anchor to the gunwale of a ship. -- Fish garth,
   a  dam  or  weir in a river for keeping fish or taking them easily. --
   Fish  glue. See Isinglass. -- Fish joint, a joint formed by a plate or
   pair of plates fastened upon two meeting beams, plates, etc., at their
   junction;  --  used  largely  in connecting the rails of railroads. --
   Fish  kettle,  a long kettle for boiling fish whole. -- Fish ladder, a
   dam  with  a  series  of  steps which fish can leap in order to ascend
   falls  in  a  river.  --  Fish  line,  OR Fishing line, a line made of
   twisted  hair,  silk, etc., used in angling. -- Fish louse (Zo\'94l.),
   any  crustacean  parasitic  on  fishes,  esp.  the parasitic Copepoda,
   belonging   to   Caligus,  Argulus,  and  other  related  genera.  See
   Branchiura.  --  Fish maw (Zo\'94l.), the stomach of a fish; also, the
   air  bladder, or sound. -- Fish meal, fish desiccated and ground fine,
   for  use  in  soups, etc. -- Fish oil, oil obtained from the bodies of
   fish  and marine animals, as whales, seals, sharks, from cods' livers,
   etc. -- Fish owl (Zo\'94l.), a fish-eating owl of the Old World genera
   Scotopelia   and   Ketupa,  esp.  a  large  East  Indian  species  (K.
   Ceylonensis).  --  Fish  plate,  one of the plates of a fish joint. --
   Fish  pot,  a wicker basket, sunk, with a float attached, for catching
   crabs,  lobsters,  etc.  --  Fish pound, a net attached to stakes, for
   entrapping  and catching fish; a weir. [Local, U.S.] Bartlett. -- Fish
   slice,  a  broad  knife  for dividing fish at table; a fish trowel. --
   Fish  slide,  an  inclined  box  set  in  a stream at a small fall, or
   ripple,  to  catch fish descending the current. Knight. -- Fish sound,
   the  air bladder of certain fishes, esp. those that are dried and used
   as  food, or in the arts, as for the preparation of isinglass. -- Fish
   story,  a  story  which  taxes credulity; an extravagant or incredible
   narration.  [Colloq.  U.S.]  Bartlett.  --  Fish strainer. (a) A metal
   colander,  with  handles,  for  taking  fish  from  a  boiler.  (b)  A
   perforated  earthenware  slab  at  the  bottom of a dish, to drain the
   water  from  a boiled fish. -- Fish trowel, a fish slice. -- Fish weir
   OR  wear,  a  weir set in a stream, for catching fish. -- Neither fish
   nor flesh (Fig.), neither one thing nor the other.


   Fish (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fished (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fishing.]

   1.  To  attempt  to  catch fish; to be employed in taking fish, by any
   means, as by angling or drawing a net.

   2. To seek to obtain by artifice, or indirectly to seek to draw forth;
   as, to fish for compliments.

     Any other fishing question. Sir W. Scott.


   Fish,  v.  t.  [OE.  fischen,  fisken, fissen, AS. fiscian; akin to G.
   fischen, OHG. fisc, Goth. fisk. See Fish the animal.]

   1. To catch; to draw out or up; as, to fish up an anchor.

   2. To search by raking or sweeping. Swift.

   3.  To try with a fishing rod; to catch fish in; as, to fish a stream.

   4.  To  strengthen  (a  beam,  mast,  etc.),  or unite end to end (two
   timbers, railroad rails, etc.) by bolting a plank, timber, or plate to
   the  beam, mast, or timbers, lengthwise on one or both sides. See Fish
   joint, under Fish, n.
   To fish the anchor. (Naut.) See under Anchor.


   Fish"-bel`lied (?), a. Bellying or swelling out on the under side; as,
   a fish-bellied rail. Knight.


   Fish"-block` (?), n. See Fish-tackle.


   Fish"er (?), n. [AS. fiscere.]

   1. One who fishes.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  carnivorous  animal  of  the Weasel family (Mustela
   Canadensis); the pekan; the "black cat."


   Fish"er*man (?), n.; pl. Fishermen (.

   1. One whose occupation is to catch fish.

   2.  (Naut.)  A ship or vessel employed in the business of taking fish,
   as in the cod fishery.


   Fish"er*y (?), n.; pl. Fisheries (.

   1. The business or practice of catching fish; fishing. Addison.

   2. A place for catching fish.

   3.  (Law)  The right to take fish at a certain place, or in particular
   waters. Abbott.


   Fish"ful  (?),  a.  Abounding  with  fish.  [R.] "My fishful pond." R.


   Fish"gig` (?), n. A spear with barbed prongs used for harpooning fish.


   Fish"hawk` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The osprey (Pandion halia\'89tus), found
   both  in  Europe and America; -- so called because it plunges into the
   water  and seizes fishes in its talons. Called also fishing eagle, and
   bald buzzard.


   Fish"hook` (?), n.

   1. A hook for catching fish.

   2.  (Naut.) A hook with a pendant, to the end of which the fish-tackle
   is hooked. Dana.


   Fish"i*fy (?), v. t. To change to fish. [R.] Shak.


   Fish"i*ness,  n.  The  state  or  quality  of being fishy or fishlike.


   Fish"ing, n.

   1. The act, practice, or art of one who fishes.

   2. A fishery. Spenser.


   Fish"ing,  a.  [From  Fishing,  n.]  Pertaining  to  fishing;  used in
   fishery; engaged in fishing; as, fishing boat; fishing tackle; fishing
   village.  Fishing fly, an artificial fly for fishing. -- Fishing line,
   a  line  used in catching fish. -- Fishing net, a net of various kinds
   for  catching  fish;  including  the  bag  net, casting net, drag net,
   landing  net, seine, shrimping net, trawl, etc. -- Fishing rod, a long
   slender  rod,  to  which  is attached the line for angling. -- Fishing
   smack,  a  sloop or other small vessel used in sea fishing. -- Fishing
   tackle, apparatus used in fishing, as hook, line, rod, etc. -- Fishing
   tube  (Micros.),  a glass tube for selecting a microscopic object in a
   fluid.<--  fishing  expedition  (metaphorical usage). an investigation
   searching  for  evidence  of wrongdoing, without specifying in advance
   the  wrongdoing  to  be  proven,  and  often  with no evidence of such
   wrongdoing available at the outset of the investigation -->

   Page 564


   Fish"like  (?),  a.  Like fish; suggestive of fish; having some of the
   qualities of fish.

     A very ancient and fishlike smell. Shak.


   Fish"mon`ger (?), n. A dealer in fish.


   Fish"skin` (?), n.

   1. The skin of a fish (dog fish, shark, etc.)

   2. (Med.) See Ichthyosis.


   Fish"-tac`kle (?), n. A tackle or purchase used to raise the flukes of
   the anchor up to the gunwale. The block used is called the fish-block.


   Fish"-tail`  (?),  a.  Like  the  of  a  fish;  acting,  or  producing
   something,  like  the  tail  of a fish. Fish-tail burner, a gas burner
   that  gives a spreading flame shaped somewhat like the tail of a fish.
   --  Fish-tail  propeller  (Steamship), a propeller with a single blade
   that oscillates like the tail of a fish when swimming.


   Fish"wife` (?), n. A fishwoman.


   Fish"wom`an (?), n.; pl. Fishwomen (. A woman who retails fish.


   Fish"y (?), a.

   1.  Consisting  of  fish;  fishlike;  having the qualities or taste of
   fish; abounding in fish. Pope.

   2.  Extravagant,  like  some  stories about catching fish; improbable;
   also,  rank  or  foul.  [Colloq.]  <--3.  creating  suspicion that the
   surface appearances are misleading -->


   Fisk  (?),  v.  i.  [Cf. Sw. fjeska to bustle about.] To run about; to
   frisk; to whisk. [Obs.]

     He fisks abroad, and stirreth up erroneous opinions. Latimer.


   Fis`si*gem*ma"tion  (?), n. [L. fissus (p.p. of findere to split) + E.
   gemmation.]  (Biol.)  A  process  of reproduction intermediate between
   fission and gemmation.


   Fis"sile  (?),  a. [L. fissilis, fr. fissus, p.p. of findere to split.
   See  Fissure.]  Capable  of  being  split,  cleft,  or  divided in the
   direction  of  the  grain,  like  wood,  or  along  natural  planes of
   cleavage, like crystals.

     This crystal is a pellucid, fissile stone. Sir I. Newton.


   Fis`si*lin"gual  (?),  a.  [L.  fissus (p.p. of findere to split) + E.
   lingual.] (Zo\'94l.) Having the tongue forked.


   Fis`si*lin"gui*a  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. fissus (p.p. o f findere to
   split)  +  lingua tongue.] (Zo\'94l.) A group of Lacertilia having the
   tongue   forked,   including   the   common   lizards.  [Written  also


   Fis*sil"i*ty (?), n. Quality of being fissile.


   Fis"sion (?), n. [L. fissio. See Fissure.]

   1. A cleaving, splitting, or breaking up into parts.

   2.   (Biol.)  A  method  of  asexual  reproduction  among  the  lowest
   (unicellular)  organisms  by  means  of  a  process  of self-division,
   consisting of gradual division or cleavage of the into two parts, each
   of  which then becomes a separate and independent organisms; as when a
   cell  in  an  animal  or  plant,  or its germ, undergoes a spontaneous
   division,  and  the  parts again subdivide. See Segmentation, and Cell
   division, under Division.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  process by which certain coral polyps, echinoderms,
   annelids,  etc., spontaneously subdivide, each individual thus forming
   two or more new ones. See Strobilation.


   Fis`si*pal"mate  (?), a. [L. fissus (p.p. of findere to split) + palma
   palm.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Semipalmate  and  loboped,  as a grebe's foot. See
   Illust. under Aves.


   Fis*sip"a*ra  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL. See Fissiparous.] (Zo\'94l.) Animals
   which reproduce by fission.


   Fis*sip"a*rism  (?),  n.  [See  Fissiparous.]  (Biol.) Reproduction by
   spontaneous fission.


   Fis`si*par"i*ty   (?),   n.  (Biol.)  Quality  of  being  fissiparous;


   Fis*sip"a*rous  (?), a. [L. fissus (p.p. of findere to split) + parere
   to  bring forth: cf. F. fissipare.] (Biol.) Reproducing by spontaneous
   fission. See Fission. -- Fis*sip"a*rous*ly, adv.


   Fis`si*pa"tion (?), n. (Biol.) Reproduction by fission; fissiparism.

                             Fissiped, Fissipedal

   Fis"si*ped   (?),   Fis*sip"e*dal   (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  fissip\'8ade.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Having the toes separated to the base. [See Aves.]


   Fis"si*ped, n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Fissipedia.


   Fis`si*pe"di*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL., fr. L. fissus (p.p. of findere to
   cleave) + pes, pedis, a foot.] (Zo\'94l.) A division of the Carnivora,
   including the dogs, cats, and bears, in which the feet are not webbed;
   -- opposed to Pinnipedia.


   Fis`si*ros"tral  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. fissirostre.] (Zo\'94l.) Having the
   bill  cleft  beyond  the  horny  part,  as in the case of swallows and


   Fis`si*ros"tres  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. L. fissus (p.p. of findere to
   cleave)  +  rostrum beak.] (Zo\'94l.) A group of birds having the bill
   deeply cleft.


   Fis"sur*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  a  fissure  or fissures; as, the
   fissural pattern of a brain.


   Fis`su*ra"tion  (?),  n.  (Anat.)  The act of dividing or opening; the
   state of being fissured.


   Fis"sure  (?),  n. [L. fissura, fr. findere, fissum, to cleave, split;
   akin  to  E.  bite:  cf.  F.  fissure.]  A narrow opening, made by the
   parting of any substance; a cleft; as, the fissure of a rock. Cerebral
   fissures  (Anat.),  the  furrows or clefts by which the surface of the
   cerebrum  is  divided; esp., the furrows first formed by the infolding
   of the whole wall of the cerebrum. -- Fissure needle (Surg.), a spiral
   needle  for  catching  together  the gaping lips of wounds. Knight. --
   Fissure of rolando (Anat.), the furrow separating the frontal from the
   parietal  lobe  in the cerebrum. -- Fissure of Sylvius (Anat.), a deep
   cerebral  fissure  separating  the frontal from the temporal lobe. See
   Illust.  under Brain. -- Fissure vein (Mining), a crack in the earth's
   surface filled with mineral matter. Raymond.


   Fis"sure (?), v. t. To cleave; to divide; to crack or fracture.


   Fis`su*rel"la  (?), n. [NL., dim. of L. fissura a fissure.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A  genus  of marine gastropod mollusks, having a conical or limpetlike
   shell, with an opening at the apex; -- called also keyhole limpet.


   Fist  (?),  n.  [OE.  fist,  fust, AS. f; akin to D. vuist, OHG. f, G.
   faust, and prob. to L. pugnus, Gr. Pugnacious, Pigmy.]

   1.  The  hand with the fingers doubled into the palm; the closed hand,
   especially as clinched tightly for the purpose of striking a blow.

     Who grasp the earth and heaven with my fist. Herbert.

   2. The talons of a bird of prey. [Obs.]

     More light than culver in the falcon's fist. Spenser.

   3.  (print.) the index mark [&hand;], used to direct special attention
   to the passage which follows.
   Hand over fist (Naut.), rapidly; hand over hand.


   Fist, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Fisting.]

   1. To strike with the fist. Dryden.

   2. To gripe with the fist. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fist"ic  (?),  a.  [From Fist.] Pertaining to boxing, or to encounters
   with  the  fists;  puglistic;  as,  fistic  exploits;  fistic  heroes.


   Fist"i*cuff  (?),  n.  A  cuff  or blow with the fist or hand; (pl.) a
   fight with the fists; boxing. Swift.


   Fis"ti*nut  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Fr.  fistinq,  fistuq.  See  Pistachio.] A
   pistachio nut. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Fis*tu"ca  (?),  n. [L.] An instrument used by the ancients in driving


   Fis"tu*la (?; 135), n.; pl. Fistul\'91 (#). [L.]

   1. A reed; a pipe.

   2. A pipe for convejing water. [Obs.] Knight.

   3.  (Med.)  A  permanent  abnormal  opening into the soft parts with a
   constant  discharge;  a  deep,  narrow,  chronic  abscess; an abnormal
   opening  between an internal cavity and another cavity or the surface;
   as, a salivary fistula; an anal fistula; a recto-vaginal fistula.
   Incomplete fistula (Med.), a fistula open at one end only.


   Fis"tu*lar  (?),  a.  [L.  fistularis:  cf. F. fistulaire.] Hollow and
   cylindrical, like a pipe or reed. Johnson.


   Fis`tu*la"ri*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. L. fistula pipe.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus
   of  fishes,  having  the head prolonged into a tube, with the mouth at
   the extremity.


   Fis`tu*la"ri*oid  (?),  a.  [Fistularia  +  -oid.]  (Zo\'94l.) Like or
   pertaining to the genus Fistularia.


   Fis"tu*late  (?;  135),  v.  t. & i. [Cf. L. fistulatus furnished with
   pipes.]  To  make  hollow  or  become  hollow like a fistula, or pipe.
   [Obs.] "A fistulated ulcer." Fuller.


   Fis"tule (?; 135), n. A fistula.


   Fis"tu*li*form  (?  OR  ?),  a. [Fistula + -form.] Of a fistular form;
   tubular; pipe-shaped.

     Stalactite often occurs fistuliform. W. Philips.


   Fis"tu*lose`  (?;  135),  a.  [L.  fistulosus.] Formed like a fistula;
   hollow; reedlike. Craig.


   Fis"tu*lous (?), a. [Cf. F. fistuleux.]

   1. Having the form or nature of a fistula; as, a fistulous ulcer.

   2. Hollow, like a pipe or reed; fistulose. Lindley.


   Fit (?), imp. & p. p. of Fight. [Obs. or Colloq.]


   Fit,  n.  [AS. fitt a song.] In Old English, a song; a strain; a canto
   or portion of a ballad; a passus. [Written also fitte, fytte, etc.]

     To play some pleasant fit. Spenser.


   Fit,  a. [Compar. Fitter (?); superl. Fittest (?).] [OE. fit, fyt; cf.
   E.  feat  neat,  elegant,  well made, or icel. fitja to web, knit, OD.
   vitten to suit, square, Goth. f to adorn.

   1. Adapted to an end, object, or design; suitable by nature or by art;
   suited  by  character,  qualitties,  circumstances,  education,  etc.;
   qualified; competent; worthy.

     That which ordinary men are fit for, I am qualified in. Shak.

     Fit audience find, though few. Milton.

   2. Prepared; ready. [Obs.]

     So  fit  to  shoot,  she singled forth among her foes who first her
     quarry's strength should feel. Fairfax.

   3.  Conformed to a standart of duty, properiety, or taste; convenient;
   meet; becoming; proper.

     Is it fit to say a king, Thou art wicked? Job xxxiv. 18.

   Syn.  --  Suitable;  proper;  appropriate;  meet; becoming; expedient;
   congruous; correspondent; apposite; apt; adapted; prepared; qualified;
   competent; adequate.


   Fit (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fitted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fitting (?).]

   1.  To  make  fit  or  suitable;  to adapt to the purpose intended; to
   qualify; to put into a condition of readiness or preparation.

     The time is fitted for the duty. Burke.

     The  very  situation  for which he was peculiarly fitted by nature.

   2.  To bring to a required form and size; to shape aright; to adapt to
   a  model;  to  adjust;  -- said especially of the work of a carpenter,
   machinist, tailor, etc.

     The  carpenter . . . marketh it out with a line; he fitteth it with
     planes. Is. xliv. 13.

   3. To supply with something that is suitable or fit, or that is shaped
   and adjusted to the use required.

     No milliner can so fit his customers with gloves. Shak.

   4.  To  be suitable to; to answer the requirements of; to be correctly
   shaped and adjusted to; as, if the coat fits you, put it on.

     That's a bountiful answer that fits all questions. Shak.

     That time best fits the work. Shak.

   To fit out, to supply with necessaries or means; to furnish; to equip;
   as,  to  fit  out  a  privateer.  -- To fit up, to firnish with things
   suitable;  to  make  proper for the reception or use of any person; to
   prepare; as, to fit up a room for a guest.
   Fit (?), v. i. 

   1. To be proper or becoming.

     Nor fits it to prolong the feast. Pope.

   2.  To  be  adjusted  to  a  particular  shape or size; to suit; to be
   adapted; as, his coat fits very well.


   Fit, n.

   1.  The  quality of being fit; adjustment; adaptedness; as of dress to
   the person of the wearer.

   2.  (Mach.) (a) The coincidence of parts that come in contact. (b) The
   part of an object upon which anything fits tightly.
   Fit  rod  (Shipbuilding),  a gauge rod used to try the depth of a bolt
   hole in order to determine the length of the bolt required. Knight.


   Fit, n. [AS. fit strife, fight; of uncertain origin. &root; 77.]

   1. A stroke or blow. [Obs. or R.]

     Curse  on  that  cross, quoth then the Sarazin, That keeps thy body
     from the bitter fit. Spenser.

   2.  A sudden and violent attack of a disorder; a stroke of disease, as
   of    epilepsy    or   apoplexy,   which   produces   convulsions   or
   unconsciousness;   a  convulsion;  a  paroxysm;  hence,  a  period  of
   exacerbation of a disease; in general, an attack of disease; as, a fit
   of sickness.

     And when the fit was on him, I did mark How he did shake. Shak.

   3.  A  mood  of  any kind which masters or possesses one for a time; a
   temporary,  absorbing  affection; a paroxysm; as, a fit melancholy, of
   passion, or of laughter.

     All fits of pleasure we balanced by an equal degree of pain. Swift.

     The  English,  however,  were  on  this  subject  prone  to fits of
     jealously. Macaulay.

   4.  A passing humor; a caprice; a sudden and unusual effort, activity,
   or  motion,  followed  by  relaxation  or  insction;  an  impulse  and
   irregular action.

     The fits of the season. Shak.

   5. A darting point; a sudden emission. [R.]

     A tongue of light, a fit of flame. Coleridge.

   By fits, By fits and starts, by intervals of action and re


   Fitch (?; 224), n.; pl. Fitches (#). [See Vetch.]

   1. (Bot.) A vetch. [Obs.]

   2.  pl.  (Bot.)  A  word found in the Authorized Version of the Bible,
   representing  different Hebrew originals. In Isaiah xxviii. 25, 27, it
   means  the  black  aromatic  seeds  of Nigella sativa, still used as a
   flavoring in the East. In Ezekiel iv. 9, the Revised Version now reads


   Fitch,  n. [Contr. of fitched.] (Zo\'94l.) The European polecat; also,
   its fur.


   Fitch"\'82  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. fich\'82, lit. p.p. of ficher to fasten,
   OF.  fichier  to  pierce.  Cf. 1st Fish.] (Her.) Sharpened to a point;
   pointed. Cross fitch\'82, a cross having the lower arm pointed.


   Fitched (?), a. (her.) Fitch\'82. [Also fiched.]

                               Fitchet, Fitchew

   Fitch"et  (?),  Fitch"ew  (?), n. [Cf. OF. fisseau, fissel, OD. fisse,
   visse,  vitsche,  D.  vies  nasty, loathsome, E. fizz.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   European polecat (Putorius f\'d2tidus). See Polecat.


   Fitch"y (?), a. Having fitches or vetches.


   Fitch"y, a. [See Fitch\'82.] (Her.) Fitch\'82.


   Fit"ful  (?),  a.  [From 7th Fit.] Full of fits; irregularly variable;
   impulsive and unstable.

     After life's fitful fever, he sleeps well. Shak.

   -- Fit"ful*ly, adv. -- Fit"ful*ness, n.

     The victorius trumpet peal Dies fitfully away. Macaulay.

                                Fithel, Fithul

   Fith"el  (?),  Fith"ul  (?),  n.  [OE.  See  Fiddle.]  A fiddle [Obs.]


   Fit"ly  (?),  adv.  In a fit manner; suitably; properly; conveniently;
   as, a maxim fitly applied.


   Fit"ment (?), n. The act of fitting; that which is proper or becoming;
   equipment. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fit"ness,  n.  The  state  or quality of being fit; as, the fitness of
   measures or laws; a person's fitness for office.


   Fitt (?), n. See 2d Fit.


   Fit"ta*ble (?), a. Suitable; fit. [Obs.] Sherwood.


   Fit"ted*ness (?), n. The state or quality of being fitted; adaptation.
   [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


   Fit"ter (?), n.

   1.  One  who  fits  or  makes  to fit; esp.: (a) One who tries on, and
   adjusts,  articles of dress. (b) One who fits or adjusts the different
   parts of machinery to each other.

   2.  A  coal  broker who conducts the sales between the owner of a coal
   pit and the shipper. [Eng.] Simmonds.


   Fit"ter, n. A little piece; a flitter; a flinder. [Obs.]

     Where's the Frenchman? Alas, he's all fitters. Beau. & Fl.


   Fit"ting  (?),  n.  Anything  used  in  fitting  up; especially (pl.),
   necessary  fixtures  or  apparatus;  as,  the  fittings of a church or
   study; gas fittings.


   Fit"ting,  a. Fit; appropriate; suitable; proper. -- Fit"ting*ly, adv.
   -- Fit"ting*ness, n. Jer. Taylor.


   Fit"weed`  (?), n. (Bot.) A plant (Eryngium f\'d2tidum) supposed to be
   a remedy for fits.


   Fitz  (?),  n.  [OF.  fils,  filz,  fiz,  son, F. fils, L. filius. See
   Filial.] A son; -- used in compound names, to indicate paternity, esp.
   of  the  illegitimate  sons  of  kings  and  princes of the blood; as,
   Fitzroy,  the  son  of  the king; Fitzclarence, the son of the duke of


   Five (?), a. [OE. fif, five, AS. f\'c6f, f\'c6fe; akin to D. vijf, OS.
   f\'c6f,  OHG.  finf, funf, G. f\'81nf, Icel. fimm, Sw. & Sw. Dan. fem,
   Goth.  fimf,  Lith.  penki, W. pump, OIr. c\'a2ic, L. quinque, Gr. pa.
   Fifth,  Cinque,  Pentagon,  Punch  the  drink,  Quinary.] Four and one
   added; one more than four.

   Page 565

   Five  nations  (Ethnol.), a confederacy of the Huron-Iroquois Indians,
   consisting  of  five tribes: Mohawks, Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas, and
   Senecas. They inhabited the region which is now the State of new York.


   Five (?), n.

   1. The number next greater than four, and less than six; five units or

     Five of them were wise, and five were foolish. Matt. xxv. 2.

   2. A symbol representing this number, as 5, or V.


   Five"-fin`ger (?), n.

   1. (Bot.) See Cinquefoil.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A starfish with five rays, esp. Asterias rubens.


   Five"fold`  (?),  a.  & adv. In fives; consisting of five in one; five
   repeated; quintuple.


   Five"-leaf` (?), n. Cinquefoil; five-finger.

                           Five-leafed, Five-leaved

   Five"-leafed`  (?), Five"-leaved` (?), a. (Bot.) Having five leaflets,
   as the Virginia creeper.


   Five"ling (?), n. (Min.) A compound or twin crystal consisting of five


   Fives  (?),  n.  pl.  A  kind  of  play  with  a  ball against a wall,
   resembling  tennis;  --  so named because three fives, or fifteen, are
   counted to the game. Smart. Fives court, a place for playing fives.


   Fives,  n.  [See  Vives.]  A  disease  of  the glands under the ear in
   horses; the vives. Shak.


   Five`-twen"ties  (?),  n.  pl.  Five-twenty bonds of the United States
   (bearing  six  per  cent  interest),  issued  in  1862,  '64, and '65,
   redeemable after five and payable in twenty years.


   Fix  (?),  a. [OE., fr. L. fixus, p.p. of figere to fix; cf. F. fixe.]
   Fixed; solidified. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fix,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Fixed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fixing.] [Cf. F.

   1.  To  make  firm,  stable,  or fast; to set or place permanently; to
   fasten  immovably;  to  establish;  to  implant;  to  secure;  to make

     An ass's nole I fixed on his head. Shak.

     O,  fix  thy  chair of grace, that all my powers May also fix their
     reverence. Herbert.

     His heart is fixed, trusting in the Lord. Ps. cxii. 7.

     And fix far deeper in his head their stings. Milton.

   2.  To hold steadily; to direct unwaveringly; to fasten, as the eye on
   an object, the attention on a speaker.

     Sat fixed in thought the mighty Stagirite. Pope.

     One eye on death, and one full fix'd on heaven. Young.

   3. To transfix; to pierce. [Obs.] Sandys.

   4. (Photog.) To render (an impression) permanent by treating with such
   applications a will make it insensible to the action of light. Abney.

   5.  To  put  in prder; to arrange; to dispose of; to adjust; to set to
   rights; to set or place in the manner desired or most suitable; hence,
   to  repair;  as,  to  fix the clothes; to fix the furniture of a room.
   [Colloq. U.S.]

   6.  (Iron  Manuf.)  To  line  the  hearth of (a puddling furnace) with
   fettling.  Syn.  --  To  arrange;  prepare;  adjust;  place; establis;
   settle; determine.


   Fix, v. i.

   1.  To  become  fixed;  to settle or remain permanently; to cease from
   wandering; to rest.

     Your  kindness  banishes  your  fear, Resolved to fix forever here.

   2. To become firm, so as to resist volatilization; to cease to flow or
   be  fluid;  to  congeal;  to  become hard and malleable, as a metallic
   substance. Bacon.
   To  fix  on,  to  settle the opinion or resolution about; to determine
   regarding;  as,  the contracting parties have fixed on certain leading
   Fix, n. 

   1.  A  position  of  difficulty or embarassment; predicament; dillema.

     Is  he not living, then? No. is he dead, then? No, nor dead either.
     Poor  Aroar  can  not live, and can not die, -- so that he is in an
     almighty fix. De Quincey.

   2. (Iron Manuf.) fettling. [U.S.]


   Fix"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being fixed.


   Fix*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. fixation.]

   1. The act of fixing, or the state of being fixed.

     An unalterable fixation of resolution. Killingbeck.

     To  light,  created  in  the first day, God gave no proper place or
     fixation. Sir W. Raleigh.

     Marked stiffness or absolute fixation of a joint. Quain.

     A fixation and confinement of thought to a few objects. Watts.

   2.  The act of uniting chemically with a solid substance or in a solid
   form;  reduction  to  a  non-volatile  condition;  --  said of gaseous

   3.  The  act  or  process  of  ceasing  to be fluid and becoming firm.

   4.  A state of resistance to evaporation or volatilization by heat; --
   said of metals. Bacon.


   Fix"a*tive (?), n. That which serves to set or fix colors or drawings,
   as a mordant.


   Fixed (?), a.

   1.  Securely placed or fastened; settled; established; firm; imovable;

   2. (Chem.) Stable; non-volatile.
   Fixed  air  (Old Chem.), carbonic acid or carbon dioxide; -- so called
   by  Dr. Black because it can be absorbed or fixed by strong bases. See
   Carbonic  acid,  under  Carbonic.  --  Fixed  alkali  (Old  Chem.),  a
   non-volatile  base,  as  soda,  or  potash,  in  distinction  from the
   volatile  alkali ammonia. -- Fixed ammunition (Mil.), a projectile and
   powder inclosed together in a case ready for loading. -- Fixed battery
   (Mil.),  a  battery  which contains heavy guns and mortars intended to
   remain  stationary;  --  distinguished  from movable battery. -- Fixed
   bodies,  those  which  can not be volatilized or separated by a common
   menstruum,  without great difficulty, as gold, platinum, lime, etc. --
   Fixed  capital.  See  the  Note under Capital, n., 4. -- Fixed fact, a
   well  established  fact.  [Colloq.]  --  Fixed  light, one which emits
   constant  beams;  --  distinguished  from  a  flashing,  revolving, or
   intermittent   light.   --  Fixed  oils  (Chem.),  non-volatile,  oily
   substances,  as  stearine  and  olein,  which leave a permanent greasy
   stain, and which can not be distilled unchanged; -- distinguished from
   volatile  or  essential  oils.  -- Fixed pivot (Mil.), the fixed point
   about  which any line of troops wheels. -- Fixed stars (Astron.), such
   stars  as always retain nearly the same apparent position and distance
   with  respect  to  each  other,  thus  distinguished  from planets and


   Fix"ed*ly (?), adv. In a fixed, stable, or constant manner.


   Fix"ed*ness, n.

   1. The state or quality of being fixed; stability; steadfastness.

   2.  The  quality of a body which resists evaporation or volatilization
   by heat; solidity; cohesion of parts; as, the fixedness of gold.


   Fix*id"i*ty (?), n. Fixedness. [Obs.] Boyle.


   Fix"ing (?), n.

   1. The act or process of making fixed.

   2. That which is fixed; a fixture.

   3.   pl.   Arrangements;  embellishments;  trimmings;  accompaniments.
   [Colloq. U.S.]


   Fix"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. fixit\'82.]

   1. Fixedness; as, fixity of tenure; also, that which is fixed.

   2. Coherence of parts. Sir I. Newton.


   Fix"ture (?; 135), n. [Cf. Fixture.]

   1.  That  which  is  fixed  or  attached  to  something as a permanent
   appendage;  as, the fixtures of a pump; the fixtures of a farm or of a
   dwelling, that is, the articles which a tenant may not take away.

   2. State of being fixed; fixedness.

     The firm fixture of thy foot. Shak.

   3.  (Law)  Anything  of  an  accessory character annexed to houses and
   lands,  so  as  to  constitute  a part of them. This term is, however,
   quite  frequently  used  in  the  peculiar  sense of personal chattels
   annexed  to  lands and tenements, but removable by the person annexing
   them,  or his personal representatives. In this latter sense, the same
   things  may  be  fixtures  under  some circumstances, and not fixtures
   under others. Wharton (Law Dict. ). Bouvier.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  is wo rd is  fr equently su bstituted fo r fi xure
     (formerly the word in common use) in new editions of old works.


   Fix"ure  (?),  n.  [L. fixura a fastening, fr. figere to fix. See Fix,
   and  cf.  Fixture.] Fixed position; stable condition; firmness. [Obs.]


   Fix"gig` (?), n. A fishing. [Obs.] Sandys.


   Fiz"gig`,  n.  [Fizz  +  gig whirling thing.] A firework, made of damp
   powder, which makes a fizzing or hissing noise when it explodes.


   Fiz"gig`, n. [See Gig a flirt.] A gadding, flirting girl. Gosson.


   Fizz  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Fizzed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fizzing.]
   [Cf.  Icel.  f\'c6sa  to  break wind, Dan. fise to foist, fizzle, OSw.
   fisa,  G.  fisten,  feisten. Cf. Foist.] To make a hissing sound, as a
   burning fuse.


   Fizz, n. A hising sound; as, the fizz of a fly.


   Fiz"zle (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fizzled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fizzling
   (?).] [See Fizz.]

   1. To make a hissing sound.

     It is the easfizzling. B. Jonson.

   2. To make a ridiculous failure in an undertaking. [Colloq. or Low]
   To  fizzle out, to burn with a hissing noise and then go out, like wet
   gunpowder;  hence,  to  fail  completely  and  ridicuously; to prove a
   failure. [Colloq.]


   Fiz"zle, n. A failure or abortive effort. [Colloq.]


   Fjord (?), n. See Fiord.


   Flab"ber*gast  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  Flap,  and Aghast.] To astonish; to
   strike  with  wonder,  esp.  by  extraordinary  statements.  [Jocular]


   Flab`ber*gas*ta"tion   (?),  n.  The  state  of  being  flabbergasted.
   [Jocular] London Punch.


   Flab"bi*ly (?), adv. In a flabby manner.


   Flab"bi*ness, n. Quality or state of being flabby.


   Flab"by (?), a. [See Flap.] Yielding to the touch, and easily moved or
   shaken;  hanging  loose  by its own weight; wanting firmness; flaccid;
   as, flabby flesh.


   Fla"bel  (?),  n.  [L.  flabellum a fan, dim. of flabrum a breeze, fr.
   flare to blow.] A fan. [Obs.] Huloet.


   Fla*bel"late  (?),  a. [L. flabellatus, p.p. of flabellare to fan, fr.
   flabellum. See Flabbel.] (Bot.) Flabelliform.


   Flab`el*la"tion (?), n. The act of keeping fractured limbs cool by the
   use of a fan or some other contrivance. Dunglison.


   Fla*bel"li*form  (?),  a.  [L.  flabellum  a  fan  +  -fform:  cf.  F.
   flabeliforme.] Having the form of a fan; fan-shaped; flabellate.


   Fla*bel"li*nerved`  (?),  a.  [L.  flabellum a fan + E. nerve.] (Bot.)
   Having  many  nerves  diverging  radiately from the base; -- said of a


   Fla*bel"lum  (?),  n.  [L. See Flabel.] (Eccl.) A fan; especially, the
   fan  carried  before  the pope on state occasions, made in ostrich and
   peacock feathers. Shipley.


   Flab"ile (?), a. [L. flabilis.] Liable to be blown about. Bailey.


   Flac"cid (?), a. [L. flaccidus, fr. flaccus flabby: cf. OF. flaccide.]
   Yielding  to  pressure  for  want  of firmness and stiffness; soft and
   weak;  limber;  lax;  drooping;  flabby; as, a flaccid muscle; flaccid

     Religious profession . . . has become flacced. I. Taylor.

   -- Flac"cid*ly (#), adv. -- Flac"cid*ness, n.


   Flac*cid"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  flaccidit\'82.]  The state of being


   Flack"er  (?), v. i. [OE. flakeren, fr. flacken to move quickly to and
   fro; cf. icel. flakka to rove about, AS. flacor fluttering, flying, G.
   flackern  to  flare,  flicker.]  To  flutter,  as a bird. [Prov. Eng.]


   Flack"et (?), n. [OF. flasquet little flask, dim. of flasque a flask.]
   A barrel-shaped bottle; a flagon.


   Flag  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Flagged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flagging
   (?).]  [Cf.  Icel.  flaka to droop, hang loosely. Cf. Flacker, Flag an

   1.  To hang loose without stiffness; to bend down, as flexible bodies;
   to be loose, yielding, limp.

     As loose it [the sail] flagged around the mast. T. Moore.

   2.  To  droop; to grow spiritless; to lose vigor; to languish; as, the
   spirits flag; the streugth flags.

     The pleasures of the town begin to flag. Swift.

   Syn. -- To droop; decline; fail; languish; pine.


   Flag (?), v. t.

   1.  To let droop; to suffer to fall, or let fall, into feebleness; as,
   to flag the wings. prior.

   2. To enervate; to exhaust the vigor or elasticity of.

     Nothing so flags the spirits. Echard.


   Flag, n. [Cf. LG. & G. flagge, Sw. flagg, Dan. flag, D. vlag. See Flag
   to hang loose.]

   1. That which flags or hangs down loosely.

   2.  A  cloth  usually bearing a device or devices and used to indicate
   nationality,  party,  etc., or to give or ask information; -- commonly
   attached  to a staff to be waved by the wind; a standard; a banner; an
   ensign; the colors; as, the national flag; a military or a naval flag.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A group of feathers on the lower part of the legs of
   certain  hawks,  owls,  etc. (b) A group of elongated wing feathers in
   certain hawks. (c) The bushy tail of a dog, as of a setter.
   Black  flag.  See  under Black. -- Flag captain, Flag leutenant, etc.,
   special  officers  attached  to  the  flagship,  as  aids  to the flag
   officer.  --  Flag  officer,  the commander of a fleet or squadron; an
   admiral,  or  commodore.  --  Flag  of  truse, a white flag carried or
   displayed  to  an  enemy,  as  an invitation to conference, or for the
   purpose  of  making some communication not hostile. -- Flag share, the
   flag  officer's  share  of  prize money. -- Flag station (Railroad), a
   station  at  which  trains  do not stop unless signaled to do so, by a
   flag  hung  out  or  waved.  --  National flag, a flag of a particular
   country,  on  which  some national emblem or device, is emblazoned. --
   Red  flag,  a  flag of a red color, displayed as a signal of danger or
   token  of  defiance; the emblem of anarchists. -- To dip, the flag, to
   mlower  it  and  quickly restore it to its place; -- done as a mark of
   respect.  --  To hang out the white flag, to ask truce or quarter, or,
   in  some  cases,  to  manifest a friendly design by exhibiting a white
   flag.  --  To  hang the flag half-mast high OR half-staff, to raise it
   only half way to the mast or staff, as a token or sign of mourning. --
   To  strike,  OR lower, the flag, to haul it down, in token of respect,
   submission,  or,  in  an engagement, of surrender. -- Yellow flag, the
   quarantine  flag  of  all nations; also carried at a vessel's fore, to
   denote that an infectious disease is on board.


   Flag, v. t. [From Flag an ensign.]

   1. To signal to with a flag; as, to flag a train.

   2.  To  convey, as a message, by means of flag signals; as, to flag an
   order to troops or vessels at a distance.


   Flag,  n.  [From  Flag to hang loose, to bend down.] (Bot.) An aquatic
   plant,  with  long, ensiform leaves, belonging to either of the genera
   Iris  and  Acorus.  Cooper's flag, the cat-tail (Typha latifolia), the
   long  leaves of which are placed between the staves of barrels to make
   the  latter  water-tight.  --  Corn  flag.  See under 2d Corn. -- Flag
   broom,  a coarse of broom, originally made of flags or rushes. -- Flag
   root, the root of the sweet flag. -- Sweet flag. See Calamus, n., 2.


   Flag, v. t. To furnish or deck out with flags.


   Flag,  n.  [Icel. flaga, cf. Icel. flag spot where a turf has been cut
   out, and E. flake layer, scale. Cf. Floe.]

   1. A flat stone used for paving. Woodward.

   2.  (Geol.)  Any  hard, evenly stratified sandstone, which splits into
   layers suitable for flagstones.


   Flag, v. t. To lay with flags of flat stones.

     The sides and floor are all flagged with . . . marble. Sandys.


   Flag"el*lant  (?),  n.  [L.  flagellans,  p.p.  of  flagellare:  cf.F.
   flagellant.  See  Flagellate.]  (Eccl.  Hist.) One of a fanatical sect
   which  flourished  in  Europe  in  the  13th  and  14th centuries, and
   maintained  that flagellation was of equal virtue with baptism and the
   sacrament; -- called also disciplinant.


   Flag`el*la"ta   (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.L.  flagellatus,  p.  p.  See
   Flagellate, v. t.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of Infusoria, having one or two
   long,  whiplike  cilia,  at  the anterior end. It includes monads. See
   Infusoria, and Monad.


   Flag"el*late (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flagellated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flagellating  (?).] [L. flagellatus, p.p. of flagellare to scoure, fr.
   flagellum  whip,  dim. of flagrum whip, scoure; cf. fligere to strike.
   Cf. Flall.] To whip; to scourge; to flog.


   Fla*gel"late (?), a.

   1. Flagelliform.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to the Flagellata.


   Flag`el*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  flagellatio:  cf.  F. flagellation.] A
   beating or flogging; a whipping; a scourging. Garth.


   Flag"el*la`tor  (?),  n. One who practices flagellation; one who whips
   or scourges.


   Fla*gel"li*form  (?),  a. [L. flagellum a whip + -form.] Shaped like a
   whiplash; long, slender, round, flexible, and (comming) tapering.


   Fla*gel"lum  (?),  n.;  pl. E. Flagellums (#), L. Flagella (#). [L., a
   whip. See Flagellate, v. t.]

   1.  (Bot.) A young, flexible shoot of a plant; esp., the long trailing
   branch of a vine, or a slender branch in certain mosses.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  A  long,  whiplike cilium. See Flagellata. (b) An
   appendage  of  the reproductive apparatus of the snail. (c) A lashlike
   appendage  of a crustacean, esp. the terminal ortion of the antenn\'91
   and the epipodite of the maxilipeds. See Maxilliped.

   Page 566


   Flag"eo*let`  (?), n. [F. flageolet, dim. of OF. flaj (as if fr. a LL.
   flautio;us),  of fla\'81te, flahute, F. fl. See Flute.] (Mus.) A small
   wooden  pipe,  having  six or more holes, and a mouthpiece inserted at
   one end. It produces a shrill sound, softer than of the piccolo flute,
   and  is  said  to  have  superseded  the old recorder. Flageolet tones
   (Mus.), the naturel harmonics or overtones of stringed instruments.


   Flag"gi*ness   (?),   n.   The  condition  of  being  flaggy;  laxity;
   limberness. Johnson.


   Flag"ging  (?),  n.  A pavement or sidewalk of flagstones; flagstones,


   Flag"ging,   a.  Growing  languid,  weak,  or  spiritless;  weakening;
   delaying. -- Flag"ging*ly, adv.


   Flag"gy (?), a.

   1. Weak; flexible; limber. "Flaggy wings." Spenser.

   2. Tasteless; insipid; as, a flaggy apple. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Flag"gy, a. [From 5th Flag.] Abounding with the plant called flag; as,
   a flaggy marsh.


   Flag"i*tate  (?),  v.  t. [L. flagitatus, p.p. of flagitare to demand.
   See  Flagitious.]  To  importune;  to demand fiercely or with passion.
   [Archaic] Carcyle.


   Flag`i*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L. flagitatio.] Importunity; urgent demand.
   [Archaic] Carlyle.


   Fla*gi"tious  (?),  a.  [L.  flagitiosus,  fr. flagitium a shameful or
   disgraceful  act,  orig.,  a  burning  desire,  heat  of passion, from
   flagitare  to  demand  hotly,  fiercely;  cf.  flagrare  to  burn,  E.

   1.  Disgracefully  or shamefully criminal; grossly wicked; scandalous;
   shameful; -- said of acts, crimes, etc.

     Debauched principles and flagitious practices. I. Taylor.

   2. Guilty of enormous crimes; corrupt; profligate; -- said of persons.

   3.  Characterized by scandalous crimes or vices; as, flagitious times.
   Pope.  Syn.  --  Atrocious;  villainous;  flagrant;  heinous; corrupt;
   profligate;  abandoned.  See  Atracious.  --  Fla*gi"tious*ly, adv. --
   Fla*gi"tious*ness, n.

     A sentence so flagitiously unjust. Macaulay.


   Flag"man (?), n.; pl. Flagmen (. One who makes signals with a flag.


   Flag"on  (?),  n.  [F.  flacon, for flascon, fr. OF. flasche, from LL.
   flasco. See Flask.] A vessel with a narrow mouth, used for holding and
   conveying  liquors.  It  is  generally  larger  than  a bottle, and of
   leather or stoneware rather than of glass.

     A trencher of mutton chops, and a flagon of ale. Macaulay.


   Fla"grance (?), n. Flagrancy. Bp. Hall.


   Fla"gran*cy  (?),  n.;  pl. Flagrancies (#). [L. flagrantia a burning.
   See Flagrant.]

   1. A burning; great heat; inflammation. [Obs.]

     Lust causeth a flagrancy in the eyes. Bacon.

   2. The condition or quality of being flagrant; atrocity; heiniousness;
   enormity; excess. Steele.


   Fla"grant  (?),  a.  [L.  flagrans, -antis, p.pr. of flagrate to burn,
   akin to Gr. flagrant. Cf. Flame, Phlox.]

   1. Flaming; inflamed; glowing; burning; ardent.

     The beadle's lash still flagrant on their back. Prior.

     A  young  man  yet flagrant from the lash of the executioner or the
     beadle. De Quincey.

     Flagrant desires and affections. Hooker.

   2.  Actually  in  preparation,  execution,  or performance; carried on
   hotly; raging.

     A war the most powerful of the native tribes was flagrant. Palfrey.

   3.  Flaming  into  notice;  notorious;  enormous;  heinous;  glaringly
   wicked. Syn. -- Atrocious; flagitious; glaring. See Atrocious.


   Fla"grant*ly, adv. In a flagrant manner.


   Fla"grate  (?), v. t. [L. flagrare, flagratum, v.i. & t., to burn.] To
   burn. [Obs.] Greenhill.


   Fla*gra"tion (?), n. A conflagration. [Obs.]


   Flag"ship`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  The vessel which carries the commanding
   officer  of  a  fleet  or  squadron  and flies his distinctive flag or


   Flag"staff`  (?),  n.;  pl. -staves ( or -staffs (. A staff on which a
   flag is hoisted.


   Flag"stone`  (?),  n.  A  flat stone used in paving, or any rock which
   will split into such stones. See Flag, a stone.


   Flag"worm`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A worm or grub found among flags and


   Flail  (?), n. [L. flagellum whip, scourge, in LL., a threshing flail:
   cf. OF. flael, flaiel, F. fl\'82au. See Flagellum.]

   1.  An instrument for threshing or beating grain from the ear by hand,
   consisting  of a wooden staff or handle, at the end of which a stouter
   and  shorter  pole  or  club,  called  a swipe, is so hung as to swing

     His shadowy flail hath threshed the corn. Milton.

   2. An ancient military weapon, like the common flail, often having the
   striking part armed with rows of spikes, or loaded. Fairholt.

     No  citizen thought himself safe unless he carried under his coat a
     small  flail,  loaded  with  lead,  to  brain the Popish assassins.


   Flail"y (?), a. Acting like a flail. [Obs.] Vicars.


   Flain (?), obs. p. p. of Flay. Chaucer.


   Flake (?), n. [Cf. Icel. flaki, fleki, Dan. flage, D. vlaak.]

   1. A paling; a hurdle. [prov. Eng.]

   2.  A  platform  of  hurdles, or small sticks made fast or interwoven,
   supported by stanchions, for drying codfish and other things.

     You  shall  also,  after  they be ripe, neither suffer them to have
     straw  nor  fern  under  them, but lay them either upon some smooth
     table,  boards,  or flakes of wands, and they will last the longer.
     English Husbandman.

   3.  (Naut.)  A  small  stage hung over a vessel's side, for workmen to
   stand on in calking, etc.


   Flake  (?),  n. [Cf. Icel. flakna to flake off, split, flagna to flake
   off,  Sw.  flaga  flaw,  flake, flake plate, Dan. flage snowflake. Cf.
   Flag a flat stone.]

   1.  A  loose  filmy mass or a thin chiplike layer of anything; a film;
   flock;  lamina;  layer;  scale;  as, a flake of snow, tallow, or fish.
   "Lottle flakes of scurf." Addison.

     Great flakes of ice encompassing our boat. Evelyn.

   2.  A little particle of lighted or incandescent matter, darted from a
   fire; a flash.

     With flakes of ruddy fire. Somerville.

   3.  (Bot.) A sort of carnation with only two colors in the flower, the
   petals having large stripes. <-- 4. a flaky{2} person -->
   Flake knife (Arch\'91ol.), a cutting instrument used by savage tribes,
   made  of  a  flake  or  chip of hard stone. Tylor. -- Flake stand, the
   cooling  tub  or  vessel  of  a  still  worm.  Knight. -- Flake white.
   (Paint.)  (a)  The purest white lead, in the form of flakes or scales.
   (b) The trisnitrate of bismuth. Ure.


   Flake,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Flaked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flaking.] To
   form into flakes. Pope.


   Flake, v. i. To separate in flakes; to peel or scale off.


   Flak"i*ness (?), n. The state of being flaky.


   Flak"y  (?), a. Consisting of flakes or of small, loose masses; lying,
   or  cleaving off, in flakes or layers; flakelike. <--2. (of persons) =
   prone  to  strange  behavior;  (of  actions)  odd  or unconventional =
   offbeat, whacky -->

     What showers of mortal hail, what flaky fires! Watts.

     A flaky weight of winter's purest snows. Wordsworth.


   Flam (?), n. [Cf. AS. fle\'a0m, fl, floght. &root; 84 . Cf. Flimflam.]
   A  freak  or  whim;  also,  a  falsehood;  a lie; an illusory pretext;
   deception; delusion. [Obs.]

     A perpetual abuse and flam upon posterity. South.


   Flam,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Flammed ; p. pr. & vb. n. Flamming.] To
   deceive with a falsehood. [Obs.]

     God is not to be flammed off with lies. South.


   Flam"beau  (?);  n.;  pl. Flambeaux (#) or Flambeaus (#). [F., fr. OF.
   flambe  flame,  for  flamble, from L. flammula a little flame, dim. of
   flamma  flame. See Flame.] A flaming torch, esp. one made by combining
   together  a  number  of  thick  wicks  invested  with  a quick-burning
   substance  (anciently,  perhaps,  wax;  in  modern times, pitch or the
   like); hence, any torch.


   Flam*boy"ant (?), a. [F.] (Arch.) Characterized by waving or flamelike
   curves, as in the tracery of windows, etc.; -- said of the later (15th
   century) French Gothic style.


   Flam*boy"er  (?),  n. [F. flamboyer to be bright.] (Bot.) A name given
   in  the East and West Indies to certain trees with brilliant blossoms,
   probably species of C\'91salpinia.


   Flame  (?),  n.  [OE.  flame,  flaume,  flaumbe, OF. flame, flambe, F.
   flamme, fr. L. flamma, fr. flamma, fr. flagrare to burn. See Flagrant,
   and cf. Flamneau, Flamingo.]

   1.  A stream of burning vapor or gas, emitting light and heat; darting
   or streaming fire; a blaze; a fire.

   2.  Burning  zeal  or  passion; elevated and noble enthusiasm; glowing
   imagination;  passionate  excitement  or  anger.  "In  a flame of zeal
   severe." Milton.

     Where flames refin'd in breasts seraphic glow. Pope.

     Smit  with  the  love  of  sister  arts we came, And met congenial,
     mingling flame with flame. Pope.

