Unabridged Dictionary - Letter E

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   E (?).

   1. The fifth letter of the English alphabet.

     NOTE: It derives its form, name, and value from the Latin, the form
     and  value being further derived from the Greek, into which it came
     from the Ph\'d2nician, and ultimately, probably, from the Egyptian.
     Its etymological relations are closest with the vowels i, a, and o,
     as  illustrated  by  to  fall, to fell; man, pl. men; drink, drank,
     drench;  dint,  dent; doom, deem; goose, pl. geese; beef, OF. boef,
     L. bos; and E. cheer, OF. chiere, LL. cara.

     NOTE: The le tter e  ha s in  English several vowel sounds, the two
     principal  being  its  long  or  name sound, as in eve, me, and the
     short,  as  in end, best. Usually at the end of words it is silent,
     but serves to indicate that the preceding vowel has its long sound,
     where otherwise it would be short, as in m\'bene, as in c\'bene, m,
     which  without the final e would be pronounced m, c, m. After c and
     g, the final e indicates that these letters are to be pronounced as
     s and j; respectively, as in lace, rage.

   See Guide to Pronunciation,  74-97.

   2. (Mus.) E is the third tone of the model diatonic scale. Eb (E flat)
   is a tone which is intermediate between D and E.


   E-. A Latin prefix meaning out, out of, from; also, without. See Ex-.


   Each (?), a. OR a. pron. [OE. eche, \'91lc, elk, ilk, AS. \'91lc; \'be
   always + gel\'c6c like; akin to OD. ieg, OHG. , MHG. iegel\'c6ch. Aye,
   Like, and cf. Either, Every, Ilk.]

   1.  Every  one  of  the  two or more individuals composing a number of
   objects,  considered  separately from the rest. It is used either with
   or without a following noun; as, each of you or each one of you. "Each
   of the combatants." Fielding.

     NOTE: &hand; To  ea ch co rresponds ot her. "L et each esteem other
     better  than  himself."  Each other, used elliptically for each the
     other.  It  is  our  duty  to assist each other; that is, it is our
     duty,  each  to  assist the other, each being in the nominative and
     other in the objective case.

     It  is  a  bad thing that men should hate each other; but it is far
     worse  that they should contract the habit of cutting one another's
     throats without hatred. Macaulay.

     Let each His adamantine coat gird well. Milton.

     In each cheek appears a pretty dimple. Shak.

     Then  draw  we nearer day by day, Each to his brethren, all to God.

     The oak and the elm have each a distinct character. Gilpin.

   2. Every; -- sometimes used interchangeably with every. Shak.

     I know each lane and every alley green. Milton.

     In short each man's happiness depends upon himself. Sterne.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is use of each for every, though common in Scotland
     and in America, is now un-English.

   Fitzed. Hall. Syn. -- See Every.


   Each"where` (?), adv. Everywhere. [Obs.]

     The sky eachwhere did show full bright and fair. Spenser.


   Ead"ish (?), n. See Eddish.


   Ea"ger  (?),  a.  [OE.  egre  sharp,  sour, eager, OF. agre, aigre, F.
   aigre,  fr.  L.  acer  sharp,  sour,  spirited, zealous; akin to Gr. a
   point; fr. a root signifying to be sharp. Cf. Acrid, Edge.]

   1. Sharp; sour; acid. [Obs.] "Like eager droppings into milk." Shak.

   2.  Sharp;  keen; bitter; severe. [Obs.] "A nipping and an eager air."
   "Eager words." Shak.

   3.  Excited  by desire in the pursuit of any object; ardent to pursue,
   perform,  or obtain; keenly desirous; hotly longing; earnest; zealous;
   impetuous; vehement; as, the hounds were eager in the chase.

     And gazed for tidings in my eager eyes. Shak.

     How eagerly ye follow my disgraces! Shak.

     When  to  her  eager  lips  is brought Her infant's thrilling kiss.

     A crowd of eager and curious schoolboys. Hawthorne.

     Conceit and grief an eager combat fight. Shak.

   4. Brittle; inflexible; not ductile. [Obs.]

     Gold  will  be sometimes so eager, as artists call it, that it will
     as little endure the hammer as glass itself. Locke.

   Syn.  --  Earnest; ardent; vehement; hot; impetuous; fervent; intense;
   impassioned;  zealous;  forward. See Earnest. -- Eager, Earnest. Eager
   marks  an  excited  state of desire or passion; thus, a child is eager
   for  a  plaything,  a  hungry man is eager for food, a covetous man is
   eager for gain. Eagerness is liable to frequent abuses, and is good or
   bad,  as  the  case  may be. It relates to what is praiseworthy or the
   contrary.  Earnest  denotes  a  permanent  state  of mind, feeling, or
   sentiment.  It  is  always  taken  in  a good sense; as, a preacher is
   earnest  in  his appeals to the conscience; an agent is earnest in his


   Ea"ger, n. Same as Eagre.


   Ea"ger*ly, adv. In an eager manner.


   Ea"ger*ness, n.

   1.  The state or quality of being eager; ardent desire. "The eagerness
   of love." Addison.

   2.  Tartness;  sourness. [Obs.] Syn. -- Ardor; vehemence; earnestness;
   impetuosity;  heartiness;  fervor;  fervency;  avidity; zeal; craving;
   heat; passion; greediness.


   Ea"gle  (?),  n.  [OE. egle, F. aigle, fr. L. aquila; prob. named from
   its color, fr. aquilus dark-colored, brown; cf. Lith. aklas blind. Cf.

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) Any large, rapacious bird of the Falcon family, esp. of
   the  genera  Aquila  and  Hali\'91etus.  The  eagle  is remarkable for
   strength, size, graceful figure, keenness of vision, and extraordinary
   flight.   The   most  noted  species  are  the  golden  eagle  (Aquila
   chrysa\'89tus);   the   imperial  eagle  of  Europe  (A.  mogilnik  OR
   imperialis); the American bald eagle (Hali\'91etus leucocephalus); the
   European   sea  eagle  (H.  albicilla);  and  the  great  harpy  eagle
   (Thrasaetus  harpyia).  The figure of the eagle, as the king of birds,
   is  commonly  used  as  an heraldic emblem, and also for standards and
   emblematic devices. See Bald eagle, Harpy, and Golden eagle.

   2. A gold coin of the United States, of the value of ten dollars.

   3.  (Astron.)  A  northern constellation, containing Altair, a star of
   the first magnitude. See Aquila.

   4.  The  figure  of an eagle borne as an emblem on the standard of the
   ancient Romans, or so used upon the seal or standard of any people.

     Though the Roman eagle shadow thee. Tennyson.

     NOTE: &hand; So me modern nations, as the United States, and France
     under  the  Bonapartes,  have  adopted  the eagle as their national
     emblem.   Russia,  Austria,  and  Prussia  have  for  an  emblem  a
     double-headed eagle.

   Bald  eagle.  See Bald eagle. -- Bold eagle. See under Bold. -- Double
   eagle, a gold coin of the United States worth twenty dollars. -- Eagle
   hawk  (Zo\'94l.),  a  large, crested, South American hawk of the genus
   Morphnus.  --  Eagle  owl (Zo\'94l.), any large owl of the genus Bubo,
   and   allied   genera;   as   the  American  great  horned  owl  (Bubo
   Virginianus), and the allied European species (B. maximus). See Horned
   owl.  --  Eagle  ray (Zo\'94l.), any large species of ray of the genus
   Myliobatis (esp. M. aquila). -- Eagle vulture (Zo\'94l.), a large West
   African   bid   (Gypohierax   Angolensis),  intermediate,  in  several
   respects, between the eagles and vultures.


   Ea"gle-eyed` (?), a. Sharp-sighted as an eagle. "Inwardly eagle-eyed."


   Ea"gle-sight`ed  (?), a. Farsighted and strong-sighted; sharp-sighted.

   Page 465


   Ea"gless (?), n. [Cf. OF. aiglesse.] (Zo\'94l.) A female or hen eagle.
   [R.] Sherwood.


   Ea"gle*stone  (?), n. (Min.) A concretionary nodule of clay ironstone,
   of  the  size  of  a  walnut or larger, so called by the ancients, who
   believed  that  the  eagle  transported  these  stones  to her nest to
   facilitate the laying of her eggs; a\'89tites.


   Ea"glet  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF.  aiglet.]  (Zo\'94l.) A young eagle, or a
   diminutive eagle.


   Ea"gle-winged` (?), a. Having the wings of an eagle; swift, or soaring
   high, like an eagle. Shak.


   Ea"gle*wood` (?), n. [From Skr. aguru, through Pg. aguila; cf. F. bois
   d'aigle.] A kind of fragrant wood. See Agallochum.


   Ea"grass (?), n. See Eddish. [Obs.]


   Ea"gre   (?),   n.   [AS.   e\'a0gor,   ,   in   comp.,   water,  sea,
   e\'a0gor-stre\'a0m  water  stream,  sea.]  A  wave,  or  two  or three
   successive  waves,  of great height and violence, at flood tide moving
   up an estuary or river; -- commonly called the bore. See Bore.

                             Ealderman, Ealdorman

   Eal"der*man, Eal"dor*man (?), n. An alderman. [Obs.]


   Eale (?), n. [See Ale.] Ale. [Obs.] Shak.


   Eame  (?),  n.  [AS.  e\'a0m;  akin  to  D. oom, G. ohm, oheim; cf. L.
   avunculus.] Uncle. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Ean  (?),  v.  t.  &  i. [AS. e\'a0nian. See Yean.] To bring forth, as
   young; to yean. "In eaning time." Shak.


   Ean"ling  (?),  n.  [See  Ean, Yeanling.] A lamb just brought forth; a
   yeanling. Shak.


   Ear (?), n. [AS. e\'a0re; akin to OFries. \'a0re, \'a0r, OS. , D. oor,
   OHG.  ,  G.  ohr,  Icel. eyra, Sw. \'94ra, Dan. \'94re, Goth. auso, L.
   auris,  Lith. ausis, Russ. ukho, Gr. audire to hear, Gr. av to favor ,
   protect. Cf. Auricle, Orillon.]

   1. The organ of hearing; the external ear.

     NOTE: &hand; In  ma n an d th e hi gher ve rtebrates, th e organ of
     hearing is very complicated, and is divisible into three parts: the
     external  ear,  which  includes  the pinna or auricle and meatus or
     external  opening;  the  middle  ear,  drum,  or  tympanum; and the
     internal ear, or labyrinth. The middle ear is a cavity connected by
     the Eustachian tube with the pharynx, separated from the opening of
     the  external  ear by the tympanic membrane, and containing a chain
     of  three  small  bones,  or  ossicles,  named  malleus, incus, and
     stapes,  which  connect  this  membrane  with the internal ear. The
     essential part of the internal ear where the fibers of the auditory
     nerve  terminate, is the membranous labyrinth, a complicated system
     of  sacs  and tubes filled with a fluid (the endolymph), and lodged
     in  a  cavity, called the bony labyrinth, in the periotic bone. The
     membranous  labyrinth  does not completely fill the bony labyrinth,
     but  is  partially  suspended in it in a fluid (the perilymph). The
     bony  labyrinth  consists  of a central cavity, the vestibule, into
     which  three  semicircular  canals  and  the  canal  of the cochlea
     (spirally  coiled  in  mammals) open. The vestibular portion of the
     membranous  labyrinth  consists  of  two  sacs,  the  utriculus and
     sacculus,  connected  by  a  narrow  tube, into the former of which
     three  membranous  semicircular  canals  open,  while the latter is
     connected  with  a  membranous  tube  in the cochlea containing the
     organ  of  Corti.  By  the  help  of  the external ear the sonorous
     vibrations  of  the air are concentrated upon the tympanic membrane
     and  set  it  vibrating,  the  chain  of  bones  in  the middle ear
     transmits  these  vibrations  to the internal ear, where they cause
     certain  delicate structures in the organ of Corti, and other parts
     of  the  membranous  labyrinth,  to  stimulate  the  fibers  of the
     auditory nerve to transmit sonorous impulses to the brain.

   2.  The  sense  of  hearing;  the  perception  of sounds; the power of
   discriminating  between  different tones; as, a nice ear for music; --
   in the singular only.

     Songs . . . not all ungrateful to thine ear. Tennyson.

   3. That which resembles in shape or position the ear of an animal; any
   prominence  or  projection on an object, -- usually one for support or
   attachment;  a  lug;  a  handle;  as, the ears of a tub, a skillet, or
   dish.  The  ears  of  a  boat are outside kneepieces near the bow. See
   Illust. of Bell.

   4. (Arch.) (a) Same as Acroterium (a). (b) Same as Crossette.

   5. Privilege of being kindly heard; favor; attention.

     Dionysius . . . would give no ear to his suit. Bacon.

     Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears. Shak.

   About  the  ears, in close proximity to; near at hand. -- By the ears,
   in  close  contest;  as,  to  set by the ears; to fall together by the
   ears;  to  be by the ears. -- Button ear (in dogs), an ear which falls
   forward  and  completely  hides  the inside. -- Ear finger, the little
   finger.  --  Ear  of  Dionysius, a kind of ear trumpet with a flexible
   tube;  --  named from the Sicilian tyrant, who constructed a device to
   overhear the prisoners in his dungeons. -- Ear sand (Anat.), otoliths.
   See  Otolith. -- Ear snail (Zo\'94l.), any snail of the genus Auricula
   and  allied  genera.  -- Ear stones (Anat.), otoliths. See Otolith. --
   Ear  trumpet,  an  instrument to aid in hearing. It consists of a tube
   broad  at  the  outer  end, and narrowing to a slender extremity which
   enters  the  ear,  thus  collecting  and  intensifying sounds so as to
   assist  the  hearing  of  a  partially  deaf  person.  --  Ear vesicle
   (Zo\'94l.),   a  simple  auditory  organ,  occurring  in  many  worms,
   mollusks,  etc.  It consists of a small sac containing a fluid and one
   or  more  solid concretions or otocysts. -- Rose ear (in dogs), an ear
   which  folds backward and shows part of the inside. -- To give ear to,
   to  listen  to;  to heed, as advice or one advising. "Give ear unto my
   song."  Goldsmith. -- To have one's ear, to be listened to with favor.
   --  Up to the ears, deeply submerged; almost overwhelmed; as, to be in
   trouble up to one's ears. [Colloq.]
   Ear  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Eared (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Earing.] To
   take in with the ears; to hear. [Sportive] "I eared her language." Two
   Noble Kinsmen. 


   Ear, n. [AS. ear; akin to D. aar, OHG. ahir, G. \'84hre, Icel., Sw., &
   Dan.  ax, Goth. ahs. . Cf. Awn, Edge.] The spike or head of any cereal
   (as, wheat, rye, barley, Indian corn, etc.), containing the kernels.

     First the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear.
     Mark iv. 28.


   Ear,  v.  i. To put forth ears in growing; to form ears, as grain; as,
   this corn ears well.


   Ear,  v.  t.  [OE.  erien, AS. erian; akin to OFries. era, OHG. erran,
   MHG. eren, ern, Prov. G. aren, \'84ren, Icel. erja, Goth. arjan, Lith.
   arti,  OSlav.  orati,  L.  arare,  Gr.  Arable.]  To  plow or till; to
   cultivate. "To ear the land." Shak.


   Ear"a*ble (?), a. Arable; tillable. [Archaic]


   Ear"ache` (?), n. Ache or pain in the ear.


   Ear"al (?), a. Receiving by the ear. [Obs.] Hewyt.


   Ear"-bored` (?), a. Having the ear perforated.


   Ear"cap` (?), n. A cap or cover to protect the ear from cold.


   Ear"coc`kle  (?), n. (Bot.) A disease in wheat, in which the blackened
   and contracted grain, or ear, is filled with minute worms.


   Ear"drop` (?), n.

   1. A pendant for the ear; an earring; as, a pair of eardrops.

   2. (Bot.) A species of primrose. See Auricula.


   Ear"drum` (?), n. (Anat.) The tympanum. See Illust. of Ear.


   Eared (?), a.

   1.  Having  (such  or  so  many)  ears;  --  used  in composition; as,
   long-eared-eared; sharp-eared; full-eared; ten-eared.

   2.   (Zo\'94l.)   Having  external  ears;  having  tufts  of  feathers
   resembling ears.
   Eared  owl (Zo\'94l.), an owl having earlike tufts of feathers, as the
   long-eared  owl,  and  short-eared  owl. -- Eared seal (Zo\'94l.), any
   seal  of  the  family  Otariid\'91,  including  the fur seals and hair
   seals. See Seal. 


   Ear"i*ness  (?),  n.  [Scotch ery or eiry affected with fear.] Fear or
   timidity,   especially   of   something  supernatural.  [Written  also

     The sense of eariness, as twilight came on. De Quincey.


   Ear"ing,  n.  (Naut.) (a) A line used to fasten the upper corners of a
   sail  to  the yard or gaff; -- also called head earing. (b) A line for
   hauling  the reef cringle to the yard; -- also called reef earing. (c)
   A  line  fastening  the  corners  of  an  awning  to  the  rigging  or


   Ear"ing, n. Coming into ear, as corn.


   Ear"ing, n. A plowing of land. [Archaic]

     Neither earing nor harvest. Gen. xlv. 6.


   Earl (?), n. [OE. eorl, erl, AS. eorl man, noble; akin to OS. erl boy,
   man,  Icel.  jarl nobleman, count, and possibly to Gr. arshan man. Cf.
   Jarl.]  A  nobleman  of  England  ranking below a marquis, and above a
   viscount.  The  rank of an earl corresponds to that of a count (comte)
   in  France,  and  graf  in Germany. Hence the wife of an earl is still
   called countess. See Count.


   Earl, n. (Zo\'94l.) The needlefish. [Ireland]


   Ear"lap` (?), n. The lobe of the ear.


   Earl"dom (?), n. [AS. eorl-d; eorl man, noble + -d -dom.]

   1.  The  jurisdiction  of  an  earl; the territorial possessions of an

   2. The status, title, or dignity of an earl.

     He   [Pulteney]   shrunk   into   insignificancy  and  an  earldom.


   Earl"dor*man (?), n. Alderman. [Obs.]


   Earl"duck`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) The red-breasted merganser (Merganser

                                 Earles penny

   Earles"  pen`ny  (?). [Cf. Arles, 4th Earnest.] Earnest money. Same as
   Arles penny. [Obs.]


   Ear"less (?), a. Without ears; hence, deaf or unwilling to hear. Pope.


   Ear"let (?), n. [Ear + -let.] An earring. [Obs.]

     The  Ismaelites were accustomed to wear golden earlets. Judg. viii.
     24 (Douay version).


   Ear"li*ness (?), n. The state of being early or forward; promptness.

                                 Earl marshal

   Earl"  mar"shal  (?).  An officer of state in England who marshals and
   orders  all great ceremonials, takes cognizance of matters relating to
   honor,  arms,  and pedigree, and directs the proclamation of peace and
   war. The court of chivalry was formerly under his jurisdiction, and he
   is still the head of the herald's office or college of arms.


   Ear"lock`  (?), n. [AS. e\'a0r-locca.] A lock or curl of hair near the
   ear; a lovelock. See Lovelock.


   Ear"ly  (?),  adv. [OE. erli, erliche, AS. ; sooner + l\'c6c like. See
   Ere,  and  Like.]  Soon; in good season; seasonably; betimes; as, come

     Those that me early shall find me. Prov. viii. 17.

     You must wake and call me early. Tennyson.


   Ear"ly,  a.  [Compar.  Earlier  (?);  superl. Earliest.] [OE. earlich.
   Early, adv.]

   1. In advance of the usual or appointed time; in good season; prior in
   time; among or near the first; -- opposed to late; as, the early bird;
   an early spring; early fruit.

     Early and provident fear is the mother of safety. Burke.

     The doorsteps and threshold with the early grass springing up about
     them. Hawthorne.

   2. Coming in the first part of a period of time, or among the first of
   successive acts, events, etc.

     Seen in life's early morning sky. Keble.

     The forms of its earlier manhood. Longfellow.

     The  earliest poem he composed was in his seventeenth summer. J. C.

   Early  English  (Philol.) See the Note under English. -- Early English
   architecture,  the  first  of  the  pointed  or  Gothic styles used in
   England,  succeeding  the Norman style in the 12th and 13th centuries.
   Syn. -- Forward; timely; not late; seasonable.


   Ear"mark` (?), n.

   1.  A  mark  on  the ear of sheep, oxen, dogs, etc., as by cropping or

   2. A mark for identification; a distinguishing mark.

     Money is said to have no earmark. Wharton.

     Flying,  he  [a  slave]  should be described by the rounding of his
     head, and his earmark. Robynson (More's Utopia).

     A  set  of  intellectual  ideas  .  . . have earmarks upon them, no
     tokens of a particular proprietor. Burrow.


   Ear"mark`,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Earmarked  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Earmarking.] To mark, as sheep, by cropping or slitting the ear.


   Earn (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Ern, n. Sir W. Scott.


   Earn  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Earned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Earning.]
   [AS.  earnian; akin to OHG. arn to reap, aran harvest, G. ernte, Goth.
   asans  harvest,  asneis  hireling,  AS. esne; cf. Icel. \'94nn working
   season, work.]

   1.  To  merit  or  deserve,  as  by labor or service; to do that which
   entitles one to (a reward, whether the reward is received or not).

     The high repute Which he through hazard huge must earn. Milton.

   2.  To  acquire  by  labor,  service,  or  performance; to deserve and
   receive  as  compensation or wages; as, to earn a good living; to earn
   honors or laurels.

     I earn that [what] I eat. Shak.

     The bread I have earned by the hazard of my life or the sweat of my
     brow. Burke.

   Earned  run  (Baseball), a run which is made without the assistance of
   errors on the opposing side. Syn. -- See Obtain.


   Earn (?), v. t. & i. [See 1st Yearn.] To grieve. [Obs.]


   Earn, v. i. [See 4th Yearn.] To long; to yearn. [Obs.]

     And  ever  as he rode, his heart did earn To prove his puissance in
     battle brave. Spenser.


   Earn,  v. i. [AS. irnan to run. Rennet, and cf. Yearnings.] To curdle,
   as milk. [Prov. Eng.]


   Ear"nest (?), n. [AS. eornost, eornest; akin to OHG. ernust, G. ernst;
   cf.   Icel.  orrosta  battle,  perh.  akin  to  Gr.  oriri  to  rise.]
   Seriousness; reality; fixed determination; eagerness; intentness.

     Take  heed  that  this  jest do not one day turn to earnest. Sir P.

     And given in earnest what I begged in jest. Shak.

   In earnest, serious; seriously; not in jest; earnestly.


   Ear"nest, a.

   1.  Ardent in the pursuit of an object; eager to obtain or do; zealous
   with  sincerity;  with hearty endeavor; heartfelt; fervent; hearty; --
   used in a good sense; as, earnest prayers.

     An earnest advocate to plead for him. Shak.

   2. Intent; fixed closely; as, earnest attention.

   3. Serious; important. [Obs.]

     They whom earnest lets do often hinder. Hooker.

   Syn.  -- Eager; warm; zealous; ardent; animated; importunate; fervent;
   sincere; serious; hearty; urgent. See Eager.


   Ear"nest, v. t. To use in earnest. [R.]

     To earnest them [our arms] with men. Pastor Fido (1602).


   Ear"nest,  n. [Prob. corrupted fr. F. arrhes, L. arra, arrha, arrhabo,
   Gr.  ; or perh. fr. W. ernes, akin to Gael. earlas, perh. fr. L. arra.
   Cf. Arles, Earles penny.]

   1.  Something  given,  or a part paid beforehand, as a pledge; pledge;
   handsel; a token of what is to come.

     Who hath also sealed us, and given the earnest of the Spirit in our
     hearts. 2 Cor. i. 22.

     And  from  his  coffers  Received  the golden earnest of our death.

   2.  (Law)  Something of value given by the buyer to the seller, by way
   of  token  or  pledge,  to  bind the bargain and prove the sale. Kent.
   Ayliffe. Benjamin.
   Earnest  money  (Law),  money paid as earnest, to bind a bargain or to
   ratify and prove a sale. Syn. -- Earnest, Pledge. These words are here
   compared  as  used in their figurative sense. Earnest is not so strong
   as pledge. An earnest, like first fruits, gives assurance, or at least
   a  high  probability,  that more is coming of the same kind; a pledge,
   like  money deposited, affords security and ground of reliance for the
   future.  Washington  gave earnest of his talent as commander by saving
   his  troops  after  Braddock's  defeat;  his fortitude and that of his
   soldiers during the winter at Valley Forge might rightly be considered
   a pledge of their ultimate triumph.


   Ear"nest*ful (?), a. Serious. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ear"nest*ly, adv. In an earnest manner.


   Ear"nest*ness,  n.  The state or quality of being earnest; intentness;

     An honest earnestness in the young man's manner. W. Irving.


   Earn"ful  (?),  a.  [From Earn to yearn.] Full of anxiety or yearning.
   [Obs.] P. Fletcher.


   Earn"ing,  n.;  pl.  Earnings (. That which is earned; wages gained by
   work or services; money earned; -- used commonly in the plural.

     As  to  the  common  people, their stock is in their persons and in
     their earnings. Burke.


   Ear"pick` (?), n. An instrument for removing wax from the ear.


   Ear"-pier`cer (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The earwig.


   Ear"reach` (?), n. Earshot. Marston.


   Ear"ring`  (?), n. An ornament consisting of a ring passed through the
   lobe of the ear, with or without a pendant.


   Earsh (?), n. See Arrish.


   Ear"-shell`  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) A flattened marine univalve shell of
   the genus Haliotis; -- called also sea-ear. See Abalone.

   Page 466


   Ear"shot`  (?),  n.  Reach  of the ear; distance at which words may be
   heard. Dryden.


   Ear"shrift`  (?),  n.  A  nickname  for  auricular confession; shrift.
   [Obs.] Cartwright.


   Ear"sore` (?), n. An annoyance to the ear. [R.]

     The  perpetual jangling of the chimes . . . is no small earsore Sir
     T. Browne.


   Ear"-split`ting  (?),  a.  Deafening; disagreeably loud or shrill; as,
   ear-splitting strains.


   Earst (?), adv. See Erst. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Earth  (?),  n.  [AS. eor; akin to OS. ertha, OFries. irthe, D. aarde,
   OHG.  erda,  G.  erde,  Icel. j\'94r, Sw. & Dan. jord, Goth. a\'c6rpa,
   OHG. ero, Gr. ear to plow.]

   1.  The  globe  or  planet which we inhabit; the world, in distinction
   from  the  sun, moon, or stars. Also, this world as the dwelling place
   of mortals, in distinction from the dwelling place of spirits.

     That  law  preserves  the  earth a sphere And guides the planets in
     their course. S. Rogers.

     In heaven, or earth, or under earth, in hell. Milton.

   2.  The  solid  materials which make up the globe, in distinction from
   the air or water; the dry land.

     God called the dry land earth. Gen. i. 10.

     He  is  pure air and fire, and the dull elements of earth and water
     never appear in him. Shak.

   3.  The  softer  inorganic matter composing part of the surface of the
   globe, in distinction from the firm rock; soil of all kinds, including
   gravel,  clay,  loam,  and  the like; sometimes, soil favorable to the
   growth  of  plants;  the visible surface of the globe; the ground; as,
   loose earth; rich earth.

     Give him a little earth for charity. Shak.

   4. A part of this globe; a region; a country; land.

     Would I had never trod this English earth. Shak.

   5.  Worldly  things,  as  opposed  to  spiritual things; the pursuits,
   interests, and allurements of this life.

     Our weary souls by earth beguiled. Keble.

   6. The people on the globe.

     The whole earth was of one language. Gen. xi. 1.

   7. (Chem.) (a) Any earthy-looking metallic oxide, as alumina, glucina,
   zirconia,  yttria,  and  thoria.  (b) A similar oxide, having a slight
   alkaline reaction, as lime, magnesia, strontia, baryta.

   8.  A hole in the ground, where an animal hides himself; as, the earth
   of a fox. Macaulay.

     They [ferrets] course the poor conies out of their earths. Holland.

     NOTE: &hand; Ea rth is used either adjectively or in combination to
     form compound words; as, earth apple or earth-apple; earth metal or
     earth-metal; earth closet or earth-closet.

   Adamic  earth,  Bitter  earth,  Bog earth, Chian earth, etc. See under
   Adamic,  Bitter, etc. -- Alkaline earths. See under Alkaline. -- Earth
   apple.  (Bot.) (a) A potato. (b) A cucumber. -- Earth auger, a form of
   auger for boring into the ground; -- called also earth borer. -- Earth
   bath,  a  bath  taken by immersing the naked body in earth for healing
   purposes.  --  Earth battery (Physics), a voltaic battery the elements
   of  which  are  buried in the earth to be acted on by its moisture. --
   Earth  chestnut,  the  pignut.  --  Earth  closet,  a privy or commode
   provided  with  dry  earth  or  a  similar  substance for covering and
   deodorizing  the  f\'91cal  discharges. -- Earth dog (Zo\'94l.), a dog
   that  will  dig  in  the earth, or enter holes of foxes, etc. -- Earth
   hog,  Earth pig (Zo\'94l.), the aard-vark. -- Earth hunger, an intense
   desire  to  own  land,  or,  in  the  case of nations, to extend their
   domain. -- Earth light (Astron.), the light reflected by the earth, as
   upon  the  moon,  and corresponding to moonlight; -- called also earth
   shine. Sir J. Herschel. -- Earth metal. See 1st Earth,

   7. (Chem.) --
   Earth  oil,  petroleum.  --  Earth  pillars  OR pyramids (Geol.), high
   pillars  or  pyramids  of earth, sometimes capped with a single stone,
   found  in  Switzerland.  Lyell.  -- Earth pitch (Min.), mineral tar, a
   kind  of  asphaltum.  --  Earth  quadrant,  a  fourth  of  the earth's
   circumference.  --  Earth  table  (Arch.), the lowest course of stones
   visible  in  a  building;  the ground table. -- On earth, an intensive
   expression,  oftenest  used in questions and exclamations; as, What on
   earth shall I do? Nothing on earth will satisfy him. [Colloq.]
   Earth (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Earthed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Earthing.]
   1.  To hide, or cause to hide, in the earth; to chase into a burrow or
   den. "The fox is earthed." Dryden.
   2.  To  cover with earth or mold; to inter; to bury; -- sometimes with
     The  miser  earths  his treasure, and the thief, Watching the mole,
     half beggars him ere noon. Young.

     Why this in earthing up a carcass? R. Blair.


   Earth, v. i. To burrow. Tickell.


   Earth, n. [From Ear to plow.] A plowing. [Obs.]

     Such  land  as  ye  break  up  for barley to sow, Two earths at the
     least, ere ye sow it, bestow. Tusser.


   Earth"bag`  (?),  n.  (Mil.) A bag filled with earth, used commonly to
   raise or repair a parapet.


   Earth"bank` (?), n. A bank or mound of earth.


   Earth"board`  (?), n. (Agric.) The part of a plow, or other implement,
   that turns over the earth; the moldboard.


   Earth"born` (?), a.

   1.  Born  of  the  earth;  terrigenous;  springing originally from the
   earth; human.

     Some earthborn giant. Milton.

   2. Relating to, or occasioned by, earthly objects.

     All earthborn cares are wrong. Goldsmith.


   Earth"bred` (?), a. Low; grovelling; vulgar.


   Earth"din` (?), n. An earthquake. [Obs.]


   Earth"drake`  (?),  n.  A  mythical  monster  of the early Anglo-Saxon
   literature; a dragon. W. Spalding.


   Earth"en  (?), a. Made of earth; made of burnt or baked clay, or other
   like substances; as, an earthen vessel or pipe.


   Earth"en-heart`ed   (?),  a.  Hard-hearted;  sordid;  gross.  [Poetic]


   Earth"en*ware`  (?),  n. Vessels and other utensils, ornaments, or the
   like,  made  of  baked  clay.  See  Crockery,  Pottery, Stoneware, and

                                  Earth flax

   Earth" flax` (?). (Min.) A variety of asbestus. See Amianthus.


   Earth"fork` (?), n. A pronged fork for turning up the earth.


   Earth"i*ness  (?),  n.  The  quality  or  state of being earthy, or of
   containing earth; hence, grossness.


   Earth"li*ness   (?),  n.  The  quality  or  state  of  being  earthly;
   worldliness; grossness; perishableness.


   Earth"ling  (?),  n.  [Earth  +  -ling.] An inhabitant of the earth; a

     Earthings oft her deemed a deity. Drummond.


   Earth"ly, a.

   1.  Pertaining  to  the  earth;  belonging  to this world, or to man's
   existence  on  the  earth; not heavenly or spiritual; carnal; worldly;
   as, earthly joys; earthly flowers; earthly praise.

     This earthly load Of death, called life. Milton.

     Whose  glory is in their shame, who mind earthly things. Phil. iii.

   2. Of all things on earth; possible; conceivable.

     What earthly benefit can be the result? Pope.

   3.  Made  of  earth;  earthy. [Obs.] Holland. Syn. -- Gross; material;
   sordid;  mean;  base;  vile;  low;  unsubstantial; temporary; corrupt;


   Earth"ly, adv. In the manner of the earth or its people; worldly.

     Took  counsel  from  his  guiding  eyes To make this wisdom earthly
     wise. Emerson.


   Earth"ly-mind`ed  (?),  a.  Having  a  mind devoted to earthly things;
   worldly-minded;     --     opposed     to     spiritual-minded.     --
   Earth"ly-mind`ed*ness, n.


   Earth"mad`  (?),  n.  [Earth  +  mad  an  earthworm.]  (Zo\'94l.)  The
   earthworm. [Obs.]

     The  earthmads  and  all the sorts of worms . . . are without eyes.


   Earth"nut`  (?),  n.  (Bot.) A name given to various roots, tubers, or
   pods  grown  under or on the ground; as to: (a) The esculent tubers of
   the umbelliferous plants Bunium flexuosum and Carum Bulbocastanum. (b)
   The peanut. See Peanut.


   Earth"pea`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A species of pea (Amphicarp\'91a monoica).
   It is a climbing leguminous plant, with hairy underground pods.


   Earth"quake` (?), n. A shaking, trembling, or concussion of the earth,
   due to subterranean causes, often accompanied by a rumbling noise. The
   wave of shock sometimes traverses half a hemisphere, destroying cities
   and  many  thousand  lives;  --  called also earthdin, earthquave, and
   earthshock.<--  also  temblor,  tremor  -->  Earthquake  alarm, a bell
   signal  constructed to operate on the theory that a few seconds before
   the  occurrence  of  an  earthquake  the  magnet temporarily loses its


   Earth"quake`,  a.  Like,  or  characteristic  of, an earthquake; loud;

     The earthquake voice of victory. Byron.


   Earth"quave` (?), n. An earthquake.

                                  Earth shine

   Earth" shine` (?). See Earth light, under Earth.


   Earth"shock` (?), n. An earthquake.


   Earth"star`  (?),  n. (Bot.) A curious fungus of the genus Geaster, in
   which the outer coating splits into the shape of a star, and the inner
   one forms a ball containing the dustlike spores.


   Earth"-tongue` (?), n. (Bot.) A fungus of the genus Geoglossum.

                             Earthward, Earthwards

   Earth"ward  (?),  Earth"wards  (, adv. Toward the earth; -- opposed to
   heavenward or skyward.


   Earth"work` (?), n.

   1.   (Mil.)  Any  construction,  whether  a  temporary  breastwork  or
   permanent  fortification, for attack or defense, the material of which
   is chiefly earth.

   2.   (Engin.)   (a)  The  operation  connected  with  excavations  and
   embankments  of  earth  in  preparing  foundations  of  buildings,  in
   constructing canals, railroads, etc. (b) An embankment or construction
   made of earth.


   Earth"worm` (?), n.

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Any worm of the genus Lumbricus and allied genera, found
   in  damp  soil. One of the largest and most abundant species in Europe
   and  America  is  L. terrestris; many others are known; -- called also
   angleworm and dewworm.

   2. A mean, sordid person; a niggard. Norris.


   Earth"y (?), a.

   1. Consisting of, or resembling, earth; terrene; earthlike; as, earthy

     How pale she looks, And of an earthy cold! Shak.

     All over earthy, like a piece of earth. Tennyson.

   2.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the  earth  or  to,  this  world; earthly;
   terrestrial; carnal. [R.] "Their earthy charge." Milton.

     The  first  man  is  of  the  earth, earthy; the second man is from
     heaven.  As  is  the  earthy, such are they also that are earthy. 1
     Cor. xv. 47, 48 (Rev. Ver. )

     Earthy spirits black and envious are. Dryden.

   3. Gross; low; unrefined. "Her earthy and abhorred commands." Shak.

   4.  (Min.)  Without  luster, or dull and roughish to the touch; as, an
   earthy fracture.


   Ear"wax` (?), n. (Anat.) See Cerumen.


   Ear"wig`  (?),  n. [AS. e\'a0rwicga; e\'a0re ear + wicga beetle, worm:
   cf. Prov. E. erri-wiggle.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  insect of the genus Forticula and related genera,
   belonging to the order Euplexoptera.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) In America, any small chilopodous myriapod, esp. of the
   genus Geophilus.

     NOTE: &hand; Bo th in sects are so called from the supposition that
     they creep into the human ear.

   3. A whisperer of insinuations; a secret counselor. Johnson.


   Ear"wig`  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Earwigged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Earwigging  (?).]  To influence, or attempt to influence, by whispered
   insinuations  or private talk. "No longer was he earwigged by the Lord
   Cravens." Lord Campbell.


   Ear"wit`ness (?), n. A witness by means of his ears; one who is within
   hearing and does hear; a hearer. Fuller.


   Ease  (?),  n.  [OE.  ese,  eise, F. aise; akin to Pr. ais, aise, OIt.
   asio,  It.  agio;  of  uncertain origin; cf. L. ansa handle, occasion,
   opportunity. Cf. Agio, Disease.]

   1. Satisfaction; pleasure; hence, accommodation; entertainment. [Obs.]

     They him besought Of harbor and or ease as for hire penny. Chaucer.

   2.  Freedom  from anything that pains or troubles; as: (a) Relief from
   labor or effort; rest; quiet; relaxation; as, ease of body.

     Usefulness comes by labor, wit by ease. Herbert.

     Give yourself ease from the fatigue of watching. Swift.

   (b)  Freedom  from  care,  solicitude,  or  anything  that  annoys  or
   disquiets; tranquillity; peace; comfort; security; as, ease of mind.

     Among these nations shalt thou find no ease. Deut. xxviii. 65.

     Take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry. Luke xii. 19.

   (c)  Freedom  from  constraint,  formality, difficulty, embarrassment,
   etc.;  facility; liberty; naturalness; -- said of manner, style, etc.;
   as, ease of style, of behavior, of address.

     True ease in writing comes from art, not chance. Pope.

     Whate'er  he  did  was  done with so much ease, In him alone 't was
     natural to please. Dryden.

   At ease, free from pain, trouble, or anxiety. "His soul shall dwell at
   ease."  Ps.  xxv.  12.  -- Chapel of ease. See under Chapel. -- Ill at
   ease, not at ease, disquieted; suffering; anxious. -- To stand at ease
   (Mil.),  to  stand  in  a  comfortable  attitude in one's place in the
   ranks. -- With ease, easily; without much effort. Syn. -- Rest; quiet;
   repose; comfortableness; tranquility; facility; easiness; readiness.


   Ease (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Eased (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Easing.]
   [OE. esen, eisen, OF. aisier. See Ease, n.]

   1.  To  free  from  anything  that  pains, disquiets, or oppresses; to
   relieve from toil or care; to give rest, repose, or tranquility to; --
   often with of; as, to ease of pain; ease the body or mind.

     Eased  [from]  the putting off These troublesome disguises which we
     wear. Milton.

     Sing, and I 'll ease thy shoulders of thy load. Dryden.

   2. To render less painful or oppressive; to mitigate; to alleviate.

     My couch shall ease my complaint. Job vii. 13.

   3.  To  release  from  pressure  or restraint; to move gently; to lift
   slightly; to shift a little; as, to ease a bar or nut in machinery.

   4. To entertain; to furnish with accommodations. [Obs.] Chaucer.
   To  ease off, To ease away (Naut.), to slacken a rope gradually. -- To
   ease  a  ship  (Naut.), to put the helm hard, or regulate the sail, to
   prevent pitching when closehauled. -- To ease the helm (Naut.), to put
   the  helm  more nearly amidships, to lessen the effect on the ship, or
   the  strain  on  the  wheel rope. Ham. Nav. Encyc. Syn. -- To relieve;
   disburden;   quiet;  calm;  tranquilize;  assuage;  alleviate;  allay;
   mitigate; appease; pacify.


   Ease"ful  (?),  a.  Full of ease; suitable for affording ease or rest;
   quiet;   comfortable;   restful.   Shak.   --   Ease"ful*ly,  adv.  --
   Ease"ful*ness, n.


   Ea"sel (?), n. [D. ezel ass, donkey, hence, easel, or G. esel; akin to
   E.  ass. See Ass.] A frame (commonly) of wood serving to hold a canvas
   upright,  or  nearly  upright,  for  the  painter's convenience or for
   exhibition.  Easel  picture,  Easel piece, a painting of moderate size
   such  as  is  made  while resting on an easel, as distinguished from a
   painting on a wall or ceiling.


   Ease"less (?), a. Without ease. Donne.


   Ease"ment (?), n. [OF. aisement. See Ease, n.]

   1.   That  which  gives  ease,  relief,  or  assistance;  convenience;

     In need of every kind of relief and easement. Burke.

   2.  (Law) A liberty, privilege, or advantage, which one proprietor has
   in  the  estate  of another proprietor, distinct from the ownership of
   the  soil,  as  a  way, water course, etc. It is a species of what the
   civil law calls servitude. Kent.

   3.  (Arch.)  A curved member instead of an abrupt change of direction,
   as in a baseboard, hand rail, etc.


   Eas"i*ly (?), adv. [From Easy.]

   1.  With ease; without difficulty or much effort; as, this task may be
   easily performed; that event might have been easily foreseen.

   2.  Without  pain,  anxiety, or disturbance; as, to pass life well and
   easily. Sir W. Temple.

   3. Readily; without reluctance; willingly.

     Not soon provoked, she easily forgives. Prior.

   Page 467

   4. Smoothly; quietly; gently; gracefully; without

   5.  Without  shaking  or  jolting;  commodiously; as, a carriage moves


   Eas"i*ness (?), n.

   1. The state or condition of being easy; freedom from distress; rest.

   2. Freedom from difficulty; ease; as the easiness of a task.

   3.  Freedom  from  emotion;  compliance;  disposition to yield without
   opposition; unconcernedness.

     Give to him, and he shall but laugh at your easiness. South.

   4.  Freedom  from  effort, constraint, or formality; -- said of style,
   manner, etc.

     With painful care, but seeming easiness. Roscommon.

   5. Freedom from jolting, jerking, or straining.


   East  (?),  n.  [OE.  est, east, AS. e\'a0st; akin to D. oost, oosten,
   OHG.  ,  G.  ost,  osten, Icel. austr, Sw. ost, Dan. \'94st, \'94sten,
   Lith.  auszra dawn, L. aurora (for ausosa), Gr. ushas; cf. Skr. ush to
   burn, L. urere. Aurora, Easter, Sterling.]

   1.  The  point  in  the  heavens  where the sun is seen to rise at the
   equinox, or the corresponding point on the earth; that one of the four
   cardinal points of the compass which is in a direction at right angles
   to  that of north and south, and which is toward the right hand of one
   who faces the north; the point directly opposite to the west.

     The east began kindle. E. Everett.

   2.  The eastern parts of the earth; the regions or countries which lie
   east  of  Europe;  the  orient.  In this indefinite sense, the word is
   applied to Asia Minor, Syria, Chaldea, Persia, India, China, etc.; as,
   the riches of the East; the diamonds and pearls of the East; the kings
   of the East.

     The gorgeous East, with richest hand, Showers on her kings barbaric
     pearl and gold. Milton.

   3.  (U.  S.  Hist.  and Geog.) Formerly, the part of the United States
   east  of  the  Alleghany  Mountains, esp. the Eastern, or New England,
   States; now, commonly, the whole region east of the Mississippi River,
   esp.  that  which  is north of Maryland and the Ohio River; -- usually
   with  the  definite  article;  as,  the  commerce  of  the East is not
   independent of the agriculture of the West.
   East  by  north,  East  by  south,  according  to  the notation of the
   mariner's  compass,  that  point  which  lies  11  --  East-northeast,
   East-southeast, that which lie 22Illust. of Compass. 


   East  (?), a. Toward the rising sun; or toward the point where the sun
   rises when in the equinoctial; as, the east gate; the east border; the
   east side; the east wind is a wind that blows from the east.


   East, adv. Eastward.


   East,  v.  i. To move toward the east; to veer from the north or south
   toward the east; to orientate.


   Eas"ter  (?),  n.  [AS.  e\'a0ster, e\'a0stran, paschal feast, Easter;
   akin to G. ostern; fr. AS. E\'a0stre, a goddess of light or spring, in
   honor  of  whom  a festival was celebrated in April; whence this month
   was called in AS. E\'a0sterm. From the root of E. east. See East.]

   1.  An annual church festival commemorating Christ's resurrection, and
   occurring  on Sunday, the second day after Good Friday. It corresponds
   to  the  pasha or passover of the Jews, and most nations still give it
   this  name  under  the  various  forms of pascha, pasque, p\'83que, or

   2. The day on which the festival is observed; Easter day.

     NOTE: &hand; Ea ster is  us ed ei ther ad jectively or as the first
     element of a compound; as, Easter day or Easter-day, Easter Sunday,
     Easter week, Easter gifts.

     Sundays  by  thee more glorious break, An Easter day in every week.

     NOTE: &hand; Ea ster da y, on  which the rest of the movable feasts
     depend,  is always the first Sunday after the fourteenth day of the
     calendar  moon  which (fourteenth day) falls on, or next after, the
     21st   of   March,  according  to  the  rules  laid  down  for  the
     construction  of the calendar; so that if the fourteenth day happen
     on a Sunday, Easter day is the Sunday after.

   Eng.  Cyc.  Easter  dues  (Ch.  of  Eng.),  money due to the clergy at
   Easter, formerly paid in communication of the tithe for personal labor
   and  subject to exaction. For Easter dues, Easter offerings, voluntary
   gifts,  have been substituted. -- Easter egg. (a) A painted or colored
   egg  used as a present at Easter. (b) An imitation of an egg, in sugar
   or some fine material, sometimes made to serve as a box for jewelry or
   the like, used as an Easter present.


   East"er  (?),  v. i. (Naut.) To veer to the east; -- said of the wind.


   East"er*ling (?), n. [Cf. Sterling.]

   1. A native of a country eastward of another; -- used, by the English,
   of traders or others from the coasts of the Baltic.

     Merchants  of  Norway,  Denmark,  .  .  .  called . . . Easterlings
     because they lie east in respect of us. Holinshed.

   2.  A  piece  of  money  coined in the east by Richard II. of England.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) The smew.


   East"er*ling,  a.  Relating to the money of the Easterlings, or Baltic
   traders. See Sterling.


   East"er*ly, a.

   1. Coming from the east; as, it was easterly wind.

   2.  Situated,  directed,  or  moving toward the east; as, the easterly
   side of a lake; an easterly course or voyage.


   East"er*ly, adv. Toward, or in the direction of, the east.


   East"ern (?), a. [AS. e\'a0stern.]

   1.  Situated  or  dwelling in the east; oriental; as, an eastern gate;
   Eastern countries.

     Eastern churches first did Christ embrace. Stirling.

   2.  Going toward the east, or in the direction of east; as, an eastern
   Eastern Church. See Greek Church, under Greek.


   East"ern*most` (?), a. Most eastern.

                                  East Indian

   East" In"di*an (?; see Indian). Belonging to, or relating to, the East
   Indies. -- n. A native of, or a dweller in, the East Indies.


   East"ing,  n.  (Naut.  &  Surv.) The distance measured toward the east
   between  two  meridians  drawn  through  the  extremities of a course;
   distance of departure eastward made by a vessel.


   East`-in"su*lar  (?), a. Relating to the Eastern Islands; East Indian.
   [R.] Ogilvie.

                              Eastward, Eastwards

   East"ward  (?), East"wards (?), adv. Toward the east; in the direction
   of east from some point or place; as, New Haven lies eastward from New


   Eas"y (?), a. [Compar. Easier (?); superl. Easiest.] [OF. aisi\'82, F.
   ais\'82, prop. p. p. of OF. aisier. See Ease, v. t.]

   1.  At ease; free from pain, trouble, or constraint; as: (a) Free from
   pain,  distress,  toil, exertion, and the like; quiet; as, the patient
   is easy. (b) Free from care, responsibility, discontent, and the like;
   not  anxious;  tranquil;  as,  an easy mind. (c) Free from constraint,
   harshness,  or  formality; unconstrained; smooth; as, easy manners; an
   easy style. "The easy vigor of a line." Pope.

   2.  Not causing, or attended with, pain or disquiet, or much exertion;
   affording  ease  or  rest; as, an easy carriage; a ship having an easy
   motion; easy movements, as in dancing. "Easy ways to die." Shak.

   3.   Not   difficult;   requiring  little  labor  or  effort;  slight;
   inconsiderable; as, an easy task; an easy victory.

     It were an easy leap. Shak.

   4.  Causing  ease;  giving  freedom  from  care  or  labor; furnishing
   comfort; commodious; as, easy circumstances; an easy chair or cushion.

   5.   Not   making  resistance  or  showing  unwillingness;  tractable;
   yielding; complying; ready.

     He gained their easy hearts. Dryden.

     He is too tyrannical to be an easy monarch. Sir W. Scott.

   6. Moderate; sparing; frugal. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   7.  (Com.) Not straitened as to money matters; as, the market is easy;
   -- opposed to tight.
   Honors  are  easy  (Card  Playing),  said  when each side has an equal
   number  of  honors, in which case they are not counted as points. Syn.
   --   Quiet;   comfortable;   manageable;   tranquil;   calm;   facile;


   Eas"y-chair`  (?), n. An armichair for ease or repose. "Laugh . . . in
   Rabelais' easy-chair." Pope.


   Eas"y-go`ing (?), a. Moving easily; hence, mild-tempered; ease-loving;


   Eat  (?), v. t. [imp. Ate (?; 277), Obsolescent & Colloq. Eat (; p. p.
   Eaten  (?),  Obs.  or Colloq. Eat (p. pr. & vb. n. Eating.] [OE. eten,
   AS.  etan;  akin  to  OS.  etan,  OFries. eta, D. eten, OHG. ezzan, G.
   essen,  Icel.  eta,  Sw.  \'84ta, Dan. \'91de, Goth. itan, Ir. & Gael.
   ith, W. ysu, L. edere, Gr. ad. Etch, Fret to rub, Edible.]

   1.  To chew and swallow as food; to devour; -- said especially of food
   not liquid; as, to eat bread. "To eat grass as oxen." Dan. iv. 25.

     They . . . ate the sacrifices of the dead. Ps. cvi. 28.

     The lean . . . did eat up the first seven fat kine. Gen. xli. 20.

     The lion had not eaten the carcass. 1 Kings xiii. 28.

     With  stories  told  of  many  a  feat,  How fairy Mab junkets eat.

     The island princes overbold Have eat our substance. Tennyson.

     His wretched estate is eaten up with mortgages. Thackeray.

   2.  To  corrode, as metal, by rust; to consume the flesh, as a cancer;
   to waste or wear away; to destroy gradually; to cause to disappear.
   To  eat  humble  pie.  See under Humble. -- To eat of (partitive use).
   "Eat  of  the bread that can not waste." Keble. -- To eat one's words,
   to  retract  what  one has said. (See the Citation under Blurt.) -- To
   eat out, to consume completely. "Eat out the heart and comfort of it."
   Tillotson.  -- To eat the wind out of a vessel (Naut.), to gain slowly
   to windward of her. Syn. -- To consume; devour; gnaw; corrode.


   Eat, v. i.

   1.  To  take  food; to feed; especially, to take solid, in distinction
   from liquid, food; to board.

     He did eat continually at the king's table. 2 Sam. ix. 13.

   2. To taste or relish; as, it eats like tender beef.

   3. To make one's way slowly.
   To  eat,  To  eat  in  OR  into, to make way by corrosion; to gnaw; to
   consume.  "A  sword laid by, which eats into itself." Byron. -- To eat
   to  windward  (Naut.),  to  keep  the course when closehauled with but
   little steering; -- said of a vessel.


   Eat"a*ble  (?), a. Capable of being eaten; fit to be eaten; proper for
   food; esculent; edible. -- n. Something fit to be eaten.


   Eat"age  (?;  48),  n.  Eatable growth of grass for horses and cattle,
   esp. that of aftermath.


   Eat"er (?), n. One who, or that which, eats.


   Eath  (?), a. & adv. [AS. e\'a0.] Easy or easily. [Obs.] "Eath to move
   with plaints." Fairfax.


   Eat"ing (?), n.

   1. The act of tasking food; the act of consuming or corroding.

   2.  Something  fit  to  be  eaten;  food;  as, a peach is good eating.
   Eating house, a house where cooked provisions are sold, to be eaten on
   the premises.

                                Eau de Cologne

   Eau`  de  Co*logne"  (?).  [F. eau water (L. aqua) + de of + Cologne.]
   Same as Cologne.

                                  Eau de vie

   Eau`  de  vie"  (?). [F., water of life; eau (L. aqua) water + de of +
   vie  (L.  vita) life.] French name for brandy. Cf. Aqua vit\'91, under
   Aqua. Bescherelle.


   Eave"drop` (?), n. A drop from the eaves; eavesdrop. [R.] Tennyson.


   Eaves  (?),  n.  pl.  [OE.  evese,  pl. eveses, AS. efese eaves, brim,
   brink;  akin to OHG. obisa, opasa, porch, hall, MHG. obse eaves, Icel.
   ups,  Goth.  ubizwa  porch;  cf.  Icel. upsar-dropi, OSw. ops\'84-drup
   water  dropping from the eaves. Probably from the root of E. over. The
   s of eaves is in English regarded as a plural ending, though not so in
   Saxon. See Over, and cf. Eavesdrop.]

   1. (Arch.) The edges or lower borders of the roof of a building, which
   overhang the walls, and cast off the water that falls on the roof.

   2. Brow; ridge. [Obs.] "Eaves of the hill." Wyclif.

   3. Eyelids or eyelashes.

     And closing eaves of wearied eyes. Tennyson.

   Eaves  board (Arch.), an arris fillet, or a thick board with a feather
   edge,  nailed  across the rafters at the eaves of a building, to raise
   the  lower  course of slates a little, or to receive the lowest course
   of tiles; -- called also eaves catch and eaves lath. -- Eaves channel,
   Eaves gutter, Eaves trough. Same as Gutter,

   1. --
   Eaves  molding  (Arch.), a molding immediately below the eaves, acting
   as  a  cornice  or part of a cornice. -- Eaves swallow (Zo\'94l.). (a)
   The   cliff   swallow;  --  so  called  from  its  habit  of  building
   retort-shaped  nests  of  mud  under the eaves of buildings. See Cliff
   swallow, under Cliff. (b) The European swallow.


   Eaves"drop`  (?), v. i. [Eaves + drop.] To stand under the eaves, near
   a  window or at the door, of a house, to listen and learn what is said
   within doors; hence, to listen secretly to what is said in private.

     To eavesdrop in disguises. Milton.


   Eaves"drop`,  n.  The  water  which falls in drops from the eaves of a


   Eaves"drop`per  (?),  n.  One  who stands under the eaves, or near the
   window or door of a house, to listen; hence, a secret listener.


   Eaves"drop`ping  (?),  n.  (Law)  The  habit of lurking about dwelling
   houses,  and  other places where persons meet fro private intercourse,
   secretly  listening  to what is said, and then tattling it abroad. The
   offense is indictable at common law. Wharton.


   Ebb (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The European bunting.


   Ebb,  n.  [AS. ebba; akin to Fries. ebba, D. eb, ebbe, Dan. & G. ebbe,
   Sw. ebb, cf. Goth. ibuks backward; prob. akin to E. even.]

   1.  The  reflux  or  flowing back of the tide; the return of the tidal
   wave toward the sea; -- opposed to flood; as, the boats will go out on
   the ebb.

     Thou  shoreless flood which in thy ebb and flow Claspest the limits
     of morality! Shelley.

   2.  The  state  or  time of passing away; a falling from a better to a
   worse  state;  low  state  or  condition;  decline; decay. "Our ebb of
   life." Roscommon.

     Painting was then at its lowest ebb. Dryden.

   Ebb  and  flow,  the  alternate  ebb and flood of the tide; often used

     This  alternation  between  unhealthy activity and depression, this
     ebb and flow of the industrial. A. T. Hadley.


   Ebb  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Ebbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ebbing.] [AS.
   ebbian; akin to D. & G. ebben, Dan. ebbe. See 2d Ebb.]

   1.  To  flow back; to return, as the water of a tide toward the ocean;
   -- opposed to flow.

     That Power who bids the ocean ebb and flow. Pope.

   2.  To return or fall back from a better to a worse state; to decline;
   to decay; to recede.

     The hours of life ebb fast. Blackmore.

   Syn.  --  To  recede;  retire;  withdraw; decay; decrease; wane; sink;


   Ebb, v. t. To cause to flow back. [Obs.] Ford.


   Ebb, a. Receding; going out; falling; shallow; low.

     The water there is otherwise very low and ebb. Holland.

                                   Ebb tide

   Ebb"  tide`  (?).  The  reflux  of  tide  water; the retiring tide; --
   opposed to flood tide.


   E"bi*o*nite  (?),  n. [Heb. ebyon\'c6m poor people.] (Eccl. Hist.) One
   of  a  sect  of  heretics, in the first centuries of the church, whose
   doctrine  was  a  mixture of Judaism and Christianity. They denied the
   divinity  of  Christ,  regarding  him  as  an  inspired messenger, and
   rejected much of the New Testament.


   E"bi*o*ni`tism  (?),  n.  (Eccl.  Hist.) The system or doctrine of the


   Eb"la*nin (?), n. (Chem.) See Pyroxanthin.


   Eb"lis  (?),  n.  [Ar.  iblis.]  (Moham. Myth.) The prince of the evil
   spirits; Satan. [Written also Eblees.]


   Eb"on (?), a.

   1. Consisting of ebony.

   2. Like ebony, especially in color; black; dark.

     Night, sable goddess! from her ebon throne. Young.


   Eb"on, n. Ebony. [Poetic] "Framed of ebon and ivory." Sir W. Scott.


   Eb"on*ist (?), n. One who works in ebony.


   Eb"on*ite  (?),  n. (Chem.) A hard, black variety of vulcanite. It may
   be cut and polished, and is used for many small articles, as combs and
   buttons, and for insulating material in electric apparatus.


   Eb"on*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Ebonized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Ebonizing.]  To make black, or stain black, in imitation of ebony; as,
   to ebonize wood.


   Eb"on*y  (?), n.; pl. Ebonies (#). [F. \'82b\'8ane, L. ebenus, fr. Gr.
   hobn\'c6m,  pl.  Cf.  Ebon.]  A  hard,  heavy, and durable wood, which
   admits  of  a  fine  polish or gloss. The usual color is black, but it
   also occurs red or green.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fi nest black ebony is the heartwood of Diospyros
     reticulata,  of  the Mauritius. Other species of the same genus (D.
     Ebenum,  Melanoxylon,  etc.),  furnish the ebony of the East Indies
     and  Ceylon.  The West Indian green ebony is from a leguminous tree
     (Brya Ebenus), and from the Exc\'91caria glandulosa.


   Eb"on*y,  a.  Made  of ebony, or resembling ebony; black; as, an ebony

     This ebony bird beguiling my sad fancy into smiling. Poe.


   E*brac"te*ate (?), a. [Pref. e- + bracteate.] (Bot.) Without bracts.


   E*brac"te*o*late  (?),  a.  [Pref.  e-  + bracteolate.] (Bot.) Without
   bracteoles, or little bracts; -- said of a pedicel or flower stalk.


   E*brau"ke  (?),  a.  [L.  Hebraicus:  cf. F. H\'82bra\'8bque.] Hebrew.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   E*bri"e*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Ebrieties  (#). [L. ebrietas, from. ebrius
   intoxicated:  cf. F. \'82bri\'82te. Cf. So.] Drunkenness; intoxication
   by spirituous liquors; inebriety. "Ruinous ebriety." Cowper.

   Page 468


   E*bril"lade  (?),  n.  [F.] (Man.) A bridle check; a jerk of one rein,
   given to a horse when he refuses to turn.


   E`bri*os"i*ty   (?),  n.  [L.  ebriositas,  from  ebriousus  given  to
   drinking,  fr.  ebrius.  See  Ebriety.]  Addiction  to drink; habitual


   E"bri*ous   (?),   a.  [L.  ebrius.]  Inclined  to  drink  to  excess;
   intoxicated; tipsy. [R.] M. Collins.


   E*bul"li*ate (?), v. i. To boil or bubble up. [Obs.] Prynne.

                          Ebullience; 106, Ebulliency

   E*bul"lience  (?;  106),  E*bul"lien*cy  (?), n. A boiling up or over;
   effervescence. Cudworth.


   E*bul"lient  (?), a. [L. ebulliens, -entis, p. pr. of ebullire to boil
   up,  bubble  up; e out, from + bullire to boil. See 1st Boil.] Boiling
   up  or  over;  hence,  manifesting  exhilaration  or excitement, as of
   feeling; effervescing. "Ebullient with subtlety." De Quincey.

     The ebullient enthusiasm of the French. Carlyle.


   E*bul"li*o*scope  (?),  n.  [L.  ebullire to boil up + -scope.] (Phys.
   Chem.)  An  instrument  for  observing  the  boiling point of liquids,
   especially  for determining the alcoholic strength of a mixture by the
   temperature at which it boils.


   Eb`ul*li"tion  (?),  n. [F. \'82bullition, L. ebullitio, fr. ebullire.
   See Ebullient.]

   1.  A  boiling  or  bubbling  up of a liquid; the motion produced in a
   liquid by its rapid conversion into vapor.

   2.  Effervescence  occasioned  by fermentation or by any other process
   which  causes  the  liberation of a gas or an a\'89riform fluid, as in
   the  mixture  of  an  acid with a carbonated alkali. [Formerly written

   3.  A  sudden burst or violent display; an outburst; as, an ebullition
   of anger or ill temper.


   Eb"ur*in  (?),  n.  A  composition  of dust of ivory or of bone with a
   cement;  --  used  for  imitations  of  valuable  stones and in making
   moldings, seals, etc. Knight.


   E`bur*na"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  eburnus of ivory, fr. ebur ivory: cf. F.
   \'82burnation.  See  Ivory.]  (Med.)  A  condition  of  bone cartilage
   occurring  in certain diseases of these tissues, in which they acquire
   an unnatural density, and come to resemble ivory.


   E*bur"ne*an  (?), a. [L. eburneus, fr. ebur ivory. See Ivory.] Made of
   or relating to ivory.


   E*bur`ni*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [L. eburnus of ivory (fr. ebur ivory) +
   facere  to  make.]  The  conversion  of certain substances into others
   which have the appearance or characteristics of ivory.


   Eb"ur*nine  (?), a. Of or pertaining to ivory. "[She] read from tablet
   eburnine." Sir W. Scott.


   E*car"di*nes (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. L. e out, without + cardo a hinge.]
   (Zo\'94l.) An order of Brachiopoda; the Lyopomata. See Brachiopoda.


   \'90`car`t\'82" (?), n. [F., prop. fr. \'82carter to reject, discard.]
   A  game  at cards, played usually by two persons, in which the players
   may  discard any or all of the cards dealt and receive others from the


   E*cau"date (?), a. [Pref. e- + caudate.]

   1. (Bot.) Without a tail or spur.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Tailless.


   Ec*bal"li*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  Ecbole.]  (Bot.)  A  genus of
   cucurbitaceous  plants  consisting  of  the  single  species Ecballium
   agreste  (or Elaterium), the squirting cucumber. Its fruit, when ripe,
   bursts  and  violently  ejects its seeds, together with a mucilaginous
   juice,  from  which  elaterium,  a  powerful  cathartic  medicine,  is


   Ec"ba*sis  (?),  n.  [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure in which the orator
   treats of things according to their events consequences.


   Ec*bat"ic  (?),  a.  [See  Ecbasis.] (Gram.) Denoting a mere result or
   consequence,  as  distinguished from telic, which denotes intention or
   purpose;  thus  the  phrase  so that it was fulfilled," is ecbatic; if
   rendered "in order that it might be." etc., is telic.


   Ec"bo*le  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A digression in which a person
   is introduced speaking his own words.


   Ec*bol"ic  (?),  n.  [See  Ecbole.]  (Med.) A drug, as ergot, which by
   exciting  uterine  contractions promotes the expulsion of the contents
   of the uterus.


   Ec"bo*line  (?;  104),  n.  [Gr.  (Chem.) An alkaloid constituting the
   active  principle  of  ergot;  -- so named from its power of producing


   Ec`ca*le*o"bi*on  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  contrivance  for hatching eggs by
   artificial heat.

                                   Ecce homo

   Ec"ce  ho"mo  (?).  [L.,  behold the man. See John xix. 5.] (Paint.) A
   picture  which  represents  the  Savior  as  given up to the people by
   Pilate, and wearing a crown of thorns.


   Ec*cen"tric   (?),   a.   [F.   excentrique,   formerly  also  spelled
   eccentrique,  fr. LL. eccentros out of the center, eccentric, Gr. Ex-,
   and Center, and cf. Excentral.]

   1.  Deviating  or  departing  from  the  center, or from the line of a
   circle;  as, an eccentric or elliptical orbit; pertaining to deviation
   from the center or from true circular motion.

   2.  Not having the same center; -- said of circles, ellipses, spheres,
   etc., which, though coinciding, either in whole or in part, as to area
   or volume, have not the same center; -- opposed to concentric.

   3.  (Mach.)  Pertaining  to  an  eccentric; as, the eccentric rod in a
   steam engine.

   4. Not coincident as to motive or end.

     His  own  ends, which must needs be often eccentric to those of his
     master. Bacon.

   5. Deviating from stated methods, usual practice, or established forms
   or laws; deviating from an appointed sphere or way; departing from the
   usual  course; irregular; anomalous; odd; as, eccentric conduct. "This
   brave and eccentric young man." Macaulay.

     He shines eccentric, like a comet's blaze. Savage.

   Eccentric  anomaly. (Astron.) See Anomaly. -- Eccentric chuck (Mach.),
   a  lathe  chuck so constructed that the work held by it may be altered
   as to its center of motion, so as to produce combinations of eccentric
   combinations  of eccentric circles. -- Eccentric gear. (Mach.) (a) The
   whole  apparatus,  strap,  and  other parts, by which the motion of an
   eccentric  is  transmitted, as in the steam engine. (b) A cogwheel set
   to  turn  about  an  eccentric axis used to give variable rotation. --
   Eccentric  hook  OR  gab,  a  hook-shaped journal box on the end of an
   eccentric  rod,  opposite  the  strap.  -- Eccentric rod, the rod that
   connects  as  eccentric  strap  with  any part to be acted upon by the
   eccentric.  -- Eccentric sheave, OR Eccentric pulley, an eccentric. --
   Eccentric  strap, the ring, operating as a journal box, that encircles
   and  receives motion from an eccentric; -- called also eccentric hoop.
   Syn.  --  Irregular;  anomalous;  singular;  odd;  peculiar;  erratic;
   idiosyncratic; strange; whimsical.


   Ec*cen"tric (?), n.

   1.  A  circle  not having the same center as another contained in some
   measure within the first.

   2.  One  who, or that which, deviates from regularity; an anomalous or
   irregular person or thing.

   3.  (Astron.) (a) In the Ptolemaic system, the supposed circular orbit
   of a planet about the earth, but with the earth not in its center. (b)
   A  circle described about the center of an elliptical orbit, with half
   the major axis for radius. Hutton.

   4. (Mach.) A disk or wheel so arranged upon a shaft that the center of
   the  wheel  and  that  of  the  shaft  do not coincide. It is used for
   operating  valves in steam engines, and for other purposes. The motion
   derived is precisely that of a crank having the same throw.
   Back  eccentric,  the  eccentric that reverses or backs the valve gear
   and  the  engine.  --  Fore  eccentric,  the  eccentric that imparts a
   forward motion to the valve gear and the engine.


   Ec*cen"tric*al (?), a. See Eccentric.


   Ec*cen"tric*al*ly, adv. In an eccentric manner.

     Drove eccentrically here and there. Lew Wallace.


   Ec`cen*tric"i*ty   (?),   n.;   pl.   Eccentricities   (#).   [Cf.  F.

   1.  The state of being eccentric; deviation from the customary line of
   conduct; oddity.

   2.  (Math.) The ratio of the distance between the center and the focus
   of an ellipse or hyperbola to its semi-transverse axis.

   3. (Astron.) The ratio of the distance of the center of the orbit of a
   heavenly  body  from the center of the body round which it revolves to
   the semi-transverse axis of the orbit.

   4.  (Mech.)  The  distance of the center of figure of a body, as of an
   eccentric, from an axis about which it turns; the throw.


   Ec"chy*mose  (?),  v.  t.  (Med.)  To discolor by the production of an
   ecchymosis, or effusion of blood, beneath the skin; -- chiefly used in
   the passive form; as, the parts were much ecchymosed.


   Ec`chy*mo"sis  (?), n.; pl. Ecchymoses (. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A livid
   or  black  and blue spot, produced by the extravasation or effusion of
   blood into the areolar tissue from a contusion.


   Ec`chy*mot"ic (?), a. Pertaining to ecchymosis.


   Ec"cle  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  European  green woodpecker; -- also
   called ecall, eaquall, yaffle. [Prov. Eng.]


   Ec*cle"si*a (?), n.; pl. Ecclesi\'91 (. [L., fr. Gr.

   1. (Gr. Antiq.) The public legislative assembly of the Athenians.

   2. (Eccl.) A church, either as a body or as a building.


   Ec*cle"si*al (?), a. Ecclesiastical. [Obs.] Milton.


   Ec*cle"si*arch (?), n. [LL. ecclesiarcha, fr. Gr. eccl\'82siarque.] An
   official  of  the  Eastern Church, resembling a sacrist in the Western


   Ec*cle"si*ast (?), n.

   1. An ecclesiastic. Chaucer.

   2. The Apocryphal book of Ecclesiasticus. [Obs.]


   Ec*cle`si*as"tes  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. Gr. Ecclesiastic, a.] One of the
   canonical books of the Old Testament.


   Ec*cle`si*as"tic  (?;  277), a. [L. ecclesiasticus, Gr. Ex-, and Hale,
   v.  t.,  Haul.]  Of  or  pertaining to the church. See Ecclesiastical.
   "Ecclesiastic government." Swift.


   Ec*cle`si*as"tic,  n.  A  person in holy orders, or consecrated to the
   service  of  the  church  and the ministry of religion; a clergyman; a

     From  a  humble  ecclesiastic, he was subsequently preferred to the
     highest dignities of the church. Prescott.


   Ec*cle`si*as"tic*al  (?), a. [See Ecclesiastical, a.] Of or pertaining
   to  the  church;  relating  to  the  organization or government of the
   church;   not   secular;   as,   ecclesiastical  affairs  or  history;
   ecclesiastical courts.

     Every  circumstance  of  ecclesiastical order and discipline was an
     abomination. Cowper.

   Ecclesiastical  commissioners  for  England,  a  permanent  commission
   established  by  Parliament  in  1836, to consider and report upon the
   affairs  of  the  Established Church. -- Ecclesiastical courts, courts
   for  maintaining  the  discipline of the Established Church; -- called
   also  Christian courts. [Eng.] -- Ecclesiastical law, a combination of
   civil  and  canon law as administered in ecclesiastical courts. [Eng.]
   --  Ecclesiastical  modes  (Mus.),  the  church  modes,  or the scales
   anciently  used.  --  Ecclesiastical  States,  the  territory formerly
   subject  to  the  Pope  of  Rome as its temporal ruler; -- called also
   States of the Church.<-- and Papal States. -->


   Ec*cle`si*as"tic*al*ly   (?),   adv.   In  an  ecclesiastical  manner;
   according ecclesiastical rules.


   Ec*cle`si*as"ti*cism  (?),  n.  Strong  attachment  to  ecclesiastical
   usages, forms, etc.


   Ec*cle`si*as"ti*cus (?), n. [L.] A book of the Apocrypha.


   Ec*cle`si*o*log"ic*al (?), a. Belonging to ecclesiology.


   Ec*cle`si*ol"o*gist (?), n. One versed in ecclesiology.


   Ec*cle`si*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Ecclesia + -logy.] The science or theory of
   church building and decoration.


   Ec*crit"ic  (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) A remedy which promotes discharges, as
   an emetic, or a cathartic.


   Ec"der*on  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) See Ecteron. -- Ec`der*on"ic
   (#), a.


   Ec"dy*sis  (?), n.; pl. Ecdyses (#). [NL., fr. Gr. 'e`kdysis a getting
   out,  fr.  'ekdy`ein,  to put off; 'ek out + dy`ein to enter.] (Biol.)
   The  act  of shedding, or casting off, an outer cuticular layer, as in
   the case of serpents, lobsters, etc.; a coming out; as, the ecdysis of
   the pupa from its shell; exuviation.


   Ec"go*nine  (?;  104),  n.  [Gr.  'e`kgonos  sprung  from.]  (Chem.) A
   colorless,    crystalline,   nitrogenous   base,   obtained   by   the
   decomposition of cocaine.

(?), n. [F.] A small chamber or place of protection for a sentinel, usually in
           the form of a projecting turret, or the like. See Castle.


   Ech"e (?), a. OR a. pron. Each. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ech"e*lon (?), n. [F., fr. \'82chelle ladder, fr. L. scala.]

   1.  (Mil.)  An  arrangement of a body of troops when its divisions are
   drawn up in parallel lines each to the right or the left of the one in
   advance  of  it,  like the steps of a ladder in position for climbing.
   Also used adjectively; as, echelon distance. Upton (Tactics).

   2. (Naval) An arrangement of a fleet in a wedge or Encyc. Dict.
   Echelon  lens  (Optics),  a large lens constructed in several parts or
   layers,  extending in a succession of annular rings beyond the central
   lens; -- used in lighthouses.


   Ech"e*lon  (?), v. t. (Mil.) To place in echelon; to station divisions
   of troops in echelon.


   Ech"e*lon, v. i. To take position in echelon.

     Change  direction to the left, echelon by battalion from the right.
     Upton (Tactics).


   E*chid"na (?), n. [L., a viper, adder, Gr.

   1. (Gr. Myth.) A monster, half maid and half serpent.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of Monotremata found in Australia, Tasmania, and
   New Guinea. They are toothless and covered with spines; -- called also
   porcupine ant-eater, and Australian ant-eater.


   E*chid"nine  (?;  104),  n.  [See  Echidna.] (Chem.) The clear, viscid
   fluid  secreted  by  the  poison  glands  of certain serpents; also, a
   nitrogenous  base  contained  in  this,  and supposed to be the active
   poisonous principle of the virus. Brande & C.

                              Echinate, Echinated

   Ech"i*nate  (?), Ech"i*na`ted (?), a. [L. echinatus. See Echinus.] Set
   with  prickles;  prickly,  like a hedgehog; bristled; as, an echinated


   E*chi"nid (?), a. & n. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Echinoid.


   E*chin"i*dan   (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  \'82chinide.]  (Zo\'94l.)  One  the


   E*chin"i*tal (?), a. Of, or like, an echinite.


   Ech"i*nite  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  \'82chinite. See Echinus.] (Paleon.) A
   fossil echinoid.


   E*chi`no*coc"cus  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A parasite of man
   and  of  many  domestic  and  wild  animals, forming compound cysts or
   tumors (called hydatid cysts) in various organs, but especially in the
   liver  and  lungs,  which often cause death. It is the larval stage of
   the T\'91nia echinococcus, a small tapeworm peculiar to the dog.


   E*chin"o*derm` (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Echinodermata.


   E*chi`no*der"mal  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Relating  or  belonging to the


   E*chi`no*der"ma*ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   grand divisions of the animal kingdom. By many writers it was formerly
   included in the Radiata. [Written also Echinoderma.]

   Page 469

     NOTE: &hand; Th e sp ecies us ually ha ve an  ex terior ca lcareous
     skeleton,  or  shell,  made  of many pieces, and often covered with
     spines,  to  which  the name. They may be star-shaped, cylindrical,
     disk-shaped,  or  more  or  less  spherical.  The  body consists of
     several similar parts (spheromeres) repeated symmetrically around a
     central  axis,  at  one  end  of  which the mouth is situated. They
     generally  have  suckers  for  locomotion.  The  group includes the
     following classes: Crinoidea, Asterioidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea,
     and  Holothurioidea.  See  these  words in the Vocabulary, and also


   E*chi`no*der"ma*tous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Relating to Echinodermata;


   E*chi"noid  (?),  a.  [Echinus + -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to
   the Echinoidea. -- n. One of the Echinoidea.


   Ech`i*noi"de*a (?), n. pl. [NL. See Echinus, and -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) The
   class  Echinodermata  which  includes  the  sea  urchins.  They have a
   calcareous,  usually  more or less spheroidal or disk-shaped, composed
   of   many   united  plates,  and  covered  with  movable  spines.  See
   Spatangoid, Clypeastroid. [Written also Echinidea, and Echinoida.]


   E*chi`no*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The Echinodermata.


   E*chin"u*late  (?),  a.  (Bot.  &  Zo\'94l.)  Set with small spines or


   E*chi"nus (?), n.; pl. Echini (#). [L., a hedgehog, sea urchin, Gr.

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A hedgehog.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) A genus of echinoderms, including the common edible sea
   urchin of Europe.

   3.  (Arch.) (a) The rounded molding forming the bell of the capital of
   the  Grecian  Doric  style,  which is of a peculiar elastic curve. See
   Entablature.  (b) The quarter-round molding (ovolo) of the Roman Doric
   style. See Illust. of Column (c) A name sometimes given to the egg and
   anchor  or  egg  and  dart  molding,  because  that  ornament is often
   identified  with Roman Doric capital. The name probably alludes to the
   shape of the shell of the sea urchin.