   3. Ardor of affection; the passion of love. Coleridge.

   4.   A  person  beloved;  a  sweetheart.  Thackeray.  Syn.  --  Blaze;
   brightness; ardor. See Blaze.
   Flame  bridge,  a  bridge  wall.  See  Bridge,  n., 5. -- Flame color,
   brilliant  orange or yellow. B. Jonson. -- Flame engine, an early name
   for  the  gas  engine.  -- Flame manometer, an instrument, invented by
   Koenig,  to  obtain  graphic representation of the action of the human
   vocal  organs.  See  Manometer. -- Flame reaction (Chem.), a method of
   testing  for  the  presence  of certain elements by the characteristic
   color imparted to a flame; as, sodium colors a flame yellow, potassium
   violet,  lithium  crimson,  boracic  acid  green,  etc.  Cf.  Spectrum
   analysis,  under  Spectrum.  --  Flame  tree (Bot.), a tree with showy
   scarlet  flowers,  as  the  Rhododendron  arboreum  in  India, and the
   Brachychiton acerifolium of Australia.


   Flame,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Flamed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flaming.] [OE.
   flamen, flaumben, F. flamber, OF. also, flamer. See Flame, n.]

   1.  To  burn with a flame or blaze; to burn as gas emitted from bodies
   in combustion; to blaze.

     The main blaze of it is past, but a small thing would make it flame
     again. Shak.

   2.  To burst forth like flame; to break out in violence of passion; to
   be kindled with zeal or ardor.

     He flamed with indignation. Macaulay.


   Flame, v. t. To kindle; to inflame; to excite.

     And flamed with zeal of vengeance inwardly. Spenser.


   Flame"-col`ored  (?),  a.  Of  the  color of flame; of a bright orange
   yellow color. Shak.


   Flame"less, a. Destitute of flame. Sandys.


   Flame"let (?), n. [Flame + -let.] A small flame.

     The flamelets gleamed and flickered. Longfellow.


   Fla"men  (?),  n.;  pl.  E.  Flammens (#), L. Flamines (#). [L.] (Rom.
   Antiq.) A priest devoted to the service of a particular god, from whom
   he  received  a distinguishing epithet. The most honored were those of
   Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus, called respectively Flamen Dialis, Flamen
   Martialis, and Flamen Quirinalis.

     Affrights the flamens at their service quaint. Milton.


   Fla*min"e*ous (?), a. Pertaining to a flamen; flaminical.


   Flam"ing (?), a.

   1. Emitting flames; afire; blazing; consuming; illuminating.

   2.  Of  the  color  of  flame;  high-colored; brilliant; dazzling. "In
   flaming yellow bright." Prior.

   3. Ardent; passionate; burning with zeal; irrepressibly earnest; as, a
   flaming proclomation or harangue.


   Flam"ing*ly, adv. In a flaming manner.


   Fla*min"go  (?),  n.;  pl.  Flamingoes  (#).  [Sp.  flamenco,  cf. Pg.
   flamingo,  Prov.  flammant, F. flamant; prop. a p.pr. meaning flaming.
   So called in allusion to its color. See Flame.] (Zo\'94l.) Any bird of
   the genus Ph\'d2nicopterus. The flamingoes have webbed feet, very long
   legs, and a beak bent down as if broken. Their color is usually red or
   pink.   The  American  flamingo  is  P.  ruber;  the  European  is  P.


   Fla*min"i*cal (?), a. Pertaining to a flamen. Milton.


   Flam`ma*bil"ity    (?),   n.   The   quality   of   being   flammable;
   inflammability. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Flam"ma*ble (?), a. Inflammable. [Obs.]


   Flam*ma"tion  (?),  n.  The act of setting in a flame or blaze. [Obs.]
   Sir. T. Browne.


   Flam"me*ous  (?),  a.  [L. flammeus from flamma flame.] Pertaining to,
   consisting of, or resembling, flame. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Flam*mif"er*ous  (?), a. [L. flammifer; flamma flame + ferre to bear.]
   Producing flame.


   Flam*miv"o*mous  (?),  a.  [L.  flammivomus;  flamma flame + vomere to
   vomit.] Vomiting flames, as a volcano. W. Thompson. (1745).


   Flam"mu*la`ted  (?),  a.  [L.  flammula  little flame, dim. fr. flamma
   flame.] Of a reddish color.


   Flam"y   (?),   a.   [From   Flame.]   Flaming;   blazing;  flamelike;
   flame-colored; composed of flame. Pope.


   Flanch (?), n.; pl. Flanches (#). [Prov. E., a projection, OF. flanche
   flank. See Flank.]

   1.  A  flange.  [R.].  (Her.)  A  bearing consisting of a segment of a
   circle encroaching on the field from the side.

     NOTE: &hand; Fl anches ar e al ways in pairs. A pair of flanches is
     considered one of the subordinaries.


   Flanched (?), a. (Her.) Having flanches; -- said of an escutcheon with
   those bearings.


   Flan`co*nade" (?), n. [F.] (Fencing) A thrust in the side.


   Fla`neur" (?), n. [F., fr. fl\'83ner to stroll.] One who strolls about
   aimlessly; a lounger; a loafer.


   Flang (?), n. A miner's two-pointed pick.


   Flange  (?),  n. [Prov. E. flange to project, flanch a projection. See
   Flanch, Flank.]

   1. An external or internal rib, or rim, for strength, as the flange of
   an  iron  beam;  or for a guide, as the flange of a car wheel (see Car
   wheel.); or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end
   of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc. Knight.

   2. A plate or ring to form a rim at the end of a pipe when fastened to
   the pipe.
   Blind  flange,  a  plate for covering or closing the end of a pipe. --
   Flange  joint,  a joint, as that of pipes, where the connecting pieces
   have  flanges by which the parts are bolted together. Knight. - Flange
   rail,  a  rail  with  a  flange on one side, to keep wheels, etc. from
   running  off.  -- Flange turning, the process of forming a flange on a
   wrought iron plate by bending and hammering it wh


   Flange,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Flanged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flanging
   (?).] (Mach.) To make a flange on; to furnish with a flange.


   Flange, v. i. To be bent into a flange.


   Flanged (?), a. Having a flange or flanges; as, a flanged wheel.


   Flank (?), n. [F. flanc, prob. fr. L. flaccus flabby, with n inserted.
   Cf. Flaccid, Flanch, Flange.]

   1.  The  fleshy or muscular part of the side of an animal, between the
   rids and the hip. See Illust. of Beef.

   2.  (Mil.)  (a) The side of an army, or of any division of an army, as
   of  a  brigade, regiment, or battalion; the extreme right or left; as,
   to attack an enemy in flank is to attack him on the side.

     When to right and left the front

     Divided, and to either flank retired. Milton.

     (b)  (Fort.)  That part of a bastion which reaches from the curtain
     to  the  face,  and  defends the curtain, the flank and face of the
     opposite  bastion;  any  part of a work defending another by a fire
     along the outside of its parapet. See Illust. of Bastion.

     3. (Arch.) The side of any building. Brands.

     4.  That part of the acting surface of a gear wheel tooth that lies
     within the pitch line.

   Flank  attack  (Mil.),  an  attack upon the side of an army or body of
   troops,  distinguished  from  one  upon  its  front  or rear. -- Flank
   company  (Mil.),  a  certain number of troops drawn up on the right or
   left  of a battalion; usually grenadiers, light infantry, or riflemen.
   --  Flank defense (Fort.), protection of a work against undue exposure
   to  an  enemy's  direct  fire,  by means of the fire from other works,
   sweeping the ground in its front. -- Flank en potence (Mil.), any part
   of  the right or left wing formed at a projecting angle with the line.
   --  Flank files, the first men on the right, and the last on the left,
   of a company, battalion, etc. -- Flank march, a march made parallel or
   obliquely to an enemy's position, in order to turn it or to attack him
   on  the  flank.  --  Flank  movement, a change of march by an army, or
   portion of one, in order to turn one or both wings of the enemy, or to
   take  up  a new position. -- Flanks of a frontier, salient points in a
   national  boundary,  strengthened  to  protect  the  frontier  against
   hostile  incursion.  -- Flank patrol, detachments acting independently
   of  the  column of an army, but patrolling along its flanks, to secure
   it against surprise and to observe the movements of the enemy.

   Page 567


   Flank (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flanked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flanking.]
   [Cf. F. flanquer. See Flank, n., and cf. Flanker, v. t.]

   1. To stand at the flank or side of; to border upon.

     Stately colonnades are flanked with trees. Pitt.

   2.  To  overlook or command the flank of; to secure or guard the flank
   of;  to  pass  around  or turn the flank of; to attack, or threaten to
   attack; the flank of.


   Flank, v. i.

   1. To border; to touch. Bp. Butler.

   2. To be posted on the side.


   Flank"er  (?), n. One who, or that which, flanks, as a skirmisher or a
   body  of  troops sent out upon the flanks of an army toguard a line of
   march,  or a fort projecting so as to command the side of an assailing

     They   threw   out  flankers,  and  endeavored  to  dislodge  their
     assailants. W. Irwing.


   Flank"er,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Flankered  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Flankering.] [See Flank, v. t.]

   1. To defend by lateral fortifications. [Obs.] Sir T. Herbert.

   2. To attack sideways. [Obs.] Evelyn.


   Fla"nel  (?), n. [F. flanelle, cf. OF. flaine a pillowcase, a mattress
   (?);  fr.  W.  gwlanen flannel, fr. gwlan wool; prob. akin to E. wool.
   Cf. Wool.] A soft, nappy, woolen cloth, of loose texture. Shak. Adam's
   flannel. (Bot.) See under Adam. -- Canton flannel, Cotton flannel. See
   Cotton flannel, under Cotton.


   Flan"neled (?), a. Covered or wrapped in flannel.


   Flan"nen  (?),  a.  Made  or  consisting  of  flannel. [Obs.] "Flannen
   robes." Dryden.


   Flap  (?),  n.  [OE. flappe, flap, blow, bly-flap; cf. D. flap, and E.
   flap,  v.]  Anything  broad  and  limber  that hangs loose, or that is
   attached  by  one  side  or end and is easily moved; as, the flap of a

     A cartilaginous flap upon the opening of the larynx. Sir T. Browne.

   2. A hinged leaf, as of a table or shutter.

   3.  The  motion of anything broad and loose, or a stroke or sound made
   with it; as, the flap of a sail or of a wing.

   4. pl. (Far.) A disease in the lips of horses.
   Flap  tile, a tile with a bent up portion, to turn a corner or catch a
   drip.  --  Flap  valve (Mech.), a valve which opens and shuts upon one
   hinged side; a clack valve.


   Flap,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flapped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flapping (?).]
   [Prob.  of  imitative  origin;  cf.  D.  flappen,  E.  flap, n., flop,
   flippant, fillip.]

   1. To beat with a flap; to strike.

     Yet let me flap this bug with gilded wings. Pope.

   2. To move, as something broad and flaplike; as, to flap the wings; to
   let fall, as the brim of a hat.
   To flap in the mouth, to taunt. [Obs.] W. Cartwright.


   Flap, v. i.

   1.  To  move  as do wings, or as something broad or loose; to fly with
   wings beating the air.

     The crows flapped over by twos and threes. Lowell.

   2.  To fall and hang like a flap, as the brim of a hat, or other broad
   thing. Gay.


   Flap"drag`on (?), n.

   1.  A  game in which the players catch raisins out burning brandy, and
   swallow them blazing. Johnson.

   2. The thing thus caught abd eaten. Johnson.

     Cakes  and  ale,  and  flapdragtons and mummer's plays, and all the
     happy sports of Christians night. C. Kingsley.


   Flap"drag`on,  v.  t.  To  swallow  whole, as a flapdragon; to devour.

     See how the sea flapdragoned it. Shak.


   Flap"-eared` (?), a. Having broad, loose, dependent ears. Shak.


   Flap"jack` (?), n.

   1.  A fklat cake turned on the griddle while cooking; a griddlecake or

   2. A fried dough cake containing fruit; a turnover. [Prov. Eng.]


   Flap"-mouthed` (?), a. Having broad, hangling lips. [R.] Shak.


   Flap"per (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, flaps.

   2. See Flipper. "The flapper of a porpoise." Buckley.
   Flapper skate (Zo\'94l.), a European skate (Raia intermedia).


   Flare  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Flared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flaring.]
   [Cf.  Norw.  flara to blaze, flame, adorn with tinsel, dial. Sw. flasa
   upp, and E. flash, or flacker.]

   1. To burn with an unsteady or waving flame; as, the candle flares.

   2.  To  shine out with a sudden and unsteady light; to emit a dazzling
   or painfully bright light.

   3. To shine out with gaudy colors; to flaunt; to be offensively bright
   or showy.

     With ribbons pendant, flaring about her head. Shak.

   4. To be exosed to too much light. [Obs.]

     Flaring in sunshine all the day. Prior.

   5.  To  open  or spread outwards; to project beyond the perpendicular;
   as, the sides of a bowl flare; the bows of a ship flare.
   To  flare  up,  to  become suddenly heated or excited; to burst into a
   passion. [Colloq.] Thackeray.


   Flare, n.

   1. An unsteady, broad, offensive light.

   2. A spreading outward; as, the flare of a fireplace.


   Flare, n. Leaf of lard. "Pig's flare." Dunglison.


   Flare"-up`  (?),  n.  A  sudden  burst  of  anger or passion; an angry
   dispute. [Colloq.]


   Flar"ing (?), a.

   1.  That  flares;  flaming  or  blazing unsteadily; shining out with a
   dazzling light.

     His [the sun's] flaring beams. Milton.

   2. Opening or speading outwards.


   Flar"ing*ly, adv. In a flaring manner.


   Flash (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Flashed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flashing.]
   [Cf.  OE.  flaskien,  vlaskien  to  pour, sprinkle, dial. Sw. flasa to
   blaze, E. flush, flare.]

   1.  To burst or break forth with a sudden and transient flood of flame
   and light; as, the lighting flashes vividly; the powder flashed.

   2.  To break forth, as a sudden flood of light; to burst instantly and
   brightly on the sight; to show a momentary brilliancy; to come or pass
   like a flash.

     Names  which  have  flashed  and  thundered  as  the watch words of
     unumbered struggles. Talfourd.

     The object is made to flash upon the eye of the mind. M. Arnold.

     A thought floashed through me, which I clothed in act. Tennyson.

   3. To burst forth like a sudden flame; to break out violently; to rush

     Every hour He flashes into one gross crime or other. Shak.

   To  flash in the pan, to fail of success. [Colloq.] See under Flash, a
   burst  of  light.  Bartlett.  Syn.  -- Flash, Glitter, Gleam, Glisten,
   Glister.  Flash  differs  from  glitter and gleam, denoting a flood or
   wide  extent  of  light.  The  latter words may express the issuing of
   light  from  a  small  object, or from a pencil of rays. Flash differs
   from  other  words,  also,  in  denoting  suddenness of appearance and
   disappearance.  Flashing  differs  from exploding or disploding in not
   being  accompanied  with  a loud report. To glisten, or glister, is to
   shine  with  a soft and fitful luster, as eyes suffused with tears, or
   flowers wet with dew.


   Flash (?), v. t.

   1.  To  send out in flashes; to cause to burst forth with sudden flame
   or light.

     The chariot of paternal Deity, Flashing thick flames. Milton.

   2.  To  convey  as  by  a  flash; to light up, as by a sudden flame or
   light;  as, to flash a message along the wires; to flash conviction on
   the mind.

   3. (Glass Making) To cover with a thin layer, as objects of glass with
   glass of a different color. See Flashing, n., 3 (b).

   4. To trick up in a showy manner.

     Limning and flashing it with various dyes. A. Brewer.

   5.  [Perh. due to confusion between flash of light and plash, splash.]
   To  strike  and  throw  up  large bodies of water from the surface; to
   splash. [Obs.]

     He rudely flashed the waves about. Spenser.

   Flashed glass. See Flashing, n., 3.


   Flash, n.; pl. Flashes (.

   1. A sudden burst of light; a flood of light instantaneously appearing
   and disappearing; a momentary blaze; as, a flash of lightning.

   2.  A  sudden  and  brilliant  burst, as of wit or genius; a momentary
   brightness or show.

     The flash and outbreak of a fiery mind. Shak.

     No striking sentiment, no flash of fancy. Wirt.

   3.  The time during which a flash is visible; an instant; a very brief

     The Persians and Macedonians had it for a flash. Bacon.

   4.  A  preparation  of  capsicum,  burnt sugar, etc., for coloring and
   giving a fictious strength to liquors.
   Flash  light, OR Flashing light, a kind of light shown by lighthouses,
   produced  by  the  revolution  of reflectors, so as to show a flash of
   light  every few seconds, alternating with periods of dimness. Knight.
   --  Flash  in  the  pan,  the  flashing of the priming in the pan of a
   flintlock   musket  without  discharging  the  piece;  hence,  sudden,
   spasmodic effort that accomplishes nothing.


   Flash, a.

   1.  Showy,  but counterfeit; cheap, pretentious, and vulgar; as, flash
   jewelry;  flash  finery.  <--  different from flashy[3]? Not much used
   late 1900's. Perh. because of sense 2? -->

   2.  Wearing  showy,  counterfeit  ornaments; vulgarly pretentious; as,
   flash  people;  flash  men or women; -- applied especially to thieves,
   gamblers,  and  prostitutes  that  dress  in a showy way and wear much
   cheap jewelry.
   Flash  house,  a  house  frequented  by  flash  people, as thieves and
   whores;  hence,  a  brothel.  "A gang of footpads, reveling with their
   favorite beauties at a flash house." Macaulay.
   Flash, n. Slang or cant of thieves and prostitutes. 


   Flash, n. [OE. flasche, flaske; cf. OF. flache, F. flaque.]

   1. A pool. [Prov. Eng.] Haliwell.

   2.  (Engineering) A reservoir and sluiceway beside a navigable stream,
   just  above  a  shoal,  so  that the stream may pour in water as boats
   pass, and thus bear them over the shoal.
   Flash  wheel  (Mech.),  a  paddle wheel made to revolve in a breast or
   curved  water  way,  by  which  water  is lifted from the lower to the
   higher level.


   Flash"board`  (?),  n.  A  board placed temporarily upon a milldam, to
   raise  the  water  in  the  pond  above its usual level; a flushboard.


   Flash"er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, flashes.

   2.  A  man  of  more  appearance  of  wit  than  reality.  <--  3.  an
   exhibitionist -->

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a) A large sparoid fish of the Atlantic coast and all
   tropical  seas  (Lobotes  Surinamensis).  (b)  The European red-backed
   shrile (Lanius collurio); -- called also flusher.


   Flash"i*ly (?), adv. In a flashy manner; with empty show.


   Flash"i*ness, n. The quality of being flashy.


   Flash"ing, n.

   1.  (Engineering)  The  creation  of  an artifical flood by the sudden
   letting in of a body of water; -- called also flushing.

   2.  (Arch.) Pieces of metal, built into the joints of a wall, so as to
   lap  over the edge of the gutters or to cover the edge of the roofing;
   also,  similar  pieces  used  to  cover the valleys of roofs of slate,
   shingles,  or the like. By extension, the metal covering of ridges and
   hips  of  roofs;  also, in the United States, the protecting of angles
   and  breaks  in walls of frame houses with waterproof material, tarred
   paper, or the like. Cf. Filleting.

   3.  (Glass  Making)  (a)  The  reheating  of an article at the furnace
   aperture  during  manufacture  to restore its plastic condition; esp.,
   the  reheating  of a globe of crown glass to allow it to assume a flat
   shape as it is rotated. (b) A mode of covering transparent white glass
   with a film of colored glass. Knight.
   Flashing point (Chem.), that degree of temperature at which a volatile
   oil  gives  off vapor in sufficient quantity to burn, or flash, on the
   approach of a flame, used as a test of the comparative safety of oils,
   esp.  kerosene;  a  flashing  point of 100 F. is regarded as a fairly
   safe  standard.  The  burning  point of the oil is usually from ten to
   thirty degree above the flashing point of its vapor.


   Flash"y (?), a.

   1.  Dazzling  for  a  moment;  making  a momentary show of brilliancy;
   transitorily bright.

     A little flashy and transient pleasure. Barrow.

   2. Fiery; vehement; impetuous.

     A temper always flashy. Burke.

   3. Showy; gay; gaudy; as, a flashy dress.

   4. Without taste or spirit.

     Lean and flashy songs. Milton.


   Flask  (?),  n. [AS. flasce, flaxe; akin to D. flesch, OHG. flasca, G.
   flasche,  Icel.  &  Sw.  flaska, Dan. flaske, OF. flasche, LL. flasca,
   flasco;  of  uncertain  origin; cf. L. vasculum, dim. of vas a vessel,
   Gr. Flagon, Flasket.]

   1. A small bottle-shaped vessel for holding fluids; as, a flask of oil
   or wine.

   2.  A  narrow-necked  vessel  of  metal  or  glass,  used  for various
   purposes;  as  of  sheet  metal,  to carry gunpowder in; or of wrought
   iron, to contain quicksilver; or of glass, to heat water in, etc.

   3. A bed in a gun carriage. [Obs.] Bailey.

   4.  (Founding)  The  wooden  or iron frame which holds the sand, etc.,
   forming  the mold used in a foundry; it consists of two or more parts;
   viz.,  the cope or top; sometimes, the cheeks, or middle part; and the
   drag,  or bottom part. When there are one or more cheeks, the flask is
   called a three part flask, four part flask, etc.
   Erlenmeyer flask, a thin glass flask, flat-bottomed and cone-shaped to
   allow  of  safely  shaking  its  contents  laterally without danger of
   spilling;  -- so called from Erlenmeyer, a German chemist who invented
   it.  --  Florence  flask. [From Florence in Italy.] (a) Same as Betty,
   n.,  3.  (b)  A  glass flask, round or pear-shaped, with round or flat
   bottom, and usually very thin to allow of heating solutions. -- Pocket
   flask,  a  kind  of  pocket  dram  bottle, often covered with metal or
   leather to protect it from breaking.


   Flask"et  (?),  n.  [Cf.  W. fflasged a vessel of straw or wickerwork,
   fflasg flask, basket, and E. flask.]

   1. A long, shallow basket, with two handles. [Eng.]

     In which they gathered flowers to fill their flasket. Spenser.

   2. A small flask.

   3. A vessel in which viands are served. [Obs.] Pope.


   Flat  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Flatter (?); superl. Flattest (?).] [Akin to
   Icel.  flatr,  Sw.  flat, Dan. flad, OHG. flaz, and AS. flet floor, G.
   fl\'94tz stratum, layer.]

   1.  Having  an  even  and  horizontal  surface,  or nearly so, without
   prominences or depressions; level without inclination; plane.

     Though sun and moon Were in the flat sea sunk. Milton.

   2.  Lying  at  full length, or spread out, upon the ground; level with
   the  ground or earth; prostrate; as, to lie flat on the ground; hence,
   fallen; laid low; ruined; destroyed.

     What ruins kingdoms, and lays cities flat! Milton.

     I feel . . . my hopes all flat. Milton.

   3. (Fine Arts) Wanting relief; destitute of variety; without points of
   prominence and striking interest.

     A large part of the work is, to me, very flat. Coleridge.

   4.  Tasteless; stale; vapid; insipid; dead; as, fruit or drink flat to
   the taste.

   5.   Unanimated;   dull;   uninteresting;  without  point  or  spirit;
   monotonous; as, a flat speech or composition.

     How weary, stale, flat, and unprofitable Seem to me all the uses of
     this world. Shak.

   6.  Lacking liveliness of commercial exchange and dealings; depressed;
   dull; as, the market is flat.

   7. Clear; unmistakable; peremptory; absolute; positive; downright.

     Flat burglary as ever was committed. Shak.

     A great tobacco taker too, -- that's flat. Marston.

   8.  (Mus.)  (a)  Below the true pitch; hence, as applied to intervals,
   minor,  or  lower  by a half step; as, a flat seventh; A flat. (b) Not
   sharp or shrill; not acute; as, a flat sound.

   9.  (Phonetics)  Sonant; vocal; -- applied to any one of the sonant or
   vocal  consonants,  as  distinguished  from  a  nonsonant  (or  sharp)
   Flat arch. (Arch.) See under Arch, n., 2. (b). -- Flat cap, cap paper,
   not  folded.  See  under  Paper.  --  Flat  chasing, in fine art metal
   working,  a mode of ornamenting silverware, etc., producing figures by
   dots  and  lines  made with a punching tool. Knight. -- Flat chisel, a
   sculptor's  chisel  for smoothing. -- Flat file, a file wider than its
   thickness,  and  of  rectangular  section.  See  File. -- Flat nail, a
   small,  sharp-pointed,  wrought  nail,  with a flat, thin head, larger
   than  a  tack. Knight. -- Flat paper, paper which has not been folded.
   --  Flat  rail, a railroad rail consisting of a simple flat bar spiked
   to  a  longitudinal  sleeper.  --  Flat  rods  (Mining), horizontal or
   inclined  connecting  rods,  for transmitting motion to pump rods at a
   distance.  Raymond.  --  Flat rope, a rope made by plaiting instead of
   twisting; gasket; sennit.

     NOTE: Some fl at ho isting ropes, as for mining shafts, are made by
     sewing together a number of ropes, making a wide, flat band

   .  Knight. -- Flat space. (Geom.) See Euclidian space. -- Flat stitch,
   the  process of wood engraving. [Obs.] -- Flat tint (Painting), a coat
   of  water  color  of  one  uniform  shade.  -- To fall flat (Fig.), to
   produce no effect; to fail in the intended effect; as, his speech fell
     Of  all  who fell by saber or by shot, Not one fell half so flat as
     Walter Scott. Lord Erskine.

   Flat (?), adv.

   1. In a flat manner; directly; flatly.

     Sin is flat opposite to the Almighty. Herbert.

   2.  (Stock Exchange) Without allowance for accrued interest. [Broker's

   Page 568


   Flat, n.

   1.  A  level  surface,  without  elevation, relief, or prominences; an
   extended  plain;  specifically,  in  the  United States, a level tract
   along the along the banks of a river; as, the Mohawk Flats.

     Envy  is  as  the  sunbeams  that beat hotter upon a bank, or steep
     rising ground, than upon a flat. Bacon.

   Page 568

   2.  A level tract lying at little depth below the surface of water, or
   alternately  covered  and left bare by the tide; a shoal; a shallow; a

     Half  my  power,  this  night Passing these flats, are taken by the
     tide. Shak.

   3.  Something  broad  and  flat in form; as: (a) A flat-bottomed boat,
   without keel, and of small draught. (b) A straw hat, broad-brimmed and
   low-crowned.  (c)  (Railroad  Mach.) A car without a roof, the body of
   which  is  a platform without sides; a platform car. (d) A platform on
   wheel,   upon   which   emblematic   designs,  etc.,  are  carried  in

   4. The flat part, or side, of anything; as, the broad side of a blade,
   as distinguished from its edge.

   5.  (Arch.) A floor, loft, or story in a building; especially, a floor
   of a house, which forms a complete residence in itself<-- an apartment
   taking up a whole floor -->.

   6. (Mining) A horizontal vein or ore deposit auxiliary to a main vein;
   also,  any  horizontal  portion  of  a  vein not elsewhere horizontal.

   7. A dull fellow; a simpleton; a numskull. [Colloq.]

     Or if you can not make a speech, Because you are a flat. Holmes.

   8.  (Mus.) A character [b] before a note, indicating a tone which is a
   half step or semitone lower.

   9. (Geom.) A homaloid space or extension.


   Flat  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Flatted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flatting

   1. To make flat; to flatten; to level.

   2. To render dull, insipid, or spiritless; to depress.

     Passions are allayed, appetites are flatted. Barrow.

   3.  To  depress  in  tone,  as a musical note; especially, to lower in
   pitch by half a tone.


   Flat, v. i.

   1.  To  become  flat, or flattened; to sink or fal to an even surface.
   Sir W. Temple.

   2. (Mus.) To fall form the pitch.
   To flat out, to fail from a promising beginning; to make a bad ending;
   to disappoint expectations. [Colloq.]<-- = to fall flat -->


   Flat"bill` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any bird of the genus Flatyrynchus. They
   belong to the family of flycatchers.


   Flat"boat`  (?), n. A boat with a flat bottom and square ends; -- used
   for the transportation of bulky freight, especially in shallow waters.


   Flat"-bot`tomed  (?), a. Having an even lower surface or bottom; as, a
   flat-bottomed boat.


   Flat"-cap`  (?),  n.  A  kind  of low-crowned cap formerly worn by all
   classes in England, and continued in London after disuse elsewhere; --
   hence, a citizen of London. Marston.


   Flat"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Any fish of the family Pleuronectid\'91;
   esp.,  the  winter  flounder (Pleuronectes Americanus). The flatfishes
   have  the body flattened, swim on the side, and have eyes on one side,
   as the flounder, turbot, and halibut. See Flounder.

                                   Flat foot

   Flat"  foot`  (?).  (Med.)  A  foot in which the arch of the instep is
   flattened  so  that the entire sole of the foot rests upon the ground;
   also,  the  deformity,  usually  congential, exhibited by such a foot;


   Flat"-foot`ed, a.

   1. Having a flat foot, with little or no arch of the instep.

   2.  Firm-footed;  determined.  [Slang,  U.S.]  <-- catch flat-footed =
   catch unprepared -->


   Flat"head`  (?), a. Characterized by flatness of head, especially that
   produced by artificial means, as a certain tribe of American Indians.


   Flat"head`, n. (Ethnol.) A Chinook Indian. See Chinook, n., 1.


   Flat"-heat`ed  (?),  a.  Having  a  head  with  a flattened top; as, a
   flat-headed nail.


   Flat"i`ron  (?),  n.  An  iron with a flat, smooth surface for ironing


   Fla"tive   (?),  a.  [L.  flare,  flatum  to  blow.]  Producing  wind;
   flatulent. [Obs.] A. Brewer.


   Flat"ing  (?),  adv.  [Flat, a. + adverbial suff. -ing.] With the flat
   side,  as  of  a  sword;  flatlong;  in  a  prostrate position. [Obs.]


   Flat"long  (?);  115), adv. With the flat side downward; not edgewise.


   Flat"ly,  adv. In a flat manner; evenly; horizontally; without spirit;
   dully; frigidly; peremptori;y; positively, plainly. "He flatly refused
   his aid." Sir P. Sidney.

     He  that  does  the  works  of religion slowly, flatly, and without
     appetite. Jer. Taylor.


   Flat"ness, n.

   1. The quality or state of being flat.

   2.  Eveness  of  surface;  want  of relief or prominence; the state of
   being plane or level.

   3. Want of vivacity or spirit; prostration; dejection; depression.

   4. Want of variety or flavor; dullness; inspidity.

   5.  Depression  of  tone;  the state of being below the true pitch; --
   opposed to sharpness or acuteness.


   Fla*tour" (?), n. [OF.] A flatterer. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Flat"ten  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Flattened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flattening.] [From Flat, a.]

   1.  To  reduce to an even surface or one approaching evenness; to make
   flat; to level; to make plane.

   2.  To  throw  down;  to  bring to the ground; to prostrate; hence, to
   depress; to deject; to dispirit.

   3. To make vapid or insipid; to render stale.

   4.  (Mus.) To lower the pitch of; to cause to sound less sharp; to let
   fall from the pitch.
   To  flatten  a sail (Naut.), to set it more nearly fore-and-aft of the
   vessel. -- Flattening oven, in glass making, a heated chamber in which
   split glass cylinders are flattened for window glass.


   Flat"ten,  v.  i. To become or grow flat, even, depressed dull, vapid,
   spiritless, or depressed below pitch.


   Flat"ter (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, makes flat or flattens.

   2.  (Metal  Working)  (a) A flat-faced fulling hammer. (b) A drawplate
   with  a narrow, rectangular orifice, for drawing flat strips, as watch
   springs, etc.


   Flat"ter  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Flattered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flattering.]  [OE. flateren, cf. OD. flatteren; akin to G. flattern to
   flutter,  Icel.  fla  to  fawn,  flatter: cf. F. flatter. Cf. Flitter,
   Flutter, Flattery.]

   1.  To  treat  with  praise or blandishments; to gratify or attempt to
   gratify  the  self-love  or  vanity  of, esp. by artful and interested
   commendation or attentions; to blandish; to cajole; to wheedle.

     When  I  tell  him he hates flatterers, He says he does, being then
     most flattered. Shak.

     A  man  that flattereth his neighbor, spreadeth a net for his feet.
     Prov. xxix. 5.

     Others he flattered by asking their advice. Prescott.

   2.  To  raise  hopes  in;  to  encourage  or  favorable, but sometimes
   unfounded or deceitful, representations.

   3.  To portray too favorably; to give a too favorable idea of; as, his
   portrait flatters him.


   Flat"ter, v. i. To use flattery or insincere praise.

     If  it  may  stand  him more in stead to lie, Say and unsay, feign,
     flatter, or adjure. Milton.


   Flat"ter*er (?), n. One who flatters.

     The  most  abject  flaterers  degenerate into the greatest tyrants.


   Flat"ter*ing,  a.  That  flatters (in the various senses of the verb);
   as, a flattering speech.

     Lay not that flattering unction to your soul. Shak.

     A  flattering  painter,  who  made it his care, To draw men as they
     ought be, not as they are. Goldsmith.


   Flat"ter*ing*ly, adv. With flattery.


   Flat"ter*y  (?),  n.; pl. Flatteries (#). [OE. flaterie, OF. flaterie,
   F.  flaterie,  fr. flater to flatter, F. flatter; of uncertain origin.
   See  Flatter,  v.  t.]  The  act or practice of flattering; the act of
   pleasing  by  artiful  commendation  or compliments; adulation; false,
   insincere, or excessive praise.

     Just praise is only a debt, but flattery is a present. Rambler.

     Flattery corrupts both the receiver and the giver. Burke.

   Syn. -- Adulation; compliment; obsequiousness. See Adulation.


   Flat"ting (?), n.

   1.  The process or operation of making flat, as a cylinder of glass by
   opening it out.

   2. A mode of painting,in which the paint, being mixed with turpentine,
   leaves the work without gloss. Gwilt.

   3.  A method of preserving gilding unburnished, by touching with size.

   4.  The  process  of  forming  metal into sheets by passing it between
   Flatting  coat,  a  coat  of  paint  so put on as to have no gloss. --
   Flatting  furnace. Same as Flattening oven, under Flatten. -- Flatting
   mill.  (a)  A  rolling mill producing sheet metal; esp., in mints, the
   ribbon  from  which  the  planchets  are  punched. (b) A mill in which
   grains  of  metal  are flatted by steel rolls, and reduced to metallic
   dust, used for purposes of ornamentation.


   Flat"tish (?), a. Somewhat flat. Woodward.

                             Flatulence, Flatlency

   Flat"u*lence  (?), Flat"*len*cy (?), n. [Cf. F. flatulence.] The state
   or quality of being flatulent.


   Flat"u*lent  (?),  a.  [L. flatus a blowing, flatus ventris windiness,
   flatulence, fr. flare to blow: cf. F. flatulent. See Blow.]

   1.  Affected  with  flatus or gases generated in the alimentary canal;

   2. Generating, or tending to generate, wind in the stomach.

     Vegetables   abound  more  with  a\'89rial  particles  than  animal
     substances, and therefore are more flatulent. Arbuthnot.

   3. Turgid with flatus; as, a flatulent tumor. Quincy.

   4. Pretentious without substance or reality; puffy; empty; vain; as, a
   flatulent vanity.

     He is too flatulent sometimes, and sometimes too dry. Dryden.


   Flat"u*lent*ly, adv. In a flatulent manner; with flatulence.


   Flat`u*os"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  flatuosit\'82.] Flatulence. [Obs.]


   Flat"u*ous  (?),  a. [Cf. F. flatueux.] Windy; generating wind. [Obs.]


   Fla"tus  (?),  n.;  pl.  E. Flatuses (#), L. Flatus. [L., fr. flare to

   1. A breath; a puff of wind. Clarke.

   2. Wind or gas generated in the stomach or other cavities of the body.


   Flat"wise`  (?),  a.  OR  adv. With the flat side downward, or next to
   another object; not edgewise.


   Flat"worm`   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)   Any   worm   belonging   to  the
   Plathelminthes; also, sometimes applied to the planarians.


   Flaun"drish (? OR ?), a. Flemish. [Obs.]


   Flaunt  (?  OR ?; 277), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Flaunted; p. pr. & vb. n..
   Flaunting.]  [Cf. dial. G. flandern to flutter, wave; perh. akin to E.
   flatter,  flutter.]  To  throw  or  spread  out;  to  flutter; to move
   ostentatiously; as, a flaunting show.

     You flaunt about the streets in your new gilt chariot. Arbuthnot.

     One flaunts in rags, one flutters in brocade. Pope.


   Flaunt, v. t. To display ostentatiously; to make an impudent show of.


   Flaunt, n. Anything displayed for show. [Obs.]

     In these my borrowed flaunts. Shak.


   Flaunt"ing*ly, adv. In a flaunting way.


   Flau"tist  (?),  n.  [It.  flauto  a flute See Flute.] A player on the
   flute; a flutist.


   Flau"to  (?),  n. [It.] A flute. Flaute piccolo ( [It., little flute],
   an  octave  flute.  --  Flauto traverso ( [It., transverse flute], the
   German  flute,  held  laterally, instead of being played, like the old
   fl\'96te a bec, with a mouth piece at the end.
   Fla*van"i*line  (?  OR  ?;  104),  n. [L. flavus yellow + E. aniline.]
   (Chem.)   A   yellow,  crystalline,  organic  dyestuff,  C16H14N2,  of
   artifical production. It is a strong base, and is a complex derivative
   of aniline and quinoline. 


   Fla*ves"cent  (?),  a.  [L.  flavescens,  p.pr.  of flavescere to turn
   yellow.] Turning yellow; yellowish.


   Fla*vic"o*mous  (?),  a.  [L.  flavicomus; flavus yellow + coma hair.]
   Having yellow hair. [R.]


   Fla"vin  (?),  n.  [L.  flavus  yellow.]  (Chem.)  A yellow, vegetable
   dyestuff, resembling quercitron.


   Fla"vine  (?;  104),  n.  (Chem.) A yellow, crystalline, organic base,
   C13H12N2O, obtained artificially.


   Fla"vol  (?),  n.  [L.  flavus  yellow  +  -oil.]  (Chem.)  A  yellow,
   crystalline  substance, obtained from anthraquinone, and regarded as a
   hydroxyl derivative of it.


   Fla"vor  (?),  n.  [OF.  fleur,  flaur  (two  syllables), odor, cf. F.
   fleurer to emit an odor, It. flatore a bad odor, prob. fr. L. flare to
   bow,  whence  the  sense  of  exhalation.  Cf.  Blow.]  [Written  also

   1. That quality of anything which affects the smell; odor; fragrances;
   as, the flavor of a rose.

   2.  That  quality  of  anything  which affects the taste; that quality
   which  gratifies  the  palate;  relish; zest; savor; as, the flavor of
   food or drink.

   3. That which imparts to anything a peculiar odor or taste, gratifying
   to  the  sense  of  smell,  or  the nicer perceptions of the palate; a
   substance which flavors.

   4.  That  quality  which  gives character to any of the productions of
   literature or the fine arts.


   Fla"vor, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flavored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flavoring.]
   To  give  flavor to; to add something (as salt or a spice) to, to give
   character or zest.


   Fla"vored (?), a. Having a distinct flavor; as, high-flavored wine.


   Fla"vor*les (?), a. Without flavor; tasteless.


   Fla"vor*ous  (?), a. Imparting flavor; pleasant to the taste or smell;
   sapid. Dryden.


   Fla"vous (?), a. [L. flavus.] Yellow. [Obs.]


   Flaw (?), n. [OE. flai, flaw flake; cf. Sw. flaga flaw, crack, breach,
   flake,  D.  vlaag gust of wind, Norw. flage, flaag, and E. flag a flat

   1.  A  crack  or  breach;  a gap or fissure; a defect of continuity or
   cohesion; as, a flaw in a knife or a vase.

     This heart Shall break into a hundered thousand flaws. Shak.

   2. A defect; a fault; as, a flaw in reputation; a flaw in a will, in a
   deed, or in a statute.

     Has not this also its flaws and its dark side? South.

   3.  A sudden burst of noise and disorder; a tumult; uproar; a quarrel.

     And  deluges  of  armies from the town Came pouring in; I heard the
     mighty flaw. Dryden.

   4. A sudden burst or gust of wind of short duration.

     Snow, and hail, and stormy gust and flaw. Milton.

     Like flaws in summer laying lusty corn. Tennyson.

   Syn. -- Blemish; fault; imoerfection; spot; speck.


   Flaw, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flawed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flawing.]

   1. To crack; to make flaws in.

     The brazen caldrons with the frosts are flawed. Dryden.

   2. To break; to violate; to make of no effect. [Obs.]

     France hath flawed the league. Shak.


   Flaw"less, a. Free from flaws. Boyle.


   Flawn  (?),  n.  [OF.  flaon,  F.  flan, LL. flado, fr. OHG. flado, G.
   fladen,  a  sort of pancake; cf. Gr. Place.] A sort of flat custard or
   pie. [Obs.] Tusser.


   Flaw"ter (?), v. t. [Cf. Flay.] To scrape o [Obs.] Johnson.


   Flaw"y (?), a.

   1. Full of flaws or cracks; broken; defective; faulty. Johnson.

   2. Subject to sudden flaws or gusts of wind.


   Flax  (?),  n. [AS. fleax; akin to D. vlas, OHG. flahs, G. flachs, and
   prob.  to  flechten  to  braid,  plait,m  twist, L. plectere to weave,
   plicare to fold, Gr. Ply.]

   1. (Bot.) A plant of the genus Linum, esp. the L. usitatissimum, which
   has  a  single, slender stalk, about a foot and a half high, with blue
   flowers.  The  fiber  of the bark is used for making thread and cloth,
   called  linen, cambric, lawn, lace, etc. Linseed oil is expressed from
   the seed.

   2. The skin or fibrous part of the flax plant, when broken and cleaned
   by hatcheling or combing.
   Earth  flax  (Min.),  amianthus. -- Flax brake, a machine for removing
   the  woody  portion of flax from the fibrous. -- Flax comb, a hatchel,
   hackle,  or  heckle.  --  Flax  cotton,  the fiber of flax, reduced by
   steeping  in  bicarbinate of soda and acidulated liquids, and prepared
   for  bleaching  and spinning like cotton. Knight. -- Flax dresser, one
   who  breaks and swingles flax, or prepares it for the spinner. -- Flax
   mill,  a  mill or factory where flax is spun or linen manufactured. --
   Flax  puller,  a machine for pulling flax plants in the field. -- Flax
   wench.  (a)  A  woman  who spins flax. [Obs.] (b) A prostitute. [Obs.]
   Shak.  --  Mountain flax (Min.), amianthus. -- New Zealand flax (Bot.)
   See Flax-plant.


   Flax"en  (?),  a.  Made of flax; resembling flax or its fibers; of the
   color  of  flax;  of  a light soft straw color; fair and flowing, like
   flax or tow; as, flaxen thread; flaxen hair.


   Flax"-plant`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A plant in new Zealand (Phormium tenax),
   allied  to  the  lilies  and aloes. The leaves are two inches wide and
   several feet long, and furnish a fiber which is used for making ropes,
   mats, and coarse cloth.


   Flax"seed` (?), n. The seed of the flax; linseed.


   Flax"weed` (?), n. (Bot.) See Toadflax.


   Flax"y (?), a. Like flax; flaxen. Sir M. Sandys.


   Flay  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Flayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flaying.]
   [OE.  flean,  flan,  AS. fle\'a0n; akin to D. vlaen, Icel. fl\'be, Sw.
   fl\'86,  Dan.  flaae,  cf. Lith. ples to tear, plyszti, v.i., to burst
   tear;  perh.  akin  to E. flag to flat stone, flaw.] To skin; to strip
   off  the  skin  or  surface  of;  as, to flay an ox; to flay the green

     With her nails She 'll flay thy wolfish visage. Shak.

   Page 569


   Flay"er (?), n. One who strips off the skin.


   Flea (?), v. t. [See Flay.] To flay. [Obs.]

     He  will  be  fleaced  first  And  horse collars made of's skin. J.


   Flea,  n.  [OE.  fle,  flee,  AS. fle\'a0, fle\'a0h; akin to D. fl, G.
   floh,  Icel.  fl, Russ. blocha; prob. from the root of E. flee. Flee.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  An  insect  belonging  to  the  genus  Pulex, of the order
   Aphaniptera.  Fleas  are  destitute  of  wings,  but have the power of
   leaping  energetically.  The  bite  is  poisonous to most persons. The
   human  flea  (Pulex irritans), abundant in Europe, is rare in America,
   where  the  dog  flea (P. canis) takes its place. See Aphaniptera, and
   Dog  flea.  See  Illustration  in  Appendix.  A  flea  in  the ear, an
   unwelcome   hint  or  unexpected  reply,  annoying  like  a  flea;  an
   irritating  repulse; as, to put a flea in one's ear; to go away with a
   flea  in  one's  ear. -- Beach flea, Black flea, etc. See under Beach,


   Flea"bane`  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  One  of various plants, supposed to have
   efficacy in driving away fleas. They belong, for the most part, to the
   genera Conyza, Erigeron, and Pulicaria.


   Flea"-bee`tle  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  beetle  of  the  family
   Halticid\'91,  of  many  species.  They have strong posterior legs and
   leap like fleas. The turnip flea-beetle (Phyllotreta vittata) and that
   of the grapevine (Graptodera chalybea) are common injurious species.


   Flea"-bite` (?), n.

   1. The bite of a flea, or the red spot caused by the bite.

   2. A trifling wound or pain, like that of the bite of a flea. Harvey.


   Flea"-bit`ten (?), a.

   1. Bitten by a flea; as, a flea-bitten face.

   2.  White,  flecked  with minute dots of bay or sorrel; -- said of the
   color of a horse.


   Fleagh (?), obs. imp. of Fly.


   Fleak (?), n. A flake; a thread or twist. [Obs.]

     Little long fleaks or threads of hemp. Dr. H. More.


   Fleak"ing,  n. A light covering of reeds, over which the main covering
   is laid, in thatching houses. [Prov. Eng.] Wright.


   Flea"-louse`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A jumping plant louse of the family
   Psyllid\'91, of many species. That of the pear tree is Psylla pyri.


   Fleam (?), n. [F. flamme, OF. flieme, fr. LL. flevotomum, phlebotomum;
   cf.  D. vlijm. See Phlebotomy.] (Surg. & Far.) A sharp instrument used
   for  opening veins, lancing gums, etc.; a kind of lancet. Fleam tooth,
   a  tooth  of  a  saw  shaped  like an isosceles triangle; a peg tooth.


   Fleam"y (?), a. Bloody; clotted. [Obs. or Prov.]

     Foamy bubbling of a fleamy brain. Marston.


   Flear (?), v. t. & i. See Fleer.


   Flea"wort`   (?),  n.  (Bot.)  An  herb  used  in  medicine  (Plantago
   Psyllium), named from the shape of its seeds. Loudon.


   Fl\'8ache  (?),  n.  [F. fl\'8ache, prop., an arrow.] (Fort.) A simple
   fieldwork,  consisting  of  two faces forming a salient angle pointing
   outward and open at the gorge.


   Fleck (?), n. A flake; also, a lock, as of wool. [Obs.] J. Martin.


   Fleck  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Icel. flekkr; akin to Sw. fl\'84ck, D. vlek, G.
   fleck,  and perh. to E. flitch.] A spot; a streak; a speckle. "A sunny
   fleck." Longfellow.

     Life is dashed with flecks of sin. tennyson.


   Fleck,  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Flecked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flecking.]
   [Cf. Icel. flekka, Sw. fl\'84cka, D. vlekken, vlakken, G. flecken. See
   Fleck, n.] To spot; to streak or stripe; to variegate; to dapple.

     Both flecked with white, the true Arcadian strain. Dryden.

     A bird, a cloud, flecking the sunny air. Trench.


   Fleck"er (?), v. t. To fleck. Johnson.


   Fleck"less, a. Without spot or blame. [R.]

     My consnience will not count me fleckless. Tennyson.


   Flec"tion (?), n. [See Flexion.]

   1. The act of bending, or state of being bent.

   2.  The  variation of words by declension, comparison, or conjugation;


   Flec"tion*al  (?),  a.  Capable  of,  or  pertaining  to,  flection or

     A flectional word is a phrase in the bud. Earle.


   Flec"tor (?), n. A flexor.


   Fled (?), imp. & p. p. of Flee.


   Fledge  (?),  a.  [OE.  flegge, flygge; akin to D. vlug, G. fl\'81gge,
   fl\'81cke,  OHG.  flucchi,  Icel.  fleygr,  and to E. fly. Fly, v. i.]
   Feathered; furnished with feathers or wings; able to fly.

     Hfledge with wings. Milton.


   Fledge,  v.  t.  &  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fledged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To furnish with feathers; to supply with the feathers necessary for

     The  birds  were not as yet fledged enough to shift for themselves.

   2. To furnish or adorn with any soft covering.

     Your master, whose chin is not yet fledged. Shak.


   Fledge"ling (?), n. A young bird just fledged.


   Flee (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fleeing.] [OE.
   fleon,  fleen,  AS.  fle\'a2n  (imperf. fle\'a0h); akin to D. vlieden,
   OHG.  & OS. fliohan, G. fliehen, Icel. fl (imperf. fl), Dan. flye, Sw.
   fly  (imperf.  flydde),  Goth. pliuhan. (Flight.] To run away, as from
   danger  or  evil; to avoid in an alarmed or cowardly manner; to hasten
   off;  -- usually with from. This is sometimes omitted, making the verb

     [He] cowardly fled, not having struck one stroke. Shak.

     Flee fornication. 1 Cor. vi. 18.

     So fled his enemies my warlike father. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh en gr eat speed is to be indicated, we commonly use
     fly,  not  flee;  as,  fly  hence  to France with the utmost speed.
     "Whither  shall I fly to 'scape their hands?" Shak. See Fly, v. i.,


   Fleece (?), n. [OE. flees, AS. fle\'a2s; akin to D. flies, vlies .]

   1.  The  entire  coat  of  wood  that  covers a sheep or other similar
   animal; also, the quantity shorn from a sheep, or animal, at one time.

     Who shore me Like a tame wether, all my precious fleece. Milton.

   2. Any soft woolly covering resembling a fleece.

   3.  (Manuf.)  The  fine  web  of cotton or wool removed by the doffing
   knife from the cylinder of a carding machine.
   Fleece  wool,  wool  shorn from the sheep. -- Golden fleece. See under


   Fleece, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fleeced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fleecing.]

   1. To deprive of a fleece, or natural covering of wool.

   2.  To  strip  of  money  or  other  property  unjustly, especially by
   trickery or frand; to bring to straits by oppressions and exactions.

     Whilst  pope  and  prince  shared the wool betwixt them, the people
     were finely fleeced. Fuller.

   3. To spread over as with wool. [R.] Thomson.


   Fleeced (?), a.

   1. Furnished with a fleece; as, a sheep is well fleeced. Spenser.

   2. Stripped of a fleece; plundered; robbed.


   Fleece"less (?), a. Without a fleece.


   Flee"cer  (?),  n.  One  who fleeces or strips unjustly, especially by
   trickery or fraund. Prynne.


   Flee"cy  (?),  a.  Covered  with,  made  of,  or resembling, a fleece.
   "Fleecy flocks." Prior.


   Fleen (?), n. pl. Obs. pl. of Flea. Chaucer.


   Fle"er (?), n. One who flees. Ld. Berners.


   Fleer  (?),  [imp.  & p. p. Fleered (; p. pr. & vb. n. Fleering.] [OE.
   flerien;  cf.  Scot.  fleyr,  Norw.  flira to titter, giggle, laugh at
   nothing, MHG. vlerre, vlarre, a wide wound.]

   1.  To make a wry face in contempt, or to grin in scorn; to deride; to
   sneer; to mock; to gibe; as, to fleer and flout.

     To fleer and scorn at our solemnity. Shak.

   2. To grin with an air of civility; to leer. [Obs.]

     Grinning  and  fleering  as  though  they  went  to a bear baiting.


   Fleer, v. t. To mock; to flout at. Beau. & Fl.


   Flear, n.

   1. A word or look of derision or mockery.

     And mark the fleers, the gibes, and notable scorn. Shak.

   2. A grin of civility; a leer. [Obs.]

     A sly, treacherous fleer on the face of deceivers. South.


   Fleer"er (?), n. One who fleers. Beau. & Fl.


   Fleer"ing*ly, adv. In a fleering manner.


   Fleet  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Fleeted; p. pr. & vb. n. Fleeting.]
   [OE.  fleten, fleoten, to swim, AS. fle\'a2tan to swim, float; akin to
   D.  vlieten  to  flow,  OS. fliotan, OHG. fliozzan, G. fliessen, Icel.
   flj&omac;ta  to  float,  flow, Sw. flyta, D. flyde, L. pluere to rain,
   Gr.  plu  to swim, sail. &root;84. Cf. Fleet, n. & a., Float, Pluvial,

   1. To sail; to float. [Obs.]

     And in frail wood on Adrian Gulf doth fleet. Spenser.

   2. To fly swiftly; to pass over quickly; to hasten; to flit as a light

     All  the  unaccomplished works of Nature's hand, . . . Dissolved on
     earth, fleet hither. Milton.

   3.  (Naut.)  To  slip  on  the  whelps  or  the barrel of a capstan or
   windlass; -- said of a cable or hawser.


   Fleet, v. t.

   1.  To  pass  over  rapidly;  to  skin the surface of; as, a ship that
   fleets the gulf. Spenser.

   2. To hasten over; to cause to pass away lighty, or in mirth and joy.

     Many  young  gentlemen flock to him, and fleet the time carelessly.

   3.  (Naut.)  (a)  To  draw  apart  the blocks of; -- said of a tackle.
   Totten. (b) To cause to slip down the barrel of a capstan or windlass,
   as a rope or chain.


   Fleet,  a.  [Compar.  Fleeter  (?);  superl. Fleetest.] [Cf. Icel. flj
   quick. See Fleet, v. i.]

   1.  Swift  in  motion;  moving with velocity; light and quick in going
   from place to place; nimble.

     In mail their horses clad, yet fleet and strong. Milton.

   2.  Light;  superficially  thin;  not  penetring deep, as soil. [Prov.
   Eng.] Mortimer.


   Fleet,  n.  [OE.  flete,  fleote, AS. fle\'a2t ship, fr. fle\'a2tan to
   float,  swim.  See Fleet, v. i. and cf. Float.] A number of vessels in
   company, especially war vessels; also, the collective naval force of a
   country, etc. Fleet captain, the senior aid of the admiral of a fleet,
   when a captain. Ham. Nav. Encyc.


   Fleet,  n. [AS. fle\'a2t a place where vessels float, bay, river; akin
   to D. vliet rill, brook, G. fliess. See Fleet, v. i.]

   1.  A flood; a creek or inlet; a bay or estuary; a river; -- obsolete,
   except as a place name, -- as Fleet Street in London.

     Together  wove  we  nets  to  entrap  the  fish In floods and sedgy
     fleets. Matthewes.

   2.  A  former  prison in London, which originally stood near a stream,
   the Fleet (now filled up).
   Fleet parson, a clergyman of low character, in, or in the vicinity of,
   the  Fleet  prison, who was ready to unite persons in marriage (called
   Fleet  marriage)  at  any  hour,  without public notice, witnesses, or
   consent of parents.
   Fleet  (?),  v.  t. [AS. fl&emac;t cream, fr. fle\'a2tan to float. See
   Fleet, v. i.] To take the cream from; to skim. [Prov. Eng.] Johnson. 


   Fleet"en  (?), n. Fleeted or skimmed milk. [Obs.] Fleeten face, a face
   of  the  color of fleeten, i. e., blanched; hence, a coward. "You know
   where you are, you fleeten face." Beau. & Fl.
   Fleet"-foot` (?), a. Swift of foot. Shak. 


   Fleet"ing,   a.   Passing   swiftly   away;  not  durable;  transient;
   transitory;  as,  the  fleeting  hours or moments. Syn. -- Evanescent;
   ephemeral. See Transient.


   Fleet"ing*ly, adv. In a fleeting manner; swiftly.


   Fleet"ings  (?),  n.  pl.  A  mixture  of buttermilk and boiling whey;
   curds. [prov. Eng.] Wright.


   Fleet"ly, adv. In a fleet manner; rapidly.


   Fleet"ness, n. Swiftness; rapidity; velocity; celerity; speed; as, the
   fleetness of a horse or of time.


   Fleigh (?), obs. imp. of Fly. Chaucer.


   Fleme  (?),  v. t. [AS. fl&emac;man, fl&ymac;man.] To banish; to drive
   out; to expel. [Obs.] "Appetite flemeth discretion." Chaucer.


   Flem"er  (?),  n.  One  who, or that which, banishes or expels. [Obs.]


   Flem"ing (?), n. A native or inhabitant of Flanders.


   Flem"ish  (?),  a.  Pertaining to Flanders, or the Flemings. -- n. The
   language  or  dialect  spoken by the Flemings; also, collectively, the
   people  of  Flanders.  Flemish  accounts  (Naut.),  short or deficient
   accounts.  [Humorous]Ham. Nav. Encyc. -- Flemish beauty (Bot.), a well
   known pear. It is one of few kinds which have a red color on one side.
   --  Flemish  bond.  (Arch.)  See Bond, n., 8. -- Flemish brick, a hard
   yellow paving brick. -- Flemish coil, a flat coil of rope with the end
   in  the  center and the turns lying against, without riding over, each
   other.  --  Flemish eye (Naut.), an eye formed at the end of a rope by
   dividing  the strands and lying them over each other. -- Flemish horse
   (Naut.), an additional footrope at the end of a yard.


   Flench (?), v. t. Same as Flence.


   Flense  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  Dan.  flense,  D.  vlensen, vlenzen, Scot.
   flinch.]  To  strip  the  blubber or skin from, as from a whale, seal,

     the flensed carcass of a fur seal. U. S. Census (1880).


   Flesh (?), n. [OE. flesch, flesc, AS. fl; akin to OFries. fl\'besk, D.
   vleesch,  OS.  fl,  OHG.  fleisc, G. fleisch, Icel. & Dan. flesk lard,
   bacon, pork, Sw. fl\'84sk.]

   1.  The  aggregate  of the muscles, fat, and other tissues which cover
   the  framework  of  bones  in  man  and other animals; especially, the

     NOTE: &hand; In    co  mposition it   is   ma  inly al  buminous<--
     proteinaceous-->,  but  contains  in  adition  a  large  number  of
     crystalline  bodies, such as creatin, xanthin, hypoxanthin, carnin,
     etc. It is also rich in phosphate of potash.

   2.  Animal  food, in distinction from vegetable; meat; especially, the
   body of beasts and birds used as food, as distinguished from fish.

     With roasted flesh, or milk, and wastel bread. Chaucer.

   3.  The  human  body,  as  distinguished  from the soul; the corporeal

     As   if  this  flesh,  which  walls  about  our  life,  Were  brass
     impregnable. Shak.

   4. The human eace; mankind; humanity.

     All flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth. Gen. vi. 12.

   5.  Human  nature:  (a)  In  a  good  sense,  tenderness  of  feeling;

     There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart. Cowper.

   (b) In a bad sense, tendency to transient or physical pleasure; desire
   for sensual gratification; carnality. (c) (Theol.) The character under
   the  influence  of  animal  propensities or selfish passions; the soul
   unmoved by spiritual influences.

   6. Kindred; stock; race.

     He is our brother and our flesh. Gen. xxxvii. 27.

   7.  The  soft,  pulpy  substance  of fruit; also, that part of a root,
   fruit, and the like, which is fit to be eaten.

     NOTE: &hand; Fl esh is  of ten us ed adjectively or self-explaining
     compounds;   as,   flesh  broth  or  flesh-broth;  flesh  brush  or
     fleshbrush; flesh tint or flesh-tint; flesh wound.

   After  the  flesh,  after  the  manner  of  man; in a gross or earthly
   manner. "Ye judge after the flesh." John viii. 15. -- An arm of flesh,
   human  strength  or aid. -- Flesh and blood. See under Blood. -- Flesh
   broth,  broth made by boiling flesh in water. -- Flesh fly (Zo\'94l.),
   one  of  several  species of flies whose larv\'91 or maggots feed upon
   flesh,  as  the  bluebottle fly; -- called also meat fly, carrion fly,
   and  blowfly.  See Blowly. -- Flesh meat, animal food. Swift. -- Flesh
   side,  the  side  of  a  skin  or hide which was next to the flesh; --
   opposed  to  grain  side.  --  Flesh  tint (Painting), a color used in
   painting  to  imitate  the  hue  of  the  living  body.  -- Flesh worm
   (Zo\'94l.), any insect larva of a flesh fly. See Flesh fly (above). --
   Proud flesh. See under Proud. -- To be one flesh, to be closely united
   as in marriage; to become as one person. Gen. ii. 24.


   Flesh, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fleshed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fleshing.]

   1.  To  feed  with  flesh,  as  an  incitement to further exertion; to
   initiate;  --  from the practice of training hawks and dogs by feeding
   them with the first game they take, or other flesh. Hence, to use upon
   flesh  (as a murderous weapon) so as to draw blood, especially for the
   first time.

     Full bravely hast thou fleshed Thy maiden sword. Shak.

     The wild dog Shall flesh his tooth on every innocent. Shak.

   2.  To  glut;  to  satiate; hence, to harden, to accustom. "Fleshed in
   triumphs." Glanvill.

     Old  soldiers  Fleshed in the spoils of Germany and France. Beau. &

   3.  (Leather  Manufacture)  To remove flesh, membrance, etc., from, as
   from hides.

   Page 570


   Fleshed (?), a.

   1. Corpulent; fat; having flesh.

   2. Glutted; satiated; initiated.

     Fleshed with slaughter. Dryden.


   Flesh"er (?), n.

   1. A butcher.

     A flesher on a block had laid his whittle down. Macaulay.

   2.  A  two-handled,  convex,  blunt-edged knife, for scraping hides; a
   fleshing knife.


   Flesh"hood  (?),  n. The state or condition of having a form of flesh;
   incarnation. [R.]

     Thou, who hast thyself Endured this fleshhood. Mrs. Browning.


   Flesh"i*ness (?), n. The state of being fleshy; plumpness; corpulence;
   grossness. Milton.


   Flesh"ings  (?),  n. pl. Flesh-colored tights, worn by actors dancers.
   D. Jerrold.


   Flesh"less, a. Destitute of flesh; lean. Carlyle.


   Flesh"li*ness  (?), n. The state of being fleshly; carnal passions and
   appetites. Spenser.


   Flesh"ing (?), n. A person devoted to fleshly things. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Flesh"ly (?), a. [AS.

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  flesh;  corporeal. "Fleshly bondage."

   2. Animal; not Dryden.

   3.  Human; not celestial; not spiritual or divine. "Fleshly wisdom." 2
   Cor. i. 12.

     Much ostentation vain of fleshly arm And fragile arms. Milton.

   4. Carnal; wordly; lascivious.

     Abstain  from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul. 1 Pet. ii.


   Flesh"ly,  adv.  In  a  fleshly manner; carnally; lasciviously. [Obs.]


   Flesh"ment  (?), n. The act of fleshing, or the excitement attending a
   successful beginning. [R.] Shak.


   Flesh"mon`ger (?), n. [AS. .] One who deals in flesh; hence, a pimp; a
   procurer; a pander. [R.] Shak.


   Flesh"pot`  (?),  n.  A  pot or vessel in which flesh is cooked; hence
   (pl.), plenty; high living.

     In  the  land of Egypt . . . we sat by the fleshpots, and . . . did
     eat bread to the full. Ex. xvi. 3.


   Flesh"quake`  (?),  n.  A quaking or trembling of the flesh; a quiver.
   [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Flesh"y (?), a. [Compar. Fleshier (?); superl. Fleshiest (?).]

   1. Full of, or composed of, flesh; plump; corpulent; fat; gross.

     The sole of his foot is fleshy. Ray.

   2. Human. [Obs.] "Fleshy tabernacle." Milton.

   3. (Bot.) Composed of firm pulp; succulent; as, the houseleek, cactus,
   and agave are fleshy plants.


   Flet (?), p. p. of Fleet. Skimmed. [Obs.]


   Fletch  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fletched  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fletching.]  [F.  fl\'8ache  arrow.]  To  feather,  as  an  arrow. Bp.

     [Congress]  fletched their complaint, by adding: "America loved his
     brother." Bancroft.


   Fletch"er (?), n. [OF. flechier.] One who fletches of feathers arrows;
   a manufacturer of bows and arrows. [Obs.] Mortimer.


   Flete (?), v. i. [See Fleet, v. i.] To float; to swim. [Obs.] "Whether
   I sink or flete." Chaucer.


   Fle*tif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  fletifer; fletus a weeping (from flere,
   fletum, to weep) + ferre to bear.] Producing tears. [Obs.] Blount.


   Fleur`-de-lis`  (?),  n.;  pl.  Fleurs-de-lis  (#). [F., flower of the
   lily. Cf. Flower-de-luce, Lily.]

   1. (Bot.) The iris. See Flower-de-luce.

   2.  A  conventional  flower  suggested  by the iris, and having a form
   which  fits it for the terminal decoration of a scepter, the ornaments
   of a crown, etc. It is also a heraldic bearing, and is identified with
   the royal arms and adornments of France.


   Fleur"y  (?), a. [F. fleuri covered with flowers, p.p. of fleurir. See
   Flourish.]  (Her.)  Finished  at  the ends with fleurs-de-lis; -- said
   esp. a cross so decorated.


   Flew (?), imp. of Fly.


   Flewed (?), a. Having large flews. Shak.


   Flews  (?),  n.  pl. The pendulous or overhanging lateral parts of the
   upper  lip  of  dogs,  especially  prominent in hounds; -- called also
   chaps. See Illust. of Bloodhound.


   Flex  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Flexed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flexing.]
   [L.  flexus, p.p. of flectere to bend, perh. flectere and akin to falx
   sickle, E. falchion. Cf. Flinch.] To bend; as, to flex the arm.


   Flex, n. Flax. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Flex*an"i*mous  (?),  a.  [L.  flexanimus; flectere, flexum, to bend +
   animus mind.] Having power to change the mind. [Obs.] Howell.


   Flex`i*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  flexibilitas: cf. F. flexibilite.] The
   state or quality of being flexible; flexibleness; pliancy; pliability;
   as, the flexibility of strips of hemlock, hickory, whalebone or metal,
   or of rays of light. Sir I. Newton.

     All the flexibility of a veteran courtier. Macaulay.


   Flex"i*ble (?), a. [L. flexibilis: cf. F. flexible.]

   1.  Capable of being flexed or bent; admitting of being turned, bowed,
   or twisted, without breaking; pliable; yielding to pressure; not stiff
   or brittle.

     When  the  splitting wind Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks.

   2.  Willing  or  ready  to  yield  to  the  influence  of  others; not
   invincibly  rigid  or  obstinate; tractable; manageable; ductile; easy
   and compliant; wavering.

     Phocion  was  a  man of great severity, and no ways flexible to the
     will of the people. Bacon.

     Women are soft, mild, pitiful, and flexible. Shak.

   3.  Capable  or  being  adapted  or  molded;  plastic,; as, a flexible

     This was a principle more flexible to their purpose. Rogers.

   Syn.  --  Pliant;  pliable;  supple;  tractable;  manageable; ductile;
   obsequious;   inconstant;   wavering.   --   Flex"i*ble*ness,   n.  --
   Flex"i*bly, adv.


   Flex`i*cos"tate  (?), a. [L. flexus bent + E. costate.] (Anat.) Having
   bent or curved ribs.


   Flex"ile  (?),  a.  [L.  flexilis.]  Flexible; pliant; pliable; easily
   bent; plastic; tractable. Wordsworth.


   Flex"ion (?), n. [L. flexio: cf. F. flexion.]

   1. The act of flexing or bending; a turning.

   2. A bending; a part bent; a fold. Bacon.

   3.  (Gram.)  Syntactical  change of form of words, as by declension or
   conjugation; inflection.

     Express the syntactical relations by flexion. Sir W. Hamilton.

   4.  (Physiol.)  The bending of a limb or joint; that motion of a joint
   which  gives the distal member a continually decreasing angle with the
   axis of the proximal part; -- distinguished from extension.


   Flex"or (?), n. [NL.] (Anat.) A muscle which bends or flexes any part;
   as, the flexors of the arm or the hand; -- opposed to extensor.


   Flex"u*ose` (?; 135), a. Flexuous.


   Flex"u*ous (?), a. [L. flexuosus, fr. flexus a bending, turning.]

   1. Having turns, windings, or flexures.

   2.  (Bot.) Having alternate curvatures in opposite directions; bent in
   a zigzag manner.

   3. Wavering; not steady; flickering. Bacon.


   Flex"u*ral  (?),  a.  [From  Flexure.] Of, pertaining to, or resulting
   from,  flexure;  of  the  nature of, or characterized by, flexure; as,
   flexural elasticity.


   Flex"ure (?; 135), n. [L. flexura.]

   1.  The  act  of  flexing  or  bending; a turning or curving; flexion;
   hence, obsequious bowing or bending.

     Will it give place to flexure and low bending? Shak.

   2. A turn; a bend; a fold; a curve.

     Varying with the flexures of the valley through which it meandered.
     British Quart. Rev.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) The last joint, or bend, of the wing of a bird.

   4. (Astron.) The small distortion of an astronomical instrument caused
   by the weight of its parts; the amount to be added or substracted from
   the  observed  readings  of  the  instrument  to correct them for this
   The flexure of a curve (Math.), the bending of a curve towards or from
   a straight line.


   Flib"ber*gib  (?),  n. A sycophant. [Obs. & Humorous.] "Flatterers and
   flibbergibs." Latimer.


   Flib"ber*ti*gib`bet (?), n. An imp. Shak.


   Fli`bus`tier"  (?),  n.  [F.]  A  buccaneer;  an  American pirate. See
   Flibuster. [Obs.]


   Flick (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flicked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flicking.]
   [Cf.  Flicker.]  To whip lightly or with a quick jerk; to flap; as, to
   flick a horse; to flick the dirt from boots. Thackeray.


   Flick, n. A flitch; as, a flick of bacon.


   Flick"er  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Flickered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flickering.]  [OE.  flikeren,  flekeren,  to  flutter,  AS. flicerian,
   flicorian, cf. D. flikkeren to sparkle. Flacker.]

   1. To flutter; to flap the wings without flying.

     And flickering on her nest made short essays to sing. Dryden.

   2.  To  waver  unsteadily,  like  a flame in a current of air, or when
   about to expire; as, the flickering light.

     The shadows flicker to fro. Tennyson.


   Flick"er, n.

   1.  The act of wavering or of fluttering; flucuation; sudden and brief
   increase of brightness; as, the last flicker of the dying flame.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  The golden-winged woodpecker (Colaptes aurutus); -- so
   called  from  its spring note. Called also yellow-hammer, high-holder,
   pigeon woodpecker, and yucca.

     The cackle of the flicker among the oaks. Thoureau.


   Flick"ering*ly, adv. In a flickering manner.


   Flick"er*mouse` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Flittermouse.


   Flidge (?), a. Fledged; fledge. [Obs.] Holland.


   Flidge, v. i. To become fledged; to fledge. [Obs.]

     Every day build their nests, every hour flidge. R. Greene.


   Fli"er (?), n. [Form Fly, v.; cf. Flyer]

   1. One who flies or flees; a runaway; a fugitive. Shak.

   2. (Mach.) A fly. See Fly, n., 9, and 13 (b).

   3. (Spinning) See Flyer, n., 5.

   4. (Arch.) See Flyer, n., 4.


   Flight (?), n. [AS. fliht, flyht, a flying, fr. fle\'a2gan to fly; cf.
   flyht a fleeing, fr. fle\'a2n to flee, G. flucht a fleeing, Sw. flykt,
   G. flug a flying, Sw. flygt, D. vlugt a fleeing or flying, Dan. flugt.
   &root;84. See Flee, Fly.]

   1.  The act or flying; a passing through the air by the help of wings;
   volitation; mode or style of flying.

     Like the night owl's lazy flight. Shak.

   2.  The act of fleeing; the act of running away, to escape or expected
   evil; hasty departure.

     Pray ye that your flight be not in the winter. Matt. xxiv. 20.

     Fain by flight to save themselves. Shak.

   3.  Lofty  elevation  and  excursion;a  mounting; a soaas, a flight of
   imagination, ambition, folly.

     Could  he  have  kept his spirit to that flight, He had been happy.

     His  highest  flights  were  indeed  far  below  those  of  Taylor.

   4.  A  number  of  beings  or things passing through the air together;
   especially,  a flock of birds flying in company; the birds that fly or
   migrate  together;  the  birds produced in one season; as, a flight of
   arrows. Swift.

     Swift flights of angels ministrant. Milton.

     Like a flight of fowl Scattered winds and tempestuous gusts. Shak.

   5. A series of steps or stairs from one landing to another. Parker.

   6.  A  kind of arrow for the longbow; also, the sport of shooting with
   it. See Shaft. [Obs.]

     Challenged Cupid at the flight. Shak.

     Not  a flight drawn home E'er made that haste that they have. Beau.
     & Fl.

   7.  The husk or glume of oats. [Prov. Eng.] Wright. <-- 8. a trip made
   by or in a flying vehicle, as an airplane, spacecraft, or aeronautical
   balloon. 9. A scheduled flight{8} --
   to take a flight{9}. --> Flight feathers (Zo\'94l.), the wing feathers
   of  a bird, including the quills, coverts, and bastard wing. See Bird.
   --  To  put  to  flight,  To turn to flight, to compel to run away; to
   force to flee; to rout. Syn. -- Pair; set. See Pair.


   Flight"ed (?), a.

   1.  Taking  flight;  flying;  -- used in composition. "Drowsy-flighted
   steeds." Milton.

   2. (Her.) Feathered; -- said of arrows.


   Flight"er  (?),  n.  (Brewing)  A  horizontal  vane revolving over the
   surface  of  wort  in  a  cooler, to produce a circular current in the
   liquor. Knight.


   Flight"i*ly (?), adv. In a flighty manner.


   Flight"i*ness, n. The state or quality of being flighty.

     The flightness of her temper. Hawthorne.

   Syn.   --   Levity;   giddiness;   volatility;   lightness;  wildness;
   eccentricity. See Levity.


   Flight"-shot`  (?), n. The distance to which an arrow or flight may be
   shot; bowshot, -- about the fifth of a mile. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]

     Within a flight-shot it inthe valley. Evelyn.

     Half a flight-shot from the king's oak. Sir W. Scott.


   Flight"y (?), a.

   1. Fleeting; swift; transient.

     The  flighty purpose never is o'ertook, Unless the deed go with it.

   2.  Indulging  in  flights,  or  wild  and  unrestrained  sallies,  of
   imagination, humor, caprice, etc.; given to disorder

     Proofs of my flighty and paradoxical turn of mind. Coleridge.

     A harsh disciplinarian and a flighty enthusiast. J. S. Har


   Flim"flam (?), n. [Cf. Flam.] A freak; a trick; a lie. Beau. & Fl.


   Flim"si*ly (?), adv. In a flimsy manner.


   Flim"si*ness, n. The state or quality of being flimsy.


   Flim"sy  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Flimsier (?); superl. Flimsiest.] [Cf. W.
   llumsi  naked,  bare,  empty, slouggish, spiritless. Cf. Limsy.] Weak;
   feeble; limp; slight; vain; without strength or solidity; of loose and
   unsubstantial  structure; without reason or plausibility; as, a flimsy
   argument, excuse, objection.

     Proud of a vast extent of flimsy lines. Pope.

     All the flimsy furniture of a country miss's brain. Sheridan.

   Syn. -- Weak; feeble; superficial; shallow; vain.


   Flim"sy, n.

   1. Thin or transfer paper.

   2. A bank note. [Slang, Eng.]


   Flinch  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Flinched  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flinching.] [Prob. fr. OE. flecchen to waver, give way, F. fl\'82chir,
   fr. L. flectere to bend; but prob. influenced by E. blench. Cf. Flex.]

   1. To withdraw from any suffering or undertaking, from pain or danger;
   to  fail  in  doing  or  perserving;  to  show signs of yielding or of
   suffering;  to  shrink; to wince; as, one of the parties flinched from
   the combat.

     A  child,  by  a  constant course of kindness, may be accustomed to
     bear very rough usage without flinching or complaining. Locke.

   2. (Croquet) To let the foot slip from a ball, when attempting to give
   a tight croquet.


   Flinch, n. The act of flinching.


   Flinch"er (?), n.One who flinches or fails.


   Flinch"ing*ly, adv. In a flinching manner.


   Flin"der*mouse`  (?), n.[OE. vlindre moth (cf. D. vlinder butterfly) +
   E.   mouse.   Cf.   Flittermouse,   Flinders.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  bat;  a


   Flin"ders  (?),  n.  pl.  [Scot.  flenders, flendris; perh. akin to E.
   flutter;  cf.  D.  flenters  rags,  broken  pieces.]  Small  pieces or
   splinters; fragments.

     The  tough  ash  spear, so stout and true, Into a thousand flinders
     flew. Sir W. Scott.


   Fling  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flung (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flinging.]
   [OE.  flingen, flengen, to rush, hurl; cf. Icel. flengia to whip, ride
   furiously,  OSw.  flenga to strike, Sw. fl\'84nga to romp, Dan. flenge
   to slash.]

   1.  To  cast,  send, to throw from the hand; to hurl; to dart; to emit
   with violence as if thrown from the hand; as, to fing a stone into the

     'T is Fate that flings the dice: and, as she flings, Of kings makes
     peasants, and of peasants kings. Dryden.

     He . . . like Jove, his lighting flung. Dryden.

     I  know  thy  generous  temper  well.  Fling  but the appearance of
     dishonor on it, It straight takes fire. Addison.

   2. To shed forth; to emit; to scatter.

     The sun begins to fling His flaring beams. Milton.

     Every beam new transient colors flings. Pope.

   3.  To  throw;  to hurl; to throw off or down; to prostrate; hence, to
   baffle; to defeat; as, to fling a party in litigation.

     His horse started, flung him, and fell upon him. Walpole.

   Page 571

   To  fling  about, to throw on all sides; to scatter. -- To fling away,
   to reject; to discard.

     Cromwell, I charge thee, fling away ambition. Shak.

   --To  fling  down.  (a)  To  throw  to  the  ground; esp., to throw in
   defiance,  as  formerly  knights  cast  a  glove  into  the arena as a

     This  question  so  flung  down before the guests, . . . Was handed
     over by consent of all To me who had not spoken. Tennyson.

   (b)  To  overturn;  to demolish; to ruin. -- To fling in, to throw in;
   not  to  charge  in  an  account;  as, in settling accounts, one party
   flings in a small sum, or a few days' work. -- To fling off, to baffle
   in  the  chase; to defeat of prey; also, to get rid of. Addison. -- To
   fling  open,  to throw open; to open suddenly or with violence; as, to
   fling open a door. -- To fling out, to utter; to speak in an abrupt or
   harsh manner; as, to fling out hard words against another. -- To fling
   up, to relinquish; to abandon; as, to fling up a design.
   Fling (?), v. i. 

   1.  To  throw;  to  wince; to flounce; as, the horse began to kick and

   2.  To cast in the teeth; to utter abusive language; to sneer; as, the
   scold began to flout and fling.

   3. To throw one's self in a violent or hasty manner; to rush or spring
   with violence or haste.

     And crop-full, out of doors he flings. Milton.

     I  flung  closer to his breast, As sword that, after battle, flings
     to sheath. Mrs. Browning.

   To  fling  out,  to  become  ugly and intractable; to utter sneers and


   Fling, n.

   1.  A  cast  from  the hand; a throw; also, a flounce; a kick; as, the
   fling of a horse.

   2.  A severe or contemptuous remark; an expression of sarcastic scorn;
   a gibe; a sarcasm.

     I, who love to have a fling, Both at senate house and king. Swift.

   3. A kind of dance; as, the Highland fling.

   4. A trifing matter; an object of contempt. [Obs.]

     England  were  but  a fling Save for the crooked stick and the gray
     goose wing. Old Proverb.

   To have one's fling, to enjoy one's self to the full; to have a season
   of  dissipation.  J.  H. Newman. "When I was as young as you, I had my
   fling. I led a life of pleasure." D. Jerrold.


   Fling"dust`  (?),  n. One who kicks up the dust; a streetwalker; a low
   manner. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Fling"er (?), n. One who flings; one who jeers.


   Flint  (?),  n.  [AS.  flint, akin to Sw. flinta, Dan. flint; cf. OHG.
   flins  flint,  G.  flinte  gun  (cf.  E. flintlock), perh. akin to Gr.

   1.  (Min.)  A  massive,  somewhat  impure  variety of quartz, in color
   usually of a gray to brown or nearly black, breaking with a conchoidal
   fracture and sharp edge. It is very hard, and strikes fire with steel.

   2.  A piece of flint for striking fire; -- formerly much used, esp. in
   the hammers of gun locks.

   3. Anything extremely hard, unimpressible, and unyielding, like flint.
   "A heart of flint." Spenser.
   Flint  age.  (Geol.) Same as Stone age, under Stone. -- Flint brick, a
   fire  made  principially of powdered silex. -- Flint glass. See in the
   Vocabulary.  --  Flint implements (Arch\'91ol.), tools, etc., employed
   by men before the use of metals, such as axes, arrows, spears, knives,
   wedges,  etc., which were commonly made of flint, but also of granite,
   jade,  jasper,  and  other hard stones. -- Flint mill. (a) (Pottery) A
   mill  in  which  flints are ground. (b) (Mining) An obsolete appliance
   for  lighting  the  miner  at his work, in which flints on a revolving
   wheel  were  made to produce a shower of sparks, which gave light, but
   did  not  inflame  the  fire  damp.  Knight.  --  Flint stone, a hard,
   siliceous  stone;  a  flint.  -- Flint wall, a kind of wall, common in
   England, on the face of which are exposed the black surfaces of broken
   flints set in the mortar, with quions of masonry. -- Liquor of flints,
   a  solution of silica, or flints, in potash. -- To skin a flint, to be
   capable  of,  or  guilty  of, any expedient or any meanness for making
   money. [Colloq.]

                                  Flint glass

   Flint"  glass` (?). (Chem.) A soft, heavy, brilliant glass, consisting
   essentially  of  a  silicate  of  lead  and  potassium. It is used for
   tableware,  and for optical instruments, as prisms, its density giving
   a  high degree of dispersive power; -- so called, because formerly the
   silica was obtained from pulverized flints. Called also crystal glass.
   Cf. Glass.

     NOTE: &hand; The concave or diverging half on an achromatic lens is
     usually made of flint glass.


   Flint"-heart`ed (?), a. Hard-hearted. Shak.


   Flint"i*ness  (?),  n. The state or quality of being flinty; hardness;
   cruelty. Beau. & Fl.


   Flint"lock` (?), n.

   1.  A  lock  for  a gun or pistol, having a flint fixed in the hammer,
   which on stricking the steel ignites the priming.

   2.  A  hand  firearm  fitted with a flintlock; esp., the old-fashioned
   musket of European and other armies.


   Flint"ware`  (?),  n.  A  superior  kind  of  earthenware  into  whose
   composition flint enters largely. Knight.


   Flint"wood`  (?),  n. (Bot.) An Australian name for the very hard wood
   of the Eucalyptus piluralis.


   Flint"y  (?), a. [Compar. Flintier (?); superl. Flintiest.] Consisting
   of,  composed  of,  abounding  in,  or resembling, flint; as, a flinty
   rock;  flinty  ground;  a  flinty  heart.  Flinty  rockFlinty state, a
   siliceous slate; -- basanite is here included. See Basanite.


   Flip (?), n. [Cf. Prov. E. flip nimble, flippant, also, a slight blow.
   Cf.  Flippant.] A mixture of beer, spirit, etc., stirred and heated by
   a hot iron. Flip dog, an iron used, when heated, to warm flip.


   Flip,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Flipped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flipping.] To
   toss or fillip; as, to flip up a cent.

     As  when your little ones Do 'twixt their fingers flip their cherry
     stones. W. Browne.


   Flipe  (?),  v.  t. To turn inside out, or with the leg part back over
   the foot, as a stocking in pulling off or for putting on. [Scot.]


   Flip"-flap`  (?),  n.  [See  Flip,  and  Flap.] The repeated stroke of
   something long and loose. Johnson.


   Flip"-flap`,  adv.  With  repeated  strokes and noise, as of something
   long and loose. Ash.


   Flip"pan*cy  (?),  n.[See  Flippant.]  The  state  or quality of being

     This flippancy of language. Bp. Hurd.


   Flip"pant  (?),  a.  [Prov. E. flip to move nimbly; cf. W. llipa soft,
   limber,  pliant, or Icel. fleipa to babble, prattle. Cf. Flip, Fillip,
   Flap, Flipper.]

   1.  Of  smooth,  fluent,  and  rapid  speech;  speaking  with ease and
   rapidity; having a voluble tongue; talkative.

     It  becometh  good  men,  in such cases, to be flippant and free in
     their speech. Barrow.

   2.   Speaking   fluently   and   confidently,   without  knowledge  or
   consideration;   empty;   trifling;   inconsederate;  pert;  petulant.
   "Flippant epilogous." Thomson.

     To put flippant scorn to the blush. I. Taylor.

     A sort of flippant, vain discourse. Burke.


   Flip"pant, n. A flippant person. [R.] Tennyson.


   Flip"pant*ly, adv. In a flippant manner.


   Flip"pant*ness, n. State or quality of being flippant.


   Flip"per (?), n. [Cf. Flip, Flippant.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) A broad flat limb used for swimming, as those of seals,
   sea turtles, whales, etc.

   2. (Naut.) The hand. [Slang]


   Flirt  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Flirted; p. pr. & vb. n. Flirting.]
   [Cf. AS. fleard trifle, folly, fleardian to trifle.]

   1.  To  throw with a jerk or quick effort; to fling suddenly; as, they
   flirt  water  in  each  other's  faces;  he  flirted  a  glove,  or  a

   2.  To toss or throw about; to move playfully to and fro; as, to flirt
   a fan.

   3. To jeer at; to treat with contempt; to mock. [Obs.]

     I am ashamed; I am scorned; I am flirted. Beau. & Fl.


   Flirt, v. i.

   1.  To  run and dart about; to act with giddiness, or from a desire to
   attract   notice;  especially,  to  play  the  coquette;  to  play  at
   courtship; to coquet; as, they flirt with the young men.

   2.  To utter contemptious language, with an air of disdain; to jeer or
   gibe. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Flirt, n.

   1.  A  sudden  jerk; a quick throw or cast; a darting motion; hence, a

     Several little flirts and vibrations. Addison.

     With many a flirt and flutter. E. A. Poe.

   2.  [Cf.  LG. flirtje, G. flirtchen. See Flirt, v. t.] One who flirts;
   esp.,  a  woman  who  acts  with  giddiness,  or plays at courtship; a
   coquette; a pert girl.

     Several  young flirts about town had a design to cast us out of the
     fashionable world. Addison.


   Flirt, a. Pert; wanton. [Obs.]


   Flir*ta"tion (?), n.

   1. Playing at courtship; coquerty.

     The flirtations and jealousies of our ball rooms. Macaulay.


   Flirt"-gill`  (?),  n. A woman of light behavior; a gill-flirt. [Obs.]

     You heard him take me up like a flirt-gill. Beau. & Fl.


   Flirt"i*gig (?), n. A wanton, pert girl. [Obs.]


   Flirt"ing*ly, adv. In a flirting manner.


   Flisk  (?),  v.  i.  To  frisk;  to  skip; to caper. [Obs. Scot.] "The
   flisking flies." Gosson.


   Flisk, n. A caper; a spring; a whim. [Scot.]


   Flit  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Flitted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flitting
   (?).]  [OE.  flitten,  flutten,  to  carry away; cf. Icel. flytja, Sw.
   flytta, Dan. flytte. Fleet, v. i.]

   1.  To  move  with  celerity through the air; to fly away with a rapid
   motion;  to dart along; to fleet; as, a bird flits away; a cloud flits

     A shadow flits before me. Tennyson.

   2. To flutter; to rove on the wing. Dryden.

   3.  To  pass rapidly, as a light substance, from one place to another;
   to remove; to migrate.

     It became a received opinion, that the souls of men, departing this
     life, did flit out of one body into some other. Hooker.

   4.  To  remove from one place or habitation to another. [Scot. & Prov.
   Eng.] Wright. Jamieson.

   5. To be unstable; to be easily or often moved.

     And the free soul to flitting air resigned. Dryden.


   Flit, a. Nimble; quick; swift. [Obs.] See Fleet.


   Flitch  (?),  n.;  pl. Flitches (#). [OE. flicche, flikke, AS. flicce,
   akin to Icel. flikki; cf. Icel. fl\'c6k flap, tatter; perh. akin to E.
   fleck. Cf. Flick, n.]

   1. The side of a hog salted and cured; a side of bacon. Swift.

   2.  One  of several planks, smaller timbers, or iron plates, which are
   secured together, side by side, to make a large girder or built beam.

   3. The outside piece of a sawed log; a slab. [Eng.]


   Flite  (?),  v. i. [AS. fl\'c6tan to strive, contend, quarrel; akin to
   G. fleiss industry.] To scold; to quarrel. [Prov. Eng.] Grose.


   Flit"ter (?), v. i. To flutter. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Flit"ter, v. t. To flutter; to move quickly; as, to flitter the cards.
   [R.] Lowell.


   Flit"ter,  n.  [Cf.  G.  flitter  spangle,  tinsel, flittern to make a
   tremulous  motion,  to glitter. Cf. Flitter, v. i.] A rag; a tatter; a
   small piece or fragment.


   Flit"ter*mouse`  (?),  n.  [Flitter,  v.i. + mouse; cf. G. fledermaus,
   OHG.  fledarm.  Cf.  Flickermouse, Flindermouse.] (Zo\'94l.) A bat; --
   called also flickermouse, flindermouse, and flintymouse.


   Flit"tern  (?),  a.A  term applied to the bark obtained from young oak
   trees. McElrath.


   Flit"ti*ness  (?),  n. [From Flitty.] Unsteadiness; levity; lightness.
   [Obs.] Bp. Hopkins.


   Flit"ting (?), n.

   1. A flying with lightness and celerity; a fluttering.

   2. A removal from one habitation to another. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]

     A  neighbor  had  lent  his  cart  for the flitting, and it was now
     standing loaded at the door, ready to move away. Jeffrey.


   Flit"ting*ly, adv.In a flitting manner.


   Flit"ty (?), a. [From Flit.] Unstable; fluttering. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


   Flix (?), n. [Cf. Flax.] Down; fur. [Obs. or Eng.] J. Dyer.


   Flix,  n.The  flux;  dysentery.  [Obs.]  Udall.  Flix weed (Bot.), the
   Sisymbrium  Sophia, a kind of hedge mustard, formerly used as a remedy
   for dysentery.


   Flo  (?),  n.;  pl.  Flon (#). [AS. fl\'be, fl\'ben.] An arrow. [Obs.]


   Float  (?),  n.[OE.  flote  ship,  boat,  fleet,  AS.  flota ship, fr.
   fle\'a2tan  to  float;  akin  to  D. vloot fleet, G. floss raft, Icel.
   floti float, raft, fleet, Sw. flotta. &root; 84. See Fleet, v. i., and
   cf. Flotilla, Flotsam, Plover.]

   1.  Anything  which  floats  or rests on the surface of a fluid, as to
   sustain  weight, or to indicate the height of the surface, or mark the
   place  of,  something.  Specifically:  (a)  A mass of timber or boards
   fastened  together, and conveyed down a stream by the current; a raft.
   (b)  The  hollow,  metallic ball of a self-acting faucet, which floats
   upon  the  water in a cistern or boiler. (c) The cork or quill used in
   angling,  to  support  the bait line, and indicate the bite of a fish.
   (d)  Anything  used to buoy up whatever is liable to sink; an inflated
   bag or pillow used by persons learning to swim; a life preserver.

     This reform bill . . . had been used as a float by the conservative
     ministry. J. P. Peters.

   2. A float board. See Float board (below).

   3.  (Tempering)  A contrivance for affording a copious stream of water
   to  the heated surface of an object of large bulk, as an anvil or die.

   4. The act of flowing; flux; flow. [Obs.] Bacon.

   5. A quantity of earth, eighteen feet square and one foot deep. [Obs.]

   6.  (Plastering)  The  trowel  or  tool with which the floated coat of
   plastering is leveled and smoothed.

   7. A polishing block used in marble working; a runner. Knight.

   8.  A  single-cut  file  for  smoothing; a tool used by shoemakers for
   rasping off pegs inside a shoe.

   9. A coal cart. [Eng.] Simmonds.

   10. The sea; a wave. See Flote, n.
   Float  board,  one  of  the  boards  fixed  radially  to the rim of an
   undershot  water  wheel  or of a steamer's paddle wheel; -- a vane. --
   Float case (Naut.), a caisson used for lifting a ship. -- Float copper
   OR  gold  (Mining),  fine  particles  of  metallic  copper  or of gold
   suspended  in  water,  and  thus  liable  to  be  lost.  -- Float ore,
   water-worn  particles  of ore; fragments of vein material found on the
   surface,  away from the vein outcrop. Raymond. -- Float stone (Arch.),
   a  siliceous  stone  used  to  rub  stonework or brickwork to a smooth
   surface.  --  Float  valve, a valve or cock acted upon by a float. See
   Float, 1 (b).


   Float,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Floated; p. pr. & vb. n. Floating.] [OE.
   flotien,  flotten,  AS.  flotian  to  float, swim, fr. fle\'a2tan. See
   Float, n.]

   1. To rest on the surface of any fluid; to swim; to be buoyed up.

     The ark no more now floats, but seems on ground. Milton.

     Three  blustering  nights,  borne by the southern blast, I floated.

   2.  To move quietly or gently on the water, as a raft; to drift along;
   to  move or glide without effort or impulse on the surface of a fluid,
   or through the air.

     They stretch their broad plumes and float upon the wind. Pope.

     There seems a floating whisper on the hills. Byron.


   Float, v. t.

   1.  To  cause  to  float; to cause to rest or move on the surface of a
   fluid; as, the tide floated the ship into the harbor.

     Had floated that bell on the Inchcape rock. Southey.

   2. To flood; to overflow; to cover with water.

     Proud Pactolus floats the fruitful lands. Dryden.

   3.  (Plastering)  To  pass  over and level the surface of with a float
   while the plastering is kept wet.

   4.  To  support and sustain the credit of, as a commercial scheme or a
   joint-stock company, so as to enable


   Float"a*ble (?), a. That may be floated.


   Float"age (?; 48), n. Same as Flotage.


   Float*a"tion (?), n.See Flotation.


   Float"er (?), n.

   1. One who floats or swims.

   2. A float for indicating the height of a liquid surface.


   Float"ing, a.

   1.  Buoyed  upon  or  in  a fluid; a, the floating timbers of a wreck;
   floating motes in the air.

   2.  Free  or  lose from the usual attachment; as, the floating ribs in
   man and some other animals.

   3.  Not  funded;  not  fixed,  invested,  or  determined; as, floating
   capital; a floating debt.

     Trade  was  at an end. Floating capital had been withdrawn in great
     masses from the island. Macaulay.

   Floating  anchor (Naut.), a drag or sea anchor; drag sail. -- Floating
   battery  (Mil.),  a  battery  erected  on rafts or the hulls of ships,
   chiefly  for  the defense of a coast or the bombardment of a place. --
   Floating  bridge.  (a)  A bridge consisting of rafts or timber, with a
   floor  of  plank,  supported wholly by the water; a bateau bridge. See
   Bateau.  (b)  (Mil.) A kind of double bridge, the upper one projecting
   beyond  the  lower one, and capable of being moved forward by pulleys;
   --  used  for  carrying  troops  over  narrow  moats  in attacking the
   outworks  of  a  fort.  (c)  A  kind  of ferryboat which is guided and
   impelled  by  means  of  chains  which  are anchored on each side of a
   stream, and pass over wheels on the vessel, the wheels being driven by
   stream  power.  (d)  The landing platform of a ferry dock. -- Floating
   cartilage  (Med.),  a  cartilage which moves freely in the cavity of a
   joint,  and  often  interferes  with  the  functions of the latter. --
   Floating  dam. (a) An anchored dam. (b) A caisson used as a gate for a
   dry  dock.  --  Floating  derrick,  a derrick on a float for river and
   harbor  use, in raising vessels, moving stone for harbor improvements,
   etc.  --  Floating dock. (Naut.) See under Dock. -- Floating harbor, a
   breakwater of cages or booms, anchored and fastened together, and used
   as  a  protection  to  ships  riding  at anchor to leeward. Knight. --
   Floating  heart (Bot.), a small aquatic plant (Limnanthemum lacunosum)
   whose  heart-shaped  leaves  float  on the water of American ponds. --
   Floating  island,  a  dish  for  dessert,  consisting  of custard with
   floating masses of whipped cream or white of eggs. -- Floating kidney.
   (Med.)  See  Wandering  kidney,  under Wandering. -- Floating light, a
   light  shown  at  the  masthead  of a vessel moored over sunken rocks,
   shoals,  etc., to warn mariners of danger; a light-ship; also, a light
   erected  on  a  buoy  or floating stage. -- Floating liver. (Med.) See
   Wandering liver, under Wandering. -- Floating pier, a landing stage or
   pier  which  rises  and falls with the tide. -- Floating ribs (Anat.),
   the lower or posterior ribs which are not connected with the others in
   front;  in  man  they  are  the  last  two  pairs.  -- Floating screed
   (Plastering), a strip of plastering first laid on, to serve as a guide
   for  the thickness of the coat. -- Floating threads (Weaving), threads
   which  span  several other threads without being interwoven with them,
   in a woven fabric.

   Page 572


   Float"ing (?), n.

   1. (Weaving) Floating threads. See Floating threads, above.

   2. The second coat of three-coat plastering. Knight.


   Float"ing*ly, adv. In a floating manner.


   Float"y  (?),  a.  Swimming  on  the  surface;  buoyant; light. Sir W.


   Flo"bert  (?),  n.  (Gun.)  A  small  cartridge  designed  for  target
   shooting; -- sometimes called ball cap. Flobert rifle, a rifle adapted
   to the use of floberts.


   Floc`cil*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  floccus a flock of wool. Cf. Flock of
   wool.]  (Med.)  A delirious picking of bedclothes by a sick person, as
   if  to  pick off flocks of wool; carphology; -- an alarming symptom in
   acute diseases. Dunglison.


   Floc/cose" (?), a. [L. floccosus. Cf. 2d Flock, n.]

   1. Spotted with small tufts like wool. Wright.

   2. (Bot.) Having tufts of soft hairs, which are often deciduous.


   Floc"cu*lar (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the flocculus.


   Floc"cu*late  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Flocculated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flocculating.] (Geol.) To aggregate into small lumps.


   Floc"cu*late  (?),  a. (Zo\'94l.) Furnished with tufts of curly hairs,
   as some insects.


   Floc`cu*la"tion  (?),  n. (Geol.) The process by which small particles
   of fine soils and sediments aggregate into larger lumps.


   Floc"cu*lence (?), n. The state of being flocculent.


   Floc"cu*lent (?), a. [See Flock of wool.]

   1. Clothed with small flocks or flakes; woolly. Gray.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Applied to the down of newly hatched or unfledged birds.


   Floc"cu*lus (?), n.; pl. Flocculi (#). [NL., dim. of L. floccus a lock
   or  flock  of  wool.] (Anat.) A small lobe in the under surface of the
   cerebellum, near the middle peduncle; the subpeduncular lobe.


   Floc"cus (?), n.; pl. Flocci (#). [L., a flock of wool.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  The tuft of hair terminating the tail of mammals.
   (b) A tuft of feathers on the head of young birds.

   2.  (Bot.)  A  woolly filament sometimes occuring with the sporules of
   certain fungi.


   Flock  (?),  n. [AS. flocc flock, company; akin to Icel. flokkr crowd,
   Sw.  flock,  Dan. flok; prob. orig. used of flows, and akin to E. fly.
   See Fly.]

   1.  A company or collection of living creatures; -- especially applied
   to  sheep  and  birds,  rarely to persons or (except in the plural) to
   cattle and other large animals; as, a flock of ravenous fowl. Milton.

     The heathen . . . came to Nicanor by flocks. 2 Macc. xiv. 14.

   2. A Christian church or congregation; considered in their relation to
   the pastor, or minister in charge.

     As half amazed, half frighted all his flock. Tennyson.


   Flock,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Flocked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flocking.] To
   gather in companies or crowds.

     Friends daily flock. Dryden.

   Flocking fowl (Zo\'94l.), the greater scaup duck.


   Flock, v. t. To flock to; to crowd. [Obs.]

     Good fellows, trooping, flocked me so. Taylor (1609).


   Flock, n. [OE. flokke; cf. D. vlok, G. flocke, OHG. floccho, Icel. fl,
   perh. akin to E. flicker, flacker, or cf. L. floccus, F. floc.]

   1. A lock of wool or hair.

     I  prythee,  Tom,  beat Cut's saddle, put a few flocks in the point
     [pommel]. Shak.

   2.  Woolen or cotton refuse (sing. OR pl.), old rags, etc., reduced to
   a  degree of fineness by machinery, and used for stuffing unpholstered

   3. Very fine, sifted, woolen refuse, especially that from shearing the
   nap  of  cloths, used as a coating for wall paper to give it a velvety
   or  clothlike appearance; also, the dust of vegetable fiber used for a
   similar purpose.
   Flock bed, a bed filled with flocks or locks of coarse wool, or pieces
   of  cloth  cut  up  fine. "Once a flock bed, but repaired with straw."
   Pope. -- Flock paper, paper coated with flock fixed with glue or size.


   Flock, v. t. To coat with flock, as wall paper; to roughen the surface
   of  (as  glass) so as to give an appearance of being covered with fine


   Flock"ling, n. A lamb. [Obs.] Brome (1659).


   Flock"ly, adv. In flocks; in crowds. [Obs.]


   Flock"mel (?), adv. [AS. flocm. See Meal part.] In a flock; in a body.

     That flockmel on a day they to him went. Chaucer.


   Flock"y, a. Abounding with flocks; floccose.


   Floe  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Dan.  flag  af  iis, iisflage, Sw. flaga, flake,
   isflaga, isflake. See Flag a flat stone.] A low, flat mass of floating
   ice. Floe rat (Zo\'94l.), a seal (Phoca f\'d2tida).


   Flog  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Flogged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flogging
   (?).]  [Cf.  Scot.  fleg  blow, stroke, kick, AS. flocan to strike, or
   perh.  fr.  L.  flagellare to whip. Cf. Flagellate.] To beat or strike
   with a rod or whip; to whip; to lash; to chastise with repeated blows.


   Flog"ger (?), n.

   1. One who flogs.

   2.  A kind of mallet for beating the bung stave of a cask to start the
   bung. Knight.


   Flog"ging  (?),  a.  &  n. from Flog, v. t. Flogging chisel (Mach.), a
   large  cold  chisel,  used in chipping castings. -- Flogging hammer, a
   small sledge hammer used for striking a flogging chisel.


   Flon (?), n. pl. See Flo. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Flong (? OR ?), obs. imp. & p. p. of Fling.


   Flood  (?), n. [OE. flod a flowing, stream, flood, AS. fl&omac;d; akin
   to  D. vloed, OS. fl&omac;d, OHG. fluot, G. flut, Icel. fl&omac;&edh;,
   Sw.  &  Dan.  flod,  Goth.  fl&omac;dus;  from  the  root  of E. flow.
   &root;80. See Flow, v. i.]

   1.  A great flow of water; a body of moving water; the flowing stream,
   as  of  a  river;  especially,  a body of water, rising, swelling, and
   overflowing  land  not  usually  thus covered; a deluge; a freshet; an

     A covenant never to destroy The earth again by flood. Milton.