   Ech`i*u*roi"de*a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. echiurus, the name of one genus
   (Gr. -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) A division of Annelida which includes the genus
   Echiurus  and  allies.  They are often classed among the Gephyrea, and
   called the armed Gephyreans.


   Ech"o  (?),  n.; pl. Echoes (#). [L. echo, Gr. v\'be to sound, bellow;
   perh. akin to E. voice: cf. F. \'82cho.]

   1.  A sound reflected from an opposing surface and repeated to the ear
   of a listener; repercussion of sound; repetition of a sound.

     The babbling echo mocks the hounds. Shak.

     The woods shall answer, and the echo ring. Pope.

   2. Fig.: Sympathetic recognition; response; answer.

     Fame is the echo of actions, resounding them. Fuller.

     Many  kind,  and sincere speeches found an echo in his heart. R. L.

   3.  (a)  (Myth.  &  Poetic)  A  wood  or  mountain  nymph, regarded as
   repeating, and causing the reverberation of them.

     Sweet  Echo,  sweetest  nymph,  that  liv'st unseen Within thy airy
     shell. Milton.

   (b)  (Gr. Myth.) A nymph, the daughter of Air and Earth, who, for love
   of Narcissus, pined away until nothing was left of her but her voice.

     Compelled me to awake the courteous Echo To give me answer from her
     mossy couch. Milton.

   Echo  organ  (Mus.),  a  set  organ  pipes  inclosed in a box so as to
   produce  a soft, distant effect; -- generally superseded by the swell.
   -- Echo stop (Mus.), a stop upon a harpsichord contrived for producing
   the  soft  effect of distant sound. -- To applaud to the echo, to give
   loud and continuous applause. M. Arnold.

     I  would  applaud thee to the very echo, That should applaud again.


   Ech"o,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Echoed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Echoing. -- 3d
   pers. sing. pres. Echoes (.]

   1. To send back (a sound); to repeat in sound; to reverberate.

     Those peals are echoed by the Trojan throng. Dryden.

     The wondrous sound Is echoed on forever. Keble.

   2. To repeat with assent; to respond; to adopt.

     They would have echoed the praises of the men whom they Macaulay.


   Ech"o,  v. i. To give an echo; to resound; to be sounded back; as, the
   hall echoed with acclamations. "Echoing noise." Blackmore.


   Ech"o*er (?), n. One who, or that which, echoes.


   Ech"o*less, a. Without echo or response.


   E*chom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter: cf. F. \'82chom\'8atre.] (Mus) A
   graduated  scale for measuring the duration of sounds, and determining
   their different, and the relation of their intervals. J. J. Rousseau.


   E*chom"e*try (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82chom\'82trie.]

   1. The art of measuring the duration of sounds or echoes.

   2. The art of constructing vaults to produce echoes.

                                 Echon, Echoon

   Ech*on" (?), Ech*oon" (?), pron. Each one. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ech"o*scope   (?),   n.   [Gr.   -scope.]  (Med.)  An  instrument  for
   intensifying sounds produced by percussion of the thorax. Knight.

   (?), n. [F.] (Cookery) A kind of frosted cake, containing flavored cream.


   E*clair"cise  (?),  v.  t. [F. \'82claircir; pref. es- (L. ex) + clair
   clear,  L.  clarus.] To make clear; to clear up what is obscure or not
   understood; to explain.


   E*clair"cisse*ment  (?),  n. [F., fr. \'82claircir. See Eclaircise, v.
   t.]  The  clearing  up  of  anything  which  is  obscure or not easily
   understood; an explanation.

     The  eclaircissement  ended  in  the  discovery  of  the  informer.


   Ec*lamp"si*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from Gr. (Med.) A fancied perception of
   flashes  of  light,  a  symptom  of  epilepsy; hence, epilepsy itself;

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm is  ge nerally re stricted to  a convulsive
     affection  attending  pregnancy  and  parturition, and to infantile


   Ec*lamp"sy (?), n. (Med.) Same as Eclampsia.


   E*clat"   (?),  n.  [F.  \'82clat  a  fragment,  splinter,  explosion,
   brilliancy,  splendor,  fr.  \'82clater  to  splinter, burst, explode,
   shine  brilliantly,  prob. of German origin; cf. OHG. sleizan to slit,
   split, fr. sl\'c6zan, G. schleissen; akin to E. slit.]

   1. Brilliancy of success or effort; splendor; brilliant show; striking
   effect; glory; renown. "The eclat of Homer's battles." Pope.

   2. Demonstration of admiration and approbation; applause. Prescott.


   Ec*lec"tic (?), a. [Gr. \'82clectique. See Eclogue, and cf. Elect.]

   1.  Selecting;  choosing  (what  is  true  or  excellent in doctrines,
   opinions,  etc.)  from  various  sources  or  systems; as, an eclectic

   2.  Consisting,  or  made  up,  of  what is chosen or selected; as, an
   eclectic method; an eclectic magazine.
   Eclectic  physician,  one of a class of practitioners of medicine, who
   select  their  modes  of  practice  and  medicines  from  all schools;
   formerly,  sometimes the same as botanic physician. [U.S.] -- Eclectic
   school. (Paint.) See Bolognese school, under Bolognese.


   Ec*lec"tic (?), n. One who follows an eclectic method.


   Ec*lec"tic*al*ly  (?),  adv.  In  an  eclectic  manner; by an eclectic


   Ec*lec"ti*cism  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  \'82clecticisme.  Cf. Electicism.]
   Theory or practice of an eclectic.


   Ec*legm" (?), n. [F. \'82clegme, L. ecligma, fr. Gr. (Med.) A medicine
   made by mixing oils with sirups. John Quincy.


   E*clipse" (?), n. [F. \'82clipse, L. eclipsis, fr. Gr. Ex-, and Loan.]

   1.  (Astron.)  An interception or obscuration of the light of the sun,
   moon,  or other luminous body, by the intervention of some other body,
   either  between  it and the eye, or between the luminous body and that
   illuminated  by  it.  A  lunar  eclipse  is caused by the moon passing
   through  the  earth's  shadow;  a  solar  eclipse,  by the moon coming
   between  the sun and the observer. A satellite is eclipsed by entering
   the  shadow of its primary. The obscuration of a planet or star by the
   moon  or  a  planet,  though of the nature of an eclipse, is called an
   occultation.  The  eclipse of a small portion of the sun by Mercury or
   Venus is called a transit of the planet.

     NOTE: &hand; In   an  cient ti  mes, ec  lipses we  re, an d am ong
     unenlightened  people  they  still are, superstitiously regarded as
     forerunners of evil fortune, a sentiment of which occasional use is
     made in literature.

     That  fatal  and  perfidious bark, Built in the eclipse, and rigged
     with curses dark. Milton.

   2.  The  loss,  usually  temporary  or  partial, of light, brilliancy,
   luster, honor, consciousness, etc.; obscuration; gloom; darkness.

     All  the posterity of our fist parents suffered a perpetual eclipse
     of spiritual life. Sir W. Raleigh.

     As  in  the soft and sweet eclipse, When soul meets soul on lovers'
     lips. Shelley.

   Annular  eclipse.  (Astron.)  See under Annular. -- Cycle of eclipses.
   See under Cycle.


   E*clipse",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Eclipsed  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  cause  the  obscuration  of;  to  darken or hide; -- said of a
   heavenly body; as, the moon eclipses the sun.

   2.  To obscure, darken, or extinguish the beauty, luster, honor, etc.,
   of;  to  sully;  to cloud; to throw into the shade by surpassing. "His
   eclipsed state." Dryden.

     My joy of liberty is half eclipsed. Shak.


   E*clipse", v. i. To suffer an eclipse.

     While the laboring moon Eclipses at their charms. Milton.


   E*clip"tic  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  \'82cliptique, L. linea ecliptica, Gr.
   Ecliptic, a.]

   1.  (Astron.)  A great circle of the celestial sphere, making an angle
   with  the  equinoctial of about 23 28\'b7. It is the apparent path of
   the sun, or the real path of the earth as seen from the sun.

   2.  (Geog.)  A  great  circle  drawn on a terrestrial globe, making an
   angle  of  23  28\'b7  with the equator; -- used for illustrating and
   solving astronomical problems.


   E*clip"tic, a. [L. eclipticus belonging to an eclipse, Gr. Eclipse.]

   1. Pertaining to the ecliptic; as, the ecliptic way.

   2. Pertaining to an eclipse or to eclipses.
   Lunar  ecliptic  limit (Astron.), the space of 12 on the moon's orbit
   from  the  node,  within  which, if the moon happens to be at full, it
   will  be  eclipsed. -- Solar ecliptic limit, the space of 17 from the
   lunar  node, within which, if a conjunction of the sun and moon occur,
   the sun will be eclipsed.


   Ec"lo*gite (?), n. [See Ecloque.] (Min.) A rock consisting of granular
   red  garnet,  light  green  smaragdite,  and  common hornblende; -- so
   called in reference to its beauty.


   Ec"logue  (?), n. [L. ecloga, Gr. \'82gloque, \'82cloque. See Ex-, and
   Legend.] A pastoral poem, in which shepherds are introduced conversing
   with  each other; a bucolic; an idyl; as, the Ecloques of Virgil, from
   which the modern usage of the word has been established.

                           Economic; 277, Economical

   E`co*nom"ic  (?;  277),  E`co*nom"ic*al  (?), a. [F. \'82conomique, L.
   oeconomicus orderly, methodical, Gr. Economy.]

   1.   Pertaining  to  the  household;  domestic.  "In  this  economical
   misfortune [of ill-assorted matrimony.]" Milton.

   2.  Relating  to  domestic  economy, or to the management of household

     And  doth  employ  her economic art And busy care, her household to
     preserve. Sir J. Davies.

   3.  Managing  with  frugality;  guarding  against waste or unnecessary
   expense;  careful and frugal in management and in expenditure; -- said
   of character or habits.

     Just rich enough, with economic care, To save a pittance. Harte.

   4.  Managed  with  frugality;  not  marked with waste or extravagance;
   frugal;  -- said of acts; saving; as, an economical use of money or of

   5.  Relating  to the means of living, or the resources and wealth of a
   country;   relating  to  political  economy;  as,  economic  purposes;
   economical truths.

     These matters economical and political. J. C. Shairp.

     There   was  no  economical  distress  in  England  to  prompt  the
     enterprises of colonization. Palfrey.

     Economic  questions,  such  as  money, usury, taxes, lands, and the
     employment of the people. H. C. Baird.

   6. Regulative; relating to the adaptation of means to an end. Grew.

     NOTE: &hand; Ec onomical is  th e us ual fo rm when meaning frugal,
     saving;  economic is the form commonly used when meaning pertaining
     to the management of a household, or of public affairs.


   E`co*nom"ic*al*ly  (?),  adv.  With  economy; with careful management;
   with prudence in expenditure.


   E`co*nom"ics (?), n. [Gr. Economic.]

   1. The science of household affairs, or of domestic management.

   2.  Political  economy;  the  science  of  the utilities or the useful
   application  of  wealth  or material resources. See Political economy,
   under Political. "In politics and economics." V. Knox.


   E*con"o*mist (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82conomiste.]

   1.  One  who  economizes,  or  manages domestic or other concerns with
   frugality;  one  who  expends  money, time, or labor, judiciously, and
   without waste. "Economists even to parsimony." Burke.

   2.  One  who  is  conversant  with  political  economy;  a  student of


   E*con`o*mi*za"tion  (?),  n.  The act or practice of using to the best
   effect. [R.] H. Spenser.


   E*con"o*mize  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Economized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Economizing.]  [Cf.  F. \'82conomiser.] To manage with economy; to use
   with  prudence;  to  expend  with  frugality;  as,  to economize one's
   income. [Written also economise.]

     Expenses in the city were to be economized. Jowett (Thucyd. ).

     Calculating how to economize time. W. Irving.


   E*con"o*mize,  v.  i.  To  be  prudently sparing in expenditure; to be
   frugal  and  saving;  as, to economize in order to grow rich. [Written
   also economise.] Milton.


   E*con"o*mi`zer (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, economizes.

   2.  Specifically:  (Steam Boilers) An arrangement of pipes for heating
   feed water by waste heat in the gases passing to the chimney.


   E*con"o*my  (?),  n.; pl. Economies (#). [F. \'82conomie, L. oeconomia
   household  management, fr. Gr. vicus village, E. vicinity) + Vicinity,

   1.  The  management of domestic affairs; the regulation and government
   of   household   matters;   especially  as  they  concern  expense  or
   disbursement; as, a careful economy.

     Himself busy in charge of the household economies. Froude.

   2.  Orderly  arrangement  and  management of the internal affairs of a
   state  or  of any establishment kept up by production and consumption;
   esp.,  such  management  as  directly  concerns  wealth; as, political

   3.  The  system of rules and regulations by which anything is managed;
   orderly  system  of  regulating  the  distribution  and uses of parts,
   conceived  as  the  result  of  wise  and economical adaptation in the
   author,  whether human or divine; as, the animal or vegetable economy;
   the economy of a poem; the Jewish economy.

     The  position  which  they  [the  verb  and  adjective] hold in the
     general economy of language. Earle.

     In  the Greek poets, as also in Plautus, we shall see the economy .
     . . of poems better observed than in Terence. B. Jonson.

     The  Jews already had a Sabbath, which, as citizens and subjects of
     that economy, they were obliged to keep. Paley.

   4.  Thrifty and frugal housekeeping; management without loss or waste;
   frugality  in  expenditure;  prudence  and  disposition to save; as, a
   housekeeper accustomed to economy but not to parsimony.
   Political  economy.  See  under Political. Syn. -- Economy, Frugality,
   Parsimony.  Economy  avoids  all  waste  and extravagance, and applies
   money  to  the  best  advantage;  frugality  cuts off indulgences, and
   proceeds  on  a  system  of saving. The latter conveys the idea of not
   using  or  spending  superfluously,  and  is  opposed to lavishness or
   profusion. Frugality is usually applied to matters of consumption, and
   commonly  points  to  simplicity  of  manners;  parsimony is frugality
   carried to an extreme, involving meanness of spirit, and a sordid mode
   of living. Economy is a virtue, and parsimony a vice.

   Page 470

     I  have  no  other  notion of economy than that it is the parent to
     liberty and ease. Swift.

     The  father was more given to frugality, and the son to riotousness
     [luxuriousness]. Golding.

     (?), n. [F.] (Fine Arts) A manikin, or image, representing an animal,
   especially man, with the skin removed so that the muscles are exposed for
                              purposes of study.

            (?), n. [F.] (Mus.) A dancing tune in the Scotch style.


   E*cos"tate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  e-  + costate.] (Bot.) Having no ribs or
   nerves; -- said of a leaf.

 (?), n. [F., a listening place.] (Mil.) One of the small galleries run out in
         front of the glacis. They serve to annoy the enemy's miners.


   Ec"pha*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) An explicit declaration.


   Ec`pho*ne"ma  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A breaking out with some
   interjectional particle.


   Ec"pho*neme  (?),  n.  [See Ecphonema.] A mark (!) used to indicate an
   exclamation. G. Brown.


   Ec`pho*ne"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Ecphonema.] (Rhet.) An animated or
   passionate exclamation.

     The feelings by the ecphonesis are very various. Gibbs.


   Ec*phrac"tic (?), a. [Gr. ecphractique.] (Med.) Serving to dissolve or
   attenuate  viscid  matter, and so to remove obstructions; deobstruent.
   -- n. An ecphractic medicine. Harvey.

       (?), n. [F.] (Surg.) The operation performed with an \'82craseur.

   (?), n. [F., fr. \'82craser to crush.] (Surg.) An instrument intended to
 replace the knife in many operations, the parts operated on being severed by
  the crushing effect produced by the gradual tightening of a steel chain, so
                        that hemorrhage rarely follows.

 (?), a. [F., fr. L. crudus raw.] Having the color or appearance of unbleached
                      stuff, as silk, linen, or the like.


   Ec"sta*sy (?), n.; pl. Ecstasies (#). [F. extase, L. ecstasis, fr. Gr.
   Ex-, and Stand.] [Also written extasy.]

   1.  The  state of being beside one's self or rapt out of one's self; a
   state  in  which  the  mind  is  elevated  above the reach of ordinary
   impressions,  as  when under the influence of overpowering emotion; an
   extraordinary  elevation  of the spirit, as when the soul, unconscious
   of sensible objects, is supposed to contemplate heavenly mysteries.

     Like a mad prophet in an ecstasy. Dryden.

     This is the very ecstasy of love. Shak.

   2.   Excessive   and   overmastering   joy   or  enthusiasm;  rapture;
   enthusiastic delight.

     He  on  the  tender  grass  Would sit, and hearken even to ecstasy.

   3.  Violent  distraction  of mind; violent emotion; excessive grief of
   anxiety; insanity; madness. [Obs.]

     That  unmatched  form  and  feature  of  blown  youth  Blasted with
     ecstasy. Shak.

     Our words will but increase his ecstasy. Marlowe.

   4.  (Med.)  A state which consists in total suspension of sensibility,
   of  voluntary  motion,  and largely of mental power. The body is erect
   and inflexible; the pulsation and breathing are not affected. Mayne.


   Ec"sta*sy,  v.  t.  To  fill  ecstasy,  or with rapture or enthusiasm.

     The most ecstasied order of holy . . . spirits. Jer. Taylor.


   Ec*stat"ic (?), a. [Gr. extatique. See Ecstasy, n.]

   1.  Pertaining  to, or caused by, ecstasy or excessive emotion; of the
   nature, or in a state, of ecstasy; as, ecstatic gaze; ecstatic trance.

     This ecstatic fit of love and jealousy. Hammond.

   2. Delightful beyond measure; rapturous; ravishing; as, ecstatic bliss
   or joy.


   Ec*stat"ic, n. An enthusiast. [R.] Gauden.


   Ec*stat"ic*al (?), a.

   1. Ecstatic. Bp. Stillingfleet.

   2. Tending to external objects. [R.] Norris.


   Ec*stat"ic*al*ly, adv. Rapturously; ravishingly.

                                  Ect-, Ecto-

   Ect-  (?),  Ec"to-  (?).  [Gr.  A  combining  form signifying without,
   outside, external.


   Ec"tad (?), adv. [Ect- + L. ad towards.] (Anat.) Toward the outside or
   surface; -- opposed to entad. B. G. Wilder.


   Ec"tal  (?),  a.  [See Ect-.] (Anat.) Pertaining to, or situated near,
   the surface; outer; -- opposed to ental. B. G. Wilder.


   Ec*ta"si*a  (?), n. [NL. See Ectasis.] (Med.) A dilatation of a hollow
   organ or of a canal.


   Ec"ta*sis  (?),  n. [L., fr. Gr. (Pros.) The lengthening of a syllable
   from short to long.


   Ec*ten"tal  (?),  a.  [Gr. (Biol.) Relating to, or connected with, the
   two  primitive  germ  layers,  the  ectoderm  and  ectoderm;  as,  the
   "ectental  line"  or  line  of  juncture  of  the  two  layers  in the
   segmentation of the ovum. C. S. Minot.


   Ec"ter*on  (?),  n. [See Ect-.] (Anat.) The external layer of the skin
   and mucous membranes; epithelium; ecderon. -- Ec`ter*on"ic (#), a.


   Ec*teth"moid  (?),  a.  [Ect-  +  ethmoid.]  (Anat.)  External  to the
   ethmoid; prefrontal.


   Ec*thlip"sis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1. The dropping out or suppression from a word of a consonant, with or
   without a vowel.

   2.  (Lat.  Pros.)  The elision of a final m, with the preceding vowel,
   before a word beginning with a vowel.


   Ec`tho*re"um  (?),  n.; pl. Ecthorea (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The
   slender, hollow thread of a nettling cell or cnida. See Nettling cell.
   [Written also ecthor\'91um.]


   Ec*thy"ma (?), n.; pl. Ecthymata (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A cutaneous
   eruption,  consisting  of large, round pustules, upon an indurated and
   inflamed base. Dunglison.


   Ec"to- (?). See Ect-.


   Ec"to*blast  (?),  n.  [Ecto- + Gr. (Biol.) (a) The outer layer of the
   blastoderm;  the  epiblast;  the ectoderm. (b) The outer envelope of a
   cell; the cell wall. Agassiz.


   Ec`to*bron"chi*um  (?),  n.; pl. Ectobronchia (#). [NL. See Ecto-, and
   Bronchia.]  (Anat.)  One of the dorsal branches of the main bronchi in
   the lungs of birds.

                         Ectocuneriform, Ectocuniform

   Ec`to*cu*ne"ri*form  (?), Ec`to*cu"ni*form (?), n. [Ecto- + cuneiform,
   cuniform.] (Anat.) One of the bones of the tarsus. See Cuneiform.


   Ec"to*cyst (?), n. [Ecto- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The outside covering of the


   Ec"to*derm (?), n. [Ecto- + -derm.] (Biol.) (a) The outer layer of the
   blastoderm;  epiblast.  (b)  The  external  skin  or outer layer of an
   animal or plant, this being formed in an animal from the epiblast. See
   Illust. of Blastoderm.

                            Ectodermal, Ectodermic

   Ec`to*der"mal (?), Ec`to*der"mic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or relating to the


   Ec`to*lec"i*thal (?), a. [Ecto- + Gr. (Biol.) Having the food yolk, at
   the  commencement  of  segmentation, in a peripheral position, and the
   cleavage  process  confined to the center of the egg; as, ectolecithal


   Ec"to*mere  (?),  n.  [Ecto-  +  -mere.]  (Biol.) The more transparent
   cells, which finally become external, in many segmenting ova, as those
   of mammals.


   Ec`to*par"a*site  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.) Any parasite which lives on the
   exterior of animals; -- opposed to endoparasite. -- Ec`to*par`a*sit"ic
   (#), a.


   Ec*to"pi*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Med.) A morbid displacement of
   parts,  especially  such as is congenial; as, ectopia of the heart, or
   of the bladder.


   Ec*top"ic  (?), a. (Med.) Out of place; congenitally displaced; as, an
   ectopic organ.


   Ec"to*plasm  (?),  n.  [Ecto-  + Gr. (Biol.) (a) The outer transparent
   layer  of protoplasm in a developing ovum. (b) The outer hyaline layer
   of protoplasm in a vegetable cell. (c) The ectosarc of protozoan.


   Ec`to*plas"tic  (?),  a.  [Ecto-  + Gr. Pertaining to, or composed of,


   Ec`to*proc"ta (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of Bryozoa
   in which the anus lies outside the circle of tentacles.


   Ec"to*py (?), n. (Med.) Same as Ectopia.


   Ect*or"gan*ism   (?),  n.  [Ect-  +  organism.]  (Biol.)  An  external
   parasitic organism.


   Ec"to*sarc  (?),  n. [Ecto- + Gr. (Biol.) The semisolid external layer
   of   protoplasm  in  some  unicellular  organisms,  as  the  am\'d2ba;
   ectoplasm; exoplasm.


   Ec*tos"te*al  (?),  a.  (Physiol.) Of or pertaining to ectostosis; as,
   ectosteal ossification.


   Ec`tos*to"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Ect-,  and  Ostosis.] (Physiol.) A
   process  of  bone  formation  in which ossification takes place in the
   perichondrium   and   either   surrounds  or  gradually  replaces  the


   Ec`to*zo"ic (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) See Epizoic.


   Ec`to*zo"\'94n  (?), n.; pl. Ectozoa (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) See


   Ec*tro"pi*on (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) An unnatural eversion of the


   Ec*tro"pi*um (?), n. [NL.] (Med.) Same as Ectropion.


   Ec*trot"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Med.)  Having  a  tendency to prevent the
   development of anything, especially of a disease.


   Ec"ty*pal  (?),  a.  [L.  ectypus  worked  in  high relief, Gr. Type.]
   Copied, reproduced as a molding or cast, in contradistinction from the
   original model.


   Ec"type (?), n. [Cf. F. ectype. See Ectypal.]

   1.  (Classical  Arch\'91ol.) (a) A copy, as in pottery, of an artist's
   original  work. Hence: (b) A work sculptured in relief, as a cameo, or
   in bas-relief (in this sense used loosely).

   2.  A  copy  from an original; a type of something that has previously

     Some regarded him [Klopstock] as an ectype of the ancient prophets.
     Eng. Cyc. .


   Ec`ty*pog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Ectype + -graphy.] A method of etching in
   which the design upon the plate is produced in relief.

                             Ecumenic, Ecumenical

   Ec`u*men"ic (?), Ec`u*men"ic*al (?), a. [L. oecumenicus, Gr. Economy.]
   General;  universal;  in ecclesiastical usage, that which concerns the
   whole  church;  as, an ecumenical council. [Written also .] Ecumenical
   Bishop, a title assumed by the popes. -- Ecumenical council. See under


   Ec"u*rie (?), n. [F. See Equerry.] A stable.


   Ec"ze*ma  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. 'e`kzema; "ek out + zei^n to boil.]
   (Med.)  An  inflammatory  disease  of  the  skin, characterized by the
   presence  of  redness  and itching, an eruption of small vesicles, and
   the discharge of a watery exudation, which often dries up, leaving the
   skin  covered with crusts; -- called also tetter, milk crust, and salt


   Ec*zem"a*tous   (?),  a.  (Med.)  Pertaining  to  eczema;  having  the
   characteristic of eczema.


   -ed  (?).  The termination of the past participle of regular, or weak,
   verbs;  also,  of  analogous  participial  adjectives  from nouns; as,
   pigmented; talented.


   E*da"cious  (?),  a.  [L.  edax,  edacis,  fr. edere to eat.] Given to
   eating; voracious; devouring.

     Swallowed in the depths of edacious Time. Carlyle.

   -- E*da"cious*ly, adv. -- E*da"cious*ness, n.


   E*dac"i*ty  (?), n. [L. edacitas.] Greediness; voracity; ravenousness;
   rapacity. Bacon.


   Ed"da  (?),  n.; pl. Eddas (#). [Icel., lit. great-grandmother (i. e.,
   of  Scandinavian  poetry),  so called by Bishop Brynj\'a3lf Sveinsson,
   who  brought it again to light in 1643.] The religious or mythological
   book  of  the old Scandinavian tribes of German origin, containing two
   collections  of  Sagas  (legends,  myths) of the old northern gods and

     NOTE: &hand; Th ere ar e tw o Ed das. Th e ol der, consisting of 39
     poems,  was  reduced  to  writing  from  oral  tradition in Iceland
     between  1050  and 1133. The younger or prose Edda, called also the
     Edda  of  Snorri,  is  the  work of several writers, though usually
     ascribed to Snorri Sturleson, who was born in 1178.

                                 Eddaic, Eddic

   Ed*da"ic  (?),  Ed"dic  (?),  a. Relating to the Eddas; resembling the


   Ed"der  (?),  n.  [See  Adder.] (Zo\'94l.) An adder or serpent. [Prov.
   Eng.] Wright.


   Ed"der, n. [AS. edor hedge, fence; akin to etar.] Flexible wood worked
   into the top of hedge stakes, to bind them together. [Obs.] Tusser.


   Ed"der,  v.  t.  To  bind  the  top interweaving edder; as, to edder a
   hedge. [Obs.]


   Ed"dish  (?),  n. [AS. edisc; cf. AS. pref. ed- again, anew. Cf. Eddy,
   and  Arrish.]  Aftermath; also, stubble and stubble field. See Arrish.


   Ed"does  (?),  n.  pl.  (Bot.) The tubers of Colocasia antiquorum. See


   Ed"dy  (?),  n.; pl. Eddies (#). [Prob. fr. Icel. i; cf. Icel. pref. i
   back, AS. ed-, OS. idug-, OHG. ita-; Goth. id-.]

   1.  A current of air or water running back, or in a direction contrary
   to the main current.

   2.  A  current  of  water  or  air  moving  in a circular direction; a

     And smiling eddies dimpled on the main. Dryden.

     Wheel through the air, in circling eddies play. Addison.

     NOTE: Used also adjectively; as, eddy winds.



   Ed"dy,  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Eddied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Eddying.] To
   move as an eddy, or as in an eddy; to move in a circle.

     Eddying round and round they sink. Wordsworth.


   Ed"dy, v. t. To collect as into an eddy. [R.]

     The  circling  mountains  eddy in From the bare wild the dissipated
     storm. Thomson.


   E"del*weiss  (?),  n.  [G.,  fr.  edel  noble + weiss white.] (Bot.) A
   little, perennial, white, woolly plant (Leontopodium alpinum), growing
   at  high  elevations  in the Alps.<-- = the national flower of Austria


   E*de"ma (?), n. [NL.] (Med.) Same as \'d2dema.

                            Edematous, OR Edematose

   E*de"ma*tous   (?),   OR   E*de"ma*tose`   (?),   a.  (Med.)  Same  as


   E"den  (?),  n.  [Heb.  \'c7den  delight,  pleasure;  also, a place of
   pleasure,  Eden.]  The garden where Adam and Eve first dwelt; hence, a
   delightful region or residence.


   E*den"ic  (?), a. Of or pertaining to Eden; paradisaic. "Edenic joys."
   Mrs. Browning.


   E"den*ite  (?),  n.  [From  Edenville,  N.  Y.]  (Min.)  A  variety of
   amphibole. See Amphibole.


   E"den*ized  (?),  a. Admitted to a state of paradisaic happiness. [R.]
   Davies (Wit's Pilgr. ).


   E*den"tal  (?),  a.  See  Edentate,  a.  --  n.  (Zo\'94l.) One of the


   E*den"tal*ous (?), a. See Edentate, a.


   E`den*ta"ta  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., neut. pl. from L. edentatus, p. p. of
   edentare to render toothless; e out + dens, dentis, tooth.] (Zo\'94l.)
   An  order  of mammals including the armadillos, sloths, and anteaters;
   --  called  also Bruta. The incisor teeth are rarely developed, and in
   some groups all the teeth are lacking.


   E*den"tate (?), a.

   1. Destitute of teeth; as, an edentate quadruped; an edentate leaf.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Belonging to the Edentata.

   Page 471


   E*den"tate (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the Edentata.


   E*den`ta*ted (?), a. Same as Edentate, a.


   E`den*ta"tion (?), n. A depriving of teeth. [R.] Cockeram.


   E*den"tu*lous  (?;  135),  a.  [L.  edentulus;  e  out + dens, dentis,
   tooth.] Toothless.


   Edge (?), n. [OE. eg, egge, AS. ecg; akin to OHG. ekka, G. ecke, Icel.
   &  Sw.  egg,  Dan. eg, and to L. acies, Gr. a edge. Egg, v. t., Eager,
   Ear spike of corn, Acute.]

   1.  The  thin cutting side of the blade of an instrument; as, the edge
   of  an  ax,  knife,  sword, or scythe. Hence, figuratively, that which
   cuts as an edge does, or wounds deeply, etc.

     He which hath the sharp sword with two edges. Rev. ii. 12.

     Slander, Whose edge is sharper than the sword. Shak.

   2. Any sharp terminating border; a margin; a brink; extreme verge; as,
   the edge of a table, a precipice.

     Upon the edge of yonder coppice. Shak.

     In worst extremes, and on the perilous edge Of battle. Milton.

     Pursue even to the very edge of destruction. Sir W. Scott.

   3.  Sharpness;  readiness  of fitness to cut; keenness; intenseness of

     The full edge of our indignation. Sir W. Scott.

     Death and persecution lose all the ill that they can have, if we do
     not  set  an  edge  upon  them  by our fears and by our vices. Jer.

   4.  The border or part adjacent to the line of division; the beginning
   or  early  part;  as, in the edge of evening. "On the edge of winter."
   Edge  joint  (Carp.),  a joint formed by two edges making a corner. --
   Edge  mill, a crushing or grinding mill in which stones roll around on
   their  edges,  on a level circular bed; -- used for ore, and as an oil
   mill.  Called  also  Chilian  mill. -- Edge molding (Arch.), a molding
   whose  section  is  made up of two curves meeting in an angle. -- Edge
   plane. (a) (Carp.) A plane for edging boards. (b) (Shoemaking) A plane
   for  edging  soles.  --  Edge  play,  a  kind  of  swordplay  in which
   backswords or cutlasses are used, and the edge, rather than the point,
   is  employed.  --  Edge  rail.  (Railroad)  (a) A rail set on edge; --
   applied  to  a  rail of more depth than width. (b) A guard rail by the
   side  of the main rail at a switch. Knight. -- Edge railway, a railway
   having  the  rails  set  on  edge. -- Edge stone, a curbstone. -- Edge
   tool.  (a)  Any  tool  instrument  having  a  sharp  edge intended for
   cutting.  (b)  A tool for forming or dressing an edge; an edging tool.
   --  To  be  on edge, to be eager, impatient, or anxious. -- To set the
   teeth  on  edge,  to  cause  a  disagreeable tingling sensation in the
   teeth, as by bringing acids into contact with them. Bacon.


   Edge (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Edged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Edging.]

   1. To furnish with an edge as a tool or weapon; to sharpen.

     To edge her champion's sword. Dryden.

   2. To shape or dress the edge of, as with a tool.

   3.  To furnish with a fringe or border; as, to edge a dress; to edge a
   garden with box.

     Hills whose tops were edged with groves. Pope.

   4.  To  make sharp or keen, figuratively; to incite; to exasperate; to
   goad; to urge or egg on. [Obs.]

     By  such  reasonings,  the  simple  were blinded, and the malicious
     edged. Hayward.

   5.  To move by little and little or cautiously, as by pressing forward
   edgewise; as, edging their chairs forwards. Locke.


   Edge, v. i.

   1. To move sideways; to move gradually; as, edge along this way.

   2. To sail close to the wind.

     I must edge up on a point of wind. Dryden.

   To  edge  away OR off (Naut.), to increase the distance gradually from
   the  shore,  vessel,  or  other  object.  --  To edge down (Naut.), to
   approach  by  slow  degrees,  as  when  a sailing vessel approaches an
   object  in  an  oblique direction from the windward. -- To edge in, to
   get  in  edgewise; to get in by degrees. -- To edge in with, as with a
   coast  or  vessel  (Naut.),  to  advance  gradually, but not directly,
   toward it.


   Edge"bone` (?), n. Same as Aitchbone.


   Edge"less,  a.  Without  an  edge;  not  sharp;  blunt; obtuse; as, an
   edgeless sword or weapon.


   Edge"long (?; 115), adv. In the direction of the edge. [Obs.]

     Three  hundred  thousand  pieces  have  you stuck Edgelong into the
     ground. B. Jonson.


   Edge"shot  (?),  a. (Carp.) Having an edge planed, -- said of a board.

                              Edgeways, Edgewise

   Edge"ways  (?), Edge"wise (?), adv. With the edge towards anything; in
   the direction of the edge.

     Glad to get in a word, as they say, edgeways. Sir W. Scott.


   Edg"ing (?), n.

   1.  That which forms an edge or border, as the fringe, trimming, etc.,
   of a garment, or a border in a garden. Dryden.

   2.  The operation of shaping or dressing the edge of anything, as of a
   piece of metal.
   Edging  machine,  a machine tool with a revolving cutter, for dressing
   edges, as of boards, or metal plates, to a pattern or templet.


   Edg"ing*ly, adv. Gradually; gingerly. [R.]


   Edg"y (?), a. [From Edge.]

   1. Easily irritated; sharp; as, an edgy temper.

   2.  (Fine Arts) Having some of the forms, such as drapery or the like,
   too sharply defined. "An edgy style of sculpture." Hazlitt.


   Edh  (?),  n. The name of the Anglo-Saxon letter &edh;, capital form .
   It  is sounded as "English th in a similar word: &omac;&edh;er, other,
   d()&edh;, doth." March.


   Ed`i*bil"i*ty (?), n. Suitableness for being eaten; edibleness.


   Ed"i*ble  (?),  a. [L. edibilis, fr. edere to eat. See Eat.] Fit to be
   eaten  as  food;  eatable;  esculent;  as, edible fishes. Bacon. -- n.
   Anything edible. Edible bird's nest. See Bird's nest,

   2. --
   Edible  crab  (Zo\'94l.),  any  species of crab used as food, esp. the
   American  blue  crab  (Callinectes hastatus). See Crab. -- Edible frog
   (Zo\'94l.),  the  common European frog (Rana esculenta), used as food.
   -- Edible snail (Zo\'94l.), any snail used as food, esp. Helix pomatia
   and H. aspersa of Europe.


   Ed"i*ble*ness, n. Suitableness for being eaten.


   E"dict  (?),  n.  [L.  edictum,  fr.  edicere,  edictum,  to  declare,
   proclaim;  e  out  +  dicere  to  say: cf. F. \'82dit. See Diction.] A
   public  command  or ordinance by the sovereign power; the proclamation
   of  a  law  made  by  an  absolute authority, as if by the very act of
   announcement;  a  decree;  as,  the  edicts of the Roman emperors; the
   edicts of the French monarch.

     It stands as an edict in destiny. Shak.

   Edict  of  Nantes  (French Hist.), an edict issued by Henry IV. (A. D.
   1598),  giving toleration to Protestants. Its revocation by Louis XIV.
   (A.   D.   1685)   was  followed  by  terrible  persecutions  and  the
   expatriation  of  thousands  of  French  Protestants.  Syn. -- Decree;
   proclamation;   law;   ordinance;  statute;  rule;  order;  manifesti;
   command. See Law.


   E*dic"tal (?), a. Relating to, or consisting of, edicts; as, the Roman
   edictal law.


   Ed"i*fi*cant (?), a. [L. aedificans, -antis, p. pr. of aedificare. See
   Edify.] Building; constructing. [R.] Dugard.


   Ed`i*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [L. aedificatio: cf. F. \'82dification. See

   1.  The act of edifying, or the state of being edified; a building up,
   especially  in  a  moral  or  spiritual sense; moral, intellectual, or
   spiritual improvement; instruction.

     The assured edification of his church. Bp. Hall.

     Out  of  these magazines I shall supply the town with what may tend
     to their edification. Addison.

   2. A building or edifice. [Obs.] Bullokar.


   Ed"i*fi*ca`to*ry (?), a. Tending to edification. Bp. Hall.


   Ed"i*fice  (?),  n. [L. aedificium, fr. aedificare: cf. F. \'82difice.
   See  Edify.]  A  building;  a  structure;  an architectural fabric; --
   chiefly  applied  to  elegant houses, and other large buildings; as, a
   palace, a church, a statehouse.


   Ed`i*fi"cial  (?),  a.  [L.  aedificialis.]  Pertaining to an edifice;


   Ed"i*fi`er (?), n.

   1. One who builds. [Obs.]

   2.  One  who  edifies,  builds  up, or strengthens another by moral or
   religious instruction.


   Ed"i*fy  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Edified  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Edifying.]  [F.  \'82difier,  L.  aedificare; aedes a building, house,
   orig.,  a fireplace (akin to Gr. idh to kindle, OHG. eit funeral pile,
   AS. \'bed, OIr. aed fire) + facere to make. See Fact, -fy.]

   1. To build; to construct. [Archaic]

     There was a holy chapel edified. Spenser.

   2.  To  instruct  and  improve,  especially  in  moral  and  religious
   knowledge; to teach.

     It does not appear probable that our dispute [about miracles] would
     either edify or enlighten the public. Gibbon.

   3. To teach or persuade. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Ed"i*fy, v. i. To improve. [R.] Swift.


   Ed"i*fy`ing   (?),   a.   Instructing;   improving;  as,  an  edifying
   conversation. -- Ed"i*fy`ing*ly, adv. -- Ed"i*fy`ing*ness, n.


   E"dile  (?),  n.  [L.  aedilis:  cf. F. \'82dile. Cf. \'92dile.] (Rom.
   Antiq.) See \'92dile.


   E"dile*ship, n. The office of \'91dile. T. Arnold.


   Ed"ing*ton*ite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A grayish white zeolitic mineral, in
   tetragonal crystals. It is a hydrous silicate of alumina and baryta.


   Ed"it  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Edited; p. pr. & vb. n. Editing.] [F.
   \'82diter,  or  L.  editus,  p.  p.  of  edere to give out, put forth,
   publish;  e  out  +  dare  to  give.  See  Date  a  point of time.] To
   superintend the publication of; to revise and prepare for publication;
   to select, correct, arrange, etc., the matter of, for publication; as,
   to edit a newspaper.

     Philosophical treatises which have never been edited. Enfield.


   E*di"tion (?), n. [L. editio, fr. edere to publish; cf. F. \'82dition.
   See Edit.]

   1.  A literary work edited and published, as by a certain editor or in
   a  certain manner; as, a good edition of Chaucer; Chalmers' edition of

   2.  The  whole number of copies of a work printed and published at one
   time; as, the first edition was soon sold.

                              \'90dition de luxe

   \'90`di`tion" de luxe" (?). [F.] See Luxe.


   E*di`tion*er (?), n. An editor. [Obs.]


   Ed"i*tor  (?), n. [L., that which produces, from edere to publish: cf.
   F.   \'82diteur.]   One  who  edits;  esp.,  a  person  who  prepares,
   superintends,  revises,  and  corrects a book, magazine, or newspaper,
   etc., for publication.


   Ed`i*to"ri*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  an editor; written or
   sanctioned  by an editor; as, editorial labors; editorial remarks. <--
   editorial content -->


   Ed`i*to"ri*al,  n.  A  leading  article in a newspaper or magazine; an
   editorial  article; an article published as an expression of the views
   of the editor.


   Ed`i*to"ri*al*ly  (?), adv. In the manner or character of an editor or
   of an editorial article.


   Ed"i*tor*ship  (?),  n.  The  office  or charge of an editor; care and
   superintendence of a publication.


   Ed"i*tress (?), n. A female editor.


   E*dit"u*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [LL. aedituatus, p. p. of aedituare, fr. L.
   aedituus a temple warden; aedes building, temple + tueri to guard.] To
   guard as a churchwarden does. [Obs.] J. Gregory.


   E"dom*ite  (?), n. One of the descendants of Esau or Edom, the brother
   of Jacob; an Idumean.


   Ed`ri*oph*thal"ma  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of
   Crustacea  in  which  the  eyes  are without stalks; the Arthrostraca.
   [Written also Edriophthalmata.]


   Ed`ri*oph*thal"mous    (?),    a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Pertaining   to   the


   Ed`u*ca*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. \'82ducabilit\'82.] Capability of
   being educated.


   Ed"u*ca*ble  (?;  135),  a.  [Cf.  F.  \'82ducable.]  Capable of being
   educated. "Men are educable." M. Arnold.


   Ed"u*cate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Educated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Educating  (?).]  [L.  educatus,  p. p. of educare to bring up a child
   physically  or  mentally,  to educate, fr. educere to Educe.] To bring
   as,  to  educate  a child; to educate the eye or the taste. Syn. -- To
   develop;  instruct;  teach; inform; enlighten; edify; bring up; train;
   breed; rear; discipline; indoctrinate.


   Ed"u*ca`ted  (?), a. Formed or developed by education; as, an educated


   Ed`u*ca"tion  (?; 135), n. [L. educatio; cf. F. \'82ducation.] The act
   or process of educating; the result of educating, as determined by the
   knowledge  skill,  or discipline of character, acquired; also, the act
   or process of training by a prescribed or customary course of study or
   discipline;  as,  an  education  for  the  bar  or  the pulpit; he has
   finished his education.

     To  prepare  us for complete living is the function which education
     has to discharge. H. Spenser.

   Syn.   --   Education,   Instruction,  Teaching,  Training,  Breeding.
   Education,   properly  a  drawing  forth,  implies  not  so  much  the
   communication  of  knowledge  as  the discipline of the intellect, the
   establishment  of  the  principles,  and  the regulation of the heart.
   Instruction  is  that  part of education which furnishes the mind with
   knowledge.  Teaching  is  the  same, being simply more familiar. It is
   also applied to practice; as, teaching to speak a language; teaching a
   dog  to  do tricks. Training is a department of education in which the
   chief  element  is  exercise  or practice for the purpose of imparting
   facility  in  any  physical  or  mental  operation.  Breeding commonly
   relates to the manners and outward conduct.


   Ed`u*ca"tion*al   (?),   a.   Of  or  pertaining  to  education.  "His
   educational establishment." J. H. Newman.


   Ed`u*ca"tion*ist,  n.  One  who  is  versed in the theories of, or who
   advocates and promotes, education.


   Ed"u*ca*tive  (?;  135),  a. [Cf. F. \'82ducatif.] Tending to educate;
   that   gives   education;  as,  an  educative  process;  an  educative


   Ed"u*ca`tor (?), n. [L.] One who educates; a teacher.


   E*duce"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Educed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Educing
   (?).] [L. educere; e out + ducere to lead. See Duke.] To bring or draw
   out;  to  cause  to  appear;  to  produce  against  counter  agency or
   influence; to extract; to evolve; as, to educe a form from matter.

     The eternal art educing good from ill. Pope.

     They  want  to  educe  and  cultivate  what  is best and noblest in
     themselves. M. Arnold.


   E*du"ci*ble (?), a. Capable of being educed.


   E"duct  (?), n. [L. eductum, fr. educere.] That which is educed, as by
   analysis. Sir W. Hamilton.


   E*duc"tion  (?),  n.  [L. eductio.] The act of drawing out or bringing
   into  view.  Eduction  pipe,  AND  Eduction port. See Exhaust pipe and
   Exhaust port, under Exhaust, a.


   E*duc"tive (?), a. Tending to draw out; extractive.


   E*duc"tor  (?),  n. [L., tutor.] One who, or that which, brings forth,
   elicits, or extracts.

     Stimulus must be called an eductor of vital ether. E. Darwin.


   E*dul"co*rant (?), a. [See Edulcorate.] Having a tendency to purify or
   to sweeten by removing or correcting acidity and acrimony.


   E*dul"co*rant, n. An edulcorant remedy.


   E*dul"co*rate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Edulcorated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Edulcorating.]  [L. e oudulcoratus, p. p. of dulcorare to sweeten,
   fr. dulcor sweetness, fr. dulcis sweet: cf. F. \'82dulcorer.]

   1. To render sweet; to sweeten; to free from acidity.

     Succory . . . edulcorated with sugar and vinegar. Evelyn.

   2.  (Chem.) To free from acids, salts, or other soluble substances, by
   washing; to purify. [R.]


   E*dul`co*ra"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82dulcoration.]

   1. The act of sweetening or edulcorating.

   2. (Chem.) The act of freeing from acids or any soluble substances, by
   affusions of water. [R.] Ure.

   Page 472


   E*dul"co*ra*tive (?), a. Tending to


   E*dul"co*ra`tor  (?), n. A contrivance used to supply small quantities
   of  sweetened  liquid,  water, etc., to any mixture, or to test tubes,
   etc.; a dropping bottle.


   E*du"li*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  edulis,  fr. edere to eat.] Edible. [Obs.]
   "Edulious pulses." Sir T. Browne.


   -ee  (?).  [Formed on the F. p. p. ending -\'82, masc.] A suffix used,
   chiefly  in  law  terms,  in  a passive signification, to indicate the
   direct  or  indirect object of an action, or the one to whom an act is
   done  or on whom a right is conferred; as in assignee, donee, alienee,
   grantee, etc. It is correlative to -or, the agent or doer.

                                   Eek, Eeke

   Eek, Eeke (?), v. t. See Eke. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Eel  (?),  n.  [AS.  ;  akin  to D., G., & Dan. aal, Icel. \'bell, Sw.
   \'86l.]  (Zo\'94l.)  An elongated fish of many genera and species. The
   common  eels  of  Europe and America belong to the genus Anguilla. The
   electrical  eel is a species of Gymnotus. The so called vinegar eel is
   a minute nematode worm. See Conger eel, Electric eel, and Gymnotus.


   Eel"buck` (?), n. An eelpot or eel basket.


   Eel"fare`  (?),  n.  [Eel  +  fare a journey or passage.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   brood of eels. [Prov. Eng.]


   Eel"grass` (?), n. (Bot.) A plant (Zostera marina), with very long and
   narrow  leaves,  growing  abundantly  in  shallow bays along the North
   Atlantic coast.


   Eel"-moth`er (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The eelpout.


   Eel"pot`  (?),  n.  A  boxlike  structure with funnel-shaped traps for
   catching eels; an eelbuck.


   Eel"pout`  (?),  n.  [AS.  .]  (Zo\'94l.) (a) A European fish (Zoarces
   viviparus),  remarkable  for  producing  living  young; -- called also
   greenbone,  guffer,  bard,  and Maroona eel. Also, an American species
   (Z.  anguillaris), -- called also mutton fish, and, erroneously, congo
   eel, ling, and lamper eel. Both are edible, but of little value. (b) A
   fresh-water fish, the burbot.


   Eel"spear` (?), n. A spear with barbed forks for spearing eels.


   E'en (?), adv. A contraction for even. See Even.

     I have e'en done with you. L'Estrange.


   Een (?), n. The old plural of Eye.

     And eke with fatness swollen were his een. Spenser.


   E'er (?; 277), adv. A contraction for ever. See Ever.

                                  Eerie, Eery

   Ee"rie, Ee"ry (?), a. [Scotch, fr. AS. earh timid.]

   1.  Serving  to  inspire  fear,  esp.  a dread of seeing ghosts; wild;
   weird; as, eerie stories.

     She  whose  elfin  prancer  springs  By  night  to  eery warblings.

   2. Affected with fear; affrighted. Burns.


   Ee"ri*ly (?), adv. In a strange, unearthly way.


   Ee"ri*some (?), a. Causing fear; eerie. [Scot.]


   Eet (?), obs. imp. of Eat. Chaucer.


   Ef"fa*ble  (?),  a. [L. effabilis; ex out + fari to speak.] Capable of
   being uttered or explained; utterable. Barrow.


   Ef*face"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Effaced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Effacing  (?).]  [F. effacer; pref. es- (L. ex) + face face; prop., to
   destroy the face or form. See Face, and cf. Deface.]

   1.  To  cause  to disappear (as anything impresses or inscribed upon a
   surface)  by  rubbing  out,  striking  out,  etc.; to erase; to render
   illegible  or  indiscernible; as, to efface the letters on a monument,
   or the inscription on a coin.

   2. To destroy, as a mental impression; to wear away.

     Efface  from  his  mind the theories and notions vulgarly received.

   Syn.  --  To blot out; expunge; erase; obliterate; cancel; destroy. --
   Efface,  Deface.  To deface is to injure or impair a figure; to efface
   is to rub out or destroy, so as to render invisible.


   Ef*face"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being effaced.


   Ef*face"ment  (?),  n. [Cf. F. effacement.] The act if effacing; also,
   the result of the act.


   Ef*fas"ci*nate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  effascinare.] To charm; to bewitch.
   [Obs.] Heywood.


   Ef*fas`ci*na"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  effascinatio.]  A charming; state of
   being bewitched or deluded. [Obs.]


   Ef*fect" (?), n. [L. effectus, fr. efficere, effectum, to effect; ex +
   facere to make: cf. F. effet, formerly also spelled effect. See Fact.]

   1.  Execution;  performance;  realization; operation; as, the law goes
   into effect in May.

     That no compunctious visitings of nature Shake my fell purpose, nor
     keep peace between The effect and it. Shak.

   2. Manifestation; expression; sign.

     All the large effects That troop with majesty. Shak.

   3.  In general: That which is produced by an agent or cause; the event
   which  follows  immediately  from  an  antecedent,  called  the cause;
   result; consequence; outcome; fruit; as, the effect of luxury.

     The  effect  is  the  unfailing  index  of the amount of the cause.

   4. Impression left on the mind; sensation produced.

     Patchwork . . . introduced for oratorical effect. J. C. Shairp.

     The  effect  was  heightened  by  the wild and lonely nature of the
     place. W. Irving.

   5.  Power  to produce results; efficiency; force; importance; account;
   as, to speak with effect.

   6. Consequence intended; purpose; meaning; general intent; -- with to.

     They spake to her to that effect. 2 Chron. xxxiv. 22.

   7.  The  purport;  the  sum and substance. "The effect of his intent."

   8.   Reality;   actual  meaning;  fact,  as  distinguished  from  mere

     No other in effect than what it seems. Denham.

   9.  pl. Goods; movables; personal estate; -- sometimes used to embrace
   real  as  well  as  personal property; as, the people escaped from the
   town with their effects.
   For effect, for an exaggerated impression or excitement. -- In effect,
   in  fact; in substance. See 8, above. -- Of no effect, Of none effect,
   To  no  effect,  OR  Without  effect,  destitute of results, validity,
   force,  and the like; vain; fruitless. "Making the word of God of none
   effect  through  your tradition." Mark vii. 13. "All my study be to no
   effect."  Shak.  --  To give effect to, to make valid; to carry out in
   practice;  to  push  to  its  results.  --  To  take effect, to become
   operative,  to  accomplish  aims.  Shak.  Syn. -- Effect, Consequence,
   Result.   These   words  indicate  things  which  arise  out  of  some
   antecedent,  or  follow as a consequent. Effect, which may be regarded
   as  the  generic  term,  denotes  that  which  springs  directly  from
   something  which can properly be termed a cause. A consequence is more
   remote,  not  being  strictly  caused,  nor  yet  a mere sequence, but
   following  out of and following indirectly, or in the train of events,
   something on which it truly depends. A result is still more remote and
   variable,  like  the  rebound  of  an elastic body which falls in very
   different  directions.  We  may  foresee the effects of a measure, may
   conjecture  its  consequences,  but  can  rarely  discover  its  final

     Resolving all events, with their effects And manifold results, into
     the will And arbitration wise of the Supreme. Cowper.

     Shun the bitter consequence, for know, The day thou eatest thereof,
     . . . thou shalt die. Milton.


   Ef*fect"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Effected;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.

   1. To produce, as a cause or agent; to cause to be.

     So great a body such exploits to effect. Daniel.

   2.  To  bring  to  pass;  to  execute;  to  enforce;  to  achieve;  to

     To effect that which the divine counsels had decreed. Bp. Hurd.

     They sailed away without effecting their purpose. Jowett (Th. ).

   Syn.  --  To accomplish; fulfill; achieve; complete; execute; perform;
   attain. See Accomplish.


   Ef*fect"er (?), n. One who effects.


   Ef*fect"i*ble  (?), a. Capable of being done or achieved; practicable;
   feasible. Sir T. Browne.


   Ef*fec"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  effectio:  cf.  F. effection.] Creation; a
   doing. [R.] Sir M. Hale.


   Ef*fect"ive (?), a. [L. effectivus: cf. F. effectif.] Having the power
   to  produce  an  effect  or  effects;  producing a decided or decisive
   effect;  efficient;  serviceable;  operative;  as, an effective force,
   remedy, speech; the effective men in a regiment.

     They  are not effective of anything, nor leave no work behind them.

     Whosoever  is an effective, real cause of doing his heighbor wrong,
     is criminal. Jer. Taylor.

   Syn.  --  Efficient; forcible; active; powerful; energetic; competent.
   See Effectual.


   Ef*fect"ive, n.

   1. That which produces a given effect; a cause. Jer. Taylor.

   2. One who is capable of active service.

     He  assembled  his  army  -- 20,000 effectives -- at Corinth. W. P.

   3.  [F. effectif real, effective, real amount.] (Com.) Specie or coin,
   as  distinguished from paper currency; -- a term used in many parts of
   Europe. Simmonds.


   Ef*fect"ive*ly, adv. With effect; powerfully; completely; thoroughly.


   Ef*fect"ive*ness, n. The quality of being effective.


   Ef*fect"less  (?),  a. Without effect or advantage; useless; bootless.
   Shak. -- Ef*fect"less*ly, adv.


   Ef*fect"or (?), n. [L.] An effecter. Derham.


   Ef*fec"tu*al  (?;  135),  a.  [See  Effect,  n.]  Producing, or having
   adequate  power  or  force  to  produce, an intended effect; adequate;
   efficient; operative; decisive. Shak.

     Effectual steps for the suppression of the rebellion. Macaulay.

   Effectual calling (Theol.), a doctrine concerning the work of the Holy
   Spirit  in  producing conviction of sin and acceptance of salvation by
   Christ, -- one of the five points of Calvinism. See Calvinism. Syn. --
   Effectual,  Efficacious,  Effective.  An  efficacious  remedy  is  had
   recourse  to,  and proves effective if it does decided good, effectual
   if it does all the good desired. C. J. Smith.


   Ef*fec"tu*al*ly, adv.

   1. With effect; efficaciously.

   2. Actually; in effect. [Obs.] Fuller.


   Ef*fec"tu*al*ness, n. The quality of being effectual.


   Ef*fec"tu*ate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Effectuated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Effectuating.] [Cf. F. effectuer. See Effect, n. & v. t.] To bring
   to pass; to effect; to achieve; to accomplish; to fulfill.

     A fit instrument to effectuate his desire. Sir P. Sidney.

     In order to effectuate the thorough reform. G. T. Curtis.


   Ef*fec`tu*a"tion (?), n. Act of effectuating.

                            Effectuose, Effectuous

   Ef*fec"tu*ose` (?), Ef*fec"tu*ous (?), a. Effective. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Ef*fec"tu*ous*ly, adv. Effectively. [Obs.]


   Ef*fem"i*na*cy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Effeminacies  (#).  [From Effeminate.]
   Characteristic  quality  of  a woman, such as softness, luxuriousness,
   delicacy, or weakness, which is unbecoming a man; womanish delicacy or
   softness; -- used reproachfully of men. Milton.


   Ef*fem"i*nate  (?),  a. [L. effeminatus, p. p. of effeminare to make a
   woman of; ex out + femina a woman. See Feminine, a.]

   1.  Having some characteristic of a woman, as delicacy, luxuriousness,
   etc.; soft or delicate to an unmanly degree; womanish; weak.

     The  king,  by  his  voluptuous  life  and  mean  marriage,  became
     effeminate, and less sensible of honor. Bacon.

     An effeminate and unmanly foppery. Bp. Hurd.

   2. Womanlike; womanly; tender; -- in a good sense.

     Gentle, kind, effeminate remorse. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Ef feminate an d wo manish ar e ge nerally us ed in  a
     reproachful  sense;  feminine  and  womanly,  applied to women, are
     epithets of propriety or commendation.


   Ef*fem"i*nate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Effeminated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Effeminating (?).] To make womanish; to make soft and delicate; to

     It will not corrupt or effeminate children's minds. Locke.


   Ef*fem"i*nate, v. i. To grow womanish or weak.

     In  a  slothful  peace  both  courage  will  effeminate and manners
     corrupt. Pope.


   Ef*fem"i*nate*ly (?), adv.

   1.  In  an  effeminate or womanish manner; weakly; softly; delicately.
   "Proud and effeminately gay." Fawkes.

   2.  By  means  of  a  woman;  by  the  power  or  art of a woman. [R.]
   "Effeminately vanquished." Milton.


   Ef*fem"i*nate*ness,   n.   The  state  of  being  effeminate;  unmanly
   softness. Fuller.


   Ef*fem`i*na"tion  (?),  n. [L. effeminatio.] Effeminacy; womanishness.
   [Obs.] Bacon.


   Ef*fem"i*nize (?), v. t. To make effeminate. [Obs.]


   Ef*fen"di  (?),  n.  [Turk. efendi, fr. Modern Gr. Authentic.] Master;
   sir;  --  a  title  of  a  Turkish state official and man of learning,
   especially one learned in the law.


   Ef"fe*rent (?), a. [L. efferens, -entis, p. pr. of effere to bear out;
   ex  out  +  ferre  to  bear.]  (Physiol.)  (a)  Conveying  outward, or
   discharging;  -- applied to certain blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves,
   etc.  (b)  Conveyed outward; as, efferent impulses, i. e., such as are
   conveyed  by  the  motor  or  efferent nerves from the central nervous
   organ outwards; -- opposed to afferent.


   Ef"fe*rent (?), n. An efferent duct or stream.


   Ef"fer*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  efferus savage; ex (intens.) + ferus wild.]
   Like a wild beast; fierce. [Obs.]


   Ef`fer*vesce"  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Effervesced (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Effervescing  (?).]  [L.  effervescere;  ex  + fervescere to begin
   boiling, incho., fr. fervere to boil. See Fervent.]

   1.  To  be  in  a  state of natural ebullition; to bubble and hiss, as
   fermenting  liquors, or any fluid, when some part escapes in a gaseous

   2.  To exhibit, in lively natural expression, feelings that can not be
   repressed or concealed; as, to effervesce with joy or merriment.

                         Effervescence, Effervescency

   Ef`fer*ves"cence    (?),    Ef`fer*ves"cen*cy    (?),   n.   [Cf.   F.
   effervescence.]  A  kind  of  natural  ebullition; that commotion of a
   fluid  which  takes  place  when  some part of the mass flies off in a
   gaseous   form,   producing   innumerable   small   bubbles;  as,  the
   effervescence of a carbonate with citric acid.


   Ef`fer*ves"cent  (?),  a.  [L. effervescences, p. pr. of effervescere:
   cf.  F.  effervescent.]  Gently  boiling  or bubbling, by means of the
   disengagement of gas


   Ef`fer*ves"ci*ble (?), a. Capable of effervescing.


   Ef`fer*ves"cive   (?),   a.  Tending  to  produce  effervescence.  "An
   effervescive force." Hickok.


   Ef"fet  (?),  n.  [See  Eft, n.] (Zo\'94l.) The common newt; -- called
   also asker, eft, evat, and ewt.


   Ef*fete"  (?),  a. [L. effetus that has brought forth, exhausted; ex +
   fetus  that  has  brought  forth.  See  Fetus.]  No  longer capable of
   producing young, as an animal, or fruit, as the earth; hence, worn out
   with  age;  exhausted  of  energy;  incapable  of efficient action; no
   longer productive; barren; sterile.

     Effete results from virile efforts. Mrs. Browning

     If  they  find the old governments effete, worn out, . . . they may
     seek new ones. Burke.


   Ef`fi*ca"cious  (?),  a.  [L. eficax, -acis, fr. efficere. See Effect,
   n.]  Possessing  the  quality  of  being  effective; productive of, or
   powerful to produce, the effect intended; as, an efficacious law. Syn.
   --  See  Effectual. -- Ef`fi*ca"cious*ly, adv. -- Ef`fi*ca"cious*ness,


   Ef`fi*cac"i*ty   (?),  n.  [L.  efficacitas:  cf.  F.  efficacit\'82.]
   Efficacy. [R.] J. Fryth.


   Ef"fi*ca*cy  (?),  n.  [L.  efficacia,  fr. efficax. See Efficacious.]
   Power  to  produce  effects; operation or energy of an agent or force;
   production  of  the  effect  intended; as, the efficacy of medicine in
   counteracting  disease; the efficacy of prayer. "Of noxious efficacy."
   Milton. Syn. -- Virtue; force; energy; potency; efficiency.

                            Efficience, Efficiency

   Ef*fi"cience (?), Ef*fi"cien*cy (?), n. [L. efficientia.]

   1.  The  quality of being efficient or producing an effect or effects;
   efficient power; effectual agency.

     The manner of this divine efficiency being far above us. Hooker.

   2. (Mech.) The ratio of useful work to energy expended. Rankine.
   Efficiency  of a heat engine, the ratio of the work done an engine, to
   the work due to the heat supplied to it.


   Ef*fi"cient  (?),  a.  [L.  efficiens,  -entis,  p. pr. of efficere to
   effect:  cf.  F. efficient. See Effect, n.] Causing effects; producing
   results;  that  makes the effect to be what it is; actively operative;
   not  inactive,  slack,  or  incapable;  characterized by energetic and
   useful activity; as, an efficient officer, power.

     The efficient cause is the working cause. Wilson.

   Syn.  --  Effective;  effectual;  competent;  able; capable; material;

   Page 473


   Ef*fi"cient (?), n. An efficient cause; a prime mover.

     God . . . moveth mere natural agents as an efficient only. Hooker.


   Ef*fi"cient*ly, adv. With effect; effectively.


   Ef*fierce"  (?), v. t. [Pref. ex- (intens.) + fierce.] To make fierce.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Ef*fig"i*al (?), a. Relating to an effigy.


   Ef*fig"i*ate  (?),  v.  t. [L. effigiatus, p. p. of effigiare to form,
   fr. effigies. See Effigy.] To form as an effigy; hence, to fashion; to

     [He  must]  effigiate  and  conform himself to those circumstances.
     Jer. Taylor.


   Ef*fig`i*a"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf. LL. effigiatio.] The act of forming in
   resemblance; an effigy. Fuller.


   Ef*fig"i*es (?), n. [L.] See Effigy. Dryden.


   Ef"fi*gy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Effigies (#). [L. effigies, fr. effingere to
   form,  fashion;  ex  + fingere to form, shape, devise. See Feign.] The
   image, likeness, or representation of a person, whether a full figure,
   or  a  part;  an  imitative  figure; -- commonly applied to sculptured
   likenesses, as those on monuments, or to those of the heads of princes
   on  coins  and  medals, sometimes applied to portraits. To burn, OR To
   hang,  in  effigy, to burn or to hang an image or picture of a person,
   as a token of public odium.


   Ef*flag"i*tate  (?), v. t. [L. efflagitatus, p. p. of efflagitare.] To
   ask urgently. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   Ef*flate" (?), v. t. [L. efflatus, p. p. of efflare to blow or breathe
   out;  ex  +  flare  to  blow.] To fill with breath; to puff up. Sir T.


   Ef*fla"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of  filling with wind; a breathing or
   puffing out; a puff, as of wind.

     A soft efflation of celestial fire. Parnell.


   Ef`flo*resce"  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Effloresced (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Efflorescing  (?).]  [L.  efflorescere  to  bloom,  blossom;  ex +
   florescere  to  begin  to blossom, incho., fr. florere to blossom, fr.
   flos a flower. See Flower.]

   1. To blossom forth. Carlyle.

   2.  (Chem.)  To  change  on  the surface, or throughout, to a whitish,
   mealy,  or crystalline powder, from a gradual decomposition, esp. from
   the loss of water, on simple exposure to the air; as, Glauber's salts,
   and many others, effloresce.

   3.  To  become  covered with a whitish crust or light crystallization,
   from  a  slow  chemical  change between some of the ingredients of the
   matter  covered  and  an  acid  proceeding  commonly  from an external
   source;  as,  the walls of limestone caverns sometimes effloresce with
   nitrate  of  calcium  in  consequence  of the action in consequence of
   nitric acid formed in the atmosphere.


   Ef`flo*res"cence (?), n. [F. efflorescence.]

   1.  (Bot.)  Flowering, or state of flowering; the blooming of flowers;

   2.  (Med.)  A  redness  of  the  skin;  eruption, as in rash, measles,
   smallpox, scarlatina, etc.

   3.  (Chem.)  (a)  The  formation of the whitish powder or crust on the
   surface of efflorescing bodies, as salts, etc. (b) The powder or crust
   thus formed.


   Ef`flo*res"cen*cy  (?), n. The state or quality of being efflorescent;


   Ef`flo*res"cent  (?),  a.  [F.  efflorescent, L. efflorescens, -entis,
   blooming, p. pr. of efflorescere. See Effloresce, v. i.]

   1.  That  effloresces,  or is liable to effloresce on exposure; as, an
   efflorescent salt.

   2. Covered with an efflorescence.


   Ef*flow"er  (?),  v. t. [Cf. F. effleurer.] (Leather Making) To remove
   the  epidermis  of  (a skin) with a concave knife, blunt in its middle
   part, -- as in making chamois leather.


   Ef"flu*ence (?), n. [Cf. F. effluence.]

   1. A flowing out, or emanation.

   2.  That  which  flows  or  issues  from any body or substance; issue;

     Bright effluence of bright essence increate! Milton.

     And,  as  if  the  gloom  of  the  earth  and  sky had been but the
     effluence  of  these  two  mortal  hearts,  it  vanished with their
     sorrow. Hawthorne.


   Ef"flu*en*cy (?), n. Effluence.


   Ef"flu*ent  (?),  a.  [L. effluens, -entis, p. pr. of effluere to flow
   out;  ex  + fluere to flow: cf. F. effluent. See Fluent.] Flowing out;
   as, effluent beams. Parnell.


   Ef"flu*ent,  n.  (Geog.)  A stream that flows out of another stream or


   Ef*flu"vi*a*ble  (?),  a.  Capable of being given off as an effluvium.
   "Effluviable matter." Boyle.


   Ef*flu"vi*al (?), a. Belonging to effluvia.


   Ef*flu"vi*ate   (?),   v.   i.  To  give  forth  effluvium.  [R.]  "An
   effluviating power." Boyle.


   Ef*flu"vi*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Effluvia  (#).  [L.,  a flowing out, fr.
   effluere   to  flow  out.  See  Effluent,  a.]  Subtile  or  invisible
   emanation;  exhalation  perceived  by  the sense of smell; especially,
   noisome  or  noxious  exhalation;  as,  the effluvium from diseased or
   putrefying bodies, or from ill drainage.


   Ef"flux (?), n. [See Effluent, Flux.]

   1.  The  act  or  process  of flowing out, or issuing forth; effusion;
   outflow;  as,  the efflux of matter from an ulcer; the efflux of men's

     It  is  then  that  the  devout affections . . . are incessantly in
     efflux. I. Taylor.

   2. That which flows out; emanation; effluence.

     Prime cheerer, light! . . . Efflux divine. Thomson.


   Ef*flux"  (?),  v.  i. To run out; to flow forth; to pass away. [Obs.]


   Ef*flux"ion (?), n. [From Efflux.]

   1. The act of flowing out; effusion.

   2. That which flows out; effluvium; emanation.

     Some light effluxions from spirit to spirit. Bacon.


   Ef*fo"di*ent  (?), a. [L. effodiens, p. pr. of effodere to dig out; ex
   + fodere to dig.] Digging up.


   Ef*force  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Efforced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Efforcing  (?).]  [OF.  esforcier (F. s'efforcer to exert one's self),
   LL.  exforciare;  L.  ex  +  fortis  strong.  See Force.] To force; to
   constrain; to compel to yield. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Ef*form" (?), v. t. [Pref. ex- + form.] To form; to shape. [Obs.]

     Efforming their words within their lips. Jer. Taylor.


   Ef`for*ma"tion (?), n. The act of giving shape or form. [Obs.] Ray.


   Ef"fort  (?),  n.  [F.  effort,  OF.  esfort,  for esfors, esforz, fr.
   esforcier. See Efforce.]

   1.  An  exertion  of strength or power, whether physical or mental, in
   performing  an  act  or  aiming  at  an object; more or less strenuous
   endeavor; struggle directed to the accomplishment of an object; as, an
   effort to scale a wall.

     We prize the stronger effort of his power. Pope.

   2.  (Mech.)  A  force acting on a body in the direction of its motion.
   Rankine.  Syn.  --  Endeavor;  exertion;  struggle; strain; straining;
   attempt; trial; essay. See Attempt.


   Ef"fort, v. t. To stimulate. [Obs.] "He efforted his spirits." Fuller.


   Ef"fort*less, a. Making no effort. Southey.


   Ef*fos"sion (?), n. [L. effossio. See Effodient.] A digging out or up.
   [R.] "The effossion of coins." Arbuthnot.


   Ef*fran"chise  (?), v. t. [Pref. ex- + franchise: cf. OF. esfranchir.]
   To enfranchise.


   Ef*fray"  (?), v. t. [F. effrayer. See Affray.] To frighten; to scare.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Ef*fray"a*ble (?), a. Frightful. [Obs.] Harvey.


   Ef`fre*na"tion (?), n. [L. effrenatio, fr. effrenare to unbridle; ex +
   frenum a bridle.] Unbridled license; unruliness. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   Ef*front" (?), v. t. To give assurance to. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Ef*front"er*y  (?),  n.;  pl.  Effronteries  (#). [F. effronterie, fr.
   effront\'82  shameless,  fr.  L.  effrons,  -ontis,  putting forth the
   forehead,  i.  e.,  barefaced, shameless; ex + frons the forehead. See
   Front.]  Impudence  or boldness in confronting or in transgressing the
   bounds  of  duty  or  decorum;  insulting  presumptuousness; shameless
   boldness; barefaced assurance.

     Corruption lost nothing of its effrontery. Bancroft.

   Syn. -- Impudence; sauciness. See Impudence.


   Ef*front"it (?), a. [F. effront\'82.] Marked by impudence. [Obs.] Jer.


   Ef*fron"tu*ous*ly (?; 135), adv. Impudently. [Obs.] R. North.


   Ef*fulge"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Effulged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Effulging  (?).]  [L. effulgere to shine forth; ex + fulgere to flash,
   shine.  See  Fulgent.]  To  cause to shine with abundance of light; to
   radiate; to beam. [R.]

     His eyes effulging a peculiar fire. Thomson.


   Ef*fulge", v. i. To shine forth; to beam.


   Ef*ful"gence (?), n. The state of being effulgent; extreme brilliancy;
   a flood of light; great luster or brightness; splendor.

     The effulgence of his glory abides. Milton.

     The bright and the balmy effulgence of morn. Beattie.


   Ef*ful"gent  (?),  a.  [L.  effulgens,  -entis,  p. pr. of effulgere.]
   Diffusing  a  flood  of  light;  shining;  luminous;  beaming; bright;
   splendid. "Effulgent rays of light." Cowper.


   Ef*ful"gent*ly, adv. In an effulgent manner.


   Ef*fu`ma*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  The  capability of flying off in fumes or
   vapor. [Obs.] Boyle.


   Ef*fume"  (?), v. t. [L. effumare to emit smoke; ex + fumare to smoke,
   fr. fumus smoke.] To breathe or puff out. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   Ef*fund"  (?),  v.  t. [L. effundere. See Effuse.] To pour out. [Obs.]
   Dr. H. More.


   Ef*fuse"  (?),  a.  [L.  effusus, p. p. of effundere to pour out; ex +
   fundere to pour. See Fuse to melt.]

   1. Poured out freely; profuse. [Obs.]

     So should our joy be very effuse. Barrow.

   2. Disposed to pour out freely; prodigal. [Obs.] Young.

   3.  (Bot.)  Spreading  loosely,  especially on one side; as, an effuse
   inflorescence. Loudon.

   4.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  the  lips,  or edges, of the aperture abruptly
   spreading; -- said of certain shells.


   Ef*fuse", n. Effusion; loss. "Much effuse of blood." Shak.


   Ef*fuse"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Effused (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Effusing.]  To pour out like a stream or freely; to cause to exude; to
   shed. [R.]

     With gushing blood effused. Milton.


   Ef*fuse", v. i. To emanate; to issue. Thomson.


   Ef*fu"sion (?), n. [L. effusio: cf. F. effusion.]

   1.  The act of pouring out; as, effusion of water, of blood, of grace,
   of words, and the like.

     To save the effusion of my people's blood. Dryden.

   2. That which is poured out, literally or figuratively.

     Wash  me  with  that  precious effusion, and I shall be whiter than
     sow. Eikon Basilike.

     The light effusions of a heedless boy. Byron.

   3.  (Pathol.)  (a)  The  escape  of a fluid out of its natural vessel,
   either by rupture of the vessel, or by exudation through its walls. It
   may pass into the substance of an organ, or issue upon a free surface.
   (b) The liquid escaping or exuded.


   Ef*fu"sive (?), a. Pouring out; pouring forth freely. "Washed with the
   effusive  wave."  Pope.  Effusive  rocks  (Geol.),  volcanic rocks, in
   distinction   from   so-called   intrusive,  or  plutonic,  rocks.  --
   Ef*fu"sive*ly, adv. -- Ef*fu"sive*ness, n.
   Ef"reet (?), n. See Afrit.
   Eft  (?),  n.  [AS. efete lizard. See Newt.] (Zo\'94l.) (a) A European
   lizard  of  the genus Seps. (b) A salamander, esp. the European smooth
   newt (Triton punctatus).
   Eft,  adv.  [AS. eft, \'91ft, again, back, afterward. See Aft, After.]
   Again; afterwards; soon; quickly. [Obs.] 

     I wold never eft comen into the snare. Spenser.

                               Eftsoon, Eftsoons

   Eft*soon"  (?), Eft*soons" (?), adv. [OE. eftsone, eftsones; AS. eft +
   s  soon.  See  Eft,  and  Soon.]  Again; anew; a second time; at once;
   speedily. [Archaic]

     And, if he fall from his capel [horse] eftsone. Chaucer.

     The champion stout eftsoons dismounted. Spenser.


   E*gad" (?), interj. [Euphemistic corruption of the oath, "by God."] An
   exclamation expressing exultation or surprise, etc.


   E"gal (?), a. [F. \'82gal. See Equal.] Equal; impartial. [Obs.] Shak.


   E*gal"i*ty (?), n. [OE. egalite, F. \'82galit\'82.] Equality. Chaucer.


   E*ge"an (?), a. See \'92gean.


   E"gence (?), n. [L. egens, -entis, p. pr. of egere to be needy, suffer
   want.]  The  state of needing, or of suffering a natural want. [R.] J.

                                  Eger, Egre

   E"ger (?), E"gre, a. [See Eager.] Sharp; bitter; acid; sour. [Obs.]

     The egre words of thy friend. Chaucer.


   E"ger, n. An impetuous flood; a bore. See Eagre.


   E*ger"mi*nate (?), v. i. [From L. egerminare to sprout.] To germinate.


   E*gest"  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  egestus, p. p. of egerere to carry out, to
   discharge;  e out + gerere to carry.] (Physiol.) To cast or throw out;
   to  void,  as excrement; to excrete, as the indigestible matter of the
   food; in an extended sense, to excrete by the lungs, skin, or kidneys.


   E*ges"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  neut.  pl. from p. p. of L. egere. See
   Egest.]  (Physiol.)  That which is egested or thrown off from the body
   by the various excretory channels; excrements; -- opposed to ingesta.


   E*ges"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  egestio.]  Act  or  process  of egesting; a
   voiding. Sir M. Hale.


   Egg  (?),  n.  [OE., fr. Icel. egg; akin to AS. \'91g (whence OE. ey),
   Sw.  \'84gg, Dan. \'91g, G. & D. ei, and prob. to OSlav. aje, jaje, L.
   ovum, Gr. ugh, Gael. ubh, and perh. to L. avis bird. Cf. Oval.]