   2.  The flowing in of the tide; the semidiurnal swell or rise of water
   in the ocean; -- opposed to ebb; as, young flood; high flood.

     There  is  a tide in the affairs of men, Which, taken at the flood,
     leads on to fortune. Shak.

   3.  A  great  flow  or  stream  of any fluid substance; as, a flood of
   light;  a  flood  of lava; hence, a great quantity widely diffused; an
   overflowing;  a  superabundance; as, a flood of bank notes; a flood of
   paper currency.

   4. Menstrual disharge; menses. Harvey.
   Flood  anchor  (Naut.)  , the anchor by which a ship is held while the
   tide is rising. -- Flood fence, a fence so secured that it will not be
   swept  away  by  a  flood.  --  Flood  gate,  a gate for shutting out,
   admitting,  or releasing, a body of water; a tide gate. -- Flood mark,
   the  mark  or  line  to  which the tide, or a flood, rises; high-water
   mark.  --  Flood tide, the rising tide; -- opposed to ebb tide. -- The
   Flood, the deluge in the days of Noah.


   Flood, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flooded; p. pr. & vb. n. Flooding.]

   1.  To overflow; to inundate; to deluge; as, the swollen river flooded
   the valley.

   2.  To cause or permit to be inundated; to fill or cover with water or
   other  fluid;  as,  to  flood  arable  land for irrigation; to fill to
   excess  or  to  its  full  capacity;  as,  to  flood  a country with a
   depreciated currency.


   Flood"age (?; 48), n. Inundation. [R.] Carlyle.


   Flood"er (?), n. One who floods anything.


   Flood"ing,  n.  The  filling  or  covering  with water or other fluid;
   overflow; inundation; the filling anything to excess.

   2. (Med.) An abnormal or excessive discharge of blood from the uterus.


   Flook (?), n. A fluke of an anchor.

                                Flookan, Flukan

   Flook"an (?), Flu"kan (?), n. (Mining) See Flucan.


   Flook"y (?), a. Fluky.


   Floor  (?),  n.  [AS.  fl;  akin  to  D.  vloer, G. flur field, floor,
   entrance  hall,  Icel.  fl  floor  of a cow stall, cf. Ir. & Gael. lar
   floor,  ground,  earth,  W.  llawr, perh. akin to L. planus level. Cf.
   Plain smooth.]

   1.  The bottom or lower part of any room; the part upon which we stand
   and upon which the movables in the room are supported.

   2. The structure formed of beams, girders, etc., with proper covering,
   which  divides  a building horizontally into stories. Floor in sense 1
   is, then, the upper surface of floor in sense 2.

   3.  The  surface,  or the platform, of a structure on which we walk or
   travel; as, the floor of a bridge.

   4. A story of a building. See Story.

   5.  (Legislative Assemblies) (a) The part of the house assigned to the
   members. (b) The right to speak. [U.S.]

     NOTE: &hand; Instead of he has the floor, the English say, he is in
     possession of the house.

   6.  (Naut.)  That  part  of the bottom of a vessel on each side of the
   keelson which is most nearly horizontal.

   7.  (Mining) (a) The rock underlying a stratified or nearly horizontal
   deposit. (b) A horizontal, flat ore body. Raymond.
   Floor  cloth,  a  heavy fabric, painted, varnished, or saturated, with
   waterproof material, for covering floors; oilcloth. -- Floor cramp, an
   implement for tightening the seams of floor boards before nailing them
   in  position.  -- Floor light, a frame with glass panes in a floor. --
   Floor  plan. (a) (Shipbuilding) A longitudinal section, showing a ship
   as  divided  at  the  water  line.  (b)  (Arch.) A horizontal section,
   showing  the  thickness  of  the  walls and partitions, arrangement of
   passages,  apartments,  and  openings  at  the level of any floor of a


   Floor, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Floored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flooring.]

   1.  To  cover  with  a  floor; to furnish with a floor; as, to floor a
   house with pine boards.

   2.  To  strike down or lay level with the floor; to knock down; hence,
   to silence by a conclusive answer or retort; as, to floor an opponent.

     Floored or crushed by him. Coleridge.

   3.  To  finish  or make an end of; as, to floor a college examination.

     I've floored my little-go work. T. Hughes.


   Floor"age (?; 48), n. Floor space.


   Floor"er  (?),  n.  Anything that floors or upsets a person, as a blow
   that  knocks  him  down;  a  conclusive  answer or retort; a task that
   exceeds one's abilities. [Colloq.]


   Floor"heads`,  n.  pl. (Naut.) The upper extermities of the floor of a


   Floor"ing, n. A platform; the bottom of a room; a floor; pavement. See
   Floor, n. Addison.

   2. Material for the construction of a floor or floors.


   Floor"less, a. Having no floor.


   Floor"walk`er  (?),  n. One who walks about in a large retail store as
   an overseer and director. [U.S.]


   Flop  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flopped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flopping.]
   [A variant of flap.]

   1.  To  clap or strike, as a bird its wings, a fish its tail, etc.; to

   2. To turn suddenly, as something broad and flat. [Colloq.] Fielding.


   Flop (?), v. i.

   1.  To  strike about with something broad abd flat, as a fish with its
   tail,  or  a  bird with its wings; to rise and fall; as, the brim of a
   hat flops.

   2.  To  fall,  sink,  or  throw  one's  self,  heavily,  clumsily, and
   unexpectedly on the ground. [Colloq.] Dickens.


   Flop, n. Act of flopping. [Colloq.] W. H. Russell.


   Flop"py  (?),  n.  Having a tendency to flop or flap; as, a floppy hat
   brim. G. Eliot.


   Flop"wing` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The lapwing.


   Flo"ra (?), n. [L., the goddess of flowers, from flos, floris, flower.
   See Flower.]

   1. (Rom. Myth.) The goddess of flowers and spring.

   2.  (Bot.)  The  complete  system of vegetable species growing without
   cultivation  in  a  given  locality,  region,  or  period;  a  list or
   description of, or treatise on, such plants.


   Flo"ral  (?),  a.  [L. Floralis belonging to Flora: cf. F. floral. See

   1.  Pertaining  to  Flora,  or to flowers; made of flowers; as, floral
   games, wreaths.

   2.  (Bot.)  Containing, or belonging to, a flower; as, a floral bud; a
   floral leaf; floral characters. Martyn.
   Floral  envelope  (Bot.),  the  calyx and corolla, one or the other of
   which (mostly the corolla) may be wanting.


   Flo"ral*ly, adv. In a floral manner.


   Flo"ra*mour  (?),  n.[L.  flos,  floris, flower + amorlove.] The plant
   love-lies-bleeding. [Obs.] Prior.


   Flo"ran  (?),  n.  (Mining) Tin ore scarcely perceptible in the stone;
   tin ore stamped very fine. Pryce.


   Flo`r\'82al" (?), n. [F. flor\'82al, fr. L. flos, floris, flower.] The
   eight  month of the French republican calendar. It began April 20, and
   ended May 19. See Vend\'82miare.


   Flor"en  (?),  n.  [LL.  florenus.  See Florin.] A cerain gold coin; a
   Florence. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Flor"ence  (?),  n. [From the city of Florence: cf. F. florence a kind
   of cloth, OF. florin.]

   1.  An  ancient gold coin of the time of Edward III., of six shillings
   sterling value. Camden.

   2. A kind of cloth. Johnson.
   Florence  flask.  See under Flask. -- Florence oil, olive oil prepared
   in Florence.


   Flor"en*tine  (?  OR  ?;  277),  a.  [L.  Florentinus,  fr.  Florentia
   Florence:  cf.  F.  florentin.]  Belonging or relating to Florence, in
   Italy.  Florentine  mosaic,  a  mosaic of hard or semiprecious stones,
   often  so  chosen  and  arranged  that  their natural colors represent
   leaves,  flowers,  and  the  like,  inlaid in a background, usually of
   black or white marble.


   Flor"en*tine, n.

   1. A native or inhabitant of Florence, a city in Italy.

   2. A kind of silk. Knight.

   3. A kind of pudding or tart; a kind of meat pie. [Obs.]

     Stealing custards, tarts, and florentines. Beau. & Fl.


   Flo*res"cence (?), n. [See Florescent.] (Bot.) A bursting into flower;
   a blossoming. Martyn.


   Flo*res"cent  (?),  a.  [L.  florescens,  p.pr. of florescere begin to
   blossom,  incho. fr. florere to blossom, fr. flos, floris, flower. See
   Flower.] Expanding into flowers; blossoming.


   Flo"ret (?), n. [OF. florete, F. fleurette, dim. of OF. lor, F. fleur.
   See Flower, and cf. Floweret, 3d Ferret.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  little flower; one of the numerous little flowers which
   compose  the  head or anthodium in such flowers as the daisy, thistle,
   and dandelion. Gray.

   2.  [F.  fleuret.]  A  foil;  a  blunt  sword  used in fencing. [Obs.]


   Flo"ri*age (?), n. [L. flos, flori, flower.] Bloom; blossom. [Obs.] J.


   Flo"ri*a`ted  (?),  a.  (Arch.) Having floral ornaments; as, floriated
   capitals of Gothic pillars.


   Flo*ric"mous (?), a. [L. flos, floris, flower + coma hair.] Having the
   head adorned with flowers. [R.]


   Flo`ri*cul"tur*al  (?  OR ?; 135), a. Pertaining to the cultivation of
   flowering plants.


   Flo"ri*cul`ture  (?  OR  ?;  135,  277), n. [L. flos, floris, flower +
   cultura culture.] The cultivation of flowering plants.


   Flo`ri*cul"tur*ist  (?), n. One skilled in the cultivation of flowers;
   a florist.


   Flor"id (?), a. [L. floridus, fr. flos, floris, flower. See Flower.]

   1. Covered with flowers; abounding in flowers; flowery. [R.]

     Fruit from a pleasant and florid tree. Jer. Taylor.

   2. Bright in color; flushed with red; of a lively reddish color; as, a
   florid countenance.

   3.  Embellished  with  flowers  of  rhetoric;  enriched to excess with
   figures; excessively ornate; as, a florid style; florid eloquence.

   4.  (Mus.)  Flowery;  ornamental;  running  in  rapid melodic figures,
   divisions,  or passages, as in variations; full of fioriture or little

                                 Florida bean

   Flor"i*da bean" (?). (Bot.) (a) The large, roundish, flattened seed of
   Mucuna  urens.  See under Bean. (b) One of the very large seeds of the
   Entada scandens.


   Flo*rid"e*\'91  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  from L. flos, floris, a flower.]
   (Bot.)  A  subclass  of  alg\'91  including  all  the  red or purplish
   seaweeds;  the  Rhodosperme\'91 of many authors; -- so called from the
   rosy or florid color of most of the species.


   Flo*rid"i*ty (?), n. The quality of being florid; floridness. Floyer.


   Flor"id*ly (?), adv. In a florid manner.


   Flor"id*ness, n. The quality of being florid. Boyle.


   Flo*rif"er*ous  (?),  a. [L. florifer; flos, floris, flower + ferre to
   bear; cf. F. florif\'8are.] Producing flowers. Blount.

   Page 573


   Flo`ri*fi*ca"tion  (?), n. [L. flos, floris, flower + facere to make.]
   The act, process, or time of flowering; florescence.


   Flo"ri*form  (?  OR  ?),  a.  [L. flos, floris, flower + -form: cf. F.
   floriforme.] Having the form of a flower; flower-shaped.


   Flo"ri*ken  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  An Indian bustard (Otis aurita). The
   Bengal  floriken  is  Sypheotides Bengalensis. [Written also florikan,
   floriken, florican.]


   Flo"ri*lege  (?),  n.  [L.  florilegus  flower-culling;  flos, floris,
   flower  + legere to gather: cf. F. floril\'8age.] The act of gathering


   Flo"ri*mer (?), n. (Bot.) See Floramour. [Obs.]


   Flor"in  (?),  n.  [F.  florin, It. florino, orig., a Florentine coin,
   with  a  lily  on it, fr. flore a flower, fr. L. flos. See Flower, and
   cf.  Floren.]  A  silver coin of Florence, first struck in the twelfth
   century,  and  noted  for  its  beauty. The name is given to different
   coins  in  different countries. The florin of England, first minted in
   1849,  is  worth  two  shillings, or about 48 cents; the florin of the
   Netherlands, about 40 cents; of Austria, about 36 cents.


   Flo"rist  (?  OR ?; 277), n. [Cf. F. fleuriste, floriste, fr. F. fleur
   flower. See Flower.]

   1. A cultivator of, or dealer in, flowers.

   2. One who writes a flora, or an account of plants.


   Flo*roon"  (?),  n.  [F.  fleuron.  See  Flower.] A border worked with
   flowers. Wright.


   Flor"u*lent  (?),  a.  [L.  florulentus,  fr.  flos,  floris, flower.]
   Flowery; blossoming. [Obs.] Blount.


   Flos"cu*lar (?), a. (Bot.) Flosculous.


   Flos`cu*la"ri*an  (?),  n.  [From L. flosculus a floweret.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One  of  a group of stalked rotifers, having ciliated tentacles around
   the lobed disk.


   Flos*cule  (?),  n.  [L.  flosculus,  dim.  of  flos  flower:  cf.  F.
   floscule.] (Bot.) A floret.


   Flos"cu*lous (?), a. (Bot.) Consisting of many gamopetalous florets.


   Flos`-fer"ri  (?),  n.[L.,  flower  of  iron.]  (Min.)  A  variety  of
   aragonite,  occuring in delicate white coralloidal forms; -- common in
   beds of iron ore.


   Flosh  (?), n. [Cf. G. fl\'94sse a trough in which tin ore is washed.]
   (Metallurgy) A hopper-shaped box or Knight.


   Floss  (?;  195), n. [It. floscio flabby, soft, fr. L. fluxus flowing,
   loose, slack. See Flux, n.]

   1.  (Bot.) The slender styles of the pistillate flowers of maize; also
   called silk.

   2. Untwisted filaments of silk, used in embroidering.
   Floss  silk,  silk  that has been twisted, and which retains its loose
   and downy character. It is much used in embroidery. Called also floxed
   silk.  -- Floss thread, a kind of soft flaxen yarn or thread, used for
   embroidery; -- called also linen floss, and floss yarn. McElrath.


   Floss, n. [Cf. G. floss a float.]

   1. A small stream of water. [Eng.]

   2.  Fluid  glass floating on iron in the puddling furnace, produced by
   the vitrification of oxides and earths which are present.
   Floss hole. (a) A hole at the back of a puddling furnace, at which the
   slags pass out. (b) The tap hole of a melting furnace. Knight.


   Flos`si*fi*ca"tion   (?),   n.   [Cf.   Florification.]  A  flowering;
   florification. [R.] Craig.


   Floss"y  (?;  115),  a.  Pertaining to, made of, or resembling, floss;
   hence, light; downy.


   Flo"ta (?), n. [Sp. See Flotilla.] A fleet; especially, a


   Flo"tage (?), n. [OF. flotage, F. flottage, fr. flotter to float.]

   1. The state of floating.

   2. That which floats on the sea or in rivers. [Written also floatage.]


   Flo"tant  (?),  a.  [OF.  flotant,  F.  flottant,  p.pr. of flotter to
   float.]  (Her.)  Represented  as flying or streaming in the air; as, a
   banner flotant.


   Flo*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. flottation a floating, flottaison water
   line, fr. flotter to float. See Flotilla.]

   1. The act, process, or state of floating.

   2. The science of floating bodies.
   Center  of flotation. (Shipbuilding) (a) The center of any given plane
   of  flotation. (b) More commonly, the middle of the length of the load
   water  line.  Rankine.  --  Plane, OR Line, of flotation, the plane or
   line  in  which the horizontal surface of a fluid cuts a body floating
   in it. See Bearing, n., 9 (c). -- Surface of flotation (Shipbuilding),
   the  imaginary  surface which all the planes of flotation touch when a
   vessel rolls or pitches; the envelope of all such planes.


   Flote (?), v. t. To fleet; to skim. [Obs.] Tusser.


   Flote, n. [Cf. F. flot, L. fluctus; also cf. Float, n.] A wave. [Obs.]
   "The Mediterranean flote." Shak.


   Flot"er*y (?), a. Wavy; flowing. [Obs.]

     With flotery beard. Chaucer.


   Flo*til"la  (?),  n.  [Sp.  flotilla,  dim. of flota fleet; akin to F.
   flotte,  It.  flotta,  and  F.  flot  wave,  fr. L. fluctus, but prob.
   influenced  by  words  akin to E. float. See Fluctuate, and cf. Float,
   n.] A little fleet, or a fleet of small vessels.

                               Flotsam, Flotson

   Flot"sam  (?),  Flot"son  (?), n. [F. flotter to float. See FFlotilla,
   and  cf.  Jetsam.]  (Law) Goods lost by shipwreck, and floating on the
   sea; -- in distinction from jetsam or jetson. Blackstone.


   Flot"ten (?), p. p. of Flote, v. t. Skimmed. [Obs.]


   Flounce  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Flounced (flounst); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flouncing  (?).]  [Cf. OSw. flunsa to immerge.] To throw the limbs and
   body  one  way  and  the  other; to spring, turn, or twist with sudden
   effort  or  violence; to struggle, as a horse in mire; to flounder; to
   throw one's self with a jerk or spasm, often as in displeasure.

     To  flutter  and  flounce will do nothing but batter and bruise us.

     With  his  broad fins and forky tail he laves The rising sirge, and
     flounces in the waves. Addison.


   Flounce  (?),  n. The act of floucing; a sudden, jerking motion of the


   Flounce,  n.  [Cf.  G. flaus, flausch, a tuft of wool or hair; akin to
   vliess,  E.  fleece;  or  perh.  corrupted  fr. rounce.] An ornamental
   appendage  to  the  skirt  of  a  woman's dress, consisting of a strip
   gathered  and  sewed  on  by its upper edge around the skirt, and left


   Flounce,  v.  t.  To deck with a flounce or flounces; as, to flounce a
   petticoat or a frock.


   Floun"der  (?),  n. [Cf. Sw. flundra; akin to Dan. flynder, Icel. fly,
   G. flunder, and perh. to E. flounder, v.i.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  flatfish  of  the  family Pleuronectid\'91, of many

     NOTE: &hand; Th e co mmon En glish flounder is Pleuronectes flesus.
     There  are  several  common  American  species used as food; as the
     smooth  flounder  (P.  glabra);  the  rough  or winter flounder (P.
     Americanus);   the   summer   flounder,   or  plaice  (Paralichthys
     dentatus),  Atlantic  coast;  and the starry flounder (Pleuronectes

   2. (Bootmaking) A tool used in crimping boot fronts.


   Floun"der,  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Floundered  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Floundering.]  [Cf.  D.  flodderen  to  flap,  splash through mire, E.
   flounce, v.i., and flounder the fish.] To fling the limbs and body, as
   in  making efforts to move; to struggle, as a horse in the mire, or as
   a fish on land; to roll, toss, and tumble; to flounce.

     They have floundered on from blunder to blunder. Sir W. Hamilton.


   Floun"der, n.The act of floundering.


   Flour (?), n. [F. fleur de farine the flower (i.e., the best) of meal,
   cf.  Sp.  flor  de  la  harina  superfine flour, Icel. fl\'81r flower,
   flour.  See  Flower.] The finely ground meal of wheat, or of any other
   grain; especially, the finer part of meal separated by bolting; hence,
   the  fine  and soft powder of any substance; as, flour of emery; flour
   of  mustard.  Flour  bolt,  in  milling,  a  gauze-covered, revolving,
   cylindrical  frame  or  reel,  for  sifting  the flour from the refuse
   contained  in  the  meal yielded by the stones. -- Flour box a tin box
   for  scattering  flour;  a dredging box. -- Flour dredge OR dredger, a
   flour  box.  --  Flour dresser, a mashine for sorting and distributing
   flour  according  to  grades  of  fineness.  -- Flour mill, a mill for
   grinding and sifting flour.


   Flour, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Floured (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flouring.]

   1. To grind and bolt; to convert into flour; as, to flour wheat.

   2. To sprinkle with flour.


   Floured (?), p. a. Finely granulated; -- said of quicksilver which has
   been granulated by agitation during the amalgamation process. Raymond.


   Flour"ish  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Flourished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flourishing.] [OE. florisshen, flurisshen, OF. flurir, F. fleurir, fr.
   L. florere to bloom, fr. flos, floris, flower. See Flower, and -ish.]

   1.  To grow luxuriantly; to increase and enlarge, as a healthy growing
   plant; a thrive.

     A tree thrives and flourishes in a kindly . . . soil. Bp. Horne.

   2. To be prosperous; to increase in wealth, honor, comfort, happiness,
   or  whatever  is desirable; to thrive; to be prominent and influental;
   specifically, of authors, painters, etc., to be in a state of activity
   or production.

     When all the workers of iniquity do flourish. Ps. xcii 7

     Bad  men  as frequently prosper and flourish, and that by the means
     of their wickedness. Nelson.

     We  say  Of  those  that  held  their  heads  above the crowd, They
     flourished then or then. Tennyson.

   3.  To use florid language; to indulge in rhetorical figures and lofty
   expressions; to be flowery.

     They dilate . . . and flourish long on little incidents. J. Watts.

   4. To make bold and sweeping, fanciful, or wanton movements, by way of
   ornament,  parade, bravado, etc.; to play with fantastic and irregular

     Impetuous  spread The stream, and smoking flourished o'er his head.

   5.  To  make  ornamental  strokes  with  the  pen;  to write graceful,
   decorative figures.

   6.  To  execute  an  irregular  or fanciful strain of music, by way of
   ornament or prelude.

     Why do the emperor's trumpets flourish thus? Shak.

   7. To boast; to vaunt; to brag. Pope.


   Flour"ish, v. t.

   1.  To  adorn  with  flowers  orbeautiful  figures,  either natural or
   artificial;  to  ornament  with  anything  showy; to embellish. [Obs.]

   2.  To embellish with the flowers of diction; to adorn with rhetorical
   figures;  to  grace  with  ostentatious  eloquence;  to set off with a
   parade of words. [Obs.]

     Sith  that  the  justice  of  your  title  to him Doth flourish the
     deceit. Shak.

   3.  To move in bold or irregular figures; to swing about in circles or
   vibrations by way of show or triumph; to brandish.

     And flourishes his blade in spite of me. Shak.

   4. To develop; to make thrive; to expand. [Obs.]

     Bottoms  of  thread  .  .  .  which  with  a  good  needle, perhaps
     flourished into large works. Bacon.


   Flour"ish (?), n.; pl. Flourishes (.

   1. A flourishing condition; prosperity; vigor. [Archaic]

     The  Roman  monarchy,  in her highest flourish, never had the like.

   2. Decoration; ornament; beauty.

     The  flourish  of  his  sober  youth  Was the pride of naked truth.

   3.  Something  made  or  performed  in a fanciful, wanton, or vaunting
   manner,   by   way   of   ostentation,  to  excite  admiration,  etc.;
   ostentatious  embellishment;  ambitious  copiousness or amplification;
   parade of wordas, a flourish of rhetoric or of wit.

     He lards with flourishes his long harangue. Dryden.

   4. A fanciful stroke of the pen or graver; a merely decorative figure.

     The  neat  characters  and flourishes of a Bible curiously printed.

   5.  A  fantastic or decorative musical passage; a strain of triumph or
   bravado,  not  forming part of a regular musical composition; a cal; a

     A flourish, trumpets! strike alarum, drums! Shak.

   6.  The  waving  of  a  weapon  or other thing; a brandishing; as, the
   fluorish of a sword.


   Flour"ish*er (?), n. One who flourishes.


   Flour"ish*ing*ly, adv. In a flourishing manner; ostentatiously.


   Flour"y  (?),  a.  Of  or resembling flour; mealy; covered with flour.


   Flout  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Flouted; p. pr. & vb. n. Flouting.]
   [OD.  fluyten  to  play the flute, to jeer, D. fluiten, fr. fluit, fr.
   French. See Flute.] To mock or insult; to treat with contempt.

     Phillida flouts me. Walton.

     Three gaudy standarts lout the pale blue sky. Byron.


   Flout,  v.  i. To practice mocking; to behave with contempt; to sneer;
   to fleer; -- often with at.

     Fleer and gibe, and laugh and flout. Swift.


   Flout, n. A mock; an insult.

     Who put your beauty to this flout and scorn. Tennyson.


   Flout"er (?), n. One who flouts; a mocker.


   Flout"ing*ly,  adv.  With  flouting; insultingly; as, to treat a lover


   Flow (?), obs. imp. sing. of Fly, v. i. Chaucer.


   Flow  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. FFlowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flowing.]
   [AS.  fl\'d3wan;  akin  to  D.  vloeijen,  OHG.  flawen to wash, Icel.
   fl\'d3a to deluge, Gr. float, fleet. \'fb80. Cf. Flood.]

   1.  To  move  with  a continual change of place among the particles or
   parts,  as  a  fluid;  to  change place or circulate, as a liquid; as,
   rivers flow from springs and lakes; tears flow from the eyes.

   2. To become liquid; to melt.

     The mountains flowed down at thy presence. Is. lxiv. 3.

   3.  To  pproceed;  to  issue forth; as, wealth flows from industry and

     Those  thousand  decencies  that  daily flow From all her words and
     actions. Milton.

   4.  To  glide  along  smoothly,  without harshness or asperties; as, a
   flowing  period;  flowing numbers; to sound smoothly to the ear; to be
   uttered easily.

     Virgil is sweet and flowingin his hexameters. Dryden.

   5.  To  have  or  be in abundance; to abound; to full, so as to run or
   flow over; to be copious.

     In that day . . . the hills shall flow with milk. Joel iii. 18.

     The  exhilaration  of  a night that needed not the influence of the
     flowing bowl. Prof. Wilson.

   6. To hang loose and waving; as, a flowing mantle; flowing locks.

     The imperial purple flowing in his train. A. Hamilton.

   7.  To  rise, as the tide; -- opposed to ebb; as, the tide flows twice
   in twenty-four hours.

     The river hath thrice flowed, no ebb between. Shak.

   8. To discharge blood in excess from the uterus.


   Flow, v. t.

   1.  To  cover with water or other liquid; to overflow; to inundate; to

   2. To cover with varnish.


   Flow, n.

   1. A stream of water or other fluid; a current; as, a flow of water; a
   flow of blood.

   2. A continuous movement of something abundant; as, a flow of words.

   3.  Any  gentle,  gradual  movement  or procedure of thought, diction,
   music,  or the like, resembling the quiet, steady movement of a river;
   a stream.

     The feast of reason and the flow of soul. Pope.

   4.  The tidal setting in of the water from the ocean to the shore. See
   Ebb and flow, under Ebb.

   5. A low-lying piece of watery land; -- called also flow moss and flow
   bog. [Scot.] Jamieson.


   Flow"age  (?; 48), n. An overflowing with water; also, the water which
   thus overflows.


   Flow"en (?), obs. imp. pl. of Fly, v. i. Chaucer.


   Flow"er  (?),  n.  [OE. flour, OF. flour, flur, flor, F. fleur, fr. L.
   flos,  floris. Cf. Blossom, Effloresce, Floret, Florid, Florin, Flour,

   1.  In  the  popular sense, the bloom or blossom of a plant; the showy
   portion,  usually  of  a  different color, shape, and texture from the

   2.  (Bot.)  That  part  of a plant destined to produce seed, and hence
   including one or both of the sexual organs; an organ or combination of
   the  organs  of  reproduction,  whether inclosed by a circle of foliar
   parts  or  not. A complete flower consists of two essential parts, the
   stamens  and  the  pistil,  and  two floral envelopes, the corolla and
   callyx.  In  mosses  the  flowers  consist  of  a  few  special leaves
   surrounding  or  subtending organs called archegonia. See Blossom, and

   Page 574

     NOTE: &hand; If  we examine a common flower, such for instance as a
     geranium,  we  shall  find  that  it  consists  of: First, an outer
     envelope  or  calyx,  sometimes  tubular,  sometimes  consisting of
     separate  leaves  called  sepals;  secondly,  an  inner envelope or
     corolla,  which  is generally more or less colored, and which, like
     the  calyx,  is  sometimes  tubular, sometimes composed of separate
     leaves called petals; thirdly, one or more stamens, consisting of a
     stalk  or  filament  and  a  head or anther, in which the pollen is
     produced;  and  fourthly, a pistil, which is situated in the center
     of the flower, and consists generally of three principal parts; one
     or  more  compartments  at  the  base,  each containing one or more
     seeds;  the  stalk or style; and the stigma, which in many familiar
     instances forms a small head, at the top of the style or ovary, and
     to  which  the  pollen  must find its way in order to fertilize the

   Sir J. Lubbock.

   3.  The  fairest,  freshest,  and  choicest  part of anything; as, the
   flower  of an army, or of a family; the state or time of freshness and
   bloom; as, the flower of life, that is, youth.

     The  choice  and flower of all things profitable the Psalms do more
     briefly contain. Hooker.

     The flower of the chivalry of all Spain. Southey.

     A  simple  maiden  in  her flower Is worth a hundred coats of arms.

   4. Grain pulverized; meal; flour. [Obs.]

     The  flowers of grains, mixed with water, will make a sort of glue.

   5.  pl.  (Old.  Chem.) A substance in the form of a powder, especially
   when condensed from sublimation; as, the flowers of sulphur.

   6. A figure of speech; an ornament of style.

   7. pl. (Print.) Ornamental type used chiefly for borders around pages,
   cards, etc. W. Savage.

   8. pl. Menstrual discharges. Lev. xv. 24.
   Animal flower (Zo\'94l.) See under Animal. -- Cut flowers, flowers cut
   from  the  stalk,  as for making a bouquet. -- Flower bed, a plat in a
   garden  for  the  cultivation of flowers. -- Flower beetle (Zo\'94l.),
   any  beetle  which  feeds upon flowers, esp. any one of numerous small
   species  of  the genus Meligethes, family Nitidulid\'91, some of which
   are  injurious to crops. -- Flower bird (Zo\'94l.), an Australian bird
   of  the genus Anthornis, allied to the honey eaters. -- Flower bud, an
   unopened  flower. -- Flower clock, an assemblage of flowers which open
   and  close at different hours of the day, thus indicating the time. --
   Flower  head  (Bot.),  a  compound flower in which all the florets are
   sessile  on  their  receptacle, as in the case of the daisy. -- Flower
   pecker (Zo\'94l.), one of a family (Dic\'91id\'91) of small Indian and
   Australian  birds.  They  resemble  humming birds in habits. -- Flower
   piece.  (a)  A  table  ornament made of cut flowers. (b) (Fine Arts) A
   picture  of  flowers. -- Flower stalk (Bot.), the peduncle of a plant,
   or the stem that supports the flower or fructification.


   Flow"er  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Flowered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flowering.] [From the noun. Cf. Flourish.]

   1.  To blossom; to bloom; to expand the petals, as a plant; to produce
   flowers; as, this plant flowers in June.

   2. To come into the finest or fairest condition.

     Their lusty and flowering age. Robynson (More's Utopia).

     When flowered my youthful spring. Spenser.

   3. To froth; to ferment gently, as new beer.

     That beer did flower a little. Bacon.

   4. To come off as flowers by sublimation. [Obs.]

     Observations which have flowered off. Milton.


   Flow"er,  v.  t.  To  embellish  with  flowers; to adorn with imitated
   flowers; as, flowered silk.


   Flow"er*age  (?; 48), n. State of flowers; flowers, collectively or in
   general. Tennyson.


   Flow"er-de-luce"  (?), n. [Corrupted fr. fleur-de-lis.] (Bot.) A genus
   of   perennial   herbs   (Iris)   with   swordlike  leaves  and  large
   three-petaled  flowers often of very gay colors, but probably white in
   the plant first chosen for the royal French emblem.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e nearly one hundred species, natives of the
     north temperate zone. Some of the best known are Iris Germanica, I.
     Florentina,   I.   Persica,  I.  sambucina,  and  the  American  I.
     versicolor, I. prismatica, etc.


   Flow"er/er (?), n. A plant which flowers or blossoms.

     Many hybrids are profuse and persistent flowerers. Darwin.


   Flow"er*et (?), n.A small flower; a floret. Shak.


   Flow"er-fence`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A tropical leguminous bush (Poinciana,
   OR C\'91salpinia, pulcherrima) with prickly branches, and showy yellow
   or  red  flowers;  -- so named from its having been sometimes used for
   hedges in the West Indies. Baird.


   Flow"er*ful (?), a. Abounding with flowers. Craig.


   Flow"er-gen`tle  (?),  n.  (Bot.)  A  species  of  amaranth (Amarantus


   Flow"er*i*ness (?), n. The state of being flowery.


   Flow"er*ing,  a.  (Bot.)  Having  conspicuous  flowers;  -- used as an
   epithet  with  many  names  of  plants;  as,  flowering ash; flowering
   dogwood; flowering almond, etc. Flowering fern, a genus of showy ferns
   (Osmunda), with conspicuous bivalvular sporangia. They usually grow in
   wet  places.  --  Flowering  plants,  plants  which  have  stamens and
   pistils,  and produce true seeds; phenogamous plants; -- distinguished
   from  flowerless  plants. -- Flowering rush, a European rushlike plant
   (Butomus umbellatus), with an umbel of rosy blossoms.


   Flow"er*ing, n.

   1.  The  act  of  blossoming,  or  the  season  when  plants  blossom;

   2. The act of adorning with flowers.


   Flow"er*less,  a.  Having  no flowers. Flowerless plants, plants which
   have no true flowers, and produce no seeds; cryptigamous plants.


   Flow"er*less*ness, n. State of being without flowers.


   Flow"er*pot`  (?),  n. A vessel, commonly or earthenware, for earth in
   which plants are grown.


   Flow"er*y (?), a.

   1. Full of flowers; abounding with blossoms.

   2.  Highly embellished with figurative language; florid; as, a flowery
   style. Milton.
   The flowery kingdom, China.


   Flow"er*y-kir`tled (?), a. Dressed with garlands of flowers. [Poetic &
   Rare] Milton.


   Flow"ing, a. That flows or for flowing (in various sense of the verb);
   gliding  along  smoothly;  copious. Flowing battery (Elec.), a battery
   which  is  kept constant by the flowing of the exciting liquid through
   the  cell  or  cells. Knight. -- Flowing furnace, a furnace from which
   molten  metal,  can be drawn, as through a tap hole; a foundry cupola.
   --  Flowing  sheet (Naut.), a sheet when eased off, or loosened to the
   wind, as when the wind is abaft the beam. Totten.


   Flow"ing (?), a. & n. from Flow, v. i. & t.


   Flow"ing*ly, adv. In a flowing manner.


   Flow"ing*ness,  n.  Flowing  tendency  or  quality;  fluency.  [R.] W.


   Flowk (? OR ?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See 1st Fluke.


   Flown  (?), p. p. of Fly; -- often used with the auxiliary verb to be;
   as, the birds are flown.


   Flown, a. Flushed, inflated.

     NOTE: [Supposed by some to be a mistake for blown or swoln.]


     Then  wander  forth  the  sons  Of Belial, flown with insolence and
     wine. Milton.

                                  Floxed silk

   Floxed" silk` (?). See Floss silk, under Floss.


   Floyte (?), n. & v. A variant of Flute. [Obs.]


   Flu"ate (?), n. [Cf. F. fluate. See Fluor.] (Chem.) A fluoride. [Obs.]


   Flu"a*vil (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] (Chem.) A hydrocarbon extracted
   from  gutta-percha,  as  a  yellow, resinous substance; -- called also


   Flu"can   (?),  n.  (Mining)  Soft  clayey  matter  in  the  vein,  or
   surrounding it. [Written also flookan, flukan, and fluccan.]


   Fluc*tif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  fluctus  wave  +  -ferous.] Tending to
   produce waves. Blount.


   Fluc*tis"o*nous  (?), a. [L. fluctisonus; fluctus wave + sonus sound.]
   Sounding like waves.


   Fluc`tu*a*bil"i*ty  (?; 135), n. The capacity or ability to fluctuate.
   [R.] H. Walpole.


   Fluc"tu*ant  (?;  135),  a.  [L.  fluctuans,  p.pr.  of fluctuare. See

   1.  Moving  like  a  wave;  wavering;  (Med.)  showing  undulation  or
   fluctuation; as, a fluctuant tumor.

   2. Floating on the waves. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Fluc"tu*ate  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Fluctuated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fluctuating  (?).]  [L.  fluctuatus,  p.p.  of fluctuare, to wave, fr.
   fluctus  wave,  fr.  fluere,  fluctum,  to  flow.  See Fluent, and cf.

   1.  To  move  as a wave; to roll hither and thither; to wave; to float
   backward  and  forward,  as  on waves; as, a fluctuating field of air.

   2.  To move now in one direction and now in another; to be wavering or
   unsteady;  to  be irresolute or undetermined; to vacillate. Syn. -- To
   waver;  vacillate;  hesitate;  scruple.  --  To  Fluctuate, Vacillate,
   Waver.  -- Fluctuate is applied both to things and persons and denotes
   that  they  move  as  they are acted upon. The stocks fluctuate; a man
   fluctuates.  between  conflicting  influences. Vacillate and waver are
   applied  to  persons  to  represent  them  as acting themselves. A man
   vacillates  when  he  goes  backward  and  forward in his opinions and
   purposes,  without any fixity of mind or principles. A man wavers when
   he  shrinks back or hesitates at the approach of difficulty or danger.
   One  who  is  fluctuating  in  his  feelings is usually vacillating in
   resolve, and wavering in execution.


   Fluc"tu*ate, v. t. To cause to move as a wave; to put in motion. [R.]

     And fluctuate all the still perfume. Tennyson.


   Fluc`tu*a"tion (?), n. [L. fluctuatio; cf. F. fluctuation.]

   1.  A  motion like that of waves; a moving in this and that direction;
   as, the fluctuations of the sea.

   2. A wavering; unsteadiness; as, fluctuations of opinion; fluctuations
   of prices.

   3.  (Med.)  The motion or undulation of a fluid collected in a natural
   or artifical cavity, which is felt when it is subjected to pressure or
   percussion. Dunglison.


   Flue (?), n. [Cf. OF. flue a flowing, fr. fluer to flow, fr. L. fluere
   (cf.  Fluent);  a perh. a corruption of E. flute.] An inclosed passage
   way  for  establishing and directing a current of air, gases, etc.; an
   air  passage;  esp.:  (a)  A  compartment or division of a chimney for
   conveying  flame  and  smoke  to  the outer air. (b) A passage way for
   conducting  a  current of fresh, foul, or heated air from one place to
   another.  (c) (Steam Boiler) A pipe or passage for conveying flame and
   hot gases through surrounding water in a boiler; -- distinguished from
   a  tube  which  holds water and is surrounded by fire. Small flues are
   called  fire  tubes or simply tubes. Flue boiler. See under Boiler. --
   Flue  bridge,  the  separating  low  wall  between  the  flues and the
   laboratory of a reverberatory furnace. -- Flue plate (Steam Boiler), a
   plate to which the ends of the flues are fastened; -- called also flue
   sheet, tube sheet, and tube plate. -- Flue surface (Steam Boiler), the
   aggregate surface of flues exposed to flame or the hot gases.


   Flue  (?), n. [Cf. F. flou light, tender, G. flau weak, W. llwch dust.
   &root;84.] Light down, such as rises from cotton, fur, etc.; very fine
   lint or hair. Dickens.


   Flu"ence (?), n. Fluency. [Obs.] Milton.


   Flu"en*cy  (?),  n.  [L.  fluentia:  cf.  F. fluence. See Fluent.] The
   quality   of   being   fluent;  smoothness;  readiness  of  utterance;

     The art of expressing with fluency and perspicuity. Macaulay.


   Flu"ent  (?),  a. [L. fluens, -entis, p.pr. of fluere to flow; cf. Gr.
   Fluctuate, Flux.]

   1. Flowing or capable of flowing; liquid; glodding; easily moving.

   2.  Ready  in  the  use  of  words;  voluble; copious; having words at
   command;  and uttering them with facility and smoothness; as, a fluent
   speaker;  hence,  flowing;  voluble;  smooth; -- said of language; as,
   fluent speech.

     With most fluent utterance. Denham.

     Fluent  as  the  flight  of  a  swallow  is the sultan's letter. De


   Flu"ent, n.

   1. A current of water; a stream. [Obs.]

   2.  [Cf.  F.  fluente.]  (Math.)  A  variable  quantity, considered as
   increasing  or  diminishing;  --  called,  in the modern calculus, the
   function or integral.


   Flu"ent*ly, adv. In a fluent manner.


   Flu"ent*ness, n. The quality of being fluent.


   Flue"work`  (?), n. (Mus.) A general name for organ stops in which the
   sound is caused by wind passing through a flue or fissure and striking
   an edge above; -- in distinction from reedwork.


   Flue"y (?), a. [2d Flue.] Downy; fluffy. [R.]


   Fluff (?), n. [Cf. 2d Flue. Nap or down; flue; soft, downy feathers.


   Fluff"y  (?), a. [Compar. Fluffier (?); superl. Fluffiest.] Pertaining
   to,  or  resembling,  fluff  or nap; soft and downy. "The carpets were
   fluffy." Thackeray.

     The present Barnacle . . . had a youthful aspect, and the fluffiest
     little whisker, perhaps, that ever was seen. Dickens.

   -- Fluff"i*ness, n.


   Fl\'81"gel   (?),  n.  [G.,  a  wing.]  (Mus.)  A  grand  piano  or  a
   harpsichord, both being wing-shaped.


   Flu"gel*man (?), n. [G. fl\'81gelman.] (Mil.) Same as Fugleman.


   Flu"id  (?),  a.  [L.  fluidus, fr. fluere to flow: cf. F. fluide. See
   Fluent.]  Having particles which easily move and change their relative
   position  without  a separation of the mass, and which easily yield to
   pressure; capable of flowing; liquid or gaseous.


   Flu"id, n. A fluid substance; a body whose particles move easily among

     NOTE: &hand; Fl uid is  a generic term, including liquids and gases
     as  species. Water, air, and steam are fluids. By analogy, the term
     is  sometimes  applied  to electricity and magnetism, as in phrases
     electric fluid, magnetic fluid, though not strictly appropriate.

   Fluid dram, OR Fluid drachm, a measure of capacity equal to one eighth
   of  a fluid ounce. -- Fluid ounce. (a) In the United States, a measure
   of  capacity, in apothecaries' or wine measure, equal to one sixteenth
   of  a  pint  or  29.57  cubic  centimeters.  This, for water, is about
   1.04158 ounces avoirdupois, or 455.6 grains. (b) In England, a measure
   of  capacity  equal  to  the  twentieth  part of an imperial pint. For
   water,  this  is the weight of the avoirdupois ounce, or 437.5 grains.
   -- Fluids of the body. (Physiol.) The circulating blood and lymph, the
   chyle,  the  gastric,  pancreatic,  and intestinal juices, the saliva,
   bile,  urine,  aqueous  humor, and muscle serum are the more important
   fluids  of  the body. The tissues themselves contain a large amount of
   combined water, so much, that an entire human body dried in vacuo with
   a  very  moderate  degree of heat gives about 66 per cent of water. --
   Burning fluid, Elastic fluid, Electric fluid, Magnetic fluid, etc. See
   under Burning, Elastic, etc.


   Flu"id*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to a fluid, or to its flowing motion.
   Fluidal  structure  (Geol.),  the  structure characteristic of certain
   volcanic  rocks  in which the arrangement of the minute crystals shows
   the  lines  of  flow of thew molten material before solidification; --
   also called fluxion structure.


   Flu*in"i*ty  (?),  n. [Cf. F. fluidit\'82.] The quality of being fluid
   or  capable  of  flowing;  a liquid, a\'89riform. or gaseous state; --
   opposed to solidity.

     It  was  this  want of organization, this looseness and fluidity of
     the  new  movement,  that  made it penetrate through every class of
     society. J. R. Green.


   Flu"id*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Fluidized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Fluidizing.] To render fluid.


   Flu"id*ness, n. The state of being flluid; fluidity.


   Flu"id*ounce`, n. See Fluid ounce, under Fluid.


   Flu"i*drachm` (?), n. See Fluid dram, under Fluid. Pharm. of the U. S.


   Flu"kan (?), n. (Mining) Flucan.

   Page 575


   Fluke  (?),  n.  [Cf.  LG.  flunk, flunka wing, the palm of an anchor;
   perh. akin to E. fly.]

   1.  The  part  of  an anchor which fastens in the ground; a flook. See

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  One of the lobes of a whale's tail, so called from the
   resemblance to the fluke of an anchor.

   3.  An  instrument  for  cleaning  out  a  hole  drilled  in stone for

   4.  An  accidental and favorable stroke at billiards (called a scratch
   in  the United States); hence, any accidental or unexpected advantage;
   as, he won by a fluke. [Cant, Eng.] A. Trollope.


   Fluke"worm` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as 1st Fluke, 2.


   Fluk"y (?), a. Formed like, or having, a fluke.


   Flume (?), n. [Cf. OE. flum river, OF, flum, fr. L. flumen, fr. fluere
   to flow. \'fb84. See Fluent.] A stream; especially, a passage channel,
   or  conduit  for  the  water that drives a mill wheel; or an artifical
   channel  of  water  for  hydraulic or placer mining; also, a chute for
   conveying logs or lumber down a declivity.


   Flu"mi*nous  (?),  a.  [L.  flumen,  fluminis,  river.]  Pertaining to
   rivers; abounding in streama.


   Flum"mer*y  (?),  n.  [W.  llumru, or llumruwd, a kind of food made of
   oatmeal  steeped in water until it has turned sour, fr. llumrig harsh,
   raw, crude, fr. llum sharp, severe.]

   1.  A  light  kind  of food, formerly made of flour or meal; a sort of

     Milk and flummery are very fit for children. Locke.

   2.  Something  insipid,  or not worth having; empty compliment; trash;
   unsubstantial talk of writing.

     The flummery of modern criticism. J. Morley.


   Flung (?), imp. & p. p. of Fling.


   Flunk (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Flunked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flunking.]
   [Cf.  Funk.]  To  fail,  as  on  a  lesson;  to  back  out, as from an
   undertaking, through fear.


   Flunk, v. t. To fail in; to shirk, as a task or duty. [Colloq. U.S.]


   Flunk,  n.  A  failure  or backing out; specifically (College cant), a
   total failure in a recitation. [U.S.]


   Flun"ky  (?),  n.;  pl.  Flunkies  (#).  [Prob. fr. or akin to flank.]
   [Written also flunkey.]

   1. A contemptuous name for a liveried servant or a footman.

   2. One who is obsequious or cringing; a snob.

   3.  One  easily deceived in buying stocks; an inexperienced and unwary
   jobber. [Cant, U.S.]


   Flun"ky*dom (?), n. The place or region of flunkies. C. Kingsley.


   Flun"ly*ism  (?),  n.  The  quality  or  characteristics  of a flunky;
   readiness  to  cringe to those who are superior in wealth or position;
   toadyism. Thackeray.


   Flu"o-   (.  (Chem.)  A  combining  form  indicating  fluorine  as  an
   ingredient; as in fluosilicate, fluobenzene.


   Flu`o*bo"rate (?), n. [Cf. F. fluoborate.] (Chem.) A salt of fluoboric
   acid; a fluoboride.


   Flu`o*bo"ric  (?),  a.  [Fluo-  boric:  cf.  F.  fluoborique.] (Chem.)
   Pertaining  to,  derived  from,  or consisting of, fluorine and boron.
   Fluoridic acid (Chem.), a double fluoride, consisting essentially of a
   solution  of  boron fluoride, in hydrofluoric acid. It has strong acid
   properties,  and  is  the  type  of  the  borofluorides.  Called  also
   borofluoric acid.


   Flu`o*bo"ride (?), n. (Chem.) See Borofluoride.

                            Fluocerine, Fluocerite

   Flu`o*ce"rine  (?),  Flu`o*ce"rite  (?), n. [Fluo- + cerium.] (Min.) A
   fluoride  of  cerium,  occuring  near Fahlun in Sweden. Tynosite, from
   Colorado, is probably the same mineral.


   Flu`o*hy"dric (?), a. [Fluo- + hydrogen.] (Chem.) See Hydrofluoric.


   Flu`o*phos"phate (?), n. [Fluo- + phosphate.] (Chem.) A double salt of
   fluoric and phosphoric acids.


   Flu"or (?), n. [L., a flowing, fr. fluere to flow. See Fluent.]

   1. A fluid state. [Obs.] Sir I. Newton.

   2. Menstrual flux; catamenia; menses. [Obs.]

   3. (Min.) See Fluorite.

                                  Fluor albus

   Flu"or albus (?). [L., white flow.] (Med.) The whites; leucorrh\'91a.


   Flu`or*an"thene (?), n. [Fluorene + anthra (Chem.) A white crystalline
   hydrocarbon C


   Flu"or*a`ted  (?), a. (Chem.) Combined with fluorine; subjected to the
   action of fluoride. [R.]


   Flu`or*ene  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  A  colorless,  crystalline hydrocarbon,
   C13H10  having  a  beautiful  violet fluorescence; whence its name. It
   occurs  in  the  higher  boiling products of coal tar, and is obtained


   Flu`o*res"ce*in   (?),   n.   (Chem.)  A  yellowish  red,  crystalline
   substance,  C20H12O5,  produced by heating together phthalic anhydride
   and  resorcin;  --  so called, from the very brilliant yellowish green
   fluorescence  of  its  alkaline solutions. It has acid properties, and
   its  salts  of  the  alkalies are known to the trade under the name of


   Flu`o*res"cence  (?), n. [From Fluor.] (Opt.) That property which some
   transparent bodies have of producing at their surface, or within their
   substance,  light different in color from the mass of the material, as
   when  green  crystals of fluor spar afford blue reflections. It is due
   not to the difference in the color of a distinct surface layer, but to
   the power which the substance has of modifying the light incident upon
   it. The light emitted by fluorescent substances is in general of lower
   refrangibility than the incident light. Stockes.


   Flu`o*res"cent (?), a. Having the property of fluorescence.


   Flu`o*res"cin  (?),  n. (Chem.) A colorless, amorphous substance which
   is  produced  by  the  reduction of fluoresce\'8bn, and from which the
   latter may be formed by oxidation.


   Flu*or"ic  (?), a. [Cf. F. fluorique.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, obtained
   from, or containing, fluorine.


   Flu"or*ide  (?  OR  ?;  104),  n.  [Cf. F. fluoride.] (Chem.) A binary
   compound of fluorine with another element or radical. Calcium fluoride
   (Min.), fluorite, CaF2. See Fluorite.


   Flu"or*ine  (?  OR  ?;  104),  n.  [NL.  fluorina:  cf. G. fluorin, F.
   fluorine.  So  called  from  its  occurrence in the mineral fluorite.]
   (Chem.) A non-metallic, gaseous element, strongly acid or negative, or
   associated with chlorine, bromine, and iodine, in the halogen group of
   which  it  is  the  first  member.  It always occurs combined, is very
   active  chemically,  and  possesses such an avidity for most elements,
   and  silicon  especially,  that it can neither be prepared nor kept in
   glass  vessels.  If  set  free  it  immediately attacks the containing
   material,  so  that  it  was not isolated until 1886. It is a pungent,
   corrosive, colorless gas. Symbol F. Atomic weight 19.

     NOTE: &hand; Fl uorine un ites wi th hy drogen to form hydrofluoric
     acid,  which  is  the  agent  employed  in etching glass. It occurs
     naturally,  principally  combined  as calcium fluoride in fluorite,
     and as a double fluoride of aluminium and sodium in cryolite.


   Flu"or*ite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  Calcium  fluoride,  a  mineral  of  many
   different  colors, white, yellow, purple, green, red, etc., often very
   beautiful,  crystallizing  commonly  in  cubes with perfect octahedral
   cleavage;  also massive. It is used as a flux. Some varieties are used
   for ornamental vessels. Also called fluor spar, or simply fluor.


   Flu"or*oid (?), n. [Fluor + -oid.] (Crystallog.) A tetrahexahedron; --
   so called because it is a common form of fluorite.


   Flu*or"o*scope  (?), n. [Fluorescence + -scope.] (Phys.) An instrument
   for observing or exhibiting fluorescence.


   Flu"or*ous (?), a. Pertaining to fluor.

                                  Fluor spar

   Flu"or spar` (?). (Min.) See Fluorite.


   Flu`o*sil"i*cate  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  fluosilicate.]  (Chem.) A double
   fluoride of silicon and some other (usually basic) element or radical,
   regarded as a salt of fluosilicic acid; -- called also silicofluoride.


   Flu`o*si*lic"ic  (?),  a.  [Fluo-  +  silicic:  cf. F. fluosilicique.]
   (Chem.)   Composed   of,   or  derived  from,  silicon  and  fluorine.
   Fluosilicic  acid,  a double fluoride of hydrogen and silicon, H2F6Si,
   obtained in solution in water as a sour fuming liquid, and regarded as
   the  type of the fluosilicates; -- called also silicofluoric acid, and
   hydrofluosilicic acid.


   Flur"ried (?), a. Agitated; excited. -- Flur"ried*ly adv.


   Flur"ry (?), n.; pl. Flurries (#). [Prov. E. flur to ruffle.]

   1.  A sudden and brief blast or gust; a light, temporary breeze; as, a
   flurry of wind.

   2. A light shower or snowfall accompanied with wind.

     Like a flurry of snow on the whistling wind. Longfellow.

   3. Violent agitation; commotion; bustle; hurry.

     The racket and flurry of London. Blakw. Mag.

   4. The violent spasms of a dying whale.


   Flur"ry, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Flurried (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flurrying.]
   To put in a state of agitation; to excite or alarm. H. Swinburne.


   Flurt (?), n. A flirt. [Obs.] Quarles.


   Flush (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Flushed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Flushing.]
   [Cf.  OE.  fluschen  to fly up, penetrate, F. fluz a flowing, E. flux,
   dial.  Sw.  flossa  to blaze, and E. flash; perh. influenced by blush.

   1.  To  flow  and spread suddenly; to rush; as, blood flushes into the

     The flushing noise of many waters. Boyle.

     It flushes violently out of the cock. Mortimer.

   2. To become suddenly suffused, as the cheeks; to turn red; to blush.

   3. To snow red; to shine suddenly; to glow.

     In her cheek, distemper flushing glowed. Milton.

   4. To star

     Flushing from one spray unto another. W. Browne.


   Flush, v. t.

   1.  To  cause  to  be  full;  to flood; to overflow; to overwhelm with
   water; as, to flush the meadows; to flood for the purpose of cleaning;
   as, to flush a sewer.

   2. To cause the blood to rush into (the face); to put to the blush, or
   to cause to glow with excitement.

     Nor flush with shame the passing virgin's cheek. Gay.

     Sudden  a  thought  came like a full-blown rose, Flushing his brow.

   3.  To  make  suddenly or temporarily red or rosy, as if suffused with

     How  faintly  flushed.  how  phantom  fair, Was Monte Rosa, hanging
     there! Tennyson.

   4. To excite; to animate; to stir.

     Such  things  as  can  only  feed his pride and flush his ambition.

   5. To cause to start, as a hunter a bird. Nares.
   To  flush  a joints (Masonry), to fill them in; to point the level; to
   make them flush.


   Flush, n.

   1.  A sudden flowing; a rush which fills or overflows, as of water for
   cleansing purposes.

     In manner of a wave or flush. Ray.

   2.  A  suffusion of the face with blood, as from fear, shame, modesty,
   or intensity of feeling of any kind; a blush; a glow.

     The flush of angered shame. Tennyson.

   3. Any tinge of red color like that produced on the cheeks by a sudden
   rush  of blood; as, the flush on the side of a peach; the flush on the
   clouds at sunset.

   4.  A  sudden  flood  or  rush  of  feeling;  a  thrill of excitement.
   animation, etc.; as, a flush of joy.

   5. A flock of birds suddenly started up or flushed.

   6.  [From  F.  or  Sp.  flux.  Cf.  Flux.] A hand of cards of the same
   suit.<-- other than poker? -->


   Flush, a.

   1. Full of vigor; fresh; glowing; bright.

     With all his crimes broad blown, as flush as May. Shak.

   2.  Affluent;  abounding;  well  furnished or suppled; hence, liberal;

     Lord Strut was not very flush in ready. Arbuthnot.

   3.  (Arch.  &  Mech.) Unbroken or even in surface; on a level with the
   adjacent  surface;  forming a continuous surface; as, a flush panel; a
   flush joint.

   4. (Card Playing) Consisting of cards of one suit.
   Flush  bolt.  (a)  A screw bolt whose head is countersunk, so as to be
   flush  with a surface. (b) A sliding bolt let into the face or edge of
   a  door, so as to be flush therewith. -- Flush deck. (Naut.) See under
   Deck,  n., 1. -- Flush tank, a water tank which can be emptied rapidly
   for flushing drainpipes, etc.


   Flush (?), adv. So as to be level or even.


   Flush"board` (?), n. Same as Flashboard.


   Flush"er (?), n.

   1. A workman employed in cleaning sewers by flushing them with water.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The red-backed shrike. See Flasher.


   Flush"ing, n.

   1.  A heavy, coarse cloth manufactured from shoddy; -- commonly in the

   2. (Weaving) A surface formed of floating threads.


   Flush"ing*ly, adv. In a flushing manner.


   Flush"ness, n. The state of being flush; abundance.


   Flus"ter  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Flustered;  p.  pr. & vb. n.
   Flustering.]  [Cf. Icel. flaustra to be flustered, flaustr a fluster.]
   To  make hot and rosy, as with drinking; to heat; hence, to throw into
   agitation and confusion; to confuse; to muddle.

     His habit or flustering himself daily with claret. Macaulay.


   Flus"ter,  v.  i.  To  be  in  a  heat  or  bustle; to be agitated and

     The flstering, vainglorious Greeks. South.


   Flus"ter,  n.  Heat  or glow, as from drinking; agitation mingled with
   confusion; disorder.


   Flus`ter*a"tion  (?),  n. The act of flustering, or the state of being
   flustered; fluster. [Colloq.]


   Flus"trate  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Fluster,  v. t.] To fluster. [Colloq.]


   Flus*tra"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of  flustrating; confusion; flurry.
   [Colloq.] Richardson.


   Flute  (?),  n.  [OE.  floute,  floite,  fr.  OF.  fla\'81te, flahute,
   flahuste, F. fl; cf. LL. flauta, D. fluit. See Flute, v. i.]

   1. A musical wind instrument, consisting of a hollow cylinder or pipe,
   with  holes  along its length, stopped by the fingers or by keys which
   are  opened  by  the  fingers. The modern flute is closed at the upper
   end, and blown with the mouth at a lateral hole.

     The breathing flute's soft notes are heard around. Pope.

   2. (Arch.) A channel of curved section; -- usually applied to one of a
   vertical  series  of  such  channels  used  to  decorate  columns  and
   pilasters in classical architecture. See Illust. under Base, n.

   3. A similar channel or groove made in wood or other material, esp. in
   plaited cloth, as in a lady's ruffle.

   4. A long French breakfast roll. Simonds.

   5. A stop in an organ, having a flutelike sound.
   Flute  bit, a boring tool for piercing ebony, rosewood, and other hard
   woods.  -- Flute pipe, an organ pipe having a sharp lip or wind-cutter
   which imparts vibrations to Knight.


   Flute  (?),  n. [Cf. F. fl a transport, D. fluit.] A kindof flyboat; a
   storeship. Armed en fl\'96te ( (Nav.), partially armed.


   Flute  (?),  v.  i. [OE. flouten, floiten, OF. fla\'81ter, fle\'81ter,
   flouster,  F.  fl\'96ter,  cf.  D. fluiten; ascribed to an assumed LL.
   flautare,  flatuare,  fr.  L. flatus a blowing, fr. flare to blow. Cf.
   Flout, Flageolet, Flatulent.] To play on, or as on, a flute; to make a
   flutelike sound.


   Flute, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fluted (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fluting (?).]

   1.  To  play, whistle, or sing with a clear, soft note, like that of a

     Knaves are men, That lute and flute fantastic tenderness. Tennyson.

     The redwing flutes his o-ka-lee. Emerson.

   2. To form flutes or channels in, as in a column, a ruffle, etc.

                               Fl\'96te \'85 bec

   Fl\'96te`  \'85  bec"  (?). [F.] (Mus.) A beak flute, an older form of
   the flute, played with a mouthpiece resembling a beak, and held like a


   Flut"ed (?), a.

   1. Thin; fine; clear and mellow; flutelike; as, fluted notes. Busby.

   2.  Decorated  with flutes; channeled; grooved; as, a fluted column; a
   fluted ruffle; a fluted spectrum.


   Flute"mouth`  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A fish of the genus Aulostoma, having
   a much elongated tubular snout.


   Flut"er (?), n.

   1. One who plays on the flute; a flutist or flautist.

   2. One who makes grooves or flutings.


   Flut"ing,  n.  Decoration  by means of flutes or channels; a flute, or
   flutes  collectively;  as,  the  fluting  of a column or pilaster; the
   fluting  of  a lady's ruffle. Fluting iron, a laundry iron for fluting
   ruffles;  --  called  also Italian iron, or gaufering iron. Knight. --
   Fluting  lathe,  a machine for forming spiral flutes, as on balusters,
   table legs, etc.


   Flut"ist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. fl\'96tiste.] A performer on the flute; a
   flautist. Busby.

   Page 576

   2.  To  move with quick vibrations or undulations; as, a sail flutters
   in the wind; a fluttering fan.

   3.  To move about briskly, irregularly, or with great bustle and show,
   without much result.

     No  rag, no scrap, of all the beau, or wit, That once so fluttered,
     and that once so writ. Pope.

   4.  To  be  in  agitation;  to  move irregularly; to flucttuate; to be

     Long we fluttered on the wings of doubtful success. Howell.

     His thoughts are very fluttering and wandering. I. Watts.


   Flut"ter (?), v. t.

   1. To vibrate or move quickly; as, a bird flutters its wings.

   2. To drive in disorder; to throw into confusion.

     Like an eagle in a dovecote, I Fluttered your Volscians in Corioli.


   Flut"ter, n.

   1.  The  act of fluttering; quick and irregular motion; vibration; as,
   the flutter of a fan.

     The chirp and flutter of some single bird Milnes. .

   2. Hurry; tumult; agitation of the mind; confusion; disorder. Pope.
   Flutter  wheel,  a water wheel placed below a fall or in a chute where
   rapidly moving water strikes the tips of the floats; -- so called from
   the spattering, and the fluttering noise it makes.


   Flut"ter*er (?), n. One who, or that which, flutters.


   Flut"ter*ing*ly, adv. In a fluttering manner.


   Flut"y (?), a. Soft and clear in tone, like a flute.


   Flu"vi*al  (?),  a.  [L.  fluvialis, from fluvius river, fr. fluere to
   flow:  cf.F.  fluvial.  See  Fluent.]  Belonging to rivers; growing or
   living in streams or ponds; as, a fluvial plant.


   Flu"vi*al*ist,  n. One who exlpains geological phenomena by the action
   of streams. [R.]


   Flu`vi*at"ic  (?),  a.  [L.  fluviaticus.  See  Fluvial.] Belonging to
   rivers or streams; fluviatile. Johnson.


   Flu"vi*a*tile  (?),  a.  [L.  fluviatilis,  fr.  fluvius river: cf. F.
   fluviatile.]  Belonging  to  rivers  or  streams; existing in or about
   rivers;  produced  by  river  action;  fluvial; as, fluviatile starta,
   plants. Lyell.


   Flu`vi*o-ma*rine"  (?),  a.  [L.  fluvius  river + E. marine.] (Geol.)
   Formed  by the joint action of a river and the sea, as deposits at the
   mouths of rivers.


   Flux  (?),  n. [L. fluxus, fr. fluere, fluxum,to flow: cf.F. flux. See
   Fluent, and cf. 1st & 2d Floss, Flush, n., 6.]

   1.  The  act of flowing; a continuous moving on or passing by, as of a
   flowing stream; constant succession; change.

     By  the  perpetual  flux  of  the  liquids, a great part of them is
     thrown out of the body. Arbuthnot.

     Her  image  has  escaped  the  flux of things, And that same infant
     beauty that she wore Is fixed upon her now forevermore. Trench.

     Languages, like our bodies, are in a continual flux. Felton.

   2. The setting in of the tide toward the shore, -- the (reflux

   3. The state of beinng liquid through heat; fusion.

   4. (Chem.& Metal.) Any substance or mixture used to promote the fusion
   of metals or minerals, as alkalies, borax, lime, fluorite.

     NOTE: &hand; Wh ite fl ux is  th e re siduum of the combustion of a
     mixture  of equal parts of niter and tartar. It consists chiefly of
     the  carbonate  of  potassium,  and  is  white.-  Black flux is the
     ressiduum of the combustion of one part of niter and two of tartar,
     and  consists  essentially  of a mixture of potassium carbonate and

   5.  (Med.)  (a)  A  fluid  discharge  from  the  bowels or other part;
   especially,  an excessive and morbid discharge; as, the bloody flux or
   dysentery. See Bloody flux. (b) The matter thus discharged.

   6.  (Physics)  The  quantity  of a fluid that crosses a unit area of a
   given surface in a unit of time.


   Flux, a. [L. fluxus, p. p. of fluere. See Flux, n.] Flowing; unstable;
   inconstant; variable.

     The flux nature of all things here. Barrow.


   Flux, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fluxed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fluxing.]

   1. To affect, or bring to a certain state, by flux.

     He might fashionably and genteelly . . . have been dueled or fluxed
     into another world. South.

   2. To cause to become fluid; to fuse. Kirwan.

   3. (Med.) To cause a discharge from; to purge.


   Flux*a"tion (?), n. The act of fluxing.


   Flux`i*bil"i*ty  (?),  n. [Cf. LL. fluxibilitas fluidity.] The quality
   of being fluxible. Hammond.


   Flux"i*ble (?), a. [Cf.LL. fluxibilis fluid, OF. fluxible.] Capable of
   being melted or fused, as a mineral. Holland. -- Flux"i*ble*ness, n.


   Flux"ile (?), a. [L. fluxilis, a., fluid.] Fluxible. [R.]


   Flux*il"i*ty (?), n. State of being fluxible.[Obs.]


   Flux"ion (?), n. [Cf. F. fluxion.] The act of flowing. Cotgrave.

   2. The matter that flows. Wiseman.

   3. Fusion; the running of metals into a fluid state.

   4.  (Med.) An unnatural or excessive flow of blood or fluid toward any
   organ; a determination.

   5. A constantly varying indication.

     Less to be counted than the fluxions of sun dials. De Quincey.

   6. (Math.) (a) The infinitely small increase or decrease of a variable
   or  flowing quantity in a certain infinitely small and constant period
   of  time;  the  rate  of  variation  of  a  fluent;  an  incerement; a
   differential.  (b)  pl.  A method of analysis developed by Newton, and
   based  on the conception of all magnitudes as generated by motion, and
   involving  in  their changes the notion of velocity or rate of change.
   Its  results  are  the  same as those of the differential and integral
   calculus,  from which it differs little except in notation and logical


   Flux"ion*al (?), a. Pertaining to, or having the nature of, fluxion or
   fluxions; variable; inconstant.

     The merely human,the temporary and fluxional. Coleridge.

   Fluxional structure (Geol.), fluidal structure.


   Flux"ion*a*ry (?), a.

   1. Fluxional. Berkeley.

   2. (Med.) Pertaining to, or caused by, an increased flow of blood to a
   part; congestive; as, a fluxionary hemorrhage.


   Flux"ion*ist, n. One skilled in fluxions. Berkeley.


   Flux"ions (?), n. pl. (Math.) See Fluxion, 6(b).


   Flux"ive (?), a. Flowing; also, wanting solidity. B. Jonson.


   Flux"ure (?; 138), n. [L. fluxura a flowing.]

   1. The quality of being fluid. [Obs.] Fielding.

   2. Fluid matter. [Obs.] Drayton.


   Fly  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  Flew  (?);  p. p. Flown (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Flying.] [OE. fleen, fleen, fleyen, flegen, AS. fle\'a2gan; akin to D.
   vliegen,  ONG.  fliogan, G. fliegen, Icel. flj, Sw. flyga, Dan. flyve,
   Goth.  us-flaugjan  to  cause to fly away, blow about, and perh. to L.
   pluma feather, E. plume. Fledge, Flight, Flock of animals.]

   1. To move in or pass thorugh the air with wings, as a bird.

   2.  To  move  through  the air or before the wind; esp., to pass or be
   driven rapidly through the air by any impulse.

   3. To float, wave, or rise in the air, as sparks or a flag.

     Man is born unto trouble, as the sparks fly upward. Job v. 7.

   4.  To move or pass swiftly; to hasten away; to circulate rapidly; as,
   a ship flies on the deep; a top flies around; rumor flies.

     Fly, envious Time, till thou run out thy race. Milton.

     The dark waves murmured as the ships flew on. Bryant.

   5.  To run from danger; to attempt to escape; to flee; as, an enemy or
   a coward flies. See Note under Flee.

     Fly, ere evil intercept thy flight. Milton.

     Whither shall I fly to escape their hands ? Shak.

   6.  To  move  suddenly,  or  with  violence;  to do an act suddenly or
   swiftly;  --  usually with a qualifying word; as, a door flies open; a
   bomb flies apart.
   To fly about (Naut.), to change frequently in a short time; -- said of
   the  wind.  --  To fly around, to move about in haste. [Colloq.] -- To
   fly at, to spring toward; to rush on; to attack suddenly. -- To fly in
   the  face of, to insult; to assail; to set at defiance; to oppose with
   violence; to act in direct opposition to; to resist. -- To fly off, to
   separate,  or  become  detached  suddenly; to revolt. -- To fly on, to
   attack.  -- To fly open, to open suddenly, or with violence. -- To fly
   out.  (a)  To rush out. (b) To burst into a passion; to break out into
   license.  --  To  let  fly.  (a)  To  throw or drive with violence; to
   discharge. "A man lets fly his arrow without taking any aim." Addison.
   (b)  (Naut.)  To  let  go  suddenly  and  entirely; as, to let fly the
   Fly, v. t. 

   1.  To cause to fly or to float in the air, as a bird, a kite, a flag,

     The brave black flag I fly. W. S. Gilbert.

   2. To fly or flee from; to shun; to avoid.

     Sleep flies the wretch. Dryden.

     To fly the favors of so good a king. Shak.

   3. To hunt with a hawk. [Obs.] Bacon.
   To  fly  a  kite  (Com.), to raise money on commercial notes. [Cant or


   Fly,  n.;  pl.  Flies (#). [OE. flie, flege, AS. fl?ge, fle\'a2ge, fr.
   fle\'a2gan  to  fly; akin to D. vlieg, OHG. flioga, G. fliege, Icel. &
   Sw. fluga, Dan. flue. Fly, v. i.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) (a) Any winged insect; esp., one with transparent wings;
   as,  the Spanish fly; firefly; gall fly; dragon fly. (b) Any dipterous
   insect;  as,  the  house  fly;  flesh fly; black fly. See Diptera, and
   Illust. in Append.

   2.  A  hook  dressed  in imitation of a fly, -- used for fishing. "The
   fur-wrought fly." Gay. <-- fly fishing, fly fisherman. -->

   3. A familiar spirit; a witch's attendant. [Obs.]

     A trifling fly, none of your great familiars. B. Jonson.

   4. A parasite. [Obs.] Massinger.

   5.  A  kind  of  light carriage for rapid transit, plying for hire and
   usually drawn by one horse. [Eng.]

   6.  The  length  of  an  extended  flag from its staff; sometimes, the
   length from the "union" to the extreme end.

   7.  The  part  of  a  vane  pointing the direction from which the wind

   8.  (Naut.) That part of a compass on which the points are marked; the
   compass card. Totten.

   9.  (Mech.) (a) Two or more vanes set on a revolving axis, to act as a
   fanner,  or  to  equalize  or  impede  the  motion of machinery by the
   resistance of the air, as in the striking part of a clock. (b) A heavy
   wheel,  or cross arms with weights at the ends on a revolving axis, to
   regulate  or equalize the motion of machinery by means of its inertia,
   where  the  power  communicated,  or the resistance to be overcome, is
   variable,  as  in the steam engine or the coining press. See Fly wheel

   10. (Knitting Machine) The piece hinged to the needle, which holds the
   engaged loop in position while the needle is penetrating another loop;
   a latch. Knight.

   11.  The pair of arms revolving around the bobbin, in a spinning wheel
   or spinning frame, to twist the yarn.

   12.  (Weaving)  A  shuttle  driven through the shed by a blow or jerk.

   13.  (a)  Formerly,  the  person  who took the printed sheets from the
   press.  (b)  A  vibrating frame with fingers, attached to a power to a
   power printing press for doing the same work.

   14. The outer canvas of a tent with double top, usually drawn over the
   ridgepole,  but  so  extended  as  to touch the roof of the tent at no
   other place.

   15. One of the upper screens of a stage in a theater.

   16.  The  fore  flap  of a bootee; also, a lap on trousers, overcoats,
   etc., to conceal a row of buttons.

   17.  (Baseball)  A  batted ball that flies to a considerable distance,
   usually  high in the air; also, the flight of a ball so struck; as, it
   was caught on the fly.
   Black  fly, Cheese fly, Dragon fly, etc. See under Black, Cheese, etc.
   --  Fly  agaric  (Bot.),  a  mushroom  (Agaricus  muscarius), having a
   narcotic  juice  which, in sufficient quantities, is poisonous. -- Fly
   block  (Naut.),  a pulley whose position shifts to suit the working of
   the  tackle with which it is connected; -- used in the hoisting tackle
   of  yards.  --  Fly board (Printing Press), the board on which printed
   sheets  are deposited by the fly. -- Fly book, a case in the form of a
   book  for  anglers'  flies.  Kingsley.  --  Fly cap, a cap with wings,
   formerly  worn  by women. -- Fly drill, a drill having a reciprocating
   motion  controlled  by a fly wheel, the driving power being applied by
   the hand through a cord winding in reverse directions upon the spindle
   as it rotates backward and forward. Knight. -- Fly fishing, the act or
   art  of angling with a bait of natural or artificial flies. Walton. --
   Fly  flap, an implement for killing flies. -- Fly governor, a governor
   for  regulating  the  speed  of  an engine, etc., by the resistance of
   vanes  revolving in the air. -- Fly honeysuckle (Bot.), a plant of the
   honeysuckle  genus  (Lonicera), having a bushy stem and the flowers in
   pairs,  as  L.  ciliata  and  L.  Xylosteum.  --  Fly hook, a fishhook
   supplied with an artificial fly. -- Fly leaf, an unprinted leaf at the
   beginning or end of a book, circular, programme, etc. -- Fly maggot, a
   maggot  bred  from  the  egg  of  a  fly. Ray. -- Fly net, a screen to
   exclude  insects. -- Fly nut (Mach.), a nut with wings; a thumb nut; a
   finger  nut.  --  Fly orchis (Bot.), a plant (Ophrys muscifera), whose
   flowers  resemble  flies.  --  Fly paper, poisoned or sticky paper for
   killing flies that feed upon or are entangled by it. -- Fly powder, an
   arsenical powder used to poison flies. -- Fly press, a screw press for
   punching, embossing, etc., operated by hand and having a heavy fly. --
   Fly  rail,  a  bracket which turns out to support the hinged leaf of a
   table.  -- Fly rod, a light fishing rod used in angling with a fly. --
   Fly sheet, a small loose advertising sheet; a handbill. -- Fly snapper
   (Zo\'94l.),  an  American  bird  (Phainopepla  nitens),  allied to the
   chatterers  and  shrikes.  The  male  is glossy blue-black; the female
   brownish  gray.  --  Fly  wheel  (Mach.),  a  heavy  wheel attached to
   machinery  to  equalize the movement (opposing any sudden acceleration
   by its inertia and any retardation by its momentum), and to accumulate
   or give out energy for a variable or intermitting resistance. See Fly,
   n., 9. -- On the fly (Baseball), still in the air; -- said of a batted
   ball  caught  before touching the ground.<-- (b) at the moment needed,
   without prior preparation. -- said of objects created as needed in the
   course  of  some activity, rather than having been prepared before the
   activity began. A term Much used in computer programming. (c) busy; in


   Fly  (?),  a.  Knowing;  wide  awake;  fully  understanding  another's
   meaning. [Slang] Dickens.


   Fly"bane` (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of catchfly of the genus Silene; also,
   a poisonous mushroom (Agaricus muscarius); fly agaric.


   Fly"-bit`ten (?), a. Marked by, or as if by, the bite of flies. Shak.


   Fly"blow`  (?),  v.  t.  To  deposit eggs upon, as a flesh fly does on
   meat;  to  cause  to be maggoty; hence, to taint or contaminate, as if
   with flyblows. Bp. Srillingfleet.


   Fly"blow`,  n.  (Zo\'94l.) One of the eggs or young larv\'91 deposited
   by a flesh fly, or blowfly.


   Fly"blown`  (?),  a.  Tainted  or contaminated with flyblows; damaged;

     Wherever flyblown reputations were assembled. Thackeray.


   Fly"boat` (?), n. [Fly + boat: cf. D. vlieboot.]

   1. (Naut.) A large Dutch coasting vessel.

     Captain George Weymouth made a voyage of discovery to the northwest
     with two flyboats. Purchas.

   2. A kind of passenger boat formerly used on canals.


   Fly"-case`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  covering of an insect, esp. the
   elytra of beetles.


   Fly"catch`er  (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of numerous species of birds that
   feed upon insects, which they take on the wing.

     NOTE: &hand; The true flycatchers of the Old World are Oscines, and
     belong  to  the  family  Muscicapid\'91,  as the spotted flycatcher
     (Muscicapa   grisola).   The   American   flycatchers,   or  tyrant
     flycatchers, are Clamatores, and belong to the family Tyrannid\'91,
     as  the  kingbird,  pewee, crested flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus),
     and  the vermilion flycatcher or churinche (Pyrocephalus rubineus).
     Certain  American flycatching warblers of the family Sylvicolid\'91
     are  also  called flycatchers, as the Canadian flycatcher (Sylvania
     Canadensis),  and  the  hooded  flycatcher (S. mitrata). See Tyrant


   Fly"-catch`ing,  a. (Zo\'94l.) Having the habit of catching insects on
   the wing.


   Fly"er (?), n. [See Flier.]

   1. One that uses wings.

   2. The fly of a flag: See Fly, n., 6.

   3.  Anything that is scattered abroad in great numbers as a theatrical
   programme, an advertising leaf, etc.

   4.  (Arch.)  One  in  a  flight  of  steps  which are parallel to each
   other(as in ordinary stairs), as distinguished from a winder.

   5.  The pair of arms attached to the spindle of a spinning frame, over
   which  the  thread passes to the bobbin; -- so called from their swift
   revolution. See Fly, n., 11.

   6. The fan wheel that rotates the cap of a windmill as the wind veers.
   Internat. Cyc.

   7. (Stock Jobbing) A small operation not involving ? considerable part
   of  one's  capital,  or  not in the line of one's ordinary business; a
   venture. [Cant] Bartlett.


   Fly"fish`   (?),   n.   (Zo\'94l.)  A  California  scorp\'91noid  fish
   (Sebastichthys rhodochloris), having brilliant colors.


   Fly"-fish, v. i. To angle, using flies for bait. Walton.


   Fly"ing  (?), a. [From Fly, v. i.] Moving in the air with, or as with,
   wings; moving lightly or rapidly; intended for rapid movement.

   Page 577

   Flying  army (Mil.) a body of cavalry and infantry, kept in motion, to
   cover  its  own  garrisons  and  to keep the enemy in continual alarm.
   Farrow.   --Flying   artillery  (Mil.),  artillery  trained  to  rapid
   evolutions,  -- the men being either mounted or trained to spring upon
   the  guns  and  caissons  when they change position. -- Flying bridge,
   Flying camp. See under Bridge, and Camp. -- Flying buttress (Arch.), a
   contrivance  for taking up the thrust of a roof or vault which can not
   be  supported by ordinary buttresses. It consists of a straight bar of
   masonry,  usually  sloping,  carried  on  an arch, and a solid pier or
   buttress  sufficient  to  receive  the  thrust.  The word is generally
   applied  only  to  the  straight  bar  with supporting arch. -- Flying
   colors,  flags unfurled and waving in the air; hence: To come off with
   flying   colors,  to  be  victorious;  to  succeed  thoroughly  in  an
   undertaking.  --  Flying  doe  (Zo\'94l.), a young female kangaroo. --
   Flying  dragon.  (a) (Zo\'94l.) See Dragon, 6. (b) A meteor. See under
   Dragon.  --  Flying Dutchman. (a) A fabled Dutch mariner condemned for
   his  crimes  to sail the seas till the day of judgment. (b) A spectral
   ship.  --  Flying fish. (Zo\'94l.) See Flying fish, in the Vocabulary.
   --  Flying  fox  (Zo\'94l.), the colugo. -- Flying frog (Zo\'94l.), an
   East  Indian tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus, having very large and
   broadly  webbed feet, which serve as parachutes, and enable it to make
   very long leaps. -- Flying gurnard (Zo\'94l.), a species of gurnard of
   the  genus  Cephalacanthus  or Dactylopterus, with very large pectoral
   fins,  said  to  be  able  to fly like the flying fish, but not for so
   great a distance.

     NOTE: Three sp  ecies ar  e kn  own; th  at of   th e At lantic is 
     Cephalacanthus volitans.

   -- Flying jib (Naut.), a sail extended outside of the standing jib, on
   the  flying-jib  boom. -- Flying-jib boom (Naut.), an extension of the
   jib  boom.  --  Flying kites (Naut.), light sails carried only in fine
   weather.  --  Flying  lemur.  (Zo\'94l.)  See  Colugo. -- Flying level
   (Civil  Engin.), a reconnoissance level over the course of a projected
   road,  canal,  etc.  -- Flying lizard. (Zo\'94l.) See Dragon, n, 6. --
   Flying  machine,  an  apparatus  for  navigating  the  air;  a form of
   balloon.  --  Flying  mouse  (Zo\'94l.),  the opossum mouse (Acrobates
   pygm\'91us), of Australia.

     NOTE: It has lateral folds of skin, like the flying squirrels.

   --  Flying party (Mil.), a body of soldiers detailed to hover about an
   enemy. -- Flying phalanger (Zo\'94l.), one of several species of small
   marsuupials  of the genera Petaurus and Belideus, of Australia and New
   Guinea,  having  lateral folds like those of the flying squirrels. The
   sugar  squirrel  (B. sciureus), and the ariel (B. ariel), are the best
   known; -- called also squirrel petaurus and flying squirrel. See Sugar
   squirrel.  -- Flying pinion, the fly of a clock. -- Flying sap (Mil.),
   the rapid construction of trenches (when the enemy's fire of case shot
   precludes  the method of simple trenching), by means of gabions placed
   in  juxtaposition  and filled with earth. -- Flying shot, a shot fired
   at  a  moving  object,  as  a  bird  on  the  wing.  -- Flying spider.
   (Zo\'94l.)  See  Ballooning  spider.  --  Flying  squid (Zo\'94l.), an
   oceanic squid (Ommastrephes, OR Sthenoteuthis, Bartramii), abundant in
   the  Gulf  Stream,  which  is  able to leap out of the water with such
   force  that it often falls on the deck of a vessel. -- Flying squirrel
   (Zo\'94l.)  See Flying squirrel, in the Vocabulary. -- Flying start, a
   start in a sailing race in which the signal is given while the vessels
   are  under  way.  --  Flying  torch (Mil.), a torch attached to a long
   staff and used for signaling at night.

                                  Flying fish

   Fly"ing  fish`  (?).  (Zo\'94l.) A fish which is able to leap from the
   water,  and fly a considerable distance by means of its large and long
   pectoral  fins.  These  fishes  belong to several species of the genus
   Exoc\'d2tus, and are found in the warmer parts of all the oceans.

                                Flying squirrel

   Fly"ing squir"rel (? or ?). (Zo\'94l.) One of a group of squirrels, of
   the  genera  Pteromus and Sciuropterus, having parachute-like folds of
   skin  extending  from  the fore to the hind legs, which enable them to
   make very long leaps.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e sp ecies of Pteromys are large, with bushy tails,
     and   inhabit   southern   Asia  and  the  East  Indies;  those  of
     Sciuropterus are smaller, with flat tails, and inhabit the northern
     parts   of   Europe,   Asia,  and  America.  The  American  species
     (Sciuropterus  volucella)  is  also  called Assapan. The Australian
     flying  squrrels,  or flying phalangers, are marsupials. See Flying
     phalanger (above).


   Fly"man  (?),  n.;  pl.  Flymen  (-m?n). The driver of a fly, or light
   public carriage.


   Flysch  (fl?sh),  n.  [A  Swiss  word, fr. G. fliessen to flow, melt.]
   (Geol.) A name given to the series of sandstones and schists overlying
   the  true nummulitic formation in the Alps, and included in the Eocene


   Fly"speck  (fl?'sp?k),  n. A speck or stain made by the excrement of a
   fly; hence, any insignificant dot.


   Fly"speck (?), v. t. To soil with flyspecks.


   Fly"trap (?), n.

   1 . A trap for catching flies.

   2.  (Bot.) A plant (Dion\'91a muscipula), called also Venus's flytrap,
   the leaves of which are fringed with stiff bristles, and fold together
   when  certain  hairs  on their upper surface are touched, thus seizing
   insects  that  light  on  them.  The  insects so caught are afterwards
   digested by a secretion from the upper surface of the leaves.


   Fnese (?), v. i. [AS. fn?san, gefn?san.] To breathe heavily; to snort.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fo (?), n. The Chinese name of Buddha.


   Foal  (?), n. [OE. fole, AS. fola; akin to OHG. folo, G. fohlen, Goth.
   fula,  Icel.  foli,  Sw Lf?le, Gr.?????, L. pullus a young animal. Cf.
   Filly,  Poultry,  Pullet.]  (Zo\'94.)  The  young of any animal of the
   Horse  family (Equid\'91); a colt; a filly. Foal teeth (Zo\'94l.), the
   first  set  of  teeth  of  a  horse. -- In foal, With foal, being with
   young; pregnant; -- said of a mare or she ass.


   Foal  (?),  v.t.  [imp.& p.p. Foaled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Foaling.] To
   bring forth (a colt); -- said of a mare or a she ass.


   Foal (?), v.i. To bring forth young, as an animal of the horse kind.


   Foal"foot` (?), n. (Bot.) See Coltsfoot.


   Foam  (?),  n.  [OE.  fam,  fom, AS. f?m; akin to OHG. & G. feim.] The
   white  substance,  consisting  of  an aggregation of bubbles, which is
   formed  on  the  surface  of  liquids,or in the mouth of an animal, by
   violent agitation or fermentation; froth; spume; scum; as, the foam of
   the  sea.  Foam  cock, in steam boilers, a cock at the water level, to
   blow off impurities.


   Foam  (?),  v.i. [imp.& p.p. Foamed (#); p. pr. & vb. n.pos> Foaming.]
   [AS. f?man. See Foam, n.]

   1. To gather foam; to froth; as, the billows foam.

     He foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth. Mark ix. 18.

   2. To form foam, or become filled with foam; -- said of a steam boiler
   when  the  water is unduly agitated and frothy, as because of chemical


   Foam  (?),  v.t.  To  cause to foam; as,to foam the goblet; also (with
   out),  to throw out with rage or violence, as foam. "Foaming out their
   own shame." Jude 13.


   Foam"ing*ly (?), adv. With foam; frothily.


   Foam"less (?), a. Having no foam.


   Foam"y (?), a. Covered with foam; frothy; spumy.

     Behold how high the foamy billows ride! Dryden.


   Fob  (?),  n. [Cf.Prov. G. fuppe pocket.] A little pocket for a watch.
   Fob chain, a short watch chain worn a watch carried in the fob.


   Fob  (?),  v.t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Fobbed (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Fobbing.]

   1. To beat; to maul. [Obs.]

   2. To cheat; to trick; to impose on. Shak.
   To  fob off, to shift off by an artifice; to put aside; to delude with
   a trick."A conspiracy of bishops could prostrate and fob off the right
   of the people." Milton.


   Fo"cal (?), a. [Cf.F. focal. See Focus.] Belonging to,or concerning, a
   focus;  as,  a  focal  point.  Focal  distance, or length,of a lens or
   mirror  (Opt.), the distance of the focus from the surface of the lens
   or  mirror,  or  more exactly, in the case of a lens, from its optical
   center.  --Focal distance of a telescope, the distance of the image of
   an object from the object glass.


   Fo`cal*i*za"tion (?), n. The act of focalizing or bringing to a focus,
   or the state of being focalized.


   Fo"cal*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.&  p. p. Focalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Focalizing (?).] To bring to a focus; to focus; to concentrate.

     Light is focalized in the eye, sound in the ear. De Quincey.


   Foc"il*late  (?),  v. t. [L. focilatus,p.p. of focillare.] To nourish.
   [Obs.] Blount.


   Foc`il*la"tion (?), n. Comfort; support. [Obs.]


   Fo*cim"e*ter   (?),  n.  [Focus  +  -meter.]  (Photog.)  An  assisting
   instrument for focusing an object in or before a camera. Knight.


   Fo"cus  (?),  n.;  pl.  E. Focuses (#), L. Foci (#). [L. focus hearth,
   fireplace;  perh.  akin  to  E.  bake.  Cf.  Curfew,  Fuel,  Fusil the

   1.  (Opt.)  A  point  in  which  the  rays  of light meet, after being
   reflected or refrcted, and at which the image is formed; as, the focus
   of a lens or mirror.

   2.  (Geom.) A point so related to a conic section and certain straight
   line  called  the  directrix that the ratio of the distace between any
   point  of  the  curve  and the focus to the distance of the same point
   from the directrix is constant.

     NOTE: &hand; Thus, in the ellipse FGHKLM, A is the focus and CD the
     directrix,  when  the  ratios  FA:FE,  GA:GD,  MA:MC, etc., are all
     equal.  So  in  the  hyperbola, A is the focus and CD the directrix
     when  the  ratio HA:HK is constant for all points of the curve; and
     in the parabola, A is the focus and CD the directrix when the ratio
     BA:BC is constant. In the ellipse this ratio is less than unity, in
     the  parabola  equal  to  unity,  and in the hyperbola greater than
     unity.  The  ellipse  and  hyperbola  have  each  two foci, and two
     corresponding  directrixes,  and the parabola has one focus and one
     directrix.  In  the ellipse the sum of the two lines from any point
     of the curve to the two foci is constant; that is: AG+GB=AH+HB; and
     in  the  hyperbola  the  difference  of  the corresponding lines is
     constant. The diameter which passes through the foci of the ellipse
     is the major axis. The diameter which being produced passes through
     the  foci of the hyperbola is the transverse axis. The middle point
     of  the  major  or  the transverse axis is the center of the curve.
     Certain  other  curves,  as the lemniscate and the Cartesian ovals,
     have  points called foci, possessing properties similar to those of
     the  foci  of  conic  sections. In an ellipse, rays of light coming
     from  one  focus,  and  reflected  from the curve, proceed in lines
     directed  toward the other; in an hyperbola, in lines directed from
     the  other; in a parabola, rays from the focus, after reflection at
     the  curve, proceed in lines parallel to the axis. Thus rays from A
     in the ellipse are reflected to B; rays from A in the hyperbola are
     reflected toward L and M away from B.

   3. A central point; a point of concentration.
   Aplanatic  focus.  (Opt.)  See  under  Aplanatic.  --  Conjugate focus
   (Opt.), the focus for rays which have a sensible divergence, as from a
   near  object; -- so called because the positions of the object and its
   image  are  interchangeable.  -- Focus tube (Phys.), a vacuum tube for
   R\'d2ntgen  rays  in  which  the  cathode  rays  are  focused upon the
   anticathode,  for  intensifying  the  effect.  -- Principal, OR Solar,
   focus (Opt.), the focus for parallel rays.


   Fo"cus  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Focused  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Focusing.] To bring to a focus; to focalize; as, to focus a camera. R.


   Fod"der  (?),  n.  [See  1st  Fother.] A weight by which lead and some
   other  metals  were  formerly  sold, in England, varying from 19 to 24
   cwt.; a fother. [Obs.]


   Fod"der  (?),  n.  [AS. f?dder, f?ddor, fodder (also sheath case), fr.
   f?da  food; akin to D. voeder, OHG. fuotar, G. futter, Icel. f??r, Sw.
   &  Dan. foder. &root;75. See Food Land cf. Forage, Fur.] That which is
   fed  out  to cattle horses, and sheep, as hay, cornstalks, vegetables,


   Fod"der  (?),  v.t.  [imp.&  p.p.  Foddered  (-d?rd);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Foddering.]  To  feed,  as cattle, with dry food or cut grass, etc.;to
   furnish with hay, straw, oats, etc.


   Fod"der*er (?), n. One who fodders cattle.


   Fo"di*ent  (?),  a. [L. fodiens, p. pr. of fodere to dig.] Fitted for,
   or pertaining to, digging.


   Fo"di*ent (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Fodientia.


   Fo`di*en"ti*a  (?),  n.pl.  [NL.,  fr.  L.  fodiens  p. pr., digging.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A group of African edentates including the aard-vark.


   Foe  (?),  n.  [OE.  fo,  fa, AS. f?h hostile; prob. akin to E. fiend.
   &root;81.] See Fiend, and cf. Feud a quarrel.

   1.  One  who  entertains  personal  enmity, hatred, grudge, or malice,
   against another; an enemy.

     A man's foes shall be they of his own household. Matt. x. 36

   2. An enemy in war; a hostile army.

   3.  One  who  opposes  on  principle;  an  opponent;  an adversary; an
   ill-wisher; as, a foe to religion.

     A foe to received doctrines. I. Watts


   Foe (?), v. t. To treat as an enemy. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Foe"hood (?), n. Enmity. Br. Bedell.


   Foe"man (?), n.; pl. Foemen (-men). [AS. f?hman.] An enemy in war.

     And  the  stern  joy  which warriors feel In foemen worthy of their
     steel. Sir W. Scott


   F\'d2"tal (?), a. Same as Fetal.


   F\'d2*ta"tion (?), n. Same as Fetation.


   F\'d2"ti*cide (?), n. Same as Feticide.


   F\'d2"tor (?), n. Same as Fetor.


   F\'d2"tus (?), n. Same as Fetus.


   Fog  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Scot.  fog,  fouge, moss, foggag? rank grass, LL.
   fogagium,  W.  ffug dry grass.] (Agric.) (a) A second growth of grass;
   aftergrass.  (b)  Dead or decaying grass remaining on land through the
   winter; -- called also foggage. [Prov.Eng.] Halliwell.

     NOTE: Sometimes ca lled, in New England, old tore. In Scotland, fog
     is a general name for moss.


   Fog  (?),  v. t. (Agric.) To pasture cattle on the fog, or aftergrass,
   of; to eat off the fog from.


   Fog  (?),  v.  i.  [Etymol. uncertain.] To practice in a small or mean
   way; to pettifog. [Obs.]

     Where wouldst thou fog to get a fee? Dryden.


   Fog  (?),  n. [Dan. sneefog snow falling thick, drift of snow, driving
   snow, cf. Icel. fok spray, snowdrift, fj?? snowstorm, fj?ka to drift.]

   1.  Watery  vapor  condensed  in  the lower part of the atmosphere and
   disturbing  its transparency. It differs from cloud only in being near
   the  ground,  and from mist in not approaching so nearly to fine rain.
   See Cloud.

   2. A state of mental confusion.
   Fog  alarm,  Fog  bell, Fog horn, etc., a bell, horn, whistle or other
   contrivance  that sounds an alarm, often automatically, near places of
   danger  where visible signals would be hidden in thick weather. -- Fog
   bank, a mass of fog resting upon the sea, and resembling distant land.
   --  Fog ring, a bank of fog arranged in a circular form, -- often seen
   on the coast of Newfoundland.


   Fog (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fogged (#); p. pr. & vb. n. Fogging (#).]
   To envelop, as with fog; to befog; to overcast; to darken; to obscure.


   Fog (?), v. i. (Photog.) To show indistinctly or become indistinct, as
   the   picture   on  a  negative  sometimes  does  in  the  process  of


   Foge  (?),  n.  The  Cornish  name  for a forge used for smelting tin.


   Fo'gey (?), n. See Fogy.


   Fog'gage (?; 48), n. (Agric.) See 1st Fog.


   Fog'ger (?), n. One who fogs; a pettifogger. [Obs.]

     A beggarly fogger. Terence in English(1614)


   Fog"gi*ly (?), adv. In a foggy manner; obscurely. Johnson.


   Fog"gi*ness (?), n. The state of being foggy. Johnson.


   Fog"gy  (?),  a.  [Compar.  Foggier  (?); superl. Foggiest.] [From 4th

   1.  Filled  or abounding with fog, or watery exhalations; misty; as, a
   foggy atmosphere; a foggy morning. Shak.

   Page 578

   2. Beclouded; dull; obscure; as, foggy ideas.

     Your coarse, foggy, drowsy conceit. Hayward.


   Fo"gie (?), n. See Fogy.


   Fog"less (?), a. Without fog; clear. Kane.


   Fo"gy  (?),  n.;  pl. Fogies (. A dull old fellow; a person behind the
   times,  over-conservative,  or  slow;  --  usually  preceded  by  old.
   [Written also fogie and fogey.] [Colloq.]

     Notorious old bore; regular old fogy. Thackeray.

     NOTE: &hand; The word is said to be connected with the German vogt,
     a  guard or protector. By others it is regareded as a diminutive of
     folk  (cf.  D.  volkje). It is defined by Jamieson, in his Scottish
     Dictionary,  as "an invalid or garrison soldier," and is applied to
     the  old  soldiers of the Royal Hospital at Dublin, which is called
     the  Fogies'  Hospital.  In the fixed habits of such persons we see
     the origin of the present use of the term.

   Sir F. Head.


   Fo"gy*ism (?), n. The principles and conduct of a fogy. [Colloq.]


   Foh  (?),  interj.  [Cf.  Faugh.]  An  exclamation  of  abhorrence  or
   contempt; poh; fle. Shak.


   Fo"hist (?), n. A Buddhist priest. See Fo.


   Foi"ble  (?),  a.  [OF. foible. See Feeble.] Weak; feeble. [Obs.] Lord


   Foi"ble (?), n.

   1. A moral weakness; a failing; a weak point; a frailty.

     A   disposition   radically   noble   and   generous,  clouded  and
     overshadowed by superficial foibles. De Quincey.

   2.  The  half  of  a  sword  blade or foil blade nearest the point; --
   opposed  to forte. [Written also faible.] Syn. -- Fault; imperfection;
   failing; weakness; infirmity; frailty; defect. See Fault.


   Foil  (foil),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Foiled (foild); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Foiling.]  [F.  fouler to tread or trample under one's feet, to press,
   oppress. See Full, v. t.]

   1. To tread under foot; to trample.

     King  Richard . . . caused the ensigns of Leopold to be pulled down
     and foiled under foot. Knoless.

     Whom  he  did  all  to pieces breake and foyle, In filthy durt, and
     left so in the loathely soyle. Spenser.

   2.  To  render  (an effort or attempt) vain or nugatory; to baffle; to
   outwit; to balk; to frustrate; to defeat.

     And by foiled. Dryden.

     Her long locks that foil the painter's power. Byron.

   3.  To  blunt;  to  dull;  to  spoil;  as, to foil the scent in chase.


   Foil, v. t. [See 6th File.] To defile; to soil. [Obs.]


   Foil, n.

   1.  Failure  of  success  when  on  the  point  of attainment; defeat;
   frustration; miscarriage. Milton.

     Nor e'er was fate so near a foil. Dryden.

   2.  A  blunt  weapon  used  in fencing, resembling a smallsword in the
   main, but usually lighter and having a button at the point.

     Blunt as the fencer's foils, which hit, but hurt not. Shak.

     ?socrates  contended  with  a foil against Demosthenes with a word.

   3. The track or trail of an animal.
   To  run a foil,to lead astray; to puzzle; -- alluding to the habits of
   some  animals  of  running  back  over the same track to mislead their
   pursuers. Brewer.


   Foil,  n.  [OE.  foil leaf, OF. foil, fuil, fueil, foille, fueille, F.
   feuille,  fr.  L.  folium,  pl.  folia; akin to Gr.blade. Cf. Foliage,

   1.  A leaf or very thin sheet of metal; as, brass foil; tin foil; gold

   2.  (Jewelry)  A thin leaf of sheet copper silvered and burnished, and
   afterwards  coated  with  transparent  colors mixed with isinglass; --
   employed  by  jewelers  to  give  color  or  brilliancy  to pastes and
   inferior stones. Ure.

   3.  Anything  that  serves by contrast of color or quality to adorn or
   set off another thing to advantage.

     As  she  a  black  silk  cap  on  him began To set, for foil of his
     milk-white to serve. Sir P. Sidney.

     Hector has a foil to set him off. Broome.

   4.  A  thin  coat  of  tin,  with  quicksilver,  laid on the back of a
   looking-glass, to cause reflection.

   5.  (Arch.)  The  space  between  the  cusps in Gothic architecture; a
   rounded  or  leaflike  ornament,  in  windows, niches, etc. A group of
   foils  is  called trefoil, quatrefoil, quinquefoil, etc., according to
   the number of arcs of which it is composed.
   Foil stone, an imitation of a jewel or precious stone.


   Foil"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being foiled.


   Foil"er (?), n. One who foils or frustrates. Johnson.


   Foil"ing, n. (Arch.) A foil. Simmonds.


   Foil"ing, n. [Cf. F. foul\'82es. See 1st Foil.] (Hunting) The track of
   game (as deer) in the grass.


   Foin (foin), n. [F. fouine a marten.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) The beech marten (Mustela foina). See Marten.

   2. A kind of fur, black at the top on a whitish ground, taken from the
   ferret or weasel of the same name.[Obs.]

     He  came  to  the  stake in a fair black gown furred and faced with
     foins. Fuller.


   Foin,  v.  i.  [OE. foinen, foignen; of uncertain origin; cf. dial. F.
   fouiner  to  push  for  eels  with a spear, fr. F. fouine an eelspear,
   perh.  fr. L. fodere to dig, thrust.] To thrust with a sword or spear;
   to lunge. [Obs.]

     He stroke, he soused, he foynd, he hewed, he lashed. Spenser.

     They  lash,  they  foin,  they  pass,  they  strive  to  bore Their
     corselets, and the thinnest parts explore. Dryden.


   Foin, v. t. To prick; to st?ng. [Obs.] Huloet.


   Foin, n. A pass in fencing; a lunge. [Obs.] Shak.


   Foin"er*y  (?), n. Thrusting with the foil; fencing with the point, as
   distinguished from broadsword play. [Obs.] Marston.


   Foin"ing*ly (?), adv. With a push or thrust. [Obs.]


   Foi"son  (?),  n.  [F.  foison,  fr. L. fusio a pouring, effusion. See
   Fusion.] Rich harvest; plenty; abundance. [Archaic] Lowell.

     That  from  the  seedness the bare fallow brings To teeming foison.


   Foist  (foist),  n.  [OF. fuste stick, boat, fr. L. fustis cudgel. Cf.
   1st Fust.] A light and fast-sailing ship. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.


   Foist,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Foisted; p. pr. & vb. n. Foisting.] [Cf.
   OD.  vysten  to  fizzle,  D.  veesten, E. fizz, fitchet, bullfist.] To
   insert   surreptitiously,   wrongfully,   or   without   warrant;   to
   interpolate;  to  pass  off  (something  spurious  or  counterfeit) as
   genuine, true, or worthy; -- usually followed by in.

     Lest  negligence  or  partiality  might  admit  or  fois? in abuses
     corruption. R. Carew.