   1.  (Popularly) The oval or roundish body laid by domestic poultry and
   other birds, tortoises, etc. It consists of a yolk, usually surrounded
   by the "white" or albumen, and inclosed in a shell or strong membrane.

   2.  (Biol.)  A simple cell, from the development of which the young of
   animals are formed; ovum; germ cell.

   3. Anything resembling an egg in form.

     NOTE: &hand; Eg g is  us ed ad jectively, or  as  the first part of
     self-explaining  compounds; as, egg beater or egg-beater, egg case,
     egg ladle, egg-shaped, etc.

   Egg  and  anchor  (Arch.),  an  egg-shaped  ornament, alternating with
   another  in  the  form  of a dart, used to enrich the ovolo; -- called
   also  egg and dart, and egg and tongue. See Anchor, n., 5. Ogilvie. --
   Egg  cleavage (Biol.), a process of cleavage or segmentation, by which
   the  egg  undergoes  endogenous  division  with formation of a mass of
   nearly similar cells, from the growth and differentiation of which the
   new organism is ultimately formed. See Segmentation of the ovum, under
   Segmentation.   --   Egg  development  (Biol.),  the  process  of  the
   development  of  an  egg,  by  which the embryo is formed. -- Egg mite
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  mite  which  devours the eggs of insects, as Nothrus
   ovivorus,  which  destroys  those  of the canker worm. -- Egg parasite
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  small  hymenopterous  insect,  which,  in the larval
   stage, lives within the eggs of other insects. Many genera and species
   are known.


   Egg,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Egged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Egging (?).] [OE.
   eggen,  Icel. eggja, fr. egg edge. Edge.] To urge on; to instigate; to

     Adam and Eve he egged to ill. Piers Plowman.

     [She] did egg him on to tell How fair she was. Warner.


   Eg"gar  (?),  n.  [Etymol. uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) Any bombycid moth of
   the  genera  Eriogaster and Lasiocampa; as, the oak eggar (L. roboris)
   of Europe.


   Egg"-bird`  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A species of tern, esp. the sooty tern
   (Sterna fuliginosa) of the West Indies. In the Bahama Islands the name
   is applied to the tropic bird, Pha\'89thon flavirostris.


   Egg"-cup` (?), n. A cup used for holding an egg, at table.


   Eg"ge*ment  (?),  n.  [Egg,  v.  t. + -ment.] Instigation; incitement.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Egg"er (?), n. [See Egg, n.] One who gathers eggs; an eggler.


   Egg"er, n. [See Egg, v. t.] One who eggs or incites.


   Egg"er*y (?), n. A place where eggs are deposited (as by sea birds) or
   kept; a nest of eggs. [R.]


   Egg"-glass`  (?),  n.  A small sandglass, running about three minutes,
   for  marking  time in boiling eggs; also, a small glass for holding an
   egg, at table.


   Egg"hot`  (?),  n.  A  kind of posset made of eggs, brandy, sugar, and
   ale. Lamb.


   Egg"ler (?), n. One who gathers, or deals in, eggs.


   Egg`nog"  (?),  n.  A  drink  consisting of eggs beaten up with sugar,
   milk, and (usually) wine or spirits.


   Egg"plant`  (?), n. (Bot.) A plant (Solanum Melongena), of East Indian
   origin,  allied  to  the  tomato,  and bearing a large, smooth, edible
   fruit, shaped somewhat like an egg; mad-apple.

   Page 474


   Egg"-shaped` (?), a. Resembling an egg in form; ovoid.


   Egg"shell` (?), n.

   1.  The  shell  or exterior covering of an egg. Also used figuratively
   for anything resembling an eggshell.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  smooth, white, marine, gastropod shell of the genus
   Ovulum, resembling an egg in form.

                                  Egg squash

   Egg" squash` (?). A variety of squash with small egg-shaped fruit.


   E"ghen (?), n. pl. Eyes. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Eg`i*lop"ic*al  (?), a. [See \'92gilops.] (Med.) Pertaining to, of the
   nature  of, or affected with, an \'91gilops, or tumor in the corner of
   the eye.


   Eg"i*lops (?), n. See \'92gilops.

                         Eglandulose; 135, Eglandulous

   E*glan"du*lose`   (?;   135),  E*glan"du*lous  (?),  a.  [Pref.  e-  +
   glandulose, glandulosus.] Destitute of glands.


   Eg"lan*tine (?), n. [F. \'82glantine, fr. OF. aiglent brier, hip tree,
   fr.  (assumed)  LL.  acuculentus, fr. a dim. of L. acus needle; cf. F.
   aiguille  needle.  Cf.  Aglet.]  (Bot.)  (a)  A  species of rose (Rosa
   Eglanteria),  with fragrant foliage and flowers of various colors. (b)
   The sweetbrier (R. rubiginosa).

     NOTE: &hand; Mi lton, in  the following lines, has applied the name
     to some twinning plant, perhaps the honeysuckle.

     Through  the  sweetbrier,  or  the  vine, Or the twisted eglantine.
     L'Allegro, 47.

   "In  our  early  writers  and  in Gerarde and the herbalists, it was a
   shrub with white flowers." Dr. Prior.


   Eg"la*tere  (?),  n. Eglantine. [Obs. or R.] [Written also eglantere.]


   Eg"ling  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) The European perch
   when two years old. [Prov. Eng.]


   E*glom"er*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  e-  + glomerate.] To unwind, as a
   thread from a ball. [R.]


   E"go  (?),  n.  [L., I.] (Met.) The conscious and permanent subject of
   all  psychical  experiences,  whether held to be directly known or the
   product of reflective thought; -- opposed to non-ego.


   E*go"i*cal (?), a. Pertaining to egoism. [R.]


   E"go*ism  (?),  n.  [F.  \'82go\'8bsme,  fr. L. -ego I. See I, and cf.

   1. (Philos.) The doctrine of certain extreme adherents or disciples of
   Descartes  and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, which finds all the elements of
   knowledge  in  the  ego and the relations which it implies or provides

   2.  Excessive  love  and thought of self; the habit of regarding one's
   self  as  the  center  of  every  interest; selfishness; -- opposed to


   E"go*ist, n. [F. \'82go\'8bste. See Egoism.]

   1. One given overmuch to egoism or thoughts of self.

     I, dullard egoist, taking no special recognition of such nobleness.

   2. (Philos.) A believer in egoism.

                             Egoistic, Egoistical

   E`go*is"tic  (?),  E`go*is"tic*al (?), a. Pertaining to egoism; imbued
   with egoism or excessive thoughts of self; self-loving.

     Ill-natured  feeling, or egoistic pleasure in making men miserable.
     G. Eliot.


   E`go*is"tic*al*ly, adv. In an egoistic manner.


   E*go"i*ty (?), n. Personality. [R.] Swift.


   E"go*mism (?), n. Egoism. [R.] A. Baxter.


   E`go*phon"ic (?), a. Belonging to, or resembling, egophony.


   E*goph"o*ny  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Med.)  The sound of a patient's voice so
   modified  as to resemble the bleating of a goat, heard on applying the
   ear to the chest in certain diseases within its cavity, as in pleurisy
   with effusion.


   E"go*the`ism (?), n. [Gr. The deification of self. [R.]


   E"go*tism  (?;  277),  n.  [L.  ego  I  + ending -tism for -ism, prob.
   influenced  by  other English words in -tism fr. the Greek, where t is
   not  part  of the ending, as baptism. See Egoism.] The practice of too
   frequently  using the word I; hence, a speaking or writing overmuch of
   one's  self;  self-exaltation;  self-praise;  the  act  or practice of
   magnifying  one's  self or parading one's own doings. The word is also
   used in the sense of egoism.

     His  excessive  egotism,  which  filled  all  objects with himself.

   Syn.  --  Egotism,  Self-conceit,  Vanity,  Egoism. Self-conceit is an
   overweening  opinion  of  one's  talents, capacity, attractions, etc.;
   egotism  is  the  acting  out  of self-conceit, or self-importance, in
   words  and  exterior conduct; vanity is inflation of mind arising from
   the  idea of being thought highly of by others. It shows itself by its
   eagerness  to  catch  the notice of others. Egoism is a state in which
   the  feelings  are  concentrated  on  one's  self.  Its  expression is


   E"go*tist  (?), n. [L. ego I + ending -tist for -ist. See Egotism, and
   cf.  Egoist.]  One addicted to egotism; one who speaks much of himself
   or magnifies his own achievements or affairs.

                            Egotistic, Egotistical

   E`go*tis"tic (?), E`go*tis"tic*al (?), a. Addicted to, or manifesting,
   egotism. Syn. -- Conceited; vain; self-important; opinionated.


   E`go*tis"tic*al*ly, adv. With egotism.


   E"go*tize  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Egotized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Egotizing (?).] [See Egotism.] To talk or write as an egotist. Cowper.


   E*gran"u*lose`  (?),  a.  [Pref.  e-  +  granule.]  (Bot.)  Having  no
   granules, as chlorophyll in certain conditions. R. Brown.


   E"gre (?), a. & n. See Eager, and Eagre. [Obs.]


   E*gre"gious  (?; 277), a. [L. egregius; lit., separated or chosen from
   the herd, i. e., distinguished, excellent; e out + grex, gregis, herd.
   See  Gregarious.]  Surpassing;  extraordinary; distinguished (in a bad
   sense);  -- formerly used with words importing a good quality, but now
   joined  with  words  having  a  bad sense; as, an egregious rascal; an
   egregious ass; an egregious mistake.

     The egregious impudence of this fellow. Bp. Hall.

     His [Wyclif's] egregious labors are not to be neglected. Milton.


   E*gre"gious*ly   (?),   adv.   Greatly;  enormously;  shamefully;  as,
   egregiously cheated.


   E*gre"gious*ness (?; 277), n. The state of being egregious.


   Eg"re*moin  (?),  n.  [See  Agrimony.] Agrimony (Agrimonia Eupatoria).
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   E"gress  (?),  n. [L. egressus, fr. egredi to go out; e out + gradi to
   go. See Grade.]

   1. The act of going out or leaving, or the power to leave; departure.

     Embarred from all egress and regress. Holland.

     Gates  of  burning  adamant,  Barred  over us, prohibit all egress.

   2.  (Astron.)  The  passing  off  from  the  sun's disk of an inferior
   planet, in a transit.


   E*gress" (?), v. i. To go out; to depart; to leave.


   E*gres"sion  (?),  n. [L. egressio.] The act of going; egress. [R.] B.


   E*gress"or (?), n. One who goes out. [R.]


   E"gret (?), n. [See Aigret, Heron.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.) The name of several species of herons which bear plumes
   on  the  back.  They are generally white. Among the best known species
   are  the American egret (Ardea, OR Herodias, egretta); the great egret
   (A. alba); the little egret (A. garzetta), of Europe; and the American
   snowy egret (A. candidissima).

     A bunch of egrets killed for their plumage. G. W. Cable.

   2.  A  plume  or  tuft  of  feathers worn as a part of a headdress, or
   anything imitating such an ornament; an aigrette.

   3.  (Bot.)  The flying feathery or hairy crown of seeds or achenes, as
   the down of the thistle.

   4. (Zo\'94l.) A kind of ape.


   E*grette" (?), n. [See Aigrette.] Same as Egret, n.,



   Eg"ri*mo*ny  (?),  [Corrupted fr. agrimony.] (Bot.) The herb agrimony.


   Eg"ri*mo*ny, n. [L. aegrimonia.] Sorrow. [Obs.]


   E"gri*ot  (?),  n.  [F. aigrette, griotte, formerly agriote; cf. aigre
   sour.] A kind of sour cherry. Bacon.


   E"gri*tude  (?), n. [L. aegritudo, fr. aeger sick.] Sickness; ailment;
   sorrow. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.


   E*gyp"tian  (?),  a.  [L.  Aegyptius,  Gr.  Aegyptus)  Egypt:  cf.  F.
   \'82gyptien.  Cf.  Gypsy.]  Pertaining  to  Egypt, in Africa. Egyptian
   bean.  (Bot.)  (a)  The  beanlike fruit of an aquatic plant (Nelumbium
   speciosum), somewhat resembling the water lily. (b) See under Bean,

   1. --
   Egyptian  cross.  See  Illust.  (No.  6)  of  Cross. -- Egyptian thorn
   (Bot.),  a  medium-sized  tree  (Acacia  vera). It is one of the chief
   sources of the best gum arabic.


   E*gyp"tian, n.

   1.  A  native,  or  one  of  the  people, of Egypt; also, the Egyptian

   2. A gypsy. [Obs.] Shak.


   E"gypt*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Egyptized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Egyptizing  (?).]  To  give  an  Egyptian  character or appearance to.

                           Egyptologer, Egyptologist

   E`gyp*tol"o*ger  (?),  E`gyp*tol"o*gist  (?),  n.  One  skilled in the
   antiquities of Egypt; a student of Egyptology.


   E*gyp`to*log"ic*al   (?),   a.  Of,  pertaining  to,  or  devoted  to,


   E`gyp*tol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Egypt  +  -logy.]  The  science or study of
   Egyptian antiquities, esp. the hieroglyphics.


   Eh  (?),  interj.  [OE.  ei,  ey.]  An expression of inquiry or slight


   Eh"lite  (?),  n.  [From  Ehl  near  Linz,  where it occurs.] (Min.) A
   mineral  of  a  green  color and pearly luster; a hydrous phosphate of


   Ei"der  (?),  n.  [Of Scand. origin, cf. Icel \'91; akin to Sw. eider,
   Dan.  ederfugl.]  (Zo\'94l.)  Any  species  of  sea  duck of the genus
   Somateria,  esp.  Somateria  mollissima,  which breeds in the northern
   parts  of Europe and America, and lines its nest with fine down (taken
   from  its  own  body)  which is an article of commerce; -- called also
   eider  duck.  The  American  eider  (S.  Dresseri), the king eider (S.
   spectabilis),  and  the  spectacled  eider  (Arctonetta  Fischeri) are
   related   species.   Eider  down.  [Cf.  Icel.  \'91\'ebard\'d4n,  Sw.
   eiderd\'d4n, Dan. ederduun.] Down of the eider duck, much sought after
   as an article of luxury.


   Ei"do*graph (?), n. [Gr. graph.] An instrument for copying drawings on
   the same or a different scale; a form of the pantograph.


   Ei*do"lon  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. Idol.] An image or representation; a
   form; a phantom; an apparition. Sir W. Scott.


   Eigh (?), interj. An exclamation expressing delight.


   Eight  (?), n. [See Ait.] An island in a river; an ait. [Obs.] "Osiers
   on their eights." Evelyn.


   Eight,  a.  [AS. eahta; akin to OS. ahto, OFries. achta, D. & G. acht,
   OHG.  ahto,  Icel. \'betta, Sw. \'86tta, Dan. otte, Goth. ahtau, Lith.
   aszt,  Ir.  & Gael. ochd, W. wyth, Armor. eich, eiz, L. octo, Gr. ash.
   Octave.] Seven and one; as, eight years.


   Eight (?), n.

   1. The number greater by a unit than seven; eight units or objects.

   2. A symbol representing eight units, as 8 or viii.


   Eight"een`  (?),  a.  [AS. eahtat, eahtat. See Eight, and Ten, and cf.
   Eighty.] Eight and ten; as, eighteen pounds.


   Eight"een`, n.

   1.  The  number  greater  by  a unit than seventeen; eighteen units or

   2. A symbol denoting eighteen units, as 18 or xviii.


   Eight`een"mo (?), a. & n. See Octodecimo.


   Eight"eenth` (?), a. [From Eighteen.]

   1. Next in order after the seventeenth.

   2. Consisting of one of eighteen equal parts or divisions of a thing.


   Eight"eenth`, n.

   1.  The  quotient of a unit divided by eighteen; one of eighteen equal
   parts or divisions.

   2. The eighth after the tenth.


   Eight"e*teth`e (?), a. [OE., fr. AS. eahtate\'a2; eahta eight + te\'a2
   tenth. Cf. Eighteenth, Tenth.] Eighteenth. [Obs.]


   Eight"fold` (?), a. Eight times a quantity.


   Eighth (?), a. [AS. eahto.]

   1. Next in order after the seventh.

   2. Consisting of one of eight equal divisions of a thing.
   Eighth  note  (Mus.), the eighth part of a whole note, or semibreve; a


   Eighth, n.

   1.  The quotient of a unit divided by eight; one of eight equal parts;
   an eighth part.

   2. (Mus.) The interval of an octave.


   Eighth"ly, adv. As the eighth in order.


   Eight"i*eth (?), a. [From Eighty.]

   1. The next in order after seventy-ninth.

   2. Consisting of one of eighty equal parts or divisions.


   Eight"i*eth,  n.  The  quotient  of  a  unit divided by eighty; one of
   eighty equal parts.


   Eight"ling  (?),  n. [Eight + -ling.] (Crystallog.) A compound or twin
   crystal made up of eight individuals.


   Eight"score` (?), a. & n. Eight times twenty; a hundred and sixty.


   Eight"y  (?),  a.  [AS.  eahtatig,  where  the  ending -tig is akin to
   English  ten;  cf.  G.  achtzig. See Eight, and Ten.] Eight times ten;


   Eight"y, n.

   1. The sum of eight times ten; eighty units or objects.

   2. A symbol representing eighty units, or ten eight times repeated, as
   80 or lxxx.


   Eigne  (?),  a.  [OF.  aisn\'82, ainsn\'82, F. a\'8cn\'82, fr. L. ante
   natus born before. Cf. Esnecy.]

   1. (Law) Eldest; firstborn. Blackstone.

   2. Entailed; belonging to the eldest son. [Obs.]
   Bastard   eigne,   a  bastard  eldest  son  whose  parents  afterwards


   Eik"ing (?), n. (Naut.) See Eking.


   Ei"kon  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. An image or effigy; -- used rather in an
   abstract sense, and rarely for a work of art.


   Ei"ko*sane  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Chem.) A solid hydrocarbon, C20H42, of the
   paraffine   series,   of  artificial  production,  and  also  probably
   occurring in petroleum.


   Ei*kos"y*lene  (?),  n.  [Gr.  ylene.]  (Chem.)  A liquid hydrocarbon,
   C20H38, of the acetylene series, obtained from brown coal.


   Eild (?), n. [See Eld.] Age. [Obs.] Fairfax.


   Eire (?), n. Air. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ei`re*narch  (?),  n.  [See  Irenarch.]  (Gr. Antiq.) A justice of the
   peace; irenarch.


   Ei*ren"ic (?), a. Pacific. See Irenic.


   Ei"rie (?), n. See Aerie, and Eyrie.


   Ei"sel  (?), n. [OF. aisil, aissil, fr. L. acet. Cf. Acetic.] Vinegar;
   verjuice. [Obs.] Sir T. More.


   Eis*tedd"fod (?), n. [W., session, fr. eistedd to sit.] Am assembly or
   session of the Welsh bards; an annual congress of bards, minstrels and
   literati of Wales, -- being a patriotic revival of the old custom.


   Ei"ther  (?; 277), a. & pron. [OE. either, aither, AS. , (akin to OHG.
   ,  MHG. iegeweder); \'be + ge + hw\'91 whether. See Each, and Whether,
   and cf. Or, conj.]

   1.  One  of two; the one or the other; -- properly used of two things,
   but sometimes of a larger number, for any one.

     Lepidus  flatters both, Of both is flattered; but he neither loves,
     Nor either cares for him. Shak.

     Scarce  a  palm  of  ground could be gotten by either of the three.

     There  have  been  three  talkers  in Great British, either of whom
     would illustrate what I say about dogmatists. Holmes.

   2.  Each  of two; the one and the other; both; -- formerly, also, each
   of any number.

     His flowing hair In curls on either cheek played. Milton.

     On either side . . . was there the tree of life. Rev. xxii. 2.

     The  extreme  right  and  left of either army never engaged. Jowett


   Ei"ther,  conj.  Either  precedes two, or more, co\'94rdinate words or
   phrases,  and  is introductory to an alternative. It is correlative to

     Either  he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, or
     peradventure he sleepeth. 1 Kings xviii. 27.

     Few  writers  hesitate  to  use  either  in what is called a triple
     alternative; such as, We must either stay where we are, proceed, or
     recede. Latham.

     NOTE: &hand; Ei  ther wa s fo rmerly so metimes us ed wi thout an y
     correlation, and where we should now use or.

     Can  the  fig tree, my brethren, bear olive berries? either a vine,
     figs?? James iii. 12.


   E*jac"u*late  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ejaculated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Ejaculating.] [L. ejaculatus, p. p. of ejaculari to throw out; e out +
   ejaculari  to  throw,  fr. jaculum javelin, dart, fr. jacere to throw.
   See Eject.]

   1. To throw out suddenly and swiftly, as if a dart; to dart; to eject.
   [Archaic or Technical]

     Its active rays ejaculated thence. Blackmore.

   Page 475

   2.  To  throw  out,  as an exclamation; to utter by a brief and sudden
   impulse; as, to ejaculate a prayer.


   E*jac"u*late (?), v. i. To utter ejaculations; to make short and hasty
   exclamations. [R.] "Ejaculating to himself." Sir W. Scott.


   E*jac`u*la"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82jaculation.]

   1.  The  act  of throwing or darting out with a sudden force and rapid
   flight.  [Archaic  or Technical] "An ejaculation or irradiation of the
   eye." Bacon.

   2.  The  uttering  of  a  short,  sudden exclamation or prayer, or the
   exclamation or prayer uttered.

     In  your  dressing,  let there be jaculations fitted to the several
     actions of dressing. Jer. Taylor.

   3.  (Physiol.)  The  act  of ejecting or suddenly throwing, as a fluid
   from a duct.


   E*jac"u*la`tor  (?),  n.  [NL.  See Ejaculate.] (Anat.) A muscle which
   helps ejaculation.


   E*jac"u*la*to*ry (?), a.

   1. Casting or throwing out; fitted to eject; as, ejaculatory vessels.

   2. Suddenly darted out; uttered in short sentences; as, an ejaculatory
   prayer or petition.

   3.  Sudden;  hasty.  [Obs.]  "Ejaculatory repentances, that take us by
   fits and starts." L'Estrange.


   E*ject"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ejected; p. pr. & vb. n. Ejecting.]
   [L.  ejectus,  p.  p.  of  ejicere; e out + jacere to throw. See Jet a
   shooting forth.]

   1.  To  expel;  to  dismiss; to cast forth; to thrust or drive out; to
   discharge;  as, to eject a person from a room; to eject a traitor from
   the  country; to eject words from the language. "Eyes ejecting flame."
   H. Brooke.

   2.  (Law)  To  cast out; to evict; to dispossess; as, to eject tenants
   from  an estate. Syn. -- To expel; banish; drive out; discharge; oust;
   evict; dislodge; extrude; void.


   E*jec"tion (?), n. [L. ejectio: cf. F. \'82jection.]

   1.   The  act  of  ejecting  or  casting  out;  discharge;  expulsion;
   evacuation.  "Vast  ejection  of  ashes."  Eustace. "The ejection of a
   word." Johnson.

   2.  (Physiol.)  The  act  or  process of discharging anything from the
   body, particularly the excretions.

   3. The state of being ejected or cast out; dispossession; banishment.


   E*ject"ment (?), n.

   1.  A  casting  out;  a dispossession; an expulsion; ejection; as, the
   ejectment of tenants from their homes.

   2.  (Law)  A  species  of mixed action, which lies for the recovery of
   possession  of  real  property, and damages and costs for the wrongful
   withholding of it. Wharton.


   E*ject"or (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, ejects or dispossesses.

   2.  (Mech.)  A  jet  jump  for lifting water or withdrawing air from a
   Ejector  condenser  (Steam Engine), a condenser in which the vacuum is
   maintained by a jet pump.


   E"joo (?), n. [Malay \'c6j or h\'c6j.] Gomuti fiber. See Gomuti.


   Ej`u*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  ejulatio, fr. ejulare to wail, lament.] A
   wailing;  lamentation.  [Obs.]  "Ejulation  in  the  pangs  of death."

                               Ekabor, Ekaboron

   Ek"a*bor`  (?), Ek"a*bo"ron (?), n. [G., fr. Skr. one + G. bor, boron,
   E.  boron.]  (Chem.)  The name given by Mendelejeff in accordance with
   the  periodic  law,  and by prediction, to a hypothetical element then
   unknown, but since discovered and named scandium; -- so called because
   it was a missing analogue of the boron group. See Scandium.


   Ek*al`u*min"i*um  (?),  n. [Skr. one + E. aluminium.] (Chem.) The name
   given  to  a  hypothetical  element,  --  later  discovered and called
   gallium. See Gallium, and cf. Ekabor.


   Ek`a*sil"i*con  (?), n. [Skr. one + E. silicon.] (Chem.) The name of a
   hypothetical  element  predicted  and  afterwards discovered and named
   germanium;  --  so  called  because  it  was a missing analogue of the
   silicon group. See Germanium, and cf. Ekkabor.


   Eke  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Eked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Eking.] [AS.
   \'c7kan, \'dfkan; akin to OFries, \'beka, OS. , OHG. ouhh\'d3n to add,
   Icel.  auka  to  increase,  Sw.  \'94ka,  Dan. \'94ge, Goth. aukan, L.
   augere, Skr. strength, ugra mighty, and probably to English wax, v. i.
   Cf.  Augment,  Nickname.]  To  increase; to add to; to augment; -- now
   commonly  used with out, the notion conveyed being to add to, or piece
   out  by  a  laborious,  inferior, or scanty addition; as, to eke out a
   scanty supply of one kind with some other. "To eke my pain." Spenser.

     He eked out by his wits an income of barely fifty pounds. Macaulay.


   Eke,  adv. [AS. e\'a0c; akin to OFries. \'a0k, OS. , D. , OHG. ouh, G.
   auch,  Icel. auk, Sw. och and, Dan. og, Goth. auk for, but. Prob. from
   the preceding verb.] In addition; also; likewise. [Obs. or Archaic]

     'T  will be prodigious hard to prove That this is eke the throne of
     love. Prior.

     A trainband captain eke was he Of famous London town. Cowper.

     NOTE: &hand; Ek e se rves le ss to unite than to render prominent a
     subjoined more important sentence or notion.



   Eke, n. An addition. [R.]

     Clumsy ekes that may well be spared. Geddes.


   Ek"e*berg`ite  (?),  n.  [From Ekeberg, a German.] (Min.) A variety of


   Eke"name`  (?),  n.  [See  Nickname.] An additional or epithet name; a
   nickname. [Obs.]


   Ek"ing  (?),  n. [From Eke, v. t.] (Shipbuilding) (a) A lengthening or
   filling piece to make good a deficiency in length. (b) The carved work
   under  the  quarter  piece  at  the  aft  part of the quarter gallery.
   [Written also eiking.]


   E"-la`  (?),  n.  Originally,  the highest note in the scale of Guido;
   hence,  proverbially,  any  extravagant  saying.  "Why,  this is above
   E-la!" Beau. & Fl.


   E*lab"o*rate (?), a. [L. elaboratus, p. p. of elaborare to work out; e
   out  + laborare to labor, labor labor. See Labor.] Wrought with labor;
   finished   with  great  care;  studied;  executed  with  exactness  or
   painstaking;  as,  an  elaborate  discourse; an elaborate performance;
   elaborate research.

     Drawn to the life in each elaborate page. Waller.

   Syn.  --  Labored;  complicated;  studied; perfected; high-wrought. --
   E*lab"o*rate*ly, adv. -- E*lab"o*rate*ness, n.


   E*lab"o*rate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Elaborated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Elaborating (?).]

   1. To produce with labor

     They in full joy elaborate a sigh, Young.

   2.  To  perfect  with painstaking; to improve or refine with labor and
   study,  or  by successive operations; as, to elaborate a painting or a
   literary work.

     The sap is . . . still more elaborated and exalted as it circulates
     through the vessels of the plant. Arbuthnot.


   E*lab`o*ra"tion (?), n. [L. elaboratio: cf. F. \'82laboration.]

   1. The act or process of producing or refining with labor; improvement
   by successive operations; refinement.

   2.  (Physiol.)  The  natural  process  of  formation  or assimilation,
   performed  by  the living organs in animals and vegetables, by which a
   crude  substance  is changed into something of a higher order; as, the
   elaboration  of  food into chyme; the elaboration of chyle, or sap, or


   E*lab"o*ra*tive  (?), a. Serving or tending to elaborate; constructing
   with  labor  and  minute  attention  to  details.  Elaborative faculty
   (Metaph.),  the  intellectual  power  of  discerning  relations and of
   viewing objects by means of, or in, relations; the discursive faculty;


   E*lab"o*ra`tor (?), n. One who, or that which, elaborates.


   E*lab"o*ra*to*ry (?), a. Tending to elaborate.


   E*lab"o*ra*to*ry, n. A laboratory. [Obs.]


   E`l\'91*ag"nus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of shrubs or small
   trees, having the foliage covered with small silvery scales; oleaster.


   E*l\'91"is (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of palms.

     NOTE: &hand; El \'91is Gu ineensis, the African oil palm, is a tree
     twenty  or  thirty feet high, with immense pinnate leaves and large
     masses  of  fruit.  The  berries are rather larger than olives, and
     when boiled in water yield the orange-red palm oil.


   E*l\'91"o*lite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -lite.] (Min.) A variety of hephelite,
   usually  massive,  of  greasy  luster,  and  gray  to  reddish  color.
   El\'91olite  syenite,  a kind of syenite characterized by the presence
   of el\'91olite.


   E`l\'91*op"tene  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Chem.)  The  more liquid or volatile
   portion  of certain oily substance, as distinguished from stearoptene,
   the more solid parts. [Written also elaoptene.]


   E*la"i*date (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of elaidic acid.


   E`la*id"ic  (?),  a. [Cf. F. \'82la\'8bdique. See Elaine.] Relating to
   oleic  acid,  or  elaine.  Elaidic acid (Chem.), a fatty acid isomeric
   with oleic acid, and obtained from it by the action of nitrous acid.


   E*la"i*din  (?),  n. [Cf. F. \'82la\'8bdine.] (Chem.) A solid isomeric
   modification of olein.

                               Elaine, OR Elain

   E*la"ine  (?),  OR  E*la"in,  n.  [Gr.  \'82la\'8bne.] (Chem.) Same as


   E`lai*od"ic  (?), a. [Gr. (Chem.) Derived from castor oil; ricinoleic;
   as, elaiodic acid. [R.]


   E`lai*om"e*ter   (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter.]  (Chem.)  An  apparatus  for
   determining  the  amount  of  oil  contained  in any substance, or for
   ascertaining the degree of purity of oil.


   E"lam*ite  (?),  n. A dweller in Flam (or Susiana), an ancient kingdom
   of Southwestern Asia, afterwards a province of Persia.


   E*lamp"ing (?), a. [See Lamp.] Shining. [Obs.] G. Fletcher.

(?), b. [F., fr. \'82lancer to dart.] Ardor inspired by passion or enthusiasm.


   E*lance"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Elanced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Elancing  (?).]  [F. \'82lancer, OF. eslancier; pref. es- (L. ex) + F.
   lancer  to  dart,  throw, fr. lance.] To throw as a lance; to hurl; to
   dart. [R.]

     While thy unerring hand elanced . . . a dart. Prior.


   E"land  (?),  n.  [D. eland elk, of Slav. origin; cf. Pol. jelen stag,
   Russ. ol\'82ne, Lith. elnis; perh. akin to E. elk.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A species of large South African antelope (Oreas canna).
   It  is valued both for its hide and flesh, and is rapidly disappearing
   in the settled districts; -- called also Cape elk.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The elk or moose.


   E*la"net (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A kite of the genus Elanus.


   E*la"o*lite (?), n. (Min.) See El\'91olite.


   E`la*op"tene (?), n. (Chem.) See El\'91optene.


   El"a*phine  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  Pertaining  to, resembling, or
   characteristic of, the stag, or Cervus elaphus.


   El"a*phure (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) A species of deer (Elaphurus Davidianus)
   found  in  china.  It  about  four  feet  high at the shoulder and has
   peculiar antlers.


   E*lap`i*da"tion  (?),  n.  [L. elapidatus cleared from stones; e out +
   lapis stone.] A clearing away of stones. [R.]


   El"a*pine  (?),  a.  [See Elaps.] (Zo\'94l.) Like or pertaining to the
   Elapid\'91,  a family of poisonous serpents, including the cobras. See


   E"laps  (?),  n.  [NL.,  of  uncertain  origin.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of
   venomous  snakes found both in America and the Old World. Many species
   are known. See Coral snake, under Coral.


   E*lapse"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Elapsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Elapsing.]  [L. elapsus, p. p. of elabi to glide away; e out + labi to
   fall, slide. See Lapse.] To slip or glide away; to pass away silently,
   as time; -- used chiefly in reference to time.

     Eight days elapsed; at length a pilgrim came. Hoole.


   E*lap"sion (?), n. The act of elapsing. [R.]


   E*la"que*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  elaqueatus,  p.  p.  of  elaqueare to
   unfetter.] To disentangle. [R.]


   El`a*sip"o*da (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. -poda.] (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   holothurians  mostly  found  in  the deep sea. They are remarkable for
   their bilateral symmetry and curious forms. [Written also Elasmopoda.]


   E*las"mo*branch   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Of  or  pertaining  to  the
   Elasmobranchii. -- n. One of the Elasmobranchii.


   E*las`mo*bran"chi*ate   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)  Of  or  pertaining  to
   Elasmobranchii. -- n. One of the Elasmobranchii.


   E*las`mo*bran"chi*i  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  branchia a gill.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A subclass of fishes, comprising the sharks, the rays, and
   the Chim\'91ra. The skeleton is mainly cartilaginous.


   E*las`mo*sau"rus   (?),   n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Paleon.)  An  extinct,
   long-necked,   marine,  cretaceous  reptile  from  Kansas,  allied  to


   E*las"tic  (?),  a.  [Formed  fr.  Gr.  alacer  lively,  brisk, and E.
   alacrity: cf. F. \'82lastique.]

   1. Springing back; having a power or inherent property of returning to
   the  form  from which a substance is bent, drawn, pressed, or twisted;
   springy; having the power of rebounding; as, a bow is elastic; the air
   is elastic; India rubber is elastic.

     Capable  of  being  drawn out by force like a piece of elastic gum,
     and  by its own elasticity returning, when the force is removed, to
     its former position. Paley.

   2.  Able to return quickly to a former state or condition, after being
   depressed or overtaxed; having power to recover easily from shocks and
   trials; as, elastic spirits; an elastic constitution.
   Elastic  bitumen.  (Min.) See Elaterite. -- Elastic curve. (a) (Geom.)
   The curve made by a thin elastic rod fixed horizontally at one end and
   loaded   at   the  other.  (b)  (Mech.)  The  figure  assumed  by  the
   longitudinal  axis  of  an originally straight bar under any system of
   bending  forces.  Rankine.  --  Elastic  fluids,  those which have the
   property  of  expanding  in  all directions on the removal of external
   pressure,  as  the  air, steam, and other gases and vapors. -- Elastic
   limit  (Mech.), the limit of distortion, by bending, stretching, etc.,
   that  a  body  can  undergo  and  yet return to its original form when
   relieved  from  stress;  also,  the  unit  force or stress required to
   produce  this  distortion.  Within the elastic limit the distortion is
   directly  proportional  to  the stress producing it. -- Elastic tissue
   (Anat.),  a  variety  of  connective tissue consisting of a network of
   slender  and  very  elastic  fibers which are but slightly affected by
   acids or alkalies. -- Gum elastic, caoutchouc.


   E*las"tic,   n.  An  elastic  woven  fabric,  as  a  belt,  braces  or
   suspenders, etc., made in part of India rubber. [Colloq.]


   E*las"tic*al (?), a. Elastic. [R.] Bentley.


   E*las"tic*al*ly,  adv. In an elastic manner; by an elastic power; with
   a spring.


   E`las*tic"i*ty (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82lasticit\'82.]

   1.  The  quality  of being elastic; the inherent property in bodies by
   which  they  recover  their  former  figure  or  dimensions, after the
   removal  of external pressure or altering force; springiness; tendency
   to  rebound;  as,  the elasticity of caoutchouc; the elasticity of the

   2. Power of resistance to, or recovery from, depression or overwork.
   Coefficient of elasticity, the quotient of a stress (of a given kind),
   by  the  strain  (of  a  given kind) which it produces; -- called also
   coefficient of resistance. -- Surface of elasticity (Geom.), the pedal
   surface  of an ellipsoid (see Pedal); a surface used in explaining the
   phenomena of double refraction and their relation to the elastic force
   of the luminous ether in crystalline media.


   E*las"tic*ness (?), n. The quality of being elastic; elasticity.


   E*las"tin  (?),  n.  [Elastic  +  -in.] (Physiol. Chem.) A nitrogenous
   substance, somewhat resembling albumin, which forms the chemical basis
   of  elastic  tissue.  It  is  very  insoluble  in  most fluids, but is
   gradually dissolved when digested with either pepsin or trypsin.


   E*late"  (?), a. [L. elatus elevated, fig., elated, proud (the figure,
   perh.,  being  borrowed from a prancing horse); e out + latus (used as
   p.  p.  of  ferre  to  bear), for tlatus, and akin to E. tolerate. See
   Tolerate, and cf. Extol.]

   Page 476

   1. Lifted up; raised; elevated.

     With upper lip elate. Fenton.

     And  sovereign  law,  that State's collected will, O'er thrones and
     globes,  elate, Sits empress, crowning good, repressing ill. Sir W.

   2.  Having  the  spirits  raised  by  success,  or by hope; flushed or
   exalted with confidence; elated; exultant.

     O,  thoughtless mortals! ever blind to fate, Too soon dejected, and
     dejected, and too soon elate. Pope.

     Our  nineteenth  century  is  wonderfully set up in its own esteem,
     wonderfully elate at its progress. Mrs. H. H. Jackson.

   Syn.  --  Puffed  up;  lofty;  proud;  haughty;  exalted;  inspirited;
   transported; delighted; overjoyed.


   E*late" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Elated; p. pr. & vb. n. Elating.]

   1. To raise; to exalt. [R.]

     By the potent sun elated high. Thomson.

   2.  To  exalt the spirit of; to fill with confidence or exultation; to
   elevate or flush with success; to puff up; to make proud.

     Foolishly elated by spiritual pride. Warburton.

     You  ought  not  be  elated  at the chance mishaps of your enemies.
     Jowett (Thucyd. ).


   E*lat"ed*ly (?), adv. With elation.


   E*lat"ed*ness, n. The state of being elated.


   E*lat"er (?), n. One who, or that which, elates.


   El"a*ter (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Bot.) An elastic spiral filament for dispersing the spores, as in
   some liverworts.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Any beetle of the family Elaterid\'91, having the habit,
   when  laid  on  the back, of giving a sudden upward spring, by a quick
   movement of the articulation between the abdomen and thorax; -- called
   also click beetle, spring beetle, and snapping beetle.

   3. (Zo\'94l.) The caudal spring used by Podura and related insects for
   leaping. See Collembola.


   El"a*ter  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  The  active principle of elaterium, being
   found  in  the  juice  of  the  wild  or squirting cucumber (Ecballium
   agreste,  formerly  Motordica Elaterium) and other related species. It
   is  extracted  as  a  bitter, white, crystalline substance, which is a
   violent purgative.


   El"a*ter*ite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A  mineral  resin, of a blackish brown
   color,  occurring  in  soft,  flexible  masses; -- called also mineral
   caoutchouc, and elastic bitumen.


   El`a*te"ri*um  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr. Elater.] A cathartic substance
   obtained,  in  the  form  of yellowish or greenish cakes, as the dried
   residue  of  the  juice  of  the wild or squirting cucumber (Ecballium
   agreste, formerly called Momordica Elaterium).


   El`a*ter*om"e*ter (?), n. Same as Elatrometer.


   El"a*ter*y  (?),  n. [See 2d Elater.] Acting force; elasticity. [Obs.]


   E*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  elatio. See Elate.] A lifting up by success;
   exaltation;  inriation  with pride of prosperity. "Felt the elation of
   triumph." Sir W. Scott.


   E*la"tive (?), a. (Gram.) Raised; lifted up; -- a term applied to what
   is  also  called  the absolute superlative, denoting a high or intense
   degree  of  a quality, but not excluding the idea that an equal degree
   may exist in other cases.


   El`a*trom"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter.]  (Physics) An instrument for
   measuring  the  degree of rarefaction of air contained in the receiver
   of an air pump. [Spelt also elaterometer.]


   E*la"yl  (?),  n.  [Gr.  yl.]  (Chem.) Olefiant gas or ethylene; -- so
   called  by  Berzelius from its forming an oil combining with chlorine.
   [Written also elayle.] See Ethylene.


   El"bow  (?),  n.  [AS.  elboga,  elnboga  (akin  to  D. elleboga, OHG.
   elinbogo,  G.  ellbogen, ellenbogen, Icel. ; prop.; arm-bend); eln ell
   (orig., forearm) + boga a bending. See 1st Ell, and 4th Bow.]

   1.  The joint or bend of the arm; the outer curve in the middle of the
   arm when bent.

     Her arms to the elbows naked. R. of Gloucester.

   2.  Any  turn or bend like that of the elbow, in a wall, building, and
   the like; a sudden turn in a line of coast or course of a river; also,
   an  angular  or  jointed part of any structure, as the raised arm of a
   chair or sofa, or a short pipe fitting, turning at an angle or bent.

   3.  (Arch.)  A  sharp  angle  in  any  surface of wainscoting or other
   woodwork; the upright sides which flank any paneled work, as the sides
   of windows, where the jamb makes an elbow with the window back. Gwilt.

     NOTE: &hand; Elbow is used adjectively or as part of a compound, to
     denote  something  shaped like, or acting like, an elbow; as, elbow
     joint;  elbow tongs or elbow-tongs; elbowroom, elbow-room, or elbow

   At  the  elbow,  very  near;  at  hand.  --  Elbow  grease,  energetic
   application  of  force  in  manual  labor. [Low] -- Elbow in the hawse
   (Naut.),  the  twisting together of two cables by which a vessel rides
   at  anchor, caused by swinging completely round once. Totten. -- Elbow
   scissors  (Surg.), scissors bent in the blade or shank for convenience
   in  cutting.  Knight.  --  Out at elbow, with coat worn through at the
   elbows; shabby; in needy circumstances.


   El"bow, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Elbowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Elbowing.] To
   push or hit with the elbow, as when one pushes by another.

     They  [the  Dutch]  would  elbow  our  own  aldermen  off the Royal
     Exchange. Macaulay.

   To elbow one's way, to force one's way by pushing with the elbows; as,
   to elbow one's way through a crowd.
   El"bow (?), v. i. 

   1.  To jut into an angle; to project or to bend after the manner of an

   2.  To  push  rudely  along; to elbow one's way. "Purseproud, elbowing
   Insolence." Grainger.


   El"bow*board` (?), n. The base of a window casing, on which the elbows
   may rest.


   El"bow*chair`  (?),  n.  A  chair  with arms to support the elbows; an
   armchair. Addison.


   El"bow*room`  (?),  n.  Room  to extend the elbows on each side; ample
   room for motion or action; free scope. "My soul hath elbowroom." Shak.

     Then  came  a  stretch  of grass and a little more elbowroom. W. G.


   El*ca"ja (?), n. [Ar.] (Bot.) An Arabian tree (Trichilia emetica). The
   fruit, which is emetic, is sometimes employed in the composition of an
   ointment for the cure of the itch.


   El*ce"sa*ite  (?),  n. [From Elcesai, the leader of the sect.] (Eccl.)
   One of a sect of Asiatic Gnostics of the time of the Emperor Trajan.


   Eld (?), a. [AS. eald.] Old. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Eld, n. [AS. yldu, yldo, eldo, old age, fr. ald, eald, old. See Old.]

   1. Age; esp., old age. [Obs. or Archaic]

     As sooth is said, eelde hath great avantage. Chaucer.

     Great Nature, ever young, yet full of eld. Spenser.

   2. Old times; former days; antiquity. [Poetic]

     Astrologers and men of eld. Longfellow.


   Eld, v. i. To age; to grow old. [Obs.]


   Eld, v. t. To make old or ancient. [Obs.]

     Time, that eldeth all things. Rom. of R.


   Eld"er (?), a. [AS. yldra, compar. of eald old. See Old.]

   1. Older; more aged, or existing longer.

     Let  the elder men among us emulate their own earlier deeds. Jowett
     (Thucyd. )

   2.  Born  before  another; prior in years; senior; earlier; older; as,
   his  elder  brother  died  in  infancy; -- opposed to younger, and now
   commonly applied to a son, daughter, child, brother, etc.

     The elder shall serve the younger. Gen. xxv. 23.

     But ask of elder days, earth's vernal hour. Keble.

   Elder  hand  (Card  Playing), the hand playing, or having the right to
   play, first. Hoyle.


   Eld"er,  n.  [AS.  ealdor an elder, prince, fr. eald old. See Old, and
   cf. Elder, a., Alderman.]

   1. One who is older; a superior in age; a senior. 1 Tim. v. 1.

   2. An aged person; one who lived at an earlier period; a predecessor.

     Carry your head as your elders have done. L'Estrange.

   3.  A  person who, on account of his age, occupies the office of ruler
   or  judge; hence, a person occupying any office appropriate to such as
   have  the  experience and dignity which age confers; as, the elders of
   Israel;  the  elders  of  the  synagogue;  the elders in the apostolic

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e mo dern Presbyterian churches, elders are lay
     officers  who,  with the minister, compose the church session, with
     authority   to   inspect  and  regulate  matters  of  religion  and
     discipline.  In  some  churches,  pastors  or  clergymen are called
     elders, or presbyters.

   4.   (M.  E.  Ch.)  A  clergyman  authorized  to  administer  all  the
   sacraments; as, a traveling elder.
   Presiding elder (Meth. Ch.), an elder commissioned by a bishop to have
   the  oversight of the churches and preachers in a certain district. --
   Ruling  elder,  a  lay  presbyter  or  member of a Presbyterian church
   session. Schaff.


   El"der  (?),  n. [OE. ellern, eller, AS. ellen, cf. LG. elloorn; perh.
   akin  to  OHG.  holantar, holuntar, G. holunder; or perh. to E. alder,
   n.]  (Bot.)  A genus of shrubs (Sambucus) having broad umbels of white
   flowers, and small black or red berries.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e co  mmon No rth Am erican sp ecies is  Sa mbucus
     Canadensis;  the  common  European species (S. nigra) forms a small
     tree.   The  red-berried  elder  is  S.  pubens.  The  berries  are
     diaphoretic and aperient.

   Box  elder.  See under 1st Box. -- Dwarf elder. See Danewort. -- Elder
   tree.  (Bot.)  Same as Elder. Shak. -- Marsh elder, the cranberry tree
   Viburnum Opulus).


   Eld"er*ish (?), a. Somewhat old; elderly. [R.]


   Eld"er*ly,  a.  Somewhat old; advanced beyond middle age; bordering on
   old age; as, elderly people.


   El"dern (?), a. Made of elder. [Obs.]

     He would discharge us as boys do eldern guns. Marston.


   Eld"er*ship (?), n.

   1.  The state of being older; seniority. "Paternity an eldership." Sir
   W. Raleigh.

   2. Office of an elder; collectively, a body of elders.


   El"der*wort` (?), n. (Bot.) Danewort.


   Eld"est (?), a. [AS. yldest, superl. of eald old. See Elder, a.]

   1. Oldest; longest in duration. Shak.

   2.  Born  or  living  first, or before the others, as a son, daughter,
   brother,  etc.;  first  in  origin. See Elder. "My lady's eldest son."

     Their eldest historians are of suspected credit. Bp. Stillingfleet.

   Eldest  hand  (Card Playing), the player on the dealer's left hand. R.
   A. Proctor.


   El"ding  (?), n. [Icel. elding, fr. elda to kindle, eldr fire; akin to
   AS. \'91ld fire, \'91lan to burn.] Fuel. [Prov. Eng.] Grose.

                                   El Dorado

   El`  Do*ra"do (?), pl. El Doradoes (. [Sp., lit., the gilt (sc. land);
   el the + dorado gilt, p. p. of dorare to gild. Cf. Dorado.]

   1.  A  name given by the Spaniards in the 16th century to an imaginary
   country  in  the  interior of South America, reputed to abound in gold
   and precious stones.

   2. Any region of fabulous wealth; exceeding richness.

     The whole comedy is a sort of El Dorado of wit. T. Moore.


   El"dritch  (?),  a. Hideous; ghastly; as, an eldritch shriek or laugh.
   [Local, Eng.]


   E`le*at"ic  (?),  a. [L. eleaticus, from Elea (or Velia) in Italy.] Of
   or  pertaining  to  a  certain school of Greek philosophers who taught
   that  the  only  certain  science  is  that  which owes nothing to the
   senses,  and  all  to  the  reason. -- n. A philosopher of the Eleatic


   E`le*at"i*cism (?), n. The Eleatic doctrine.


   El`e*cam*pane"  (?),  n.  [F.  \'82nulecampane,  NL. inula campana; L.
   inula  elecampane  +  LL.  campana  a bell; cf. G. glockenwurz, i. e.,

   1. (Bot.) A large, coarse herb (Inula Helenium), with composite yellow
   flowers.  The root, which has a pungent taste, is used as a tonic, and
   was formerly of much repute as a stomachic.

   2. A sweetmeat made from the root of the plant.


   E*lect" (?), a. [L. electus, p. p. of eligere to elect; e out + legere
   to choose. See Legend, and cf. Elite, Eclectic.]

   1.  Chosen; taken by preference from among two or more. "Colors quaint
   elect." Spenser.

   2.  (Theol.)  Chosen as the object of mercy or divine favor; set apart
   to eternal life. "The elect angels." 1 Tim. v. 21.

   3.  Chosen  to  an  office, but not yet actually inducted into it; as,
   bishop elect; governor or mayor elect.


   E*lect", n.

   1. One chosen or set apart.

     Behold  my  servant,  whom  I  uphold;  mine elect, in whom my soul
     delighteth. Is. xlii. 1.

   2. pl. (Theol.) Those who are chosen for salvation.

     Shall not God avenge his won elect? Luke xviii. 7.


   E*lect", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Elected; p. pr. & vb. n. Electing.]

   1. To pick out; to select; to choose.

     The deputy elected by the Lord. Shak.

   2.  To select or take for an office; to select by vote; as, to elect a
   representative, a president, or a governor.

   3.  (Theol.) To designate, choose, or select, as an object of mercy or
   favor. Syn. -- To choose; prefer; select. See Choose.


   E*lect"ant  (?), n. [L. electans, p. pr. of electare.] One who has the
   power of choosing; an elector. [R.]


   E*lec"ta*ry (?), n. (Med.) See Electuary.


   E*lec"tic (?), a. See Eclectic.


   E*lec"ti*cism (?), n. See Eclecticism.


   E*lec"tion  (?), n. [F. \'82lection, L. electio, fr. eligere to choose
   out. See Elect, a.]

   1. The act of choosing; choice; selection.

   2. The act of choosing a person to fill an office, or to membership in
   a  society,  as  by  ballot,  uplifted  hands,  or  viva voce; as, the
   election of a president or a mayor.

     Corruption in elections is the great enemy of freedom. J. Adams.

   3. Power of choosing; free will; liberty to choose or act. "By his own
   election led to ill." Daniel.

   4. Discriminating choice; discernment. [Obs.]

     To use men with much difference and election is good. Bacon.

   5. (Theol.) Divine choice; predestination of individuals as objects of
   mercy and salvation; -- one of the "five points" of Calvinism.

     There is a remnant according to the election of grace. Rom. xi. 5.

   6.  (Law)  The choice, made by a party, of two alternatives, by taking
   one of which, the chooser is excluded from the other.

   7. Those who are elected. [Obs.]

     The election hath obtained it. Rom. xi. 7.

   To  contest an election. See under Contest. -- To make one's election,
   to choose.

     He  has  made  his election to walk, in the main, in the old paths.
     Fitzed. Hall.


   E*lec`tion*eer"  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Electionered (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Electioneering.]  To  make  interest  for  a  candidate at an
   election; to use arts for securing the election of a candidate.

     A master of the whole art of electioneering. Macaulay.


   E*lec`tion*eer"er (?), n. One who electioneers.


   E*lect"ive (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82lectif.]

   1. Exerting the power of choice; selecting; as, an elective act.

   2.  Pertaining  to,  or  consisting  in, choice, or right of choosing;

     The independent use of their elective franchise. Bancroft.

   3.  Dependent  on  choice;  bestowed  or  passing  by election; as, an
   elective study; an elective office.

     Kings  of  Rome  were  at  first  elective;  . . . for such are the
     conditions of an elective kingdom. Dryden.

   Elective  affinity  OR  attraction  (Chem.),  a tendency to unite with
   certain things; chemism.


   E*lect"ive,  n. In an American college, an optional study or course of
   study. [Colloq.]


   E*lect"ive*ly, adv. In an elective manner; by choice.


   E*lect"or (?), n. [L., fr. eligere: cf. F. \'82lecteur.]

   1.  One  who  elects,  or  has  the  right  of choice; a person who is
   entitled  to take part in an election, or to give his vote in favor of
   a candidate for office.

   2.  Hence, specifically, in any country, a person legally qualified to

   3. In the old German empire, one of the princes entitled to choose the

   4.  One  of  the  persons  chosen, by vote of the people in the United
   States, to elect the President and Vice President.


   E*lect"or  (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82lectoral.] Pertaining to an election or
   to electors.

     In favor of the electoral and other princes. Burke.

   Electoral  college, the body of princes formerly entitled to elect the
   Emperor  of  Germany;  also,  a  name  sometimes  given, in the United
   States,  to  the  body  of  electors chosen by the people to elect the
   President and Vice President.


   E*lect`or*al"i*ty  (?),  n.  The  territory  or dignity of an elector;
   electorate. [R.] Sir H. Wotton.

   Page 477


   E*lect"or*ate (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82lectorat.]

   1.  The  territory,  jurisdiction, or dignity of an elector, as in the
   old German empire.

   2.  The whole body of persons in a nation or state who are entitled to
   vote in an election, or any distinct class or division of them.

     The middle-class electorate of Great Britain. M. Arnold.


   E*lect"or*ess (?), n. [Fem. of Elector.] An electress. Bp. Burnet.


   E`lec*to"ri*al (?), a. Electoral. Burke.


   E*lect"or*ship (?), n. The office or status of an elector.

                               Electre, Electer

   E*lec"tre,  E*lec"ter  (?), n. [L. electrum: cf. F. \'82lectre mixture
   of gold and silver. See Electrum.]

   1. Amber. See Electrum. [Obs.]

   2.  A  metallic  substance  compounded  of  gold and silver; an alloy.
   [Obs.] Wyclif.


   E`lec*trep"e*ter  (?),  n. [Electro + Gr. An instrument used to change
   the direction of electric currents; a commutator. [R.]


   E*lect"ress (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82lectrice. Cf. Electoress.] The wife or
   widow of an elector in the old German empire. Burke.

                             Electric, Electrical

   E*lec"tric  (?),  E*lec"tric*al  (?),  a.  [L. electrum amber, a mixed
   metal,  Gr.  arc  to  beam, shine: cf. F. \'82lectrique. The name came
   from the production of electricity by the friction of amber.]

   1. Pertaining to electricity; consisting of, containing, derived from,
   or produced by, electricity; as, electric power or virtue; an electric
   jar; electric effects; an electric spark.

   2.  Capable  of  occasioning  the  phenomena  of  electricity;  as, an
   electric or electrical machine or substance.

   3.   Electrifying;   thrilling;   magnetic.  "Electric  Pindar."  Mrs.
   Electric  atmosphere,  OR Electric aura. See under Aura. -- Electrical
   battery.  See  Battery.  --  Electrical  brush.  See  under  Brush. --
   Electric  cable.  See  Telegraph  cable,  under Telegraph. -- Electric
   candle.  See under Candle. -- Electric cat (Zo\'94l.), one of three or
   more  large species of African catfish of the genus Malapterurus (esp.
   M. electricus of the Nile). They have a large electrical organ and are
   able  to  give powerful shocks; -- called also sheathfish. -- Electric
   clock.  See  under  Clock,  and  see  Electro-chronograph. -- Electric
   current,  a  current  or  stream  of  electricity  traversing a closed
   circuit  formed  of  conducting  substances,  or  passing  by means of
   conductors from one body to another which is in a different electrical
   state.  --  Electric,  OR Electrical, eel (Zo\'94l.), a South American
   eel-like  fresh-water fish of the genus Gymnotus (G. electricus), from
   two  to  five  feet  in  length,  capable of giving a violent electric
   shock. See Gymnotus. -- Electrical fish (Zo\'94l.), any fish which has
   an electrical organ by means of which it can give an electrical shock.
   The best known kinds are the torpedo, the gymnotus, or electrical eel,
   and  the  electric  cat. See Torpedo, and Gymnotus. -- Electric fluid,
   the  supposed  matter  of  electricity; lightning. -- Electrical image
   (Elec.),  a collection of electrical points regarded as forming, by an
   analogy  with  optical phenomena, an image of certain other electrical
   points,  and  used  in  the  solution  of  electrical problems. Sir W.
   Thomson.  --  Electrical  light,  the  light  produced by a current of
   electricity  which  in  passing through a resisting medium heats it to
   incandescence   or  burns  it.  See  under  Carbon.  --  Electric,  OR
   Electrical,  machine,  an  apparatus  for  generating,  collecting, or
   exciting,   electricity,  as  by  friction.  --  Electric  motor.  See

   2. --
   Electric  osmose.  (Physics) See under Osmose. -- Electric pen, a hand
   pen  for making perforated stencils for multiplying writings. It has a
   puncturing   needle   driven   at   great   speed   by  a  very  small
   magneto-electric  engine  on  the  penhandle.  --  Electric railway, a
   railway  in  which  the  machinery for moving the cars is driven by an
   electric current. -- Electric ray (Zo\'94l.), the torpedo. -- Electric
   telegraph. See Telegraph.


   E*lec"tric  (?), n. (Physics) A nonconductor of electricity, as amber,
   glass, resin, etc., employed to excite or accumulate electricity.


   E*lec"tric*al*ly  (?),  adv. In the manner of electricity, or by means
   of it; thrillingly.


   E*lec"tric*al*ness, a. The state or quality of being electrical.


   E`lec*tri"cian  (?),  n. An investigator of electricity; one versed in
   the science of electricity.


   E`lec*tric"i*ty    (?),   n.;   pl.   Electricities   (#).   [Cf.   F.
   \'82lectricit\'82. See Electric.]

   1.  A  power  in  nature, a manifestation of energy, exhibiting itself
   when  in  disturbed  equilibrium or in activity by a circuit movement,
   the  fact  of  direction  in which involves polarity, or opposition of
   properties  in  opposite  directions;  also,  by  attraction  for many
   substances,  by  a law involving attraction between surfaces of unlike
   polarity,   and   repulsion  between  those  of  like;  by  exhibiting
   accumulated polar tension when the circuit is broken; and by producing
   heat,  light,  concussion, and often chemical changes when the circuit
   passes  between  the  poles  or  through  any  imperfectly  conducting
   substance  or  space.  It  is  generally  brought  into  action by any
   disturbance   of  molecular  equilibrium,  whether  from  a  chemical,
   physical, or mechanical, cause.

     NOTE: &hand; El ectricity is  ma nifested under following different
     forms: (a)

   Statical  electricity,  called also Frictional OR Common, electricity,
   electricity  in  the  condition  of  a stationary charge, in which the
   disturbance  is  produced by friction, as of glass, amber, etc., or by
   induction. (b) Dynamical electricity, called also Voltaic electricity,
   electricity   in   motion,  or  as  a  current  produced  by  chemical
   decomposition,  as  by  means  of  a voltaic battery, or by mechanical
   action,  as  by  dynamo-electric  machines.  (c) Thermoelectricity, in
   which  the  disturbing  cause  is  heat  (attended  possibly with some
   chemical  action).  It  is  developed  by uniting two pieces of unlike
   metals  in  a bar, and then heating the bar unequally. (d) Atmospheric
   electricity, any condition of electrical disturbance in the atmosphere
   or  clouds,  due  to  some  or  all of the above mentioned causes. (e)
   Magnetic  electricity, electricity developed by the action of magnets.
   (f) Positive electricity, the electricity that appears at the positive
   pole  or anode of a battery, or that is produced by friction of glass;
   --  called  also  vitreous  electricity. (g) Negative electricity, the
   electricity  that  appears  at  the  negative  pole  or cathode, or is
   produced  by  the  friction  of  resinous  substance;  --  called also
   resinous electricity. (h) Organic electricity, that which is developed
   in  organic  structures, either animal or vegetable, the phrase animal
   electricity being much more common.

   2.  The  science  which unfolds the phenomena and laws of electricity;
   electrical science.

   3. Fig.: Electrifying energy or characteristic.


   E*lec"tri*fi`a*ble  (?),  a.  Capable  of receiving electricity, or of
   being charged with it.


   E*lec`tri*fi*ca"tion (?), n. (Physics) The act of electrifying, or the
   state of being charged with electricity.


   E*lec"tri*fy (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Electrified (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Electrifying.] [Electric + -fy.]

   1.  To  communicate electricity to; to charge with electricity; as, to
   electrify a jar.

   2.  To cause electricity to pass through; to affect by electricity; to
   give an electric shock to; as, to electrify a limb, or the body.

   3.  To  excite  suddenly  and  violently,  esp.  by  something  highly
   delightful  or  inspiriting;  to  thrill; as, this patriotic sentiment
   electrified the audience.

     If  the  sovereign  were now to immure a subject in defiance of the
     writ  of  habeas  corpus  . . . the whole nation would be instantly
     electrified by the news. Macaulay.

     Try  whether she could electrify Mr. Grandcourt by mentioning it to
     him at table. G. Eliot.


   E*lec"tri*fy, v. i. To become electric.


   E*lec"trine (?), a. [L. electrinus of amber. See Electric.]

   1. Belonging to, or made of, amber.

   2. Made of electrum, an alloy used by the ancients.


   E`lec*tri"tion (?), n. (Physiol.) The recognition by an animal body of
   the electrical condition of external objects.


   E*lec`tri*za"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  \'82lectrisation.]  The  act of
   electrizing; electrification.


   E*lec"trize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Electrized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Electrizing (?).] [Cf. F. \'82lectriser.] To electricity. Eng. Cyc.


   E*lec"tri`zer (?), n. One who, or that which, electrizes.


   E*lec"tro-  (?).  [L.  electrum  amber.  See  Electric.]  A  prefix or
   combining  form  signifying  pertaining  to  electricity,  produced by
   electricity,   producing   or   employing   electricity,   etc.;   as,
   electro-negative; electro-dynamic; electro-magnet.


   E*lec"tro, n. An electrotype.


   E*lec`tro-bal*lis"tic (?), a. Pertaining to electro-ballistics.


   E*lec`tro-bal*lis"tics  (?),  n.  The  art or science of measuring the
   force or velocity of projectiles by means of electricity.


   E*lec`tro-bi*ol"o*gist (?), n. (Biol.) One versed in electro-biology.


   E*lec`tro-bi*ol"o*gy (?), n. (Biol.)

   1.  That branch of biology which treats of the electrical phenomena of
   living organisms.

   2. That phase of mesmerism or animal magnetism, the phenomena of which
   are supposed to be produced by a form of electricity.


   E*lec`tro-bi*os"co*py  (?),  n.  [Electro-  +  Gr.  -scopy.] (Biol.) A
   method  of  determining  the  presence or absence of life in an animal
   organism  with  a  current  of  electricity, by noting the presence or
   absence of muscular contraction.


   E*lec`tro-cap`il*lar"i*ty   (?),   n.   (Physics)  The  occurrence  or
   production of certain capillary effects by the action of an electrical
   current or charge.


   E*lec`tro-cap"il*la*ry  (?),  a.  (Physics)  Pert.  to,  or caused by,


   E*lec`tro-chem"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to electro-chemistry.


   E*lec`tro-chem"is*try  (?),  n. That branch of science which treats of
   the relation of electricity to chemical changes.


   E*lec`tro-chron"o*graph  (?),  n.  (Astron. Physics) An instrument for
   obtaining  an  accurate  record  of  the  time  at  which any observed
   phenomenon  occurs,  or  of  its  duration. It has an electro-magnetic
   register connected with a clock. See Chronograph.


   E*lec`tro-chron`o*graph"ic     (?),     a.     Belonging     to    the
   electro-chronograph, or recorded by the aid of it.


   E*lec"tro*cute` (?), v. t. [Electro- + cute in execute.] To execute or
   put to death by electricity. -- E*lec`tro*cu"tion, n.

     NOTE: [Recent; Newspaper words]


   E*lec"trode (?), n. [Electro- + Gr. \'82lectrode.] (Elec.) The path by
   which  electricity  is  conveyed  into  or  from  a  solution or other
   conducting  medium; esp., the ends of the wires or conductors, leading
   from source of electricity, and terminating in the medium traversed by
   the current.

                      Electro-dynamic, Electro-dynamical

   E*lec`tro-dy*nam"ic  (?),  E*lec`tro-dy*nam"ic*al  (?),  a.  (Physics)
   Pertaining to the movements or force of electric or galvanic currents;
   dependent on electric force.


   E*lec`tro-dy*nam"ics (?), n.

   1. The phenomena of electricity in motion.

   2.  The  branch  of science which treats of the properties of electric
   currents; dynamical electricity.


   E*lec`tro-dy`na*mom"e*ter  (?),  n.  An  instrument  for measuring the
   strength of electro-dynamic currents.


   E*lec`tro-en*grav"ing (?), n. The art or process of engraving by means
   of electricity.


   E*lec`tro-etch"ing   (?),   n.  A  mode  of  etching  upon  metals  by
   electrolytic action.


   E*lec`tro*gen"e*sis  (?),  n. [Electro- + genesis.] (Physiol.) Same as


   E*lec`tro*gen"ic    (?),   a.   (Physiol.)   Of   or   pertaining   to
   electrogenesis; as, an electrogenic condition.


   E`lec*trog"e*ny  (?),  n.  [Electro- + Gr. (Physiol.) A term sometimes
   applied to the effects (tetanus) produced in the muscles of the limbs,
   when  a  current  of  electricity  is  passed along the spinal cord or


   E*lec`tro-gild"ing (?), n. The art or process of gilding copper, iron,
   etc., by means of voltaic electricity.


   E*lec"tro-gilt` (?), a. Gilded by means of voltaic electricity.


   E*lec"tro*graph  (?),  n.  [Electro-  +  -graph.]  A  mark, record, or
   tracing, made by the action of electricity.


   E*lec`tro-ki*net"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to electro-kinetics.


   E*lec`tro-ki*net"ics  (?),  n. That branch of electrical science which
   treats of electricity in motion.


   E*lec`tro*lier"   (?),  n.  [Formed  from  electric  in  imitation  of
   chandelier.] A branching frame, often of ornamental design, to support
   electric illuminating lamps.


   E`lec*trol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Electro- + -logy.] That branch of physical
   science   which  treats  of  the  phenomena  of  electricity  and  its


   E`lec*trol"y*sis  (?), n. [Electro- + Gr. (Physics & Chem.) The act or
   process  of  chemical decomposition, by the action of electricity; as,
   the  electrolysis of silver or nickel for plating; the electrolysis of


   E*lec"tro*lyte  (?),  n.  [Electro-  + Gr. \'82lectrolyte.] (Physics &
   Chem.)  A  compound decomposable, or subjected to decomposition, by an
   electric current.

                         Electrolytic, Electrolytical

   E*lec`tro*lyt"ic    (?),   E*lec`tro*lyt"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   \'82lectrolytique.]   Pertaining  to  electrolysis;  as,  electrolytic
   action. -- E*lec`tro*lyt"ic*al*ly, adv.


   E*lec"tro*ly`za*ble   (?),   a.  Capable  of  being  electrolyzed,  or
   decomposed by electricity.


   E*lec`tro*ly*za"tion (?), n. The act or the process of electrolyzing.


   E*lec"tro*lyze (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Electrolyzed (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Electrolyzing (?).] [Cf. F. \'82lectrolyser. See Electrolysis.] To
   decompose by the direct action of electricity. Faraday.


   E*lec`tro-mag"net  (?), n. A mass, usually of soft iron, but sometimes
   of   some   other  magnetic  metal,  as  nickel  or  cobalt,  rendered
   temporarily  magnetic  by  being  placed within a coil of wire through
   which  a  current of electricity is passing. The metal is generally in
   the  form  of  a  bar,  either  straight,  or bent into the shape of a


   E*lec`tro-mag*net"ic  (?),  a.  Of,  Pertaining  to,  or  produced by,
   magnetism  which  is  developed by the passage of an electric current.
   Electro-magnetic  engine,  an  engine  in  which  the  motive force is
   electro-magnetism.  --  Electro-magnetic  theory of light (Physics), a
   theory  of  light  which  makes it consist in the rapid alternation of
   transient  electric  currents  moving transversely to the direction of
   the ray.


   E*lec`tro-mag"net*ism  (?), n. The magnetism developed by a current of
   electricity;  the science which treats of the development of magnetism
   by  means  of voltaic electricity, and of the properties or actions of
   the currents evolved.


   E*lec`tro-met"al*lur`gy  (?),  n. The act or art precipitating a metal
   electro-chemical  action,  by  which  a  coating  is  deposited,  on a
   prepared    surface,   as   in   electroplating   and   electrotyping;


   E`lec*trom"e*ter    (?),    n.    [Electro-    +    -meter:   cf.   F.
   \'82lectrom\'8atre.]   (Physics)   An  instrument  for  measuring  the
   quantity  or  intensity  of  electricity;  also,  sometimes,  and less
   properly,  applied  to  an  instrument which indicates the presence of
   electricity  (usually  called  an electroscope). Balance electrometer.
   See under Balance.

                       Electro-metric, Electro-metrical

   E*lec`tro-met"ric   (?),   E*lec`tro-met"ric*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.  F.
   \'82lectrom\'82trique.]  Pertaining  to electrometry; made by means of
   electrometer; as, an electrometrical experiment.


   E`lex*trom"e*try  (?),  n. [Cf. F. \'82lectrom\'82trie.] (Physics) The
   art or process of making electrical measurements.


   E*lec`tro-mo"tion  (?),  n.  The  motion of electricity or its passage
   from  one  metal  to  another  in a voltaic circuit; mechanical action
   produced by means of electricity.


   E*lec`tro-mo"tive  (?),  a.  Producing  electro-motion;  producing, or
   tending  to  produce,  electricity  or  an  electric  current; causing
   electrical  action  or  effects.  Electro-motive  force (Physics), the
   force which produces, or tends to produce, electricity, or an electric
   current;  sometimes  used  to express the degree of electrification as
   equivalent to potential, or more properly difference of potential.


   E*lec`tro*mo"tor (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82lectromoteur.]

   1.  (Physics)  A  mover  or  exciter  of electricity; as apparatus for
   generating a current of electricity.

   Page 478

   2. (Mech.) An apparatus or machine for producing motion and mechanical
   effects by the action of electricity; an electro-magnetic engine.


   E*lec`tro-mus"cu*lar   (?),  a.  (Physiol.)  Pertaining  the  reaction
   (contraction)  of  the muscles under electricity, or their sensibility
   to it.


   E*lec"tron  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Electric.] Amber; also, the alloy of
   gold and silver, called electrum.


   E*lec`tro-neg"a*tive (?), a. (Chem. & Physics) (a) Having the property
   of  being attracted by an electro-positive body, or a tendency to pass
   to  the  positive  pole  in  electrolysis,  by  the  law that opposite
   electricities  attract each other. (b) Negative; nonmetallic; acid; --
   opposed to positive, metallic, or basic.


   E*lec`tro-neg"a*tive,  n. (Chem. & Physics) A body which passes to the
   positive pole in electrolysis.


   E`lec*trop"a*thy  (?),  n.  [Electro-  +  Gr.  (Med.) The treatment of
   disease by electricity.


   E*lec"tro*phone  (?),  n.  [Electro- + Gr. (Physics) An instrument for
   producing sound by means of electric currents.


   E*lec`troph"o*rus  (?),  n.; pl. Electrophori (#). [NL., fr. combining
   form  electro- + Gr. (Physics) An instrument for exciting electricity,
   and  repeating  the  charge indefinitely by induction, consisting of a
   flat cake of resin, shelllac, or ebonite, upon which is placed a plate
   of metal.


   E*lec`tro-phys`i*o*log"ic*al   (?),   a.   (Physiol.)   Pertaining  to
   electrical  results  produced  through  physiological  agencies, or by
   change of action in a living organism.


   E*lec`tro-phys`i*ol"o*gy  (?), n. (Physiol.) That branch of physiology
   which  treats  of  electric  phenomena  produced through physiological


   E*lec"tro*plate`  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Electroplating.] (Mech.) To
   plate  or  cover  with  a coating of metal, usually silver, nickel, or
   gold, by means of electrolysis.


   E*lec"tro*pla`ter (?), n. One who electroplates.


   E*lec"tro*pla`ting  (?), n. The art or process of depositing a coating
   (commonly)  of  silver, gold, or nickel on an inferior metal, by means
   of electricity.


   E*lec`tro-po"lar  (?),  a.  (Physics)  Possessing electrical polarity;
   positively  electrified  at one end, or on one surface, and negatively
   at the other; -- said of a conductor.


   E*lec`tro-pos"i*tive (?), a.

   1. (Physics) Of such a nature relatively to some other associated body
   or  bodies,  as  to tend to the negative pole of a voltaic battery, in
   electrolysis, while the associated body tends to the positive pole; --
   the converse or correlative of electro-negative.

     NOTE: &hand; An  el ement th at is electro-positive in one compound
     may be electro-negative in another, and vice versa.

   2.  (Chem.)  Hence:  Positive;  metallic; basic; -- distinguished from
   negative, nonmetallic, or acid.


   E*lec`tro-pos"i*tive,  n. (Chem. & Physics) A body which passes to the
   negative pole in electrolysis.

                   Electro-puncturation, Electro-puncturing

   E*lec`tro-punc`tu*ra"tion  (?),  E*lec`tro-punc`tur*ing  (?;  135), n.
   (Med.) See Electropuncture.


   E*lec`tro-punc`ture  (?; 135), n. (Med.) An operation that consists in
   inserting  needless in the part affected, and connecting them with the
   poles of a galvanic apparatus.


   E*lec"tro*scope  (?),  n. [Electro- + -scope: cf. F. \'82lectroscope.]
   (Physics)  An instrument for detecting the presence of electricity, or
   changes in the electric state of bodies, or the species of electricity
   present,  as  by  means  of  pith  balls,  and  the  like.  Condensing
   electroscope (Physics), a form of electroscope in which an increase of
   sensibility is obtained by the use of a condenser.


   E*lec`tro*scop"ic  (?),  a.  Relating  to,  or  made  by means of, the


   E*lec`tro*stat"ic (?), a. Pertaining to electrostatics.


   E*lec`tro*stat"ics  (?),  n.  (Physics)  That  branch of science which
   treats of statical electricity or electric force in a state of rest.


   E*lec`tro-ste"re*o*type (?), n. Same as Electrotype.


   E*lec`tro-tel`e*graph"ic (?), a. Pertaining to the electric telegraph,
   or by means of it.


   E*lec`tro-te*leg"ra*phy  (?), n. The art or science of constructing or
   using the electric telegraph; the transmission of messages by means of
   the electric telegraph.


   E*lec`tro-ther`a*peu"tics (?), n. (Med.) The branch of medical science
   which treats of the applications agent.


   E*lec`tro-ther"man*cy  (?), n. That branch of electrical science which
   treats  of the effect of an electric current upon the temperature of a
   conductor, or a part of a circuit composed of two different metals.


   E*lec"tro-tint`  (?), n. (Fine Arts) A style of engraving in relief by
   means  of  voltaic electricity. A picture is drawn on a metallic plate
   with  some material which resists the fluids of a battery; so that, in
   electro-typing,  the parts not covered by the varnish, etc., receive a
   deposition of metal, and produce the required copy in intaglio. A cast
   of this is then the plate for printing.


   E*lec`tro*ton"ic (?), a.

   1.  (Physics)  Of  or  pertaining  to electrical tension; -- said of a
   supposed  peculiar  condition  of  a  conducting  circuit  during  its
   exposure  to  the  action of another conducting circuit traversed by a
   uniform   electric  current  when  both  circuits  remain  stationary.

   2. (Physiol.) Relating to electrotonus; as, the electrotonic condition
   of a nerve.


   E`lec*trot"o*nize   (?),   v.   t.  (Physiol.)  To  cause  or  produce


   E`lec*trot"o*nous (?), a. Electrotonic.


   E`lec*trot"o*nus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  combining  form electro- + Gr.
   (Physiol.)  The modified condition of a nerve, when a constant current
   of  electricity passes through any part of it. See Anelectrotonus, and


   E*lec"tro*type  (?),  n. [Electro- + -type.] A facsimile plate made by
   electrotypy  for  use  in  printing; also, an impression or print from
   such plate. Also used adjectively.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e fa ce of  an  el ectrotype consists of a shell of
     copper,  silver,  or  the  like,  produced  by  the  action  of  an
     electrical  current  upon a plate of metal and a wax mold suspended
     in  an  acid bath and connected with opposite poles of the battery.
     It is backed up with a solid filling of type metal.


   E*lec"tro*type,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Electrotyped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Electrotyping  (?).]  To  make  facsimile plates of by the electrotype
   process;  as  to  electrotype  a  page  of  type,  a  book,  etc.  See
   Electrotype, n.


   E*lec"tro*ty`per (?), n. One who electrotypes.


   E*lec`tro*typ"ic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or  effected by means of,


   E*lec"tro*ty`ping   (?),   n.   The  act  or  the  process  of  making


   E*lec"tro*ty`py  (?),  n. The process of producing electrotype plates.
   See Note under Electrotype, n.


   E*lec`tro-vi"tal  (?),  a.  Derived  from,  or  dependent  upon, vital
   processes;  --  said  of  certain  electric  currents supposed by some
   physiologists to circulate in the nerves of animals.


   E*lec`tro-vi"tal*ism  (?), n. (Physiol.) The theory that the functions
   of living organisms are dependent upon electricity or a kindred force.


   E*lec"trum (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. Electric, and cf. Electre, Electron.]

   1. Amber.

   2.  An  alloy  of  gold  and  silver,  of  an amber color, used by the

   3. German-silver plate. See German silver, under German.


   E*lec"tu*a*ry  (?;  135),  n.; pl. Electuaries (#). [OE. letuaire, OF.
   lettuaire,  electuaire,  F. \'82lectuaire, L. electuarium, electarium.
   prob.  fr.  Gr.  Lick,  and cf. Eclegm.] (Med.) A medicine composed of
   powders,  or  other  ingredients,  incorporated  with  some convserve,
   honey, or sirup; a confection. See the note under Confection.


   El`ee*mos"y*na*ri*ly  (?), adv. In an eleemosynary manner; by charity;


   El`ee*mos"y*na*ry  (?;  277),  a.  [LL. eleemosynarius, fr. eleemosyna
   alms, Gr. Alms.]

   1.  Relating  to  charity,  alms,  or  almsgiving;  intended  for  the
   distribution of charity; as, an eleemosynary corporation.

   2.  Given  in  charity  or  alms;  having  the  nature  of  alms;  as,
   eleemosynary assistance. "Eleemosynary cures." Boyle.

   3. Supported by charity; as, eleemosynary poor.


   El`ee*mos"y*na*ry,  n.;  pl.  Eleemosynaries  (.  One  who subsists on
   charity; a dependent. South.

                              Elegance, Elegancy

   El"e*gance  (?),  El"e*gan*cy  (?),  n.  [L.  elegantia,  fr. elegans,
   -antis, elegant: cf. F. \'82l\'82gance.]

   1.  The  state  or  quality of being elegant; beauty as resulting from
   choice qualities and the complete absence of what deforms or impresses
   unpleasantly; grace given by art or practice; fine polish; refinement;
   -- said of manners, language, style, form, architecture, etc.

     That grace that elegance affords. Drayton.

     The endearing elegance of female friendship. Johnson.

     A  trait of native elegance, seldom seen in the masculine character
     after childhood or early youth, was shown in the General's fondness
     for the sight and fragrance of flowers. Hawthorne.

   2.   That  which  is  elegant;  that  which  is  tasteful  and  highly

     The  beautiful  wildness of nature, without the nicer elegancies of
     art. Spectator.

   Syn.  -- Elegance, Grace. Elegance implies something of a select style
   of  beauty,  which is usually produced by art, skill, or training; as,
   elegance   of   manners,   composition,   handwriting,  etc.;  elegant
   furniture;  an  elegant  house,  etc. Grace, as the word is here used,
   refers  to bodily movements, and is a lower order of beauty. It may be
   a  natural  gift; thus, the manners of a peasant girl may be graceful,
   but can hardly be called elegant.


   El"e*gant  (?),  a.  [L. elegans, -antis; akin to eligere to pick out,
   choose, select: cf. F. \'82l\'82gant. See Elect.]

   1.  Very  choice,  and hence, pleasing to good taste; characterized by
   grace,  propriety,  and  refinement,  and  the  absence of every thing
   offensive;   exciting   admiration   and   approbation   by  symmetry,
   completeness,  freedom  from blemish, and the like; graceful; tasteful
   and   highly   attractive;  as,  elegant  manners;  elegant  style  of
   composition; an elegant speaker; an elegant structure.

     A more diligent cultivation of elegant literature. Prescott.

   2.  Exercising  a  nice  choice; discriminating beauty or sensitive to
   beauty;  as,  elegant  taste.  Syn.  --  Tasteful; polished; graceful;
   refined; comely; handsome; richly ornamental.


   El"e*gant*ly,  adv.  In  a manner to please nice taste; with elegance;
   with due symmetry; richly.


   E*le"gi*ac  (?;  277),  a.  [L.  elegiacus,  Gr.  \'82l\'82giaque. See

   1.  Belonging  to elegy, or written in elegiacs; plaintive; expressing
   sorrow or lamentation; as, an elegiac lay; elegiac strains.

     Elegiac griefs, and songs of love. Mrs. Browning.

   2. Used in elegies; as, elegiac verse; the elegiac distich or couplet,
   consisting of a dactylic hexameter and pentameter.


   E*le"gi*ac (?), n. Elegiac verse.


   El`e*gi"a*cal (?), a. Elegiac.


   E*le"gi*ast (?), n. One who composes elegies. Goldsmith.


   El`e*gi*og"ra*pher (?), n. [Gr. -graph + -er.] An elegist. [Obs.]


   El"e*gist (?), n. A write of elegies. T. Warton.


   E*le"git  (?),  n.  [L.,  he  has  chosen,  fr. eligere to choose. See
   Elect.]  (Law)  A  judicial  writ of execution, by which a defendant's
   goods  are  appraised  and  delivered  to  the  plaintiff,  and, if no
   sufficient  to satisfy the debt, all of his lands are delivered, to be
   held  till  the  debt  is  paid by the rents and profits, or until the
   defendant's interest has expired.


   El"e*gize  (?),  v.  t. To lament in an elegy; to celebrate in elegiac
   verse; to bewail. Carlyle.


   El"e*gy  (?),  n.;  pl.  Elegies  (#).  [L.  elegia, Gr. A mournful or
   plaintive poem; a funereal song; a poem of lamentation. Shak.


   E*le"i*din  (?),  n.  (Biol.) Lifeless matter deposited in the form of
   minute granules within the protoplasm of living cells.


   El"e*ment (?), n. [F. \'82l\'82ment, L. elementum.]

   1.  One  of  the  simplest  or  essential parts or principles of which
   anything  consists,  or  upon  which  the  constitution or fundamental
   powers of anything are based.

   2.  One  of  the  ultimate, undecomposable constituents of any kind of
   matter.  Specifically:  (Chem.) A substance which cannot be decomposed
   into  different  kinds of matter by any means at present employed; as,
   the elements of water are oxygen and hydrogen.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e el ements ar e na turally cl assified in  several
     families  or  groups,  as  the  group of the alkaline elements, the
     halogen  group,  and  the  like.  They are roughly divided into two
     great  classes,  the  metals,  as sodium, calcium, etc., which form
     basic  compounds,  and  the  nonmetals  or  metalloids,  as oxygen,
     sulphur,  chlorine,  which form acid compounds; but the distinction
     is  only relative, and some, as arsenic, tin, aluminium, etc., form
     both  acid  and basic compounds. The essential fact regarding every
     element  is  its  relative  atomic  weight  or equivalent. When the
     elements  are  tabulated  in  the  order  of their ascending atomic
     weights, the arrangement constitutes the series of the Periodic law
     of Mendelejeff. See Periodic law, under Periodic. This Periodic law
     enables us to predict the qualities of unknown elements. The number
     of  elements  known  is  about  seventy-five,  but  the gaps in the
     Periodic  law  indicate  the  possibility of many more. Many of the
     elements  with  which  we  are familiar, as hydrogen, carbon, iron,
     gold, etc., have been recognized, by means of spectrum analysis, in
     the  sun  and  the  fixed  stars.  From  certain  evidence (as that
     afforded  by  the Periodic law, spectrum analysis, etc.) it appears
     that  the  chemical elements probably may not be simple bodies, but
     only  very  stable  compounds  of  some  simpler body or bodies. In
     formulas,  the  elements  are  designated by abbreviations of their
     names in Latin or New Latin.

   Page 478

   The Elements
   ------------------------------------------------------------ Name
   |Sym-|Atomic Weight| |bol | O=16 | H=1 |
   ------------------------------------------------------------ Aluminum
   | Al | 27.1 | 26.9| Antimony(Stibium) Argon Arsenic Barium Beryllium
   (see Glucinum) Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Carbon
   Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Columbium Copper (Cuprum) Erbium
   Fluorine Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Glucinum <--(now Beryllium)-->
   Gold Helium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron (Ferrum) Krypton
   Lanthanum Lead (Plumbum) Lithium Magnesium Manganese Mercury
   (Hydrargyrum) Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Nickel Niobium (see Columbium)
   Nirogen Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Potassium (Kalium)
   Praseodymium Rhodium Rubidium Ruthenium

   Page 479

   ----------------------------------------------------------- The
   Elements -- continued
   ------------------------------------------------------------ Name
   Samarium Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver (Argentum) Sodium (Natrium)
   Strontium Sulphur Tantalum Tellurium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin
   (Stannum) Titanium Tungsten (Wolframium) Uranium Vanadium Wolfranium
   (see Tungsten) Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

     NOTE: Several ot her el ements ha ve be en an nounced, as  holmium,
     vesbium,  austrium,  etc.,  but their properties, and in some cases
     their existence, have not yet been definitely established.

   3. One of the ultimate parts which are variously combined in anything;
   as,  letters  are  the  elements  of  written language; hence, also, a
   simple  portion of that which is complex, as a shaft, lever, wheel, or
   any  simple part in a machine; one of the essential ingredients of any
   mixture;  a  constituent  part; as, quartz, feldspar, and mica are the
   elements of granite.

     The  simplicity  which is so large an element in a noble nature was
     laughed to scorn. Jowett (Thucyd.).

   4.  (a)  One out of several parts combined in a system of aggregation,
   when  each  is  of  the  nature  of the whole; as, a single cell is an
   element  of  the  honeycomb.  (b)  (Anat.) One of the smallest natural
   divisions of the organism, as a blood corpuscle, a muscular fiber.

   5.  (Biol.)  One of the simplest essential parts, more commonly called
   cells,  of  which animal and vegetable organisms, or their tissues and
   organs, are composed.

   6. (Math.) (a) An infinitesimal part of anything of the same nature as
   the  entire  magnitude  considered;  as,  in a solid an element may be
   infinitesimal  portion  between  any two planes that are separated and
   indefinitely  small  distance.  In  the calculus, element is sometimes
   used  as  synonymous  with  differential.  (b)  Sometimes  a curve, or
   surface,  or  volume  is considered as described by a moving point, or
   curve,  or  surface, the latter being at any instant called an element
   of the former. (c) One of the terms in an algebraic expression.

   7.  One  of  the  necessary  data  or  values  upon  which a system of
   calculations  depends,  or  general  conclusions  are  based;  as, the
   elements of a planet's orbit.

   8.  pl.  The  simplest  or  fundamental  principles  of  any system in
   philosophy,  science, or art; rudiments; as, the elements of geometry,
   or of music.

   9.  pl.  Any outline or sketch, regarded as containing the fundamental
   ideas  or  features  of  the thing in question; as, the elemental of a

   10.  One  of  the  simple  substances,  as  supposed  by  the  ancient
   philosophers; one of the imaginary principles of matter.

     NOTE: (a) Th e fo ur el ements we re, ai r, earth, water, and fire;
     whence  it  is  said, water is the proper element of fishes; air is
     the  element  of  birds.  Hence,  the  state  or  sphere natural to
     anything or suited for its existence.

     Of  elements  The grosser feeds the purer: Earth the Sea; Earth and
     the Sea feed Air; the Air those Fires Ethereal. Milton.

     Does not our life consist of the four elements? Shak.

     And the complexion of the element [i. e.,the sky or air] In favor's
     like  the  work  we  have  in  hand,  Most  bloody, fiery, and most
     terrible. Shak.

     About twelve ounces [of food], with mere element for drink. Cheyne.

     They show that they are out of their element. T. Baker.

     Esp.,  the  conditions  and  movements of the air. "The elements be
     kind  to  thee."  (b)  The  elements  of  the alchemists were salt,
     sulphur, and mercury. Brande & C.

   11. pl. The whole material composing the world.

     The elements shall melt with fervent heat. 2 Peter iii. 10.

   12.  pl.  (Eccl.)  The  bread and wine used in the eucharist or Lord's
   Magnetic element, one of the hypothetical elementary portions of which
   a magnet is regarded as made up.


   El"e*ment (?), v. t.

   1.  To  compound of elements or first principles. [Obs.] "[Love] being
   elemented too." Donne.

   2. To constitute; to make up with elements.

     His very soul was elemented of nothing but sadness. Walton.


   El`e*men"tal (?), a.

   1.   Pertaining   to  the  elements,  first  principles,  and  primary
   ingredients,  or  to the four supposed elements of the material world;
   as, elemental air. "Elemental strife." Pope.

   2.   Pertaining   to   rudiments  or  first  principles;  rudimentary;
   elementary. "The elemental rules of erudition." Cawthorn.


   El`e*men"tal*ism  (?),  a.  The  theory  that  the  heathen divinities
   originated in the personification of elemental powers.


   E`le*men*tal"i*ty (?), n. The condition of being composed of elements,
   or a thing so composed.


   El`e*men"tal*ly  (?),  adv.  According to elements; literally; as, the
   words, "Take, eat; this is my body," elementally understood.


   El`e*men"tar (?), a. Elementary. [Obs.] Skelton.


   El`e*men"ta*ri*ness  (?),  n.  The state of being elementary; original
   simplicity; uncompounded state.


   El`e*men*tar"i*ty (?), n. Elementariness. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   El`e*men"ta*ry (?), a. [L. elementarius: cf. F. \'82l\'82mentaire.]

   1.  Having  only  one  principle  or constituent part; consisting of a
   single element; simple; uncompounded; as, an elementary substance.

   2.  Pertaining  to,  or treating of, the elements, rudiments, or first
   principles  of  anything;  initial;  rudimental;  introductory; as, an
   elementary treatise.

   3.  Pertaining  to  one of the four elements, air, water, earth, fire.
   "Some  luminous  and  fiery  impressions in the elementary region." J.


   El`e*men*ta"tion   (?),  n.  Instruction  in  the  elements  or  first
   principles. [R.]


   El"e*men*toid` (?), a. [Element + -oid.] Resembling an element.


   El"e*mi (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82lemi, It. elemi, Sp. elemi; of American or
   Oriental.  origin.]  A  fragrant  gum  resin obtained chiefly tropical
   trees  of  the genera Amyris and Canarium. A. elemifera yields Mexican
   elemi;  C. commune, the Manila elemi. It is used in the manufacture of
   varnishes, also in ointments and plasters.


   El"e*min  (?),  n.  (Chem.) A transparent, colorless oil obtained from
   elemi resin by distillation with water; also, a crystallizable extract
   from the resin.


   E*lench" (?), n.; pl. Elenchs (#). [L. elenchus, Gr. elenche.] (Logic)
   (a) That part of an argument on which its conclusiveness depends; that
   which convinces of refutes an antagonist; a refutation. (b) A specious
   but fallacious argument; a sophism.


   E*len"chic*al (?), a. Pertaining to an elench.


   E*len"chic*al*ly, adv. By means of an elench.


   E*len"chize (?), v. i. To dispute. [R.] B. Jonson.

                            Elenchtic, Elenchtical

   E*lench"tic, E*lench"tic*al (?), a. Same as Elenctic.


   E*len"chus (?), n. [L.] Same as Elench.

                             Elenctic, Elenctical

   E*lenc"tic  (?), E*lenc"tic*al (?), a. [Gr. (Logic) Serving to refute;
   refutative;  --  applied  to  indirect  modes of proof, and opposed to


   El"enge   (?),   a.  [Cf.  AS.  ellende  foreign,  strange,  G.  elend
   miserable.] Sorrowful; wretched; full of trouble. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   El"enge*ness, n. Loneliness; misery. [Obs.]


   El"e*phan*sy (?), n. [L. elephantia.] Elephantiasis. [Obs.] Holland.


   El"e*phant   (?),   n.   [OE.   elefaunt,  olifant,  OF.  olifant,  F.
   \'82l\'82phant, L. elephantus, elephas, -antis, fr. Gr. ibha, with the
   Semitic  article  al,  el, prefixed, or fr. Semitic Aleph hindi Indian
   bull; or cf. Goth. ulbandus camel, AS. olfend.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A mammal of the order Proboscidia, of which two living
   species, Elephas Indicus and E. Africanus, and several fossil species,
   are  known.  They have a proboscis or trunk, and two large ivory tusks
   proceeding  from  the extremity of the upper jaw, and curving upwards.
   The molar teeth are large and have transverse folds. Elephants are the
   largest land animals now existing.

   2.  Ivory;  the  tusk  of the elephant. [Obs.] Dryden. <-- Illustr. of
   Elephant. -->
   Elephant  apple  (Bot.), an East Indian fruit with a rough, hard rind,
   and  edible pulp, borne by Feronia elephantum, a large tree related to
   the  orange.  -- Elephant bed (Geol.), at Brighton, England, abounding
   in   fossil   remains   of  elephants.  Mantell.  --  Elephant  beetle
   (Zo\'94l.),  any  very  large  beetle  of the genus Goliathus (esp. G.
   giganteus),  of the family Scarab\'91id\'91. They inhabit West Africa.
   --  Elephant  fish  (Zo\'94l.),  a  chim\'91roid  fish  (Callorhynchus
   antarcticus),  with  a  proboscis-like  projection  of  the  snout. --
   Elephant  paper,  paper  of  large  size,  23    28 inches. -- Double
   elephant  paper, paper measuring 26Paper. -- Elephant seal (Zo\'94l.),
   an  African  jumping shrew (Macroscelides typicus), having a long nose
   like  a  proboscis.  -- Elephant's ear (Bot.), a name given to certain
   species  of the genus Begonia, which have immense one-sided leaves. --
   Elephant's  foot  (Bot.)  (a)  A  South  African  plant  (Testudinaria
   Elephantipes),  which  has  a massive rootstock covered with a kind of
   bark  cracked  with  deep fissures; -- called also tortoise plant. The
   interior  part  is  barely  edible,  whence  the  plant is also called
   Hottentot's  bread.  (b)  A  genus (Elephantopus) of coarse, composite
   weeds. -- Elephant's tusk (Zo\'94l.), the tooth shell. See Dentalium.


   El`e*phan"ti*ac   (?),   a.   (Med.)   Affected   with  elephantiasis;
   characteristic of elephantiasis.


   El`e*phan*ti"a*sis  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Med.) A disease of the skin,
   in  which  it  become  enormously  thickened,  and is rough, hard, and
   fissured, like an elephant's hide.


   El`e*phan"tine    (?),    a.    [L.   elephantinus   of   ivory,   Gr.
   \'82l\'82phantin.]  Pertaining  to  the  elephant,  or  resembling  an
   elephant  (commonly,  in  size);  hence,  huge; immense; heavy; as, of
   elephantine  proportions;  an  elephantine  step or tread. Elephantine
   epoch  (Geol.),  the  epoch  distinguished  by  the existence of large
   pachyderms.  Mantell.  -- Elephantine tortoise (Zo\'94l.), a huge land
   tortoise; esp., Testudo elephantina, from islands in the Indian Ocean;
   and T. elephantopus, from the Galapagos Islands.

                        Elephantoid; 277, Elephantoidal

   El"e*phan*toid` (?; 277), El`e*phan*toid"al (?), a. [Elephant + -oid.]
   (Zo\'94l.) Resembling an elephant in form or appearance.


   El`eu*sin"i*an  (?),  a. [L. Eleusinius, Gr. Pertaining to Eleusis, in
   Greece,  or  to  secret rites in honor of Ceres, there celebrated; as,
   Eleusinian mysteries or festivals.


   E*leu`ther*o*ma"ni*a  (?), n. [Gr. mania.] A mania or frantic zeal for
   freedom. [R.] Carlyle.


   E*leu`ther*o*ma"ni*ac, a. Mad for freedom. [R.]


   E*leu`ther*o-pet"al*ous  (?), a. [Gr. petal.] (Bot.) Having the petals
   free,  that  is,  entirely  separate  from each other; -- said of both
   plant and flower.


   El"e*vate  (?),  a.  [L.  elevatus,  p.  p.]  Elevated;  raised aloft.
   [Poetic] Milton.


   El"e*vate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Elevated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Elevating (?).] [L. elevatus, p. p. of elevare; e + levare to lift up,
   raise, akin to levis light in weight. See Levity.]

   1.  To bring from a lower place to a higher; to lift up; to raise; as,
   to elevate a weight, a flagstaff, etc.

   2.  To  raise  to  a  higher station; to promote; as, to elevate to an
   office, or to a high social position.

   3.  To  raise  from  a  depressed  state; to animate; to cheer; as, to
   elevate the spirits.

   4.  To  exalt;  to  ennoble;  to  dignify;  as, to elevate the mind or

   5.  To raise to a higher pitch, or to a greater degree of loudness; --
   said of sounds; as, to elevate the voice.

   6.  To  intoxicate  in  a  slight  degree; to render tipsy. [Colloq. &
   Sportive]  "The elevated cavaliers sent for two tubs of merry stingo."
   Sir W. Scott.

   7.  To lessen; to detract from; to disparage. [A Latin meaning] [Obs.]
   Jer. Taylor.
   To  elevate  a piece (Gun.), to raise the muzzle; to lower the breech.
   Syn.  --  To  exalt;  dignify; ennoble; erect; raise; hoist; heighten;
   elate; cheer; flush; excite; animate.


   El"e*va`ted  (?), a. Uplifted; high; lofty; also, animated; noble; as,
   elevated  thoughts. Elevated railway, one in which the track is raised
   considerably  above  the  ground,  especially a city railway above the
   line of street travel.


   El"e*va`ted*ness, n. The quality of being elevated.


   El`e*va"tion (?), n. [L. elevatio: cf. F. \'82l\'82vation.]

   1.  The  act of raising from a lower place, condition, or quality to a
   higher;  --  said  of  material  things, persons, the mind, the voice,
   etc.;  as, the elevation of grain; elevation to a throne; elevation of
   mind, thoughts, or character.

   2.  Condition  of  being  elevated;  height;  exaltation.  "Degrees of
   elevation above us." Locke.

     His style . . . wanted a little elevation. Sir H. Wotton.

   3.  That which is raised up or elevated; an elevated place or station;
   as, an elevation of the ground; a hill.

   4.  (Astron.) The distance of a celestial object above the horizon, or
   the  arc  of a vertical circle intercepted between it and the horizon;
   altitude; as, the elevation of the pole, or of a star.

   5. (Dialing) The angle which the style makes with the substylar line.

   6.  (Gunnery) The movement of the axis of a piece in a vertical plane;
   also,  the  angle of elevation, that is, the angle between the axis of
   the piece and the line odirection

   7.  (Drawing) A geometrical projection of a building, or other object,
   on  a plane perpendicular to the horizon; orthographic projection on a
   vertical plane; -- called by the ancients the orthography.
   Angle  of elevation (Geodesy), the angle which an ascending line makes
   with  a  horizontal  plane. -- Elevation of the host (R. C. Ch.), that
   part  of  the  Mass in which the priest raises the host above his head
   for the people to adore.


   El"e*va`tor  (?),  n.  [L.,  one  who  raises  up, a deliverer: cf. F.
   \'82l\'82vateur.] One who, or that which, raises or lifts up anything;
   as:  (a)  A  mechanical  contrivance, usually an endless belt or chain
   with a series of scoops or buckets, for transferring grain to an upper
   loft for storage. (b) A cage or platform and the hoisting machinery in
   a hotel, warehouse, mine, etc., for conveying persons, goods, etc., to
   or  from  different floors or levels; -- called in England a lift; the
   cage  or  platform  itself. (c) A building for elevating, storing, and
   discharging,  grain. (d) (Anat.) A muscle which serves to raise a part
   of  the  body,  as  the  leg or the eye. (e) (Surg.) An instrument for
   raising  a  depressed portion of a bone. Elevator head, leg, AND boot,
   the  boxes  in  which  the  upper  pulley,  belt,  and  lower  pulley,
   respectively, run in a grain elevator.


   El"e*va`to*ry  (?),  a.  Tending to raise, or having power to elevate;
   as, elevatory forces.


   El"e*va`to*ry,  n. [Cf. F. \'82l\'82vatoire.] (Surg.) See Elevator, n.
   (e). Dunglison.

   Page 480


   \'90`l\'8ave" (, n. [F., fr. \'82lever to raise, bring up.] A pupil; a


   E*lev"en  (?),  a. [OE. enleven, AS. endleofan, endlufon, for nleofan;
   akin  to  LG.  eleve,  \'94lwe,  \'94lwen,  D. elf, G. elf, eilf, OHG.
   einlif,  Icel. ellifu, Sw. elfva, Dan. elleve, Goth. ainlif, cf. Lith.
   v\'89nolika;  and  fr.  the root of E. one + (prob.) a root signifying
   "to be left over, remain," appearing in E. loan, or perh. in leave, v.
   t., life. See One, and cf. Twelve.] Ten and one added; as, eleven men.


   E*lev"en, n.

   1. The sum of ten and one; eleven units or objects.

   2. A symbol representing eleven units, as 11 or xi.

   3.  (Cricket  &  American Football) The eleven men selected to play on
   one  side  in a match, as the representatives of a club or a locality;
   as, the all-England eleven.


   E*lev"enth (?), a. [Cf. AS. endlyfta. See Eleven.]

   1. Next after the tenth; as, the eleventh chapter.

   2. Constituting one of eleven parts into which a thing is divided; as,
   the eleventh part of a thing.

   3.  (Mus.)  Of  or  pertaining  to  the interval of the octave and the


   E*lev"enth, n.

   1.  The  quotient  of  a  unit  divided by eleven; one of eleven equal

   2.  (Mus.)  The  interval  consisting  of  ten  conjunct  degrees; the
   interval made up of an octave and a fourth.


   Elf (?), n.; pl. Elves (#). [AS. \'91lf, ylf; akin to MHG. alp, G. alp
   nightmare, incubus, Icel. elf, Sw. alf, elfva; cf. Skr. rbhu skillful,
   artful, rabh to grasp. Cf. Auf, Oaf.]

   1.  An  imaginary  supernatural  being, commonly a little sprite, much
   like  a  fairy;  a  mythological  diminutive spirit, supposed to haunt
   hills  and  wild  places,  and  generally represented as delighting in
   mischievous tricks.

     Every elf, and fairy sprite, Hop as light as bird from brier. Shak.

   2. A very diminutive person; a dwarf.
   Elf  arrow,  a flint arrowhead; -- so called by the English rural folk
   who  often  find  these  objects of prehistoric make in the fields and
   formerly  attributed  them  to  fairies;  -- called also elf bolt, elf
   dart,  and  elf  shot.  --  Elf  child, a child supposed to be left by
   elves,  in  room  of one they had stolen. See Changeling. -- Elf fire,
   the  ignis  fatuus.  Brewer.  --  Elf  owl  (Zo\'94l.),  a  small  owl
   (Micrathene Whitneyi) of Southern California and Arizona.


   Elf, v. t. To entangle mischievously, as an elf might do.

     Elf all my hair in knots. Shak.


   Elf"in (?), a. Relating to elves.


   Elf"in, n. A little elf or urchin. Shenstone.


   Elf"ish,  a.  Of  or  relating  to the elves; elflike; implike; weird;
   scarcely  human;  mischievous,  as  though  caused  by  elves. "Elfish
   light." Coleridge.

     The  elfish  intelligence that was so familiar an expression on her
     small physiognomy. Hawthorne.


   Elf"ish*ly, adv. In an elfish manner.


   Elf"ish*ness, n. The quality of being elfish.


   Elf"kin (?), n. A little elf.


   Elf"land` (?), n. Fairyland. Tennyson.


   Elf"lock` (?), n. Hair matted, or twisted into a knot, as if by elves.

                                 Elgin marbles

   El"gin mar"bles (?). Greek sculptures in the British Museum. They were
   obtained at Athens, about 1811, by Lord Elgin.


   E*lic"it  (?),  a. [L. elictus, p. p. of elicere to elicit; e + lacere
   to  entice.  Cf. Delight, Lace.] Elicited; drawn out; made real; open;
   evident. [Obs.] "An elicit act of equity." Jer. Taylor.


   E*lic"it, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Elicited; p. pr. & vb. n. Eliciting.] To
   draw  out or entice forth; to bring to light; to bring out against the
   will;  to  deduce  by  reason  or  argument;  as,  to  elicit truth by


   E*lic"i*tate (?), v. t. To elicit. [Obs.]


   E*lic`i*ta"tion (?), n. The act of eliciting. [Obs.] Abp. Bramhall.


   E*lide" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Elided; p. pr. & vb. n. Eliding.] [L.
   elidere  to strike out or off; e + laedere to hurt by striking: cf. F.
   \'82lider. See Lesion.]

   1.  To break or dash in pieces; to demolish; as, to elide the force of
   an argument. [Obs.] Hooker.

   2.  (Gram.)  To  cut  off, as a vowel or a syllable, usually the final
   one; to subject to elision.


   El`i*gi*bil"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. \'82ligibilit\'82.] The quality of
   being  eligible; eligibleness; as, the eligibility of a candidate; the
   eligibility of an offer of marriage.


   El"i*gi*ble (?), a. [F. \'82ligible, fr. L. eligere. See Elect.]

   1.  That  may  be  selected; proper or qualified to be chosen; legally
   qualified to be elected and to hold office.

   2.  Worthy  to  be  chosen  or  selected;  suitable; desirable; as, an
   eligible situation for a house.

     The more eligible of the two evils. Burke.


   El"i*gi*ble*ness,  n.  The  quality  worthy or qualified to be chosen;
   suitableness; desirableness.


   El"i*gi*bly, adv. In an eligible manner.


   El"i*mate  (?), v. t. [L. elimatus, p. p. of elimare to file up; e out
   + limare to file, fr. lima file.] To render smooth; to polish. [Obs.]


   E*lim"i*nant  (?),  n.  (Math.)  The result of eliminating n variables
   between  n  homogeneous  equations  of  any  degree;  --  called  also


   E*lim"i*nate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Eliminated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Eliminating  (?).]  [L.  eliminatus, p. p. of eliminare; e out + limen
   threshold; prob. akin to limes boundary. See Limit.]

   1.  To put out of doors; to expel; to discharge; to release; to set at

     Eliminate my spirit, give it range Through provinces of thought yet
     unexplored. Young.

   2.  (Alg.) To cause to disappear from an equation; as, to eliminate an
   unknown quantity.

   3.  To  set aside as unimportant in a process of inductive inquiry; to
   leave out of consideration.

     Eliminate errors that have been gathering and accumulating. Lowth.

   4. To obtain by separating, as from foreign matters; to deduce; as, to
   eliminate an idea or a conclusion. [Recent, and not well authorized]

   5.  (Physiol.)  To separate; to expel from the system; to excrete; as,
   the  kidneys  eliminate  urea,  the  lungs carbonic acid; to eliminate
   poison from the system.


   E*lim`i*na"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82limination.]

   1.  The  act  of  expelling  or  throwing  off;  (Physiol.) the act of
   discharging  or excreting waste products or foreign substances through
   the various emunctories.

   2.  (Alg.)  Act  of  causing a quantity to disappear from an equation;
   especially,  in  the  operation  of  deducing  from  several equations
   containing  several  unknown  quantities  a  less  number of equations
   containing a less number of unknown quantities.

   3.   The  act  of  obtaining  by  separation,  or  as  the  result  of
   eliminating; deduction. [See Eliminate,



   E*lim"i*na*tive  (?),  a.  (Physiol.)  Relating  to,  or  carrying on,


   E*lin"guate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  elinguare.]  To deprive of the tongue.
   [Obs.] Davies (Holy Roode).


   E`lin*gua"tion  (?),  n.  [L. elinguatio. See Elinguid.] (O. Eng. Law)
   Punishment by cutting out the tongue.


   E*lin"guid (?), a. [L. elinguis, prop., deprived of the tongue; hence,
   speechless; e + lingua tongue.] Tongue-tied; dumb. [Obs.]


   E*liq"ua*ment  (?),  n.  A  liquid  obtained from fat, or fat fish, by


   El`i*qua"tion  (?), n. [L. eliquatio, fr. eliquare to clarify, strain;
   e  +  liquare  to  make  liquid,  melt.]  (Metallurgy)  The process of
   separating  a  fusible  substance from one less fusible, by means of a
   degree  of  heat  sufficient  to melt the one and not the other, as an
   alloy of copper and lead; liquation. Ure.


   E*li"son  (?),  n. [L. elisio, fr. elidere, elisum, to strike out: cf.
   F. \'82lision. See Elide.]

   1. Division; separation. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2.  (Gram.) The cutting off or suppression of a vowel or syllable, for
   the sake of meter or euphony; esp., in poetry, the dropping of a final
   vowel standing before an initial vowel in the following word, when the
   two words are drawn together.


   E*li"sor  (?),  n. [F. \'82liseur, fr. \'82lire to choose, L. eligere.
   See  Elect.]  (Eng.  Law)  An  elector  or chooser; one of two persons
   appointed by a court to return a jury or serve a writ when the sheriff
   and the coroners are disqualified.

(?), n. [F., fr. \'82lire to choose, L. eligere. See Elect.] A choice or select
                body; the flower; as, the \'82lite of society.


   E*lix" (?), v. t. [See Elixate.] To extract. [Obs.] Marston.


   E*lix"ate  (?),  v.  t.  [L. elixatus, p. p. of elixare to seethe, fr.
   elixus  thoroughly boiled; e + lixare to boil, lix ashes.] To boil; to
   seethe; hence, to extract by boiling or seething. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   El`ix*a"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. \'82lixation.] A seething; digestion.
   [Obs.] Burton.


   E*lix"ir  (?),  n.  [F.  \'82lixir,  Sp.  elixir,  Ar.  eliks\'c6r the
   philosopher's stone, prob. from Gr. ksh\'be to burn.]

   1.  (Med.)  A tincture with more than one base; a compound tincture or
   medicine,  composed of various substances, held in solution by alcohol
   in some form.

   2.  (Alchemy)  An  imaginary liquor capable of transmuting metals into
   gold;  also,  one for producing life indefinitely; as, elixir vit\'91,
   or the elixir of life.

   3. The refined spirit; the quintessence.

     The . . . elixir of worldly delights. South.

   4. Any cordial or substance which invigorates.

     The grand elixir, to support the spirits of human nature. Addison.


   E*liz"a*beth`an  (?),  a.  Pertaining to Queen Elizabeth or her times,
   esp.  to  the  architecture  or  literature  of  her  reign;  as,  the
   Elizabethan writers, drama, literature. -- n. One who lived in England
   in the time of Queen Elizabeth. Lowell.


   Elk  (?),  n. [Icel. elgr; akin to Sw. elg, AS. eolh, OHG. elaho, MHG.
   elch,  cf. L. alces; perh. akin to E. eland.] (Zo\'94l.) A large deer,
   of  several  species. The European elk (Alces machlis or Cervus alces)
   is  closely  allied to the American moose. The American elk, or wapiti
   (Cervus  Canadensis),  is  closely  related  to the European stag. See
   Moose,  and  Wapiti. Irish elk (Paleon.), a large, extinct, Quaternary
   deer  (Cervus  giganteus)  with  widely spreading antlers. Its remains
   have been found beneath the peat of swamps in Ireland and England. See
   Illustration  in  Appendix;  also  Illustration of Antler. -- Cape elk
   (Zo\'94l.), the eland. 

                                   Elk, Elke

   Elk,  Elke  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  European wild or whistling swan
   (Cygnus ferus).


   Elk"nut` (?), n. (Bot.) The buffalo nut. See under Buffalo.


   Elk"wood`  (?),  n. The soft, spongy wood of a species of Magnolia (M.


   Ell  (?), n. [AS. eln; akin to D. el, elle, G. elle, OHG. elina, Icel.
   alin, Dan. alen, Sw. aln, Goth. alenia, L. ulna elbow, ell, Gr. Elbow,
   Alnage.]  A  measure for cloth; -- now rarely used. It is of different
   lengths  in  different countries; the English ell being 45 inches, the
   Dutch or Flemish ell 27, the Scotch about 37.


   Ell, n. (Arch.) See L.


   El"la*chick  (?),  n.  [Native  Indian name.] (Zo\'94l.) A fresh-water
   tortoise (Chelopus marmoratus) of California; -- used as food.


   El*lag"ic  (?),  a.  [F., fr. galle gall (with the letters reversed).]
   (Chem.)  Pertaining  to, or derived from, gallnuts or gallic acid; as,
   ellagic  acid.  Ellagic  acid  (Chem.), a white crystalline substance,
   C14H8O9,  found  in  bezoar  stones,  and obtained by the oxidation of
   gallic acid.


   El"le*bore (?), n. Hellebore. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   El*leb"o*rin (?), n. See Helleborin.


   El"leck  (?),  n.  [Etymol.  uncertain.] (Zo\'94l.) The red gurnard or
   cuckoo fish. [Prov. Eng.]

                Ellenge, Ellinge, a., Ellengeness, Ellingeness

   El"lenge  (?),  El"linge (?), a., El"lenge*ness, El"linge*ness, n. See
   Elenge, Elengeness. [Obs.]


   El"les (?), adv. & conj. See Else. [Obs.]


   El*lipse" (?), n. [Gr. ellipse. See Ellipsis.]

   1. (Geom.) An oval or oblong figure, bounded by a regular curve, which
   corresponds  to  an  oblique  projection  of  a  circle, or an oblique
   section of a cone through its opposite sides. The greatest diameter of
   the  ellipse  is  the  major axis, and the least diameter is the minor
   axis. See Conic section, under Conic, and cf. Focus.

   2. (Gram.) Omission. See Ellipsis.

   3. The elliptical orbit of a planet.

     The  Sun  flies  forward to his brother Sun; The dark Earth follows
     wheeled in her ellipse. Tennyson.


   El*lip"sis  (?),  n.; pl. Ellipses (#). [L., fr. Gr. In, and Loan, and
   cf. Ellipse.]

   1.  (Gram.)  Omission; a figure of syntax, by which one or more words,
   which are obviously understood, are omitted; as, the virtues I admire,
   for, the virtues which I admire.

   2. (Geom.) An ellipse. [Obs.]


   El*lip"so*graph  (?),  n.  [Ellipse + graph: cf. F. ellipsographe.] An
   instrument for describing ellipses; -- called also trammel.


   El*lip"soid  (?),  n.  [Ellipse  + -oid: cf. F. ellipsoide.] (Geom.) A
   solid,  all  plane  sections  of  which  are  ellipses or circles. See
   Conoid, n., 2 (a).

     NOTE: &hand; Th e el lipsoid has three principal plane sections, a,
     b,  and c, each at right angles to the other two, and each dividing
     the  solid  into  two  equal  and  symmetrical  parts. The lines of
     meeting  of  these  principal  sections  are the axes, or principal
     diameters  of  the ellipsoid. The point where the three planes meet
     is the center.

   Ellipsoid  of  revolution, a spheroid; a solid figure generated by the
   revolution of an ellipse about one of its axes. It is called a prolate
   spheroid,  or  prolatum,  when the ellipse is revolved about the major
   axis,  and  an  oblate spheroid, or oblatum, when it is revolved about
   the minor axis.
                            Ellipsoid, Ellipsoidal
   El*lip"soid (?), El`lip*soi"dal (?), a. Pertaining to, or shaped like,
   an ellipsoid; as, ellipsoid or ellipsoidal form.
                             Elliptic, Elliptical
   El*lip"tic (?), El*lip"tic*al (?), a. [Gr. elliptique. See Ellipsis.]
   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to  an ellipse; having the form of an ellipse;
   oblong, with rounded ends.
     The planets move in elliptic orbits. Cheyne.
   2. Having a part omitted; as, an elliptical phrase.
   Elliptic  chuck. See under Chuck. -- Elliptic compasses, an instrument
   arranged  for  drawing  ellipses.  --  Elliptic  function. (Math.) See
   Function.  --  Elliptic  integral.  (Math.)  See Integral. -- Elliptic
   polarization. See under Polarization.


   El*lip"tic*al*ly, adv.

   1. In the form of an ellipse.

   2. With a part omitted; as, elliptically expressed.


   El`lip*tic"i*ty  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  ellipticit\'82.]  Deviation of an
   ellipse  or  a  spheroid  from  the  form  of  a  circle  or a sphere;
   especially,  in  reference  to the figure of the earth, the difference
   between  the  equatorial  and  polar  semidiameters,  divided  by  the
   equatorial; thus, the ellipticity of the earth is .

     NOTE: &hand; So me wr iters us e el lipticity as  th e ratio of the
     difference  of  the  two semiaxes to the minor axis, instead of the



   El*lip"tic-lan"ce*o*late  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Having a form intermediate
   between elliptic and lanceolate.


   El*lip"to*graph (?), n. Same as Ellipsograph.


   Ell"wand (?), n. Formerly, a measuring rod an ell long.


   Elm  (?),  n. [AS. elm; akin to D. olm, OHG. elm, G. ulme, Icel. almr,
   Dan. & Sw. alm, L. ulmus, and E. alder. Cf. Old.] (Bot.) A tree of the
   genus   Ulmus,  of  several  species,  much  used  as  a  shade  tree,
   particularly  in  America.  The  English  elm is Ulmus campestris; the
   common American or white elm is U. Americana; the slippery or red elm,
   U.  fulva.  Elm  beetle  (Zo\'94l.), one of several species of beetles
   (esp.  Galeruca calmariensis), which feed on the leaves of the elm. --
   Elm  borer  (Zo\'94l.), one of several species of beetles of which the
   larv\'91 bore into the wood or under the bark of the elm (esp. Saperda
   tridentata).  --  Elm  butterfly (Zo\'94l.), one of several species of
   butterflies,  which,  in  the caterpillar state, feed on the leaves of
   the  elm (esp. Vanessa antiopa and Grapta comma). See Comma butterfly,
   under  Comma. -- Elm moth (Zo\'94l.), one of numerous species of moths
   of  which  the  larv\'91  destroy  the leaves of the elm (esp. Eugonia
   subsignaria,  called  elm spanworm). -- Elm sawfly (Zo\'94l.), a large
   sawfly  (Cimbex  Americana).  The  larva,  which is white with a black
   dorsal stripe, feeds on the leaves of the elm.


   Elm"en (?), a. Belonging to elms. [Obs.]

                                  Elmo's fire

   El"mo's fire` (?). See Corposant; also Saint Elmo's Fire, under Saint.


   Elm"y (?), a. Abounding with elms.

     The simple spire and elmy grange. T. Warton.


   El`o*ca"tion (?), n. [Pref. e- + locate.]

   1. A removal from the usual place of residence. [Obs.]

   2. Departure from the usual state; an ecstasy. [Obs.]

   Page 481


   E*loc"u*lar  (?),  a.  [Pref.  e-  + locular.] Having but one cell, or
   cavity; not divided by a septum or partition.


   El`o*cu"tion (?), n. [L. elocutio, fr. eloqui, elocutus, to speak out:
   cf. F. \'82locution. See Eloquent.]

   1. Utterance by speech. [R.]

     [Fruit]  whose  taste  . . . Gave elocution to the mute, and taught
     The tongue not made for speech to speak thy praise. Milton.

   2.   Oratorical  or  expressive  delivery,  including  the  graces  of
   intonation,  gesture,  etc.; style or manner of speaking or reading in
   public;  as, clear, impressive elocution. "The elocution of a reader."

   3. Suitable and impressive writing or style; eloquent diction. [Obs.]

     To express these thoughts with elocution. Dryden.


   El`o*cu"tion*a*ry (?), a. Pertaining to elocution.


   El`o*cu"tion*ist,  n.  One  who  is  versed in elocution; a teacher of


   El"o*cu`tive  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  oratorical  expression. [Obs.]


   E*lo"di*an  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) One of a tribe of tortoises, including
   the terrapins, etc., in which the head and neck can be withdrawn.

           (?), n. [F. See Elogium.] A panegyrical funeral oration.


   El"o*gist (?), n. [F. \'82logiste.] One who pronounces an \'82loge.

                                Elogium, Elogy

   E*lo"gi*um  (?),  El"o*gy  (?),  n.  [L.  elogium  a  short saying, an
   inscription,  fr.  Gr.  .]  The  praise bestowed on a person or thing;
   panegyric; eulogy.


   E*lo"him  (?),  n.  [Heb.]  One of the principal names by which God is
   designated in the Hebrew Scriptures.


   E*lo"hist  (?),  n. The writer, or one of the writers, of the passages
   of  the  Old Testament, notably those of Elohim instead of Jehovah, as
   the  name  of  the  Supreme  Being; -- distinguished from Jehovist. S.


   El`o*his"tic  (?),  a. Relating to Elohim as a name of God; -- said of
   passages in the Old Testament.


   E*loign"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Eloigned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Eloigning.] [F. \'82loigner, OF. esloignier; pref. es- (L. ex) + OF. &
   F.  loin  far,  far  off,  L.  longe,  fr. longus long. See Elongate.]
   >[Written also eloin.]

   1. To remove afar off; to withdraw. [Obs.]

     From worldly cares he did himself eloign. Spenser.

   2.  (Law)  To  convey to a distance, or beyond the jurisdiction, or to
   conceal, as goods liable to distress.

     The  sheriff  may  return  that  the  goods or beasts are eloigned.


   E*loign"ate (?), v. t. To remove. [Obs.] Howell.


   E*loign"ment  (?),  n.  [F.  \'82loignement.]  Removal  to a distance;
   withdrawal. [Obs.]


   E*loin" (?), v. t. See Eloign.


   E*loin"ate (?), v. t. See Eloignate.


   E*loin"ment (?), n. See Eloignment.


   E*long" (?; 115), v. t. [See Eloign, Elongate.]

   1. To lengthen out; to prolong. [Obs.]

   2. To put away; to separate; to keep off. [Obs.] Wyatt.


   E*lon"gate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Elongated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Elongating.]  [LL. elongatus, p. p. of elongare to remove, to prolong;
   e + L. longus long. See Long, a., and cf. Eloign.]

   1. To lengthen; to extend; to stretch; as, to elongate a line.

   2. To remove further off. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   E*lon"gate,  v. i. To depart to, or be at, a distance; esp., to recede
   apparently from the sun, as a planet in its orbit. [R.]


   E*lon"gate  (?),  a.  [LL. elongatus.] Drawn out at length; elongated;
   as, an elongate leaf. "An elongate form." Earle.


   E`lon*ga"tion (?; 277), n. [LL. elongatio: cf. F. \'82longation.]

   1.  The  act  of  lengthening,  or  the  state  of  being  lengthened;
   protraction; extension. "Elongation of the fibers." Arbuthnot.

   2. That which lengthens out; continuation.

     May  not the mountains of Westmoreland and Cumberland be considered
     as elongations of these two chains? Pinkerton.

   3. Removal to a distance; withdrawal; a being at a distance; distance.

     The distant points in the celestial expanse appear to the eye in so
     small  a  degree  of  elongation  from  one  another,  as  bears no
     proportion to what is real. Glanvill.

   4.  (Astron.)  The  angular distance of a planet from the sun; as, the
   elongation of Venus or Mercury.


   E*lope" (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Eloped (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Eloping.]
   [D.  ontloopen to run away; pref. ont- (akin to G. ent-, AS. and-, cf.
   E.  answer)  + loopen to run; akin to E. leap. See Leap, v. t.] To run
   away,  or  escape privately, from the place or station to which one is
   bound  by duty; -- said especially of a woman or a man, either married
   or unmarried, who runs away with a paramour or a sweetheart.

     Great   numbers   of  them  [the  women]  have  eloped  from  their
     allegiance. Addison.


   E*lope"ment (?), n. The act of eloping; secret departure; -- said of a
   woman  and  a  man,  one  or  both,  who run away from their homes for
   marriage or for cohabitation.


   E*lop"er (?), n. One who elopes.


   E"lops (?), n. [L. elops, helops, a kind of sea fish, Gr.

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of fishes. See Saury.

   2. A mythical serpent. [Obs.] Milton.


   El"o*quence (?), n. [F. \'82loquence, L. eloquentia, fr. eloquens. See

   1.  Fluent,  forcible,  elegant,  and persuasive speech in public; the
   power  of  expressing  strong  emotions  in  striking  and appropriate
   language  either  spoken  or  written, thereby producing conviction or

     Eloquence  is speaking out . . . out of the abundance of the heart.

   2. Fig.: Whatever produces the effect of moving and persuasive speech.

     Silence that spoke and eloquence of eyes. Pope.

     The  hearts  of men are their books; events are their tutors; great
     actions are their eloquence. Macaulay.

   3. That which is eloquently uttered or written.

     O,  let  my  books  be  then the eloquence And dumb presagers of my
     speaking breast. Shak.

   Syn. -- Oratory; rhetoric.


   El"o*quent  (?),  a.  [F.  \'82loquent, L. eloquens, -entis, p. pr. of
   eloqui to speak out, declaim; e + loqui to speak. See Loquacious.]

   1.  Having  the  power  of  expressing  strong  emotions  or  forcible
   arguments  in  an  elevated, impassioned, and effective manner; as, an
   eloquent orator or preacher.

     O  Death, all-eloquent! You only prove What dust we dote on when 't
     is man we love. Pope.

   2.  Adapted to express strong emotion or to state facts arguments with
   fluency  and  power; as, an eloquent address or statement; an eloquent
   appeal to a jury.


   El"o*quent*ly, adv. In an eloquent manner.

                               Elrich OR Elritch

   El"rich  (?) OR El"ritch, a. Ghastly; preternatural. Same as Eldritch.
   [Scot. & Local, Eng.]


   Else (?), a. & pron. [OE. & AS. elles otherwise, gen. sing. of an adj.
   signifying  other;  akin  to  OHG. elles otherwise, OSw. \'84ljes, Sw.
   eljest,  Goth. aljis, adj., other, L. alius, Gr. Alias, Alien.] Other;
   one  or  something  beside;  as, Who else is coming? What else shall I
   give? Do you expect anything else? "Bastards and else." Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; This word always follows its noun. It is usual to give
     the  possessive  form  to  else rather than to the substantive; as,
     somebody  else's;  no  one  else's.  "A boy who is fond of somebody
     else's  pencil  case."  G. Eliot. "A suit of clothes like everybody
     else's." Thackeray.


   Else, adv. & conj.

   1.  Besides;  except that mentioned; in addition; as, nowhere else; no
   one else.

   2.  Otherwise;  in the other, or the contrary, case; if the facts were

     For thou desirest not sacrifice; else would I give it. Ps. li. 16.

     NOTE: &hand; Af ter \'bfor', else is sometimes used expletively, as
     simply  noting an alternative. "Will you give thanks, . . . or else
     shall I?"



   Else"where` (?), adv.

   1. In any other place; as, these trees are not to be found elsewhere.

   2.  In  some  other  place;  in  other places, indefinitely; as, it is
   reported in town and elsewhere.


   Else"whith`er  (?),  adv.  To  some, or any, other place; as, you will
   have to go elsewhither for it. R. of Gloucester."For elsewhither was I
   bound." Carlyle.


   Else"wise` (?), adv. Otherwise. [R.]


   El"sin (?), n. A shoemaker's awl. [Prov. Eng.]


   E*lu"ci*date  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Elucidated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Elucidating  (?).]  [LL.  elucidatus,  p. p. of elucidare; e + lucidus
   full of light, clear. See Lucid.] To make clear or manifest; to render
   more  intelligible;  to  illustrate; as, an example will elucidate the


   E*lu`ci*da"tion  (?),  n. [Cf. F. \'82lucidation.] A making clear; the
   act  of  elucidating  or  that which elucidates, as an explanation, an
   exposition,  an  illustration;  as,  one example may serve for further
   elucidation of the subject.


   E*lu"ci*da`tive  (?),  a.  Making  clear; tending to elucidate; as, an
   elucidative note.


   E*lu"ci*da`tor (?), n. One who explains or elucidates; an expositor.


   E*lu"ci*da*to*ry (?), a. Tending to elucidate; elucidative. [R.]


   E*luc"tate  (?),  v.  i.  [L. eluctatus, p. p. of eluctari to struggle
   out; e + luctari to wrestle.] To struggle out; -- with out. [Obs.] Bp.


   E`luc*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  eluctatio.]  A  struggling  out  of  any
   difficulty. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   E*lu"cu*brate  (?),  v.  i.  [L.  elucubratus,  p. p. of elucubrare to
   compose by lamplight.] See Lucubrate. [Obs.] Blount.


   E*lu`cu*bra"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf. F. \'82lucubration.] See Lucubration.
   [Obs.] Evelyn.


   E*lude" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Eluded; p. pr. & vb. n. Eluding.] [L.
   eludere, elusum; e + ludere to play: cf. F. \'82luder. See Ludicrous.]
   To  avoid  slyly, by artifice, stratagem, or dexterity; to escape from
   in a covert manner; to mock by an unexpected escape; to baffle; as, to
   elude  an officer; to elude detection, inquiry, search, comprehension;
   to elude the force of an argument or a blow.

     Me gentle Delia beckons from the plain, Then, hid in shades, eludes
     he eager swain. Pope.

     The transition from fetichism to polytheism seems a gradual process
     of which the stages elude close definition. Tylor.

   Syn.  --  To  evade;  avoid; escape; shun; eschew; flee; mock; baffle;
   frustrate; foil.


   E*lud"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being eluded; evadible.


   E"lul (?), n. [Heb.] The sixth month of the Jewish year, by the sacred
   reckoning,  or  the  twelfth,  by  the  civil reckoning, corresponding
   nearly to the month of September.


   E*lum"ba*ted  (?),  a.  [L. elumbis; e + lumbus loin.] Weak or lame in
   the loins. [Obs.]


   E*lu"sion (?), n. [LL. elusio, fr. L. eludere, elusum. See Elude.] Act
   of  eluding;  adroit  escape,  as  by  artifice;  a  mockery; a cheat;


   E*lu"sive (?), a. Tending to elude; using arts or deception to escape;
   adroitly escaping or evading; eluding the grasp; fallacious.

     Elusive  of  the  bridal  day, she gives Fond hopes to all, and all
     with hopes deceives. Pope.

   -- E*lu"sive*ly, adv. -- E*lu"sive*ness, n.


   E*lu"so*ry  (?),  a.  [LL.  elusorius.]  Tending  to elude or deceive;
   evasive;    fraudulent;    fallacious;    deceitful;   deceptive.   --
   E*lu"so*ri*ness (#), n.


   E*lute"  (?), v. t. [L. elutus, p. p. of eluers to elute; e + luere to
   wash.] To wash out. [R.] Arbuthnot.


   E*lu"tri*ate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Elutriated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Elutriating  (?).]  [L.  elutriatus,  p.  p. of elutriare.] To wash or
   strain  out  so  as to purify; as, to elutriate the blood as it passes
   through  the  lungs;  to  strain  off  or decant, as a powder which is
   separated  from  heavier  particles  by being drawn off with water; to
   cleanse, as by washing.


   E*lu`tri*a"tion  (?),  n.  The  process of elutriating; a decanting or
   racking off by means of water, as finer particles from heavier.


   E*lux"ate (?), v. t. [Pref. e- + luxate.] To dislocate; to luxate.


   E`lux*a"tion (?), n. Dislocation; luxation.


   Elv"an (?), a.

   1. Pertaining to elves; elvish.

   2.  (Mining)  Of  or  pertaining  to  certain  veins of feldspathic or
   porphyritic  rock crossing metalliferous veins in the mining districts
   of Cornwall; as, an elvan course.

                                Elvan, Elvanite

   Elv"an,  Elv"an*ite  (?),  n.  The rock of an elvan vein, or the elvan
   vein itself; an elvan course.


   Elve (?), n. An old form of Elf.


   El"ver  (?),  n. (Zo\'94l.) A young eel; a young conger or sea eel; --
   called also elvene.


   Elves (?), n.; pl. of Elf.


   Elv"ish (?), a.

   1.  Pertaining  to  elves;  implike; mischievous; weird; also, vacant;
   absent in demeanor. See Elfish.

     He seemeth elvish by his countenance. Chaucer.

   2. Mysterious; also, foolish. [Obs.]


   Elv"ish*ly, adv. In an elvish manner. Sir W. Scott.


   El"wand (?), n. [Obs.] See Ellwand.


   E*ly"sian  (?), a. [L. Elysius, fr. Elysium.] Pertaining, or the abode
   of  the  blessed  after  death; hence, yielding the highest pleasures;
   exceedingly   delightful;   beatific.   "Elysian  shades."  Massinger.
   "Elysian age." Beattie.

     This  life  of  mortal  breath Is but a suburb of the life elysian.


   E*ly"sium  (?),  n.;  pl. E. Elysiums (#), L. Elysia (#). [L., fr. Gr.
   (Anc. Myth.)

   1.  A  dwelling place assigned to happy souls after death; the seat of
   future happiness; Paradise.

   2. Hence, any delightful place.

     An Elysian more pure and bright than that pf the Greeks. I. Taylor.


   E*lyt"ri*form  (?),  a. [Elytrum + -form.] (Zo\'94l.) Having the form,
   or structure, of an elytron.


   El"y*trin (?), n. [From Elytrum.] (Chem.) See Chitin.


   El"y*troid  (?),  a. [Gr. -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Resembling a beetle's wing

                             Elytron; 277, Elytrum

   El"y*tron  (?;  277), El"y*trum (-tr n.; pl. Elytra (#). [NL., fr. Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.) (a) One of the anterior pair of wings in the Coleoptera and
   some other insects, when they are thick and serve only as a protection
   for  the  posterior  pair.  See  Coleoptera. (b) One of the shieldlike
   dorsal scales of certain annelids. See Ch\'91topoda.


   El"ze*vir (?), a. (Bibliog.) Applied to books or editions (esp. of the
   Greek  New  Testament  and  the classics) printed and published by the
   Elzevir  family  at  Amsterdam, Leyden, etc., from about 1592 to 1680;
   also, applied to a round open type introduced by them.

     The Elzevir editions are valued for their neatness, and the elegant
     small types used. Brande & C.


   'Em  (?).  An  obsolete or colloquial contraction of the old form hem,
   them. Addison.


   Em  (?),  n.  (Print.)  The portion of a line formerly occupied by the
   letter  m,  then a square type, used as a unit by which to measure the
   amount of printed matter on a page; the square of the body of a type.


   Em-. A prefix. See En-.


   E*mac"er*ate (?), v. t. & i. [L. emaceratus emaciated; e + macerare to
   make  soft.]  To  make  lean  or  to  become lean; to emaciate. [Obs.]


   E*mac`er*a"tion (?), n. Emaciation. [Obs.]


   E*ma"ci*ate  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Emaciated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emaciating.]  [L.  emaciatus,  p.  p.  of  emaciare  to make lean; e +
   maciare  to  make  lean  or meager, fr. macies leanness, akin to macer
   lean.  See  Meager.]  To lose flesh gradually and become very lean; to
   waste away in flesh. "He emaciated and pined away." Sir T. Browne.


   E*ma"ci*ate,  v.  t.  To  cause to waste away in flesh and become very
   lean; as, his sickness emaciated him.


   E*ma"ci*ate  (?),  a.  [L.  emaciatus,  p.  p.]  Emaciated.  "Emaciate
   steeds." T. Warton.


   E*ma`ci*a"tion (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82maciation.]

   1. The act of making very lean.

   2.  The  state of being emaciated or reduced to excessive leanness; an
   excessively lean condition.


   E*mac"u*late  (?),  v.  t. [L. emaculatus, p. p. of emaculare to clear
   from  spots. See Maculate.] To clear from spots or stains, or from any
   imperfection. [Obs.] Hales.


   E*mac`u*la"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of  clearing  from  spots. [Obs.]

                               \'92mail ombrant

   \'92`mail`  om`brant"  (?). [F., shaded enamel.] (Fine Arts) An art or
   process  of flooding transparent colored glaze over designs stamped or
   molded on earthenware or porcelain. Ure.


   Em"a*nant  (?),  a.  [L.  emanans,  -antis,  p.  pr.  of  emanare. See
   Emanate.]  Issuing  or flowing forth; emanating; passing forth into an
   act,  or  making itself apparent by an effect; -- said of mental acts;
   as, an emanant volition.


   Em"a*nate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Emanated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emanating.] [L. emanare, emanatum, to emanate; e out + manare to flow,
   prob.  for  madnare,  and akin to madere to be wet, drip, madidus wet,
   drenched, drunk, Gr. mad to boil, matta drunk. Cf. Emane.]

   Page 482

   1.  To  issue  forth  from  a  source;  to  flow out from more or less
   constantly; as, fragrance emanates from flowers.

   2. To proceed from, as a source or fountain; to take origin; to arise,
   to originate.

     That  subsisting  from  of  government  from which all special laws
     emanate. De Quincey.

   Syn. -- To flow; arise; proceed; issue; originate.


   Em"a*nate (?), a. Issuing forth; emanant. [R.]


   Em`a*na"tion (?), n. [L. emanatio: cf. F. \'82manation.]

   1.  The  act  of flowing or proceeding from a fountain head or origin.

     Those profitable and excellent emanations from God. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  That which issues, flows, or proceeds from any object as a source;
   efflux; an effluence; as, perfume is an emanation from a flower.

     An emanation of the indwelling life. Bryant.


   Em"a*na*tive (?), a. Issuing forth; effluent.


   Em"a*na*tive*ly, adv. By an emanation.


   Em"a*na*to*ry (?), a. Emanative; of the nature of an emanation. Dr. H.


   E*man"ci*pate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emancipated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Emancipating.] [L. emancipatus, p. p. of emancipare to emancipate;
   e  +  mancipare  to  transfer  ownership in, fr. manceps purchaser, as
   being  one  who laid his hand on the thing bought; manus hand + capere
   to  take.  See  Manual,  and  Capable.]  To set free from the power of
   another;  to  liberate; as: (a) To set free, as a minor from a parent;
   as,  a father may emancipate a child. (b) To set free from bondage; to
   give freedom to; to manumit; as, to emancipate a slave, or a country.

     Brasidas  .  .  .  declaring that he was sent to emancipate Hellas.
     Jowett (Thucyd. ).

   (c)  To  free from any controlling influence, especially from anything
   which  exerts  undue  or  evil  influence;  as, to emancipate one from
   prejudices or error.

     From  how  many  troublesome and slavish impertinences . . . he had
     emancipated and freed himself. Evelyn.

     To emancipate the human conscience. A. W. Ward.


   E*man"ci*pate (?), a. [L. emancipatus, p. p.] Set at liberty.


   E*man`ci*pa"tion (?), n. [L. emancipatio: cf. F. \'82mancipation.] The
   act  of  setting  free  from  the  power  of  another,  from  slavery,
   subjection,  dependence,  or controlling influence; also, the state of
   being  thus  set free; liberation; as, the emancipation of slaves; the
   emancipation  of minors; the emancipation of a person from prejudices;
   the  emancipation of the mind from superstition; the emancipation of a
   nation  from  tyranny  or subjection. Syn. -- Deliverance; liberation;
   release; freedom; manumission; enfranchisement.


   E*man`ci*pa"tion*ist,   n.  An  advocate  of  emancipation,  esp.  the
   emancipation of slaves.


   E*man"ci*pa`tor (?), n. [L.] One who emancipates.


   E*man"ci*pa*to*ry  (?),  a.  Pertaining to emancipation, or tending to
   effect emancipation. "Emancipatory laws." G. Eliot.


   E*man"ci*pist (?), n. A freed convict. [Australia]


   E*mar"gi*nate  (?), v. t. [L. emarginare; e out + marginare to furnish
   with a margin, fr. margo margin.] To take away the margin of.

                            Emarginate, Emarginated

   E*mar"gi*nate (?), E*mar"gi*na`ted (?), a.

   1. Having the margin interrupted by a notch or shallow sinus.

   2. (Bot.) Notched at the summit.

   3. (Cryst.) Having the edges truncated.


   E*mar"gi*nate*ly, adv. In an emarginate manner.


   E*mar`gi*na"tion  (?), n. The act of notching or indenting the margin,
   or  the state of being so notched; also, a notch or shallow sinus in a


   E*mas"cu*late  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emasculated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Emasculating  (?).]  [L. emasculare; e + masculus male, masculine.
   See Male masculine.]

   1.  To  deprive  of virile or procreative power; to castrate power; to
   castrate; to geld.

   2.  To  deprive  of  masculine  vigor  or spirit; to weaken; to render
   effeminate; to vitiate by unmanly softness.

     Luxury had not emasculated their minds. V. Knox.


   E*mas"cu*late  (?),  a. Deprived of virility or vigor; unmanned; weak.
   "Emasculate slave." Hammond.


   E*mas`cu*la"tion (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  depriving  of  virility,  or  the  state of being so
   deprived; castration.

   2.  The  act  of  depriving,  or  state of being deprived, of vigor or
   strength; unmanly weakness.


   E*mas"cu*la`tor (?), n. [L.] One who, or that which, emasculates.


   E*mas"cu*la*to*ry (?), a. Serving or tending to emasculate.


   Em*bace" (?), v. t. See Embase. [Obs.]


   Em*bale"  (?), v. t. [F. emballer; pref. em- (L. in) + balle bale. See
   1st Bale.] [Obs.]

   1. To make up into a bale or pack. Johnson.

   2. To bind up; to inclose.

     Legs . . . embaled in golden buskins. Spenser.


   Em*ball"  (?),  v. t. [See Embale.] To encircle or embrace. [Obs.] Sir
   P. Sidney.


   Em*balm"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Embalmed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embalming.] [F. embaumer; pref. em- (L. in) + baume balm. See Balm.]

   1. To anoint all over with balm; especially, to preserve from decay by
   means of balm or other aromatic oils, or spices; to fill or impregnate
   (a   dead   body),  with  aromatics  and  drugs  that  it  may  resist

     Joseph  commanded  his servants, the physicians, to embalm embalmed
     Israel. Gem. l. 2.

   2. To fill or imbue with sweet odor; to perfume.

     With fresh dews embalmed the earth. Milton.

   3.  To  preserve from decay or oblivion as if with balm; to perpetuate
   in remembrance.

     Those tears eternal that embalm the dead. Pope.


   Em*balm"er (?), n. One who embalms.


   Em*balm"ment  (?), n. [Cf. F. embaumement.] The act of embalming. [R.]


   Em*bank"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Embanked (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embanking.]  [Pref.  em- + bank. Cf. Imbank.] To throw up a bank so as
   to confine or to defend; to protect by a bank of earth or stone.


   Em*bank"ment (?), n.

   1. The act of surrounding or defending with a bank.

   2.  A  structure  of earth, gravel, etc., raised to prevent water from
   overflowing  a level tract of country, to retain water in a reservoir,
   or to carry a roadway, etc.


   Em*bar"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Embarred (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embanking.] [Pref. em- + bar: cf. F. embarrer. Cf. Embargo.]

   1. To bar or shut in; to inclose securely, as with bars.

     Where fast embarred in mighty brazen wall. Spenser.

   2. To stop; to hinder by prohibition; to block up.

     He embarred all further trade. Bacon.


   Em`bar*ca"tion (?), n. Same as Embarkation.


   Em*barge" (?), v. t. To put in a barge. [Poetic] Drayton.


   Em*bar"go  (?),  n.;  pl. Embargoes (#). [Sp., fr. embargar to arrest,
   restrain; pref. em- (L. in) + Sp. barra bar, akin to F. barre bar. See
   Bar.] An edict or order of the government prohibiting the departure of
   ships  of commerce from some or all of the ports within its dominions;
   a prohibition to sail.

     NOTE: &hand; If  th e em bargo is  la id on an enemy's ships, it is
     called  a hostile embargo; if on the ships belonging to citizens of
     the embargoing state, it is called a civil embargo.


   Em*bar"go,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Embargoed  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embargoing.]  To  lay  an embargo on and thus detain; to prohibit from
   leaving port; -- said of ships, also of commerce and goods.


   Em*bark"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Embarked (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embarking.]  [F.  embarquer;  pref. em- (L. in) + barque bark: cf. Sp.
   embarcar, It. imbarcare. See Bark. a vessel.]

   1. To cause to go on board a vessel or boat; to put on shipboard.

   2.  To  engage,  enlist,  or  invest  (as persons, money, etc.) in any
   affair; as, he embarked his fortune in trade.

     It  was the reputation of the sect upon which St. Paul embarked his
     salvation. South.


   Em*bark", v. i.

   1.  To  go  on  board  a vessel or a boat for a voyage; as, the troops
   embarked for Lisbon.

   2. To engage in any affair.

     Slow to embark in such an undertaking. Macaulay.


   Em`bar*ka"tion (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  putting  or  going  on  board  of  a vessel; as, the
   embarkation of troops.

   2. That which is embarked; as, an embarkation of Jesuits. Smollett.


   Em*bark"ment   (?),   n.  [Cf.  F.  embarquement.]  Embarkation.  [R.]


   Em*bar"rass  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Embarrassed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embarrassing.]  [F.  embarrasser  (cf.  Sp. embarazar, Pg. embara, Pr.
   barras bar); pref. em- (L. in) + LL. barra bar. See Bar.]

   1.  To  hinder from freedom of thought, speech, or action by something
   which impedes or confuses mental action; to perplex; to discompose; to
   disconcert; as, laughter may embarrass an orator.

   2.  To  hinder  from  liberty of movement; to impede; to obstruct; as,
   business is embarrassed; public affairs are embarrassed.

   3.  (Com.)  To  involve  in  difficulties concerning money matters; to
   incumber with debt; to beset with urgent claims or demands; -- said of
   a person or his affairs; as, a man or his business is embarrassed when
   he can not meet his pecuniary engagements. Syn. -- To hinder; perplex;
   entangle;   confuse;   puzzle;  disconcert;  abash;  distress.  --  To
   Embarrass,  Puzzle,  Perplex.  We  are  puzzled when our faculties are
   confused  by something we do not understand. We are perplexed when our
   feelings, as well as judgment, are so affected that we know not how to
   decide  or act. We are embarrassed when there is some bar or hindrance
   upon  us  which  impedes  our  powers of thought, speech, or motion. A
   schoolboy  is  puzzled  by a difficult sum; a reasoner is perplexed by
   the  subtleties  of  his opponent; a youth is sometimes so embarrassed
   before strangers as to lose his presence of mind.


   Em*bar"rass,  n.  [F.  embarras.  See Embarrass, v. t.] Embarrassment.
   [Obs.] Bp. Warburton.


   Em*bar"rass*ment (?), n. [F. embarrassement.]

   1.  A state of being embarrassed; perplexity; impediment to freedom of
   action; entanglement; hindrance; confusion or discomposure of mind, as
   from not knowing what to do or to say; disconcertedness.

     The  embarrassment  which inexperienced minds have often to express
     themselves upon paper. W. Irving.

     The   embarrassments   tom   commerce   growing  out  of  the  late
     regulations. Bancroft.

   2.  Difficulty  or  perplexity  arising  from the want of money to pay


   Em*base"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  em-  +  base,  a.  or  v.  t.: cf. OF.
   embaissier.]  To  bring down or lower, as in position, value, etc.; to
   debase; to degrade; to deteriorate. [Obs.]

     Embased the valleys, and embossed the hills. Sylvester.

     Alloy in coin of gold . . . may make the metal work the better, but
     it embaseth it. Bacon.

     Such  pitiful  embellishments of speech as serve for nothing but to
     embase divinity. South.


   Em*base"ment  (?),  n.  [From  Embase,  v.  t.]  Act of bringing down;
   depravation; deterioration. South.


   Em"bas*sade  (?),  n.  [F.  ambassade.  See  Embassy.] An embassy. See
   Ambassade. [Obs.] Shak.


   Em*bas"sa*dor (?), n. [F. ambassadeur, Sp. embajador, LL. ambassiator,
   ambasciator. See Embassy, and cf. Ambassador.] Same as Ambassador.

     Stilbon, that was a wise embassadour, Was sent to Corinth. Chaucer.

     Myself my king's embassador will go. Dryden.


   Em*bas`sa*do"ri*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.   ambassadorial.]  Same  as


   Em*bas"sa*dress (?), n. [Cf. F. ambassadrice.] Same as Ambassadress.


   Em*bas"sa*dry (?), n. [Cf. OF. ambassaderie.] Embassy. [Obs.] Leland.


   Em"bas*sage (?; 48), n.

   1. An embassy. "He sent a solemn embassage." Bacon.

     Except your embassages have better success. Motley.

   2. Message; errand. Shak.


   Em"bas*sy  (?),  n.; pl. Embassies (#). [OF. ambass\'82e, embasc\'82e,
   LL.  ambasciata, fr. ambasciare for ambactiare to go on a mission, fr.
   L.  ambactus  vassal,  dependent,  of  Celtic or German origin; cf. W.
   amaeth husbandman, Goth. andbahts servant, G. amt office, OHG. ambaht.
   Cf. Ambassador.]

   1.  The  public  function  of  an  ambassador;  the charge or business
   intrusted  to an ambassador or to envoys; a public message to; foreign
   court concerning state affairs; hence, any solemn message.

     He sends the angels on embassies with his decrees. Jer. Taylor.

   2. The person or persons sent as ambassadors or envoys; the ambassador
   and his suite; envoys.

   3. The residence or office of an ambassador.

     NOTE: &hand; Sometimes, but rarely, spelled ambassy.


   Em*bas"tard*ize  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. em- + bastardize.] To bastardize.


   Em*bathe"  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. em- + bathe. Cf. Imbathe.] To bathe; to


   Em*bat"tail (?), v. t. [See Embattle.] To furnish with battlements; to
   fortify as with battlements. [Archaic]

     To  embattail  and  to wall about thy cause With iron-worded proof.


   Em*bat"tle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Embattled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embattling  (?).]  [OF.  embataillier; pref. em- (L. in) + F. bataille
   battle.  See  Battle,  and  cf.  Battlement.]  To  arrange in order of
   battle;  to  array  for battle; also, to prepare or arm for battle; to
   equip as for battle.

     One in bright arms embattled full strong. Spenser.

     Here  once  the  embattled  farmers  stood And fired the shot heard
     round the world. Emerson.


   Em*bat"tle, v. i. To be arrayed for battle. [Obs.]


   Em*bat"tle,  v.  t.  [See  Battlement.]  To  furnish with battlements.
   "Embattled house." Wordsworth.


   Em*bat"tled (?), a.

   1. Having indentations like a battlement. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  (Her.)  Having  the  edge  broken  like  battlements; -- said of a
   bearing such as a fess, bend, or the like.

   3.  Having  been the place of battle; as, an embattled plain or field.
   J. Baillie.


   Em*bat"tle*ment (?), n.

   1. An intended parapet; a battlement.

   2. The fortifying of a building or a wall by means of battlements.


   Em*bay"  (?), v. t. [Pref. em- + bay to bathe.] To bathe; to soothe or
   lull as by bathing. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*bay",  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Embayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Embaying.]
   [Pref. em- + 1st bay.] To shut in, or shelter, as in a bay.

     If  that the Turkish fleet Be not ensheltered and embayed, they are
     drowned. Shak.


   Em*bay"ment (?), n. A bay. [R.]

     The embayment which is terminated by the land of North Berwick. Sir
     W. Scott.


   Em*beam" (?), v. t. To make brilliant with beams. [R.] G. Fletcher.


   Em*bed" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Embedded; p. pr. & vb. n. Embedding.]
   [Pref.  em-  +  bed.  Cf.  Imbed.]  To  lay  as  in  a  bed; to lay in
   surrounding  matter;  to bed; as, to embed a thing in clay, mortar, or


   Em*bed"ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of  embedding,  or the state of being


   Em*bel"lish  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Embellished (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embellishing.] [OE. embelisen, embelisshen, F. embellir; pref. em- (L.
   in)  + bel, beau, beautiful. See Beauty.] To make beautiful or elegant
   by  ornaments;  to  decorate;  to  adorn; as, to embellish a book with
   pictures,  a garden with shrubs and flowers, a narrative with striking
   anecdotes,  or style with metaphors. Syn. -- To adorn; beautify; deck;
   bedeck; decorate; garnish; enrich; ornament; illustrate. See Adorn.


   Em*bel"lish*er (?), n. One who embellishes.


   Em*bel"lish*ment (?), n. [Cf. F. embellissement.]

   1. The act of adorning, or the state of being adorned; adornment.

     In  the  selection of their ground, as well as in the embellishment
     of it. Prescott.

   2.  That  which  adds  beauty  or  elegance; ornament; decoration; as,
   pictorial embellishments.

     The graces and embellishments of the exterior man. I. Taylor.


   Em"ber (?), n. [OE. emmeres, emeres, AS. ; akin to Icel. eimyrja, Dan.
   emmer,  MHG.  eimere;  cf.  Icel.  eimr vapor, smoke.] A lighted coal,
   smoldering  amid  ashes;  --  used  chiefly  in the plural, to signify
   mingled  coals  and ashes; the smoldering remains of a fire. "He rakes
   hot embers." Dryden.

     He takes a lighted ember out of the covered vessel. Colebrooke.


   Em"ber,  a.  [OE.  ymber,  AS. ymbren, ymbryne, prop., running around,
   circuit;  ymbe  around  + ryne a running, fr. rinnan to run. See Amb-,
   and  Run.]  Making  a circuit of the year of the seasons; recurring in
   each quarter of the year; as, ember fasts.

   Page 483

   Ember  days  (R. C. & Eng. Ch.), days set apart for fasting and prayer
   in  each of the four seasons of the year. The Council of Placentia [A.
   D.  1095] appointed for ember days the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday
   after  the  first  Sunday in Lent, Whitsuntide, the 14th of September,
   and  the  13th  of  December.  The  weeks in which these days fall are
   called ember weeks.
   Em"ber-goose`  (?),  n.  [Cf. Norw. ember, hav-imber, hav-immer, Icel.
   himbrin,  himbrimi.]  (Zo\'94l.) The loon or great northern diver. See
   Loon. [Written also emmer-goose and imber-goose.]
   Em"ber*ings (?), n. pl. Ember days. [Obs.]
   Em*bet"ter (?), v. t. To make better. [Obs.] 


   Em*bez"zle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Embezzled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embezzling  (?).]  [Norm. F. embeseiller to destroy; cf. OF. besillier
   to ill treat, ravage, destroy. Cf. Bezzle.]

   1. To appropriate fraudulently to one's own use, as property intrusted
   to  one's  care;  to apply to one's private uses by a breach of trust;
   as, to embezzle money held in trust.

   2. To misappropriate; to waste; to dissipate in extravagance. [Obs.]

     To embezzle our money in drinking or gaming. Sharp.


   Em*bez"zle*ment  (?), n. The fraudulent appropriation of property by a
   person  to whom it has been intrusted; as, the embezzlement by a clerk
   of  his employer's; embezzlement of public funds by the public officer
   having them in charge.