     When  a  scripture  has  been  corrupted  . . . by a supposititious
     foisting of some words in. South.


   Foist, n.

   1. A foister; a sharper. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

   2. A trick or fraud; a swindle. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Foist"er   (?),   n.  One  who  foists  something  surreptitiously;  a
   falsitier. Mir. for Mag.


   Foist"ied (?), a. [See 2d Fust.] Fusty. [Obs.]


   Foist"i*ness (?), n. Fustiness; mustiness. [Obs.]


   Foist"y (?), a. Fusty; musty. [Obs.] Johnson.


   Fold  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Folded; p. pr. & vb. n. Folding.] [OE.
   folden,  falden,  AS. fealdan; akin to OHG. faltan, faldan, G. falten,
   Icel.  falda,  Dan.  folde, Sw. f\'86lla, Goth. fal, cf. Gr.pu a fold.
   Cf. Fauteuil.]

   1. To lap or lay in plaits or folds; to lay one part over another part
   of; to double; as, to fold cloth; to fold a letter.

     As a vesture shalt thou fold them up. Heb. i. 12.

   2.  To  double or lay together, as the arms or the hands; as, he folds
   his arms in despair.

   3.  To  inclose  within  folds or plaitings; to envelop; to infold; to
   clasp; to embrace.

     A face folded in sorrow. J. Webster.

     We will descend and fold him in our arms. Shak.

   4. To cover or wrap up; to conceal.

     Nor fold my fault in cleanly coined excuses. Shak.


   Fold,  v.  i.  To  become  folded,  plaited, or doubled; to close over
   another  of  the  same kind; to double together; as, the leaves of the
   door fold. 1 Kings vi. 34.


   Fold,  n.  [From  Fold,  v.  In sense 2 AS. -feald, akin to fealdan to

   1.  A  doubling,esp.  of  any  flexible substance; a part laid over on
   another part; a plait; a plication.

     Mummies . . . shrouded in a number of folds of linen. Bacon.

     Folds  are  most  common in the rocks of mountainous regions. J. D.

   2.   Times   or   repetitions;  --  used  with  numerals,  chiefly  in
   composition,  to  denote  multiplication  or increase in a geometrical
   ratio,  the  doubling, tripling, etc., of anything; as, fourfold, four
   times, increased in a quadruple ratio, multiplied by four.

   3.  That  which  is  folded  together,  or  which infolds or envelops;

     Shall from your neck unloose his amorous fold. Shak.

   Fold net, a kind of net used in catching birds.


   Fold, n. [OE. fald, fold, AS. fald, falod.]

   1. An inclosure for sheep; a sheep pen.

     Leaps o'er the fence with ease into the fold. Milton.

   2.  A  flock  of  sheep;  figuratively,  the  Church  or a church; as,
   Christ's fold.

     There shall be one fold and one shepherd. John x. 16.

     The very whitest lamb in all my fold. Tennyson.

   3. A boundary; a limit. [Obs.] Creech.
   Fold yard, an inclosure for sheep or cattle.


   Fold, v. t. To confine in a fold, as sheep.


   Fold, v. i. To confine sheep in a fold. [R.]

     The star that bids the shepherd fold. Milton.


   Fold"age,  (  n.  [See  Fold  inclosure,  Faldage.]  (O.Eng.Law.)  See


   Fold"er (?), n. One who, or that which, folds; esp., a flat, knifelike
   instrument used for folding paper.


   Fol"de*rol` (?), n. Nonsense. [Colloq.]


   Fold"ing (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  making  a fold or folds; also, a fold; a doubling; a

     The lower foldings of the vest. Addison.

   2. (Agric.) The keepig of sheep in inclosures on arable land, etc.
   Folding  boat,  a  portable boat made by stretching canvas, etc., over
   jointed  framework,  used  in  campaigning, and by tourists, etc. Ham.
   Nav.  Encyc.  Folding  chairFolding  door,  one  of  two or more doors
   filling a single and hung upon hinges.


   Fold"less, a. Having no fold. Milman.


   Fo`li*a"ceous (?), a. [L. foliaceus, fr. folium leaf.]

   1.  (Bot.)  Belonging  to, or having the texture or nature of, a leaf;
   having leaves intermixed with flowers; as, a foliaceous spike.

   2. (Min.) Consisting of leaves or thin lamin\'91; having the form of a
   leaf or plate; as, foliaceous spar.

   3.  (Zo\'94l.)  Leaflike  in  form or mode of growth; as, a foliaceous


   Fo"li*age  (?),  n.  [OF.  foillage,  fueillage, F. feuillage, fr. OF.
   foille,  fueille,  fueil, F. feulle, leaf, L. folium. See 3d Foil, and
   cf. Foliation, Filemot.]

   1.  Leaves,  collectively, as produced or arranged by nature; leafage;
   as, a tree or forest of beautiful foliage.

   2.  A  cluster  of  leaves,  flowers,  and  branches;  especially, the
   representation  of  leaves,  flowers,  and  branches, in architecture,
   intended to ornament and enrich capitals, friezes, pediments, etc.
   Foliage  plant  (Bot.),  any  plant  cultivated  for the beauty of its
   leaves, as many kinds of Begonia and Coleus.


   Fo"li*age  (?),  v.  t.  To  adorn  with  foliage  or the imitation of
   foliage; to form into the representation of leaves. [R.] Drummond.


   Fo"li*aged  (?),  a. Furnished with foliage; leaved; as, the variously
   foliaged mulberry.


   Fo"li*ar  (?),  a. (Bot.) Consisting of, or pertaining to, leaves; as,
   foliar  appendages. Foliar gap (Bot.), an opening in the fibrovascular
   system  of  a  stem  at the point of origin of a leaf. -- Foliar trace
   (Bot.),  a  particular fibrovascular bundle passing down into the stem
   from a leaf.


   Fo"li*ate  (,  a.  [L.  foliatus  leaved,  leafy, fr. folium leaf. See
   Foliage.]  (Bot.)  Furnished  with leaves; leafy; as, a foliate stalk.
   Foliate curve. (Geom.) Same as Folium.


   Fo"li*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Foliated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Foliating (?).]

   1. To beat into a leaf, or thin plate. Bacon.

   2.  To  spread  over  with  a thin coat of tin and quicksilver; as, to
   foliate a looking-glass.


   Fo"li*a`ted (?), a.

   1. Having leaves, or leaflike projections; as, a foliated shell.

   2. (Arch.) Containing, or consisting of, foils; as, a foliated arch.

   3.  (Min.) Characterized by being separable into thin plates or folia;
   as, graphite has a foliated structure.

   4.  (Geol.)  Laminated,  but  restricted  to  the variety of laminated
   structure   found   in  crystalline  schist,  as  mica  schist,  etc.;

   5. Spread over with an amalgam of tin and quicksilver.
   Foliated telluium. (Min.) See Nagyagite.


   Fo"li*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. foliation.]

   1. The process of forming into a leaf or leaves.

   2. The manner in which the young leaves are dispo

     The . . . foliation must be in relation to the stem. De Quincey.

   3.  The  act  of  beating  a  metal  into a thin plate, leaf, foil, or

   4.  The act of coating with an amalgam of tin foil and quicksilver, as
   in making looking-glasses.

   5. (Arch.) The enrichment of an opening by means of foils, arranged in
   trefoils, quatrefoils, etc.; also, one of the ornaments. See Tracery.

   6.  (Geol.)  The  property,  possessed  by  some crystalline rocks, of
   dividing  into plates or slabs, which is due to the cleavage structure
   of  one  of  the constituents, as mica or hornblende. It may sometimes
   include  slaty  structure  or  cleavage,  though the latter is usually
   independent of any mineral constituent, and transverse to the bedding,
   it having been produced by pressure.


   Fo"li*a*ture  (?),  n.  [L.  foliatura  foliage.] 1. Foliage; leafage.
   [Obs.] Shuckford.

   2. The state of being beaten into foil. Johnson.


   Fo"li*er (?), n. Goldsmith's foil. [R.] Sprat.


   Fo*lif"er*ous  (?), a. [L. folium leaf+ -ferous: cf. F. foliif\'8are.]
   Producing leaves. [Written also foliiferous.]


   Fol"i*ly (?), a. Foolishly. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fol"io  (?),  n.; pl. Folios (#). [Ablative of L. folium leaf. See 4th

   1. A leaf of a book or manuscript.

   2. A sheet of paper once folded.

   3.  A book made of sheets of paper each folded once (four pages to the
   sheet); hence, a book of the largest kind. See Note under Paper.

   4.  (Print.)  The  page  number.  The even folios are on the left-hand
   pages and the odd folios on the right-hand.

   5.  A  page  of  a  book;  (Bookkeeping)  a  page  in an account book;
   sometimes, two opposite pages bearing the same serial number.

   6. (Law) A leaf containing a certain number of words, hence, a certain
   number  of  words  in a writing, as in England, in law proceedings 72,
   and in chancery, 90; in New York, 100 words.
   Folio post, a flat writing paper, usually 17 by 24 inches.


   Fol'io,  v.  t.  To  put  a  serial number on each folio or page of (a
   book); to page.


   Fol'io,  a.  Formed  of sheets each folded once, making two leaves, or
   four pages; as, a folio volume. See Folio, n., 3.


   Fo"'li*o*late  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  leaflets;  -- used in
   composition; as, bi-foliolate. Gray.


   Fo"li*ole (?), n. [Dim. of L. folium leaf: cf. F. foliole.] (Bot.) One
   of the distinct parts of a compound leaf; a leaflet.


   Fo`li*o*mort" (?), a. See Feuillemort.


   Fo`li*ose"  (?), a. [L. foliosus, fr. folium leaf.] (Bot.) Having many
   leaves; leafy.


   Fo`li*os"i*ty   (?),   n.  The  ponderousness  or  bulk  of  a  folio;
   voluminousness. [R.] De Quincey.


   Fo"li*ous (, a. [See Foliose.]

   1. Like a leaf; thin; unsubstantial. [R.] Sir T. Browne.

   2. (Bot.) Foliose. [R.]


   Fo"li*um (?), n.; pl. E. Foliums (#), L. Folia (#). [L., a leaf.]

   1. A leaf, esp. a thin leaf or plate.

   2.  (Geom.)  A  curve  of  the third order, consisting of two infinite
   branches, which have a common asymptote. The curve has a double point,
   and  a  leaf-shaped  loop;  whence the name. Its equation is x3 + y3 =

   Page 579

                                  Folk, Folks

   Folk (?), Folks (?), n. collect. & pl. [AS. folc; akin to D. volk, OS.
   &  OHG.  folk,  G. volk, Icel. f, Sw. & Dan. folk, Lith. pulkas crowd,
   and perh. to E. follow.]

   1.  (Eng.  Hist.)  In  Anglo-Saxon  times,  the  people  of a group of
   townships or villages; a community; a tribe. [Obs.]

     The  organization of each folk, as such, sprang mainly from war. J.
     R. Green.

   2. People in general, or a separate class of people; -- generally used
   in the plural form, and often with a qualifying adjective; as, the old
   folks; poor folks. [Colloq.]

     In  winter's  tedious  nights, sit by the fire With good old folks,
     and let them tell thee tales. Shak.

   3.  The  persons  of  one's  own  family;  as, our folks are all well.
   [Colloq. New Eng.] Bartlett.
   Folk  song,  one  of  a  class  of  songs long popular with the common
   people.   --  Folk  speech,  the  speech  of  the  common  people,  as
   distinguished from that of the educated class.


   Folk"land`   (?),  n.  [AS.  folcland.]  (O.Eng.  Law)  Land  held  in
   villenage,  being  distributed  among  the  folk,  or  people,  at the
   pleasure  of the lord of the manor, and resumed at his discretion. Not
   being  held by any assurance in writing, it was opposed to bookland or
   charter land, which was held by deed. Mozley & W.

                          Folklore, n., OR Folk lore

   Folk"lore`  (?),  n., OR Folk" lore`. Tales, legends, or superstitions
   long current among the people. Trench.


   Folk"mote`  (?),  n.  [AS.  folcm  folk  meeting.]  An assembly of the
   people;  esp. (Sax. Law), a general assembly of the people to consider
   and order matters of the commonwealth; also, a local court. [Hist.]

     To  which  folkmote  they  all  with  one consent Agreed to travel.


   Folk"mot`er  (?), n. One who takes part in a folkmote, or local court.
   [Obs.] Milton.


   Fol"li*cle  (?),  n.  [L.  folliculus  a  small bag, husk, pod, dim of
   follis  bellows, an inflated ball, a leathern money bag, perh. akin to
   E. bellows: cf. F. follicule. Cf. 2d Fool.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A simple podlike pericarp which contains several seeds and
   opens along the inner or ventral suture, as in the peony, larkspur and

   2.  (Anat.) (a) A small cavity, tubular depression, or sac; as, a hair
   follicle. (b) A simple gland or glandular cavity; a crypt. (c) A small
   mass of adenoid tissue; as, a lymphatic follicle.


   Fol*lic"u*lar (?), a.

   1. Like, pertaining to, or consisting of, a follicles or follicles.

   2. (Med.) Affecting the follicles; as, follicular pharyngitis.


   Fol*lic"u*la`ted (?), a. Having follicles.


   Fol*lic"u*lous  (?),  a.  [L.  folliculosus  full  of  husks:  cf.  F.
   folliculeux.] Having or producing follicles.


   Fol"li*ful (?), a. Full of folly. [Obs.]


   Fol"low  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Followed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Following.][OE. foluwen, folwen, folgen, AS. folgian, fylgean, fylgan;
   akin  to  D. volgen, OHG. folg, G. folgen, Icel. fylgja, Sw. f\'94lja,
   Dan. f\'94lge, and perh. to E. folk.]

   1.  To go or come after; to move behind in the same path or direction;
   hence, to go with (a leader, guide, etc.); to accompany; to attend.

     It waves me forth again; I'll follow it. Shak.

   2.  To endeavor to overtake; to go in pursuit of; to chase; to pursue;
   to prosecute.

     I  will  harden  the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall follow
     them. Ex. xiv. 17.

   3. To accept as authority; to adopt the opinions of; to obey; to yield
   to; to take as a rule of action; as, to follow good advice.

     Approve the best, and follow what I approve. Milton.

     Follow peace with all men. Heb. xii. 14.

     It  is  most  agreeable  to some men to follow their reason; and to
     others to follow their appetites. J. Edwards.

   4. To copy after; to take as an example.

     We had rather follow the perfections of them whom we like not, than
     in defects resemble them whom we love. Hooker.

   5. To succeed in order of time, rank, or office.

   6.  To  result from, as an effect from a cause, or an inference from a

   7.  To  watch, as a receding object; to keep the eyes fixed upon while
   in  motion;  to  keep  the  mind  upon while in progress, as a speech,
   musical  performance,  etc.;  also, to keep up with; to understand the
   meaning,  connection,  or  force  of,  as  of  a  course of thought or

     He followed with his eyes the flitting shade. Dryden.

   8.  To  walk  in,  as  a  road or course; to attend upon closely, as a
   profession or calling.

     O, had I but followed the arts! Shak.

     O Antony! I have followed thee to this. Shak.

   Follow  board  (Founding),  a board on which the pattern and the flask
   lie  while the sand is rammed into the flask. Knight. -- To follow the
   hounds, to hunt with dogs. -- To follow suit (Card Playing), to play a
   card  of  the  same  suit as the leading card; hence, colloquially, to
   follow an example set. -- To follow up, to pursue indefatigably. Syn.-
   To pursue; chase; go after; attend; accompany; succeed; imitate; copy;
   embrace;  maintain.  -  To  Follow,  Pursue.  To follow (v.t.) denotes
   simply  to go after; to pursue denotes to follow with earnestness, and
   with  a  view  to attain some definite object; as, a hound pursues the
   deer.  So a person follows a companion whom he wishes to overtake on a
   journey;  the  officers of justice pursue a felon who has escaped from


   Fol"low,  v.  i. To go or come after; -- used in the various senses of
   the  transitive  verb:  To  pursue;  to  attend; to accompany; to be a
   result;  to imitate. Syn.- To Follow, Succeed, Ensue. To follow (v.i.)
   means  simply to come after; as, a crowd followed. To succeed means to
   come  after  in some regular series or succession; as, day succeeds to
   day,  and night to night. To ensue means to follow by some established
   connection  or principle of sequence. As wave follows wave, revolution
   succeeds   to   revolution;   and   nothing   ensues  but  accumulated


   Fol"low*er  (?),  n. [OE. folwere, AS. folgere.] 1. One who follows; a
   pursuer; an attendant; a disciple; a dependent associate; a retainer.

   2. A sweetheart; a beau. [Colloq.] A. Trollope.

   3. (Steam Engine) (a) The removable flange, or cover, of a piston. See
   Illust. of Piston. (b) A gland. See Illust. of Stuffing box.

   4.  (Mach.)  The  part  of a machine that receives motion from another
   part. See Driver.

   5.  Among law stationers, a sheet of parchment or paper which is added
   to  the  first  sheet of an indenture or other deed. Syn. -- Imitator;
   copier; disciple; adherent; partisan; dependent; attendant.


   Fol"low*ing (?), n.

   1. One's followers, adherents, or dependents, collectively. Macaulay.

   2. Vocation; business; profession.


   Fol"low*ing, a.

   1.  Next  after; succeeding; ensuing; as, the assembly was held on the
   following day.

   2. (Astron.) (In the field of a telescope) In the direction from which
   stars  are  apparently moving (in consequence of the erth's rotation);
   as, a small star, north following or south following. In the direction
   toward which stars appear to move is called preceding.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fo ur pr incipal di rections in  th e fi eld of a
     telescope are north, south, following, preceding.


   Fol"ly  (?), n.; pl. Follies (#). [OE. folie, foli, F. folie, fr. fol,
   fou, foolish, mad. See Fool.]

   1.  The  state of being foolish; want of good sense; levity, weakness,
   or derangement of mind.

   2.  A  foolish act; an inconsiderate or thoughtless procedure; weak or
   light-minded conduct; foolery.

     What folly 'tis to hazard life for ill. Shak.

   3.  Scandalous  crime;  sin;  specifically,  as  applied  to  a woman,

     [Achan] wrought folly in Israel. Josh. vii. 15.

     When lovely woman stoops to folly. Goldsmith.

   4. The result of a foolish action or enterprise.

     It  is  called  this  man's  or that man's "folly," and name of the
     foolish builder is thus kept alive for long after years. Trench.


   Fol"we (?), v. t. To follow. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fo"mal*haut`  (?),  n.  [AFomalhaut.]  (Astron.)  A  star of the first
   magnitude, in the constellation Piscis Australis, or Southern Fish.


   Fo*ment"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Fomented;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Fomenting.]   [F.  fomenter,  fr.  L.  fomentare,  fr.  fomentum  (for
   fovimentum)  a  warm application or lotion, fr. fovere to warm or keep
   warm; perh. akin to Gr. bake.]

   1. To apply a warm lotion to; to bathe with a cloth or sponge wet with
   warm water or medicated liquid.

   2. To cherish with heat; to foster. [Obs.]

     Which these soft fires . . . foment and warm. Milton.

   3.   To  nurse  to  life  or  activity;  to  cherish  and  promote  by
   excitements;  to  encourage; to abet; to instigate; -- used often in a
   bad sense; as, to foment ill humors. Locke.

     But quench the choler you foment in vain. Dryden.

     Exciting and fomenting a religious rebellion. Southey.


   Fo`men*ta"tion (?), n. [fomentatio: cf. F. fomentation.]

   1.  (Med.)  (a)  The  act of fomenting; the application of warm, soft,
   medicinal  substances,  as for the purpose of easing pain, by relaxing
   the  skin,  or  of  discussing  tumors.  (b)  The  lotion applied to a
   diseased part.

   2. Excitation; instigation; encouragement.

     Dishonest fomentation of your pride. Young.


   Fo*ment"er  (?), n. One who foments; one who encourages or instigates;
   as, a fomenter of sedition.


   Fo"mes  (?),  n.;  pl.  Fomites  (#).  [L.  fomes,  -itis, touch-wood,
   tinder.]  (Med.)  Any  substance  supposed to be capable of absorbing,
   retaining, and transporting contagious or infectious germs; as, woolen
   clothes are said to be active fomites.


   Fon (?), n. [Of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. f\'beni silly, f\'bena to act
   silly,  Sw.  f\'86ne  fool.  Cf.  Fond,  a.]  A fool; an idiot. [Obs.]


   Fond (?), obs. imp. of Find. Found. Chaucer.


   Fond,  a. [Compar. Fonder (?); superl. Fondest.] [For fonned, p. p. of
   OE. fonnen to be foolish. See Fon.]

   1. Foolish; silly; simple; weak. [Archaic]

     Grant  I  may never prove so fond To trust man on his oath or bond.

   2. Foolishly tender and loving; weakly indulgent; over-affectionate.

   3. Affectionate; loving; tender; -- in a good sense; as, a fond mother
   or wife. Addison.

   4.  Loving;  much  pleased;  affectionately  regardful,  indulgent, or
   desirous;  longing  or  yearning;  -- followed by of (formerly also by

     More fond on her than she upon her love. Shak.

     You are as fond of grief as of your child. Shak.

     A great traveler, and fond of telling his adventures. Irving.

   5. Doted on; regarded with affection. [R.]

     Nor fix on fond abodes to circumscribe thy prayer. Byron.

   6. Trifling; valued by folly; trivial. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fond, v. t. To caress; to fondle. [Obs.]

     The Tyrian hugs and fonds thee on her breast. Dryden.


   Fond, v. i. To be fond; to dote. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fond"e  (?),  v. t. & i. [AS. fandian to try.] To endeavor; to strive;
   to try. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fon"dle (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Fondled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fondling
   (?).]  [From  Fond,  v.]  To  treat  or handle with tenderness or in a
   loving  manner;  to  caress;  as,  a  nurse fondles a child. Syn.- See


   Fon"dler (?), n. One who fondles. Johnson.


   Fon"dling  (?),  n. [From Fondle.] The act of caressing; manifestation
   of tenderness.

     Cyrus  made no . . . amorous fondling To fan her pride, or melt her
     guardless heart. Mickle.


   Fond"ling (?), n. [Fond + -ling.]

   1.  A person or thing fondled or caressed; one treated with foolish or
   doting affection.

     Fondlings are in danger to be made fools. L'Estrange.

   2. A fool; a simpleton; a ninny. [Obs.] Chapman.


   Fond"ly (?), adv.

   1. Foolishly. [Archaic] Verstegan (1673).

     Make him speak fondly like a frantic man. Shak.

   2. In a fond manner; affectionately; tenderly.

     My heart, untarveled, fondly turns to thee. Goldsmith.


   Fond"ness, n.

   1. The quality or state of being fond; foolishness. [Obs.]

     Fondness it were for any, being free, To covet fetters, though they
     golden be. Spenser.

   2.  Doting  affection;  tender liking; strong appetite, propensity, or
   relish; as, he had a fondness for truffles.

     My heart had still some foolish fondness for thee. Addison.

   Syn.- Attachment; affection; love; kindness.


   Fon"don  (?), n. [Cf. F. fondant flux.] (Metal.) A large copper vessel
   used for hot amalgamation.


   Fon`dus"  (?),  n. [F. fondu, prop. p.p. of fondre to melt, blend. See
   Found  to  cast.] A style of printing calico, paper hangings, etc., in
   which the colors are in bands and graduated into each other. Ure.


   Fone (?), n.; pl. of Foe. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fong"e  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Fang,  v.  t.] To take; to receive. [Obs.]


   Fon"ly (?), adv. [See Fon.] Foolishly; fondly. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fon"ne (?), n. A fon. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Font (?), n. [F. fonte, fr. fondre to melt or cast. See Found to cast,
   and cf. Fount a font.] (Print.) A complete assortment of printing type
   of  one  size,  including  a  due proportion of all the letters in the
   alphabet,  large  and  small,  points,  accents,  and whatever else is
   necessary for printing with that variety of types; a fount.


   Font,  n.  [AS. font, fant, fr. L. fons, fontis, spring, fountain; cf.
   OF. font, funt, F. fonts, fonts baptismaux, pl. See Fount.]

   1. A fountain; a spring; a source.

     Bathing forever in the font of bliss. Young.

   2. A basin or stone vessel in which water is contained for baptizing.

     That name was given me at the font. Shak.


   Font"al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to a font, fountain, source, or origin;
   original; primitive. [R.]

     From  the  fontal  light  of ideas only can a man draw intellectual
     power. Coleridge.


   Fon"ta*nel`  (?),  n.  [F.  fontanelle,  prop., a little fountain, fr.
   fontaine fountain. See Fountain.]

   1.  (Med.)  An  issue  or artificial ulcer for the discharge of humors
   from the body.[Obs.] Wiseman.

   2.  (Anat.)  One  of  the membranous intervals between the incompleted
   angles  of  the  parietal  and  neighboring  bones of a fetal or young
   skull; -- so called because it exhibits a rhythmical pulsation.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e human fetus there are six fontanels, of which
     the anterior, or bregmatic, situated at the junction of the coronal
     and  sagittal  sutures,  is  much  the  largest, and remains open a
     considerable time after birth.


   Fon`ta`nelle" (?), n. [F.] (Anat.) Same as Fontanel, 2.


   Fon`tange"  (?),  n.  [F., from the name of the first wearer, Mlle. de
   Fontanges,  about  1679.]  A  kind  of  tall  headdress formerly worn.


   Food  (?),  n.  [OE.  fode,  AS.  f\'d3da;  akin  to Icel. f\'91\'eba,
   f\'91\'ebi,  Sw.  f\'94da,  Dan.  &  LG.  f\'94de,  OHG.  fatunga, Gr.
   patei^sthai  to eat, and perh. to Skr. p\'be to protect, L. pascere to
   feed,  pasture,  pabulum  food,  E.  pasture. \'fb75. Cf. Feed, Fodder
   food, Foster to cherish.]

   1. What is fed upon; that which goes to support life by being received
   within,  and  assimilated  by,  the  organism of an animal or a plant;
   nutriment;   aliment;   especially,  what  is  eaten  by  animals  for

     NOTE: &hand; In  a  ph ysiological se nse, tr ue al iment is  to be
     distinguished as that portion of the food which is capable of being
     digested  and absorbed into the blood, thus furnishing nourishment,
     in  distinction  from  the  indigestible  matter  which  passes out
     through the alimentary canal as f\'91ces.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo ods ar e divided into two main groups: nitrogenous,
     or   proteid,  foods,  i.e.,  those  which  contain  nitrogen,  and
     nonnitrogenous,  i.e.,  those  which  do  not contain nitrogen. The
     latter   group   embraces   the   fats   and  carbohydrates,  which
     collectively  are  sometimes  termed  heat producers or respiratory
     foods,  since by oxidation in the body they especially subserve the
     production  of  heat. The proteids, on the other hand, are known as
     plastic  foods  or  tissue  formers,  since no tissue can be formed
     without  them.  These  latter terms, however, are misleading, since
     proteid  foods  may  also  give  rise  to  heat  both  directly and
     indirectly, and the fats and carbohydrates are useful in other ways
     than in producing heat.

   2.  Anything  that  instructs  the intellect, excites the feelings, or
   molds habits of character; that which nourishes.

     This may prove food to my displeasure. Shak.

     In this moment there is life and food For future years. Wordsworth.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo od is  often used adjectively or in self-explaining
     compounds, as in food fish or food-fish, food supply.

   Food  vacuole  (Zo\'94l.),  one  of  the  spaces  in the interior of a
   protozoan  in which food is contained, during digestion. -- Food yolk.
   (Biol.)  See under Yolk. Syn. -- Aliment; sustenance; nutriment; feed;
   fare; victuals; provisions; meat.


   Food, v. t. To supply with food. [Obs.] Baret.

   Page 580


   Food"ful (?), a. Full of food; supplying food; fruitful; fertile. "The
   foodful earth." Dryden.

     Bent by its foodful burden [the corn]. Glover.


   Food"less, a. Without food; barren. Sandys.


   Food"y (?), a. Eatable; fruitful. [R.] Chapman.


   Fool (?), n. [Cf. F. fouler to tread, crush. Cf. 1st Foil.] A compound
   of  gooseberries  scalded  and crushed, with cream; -- commonly called
   gooseberry fool.


   Fool, n. [OE. fol, n. & adj., F. fol, fou, foolish, mad; a fool, prob.
   fr.  L. follis a bellows, wind bag, an inflated ball; perh. akin to E.
   bellows. Cf. Folly, Follicle.]

   1.  One destitute of reason, or of the common powers of understanding;
   an idiot; a natural.

   2.  A person deficient in intellect; one who acts absurdly, or pursues
   a  course  contrary to the dictates of wisdom; one without judgment; a
   simpleton; a dolt.

     Extol not riches, then, the toil of fools. Milton.

     Experience  keeps  a dear school, but fools will learn in no other.

   3.  (Script.)  One  who acts contrary to moral and religious wisdom; a
   wicked person.

     The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. Ps. xiv. 1.

   4.  One  who  counterfeits  folly; a professional jester or buffoon; a
   retainer formerly kept to make sport, dressed fantastically in motley,
   with ridiculous accouterments.

     Can they think me . . . their fool or jester? Milton.

   April  fool,  Court  fool, etc. See under April, Court, etc. -- Fool's
   cap, a cap or hood to which bells were usually attached, formerly worn
   by  professional  jesters.  --  Fool's errand, an unreasonable, silly,
   profitless  adventure  or  undertaking. -- Fool's gold, iron or copper
   pyrites,  resembling gold in color. -- Fool's paradise, a name applied
   to  a  limbo  (see under Limbo) popularly believed to be the region of
   vanity  and nonsense. Hence, any foolish pleasure or condition of vain
   self-satistaction.  --  Fool's parsley (Bot.), an annual umbelliferous
   plant  (\'92thusa  Cynapium)  resembling  parsley,  but  nauseous  and
   poisonous.  --  To make a fool of, to render ridiculous; to outwit; to
   shame.  [Colloq.]  --  To  play the fool, to act the buffoon; to act a
   foolish  part. "I have played the fool, and have erred exceedingly." 1
   Sam. xxvi. 21.
   Fool,  v.  i.  [imp.  & p. p. Fooled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Fooling.] To
   play  the  fool;  to  trifle;  to  toy; to spend time in idle sport or
   mirth. <-- = to fool around --> 

     Is this a time for fooling? Dryden.


   Fool, v. t.

   1. To infatuate; to make foolish. Shak.

     For, fooled with hope, men favor the deceit. Dryden.

   2. To use as a fool; to deceive in a shameful or mortifying manner; to
   impose upon; to cheat by inspiring foolish confidence; as, to fool one
   out of his money.

     You  are  fooled,  discarded,  and  shook off By him for whom these
     shames ye underwent. Shak.

   To  fool away, to get rid of foolishly; to spend in trifles, idleness,
   folly, or without advantage.


   Foo"lahs` (?), n. pl.; sing. Foolah. (Ethnol.) Same as Fulahs.


   Fool"-born` (?), a. Begotten by a fool. Shak.


   Fool"er*y (?), n.; pl. Fooleries (.

   1. The practice of folly; the behavior of a fool; absurdity.

     Folly  in fools bears not so strong a note, As foolery in the wise,
     when wit doth dote. Shak.

   2.  An  act of folly or weakness; a foolish practice; something absurd
   or nonsensical.

     That  Pythagoras,  Plato,  or  Orpheus,  believed  in  any of these
     fooleries, it can not be suspected. Sir W. Raleigh.


   Fool"fish` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The orange filefish<--clownfish?-->.
   See Filefish. (b) The winter flounder. See Flounder.


   Fool"-hap`py  (?),  a.  Lucky, without judgment or contrivance. [Obs.]


   Fool"har`di*hood (?), n. The state of being foolhardy; foolhardiness.


   Fool"har`di*ly, adv. In a foolhardy manner.


   Fool"har`di*ness,  n.  Courage  without  sense  or  judgment;  foolish
   rashness; recklessness. Dryden.


   Fool"har`dise  (?),  n.  [Fool,  F. fol, fou + F. hardiesse boldness.]
   Foolhardiness. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fool"har`dy  (?), a. [OF. folhardi. See Fool idiot, and Hardy.] Daring
   without  judgment;  foolishly  adventurous  and  bold. Howell. Syn. --
   Rash;   venturesome;   venturous;   precipitate;  reckless;  headlong;
   incautious. See Rash.


   Fool"-has`ty (?), a. Foolishly hasty. [R.]


   Fool"i*fy  (?), v. t. [Fool + -fy.] To make a fool of; to befool. [R.]


   Fool"ish, a.

   1.  Marked  with, or exhibiting, folly; void of understanding; weak in
   intellect; without judgment or discretion; silly; unwise.

     I am a very foolish fond old man. Shak.

   2.  Such  as  a  fool  would  do;  proceeding from weakness of mind or
   silliness;  exhibiting a want of judgment or discretion; as, a foolish

   3. Absurd; ridiculous; despicable; contemptible.

     A foolish figure he must make. Prior.

   Syn.   --   Absurd;   shallow;   shallow-brained;  brainless;  simple;
   irrational;   unwise;   imprudent;   indiscreet;   incautious;  silly;
   ridiculous; vain; trifling; contemptible. See Absurd.


   Fool"ish*ly, adv. In a foolish manner.


   Fool"ish*ness, n.

   1. The quality of being foolish.

   2. A foolish practice; an absurdity.

     The  preaching  of  the cross is to them that perish foolishness. 1
     Cor. i. 18.


   Fool"-large`  (?),  a.  [OF. follarge. See Fool, and Large.] Foolishly
   liberal. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fool"-lar*gesse`   (?),   n.   [See   Fool-large,   Largess.]  Foolish
   expenditure; waste. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fools"cap`  (?),  n. [So called from the watermark of a fool's cap and
   bells used by old paper makers. See Fool's cap, under Fool.] A writing
   paper  made  in sheets, ordinarily 16 x 13 inches, and folded so as to
   make a page 13 x 8 inches. See Paper.


   Foot  (?),  n.;  pl. Feet (#). [OE. fot, foot, pl. feet. AS. f, pl. f;
   akin to D. voet, OHG. fuoz, G. fuss, Icel. f, Sw. fot, Dan. fod, Goth.
   f, L. pes, Gr. p\'bed, Icel. fet step, pace measure of a foot, feta to
   step,   find   one's  way.  \'fb77,  250.  Cf.  Antipodes,  Cap-a-pie,
   Expedient,  Fet  to  fetch,  Fetlock,  Fetter,  Pawn a piece in chess,

   1. (Anat.) The terminal part of the leg of man or an animal; esp., the
   part  below  the  ankle or wrist; that part of an animal upon which it
   rests when standing, or moves. See Manus, and Pes.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  muscular  locomotive  organ of a mollusk. It is a
   median  organ  arising  from  the ventral region of body, often in the
   form of a flat disk, as in snails. See Illust. of Buccinum.

   3. That which corresponds to the foot of a man or animal; as, the foot
   of a table; the foot of a stocking.

   4.  The  lowest  part  or  base;  the ground part; the bottom, as of a
   mountain  or  column;  also,  the  last of a row or series; the end or
   extremity,  esp.  if  associated  with  inferiority; as, the foot of a
   hill; the foot of the procession; the foot of a class; the foot of the

     And now at foot Of heaven's ascent they lift their feet. Milton.

   5. Fundamental principle; basis; plan; -- used only in the singular.

     Answer directly upon the foot of dry reason. Berkeley.

   6.  Recognized condition; rank; footing; -- used only in the singular.

     As to his being on the foot of a servant. Walpole.

   7.  A  measure  of  length equivalent to twelve inches; one third of a
   yard. See Yard.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is me asure is supposed to be taken from the length
     of  a  man's  foot. It differs in length in different countries. In
     the United States and in England it is 304.8 millimeters.

   8.  (Mil.) Soldiers who march and fight on foot; the infantry, usually
   designated  as  the foot, in distinction from the cavalry. "Both horse
   and foot." Milton.

   9. (Pros.) A combination of syllables consisting a metrical element of
   a  verse, the syllables being formerly distinguished by their quantity
   or length, but in modern poetry by the accent.

   10. (Naut.) The lower edge of a sail.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo ot is  of ten us ed ad jectively, si gnifying of or
     pertaining  to a foot or the feet, or to the base or lower part. It
     is also much used as the first of compounds.

   Foot  artillery.  (Mil.)  (a)  Artillery soldiers serving in foot. (b)
   Heavy  artillery.  Farrow. -- Foot bank (Fort.), a raised way within a
   parapet.  --  Foot  barracks  (Mil.),  barracks for infantery. -- Foot
   bellows,  a  bellows  worked  by  a  treadle.  Knight. -- Foot company
   (Mil.),  a company of infantry. Milton. -- Foot gear, covering for the
   feet,  as  stocking,  shoes, or boots. -- Foot hammer (Mach.), a small
   tilt  hammer  moved  by  a  treadle.  --  Foot iron. (a) The step of a
   carriage.  (b)  A  fetter.  -- Foot jaw. (Zo\'94l.) See Maxilliped. --
   Foot  key  (Mus.),  an organ pedal. -- Foot level (Gunnery), a form of
   level  used  in  giving  any proposed angle of elevation to a piece of
   ordnance.  Farrow. -- Foot mantle, a long garment to protect the dress
   in  riding;  a  riding  skirt.  [Obs.] -- Foot page, an errand boy; an
   attendant. [Obs.] -- Foot passenger, one who passes on foot, as over a
   road  or  bridge. -- Foot pavement, a paved way for foot passengers; a
   footway; a trottoir. -- Foot poet, an inferior poet; a poetaster. [R.]
   Dryden.  -- Foot post. (a) A letter carrier who travels on foot. (b) A
   mail  delivery  by  means  of  such  carriers.  -- Fot pound, AND Foot
   poundal.  (Mech.)  See Foot pound and Foot poundal, in the Vocabulary.
   --  Foot press (Mach.), a cutting, embossing, or printing press, moved
   by  a treadle. -- Foot race, a race run by persons on foot. Cowper. --
   Foot rail, a railroad rail, with a wide flat flange on the lower side.
   --  Foot  rot,  an  ulcer in the feet of sheep; claw sickness. -- Foot
   rule,  a  rule  or  measure  twelve  inches  long.  --  Foot screw, an
   adjusting  screw  which  forms a foot, and serves to give a machine or
   table  a  level  standing  on  an  uneven  place.  --  Foot secretion.
   (Zo\'94l.)  See  Sclerobase.  -- Foot soldier, a soldier who serves on
   foot.  --  Foot  stick (Printing), a beveled piece of furniture placed
   against  the  foot  of  the  page,  to hold the type in place. -- Foot
   stove,  a  small  box, with an iron pan, to hold hot coals for warming
   the  feet.  -- Foot tubercle. (Zo\'94l.) See Parapodium. -- Foot valve
   (Steam  Engine),  the  valve  that  opens  to  the  air  pump from the
   condenser. -- Foot vise, a kind of vise the jaws of which are operated
   by a treadle. -- Foot waling (Naut.), the inside planks or lining of a
   vessel  over  the  floor  timbers.  Totten. -- Foot wall (Mining), the
   under  wall  of an inclosed vein. By foot, OR On foot, by walking; as,
   to  pass a stream on foot. -- Cubic foot. See under Cubic. -- Foot and
   mouth  disease, a contagious disease (Eczema epizo\'94tica) of cattle,
   sheep,  swine,  etc.,  characterized  by the formation of vesicles and
   ulcers  in  the  mouth and about the hoofs. -- Foot of the fine (Law),
   the  concluding  portion  of  an  acknowledgment  in  court  by which,
   formerly,  the  title  of  land  was conveyed. See Fine of land, under
   Fine,  n.;  also Chirograph. (b). -- Square foot. See under Square. --
   To be on foot, to be in motion, action, or process of execution. -- To
   keep the foot (Script.), to preserve decorum. "Keep thy foot when thou
   goest  to the house of God." Eccl. v. 1. -- To put one's foot down, to
   take  a resolute stand; to be determined. [Colloq.] -- To put the best
   foot  foremost, to make a good appearance; to do one's best. [Colloq.]
   --  To set on foot, to put in motion; to originate; as, to set on foot
   a  subscription.  --  To put, OR set, one on his feet, to put one in a
   position  to  go  on; to assist to start. -- Under foot. (a) Under the
   feet;  (Fig.)  at  one's mercy; as, to trample under foot. Gibbon. (b)
   Below par. [Obs.] "They would be forced to sell . . . far under foot."
   Foot (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Footed; p. pr. & vb. n. Footing.] 

   1. To tread to measure or music; to dance; to trip; to skip. Dryden.

   2. To walk; -- opposed to ride or fly. Shak.


   Foot, v. t.

   1. To kick with the foot; to spurn. Shak.

   2. To set on foot; to establish; to land. [Obs.]

     What  confederacy  have  you  with  the traitors Late footed in the
     kingdom? Shak.

   3. To tread; as, to foot the green. Tickell.

   4. To sum up, as the numbers in a column; -- sometimes with up; as, to
   foot (or foot up) an account.

   5. The size or strike with the talon. [Poet.] Shak.

   6. To renew the foot of, as of stocking. Shak.
   To  foot a bill, to pay it. [Colloq.] -- To foot it, to walk; also, to
   dance.<-- = to hoof it (to walk) -->

     If  you  are for a merry jaunt, I'll try, for once, who can foot it
     farthest. Dryden.


   Foot"ball`  (?),  n.  An  inflated ball to be kicked in sport, usually
   made in India rubber, or a bladder incased in Leather. Waller.

   2.  The  game  of  kicking the football by opposing parties of players
   between goals. Arbuthnot.


   Foot"band` (?), n. A band of foot soldiers. [Obs.]


   Foot"bath` (?), n. A bath for the feet; also, a vessel used in bathing
   the feet.


   Foot"board` (?), n.

   1.  A  board  or narrow platfrom upon which one may stand or brace his
   feet;  as:  (a)  The  platform  for  the  engineer  and  fireman  of a
   locomotive. (b) The foot-rest of a coachman's box.

   2. A board forming the foot of a bedstead.

   3. A treadle.


   Foot"boy` (?), n. A page; an attendant in livery; a lackey. Shak.


   Foot"breadth`  (?),  n.  The  breadth of a foot; -- used as a measure.

     Not so much as a footbreadth. Deut. ii. 5.


   Foot"bridge` (?), n. A narrow bridge for foot passengers only.


   Foot"cloth`  (?), n. Formerly, a housing or caparison for a horse. Sir
   W. Scott.


   Foot"ed, a.

   1.  Having  a  foot or feet; shaped in the foot. "Footed like a goat."

     NOTE: &hand; Fo oted is  of ten used in composition in the sense of
     having (such or so many) feet; as, fourfooted beasts.

   2. Having a foothold; established.

     Our king . . . is footed in this land already. Shak.


   Foot"fall` (?), n.A setting down of the foot; a footstep; the sound of
   a footstep. Shak.

     Seraphim, whose footfalls tinkled on the tufted floor. Poe


   Foot"fight`  (?),  n.  A conflict by persons on foot; -- distinguished
   from a fight on horseback. Sir P. Sidney.


   Foot"glove` (?), n. A kind of stocking. [Obs.]

                                  Foot Guards

   Foot" Guards` (?), pl. Infantry soldiers belonging to select regiments
   called the Guards. [Eng.]


   Foot"halt` (?), n. A disease affecting the feet of sheep.


   Foot"hill` (?), n. A low hill at the foot of highe


   Foot"hold` (?), n. A holding with the feet; firm L'Estrange.


   Foot"hook` (?), n. (Naut.) See Futtock.


   Foot"hot`  (?),  adv.  Hastily;  immediately;  instantly; on the spot;
   hotfloot. Gower.

     Custance have they taken anon, foothot. Chaucer.


   Foot"ing, n.

   1. Ground for the foot; place for the foot to rest on; firm foundation
   to stand on.

     In ascent, every stfooting and help to the next. Holder.

   2.   Standing;  position;  established  place;  basis  for  operation;
   permanent settlement; foothold.

     As  soon  as  he had obtained a footing at court, the charms of his
     manner . . . made him a favorite. Macaulay.

   3. Relative condition; state.

     Lived on a footing of equality with nobles. Macaulay.

   4. Tread; step; especially, measured tread.

     Hark, I hear the footing of a man. Shak.

   5.  The  act of adding up a column of figures; the amount or sum total
   of such a column.

   6. The act of putting a foot to anything; also, that which is added as
   a foot; as, the footing of a stocking.

   7. A narrow cotton lace, without figures.

   8. The finer refuse part of whale blubber, not wholly deprived of oil.

   9. (Arch. & Enging.) The thickened or sloping portion of a wall, or of
   an embankment at its foot.
   Footing course (Arch.), one of the courses of masonry at the foot of a
   wall,  broader than the courses above. -- To pay one's footing, to pay
   a  fee  on  first  doing anything, as working at a trade or in a shop.
   Wright. -- Footing beam, the tie beam of a roof.


   Foot"less, a. Having no feet.


   Foot"lick`er  (?),  n.  A  sycophant; a fawner; a toady. Cf. Bootlick.


   Foot"light` (?), n.One of a row of lights in the front of the stage in
   a theater, etc., and on a level therewith. Before the footlights, upon
   the stage; -- hence, in the capacity of an actor.


   Foot"man (?), n.; pl. Footmen (.

   1. A soldier who marches and fights on foot; a foot soldier.

   2.  A  man  in  waiting; a male servant whose duties are to attend the
   door, the carriage, the table, etc.

   3.  Formerly,  a  servant who ran in front of his master's carriage; a
   runner. Prior.

   4. A metallic stand with four feet, for keeping anything warm before a

   5. (Zo\'94l.) A moth of the family Lithosid\'91; -- so called from its
   livery-like colors.


   Foot"man*ship, n. Art or skill of a footman.


   Foot"mark` (?), n. A footprint; a track or vestige. Coleridge.


   Foot"note`  (?),  n.  A  note of reference or comment at the foot of a


   Foot"pace` (?), n.

   1. A walking pace or step.

   2.  A  dais,  or  elevated  platform; the highest step of the altar; a
   landing in a staircase. Shipley.


   Foot"pad` (?), n. A highwayman or robber on foot.


   Foot"path`  (?),  n.;  pl.  Footpaths  (.  A  narrow  path  or way for
   pedestrains only; a footway.


   Foot"plate` (?), n. (Locomotives) See Footboard (a).

                                  Foot pound

   Foot"  pound`  (?).  (Mech.) A unit of energy, or work, being equal to
   the  work  done  in raising one pound avoirdupois against the force of
   gravity the height of one foot.

   Page 581

                                 Foot poundal

   Foot"  pound`al  (?).  (Mech.)  A unit of energy or work, equal to the
   work  done  in moving a body through one foot against the force of one


   Foot"print`  (?),  n. The impression of the foot; a trace or footmark;
   as, "Footprints of the Creator."


   Foot"rope` (?), n. (Aut.) (a) The rope rigged below a yard, upon which
   men  stand  when  reefing  or furling; -- formerly called a horse. (b)
   That part of the boltrope to which the lower edge of a sail is sewed.


   Foots  (?), n. pl. The settlings of oil, molasses, etc., at the bottom
   of a barrel or hogshead. Simmonds.


   Foot"-sore`  (?),  a. Having sore or tender feet, as by reason of much
   walking; as, foot-sore cattle.


   Foot"stalk` (?), n.

   1.  (Bot.)  The  stalk  of a leaf or of flower; a petiole, pedicel, or

   2. (Zo\'94l.) (a) The peduncle or stem by which various marine animals
   are attached, as certain brachiopods and goose barnacles. (b) The stem
   which supports which supports the eye in decapod Crustacea; eyestalk.

   3.  (Mach.) The lower part of a millstone spindle. It rests in a step.


   Foot"stall` (?), n. [Cf. Pedestal.]

   1. The stirrup of a woman's saddle.

   2. (Arch.) The plinth or base of a pillar.


   Foot"step` (?), n.

   1. The mark or impression of the foot; a track; hence, visible sign of
   a course pursued; token; mark; as, the footsteps of divine wisdom.

     How on the faltering footsteps of decay Youth presses. Bryant.

   2. An inclined plane under a hand printing press.


   Foot"stone`  (?; 110), n. The stone at the foot of a grave; -- opposed
   to headstone.


   Foot"stool`  (?),  n.  A  low  stool  to  support the feet of one when


   Foot"way` (?), n. A passage for pedestrians only.


   Foot"worn`  (?),  a.  Worn  by, or weared in, the feet; as, a footworn
   path; a footworn traveler.


   Foot"y (?), a.

   1. Having foots, or settlings; as, footy oil, molasses, etc. [Eng.]

   2. Poor; mean. [Prov. Eng.] C. Kingsley.


   Fop  (?),  n. [OE. foppe, fop, fool; cf. E. fob to cheat, G. foppen to
   make a fool of one, jeer, D. foppen.] One whose ambition it is to gain
   admiration by showy dress; a coxcomb; an inferior dandy.


   Fop"-doo`dle  (?),  n.  A  stupid  or  insignaficant fellow; a fool; a
   simpleton. [R.] Hudibras.


   Fop"ling (?), n. A petty fop. Landor.


   Fop"per*y (?), n.; pl. Fopperies (#). [From Fop.]

   1.  The  behavior,  dress,  or  other  indication of a fop; coxcombry;
   affectation of show; showy folly.

   2. Folly; foolery.

     Let not the sound of shallow foppery enter My sober house. Shak.


   Fop"pish (?), a. Foplike; characteristic of a top in dress or manners;
   making  an  ostentatious display of gay clothing; affected in manners.
   Syn.  --  Finical; spruce; dandyish. See Finical. -- Fop"pish*ly, adv.
   -- Fop"pish*ness, n.


   For-  (. [AS. for-; akin to D. & G. ver-, OHG. fir-, Icel. for-, Goth.
   fra-, cf. Skr. par\'be- away, Gr. far, adj. Cf. Fret to rub.] A prefix
   to  verbs,  having  usually  the  force of a negative or privative. It
   often  implies  also loss, detriment, or destruction, and sometimes it
   is intensive, meaning utterly, quite thoroughly, as in forbathe.


   For  (?),  prep. [AS. for, fore; akin to OS. for, fora, furi, D. voor,
   OHG. fora, G. vor, OHG. furi, G. f\'81r, Icel. fyrir, Sw. f\'94r, Dan.
   for,  adv.  f\'94r,  Goth. fa\'a3r, fa\'a3ra, L. pro, Gr. pra-. &root;
   202.  Cf.  Fore,  First,  Foremost,  Forth, Pro-.] In the most general
   sense,  indicating  that  in  consideration  of,  in  view of, or with
   reference to, which anything is done or takes place.

   1.  Indicating  the  antecedent  cause  or  occasion of an action; the
   motive  or  inducement  accompanying and prompting to an act or state;
   the  reason  of  anything;  that  on account of which a thing is or is

     With fiery eyes sparkling for very wrath. Shak.

     How to choose dogs for scent or speed. Waller.

     Now,  for so many glorious actions done, For peace at home, and for
     the  public  wealth,  I mean to crown a bowl for C\'91sar's health.

     That  which  we,  for  our  unworthiness,  are afraid to crave, our
     prayer  is,  that  God,  for  the  worthiness  of  his  Son, would,
     notwithstanding, vouchsafe to grant. Hooker.

   2.  Indicating  the  remoter and indirect object of an act; the end or
   final  cause  with reference to which anything is, acts, serves, or is

     The  oak  for nothing ill, The osier good for twigs, the poplar for
     the mill. Spenser.

     It  was  young counsel for the persons, and violent counsel for the
     matters. Bacon.

     Shall  I  think  the  worls  was made for one, And men are born for
     kings,  as  beasts for men, Not for protection, but to be devoured?

     For he writes not for money, nor for praise. Denham.

   3.  Indicating that in favor of which, or in promoting which, anything
   is,  or  is done; hence, in behalf of; in favor of; on the side of; --
   opposed to against.

     We  can  do  nothing  against  the truth, but for the truth. 2 Cor.
     xiii. 8.