     NOTE: &hand; La rceny de notes a  taking, by fraud or stealth, from
     another's  possession;  embezzlement  denotes  an appropriation, by
     fraud   or   stealth,   of  property  already  in  the  wrongdoer's
     possession.   In   England   and  in  most  of  the  United  States
     embezzlement is made indictable by statute.


   Em*bez"zler (?), n. One who embezzles.


   Em*bil"low (?), v. i. To swell or heave like a [R.] Lisle.


   Em`bi*ot"o*coid (?), a. [NL. Embiotoca, the name of one genus + -oid.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Belonging to, or resembling, the Embiotocid\'91. -- n. One
   of  a  family  of  fishes  (Embiotocid\'91)  abundant  on the coast of
   California,  remarkable  for  being  viviparous;  --  also called surf
   fishes and viviparous fishes. See Illust. in Append.


   Em*bit"ter (?), v. t. To make bitter or sad. See Imbitter.


   Em*bit"ter*ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of  embittering; also, that which


   Em*blanch" (?), v. t. [Pref. em- + 1st blanch.] To whiten. See Blanch.
   [Obs.] Heylin.


   Em*blaze"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Emblazed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emblazing.] [Pref. em- + 1st blaze.]

   1. To adorn with glittering embellishments.

     No weeping orphan saw his father's stores Our shrines irradiate, or
     emblaze the floors. Pope.

   2.  To  paint  or adorn with armorial figures; to blazon, or emblazon.

     The  imperial  ensign,  .  . . streaming to the wind, With gems and
     golden luster rich emblazed. Milton.


   Em*bla"zon  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Emblazoned (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emblazoning.] [Pref. em- + blazon. Cf. Emblaze.]

   1. To depict or represent; -- said of heraldic bearings. See Blazon.

   2.  To  deck  in  glaring colors; to set off conspicuously; to display
   pompously; to decorate.

     The  walls  were  . . . emblazoned with legends in commemoration of
     the illustrious pair. Prescott.


   Em*bla"zon*er  (?),  n. One who emblazons; also, one who publishes and
   displays anything with pomp.


   Em*bla"zon*ing,  n. The act or art of heraldic decoration; delineation
   of armorial bearings.


   Em*bla"zon*ment (?), n. An emblazoning.


   Em*bla"zon*ry  (?),  n.;  pl.  Emblazonries  (.  The  act or art of an
   emblazoner;  heraldic or ornamental decoration, as pictures or figures
   on shields, standards, etc.; emblazonment.

     Thine ancient standard's rich emblazonry. Trench.


   Em"blem  (?),  n. [F. embl\'8ame, L. emblema, -atis, that which is put
   in or on, inlaid work, fr. Gr. In, and Parable.]

   1.  Inlay;  inlaid  or mosaic work; something ornamental inserted in a
   surface. [Obs.] Milton.

   2.  A  visible sign of an idea; an object, or the figure of an object,
   symbolizing  and  suggesting  another  object,  or an idea, by natural
   aptness  or  by  association;  a  figurative representation; a typical
   designation;  a  symbol;  as,  a  balance  is  an emblem of justice; a
   scepter,  the  emblem of sovereignty or power; a circle, the emblem of
   eternity.  "His  cicatrice,  an  emblem  of  war, here on his sinister
   cheek." Shak.

   3.  A  picture  accompanied with a motto, a set of verse, or the like,
   intended as a moral lesson or meditation.

     NOTE: &hand; Wr iters an d ar tists of  th e 17th century gave much
     attention  and  study  to the composition of such emblems, and many
     collections of them were published.

   Syn.  --  Sign;  symbol; type; device; signal; token. -- Sign, Emblem,
   Symbol,  Type.  Sign is the generic word comprehending all significant
   representations. An emblem is a visible object representing another by
   a  natural  suggestion of characteristic qualities, or an habitual and
   recognized  association; as, a circle, having no apparent beginning or
   end,  is an emblem of eternity; a particular flag is the emblem of the
   country  or  ship which has adopted it for a sign and with which it is
   habitually  associated.  Between  emblem and symbol the distinction is
   slight,  and  often  one  may  be  substituted  for  the other without
   impropriety.  See  Symbol.  Thus,  a  circle  is either an emblem or a
   symbol  of  eternity;  a  scepter,  either  an  emblem  or a symbol of
   authority;  a  lamb,  either  an  emblem  or a symbol of meekness. "An
   emblem  is  always  of  something simple; a symbol may be of something
   complex,  as  of a transaction . . . In consequence we do not speak of
   actions  emblematic." C. J. Smith. A type is a representative example,
   or  model,  exhibiting  the qualities common to all individuals of the
   class to which it belongs; as, the Monitor is a type of a class of war


   Em"blem  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Emblemed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embleming.] To represent by an emblem; to symbolize. [R.]

     Emblemed by the cozening fig tree. Feltham.

                           Emblematic, Emblematical

   Em`blem*at"ic  (?), Em`blem*at"ic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. embl\'82matique.]
   Pertaining  to,  containing,  or  consisting  in, an emblem; symbolic;
   typically  representative;  representing  as an emblem; as, emblematic
   language  or  ornaments;  a  crown  is emblematic of royalty; white is
   emblematic of purity. -- Em`blem*at"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Em`blem*at"ic*cize   (?),   v.   t.   To  render  emblematic;  as,  to
   emblematicize a picture. [R.] Walpole.


   Em*blem"a*tist (?), n. A writer or inventor of emblems. Sir T. Browne.


   Em*blem"a*tize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emblematized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Emblematizing  (?).]  To  represent  by,  or  as by, an emblem; to

     Anciently  the sun was commonly emblematized by a starry or radiate
     figure. Bp. Hurd.


   Em"ble*ment  (?),  n.  [OF. embleer to sow with corn, F. emblaver, fr.
   LL.  imbladare;  pref.  in-  + LL. bladum grain, F. bl\'82.] (Law) The
   growing  crop, or profits of a crop which has been sown or planted; --
   used  especially  in  the plural. The produce of grass, trees, and the
   like, is not emblement. Wharton's Law Dict.


   Em"blem*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emblemized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emblemizing (?).] To represent by an emblem; to emblematize. [R.]


   Em*bloom" (?), v. t. To emblossom. Savage.


   Em*blos"som (?), v. t. To cover or adorn with blossoms.

     On the white emblossomed spray. J. Cunningham.


   Em*bod"i*er (?), n. One who embodies.


   Em*bod"i*ment (?), n.

   1. The act of embodying; the state of being embodied.

   2.  That  which  embodies or is embodied; representation in a physical
   body; a completely organized system, like the body; as, the embodiment
   of courage, or of courtesy; the embodiment of true piety.


   Em*bod"y  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Embodied (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embodying.]  To  form  into  a body; to invest with a body; to collect
   into  a body, a united mass, or a whole; to incorporate; as, to embody
   one's ideas in a treatise. [Written also imbody.]

     Devils embodied and disembodied. Sir W. Scott.

     The  soul,  while  it is embodied, can no more be divided from sin.


   Em*bod"y,  v.  i.  To  unite  in  a  body, a mass, or a collection; to
   coalesce. [Written also imbody.]

     Firmly to embody against this court party. Burke.


   Em*bogue" (?), v. i. [See Disembogue.] To disembogue; to discharge, as
   a river, its waters into the sea or another river. [R.]


   Em*bo"guing  (?),  n.  The mouth of a river, or place where its waters
   are discharged. [R.]


   Em*boil" (?), v. i. To boil with anger; to effervesce. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*boil",  v.  t.  To cause to boil with anger; to irritate; to chafe.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em`bo\'8cte"ment`  (?),  n. [F., fr. embo\'8cter to fit in, insert; en
   in  +  bo\'8cte  box.]  (Biol.)  The hypothesis that all living things
   proceed  from pre\'89xisting germs, and that these encase the germs of
   all future living things, inclosed one within another. Buffon.


   Em*bold"en  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Emboldened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emboldening (?).] To give boldness or courage to; to encourage. Shak.

     The  self-conceit  which emboldened him to undertake this dangerous
     office. Sir W. Scott.


   Em*bold"en*er (?), n. One who emboldens.


   Em*bol"ic (?), a. [Gr. Embolism.]

   1. Embolismic.

   2.  (Med.)  Pertaining to an embolism; produced by an embolism; as, an
   embolic abscess.

   3.  (Biol.)  Pushing or growing in; -- said of a kind of invagination.
   See under Invagination.


   Em"bo*lism (?), n. [L. embolismus, from Gr. embolisme. See Emblem.]

   1.  Intercalation;  the  insertion  of  days,  months, or years, in an
   account  of  time,  to produce regularity; as, the embolism of a lunar
   month in the Greek year.

   2. Intercalated time. Johnson.

   3.  (Med.)  The occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus. Embolism in
   the brain often produces sudden unconsciousness and paralysis.


   Em`bo*lis"mal   (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  embolism;  intercalary;  as,
   embolismal months.

                         Embolismatic, Embolismatical

   Em`bo*lis*mat"ic (?), Em`bo*lis*mat"ic*al (?), a. Embolismic.

                           Embolismic, Embolismical

   Em`bo*lis"mic  (?),  Em`bo*lis"mic*al  (?),  a. [Cf. F. embolismique.]
   Pertaining   to   embolism  or  intercalation;  intercalated;  as,  an
   embolismic year, i. e., the year in which there is intercalation.


   Em"bo*lite  (?),  n. [From Gr. (Min.) A mineral consisting of both the
   chloride and the bromide of silver.


   Em"bo*lus (?), n.; pl. Emboli (#). [L., fr. Gr. Emblem.]

   1.  Something  inserted, as a wedge; the piston or sucker of a pump or

   2.  (Med.)  A  plug  of some substance lodged in a blood vessel, being
   brought thither by the blood current. It consists most frequently of a
   clot of fibrin, a detached shred of a morbid growth, a globule of fat,
   or a microscopic organism.


   Em"bo*ly   (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Biol.)  Embolic  invagination.  See  under


   Em`bon`point"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr. en bon point in good condition. See
   Bon,  and  Point.]  Plumpness of person; -- said especially of persons
   somewhat corpulent.


   Em*bor"der  (?), v. t. [Pref. em- (L. in) + border: cf. OF. emborder.]
   To furnish or adorn with a border; to imborder.


   Em*bos"om (?), v. t. [Written also imbosom.]

   1. To take into, or place in, the bosom; to cherish; to foster.

     Glad to embosom his affection. Spenser.

   2.  To  inclose or surround; to shelter closely; to place in the midst
   of something.

     His house embosomed in the grove. Pope.

     Some tender flower . . . . Embosomed in the greenest glade. Keble.


   Em*boss" (?; 115), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Embossed (?; 115); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Embossing.] [Pref. em- (L. in) + boss: cf. OF. embosser to swell in

   1. To arise the surface of into bosses or protuberances; particularly,
   to ornament with raised work.

     Botches and blains must all his flesh emboss. Milton.

   2.  To  raise  in  relief  from a surface, as an ornament, a head on a
   coin, or the like.

     Then o'er the lofty gate his art embossed Androgeo's death. Dryden.

     Exhibiting  flowers  in  their natural color embossed upon a purple
     ground. Sir W. Scott.


   Em*boss",  v.  t. [Etymology uncertain.] To make to foam at the mouth,
   like a hunted animal. [Obs.]


   Em*boss",  v. t. [Cf. Pr. & Sp. emboscar, It. imboscare, F. embusquer,
   and E. imbosk.]

   1. To hide or conceal in a thicket; to imbosk; to inclose, shelter, or
   shroud in a wood. [Obs.]

     In the Arabian woods embossed. Milton.

   2. To surround; to ensheath; to immerse; to beset.

     A knight her met in mighty arms embossed. Spenser.


   Em*boss", v. i. To seek the bushy forest; to hide in the woods. [Obs.]
   S. Butler.


   Em*bossed" (?; 115), a.

   1. Formed or covered with bosses or raised figures.

   2. Having a part projecting like the boss of a shield.

   3. Swollen; protuberant. [Obs.] "An embossed carbuncle." Shak.


   Em*boss"er (?; 115), n. One who embosses.


   Em*boss"ment (?), n.

   1.  The act of forming bosses or raised figures, or the state of being
   so formed.

   2.  A  bosslike  prominence;  figure  in  relief;  raised  work;  jut;
   protuberance;   esp.,  a  combination  of  raised  surfaces  having  a
   decorative effect. "The embossment of the figure." Addison.


   Em*bot"tle (?), v. t. To bottle. [R.] Phillips.


   Em`bou`chure"  (?),  n.  [F., fr. emboucher to put to the mouth; pref.
   em- (L. in) + bouche the mouth. Cf. Embouge, Debouch.]

   1. The mouth of a river; also, the mouth of a cannon.

   2.  (Mus.) (a) The mouthpiece of a wind instrument. (b) The shaping of
   the lips to the mouthpiece; as, a flute player has a good embouchure.


   Em*bow"  (?),  v.  t.  To bend like a bow; to curve. "Embowed arches."
   [Obs. or R.] Sir W. Scott.

     With gilded horns embowed like the moon. Spenser.


   Em*bow"el (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emboweled (?) or Embowelled; p. pr.
   & vb. n. Emboweling or Embowelling.]

   1. To disembowel.

     The barbarous practice of emboweling. Hallam.

     The boar . . . makes his trough In your emboweled bosoms. Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Disembowel is the preferable word in this sense.

   2. To imbed; to hide in the inward parts; to bury.

     Or deep emboweled in the earth entire. Spenser.


   Em*bow"el*er  (?),  n.  One  who  takes  out the bowels. [Written also


   Em*bow"el*ment (?), n. Disembowelment.


   Em*bow"er  (?),  v.  t.  To cover with a bower; to shelter with trees.
   [Written  also imbower.] [Poetic] Milton. -- v. i. To lodge or rest in
   a bower. [Poetic] "In their wide boughs embow'ring. " Spenser.


   Em*bowl"  (?), v. t. To form like a bowl; to give a globular shape to.
   [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.


   Em*box" (?), v. t. To inclose, as in a box; to imbox.


   Em*boysse"ment (?), n. [See Embushment.] An ambush. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Em*brace"  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. em- (intens.) + brace, v. t.] To fasten
   on, as armor. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*brace", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Embraced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Embracing
   (?).]  [OE.  embracier, F. embrasser; pref. em- (L. in) + F. bras arm.
   See Brace, n.]

   1. To clasp in the arms with affection; to take in the arms; to hug.

     I will embrace him with a soldier's arm, That he shall shrink under
     my courtesy. Shak.

     Paul called unto him the disciples, and embraced them. Acts xx. 1.

   2. To cling to; to cherish; to love. Shak.

   3.  To  seize eagerly, or with alacrity; to accept with cordiality; to
   welcome.  "I  embrace  these  conditions." "You embrace the occasion."

     What is there that he may not embrace for truth? Locke.

   4. To encircle; to encompass; to inclose.

     Low  at  his  feet a spacious plain is placed, Between the mountain
     and the stream embraced. Denham.

   5.  To  include  as  parts  of a whole; to comprehend; to take in; as,
   natural philosophy embraces many sciences.

     Not  that my song, in such a scanty space, So large a subject fully
     can embrace. Dryden.

   Page 484

   6.  To  accept;  to  undergo;  to  submit  to. "I embrace this fortune
   patiently." Shak.

   7.  (Law)  To  attempt  to  influence  corruptly,  as a jury or court.
   Blackstone. Syn. -- To clasp; hug; inclose; encompass; include;


   Em*brace" (?), v. i. To join in an embrace.


   Em*brace",  n. Intimate or close encircling with the arms; pressure to
   the bosom; clasp; hug.

     We stood tranced in long embraces, Mixed with kisses. Tennyson.


   Em*brace"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. embrassement.]

   1. A clasp in the arms; embrace.

     Dear though chaste embracements. Sir P. Sidney.

   2. State of being contained; inclosure. [Obs.]

     In the embracement of the parts hardly reparable, as bones. Bacon.

   3. Willing acceptance. [Obs.]

     A ready embracement of . . . his kindness. Barrow.


   Em*brace"or (?), n. (Law) One guilty of embracery.


   Em*bra"cer (?), n. One who embraces.


   Em*bra"cer*y  (?),  n.  (Law)  An  attempt to influence a court, jury,
   etc.,  corruptly,  by  promises,  entreaties,  money,  entertainments,
   threats, or other improper inducements.


   Em*bra"cive  (?),  a.  Disposed  to  embrace;  fond of caressing. [R.]


   Em*braid" (?), v. t. [Pref. em- (L. in) + 1st braid.]

   1. To braid up, as hair. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2. To upbraid. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.


   Em*branch"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. embranchement.] The branching forth, as
   of trees.


   Em*bran"gle  (?),  v. t. [Pref. em- (L. in) + brangle.] To confuse; to

     I am lost and embrangled in inextricable difficulties. Berkeley.


   Em*bra"sure (?; 135), n. [See Embrace.] An embrace. [Obs.] "Our locked
   embrasures."" Shak.


   Em*bra"sure (277), n. [F., fr. embraser, perh. equiv. to \'82braser to
   widen an opening; of unknown origin.]

   1. (Arch.) A splay of a door or window.

     Apart,  in  the  twilight  gloom  of  a window's embrasure, Sat the
     lovers. Longfellow.

   2.  (Fort.) An aperture with slant sides in a wall or parapet, through
   which  cannon  are  pointed and discharged; a crenelle. See Illust. of


   Em*brave" (?), v. t.

   1. To inspire with bravery. [Obs.] Beaumont.

   2. To decorate; to make showy and fine. [Obs.]

     And with sad cypress seemly it embraves. Spenser.


   Em*brawn" (?), v. t. To harden. [Obs.]

     It will embrawn and iron-crust his flesh. Nash.


   Em*bread"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  em-  (L. in) + bread = 1st braid.] To
   braid. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*breathe"ment (?), n. The act of breathing in; inspiration. [R.]

     The  special and immediate suggestion, embreathement, and dictation
     of the Holy Ghost. W. Lee.


   Em*brew" (?), v. t. To imbrue; to stain with blood. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*bright" (?), v. t. To brighten. [Obs.]


   Em"bro*cate  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Embrocated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embrocating.]  [NL.  embrocatus, p. p. of embrocare; cf. Gr. (Med.) To
   moisten  and  rub  (a  diseased part) with a liquid substance, as with
   spirit, oil, etc., by means of a cloth or sponge.


   Em`bro*ca"tion  (?),  n.  [NL. embrocatio: cf. F. embrocation.] (Med.)
   (a)  The  act  of  moistening and rubbing a diseased part with spirit,
   oil,  etc.  (b)  The  liquid  or lotion with which an affected part is


   Em*brogl"io (?), n. See Imbroglio.


   Em*broid"er  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Embroidered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embroidering.]   [OE.   embrouden.  See  Broider.]  To  ornament  with
   needlework; as, to embroider a scarf.

     Thou shalt embroider the coat of fine linen. Ex. xxviii. 39.


   Em*broid"er*er (?), n. One who embroiders.


   Em*broid"er*y (?), n.; pl. Embroideries (.

   1. Needlework used to enrich textile fabrics, leather, etc.; also, the
   art of embroidering.

   2. Diversified ornaments, especially by contrasted figures and colors;
   variegated decoration.

     Fields in spring's embroidery are dressed. Addison.

     A mere rhetorical embroidery of phrases. J. A. Symonds.


   Em*broil"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Embroiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Embroiling.]  [F.  embrouiller; pref. em- (L. in) + brouiller. See 1st
   Broil, and cf. Imbroglio.]

   1.  To  throw into confusion or commotion by contention or discord; to
   entangle  in  a  broil  or  quarrel; to make confused; to distract; to
   involve in difficulties by dissension or strife.

     The royal house embroiled in civil war. Dryden.

   2. To implicate in confusion; to complicate; to jumble.

     The  Christian  antiquities  at  Rome  .  . . are so embroiled with

   Syn.  --  To  perplex; entangle; distract; disturb; disorder; trouble;
   implicate; commingle.


   Em*broil", n. See Embroilment.


   Em*broil"er (?), n. One who embroils.


   Em*broil"ment  (?), n. [Cf. F. embrouillement.] The act of embroiling,
   or  the  condition  of  being  embroiled; entanglement in a broil. Bp.


   Em*bronze" (?), v. t.

   1.  To embody in bronze; to set up a bronze representation of, as of a
   person. [Poetic]

   2. To color in imitation of bronze. See Bronze, v. t.


   Em*broth"el (?), v. t. To inclose in a brothel. [Obs.] Donne.

                         Embroude, Embrowde, Embroyde

   Em*broud"e  (?),  Em*browd"e,  Em*broyd"e  (?), v. t. To embroider; to
   adorn. [Obs.]

     Embrowded  was  he,  as it were a mead All full of fresshe flowers,
     white and red. Chaucer.


   Em*brown"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  em- (L. in) + brown.] To give a brown
   color to; to imbrown.

     Summer suns embrown the laboring swain. Fenton.


   Em*brue" (?), v. t. See Imbrue, Embrew. [Obs.]


   Em*brute"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  em- (L. in) + brute. Cf. Imbrute.] To
   brutify; to imbrute.

     All the man embruted in the swine. Cawthorn.


   Em"bry*o  (?),  n.;  pl.  Embryos  (#).  [F. embryon, Gr. in) + brew.]
   (Biol.)  The  first rudiments of an organism, whether animal or plant;
   as:  (a)  The  young  of  an animal in the womb, or more specifically,
   before its parts are developed and it becomes a fetus (see Fetus). (b)
   The  germ  of  the  plant,  which is inclosed in the seed and which is
   developed  by  germination.  In embryo, in an incipient or undeveloped
   state;  in  conception,  but  not  yet  executed.  "The company little
   suspected what a noble work I had then in embryo." Swift.
   Em"bry*o, a. Pertaining to an embryo; rudimentary; undeveloped; as, an
   embryo bud. 


   Em`bry*o*gen"ic  (?),  a.  (Biol.) Pertaining to the development of an


   Em`bry*og"e*ny  (?),  n.  [Gr. embryog\'82nie.] (Biol.) The production
   and development of an embryo.


   Em`bry*og"o*ny (?), n. [Gr. (Biol.) The formation of an embryo.


   Em`bry*og"ra*phy   (?),   n.   [Gr.   -graphy.]  (Biol.)  The  general
   description of embryos.

                          Embryologic, Embryological

   Em`bry*o*log"ic   (?),   Em`bry*o*log"ic*al  (?),  a.  (Biol.)  Of  or
   pertaining to embryology.


   Em`bry*ol"o*gist (?), n. One skilled in embryology.


   Em`bry*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr. -logy: cf. F. embryologie.] (Biol.) The
   science  which  relates to the formation and development of the embryo
   in  animals and plants; a study of the gradual development of the ovum
   until it reaches the adult stage.


   Em"bry*on (?), n. & a. [NL.] See Embryo.


   Em"bry*o*nal  (?),  a. (Biol.) Pertaining to an embryo, or the initial
   state of any organ; embryonic.


   Em"bry*o*na*ry (?), a. (Biol.) Embryonic.

                            Embryonate, Embryonated

   Em"bry*o*nate (?), Em"bry*o*na`ted (?), a. (Biol.) In the state of, or
   having, an embryonal.


   Em`bry*on"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to an embryo; embryonal;
   rudimentary. Embryonic sac OR vesicle (Bot.), the vesicle within which
   the  embryo is developed in the ovule; -- sometimes called also amnios
   sac, and embryonal sac.


   Em`bry*o*nif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [Embryo  +  -ferous.] (Biol.) Having an


   Em`bry*on"i*form  (?),  a. [Embryo + -form.] (Biol.) Like an embryo in


   Em`bry*o*plas"tic  (?), n. [Embryo + plastic.] (Biol.) Relating to, or
   aiding in, the formation of an embryo; as, embryoplastic cells.

                                  Embryo sac

   Em"bry*o sac` (?). (Bot.) See under Embryonic.


   Em`bry*ot"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Embryonic.


   Em`bry*ot"o*my  (?),  n. [Gr. embryotomie.] (Med.) The cutting a fetus
   into pieces within the womb, so as to effect its removal.


   Em"bry*o*troph` (?), n. [Gr. (Biol.) The material from which an embryo
   is formed and nourished.


   Em"bry*ous (?), a. Embryonic; undeveloped. [R.]


   Em*bulk" (?), v. t. To enlarge in the way of bulk. [R.] Latham.


   Em*burse" (?), v. t. [See Imburse.] To furnish with money; to imburse.


   Em*bush"  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  Ambush,  Imbosk.]  To place or hide in a
   thicket; to ambush. [Obs.] Shelton.


   Em*bush"ment   (?),   n.   [OE.  embusshement,  OF.  embuschement,  F.
   emb\'96chement.] An ambush. [Obs.]


   Em*bus"y (?), v. t. To employ. [Obs.] Skelton.


   Eme (?), n. [See Eame.] An uncle. [Obs.] Spenser.


   E*meer" (?), n. Same as Emir.


   E*men"a*gogue (?), n. See Emmenagogue.


   E*mend"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emended; p. pr. & vb. n. Emending.]
   [L.   emendare;  e  out  +  menda,  mendum,  fault,  blemish:  cf.  F.
   \'82mender.  Cf.  Amend, Mend.] To purge of faults; to make better; to
   correct;  esp., to make corrections in (a literary work); to alter for
   the  better  by textual criticism, generally verbal. Syn. -- To amend;
   correct; improve; better; reform; rectify. See Amend.


   E*mend"a*ble  (?),  a.  [L.  emendabilis.  Cf. Amendable.] Corrigible;
   amendable. [R.] Bailey.


   Em"en*date*ly (?), adv. Without fault; correctly. [Obs.]


   Em`en*da"tion (?), n. [L. emendatio: cf. F. \'82mendation.]

   1. The act of altering for the better, or correcting what is erroneous
   or  faulty;  correction;  improvement.  "He  lies  in  his sin without
   repentance or emendation." Jer. Taylor.

   2.  Alteration  by  editorial  criticism, as of a text so as to give a
   better  reading; removal of errors or corruptions from a document; as,
   the book might be improved by judicious emendations.


   Em"en*da`tor (?), n. [L.] One who emends or critically edits.


   E*mend"a*to*ry  (?),  a.  [L. emendatorius.] Pertaining to emendation;
   corrective. "Emendatory criticism."" Johnson.


   E*mend"er (?), n. One who emends.


   E*men"di*cate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  emendicatus,  p. p. of emendicare to
   obtain by begging. See Mendicate.] To beg. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   Em"er*ald   (?),  n.  [OE.  emeraude,  OF.  esmeraude,  esmeralde,  F.
   \'82meraude, L. smaragdus, fr. Gr. marakata.]

   1.  (Min.) A precious stone of a rich green color, a variety of beryl.
   See Beryl.

   2. (Print.) A kind of type, in size between minion and nonpare

     NOTE: \'b5 This line is printed in the type called emerald.


   Em"er*ald,  a.  Of  a  rich  green  color,  like  that of the emerald.
   "Emerald  meadows." Byron. Emerald fish (Zo\'94l.), a fish of the Gulf
   of  Mexico (Gobionellus oceanicus), remarkable for the brilliant green
   and  blue  color  of  the  base  of the tongue; -- whence the name; --
   called  also esmeralda. -- Emerald green, a very durable pigment, of a
   vivid  light  green  color,  made  from the arseniate of copper; green
   bice;  Scheele's  green;  --  also used adjectively; as, emerald green
   crystals.  --  Emerald Isle, a name given to Ireland on account of the
   brightness  of  its  verdure. -- Emerald spodumene, OR Lithia emerald.
   (Min.) See Hiddenite. -- Emerald nickel. (Min.) See Zaratite.


   Em"er*ald*ine  (?;  104),  n.  A  green  compound  used as a dyestuff,
   produced from aniline blue when acted upon by acid.


   Em"er*aud (?), n. [See Emerald, n.] An emerald. [Obs.] Spenser.


   E*merge"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Emerged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emerging  (?).] [L. emergere, emersum; e out + mergere to dip, plunge.
   See  Merge.]  To rise out of a fluid; to come forth from that in which
   anything  has  been  plunged,  enveloped,  or  concealed; to issue and
   appear;  as,  to  emerge  from the water or the ocean; the sun emerges
   from  behind  the  moon  in  an  eclipse;  to  emerge  from poverty or
   obscurity. "Thetis . . . emerging from the deep." Dryden.

     Those who have emerged from very low, some from the lowest, classes
     of society. Burke.


   E*mer"gence  (?),  n.;  pl.  Emergences  (. The act of rising out of a
   fluid,  or  coming forth from envelopment or concealment, or of rising
   into view; sudden uprisal or appearance.

     The white color of all refracted light, at its very first emergence
     . . . is compounded of various colors. Sir I. Newton.

     When from the deep thy bright emergence sprung. H. Brooke.


   E*mer"gen*cy (?), n.; pl. Emergencies (#). [See Emergence.]

   1. Sudden or unexpected appearance; an unforeseen occurrence; a sudden

     Most  our  rarities  have  been  found  out  by  casual  emergency.

   2.  An  unforeseen  occurrence  or  combination of circumstances which
   calls for immediate action or remedy; pressing necessity; exigency.

     To whom she might her doubts propose, On all emergencies that rose.

     A safe counselor in most difficult emergencies. Brougham.

   Syn. -- Crisis; conjuncture; exigency; pinch; strait; necessity.


   E*mer"gent (?), a. [L. emergens, p. pr. of emergere.]

   1.  Rising  or  emerging  out  of  a  fluid or anything that covers or
   conceals; issuing; coming to light.

     The mountains huge appear emergent. Milton.

   2. Suddenly appearing; arising unexpectedly;

     Protection granted in emergent danger. Burke.

   Emergent  year (Chron.), the epoch or date from which any people begin
   to  compute  their time or dates; as, the emergent year of Christendom
   is that of the birth of Christ; the emergent year of the United States
   is  that  of  the declaration of their independence. -- E*mer"gent*ly,
   adv. -- E*mer"gent*ness, n. [R.]
   Em"er*il (?), n.
   1. Emery. [Obs.] Drayton.
   2. A glazier's diamond. Crabb.

   Em"er*it*ed   (?),  a.  [See  Emeritus.]  Considered  as  having  done
   sufficient  public service, and therefore honorably discharged. [Obs.]


   E*mer"i*tus (?), a. [L., having served out his time, p. p. of emerere,
   emereri,  to  obtain by service, serve out one's term; e out + merere,
   mereri,   to  merit,  earn,  serve.]  Honorably  discharged  from  the
   performance  of  public duty on account of age, infirmity, or long and
   faithful  services;  -- said of an officer of a college or pastor of a


   E*mer"i*tus,  n.;  pl.  Emeriti  (#). [L.] A veteran who has honorably
   completed his service.

                               Emerods, Emeroids

   Em"er*ods   (?),   Em"er*oids   (?),   n.  pl.  [OF.  emmeroides.  See
   Hemorrhoids.]  Hemorrhoids;  piles;  tumors; boils. [R.] Deut. xxviii.


   E*mersed"  (?), a. [L. emersus, p. p. See Emerge.] (Bot.) Standing out
   of, or rising above, water. Gray.


   E*mer"sion (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82mersion. See Emerge.]

   1.  The  act  of  emerging, or of rising out of anything; as, emersion
   from the sea; emersion from obscurity or difficulties.

     Their  immersion  into  water  and  their emersion out of the same.

   2.  (Astron.)  The reappearance of a heavenly body after an eclipse or
   occultation;  as,  the  emersion  of  the  moon from the shadow of the
   earth; the emersion of a star from behind the moon.


   Em"er*y  (?),  n.  [F. \'82meri, earlier \'82meril, It. smeriglio, fr.
   Gr.  smear.  Cf.  Emeril.]  (Min.)  Corundum  in the form of grains or
   powder,  used  in the arts for grinding and polishing hard substances.
   Native  emery  is  mixed with more or less magnetic iron. See the Note
   under  Corundum.  Emery  board,  cardboard  pulp  mixed with emery and
   molded  into  convenient.  --  Emery cloth OR paper, cloth or paper on
   which  the  powder  of  emery  is  spread  and  glued for scouring and
   polishing.  --  Emery  wheel,  a  wheel  containing emery, or having a
   surface  of  emery.  In  machine  shops, it is sometimes called a buff
   wheel, and by the manufacturers of cutlery, a glazer.

   Page 485


   Em"e*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Emetic.] (Med.) A vomiting.


   E*met"ic  (?), a. [L. emeticus, Gr. vomere: cf. F. \'82m\'82tique. See
   Vomit.]  (Med.)  Inducing  to vomit; exciting the stomach to discharge
   its contents by the mouth. -- n. A medicine which causes vomiting.


   E*met"ic*al  (?), a. Inducing to vomit; producing vomiting; emetic. --
   E*met"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Em"e*tine  (?;  104),  n.  [See  Emetic.]  (Chem.) A white crystalline
   bitter  alkaloid  extracted from ipecacuanha root, and regarded as its
   peculiar emetic principle.


   Em`e*to-ca*thar"tic (?), a. [Gr. cathartic.] (Med.) Producing vomiting
   and purging at the same time.

                                 Emeu, OR Emew

   E"meu, OR E"mew (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Emu.

                 (?), n. [F.] A seditious tumult; an outbreak.


   Em*forth"  (?),  prep. [AS. em-, emn-, in comp. equiv. to efen equal +
   for  forth.]  According to; conformably to. [Obs.] Chaucer. Emforth my
   might, so far as lies in my power. [Obs.]


   Em*gal"la  (?),  n.  (Zo\'94l.)  [Native name.] The South African wart
   hog. See Wart hog.


   Em"i*cant  (?),  a.  [L.  emicans,  p. pr. of emicare. See Emication.]
   Beaming forth; flashing. [R.]

     Which emicant did this and that way dart. Blackmore.


   Em`i*ca"tion (?), n. [L. emicatio, fr. emicare to spring out or forth;
   e.  out + micare to move quickly to and fro, to sparkle.] A flying off
   in small particles, as heated iron or fermenting liquors; a sparkling;
   scintillation. Sir T. Browne.


   E*mic"tion (?), n. [L. e out + mingere, mictum, to make water.]

   1. The voiding of urine.

   2. What is voided by the urinary passages; urine.


   E*mic"to*ry (?), a. & n. (Med.) Diuretic.


   Em"i*grant  (?),  a.  [L.  emigrans,  -antis,  p.  pr.  of emigrare to
   emigrate: cf. F. \'82migrant. See Emigrate, v. i.]

   1.  Removing  from one country to another; emigrating; as, an emigrant
   company or nation.

   2. Pertaining to an emigrant; used for emigrants; as, an emigrant ship
   or hospital.


   Em"i*grant,  n.  One  who emigrates, or quits one country or region to
   settle   in   another.  Syn.  --  Emigrant,  Immigrant.  Emigrant  and
   emigration  have  reference to the country from which the migration is
   made;  the  correlative words immigrant and immigration have reference
   to  the  country  into which the migration is made, the former marking
   the going out from a country, the latter the coming into it.


   Em"i*grate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Emigrated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emigrating.]  [L.  emigratus, p. p. of emigrare to remove, emigrate; e
   out  + migrare to migrate. See Migrate.] To remove from one country or
   State to another, for the purpose of residence; to migrate from home.

     Forced to emigrate in a body to America. Macaulay.

     They  [the  Huns]  were  emigrating from Tartary into Europe in the
     time of the Goths. J. H. Newman.


   Em"i*grate (?), a. Migratory; roving. [Obs.]


   Em`i*gra"tion (?), n. [L. emigratio: cf. F. \'82migration.]

   1.  The  act  of  emigrating;  removal  from  one  country or state to
   another,  for the purpose of residence, as from Europe to America, or,
   in America, from the Atlantic States to the Western.

   2.   A   body   emigrants;  emigrants  collectively;  as,  the  German


   Em`i*gra"tion*al (?), a. Relating to emigration.


   Em`i*gra"tion*ist, n. An advocate or promoter of emigration.


   Em"i*gra`tor (?), n. One who emigrates; am emigrant. [R.]

 (?), n. [F., emigrant.] One of the natives of France who were opposed to the
         first Revolution, and who left their country in consequence.


   Em"i*nence  (?),  n.  [L.  eminentia,  fr.  eminens  eminent:  cf.  F.

   1. That which is eminent or lofty; a high ground or place; a height.

     Without either eminences or cavities. Dryden.

     The temple of honor ought to be seated on an eminence. Burke.

   2.  An  elevated  condition among men; a place or station above men in
   general,  either  in  rank,  office,  or  celebrity;  social  or moral
   loftiness; high rank; distinction; preferment. Milton.

     You  've  too  a  woman's  heart, which ever yet Affected eminence,
     wealth, sovereignty. Shak.

   3.  A  title  of  honor, especially applied to a cardinal in the Roman
   Catholic Church.


   Em"i*nen*cy (?), n.; pl Eminences (. State of being eminent; eminence.
   "Eminency of estate." Tillotson.


   Em"i*nent (?), a. [L. eminens, -entis, p. pr. of eminere to stand out,
   be  prominent;  e  out  +  minere  (in comp.) to project; of uncertain
   origin: cf. F. \'82minent. Cf. Menace.]

   1.  High;  lofty;  towering;  prominent.  "A very eminent promontory."

   2.  Being,  metaphorically,  above  others,  whether  by  birth,  high
   station,  merit,  or virtue; high in public estimation; distinguished;
   conspicuous; as, an eminent station; an eminent historian, statements,
   statesman, or saint. <-- by distinctive accomplishment -->
   Right  of  eminent  domain.  (Law)  See  under  Domain. Syn. -- Lofty;
   elevated;  exalted; conspicuous; prominent; remarkable; distinguished;
   illustrious;    famous;    celebrated;   renowned;   well-known.   See


   Em"i*nent*ly,   adv.   In   an  eminent  manner;  in  a  high  degree;
   conspicuously; as, to be eminently learned.

                                  Emir, Emeer

   E"mir  (?),  E*meer"  (?), n. [Ar. em\'c6r, am\'c6r, commander: cf. F.
   \'82mir.   Cf.   Admiral,   Ameer.]  An  Arabian  military  commander,
   independent chieftain, or ruler of a province; also, an honorary title
   given  to  the  descendants  of  Mohammed, in the line of his daughter
   Fatima;  among  the  Turks,  likewise,  a  title  of dignity, given to
   certain high officials.

                              Emirship, Emeership

   E`mir*ship, E*meer"ship, n. The rank or office of an Emir.


   Em"is*sa*ry (?), n.; pl. Emissaries (#). [L. emissarius, fr. emittere,
   emissum,  to  send  out:  cf.  F.  \'82missaire.  See  Emit.] An agent
   employed  to  advance,  in  a  covert  manner,  the  interests  of his
   employers;  one  sent out by any power that is at war with another, to
   create dissatisfaction among the people of the latter.

     Buzzing   emissaries   fill  the  ears  Of  listening  crowds  with
     jealousies and fears. Dryden.

   Syn.  --  Emissary,  Spy.  A  spy is one who enters an enemy's camp or
   territories  to learn the condition of the enemy; an emissary may be a
   secret  agent  appointed not only to detect the schemes of an opposing
   party, but to influence their councils. A spy must be concealed, or he
   suffers  death; an emissary may in some cases be known as the agent of
   an adversary without incurring similar hazard.


   Em"is*sa*ry, a.

   1. Exploring; spying. B. Jonson.

   2.  (Anat.) Applied to the veins which pass out of the cranium through
   apertures in its walls.


   Em"is*sa*ry*ship`, n. The office of an emissary.


   E*mis"sion (?), n. [L. emissio: cf. F. \'82mission. See Emit.]

   1.  The  act  of  sending or throwing out; the act of sending forth or
   putting  into  circulation;  issue; as, the emission of light from the
   sun; the emission of heat from a fire; the emission of bank notes. <--
   now, we issue bank notes. -->

   2.  That which is sent out, issued, or put in circulation at one time;
   issue; as, the emission was mostly blood.
   Emission  theory  (Physics),  the theory of Newton, regarding light as
   consisting of emitted particles or corpuscles. See Corpuscular theory,
   under Corpuscular.
   Em`is*si"tious  (?),  a.  [L.  emissitius,  fr. emittere.] Looking, or
   narrowly examining; prying. [Obs.] "Those emissitious eyes." Bp. Hall.

   E*mis"sive (?), a. Sending out; emitting; as, emissive powers.


   Em`is*siv"i*ty  (?),  n. Tendency to emission; comparative facility of
   emission,  or  rate at which emission takes place, as of heat from the
   surface of a heated body.


   E*mis"so*ry (?), a. (Anat.) Same as Emissary, a., 2.


   E*mit"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Emitted  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emitting.]  [L.  emittere  to  send  out; e out + mittere to send. See

   1.  To  send  forth;  to throw or give out; to cause to issue; to give
   vent  to;  to  eject;  to  discharge;  as,  fire emits heat and smoke;
   boiling water emits steam; the sun emits light.

     Lest, wrathful, the far-shooting god emit His fatal arrows. Prior.

   2.  To  issue  forth,  as  an  order or decree; to print and send into
   circulation, as notes or bills of credit.

     No State shall . . . emit bills of credit. Const. of the U. S.


   E*mit"tent  (?),  a.  [L.  emittens,  p. pr. emittere.] Sending forth;
   emissive. Boyle.


   Em*man"tle  (?), v. t. [Pref. em- (L. in) + mantle: cf. F. emmanteler.
   Cf.  Inmantle.] To cover over with, or as with, a mantle; to put about
   as a protection. [Obs.] Holland.


   Em*man"u*el (?), n. See Immanuel. Matt. i. 23.


   Em*mar"ble (?), v. t. To turn to marble; to harden. [Obs.]

     Thou dost emmarble the proud heart. Spenser.


   Em*men"a*gogue  (?), n. [Gr. n. pl., menses (emm\'82nagogue.] (Med.) A
   medicine that promotes the menstrual discharge.


   Em"met  (?),  n. [OE. emete, amete, AS. \'91mete. See Ant.] (Zo\'94l.)
   An ant. Emmet hunter (Zo\'94l.), the wryneck.


   Em`me*tro"pi*a  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) That refractive condition
   of  the  eye in which the rays of light are all brought accurately and
   without  undue  effort  to  a  focus  upon  the  retina; -- opposed to
   hypermetropia, myopia, an astigmatism.


   Em`me*trop"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or characterized by, emmetropia.

     The  normal  or  emmetropic  eye  adjusts  itself perfectly for all
     distances. J. Le Conte.


   Em*met"ro*py (?), n. (Med.) Same as Emmetropia.


   Em*mew"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref. em- (L. in) + mew. Cf. Immew.] To mew or
   coop up. [Obs.] Shak.


   Em*move"  (?),  v.  t. [For emove: cf. F. \'82mouvoir, L. emovere. See
   Emotion.] To move; to rouse; to excite. [Obs.]


   Em"o*din   (?),   n.  (Chem.)  An  orange-red  crystalline  substance,
   C15H10O5,  obtained from the buckthorn, rhubarb, etc., and regarded as
   a  derivative of anthraquinone; -- so called from a species of rhubarb
   (Rheum emodei).


   Em`ol*les"cence  (?), n. [L. e out + mollescere, incho. fr. mollere to
   be  soft, mollis soft.] That degree of softness in a body beginning to
   melt which alters its shape; the first or lowest degree of fusibility.


   E*mol"li*ate  (?;  106),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emolliated (?); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Emolliating.]  [See  Emollient,  a.]  To  soften;  to  render

     Emolliated  by  four  centuries  of  Roman  domination,  the Belgic
     colonies had forgotten their pristine valor. Pinkerton.


   E*mol"lient  (?; 106), a. [L. emolliens, -entis, p. pr. of emollire to
   soften;  e  out + mollire to soften, mollis soft: cf. F. \'82mollient.
   See  Mollify.]  Softening;  making  supple;  acting  as  an emollient.
   "Emollient applications." Arbuthnot.


   E*mol"lient  (?;  105),  n.  (Med.)  An external something or soothing
   application to allay irritation, soreness, etc.


   Em`ol*li"tion  (?),  n.  The act of softening or relaxing; relaxation.


   E*mol"u*ment (?), n. [L. emolumentum, lit., a working out, fr. emoliri
   to  move  out,  work out; e out + moliri to set in motion, exert one's
   self,  fr.  moles  a huge, heavy mass: cf. F. \'82molument. See Mole a
   mound.]  The  profit  arising from office, employment, or labor; gain;
   compensation; advantage; perquisites, fees, or salary.

     A long . . . enjoyment of the emoluments of office. Bancroft.


   E*mol`u*men"tal  (?),  a. Pertaining to an emolument; profitable. [R.]

                                Emong, Emongst

   E*mong" (?), E*mongst" (?), (prep. Among. [Obs.]


   E*mo"tion  (?),  n.  [L. emovere, emotum, to remove, shake, stir up; e
   out  + movere to move: cf. F. \'82motion. See Move, and cf. Emmove.] A
   moving  of  the  mind  or  soul;  excitement  of the feelings, whether
   pleasing  or  painful;  disturbance  or  agitation of mind caused by a
   specific  exciting cause and manifested by some sensible effect on the

     How different the emotions between departure and return! W. Irving.

     Some vague emotion of delight. Tennyson.

   Syn.   --   Feeling;  agitation;  tremor;  trepidation;  perturbation;
   passion;  excitement.  --  Emotion, Feeling, Agitation. Feeling is the
   weaker  term,  and  may  be of the body or the mind. Emotion is of the
   mind  alone, being the excited action of some inward susceptibility or
   feeling; as, an emotion of pity, terror, etc. Agitation may the bodily
   or  mental,  and  usually  arises  in  the latter case from a vehement
   struggle   between   contending  desires  or  emotions.  See  Passion.
   "Agitations  have  but one character, viz., that of violence; emotions
   vary  with  the objects that awaken them. There are emotions either of
   tenderness  or  anger,  either  gentle  or  strong,  either painful or
   pleasing." Crabb.


   E*mo"tioned  (?), a. Affected with emotion. [R.] "The emotioned soul."
   Sir W. Scott.


   E*mo"tion*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or characterized by, emotion;
   excitable; easily moved; sensational; as, an emotional nature.


   E*mo"tion*al*ism  (?),  n.  The  cultivation  of an emotional state of
   mind; tendency to regard things in an emotional manner.


   E*mo"tion*al*ize (?), v. t. To give an emotional character to.

     Brought  up  in  a pious family where religion was not talked about
     emotionalized, but was accepted as the rule of thought and conduct.


   E*mo"tive (?), a. Attended by, or having the character of, emotion. H.
   Brooke. -- E*mo"tive*ly, adv.


   E*mo"tive*ness, n. Susceptibility to emotion. G. Eliot.


   E`mo*tiv"i*ty (?), n. Emotiveness. Hickok.


   E*move" (?), v. t. To move. [Obs.] Thomson.


   Em*pair" (?), v. t. To impair. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*pais"tic (?), a. [Gr. (Fine Arts) Having to do with inlaid work; --
   especially used with reference to work of the ancient Greeks.


   Em*pale"  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. em- (L. in) + pale: cf. OF. empalir.] To
   make pale. [Obs.]

     No bloodless malady empales their face. G. Fletcher.


   Em*pale",  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Empaled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Empaling.]
   [OF.  empaler to palisade, pierce, F. empaler to punish by empalement;
   pref.  em- (L. in) + OF. & F. pal a pale, stake. See Pale a stake, and
   cf. Impale.] >[Written also impale.]

   1.  To fence or fortify with stakes; to surround with a line of stakes
   for defense; to impale.

     All  that  dwell  near  enemies empale villages, to save themselves
     from surprise. Sir W. Raleigh.

   2. To inclose; to surround. See Impale.

   3. To put to death by thrusting a sharpened stake through the body.

   4. (Her.) Same as Impale.


   Em*pale"ment  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. empalement, fr. empaler. See Empale.]
   >[Written also impalement.]

   1. A fencing, inclosing, or fortifying with stakes.

   2. A putting to death by thrusting a sharpened stake through the body.

   3. (Her.) Same as Impalement.


   Em*pan"el (?), n. [Pref. em- (L. in) + panel.] (Law) A list of jurors;
   a panel. [Obs.] Cowell.


   Em*pan"el, v. t. See Impanel.


   Em*pan"o*plied  (?),  a.  [Pref.  em-  +  panoply.]  Completely armed;
   panoplied. Tennyson.


   Em*par"a*dise (?), v. t. Same as Imparadise.


   Em*park"  (?), v. t. [Pref. em- + park: cf. OF. emparchier, emparkier.
   Cf.  Impark.]  To  make  a  park  of;  to inclose, as with a fence; to
   impark. [Obs.]


   Em*par"lance (?), n. Parley; imparlance. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*pasm" (?), n. [F. empasme, fr. Gr. A perfumed powder sprinkled upon
   the body to mask the odor of sweat.


   Em*pas"sion  (?),  v. t. To move with passion; to affect strongly. See
   Impassion. [Obs.]

     Those sights empassion me full near. Spenser.


   Em*pas"sion*ate (?), a. Strongly affected. [Obs.]

     The Briton Prince was sore empassionate. Spenser.


   Em*pawn" (?), v. t. [Pref. em- + pawn. Cf. Impawn.] To put in pawn; to
   pledge; to impawn.

     To sell, empawn, and alienate the estates. Milman.


   Em*peach" (?), v. t. To hinder. See Impeach. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*pearl"  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. em- + pearl. Cf. Impearl.] To form like
   pearls; to decorate with, or as with, pearls; to impearl.

   Page 486


   Em*peo"ple  (?), v. t. To form into a people or community; to inhabit;
   to people. [Obs.]

     We now know 't is very well empeopled. Sir T. Browne.


   Em"per*ess (?), n. See Empress. [Obs.]


   Em"per*ice (?), n. An empress. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Em*per"il (?), v. t. To put in peril. See Imperil. Spenser.


   Em*per"ished (?), a. Perished; decayed. [Obs.]

     I deem thy brain emperished be. Spenser.


   Em"per*or (?), n. [OF. empereor, empereour, F. empereur, L. imperator,
   fr. imperare to command; in in + parare to prepare, order. See Parade,
   and  cf.  Imperative, Empress.] The sovereign or supreme monarch of an
   empire;  --  a  title  of  dignity  superior  to that of king; as, the
   emperor  of  Germany  or  of  Austria;  the emperor or Czar of Russia.
   Emperor  goose  (Zo\'94l.),  a  large  and  handsome  goose  (Philacte
   canagica), found in Alaska. -- Emperor moth (Zo\'94l.), one of several
   large  and  beautiful  bombycid  moths,  with transparent spots on the
   wings;  as  the  American Cecropia moth (Platysamia cecropia), and the
   European  species  (Saturnia  pavonia).  --  Emperor  paper. See under
   Paper. -- Purple emperor (Zo\'94l.), a large, strong British butterfly
   (Apatura iris).


   Em"per*or*ship, n. The rank or office of an emperor.


   Em"per*y  (?), n. [L. imperium, influenced by OF. emperie, empire. See
   Empire.] Empire; sovereignty; dominion. [Archaic] Shak.

     Struggling for my woman's empery. Mrs. Browning.


   Em"pha*sis (?), n.; pl. Emphases (#). [L., fr. Gr. In, and Phase.]

   1.  (Rhet.) A particular stress of utterance, or force of voice, given
   in  reading  and speaking to one or more words whose signification the
   speaker intends to impress specially upon his audience.

     The  province  of  emphasis  is so much more important than accent,
     that  the  customary seat of the latter is changed, when the claims
     of emphasis require it. E. Porter.

   2. A peculiar impressiveness of expression or weight of thought; vivid
   representation, enforcing assent; as, to dwell on a subject with great

     External objects stand before us . . . in all the life and emphasis
     of extension, figure, and color. Sir W. Hamilton.


   Em"pha*size  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emphasized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emphasizing  (?).]  To  utter or pronounce with a particular stress of
   voice; to make emphatic; as, to emphasize a word or a phrase.

                             Emphatic, Emphatical

   Em*phat"ic (?), Em*phat"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. emphatique. See Emphasis.]

   1.  Uttered with emphasis; made prominent and impressive by a peculiar
   stress  of  voice;  laying  stress;  deserving  of stress or emphasis;
   forcible;  impressive;  strong;  as,  to  remonstrate  in  am emphatic
   manner; an emphatic word; an emphatic tone; emphatic reasoning.

   2.  Striking  the  sense;  attracting  special  attention; impressive;
   forcible.   "Emphatical   colors."   Boyle.  "Emphatical  evils."  Bp.
   Reynolds.  Syn. -- Forcible; earnest; impressive; energetic; striking;
   positive; important; special; significant.


   Em*phat"ic*al*ly, adv.

   1.   With   emphasis;  forcibly;  in  a  striking  manner  or  degree;

     He was indeed emphatically a popular writer. Macaulay.

   2. Not really, but apparently. [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   Em*phat"ic*al*ness, n. The quality of being emphatic; emphasis.


   Em*phrac"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Med.) Having the quality of closing the
   pores of the skin.


   Em*phren"sy (?), v. t. To madden. [Obs.]


   Em`phy*se"ma  (?),  n. [NL., from Gr. emphys\'8ame.] (Med.) A swelling
   produced  by  gas or air diffused in the cellular tissue. Emphysema of
   the  lungs,  Pulmonary emphysema (Med.), a common disease of the lungs
   in  which  the  air  cells  are  distended  and  their partition walls
   ruptured by an abnormal pressure of the air contained in them.


   Em`phy*sem"a*tous (?), a. [Cf. F. emphys\'82mateux.] (Med.) Pertaining
   to, or of the nature of, emphysema; swelled; bloated.


   Em`phy*teu"sis  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr.  (Rom.  Law)  A  real  right,
   susceptible  of  assignment and of descent, charged on productive real
   estate,  the right being coupled with the enjoyment of the property on
   condition of taking care of the estate and paying taxes, and sometimes
   a small rent. Heumann.


   Em`phy*teu"tic  (?),  a.  [L.  emphyteuticus.]  Of or pertaining to an
   emphyteusis; as, emphyteutic lands.


   Em`phy*teu"ti*ca*ry  (?),  n.  [L. emphyteuticarius, a.] One who holds
   lands by emphyteusis.


   Em*pierce"  (?),  v. t. [Pref. em- + pierce. Cf. Impierce.] To pierce;
   to impierce. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em*pight"  (?), a. [Pref. em- + pight pitched, fixed.] Fixed; settled;
   fastened. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Em"pire (?), n. [F., fr. L. imperium a command, sovereignty, dominion,
   empire, fr. imperare. See Emperor; cf. Imperial.]

   1.  Supreme  power;  sovereignty;  sway;  dominion. "The empire of the
   sea." Shak.

     Over hell extend His empire, and with iron scepter rule. Milton.

   2.  The  dominion  of an emperor; the territory or countries under the
   jurisdiction and dominion of an emperor (rarely of a king), usually of
   greater  extent  than  a  kingdom,  always comprising a variety in the
   nationality  of,  or  the  forms of administration in, constituent and
   subordinate portions; as, the Austrian empire.

     Empire  carries  with  it  the  idea  of  a  vast  and  complicated
     government. C. J. Smith.

   3. Any dominion; supreme control; governing influence; rule; sway; as,
   the  empire  of  mind  or  of  reason. "Under the empire of facts." M.

     Another  force  which, in the Middle Ages, shared with chivalry the
     empire over the minds of men. A. W. Ward.

   Celestial  empire.  See  under  Celestial.  --  Empire  City, a common
   designation  of  the  city  of  New  York.  --  Empire State, a common
   designation  of  the  State of New York. Syn. -- Sway; dominion; rule;
   control; reign; sovereignty; government; kingdom; realm; state.


   Em*pir"ic  (?;  277),  n.  [L.  empiricus an empiric, Gr. fare: cf. F.
   empirique. See In, and Fare.]

   1.  One who follows an empirical method; one who relies upon practical

   2. One who confines himself to applying the results of mere experience
   or his own observation; especially, in medicine, one who deviates from
   the  rules of science and regular practice; an ignorant and unlicensed
   pretender; a quack; a charlatan.

     Among  the  Greek  physicians,  those who founded their practice on
     experience called themselves empirics. Krauth-Fleming.

     Swallow down opinions as silly people do empirics' pills. Locke.

                              Empiric, Empirical

   Em*pir"ic (?), Em*pir"ic*al (?), a.

   1. Pertaining to, or founded upon, experiment or experience; depending
   upon the observation of phenomena; versed in experiments.

     In  philosophical  language,  the  term empirical means simply what
     belongs  to  or is the product of experience or observation. Sir W.

     The  village  carpenter  . . . lays out his work by empirical rules
     learnt in his apprenticeship. H. Spencer.

   2.  Depending upon experience or observation alone, without due regard
   to  science  and  theory;  --  said  especially  of  medical practice,
   remedies,  etc.;  wanting  in  science  and  deep insight; as, empiric
   skill, remedies.
   Empirical   formula.   (Chem.)   See   under   Formula.  Syn.  --  See


   Em*pir"ic*al*ly, adv. By experiment or experience; without science; in
   the manner of quacks.


   Em*pir"i*cism (?), n.

   1.  The  method  or  practice  of  an empiric; pursuit of knowledge by
   observation and experiment.

   2.  Specifically,  a  practice of medicine founded on mere experience,
   without  the aid of science or a knowledge of principles; ignorant and
   unscientific practice; charlatanry; quackery.

   3.  (Metaph.)  The philosophical theory which attributes the origin of
   all our knowledge to experience.


   Em*pir"i*cist (?), n. An empiric.


   Em`pi*ris"tic  (?),  a.  (Physics)  Relating  to,  or  resulting from,
   experience,  or  experiment; following from empirical methods or data;
   -- opposed to nativistic.


   Em*plas"ter  (?),  n.  [OF. emplastre, F. empl\'83tre, L. emplastrum a
   plaster or salve, fr. Gr. See Plaster. [Obs.] Wiseman.


   Em*plas"ter,   v.   t.  [Cf.  OF.  emplastrer,  F.  empl\'83trer.  See
   Emplaster,  n.] To plaster over; to cover over so as to present a good
   appearance. [Obs.] "Fair as ye his name emplaster." Chaucer.


   Em*plas"tic (?), a. [Cf. F. emplastique, fr. Gr. Emplaster.] Fit to be
   applied as a plaster; glutinous; adhesive; as, emplastic applications.


   Em*plas"tic, n. A medicine causing constipation.


   Em`plas*tra"tion (?), n. [L. emplastratio a budding.]

   1.  The  act  or  process  of grafting by inoculation; budding. [Obs.]

   2. [See 1st Emplaster.] (Med.) The application of a plaster or salve.


   Em*plead"  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. em- (L. in) + plead: cf. F. emplaidier.
   Cf. Implead.] To accuse; to indict. See Implead.


   Em*plec"tion (?), n. See Emplecton.


   Em*plec"ton  (?), n. [F. or L. emplecton, fr. Gr. A kind of masonry in
   which  the outer faces of the wall are ashlar, the space between being
   filled  with  broken  stone  and  mortar.  Cross  layers  of stone are
   interlaid as binders. [R.] Weale.


   Em*plore" (?), v. t. See Implore. [Obs.]


   Em*ploy"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Employed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Employing.]  [F.  employer,  fr.  L.  implicare  to fold into, infold,
   involve,  implicate,  engage;  in  + plicare to fold. See Ply, and cf.
   Imply, Implicate.]

   1. To inclose; to infold. [Obs.] Chaucer.

   2.  To  use;  to  have  in  service;  to  cause to be engaged in doing
   something;  -- often followed by in, about, on, or upon, and sometimes
   by  to; as: (a) To make use of, as an instrument, a means, a material,
   etc.,  for  a  specific  purpose;  to  apply; as, to employ the pen in
   writing,  bricks in building, words and phrases in speaking; to employ
   the mind; to employ one's energies.

     This  is  a day in which the thoughts . . . ought to be employed on
     serious subjects. Addison.

   (b)  To  occupy;  as,  to employ time in study. (c) To have or keep at
   work;  to  give employment or occupation to; to intrust with some duty
   or behest; as, to employ a hundred workmen; to employ an envoy.

     Jonathan  . . . and Jahaziah . . . were employed about this matter.
     Ezra x. 15.

     Thy  vineyard  must  employ  the  sturdy  steer  To turn the glebe.

   To  employ one's self, to apply or devote one's time and attention; to
   busy  one's  self.  Syn.  --  To  use;  busy; apply; exercise; occupy;
   engross; engage. See Use.


   Em*ploy", n. [Cf. F. emploi.] That which engages or occupies a person;
   fixed or regular service or business; employment.

     The whole employ of body and of mind. Pope.

   In one's employ, in one's service.


   Em*ploy"a*ble  (?), a. [Cf. F. employable.] Capable of being employed;
   capable of being used; fit or proper for use. Boyle.


   Em`ploy`\'82"  (?),  n.  [F.,  p.  p.  of  employer.]  One employed by
   another; a clerk or workman in the service of an employer.


   Em`ploy*ee"  (?),  n.  [The  Eng. form of employ\'82.] One employed by


   Em*ploy"er  (?),  n.  One  who  employs  another;  as,  an employer of


   Em*ploy"ment (?), n.

   1. The act of employing or using; also, the state of being employed.

   2.  That  which  engages  or  occupies;  that  which  consumes time or
   attention;  office  or  post  of  business;  service; as, agricultural
   employments;   mechanical  employments;  public  employments;  in  the
   employment of government.

     Cares  are  employments,  and without employ The soul is on a rack.

   Syn.   --  Work;  business;  occupation;  vocation;  calling;  office;
   service; commission; trade; profession.


   Em*plumed" (?), a. Plumed. [R.]


   Em*plunge"  (?),  v. t. [Cf. Implunge.] To plunge; to implunge. [Obs.]


   Em*poi"son  (?),  v.  t.  [F.  empoisonner; pref. em- + F. poison. See
   Poison, and cf. Impoison.] To poison; to impoison. Shak.


   Em*poi"son, n. Poison. [Obs.] Remedy of Love.


   Em*poi"son*er (?), n. Poisoner. [Obs.] Bacon.


   Em*poi"son*ment  (?),  n.  [F.  empoisonnement.] The act of poisoning.

                            Emporetic, Emporetical

   Em`po*ret"ic   (?),  Em`po*ret"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L.  emporeticus,  Gr.
   Emporium.]  Pertaining to an emporium; relating to merchandise. [Obs.]


   Em*po"ri*um  (?),  n.; pl. Emporiums (#), L. Emporia (#). [L., fr. Gr.
   In, and Empiric, Fare.]

   1. A place of trade; a market place; a mart; esp., a city or town with
   extensive commerce; the commercial center of a country.

     That  wonderful  emporium  [Manchester]  .  . . was then a mean and
     ill-built market town. Macaulay.

     It  is  pride  .  .  .  which fills our streets, our emporiums, our
     theathers. Knox.

   2. (Physiol.) The brain. [Obs.]


   Em*pov"er*ish (?), v. t. See Impoverish.


   Em*pow"er  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Empowered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  give  authority  to;  to  delegate power to; to commission; to
   authorize  (having  commonly  a legal force); as, the Supreme Court is
   empowered  to try and decide cases, civil or criminal; the attorney is
   empowered to sign an acquittance, and discharge the debtor.

   2. To give moral or physical power, faculties, or abilities to. "These
   eyes . . . empowered to gaze." Keble.


   Em"press  (?), n. [OE. empress, emperice, OF. empereis, empereris, fr.
   L. imperatrix, fem. of imperator. See Emperor.]

   1. The consort of an emperor. Shak.

   2. A female sovereign.

   3. A sovereign mistress. "Empress of my soul." Shak.
   Empress  cloth, a cloth for ladies' dresses, either wholly of wool, or
   with  cotton  warp  and  wool  weft.  It  resembles merino, but is not


   Em*print" (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Imprint.


   Em*prise"  (?), n. [OF. emprise, fr. emprendre to undertake; pref. em-
   (L. in) + F. prendre to take, L. prehendere, prendere; prae before + a
   verb akin to E. get. See Get, and cf. Enterprise, Impresa.] [Archaic]

   1. An enterprise; endeavor; adventure. Chaucer.

     In brave pursuit of chivalrous emprise. Spenser.

     The deeds of love and high emprise. Longfellow.

   2. The qualifies which prompt one to undertake difficult and dangerous

     I  love thy courage yet and bolt emprise; But here thy sword can do
     thee little stead. Milton.


   Em*prise", v. t. To undertake. [Obs.] Sackville.


   Em*pris"ing (?), a. [From Emprise, v. t.] Full of daring; adventurous.
   [Archaic] T. Campbell.


   Em*pris"on (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Imprison.


   Em`pros*thot"o*nos  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A drawing of the body
   forward,  in  consequence  of  the  spasmodic  action  of  some of the
   muscles. Gross.


   Emp"te (?), v. t. To empty. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Emp"ti*er (?; 215), n. One who, or that which, empties.


   Emp"ti*er, compar. of Empty.


   Emp"ti*ness, n. [From Empty.]

   1.  The state of being empty; absence of contents; void space; vacuum;
   as, the emptiness of a vessel; emptiness of the stomach.

   2.  Want  of  solidity  or substance; unsatisfactoriness; inability to
   satisfy desire; vacuity; hollowness; the emptiness of earthly glory.

   3. Want of knowledge; lack of sense; vacuity of mind.

     Eternal smiles his emptiness betray. Pope.

     The sins of emptiness, gossip, and spite. Tennyson.


   Emp"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  emptio, fr. emere to buy.] The act of buying.
   [R.] Arbuthnot.


   Emp"tion*al (?), a. Capable of being purchased.


   Emp"ty  (?;  215),  a.  [Compar.  Emptier (?); superl. Emptiest.] [AS.
   emtig,  \'91mtig,  \'91metig,  fr. \'91mta, \'91metta, quiet, leisure,
   rest; of uncertain origin; cf. G. emsig busy.]

   1.  Containing nothing; not holding or having anything within; void of
   contents or appropriate contents; not filled; -- said of an inclosure,
   as  a  box,  room,  house,  etc.;  as, an empty chest, room, purse, or
   pitcher; an empty stomach; empty shackles.

   Page 487

   2.  Free; clear; devoid; -- often with of. "That fair female troop . .
   . empty of all good." Milton.

     I shall find you empty of that fault. Shak.

   3. Having nothing to carry; unburdened. "An empty messenger." Shak.

     When ye go ye shall not go empty. Ex. iii. 21.

   4.  Destitute of effect, sincerity, or sense; -- said of language; as,
   empty words, or threats.

     Words are but empty thanks. Cibber.

   5.  Unable  to  satisfy;  unsatisfactory;  hollow;  vain;  --  said of
   pleasure, the world, etc.

     Pleas'd in the silent shade with empty praise. Pope.

   6.  Producing  nothing; unfruitful; -- said of a plant or tree; as, an
   empty vine.

     Seven empty ears blasted with the east wind. Gen. xli. 27.

   7.  Destitute of, or lacking, sense, knowledge, or courtesy; as, empty
   brains; an empty coxcomb.

     That in civility thou seem'st so empty. Shak.

   8.  Destitute  of reality, or real existence; unsubstantial; as, empty

     NOTE: &hand; Em pty is used as the first element in a compound; as,
     empty-handed, having nothing in the hands, destitute; empty-headed,
     having few ideas; empty-hearted, destitute of feeling.

   Syn. -- See Vacant.


   Emp"ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Empties (. An empty box, crate, cask, etc.; --
   used  in  commerce,  esp.  in  transportation of freight; as, "special
   rates for empties."


   Emp"ty, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Emptied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Emptying.] To
   deprive  of  the  contents;  to exhaust; to make void or destitute; to
   make  vacant;  to  pour  out;  to discharge; as, to empty a vessel; to
   empty a well or a cistern.

     The clouds . . . empty themselves upon the earth. Eccl. xi. 3.


   Emp"ty, v. i.

   1. To discharge itself; as, a river empties into the ocean.

   2. To become empty. "The chapel empties." B. Jonson.


   Emp"ty*ing, n.

   1. The act of making empty. Shak.

   2. pl. The lees of beer, cider, etc.; yeast. [U.S.]


   Em*pugn" (?), v. t. [Obs.] See Impugn.


   Em*pur"ple  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Empurpled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Empurpling  (?).]  [Pref. em- + purple. Cf. Impurple.] To tinge or dye
   of  a  purple  color;  to  color  with  purple; to impurple. "The deep
   empurpled ran." Philips.


   Em*puse"  (?),  n.  [LL. empusa, Gr. A phantom or specter. [Obs.] Jer.


   Em*puz"zle  (?),  v. t. [Pref. em- + puzzle.] To puzzle. [Archaic] Sir
   T. Browne.


   Em`py*e"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A collection of blood, pus, or
   other  fluid,  in  some  cavity  of  the  body, especially that of the
   pleura. Dunglison.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e term empyema is now restricted to a collection of
     pus in the cavity of the pleura.


   Em`py*e"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) An eruption of pustules.


   Em*pyr"e*al  (?), a. [L. empyrius, empyreus, fiery, Gr. In, and Fire.]
   Formed  of  pure  fire  or  light; refined beyond a\'89rial substance;
   pertaining to the highest and purest region of heaven.

     Go, soar with Plato to the empyreal sphere. Pope.

   Empyreal air, oxygen gas.


   Em*pyr"e*al, n. Empyrean. Mrs. Browning.


   Em`py*re"an (?; 277), n. [See Empyreal.] The highest heaven, where the
   pure element of fire was supposed by the ancients to subsist.

     The empyrean rung With hallelujahs. Milton.


   Em`py*re"an, a. Empyreal. Akenside.


   Em`py*reu"ma  (?), n. [NL., from Gr. empyreume. See Empyreal.] (Chem.)
   The peculiar smell and taste arising from products of decomposition of
   animal or vegetable substances when burnt in close vessels.

                         Empyreumatic, Empyreumatical

   Em`py*reu*mat"ic    (?),   Em`py*reu*mat"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   empyreumatique.]  Of  or  pertaining to empyreuma; as, an empyreumatic
   odor.  Empyreumatic  oils, oils obtained by distilling various organic
   substances at high temperatures. Brande & C.


   Em`py*reu"ma*tize (?), v. t. To render empyreumatic. [R.]


   Em*pyr"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Empyreal.]  Containing  the  combustible
   principle of coal. Kirwan.


   Em"py*ro"sis  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. A general fire; a conflagration.
   [Obs.] Sir M. Hale.


   Em"rods (?), n. pl. See Emerods. [Obs.]


   E"mu  (?),  n.  [Cf.  Pg.  ema  ostrich,  F.  \'82mou,  \'82meu, emu.]
   (Zo\'94l.)   A   large  Australian  bird,  of  two  species  (Dromaius
   Nov\'91-Hollandi\'91  and  D. irroratus), related to the cassowary and
   the ostrich. The emu runs swiftly, but is unable to fly. [Written also
   emeu and emew.]

     NOTE: &hand; Th e na me is  so metimes er roneously applied, by the
     Brazilians, to the rhea, or South American ostrich.

   Emu wren. See in the Vocabulary.


   Em"u*la*ble (?), a. [L. aemulari to emulate + -able.] Capable of being
   emulated. [R.]

     Some imitable and emulable good. Abp. Leighton.


   Em"u*late  (?),  a.  [L.  aemulatus,  p.  p.  of aemulari, fr. aemulus
   emulous;  prob.  akin  to  E.  imitate.] Striving to excel; ambitious;
   emulous. [Obs.] "A most emulate pride." Shak.


   Em"u*late  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Emulated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Emulating  (?).]  To  strive  to  equal  or  to  excel in qualities or
   actions; to imitate, with a view to equal or to outdo, to vie with; to
   rival; as, to emulate the good and the great.

     Thine eye would emulate the diamond. Shak.


   Em`u*la"tion (?), n. [L. aemulatio: cf. F. \'82mulation.]

   1.  The endeavor to equal or to excel another in qualities or actions;
   an assiduous striving to equal or excel another; rivalry.

     A noble emulation heats your breast. Dryden.

   2. Jea

     Such factious emulations shall arise. Shak.

   Syn.   --   Competition;  rivalry;  contest;  contention;  strife.  --
   Emulation, Competition, Rivalry. Competition is the struggle of two or
   more  persons  for  the same object. Emulation is an ardent desire for
   superiority, arising from competition, but now implying, of necessity,
   any  improper  feeling.  Rivalry is a personal contest, and, almost of
   course,  has a selfish object and gives rise to envy. "Competition and
   emulation  have  honor  for  their  basis; rivalry is but a desire for
   selfish  gratification.  Competition  and emulation animate to effort;
   rivalry  usually  produces  hatred.  Competition and emulation seek to
   merit success; rivalry is contented with obtaining it." Crabb.


   Em"u*la*tive  (?),  a. Inclined to emulation; aspiring to competition;
   rivaling; as, an emulative person or effort. "Emulative zeal." Hoole.


   Em"u*la*tive*ly, adv. In an emulative manner; with emulation.


   Em"u*la`tor  (?),  n.  [L. aemulator.] One who emulates, or strives to
   equal or surpass.

     As  Virgil  rivaled  Homer,  Milton  was  the emulator of both. Bp.


   Em"u*la*to*ry (?), a. Pertaining to emulation; connected with rivalry.
   [R.] "Emulatory officiousness." Bp. Hall.


   Em"u*la`tress (?), n. A female emulator. [R.]


   Em"ule  (?),  v.  t.  [F.  \'82muler. See Emulate.] To emulate. [Obs.]
   "Emuled of many." Spenser.


   E*mulge"  (?),  v.  t. [L. emulgere, emulsum; e out + mulgere to milk;
   akin to E. milk. See Milk.] To milk out; to drain. [Obs.] Bailey.


   E*mul"gent  (?),  a. [L. emulgens, p. pr. of emulgere to milk out: cf.
   F.  \'82mulgent.  So  called  because  regarded  by  the  ancients  as
   straining  out  the  serum,  as  if  by  milking, and so producing the
   urine.]  (Anat.)  Pertaining  to  the  kidneys;  renal;  as,  emulgent
   arteries  and  veins.  --  n. An emulgent vessel, as a renal artery or


   E*mul"gent, n. (Med.) A medicine that excites the flow of bile. [Obs.]


   Em"u*lous (?), a. [L. aemulus. See Emulate.]

   1.  Ambitiously  desirous  to equal or even to excel another; eager to
   emulate or vie with another; desirous of like excellence with another;
   -- with of; as, emulous of another's example or virtues.

   2.   Vying  with;  rivaling;  hence,  contentious,  envious.  "Emulous
   Carthage." B. Jonson.

     Emulous missions 'mongst the gods. Shak.


   Em"u*lous*ly, adv. In an emulous manner.


   Em"u*lous*ness, n. The quality of being emulous.


   E*mul"sic  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or  produced  from, emulsin; as,
   emulsic acid. Hoblyn.


   E*mul"si*fy  (?), v. t. [Emulsion + -fy.] To convert into an emulsion;
   to form an emulsion; to reduce from an oily substance to a milky fluid
   in  which  the fat globules are in a very finely divided state, giving
   it  the semblance of solution; as, the pancreatic juice emulsifies the
   oily part of food.


   E*mul"sin  (?), n. [See Emulsion, Emulge.] (Chem.) (a) The white milky
   pulp  or  extract  of  bitter almonds. [R.] (b) An unorganized ferment
   (contained  in  this  extract  and  in  other vegetable juices), which
   effects the decomposition of certain glucosides.


   E*mul"sion (?), n. [From L. emulgere, emulsum: cf. F. \'82mulsion. See
   Emulge.]  Any liquid preparation of a color and consistency resembling
   milk;  as:  (a)  In pharmacy, an extract of seeds, or a mixture of oil
   and  water  united  by a mucilaginous substance. (b) In photography, a
   liquid  preparation  of  collodion holding salt of silver, used in the
   photographic process.


   E*mul"sive (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82mulsif.]

   1. Softening; milklike.

   2. Yielding oil by expression; as, emulsive seeds.

   3. Producing or yielding a milklike substance; as, emulsive acids.


   E*munc"to*ry  (?),  n.; pl. Emunctories (#). [L. emunctorium a pair of
   snuffers,  fr.  emungere,  emunctum, to blow the nose, hence, to wipe,
   cleanse;  e  out  +  mungere  to  blow the nose: cf. F. \'82monctoire,
   formerly  spelled also \'82monctoire.] (Physiol.) Any organ or part of
   the  body  (as  the  kidneys,  skin,  etc.,) which serves to carry off
   excrementitious or waste matter.


   Em`us*ca"tion  (?), n. [L. emuscare to clear from moss; e out + muscus
   moss.] A freeing from moss. [Obs.]

                                   Emu wren

   E"mu   wren`   (?).   (Zo\'94l.)  A  small  wrenlike  Australian  bird
   (Stipiturus  malachurus),  having  the  tail feathers long and loosely
   barbed, like emu feathers.


   E"myd (?), n.; pl. E. Emyds (#), E. Emyd (#). [See Emydea.] (Zo\'94l.)
   A fresh-water tortoise of the family Emydid\'91.


   E*myd"e*a  (?),  n. pl. [NL., fr. Emys a genus of tortoises, L. emys a
   kind  of  fresh-water  tortoise,  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of chelonians
   which comprises many species of fresh-water tortoises and terrapins.


   En- (?).

   1.  [F.  en-,  L.  in.]  A  prefix signifying in or into, used in many
   English  words,  chiefly  those borrowed from the French. Some English
   words  are  written  indifferently  with  en-  or  in-.  For  ease  of
   pronunciation  it is commonly changed to em- before p, b, and m, as in
   employ, embody, emmew. It is sometimes used to give a causal force, as
   in  enable, enfeeble, to cause to be, or to make, able, or feeble; and
   sometimes merely gives an intensive force, as in enchasten. See In-.

   2. A prefix from Gr. in
   ; as, encephalon, entomology. See In-.



   1.  A  suffix  from  AS. -an, formerly used to form the plural of many
   nouns,  as  in ashen, eyen, oxen, all obs. except oxen. In some cases,
   such  as  children  and  brethren,  it  has been added to older plural

   2.  A  suffix  corresponding to AS. -en and -on, formerly used to form
   the plural of verbs, as in housen, escapen.

   3.  A  suffix  signifying  to  make, to cause, used to form verbs from
   nouns  and  adjectives; as in strengthen, quicken, frighten. This must
   not  be  confused  with  -en  corresponding  in Old English to the AS.
   infinitive ending -an.