     It  is  for  the general good of human society, and consequently of
     particular persons, to be true and just; and it is for men's health
     to be temperate. Tillotson.

     Aristotle is for poetical justice. Dennis.

   4. Indicating that toward which the action of anything is directed, or
   the point toward which motion is made;

     We sailed from Peru for China and Japan. Bacon.

   5.  Indicating  that  on place of or instead of which anything acts or
   serves,  or that to which a substitute, an equivalent, a compensation,
   or the like, is offered or made; instead of, or place of.

     And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life, eye
     for  eye,  tooth  for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot. Ex. xxi.
     23, 24.

   6.  Indicating  that in the character of or as being which anything is
   regarded or treated; to be, or as being.

     We take a falling meteor for a star. Cowley.

     If  a  man  can  be  fully assured of anything for a truth, without
     having  examined,  what  is  there  that  he  may  not  embrace for

     Most  of our ingenious young men take up some cried-up English poet
     for their model. Dryden.

     But let her go for an ungrateful woman. Philips.

   7.  Indicating  that  instead  of which something else controls in the
   performing  of  an action, or that in spite of which anything is done,
   occurs,  or  is; hence, equivalent to notwithstanding, in spite of; --
   generally followed by all, aught, anything, etc.

     The writer will do what she please for all me. Spectator.

     God's  desertion  shall,  for  aught  he  knows,  the  next  minute
     supervene. Dr. H. More.

     For  anything  that  legally  appears  to the contrary, it may be a
     contrivance to fright us. Swift.

   8.  Indicating  the  space  or  time  through which an action or state
   extends; hence, during; in or through the space or time of.

     For many miles about There 's scarce a bush. Shak.

     Since, hired for life, thy servile muse sing. prior.

     To guide the sun's bright chariot for a day. Garth.

   9.  Indicating  that in prevention of which, or through fear of which,
   anything is done. [Obs.]

     We 'll have a bib, for spoiling of thy doublet. Beau. & Fl.

   For,  OR As for, so far as concerns; as regards; with reference to; --
   used parenthetically or independently. See under As.

     As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord. Josh. xxiv. 15.

     For me, my stormy voyage at an end, I to the port of death securely
     tend. Dryden.

   --  For  all that, notwithstanding; in spite of. -- For all the world,
   wholly;  exactly.  "Whose  posy  was, for all the world, like cutlers'
   poetry."  Shak.  --  For as much as, OR Forasmuch as, in consideration
   that;  seeing  that;  since.  --  For by. See Forby, adv. -- For ever,
   eternally; at all times. See Forever. -- For me, OR For all me, as far
   as  regards  me.  --  For  my  life, OR For the life of me, if my life
   depended  on  it. [Colloq.] T. Hook. -- For that, For the reason that,
   because;  since.  [Obs.] "For that I love your daughter." Shak. -- For
   thy,  OR Forthy [AS. for, for this; on this account. [Obs.] "Thomalin,
   have  no  care for thy." Spenser. -- For to, as sign of infinitive, in
   order  to;  to  the  end  of.  [Obs.,  except  as  sometimes  heard in
   illiterate  speech.]  --  "What went ye out for to see?" Luke vii. 25.
   See To, prep., 4. -- O for, would that I had; may there be granted; --
   elliptically  expressing  desire  or  prayer.  "O for a muse of fire."
   Shak.  --  Were  it  not  for,  OR  If it were not for, leaving out of
   account;  but  for the presence or action of. "Moral consideration can
   no  way  move the sensible appetite, were it not for the will." Sir M.
   For (?), conj. 

   1.  Because; by reason that; for that; indicating, in Old English, the
   reason of anything.

     And for of long that way had walk\'82d none, The vault was hid with
     plants and bushes hoar. Fairfax.

     And  Heaven  defend  your  good  souls,  that you think I will your
     serious and great business scant, For she with me. Shak.

   2.  Since; because; introducing a reason of something before advanced,
   a cause, motive, explanation, justification, or the like, of an action
   related  or  a  statement  made.  It is logically nearly equivalent to
   since, or because, but connects less closely, and is sometimes used as
   a  very  general  introduction to something suggested by what has gone

     Give  thanks  unto the Lord; for he is good; for his mercy endureth
     forever. Ps. cxxxvi. 1.

     Heaven  doth  with  us  as  we  with torches do, Not light them for
     themselves;  for if our virtues Did not go forth of us, 't were all
     alike As if we had them not. Shak.

   For  because,  because. [Obs.] "Nor for because they set less store by
   their  own  citizens."  Robynson (More's Utopia). -- For why. (a) Why;
   for  that  reason;  wherefore.  [Obs.] (b) Because. [Obs.] See Forwhy.
   Syn. -- See Because.


   For, n. One who takes, or that which is said on, the affrimative side;
   that  which  is  said  in  favor  of  some  one  or  something; -- the
   antithesis  of  against,  and commonly used in connection with it. The
   fors  and  against. those in favor and those opposed; the pros and the
   cons; the advantages and the disadvantages. Jane Austen.


   For"age  (?;  48),  n.  [OF.  fourage, F. fourrage, fr. forre, fuerre,
   fodder, straw, F. feurre, fr. LL. foderum, fodrum, of German or Scand,
   origin; cf. OHG. fuotar, G. futter. See Fodder food, and cf. Foray.]

   1. The act of foraging; search for provisions, etc.

     He [the lion] from forage will incline to play. Shak.

     One  way  a  band  select from forage drives A herd of beeves, fair
     oxen and fair kine. Milton.

     Mawhood completed his forage unmolested. Marshall.

   2.  Food of any kind for animals, especially for horses and cattle, as
   grass, pasture, hay, corn, oats. Dryden.
   Forage  cap.  See under Cap. -- Forage master (Mil.), a person charged
   with providing forage and the means of transporting it. Farrow.


   For"age,  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Foraged ; p. pr. & vb. n. Foraging (?).]
   To wander or rove in search of food; to collect food, esp. forage, for
   horses  and  cattle by feeding on or stripping the country; to ravage;
   to feed on spoil.

     His most mighty father on a hill Stood smiling to behold his lion's
     whelp Forage in blood of French nobility. Shak.

   Foraging  ant  (Zo\'94l.), one of several species of ants of the genus
   Eciton,  very abundant in tropical America, remarkable for marching in
   vast  armies  in  search  of  food.  -- Foraging cap, a forage cap. --
   Foraging party, a party sent out after forage.


   For"age  (?), v. t. To strip of provisions; to supply with forage; as,
   to forage steeds. Pope.


   For"a*ger (?), n. One who forages.


   For"a*lite  (?),  n.  [L.  forare to bore + -lite.] (Geol.) A tubelike
   marking, occuring in sandstone and other strata.


   Fo*ra"men  (?),  n.;  pl.  L. Foramina (#), E. Foramines (#). [L., fr.
   forare  to  bore, pierce.] A small opening, perforation, or orifice; a
   fenestra. Foramen of Monro (Anat.), the opening from each lateral into
   the  third  ventricle of the brain. -- Foramen of Winslow (Anat.), the
   opening  connecting  the sac of the omentum with the general cavity of
   the peritoneum.


   Fo*ram"i*na`ted  (?),  a.  [L.  foraminatus.] Having small opening, or


   For`a*min"i*fer (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the foraminifera.


   Fo*ram`i*nif"e*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. foramen, -aminis, a foramen
   +  ferre  to  bear.]  (Zo\'94l.) An extensive order of rhizopods which
   generally  have  a chambered calcareous shell formed by several united
   zooids.  Many  of  them  have  perforated walls, whence the name. Some
   species are covered with sand. See Rhizophoda.


   Fo*ram`i*nif"er*ous (?), a.

   1. Having small openings, or foramina.

   2.  Pertaining  to,  or  composed of, Foraminifera; as, foraminiferous


   Fo*ram"i*nous  (?),  a.  [L.  foraminosus.]  Having  foramina; full of
   holes; porous. Bacon.


   For`as*much"  (?),  comj.  In  consideration that; seeing that; since;
   because that; -- followed by as. See under For, prep.


   For"ay  (?; 277), n. [Another form of forahe. Cf. Forray.] A sudden or
   irregular  incursion in border warfare; hence, any irregular incursion
   for war or spoils; a raid. Spenser.

     The  huge Earl Doorm, . . . Bound on a foray, rolling eyes of prey.


   For"ay, v. t. To pillage; to ravage.

     He might foray our lands. Sir W. Scott.


   For"ay*er (? OR ?), n. One who makes or joins in a foray.

     They  might not choose the lowand road, For the Merse forayers were
     abroad. Sir W. Scott.


   For*bade" (?), imp. of Forbid.


   For*bathe", v. t. To bathe. [Obs.]


   For*bear"  (?),  n.  [See  Fore,  and Bear to produce.] An ancestor; a
   forefather;  -- usually in the plural. [Scot.] "Your forbears of old."
   Sir W. Scott.


   For*bear"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  Forbore (?) (Forbare (, [Obs.]); p. p.
   Forborne  (?);  p.  pr.  &  vb.  n.  Forbearing.]  [OE.  forberen, AS.
   forberan; pref. for- + beran to bear. See Bear to support.]

   1. To refrain from proceeding; to pause; to delay.

     Shall  I  go against Ramoth-gilead to battle, or shall I forbear? 1
     Kinds xxii. 6.

   2. To refuse; to decline; to give no heed.

     Thou  shalt  speak  my  words unto them, whether they will hear, or
     whether they will forbear. Ezek. ii. 7.

   3. To control one's self when provoked.

     The  kindest  and  the happiest pair Will find occasion to forbear.

     Both bear and forbear. Old Proverb.


   For*bear", v. t.

   1.  To  keep  away from; to avoid; to abstain from; to give up; as, to
   forbear the use of a word of doubdtful propriety.

     But let me that plunder forbear. Shenstone.

     The  King  In  open  battle  or  the  tilting field Forbore his own
     advantage. Tennyson.

   2. To treat with consideration or indulgence.

     Forbearing one another in love. Eph. iv. 2.

   3. To cease from bearing. [Obs.]

     Whenas my womb her burden would forbear. Spenser.


   For*bear"ance  (?),  n. The act of forbearing or waiting; the exercise
   of patience.

     He soon shall findForbearance no acquittance ere day end. Milton.

   2.  The  quality  of  being forbearing; indulgence toward offenders or
   enemies; long-suffering.

     Have a continent forbearance, till the speed of his rage goeShak.

   Syn. -- Abstinence; refraining; lenity; mildness.


   For*bear"ant (?), a. Forbearing. [R.] Carlyle.


   For*bear"er (?), n. One who forbears. Tusser.


   For*bear"ing,   a.   Disposed   or  accustomed  to  forbear;  patient;
   long-suffering. -- For*bear"ing*ly, adv.

   Page 582


   For*bid",  v.  t.  [imp.  Forbade  (?);  p.  p. Forbidden (?) (Forbid,
   [Obs.]);  p.  pr.  &  vb.  n.  Forbidding  (?).]  [OE.  forbeden,  AS.
   forbe\'a2dan;  pref. for- + be\'a2dan to bid; akin to D. verbieden, G.
   verbieten,  Icel.,  fyrirbj&omac;&edh;a, forbo&edh;a, Sw. f\'94rbjuda,
   Dan. forbyde. See Bid, v. t.]

   1. To command against, or contrary to; to prohibit; to interdict.

     More than I have said . . . The leisure and enforcement of the time
     Forbids to dwell upon. Shak.

   2.  To deny, exclude from, or warn off, by express command; to command
   not to enter.

     Have I not forbid her my house? Shak.

   3.  To  oppose, hinder, or prevent, as if by an effectual command; as,
   an impassable river forbids the approach of the army.

     A blaze of glory that forbids the sight. Dryden.

   4. To accurse; to blast. [Obs.]

     He shall live a man forbid. Shak.

   5.  To  defy;  to  challenge.  [Obs.] L. Andrews. Syn. -- To prohibit;
   interdict; hinder; preclude; withold; restrain; prevent. See Prohibit.


   For*bid"  (?), v. i. To utter a prohibition; to prevent; to hinder. "I
   did not or forbid." Milton.


   For*bid"dance  (?),  n. The act of forbidding; prohibition; command or
   edict against a thing. [Obs.]

     ow hast thou yield to transgress The strict forbiddance. Milton.


   For*bid"den (?), a. Prohibited; interdicted.

     I kniw no spells, use no forbidden arts. Milton.

   Forbidden  fruit. (a) Any coveted unlawful pleasure, -- so called with
   reference  to  the forbidden fruit of the Garden of Eden. (b) (Bot.) A
   small  variety  of  shaddock  (Citrus  decumana). The name is given in
   different places to several varieties of Citrus fruits.


   For*bid"den*ly, adv. In a forbidden or unlawful manner. Shak.


   For*bid"der (?), n. One who forbids. Milton.


   For*bid"ding   (?),   a.   Repelling   approach;   repulsive;  raising
   abhorrence,   aversion,   or  dislike;  disagreeable;  prohibiting  or
   interdicting;  as,  a  forbidding  aspect;  a  forbidding formality; a
   forbidding   air.   Syn.  --  Disagreeable;  unpleasant;  displeasing;
   offensive;  repulsive;  odious; abhorrent. -- For*bid"ding*ly, adv. --
   For*bid"ding*ness, n.


   For*black" (?), a. Very black. [Obs.]

     As any raven's feathers it shone forblack. Chaucer.


   For*bo"den (?), obs. p. p. of Forbid. Chaucer.


   For*bore" (?), imp. of Forbear.


   For*borne" (?), p. p. of Forbear.


   For*bruise" (?), v. t. To bruise sorely or exceedingly. [Obs.]

     All forbrosed, both back and side. Chaucer.


   For*by"  (?),  adv.  & prep. [See Foreby.] Near; hard by; along; past.

     To tell her if her child went ought forby. Chaucer.

     To  the intent that ships may pass along forby all the sides of the
     city without let. Robynson (More's Utopia).


   For*carve" (?), v. t. To cut completely; to cut off. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Force  (?),  v.  t. [See Farce to stuff.] To stuff; to lard; to farce.

     Wit larded with malice, and malice forced with wit. Shak.


   Force,  n.  [Of  Scand.  origin;  cf.  Icel.  fors, foss, Dan. fos.] A
   waterfall; a cascade. [Prov. Eng.]

     To see the falls for force of the river Kent. T. Gray.


   Force,  n.  [F.  force,  LL. forcia, fortia, fr. L. fortis strong. See
   Fort, n.]

   1.  Strength  or  energy  of body or mind; active power; vigor; might;
   often, an unusual degree of strength or energy; capacity of exercising
   an influence or producing an effect; especially, power to persuade, or
   convince,   or   impose   obligation;  pertinency;  validity;  special
   signification; as, the force of an appeal, an argument, a contract, or
   a term.

     He was, in the full force of the words, a good man. Macaulay.

   2.  Power exerted against will or consent; compulsory power; violence;

     Which now they hold by force, and not by right. Shak.

   3.  Strength  or power war; hence, a body of land or naval combatants,
   with  their  appurtenances,  ready for action; -- an armament; troops;
   warlike  array;  -- often in the plural; hence, a body of men prepared
   for action in other ways; as, the laboring force of a plantation.

     Is Lucius general of the forces? Shak.

   4.  (Law)  (a) Strength or power exercised without law, or contrary to
   law,  upon  persons  or  things;  violence.  (b)  Validity;  efficacy.

   5.  (Physics) Any action between two bodies which changes, or tends to
   change,  their  relative  condition  as  to  rest  or motion; or, more
   generally,  which  changes,  or tends to change, any physical relation
   between  them,  whether  mechanical,  thermal,  chemical,  electrical,
   magnetic,  or  of  any  other kind; as, the force of gravity; cohesive
   force; centrifugal force.
   Animal force (Physiol.), muscular force or energy. -- Catabiotic force
   [Gr.  (Biol.), the influence exerted by living structures on adjoining
   cells,  by  which the latter are developed in harmony with the primary
   structures.  --  Centrifugal force, Centripetal force, Coercive force,
   etc.  See  under  Centrifugal,  Centripetal,  etc.  --  Composition of
   forces,   Correlation   of   forces,   etc.   See  under  Composition,
   Correlation,  etc. -- Force and arms [trans. of L. vi et armis] (Law),
   an expression in old indictments, signifying violence. -- In force, OR
   Of force, of unimpaired efficacy; valid; of full virtue; not suspended
   or  reversed.  "A  testament is of force after men are dead." Heb. ix.
   17.  --  Metabolic  force  (Physiol.),  the influence which causes and
   controls the metabolism of the body. -- No force, no matter of urgency
   or  consequence; no account; hence, to do no force, to make no account
   of;   not  to  heed.  [Obs.]  Chaucer.  --  Of  force,  of  necessity;
   unavoidably; imperatively. "Good reasons must, of force, give place to
   better." Shak. -- Plastic force (Physiol.), the force which presumably
   acts  in  the  growth  and  repair  of  the  tissues.  --  Vital force
   (Physiol.),  that  force  or  power which is inherent in organization;
   that  form  of energy which is the cause of the vital phenomena of the
   body,  as distinguished from the physical forces generally known. Syn.
   --  Strength;  vigor;  might;  energy;  stress;  vehemence;  violence;
   compulsion;   coaction;  constraint;  coercion.  --  Force,  Strength.
   Strength looks rather to power as an inward capability or energy. Thus
   we  speak of the strength of timber, bodily strength, mental strength,
   strength  of emotion, etc. Force, on the other hand, looks more to the
   outward;  as,  the force of gravitation, force of circumstances, force
   of  habit,  etc. We do, indeed, speak of strength of will and force of
   will;  but  even here the former may lean toward the internal tenacity
   of  purpose,  and  the  latter  toward the outward expression of it in
   action. But, though the two words do in a few cases touch thus closely
   on each other, there is, on the whole, a marked distinction in our use
   of  force  and  strength.  "Force  is  the  name  given, in mechanical
   science, to whatever produces, or can produce, motion." Nichol.
     Thy tears are of no force to mollify This flinty man. Heywood.
     More huge in strength than wise in works he was. Spenser.

     Adam  and  first  matron Eve Had ended now their orisons, and found
     Strength  added  from  above,  new  hope  to spring Out of despair.


   Force  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Forced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Forcing
   (?).]  [OF. forcier, F. forcer, fr. LL. forciare, fortiare. See Force,

   1.  To  constrain  to do or to forbear, by the exertion of a power not
   resistible;  to  compel  by physical, moral, or intellectual means; to
   coerce; as, masters force slaves to labor.

   2.  To  compel, as by strength of evidence; as, to force conviction on
   the mind.

   3.  To do violence to; to overpower, or to compel by violence to one;s
   will; especially, to ravish; to violate; to commit rape upon.

     To force their monarch and insult the court. Dryden.

     I should have forced thee soon wish other arms. Milton.

     To force a spotless virgin's chastity. Shak.

   4.  To  obtain  or  win  by strength; to take by violence or struggle;
   specifically, to capture by assault; to storm, as a fortress.

   5.  To  impel,  drive,  wrest,  extort, get, etc., by main strength or
   violence;  --  with  a  following  adverb, as along, away, from, into,
   through, out, etc. 

     It  stuck  so  fast,  so  deeply  buried lay That scarce the victor
     forced the steel away. Dryden.

     To force the tyrant from his seat by war. Sahk.

     Ethelbert ordered that none should be forced into religion. Fuller.

   6.  To  put  in  force;  to  cause to be executed; to make binding; to
   enforce. [Obs.]

     What can the church force more? J. Webster.

   7.  To  exert  to  the  utmost;  to urge; hence, to strain; to urge to
   excessive,  unnatural,  or  untimely  action;  to produce by unnatural
   effort;  as,  to  force  a  consient or metaphor; to force a laugh; to
   force fruits.

     High  on  a  mounting wave my head I bore, Forcing my strength, and
     gathering to the shore. Dryden.

   8.  (Whist)  To  compel  (an adversary or partner) to trump a trick by
   leading a suit of which he has none.

   9. To provide with forces; to re\'89nforce; to strengthen by soldiers;
   to man; to garrison. [Obs.] Shak.

   10. To allow the force of; to value; to care for. [Obs.]

     For me, I force not argument a straw. Shak.

   Syn.  --  To  compel;  constrain;  oblige; necessitate; coerce; drive;
   press; impel.


   Force, v. i. [Obs. in all the senses.]

   1. To use violence; to make violent effort; to strive; to endeavor.

     Forcing with gifts to win his wanton heart. Spenser.

   2.  To  make  a  difficult  matter of anything; to labor; to hesitate;
   hence, to force of, to make much account of; to regard.

     Your oath once broke, you force not to forswear. Shak.

     I force not of such fooleries. Camden.

   3. To be of force, importance, or weight; to matter.

     It  is  not  sufficient  to have attained the name and dignity of a
     shepherd, not forcing how. Udall.


   Forced  (?),  a.  Done  or  produced  with force or great labor, or by
   extraordinary  exertion;  hurried;  strained;  produced  by  unnatural
   effort  or  pressure;  as,  a  forced  style;  a  forced laugh. Forced
   draught.  See under Draught. -- Forced march (Mil.), a march of one or
   more  days  made  with  all possible speed. -- For"ced*ly (#), adv. --
   For"ced*ness, n.


   Force"ful (?), a. Full of or processing force; exerting force; mighty.
   -- Force"ful*ly, adv.

     Against the steed he threw His forceful spear. Dryden.


   Force"less, a. Having little or no force; feeble.

     These forceless flowers like sturdy trees support me. Shak.


   Force"meat`  (?),  n. [Corrupt. for farce-meat, fr. F. farce stuffing.
   See Farce, n.] (Cookery) Meat chopped fine and highly seasoned, either
   served up alone, or used as a stuffing. [Written also forced meat.]


   Force"ment (?), n. The act of forcing; compulsion. [Obs.]

     It  was  imposed  upon  us  by  constraint; And will you count such
     forcement treachery? J. Webster.


   For"ceps  (?),  n.  [L. forceps, -cipis, from the root of formus Hot +
   capere to take; akin to E. heave. Cf. Furnace.]

   1.  A  pair of pinchers, or tongs; an instrument for grasping, holding
   firmly,   or   exerting  traction  upon,  bodies  which  it  would  be
   inconvenient  or  impracticable  to seize with the fingers, especially
   one  for  delicate  operations,  as  those  of  watchmakers, surgeons,
   accoucheurs, dentists, etc.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) The caudal forceps-shaped appendage of earwigs and some
   other insects. See Earwig.
   Dressing forceps. See under Dressing.

                                  Force pump

   Force"  pump`  (?).  (Mach.)  (a)  A  pump  having  a solid piston, or
   plunger,  for  drawing  and  forcing  a  liquid, as water, through the
   valves;  in distinction from a pump having a bucket, or valved piston.
   (b) A pump adapted for delivering water at a considerable height above
   the  pump,  or  under a considerable pressure; in distinction from one
   which  lifts  the  water  only  to  the top of the pump or delivers it
   through a spout. See Illust. of Plunger pump, under Plunger.


   For"cer (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, forces or drives.

   2.  (Mech.)  (a)  The  solid piston of a force pump; the instrument by
   which  water  is  forced  in a pump. (b) A small hand pump for sinking
   pits, draining cellars, etc.


   For"ci*ble  (?),  a. [Cf. OF. forcible forcible, forceable that may be

   1.  Possessing  force;  characterized by force, efficiency, or energy;
   powerful; efficacious; impressive; influential.

     How forcible are right words! Job. vi. 2

     Sweet  smells  are  most  forcible  in dry substances, when broken.

     But I have reasons strong and forcible. Shak.

     That  punishment  which hath been sometimes forcible to bridle sin.

     He  is  at once elegant and sublime, forcible and ornamented. Lowth
     (Transl. )

   2. Violent; impetuous.

     Like mingled streams, more forcible when joined. Prior.

   3.   Using   force  against  opposition  or  resistance;  obtained  by
   compulsion; effected by force; as, forcible entry or abduction.

     In embraces of King James . . . forcible and unjust. Swift.

   Forcible  entry  and  detainer (Law), the entering upon and taking and
   withholding  of  land  and tenements by actual force and violence, and
   with a strong hand, to the hindrance of the person having the right to
   enter.  Syn.  -- Violent; powerful; strong; energetic; mighty; potent;
   weighty; impressive; cogent; influential.


   For"ci*ble-fee`ble  (?),  a.  [From  Feeble, a character in the Second
   Part  of  Shakespeare's  "King Henry IV.," to whom Falstaff derisively
   applies  the  epithet "forcible."] Seemingly vigorous, but really weak
   or insipid.

     He  [Prof. Ayton] would purge his book of much offensive matter, if
     he  struck  out  epithets  which  are  in  the  bad  taste  of  the
     forcible-feeble school. N. Brit. Review.


   For"ci*ble*ness, n. The quality of being forcible.


   For"ci*bly, adv. In a forcible manner.


   For"cing (?), n.

   1.   The   accomplishing  of  any  purpose  violently,  precipitately,
   prematurely, or with unusual expedition.

   2.  (Gardening)  The  art of raising plants, flowers, and fruits at an
   earlier  season  than the natural one, as in a hitbed or by the use of
   artificial heat.
   Forcing  bed  OR  pit, a plant bed having an under layer of fermenting
   manure,  the  fermentation  yielding bottom heat for forcing plants; a
   hotbed.  --  Forcing  engine, a fire engine. -- Forcing fit (Mech.), a
   tight  fit, as of one part into a hole in another part, which makes it
   necessary to use considerable force in putting the two parts together.
   -- Forcing house, a greenhouse for the forcing of plants, fruit trees,
   etc.  --  Forcing  machine,  a  powerful press for putting together or
   separating  two parts that are fitted tightly one into another, as for
   forcing  a  crank  on a shaft, or for drawing off a car wheel from the
   axle. -- Forcing pump. See Force pump (b).


   For"ci*pal  (?),  a.  Forked  or  branched  like  a  pair  of forceps;
   constructed  so  as  to  open  and shut like a pair of forceps. Sir T.

                             Forcipate, Forcipated

   For"ci*pate  (?),  For"ci*pa`ted (?), a. Like a pair of forceps; as, a
   forcipated mouth.


   For`ci*pa"tion  (?),  n. Torture by pinching with forceps or pinchers.


   For*cut" (?), v. t. To cut completely; to cut off. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ford  (?), n. [AS. ford; akin to G. furt, Icel. f bay, and to E. fare.
   Fare, v. i., and cf. Frith arm of the sea.]

   1.  A  place in a river, or other water, where it may passed by man or
   beast on foot, by wading.

     He swam the Esk river where ford there was none. Sir W. Scott.

   2. A stream; a current.

     With water of the ford Or of the clouds. Spenser.

     Permit my ghost to pass the Stygford. Dryden.


   Ford, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Forded; p. pr. & vb. n. Fording.] To pass or
   cross, as a river or other water, by wading; to wade through.

     His  last section, which is no deep one, remains only to be forted.


   Ford"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being forded. -- Ford"a*ble*ness, n.


   Ford"less, a. Without a ford.

     A deep and fordless river. Mallock.


   For*do"  (?),  v.  t. [OE. fordon, AS. ford; pref. for- + d to do. See
   For-, and Do, v. i.]

   1. To destroy; to undo; to ruin. [Obs.]

     This is the night That either makes me or fordoes me quite. Shak.

   2. To overcome with fatigue; to exhaust. M. Arnold.

     All with weary task fordone. Shak.


   For*done" (?), a. [See Fordo.] Undone; ruined. [Obs.] Spenser.


   For*drive"  (?), v. t. To drive about; to drive here and there. [Obs.]
   Rom. of R.


   For*drunk"en (?), a. Utterly drunk; very drunk. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   For*dry"  (?),  a.  Entirely  dry;  withered.  [Obs.] "A tree fordry."


   For*dwine" (?), v. i. To dwindle away; to disappear. [Obs.] Rom of R.


   Fore,  n.  [AS.  f,  fr.  faran  to go. See Fare, v. i.] Journey; way;
   method of proceeding. [Obs.] "Follow him and his fore." Chaucer.

   Page 583


   Fore,  adv. [AS. fore, adv. & prep., another form of for. See For, and
   cf. Former, Foremost.]

   1.  In the part that precedes or goes first; -- opposed to aft, after,
   back, behind, etc.

   2. Formerly; previously; afore. [Obs. or Colloq.]

     The eyes, fore duteous, now converted are. Shak.

   3. (Naut.) In or towards the bows of a ship.
   Fore and aft (Naut.), from stem to stern; lengthwise of the vessel; --
   in  distinction  from  athwart. R. H. Dana, Jr. -- Fore-and-aft rigged
   (Naut.),  not  rigged  with  square  sails attached to yards, but with
   sails bent to gaffs or set on stays in the midship line of the vessel.
   See Schooner, Sloop, Cutter.


   Fore  (?),  a.  [See Fore, advv.] Advanced, as compared with something
   else;  toward the front; being or coming first, in time, place, order,
   or  importance;  preceding; anterior; antecedent; earlier; forward; --
   opposed  to  back  or behind; as, the fore part of a garment; the fore
   part of the day; the fore and of a wagon.

     The  free will of the subject is preserved, while it is directed by
     the fore purpose of the state. Southey.

     NOTE: &hand; Fore is much used adjectively or in composition.

   Fore  bay, a reservoir or canal between a mill race and a water wheel;
   the   discharging   end   of  a  pond  or  mill  race.  --  Fore  body
   (Shipbuilding),   the   part   of   a  ship  forward  of  the  largest
   cross-section, distinguisched from middle body abd after body. -- Fore
   boot,  a  receptacle  in  the front of a vehicle, for stowing baggage,
   etc.  --  Fore  bow,  the pommel of a saddle. Knight. -- Fore cabin, a
   cabin   in   the   fore   part   of  a  ship,  usually  with  inferior
   accommodations.  -- Fore carriage. (a) The forward part of the running
   gear  of a four-wheeled vehicle. (b) A small carriage at the front end
   of  a  plow  beam.  --  Fore course (Naut.), the lowermost sail on the
   foremost  of  a  square-rigged vessel; the foresail. See Illust. under
   Sail.  --  Fore door. Same as Front door. -- Fore edge, the front edge
   of  a  book  or  folded sheet, etc. -- Fore elder, an ancestor. [Prov.
   Eng.]  --  Fore  end.  (a) The end which precedes; the earlier, or the
   nearer, part; the beginning.

     I  have . . . paid More pious debts to heaven, than in all The fore
     end of my time. Shak.

   (b)  In  firearms,  the  wooden stock under the barrel, forward of the
   trigger  guard,  or  breech frame. -- Fore girth, a girth for the fore
   part  (of  a  horse,  etc.);  a  martingale.  -- Fore hammer, a sledge
   hammer, working alternately, or in time, with the hand hammer. -- Fore
   leg, one of the front legs of a quadruped, or multiped, or of a chair,
   settee, etc. -- Fore peak (Naut.), the angle within a ship's bows; the
   portion  of the hold which is farthest forward. -- Fore piece, a front
   piece,  as  the  flap  in  the fore part of a sidesaddle, to guard the
   rider's  dress.  --  Fore  plane, a carpenter's plane, in size and use
   between  a  jack plane and a smoothing plane. Knight. -- Fore reading,
   previous  perusal.  [Obs.]  Hales.  --  Fore  rent,  in Scotland, rent
   payable before a crop is gathered. -- Fore sheets (Naut.), the forward
   portion  of  a  rowboat;  the space beyond the front thwart. See Stern
   sheets.  --  Fore shore. (a) A bank in advance of a sea wall, to break
   the  force  of the surf. (b) The seaward projecting, slightly inclined
   portion  of  a  breakwater.  Knight. (c) The part of the shore between
   high and low water marks. -- Fore sight, that one of the two sights of
   a  gun which is near the muzzle. -- Fore tackle (Naut.), the tackle on
   the  foremast of a ship. -- Fore topmast. (Naut.) See Fore-topmast, in
   the Vocabulary. -- Fore wind, a favorable wind. [Obs.]

     Sailed on smooth seas, by fore winds borne. Sandys.

   -- Fore world, the antediluvian world. [R.] Southey.


   Fore,  n. The front; hence, that which is in front; the future. At the
   fore (Naut.), at the fore royal masthead; -- said of a flag, so raised
   as  a  signal for sailing, etc. -- To the fore. (a) In advance; to the
   front;  to a prominent position; in plain sight; in readiness for use.
   (b)  In existence; alive; not worn out, lost, or spent, as money, etc.
   [Irish]  "While  I  am to the fore." W. Collins. "How many captains in
   the regiment had two thousand pounds to the fore?" Thackeray.
   Fore,  prep. Before; -- sometimes written 'fore as if a contraction of
   afore or before. [Obs.] 


   Fore`ad*mon"ish  (?),  v. t. To admonish beforehand, or before the act
   or event. Bp. Hall.


   Fore`ad*vise"  (?),  v.  t.  To  advise  or counsel before the time of
   action, or before the event. Shak.


   Fore`al*lege"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Forealleged (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Forealleging (?).] To allege or cite before. Fotherby.


   Fore`ap*point"  (?),  v.  t.  To  set,  order, or appoint, beforehand.


   Fore`ap*point"ment   (?),  n.  Previous  appointment;  preordinantion.


   Fore*arm" (?), v. t. To arm or prepare for attack or resistance before
   the time of need. South.


   Fore"arm`  (?),  n.  (Anat.) That part of the arm or fore limb between
   the elbow and wrist; the antibrachium.


   Fore"beam` (?), n. The breast beam of a loom.


   Fore*bear" (?), n. An ancestor. See Forbear.


   Fore*bode"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Foreboded; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Foreboding.]  [AS.  forebodian; fore + bodian to announce. See Bode v.

   1. To foretell.

   2.  To  be  prescient  of  (some ill or misfortune); to have an inward
   conviction  of,  as  of  a calamity which is about to happen; to augur

     His heart forebodes a mystery. Tennyson.

     Sullen, desponding, and foreboding nothing but wars and desolation,
     as the certain consequence of C\'91sar's death. Middleton.

     I have a sort of foreboding about him. H. James.

   Syn.  -- To foretell; predict; prognosticate; augur; presage; portend;


   Fore*bode", v. i. To fortell; to presage; to augur.

     If I forebode aright. Hawthorne.


   Fore*bode", n. Prognostication; presage. [Obs.]


   Fore*bode"ment (?), n. The act of foreboding; the thing foreboded.


   Fore*bod"er (?), n. One who forebodes.


   Fore*bod"ing, n. Presage of coming ill; expectation of misfortune.


   Fore*bod"ing*ly, adv. In a foreboding manner.


   Fore"brace`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  A rope applied to the fore yardarm, to
   change the position of the foresail.


   Fore"brain`  (?),  n.  (Anat.)  The  anterior  of  the three principal
   divisions   of   the   brain,   including   the   prosencephalon   and
   thalamencephalon. Sometimes restricted to the prosencephalon only. See


   Fore*by"  (?),  prep.  [Fore  +  by.]  Near; hard by; along; past. See
   Forby. Spenser.


   Fore*cast" (?), v. t.

   1. To plan beforehand; to scheme; to project.

     He shall forecast his devices against the strongholds. Dan. xi. 24.

   2. To foresee; to calculate beforehand, so as to provide for.

     It is wisdom to consider the end of things before we embark, and to
     forecast consequences. L'Estrange.


   Fore*cast", v. i. To contrive or plan beforehand.

     If it happen as I did forecast. Milton.


   Fore"cast    (?),    n.   Previous   contrivance   or   determination;

     He   makes   this   difference  to  arise  from  the  forecast  and
     predetermination of the gods themselves. Addison.

   2.  Foresight  of consequences, and provision against them; prevision;

     His  calm,  deliberate  forecast  better fitted him for the council
     than the camp. Prescott.


   Fore*cast"er (?), n. One who forecast. Johnson.


   Fore"cas`tle  (?;  sailors  say  ,  n.  (Naut.) (a) A short upper deck
   forward,  formerly  raised like a castle, to command an enemy's decks.
   (b)  That  part of the upper deck of a vessel forward of the foremast,
   or  of  the  after part of the fore channels. (c) In merchant vessels,
   the  forward  part  of  the  vessel, under the deck, where the sailors


   Fore`cho"sen (?), a. Chosen beforehand.


   Fore"cit`ed (?), a. Cited or quoted before or above. Arbuthnot.


   Fore*close"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Foreclosed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Foreclosing  (?).] [F. forclos, p.p. of forclore to exclude; OF. fors,
   F.  hors,  except, outside (fr. L. foris outside) + F. clore to close.
   See  Foreign,  and  Close,  v.  t.] To shut up or out; to preclude; to
   stop; to prevent; to bar; to exclude.

     The embargo with Spain foreclosed this trade. Carew.

   To  foreclose a mortgager (Law), to cut him off by a judgment of court
   from  the power of redeeming the mortgaged premises, termed his equity
   of  redemption.  -- To foreclose a mortgage, (not technically correct,
   but often used to signify) the obtaining a judgment for the payment of
   an  overdue  mortgage,  and  the exposure of the mortgaged property to
   sale to meet the mortgage debt. Wharton.


   Fore*clo"sure  (?;  135),  n.  The  act  or  process of foreclosing; a
   proceeding which bars or extinguishes a mortgager's right of redeeming
   a mortgaged estate.


   Fore`con*ceive"  (?),  v.  t.  To  preconceive; to imagine beforehand.
   [Obs.] Bacon.


   Fore*date" (?), v. t. To date before the true time; to antendate.


   Fore"deck` (?), n. (Naut.) The fore part of a deck, or of a ship.


   Fore*deem"  (?),  v. t. To recognize or judge in advance; to forebode.
   [Obs.] Udall.

     Laugh  at  your  misery,  as  foredeeming  you  An  idle meteor. J.


   Fore*deem",  v.  i. [Cf. Foredoom.] To know or discover beforehand; to
   foretell. [Obs.]

     Which  [maid] could guess and foredeem of things past, present, and
     to come. Genevan Test.


   Fore`de*sign"   (?  OR  ?),  v.  t.  To  plan  beforehand;  to  intend
   previously. Cheyne.


   Fore`de*ter"mine  (?),  v.  t.  To determine or decree beforehand. Bp.


   Fore`dis*pose" (?), v. t. To bestow beforehand. [R.]

     King  James  had by promise foredisposed the place on the Bishop of
     Meath. Fuller.


   Fore*doom"   (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  Foredeem.]  To  doom  beforehand;  to

     Thou art foredomed to view the Stygian state. Dryden.


   Fore"doom`  (?),  n.  Doom  or  sentence  decreed in advance. "A dread
   foredoom ringing in the ears of the guilty adult." Southey.


   Fore"fa`ther  (?;  277),  n.  One  who precedes another in the line of
   genealogy in any degree, but usually in a remote degree; an ancestor.

     Respecting  your forefathers, you would have been taught to respect
     yourselves. Burke.

   Forefathers'  Day,  the  anniversary of the day (December 21) on which
   the  Pilgrim  Fathers  landed  at  Plymouth,  Massachusetts (1620). On
   account  of  a  mistake  in reckoning the change from Old Style to New
   Style, it has generally been celebrated on the 22d.


   Fore*feel"  (?),  v. t. To feel beforehand; to have a presentiment of.

     As  when,  with  unwieldy  waves,  the  great  sea forefeels winds.


   Fore`fence" (?), n. Defense in front. [Obs.]


   Fore*fend" (?), v. t. [OE. forfenden; pref. for- + fenden to fend. See
   Fend, v. t.] To hinder; to fend off; to avert; to prevent the approach
   of; to forbid or prohibit. See Forfend.

     God forefend it should ever be recorded in our history. Landor.

     It  would  be  a  far better work . . . to forefend the cruelty. I.


   Fore"fin`ger (?), n. The finger next to the thumb; the index.


   Fore*flow" (?), v. t. To flow before. [Obs.]


   Fore"foot` (?), n.

   1.  One  of  the anterior feet of a quardruped or multiped; -- usually
   written fore foot.

   2.  (Shipbuilding)  A piece of timber which terminates the keel at the
   fore end, connecting it with the lower end of the stem.


   Foree"front` (?), n. Foremost part or place.

     Set ye Uriah in the forefront of the hottest battle. 2 Sam. xi. 15.

     Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, standing in the forefront for all time,
     the masters of those who know. J. C. Shairp.


   Fore"game` (?), n. A first game; first plan. [Obs.] Whitlock.


   Fore"gang`er  (?),  n. [Prop., a goer before cf. G. voreg\'84nger. See
   Fore, and Gang.] (Naut.) A short rope grafted on a harpoon, to which a
   longer lin Totten.


   Fore*gath"er (?), v. i. Same as Forgather.


   Fore"gift` (?), n. (Law) A premium paid by


   Fore"gleam`  (?),  n.  An  antecedent  or premonitory gleam; a dawning

     The foregleams of wisdom. Whittier.


   Fore*go"  (?), v. t. [imp. Forewent 2; p. p. Foregone (?; 115); p. pr.
   & vb. n. Foregoing.] [See Forgo.]

   1. To quit; to relinquish; to leave.

     Stay at the third cup, or forego the place. Herbert.

   2. To relinquish the enjoyment or advantage of; to give up; to resign;
   to  renounce;  --  said  of  a thing already enjoyed, or of one within
   reach, or anticipated.

     All my patrimony,, If need be, I am ready to forego. Milton.

     Thy lovers must their promised heaven forego. Keble.

     [He]  never  forewent  an  opportunity  of  honest  profit.  R.  L.

     NOTE: &hand; Fo rgo is  the better spelling etymologically, but the
     word has been confused with Forego, to go before.


   Fore*go",  v.  t.  [AS.  foreg\'ben;  fore  + g\'ben to go; akin to G.
   vorgehen  to  go  before,  precede.  See  GO,  v. i.] To go before; to
   precede; -- used especially in the present and past participles.

     Pleasing remembrance of a thought foregone. Wordsworth.

     For  which  the  very  mother's  face forewent The mother's special
     patience. Mrs. Browning.

   Foregone  conclusion,  one which has preceded argument or examination;
   one predetermined.


   Fore*go"er (?), n.

   1.  One  who goes before another; a predecessor; hence, an ancestor' a

   2.  A  purveyor of the king; -- so called, formerly, from going before
   to provide for his household. [Obs.]


   Fore*go"er, n. [Etymologically forgoer.] One who forbears to enjoy.


   Fore"ground`  (?),  n.  On  a painting, and sometimes in a bas-relief,
   mosaic picture, or the like, that part of the scene represented, which
   is nearest to the spectator, and therefore occupies the lowest part of
   the work of art itself. Cf. Distance, n., 6.


   Fore*guess" (?), v. t. To conjecture. [Obs.]


   Fore"gut`  (?),  n. (Anat.) The anterior part of the alimentary canal,
   from the mouth to the intestine, o


   Fore"hand` (?), n.

   1. All that part of a horse which is before the rider. Johnson.

   2. The chief or most important part. Shak.

   3. Superiority; advantage; start; precedence.

     And,  but  for  ceremony,  such a wretch . . . Had the forehand and
     vantage of a king. Shak.


   Fore"hand`, a. Done beforehand; anticipative.

     And so extenuate the forehand sin. Shak.


   Fore"hand`ed, a.

   1. Early; timely; seasonable. "Forehanded care." Jer. Taylor.

   2.  Beforehand  with  one's  needs,  or having resources in advance of
   one's  necessities;  in  easy  circumstances; as, a forehanded farmer.

   3. Formed in the forehand or fore parts.

     A substantial, true-bred beast, bravely forehanded. Dryden.


   Fore"head (?; 277), n.

   1.  The  front of that part of the head which incloses the brain; that
   part of the face above the eyes; the brow.

   2. The aspect or countenance; assurance.

     To  look  with  forehead  bold  and  big  enough Upon the power and
     puissance of the king. Shak.

   3. The front or fore part of anything.

     Flames in the forehead of the morning sky. Milton.

     So  rich  advantage of a promised glory As smiles upon the forehead
     of this action. Shak.


   Fore*hear" (?), v. i. & t. To hear beforehand.


   Fore"hearth` (?), n. (Metal.) The forward extension of the hearth of a
   blast furnace under the tymp.


   Fore*hend" (?), v. t. See Forhend. [Obs.]


   Fore*hew" (?), v. t. To hew or cut in front. [Obs.] Sackville.


   Fore"hold` (?), n. (Naut.) The forward part of the hold of a ship.


   Fore*hold"ing    (?),    n.    Ominous    foreboding;    superstitious
   prognostication. [Obs.] L'Estrange.


   Fore"hook`  (?),  n. (Naut.) A piece of timber placed across the stem,
   to  unite  the bows and strengthen the fore part of the ship; a breast


   For"eign  (?),  a. [OE. forein, F. forain, LL. foraneus, fr. L. foras,
   foris,  out  of  doors,  abroad,  without; akin to fores doors, and E.
   door. See Door, and cf. Foreclose, Forfeit, Forest, Forum.]

   1.  Outside;  extraneous;  separated;  alien; as, a foreign country; a
   foreign government. "Foreign worlds." Milton.

   2.  Not native or belonging to a certain country; born in or belonging
   to  another  country,  nation, sovereignty, or locality; as, a foreign
   language; foreign fruits. "Domestic and foreign writers." Atterbury.

     Hail,  foreign  wonder!  Whom  certain these rough shades did never
     breed. Milton.

   3.  Remote;  distant;  strange;  not  belonging;  not  connected;  not
   pertaining   or   pertient;   not  appropriate;  not  harmonious;  not
   agreeable;  not  congenial;  --  with  to  or from; as, foreign to the
   purpose; foreign to one's nature.

     This design is not foreign from some people's thoughts. Swift.

   4. Held at a distance; excluded; exiled. [Obs.]

     Kept him a foreign man still; which so grieved him, That he ran mad
     and died. Shak.

   Foreign attachment (Law), a process by which the property of a foreign
   or  absent  debtor is attached for the satisfaction of a debt due from
   him  to the plaintiff; an attachment of the goods, effects, or credits
   of  a  debtor in the hands of a third person; -- called in some States
   trustee, in others factorizing, and in others garnishee process. Kent.
   Tomlins.  Cowell.  --  Foreign  bill, a bill drawn in one country, and
   payable in another, as distinguished from an inland bill, which is one
   drawn  and  payable in the same country. In this latter, as well as in
   several  other  points  of  view,  the  different States of the United
   States are foreign to each other. See Exchange, n., 4. Kent. Story. --
   Foreign  body  (Med.),  a  substance occurring in any part of the body
   where  it  does  not  belong,  and usually introduced from without. --
   Foreign  office,  that  department  of the government of Great Britain
   which has charge British interests in foreign countries.

   Page 584

   Syn.  --  Outlandish;  alien;  exotic;  remote;  distant;  extraneous;


   For"eign*er  (?),  n.  A person belonging to or owning allegiance to a
   foreign  country;  one not native in the country or jurisdiction under
   consideration, or not naturalized there; an alien; a stranger.

     Joy is such a foreigner, So mere a stranger to my thoughts. Denham.

     Nor  could  the  majesty  of  the English crown appear in a greater
     luster, either to foreigners or subjects. Swift.


   For"eign*ism  (?),  n.  Anything  peculiar  to  a  foreign language or
   people; a foreign idiom or custom.

     It  is  a  pity  to see the technicalities of the so-called liberal
     professions distigured by foreignisms. Fitzed. Hall.


   For"eign*ness,  n.  The  quality of being foreign; remoteness; want of
   relation or appropriateness.

     Let  not the foreignness of the subject hinder you from endeavoring
     to set me right. Locke.

     A foreignness of complexion. G. Eliot.


   For"ein (?), a. Foreign. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Fore*judge"  (?), v. t. [Fore + judge.] To judge beforehand, or before
   hearing the facts and proof; to prejudge.


   Fore*judge",  v.  t. [For forjudge, fr. F. forjuger; OF. fors outside,
   except  +  F.  juger  to judge.] (O. Eng. Law) To expel from court for
   some  offense  or misconduct, as an attorney or officer; to deprive or
   put out of a thing by the judgment of a court. Burrill.


   Fore*judg"er (?), n. (Eng. Law) A judgment by which one is deprived or
   put of a right or thing in question.


   Fore*judg"ment (?), n. Prejudgment. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fore*know"  (?), v. t. [imp. Foreknew (?); p. p. Foreknown (?); p. pr.
   &  vb.  n.  Foreknowing.]  To  have  previous  knowledge  of;  to know

     Who would the miseries of man foreknow? Dryden.


   Fore*know"a-ble (?), a. That may be foreknown. Dr. H. More.


   Fore*know"er (?), n. One who foreknows.


   Fore*know"ing*ly, adv. With foreknowledge.

     He who . . . foreknowingly loses his life. Jer. Taylor.


   Fore*knowl"edge  (?), n. Knowledge of a thing before it happens, or of
   whatever is to happen; prescience.

     If  I  foreknew,  Foreknowledge  had  no  influence on their fault.


   For"el (?), n. [OE. forelcase, sheath, OF. forel, fourel, F. fourreau,
   LL.  forellus,  fr. OF. forre, fuerre, sheath, case, of German origin;
   cf.  OHG. fuotar, akin to Goth. f\'d3dr; prob. not the same word as E.
   fodder  food.  Cf.  Fur,  Fodder  food.]  A kind of parchment for book
   covers. See Forrill.


   For"el, v. t. To bind with a forel. [R.] Fuller.


   Fore"land` (?), n.

   1.  A promontory or cape; a headland; as, the North and South Foreland
   in Kent, England.

   2. (Fort.) A piece of ground between the wall of a place and the moat.

   3.  (Hydraul. Engin.) That portion of the natural shore on the outside
   of  the embankment which receives the stock of waves and deadens their
   force. Knight.


   Fore*lay" (?), v. t.

   1. To lay down beforehand.

     These grounds being forelaid and understood. Mede.

   2. To waylay. See Forlay. [Obs.]


   Fore*lead"er (?), n. One who leads others by his example; aguide.


   Fore*lend" (?), v. t. See Forlend. [Obs.]

     As if that life to losse they had forelent. Spenser.


   Fore*let" (?), v. t. See Forlet. [Obs.] Holland.


   Fore*lie" (?), v. i. To lie in front of. [Obs.]

     Which forelay Athwart her snowy breast. Spenser.


   Fore*lift" (?), v. t. To lift up in front. [Obs.]


   Fore"lock` (?), n.

   1. The lock of hair that grows from the forepart of the head.

   2.  (Mech.)  A cotter or split pin, as in a slot in a bolt, to prevent
   retraction; a linchpin; a pin fastening the cap-square of a gun.
   Forelock  bolt,  a  bolt  retained  by  a  key, gib, or cotter passing
   through  a  slot.  -- Forelock hook (Rope Making), a winch or whirl by
   which a bunch of three yarns is twisted into a standard. Knight. -- To
   take  time,  OR  occasion,  by  the  forelock,  to  make prompt use of
   anything; not to let slip an opportunity.

     Time  is  painted  with  a  lock before and bald behind, signifying
     thereby that we must take time by the forelock; for when it is once
     past, there is no recalling it. Swift.

     On occasion's forelock watchful wait. Milton.


   Fore*look" (?), v. i. To look beforehand or forward. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fore"man  (?),  n.; pl. Foremen (. The first or chief man; as: (a) The
   chief man of a jury, who acts as their speaker. (b) The chief of a set
   of hands employed in a shop, or on works of any kind, who superintends
   the rest; an overseer.


   Fore"mast`  (?), n. (Naut.) The mast nearest the bow. Foremast hand OR
   man  (Naut.),  a common sailor; also, a man stationed to attend to the
   gear of the foremast.


   Fore*meant" (?), a. Intended beforehand; premeditated. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fore"men`tioned    (?),    a.   Mentioned   before;   already   cited;
   aforementioned. Addison.


   Fore"milk`  (?),  n.  (Physiol.)  The  milk  secreted  just before, or
   directly  after,  the  birth  of a child or of the young of an animal;


   Fore"most`  (?),  a. [OE. formest first, AS. formest, fyrmest, superl.
   of  forma  first, which is a superl. fr. fore fore; cf. Goth. frumist,
   fruma,  first.  See  Fore,  adv., and cf. First, Former, Frame, v. t.,
   Prime,  a.]  First  in  time or place; most advanced; chief in rank or
   dignity; as, the foremost troops of an army.