   4.  [AS. -en; akin to Goth. -eins, L. -inus, Gr. An adjectival suffix,
   meaning made of; as in golden, leaden, wooden.

   5. [AS. -en; akin to Skr. -na.] The termination of the past participle
   of many strong verbs; as, in broken, gotten, trodden.


   En  (?), n. (Print.) Half an em, that is, half of the unit of space in
   measuring printed matter. See Em.


   En*a"ble  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Enabled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enabling (?).]

   1.  To  give  strength  or ability to; to make firm and strong. [Obs.]
   "Who hath enabled me." 1 Tim. i. 12.

     Receive  the  Holy  Ghost,  said  Christ  to  his apostles, when he
     enabled them with priestly power. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  To  make  able  (to do, or to be, something); to confer sufficient
   power  upon;  to  furnish  with means, opportunities, and the like; to
   render competent for; to empower; to endow.

     Temperance  gives  Nature  her  full play, and enables her to exert
     herself in all her force and vigor. Addison.


   En*a"ble*ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of  enabling, or the state of being
   enabled; ability. Bacon.


   En*act" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enacted; p. pr. & vb. n. Enacting.]

   1.  To  decree;  to  establish by legal and authoritative act; to make
   into  a law; especially, to perform the legislative act with reference
   to (a bill) which gives it the validity of law.

   2. To act; to perform; to do; to effect. [Obs.]

     The king enacts more wonders than a man. Shak.

   3. To act the part of; to represent; to play.

     I did enact Julius Caesar. Shak.

   Enacting  clause,  that  clause of a bill which formally expresses the
   legislative sanction.


   En*act", n. Purpose; determination. [Obs.]


   En*act"ive  (?),  a. Having power to enact or establish as a law. Abp.


   En*act"ment (?), n.

   1.  The  passing  of  a  bill  into  a  law; the giving of legislative
   sanction and executive approval to a bill whereby it is established as
   a law.

   2.  That  which  is  enacted  or passed into a law; a law; a decree; a
   statute;  a  prescribed  requirement;  as,  a prohibitory enactment; a
   social enactment.


   En*act"or (?), n. One who enacts a law; one who decrees or establishes
   as a law. Atterbury.


   En*ac"ture (?; 135), n. Enactment; resolution. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*al"i*o*saur` (?), n. (Paleon.) One of the Enaliosauria.


   En*al`i*o*sau"ri*a  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL., from Gr. (Paleon.) An extinct
   group  of  marine  reptiles,  embracing both the Ichthyosauria and the
   Plesiosauria, now regarded as distinct orders.


   En*al`i*o*sau"ri*an  (?), a. (Paleon.) Pertaining to the Enaliosauria.
   -- n. One of the Enaliosauria.


   E*nal"la*ge  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr. Gr. (Gram.) A substitution, as of one
   part  of  speech  for  another,  of  one gender, number, case, person,
   tense, mode, or voice, of the same word, for another.


   En*am"bush (?), v. t. To ambush. [Obs.]


   En*am"el (?), n. [Pref. en- + amel. See Amel, Smelt, v. t.]

   1.  A  variety  of  glass, used in ornament, to cover a surface, as of
   metal  or pottery, and admitting of after decoration in color, or used
   itself for inlaying or application in varied colors.

   2. (Min.) A glassy, opaque bead obtained by the blowpipe.

   3.   That  which  is  enameled;  also,  any  smooth,  glossy  surface,
   resembling enamel, especially if variegated.

   4.  (Anat.)  The  intensely  hard  calcified  tissue entering into the
   composition  of teeth. It merely covers the exposed parts of the teeth
   of  man,  but  in  many animals is intermixed in various ways with the
   dentine and cement.
   Enamel  painting,  painting with enamel colors upon a ground of metal,
   porcelain,  or the like, the colors being afterwards fixed by fire. --
   Enamel paper, paper glazed a metallic coating.


   En*am"el,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enameled (?) or Enamelled; p. pr. & vb.
   n. Enameling or Enamelling.]

   1.  To  lay  enamel  upon;  to  decorate with enamel whether inlaid or

   Page 488

   2. To variegate with colors as if with enamel.

     Oft he [the serpent]bowed His turret crest and sleek enameled neck.

   3.  To  form  a  glossy  surface  like enamel upon; as, to enamel card
   paper; to enamel leather or cloth.

   4. To disguise with cosmetics, as a woman's complexion.


   En*am"el (?), v. i. To practice the art of enameling.


   En*am"el,  a.  Relating  to the art of enameling; as, enamel painting.


   En*am"el*ar  (?),  a. Consisting of enamel; resembling enamel; smooth;
   glossy. [R.] Craig.


   En*am"eled  (?),  a. Coated or adorned with enamel; having a glossy or
   variegated surface; glazed. [Written also enamelled.]

                              Enameler, Enamelist

   En*am"el*er (?), En*am"el*ist, n. One who enamels; a workman or artist
   who  applies  enamels  in  ornamental  work.  [Written also enameller,


   En*am"or  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Enamored (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enamoring.]  [OF.  enamourer,  enamorer;  pref. en- (L. in) + OF. & F.
   amour  love,  L.  amor. See Amour, and cf. Inamorato.] To inflame with
   love;  to  charm; to captivate; -- with of, or with, before the person
   or  thing;  as, to be enamored with a lady; to be enamored of books or
   science. [Written also enamour.]

     Passionately enamored of this shadow of a dream. W. Irving.


   En*am"or*ment (?), n. The state of being enamored. [R.]


   E*nan`ti*o*mor"phous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Crystallog.)  Similar,  but not
   superposable,  i.  e.,  related  to  each other as a right-handed to a
   left-handed glove; -- said of certain hemihedral crystals.


   E*nan`ti*o*path"ic  (?),  a.  (Med.)  Serving to palliate; palliative.


   E*nan`ti*op"a*thy (?), n. [Gr.

   1. An opposite passion or affection. Sir W. Hamilton.

   2.  (Med.)  Allopathy;  --  a  term used by followers of Hahnemann, or


   E*nan`ti*o"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure of speech by
   which what is to be understood affirmatively is stated negatively, and
   the contrary; affirmation by contraries.


   En**arch" (?), v. t. To arch. [Obs.] Lydgate.


   En*arched"  (?),  a.  (Her.)  Bent  into a curve; -- said of a bend or
   other ordinary.


   En*ar"gite  (?),  n.  (Min.) An iron-black mineral of metallic luster,
   occurring  in  small  orthorhombic crystals, also massive. It contains
   sulphur, arsenic, copper, and often silver.


   En*armed" (?), a. (Her.) Same as Armed, 3.


   En`ar*ra"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  enarratio.  See  Narration.]  A detailed
   exposition; relation. [Obs.] Hakewill.


   En`ar*thro"di*a   (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  Arthrodia.]  (Anat.)  See
   Enarthrosis. -- En`ar*thro"di*al, a.


   En`ar*thro"sis  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) A ball and socket joint,
   or  the  kind  of  articulation  represented  by  such  a  joint.  See


   E*nas"cent  (?), a. [L. enascens, p. pr. of enasci to spring up; e out
   + nasci to be born.] Coming into being; nascent. [Obs.] Bp. Warburton.


   E`na*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  enatare  to  swim  out.  See Natation.] A
   swimming out. [Obs.] Bailey.


   E*nate"  (?),  a.  [L. enatus, p. p. of enasci. See Enascent.] Growing


   E*na"tion  (?),  n. (Bot.) Any unusual outgrowth from the surface of a
   thing,  as  of a petal; also, the capacity or act of producing such an


   E*naun"ter (?), adv. [Pref. en- + aunter.] Lest that. [Obs.] Spenser.


   E*nav"i*gate  (?),  v. t. [L. enavigatus, p. p. of enavigare.] To sail
   away or over. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   En*bat"tled (?), a. Embattled. [Obs.]


   En*bibe" (?), v. t. To imbibe. [Obs.] Skelton.


   En*broud"e (?), v. t. See Embroude.


   En*cage"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Encaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engaging.]  [Pref.  en- + cage: cf. F. encager.] To confine in a cage;
   to coop up. Shak.


   En*cal"en*dar  (?),  v.  t.  To  register  in a calendar; to calendar.


   En*camp"  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Encamped (?; 215); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Encamping.]  To  form  and  occupy  a  camp;  to prepare and settle in
   temporary  habitations,  as  tents  or huts; to halt on a march, pitch
   tents, or form huts, and remain for the night or for a longer time, as
   an army or a company traveling.

     The  host  of  the Philistines encamped in the valley of Rephaim. 1
     Chron. xi. 15.


   En*camp",  v.  t.  To  form  into  a  camp;  to  place  in a temporary
   habitation, or quarters.

     Bid him encamp his soldiers. Shak.


   En*camp"ment (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  pitching  tents  or  forming  huts, as by an army or
   traveling company, for temporary lodging or rest.

   2.  The  place  where  an army or a company is encamped; a camp; tents
   pitched or huts erected for temporary lodgings.

     A  square  of  about  seven  hundred  yards  was sufficient for the
     encampment of twenty thousand Romans. Gibbon.

     A green encampment yonder meets the eye. Guardian.


   En*can"ker (?), v. t. To canker. [Obs.]


   En*cap`su*la"tion  (?),  n.  (Physiol.)  The  act  of  inclosing  in a
   capsule;  the  growth of a membrane around (any part) so as to inclose
   it in a capsule.


   En*car"nal*ize   (?),   v.  t.  To  carnalize;  to  make  gross.  [R.]
   "Encarnalize their spirits." Tennyson.


   En*car"pus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. encarpa, pl., Gr. (Arch.) An ornament
   on  a  frieze  or  capital,  consisting of festoons of fruit, flowers,
   leaves, etc. [Written also encarpa.]


   En*case"  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  Enchase.]  To  inclose as in a case. See
   Incase. Beau. & Fl.


   En*case"ment (?), n. [Cf. Casement.]

   1. The act of encasing; also, that which encases.

   2. (Biol.) An old theory of generation similar to emboOvulist.


   En*cash"  (?),  v.  t. (Eng. Banking) To turn into cash; to cash. Sat.


   En*cash"ment  (?),  n.  (Eng.  Banking) The payment in cash of a note,
   draft, etc.


   En*cau"ma  (?),  n.  [NL., from Gr. Encaustic.] (Med.) An ulcer in the
   eye, upon the cornea, which causes the loss of the humors. Dunglison.


   En*caus"tic (?), a. [L. encausticus, Gr. encaustique. See Caustic, and
   cf.  Ink.] (Fine Arts) Prepared by means of heat; burned in. Encaustic
   painting  (Fine  Arts), painting by means of wax with which the colors
   are  combined,  and  which  is  afterwards  fused with hot irons, thus
   fixing  the colors. -- Encaustic tile (Fine Arts), an earthenware tile
   which has a decorative pattern and is not wholly of one color.


   En*caus"tic,  n.  [L.  encaustica, Gr. encaustique. See Encaustic, a.]
   The method of painting in heated wax, or in any way where heat is used
   to fix the colors.


   En*cave" (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + cave: cf. F. encaver. Cf. Incavated.]
   To  hide  in,  or  as  in, a cave or recess. "Do but encave yourself."


   -ence  (?).  [F.  -ence,  L. -entia.] A noun suffix signifying action,
   state, or quality; also, that which relates to the action or state; as
   in    emergence,   diffidence,   diligence,   influence,   difference,
   excellence. See -ance.


   En`ceinte"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  enceindre to gird about, surround, L.
   incingere; in (intens). + cingere to gird. See Cincture.]

   1.  (Fort.)  The  line  of  works  which forms the main inclosure of a
   fortress or place; -- called also body of the place.

   2. The area or town inclosed by a line of fortification.

     The  suburbs are not unfrequently larger than their enceinte. S. W.


   En`ceinte",  a. [F., fr. L. in not + cinctus, p. p. of cingere to gird
   about.] Pregnant; with child.


   En*ce"ni*a (?), n. pl. [LL. encaenia, fr. Gr. A festival commemorative
   of  the  founding of a city or the consecration of a church; also, the
   ceremonies  (as  at  Oxford  and  Cambridge, England) commemorative of
   founders or benefactors.


   En*cense"  (?),  v. t. & i. [F. encenser, fr. encens. See Incense, n.]
   To offer incense to or upon; to burn incense. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En`ce*phal"ic  (?),  a.  [See  Encephalon.]  (Anat.) Pertaining to the
   encephalon or brain.


   En*ceph`a*li"tis (?), n. [NL., from Gr. -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of
   the brain. -- En`ceph*a*lit"ic (#), a.


   En*ceph"a*lo*cele (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) Hernia of the brain.


   En*ceph"a*loid  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -oid.]  Resembling the material of the
   brain;  cerebriform.  Encephaloid cancer (Med.), a very malignant form
   of cancer of brainlike consistency. See under Cancer.


   En*ceph"a*loid, n. An encephaloid cancer.


   En*ceph`a*lol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr. -logy.] The science which treats of
   the brain, its structure and functions.


   En*ceph"a*lon  (?),  n.  [NL. See Encephalos.] (Anat.) The contents of
   the cranium; the brain.


   En*ceph`a*lop"a*thy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Med.) Any disease or symptoms of
   disease  referable to disorders of the brain; as, lead encephalopathy,
   the cerebral symptoms attending chronic lead poisoning.


   En*ceph"a*los (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The encephalon.

     In  man  the  encephalos reaches its full size about seven years of
     age. Sir W. Hamilton.


   En*ceph`a*lot"o*my  (?),  n. [Gr. (Surg.) The act or art of dissecting
   the brain.


   En*ceph"a*lous  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  a  head; -- said of most
   Mollusca; -- opposed to acephalous.


   En*chafe" (?), v. t. To chafe; to enrage; to heat. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*chaf"ing, n. Heating; burning. [Obs.]

     The wicked enchaufing or ardure of this sin [lust]. Chaucer.


   En*chain"  (?),  v.  t.  [F. encha\'8cner; pref. en- (L. in) cha\'8cne
   chain. See Chain, and cf. Incatenation.]

   1. To bind with a chain; to hold in chains.

   2. To hold fast; to confine; as, to enchain attention.

   3. To link together; to connect. Howell.


   En*chain"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. encha\'8cnement.] The act of enchaining,
   or state of being enchained.


   En*chair" (?), v. t. To seat in a chair. Tennyson.


   En*chan"nel  (?),  v.  t.  To  make run in a channel. "Its waters were
   enchanneled." Sir D. Brewster.


   En*chant"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Enchanted;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enchanting.]  [F.  enchanter,  L.  incantare to chant or utter a magic
   formula  over  or against one, to bewitch; in in, against + cantare to
   sing. See Chant, and cf. Incantation.]

   1. To charm by sorcery; to act on by enchantment; to get control of by
   magical words and rites.

     And  now  about the caldron sing, Like elves and fairies in a ring,
     Enchanting all that you put in. Shak.

     He is enchanted, cannot speak. Tennyson.

   2.  To  delight  in  a  high degree; to charm; to enrapture; as, music
   enchants the ear.

     Arcadia was the charmed circle where all his spirits forever should
     be enchanted. Sir P. Sidney.

   Syn. -- To charm; bewitch; fascinate. Cf. Charm.


   En*chant"ed  (?),  a.  Under  the  power  of enchantment; possessed or
   exercised by enchanters; as, an enchanted castle.


   En*chant"er  (?), n. [Cf. F. enchanteur.] One who enchants; a sorcerer
   or magician; also, one who delights as by an enchantment.

     Like ghosts from an enchanter fleeing. Shelley.

   Enchanter's   nightshade   (Bot.),   a   genus   (Circ\'91a)   of  low
   inconspicuous, perennial plants, found in damp, shady places.


   En*chant"ing, a. Having a power of enchantment; charming; fascinating.
   -- En*chant"ing*ly, adv.


   En*chant"ment (?), n. [F. enchantement.]

   1.  The act of enchanting; the production of certain wonderful effects
   by  the  aid  of demons, or the agency of supposed spirits; the use of
   magic arts, spells, or charms; incantation.

     After the last enchantment you did here. Shak.

   2.  The  effect produced by the act; the state of being enchanted; as,
   to break an enchantment.

   3.  That  which captivates the heart and senses; an influence or power
   which fascinates or highly delights.

     Such an enchantment as there is in words. South.

   Syn.  --  Incantation;  necromancy; magic; sorcery; witchcraft; spell;
   charm; fascination; witchery.


   En*chant"ress  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  enchanteresse.]  A  woman versed in
   magical arts; a sorceress; also, a woman who fascinates. Shak.


   En*charge"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Encharged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Encharging (?).] [OF. enchargier, F. encharger; pref. en- (L. in) + F.
   charger. See Charge.] To charge (with); to impose (a charge) upon.

     His  countenance  would  express  the spirit and the passion of the
     part he was encharged with. Jeffrey.


   En*charge", n. A charge. [Obs.] A. Copley.


   En*chase"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Enchased (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enchasing.]  [F.  ench\'83sser;  pref.  en-  (L.  in)  + ch\'83sse box
   containing  relics, frame, case, the same word as caisse case. See 1st
   Case, and cf. Chase, Encase, Incase.]

   1.  To  incase  or  inclose  in  a  border or rim; to surround with an
   ornamental  casing,  as  a  gem with gold; to encircle; to inclose; to

     Enchased with a wanton ivy twine. Spenser.

     An precious stones, in studs of gold enchased, The shaggy velvet of
     his buskins graced. Mickle.

   2.  To  chase; to ornament by embossing or engraving; as, to enchase a
   watch case.

     With golden letters . . . well enchased. Spenser.

   3. To delineate or describe, as by writing. [Obs.]

     All  which  .  . . for to enchase, Him needeth sure a golden pen, I
     ween. Spenser.


   En*chas"er (?), n. One who enchases.


   En*chas"ten (?), v. t. To chasten. [Obs.]

                              Encheson, Encheason

   En*che"son,  En*chea"son  (?),  n.  [OF. enchaison, fr. L. incidere to
   happen;  in  +  cadere  to  fall.]  Occasion, cause, or reason. [Obs.]


   En*chest" (?), v. t. [Cf. Inchest.] To inclose in a chest. Vicars.


   En`chi*rid"i*on (?), n. [L., from Gr. Handbook; a manual of devotions.


   En*chis"el (?), v. t. To cut with a chisel.


   En"cho*dus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Paleon.)  A  genus  of extinct
   Cretaceous  fishes;  --  so  named from their spear-shaped teeth. They
   were allied to the pike (Esox).


   En`chon*dro"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. -oma.] (Med.) A cartilaginous
   tumor growing from the interior of a bone. Quain.

                              Enchorial, Enchoric

   En*cho"ri*al  (?), En*chor"ic (?), a. [Gr. Belonging to, or used in, a
   country;  native; domestic; popular; common; -- said especially of the
   written  characters employed by the common people of ancient Egypt, in
   distinction from the hieroglyphics. See Demotic.


   En`chy*lem"ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.) The basal substance of the
   cell  nucleus;  a  hyaline  or  granular substance, more or less fluid
   during life, in which the other parts of the nucleus are imbedded.


   En"chy*ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.) The primitive formative juice,
   from which the tissues, particularly the cellular tissue, are formed.


   En*cinc"ture (?), n. A cincture. [Poetic]

     The vast encincture of that gloomy sea. Wordsworth.


   En*cin"dered (?), a. Burnt to cinders. [R.]


   En*cir"cle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Encircled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Encircling  (?).]  [Pref.  en- + circle: cf. OF. encercler.] To form a
   circle  about; to inclose within a circle or ring; to surround; as, to
   encircle one in the arms; the army encircled the city.

     Her brows encircled with his serpent rod. Parnell.

   Syn. -- To encompass; surround; environ; inclose.


   En*cir"clet  (?), n. [Encircle + -let.] A small circle; a ring. [Obs.]
   Sir P. Sidney.


   En*clasp"  (?),  v. t. [Pref. en- + clasp. Cf. Inclasp.] To clasp. See


   En*clave"  (?), n. [F., fr. L. in + clavus a nail.] A tract of land or
   a   territory  inclosed  within  another  territory  of  which  it  is
   independent. See Exclave. [Recent]


   En*clave",  v.  t.  [Cf.  F.  enclaver.]  To  inclose  within an alien
   territory. [Recent]


   En*clave"ment (?), n. [F.] The state of being an enclave. [Recent]

   Page 489

                             Enclitic, Enclitical

   En*clit"ic  (?),  En*clit"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L. encliticus, Gr. In, and
   Lean, v. i.] (Gram.) Affixed; subjoined; -- said of a word or particle
   which leans back upon the preceding word so as to become a part of it,
   and  to  lose  its  own independent accent, generally varying also the
   accent of the preceding word.


   En*clit"ic, n. (Gram.) A word which is joined to another so closely as
   to lose its proper accent, as the pronoun thee in prithee (pray thee).


   En*clit"ic*al*ly,  adv.  In an enclitic manner; by throwing the accent
   back. Walker.


   En*clit"ics  (?),  n.  (Gram.)  The  art  of declining and conjugating


   En*clois"ter (?), v. t. [Cf. Incloister.] To shut up in a cloister; to


   En*close"  (?),  v.  t. [F. enclos, p. p. of enclore to enclose; pref.
   en- (L. in) + clore to close. See Close, and cf. Inclose, Include.] To
   inclose. See Inclose.


   En*clo"sure (?; 135), n. Inclosure. See Inclosure.

     NOTE: &hand; Th  e wo  rds en  close an  d en closure ar e wr itten
     indiscriminately enclose or inclose and enclosure or inclosure.


   En*clothe" (?), v. t. To clothe.


   En*cloud"  (?),  v.  t. [Cf. Incloud.] To envelop in clouds; to cloud.
   [R.] Spenser.


   En*coach"  (?),  v. t. [Cf. Incoach.] To carry in a coach. [R.] Davies
   (Wit's Pilgr.)


   En*cof"fin (?), v. t. To put in a coffin. [R.]


   En*cold"en (?), v. t. To render cold. [Obs.]


   En*col"lar (?), v. t. To furnish or surround with a collar. [R.]


   En*col"or (?), v. t. To color. [R.]


   En`co`lure" (?), n. [F.] The neck of horse. R. Browning.


   En*com"ber (?), v. t. See Encumber. [Obs.]


   En*com"ber*ment     (?),    n.    [See    Encumberment.]    Hindrance;
   molestation.[Obs.] Spenser.


   En*co"mi*ast  (?), n. [Gr. encomiaste. See Encomium.] One who praises;
   a panegyrist. Locke.

                          Encomiastic, Encomiastical

   En*co`mi*as"tic (?), En*co`mi*as"tic*al (?), a. [Gr. Bestowing praise;
   praising;   eulogistic;  laudatory;  as,  an  encomiastic  address  or
   discourse. -- En*co`mi*as"tic*al*ly, adv.


   En*co`mi*as"tic, n. A panegyric. B. Jonson.


   En*co"mi*on (?), n. [NL.] Encomium; panegyric. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   En*co"mi*um (?), n.; pl. Encomiums (#). [NL., fr. Gr. Comedy.] Warm or
   high praise; panegyric; strong commendation.

     His encomiums awakened all my ardor. W. Irving.

   Syn. -- See Eulogy.


   En*com"pass  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Encompassed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Encompassing.]  To circumscribe or go round so as to surround closely;
   to  encircle;  to  inclose;  to  environ;  as,  a ring encompasses the
   finger;  an  army encompasses a city; a voyage encompassing the world.

     A question may be encompassed with difficulty. C. J. Smith.

     The love of all thy sons encompass thee. Tennyson.

   Syn.  -- To encircle; inclose; surround; include; environ; invest; hem
   in; shut up.


   En*com"pass*ment (?), n. The act of surrounding, or the state of being
   surrounded; circumvention.

     By this encompassment and drift of question. Shak.


   En`core"  (?), adv. OR interj. [F. The last part of the word is fr. L.
   hora  hour.  See  Hour.] Once more; again; -- used by the auditors and
   spectators of plays, concerts, and other entertainments, to call for a
   repetition of a particular part.


   En`core",  n.  A  call  or  demand  (as,  by continued applause) for a
   repetition; as, the encores were numerous.


   En`core",  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Encored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Encoring.]
   To call for a repetition or reappearance of; as, to encore a song or a

     [Rebecca] insisted upon encoring one of the duets. Thackeray.


   En*cor"po*ring  (?),  n.  [Pref. en- + L. corpus body.] Incorporation.
   [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En`cou`bert"  (?),  n. [F., Pg. encorberto, encuberto, lit., covered.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  One of several species of armadillos of the genera Dasypus
   and Euphractus, having five toes both on the fore and hind feet.


   En*coun"ter  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Encountered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Encountering.]  [OF. encontrer; pref. en- (L. in) + contre against, L.
   contra.  See  Counter, adv.] To come against face to face; to meet; to
   confront,  either by chance, suddenly, or deliberately; especially, to
   meet in opposition or with hostile intent; to engage in conflict with;
   to  oppose;  to struggle with; as, to encounter a friend in traveling;
   two   armies   encounter   each   other;  to  encounter  obstacles  or
   difficulties, to encounter strong evidence of a truth.

     Then  certain  philosophers  of  the Epicureans, and of the Stoics,
     encountered him. Acts xvii. 18.

     I am most fortunate thus accidentally to encounter you. Shak.


   En*coun"ter,  v.  i. To meet face to face; to have a meeting; to meet,
   esp.  as  enemies;  to  engage  in  combat; to fight; as, three armies
   encountered at Waterloo.

     I will encounter with Andronicus. Shak.

     Perception  and  judgment,  employed  in  the  investigation of all
     truth,  have  in  the  first  place  to encounter with particulars.


   En*coun"ter, n. [OF. encontre, fr. encontrer. See Encounter, v. t.]

   1.  A  meeting face to face; a running against; a sudden or incidental
   meeting; an interview.

     To shun the encounter of the vulgar crowd. Pope.

   2.  A  meeting, with hostile purpose; hence, a combat; a battle; as, a
   bloody encounter.

     As one for . . . fierce encounters fit. Spenser.

     To join their dark encounter in mid-air. Milton

   .  Syn.  --  Contest;  conflict;  fight;  combat; assault; rencounter;
   attack; engagement; onset. See Contest.


   En*coun"ter*er (?), n. One who encounters; an opponent; an antagonist.


   En*cour"age  (?; 48), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Encouraged (?; 48); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Encouraging (?).] [F. encourager; pref. en- (L. in) + courage
   courage.  See  Courage.]  To give courage to; to inspire with courage,
   spirit,  or  hope;  to  raise,  or  to increase, the confidence of; to
   animate;  enhearten;  to  incite;  to help forward; -- the opposite of

     David encouraged himself in the Lord. 1 Sam. xxx. 6.

   Syn.  --  To  embolden; inspirit; animate; enhearten; hearten; incite;
   cheer;   urge;  impel;  stimulate;  instigate;  countenance;  comfort;
   promote; advance; forward; strengthen.


   En*cour"age*ment (?), n. [Cf. F. encouragement.]

   1.  The  act  of encouraging; incitement to action or to practice; as,
   the encouragement of youth in generosity.

     All generous encouragement of arts. Otway.

   2.  That  which  serves  to  incite,  support, promote, or advance, as
   favor,  countenance,  reward, etc.; incentive; increase of confidence;
   as, the fine arts find little encouragement among a rude people.

     To  think  of  his  paternal care, Is a most sweet encouragement to
     prayer. Byron.


   En*cour"a*ger (?), n. One who encourages, incites, or helps forward; a

     The pope is . . . a great encourager of arts. Addison.


   En*cour"a*ging   (?),  a.  Furnishing  ground  to  hope;  inspiriting;
   favoring. -- En*cour"a*ging*ly, adv.


   En*cowl"  (?),  v.  t.  To  make a monk (or wearer of a cowl) of. [R.]


   En*cra"dle (?), v. t. To lay in a cradle.


   En"cra*tite  (?), n. [L. Encratitae, pl., fr. Gr. (Eccl. Hist.) One of
   a sect in the 2d century who abstained from marriage, wine, and animal
   food; -- called also Continent.


   En*crease" (?), v. t. & i. [Obs.] See Increase.


   En*crim"son  (?), v. t. To give a crimson or red color to; to crimson.

                        Encrinic, Encrinal, Encrinital

   En*crin"ic  (?),  En*cri"nal  (?),  En*crin"i*tal  (?),  a.  (Paleon.)
   Relating  to  encrinites;  containing  encrinites, as certain kinds of


   En"cri*nite  (?), n. [Gr. encrinite.] (Paleon.) A fossil crinoid, esp.
   one belonging to, or resembling, the genus Encrinus. Sometimes used in
   a general sense for any crinoid.

                           Encrinitic, Encrinitical

   En`cri*nit"ic  (?),  En`cri*nit"ic*al  (?), a. (Paleon.) Pertaining to
   encrinites; encrinal.


   En`cri*noid"e*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL. See Encrinus and -oid.] (Zo\'94l.)
   That order of the Crinoidea which includes most of the living and many
   fossil  forms, having jointed arms around the margin of the oral disk;
   --  also  called Brachiata and Articulata. See Illusts. under Comatula
   and Crinoidea.


   En"cri*nus  (?), n.; pl. Encrini (#). [NL. See Encrinite.] (Paleon.) A
   genus of fossil encrinoidea, from the Mesozoic rocks.


   En*crisped" (?), a. Curled. [Obs.] Skelton.


   En*croach"  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Encroached (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Encroaching.]  [OF. encrochier to perch, prop., to hook, fasten a hook
   (perh. confused with acrochier, F. accrocher, to hook, get hold of, E.
   accroach);  pref.  en-  (L.  in)  +  F.  croc hook. See Crook, and cf.
   Accroach.]   To  enter  by  gradual  steps  or  by  stealth  into  the
   possessions  or rights of another; to trespass; to intrude; to trench;
   --  commonly  with  on  or  upon;  as,  to  encroach on a neighbor; to
   encroach on the highway.

     No  sense,  faculty, or member must encroach upon or interfere with
     the duty and office of another. South.

     Superstition, . . . a creeping and encroaching evil. Hooker.

     Exclude the encroaching cattle from thy ground. Dryden.

   Syn. -- To intrude; trench; infringe; invade; trespass.


   En*croach", n. Encroachment. [Obs.] South.


   En*croach"er  (?),  n.  One  who by gradual steps enters on, and takes
   possession of, what is not his own.


   En*croach"ing*ly, adv. By way of encroachment.


   En*croach"ment (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  entering  gradually  or  silently upon the rights or
   possessions of another; unlawful intrusion.

     An  unconstitutional  encroachment  of  military power on the civil
     establishment. Bancroft.

   2. That which is taken by encroaching on another.

   3. (Law) An unlawful diminution of the possessions of another.


   En*crust" (?), v. t. To incrust. See Incrust.


   En*crust"ment  (?),  n.  That which is formed as a crust; incrustment;

     Disengaging truth from its encrustment of error. I. Taylor.


   En*cum"ber  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Encumbered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Encumbering.]  [F.  encombrer;  pref.  en-  (L.  in)  + OF. combrer to
   hinder. See Cumber, and cf. Incumber.] >[Written also incumber.]

   1. To impede the motion or action of, as with a burden; to retard with
   something  superfluous;  to  weigh down; to obstruct or embarrass; as,
   his  movements  were  encumbered by his mantle; his mind is encumbered
   with useless learning.

     Not encumbered with any notable inconvenience. Hooker.

   2.  To  load  with  debts,  or  other legal claims; as, to encumber an
   estate  with  mortgages.  Syn.  --  To  load; clog; oppress; overload;
   embarrass; perplex; hinder; retard; obstruct; check; block.


   En*cum"ber*ment (?), n. [Cf. F. encombrement.] Encumbrance. [R.]


   En*cum"brance (?), n. [Cf. OF. encombrance. Cf. Incumbrance.]

   1.  That which encumbers; a burden which impedes action, or renders it
   difficult and laborious; a clog; an impediment. See Incumbrance.

   2. (Law) Same as Incumbrance. Syn. -- Burden; clog; impediment; check;


   En*cum"bran*cer (?), n. (Law) Same as Incumbrancer.


   En*cur"tain (?), v. t. To inclose with curtains.


   -en*cy (?). [L. -entia.] A noun suffix having much the same meaning as
   -ence,  but  more  commonly  signifying  the  quality  or  state;  as,
   emergency, efficiency. See -ancy.

                             Encyclic, Encyclical

   En*cyc"lic  (?),  En*cyc"li*cal  (?),  a.  [L.  encyclios of a circle,
   general,  Gr.  encyclique. See Cycle.] Sent to many persons or places;
   intended for many, or for a whole order of men; general; circular; as,
   an encyclical letter of a council, of a bishop, or the pope.

                             Encyclic, Encyclical

   En*cyc"lic,  En*cyc"li*cal,  n.  An encyclical letter, esp. one from a
   pope. Shipley.

                         Encyclopedia, Encyclop\'91dia

   En*cy`clo*pe"di*a,   En*cy`clo*p\'91"di*a   (?),   n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.
   encyclop\'82die.  See  Cyclopedia,  and Encyclical.] [Formerly written
   encyclop\'91dy  and  encyclopedy.]  The circle of arts and sciences; a
   comprehensive summary of knowledge, or of a branch of knowledge; esp.,
   a  work  in which the various branches of science or art are discussed
   separately, and usually in alphabetical order; a cyclopedia.


   En*cy`clo*pe*di"a*cal (?), a. Encyclopedic.


   En*cy`clo*pe"di*an  (?), a. Embracing the whole circle of learning, or
   a wide range of subjects.

                         Encyclopedic, Encyclopedical

   En*cy`clo*ped"ic    (?),   En*cy`clo*ped"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   encyclop\'82dique.]   Pertaining   to,   or   of  the  nature  of,  an
   encyclopedia; embracing a wide range of subjects.


   En*cy`clo*pe"dism   (?),   n.   The   art   of  writing  or  compiling
   encyclopedias;  also,  possession  of  the  whole  range of knowledge;
   encyclopedic learning.


   En*cy`clo*pe"dist  (?), n. [Cf. F. encyclop\'82diste.] The compiler of
   an  encyclopedia,  or  one  who assists in such compilation; also, one
   whose  knowledge  embraces  the  whole  range  of  the  sciences.  The
   Encyclopedists,  the  writers  of  the great French encyclopedia which
   appeared  in 1751-1772. The editors were Diderot and D'Alembert. Among
   the contributors were Voltaire and Rousseau.


   En*cyst" (?), v. t. To inclose in a cyst.


   En`cys*ta"tion (?), n. Encystment.


   En*cyst"ed  (?), a. Inclosed in a cyst, or a sac, bladder, or vesicle;
   as, an encysted tumor.

     The  encysted  venom,  or  poison  bag,  beneath  the adder's fang.


   En*cyst"ment (?), n.

   1.  (Biol.)  A  process  which, among some of the lower forms of life,
   precedes reproduction by budding, fission, spore formation, etc.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e animal (a) first contracts its body to a globular
     mass  (b) and then secretes a transparent cyst (c), after which the
     mass  divides  into  two  or  more parts (as in d e), each of which
     attains  freedom  by  the  bursting  of  the  cyst,  and becomes an
     individual animal.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  process  by  which many internal parasites, esp. in
   their  larval  states,  become  inclosed within a cyst in the muscles,
   liver, etc. See Trichina.


   End  (?),  n.  [OE. & AS. ende; akin to OS. endi, D. einde, eind, OHG.
   enti,  G.  ende,  Icel.  endir,  endi,  Sw.  \'84nde, Dan. ende, Goth.
   andeis, Skr. anta. Ante-, Anti-, Answer.]

   1.  The extreme or last point or part of any material thing considered
   lengthwise (the extremity of breadth being side); hence, extremity, in
   general;  the  concluding part; termination; close; limit; as, the end
   of  a  field, line, pole, road; the end of a year, of a discourse; put
   an  end to pain; -- opposed to beginning, when used of anything having
   a first part.

     Better is the end of a thing than the beginning thereof. Eccl. vii.

   2.  Point  beyond  which no procession can be made; conclusion; issue;
   result,   whether   successful   or   otherwise;   conclusive   event;

     My guilt be on my head, and there an end. Shak.

     O that a man might know The end of this day's business ere it come!

   3.  Termination  of  being;  death;  destruction; extermination; also,
   cause of death or destruction.

     Unblamed through life, lamented in thy end. Pope.

     Confound  your  hidden falsehood, and award Either of you to be the
     other's end. Shak.

     I shall see an end of him. Shak.

   4.  The  object  aimed  at  in  any effort considered as the close and
   effect of exertion; ppurpose; intention; aim; as, to labor for private
   or public ends.

     Losing her, the end of living lose. Dryden.

     When  every  man is his own end, all things will come to a bad end.

   5.  That  which  is left; a remnant; a fragment; a scrap; as, odds and

     I  clothe  my  naked  villainy With old odd ends stolen out of holy
     writ, And seem a saint, when most I play the devil. Shak.

   6.  (Carpet Manuf.) One of the yarns of the worsted warp in a Brussels

   Page 490

   An  end.  (a) On end; upright; erect; endways. Spenser (b) To the end;
   continuously.  [Obs.]  Richardson.  --  End  bulb  (Anat.), one of the
   bulblike  bodies  in  which  some  sensory nerve fibers end in certain
   parts of the skin and mucous membranes; -- also called end corpuscles.
   --  End  fly,  a  bobfly.  --  End  for end, one end for the other; in
   reversed  order. -- End man, the last man in a row; one of the two men
   at  the  extremities  of  a  line of minstrels. -- End on (Naut.), bow
   foremost.  --  End organ (Anat.), the structure in which a nerve fiber
   ends,  either  peripherally or centrally. -- End plate (Anat.), one of
   the  flat expansions in which motor nerve fibers terminate on muscular
   fibers.  --  End  play  (Mach.),  movement  endwise,  or room for such
   movement. -- End stone (Horol.), one of the two plates of a jewel in a
   timepiece;  the  part that limits the pivot's end play. -- Ends of the
   earth,  the  remotest  regions  of  the earth. -- In the end, finally.
   Shak. -- On end, upright; erect. -- To the end, in order. Bacon. -- To
   make both ends meet, to live within one's income. Fuller. -- To put an
   end to, to destroy.


   End (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ended; p. pr. & vb. n. Ending.]

   1.  To  bring  to  an  end  or  conclusion;  to  finish;  to close; to
   terminate; as, to end a speech. "I shall end this strife." Shak.

     On the seventh day God ended his work. Gen. ii. 2.

   2. To form or be at the end of; as, the letter k ends the word back.

   3. To destroy; to put to death. "This sword hath ended him." Shak.
   To  end  up,  to  lift  or  tilt, so as to set on end; as, to end up a
   End, v. i. To come to the ultimate point; to be finished; to come to a
   close;  to  cease;  to terminate; as, a voyage ends; life ends; winter


   End"a*ble (?), a. That may be ended; terminable.


   End"*all` (?), n. Complete termination. [R.]

     That but this blow Might be the be-all and the end-all here. Shak.


   En*dam"age  (?;  48),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Endamaged (?; 48); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Endamaging  (?).] [Pref. en- + damage: cf. F. endommager.] To
   bring loss or damage to; to harm; to injure. [R.]

     The trial hath endamaged thee no way. Milton.


   En*dam"age*a*ble  (?),  a.  Capable  of  being  damaged,  or  injured;
   damageable. [Obs.]


   En*dam"age*ment  (?), n. [Cf. F. endommagement.] Damage; injury; harm.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   En*dam"ni*fy (?), v. t. To damnify; to injure. [R.] Sandys.


   En*dan"ger  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Endangered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To put to hazard; to bring into danger or peril; to expose to loss
   or injury; as, to endanger life or peace.

     All  the  other  difficulties  of  his reign only exercised without
     endangering him. Burke.

   2. To incur the hazard of; to risk. [Obs.]

     He  that  turneth  the humors back . . . endangereth malign ulcers.


   En*dan"ger*ment (?), n. Hazard; peril. Milton.


   En*dark" (?), v. t. To darken. [Obs.] Feltham.


   En`das*pid"e*an  (?),  a.  [Endo- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Having the anterior
   scutes  extending  around  the  tarsus  on  the inner side; -- said of
   certain birds.


   En*daz"zle (?), v. t. To dazzle. [Obs.] "Endazzled eyes." Milton.


   En*dear"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Endeared (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To make dear or beloved. "To be endeared to a king." Shak.

   2.  To  raise  the price or cost of; to make costly or expensive. [R.]
   King James I. (1618).


   En*dear"ed*ly (?), adv. With affection or endearment; dearly.


   En*dear"ed*ness, n. State of being endeared.


   En*dear"ing,   a.   Making   dear   or   beloved;   causing  love.  --
   En*dear"ing*ly, adv.


   En*dear"ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of  endearing  or the state of being
   endeared;   also,   that   which  manifests,  excites,  or  increases,
   affection.  "The  great  endearments of prudent and temperate speech."
   Jer. Taylor.

     Her first endearments twining round the soul. Thomson.


   En*deav"or  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Endeavored (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Endeavoring.]  [OE.  endevor;  pref.  en-  +  dever,  devoir, duty, F.
   devoir: cf. F. se mettre en devoir de faire quelque chose to try to do
   a  thing, to go about it. See Devoir, Debt.] [Written also endeavour.]
   To  exert  physical or intellectual strength for the attainment of; to
   use  efforts  to  effect;  to  strive  to achieve or reach; to try; to

     It  is  our  duty  to  endeavor  the  recovery  of these beneficial
     subjects. Ld. Chatham.

   To  endeavor  one's  self,  to  exert  one's  self  strenuously to the
   fulfillment  of a duty. [Obs.] "A just man that endeavoreth himself to
   leave all wickedness." Latimer.
   En*deav"or, v. i. To exert one's self; to work for a certain end. 

     And such were praised who but endeavored well. Pope.

     NOTE: Usually wi th an  in finitive; as, to endeavor to outstrip an

     He had . . . endeavored earnestly to do his duty. Prescott.

   Syn. -- To attempt; try; strive; struggle; essay; aim; seek.


   En*deav"or,  n.  [Written  also endeavour.] An exertion of physical or
   intellectual strength toward the attainment of an object; a systematic
   or continuous attempt; an effort; a trial.

     To employ all my endeavor to obey you. Sir P. Sidney.

   To do one's endeavor, to do one's duty; to put forth strenuous efforts
   to  attain  an  object;  --  a  phrase derived from the Middle English
   phrase  "to  do  one's dever" (duty). "Mr. Prynne proceeded to show he
   had  done  endeavor  to  prepare  his  answer." Fuller. Syn. -- Essay;
   trial; effort; exertion. See Attempt.
   En*deav"or*er  (?),  n.  One  who makes an effort or attempt. [Written
   also endeavourer.]
   En*deav"or*ment (?), n. Act of endeavoring; endeavor. [Obs.] Spenser.
   En*dec"a*gon  (?),  n.  [See  Hendecagon.]  (Geom.)  A plane figure of
   eleven sides and angles. 


   En`de*cag"y*nous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Bot.) Having eleven pistils; as, an
   endecagynous flower.


   En"de*cane  (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) One of the higher hydrocarbons of the
   paraffin series, C11H24, found as a constituent of petroleum. [Written
   also hendecane.]


   En`de*caph"yl*lous (?), a. [Gr. (Bot.) Composed of eleven leaflets; --
   said of a leaf.


   En*deic"tic  (?), a. [Gr. Serving to show or exhibit; as, an endeictic
   dialogue, in the Platonic philosophy, is one which exhibits a specimen
   of skill. Enfield.


   En*deix"is (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Endeictic.] (Med.) An indication.


   En*de"mi*al (?), a. Endemic. [R.]

                              Endemic, Endemical

   En*de"mic   (?),  En*de"mic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  end\'82mique.]  (Med.)
   Peculiar  to  a  district or particular locality, or class of persons;
   as, an endemic disease.

     NOTE: &hand; An  endemic disease is one which is constantly present
     to  a greater or less degree in any place, as distinguished from an
     epidemic  disease,  which  prevails  widely  at  some  one time, or
     periodically, and from a sporadic disease, of which a few instances
     occur now and then.


   En*dem"ic, n. (Med.) An endemic disease.

     Fear,  which  is  an endemic latent in every human heart, sometimes
     rises into an epidemic. J. B. Heard.


   En*dem"ic*al*ly, adv. In an endemic manner.


   En*dem`i*ol"o*gy   (?),   n.  The  science  which  treats  of  endemic


   En*den`i*za"tion (?), n. The act of naturalizing. [R.]


   En*den"ize (?), v. t. To endenizen. [Obs.]


   En*den"i*zen (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + denizen. Cf. Indenizen.] To admit
   to the privileges of a denizen; to naturalize. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   End"er  (?), n. One who, or that which, makes an end of something; as,
   the ender of my life.


   En`der*mat"ic (?), a. Endermic.


   En*der"mic  (?),  a. [Gr. (Med.) Acting through the skin, or by direct
   application  to  the skin. Endermic method, that in which the medicine
   enters  the system through the skin, being applied either to the sound
   skin, or to the surface denuded of the cuticle by a blister.


   En*der"mic*al*ly  (?),  adv.  By  the  endermic  method;  as,  applied


   En"de*ron  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Anat.)  The  deep sensitive and
   vascular layer of the skin and mucous membranes. -- En`de*ron"ic, a.


   En*di"a*demed (?), a. Diademed. [R.]


   En*di"a*per  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Diaper.]  To  decorate  with a diaper


   En*dict" (?), v. t. See Indict.


   En*dict"ment (?), n. See Indictment.


   End"ing (?), n.

   1.  Termination;  concluding  part;  result;  conclusion; destruction;

   2.  (Gram.) The final syllable or letter of a word; the part joined to
   the stem. See 3d Case, 5.
   Ending day, day of death. Chaucer.


   En*dite (?), v. t. See Indite. Spenser.


   En"dive  (?),  n.  [F. endive (cf. Pr., Sp. Pg., & It. endivia), fr. a
   deriv.  of  L.  intibus,  intybus,  endive.]  (Bot.)  A composite herb
   (Cichorium  Endivia).  Its finely divided and much curled leaves, when
   blanched, are used for salad. Wild endive (Bot.), chicory or succory.


   End"less (?), a. [AS. endele\'a0s. See End.]

   1.  Without end; having no end or conclusion; perpetual; interminable;
   --  applied  to  length, and to duration; as, an endless line; endless
   time; endless bliss; endless praise; endless clamor.

   2. Infinite; excessive; unlimited. Shak.

   3.  Without  profitable  end; fruitless; unsatisfying. [R.] "All loves
   are endless." Beau. & Fl.

   4. Void of design; objectless; as, an endless pursuit.
   Endless  chain,  a  chain  which is made continuous by uniting its two
   ends.  --  Endless  screw.  (Mech.)  See under Screw. Syn. -- Eternal;
   everlasting;  interminable; infinite; unlimited; incessant; perpetual;
   uninterrupted;  continual;  unceasing;  unending;  boundless; undying;


   End"less*ly, adv. In an endless manner.


   End"less*ness,  n. [AS. endele\'a0snys.] The quality of being endless;


   End"long`  (?;  115),  adv.  &  prep.  [Cf. Along.] Lengthwise; along.

     The  doors  were  all of adamants eterne, I-clenched overthwart and
     endelong With iron tough. Chaucer.

     He pricketh endelong the large space. Chaucer.

     To thrust the raft endlong across the moat. Sir W. Scott.


   End"most` (?), a. Farthest; remotest; at the very end. Tylor.

                                  Endo-, End-

   En"do-  (?),  End-  (?). [Gr. In.] A combining form signifying within;
   as, endocarp, endogen, endocuneiform, endaspidean.


   En"do*blast  (?),  n.  [Endo- + -blast.] (Biol.) Entoblast; endoplast.
   See Nucleus,


   En`do*blas"tic  (?),  a.  (Biol.)  Relating  to the endoblast; as, the
   endoblastic layer.

                           Endocardiac, Endocardial

   En`do*car"di*ac (?), En`do*car"di*al (?), a.

   1. Pertaining to the endocardium.

   2.  (Med.)  Seated  or  generated  within  the  heart; as, endocardial


   En`do*car*di"tis  (?),  n. [NL. See -itis.] (Med.) Inflammation of the


   En`do*car"di*um  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The membrane lining the
   cavities of the heart.


   En"do*carp  (?), n. [Endo- + Gr. endocarpe.] (Bot.) The inner layer of
   a ripened or fructified ovary.


   En`do*chon"dral  (?), a. [Endo- + Gr. (Physiol.) Growing or developing
   within cartilage; -- applied esp. to developing bone.


   En"do*chrome  (?),  n.  [Endo- + Gr. (Bot.) The coloring matter within
   the cells of plants, whether green, red, yellow, or any other color.


   En*doc"trine  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en-  +  doctrine.]  To  teach;  to
   indoctrinate. [Obs.] Donne.


   En"do*cyst  (?),  n.  [Endo-  +  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The inner layer of the
   cells of Bryozoa.


   En"do*derm  (?),  n.  [Endo-  + Gr. (Biol.) (a) The inner layer of the
   skin  or  integument  of  an  animal.  (b)  The innermost layer of the
   blastoderm  and  the  structures  derived  from it; the hypoblast; the
   entoblast. See Illust. of Ectoderm.

                            Endodermal, Endodermic

   En`do*der"mal  (?),  En`do*der"mic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to
   the endoderm.


   En`do*der"mis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Endoderm.] (Bot.) A layer of cells
   forming  a  kind  of  cuticle  inside of the proper cortical layer, or
   surrounding an individual fibrovascular bundle.


   En*dog"a*mous  (?), a. [Endo- + Gr. Marrying within the same tribe; --
   opposed to exogamous.


   En*dog"a*my   (?),  n.  Marriage  only  within  the  tribe;  a  custom
   restricting  a  man  in  his choice of a wife to the tribe to which he
   belongs; -- opposed to exogamy.


   En"do*gen  (?),  n. [Endo- + -gen: cf. F. endog\'8ane.] (Bot.) A plant
   which  increases  in  size  by  internal  growth and elongation at the
   summit, having the wood in the form of bundles or threads, irregularly
   distributed  throughout the whole diameter, not forming annual layers,
   and  with  no distinct pith. The leaves of the endogens have, usually,
   parallel veins, their flowers are mostly in three, or some multiple of
   three,  parts, and their embryos have but a single cotyledon, with the
   first  leaves  alternate.  The  endogens  constitute  one of the great
   primary  classes  of  plants,  and  included  all  palms, true lilies,
   grasses, rushes, orchids, the banana, pineapple, etc. See Exogen.


   En`do*gen"e*sis (?), n. [Endo- + genesis.] (Biol.) Endogeny.


   En`do*ge*net"ic (?), a. (Biol.) Endogenous.


   En*dog"e*nous (?), a.

   1.  (Bot.) Increasing by internal growth and elongation at the summit,
   instead  of  externally,  and having no distinction of pith, wood, and
   bark, as the rattan, the palm, the cornstalk.

   2. (Biol.) Originating from within; increasing by internal growth.
   Endogenous multiplication (Biol.), a method of cell formation, seen in
   cells  having  a cell wall. The nucleus and protoplasm divide into two
   distinct  masses;  these  in  turn become divided and subdivided, each
   division  becoming a new cell, until finally the original cell wall is
   ruptured  and  the  new  cells  are  liberated  (see Segmentation, and
   Illust.  of  Cell  Division,  under  Division). This mode of growth is
   characteristic of many forms of cells, both animal and vegetable.
   En*dog"e*nous*ly, adv. By endogenous growth.
   En*dog"e*ny  (?),  n.  [See  Endogenesis.] (Biol.) Growth from within;
   multiplication  of cells by endogenous division, as in the development
   of one or more cells in the interior of a parent cell.
   En"dog*nath  (?),  n.  [Endo-  + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The inner or principal
   branch of the oral appendages of Crustacea. See Maxilla. 


   En*dog"na*thal (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the endognath.


   En"do*lymph  (?),  n.  [Endo- + lymph: cf. F. endolymphe.] (Anat.) The
   watery  fluid  contained  in  the membranous labyrinth of the internal


   En"do*lym*phan"gi*al  (?),  a. [Endo- + lymphangial.] (Anat.) Within a
   lymphatic vessel.


   En"do*lym*phat"ic  (?), a. [Endo- + lymphatic.] (Anat.) (a) Pertaining
   to, or containing, endolymph; as, the endolymphatic duct. (b) Within a
   lymphatic vessel; endolymphangial.


   En*dome" (?), v. t. To cover as with a dome.


   En`do*me*tri"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Endometrium, and -itis.] (Med.)
   Inflammation of the endometrium.


   En`do*me"tri*um  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The membrane lining the
   inner surface of the uterus, or womb.


   En"do*morph  (?),  n.  [Endo-  +  Gr.  (Min.) A crystal of one species
   inclosed within one of another, as one of rutile inclosed in quartz.


   En`do*my"si*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Anat.) The delicate bands of
   connective tissue interspersed among muscular fibers.


   En`do*neu"ri*um  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The delicate bands of
   connective tissue among nerve fibers.


   En`do*par"a*site  (?),  n. [Endo- + parasite.] (Zo\'94l.) Any parasite
   which  lives  in  the  internal organs of an animal, as the tapeworms,
   Trichina,  etc.;  --  opposed  to  ectoparasite.  See  Entozo\'94n. --
   En`do*par`a*sit"ic (#), a.

   Page 491

 Endophl En`do*phl (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) The inner layer of the bark of


   En`do*phrag"ma  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A chitinous structure
   above the nervous cord in the thorax of certain Crustacea.


   En`do*phrag"mal   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Of  or  pertaining  to  the


   En*doph"yl*lous  (?),  a. [Endo- + Gr. (Bot.) Wrapped up within a leaf
   or sheath.


   En"do*plasm  (?),  n.  [Endo-  +  Gr.  (Biol.)  The  protoplasm in the
   interior of a cell.


   En`do*plas"ma  (?),  n. [NL. See Endoplasm.] (Biol.) Same as Entoplasm
   and Endosarc.


   En"do*plast (?), n. [Endo- + Gr. (Biol.) See Nucleus.


   En`do*plas"ti*ca  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of
   Rhizopoda having a distinct nucleus, as the am


   En`do*plas"tule  (?;  135),  n.  [A  dim.  fr. endo- + Gr. (Biol.) See


   En`do*pleu"ra, n. [NL., fr. Gr. Pleura.] (Bot.) The inner coating of a
   seed. See Tegmen.


   En`do*pleu"rite  (?),  n.  [Endo- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The portion of each
   apodeme   developed   from   the  interepimeral  membrane  in  certain


   En*dop"o*dite  (?),  n.  [Endo-  +  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  The  internal  or
   principal  branch  of  the  locomotive  appendages  of  Crustacea. See


   En`do*rhi"za  (?),  n.; pl. Endorhiz\'91 (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) Any
   monocotyledonous  plant;  -- so named because many monocotyledons have
   an endorhizal embryo.

     NOTE: &hand; En dorhiza was proposed by Richard as a substitute for
     the term endogen, and exorhiza as a substitute for the term exogen;
     but they have not been generally adopted.

                            Endorhizal, Endorhizous

   En`do*rhi"zal (?), En`do*rhi"zous (?), a. (Bot.) Having the radicle of
   the  embryo sheathed by the cotyledon, through which the embryo bursts
   in germination, as in many monocotyledonous plants.


   En*dorse"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Endorsed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Endorsing.]  [Formerly endosse, fr. F. endosser to put on the back, to
   endorse;  pref. en- (L. in) + dos back, L. dorsum. See Dorsal, and cf.
   Indorse.] Same as Indorse.

     NOTE: &hand; Both endorse and indorse are used by good writers; but
     the  tendency  is  to  the  more  general  use  of  indorse and its
     derivatives indorsee, indorser, and indorsement.


   En*dorse",  n.  (Her.)  A subordinary, resembling the pale, but of one
   fourth its width (according to some writers, one eighth).


   En`dor*see" (?), n. Same as Indorsee.


   En*dorse"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. endossement.] Same as Indorsement.


   En*dors"er (?), n. Same as Indorser.


   En"do*sarc  (?),  n.  [Endo-  +  Gr.  (Biol.)  The semifluid, granular
   interior  of  certain  unicellular  organisms,  as  the inner layer of
   sarcode in the am\'d2ba; entoplasm; endoplasta.


   En"do*scope  (?),  n.  [Endo-  +  -scope.]  (Med.)  An  instrument for
   examining the interior of the rectum, the urethra, and the bladder.


   En*dos"co*py  (?),  n. (Med.) The art or process of examining by means
   of the endoscope.


   En`do*skel"e*tal (?), a. (Anat.) Pertaining to, or connected with, the
   endoskeleton; as, endoskeletal muscles.


   En`do*skel"e*ton  (?),  n.  [Endo-  +  skeleton.]  (Anat.)  The  bony,
   cartilaginous,   or   other   internal  framework  of  an  animal,  as
   distinguished from the exoskeleton.


   En`dos*mom"e*ter (?), n. [Endosmose + -meter.] (Physics) An instrument
   for measuring the force or amount of endosmotic action.


   En*dos`mo*met"ric   (?),  a.  Pertaining  to,  or  designed  for,  the
   measurement of endosmotic action.

                             Endosmose, Endosmosis

   En"dos*mose`  (?),  En`dos*mo"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.  endosmosis, fr. Gr.
   endosmose.]  (Physics) The transmission of a fluid or gas from without
   inward in the phenomena, or by the process, of osmose.


   En`dos*mos"mic (?), a. Endosmotic.


   En`dos*mot"ic   (?),   a.  Pertaining  to  endosmose;  of  the  nature
   endosmose; osmotic. Carpenter.


   En"do*sperm  (?),  n.  [Endo-  +  Gr. (Bot.) The albumen of a seed; --
   limited by recent writers to that formed within the embryo sac.


   En`do*sper"mic   (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Relating  to,  accompanied  by,  or
   containing, endosperm.


   En"do*spore  (?),  n.  [Endo-  + spore.] (Bot.) The thin inner coat of
   certain spores.


   En`do*spor"ous  (?),  a. (Bot.) Having the spores contained in a case;
   -- applied to fungi.


   En*doss"  (?;  115), v. t. [F. endosser. See Endorse.] To put upon the
   back  or outside of anything; -- the older spelling of endorse. [Obs.]


   En*dos"te*al  (?), a. (Physiol.) Relating to endostosis; as, endosteal


   En`do*ster"nite (?), n. [Endo- + sternum.] (Zo\'94l.) The part of each
   apodeme  derived  from  the  intersternal  membrane  in  Crustacea and


   En*dos"te*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Anat.) The layer of vascular
   connective tissue lining the medullary cavities of bone.


   En*dos"to*ma  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A plate which supports
   the labrum in certain Crustacea.


   En"do*stome (?), n. [See Endostoma.]

   1.  (Bot.)  The  foramen or passage through the inner integument of an

   2. (Zo\'94l.) And endostoma.


   En`dos*to"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Endo-,  and Ostosis.] (Physiol.) A
   process of bone formation in which ossification takes place within the
   substance of the cartilage.


   En"do*style  (?),  n.  [Endo- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A fold of the endoderm,
   which projects into the blood cavity of ascidians. See Tunicata.


   En`do*the"ca  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  The tissue which
   partially  fills  the  interior  of  the  interseptal chambers of most
   madreporarian  corals.  It  usually  consists  of  a series of oblique
   tranverse septa, one above another. -- En`do*the"cal (#), a.


   En`do*the"ci*um  (?),  n. [NL. See Endotheca.] (Bot.) The inner lining
   of an another cell.


   En`do*the"li*al (?), a. (Anat.) Of, or relating to, endothelium.


   En`do*the"li*um (?), n.; pl. Endothelia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The
   thin  epithelium  lining  the  blood  vessels,  lymphatics, and serous
   cavities. See Epithelium.


   En`do*the"loid (?), a. [Endothelium + -oid.] (Anat.) Like endothelium.


   En`do*tho"rax (?), n. [Endo- + thorax.] (Zo\'94l.) An internal process
   of the sternal plates in the thorax of insects.


   En*dow"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Endowed  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Endowing.]  [OF.  endouer;  pref.  en- (L. in) + F. douer to endow, L.
   dotare. See Dower, and cf. 2d Endue.]

   1.  To  furnish  with money or its equivalent, as a permanent fund for
   support;  to  make  pecuniary provision for; to settle an income upon;
   especially,  to  furnish  with  dower; as, to endow a wife; to endow a
   public institution.

     Endowing hospitals and almshouses. Bp. Stillingfleet.

   2.  To  enrich  or furnish with anything of the nature of a gift (as a
   quality  or  faculty);  --  followed by with, rarely by of; as, man is
   endowed  by  his  Maker  with  reason;  to  endow  with  privileges or


   En*dow"er (?), v. t. [Cf. OF. endouairer. See Dower, Endow.] To endow.
   [Obs.] Waterhouse.


   En*dow"er, n. One who endows.


   En*dow"ment (?), n.

   1.  The  act  of  bestowing  a dower, fund, or permanent provision for

   2.  That  which  is bestowed or settled on a person or an institution;
   property, fund, or revenue permanently appropriated to any object; as,
   the endowment of a church, a hospital, or a college.

   3.  That  which  is given or bestowed upon the person or mind; gift of
   nature;  accomplishment;  natural capacity; talents; -- usually in the

     His  early  endowments had fitted him for the work he was to do. I.


   En`do*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) See Entozoa.


   En*drudge"  (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + drudge.] To make a drudge or slave
   of. [Obs.] Bp. Hall.


   En*due" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Endued (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Enduing.]
   [L.  induere,  prob.  confused  with  E. endow. See Indue.] To invest.

     Tarry  ye  in  the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power
     from on high. Luke xxiv. 49.

     Endue them . . . with heavenly gifts. Book of Common Prayer.


   En*due", v. t. An older spelling of Endow. Tillotson.


   En*due"ment (?), n. Act of enduing; induement.


   En*dur"a*ble (?), a. [Cf. OF. endurable. See Endure.] Capable of being
   endured or borne; sufferable. Macaulay. -- En*dur"a*ble*ness, n.


   En*dur"a*bly, adv. In an endurable manner.


   En*dur"ance (?), n. [Cf. OF. endurance. See Endure.]

   1.   A   state   or  quality  of  lasting  or  duration;  lastingness;

     Slurring  with  an  evasive  answer  the  question  concerning  the
     endurance of his own possession. Sir W. Scott.

   2.  The  act  of  bearing  or  suffering;  a  continuing under pain or
   distress  without  resistance,  or without being overcome; sufferance;

     Their  fortitude was most admirable in their patience and endurance
     of all evils, of pain and of death. Sir W. Temple.

   Syn. -- Suffering; patience; fortitude; resignation.


   En*dur"ant (?), a. Capable of enduring fatigue, pain, hunger, etc.

     The ibex is a remarkably endurant animal. J. G. Wood.


   En*dure"  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Endured (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enduring  (?).]  [F.  endurer;  pref. en- (L. in) + durer to last. See
   Dure, v. i., and cf. Indurate.]

   1.  To  continue  in  the  same  state  without perishing; to last; to

     Their verdure still endure. Shak.

     He  shall  hold  it  [his house] fast, but it shall not endure. Job
     viii. 15.

   2. To remain firm, as under trial or suffering; to suffer patiently or
   without yielding; to bear up under adversity; to hold out.

     Can  thine  heart  endure, or can thine hands be strong in the days
     that I shall deal with thee? Ezek. xxii. 14.


   En*dure", v. t.

   1.  To  remain  firm under; to sustain; to undergo; to support without
   breaking  or  yielding;  as,  metals  endure  a certain degree of heat
   without melting; to endure wind and weather.

     Both  were  of  shining  steel,  and  wrought so pure, As might the
     strokes of two such arms endure. Dryden.

   2.  To  bear  with  patience;  to suffer without opposition or without
   sinking  under the pressure or affliction; to bear up under; to put up
   with; to tolerate.

     I will no longer endure it. Shak.

     Therefore I endure all things for the elect's sake. 2 Tim. ii. 10.

     How  can  I  endure to see the evil that shall come unto my people?
     Esther viii. 6.

   3. To harden; to toughen; to make hardy. [Obs.]

     Manly limbs endured with little ease. Spenser.

   Syn. -- To last; remain; continue; abide; brook; submit to; suffer.


   En*dure"ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. endurement.] Endurance. [Obs.] South.


   En*dur"er  (?),  n.  One who, or that which, endures or lasts; one who
   bears, suffers, or sustains.


   En*dur"ing,  a.  Lasting;  durable;  long-suffering;  as,  an enduring
   disposition.  "A  better  and  enduring  substance."  Heb.  x.  34. --
   En*dur"ing*ly, adv. T. Arnold. -- En*dur"ing*ness, n.

                               Endways, Endwise

   End"ways` (?), End"wise (?), adv.

   1. On end; erectly; in an upright position.

   2. With the end forward.


   En"dy*ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) See Ependyma.


   En"dy*sis  (?),  n.; pl. Endyses (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.) The act of
   developing a new coat of hair, a new set of feathers, scales, etc.; --
   opposed to ecdysis.


   En"e*cate  (?), v. t. [L. enecatus, p. p. of enecare; e out, utterly +
   necare to kill.] To kill off; to destroy. [Obs.] Harvey.


   E*ne"id (?), n. Same as \'92neid.


   En"e*ma  (?),  n.;  pl.  L.  Enemata  (#).  [L.  enema,  Gr. (Med.) An
   injection,  or  clyster,  thrown  into the rectum as a medicine, or to
   impart nourishment. Hoblyn.


   En"e*my  (?),  n.;  pl.  Enemies  (#).  [OF. enemi, F. ennemi, from L.
   inimicus;  in-  (negative) + amicus friend. See Amicable.] One hostile
   to  another;  one  who  hates,  and desires or attempts the injury of,
   another; a foe; an adversary; as, an enemy of or to a person; an enemy
   to truth, or to falsehood.

     To all good he enemy was still. Spenser.

     I say unto you, Love your enemies. Matt. v. 44.

   The  enemy  (Mil.),  the  hostile force. In this sense it is construed
   with  the  verb  and pronoun either in the singular or the plural, but
   more  commonly  in  the  singular; as, we have met the enemy and he is
   ours or they are ours.
     It  was  difficult  in  such  a  country to track the enemy. It was
     impossible to drive him to bay. Macaulay.
   Syn. -- Foe; antagonist; opponent. See Adversary.
   En"e*my, a. Hostile; inimical. [Obs.]
     They . . . every day grow more enemy to God. Jer. Taylor.
   En*ep`i*der"mic  (?), a. [Pref. en- (Gr. epidermic.] (Med.) Applied to
   the skin without friction; -- said of medicines.
                            Energetic, Energetical
   En`er*get"ic (?), En`er*get"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Energy.] 

   1.  Having  energy  or  energies;  possessing  a capacity for vigorous
   action  or  for exerting force; active. "A Being eternally energetic."

   2.  Exhibiting  energy;  operating  with  force,  vigor,  and  effect;
   forcible;  powerful;  efficacious;  as,  energetic measures; energetic
   laws.  Syn.  --  Forcible;  powerful;  efficacious;  potent; vigorous;
   effective;     strenuous.     --     En`er*get"ic*al*ly,    adv.    --
   En`er*get"ic*al*ness, n.


   En`er*get"ics  (?), n. That branch of science which treats of the laws
   governing  the  physical or mechanical, in distinction from the vital,
   forces,   and   which   comprehends   the  consideration  and  general
   investigation  of  the whole range of the forces concerned in physical
   phenomena. [R.]

                              Energic, Energical

   En*er"gic (?), En*er"gic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82nergique.]

   1. In a state of action; acting; operating.

   2. Having energy or great power; energetic.

     The energic faculty that we call will. Blackw. Mag.


   En"er*gize  (?),  v.  i.  [imp. & p. p. Energized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Energizing  (?).]  [From Energy.] To use strength in action; to act or
   operate with force or vigor; to act in producing an effect.

     Of  all  men  it  is  true  that they feel and energize first, they
     reflect and judge afterwards. J. C. Shairp.


   En"er*gize,  v.  t.  To  give strength or force to; to make active; to
   alacrify; as, to energize the will.


   En"er*gi`zer  (?), n. One who, or that which, gives energy, or acts in
   producing an effect.


   En"er*gi`zing (?), a. Capable of imparting or exercising energy.

     Those nobler exercises of energizing love. Bp. Horsley.


   En`er*gu"men  (?),  n.  [L. energumenos, fr. Gr. \'82nergum\'8ane. See
   Energetic.]  (Eccl.  Antiq.)  One  possessed  by  an  evil  spirit;  a


   En"er*gy  (?),  n.; pl. Energies (#). [F. \'82nergie, LL. energia, fr.
   Gr.In, and Work.]

   1.  Internal  or  inherent  power;  capacity  of acting, operating, or
   producing  an  effect,  whether  exerted  or  not;  as, men possessing
   energies may suffer them to lie inactive.

     The great energies of nature are known to us only by their effects.

   2.  Power  efficiently  and  forcibly  exerted;  vigorous or effectual
   operation; as, the energy of a magistrate.

   3.  Strength  of  expression; force of utterance; power to impress the
   mind  and  arouse  the  feelings;  life;  spirit;  --  said of speech,
   language, words, style; as, a style full of energy.

   4. (Physics) Capacity for performing work.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e ki netic energy of a body is the energy it has in
     virtue  of  being  in  motion.  It  is  measured by one half of the
     product  of  the mass of each element of the body multiplied by the
     square  of the velocity of the element, relative to some given body
     or  point.  The  available  kinetic  energy  of  a  material system
     unconnected  with  any  other system is that energy which is due to
     the  motions  of  the parts of the system relative to its center of
     mass. The potential energy of a body or system is that energy which
     is  not  kinetic; -- energy due to configuration. Kinetic energy is
     sometimes  called  actual  energy. Kinetic energy is exemplified in
     the  vis  viva  of moving bodies, in heat, electric currents, etc.;
     potential  energy,  in  a  bent spring, or a body suspended a given
     distance above the earth and acted on by gravity.

   Page 492

   Accumulation,  Conservation,  Correlation,  AND Degradation of energy,
   etc. (Physics) See under Accumulation, Conservation, Correlation, etc.
   Syn.  --  Force;  power; potency; vigor; strength; spirit; efficiency;


   E*ner"vate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Enervated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enervating.]  [L. enervatus, p. p. of enervare, fr. enervis nerveless,
   weak;  e  out  + nervus nerve. See Nerve.] To deprive of nerve, force,
   strength,   or   courage;  to  render  feeble  or  impotent;  to  make
   effeminate; to impair the moral powers of.

     A man . . . enervated by licentiousness. Macaulay.

     And rhyme began t' enervate poetry. Dryden.

   Syn. -- To weaken; enfeeble; unnerve; debilitate.


   E*ner"vate  (?),  a.  [L.  enervatus,  p.  p.] Weakened; weak; without
   strength of force. Pope.


   En`er*va"tion (?), n. [L. enervatio: cf. F. \'82nervation.]

   1. The act of weakening, or reducing strength.

   2. The state of being weakened; effeminacy. Bacon.


   E*ner"va*tive  (?),  a.  Having  power,  or  a  tendency, to enervate;
   weakening. [R.]


   E*nerve"  (?),  v. t. [Cf. F. \'82nerver. See Enervate.] To weaken; to
   enervate. [Obs.] Milton.


   E*nerv"ous  (?),  a.  [L.  enervis,  enervus.] Lacking nerve or force;
   enervated. [R.]


   En*fam"ish (?), v. t. To famish; to starve.


   En*fect" (?), a. [See Infect, a.] Contaminated with illegality. [Obs.]


   En*fee"ble  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Enfeebled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enfeebling  (?).] [OF. enfeblir, enfeiblir; pref. en- (L. in) + feble,
   F.  faible,  feeble.  See  Feeble.]  To  make  feeble;  to  deprive of
   strength;   to  reduce  the  strength  or  force  of;  to  weaken;  to

     Enfeebled by scanty subsistence and excessive toil. Prescott.

   Syn. -- To weaken; debilitate; enervate.


   En*fee"ble*ment (?), n. The act of weakening; enervation; weakness.


   En*fee"bler (?), n. One who, or that which, weakens or makes feeble.


   En*fee"blish, v. i. To enfeeble. [Obs.] Holland.


   En*fel"oned  (?), a. [Pref. en- + felon: cf. OF. enfelonner.] Rendered
   fierce or frantic. [Obs.] "Like one enfeloned or distraught." Spenser.


   En*feoff"  (?;  see Feoff, 277), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enfeoffed (?); p.
   pr. & vb. n. Enfeoffing.] [Pref. en- + feoff, fief: cf. LL. infeofare,
   OF. enfeffer, enfeofer.]

   1.  (Law)  To give a feud, or right in land, to; to invest with a fief
   or  fee;  to invest (any one) with a freehold estate by the process of
   feoffment. Mozley & W.

   2. To give in vassalage; to make subservient. [Obs.]

     [The king] enfeoffed himself to popularity. Shak.


   En*feoff"ment  (?),  n.  (Law)  (a)  The  act  of  enfeoffing. (b) The
   instrument or deed by which one is invested with the fee of an estate.


   En*fes"ter  (?),  v.  t.  To fester. [Obs.] "Enfestered sores." Davies
   (Holy Roode).


   En*fet"ter  (?),  v. t. To bind in fetters; to enchain. "Enfettered to
   her love." Shak.


   En*fe"ver  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en- + fever: cf. F. enfi\'82vrer.] To
   excite fever in. [R.] A. Seward.


   En*fierce"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Enfierced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enfiercing (?).] To make fierce. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En`fi*lade"  (?;  277),  n.  [F.,  fr.  enfiler to thread, go trough a
   street  or square, rake with shot; pref. en- (L. in) + fil thread. See
   File a row.]

   1. A line or straight passage, or the position of that which lies in a
   straight line. [R.]

   2.  (Mil.)  A  firing in the direction of the length of a trench, or a
   line of parapet or troops, etc.; a raking fire.


   En`fi*lade",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Enfiladed;  p.  pr.  &  vb. n.
   Enfilading.]  (Mil.)  To  pierce,  scour,  or  rake  with  shot in the
   direction of the length of, as a work, or a line of troops. Campbell.


   En*filed"  (?),  p.  a.  [F. enfiler to pierce, thread.] (Her.) Having
   some  object,  as  the  head of a man or beast, impaled upon it; as, a
   sword which is said to be "enfiled of" the thing which it pierces.


   En*fire" (?), v. t. To set on fire. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*flesh" (?), v. t. To clothe with flesh. [Obs.]

     Vices which are . . . enfleshed in him. Florio.


   En*flow"er  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Enflowered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enflowering.] To cover or deck with flowers. [Poetic]

     These odorous and enflowered fields. B. Jonson.


   En*fold" (?), v. t. To infold. See Infold.


   En*fold"ment (?), n. The act of infolding. See Infoldment.


   En*force"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Enforced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enforcing  (?).]  [OF.  enforcier  to  strengthen, force, F. enforcir;
   pref. en- (L. in) + F. force. See Force.]

   1.  To  put  force  upon;  to  force;  to constrain; to compel; as, to
   enforce obedience to commands.

     Inward joy enforced my heart to smile. Shak.

   2.  To  make  or  gain  by force; to obtain by force; as, to enforce a
   passage. "Enforcing furious way." Spenser.

   3. To put in motion or action by violence; to drive.

     As swift as stones Enforced from the old Assyrian slings. Shak.

   4.  To  give  force  to;  to  strengthen;  to invigorate; to urge with
   energy; as, to enforce arguments or requests.

     Enforcing sentiment of the thrust humanity. Burke.

   5.  To  put  in  force; to cause to take effect; to give effect to; to
   execute with vigor; as, to enforce the laws.

   6. To urge; to ply hard; to lay much stress upon.

     Enforce him with his envy to the people. Shak.


   En*force (?), v. i.

   1. To attempt by force. [Obs.]

   2. To prove; to evince. [R.] Hooker.

   3. To strengthen; to grow strong. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En*force", n. Force; strength; power. [Obs.]

     A petty enterprise of small enforce. Milton.


   En*force"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being enforced.


   En*forced" (?), a. Compelled; forced; not voluntary. "Enforced wrong."
   "Enforced smiles." Shak. -- En*for"ced*ly, adv. Shak.


   En*force"ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. enforcement.]

   1. The act of enforcing; compulsion.

     He  that contendeth against these enforcements may easily master or
     resist them. Sir W. Raleigh.

     Confess  't was hers, and by what rough enforcement You got it from
     her. Shak.

   2. A giving force to; a putting in execution.

     Enforcement of strict military discipline. Palfrey.

   3. That which enforces, constraints, gives force, authority, or effect
   to; constraint; force applied.

     The  rewards and punishment of another life, which the Almighty has
     established as the enforcements of his law. Locke.


   En*for"cer (?), n. One who enforces.


   En*for"ci*ble (?), a. That may be enforced.


   En*for"cive  (?),  a.  Serving  to  enforce  or constrain; compulsive.
   Marsion. -- En*for"cive*ly, adv.


   En*for"est (?), v. t. To turn into a forest.


   En*form"  (?),  v.  t. [F. enformer. See Inform.] To form; to fashion.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*foul"dred  (?),  a. [Pref. en- + OF. fouldre, foldre, lightning, F.
   foudre,  L.  fulgur.] Mixed with, or emitting, lightning. [Obs.] "With
   foul enfouldred smoke." Spenser.


   En*frame" (?), v. t. To inclose, as in a frame.


   En*fran"chise  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enfranchised (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Enfranchising (?).] [Pref. en- + franchise: cf. F. enfranchir.]

   1.  To  set  free;  to  liberate  from slavery, prison, or any binding
   power. Bacon.

   2.  To  endow with a franchise; to incorporate into a body politic and
   thus  to  invest  with civil and political privileges; to admit to the
   privileges of a freeman.

   3.  To  receive as denizens; to naturalize; as, to enfranchise foreign
   words. I. Watts.


   En*fran"chise*ment (?), n.