     THat struck the foremost man of all this world. Shak.


   Fore"most`ly, adv. In the foremost place or order; among the foremost.
   J. Webster.


   Fore"moth`er (?), n. A female ancestor.


   Fore"name`  (?), n. A name that precedes the family name or surname; a
   first name. Selden.


   Fore"name`, v. t. To name or mention before. Shak.


   Fore"named` (?), a. Named before; aforenamed.


   Fore*nenst"  (?),  prep. [See Fore, and Anent.] Over against; opposite
   to. [Now dialectic]

     The land forenenst the Greekish shore. Fairfax.


   Fore"-night` (?), n. The evening between twilight and bedtime. [Scot.]


   Fore"noon"  (?),  n.  The  early  part  of  the  day,  from morning to
   meridian, or noon.


   Fore"no`tice  (?),  n.  Notice  or  information  of an event before it
   happens; forewarning. [R.] Rymer.


   Fo*ren"sal (?), a. Forensic. [R.]


   Fo*ren"sic  (?),  a.  [L.  forensis,  fr. forum a public place, market
   place.  See  Forum.]  Belonging  to  courts of judicature or to public
   discussion  and  debate;  used  in  legal  proceedings,  or  in public
   discussions;  argumentative;  rhetorical;  as,  forensic  eloquence or
   disputes.  Forensic  medicine,  medical jurisprudence; medicine in its
   relations to law.


   Fo*ren"sic,  n.  (Amer.  Colleges)  An  exercise in debate; a forensic
   contest; an argumentative thesis.


   Fo*ren"sic*al (?), a. Forensic. Berkley.


   Fore`or*dain"   (?),  v.  t.  To  ordain  or  appoint  beforehand;  to
   preordain; to predestinate; to predetermine. Hooker.


   Fore*or"di*nate (?), v. t. To foreordain.


   Fore*or`di*na"tion   (?),   n.  Previous  ordination  or  appointment;
   predetermination; predestination.

                            Fore part, OR Forepart

   Fore" part` (?), OR Fore"part`, n. The part most advanced, or first in
   time or in place; the beginning.


   Fore"past` (?), a. Bygone. [Obs.] Shak.


   Fore`pos*sessed" (?), a.

   1. Holding or held formerly in possession. [Obs.]

   2. Preoccupied; prepossessed; pre\'89ngaged. [Obs.]

     Not extremely forepossessed with prejudice. Bp. Sanderson.


   Fore*prize" (?), v. t. To prize or rate beforehand. [Obs.] Hooker.


   Fore`prom"ised (?), a. Promised beforehand; pre\'89ngaged. Bp. Hall.


   Fore"quot`ed  (?),  a. Cited before; quoted in a foregoing part of the
   treatise or essay.


   Fore*ran" (?), imp. of Forerun.


   Fore"rank` (?), n. The first rank; the front.


   Fore*reach"  (?),  v. t. (Naut.) To advance or gain upon; -- said of a
   vessel that gains upon another when sailing closehauled.


   Fore*reach",  v.  i.  (Naut.) To shoot ahead, especially when going in
   stays. R. H. Dana, Jr.


   Fore*read"  (?),  v.  t.  To tell beforehand; to signify by tokens; to
   predestine. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fore`re*cit"ed  (?),  a.  Named  or  recited  before. "The forerecited
   practices." Shak.


   Fore`re*mem"bered (?), a. Called to mind previously. Bp. Montagu.


   Fore"right`  (?),  a. Ready; directly forward; going before. [Obs.] "A
   foreright wind." Chapman.


   Fore"right`, adv. Right forward; onward. [Obs.]


   Fore*run" (?), v. t.

   1.  To  turn  before;  to  precede;  to  be  in  advance of (something

   2.  To  come before as an earnest of something to follow; to introduce
   as a harbinger; to announce.

     These signs forerun the death or fall of kings. Shak.


   Fore*run"ner (?), n.

   1. A messenger sent before to give notice of the approach of others; a
   harbinger;  a  sign  foreshowing  something;  a  prognostic;  as,  the
   forerunner of a fever.

     Whither the forerunner in for us entered, even Jesus. Heb. vi. 20.

     My elder brothers, my forerunners, came. Dryden.

   2. A predecessor; an ancestor. [Obs.] Shak.

   3. (Naut.) A piece of rag terminating the log line.


   Fore"said` (?), a. Mentioned before; aforesaid.


   Fore"sail`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  (a)  The sail bent to the foreyard of a
   square-rigged  vessel,  being the lowest sail on the foremast. (b) The
   gaff  sail set on the foremast of a schooner. (c) The fore staysail of
   a sloop, being the triangular sail next forward of the mast.


   Fore*say"  (?),  v. t. [AS. foresecgan; fore + secgan to say. See Say,
   v. t.] To foretell. [Obs.]

     Her danger nigh that sudden change foresaid. Fairfax.


   Fore*see" (?), v. t. [AS. forese\'a2n; fore + se\'a2n to see. See See,
   v. t.]

   1. To see beforehand; to have prescience of; to foreknow.

     A prudent man foreseeth the evil. Prov. xxii. 3.

   2. To provide. [Obs.]

     Great shoals of people, which go on to populate, without foreseeing
     means of life. Bacon.


   Fore*see", v. i. To have or exercise foresight. [Obs.]


   Fore*seen"  (?), conj., or (strictly) p. p. Provided; in case that; on
   condition that. [Obs.]

     One  manner of meat is most sure to every complexion, foreseen that
     it  be  alway  most  commonly  in conformity of qualities, with the
     person that eateth. Sir T. Elyot.


   Fore*se"er (?), n. One who foresees or foreknows.


   Fore*seize" (?), v. t. To seize beforehand.


   Fore*shad"ow (?), v. t. To shadow or typi Dryden.


   Fore*shew" (?), v. t. See Foreshow.


   Fore"ship` (?), n. The fore part of a ship. [Obs.]


   Fore*short"en (?), v. t.

   1.  (Fine  Art)  To  represent on a plane surface, as if extended in a
   direction  toward the spectator or nearly so; to shorten by drawing in

   2. Fig.: To represent pictorially to the imagination.

     Songs,  and deeds, and lives that lie Foreshortened in the tract of
     time. Tennyson.


   Fore*short"en*ing,  n.  (Fine  Arts) Representation in a foreshortened
   mode or way.


   Fore"shot`  (?), n. In distillation of low wines, the first portion of
   spirit that comes over, being a fluid abounding in fusel oil. Knight.


   Fore*show" (?), v. t. [AS. foresce\'a0wian to foresee, provide; fore +
   sce\'a0wian to see. See Show, v. t.] To show or exhibit beforehand; to
   give foreknowledge of; to prognosticate; to foretell.

     Your looks foreshow You have a gentle heart. Shak.

     Next,  like  Aurora,  Spenser  rose,  Whose  purple  blush  the day
     foreshows. Denham.


   Fore*show"er (?), n. One who predicts.


   Fore"side (?), n.

   1.  The front side; the front; esp., a stretch of country fronting the

   2. The outside or external covering. Spenser.


   Fore"sight` (?), n.

   1.  The  act  or  the  power of foreseeing; prescience; foreknowledge.

   2.  Action  in reference to the future; provident care; prudence; wise

     This seems an unseasonable foresight. Milton.

     A random expense, without plan or foresight. Burke.

   3.  (Surv.)  Any  sight  or  reading of the leveling staff, except the
   backsight;  any sight or bearing taken by a compass or theodolite in a
   forward direction.

   4. (Gun.) Muzzle sight. See Fore sight, under Fore, a.


   Fore"sight`ed  (?),  a.  Sagacious; prudent; provident for the future.


   Fore"sight`ful (?), a. Foresighted. [Obs.]


   Fore*sig"ni*fy  (?),  v.  t.  To  signify  beforehand; to foreshow; to
   typify. Milton.


   Fore"skin  (?),  n. (Anat.) The fold of skin which covers the glans of
   the penis; the prepuce.


   Fore"skirt`  (?), n. The front skirt of a garment, in distinction from
   the train.

     Honor's train Is longer than his foreskirt. Shak.


   Fore*slack" (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Forslack.


   Fore"sleeve` (?), n. The sleeve below the elbow.


   Fore*slow"  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Forslow.]  To make slow; to hinder; to
   obstruct. [Obs.] See Forslow, v. t.

     No  stream,  no  wood, no mountain could foreslow Their hasty pace.


   Fore*slow", v. i. To loiter. [Obs.] See Forslow, v. i.


   Fore*speak" (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Forspeak.


   Fore*speak", v. t. To foretell; to predict. [Obs.]

     My  mother  was half a witch; never anything that she forespake but
     came to pass. Beau. & Fl.


   Fore"speak`ing,  n.  A  prediction;  also,  a  preface. [Obs.] Camden.


   Fore"speech` (?), n. A preface. [Obs.] Sherwood.


   Fore*spent"  (?),  a.  [Fore  +  spent.] Already spent; gone by; past.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Fore*spent", a. [Obs.] See Forspent.


   Fore*spur"rer (?), n. One who rides before; a harbinger. [Obs.] Shak.


   For"est  (?),  n.  [OF.  forest,  F.  for\'88t,  LL.  forestis,  also,
   forestus,  forestum,  foresta,  prop.,  open  ground  reserved for the
   chase, fr. L. foris, foras, out of doors, abroad. See Foreign.]

   1. An extensive wood; a large tract of land covered with trees; in the
   United  States,  a wood of native growth, or a tract of woodland which
   has never been cultivated.

   2.  (Eng.  Law) A large extent or precinct of country, generally waste
   and  woody,  belonging  to the sovereign, set apart for the keeping of
   game  for  his use, not inclosed, but distinguished by certain limits,
   and  protected  by  certain  laws,  courts,  and  officers of its own.


   For"est,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  a  forest;  sylvan.  Forest fly.
   (Zo\'94l.)  (a) One of numerous species of blood-sucking flies, of the
   family  Tabanid\'91,  which attack both men and beasts. See Horse fly.
   (b)  A fly of the genus Hippobosca, esp. H. equina. See Horse tick. --
   Forest  glade,  a  grassy  space in a forest. Thomson. -- Forest laws,
   laws  for  the  protection  of  game, preservation of timber, etc., in
   forests.  --  Forest  tree,  a tree of the forest, especially a timber
   tree, as distinguished from a fruit tree.
   For"est, v. t. To cover with trees or wood. 


   Fore"staff`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  An instrument formerly used at sea for
   taking  the  altitudes  of  heavenly  bodies,  now  superseded  by the
   sextant; -- called also cross-staff. Brande & C.


   For"est*age  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. forestage.] (O. Eng. Law) (a) A duty or
   tribute  payable  to  the  king's  foresters.  (b)  A  service paid by
   foresters to the king.


   For"est*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to forests; as, forestal rights.


   Fore*stall"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Forestalled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Forestalling.]  [OE.  forstallen to stop, to obstruct; to stop (goods)
   on  the  way  to  the  market  by buying them beforehand, from forstal
   obstruction,  AS.  forsteal,  foresteall,  prop., a placing one's self
   before another. See Fore, and Stall.]

   1. To take beforehand, or in advance; to anticipate.

     What  need  a man forestall his date of grief, And run to meet what
     he would most avoid? Milton.

   2. To take possession of, in advance of some one or something else, to
   the  exclusion  or  detriment  of  the  latter;  to  get  ahead of; to
   preoccupy;  also, to exclude, hinder, or prevent, by prior occupation,
   or by measures taken in advance.

   Page 585

     An ugly serpent which forestalled their way. Fairfax.

     But  evermore  those damsels did forestall Their furious encounter.

     To be forestalled ere we come to fall. Shak.

     Habit is a forestalled and obstinate judge. Rush.

   3. To deprive; -- with of. [R.]

     All  the  better;  may  This night forestall him of the coming day!

   4. (Eng. Law) To obstruct or stop up, as a way; to stop the passage of
   on highway; to intercept on the road, as goods on the way to market.
   To  forestall  the  market,  to  buy  or  contract  for merchandise or
   provision on its way to market, with the intention of selling it again
   at  a  higher  price; to dissuade persons from bringing their goods or
   provisions there; or to persuade them to enhance the price when there.
   This  was an offense at law in England until 1844. Burrill. Syn. -- To
   anticipate; monopolize; engross.


   Fore*stall"er (?), n. One who forestalls; esp., one who forestalls the
   market. Locke.


   Fore"stay`  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  A large, strong rope, reaching from the
   foremast  head to the bowsprit, to support the mast. See Illust. under


   For"est*er (?), n. [F. forestier, LL. forestarius.]

   1.  One  who has charge of the growing timber on an estate; an officer
   appointed to watch a forest and preserve the game.

   2. An inhabitant of a forest. Wordsworth.

   3. A forest tree. [R.] Evelyn.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  lepidopterous insect belonging to Alypia and allied
   genera; as, the eight-spotted forester (A. octomaculata), which in the
   larval state is injurious to the grapevine.


   Fore"stick` (?), n. Front stick of a hearth fire.


   For"est*ry  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF.  foresterie.] The art of forming or of
   cultivating forests; the management of growing timber.

                             Foreswart, Foreswart

   Fore"swart` (?), Fore"swart` (?), a. [Obs.] See Forswat.


   Fore"taste`   (?),  n.  A  taste  beforehand;  enjoyment  in  advance;


   Fore*taste" (?), v. t.

   1.  To  taste  before  full  possession; to have previous enjoyment or
   experience of; to anticipate.

   2. To taste before another. "Foretasted fruit." Milton.


   Fore"tast`er  (?  OR  ?),  n.  One  who  tastes  beforehand, or before


   Fore*teach" (?), v. t. To teach beforehand. [Obs.]


   Fore*tell"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Foretold (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Foretelling.]  To  predict;  to tell before occurence; to prophesy; to

     Deeds then undone my faithful tongue foretold. Pope.

     Prodigies,  foretelling  the  future  eminence  and  luster  of his
     character. C. Middleton.

   Syn. -- To predict; prophesy; prognosticate; augur.


   Fore*tell", v. i. To utter predictions. Acts iii. 24.


   Fore*tell"er (?), n. One who predicts. Boyle.


   Fore*think" (?), v. t.

   1.  To  think beforehand; to anticipate in the mind; to prognosticate.

     The soul of every man Prophetically doth forethink thy fall. Shak.

   2. To contrive (something) beforehend. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   Fore*think", v. i. To contrive beforehand. [Obs.]


   Fore"thought`   (?),   a.   Thought   of,   or   planned,  beforehand;
   aforethought;   prepense;  hence,  deliberate.  "Forethought  malice."


   Fore"thought`,  n.  A  thinking  or  planning  beforehand; prescience;
   premeditation; forecast; provident care.

     A  sphere  that  will  demand  from  him  forethought, courage, and
     wisdom. I. Taylor.


   Fore"thought`ful (?), a. Having forethought. [R.]


   Fore"time`  (?), n. The past; the time before the present. "A very dim
   foretime." J. C. Shairp.


   Fore"to`ken   (?),  n.  [AS.  foret\'becen.  See  Token.]  Prognostic;
   previous omen. Sir P. Sidney.


   Fore*to"ken  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Foretokened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Foretokening   (?).]  [AS.  foret\'becnian;  fore  +  t\'becnian.]  To
   foreshow; to presignify; to prognosticate.

     Whilst strange prodigious signs foretoken blood. Daniel.

                                  Fore tooth

   Fore"  tooth`  (?),  pl. Fore teeth (. (Anat.) One of the teeth in the
   forepart of the mouth; an incisor.


   Fore"top` (?), n.

   1.  The hair on the forepart of the head; esp., a tuft or lock of hair
   which hangs over the forehead, as of a horse.

   2. That part of a headdress that is in front; the top of a periwig.

   3. (Naut.) The platform at the head of the foremast.


   Fore`-top*gal"lant  (?  OR  ?), a. (Naut.) Designating the mast, sail,
   yard, etc., above the topmast; as, the fore-topgallant sail. See Sail.


   Fore`-top"mast  (?),  n.  (Naut.)  The mast erected at the head of the
   foremast,  and  at  the head of which stands the fore-topgallant mast.
   See Ship.


   Fore`-top"sail (? OR ?), n. (Naut.) See Sail.


   For*ev"er (?), adv. [For, prep. + ever.]

   1. Through eternity; through endless ages, eternally.

   2. At all times; always.

     NOTE: &hand; In  En gland, fo r an d ev er ar e usually written and
     printed  as  two  separate  words;  but,  in the United States, the
     general practice is to make but a single word of them.

   Forever   and   ever,  an  emphatic  "forever."  Syn.  --  Constantly;
   continually;    invariably;    unchangeably;    incessantly;   always;
   perpetually;  unceasingly;  ceaselessly;  interminably; everlastingly;
   endlessly; eternally.


   Fore*vouched" (?), a. Formerly vouched or avowed; affirmed in advance.
   [R.] Shak.


   Fore"ward` (?), n. The van; the front. [Obs.]

     My foreward shall be drawn out all in length, Consisting equally of
     horse and foot. Shak.


   Fore*warn"  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Forewarned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Forewarning.]   To   warn   beforehand;   to  give  previous  warning,
   admonition, information, or notice to; to caution in advance.

     We were forewarned of your coming. Shak.


   Fore*waste" (?), v. t. See Forewaste. Gascoigne.


   Fore*wend" (?), v. t. [Fore + wend.] To go before. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Fore*wish" (?), v. t. To wish beforehand.


   Fore"wit` (?), n.

   1.  A  leader,  or  would-be leader, in matters of knowledge or taste.

     Nor  that the forewits, that would draw the rest unto their liking,
     always like the best. B. Jonson.

   2. Foresight; prudence.

     Let this forewit guide thy thought. Southwell.


   Fore*wite" (?), v. t. [pres. indic. sing., 1st & 3d pers. Forewot (?),
   2d  person  Forewost (, pl. Forewiten (; imp. sing. Forewiste (?), pl.
   Forewisten (; p. pr. & vb. n. Forewiting (?).] [AS. forewitan. See Wit
   to know.] To foreknow. [Obs.] [Written also forwete.] Chaucer.


   Fore"wom`en  (?),  n.;  pl. Forewomen (. A woman who is chief; a woman
   who has charge of the work or workers in a shop or other place; a head
   woman. Tatler. W. Besant.


   Fore"word` (?), n. A preface. Furnvall.


   Fore*worn" (?), a. [See Forworn.] Worn out; wasted; used up. [Archaic]

     Old foreworn stories almost forgotten. Brydges.


   Fore*wot"  (?), pres. indic., 1st & 3d pers. sing. of Forewite. [Obs.]


   Fore"yard` (?), n. (Naut.) The lowermost yard on the foremast.

     NOTE: [See Illust. of Ship.]


   For"fal*ture (?), n. Forfeiture. [Obs.]


   For"feit  (?),  n.  [OE.  forfet crime, penalty, F. forfait crime (LL.
   forefactum,   forifactum),   prop.   p.p.   of  forfaire  to  forfeit,
   transgress,  fr. LL. forifacere, prop., to act beyond; L. foris out of
   doors, abroad, beyond + facere to do. See Foreign, and FAct.]

   1. Injury; wrong; mischief. [Obs. & R.]

     To seek arms upon people and country that never did us any forfeit.
     Ld. Berners.

   2.  A  thing forfeit or forfeited; what is or may be taken from one in
   requital  of  a misdeed committed; that which is lost, or the right to
   which is alienated, by a crime, offense, neglect of duty, or breach of
   contract;  hence,  a fine; a mulct; a penalty; as, he who murders pays
   the forfeit of his life.

     Thy  slanders  I forgive; and therewithal Remit thy other forfeits.

   3.  Something  deposited  and redeemable by a sportive fine; -- whence
   the game of forfeits.

     Country  dances  and  forfeits  shortened  the  rest  of  the  day.


   For"feit,  a.  [F. forfait, p.p. of forfaire. See Forfeit, n.] Lost or
   alienated for an offense or crime; liable to penal seizure.

     Thy wealth being forfeit to the state. Shak.

     To tread the forfeit paradise. Emerson.


   For"feit,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Forfeited; p. pr. & vb. n. Forfeiting.]
   [OE. forfeten. See Forfeit, n.] To lose, or lose the right to, by some
   error,  fault,  offense,  or  crime;  to  render one's self by misdeed
   liable  to  be  deprived of; to alienate the right to possess, by some
   neglect  or  crime;  as,  to  forfeit an estate by treason; to forfeit
   reputation by a breach of promise; -- with to before the one acquiring
   what is forfeited.

     [They] had forfeited their property by their crimes. Burke.

     Undone and forfeited to cares forever! Shak.


   For"feit, v. i.

   1. To be guilty of a misdeed; to be criminal; to transgress. [Obs.]

   2. To fail to keep an obligation. [Obs.]

     I will have the heart of him if he forfeit. Shak.


   For"feit,  p. p. OR a. In the condition of being forfeited; subject to
   alienation. Shak.

     Once  more  I  will  renew  His  laps\'8ad powers, though forfeite.


   Four"feit*a*ble (?), a. Liable to be forfeited; subject to forfeiture.

     For  the future, uses shall be subject to the statutes of mortmain,
     and forfeitable, like the lands themselves. Blackstone.


   For"feit*er (?), n. One who incurs a penalty of forfeiture.


   For"fei*ture (?; 135), n. [F. forfeiture, LL. forisfactura.]

   1.  The  act of forfeiting; the loss of some right, privilege, estate,
   honor,  office, or effects, by an offense, crime, breach of condition,
   or other act.

     Under pain of foreiture of the said goods. Hakluyt.

   2. That which is forfeited; a penalty; a fine or mulct.

     What should I gain By the exaction of the forfeiture? Shak.

   Syn. -- Fine; mulct; amercement; penalty.


   For*fend"  (?),  v. t. [Pref. for- + fend. See Forewend.] To prohibit;
   to forbid; to avert. [Archaic]

     Which peril heaven forefend! Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; This is etymologically the preferable spelling.


   For*fer"ed  (?), p. p. & a. [See For-, and Fear.] Excessively alarmed;
   in great fear. [Obs.] "Forfered of his death." Chaucer.


   For"fete  (?), v. i. [See Forfeit.] To incur a penalty; to transgress.

     And  all  this  suffered our Lord Jesus Christ that never forfeted.


   For"fex (?), n. [L.] A pair of shears. Pope.


   For"fi*cate  (?),  a. [L. forfex, forficis, shears.] (Zo\'94l.) Deeply
   forked, as the tail of certain birds.


   For*fic"u*la  (?),  n.  [L.,  small  shears,  scissors, dim. of forfex
   shears.]  (Zo\'94l.)  A  genus  of  insects including the earwigs. See
   Earwig, 1.


   For*gath"er  (?),  v.  i. To convene; to gossip; to meet accidentally.
   [Scot.] Jamieson.

     Within that circle he forgathered with many a fool. Wilson.


   For*gave" (?), imp. of Forgive.


   Forge (?), n. [F. forge, fr. L. fabrica the workshop of an artisan who
   works  in hard materials, fr. faber artisan, smith, as adj., skillful,
   ingenious; cf. Gr. Fabric.]

   1.  A place or establishment where iron or other metals are wrought by
   heating  and  hammering;  especially,  a  furnace,  or a shop with its
   furnace, etc., where iron is heated and wrought; a smithy.

     In the quick forge and working house of thought. Shak.

   2.  The works where wrought iron is produced directly from the ore, or
   where  iron  is  rendered  malleable  by  puddling  and  shingling;  a
   shingling mill.

   3.  The  act  of  beating or working iron or steel; the manufacture of
   metalic bodies. [Obs.]

     In the greater bodies the forge was easy. Bacon.

   American  forge,  a  forge  for the direct production of wrought iron,
   differing  from  the  old Catalan forge mainly in using finely crushed
   ore  and working continuously. Raymond. -- Catalan forge. (Metal.) See
   under  Catalan.  --  Forge  cinder,  the dross or slag form a forge or
   bloomary.  --  Forge rolls, Forge train, the train of rolls by which a
   bloom  is  converted  into puddle bars. -- Forge wagon (Mil.), a wagon
   fitted  up for transporting a blackmith's forge and tools. -- Portable
   forge,  a  light  and  compact blacksmith's forge, with bellows, etc.,
   that may be moved from place to place.


   Forge,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Forged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Forging (?).]
   [F.  forger, OF. forgier, fr. L. fabricare, fabricari, to form, frame,
   fashion, from fabrica. See Forge, n., and cf. Fabricate.]

   1.  To  form  by  heating  and  hammering; to beat into any particular
   shape, as a metal.

     Mars's armor forged for proof eterne. Shak.

   2. To form or shape out in any way; to produce; to frame; to invent.

     Those  names  that  the  schools  forged, and put into the mouth of
     scholars, could never get admittance into common use. Locke.

     Do forge a life-long trouble for ourselves. Tennyson.

   3. To coin. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   4.  To  make  falsely;  to  produce,  as  that  which is untrue or not
   genuine;  to  fabricate;  to counterfeit, as, a signature, or a signed

     That paltry story is untrue, And forged to cheat such gulls as you.

     Forged certificates of his . . . moral character. Macaulay.

   Syn. -- To fabricate; counterfeit; feign; falsify.


   Forge, v. i. [See Forge, v. t., and for sense 2, cf. Forge compel.]

   1. To commit forgery.

   2.  (Naut.)  To move heavily and slowly, as a ship after the sails are
   furled;  to work one's way, as one ship in outsailing another; -- used
   especially in the phrase to forge ahead. Totten.

     And off she [a ship] forged without a shock. De Quincey.


   Forge,  v.  t.  (Naut.)  To  impel forward slowly; as, to forge a ship


   Forge"man (?), n.; pl. Forgemen (. A skilled smith, who has a hammerer
   to assist him.


   For"ger  (?), n.[Cf. F. forgeur metal worker, L. fabricator artificer.
   See  Forge, n. & v. t., and cf. Fabricator.] One who forges, makes, of
   forms; a fabricator; a falsifier.

   2.  Especially:  One  guilty  of  forgery;  one  who makes or issues a
   counterfeit document.


   For"ger*y (?), n.; pl. Forgeries (#). [Cf. F. forgerie.]

   1. The act of forging metal into shape. [Obs.]

     Useless the forgery Of brazen shield and spear. Milton.

   2.  The  act  of forging, fabricating, or producing falsely; esp., the
   crime  of  fraudulently  making  or  altering  a  writing or signature
   purporting  to  be  made  by  another;  the  false  making or material
   alteration  of  or addition to a written instrument for the purpose of
   deceit and fraud; as, the forgery of a bond. Bouvier.

   3.   That   which   is   forged,   fabricated,   falsely  devised,  or

     These are the forgeries of jealously. Shak.

     The  writings going under the name of Aristobulus were a forgery of
     the second century. Waterland.

   Syn.   --   Counterfeit;  Forgery.  Counterfeit  is  chiefly  used  of
   imitations of coin, or of paper money, or of securities depending upon
   pictorial  devices  and  engraved designs for identity or assurance of
   genuineness.  Forgery  is  more  properly  applied  to  making a false
   imitation of an instrument depending on signatures to show genuineness
   and validity. Abbott.

   Page 586


   For*get" (?), v. t. [imp. Forgot (?) (Forgat (, Obs.); p. p. Forgotten
   (?), Forgot; p. pr. & vb. n. Forgetting.] [OE. forgeten, foryeten, AS.
   forgietan,  forgitan;  pref.  for- + gietan, gitan (only in comp.), to
   get; cf. D. vergeten, G. vergessen, Sw. f\'94rg\'84ta, Dan. forgiette.
   See For-, and Get, v. t.]

   1.  To lose the remembrance of; to let go from the memory; to cease to
   have  in  mind;  not to think of; also, to lose the power of; to cease
   from doing.

     Bless  the  Lord,  O  my soul, and forget not all his benefits. Ps.
     ciii. 2.

     Let y right hand forget her cunning. Ps. cxxxvii. 5.

     Hath thy knee forget to bow? Shak.

   2. To treat with inattention or disregard; to slight; to neglect.

     Can  a  woman forget her sucking child? . . . Yes, they may forget,
     yet will I not forget thee. Is. xlix. 15.

   To   forget   one's  self.  (a)  To  become  unmindful  of  one's  own
   personality;  to be lost in thought. (b) To be entirely unselfish. (c)
   To  be  guilty  of  what  is  unworthy  of one; to lose one's dignity,
   temper, or self-control.


   For*get"ful (?), a.

   1.  Apt  to  forget;  easily  losing  remembrance; as, a forgetful man
   should use helps to strengthen his memory.

   2. Heedless; careless; neglectful; inattentive.

     Be not forgetful to entertain strangers. Heb. xiii. 2.

   3.  Causing  to  forget;  inducing  oblivion;  oblivious.  [Archaic or
   Poetic] "The forgetful wine." J. Webster.


   For*get"ful*ly, adv. In a forgetful manner.


   For*get"ful*ness, n.

   1.  The  quality  of  being  forgetful; prononess to let slip from the

   2.  Loss  of  remembrance  or  recollection;  a  ceasing  to remember;

     A sweet forgetfulness of human care. Pope.

   3.  Failure  to  bear  in  mind;  careless  omission; inattention; as,
   forgetfulness  of  duty. Syn. -- Forgetfulnes, Oblivion. Forgetfulness
   is  Anglo-Saxon,  and  oblivion  is  Latin.  The  former  commonly has
   reference  to persons, and marks a state of mind, and marks a state of
   mind;  the  latter  commonly  has reference to things, and indicates a
   condition   into  which  they  are  sunk.  We  blame  a  man  for  his
   forgetfulness;  we speak of some old custom as buried in oblivion. But
   this discrimination is not strictly adhered to.


   For"ge*tive  (?),  a.  [From  Forge.]  Inventive; productive; capable.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   For*get"-me-not`  (?),  n.  [Cf.  G. vergissmeinnicht.] (Bot.) A small
   herb, of the genus Myosotis (M. palustris, incespitosa, etc.), bearing
   a  beautiful  blue  flower,  and  extensively considered the emblem of

     NOTE: &hand; Fo  rmerly th  e na  me wa  s gi  ven to   th e Aj uga


   For*get"ta*ble  (?),  a.  Liable  to  be,  or  that may be, forgotten.


   For*get"ter (?), n. One who forgets; a heedless person. Johnson.


   For*get"ting*ly, adv. By forgetting.


   For"ging (?), n.

   1. The act of shaping metal by hammering or pressing.

   2. The act of counterfeiting.

   3.  (Mach.)  A  piece of forged work in metal; -- a general name for a
   piece of hammered iron or steel.

     There  are very few yards in the world at which such forgings could
     be turned out. London Times.


   For*giv"a*ble  (?),  a. Capable of being forgiven; pardonable; venial.


   For*give"  (?),  v. t. [imp. Forgave (?); p. p. Forgiven (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Forgiving]  [OE. forgiven, foryiven, foryeven, AS. forgiefan,
   forgifan;  perh.  for-  +  giefan,  gifan to give; cf. D. vergeven, G.
   vergeben,  Icel.  fyrirgefa, Sw. f, Goth. fragiban to give, grant. See
   For-, and Give, v. t.]

   1. To give wholly; to make over without reservation; to resign.

     To  them that list the world's gay shows I leave, And to great ones
     such folly do forgive. Spenser.

   2.  To  give  up  resentment  or  claim  to requital on account of (an
   offense  or  wrong);  to  remit  the penalty of; to pardon; -- said in
   reference to the act forgiven.

     And their sins should be forgiven them. Mark iv. 12.

     He forgive injures so readily that he might be said to invite them.

   3. To cease to feel resentment against, on account of wrong committed;
   to  give  up claim to requital from or retribution upon (an offender);
   to absolve; to pardon; -- said of the person offending.

     Father,  forgive  them; for they know not what they do. Luke xxiii.

     I as free forgive you, as I would be fforgiven. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; So metimes bo th th e person and the offense follow as
     objects  of  the  verb, sometimes one and sometimes the other being
     the  indirect  object.  "Forgive  us  our  debts  as we forgive our
     debtors."  Matt.  vi.  12.  "Be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven
     thee." Matt. ix. 2.

   Syn. -- See excuse.


   For*give"ness, n. [AS. forgifnes.]

   1.  The  act  of  forgiving;  the  state  of  being  forgiven; as, the
   forgiveness of sin or of injuries.

     To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgivenesses. Dan. ix. 9.

     In whom we have . . . the forgiveness of sin. Eph. i. 7.

   2. Disposition to pardon; willingness to forgive.

     If  thou, Lord, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand?
     But there is forgiveness with thee, that thou mayest be feared. Ps.
     cxxx. 3, 4.

   Syn. --

                               Pardon, remission

   Pardon, remission. -- Forgiveness, Pardon. Forgiveness is Anglo-Saxon,
   and  pardon  Norman  French,  both  implying  a  giving back. The word
   pardon,  being early used in our Bible, has, in religious matters, the
   same sense as forgiveness; but in the language of common life there is
   a difference between them, such as we often find between corresponding
   Anglo-Saxon  and  Norman  words. Forgive points to inward feeling, and
   suppose  alienated  affection;  when  we ask forgiveness, we primarily
   seek  the  removal  of  anger.  Pardon looks more to outward things or
   consequences, and is often applied to trifling matters, as when we beg
   pardon  for  interrupting  a  man, or for jostling him in a crowd. The
   civil  magistrate  also  grants a pardon, and not forgiveness. The two
   words  are,  therefore,  very clearly distinguished from each other in
   most cases which relate to the common concerns of life.


   For*giv"er (?), n. One who forgives. Johnson.


   For*giv"ing,  a.  Disposed  to forgive; inclined to overlook offenses;
   mild;  merciful;  compassionate;  placable; as, a forgiving temper. --
   For*giv"ing*ly, adv. -- For*giv"ing*ness, n. J. C. Shairp.


   For*go"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  Forwent;  p. p. Forgone; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Forgoing.]  [OE.  forgan, forgon, forgoon, AS. forg\'ben, prop., to go
   past,  hence,  to  abstain from; pref. for- + g\'ben to go; akin to G.
   vergehen  to  pass  away, to transgress. See Go, v. i.] To pass by; to
   leave. See 1st Forego.

     For  sith  [since]  I  shall  forgoon  my  liberty At your request.

     And four [days] since Florimell the court forwent. Spenser.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is wo rd in  sp elling ha s been confused with, and
     almost  superseded by, forego to go before. Etymologically the form
     forgo is correct.


   For*got" (?), imp. & p. p. of Forget.


   For*got"ten (?), p. p. of Forget.


   For*hall"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  for-  +  hale to draw.] To harass; to
   torment; to distress. [Obs.] Spenser.


   For*hend" (?), v. t. To seize upon. [Obs.]


   Fo*rin"se*cal  (?),  a.  [L. forinsecus from without.] Foreign; alien.
   [Obs.] Bp. Burnet.


   Fo`ris*fa*mil"i*ate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Forisfamiliated (?); p.
   pr.  &  vb.  n.  Forisfamiliating  (?).] [LL. forisfamiliatus, p.p. of
   forisfamiliater  to forisfamiliate; L. foris abroad, without + familia
   family.]  (LAw)  Literally,  to put out of a family; hence, to portion
   off,  so as to exclude further claim of inheritance; to emancipate (as
   a with his own consent) from paternal authority. Blackstone.


   Fo`ris*fa*mil"i*ate,  v.  i.  (Law)  To  renounce  a  legal title to a
   further share of paternal inheritance.


   Fo`ris*fa*mil`i*a"tion (?), n. (Law) The act of forisfamiliating.


   Fork (?), n. [AS. forc, fr. L. furca. Cf. Fourch, Furcate.]

   1.  An  instrument  consisting  consisting  of  a  handle with a shank
   terminating  in  two  or  more  prongs  or tines, which are usually of
   metal,  parallel  and slightly curved; -- used from piercing, holding,
   taking up, or pitching anything.

   2.  Anything  furcate  or  like  of a fork in shape, or furcate at the
   extremity; as, a tuning fork.

   3.  One  of  the  parts  into which anything is furcated or divided; a
   prong;  a  branch  of a stream, a road, etc.; a barbed point, as of an

     Let  it  fall  . . . though the fork invade The region of my heart.

     A thunderbolt with three forks. Addison.

   4.  The place where a division or a union occurs; the angle or opening
   between  two  branches or limbs; as, the fork of a river, a tree, or a

   5. The gibbet. [Obs.] Bp. Butler.
   Fork  beam  (Shipbuilding),  a  half  beam  to  support  a deck, where
   hatchways  occur.  -- Fork chuck (Wood Turning), a lathe center having
   two  prongs for driving the work. -- Fork head. (a) The barbed head of
   an  arrow.  (b)  The forked end of a rod which forms part of a knuckle
   joint. -- In fork. (Mining) A mine is said to be in fork, or an engine
   to  "have  the  water in fork," when all the water is drawn out of the
   mine.  Ure. -- The forks of a river OR a road, the branches into which
   it  divides,  or  which  come  together  to  form  it; the place where
   separation or union takes place.


   Fork, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Forked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Forking.]

   1. To shoot into blades, as corn.

     The corn beginneth to fork. Mortimer. 1

     2.  To  divide  into two or more branches; as, a road, a tree, or a
     stream forks.


     Fork,  v. t. To raise, or pitch with a fork, as hay; to dig or turn
     over with a fork, as the soil.

     Forking the sheaves on the high-laden cart. Prof. Wilson.

   To fork over OR out, to hand or pay over, as money. [Slang] G. Eliot.


   Fork"beard` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) (a) A European fish (Raniceps raninus),
   having  a  large  flat  head;  -- also called tadpole fish, and lesser
   forked  beard.  (b)  The  European  forked hake or hake's-dame (Phycis
   blennoides); -- also called great forked beard.


   Forked (?), a.

   1.  Formed  into a forklike shape; having a fork; dividing into two or
   more  prongs or branches; furcated; bifurcated; zigzag; as, the forked

     A serpent seen, with forked tongue. Shak.

   2. Having a double meaning; ambiguous; equivocal.
   Cross  forked (Her.), a cross, the ends of whose arms are divided into
   two  sharp  points;  --  called  also  cross double fitch\'82. A cross
   forked  of  three  points is a cross, each of whose arms terminates in
   three  sharp  points. -- Forked counsel, advice pointing more than one
   way;  ambiguous  advice.  [Obs.] B. Jonson. -- Fork"ed*ly (#), adv. --
   Fork"ed*ness, n.


   For*kerve (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Forcarve, v. t.


   Fork"i*ness  (?),  n.  The  quality or state or dividing in a forklike


   Fork"less, a. Having no fork.


   Fork"tail`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  (a)  One of several Asiatic and East
   Indian  passerine birds, belonging to Enucurus, and allied genera. The
   tail  is  deeply  forking.  (b)  A salmon in its fourth year's growth.
   [Prov. Eng.]


   Fork"-tailed` (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Having the outer tail feathers longer
   than   the  median  ones;  swallow-tailed;  --  said  of  many  birds.
   Fork-tailed  flycatcher  (Zo\'94l.),  a  tropical  American flycatcher
   (Milvulus  tyrannus).  --  Fork-tailed  gull (Zo\'94l.), a gull of the
   genus  Xema,  of  two species, esp. X. Sabinii of the Arctic Ocean. --
   Fork-tailed  kite  (Zo\'94l.),  a  graceful  American  kite (Elanoides
   forficatus); -- called also swallow-tailed kite.


   Fork"y  (?),  a.  Opening  into  two  or more parts or shoots; forked;
   furcated. "Forky tongues." Pope.


   For*laft" (?), obs. p. p. of Forleave. Chaucer.


   For*lay" (?), v. t. [Pref. for- + lay.] To lie in wait for; to ambush.

     An ambushed thief forlays a traveler. Dryden.


   For*leave"  (?), v. t. [OE. forleven; pref. for- + leven to leave.] To
   leave off wholly. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   For*lend" (?), v. t. To give up wholly. [Obs.]


   For*lese"  (?),  v.  t. [p. p. Forlore (?), Forlorn (.] [OE. forlesen.
   See Forlorn.] To lose utterly. [Obs.] haucer.


   For*let", v. t. [OE. forleten, AS. forl; pref. for- + l to allow; akin
   to  G. verlassen to leave. See Let to allow.] To give up; to leave; to
   abandon. [Obs.] "To forlet sin." Chaucer.


   For*lie" (?), v. i. See Forlie.


   For*lore" (?), imp. pl. & p. p. oForlese. [Obs.]

     The beasts their caves, the birds their neforlore. Fairfax.


   For*lorn"  (?),  a.  [OE.,  p.p.  of  forlesen  to  lose  utterly, AS.
   forle\'a2san  (p.p.  forloren);  pref.  for- + le\'a2san (in comp.) to
   lose;  cf.  D.  verliezen  to lose, G. verlieren, Sw. f\'94rlora, Dan.
   forloren,  Goth.  fraliusan  to lose. See For-, and Lorn, a., Lose, v.

   1. Deserted abandoned; lost.

     Of fortune and of hope at once forlorn. Spenser.

     Some say that ravens foster forlorn children. Shak.

   2. Destitute; helpless; in pitiful plight; wretched; miserable; almost
   hopeless; desperate.

     For here forlorn and lost I tread. Goldsmith.

     The  condition  of the besieged in the mean time was forlorn in the
     extreme. Prescott.

     She cherished the forlorn hope that he was still living. Thomson.

   A  forlorn  hope  [D.  verloren  hoop,  prop.,  a  lost band or troop;
   verloren,  p.p. of verliezen to lose + hoop band; akin to E. heap. See
   For-,  and  Heap.] (Mil.), a body of men (called in F. enfants perdus,
   in G. verloren posten) selected, usually from volunteers, to attempt a
   breach, scale the wall of a fortress, or perform other extraordinarily
   perilous  service;  also,  a  desperate  case  or  enterprise. Syn. --
   Destitute,  lost; abandoned; forsaken; solitary; helpless; friendless;
   hopeless; abject; wretched; miserable; pitiable.
   For*lorn", n.
   1. A lost, forsaken, or solitary person.
     Forced to live in Scotland a forlorn. Shak.
   2. A forlorn hope; a vanguard. [Obs.]

     Our  forlorn  of  horse  marched within a mile of the enemy. Oliver


   For*lorn"ly, adv. In a forlorn manner. Pollok.


   For*lorn"ness, n. State of being forlorn. Boyle.


   For*lye" (?), v. i. Same as Forlie. [Obs.]


   form  (.  [See  Form, n.] A suffix used to denote in the form OR shape
   of, resembling, etc.; as, valiform; oviform.


   Form  (f\'d3rm;  in senses 8 & 9, often f\'d3rm in England), n. [OE. &
   F. forme, fr. L. forma; cf. Skr. dhariman. Cf. Firm.]

   1.  The  shape  and  structure  of anything, as distinguished from the
   material   of   which   it  is  composed;  particular  disposition  or
   arrangement   of   matter,  giving  it  individuality  or  distinctive
   character; configuration; figure; external appearance.

     The form of his visage was changed. Dan. iii. 19.

     And woven close close, both matter, form, and style. Milton.

   2. Constitution; mode of construction, organization, etc.; system; as,
   a republican form of government.

   3.  Established  method  of  expression  or  practice;  fixed  way  of
   proceeding;  conventional  or  stated  scheme;  formula; as, a form of

     Those whom form of laws Condemned to die. Dryden.

   4.  Show  without substance; empty, outside appearance; vain, trivial,
   or  conventional ceremony; conventionality; formality; as, a matter of
   mere form.

     Though  well  we  may  not  pass  upon his life Without the form of
     justice. Shak.

   5.  Orderly  arrangement;  shapeliness;  also,  comeliness;  elegance;

     The earth was without form and void. Gen. i. 2.

     He hath no form nor comeliness. Is. liii. 2.

   6. A shape; an image; a phantom.

   7. That by which shape is given or determined; mold; pattern; model.

   8.  A  long  seat;  a  bench; hence, a rank of students in a school; a
   class;  also, a class or rank in society. "Ladies of a high form." Bp.

   9. The seat or bed of a hare.

     As in a form sitteth a weary hare. Chaucer.

   10.  (Print.)  The type or other matter from which an impression is to
   be taken, arranged and secured in a chase.

   11.  (Fine  Arts) The boundary line of a material object. In painting,
   more generally, the human body.

   12.  (Gram.)  The  particular  shape or structure of a word or part of
   speech; as, participial forms; verbal forms.

   13.  (Crystallog.)  The combination of planes included under a general
   crystallographic symbol. It is not necessarily a closed solid.

   14.  (Metaph.) That assemblage or disposition of qualities which makes
   a  conception,  or  that internal constitution which makes an existing
   thing  to  be what it is; -- called essential or substantial form, and
   contradistinguished  from  matter;  hence, active or formative nature;
   law of being or activity; subjectively viewed, an idea; objectively, a

   15.  Mode  of acting or manifestation to the senses, or the intellect;
   as,  water  assumes  the  form  of  ice  or snow. In modern usage, the
   elements  of  a  conception  furnished  by the mind's own activity, as
   contrasted  with  its object or condition, which is called the matter;
   subjectively,  a mode of apprehension or belief conceived as dependent
   on  the constitution of the mind; objectively, universal and necessary
   accompaniments or elements of every object known or thought of.

   16.  (Biol.)  The peculiar characteristics of an organism as a type of
   others; also, the structure of the parts of an animal or plant.

   Page 587

   Good  form  OR  Bad form, the general appearance, condition or action,
   originally of horses, atterwards of persons; as, the members of a boat
   crew  are  said  to be in good form when they pull together uniformly.
   The phrases are further used colloquially in description of conduct or
   manners  in  society; as, it is not good form to smoke in the presence
   of a lady.
   Form  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Formed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Forming.]
   [F. former, L. formare, fr. forma. See Form, n.]
   1.  To  give  form  or  shape  to; to frame; to construct; to make; to
     God formed man of the dust of the ground. Gen. ii. 7.
     The thought that labors in my forming brain. Rowe.

   2.  To  give  a particular shape to; to shape, mold, or fashion into a
   certain  state  or condition; to arrange; to adjust; also, to model by
   instruction and discipline; to mold by influence, etc.; to train.

     'T is education forms the common mind. Pope.

     Thus formed for speed, he challenges the wind. Dryden.

   3.  To go to make up; to act as constituent of; to be the essential or
   constitutive elements of; to answer for; to make the shape of; -- said
   of that out of which anything is formed or constituted, in whole or in

     The  diplomatic  politicians  . . . who formed by far the majority.

   4. To provide with a form, as a hare. See Form, n., 9.

     The melancholy hare is formed in brakes and briers. Drayton.

   5.  (Gram.)  To  derive  by grammatical rules, as by adding the proper
   suffixes and affixes.


   Form, v. i.

   1.  To  take  a form, definite shape, or arrangement; as, the infantry
   should form in column.

   2. To run to a form, as a hare. B. Jonson.
   To  form  on  (Mil.), to form a lengthened line with reference to (any
   given object) as a basis.


   For"mal (?), a. [L. formalis: cf. F. formel.]

   1.  Belonging  to  the  form,  shape,  frame,  external appearance, or
   organization of a thing.

   2. Belonging to the constitution of a thing, as distinguished from the
   matter  composing  it;  having the power of making a thing what it is;
   constituent;  essential;  pertaining  to oe depending on the forms, so
   called of the human intellect.

     Of [the sounds represented by] letters, the material part is breath
     and  voice;  the  formal is constituted by the motion and figure of
     the organs of speech. Holder.

   3.  Done  is due form, or with solemnity; according to regular method;
   not  incidental,  sudden or irregular; express; as, he gave his formal

     His  obscure  funeral  .  . . No noble rite nor formal ostentation.

   4.   Devoted   to,  or  done  in  accordance  with,  forms  or  rules;
   punctilious;  regular;  orderly;  methodical;  of  a  prescribed form;
   exact;  prim;  stiff;  ceremonious; as, a man formal in his dress, his
   gait, his conversation.

     A  cold-looking,  formal  garden, cut into angles and rhomboids. W.

     She took off the formal cap that confined her hair. Hawthorne.

   5.  Having  the  form  or appearance without the substance or essence;
   external; as, formal duty; formal worship; formal courtesy, etc.

   6. Dependent in form; conventional.

     Still  in constraint your suffering sex remains, Or bound in formal
     or in real chains. Pope.

   7. Sound; normal. [Obs.]

     To make of him a formal man again. Shak.

   Formal  cause.  See  under Cause. Syn. -- Precise; punctilious; stiff;
   starched;  affected; ritual; ceremonial; external; outward. -- Formal,
   Ceremonious. When applied to things, these words usually denote a mere
   accordance  with  the  rules of form or ceremony; as, to make a formal
   call;  to  take  a  ceremonious leave. When applied to a person or his
   manners,  they  are  used in a bad sense; a person being called formal
   who  shapes  himself  too  much  by  some  pattern  or  set  form, and
   ceremonious  when  he lays too much stress on the conventional laws of
   social intercourse. Formal manners render a man stiff or ridiculous; a
   ceremonious  carriage  puts  a  stop to the ease and freedom of social


   For*mal"de*hyde  (?),  n.  [Formic  +  aldehyde.] (Chem.) A colorless,
   volatile  liquid,  H2CO,  resembling  acetic  or  ethyl  aldehyde, and
   chemically intermediate between methyl alcohol and formic acid.


   Form"al*ism  (?),  n. The practice or the doctrine of strict adherence
   to, or dependence on, external forms, esp. in matters of religion.

     Official formalism. Sir H. Rawlinson.


     Form"al*ist, n. [Cf. F. formaliste.] One overattentive to forms, or
     too  much  confined  to  them;  esp.,  one  who  rests  in external
     religious forms, or observes strictly the outward forms of worship,
     without possessing the life and spirit of religion.

     As far a formalist from wisdom sits, In judging eyes, as libertines
     from wits. Young.


     For*mal"i*ty (?), n.; pl. Formalities (#). [Cf. F. formalit\'82.]

     1.  The condition or quality of being formal, strictly ceremonious,
     precise, etc.

     2. Form without substance.

     Such  [books]  as are mere pieces of formality, so that if you look
     on them, you look though them. Fuller.

     3.   Compliance   with  formal  or  conventional  rules;  ceremony;

     Nor  was his attendance on divine offices a matter of formality and
     custom, but of conscience. Atterbury.

     4.  An  established  order;  conventional  rule of procedure; usual
     method; habitual mode.

     He was installed with all the usual formalities. C. Middleton.

     5.  pl.  The  dress  prescribed  for  any  body of men, academical,
     municipal, or sacerdotal. [Obs.]

     The  doctors attending her in their formalities as far as Shotover.

     6. That which is formal; the formal part.

     It  unties the inward knot of marriage, . . . while it aims to keep
     fast the outward formality. Milton.

     7. The quality which makes a thing what it is; essence.

     The material part of the evil came from our father upon us, but the
     formality  of  it,  the  sting and the curse, is only by ourselves.
     Jer. Taylor.

     The  formality  of  the  vow  lies  in the promise made to God. Bp.

     8.  (Scholastic.  Philos.) The manner in which a thing is conceived
     or  constituted  by an act of human thinking; the result of such an
     act; as, animality and rationality are formalities.


     Form"al*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Formalized (?); p. pr. & vb.
     n. Formalizing (?).]

     1. To give form, or a certain form, to; to model. [R.]

     2. To render formal.


     Form"al*ize, v. i. To affect formality. [Obs.] ales.


     Form"al*ly,    adv.    In    a    formal    manner;    essentially;
     characteristically; expressly; regularly; ceremoniously; precisely.

     That  which formally makes this [charity] a Christian grace, is the
     spring from which it flows. Smalridge.

     You  and  your  followers  do  stand  formally  divided against the
     authorized guides of the church and rest of the people. Hooker.


     For"mate  (?),  n.  [See  Formic.]  (Chem.)  A salt of formic acid.
     [Written also formiate.]