   1. Releasing from slavery or custody. Shak.

   2.  Admission  to  the  freedom  of  a  corporation  or  body politic;
   investiture with the privileges of free citizens.
   Enfranchisement  of  copyhold (Eng. Law), the conversion of a copyhold
   estate into a freehold. Mozley & W.


   En*fran"chis*er (?), n. One who enfranchises.


   En*free" (?), v. t. To set free. [Obs.] "The enfreed Antenor." Shak.


   En*free"dom (?), v. t. To set free. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*freeze" (?), v. t. To freeze; to congeal. [Obs.]

     Thou hast enfrozened her disdainful breast. Spenser.


   En*fro"ward  (?),  v.  t.  To make froward, perverse, or ungovernable.
   [Obs.] Sir E. Sandys.


   En*gage"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Engaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engaging (?).] [F. engager; pref. en- (L. in) + gage pledge, pawn. See

   1. To put under pledge; to pledge; to place under obligations to do or
   forbear  doing something, as by a pledge, oath, or promise; to bind by
   contract or promise. "I to thee engaged a prince's word." Shak.

   2.  To  gain  for service; to bring in as associate or aid; to enlist;
   as, to engage friends to aid in a cause; to engage men for service.

   3. To gain over; to win and attach; to attract and hold; to draw.

     Good nature engages everybody to him. Addison.

   4.  To  employ the attention and efforts of; to occupy; to engross; to
   draw on.

     Thus shall mankind his guardian care engage. Pope.

     Taking   upon  himself  the  difficult  task  of  engaging  him  in
     conversation. Hawthorne.

   5. To enter into contest with; to encounter; to bring to conflict.

     A favorable opportunity of engaging the enemy. Ludlow.

   6.  (Mach.)  To  come  into  gear  with; as, the teeth of one cogwheel
   engage  those  of  another,  or one part of a clutch engages the other


   En*gage", v. i.

   1.  To  promise  or pledge one's self; to enter into an obligation; to
   become bound; to warrant.

     How proper the remedy for the malady, I engage not. Fuller.

   2. To embark in a business; to take a part; to employ or involve one's
   self;  to  devote  attention  and  effort; to enlist; as, to engage in

   3. To enter into conflict; to join battle; as, the armies engaged in a
   general battle.

   4. (Mach.) To be in gear, as two cogwheels working together.


   En*gaged" (?), a.

   1. Occupied; employed; busy.

   2.  Pledged;  promised;  especially,  having  the  affections pledged;
   promised in marriage; affianced; betrothed.

   3. Greatly interested; of awakened zeal; earnest.

   4.  Involved;  esp.,  involved in a hostile encounter; as, the engaged
   ships continued the fight.
   Engaged  column. (Arch.) Same as Attached column. See under Attach, v.
   En*ga"ged*ly (?), adv. With attachment; with interest; earnestly.
   En*ga"ged*ness,  n. The state of being deeply interested; earnestness;
   En*gage"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. engagement.] 

   1.  The  act  of engaging, pledging, enlisting, occupying, or entering
   into contest.

   2.  The state of being engaged, pledged or occupied; specif., a pledge
   to take some one as husband or wife.

   3.  That  which  engages;  engrossing  occupation;  employment  of the
   attention;  obligation  by pledge, promise, or contract; an enterprise
   embarked  in;  as,  his  engagements  prevented  his acceptance of any

     Religion, which is the chief engagement of our league. Milton.

   4. (Mil.) An action; a fight; a battle.

     In hot engagement with the Moors. Dryden.

   5.  (Mach.)  The  state  of being in gear; as, one part of a clutch is
   brought  into  engagement  with  the  other  part.  Syn.  -- Vocation;
   business;  employment;  occupation;  promise;  stipulation; betrothal;
   word; battle; combat; fight; contest; conflict. See Battle.


   En*ga"ger  (?),  n.  One who enters into an engagement or agreement; a

     Several sufficient citizens were engagers. Wood.


   En*ga"ging  (?),  a.  Tending  to  draw  the  attention or affections;
   attractive; as, engaging manners or address. -- En*ga"ging*ly, adv. --
   En*ga"ging*ness,  n.  Engaging and disengaging gear OR machinery, that
   in  which,  or by means of which, one part is alternately brought into
   gear or out of gear with another part, as occasion may require.


   En*gal"lant (?), v. t. To make a gallant of. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   En*gaol" (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + gaol: cf. OF. engaoler, engeoler. See
   Gaol, and cf. Enjail.] To put in jail; to imprison. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*gar"boil  (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + garboil.] To throw into disorder;
   to disturb. [Obs.] "To engarboil the church." Bp. Montagu.


   En*gar"land  (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + garland: cf. F. enguirlander.] To
   encircle with a garland, or with garlands. Sir P. Sidney.


   En*gar"ri*son  (?),  v.  t.  To  garrison;  to  put in garrison, or to
   protect by a garrison. Bp. Hall.


   En*gas"tri*muth (?), n. [Gr. engastrimythe.] An ventriloquist. [Obs.]


   En*gen"der  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Engendered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engendering.] [F. engender, L. ingenerare; in + generare to beget. See
   Generate, and cf. Ingenerate.]

   1. To produce by the union of the sexes; to beget. [R.]

   2. To cause to exist; to bring forth; to produce; to sow the seeds of;
   as, angry words engender strife.

     Engendering friendship in all parts of the common wealth. Southey.

   Syn.  --  To  breed;  generate;  procreate;  propagate; occasion; call
   forth; cause; excite; develop.


   En*gen"der, v. i.

   1. To assume form; to come into existence; to be caused or produced.

     Thick clouds are spread, and storms engender there. Dryden.

   2.  To  come  together;  to  meet,  as in sexual embrace. "I saw their
   mouths engender." Massinger.


   En*gen"der (?), n. One who, or that which, engenders.


   En`gen*drure" (?), n. [OF. engendreure.] The act of generation. [Obs.]


   En*gild" (?), v. t. To gild; to make splendent.

     Fair Helena, who most engilds the night. Shak.


   En"gine  (?), n. [F. engin skill, machine, engine, L. ingenium natural
   capacity,  invention;  in  in  +  the  root of gignere to produce. See
   Genius, and cf. Ingenious, Gin a snare.]

   1. (Pronounced, in this sense, [Obs.]

     A  man  hath  sapiences  three, Memory, engine, and intellect also.

   2.  Anything  used  to effect a purpose; any device or contrivance; an
   agent. Shak.

     You  see  the  ways the fisherman doth take To catch the fish; what
     engines doth he make? Bunyan.

     Their  promises,  enticements, oaths, tokens, and all these engines
     of lust. Shak.

   3.  Any  instrument  by  which  any effect is produced; especially, an
   instrument  or machine of war or torture. "Terrible engines of death."
   Sir W. Raleigh.

   4.  (Mach.)  A compound machine by which any physical power is applied
   to produce a given physical effect.
   Engine  driver,  one who manages an engine; specifically, the engineer
   of  a  locomotive. -- Engine lathe. (Mach.) See under Lathe. -- Engine
   tool,  a  machine tool. J. Whitworth. -- Engine turning (Fine Arts), a
   method of ornamentation by means of a rose engine.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm en gine is more commonly applied to massive
     machines, or to those giving power, or which produce some difficult
     result.  Engines,  as  motors,  are  distinguished according to the
     source  of  power,  as  steam  engine, air engine, electro-magnetic
     engine; or the purpose on account of which the power is applied, as
     fire engine, pumping engine, locomotive engine; or some peculiarity
     of  construction  or  operation,  as single-acting or double-acting
     engine,  high-pressure  or  low-pressure engine, condensing engine,


   En"gine, v. t.

   1. To assault with an engine. [Obs.]

     To engine and batter our walls. T. Adams.

   2.  To  equip with an engine; -- said especially of steam vessels; as,
   vessels are often built by one firm and engined by another.

   3. (Pronounced, in this sense, [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En`gi*neer"  (?), n. [OE. enginer: cf. OF. engignier, F. ing\'82nieur.
   See Engine, n.]

   1.  A  person  skilled in the principles and practice of any branch of
   engineering. See under Engineering, n.

   2.  One  who manages as engine, particularly a steam engine; an engine

   3.  One  who  carries  through  an  enterprise  by  skillful or artful
   contrivance; an efficient manager. [Colloq.]
   Civil  engineer, a person skilled in the science of civil engineering.
   -- Military engineer, one who executes engineering works of a military
   nature. See under Engineering.

   Page 493


   En`gi*neer"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Engineered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To lay out or construct, as an engineer; to perform the work of an
   engineer on; as, to engineer a road. J. Hamilton.

   2.  To  use  contrivance  and  effort  for; to guide the course of; to
   manage; as, to engineer a bill through Congress. [Colloq.]


   En`gi*neer"ing,  n.  Originally,  the  art of managing engines; in its
   modern and extended sense, the art and science by which the mechanical
   properties  of  matter  are  made  useful  to  man  in  structures and
   machines; the occupation and work of an engineer.

     NOTE: &hand; In   a   co mprehensive se nse, en gineering in cludes
     architecture  as a mechanical art, in distinction from architecture
     as  a  fine art. It was formerly divided into military engineering,
     which  is  the  art  of  designing  and  constructing offensive and
     defensive  works,  and  civil  engineering,  in  a  broad sense, as
     relating to other kinds of public works, machinery, etc. --

   Civil  engineering,  in modern usage, is strictly the art of planning,
   laying  out,  and  constructing fixed public works, such as railroads,
   highways, canals, aqueducts, water works, bridges, lighthouses, docks,
   embankments,   breakwaters,   dams,   tunnels,   etc.   --  Mechanical
   engineering  relates  to  machinery,  such  as  steam engines, machine
   tools, mill work, etc. -- Mining engineering deals with the excavation
   and  working  of  mines, and the extraction of metals from their ores,
   etc.  Engineering  is  further  divided  into  steam  engineering, gas
   engineering,   agricultural  engineering,  topographical  engineering,
   electrical engineering, etc.


   En"gine*man  (?), n.; pl. Enginemen (. A man who manages, or waits on,
   an engine.


   En"gin*er  (?),  n.  [See  Engineer.]  A  contriver;  an  inventor;  a
   contriver of engines. [Obs.] Shak.


   En"gine*ry (?), n.

   1. The act or art of managing engines, or artillery. Milton.

   2. Engines, in general; instruments of war.

     Training his devilish enginery. Milton.

   3.  Any  device  or  contrivance; machinery; structure or arrangement.


   En"gine-sized`  (?), a. Sized by a machine, and not while in the pulp;
   -- said of paper. Knight.


   En"gi*nous (?), a. [OF. engignos. See Ingenious.]

   1. Pertaining to an engine. [Obs.]

     That one act gives, like an enginous wheel, Motion to all. Decker.

   2. Contrived with care; ingenious. [Obs.]

     The mark of all enginous drifts. B. Jonson.


   En*gird"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Engirded or Engirt (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engirding.]  [Pref.  en-  +  gird. Cf. Ingirt.] To gird; to encompass.


   En*gir"dle (?), v. t. To surround as with a girdle; to girdle.


   En*girt" (?), v. t. To engird. [R.] Collins.


   En"gi*scope  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -scope.]  (Opt.)  A  kind  of  reflecting
   microscope. [Obs.]


   En*glaimed"  (?),  a.  [OE.  engleimen to smear, gleim birdlime, glue,
   phlegm.] Clammy. [Obs.]


   En"gle  (?),  n.  [OE. enghle to coax or cajole. Cf. Angle a hook, one
   easily  enticed,  a  gull,  Ingle.]  A favorite; a paramour; an ingle.
   [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   En"gle, v. t. To cajole or coax, as favorite. [Obs.]

     I 'll presently go and engle some broker. B. Jonson.


   Eng"lish  (?),  a.  [AS.  Englisc, fr. Engle, Angle, Engles, Angles, a
   tribe  of  Germans  from  the  southeast  of Sleswick, in Denmark, who
   settled  in Britain and gave it the name of England. Cf. Anglican.] Of
   or  pertaining  to  England,  or to its inhabitants, or to the present
   so-called Anglo-Saxon race. English bond (Arch.) See 1st Bond, n.,

   8. --
   English  breakfast  tea. See Congou. -- English horn. (Mus.) See Corno
   Inglese. -- English walnut. (Bot.) See under Walnut.


   Eng"lish, n.

   1. Collectively, the people of England; English people or persons.

   2.  The  language  of  England  or of the English nation, and of their
   descendants in America, India, and other countries.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e En glish language has been variously divided into
     periods  by  different  writers.  In  the  division  most  commonly
     recognized,  the first period dates from about 450 to 1150. This is
     the  period  of  full inflection, and is called Anglo-Saxon, or, by
     many  recent  writers,  Old  English.  The second period dates from
     about  1150  to 1550 (or, if four periods be recognized, from about
     1150 to 1350), and is called Early English, Middle English, or more
     commonly  (as  in the usage of this book), Old English. During this
     period  most of the inflections were dropped, and there was a great
     addition  of French words to the language. The third period extends
     from  about 1350 to 1550, and is Middle English. During this period
     orthography became comparatively fixed. The last period, from about
     1550, is called Modern English.

   3. A kind of printing type, in size between Pica and Great Primer. See

     NOTE: The type called English.

   4.  (Billiards) A twist or spinning motion given to a ball in striking
   it that influences the direction it will take after touching a cushion
   or another ball.
   The King's, OR Queen's, English. See under King.


   Eng"lish,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Englished  (?);  p.  pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  translate  into  the English language; to Anglicize; hence, to
   interpret; to explain.

     Those  gracious  acts . . . may be Englished more properly, acts of
     fear and dissimulation. Milton.

     Caxton  does  not  care  to alter the French forms and words in the
     book which he was Englishing. T. L. K. Oliphant.

   2. (Billiards) To strike (the cue ball) in such a manner as to give it
   in  addition  to its forward motion a spinning motion, that influences
   its direction after impact on another ball or the cushion. [U.S.]


   Eng"lish*a*ble  (?), a. Capable of being translated into, or expressed
   in, English.


   Eng"lish*ism (?), n.

   1. A quality or characteristic peculiar to the English. M. Arnold.

   2.  A form of expression peculiar to the English language as spoken in
   England; an Anglicism.


   Eng"lish*man  (-man),  n.;  pl.  Englishmen  (-men).  A  native  or  a
   naturalized inhabitant of England.


   Eng"lish*ry (?), n.

   1. The state or privilege of being an Englishman. [Obs.] Cowell.

   2. A body of English or people of English descent; -- commonly applied
   to English people in Ireland.

     A general massacre of the Englishry. Macaulay.


   Eng"lish*wom`an (?), n.; pl. Englishwomen (. Fem. of Englishman. Shak.


   En*gloom" (?), v. t. To make gloomy. [R.]


   En*glue"  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. en- + glue: cf. F. engluer to smear with
   birdlime.]  To join or close fast together, as with glue; as, a coffer
   well englued. Gower.


   En*glut"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Englutted (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Englutting (?).] [Pref. en- + glut: cf. F. engloutir.]

   1. To swallow or gulp down. [Obs.] Shak.

   2. To glut. [Obs.] "Englutted with vanity." Ascham.


   En*gore" (?), v. t.

   1. To gore; to pierce; to lacerate. [Obs.]

     Deadly engored of a great wild boar. Spenser.

   2. To make bloody. [Obs.] Chapman.


   En*gorge"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Engorged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engorging  (?).]  [Pref.  en-  +  gorge:  cf. F. engorger to obstruct,

   1. To gorge; to glut. Mir. for Mag.

   2.  To  swallow  with  greediness  or  in large quantities; to devour.


   En*gorge",  v.  i.  To feed with eagerness or voracity; to stuff one's
   self with food. Beaumont.


   En*gorged" (?), p. a.

   1. Swallowed with greediness, or in large draughts.

   2. (Med.) Filled to excess with blood or other liquid; congested.


   En*gorge"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. engorgement.]

   1.  The  act  of  swallowing  greedily;  a  devouring with voracity; a

   2.  (Med.)  An overfullness or obstruction of the vessels in some part
   of the system; congestion. Hoblyn.

   3. (Metal.) The clogging of a blast furnace.


   En*gouled"  (?),  a. (Her.) Partly swallowed; disappearing in the jaws
   of  anything;  as,  an  infant  engouled by a serpent; said also of an
   ordinary,  when its two ends to issue from the mouths of lions, or the
   like; as, a bend engouled.


   En`gou`l\'82e" (?), a. [F., p. p. of engouler to swallow up; pref. en-
   (L. in) + gueule mouth.] (Her.) Same as Engouled.


   En*graff" (?), v. t. [See Ingraft.] To graft; to fix deeply. [Obs.]


   En*graff"ment (?), n. See Ingraftment. [Obs.]


   En*graft" (?), v. t. See Ingraft. Shak.

                           Engraftation, Engraftment

   En`graf*ta"tion  (?),  En*graft"ment  (?),  n.  The act of ingrafting;
   ingraftment. [R.]


   En*grail"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Engrailed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engrailing.]  [F.  engr\'88ler; pref. en- (L. in) + gr\'88le hail. See
   Grail gravel.]

   1. To variegate or spot, as with hail.

     A caldron new engrailed with twenty hues. Chapman.

   2. (Her.) To indent with small curves. See Engrailed.


   En*grail",  v.  i.  To  form  an edging or border; to run in curved or
   indented lines. Parnell.


   En*grailed"  (?), a. (Her.) Indented with small concave curves, as the
   edge of a bordure, bend, or the like.


   En*grail"ment (?), n.

   1. The ring of dots round the edge of a medal, etc. Brande & C.

   2. (Her.) Indentation in curved lines, as of a line of division or the
   edge of an ordinary.


   En*grain"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Engrained (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engraining.] [Pref. en- + grain. Cf. Ingrain.]

   1. To dye in grain, or of a fast color. See Ingrain.

     Leaves engrained in lusty green. Spenser.

   2.  To  incorporate  with  the grain or texture of anything; to infuse
   deeply. See Ingrain.

     The stain hath become engrained by time. Sir W. Scott.

   3. To color in imitation of the grain of wood; to grain. See Grain, v.
   t., 1.


   En*grap"ple (?), v. t. & i. To grapple. [Obs.]


   En*grasp"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Engrasped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engrasping.] To grasp; to grip. [R.] Spenser.


   En*grave",  v. t. [Pref. en- + grave a tomb. Cf. Engrave to carve.] To
   deposit  in  the  grave;  to  bury.  [Obs.] "Their corses to engrave."


   En*grave" (?), v. t. [imp. Engraved (?); p. p. Engraved or Engraven (;
   p.  pr.  &  vb.  n.  Engraving.]  [Pref. en- + grave to carve: cf. OF.

   1. To cut in; to make by incision. [Obs.]

     Full many wounds in his corrupted flesh He did engrave. Spenser.

   2. To cut with a graving instrument in order to form an inscription or
   pictorial representation; to carve figures; to mark with incisions.

     Like . . . . a signet thou engrave the two stones with the names of
     the children of Israel. Ex. xxviii. 11.

   3. To form or represent by means of incisions upon wood, stone, metal,
   or the like; as, to engrave an inscription.

   4. To impress deeply; to infix, as if with a graver.

     Engrave principles in men's minds. Locke.


   En*graved" (?), a.

   1. Made by engraving or ornamented with engraving.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  the  surface covered with irregular, impressed


   En*grave"ment (?), n.

   1. Engraving.

   2. Engraved work. [R.] Barrow.


   En*grav"er  (?), n. One who engraves; a person whose business it is to
   produce engraved work, especially on metal or wood.


   En*grav"er*y  (?),  n.  The  trade or work of an engraver. [R.] Sir T.


   En*grav"ing, n.

   1.  The  act  or art of producing upon hard material incised or raised
   patterns,  characters,  lines,  and  the  like; especially, the art of
   producing  such  lines, etc., in the surface of metal plates or blocks
   of  wood.  Engraving is used for the decoration of the surface itself;
   also, for producing an original, from which a pattern or design may be
   printed on paper.

   2. That which is engraved; an engraved plate.

   3.  An  impression  from  an  engraved  plate, block of wood, or other
   material; a print.

     NOTE: &hand; En graving on  wo od is  called xylography; on copper,
     chalcography;  on stone lithography. Engravings or prints take from
     wood  blocks  are  usually  called  wood  cuts,  those  from stone,


   En*greg"ge  (?),  v. t. [OF. engregier, from (assumed) LL. ingreviare;
   in  +  (assumed)  grevis  heavy,  for  L.  gravis.  Cf. Aggravate.] To
   aggravate; to make worse; to lie heavy on. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En*grieve" (?), v. t. To grieve. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*gross"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Engrossed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engrossing.]  [F.,  fr. pref. en- (L. in) + gros gross, grosse, n., an
   engrossed  document:  cf.  OF.  engrossir, engroissier, to make thick,
   large, or gross. See Gross.]

   1.  To make gross, thick, or large; to thicken; to increase in bulk or
   quantity. [Obs.]

     Waves . . . engrossed with mud. Spenser.

     Not sleeping, to engross his idle body. Shak.

   2. To amass. [Obs.]

     To engross up glorious deeds on my behalf. Shak.

   3.  To  copy  or write in a large hand (en gross, i. e., in large); to
   write  a  fair  copy  of  in  distinct  and legible characters; as, to
   engross a deed or like instrument on parchment.

     Some period long past, when clerks engrossed their stiff and formal
     chirography on more substantial materials. Hawthorne.

     Laws that may be engrossed on a finger nail. De Quincey.

   4.  To  seize in the gross; to take the whole of; to occupy wholly; to
   absorb; as, the subject engrossed all his thoughts.

   5.  To  purchase  either  the  whole  or  large quantities of, for the
   purpose  of enhancing the price and making a profit; hence, to take or
   assume  in  undue  quantity,  proportion,  or  degree;  as, to engross
   commodities in market; to engross power.
   Engrossed  bill (Legislation), one which has been plainly engrossed on
   parchment, with all its amendments, preparatory to final action on its
   passage.  --  Engrossing  hand  (Penmanship),  a  fair, round style of
   writing  suitable  for  engrossing legal documents, legislative bills,
   etc.  Syn. -- To absorb; swallow up; imbibe; consume; exhaust; occupy;
   forestall; monopolize. See Absorb.


   En*gross"er (?), n.

   1. One who copies a writing in large, fair characters.

   2.  One who takes the whole; a person who purchases such quantities of
   articles in a market as to raise the price; a forestaller. Locke.


   En*gross"ment (?), n.

   1. The act of engrossing; as, the engrossment of a deed.

     Engrossments of power and favor. Swift.

   2.  That which has been engrossed, as an instrument, legislative bill,
   goods, etc.


   En*guard" (?), v. t. To surround as with a guard. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*gulf"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Engulfed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Engulfing.]  [Pref.  en-  +  gulf:  cf.  OF. engolfer. Cf. Ingulf.] To
   absorb or swallow up as in a gulf.

     It quite engulfs all human thought. Young.

   Syn. -- See Absorb.


   En*gulf"ment (?), n. A swallowing up as if in a gulf. [R.]


   En*gyn" (?). Variant of Engine. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En*ha"lo (?), v. t. To surround with a halo.


   En*hance"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Enhanced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enhancing   (?).]   [Norm.  F.  enhauncer,  enhaucer,  OF.  enhaleier,
   enhaucier;  pref.  en-  (L.  in)  + haucier to lift, raise up, from an
   assumed  L.  altiare,  fr. L. altus high; cf. Pr. enansar, enanzar, to
   advance, exalt, and E. advance. See Altitude, and cf. Hawser.]

   1. To raise or lift up; to exalt. [Obs.] Wyclif.

     Who, naught aghast, his mighty hand enhanced. Spenser.

   2.  To  advance;  to  augment;  to increase; to heighten; to make more
   costly  or  attractive;  as,  to  enhance the price of commodities; to
   enhance  beauty  or  kindness; hence, also, to render more heinous; to
   aggravate; as, to enhance crime.

     The reputation of ferocity enhanced the value of their services, in
     making them feared as well as hated. Southey.


   En*hance",  v. i. To be raised up; to grow larger; as, a debt enhances
   rapidly by compound interest.


   En*hance"ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of  increasing,  or  state of being
   increased;  augmentation;  aggravation;  as, the enhancement of value,
   price, enjoyments, crime.


   En*han"cer  (?),  n.  One who enhances; one who, or that which, raises
   the amount, price, etc.


   En*har"bor  (?),  v.  t.  To  find harbor or safety in; to dwell in or
   inhabit. W. Browne.


   En*hard"en  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en-  +  harden:  cf.  F. enhardir to
   embolden.] To harden; to embolden. [Obs.] Howell.

                           Enharmonic, Enharmonical

   En`har*mon"ic (?), En`har*mon"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. enharmonique.]

   Page 494

   1.  (Anc.  Mus.)  Of  or  pertaining to that one of the three kinds of
   musical  scale  (diatonic,  chromatic,  enharmonic)  recognized by the
   ancient Greeks, which consisted of quarter tones and major thirds, and
   was regarded as the most accurate.

   2.  (Mus.)  (a)  Pertaining to a change of notes to the eye, while, as
   the  same  keys are used, the instrument can mark no difference to the
   ear,  as  the  substitution of Ab for G#. (b) Pertaining to a scale of
   perfect  intonation  which recognizes all the notes and intervals that
   result   from   the   exact   tuning  of  diatonic  scales  and  their
   transposition into other keys.


   En`har*mon"ic*al*ly  (?),  adv.  In the enharmonic style or system; in
   just intonation.


   En*heart"en  (?),  v.  t.  To  give heart to; to fill with courage; to

     The enemy exults and is enheartened. I. Taylor.


   En*hedge" (?), v. t. To surround as with a hedge. [R.] Vicars.


   En*hort" (?), v. t. [OF. enhorter, enorter, L. inhortari. Cf. Exhort.]
   To encourage. [Obs.] "To enhort the people." Chaucer.


   En*hun"ger (?), v. t. To make hungry.

     Those  animal  passions  which vice had . . . enhungered to feed on
     innocence and life. J. Martineau.


   En*hy"dros (?), n. [NL. See Enhydrous.] (Min.) A variety of chalcedony
   containing water.


   En*hy"drous  (?), a. [Gr. Having water within; containing fluid drops;
   -- said of certain crystals.


   E*nig"ma (?), n.; pl. Enigmas (#). [L. aenigma, Gr.

   1. A dark, obscure, or inexplicable saying; a riddle; a statement, the
   hidden meaning of which is to be discovered or guessed.

     A  custom  was  among  the  ancients  of  proposing  an  enigma  at
     festivals. Pope.

   2. An action, mode of action, or thing, which cannot be satisfactorily
   explained; a puzzle; as, his conduct is an enigma.

                          Enigmatic; 277, Enigmatical

   E`nig*mat"ic    (?;    277),   E`nig*mat"ic*al   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   \'82nigmatique.]  Relating  to  or  resembling  an  enigma; not easily
   explained  or  accounted for; darkly expressed; obscure; puzzling; as,
   an enigmatical answer.


   E`nig*mat"ic*al*ly, adv. Darkly; obscurely.


   E*nig"ma*tist  (?),  n.  [Gr.  One  who  makes,  or talks in, enigmas.


   E*nig"ma*tize  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Enigmatized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Enigmatizing  (?).]  To  make,  or  talk  in,  enigmas; to deal in

                         Enigmatography, Enigmatology

   E*nig`ma*tog"ra*phy  (?),  E*nig`ma*tol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -graphy,
   -logy.] The art of making or of solving enigmas.


   En*isled"  (?),  p.  a.  Placed  alone  or  apart, as if on an island;
   severed, as an island. [R.] "In the sea of life enisled." M. Arnold.


   En*jall"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Enjailed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enjailing.]  [Pref.  en-  +  jail.  Cf.  Engaol.] To put into jail; to
   imprison. [R.] Donne.


   En*join"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Enjoined (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enjoining.]  [F. enjoindre, L. injungere to join into, charge, enjoin;
   in + jungere to join. See Join, and cf. Injunction.]

   1.  To  lay upon, as an order or command; to give an injunction to; to
   direct with authority; to order; to charge.

     High matter thou enjoin'st me. Milton.

     I am enjoined by oath to observe three things. Shak.

   2. (Law) To prohibit or restrain by a judicial order or decree; to put
   an injunction on.

     This  is  a  suit  to  enjoin  the  defendants  from disturbing the
     plaintiffs. Kent.

     NOTE: &hand; En join ha s th e fo rce of  pr essing admonition with
     authority;  as,  a  parent  enjoins  on  his  children  the duty of
     obedience.  But  it  has  also the sense of command; as, the duties
     enjoined  by God in the moral law. "This word is more authoritative
     than direct, and less imperious than command."



   En*join", v. t. To join or unite. [Obs.] Hooker.


   En*join"er (?), n. One who enjoins.


   En*join"ment  (?),  n.  Direction;  command; authoritative admonition.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   En*joy"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Enjoyed  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enjoying.] [OF. enjoier to receive with joy; pref. en- (L. in) + OF. &
   F. joie joy: cf. OF. enjoir to enjoy. See Joy.]

   1.  To  take  pleasure or satisfaction in the possession or experience
   of;  to  feel  or perceive with pleasure; to be delighted with; as, to
   enjoy the dainties of a feast; to enjoy conversation.

   2.  To have, possess, and use with satisfaction; to occupy or have the
   benefit  of, as a good or profitable thing, or as something desirable;
   as, to enjoy a free constitution and religious liberty.

     That  the children of Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance of
     his fathers. Num. xxxvi. 8.

     To enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season. Heb. xi. 25.

   3. To have sexual intercourse with. Milton.
   To enjoy one's self, to feel pleasure; to be happy.


   En*joy",  v.  i.  To  take  satisfaction;  to  live in happiness. [R.]


   En*joy"a*ble  (?),  a.  Capable  of  being  enjoyed  or of giving joy;
   yielding enjoyment. Milton.


   En*joy"er (?), n. One who enjoys.


   En*joy"ment (?), n.

   1. The condition of enjoying anything; pleasure or satisfaction, as in
   the  possession  or occupancy of anything; possession and use; as, the
   enjoyment of an estate.

   2. That which gives pleasure or keen satisfaction.

     The hope of everlasting enjoyments. Glanvill.

   Syn.  --  Pleasure;  satisfaction; gratification; fruition; happiness;
   felicity; delight.


   En*ken"nel (?), v. t. To put into a kennel.


   En*ker"chiefed (?), a. Bound with a kerchief; draped; hooded; covered.

     That soft, enkerchiefed hair. M. Arnold.


   En*kin"dle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Enkindled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enkindling (?).]

   1. To set on fire; to inflame; to kindle. Shak.

   2. To excite; to rouse into action; to incite.

     To enkindle the enthusiasm of an artist. Talfourd.


   En*lace" (?), v. t. To bind or encircle with lace, or as with lace; to
   lace; to encircle; to enfold; hence, to entangle.

     Ropes of pearl her neck and breast enlace. P. Fletcher.


   En*lace"ment (?), n. The act of enlacing, or state of being enlaced; a
   surrounding as with a lace.


   En*lard"  (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + lard: cf. OF. enlarder to put on the
   spit, Pr. & Sp. enlardar to rub with grease, baste.] To cover or dress
   with lard or grease; to fatten. Shak.


   En*large"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Enlarged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enlarging (?).] [OF. enlargier; pref. en- (L. in) + F. large wide. See

   1. To make larger; to increase in quantity or dimensions; to extend in
   limits;  to magnify; as, the body is enlarged by nutrition; to enlarge
   one's house.

     To enlarge their possessions of land. Locke.

   2.  To  increase  the  capacity  of;  to expand; to give free scope or
   greater  scope  to;  also,  to dilate, as with joy, affection, and the
   like; as, knowledge enlarges the mind.

     O ye Corinthians, our . . . heart is enlarged. 2 Cor. vi. 11.

   3. To set at large or set free. [Archaic]

     It will enlarge us from all restraints. Barrow.

   Enlarging  hammer,  a  hammer  with  a  slightly rounded face of large
   diameter;  --  used by gold beaters. Knight. -- To enlarge an order OR
   rule  (Law),  to  extend the time for complying with it. Abbott. -- To
   enlarge  one's  self,  to  give  free  vent  to  speech; to spread out
   discourse.  "They  enlarged themselves on this subject." Clarendon. --
   To  enlarge  the heart, to make free, liberal, and charitable. Syn. --
   To  increase;  extend;  expand; spread; amplify; augment; magnify. See


   En*large", v. i.

   1.  To  grow large or larger; to be further extended; to expand; as, a
   plant  enlarges  by  growth;  an estate enlarges by good management; a
   volume of air enlarges by rarefaction.

   2.  To speak or write at length; to be diffuse in speaking or writing;
   to expatiate; to dilate.

     To enlarge upon this theme. M. Arnold.

   3. (Naut.) To get more astern or parallel with the vessel's course; to
   draw aft; -- said of the wind.


   En*larged"  (?),  a.  Made  large  or  larger;  extended;  swollen. --
   En*lar"ged*ly (#), adv. -- En*lar"ged*ness, n.


   En*large"ment (?), n.

   1.  The act of increasing in size or bulk, real or apparent; the state
   of being increased; augmentation; further extension; expansion.

   2.  Expansion or extension, as of the powers of the mind; ennoblement,
   as  of  the  feelings  and  character; as, an enlargement of views, of
   knowledge, of affection.

   3.   A  setting  at  large,  or  being  set  at  large;  release  from
   confinement, servitude, or distress; liberty.

     Give enlargement to the swain. Shak.

   4.  Diffusiveness  of  speech or writing; expatiation; a wide range of
   discourse or argument.

     An  enlargement  upon  the vices and corruptions that were got into
     the army. Clarendon.


   En*lar"ger (?), n. One that enlarges.


   En*lay" (?), v. t. See Inlay.


   En*length"en (?), v. t. To lengthen. [Obs.]


   En*lev"en (?), n. Eleven. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En*light"  (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + light. Cf. Enlighten.] To illumine;
   to enlighten. [R.]

     Which  from the first has shone on ages past, Enlights the present,
     and shall warm the last. Pope.


   En*light"en  (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + lighten: cf. AS. inl\'c6htan. Cf.

   1.  To  supply  with  light; to illuminate; as, the sun enlightens the

     His lightnings enlightened the world. Ps. xcvii. 4.

   2.  To make clear to the intellect or conscience; to shed the light of
   truth  and  knowledge  upon; to furnish with increase of knowledge; to
   instruct; as, to enlighten the mind or understanding.

     The conscience enlightened by the Word and Spirit of God. Trench.


   En*light"en*er  (?), n. One who enlightens or illuminates; one who, or
   that which, communicates light to the eye, or clear views to the mind.


   En*light"en*ment  (?),  n.  Act of enlightening, or the state of being
   enlightened or instructed.


   En*limn"  (?),  v. t. [Pref. en- + limn. Cf. Enlumine, Illuminate.] To
   adorn  by  illuminating  or  ornamenting  with  colored  and decorated
   letters and figures, as a book or manuscript. [R.] Palsgrave.


   En*link" (?), v. t. To chain together; to connect, as by links. Shak.


   En*list"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Enlisted;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.

   1. To enter on a list; to enroll; to register.

   2.  To engage for military or naval service, the name being entered on
   a list or register; as, to enlist men.

   3.  To secure the support and aid of; to employ in advancing interest;
   as,  to  enlist  persons  in  the  cause  of truth, or in a charitable


   En*list", v. i.

   1. To enroll and bind one's self for military or naval service; as, he
   enlisted in the regular army; the men enlisted for the war.

   2. To enter heartily into a cause, as if enrolled.


   En*list"ment (?), n.

   1.  The  act  or  enlisting, or the state of being enlisted; voluntary
   enrollment to serve as a soldier or a sailor.

   2. The writing by which an enlisted man is bound.


   En*live"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en- + live, a.] To enliven. [Obs.] Bp.


   En*liv"en  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Enlivened (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enlivening (?).] [Pref. en- + liven.].

   1.  To give life, action, or motion to; to make vigorous or active; to
   excite; to quicken; as, fresh fuel enlivens a fire.

     Lo! of themselves th' enlivened chessmen move. Cowley.

   2. To give spirit or vivacity to; to make sprightly, gay, or cheerful;
   to  animate;  as,  mirth  and good humor enliven a company; enlivening
   strains   of  music.  Syn.  --  To  animate;  rouse;  inspire;  cheer;
   encourage; comfort; exhilarate; inspirit; invigorate.


   En*liv"en*er  (?),  n.  One who, or that which, enlivens, animates, or


   En*lock" (?), v. t. To lock; to inclose.


   En*lu"mine  (?),  v. t. [F. enluminer; pref. en- (L. in) + L. luminare
   to  light  up,  illumine.  See Illuminate, and cf. Limn.] To illumine.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*lute"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref. en- + L. lutum mud, clay.] To coat with
   clay; to lute. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En`man`ch\'82" (?), a. [F.; pref. en- (L. in) + manche sleeve.] (Her.)
   Resembling, or covered with, a sleeve; -- said of the chief when lines
   are  drawn  from  the middle point of the upper edge upper edge to the


   En*mar"ble (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + marble.] To make hard as marble; to
   harden. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*mesh"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en-  +  mesh. Cf. Inmesh.] To catch or
   entangle in, or as in, meshes. Shak.

     My doubts enmesh me if I try. Lowell.


   En*mew" (?), v. t. See Emmew.


   En*mist" (?), v. t. To infold, as in a mist.


   En"mi*ty  (?),  n.;  pl. Enmities (#). [OE. enemyte, fr. enemy: cf. F.
   inimiti\'82, OF. enemisti\'82. See Enemy, and cf. Amity.]

   1. The quality of being an enemy; hostile or unfriendly disposition.

     No ground of enmity between us known. Milton.

   2. A state of opposition; hostility.

     The friendship of the world is enmity with God. James iv. 4.

   Syn.  --  Rancor;  hostility; hatred; aversion; antipathy; repugnance;
   animosity; ill will; malice; malevolence. See Animosity, Rancor.


   En*mossed" (?; 115), a. [Pref. en- + moss.] Covered with moss; mossed.


   En*move" (?), v. t. See Emmove. [Obs.]


   En*muf"fle (?), v. t. To muffle up.


   En*mure" (?), v. t. To immure. [Obs.]


   En*na"tion (?), n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The ninth segment in insects.


   En"ne*ad (?), n. [Gr. The number nine or a group of nine. The Enneads,
   the title given to the works of the philosopher Plotinus, published by
   his  pupil  Porphyry;  -- so called because each of the six books into
   which it is divided contains nine chapters.


   En"ne*a*gon  (?;  277),  n.  [Gr.  enn\'82agone.] (Geom.) A polygon or
   plane figure with nine sides and nine angles; a nonagon.


   En`ne*ag"o*nal  (?),  a. (Geom.) Belonging to an enneagon; having nine


   En`ne*ag"y*nous  (?),  a. [Gr. (Bot.) Having or producing nine pistils
   or styles; -- said of a flower or plant.


   En`he*a*he"dral (?), a. [Gr. (Geom.) Having nine sides.

                           Enheahedria, Enheahedron

   En`he*a*he"dri*a  (?), En`he*a*he"dron (?), n. (Geom.) A figure having
   nine sides; a nonagon.


   En`ne*an"dri*a   (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  enn\'82andrie.]  (Bot.)  A
   Linn\'91an class of plants having nine stamens.

                           Enneandrian, Enneandrous

   En`ne*an"dri*an   (?),  En`ne*an"drous  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Having  nine


   En`ne*a*pet"al*ous  (?),  a. [Gr. petalous: cf. F. enn\'82ap\'82tale.]
   (Bot.) Having nine petals, or flower leaves.


   En`ne*a*sper"mous  (?),  a.  [Gr. (Bot.) Having nine seeds; -- said of

                             Enneatic, Enneatical

   En`ne*at"ic  (?),  En`ne*at"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Occurring once in every
   nine  times,  days,  years,  etc.;  every ninth. Enneatical day, every
   ninth  day  of  a  disease.  -- Enneatical year, every ninth year of a
   man's life.


   En*new"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en-  + new. Cf. Innovate.] To make new.
   [Obs.] Skelton.


   En*niche" (?), v. t. To place in a niche. Sterne.


   En*no"ble  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Ennobled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Ennobling (?).] [Pref. en- + noble: cf. F. ennoblir.]

   1.  To  make noble; to elevate in degree, qualities, or excellence; to
   dignify. "Ennobling all that he touches." Trench.

     What  can  ennoble  sots,  or slaves, or cowards? Alas! not all the
     blood of all the Howards. Pope.

   2.  To  raise to the rank of nobility; as, to ennoble a commoner. Syn.
   -- To raise; dignify; exalt; elevate; aggrandize.


   En*no"ble*ment, n.

   1.  The  act of making noble, or of exalting, dignifying, or advancing
   to nobility. Bacon.

   2. That which ennobles; excellence; dignity.


   En*no"bler (?), n. One who ennobles.


   En`nui"  (?),  n. [F., fr. L. in odio in hatred. See Annoy.] A feeling
   of  weariness  and  disgust;  dullness and languor of spirits, arising
   from satiety or want of interest; tedium. T. Gray.


   En`nuy`\'82"  (?), a. [F., p. p. of ennuyer. See Ennui.] Affected with
   ennui; weary in spirits; emotionally exhausted.


   En`nuy`\'82", n. [F.] One who is affected with ennui.


   En`nuy`\'82e" (?), n. [F.] A woman affected with ennui. Mrs. Jameson.


   E*nod"al (?), a. (Bot.) Without a node. Gray.

   Page 495


   En`o*da"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  enodatio explanation, fr. enodare to free
   from  knots. See Enode.] The act or operation of clearing of knots, or
   of untying; hence, also, the solution of a difficulty. [R.] Bailey.


   E*node"  (?),  v.  t.  [L. enodare; e out + nodare to fill with knots,
   nodus a knot.] To clear of knots; to make clear. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   E*noint" (?), a. Anointed. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   E*nom"o*tarch  (?), n. [Gr. Enomoty.] (Gr. Antiq.) The commander of an
   enomoty. Mitford.


   E*nom"o*ty  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Gr.  Antiq.)  A band of sworn soldiers; a
   division  of  the  Spartan army ranging from twenty-five to thirty-six
   men, bound together by oath.


   En"o*pla  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of the orders of
   Nemertina,  characterized  by  the  presence of a peculiar armature of
   spines or plates in the proboscis.


   En*op"to*man`cy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -mancy.]  Divination  by the use of a


   E*norm"  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. \'82norme. See Enormous.] Enormous. [Obs.]


   E*nor"mi*ty  (?),  n.;  pl. Enormities (#). [L. enormitas, fr. enormis
   enormous: cf. F. \'82normit\'82. See Enormous.]

   1.  The  state  or quality of exceeding a measure or rule, or of being
   immoderate, monstrous, or outrageous.

     The enormity of his learned acquisitions. De Quincey.

   2.  That  which  is enormous; especially, an exceeding offense against
   order,  right, or decency; an atrocious crime; flagitious villainy; an

     These  clamorous  enormities which are grown too big and strong for
     law or shame. South.


   E*nor"mous  (?),  a.  [L. enormis enormous, out of rule; e out + norma
   rule: cf. F. \'82norme. See Normal.]

   1.  Exceeding the usual rule, norm, or measure; out of due proportion;
   inordinate; abnormal. "Enormous bliss." Milton. "This enormous state."
   Shak. "The hoop's enormous size." Jenyns.

     Wallowing unwieldy, enormous in their gait. Milton.

   2.  Exceedingly  wicked;  outrageous;  atrocious;  monstrous;  as,  an
   enormous crime.

     That detestable profession of a life so enormous. Bale.

   Syn.  --  Huge;  vast;  immoderate;  immense;  excessive;  prodigious;
   monstrous.  --  Enormous,  Immense,  Excessive. We speak of a thing as
   enormous  when  it  overpasses  its  ordinary  law of existence or far
   exceeds  its proper average or standard, and becomes -- so to speak --
   abnormal  in  its  magnitude,  degree,  etc.;  as,  a  man of enormous
   strength;  a  deed  of enormous wickedness. Immense expresses somewhat
   indefinitely  an immeasurable quantity or extent. Excessive is applied
   to  what  is beyond a just measure or amount, and is always used in an
   evil;  as,  enormous  size; an enormous crime; an immense expenditure;
   the  expanse of ocean is immense. "Excessive levity and indulgence are
   ultimately  excessive rigor." V. Knox. "Complaisance becomes servitude
   when it is excessive." La Rochefoucauld (Trans).


   E*nor"mous*ly, adv. In an enormous degree.


   E*nor"mous*ness, n. The state of being enormous.


   En*or"tho*trope  (?), n. [Gr. An optical toy; a card on which confused
   or  imperfect  figures  are  drawn,  but which form to the eye regular
   figures when the card is rapidly revolved. See Thaumatrope.


   E*nough" (?), a. [OE. inoh, inow, enogh, AS. gen, gen, a. & adv. (akin
   to  OS. gin, D. genoeg, OHG. ginoug, G. genug, Icel. gn, Sw. nog, Dan.
   nok,  Goth.  gan), fr. geneah it suffices (akin to Goth. ganah); pref.
   ge-  +  a  root  akin  to  L. nancisci to get, Skr. na, Gr. Satisfying
   desire;  giving  content;  adequate  to  meet the want; sufficient; --
   usually, and more elegantly, following the noun to which it belongs.

     How  many  hired  servants  of my father's have bread enough and to
     spare! Luke xv. 17.


   E*nough", adv.

   1.   In   a  degree  or  quantity  that  satisfies;  to  satisfaction;

   2.  Fully;  quite;  --  used  to  express  slight  augmentation of the
   positive  degree,  and  sometimes  equivalent to very; as, he is ready
   enough to embrace the offer.

     I know you well enough; you are Signior Antonio. Shak.

     Thou  knowest well enough . . . that this is no time to lend money.

   3.  In  a  tolerable degree; -- used to express mere acceptableness or
   acquiescence,  and  implying  a degree or quantity rather less than is
   desired; as, the song was well enough.

     NOTE: &hand; Enough usually follows the word it modifies.


   E*nough",  n.  A  sufficiency;  a  quantity which satisfies desire, is
   adequate  to the want, or is equal to the power or ability; as, he had
   enough to do take care of himself. "Enough is as good as a feast."

     And Esau said, I have enough, my brother. Gen. xxxiii. 9.


   E*nough",   interj.  An  exclamation  denoting  sufficiency,  being  a
   shortened form of it is enough.


   E*nounce"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Enounced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enouncing  (?).]  [F.  \'82noncer,  L.  enuntiare; e out + nuntiare to
   announce, fr. nuntius messenger. See Nuncio, and cf. Enunciate.]

   1.  To  announce;  to declare; to state, as a proposition or argument.
   Sir W. Hamilton.

   2. To utter; to articulate.

     The student should be able to enounce these [sounds] independently.
     A. M. Bell.


   E*nounce"ment (?), n. Act of enouncing; that which is enounced.


   E*now" (?). A form of Enough. [Archaic] Shak.


   En*pa"tron  (?),  v.  t.  To  act  the  part  of  a patron towards; to
   patronize. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*pierce" (?), v. t. [See Empierce.] To pierce. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*quere" (?), v. i. To inquire. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En*quick"en (?), v. t. To quicken; to make alive. [Obs.] Dr. H. More.


   En*quire" (?), v. i. & t. See Inquire.


   En*quir"er (?), n. See Inquirer.


   En*quir"y (?), n. See Inquiry.


   En*race" (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + race lineage.] To enroot; to implant.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*rage"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Enraged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enraging  (?).]  [F.  enrager  to be enraged; pref. en- (L. in) + rage
   rage.  See  Rage.] To fill with rage; to provoke to frenzy or madness;
   to  make  furious.  Syn. -- To irritate; incense; inflame; exasperate;
   provoke; anger; madden; infuriate.


   En*rage"ment  (?),  n.  Act  of  enraging  or  state of being enraged;
   excitement. [Obs.]


   En*range" (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + range. Cf. Enrank, Arrange.]

   1. To range in order; to put in rank; to arrange. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2. To rove over; to range. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*rank" (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + rank.] To place in ranks or in order.
   [R.] Shak.


   En*rapt"  (?),  p.  a.  [Pref.  en- + rapt. Cf. Enravish.] Thrown into
   ecstasy; transported; enraptured. Shak.


   En*rap"ture  (?; 135), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enraptured (?; 135); p. pr.
   &  vb.  n. Enrapturing.] To transport with pleasure; to delight beyond
   measure; to enravish. Shenstone.


   En*rav"ish  (?),  v.  t.  To  transport with delight; to enrapture; to
   fascinate. Spenser.


   En*rav"ish*ing*ly, adv. So as to throw into ecstasy.


   En*rav"ish*ment  (?),  n. The state of being enravished or enraptured;
   ecstasy; rapture. Glanvill.


   En*reg"is*ter  (?),  v.  t. [Pref. en- + register: cf. F. enregistrer.
   Cf. Inregister.] To register; to enroll or record; to inregister.

     To  read  enregistered in every nook His goodness, which His beauty
     doth declare. Spenser.


   En*rheum"  (?),  v.  i.  [Pref.  en-  +  rheum: cf. F. s'enrhumer.] To
   contract a rheum. [Obs.] Harvey.


   En*rich"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Enriched (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enriching.] [F. enrichir; pref. en- (L. in) + riche rich. See Rich.]

   1.  To  make  rich  with  any  kind  of  wealth; to render opulent; to
   increase  the  possessions  of;  as,  to enrich the understanding with

     Seeing,  Lord,  your  great  mercy  Us  hath  enriched  so  openly.
     Chaucer's Dream.

   2.  To  supply  with  ornament;  to  adorn; as, to enrich a ceiling by

   3. To make rich with manure; to fertilize; -- said of the soil; as, to
   enrich land by irrigation.

   4.  To  supply  with  knowledge; to instruct; to store; -- said of the
   mind. Sir W. Raleigh.


   En*rich"er (?), n. One who enriches.


   En*rich"ment  (?),  n. The act of making rich, or that which enriches;
   increase  of  value  by improvements, embellishment, etc.; decoration;


   En*ridge" (?), v. t. To form into ridges. Shak.


   En*ring" (?), v. t. To encircle. [R.]

     The  Muses  and the Graces, grouped in threes, Enringed a billowing
     fountain in the midst. Tennyson.


   En*rip"en (?), v. t. To ripen. [Obs.] Donne.


   En*rive" (?), v. t. To rive; to cleave. [Obs.]


   En*robe"  (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + robe: cf. OF. enrober.] To invest or
   adorn with a robe; to attire.


   En*rock"ment (?), n. [Pref. en- + rock.] A mass of large stones thrown
   into water at random to form bases of piers, breakwaters, etc.


   En*roll"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Enrolled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enrolling.]  [Pref. en- + roll: cf. F. enr\'93ler; pref. en- (L. in) +
   r\'93le roll or register. See Roll, n.] [Written also enrol.]

   1. To insert in a roil; to register or enter in a list or catalogue or
   on rolls of court; hence, to record; to insert in records; to leave in
   writing;  as,  to enroll men for service; to enroll a decree or a law;
   also, reflexively, to enlist.

     An  unwritten law of common right, so engraven in the hearts of our
     ancestors,  and  by them so constantly enjoyed and claimed, as that
     it needed not enrolling. Milton.

     All  the  citizen  capable  of  bearing  arms  enrolled themselves.

   2. To envelop; to inwrap; to involve. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*roll"er (?), n. One who enrolls or registers.


   En*roll"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. enr\'93lement.] [Written also enrolment.]

   1. The act of enrolling; registration. Holland.

   2.  A writing in which anything is enrolled; a register; a record. Sir
   J. Davies.


   En*root"  (?), v. t. To fix by the root; to fix fast; to implant deep.


   En*round" (?), v. t. To surround. [Obs.] Shak.

                                   En route

   En` route" (?). [F.] On the way or road.


   Ens (?), n. [L., ens, entis, a thing. See Entity.]

   1.  (Metaph.) Entity, being, or existence; an actually existing being;
   also, God, as the Being of Beings.

   2.  (Chem.)  Something  supposed  to  condense  within  itself all the
   virtues  and  qualities  of  a  substance  from which it is extracted;
   essence. [Obs.]


   En*saf (?), v. t. To make safe. [Obs.] Hall.


   En*sam"ple  (?), n. [OF. ensample, essample, F. exemple. See Example.]
   An example; a pattern or model for imitation. [Obs.] Tyndale.

     Being ensamples to the flock. 


   En*sam"ple  (?),  v.  t.  To  exemplify,  to  show  by example. [Obs.]


   En*san"guine  (?), v. t. To stain or cover with blood; to make bloody,
   or  of  a  blood-red  color;  as, an ensanguined hue. "The ensanguined
   field." Milton.


   En"sate  (?),  a. [NL. ensatus, fr. L. ensis sword.] (Bot. & Zo\'94l.)
   Having sword-shaped leaves, or appendages; ensiform.


   En*scale" (?), v. t. To cover with scales.


   En*shed"ule  (?;  135),  v.  t. To insert in a schedule. See Schedule.
   [R.] Shak.


   En*sconce"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Ensconced (?); imp. & p. p.
   Ensconcing  (?).]  To  cover  or shelter, as with a sconce or fort; to
   place or hide securely; to conceal.

     She shall not see me: I will ensconce me behind the arras. Shak.


   En*seal"  (?),  v.  t. To impress with a seal; to mark as with a seal;
   hence, to ratify. [Obs.]

     This deed I do enseal. Piers Plowman.


   En*seam"  (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + seam suture. Cf. Inseam.] To sew up;
   to inclose by a seam; hence, to include; to contain. Camden.


   En*seam",  v.  t.  [Pref. en- + seam grease.] To cover with grease; to
   defile; to pollute. [Obs.]

     In the rank sweat of an enseamed bed. Shak.


   En*sear" (?), v. t. To sear; to dry up. [Obs.]

     Ensear thy fertile and conceptious womb. Shak.


   En*search" (?), v. i. [OF. encerchier. See Search.] To make search; to
   try  to  find  something. [Obs.] -- v. t. To search for. [Obs.] Sir T.


   En*seel" (?), v. t. To close eyes of; to seel; -- said in reference to
   a hawk. [Obs.]


   En*seint" (?), a. (Law) With child; pregnant. See Enceinte. [Obs.]


   En`sem"ble (?), n. [F.] The whole; all the parts taken together.


   En`sem"ble, adv. [F.] All at once; together.


   En*shel"ter (?), v. t. To shelter. [Obs.]


   En*shield"  (?),  v.  t.  To  defend,  as  with  a  shield; to shield.
   [Archaic] Shak.


   En*shield", a. Shielded; enshielded. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*shrine"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Enshrined (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enshrining.]  To  inclose  in a shrine or chest; hence, to preserve or
   cherish as something sacred; as, to enshrine something in memory.

     We will enshrine it as holy relic. Massinger.


   En*shroud"  (?), v. t. To cover with, or as with, a shroud; to shroud.


   En*sif"er*ous (?), a. [L. ensifer; ensis sword + ferre to bear: cf. F.
   ensif\'8are.] Bearing a sword.


   En"si*form  (?), a. [L. ensis sword + -form: cf. F. ensiforme.] Having
   the  form  of  a  sword  blade;  sword-shaped;  as,  an ensiform leaf.
   Ensiform cartilage, AND Ensiform process. (Anat.) See Xiphisternum.


   En"sign   (?),  n.  [L.  enseigne,  L.  insignia,  pl.  of  insigne  a
   distinctive  mark,  badge, flag; in + signum mark, sign. See Sign, and
   cf. Insignia, 3d Ancient.]

   1.  A flag; a banner; a standard; esp., the national flag, or a banner
   indicating nationality, carried by a ship or a body of soldiers; -- as
   distinguished  from  flags  indicating  divisions of the army, rank of
   naval officers, or private signals, and the like.

     Hang up your ensigns, let your drums be still. Shak.

   2. A signal displayed like a standard, to give notice.

     He will lift an ensign to the nations from far. Is. v. 26.

   3. Sign; badge of office, rank, or power; symbol.

     The ensigns of our power about we bear. Waller.

   4.  (a)  Formerly,  a commissioned officer of the army who carried the
   ensign or flag of a company or regiment. (b) A commissioned officer of
   the  lowest  grade  in  the navy, corresponding to the grade of second
   lieutenant in the army. Ham. Nav. Encyc.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e British army the rank of ensign was abolished
     in  1871. In the United States army the rank is not recognized; the
     regimental  flags  being  carried  by  a  sergeant called the color

   Ensign bearer, one who carries a flag; an ensign.


   En"sign, v. t.

   1. To designate as by an ensign. [Obs.]

     Henry  but  joined  the roses that ensigned Particular families. B.

   2.  To  distinguish  by  a  mark or ornament; esp. (Her.), by a crown;
   thus,  any  charge  which has a crown immediately above or upon it, is
   said to be ensigned.


   En"sign*cy  (?;  277),  n.; pl. Ensigncies (. The rank or office of an


   En"sign*ship, n. The state or rank of an ensign.


   En"si*lage (?), n. [F.; pref. en- (L. in) + silo. See Silo.]

   1.  The  process  of preserving fodder (such as cornstalks, rye, oats,
   millet,  etc.) by compressing it while green and fresh in a pit or vat
   called  a silo, where it is kept covered from the air; as the ensilage
   of fodder.

   2. The fodder preserved in a silo.


   En"si*lage  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Ensilaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Ensilaging (?).] To preserve in a silo; as, to ensilage cornstalks.


   En*sky"  (?),  v.  t.  To place in the sky or in heaven. [R.] "A thing
   enskied and sainted." Shak.


   En*slave"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Enslaved (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enslaving.]  To reduce to slavery; to make a slave of; to subject to a
   dominant influence.

     The conquer'd, also, and enslaved by war, Shall, with their freedom
     lost, all virtue lose. Milton.

     Pleasure admitted in undue degree Enslaves the will. Cowper.


   En*slav"ed*ness (?), n. State of being enslaved.


   En*slave"ment  (?),  n. The act of reducing to slavery; state of being
   enslaved; bondage; servitude.

     A fresh enslavement to their enemies. South.

   Page 496


   En*slav"er (?), n. One who enslaves. Swift.


   En*snare" (?), v. t. To catch in a snare. See Insnare.


   En*snarl" (?), v. t. To entangle. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*so"ber (?), v. t. To make sober. [Obs.]

     Sad accidents to ensober his spirits. Jer. Taylor.


   En*soul"  (?),  v.  t.  To  indue  or  imbue  (a body) with soul. [R.]


   En*sphere" (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + sphere. Cf. Insphere.]

   1. To place in a sphere; to envelop.

     His ample shoulders in a cloud ensphered. Chapman.

   2. To form into a sphere.


   En*stamp" (?), v. t. To stamp; to mark as

     It is the motive . . . which enstamps the character. Gogan.


   En*state" (?), v. t. See Instate.


   En"sta*tite  (?),  n.  [Named fr. Gr. (Min.) A mineral of the pyroxene
   group,  orthorhombic  in  crystallization;  often fibrous and massive;
   color  grayish  white  or  greenish. It is a silicate of magnesia with
   some iron. Bronzite is a ferriferous variety.


   En`sta*tit"ic (?), a. Relating to enstatite.


   En*store" (?), v. t. [See Instaurate.] To restore. [Obs.] Wyclif.


   En*style" (?), v. t. To style; to name. [Obs.]


   En*su"a*ble (?), a. Ensuing; following.


   En*sue" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ensued (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Ensuing.]
   [OF. ensevre, OF. & F. ensuivre, fr. L. insequi; in + sequi to pursue.
   See  Sue.]  To follow; to pursue; to follow and overtake. [Obs.] "Seek
   peace, and ensue it." 1 Pet. iii. 11.

     To ensue his example in doing the like mischief. Golding.


   En*sue", v. i. To follow or come afterward; to follow as a consequence
   or  in  chronological succession; to result; as, an ensuing conclusion
   or effect; the year ensuing was a cold one.

     So spoke the Dame, but no applause ensued. Pope.

     Damage  to  the  mind  or  the body, or to both, ensues, unless the
     exciting cause be presently removed. I. Taylor.

   Syn. -- To follow; pursue; succeed. See Follow.


   En*sure" (?), v. t.

   1. To make sure. See Insure.

   2. To betroth. [Obs.] Sir T. More.


   En*sur"er (?), n. See Insurer.


   En*swathe"  (?), v. t. To swathe; to envelop, as in swaddling clothes.


   En*swathe"ment  (?),  n.  The act of enswathing, or the state of being


   En*sweep"  (?),  v.  t. To sweep over or across; to pass over rapidly.
   [R.] Thomson.


   Ent- (?). A prefix signifying within. See Ento-.


   -ent  (?).  [F. -ent, L. -ens, -entis.] An adjective suffix signifying
   action  or  being;  as,  corrodent,  excellent,  emergent,  continent,
   quiescent. See -ant.


   En*tab"la*ture (?; 135), n. [OF. entablature: cf. It intavolatura, fr.
   LL.  intabulare  to  construct  a basis; L. in + tabulatum board work,
   flooring,  fr.  tabula.  See  Table.] (Arch.) The superstructure which
   lies horizontally upon the columns. See Illust. of Column, Cornice.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  co mmonly di vided in to ar chitrave, the part
     immediately  above  the  column;  frieze,  the  central  space; and
     cornice, the upper projecting moldings.



   En*tab"le*ment  (?),  n.  [F.  entablement,  LL.  intabulamentum.] See
   Entablature. [R.] Evelyn.


   En*tac"kle (?), v. t. To supply with tackle. [Obs.] Skelton.


   En"tad  (?), adv. [Ent- + L. ad towards.] (Anat.) Toward the inside or
   central  part;  away  from  the  surface;  --  opposed to ectad. B. G.


   En*tail"  (?), n. [OE. entaile carving, OF. entaille, F., an incision,
   fr.  entailler  to  cut  away; pref. en- (L. in) + tailler to cut; LL.
   feudum talliatum a fee entailed, i. e., curtailed or limited. See Tail
   limitation, Tailor.]

   1. That which is entailed. Hence: (Law) (a) An estate in fee entailed,
   or  limited in descent to a particular class of issue. (b) The rule by
   which the descent is fixed.

     A  power  of  breaking the ancient entails, and of alienating their
     estates. Hume.

   2. Delicately carved ornamental work; intaglio. [Obs.] "A work of rich
   entail." Spenser.


   En*tail",  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Entailed; p. pr. & vb. n. Entailing.]
   [OE. entailen to carve, OF. entailler. See Entail, n.]

   1.  To  settle or fix inalienably on a person or thing, or on a person
   and  his  descendants  or  a  certain  line  of  descendants;  -- said
   especially of an estate; to bestow as an heritage.

     Allowing them to entail their estates. Hume.

     I here entail The crown to thee and to thine heirs forever. Shak.

   2. To appoint hereditary possessor. [Obs.]

     To entail him and his heirs unto the crown. Shak.

   3. To cut or carve in a ornamental way. [Obs.]

     Entailed with curious antics. Spenser.


   En*tail"ment, n.

   1.  The act of entailing or of giving, as an estate, and directing the
   mode of descent.

   2. The condition of being entailed.

   3. A thing entailed.

     Brutality  as  an  hereditary  entailment becomes an ever weakening
     force. R. L. Dugdale.


   En"tal  (?),  a.  [See Ent-.] (Anat.) Pertaining to, or situated near,
   central or deep parts; inner; -- opposed to ectal. B. G. Wilder.


   En*tame" (?), v. t. To tame. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*tan"gle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Entangled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entangling (?).]

   1.  To  twist  or  interweave  in  such  a  manner as not to be easily
   separated;  to  make tangled, confused, and intricate; as, to entangle
   yarn or the hair.

   2.  To  involve  in  such  complications  as  to  render extrication a
   bewildering difficulty; hence, metaphorically, to insnare; to perplex;
   to  bewilder;  to  puzzle;  as,  to  entangle the feet in a net, or in
   briers. "Entangling alliances." Washington.

     The  difficulties  that  perplex  men's thoughts and entangle their
     understandings. Locke.

     Allowing  her to entangle herself with a person whose future was so
     uncertain. Froude.


   En*tan"gle*ment  (?),  n.  State  of  being  entangled;  intricate and
   confused involution; that which entangles; intricacy; perplexity.


   En*tan"gler (?), n. One that entangles.


   En*ta"si*a  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. Entasis.] (Med.) Tonic spasm; --
   applied  generically  to  denote  any  disease  characterized by tonic
   spasms, as tetanus, trismus, etc.


   En"ta*sis (?), n. [NL., from Gr.

   1. (Arch.) A slight convex swelling of the shaft of a column.

   2. (Med.) Same as Entasia.


   En*tass"ment  (?),  n.  [F.  entassement,  fr. entasser to heap up.] A
   heap; accumulation. [R.]


   En*tas"tic  (?),  a.  [Formed as if fr. (assumed) Gr. Entasis.] (Med.)
   Relating to any disease characterized by tonic spasms.


   En*tel"e*chy  (?),  n.  [L.  entelechia,  Gr. (Peripatetic Philos.) An
   actuality;  a  conception  completely  actualized, in distinction from
   mere potential existence.


   En*tel"lus (?), n. [NL., the specific name, fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An East
   Indian long-tailed bearded monkey (Semnopithecus entellus) regarded as
   sacred by the natives. It is remarkable for the caplike arrangement of
   the hair on the head. Called also hoonoomaun and hungoor.


   En*tend"  (?),  v.  i. [F. entendre, fr. L. intendere. See Intend.] To
   attend to; to apply one's self to. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En*ten"der (?), v. t.

   1. To make tender. [R.] Jer. Taylor.

   2. To treat with tenderness. [R.] Young.


   En*ten"tive   (?),  a.  [OF.  ententif.]  Attentive;  zealous.  [Obs.]


   En"ter-  (?).  [F.  entre  between, fr. L. inter. See Inter-] A prefix
   signifying between, among, part.


   En"ter  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Entered  (?);  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entering.]  [OE. entren, enteren, F. entrer, fr. L. intrare, fr. intro
   inward,  contr.  fr. intero (sc. loco), fr. inter in between, between.
   See Inter-, In, and cf. Interior.]

   1.  To  come  or go into; to pass into the interior of; to pass within
   the  outer  cover or shell of; to penetrate; to pierce; as, to enter a
   house, a closet, a country, a door, etc.; the river enters the sea.

     That darksome cave they enter. Spenser.

     I,  .  .  .  with the multitude of my redeemed, Shall enter heaven,
     long absent. Milton.

   2. To unite in; to join; to be admitted to; to become a member of; as,
   to enter an association, a college, an army.

   3.  To  engage  in;  to  become  occupied with; as, to enter the legal
   profession, the book trade, etc.

   4.  To  pass  within  the  limits of; to attain; to begin; to commence
   upon; as, to enter one's teens, a new era, a new dispensation.

   5.  To  cause  to  go  (into), or to be received (into); to put in; to
   insert;  to cause to be admitted; as, to enter a knife into a piece of
   wood,  a  wedge  into  a log; to enter a boy at college, a horse for a
   race, etc.

   6.  To inscribe; to enroll; to record; as, to enter a name, or a date,
   in  a  book,  or  a book in a catalogue; to enter the particulars of a
   sale  in  an  account,  a  manifest of a ship or of merchandise at the

   7.  (Law) (a) To go into or upon, as lands, and take actual possession
   of  them.  (b)  To  place in regular form before the court, usually in
   writing;  to  put upon record in proper from and order; as, to enter a
   writ, appearance, rule, or judgment. Burrill.

   8.  To  make  report of (a vessel or her cargo) at the customhouse; to
   submit a statement of (imported goods), with the original invoices, to
   the  proper  officer  of  the  customs  for estimating the duties. See


   9.  To  file  or  inscribe  upon  the  records  of the land office the
   required  particulars  concerning (a quantity of public land) in order
   to entitle a person to a right pf pre\'89mption. [U.S.] Abbott.

   10.  To  deposit  for  copyright  the title or description of (a book,
   picture, map, etc.); as, "entered according to act of Congress."

   11. To initiate; to introduce favorably. [Obs.] Shak.


   En"ter, v. i.

   1.  To  go  or come in; -- often with in used pleonastically; also, to
   begin; to take the first steps. "The year entering." Evelyn.

     No evil thing approach nor enter in. Milton.

     Truth  is  fallen in the street, and equity can not enter. Is. lix.

     For we which have believed do enter into rest. Heb. iv. 3.

   2. To get admission; to introduce one's self; to penetrate; to form or
   constitute  a  part; to become a partaker or participant; to share; to
   engage;  --  usually  with into; sometimes with on or upon; as, a ball
   enters  into  the  body;  water enters into a ship; he enters into the
   plan; to enter into a quarrel; a merchant enters into partnership with
   some  one;  to  enter upon another's land; the boy enters on his tenth
   year;  to  enter  upon  a  task;  lead  enters into the composition of

   3. To penetrate mentally; to consider attentively; -- with into.

     He is particularly pleased with . . . Sallust for his entering into
     internal principles of action. Addison.


   En`ter*ad`e*nog"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -graphy.]  A treatise upon, or
   description of, the intestinal glands.


   En`ter*ad`e*nol"o*gy  (?), n. [Gr. -logy.] The science which treats of
   the glands of the alimentary canal.


   En`ter*al"gi*a  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. ent\'82ralgie.] (Med.) Pain in
   the intestines; colic.


   En"ter*deal`  (?),  n.  [Enter- + deal.] Mutual dealings; intercourse.

     The enterdeal of princes strange. Spenser.


   En"ter*er (?), n. One who makes an entrance or beginning. A. Seward.


   En*ter"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Enteritis.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the
   enteron,  or  alimentary  canal;  intestinal.  Enteric  fever  (Med.),
   typhoid fever.


   En`te*ri"tis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. -itis.] (Med.) An inflammation of
   the intestines. Hoblyn.


   En`ter*lace" (?), v. t. See Interlace.


   En`ter*mete"  (?),  v. i. [F. s'entremettre; entre between + mettre to
   place.] To interfere; to intermeddle. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En"ter*mew`er  (?),  n.  [Enter-  +  mew  to  molt.] (Zo\'94l.) A hawk
   gradually  changing  the color of its feathers, commonly in the second


   En`ter*mise" (?), n. [F. entremise, fr. s'entremettre. See Entermete.]
   Mediation. [Obs.]


   En"ter*o*cele`  (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) A hernial tumor whose contents are


   En"ter*o*c\'d2le`  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Anat.) A perivisceral cavity which
   arises  as  an  outgrowth  or  outgrowths  from  the  digestive tract;
   distinguished from a schizoc\'d2le, which arises by a splitting of the
   mesoblast of the embryo.


   En`ter*og"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr. -graphy.] (Anat.) A treatise upon, or
   description of, the intestines; enterology.


   En"ter*o*lith (?), n. [Gr. -lith.] (Med.) An intestinal concretion.


   En`ter*ol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy: cf. F. ent\'82rologie.] The science
   which treats of the viscera of the body.


   En"te*ron  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Anat.) The whole alimentary, or
   enteric, canal.


   En`ter*op"a*thy (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) Disease of the intestines.


   En`te*rop*neus"ta  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of
   wormlike  invertebrates having, along the sides of the body, branchial
   openings  for  the  branchial sacs, which are formed by diverticula of
   the  alimentary  canal.  Balanoglossus  is  the  only known genus. See
   Illustration in Appendix.


   En`ter*or"rha*phy  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Med.) The operation of sewing up a
   rent in the intestinal canal.


   En"ter*o*tome  (?),  n.  [F.  ent\'82rotome. See Enterotomy.] (Med.) A
   kind  of  scissors  used  for  opening  the  intestinal  canal,  as in
   post-mortem examinations.


   En`ter*ot"o*my  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Med.)  Incision  of  the  intestines,
   especially in reducing certain cases of hernia.


   En`ter*par"lance  (?),  n.  Mutual  talk  or conversation; conference.
   [Obs.] Sir J. Hayward.


   En`ter*plead" (?), v. i. Same as Interplead.


   En"ter*prise  (?),  n.  [F. enterprise, fr. entreprendre to undertake;
   entre between (L. inter) + prendre to take. See Inter, and Emprise.]

   1.  That  which  is undertaken; something attempted to be performed; a
   work projected which involves activity, courage, energy, and the like;
   a  bold,  arduous,  or  hazardous attempt; an undertaking; as, a manly
   enterprise; a warlike enterprise. Shak.

     Their hands can not perform their enterprise. Job v. 12.

   2.  Willingness  or  eagerness  to  engage  in  labor  which  requires
   boldness,  promptness,  energy, and like qualities; as, a man of great


   En"ter*prise, v. t.

   1.  To  undertake;  to  begin and attempt to perform; to venture upon.

     The business must be enterprised this night. Dryden.

     What would I not renounce or enterprise for you! T. Otway.

   2. To treat with hospitality; to entertain. [Obs.]

     Him at the threshold met, and well did enterprise. Spenser.


   En"ter*prise, v. i. To undertake an enterprise, or something hazardous
   or difficult. [R.] Pope.


   En"ter*pri`ser (?), n. One who undertakes enterprises. Sir J. Hayward.


   En"ter*pri`sing   (?),   a.   Having  a  disposition  for  enterprise;
   characterized  by  enterprise;  resolute, active or prompt to attempt;
   as, an enterprising man or firm. -- En"ter*pri`sing*ly, adv.


   En`ter*tain" (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Entertained (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entertaining.]  [F.  entretenir;  entre  between (L. inter) + tenir to
   hold, L. tenere. See Tenable.]

   1.  To  be  at  the  charges  of; to take or keep in one's service; to
   maintain; to support; to harbor; to keep.

   Page 497

     You, sir, I entertain for one of my hundred. Shak.

   2.  To  give  hospitable  reception  and maintenance to; to receive at
   one's board, or into one's house; to receive as a guest.

     Be  not  forgetful  to  entertain  strangers; for thereby some have
     entertained unawares. Heb. xiii. 2.

   3.  To  engage  the  attention  of agreeably; to amuse with that which
   makes  the  time  pass pleasantly; to divert; as, to entertain friends
   with conversation, etc.

     The weary time she can not entertain. Shak.

   4.  To  give reception to; to receive, in general; to receive and take
   into  consideration; to admit, treat, or make use of; as, to entertain
   a proposal.

     I am not here going to entertain so large a theme as the philosophy
     of Locke. De Quincey.

     A  rumor  gained ground, -- and, however absurd, was entertained by
     some very sensible people. Hawthorne.

   5. To meet or encounter, as an enemy. [Obs.] Shak.

   6.  To  keep, hold, or maintain in the mind with favor; to keep in the
   mind; to harbor; to cherish; as, to entertain sentiments.

   7. To lead on; to bring along; to introduce. [Obs.]

     To  baptize  all  nations,  and  entertain  them  into the services
     institutions of the holy Jesus. Jer. Taylor.

   Syn. -- To amuse; divert; maintain. See Amuse.


   En`ter*tain"  (?),  v.  i.  To  receive, or provide entertainment for,
   guests; as, he entertains generously.


   En`ter*tain",  n.  [Cf.  F. entretien, fr. entretenir.] Entertainment.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   En`ter*tain"er (?), n. One who entertains.


   En`ter*tain"ing,   a.   Affording  entertainment;  pleasing;  amusing;
   diverting. -- En`ter*tain"ing*ly, adv. -- En`ter*tain"ing*ness, n.


   En`ter*tain"ment (?), n. [Cf. OF. entretenement.]

   1.  The  act  of  receiving  as  host,  or  of  amusing, admitting, or
   cherishing;  hospitable  reception;  also,  reception or treatment, in

     The entertainment of Christ by faith. Baxter.

     The  sincere  entertainment  and  practice  of  the precepts of the
     gospel. Bp. Sprat.

   2.  That  which  entertains, or with which one is entertained; as: (a)
   Hospitality;   hospitable   provision   for  the  wants  of  a  guest;
   especially,  provision  for the table; a hospitable repast; a feast; a
   formal   or  elegant  meal.  (b)  That  which  engages  the  attention
   agreeably,  amuses or diverts, whether in private, as by conversation,
   etc., or in public, by performances of some kind; amusement.

     Theatrical  entertainments  conducted  with  greater  elegance  and
     refinement. Prescott.

   3. Admission into service; service.

     Some band of strangers in the adversary's entertainment. Shak.

   4. Payment of soldiers or servants; wages. [Obs.]

     The entertainment of the general upon his first arrival was but six
     shillings and eight pence. Sir J. Davies.

   Syn.  --  Amusement;  diversion;  recreation;  pastime;  sport; feast;
   banquet; repast; carousal.


   En`ter*take" (?), v. t. To entertain. [Obs.]


   En`ter*tis"sued (?), a. Same as Intertissued.

                               Entheal, Enthean

   En"the*al (?), En"the*an (?), a. [Gr. Divinely inspired; wrought up to
   enthusiasm. [Obs.]


   En"the*asm (?), n. Inspiration; enthusiasm. [R.] "Religious entheasm."


   En`the*as"tic  (?),  a. [Gr. Entheal.] Of godlike energy; inspired. --
   En`the*as"tic*al*ly (#), adv.


   En"the*at (?), a. [Cf. L. entheatus, fr. Gr. Divinely inspired. [Obs.]

                          Enthelmintha, Enthelminthes

   En`thel*min"tha  (?),  En`thel*min"thes  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Gr.
   (Zo\'94l.) Intestinal worms. See Helminthes.


   En*the"ic  (?), a. [Gr. (Med.) Caused by a morbifie virus implanted in
   the system; as, an enthetic disease like syphilis.


   En*thrall"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref. en- + thrall. Cf. Inthrall.] [Written
   also enthral.] To hold in thrall; to enslave. See Inthrall.

     The bars survive the captive they enthrall. Byron.


   En*thrall"ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of  enthralling, or state of being
   enthralled. See Inthrallment.


   En*thrill"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en- + thrill.] To pierce; to thrill.
   [Obs.] Sackville.


   En*throne"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en- + throne: cf. OF. enthroner. Cf.

   1.  To  seat  on  a throne; to exalt to the seat of royalty or of high
   authority; hence, to invest with sovereign authority or dignity.

     Beneath a sculptured arch he sits enthroned. Pope.

     It [mercy] is enthroned in the hearts of kings. Shak.

   2. (Eccl.) To induct, as a bishop, into the powers and privileges of a
   vacant see.


   En*throne"ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of  enthroning,  or state of being
   enthroned. [Recent]


   En*thron`i*za"tion (?), n. The act of enthroning; hence, the admission
   of a bishop to his stall or throne in his cathedral.


   En*thron"ize (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enthronized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enthronizing  (?).]  [See Inthronize.] To place on a throne; hence, to
   induct into office, as a bishop.

     There openly enthronized as the very elected king. Knolles.


   En*thuse" (?), v. t. & i. To make or become enthusiastic. [Slang]


   En*thu"si*asm (?), n. [Gr. enthousiasme. See Entheal, Theism.]

   1.  Inspiration as if by a divine or superhuman power; ecstasy; hence,
   a  conceit  of  divine possession and revelation, or of being directly
   subject to some divine impulse.

     Enthusiasm  is founded neither on reason nor divine revelation, but
     rises  from  the  conceits  of a warmed or overweening imagination.

   2.  A  state  of  impassioned  emotion; transport; elevation of fancy;
   exaltation of soul; as, the poetry of enthusiasm.

     Resolutions  adopted  in  enthusiasm  are  often  repented  of when
     excitement  has  been  succeeded  by  the  wearing  duties  of hard
     everyday routine. Froude.

     Exhibiting   the   seeming   contradiction   of  susceptibility  to
     enthusiasm and calculating shrewdness. Bancroft.

   3. Enkindled and kindling fervor of soul; strong excitement of feeling
   on  behalf  of  a  cause  or a subject; ardent and imaginative zeal or
   interest; as, he engaged in his profession with enthusiasm.

     Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm. Emerson.

   4. Lively manifestation of joy or zeal.

     Philip was greeted with a tumultuous enthusiasm. Prescott.


   En*thu"si*ast  (?),  n.  [Gr.  enthousiaste.] One moved or actuated by
   enthusiasm;  as:  (a)  One  who imagines himself divinely inspired, or
   possessed  of  some special revelation; a religious madman; a fanatic.
   (b)  One whose mind is wholly possessed and heated by what engages it;
   one  who  is  influenced  by a peculiar; fervor of mind; an ardent and
   imaginative person.

     Enthusiasts soon understand each other. W. Irving.

   Syn. -- Visionary; fanatic; devotee; zealot.

                         Enthusiastic, Enthusiastical

   En*thu`si*as"tic  (?),  En*thu`si*as"tic*al  (?),  a. [Gr. Filled with
   enthusiasm;  characterized by enthusiasm; zealous; as, an enthusiastic
   lover     of    art.    "Enthusiastical    raptures."    Calamy.    --
   En*thu`si*as"tic*al*ly, adv.

     A  young  man  .  . . of a visionary and enthusiastic character. W.


   En*thu`si*as"tic, n. An enthusiast; a zealot. [Obs.]

                         Enthymematic, Enthymematical

   En`thy*me*mat"ic  (?), En`thy*me*mat"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. Pertaining to,
   or of the form of, an enthymeme.


   En"thy*meme  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Logic) An argument consisting of only two
   propositions,   an  antecedent  and  consequent  deduced  from  it;  a
   syllogism with one premise omitted; as, We are dependent; therefore we
   should  be  humble.  Here  the  major  proposition  is suppressed. The
   complete  syllogism would be, Dependent creatures should be humble; we
   are dependent creatures; therefore we should be humble.


   En*tice"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Enticed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enticing  (?).]  [OE. entisen, enticen, OF. enticier, entichier; pref.
   en-  (L.  in)  + a word of uncertain origin, cf. OF. atisier to stir a
   fire,  provoke,  L.  titio firebrand, or MHG. zicken to push.] To draw
   on,  by  exciting  hope or desire; to allure; to attract; as, the bait
   enticed the fishes. Often in a bad sense: To lead astray; to induce to
   evil; to tempt; as, the sirens enticed them to listen.

     Roses blushing as they blow, And enticing men to pull. Beau. & Fl.

     My son, if sinners entice thee, consent thou not. Prov. i. 10.

     Go,  and thine erring brother gain, Entice him home to be forgiven.

   Syn. -- To allure; lure; coax; decoy; seduce; tempt; inveigle; incite;
   persuade; prevail on. See Allure.


   En*tice"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being enticed.


   En*tice"ment (?), n. [OF. enticement.]

   1. The act or practice of alluring or tempting; as, the enticements of
   evil companions.

   2.  That  which  entices,  or  incites  to  evil; means of allurement;
   alluring  object;  as,  an  enticement  to  sin.  Syn.  -- Allurement;
   attraction;    temptation;    seduction;   inveiglement;   persuasion;


   En*ti"cer (?), n. One who entices; one who incites or allures to evil.


   En*ti"cing (?), a. That entices; alluring.


   En*ti"cing*ly,  adv.  In  an  enticing  manner; charmingly. "She . . .
   sings most enticingly." Addison.


   En*tier"ty (?), n. See Entirety. [Obs.]


   En*tire"  (?),  a.  [F.  entier,  L.  integer untouched, undiminished,
   entire;  pref.  in-,  negative  +  the  root  of tangere to touch. See
   Tangent, and cf. Integer.]

   1.  Complete  in  all  parts; undivided; undiminished; whole; full and
   perfect;  not  deficient; as, the entire control of a business; entire
   confidence, ignorance.

     That ye may be perfect and entire, wanting nothing. James i. 4.

     With strength entire and free will armed. Milton.

     One entire and perfect chrysolite. Shak.

   2.  Without  mixture or alloy of anything; unqualified; morally whole;
   pure; faithful.

     Pure fear and entire cowardice. Shak.

     No man had ever a heart more entire to the king. Clarendon.

   3.  (Bot.)  (a) Consisting of a single piece, as a corolla. (b) Having
   an evenly continuous edge, as a leaf which has no kind of teeth.

   4. Not gelded; -- said of a horse.

   5. Internal; interior. [Obs.] Spenser. Syn. -- See Whole, and Radical.


   En*tire", n.

   1. Entirely. "Too long to print in entire." Thackeray.

   2.  (Brewing)  A  name  originally  given  to a kind of beer combining
   qualities  of  different  kinds  of  beer.  [Eng.]  "Foker's  Entire."


   En*tire"ly, adv.

   1.  In  an  entire manner; wholly; completely; fully; as, the trace is
   entirely lost.

     Euphrates falls not entirely into the Persian Sea. Raleigh.

   2. Without alloy or mixture; truly; sincerely.

     To highest God entirely pray. Spenser.


   En*tire"ness (?), n.

   1.  The  state  or  condition of being entire; completeness; fullness;
   totality; as, the entireness of an arch or a bridge.

     This same entireness or completeness. Trench.

   2. Integrity; wholeness of heart; honesty. [R.]

     Entireness in preaching the gospel. Udall.

   3.  Oneness;  unity;  --  applied  to a condition of intimacy or close
   association. [Obs.]

     True  Christian  love  may  be  separated  from  acquaintance,  and
     acquaintance from entireness. Bp. Hall.


   En*tire"ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Entireness  (#).  [OF.  entieret\'82.  Cf.

   1.  The state of being entire; completeness; as, entirely of interest.

   2. That which is entire; the whole. Bacon.


   En"ti*ta*tive  (?),  a.  [See  Entity.]  Considered  as  pure  entity;
   abstracted from all circumstances. Ellis. -- En"ti*ta*tive*ly, adv.


   En*ti"tle  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Entitled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entitling  (?).]  [OF. entituler, F. intituler, LL. intitulare, fr. L.
   in + titulus title. See Title, and cf. Intitule.]

   1.  To  give  a title to; to affix to as a name or appellation; hence,
   also,  to  dignify by an honorary designation; to denominate; to call;
   as, to entitle a book "Commentaries;" to entitle a man "Honorable."

     That which . . . we entitle patience. Shak.

   2.  To  give  a  claim to; to qualify for, with a direct object of the
   person,  and a remote object of the thing; to furnish with grounds for
   seeking or claiming with success; as, an officer's talents entitle him
   to command.

   3. To attribute; to ascribe. [Obs.]

     The  ancient  proverb  . . . entitles this work . . . peculiarly to
     God himself. Milton.

   Syn.  --  To  name;  designate; style; characterize; empower; qualify;
   enable; fit.


   En*tit"ule (?), v. t. [See Entitle.] To entitle. B. Jonson.


   En"ti*ty  (?),  n.; pl. Entities (#). [LL. entitas, fr. L. ens, entis,
   thing, prop. p. pr. of esse to be: cf. F. entit\'82. See Essence, Is.]
   A  real being, whether in thought (as an ideal conception) or in fact;
   being; essence; existence.

     Self-subsisting entities, such as our own personality. Shairp.

     Fortune is no real entity, . . . but a mere relative signification.


   En"to-  (?).  [Gr.  In.]  A  combining  form  signifying  within;  as,


   En"to*blast  (?),  n.  [Ento- + -blast.] (Biol.) The inner germ layer;
   endoderm. See Nucleolus.


   En`to*bron"chi*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  Entobronchia  (#).  [See Ento-, and
   Bronchia.] (Anat.) One of the main bronchi in the lungs of birds.

                          Entocuneiform, Entocuniform

   En`to*cu*ne"i*form  (?),  En`to*cu"ni*form (?), n. [Ento- + cuneiform,
   cuniform.] (Anat.) One of the bones of the tarsus. See Cuneiform.


   En"to*derm  (?),  n. [Ento- + Gr. (Biol.) See Endoderm, and Illust. of

                            Entodermal, Entodermic

   En`to*der"mal  (?),  En`to*der"mic  (?),  a.  (Biol.)  Relating to the


   En`to*gas"tric  (?),  a.  [Ento-  +  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the
   interior  of  the  stomach;  --  applied to a mode of budding from the
   interior of the gastric cavity, in certain hydroids.


   En*tog"e*nous (?), a. [Ento- + -genous.] (Biol.) See Endogenous.


   En`to*glos"sal  (?),  a.  [Ento-  +  Gr. (Anat.) Within the tongue; --
   applied to the glossohyal bone.


   En*toil"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Entoiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entoiling.] To take with toils or bring into toils; to insnare. [R.]

     Entoiled in woofed phantasies. Keats.


   En*tomb"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Entombed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entombing.]  [Pref.  en-  +  tomb:  cf. OF. entomber.] To deposit in a
   tomb, as a dead body; to bury; to inter; to inhume. Hooker.


   En*tomb"ment  (?),  n.  The  act  of entombing or burying, or state of
   being entombed; burial. Barrow.


   En"to*mere  (?),  n. [Ento- + -mere.] (Biol.) The more granular cells,
   which  finally  become  internal,  in many segmenting ova, as those of

                              Entomic, Entomical

   En*tom"ic  (?),  En*tom"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Entomology.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Relating to insects; entomological.


   En"to*moid  (?), a. [Gr. -oid.] (Zo\'94l.) Resembling an insect. -- n.
   An object resembling an insect.


   En*tom"o*lin (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) See Chitin.


   En*tom"o*lite (?), n. [Gr. -lite.] (Paleon.) A fossil insect.

                          Entomologic, Entomological

   En`to*mo*log"ic    (?),    En`to*mo*log"ic*al    (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.
   entomologique.]     Of     or     relating     to    entomology.    --
   En`to*mo*log"ic*al*ly, adv.


   En`to*mol"o*gist  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  entomologiste.]  One  versed  in


   En`to*mol"o*gize  (?),  v.  i.  To  collect  specimens in the study of
   entomology. C. Kingsley.


   En`to*mol"o*gy  (?),  n.;  pl. Entomologies (#). [Gr. 'e`ntomon insect
   (so  called  because nearly cut in two, fr. 'e`ntomos cut in; 'en in +
   te`mnein  to  cut)  + -logy: cf. F. entomologie. See In, and Tome, and
   cf. Insect.]

   1. That part of zo\'94logy which treats of insects.

   2. A treatise on the science of entomology.


   En`to*moph"a*ga  (?),  n.;  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. 'e`ntomon an insect +
   fagei^n to eat.] (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  One  of  a  group  of  hymenopterous  insects  whose larv\'91 feed
   parasitically upon living insects. See Ichneumon,


   2.  A  group  of  marsupials  which  are  partly insectivorous, as the

   3. A group of edentates, including the ant-eaters.

   Page 498


   En`to*moph"a*gan (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Relating to the Entomophaga. -- n.
   One of the Entomophaga.


   En`to*moph"a*gous    (?),    a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Feeding   on   insects;


   En`to*moph"i*lous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Bot.)  Fertilized by the agency of
   insects;  --  said  of  plants  in  which the pollen is carried to the
   stigma by insects.


   En`to*mos"tra*ca  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of the
   subclasses  of Crustacea, including a large number of species, many of
   them  minute.  The  group  embraces several orders; as the Phyllopoda,
   Ostracoda,  Copepoda,  and  Pectostraca. See Copepoda, Phyllopoda, and


   En`to*mos"tra*can  (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Relating to the Entomostraca. --
   n. One of the Entomostraca.


   En`to*mos"tra*cous (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Belonging to the Entomostracans.


   En`to*mot"o*mist (?), n. One who practices entomotomy.


   En`to*mot"o*my (?), n. [Gr. The science of the dissection of insects.


   En*ton"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Entasis.]  (Med.)  Having great tension, or
   exaggerated action. Dunglison.


   En`to*pe*riph"er*al (?), a. [Ento- + peripheral.] (Physiol.) Being, or
   having  its  origin,  within  the  external  surface  of  the body; --
   especially  applied  to feelings, such as hunger, produced by internal
   disturbances. Opposed to epiperipheral.


   En"to*phyte   (?),  n.  [Ento-  +  Gr.  (Med.)  A  vegetable  parasite
   subsisting in the interior of the body.


   En`to*phyt"ic   (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  entophytes;  as,  an
   entophytic disease.


   En"to*plasm  (?), n. [Ento- + Gr. (Biol.) (a) The inner granular layer
   of protoplasm in a developing ovum. (b) Endosarc.


   En`to*plas"tic (?), a. [Ento- + Gr. (Biol.) Pertaining to, or composed
   of,  entoplasm;  as, the entoplastic products of some Protozoa, or the
   entoplastic modification of the cell protoplasm, by which a nucleus is


   En`to*plas"tron  (?),  n.;  pl.  Entoplastra  (#). [Ento- + plastron.]
   (Anat.)  The  median  plate of the plastron of turtles; -- called also


   En`to*proc"ta  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A group of Bryozoa
   in which the anus is within the circle of tentacles. See Pedicellina.


   Ent*op"tic  (?),  a.  [Ent-  +  optic.] (Physiol.) Relating to objects
   situated  within  the eye; esp., relating to the perception of objects
   in one's own eye.


   Ent*or"gan*ism   (?),  n.  [Ent-  +  organism.]  (Biol.)  An  internal
   parasitic organism.


   En*tor`ti*la"tion  (?), n. [F. entortiller to twist; pref. en- (L. in)
   +  tortiller to twist.] A turning into a circle; round figures. [Obs.]


   En`to*ster"num  (?),  n.;  pl.  Entosterna  (#).  [NL.  See Ento-, and
   Sternum.] (Anat.) See Entoplastron. -- En`to*ster"nal (#), a.


   En*tos"tho*blast  (?),  n.  [Gr.  'e`ntosthe  from  within  + -blast.]
   (Biol.)  The  granule within the nucleolus or entoblast of a nucleated
   cell. Agassiz.


   En`to*tho"rax (?), n. [Ento- + thorax.] (Zo\'94l.) See Endothorax.


   Ent*ot"ic  (?),  a.  [Ent- + Gr. (Anat.) Pertaining to the interior of
   the ear.


   En`to*zo"a (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.)

   1.  A  group  of  worms,  including the tapeworms, flukes, roundworms,
   etc.,  most  of  which  live  parasitically  in  the interior of other
   animals; the Helminthes.

   2.  An  artificial  group,  including  all  kinds  of  animals  living
   parasitically in others.

                              Entozoal, Entozoic

   En`to*zo"al  (?),  En`to*zo"ic  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to, or
   consisting of, the Entozoa.


   En`to*zo*\'94l"o*gist (?), n. [Entozo\'94n + -logy + -ist.] One versed
   in the science of the Entozoa.


   En`to*zo"\'94n (?), n.; pl. Entozoa (#). [NL. See Entozoa.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One of the Entozoa.


   En`tr'acte" (?), n. [F. Cf. Interact.]

   1.  The  interval  of time which occurs between the performance of any
   two acts of a drama.

   2.  A  dance, piece of music, or interlude, performed between two acts
   of a drama.


   En*trail"  (?),  v. t. [Pref. en- + OF. treiller to grate, lattice, F.
   treille  vine,  arbor.  See  Trellis.]  To  interweave; to intertwine.
   [Obs.] Spenser.


   En*trail", n. Entanglement; fold. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En"trails  (?),  n.  pl.  [F.  entrailles, LL. intralia, intranea, fr.
   interaneum, pl. interanea, intestine, interaneus inward, interior, fr.
   inter between, among, within. See Internal.]

   1. The internal parts of animal bodies; the bowels; the guts; viscera;

   2. The internal parts; as, the entrails of the earth.

     That treasure . . . hid the dark entrails of America. Locke.


   En*train"  (?), v. t. [F. entrainer.] To draw along as a current does;
   as, water entrained by steam.


   En*train",  v.  t. [Pref. en- + train.] To put aboard a railway train;
   as, to entrain a regiment. [Recent, Eng.]


   En*train",  v.  i.  To  go  aboard  a  railway  train;  as, the troops
   entrained at the station. [Recent, Eng.]


   En*tram"mel  (?),  v.  t.  [See Trammel.] To trammel; to entangle. Bp.


   En"trance  (?),  n.  [OF.  entrance,  fr.  OF. & F. entrant, p. pr. of
   entrer to enter. See Enter.]

   1.  The  act of entering or going into; ingress; as, the entrance of a
   person  into  a  house  or  an  apartment;  hence,  the  act of taking
   possession,  as of property, or of office; as, the entrance of an heir
   upon his inheritance, or of a magistrate into office.

   2.  Liberty,  power,  or  permission to enter; as, to give entrance to
   friends. Shak.

   3. The passage, door, or gate, for entering.

     Show us, we pray thee, the entrance into the city. Judg. i. 24.

   4.  The entering upon; the beginning, or that with which the beginning
   is  made;  the commencement; initiation; as, a difficult entrance into
   business. "Beware of entrance to a quarrel." Shak.

     St.  Augustine,  in  the entrance of one of his discourses, makes a
     kind of apology. Hakewill.

   5. The causing to be entered upon a register, as a ship or goods, at a
   customhouse; an entering; as, his entrance of the arrival was made the
   same day.

   6.  (Naut.)  (a)  The  angle  which the bow of a vessel makes with the
   water  at  the  water  line.  Ham.  Nav. Encyc. (b) The bow, or entire
   wedgelike forepart of a vessel, below the water line. Totten.


   En*trance"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Entranced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entrancing (?).] [Pref. en- + trance.]

   1. To put into a trance; to make insensible to present objects.

     Him, still entranced and in a litter laid, They bore from field and
     to the bed conveyed. Dryden.

   2.  To  put  into  an  ecstasy;  to  ravish with delight or wonder; to
   enrapture; to charm.

     And  I  so  ravished with her heavenly note, I stood entranced, and
     had no room for thought. Dryden.


   En*trance"ment  (?),  n. The act of entrancing, or the state of trance
   or ecstasy. Otway.


   En"trant (?), n. [See Entrance, n.]

   1. One who enters; a beginner. "The entrant upon life." Bp. Terrot.

   2. An applicant for admission. Stormonth.


   En*trap"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Entrapped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entrapping.] [Pref. en- + trap: cf. OF. entraper.] To catch in a trap;
   to insnare; hence, to catch, as in a trap, by artifices; to involve in
   difficulties or distresses; to catch or involve in contradictions; as,
   to be entrapped by the devices of evil men.

     A golden mesh, to entrap the hearts of men. Shak.

   Syn. -- To insnare; inveigle; tangle; decoy; entangle.


   En*treat"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Entreated;  p. pr. & vb. n.
   Entreating.]  [OE.  entreten to treat, request, OF. entraiter to treat
   of; pref. en- (L. in) + traitier to treat. See Treat.]

   1. To treat, or conduct toward; to deal with; to use. [Obs.]

     Fairly let her be entreated. Shak.

     I will cause the enemy to entreat thee well. Jer. xv. 11.

   2.  To  treat  with,  or in respect to, a thing desired; hence, to ask
   earnestly;   to   beseech;  to  petition  or  pray  with  urgency;  to
   supplicate;  to  importune.  "Entreat  my wife to come." "I do entreat
   your patience." Shak.

     I must entreat of you some of that money. Shak.

     Some late visitor entreating entrance at my chamber door. Poe.

     Isaac entreated the Lord for his wife. Gen. xxv. 21.

   3. To beseech or supplicate successfully; to prevail upon by prayer or
   solicitation; to persuade.

     It  were  a  fruitless  attempt  to appease a power whom no prayers
     could entreat. Rogers.

   4.  To  invite;  to entertain. [Obs.] "Pleasures to entreat." Spenser.
   Syn.  --  To  beseech;  beg;  solicit; crave; implore; supplicate. See


   En*treat", v. i.

   1.  To treat or discourse; hence, to enter into negotiations, as for a
   treaty. [Obs.]

     Of which I shall have further occasion to entreat. Hakewill.

     Alexander . . . was first that entreated of true peace with them. 1
     Mac. x. 47.

   2. To make an earnest petition or request.

     The Janizaries entreated for them as valiant men. Knolles.


   En*treat", n. Entreaty. [Obs.] Ford.


   En*treat"a*ble (?), a. That may be entreated.


   En*treat"ance (?), n. Entreaty. [Obs.] Fairfax.


   En*treat"er  (?),  n.  One  who  entreats;  one  who asks earnestly; a


   En*treat"ful (?), a. Full of entreaty. [R.] See Intreatful.


   En*treat"ing*ly, adv. In an entreating manner.


   En*treat"ive  (?),  a.  Used  in  entreaty; pleading. [R.] "Entreative
   phrase." A. Brewer.


   En*treat"ment (?), n. Entreaty; invitation. [Obs.] Shak.


   En*treat"y, n.; pl. Entreaties (.

   1. Treatment; reception; entertainment. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

   2.  The  act  of  entreating  or  beseeching;  urgent  prayer; earnest
   petition; pressing solicitation.

     Fair entreaty, and sweet blandishment. Spenser.

   Syn. -- Solicitation; request; suit; supplication; importunity.


   En`tr\'82e" (?), n. [F. See Entry.]

   1.  A  coming in, or entrance; hence, freedom of access; permission or
   right to enter; as, to have the entr\'82e of a house.

   2. (Cookery) In French usage, a dish served at the beginning of dinner
   to  give  zest  to the appetite; in English usage, a side dish, served
   with  a joint, or between the courses, as a cutlet, scalloped oysters,


   En`tre*mets" (?), n. sing. & pl. [F., fr. entre between + mets a dish,

   1.  (Cookery)  A  side  dish; a dainty or relishing dish usually eaten
   after  the  joints or principal dish; also, a sweetmeat, served with a

   2. Any small entertainment between two greater ones. [R.]


   En*trench" (?), v. t. See Intrench.


   En`tre*p\'93t"  (?),  n.  [F.]  A warehouse; a magazine for depositing
   goods,  stores,  etc.; a mart or place where merchandise is deposited;
   as, an entrep\'93t for shipping goods in transit.


   En`tre*pre*neur"  (?),  n. [F. See Enterprise.] (Polit. Econ.) One who
   creates  a  product  on his own account; whoever undertakes on his own
   account  an industrial enterprise in which workmen are employed. F. A.


   En`tre*sol"  (?), n. [F.] (Arch.) A low story between two higher ones,
   usually  between  the  ground  floor  and  the first story; mezzanine.


   En*trick"  (?), v. t. [Cf. OE. entriken to perplex, OF. entriquer. Cf.
   Trick, Intrigue.] To trick, to perplex. [Obs.] Rom. of R.


   En"tro*chal  (?),  a. Pertaining to, or consisting of, entrochites, or
   the joints of encrinites; -- used of a kind of stone or marble.


   En"tro*chite  (?),  n.  [Pref. en- + Gr. (Paleon.) A fossil joint of a
   crinoid stem.


   En*tro"pi*on (?), n. [NL.] (Med.) Same as Entropium.


   En*tro"pi*um  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Entropy.]  (Med.)  The inversion or
   turning in of the border of the eyelids.


   En"tro*py  (?), n. [Gr. (Thermodynamics) A certain property of a body,
   expressed  as  a  measurable  quantity,  such  that  when  there is no
   communication  of  heat  the  quantity remains constant, but when heat
   enters  or  leaves the body the quantity increases or diminishes. If a
   small  amount, h, of heat enters the body when its temperature is t in
   the  thermodynamic  scale  the entropy of the body is increased by h .
   The entropy is regarded as measured from some standard temperature and
   pressure. Sometimes called the thermodynamic function. 

     The entropy of the universe tends towards a maximum. Clausius.


   En*trust" (?), v. t. See Intrust.


   En"try (?), n.; pl. Entries (#). [OE. entree, entre, F. entr\'82e, fr.
   entrer to enter. See Enter, and cf. Entr\'82e.]

   1.  The  act  of  entering or passing into or upon; entrance; ingress;
   hence,  beginnings or first attempts; as, the entry of a person into a
   house  or  city;  the  entry of a river into the sea; the entry of air
   into the blood; an entry upon an undertaking.

   2.  The  act of making or entering a record; a setting down in writing
   the  particulars,  as  of a transaction; as, an entry of a sale; also,
   that which is entered; an item.

     A notary made an entry of this act. Bacon.

   3.  That  by which entrance is made; a passage leading into a house or
   other building, or to a room; a vestibule; an adit, as of a mine.

     A straight, long entry to the temple led. Dryden.

   4.  (Com.)  The  exhibition  or  depositing  of a ship's papers at the
   customhouse,  to  procure  license  to  land  goods;  or the giving an
   account of a ship's cargo to the officer of the customs, and obtaining
   his  permission  to land the goods. See Enter, v. t., 8, and Entrance,


   5.  (Law)  (a)  The actual taking possession of lands or tenements, by
   entering  or setting foot on them. (b) A putting upon record in proper
   form  and  order.  (c)  The  act  in addition to breaking essential to
   constitute the offense or burglary. Burrill.
   Bill  of  entry.  See  under  Bill. -- Double entry, Single entry. See
   Bookkeeping.  --  Entry  clerk  (Com.), a clerk who makes the original
   entries  of transactions in a business. -- Writ of entry (Law), a writ
   issued  for  the  purpose of obtaining possession of land from one who
   has unlawfully entered and continues in possession. Bouvier.


   En"tryng (?), n. Am entrance. [Obs.]

     So great an entryng and so large. Chaucer.


   En*tune" (?), v. t. To tune; to intone. Chaucer.


   En*twine"  (?),  v.  t.  [Pref.  en-  + twine. Cf. Intwine.] To twine,
   twist, or wreathe together or round. [Written also intwine.]

     Entwined in duskier wreaths her braided locks. Shelley.

     Thy glorious household stuff did me entwine. Herbert.


   En*twine", v. i. To be twisted or twined.

     With whose imperial laurels might entwine no cypress. De Quincey.


   En*twine"ment  (?), n. A twining or twisting together or round; union.
   Bp. Hacket.


   En*twist" (?), v. t. To twist or wreathe round; to intwine. Shak.


   E*nu"bi*late  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  enubilatus,  p.  p.  of  enubilare to
   enubilate; e out + nubila clouds, fr. nubilis cloudy, nubes cloud.] To
   clear from mist, clouds, or obscurity. [R.] Bailey.


   E*nu"bi*lous  (?), a. [See Enubilate.] Free from fog, mist, or clouds;
   clear. [R.]


   E*nu"cle*ate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enucleated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enucleating  (?).]  [L. enucleatus, p. p. of enucleare to enucleate; e
   out + nucleus kernel.]

   1.  To  bring  or  peel out, as a kernel from its enveloping husks its
   enveloping husks or shell.

   2. (Med.) To remove without cutting (as a tumor).

   3. To bring to light; to make clear. Sclater (1654).


   E*nu`cle*a"tion  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  \'82nucl\'82ation.]  The  act  of
   enucleating; elucidation; exposition.

     Neither  sir,  nor  water,  nor  food,  seem directly to contribute
     anything to the enucleation of this disease. Tooke.


   E*nu"mer*ate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enumerated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enumerating  (?).]  [L.  enumeratus,  p. p. of enumerare to count out,
   enumerate; e out + numerare to count, fr. numerus number. See Number.]
   To  count;  to  tell  by numbers; to count over, or tell off one after
   another; to number; to reckon up; to mention one by one; to name over;
   to  make  a  special  and  separate  account  of;  to  recount; as, to
   enumerate the stars in a constellation.

     Enumerating the services he had done. Ludlow.

   Syn.  --  To  reckon;  compute;  calculate;  count;  estimate; relate;
   rehearse; recapitulate; detail.

   Page 499


   E*nu`mer*a"tion (?), n. [L. enumeratio: cf. F. \'82num\'82ration.]

   1. The act of enumerating, making separate mention, or recounting.

   2. A detailed account, in which each thing is specially noticed.

     Because almost every man we meet possesses these, we leave them out
     of our enumeration. Paley.

   3.  (Rhet.)  A  recapitulation,  in the peroration, of the heads of an


   E*nu"mer*a*tive  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  \'82num\'82ratif.]  Counting,  or
   reckoning up, one by one.

     Enumerative of the variety of evils. Jer. Taylor.


   E*nu"mer*a`tor (?), n. One who enumerates.


   E*nun"ci*a*ble (?), a. Capable of being enunciated or expressed.


   E*nun"ci*ate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Enunciated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enunciating (?).] [L. enuntiatus, -ciatus, p. p. of enuntiare, -ciare.
   See Enounce.]

   1.  To  make  a  formal  statement  of;  to  announce; to proclaim; to
   declare, as a truth.

     The terms in which he enunciates the great doctrines of the gospel.

   2.  To  make  distinctly audible; to utter articulately; to pronounce;
   as, to enunciate a word distinctly.


   E*nun"ci*ate, v. i. To utter words or syllables articulately.


   E*nun`ci*a"tion (?; 277), n. [L. enuntiatio, -ciatio.]

   1.  The  act of enunciating, announcing, proclaiming, or making known;
   open  attestation;  declaration;  as,  the enunciation of an important

     By way of interpretation and enunciation. Jer. Taylor.

   2.  Mode of utterance or pronunciation, especially as regards fullness
   and  distinctness  or  articulation;  as,  to  speak  with  a clear or
   impressive enunciation.

   3. That which is enunciated or announced; words in which a proposition
   is expressed; an announcement; a formal declaration; a statement.

     Every  intelligible  enunciation  must  be either true or false. A.


   E*nun"ci*a*tive  (?),  a. [L. enuntiativus, -ciativus.] Pertaining to,
   or     containing,     enunciation;     declarative.    Ayliffe.    --
   E*nun"ci*a*tive*ly, adv.


   E*nun"ci*a`tor (?), n. [L. enuntiator, enunciator.] One who enunciates
   or proclaims.


   E*nun"ci*a*to*ry  (?), a. Pertaining to, or containing, enunciation or


   En*ure" (?), v. t. See Inure.


   En`u*re"sis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) An involuntary discharge of
   urine; incontinence of urine.


   En*vas"sal (?), v. t. To make a vassal of. [Obs.]


   En*vault" (?), v. t. To inclose in a vault; to entomb. [R.] Swift.


   En*vei"gle (?), v. t. To entice. See Inveigle.


   En*vel"op  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Enveloped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Enveloping.]  [OE.  envolupen, envolipen, OF. envoluper, envoleper, F.
   envelopper; pref. en- (L. in) + voluper, voleper. See Develop.] To put
   a covering about; to wrap up or in; to inclose within a case, wrapper,
   integument  or the like; to surround entirely; as, to envelop goods or
   a letter; the fog envelops a ship.

     Nocturnal shades this world envelop. J. Philips.

                            Envelope; 277, Envelop

   En"vel*ope (?; 277), En*vel"op (?; 277), n. [F. enveloppe.]

   1. That which envelops, wraps up, encases, or surrounds; a wrapper; an
   inclosing  cover;  esp.,  the  cover or wrapper of a document, as of a

   2.  (Astron.) The nebulous covering of the head or nucleus of a comet;
   -- called also coma.

   3.  (Fort.)  A  work of earth, in the form of a single parapet or of a
   small  rampart.  It  is  sometimes  raised  in the ditch and sometimes
   beyond it. Wilhelm.

   4.  (Geom.)  A  curve  or surface which is tangent to each member of a
   system  of curves or surfaces, the form and position of the members of
   the  system  being  allowed  to vary according to some continuous law.
   Thus,  any  curve  is  the  envelope  of its tangents. <-- 4. A set of
   limits  for  the  performance  capabilities  of  some type of machine,
   originally  used to refer to aircraft. Now also used metaphorically to
   refer  to  capabilities  of  any  system  in  general, including human
   organizations, esp. in the phrase
   push  the  envelope.  It  is  used to refer to the maximum performance
   available at the current state of the technology, and therefore refers
   to  a  class  of machines in general, not a specific machine. push the
   envelope Increase the capability of some type of machine or system; --
   usu. by technological development. -->


   En*vel"op*ment (?), n. [Cf. F. enveloppement.]

   1.  The act of enveloping or wrapping; an inclosing or covering on all

   2. That which envelops or surrounds; an envelop.


   En*ven"ime (?), v. t. To envenom. [Obs.]


   En*ven"om  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Envenomed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Envenoming.]  [OE.  envenimen,  F.  envenimer;  pref. en- (L. in) + F.
   venin poison. See Venom.]

   1.  To  taint  or  impregnate  with venom, or any substance noxious to
   life;  to  poison;  to  render dangerous or deadly by poison, as food,
   drink,  a  weapon; as, envenomed meat, wine, or arrow; also, to poison
   (a person) by impregnating with venom.

     Alcides . . . felt the envenomed robe. Milton.

     O,  what  a  world  is  this, when what is comely Envenoms him that
     bears it! Shak.

   2. To taint or impregnate with bitterness, malice, or hatred; to imbue
   as with venom; to imbitter.

     The envenomed tongue of calumny. Smollett.

     On  the  question  of  slavery  opinion  has  of  late  years  been
     peculiarly envenomed. Sir G. C. Lewis.


   En*ver"meil (?), v. t. [Pref. en- + vermeil: cf. OF. envermeiller. See
   Vermil.]  To  color  with,  or  as with, vermilion; to dye red. [Obs.]


   En"vi*a*ble  (?),  a.  [From  Envy.] Fitted to excite envy; capable of
   awakening an ardent desire to posses or to resemble.

     One of most enviable of human beings. Macaulay.

   -- En"vi*a*ble*ness, n. -- En"vi*a*bly, adv.


   En*vie"  (?),  v.  i. [See Vie.] To vie; to emulate; to strive. [Obs.]


   En"vi*er  (?),  n.  One  who envies; one who desires inordinately what
   another possesses.


   En*vig"or (?), v. t. To invigorate. [Obs.]


   En"vi*ous  (?),  a.  [OF.  envios,  F. envieux, fr. L. invidiosus, fr.
   invidia envy. See Envy, and cf. Invidious.]

   1. Malignant; mischievous; spiteful. [Obs.]

     Each envious brier his weary legs doth scratch. Shak.

   2.  Feeling or exhibiting envy; actuated or directed by, or proceeding
   from,  envy;  --  said  of  a person, disposition, feeling, act, etc.;
   jealously  pained  by  the  excellence  or  good  fortune  of another;
   maliciously  grudging;  --  followed  by  of,  at, and against; as, an
   envious man, disposition, attack; envious tongues.

     My soul is envious of mine eye. Keble.

     Neither be thou envious at the wicked. Prov. xxiv. 19.

   3. Inspiring envy. [Obs. or Poetic]

     He  to him leapt, and that same envious gage Of victor's glory from
     him snatched away. Spenser.

   4. Excessively careful; cautious. [Obs.]

     No men are so envious of their health. Jer. Taylor.

   -- En"vi*ous*ly, adv. -- En"vi*ous*ness, n.


   En*vi"ron  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  & p. p. Environed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Environing.]  [F. environner, fr. environ about, thereabout; pref. en-
   (L.  in)  + OF. viron circle, circuit, fr. OF. & F. virer to turn, LL.
   virare  to  turn  up and down, topsy-turvy. Cf. Veer.] To surround; to
   encompass;  to  encircle;  to hem in; to be round about; to involve or

     Dwelling in a pleasant glade, With mountains round about environed.

     Environed he was with many foes. Shak.

     Environ me with darkness whilst I write. Donne.


   En*vi"ron, adv. [F.] About; around. [Obs.]

     Lord Godfrey's eye three times environ goes. Fairfax.


   En*vi"ron*ment (?), n. [Cf. F. environnement.]

   1. Act of environing; state of being environed.

   2.   That   which   environs  or  surrounds;  surrounding  conditions,
   influences,  or  forces,  by  which  living  forms  are influenced and
   modified in their growth and development.

     It is no friendly environment, this of thine. Carlyle.


   En*vi"rons  (?;  277),  n. pl. [F.] The parts or places which surround
   another  place,  or lie in its neighborhood; suburbs; as, the environs
   of a city or town. Chesterfield.


   En*vis"age  (?;  48),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Envisaged (?; 48); p. pr. &
   vb.  n.  Envisaging  (?).]  [F.  envisager; pref. en- (L. in) + visage
   face,  visage.  See  Visage.] To look in the face of; to apprehend; to
   regard. [R.] Keats.

     From  the very dawn of existence the infant must envisage self, and
     body acting on self. McCosh.


   En*vis"age*ment (?), n. The act of envisaging.


   En*vol"ume  (?),  v.  t.  To form into, or incorporate with, a volume.


   En*vol"up  (?),  v.  t.  [See Envelop.] To wrap up; to envelop. [Obs.]


   En"voy (?), n. [F. envoy\'82 envoy, fr. envoyer to send; pref. en- (L.
   in)  +  voie  way,  L.  via:  cf.  F. envoi an envoy (in sense 2). See
   Voyage, and cf. Invoice.]

   1.  One  dispatched  upon  an  errand or mission; a messenger; esp., a
   person  deputed  by a sovereign or a government to negotiate a treaty,
   or  transact other business, with a foreign sovereign or government; a
   minister  accredited to a foreign government. An envoy's rank is below
   that of an ambassador.

   2.  [F.  envoi,  fr.  envoyer to send.] An explanatory or commendatory
   postscript  to  a  poem,  essay,  or book; -- also in the French from,

     The envoy of a ballad is the "sending" of it forth. Skeat.


   En"voy*ship, n. The office or position of an envoy.


   En"vy  (?), n.; pl. Envies (#). [F. envie, L. invidia envious; akin to
   invidere  to look askance at, to look with enmity; in against + videre
   to see. See Vision.]

   1. Malice; ill will; spite. [Obs.]

     If  he  evade  us  there,  Enforce him with his envy to the people.

   2.  Chagrin,  mortification, discontent, or uneasiness at the sight of
   another's  excellence or good fortune, accompanied with some degree of
   hatred  and  a desire to possess equal advantages; malicious grudging;
   -- usually followed by of; as, they did this in envy of C\'91sar.

     Envy  is  a repining at the prosperity or good of another, or anger
     and  displeasure  at  any  good  of  another  which we want, or any
     advantage another hath above us. Ray.

     No bliss Enjoyed by us excites his envy more. Milton.

     Envy,  to  which  the  ignoble  mind's a slave, Is emulation in the
     learned or brave. Pope.

   3. Emulation; rivalry. [Obs.]

     Such as cleanliness and decency Prompt to a virtuous envy. Ford.

   4. Public odium; ill repute. [Obs.]

     To lay the envy of the war upon Cicero. B. Jonson.

   5. An object of envious notice or feeling.

     This  constitution in former days used to be the envy of the world.


   En"vy,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Envied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Envying.] [F.

   1.  To feel envy at or towards; to be envious of; to have a feeling of
   uneasiness  or  mortification in regard to (any one), arising from the
   sight of another's excellence or good fortune and a longing to possess

     A  woman  does not envy a man for his fighting courage, nor a man a
     woman for her beauty. Collier.

     Whoever envies another confesses his superiority. Rambler.

   2. To feel envy on account of; to have a feeling of grief or repining,
   with a longing to possess (some excellence or good fortune of another,
   or  an  equal  good  fortune,  etc.);  to  look with grudging upon; to

     I have seen thee fight, When I have envied thy behavior. Shak.

     Jeffrey  .  . . had actually envied his friends their cool mountain
     breezes. Froude.

   3. To long after; to desire strongly; to covet.

     Or climb his knee the envied kiss to share. T. Gray.

   4. To do harm to; to injure; to disparage. [Obs.]

     If I make a lie To gain your love and envy my best mistress, Put me
     against a wall. J. Fletcher.

   5. To hate. [Obs.] Marlowe.

   6. To emulate. [Obs.] Spenser.


   En"vy (?), v. i.

   1.  To  be  filled  with  envious  feelings;  to  regard anything with
   grudging and longing eyes; -- used especially with at.

     Who would envy at the prosperity of the wicked? Jer. Taylor.

   2.  To  show  malice or ill will; to rail. [Obs.] "He has . . . envied
   against the people." Shak.


   En*vyned" (?), a. [OF. enviner to store with wine; pref. en- (L. in) +
   vin wine. See Vine.] Stored or furnished with wine. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   En*wall" (?), v. t. See Inwall. Sir P. Sidney.


   En*wal"low (?), v. t. To plunge into, or roll in, flith; to wallow.

     So  now  all three one senseless lump remain, Enwallowed in his own
     black bloody gore. Spenser.


   En*wheel" (?), v. t. To encircle. Shak.


   En*wid"en (?), v. t. To widen. [Obs.]


   En*wind" (?), v. t. To wind about; to encircle.

     In the circle of his arms Enwound us both. Tennyson.


   En*wom"an  (?),  v.  t.  To  endow with the qualities of a woman. [R.]


   En*womb"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Enwombed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1. To conceive in the womb. [Obs.] Spenser.

   2.  To  bury,  as  it  were  in a womb; to hide, as in a gulf, pit, or
   cavern. Donne.


   En*wrap" (?), v. t. To envelop. See Inwrap.


   En*wrap"ment  (?),  n.  Act  of enwrapping; a wrapping or an envelope.


   En*wreathe" (?), v. t. See Inwreathe. Shelton.


   En`zo*\'94t"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  enzo\'94tique.] Afflicting animals; --
   used  of a disease affecting the animals of a district. It corresponds
   to an endemic disease among men.


   En"zyme  (?),  n.  [Pref.  en- (Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) An unorganized or
   unformed  ferment, in distinction from an organized or living ferment;
   a soluble, or chemical, ferment. Ptyalin, pepsin, diastase, and rennet
   are good examples of enzymes.


   E"o*cene  (?),  a. [Gr. (Geol.) Pertaining to the first in time of the
   three  subdivisions  into  which  the Tertiary formation is divided by
   geologists,  and  alluding to the approximation in its life to that of
   the  present  era;  as,  Eocene  deposits. -- n. The Eocene formation.


   E*o"li*an (?), a. [See \'92olian.]

   1. \'92olian.

   2. (Geol.) Formed, or deposited, by the action of wind, as dunes.
   Eolian attachment, Eolian harp. See \'92olian.


   E*ol"ic (?), a. & n. See \'92olic.


   E*ol"i*pile (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82olipyle.] Same as \'92olipile.


   E"o*lis  (?),  n.  [L.  Aeolis  a daughter of \'92olus, Gr. A'ioli`s.]
   (Zo\'94l.) A genus of nudibranch mollusks having clusters of branchial
   papill\'91   along   the   back.  See  Ceratobranchia.  [Written  also

                                  Eon, \'92on

   E"on  (?),  \'92"on (?), n. [L. aeon, fr. Gr. a'iwn space or period of
   time, lifetime, age; akin to L. aevum. See Age.]

   1.  An  immeasurable or infinite space of time; eternity; a long space
   of time; an age.

     The eons of geological time. Huxley.

   2.  (Gnostic  Philos.) One of the embodiments of the divine attributes
   of the Eternal Being.

     Among  the higher \'92ons are Mind, Reason, Power, Truth, and Life.
     Am. Cyc.

     NOTE: &hand; Eo ns we re co nsidered to be emanations sent forth by
     God  from  the  depths  of  His  grand  solitude to fulfill various
     functions in the material and spiritual universe.


   E"o*phyte  (?), n. [Gr. (Paleon.) A fossil plant which is found in the
   lowest beds of the Silurian age.


   E`o*phyt"ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to eophytes.


   E"os  (?),  n. [L., fr. Gr. 'Hw`s.] (Gr. Myth.) Aurora, the goddess of


   E`o*sau"rus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  'hw`s  dawn + say^ros lizard.]
   (Paleon.)  An  extinct  marine  reptile from the coal measures of Nova
   Scotia;  --  so  named  because  supposed  to be of the earliest known


   E"o*sin  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Chem.)  A  yellow  or  brownish red dyestuff
   obtained  by  the  action of bromine on fluoresce\'8bn, and named from
   the fine rose-red which it imparts to silk. It is also used for making
   a fine red ink. Its solution is fluorescent.


   E*os"pho*rite  (?), n. [From Gr. (Min.) A hydrous phosphate of alumina
   and  manganese.  It  is  generally of a rose-pink color, -- whence the


   E`o*zo"ic  (?),  a. [See Eozo\'94n.] (Geol.) Of or pertaining to rocks
   or strata older than the Paleozoic, in many of which the eozo\'94n has
   been found.

     NOTE: &hand; Th is te rm ha s been proposed for the strata formerly
     called  Azoic,  and is preferred especially by those geologists who
     regard the eozo\'94n as of organic origin. See Arch\'91an.


   E`o*zo"\'94n  (?), n.; pl. Eozo\'94ns (#), L. Eozoa (#). [NL., fr. Gr.
   'hw`s  dawn  + zw^,on an animal.] (Paleon.) A peculiar structure found
   in  the  Arch\'91an  limestones  of  Canada and other regions. By some
   geologists  it  is  believed to be a species of gigantic Foraminifera,
   but  others consider it a concretion, without organic structure. <--p.
   500 -->

   Page 500


   E`o*zo"\'94n*al   (?),  a.  (Paleon.)  Pertaining  to  the  eozo\'94n;
   containing eozo\'94ns; as, eozo\'94nal limestone.


   Ep- (?). [Gr. See Epi-.


   Ep"a*cris  (?), n. [NL., from Gr. (Bot.) A genus of shrubs, natives of
   Australia,  New  Zealand,  etc.,  having  pretty white, red, or purple
   blossoms, and much resembling heaths.


   E"pact  (?),  n.  [F.  \'82pacte, fr. Gr. Epi-, and Act.] (Chron.) The
   moon's  age  at  the  beginning of the calendar year, or the number of
   days  by  which  the  last  new moon has preceded the beginning of the
   year.  Annual epact, the excess of the solar year over the lunar year,
   -- being eleven days. -- Menstrual epact, OR Monthly epact, the excess
   of a calendar month over a lunar.


   Ep`a*go"ge  (?),  n.  [L.,  from  Gr.  Epact.] (Logic) The adducing of
   particular  examples  so  as  to  lead  to a universal conclusion; the
   argument by induction.


   Ep`a*gog"ic (?), a. Inductive. Latham.


   E*pal"ate (?), a. [Pref. e- + palpus.] (Zo\'94l.) Without palpi.


   Ep*an`a*di*plo"sis  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure by which the
   same  word is used both at the beginning and at the end of a sentence;
   as,  "Rejoice in the Lord always: and again I say, Rejoice." Phil. iv.


   Ep*an`a*lep"sis  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure by which the
   same word or clause is repeated after intervening matter. Gibbs.


   Ep`a*naph"o*ra (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) Same as Anaphora. Gibbs.


   Ep`a*nas"tro*phe  (?),  n. [NL., from Gr. (Rhet.) Same as Anadiplosis.


   E*pan"o*dos  (?),  n. [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure of speech in which
   the parts of a sentence or clause are repeated in inverse order, as in
   the following: --

     O more exceeding love, or law more just? Just law, indeed, but more
     exceeding love! Milton.


   E*pan"o*dy  (?),  n.  [See Epanodos.] (Bot.) The abnormal change of an
   irregular  flower to a regular form; -- considered by evolutionists to
   be a reversion to an ancestral condition.


   Ep`an*or*tho"sis  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr. A figure by which a speaker
   recalls  a  word  or  words,  in  order  to  substitute something else
   stronger  or  more significant; as, Most brave! Brave, did I say? most
   heroic act!


   Ep*an"thous  (?),  a. [Pref. ep- + Gr. (Bot.) Growing upon flowers; --
   said of certain species of fungi.


   Ep"arch  (?),  n. [Gr. In ancient Greece, the governor or perfect of a
   province; in modern Greece, the ruler of an eparchy.


   Ep"arch*y (?), n. [Gr. A province, prefecture, or territory, under the
   jurisdiction  of an eparch or governor; esp., in modern Greece, one of
   the  larger  subdivisions of a monarchy or province of the kingdom; in
   Russia, a diocese or archdiocese.


   Ep`ar*te"ri*al  (?),  a. [Pref. ep- + arterial.] (Anat.) Situated upon
   or  above  an  artery;  -- applied esp. to the branches of the bronchi
   given  off  above  the  point  where  the pulmonary artery crosses the


   E*paule"  (?),  n.  [F. \'82paule shoulder, shoulder of a bastion. See
   Epaulet,  and  cf.  Spall  the  shoulder.]  (Fort.)  The shoulder of a
   bastion,  or  the  place  where  its  face and flank meet and form the
   angle, called the angle of the shoulder.


   E*paule"ment  (?), n. [F. \'82paulement.] (Fort.) A side work, made of
   gabions,  fascines, or bags, filled with earth, or of earth heaped up,
   to afford cover from the flanking fire of an enemy.

                              Epaulet, Epaulette

   Ep"au*let`,  Ep"au*lette`  (?), n. [F. \'82paulette, dim. of \'82paule
   shoulder, fr. L. spatula a broad piece (LL., shoulder), dim. of spatha
   abroad, flat instrument, fr. Gr. Spade the instrument, and cf. Epaule,
   Spatula.]  (Mil.)  A  shoulder  ornament or badge worn by military and
   naval officers, differences of rank being marked by some peculiar form
   or device, as a star, eagle, etc.; a shoulder knot.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e United States service the epaulet is reserved
     for  full  dress uniform. Its use was abolished in the British army
     in 1855.

                             Epauleted, Epauletted

   Ep"au*let`ed,  Ep"au*let`ted,  a.  Wearing  epaulets;  decorated  with


   Ep*ax"i*al  (?),  a.  [Pref.  ep-  +  axial.] (Anat.) Above, or on the
   dorsal side of, the axis of the skeleton; episkeletal.


   E*pei"ra  (?),  n.  [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of spiders, including the
   common  garden  spider  (E.  diadema). They spin geometrical webs. See
   Garden spider.


   Ep"en (?), n. (Anat.) See Epencephalon.


   Ep`en*ce*phal"ic  (?),  a. (Anat.) (a) Pertaining to the epencephalon.
   (b) Situated on or over the brain.


   Ep`en*ceph"a*lon  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. (Anat.) The segment of the
   brain next behind the midbrain, including the cerebellum and pons; the
   hindbrain. Sometimes abbreviated to epen.


   Ep*en"dy*ma (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) The epithelial lining of the
   ventricles  of  the  brain  and  the canal of the spinal cord; endyma;


   Ep*en"dy*mis (?), n. [NL.] See Ependyma.


   Ep`e*net"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Bestowing  praise; eulogistic; laudatory.
   [Obs.] E. Phillips.


   E*pen"the*sis  (?),  n.;  pl. Epentheses (#). [L., fr. Gr. (Gram.) The
   insertion  of  a letter or a sound in the body of a word; as, the b in
   "nimble" from AS. n&emac;mol.


   Ep`en*thet"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr. \'82penth\'82tique.] (Gram.) Inserted in
   the body of a word; as, an epenthetic letter or sound.


   \'90`pergne"  (?),  n. [F. \'82pargne a sparing or saving; a treasury.
   "Our  \'82pergne  is  a  little  treasury  of  sweetmeats, fruits, and
   flowers."   Brewer.]  A  centerpiece  for  table  decoration,  usually
   consisting of several dishes or receptacles of different sizes grouped
   together in an ornamental design.


   \'90`per`lan" (?), n. [F. \'82perlan, fr. G. spierling. See Sparling.]
   (Zo\'94l.) The European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus).


   Ep*ex`e*ge"sis  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. Exegesis.] A full or additional
   explanation; exegesis.


   Ep*ex`e*get"ic*al   (?),   a.  Relating  to  epexegesis;  explanatory;

                                Ephah, OR Epha

   E"phah  (?),  OR  E"pha, n. [Heb. A Hebrew dry measure, supposed to be
   equal to two pecks and five quarts. ten ephahs make one homer.


   E*phem"e*ra (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1. (Med.) A fever of one day's continuance only.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of insects including the day flies, or ephemeral
   flies. See Ephemeral fly, under Ephemeral.


   E*phem"er*al (?), a.

   1.  Beginning and ending in a day; existing only, or no longer than, a
   day; diurnal; as, an ephemeral flower.

   2.  Short-lived;  existing  or  continuing  for  a  short  time  only.
   "Ephemeral popularity." V. Knox.

     Sentences  not  of  ephemeral,  but  of  eternal,  efficacy. Sir J.

   Ephemeral  fly  (Zo\'94l.),  one  of  a group of neuropterous insects,
   belonging  to the genus Ephemera and many allied genera, which live in
   the  adult  or  winged  state  only for a short time. The larv\'91 are
   aquatic; -- called also day fly and May fly.


   E*phem"er*al,  n.  Anything  lasting  but  a  day, or a brief time; an
   ephemeral plant, insect, etc.


   E*phem"er*an (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) One of the ephemeral flies.


   E*phem"e*ric (?), a. Ephemeral.


   E*phem"e*ris   (?),  n.;  pl.  Ephemerides  (#).  [L.,  a  diary,  Gr.

   1. A diary; a journal. Johnson.

   2.  (Anat.)  (a)  A  publication  giving  the  computed  places of the
   heavenly  bodies  for each day of the year, with other numerical data,
   for  the use of the astronomer and navigator; an astronomical almanac;
   as,  the  "American  Ephemeris  and Nautical Almanac." (b) Any tabular
   statement  of  the  assigned places of a heavenly body, as a planet or
   comet, on several successive days.

   3.  (Literature)  A  collective  name  for reviews, magazines, and all
   kinds of periodical literature. Brande & C.


   E*phem"er*ist (?), n.

   1.  One  who  studies  the daily motions and positions of the planets.

   2. One who keeps an ephemeris; a journalist.


   E*phem"e*ron (?), n.; pl. Ephemera (#). [NL. See Ephemera.] (Zo\'94l.)
   One of the ephemeral flies.


   E*phem"er*ous (?), a. Ephemeral. [R.] Burke.


   E*phe"sian  (?;  106),  a. [L. Ephesius: cf. F. \'82ph\'82sien.] Of or
   pertaining to Ephesus, an ancient city of Ionia, in Asia Minor.


   E*phe"sian, n.

   1. A native of Ephesus.

   2. A jolly companion; a roisterer. [Obs.] Shak.


   Eph`i*al"tes (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. The nightmare. Brande & C.


   E*phip"pi*al (?), a. Saddle-shaped; occupying an ephippium. Dana.


   E*phip"pi*um (?), n. [L., saddle cloth, fr. Gr.

   1. (Anat.) A depression in the sphenoid bone; the pituitary fossa.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  saddle-shaped  cavity  to  contain the winter eggs,
   situated on the back of Cladocera.


   Eph"od  (?), n. [Heb. \'bephad to put on.] (Jew. Antiq.) A part of the
   sacerdotal habit among Jews, being a covering for the back and breast,
   held  together  on  the  shoulders  by  two clasps or brooches of onyx
   stones  set in gold, and fastened by a girdle of the same stuff as the
   ephod. The ephod for the priests was of plain linen; that for the high
   priest  was  richly embroidered in colors. The breastplate of the high
   priest was worn upon the ephod in front. Exodus xxviii. 6-12.


   Eph"or  (?),  n.;  pl.  Ephors  (#),  L.  Ephori (#). [L. ephorus, Gr.
   \'82phore.]  (Gr.  Antiq.)  A  magistrate;  one  of  a  body  of  five
   magistrates  chosen  by  the  people of ancient Sparta. They exercised
   control even over the king.


   Eph"or*al (?), a. Pertaining to an ephor.


   Eph"or*al*ty (?), n. The office of an ephor, or the body of ephors.


   E"phra*im  (?),  n.  [The proper name.] (Zo\'94l.) A hunter's name for
   the grizzly bear.


   Eph"y*ra  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A stage in the development
   of  discophorous  medus\'91, when they first begin to swim about after
   being detached from the strobila. See Strobila.


   Ep"i- (?). [Gr. api besides, and prob. to L. ob to, before, on account
   of,  and  perh. to E. of, off.] A prefix, meaning upon, beside, among,
   on  the  outside,  above,  over.  It becomes ep- before a vowel, as in
   epoch, and eph- before a Greek aspirate, as in ephemeral.


   Ep"i*blast  (?),  n. [Pref. epi- + -blast.] (Biol.) The outer layer of
   the blastoderm; the ectoderm. See Blastoderm, Delamination.


   Ep`i*blas"tic (?), a. (Biol.) Of or relating to, or consisting of, the


   Ep`i*ble"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Bot.)  The epidermal cells of
   rootlets, specially adapted to absorb liquids. Goodale.


   Ep`i*bol"ic  (?), a. [Gr. (Biol.) Growing or covering over; -- said of
   a kind of invagination. See under Invagination.


   E*pib"o*ly  (?),  n. [Cf. Gr. (Biol.) Epibolic invagination. See under


   Ep`i*bran"chi*al  (?), a. [Pref. epi- + branchial.] (Anat.) Pertaining
   to  the segment between the ceratobranchial and pharyngobranchial in a
   branchial arch. -- n. An epibranchial cartilage or bone.


   Ep"ic (?), a. [L. epicus, Gr. vox voice: cf. F. \'82pique. See Voice.]
   Narrated  in  a  grand  style;  pertaining to or designating a kind of
   narrative  poem,  usually  called  an  heroic  poem,  in which real or
   fictitious events, usually the achievements of some hero, are narrated
   in an elevated style.

     The epic poem treats of one great, complex action, in a grand style
     and with fullness of detail. T. Arnold.


   Ep"ic, n. An epic or heroic poem. See Epic, a.


   Ep"ic*al (, a. Epic. -- Ep"ic*al*ly, adv.

     Poems which have an epical character. Brande & C.

     His [Wordsworth's] longer poems (miscalled epical). Lowell.


   Ep`i*car"di*ac (?), a. (Anat.) Of or relating to the epicardium.


   Ep`i*car"di*um  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) That of the pericardium
   which forms the outer surface of the heart; the cardiac pericardium.


   Ep`i*car"i*can  (?),  n.  [Pref.  epi-  +  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  An  isopod
   crustacean, parasitic on shrimps.


   Ep"i*carp  (?),  [Pref.  epi-  +  Gr. (Bot.) The external or outermost
   layer of a fructified or ripened ovary. See Illust. under Endocarp.


   Ep"i*cede (?), n. [L. epicedion, Gr. \'82pic\'8ade.] A funeral song or
   discourse; an elegy. [R.] Donne.


   Ep`i*ce"di*al (?), a. Elegiac; funereal.


   Ep`i*ce"di*an (?), a. Epicedial. -- n. An epicede.


   Ep`i*ce"di*um (?), n. [L.] An epicede.


   Ep"i*cene (?), a. & n. [L. epicoenus, Gr. \'82pic\'8ane.]

   1.  Common to both sexes; -- a term applied, in grammar, to such nouns
   as  have  but one form of gender, either the masculine or feminine, to
   indicate animals of both sexes; as bos
   , for the ox and cow; sometimes applied to eunuchs and hermaphrodites.

   2. Fig.: Sexless; neither one thing nor the other.

     The literary prigs epicene. Prof. Wilson.

     He represented an epicene species, neither churchman nor layman. J.
     A. Symonds.


   Ep`i*cen"tral (?), a. [Pref. epi- + centrum.] (Anat.) Arising from the
   centrum of a vertebra. Owen.


   Ep`i*ce*ras"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  \'82pic\'82rastique.] (Med.) Lenient;
   assuaging. [Obs.]


   Ep`i*chi*re"ma  (?),  n.;  pl. Epichiremata (#). [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet. &
   Logic)  A  syllogism in which the proof of the major or minor premise,
   or   both,  is  introduced  with  the  premises  themselves,  and  the
   conclusion   is   derived   in  the  ordinary  manner.  [Written  also


   Ep`i*chor"dal  (?),  a.  [Pref. epi- + chordal.] (Anat.) Upon or above
   the  notochord;  --  applied esp. to a vertebral column which develops
   upon  the  dorsal  side  of  the  notochord,  as  distinguished from a
   perichordal column, which develops around it.


   Ep`i*cho"ri*al (?), a. [Gr. In or of the country. [R.]

     Epichorial superstitions from every district of Europe. De Quincey.


   Ep`i*clei"di*um  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) A projection, formed by
   a  separate  ossification, at the scapular end of the clavicle of many


   Ep`i*cli"nal  (?),  a.  [Pref.  epi-  +  Gr.  (Bot.)  Situated  on the
   receptacle or disk of a flower.

   Page 501


   Ep"i*coele  (?),  n.  [Pref. epi- + Gr. (Anat.) A cavity formed by the
   invagination  of  the  outer  wall  of  the  body, as the atrium of an
   amphioxus and possibly the body cavity of vertebrates.


   Ep"i*coene (?), a. Epicene. [R.] Hadley.


   Ep`i*col"ic  (?),  a.  [Pref. epi- + Gr. (Anat.) Situated upon or over
   the  colon;  --  applied  to the region of the abdomen adjacent to the


   Ep`i*con"dy*lar  (?),  n.  (Anat.)  Pertaining  to,  or resembling, an


   Ep`i*con"dyle  (?), n. [Pref. epi- + condyle.] (Anat.) A projection on
   the inner side of the distal end of the numerus; the internal condyle.


   Ep`i*cor"a*coid  (?),  n.  [Pref.  epi- + coracoid.] (Anat.) A ventral
   cartilaginous  or  bony element of the coracoid in the shoulder girdle
   of some vertebrates.


   Ep`i*cra"ni*al  (?),  a.  (Anat.)  Pertaining  to  the  epicranium; as
   epicranial muscles.


   Ep`i*cra"ni*um (?), n. [NL. See Epi-, and Cranium.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The upper and superficial part of the head, including the
   scalp, muscles, etc.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) The dorsal wall of the head of insects.


   Ep`ic*te"tain  (?),  a.  [Gr. Pertaining to Epictetus, the Roman Stoic
   philosopher,  whose  conception  of  life  was to be passionless under
   whatever circumstances.


   Ep"i*cure (?), n. [L. Epicurus, Gr.

   1. A follower of Epicurus; an Epicurean. [Obs.] Bacon.

   2.  One devoted to dainty or luxurious sensual enjoyments, esp. to the
   luxuries of the table. Syn. -- Voluptuary; sensualist.


   Ep`i*cu*re"an (?; 277), a. [L. Epicureus, Gr. \'82picurien.]

   1.  Pertaining  to  Epicurus,  or  following his philosophy. "The sect
   Epicurean." Milton.

   2. Given to luxury; adapted to luxurious tastes; luxurious; pertaining
   to good eating.

     Courses of the most refined and epicurean dishes. Prescott.

   Epicurean philosophy. See Atomic philosophy, under Atomic.


   Ep`i*cu*re"an, n.

   1. A follower or Epicurus.

   2. One given to epicurean indulgence.


   Ep`i*cu*re"an*ism (?), n. Attachment to the doctrines of Epicurus; the
   principles or belief of Epicurus.


   Ep"i*cure`ly (?), adv. Luxuriously. Nash.


   Ep`i*cu*re"ous (?), a. Epicurean. [Obs.]


   Ep"i*cu*rism (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82picurisme.]

   1. The doctrines of Epicurus.

   2. Epicurean habits of living; luxury.


   Ep"i*cu*rize (?), v. i.

   1. To profess or tend towards the doctrines of Epicurus. Cudworth.

   2. To feed or indulge like an epicure. Fuller.


   Ep"i*cy`cle (?), n. [L. epicyclus, Gr. Cycle.]

   1.  (Ptolemaic  Astron.)  A  circle,  whose  center moves round in the
   circumference  of  a  greater circle; or a small circle, whose center,
   being  fixed  in  the  deferent of a planet, is carried along with the
   deferent, and yet, by its own peculiar motion, carries the body of the
   planet fastened to it round its proper center.

     The schoolmen were like astronomers which did feign eccentries, and
     epicycles, and such engines of orbs. Bacon.

   2.  (Mech.)  A  circle  which  rolls  on  the circumference of another
   circle, either externally or internally.


   Ep`i*cyc"lic  (?),  a. Pertaining to, resembling, or having the motion
   of,  an  epicycle.  Epicyclic  train  (Mach.), a train of mechanism in
   which  epicyclic  motion  is  involved;  esp., a train of spur wheels,
   bevel  wheels,  or belt pulleys, in which an arm, carrying one or more
   of  the  wheels, sweeps around a center lying in an axis common to the
   other wheels.


   Ep`i*cy"cloid  (?),  n.  [Epicycle  + -oid: cf. F. \'82picyclo\'8bde.]
   (Geom.)  A  curve  traced  by a point in the circumference of a circle
   which rolls on the convex side of a fixed circle.

     NOTE: &hand; An y po int rigidly connected with the rolling circle,
     but not in its circumference, traces a curve called an epitrochoid.
     The  curve  traced  by  a point in the circumference of the rolling
     circle  when  it  rolls  on  the  concave side of a fixed circle is
     called a hypocycloid; the curve traced by a point rigidly connected
     with the rolling circle in this case, but not its circumference, is
     called a hypotrochoid. All the curves mentioned above belong to the
     class class called roulettes or trochoids. See Trochoid.


   Ep`i*cy*cloid"al  (?),  a. Pertaining to the epicycloid, or having its
   properties.  Epicycloidal  wheel, a device for producing straight-line
   motion  from  circular motion, on the principle that a pin fastened in
   the  periphery  of a gear wheel will describe a straight line when the
   wheel rolls around inside a fixed internal gear of twice its diameter.


   Ep`i*deic"tic (?), a. [Gr. Epidictic.] Serving to show forth, explain,
   or  exhibit;  -- applied by the Greeks to a kind of oratory, which, by
   full amplification, seeks to persuade.

                             Epidemic, Epidemical

   Ep`i*dem"ic   (?),   Ep`i*dem"ic*al   (?),   a.   [L.   epidemus,  Gr.
   \'82pid\'82mique. Cf. Demagogue.]

   1.  (Med.) Common to, or affecting at the same time, a large number in
   a  community; -- applied to a disease which, spreading widely, attacks
   many  persons  at  the same time; as, an epidemic disease; an epidemic
   catarrh, fever, etc. See Endemic.

   2. Spreading widely, or generally prevailing; affecting great numbers,
   as an epidemic does; as, epidemic rage; an epidemic evil.

     It was the epidemical sin of the nation. Bp. Burnet.


   Ep`i*dem"ic (?), n. [Cf. Epidemy.]

   1. (Med.) An epidemic disease.

   2.  Anything  which  takes  possession  of  the  minds of people as an
   epidemic does of their bodies; as, an epidemic of terror.


   Ep`i*dem"ic*al*ly, adv. In an epidemic manner.


   Ep`i*de`mi*og"ra*phy  (?),  n.  [Epidemy + -graphy.] (Med.) A treatise
   upon, or history of, epidemic diseases.


   Ep`i*de`mi*o*log"ic*al  (?),  a.  Connected  with,  or  pertaining to,


   Ep`i*de`mi*ol"o*gist (?), n. A person skilled in epidemiology.


   Ep`i*de`mi*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Epidemy + -logy.] (Med.) That branch of
   science which treats of epidemics.


   Ep"i*dem`y  (?),  n.  [Gr.  \'82pid\'82mie.  See  Epidemic.] (Med.) An
   epidemic disease. Dunglison.


   Ep"i*derm  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. \'82piderme. See Epidermis.] (Anat.) The


   Ep`i*der"mal  (?),  a.  Of  or pertaining to the epidermis; epidermic;


   Ep`i*der*mat"ic (?), a. Epidermal. [R.]


   Ep`i*der"ma*toid   (?),   a.   [Gr.  -oid.  Cf.  Epidermoid.]  (Anat.)
   Epidermoid. Owen.


   Ep`i*der"me*ous (?), a. Epidermal. [R.]


   Ep`i*der"mic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. \'82pidermique.] Epidermal; connected
   with  the  skin  or  the  bark.  Epidermic  administration of medicine
   (Med.), the application of medicine to the skin by friction.


   Ep`i*der"mic*al (?), a. Epidermal. [R.]


   Ep`i*der"mi*dal (?), a. Epidermal. [R.]


   Ep`i*der"mis (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. Tear, v. t.]

   1.  (Anat.)  The  outer,  nonsensitive  layer  of  the  skin; cuticle;
   scarfskin. See Dermis.

   2. (Bot.) The outermost layer of the cells, which covers both surfaces
   of  leaves, and also the surface of stems, when they are first formed.
   As stems grow old this layer is lost, and never replaced.


   Ep`i*der"moid   (?),  a.  [Cf.  F.  \'82pidermo\'8bde.]  (Anat.)  Like
   epidermis; pertaining to the epidermis.


   Ep`i*der"mose (?), n. [See Epidermis.] (Physiol. Chem.) Keratin.

                            Epidictic, Epidictical

   Ep`i*dic"tic   (?),   Ep`i*dic"tic*al  (?),  a.  [L.  epidictius.  See
   Epideictic.] Serving to explain; demonstrative.


   Ep`i*did"y*mis  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) An oblong vermiform mass
   on  the dorsal side of the testicle, composed of numerous convolutions
   of the excretory duct of that organ. -- Ep`i*did"y*mal (#), a.


   Ep`i*did`y*mi"tis  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Epididymis, and -itis.] (Med.)
   Inflammation   of  the  epididymis,  one  of  the  common  results  of


   Ep"i*dote  (?),  n.  [Gr. \'82pidote. So named from the enlargement of
   the  base  of  the  primary, in some of the secondary forms.] (Min.) A
   mineral,  commonly  of  a yellowish green (pistachio) color, occurring
   granular,  massive,  columnar,  and  in  monoclinic  crystals. It is a
   silicate of alumina, lime, and oxide of iron, or manganese.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Ep idote group includes ordinary epidote, zoisite
     or  lime  epidote,  piedmontite  or  manganese epidote, allanite or
     serium epidote.


   Ep`i*dot"ic  (?),,  a.  Related to, resembling, or containing epidote;
   as, an epidotic granite.


   Ep`i*g\'91"a (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) An American genus of plants,
   containing but a single species (E. repens), the trailing arbutus.


   Ep`i*g\'91"ous (?), a. [Gr. Epig\'91a, and cf. Epigee.] (Bot.) Growing
   on, or close to, the ground.


   Ep`i*gas"tri*al (?), a. (Anat.) Epigastric.


   Ep`i*gas"tric (?), a. [Gr. \'82pigastrique.]

   1. (Anat.) Pertaining to the epigastrium, or to the epigastric region.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.) Over the stomach; -- applied to two of the areas of the
   carapace of crabs.
   Epigastric  region.  (Anat.)  (a) The whole upper part of the abdomen.
   (b)  An  arbitrary  division  of  the  abdomen above the umbilical and
   between the two hypochondriac regions.


   Ep`i*gas"tri*um  (?),  n. [NL., from Gr. (Anat.) The upper part of the


   Ep`i*ge"al (?), a. (Bot.) Epig\'91ous. [R.]


   Ep"i*gee (?), n. [NL. epigeum, fr. Gr. Epig\'91a.] See Perigee. [Obs.]


   Ep"i*gene (?), a. [Pref. epi- + Gr.

   1.  (Crystallog.)  Foreign;  unnatural;  unusual;  -- said of forms of
   crystals not natural to the substances in which they are found.

   2.  (Geol.) Formed originating on the surface of the earth; -- opposed
   to hypogene; as, epigene rocks.


   Ep`i*gen"e*sis  (?),  n. [Pref. epi- + genesis.] (Biol.) The theory of
   generation  which  holds  that  the  germ is created entirely new, not
   merely  expanded,  by  the  procreative  power  of  the parents. It is
   opposed to the theory of evolution, also to syngenesis.


   Ep`i*gen"e*sist  (?), n. (Biol.) One who believes in, or advocates the
   theory of, epigenesis.


   Ep`i*ge*net"ic  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to the epigenesis; produced
   according to the theory of epigenesis.


   Ep`i*ge"ous (?), a. Same as Epig\'91ous.


   Ep*i*ge"um (?), n. [NL. See Epigee.] See Perigee. [Obs.]


   Ep`i*glot"tic  (?),  a.  (Anat.) Pertaining to, or connected with, the


   Ep`i*glot*tid"e*an (?), a. (Anat.) Same as Epiglottic.


   Ep`i*glot"tis  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Glottis.] (Anat.) A cartilaginous
   lidlike  appendage  which  closes  the  glottis while food or drink is
   passing while food or drink is passing through the pharynx.


   E*pig"na*thous  (?), a. [Epi- + Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Hook-billed; having the
   upper mandible longer than the lower.


   Ep"i*gram (?), n. [L. epigramma, fr. Gr. \'82pigramme. See Graphic.]

   1.  A  short poem treating concisely and pointedly of a single thought
   or event. The modern epigram is so contrived as to surprise the reader
   with  a witticism or ingenious turn of thought, and is often satirical
   in character.

     Dost thou think I care for a satire or an epigram? Shak.

     NOTE: &hand; Ep  igrams we  re or iginally in scription on  to mbs,
     statues, temples, triumphal arches, etc.

   2. An effusion of wit; a bright thought tersely and sharply expressed,
   whether in verse or prose.

   3. The style of the epigram.

     Antithesis,  i. e., bilateral stroke, is the soul of epigram in its
     later and technical signification. B. Cracroft.

                         Epigrammatic, Epigrammatical

   Ep`i*gram*mat"ic  (?), Ep`i*gram*mat"ic*al (?),[L. epigrammaticus: cf.
   F. \'82pigrammatique.]

   1. Writing epigrams; dealing in epigrams; as, an epigrammatical poet.

   2.  Suitable  to  epigrams;  belonging  to  epigrams; like an epigram;
   pointed; piquant; as, epigrammatic style, wit, or sallies of fancy.


   Ep`i*gram*mat"ic*al*ly, adv. In the way of epigram; in an epigrammatic


   Ep`i*gram"ma*tist    (?),    n.    [L.    epigrammatista:    cf.    F.
   \'82pigrammatiste.] One who composes epigrams, or makes use of them.

     The brisk epigrammatist showing off his own cleverness. Holmes.


   Ep`i*gram"ma*tize  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Epigrammatized (?); p. pr.
   & vb. n. Epigrammatizing (?).] To represent by epigrams; to express by


   Ep`i*gram"ma*ti`zer  (?),  n.  One who writes in an affectedly pointed

     Epigrammatizers of our English prose style. Coleridge.


   Ep"i*gram`mist (?), n. An epigrammatist. Jer. Taylor.


   Ep"i*graph (?), n. [Gr. \'82pigraphe. See Epigram.]

   1.  Any  inscription set upon a building; especially, one which has to
   do with the building itself, its founding or dedication.

   2.  (Literature) A citation from some author, or a sentence framed for
   the  purpose,  placed  at  the  beginning of a work or of its separate
   divisions; a motto.

                           Epigraphic, Epigraphical

   Ep`i*graph"ic  (?),  Ep`i*graph"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to
   epigraphs or to epigraphy; as, an epigraphic style; epigraphical works
   or studies.


   Ep`i*graph"ics (?), n. The science or study of epigraphs.


   E*pig"ra*phist (?), n. A student of, or one versed in, epigraphy.


   E*pig"ra*phy (?), n. The science of inscriptions; the art of engraving
   inscriptions or of deciphering them.


   E*pig"y*nous  (?),  a. [Pref. epi- + Gr. \'82pigyne.] (Bot.) Adnate to
   the surface of the ovary, so as to be apparently inserted upon the top
   of it; -- said of stamens, petals, sepals, and also of the disk.


   Ep`i*hy"al  (?),  n.  [Pref. epi- + the Greek letter (Anat.) A segment
   next above the ceratohyal in the hyoidean arch.


   Ep"i*lep`sy  (?),  n. [L. epilepsia, Gr. \'82pilepsie. Cf. Catalepsy.]
   (Med.)  The  "falling  sickness,"  so called because the patient falls
   suddenly to the ground; a disease characterized by paroxysms (or fits)
   occurring  at  interval  and attended by sudden loss of consciousness,
   and convulsive motions of the muscles. Dunglison.


   Ep`i*lep"tic  (?), a. [L. epilepticus, Gr. \'82pileptique.] Pertaining
   to, affected with, or of the nature of, epilepsy.


   Ep`i*lep"tic, n.

   1. One affected with epilepsy.

   2. A medicine for the cure of epilepsy.


   Ep`i*lep"tic*al (?), a. Epileptic.


   Ep`i*lep"ti*form (?), a. Resembling epilepsy.


   Ep`i*lep*tog"e*nous  (?),  a. [Gr. -genous.] (Med.) Producing epilepsy
   or  epileptoid  convulsions; -- applied to areas of the body or of the
   nervous system, stimulation of which produces convulsions.


   Ep`i*lep"toid  (?),  a.  [Gr.  -oid.]  (Med.) Resembling epilepsy; as,
   epileptoid convulsions.


   Ep`i*lo*ga"tion  (?),  n.  [LL.  epilogatio.]  A summing up in a brief
   account. [Obs.] Udall.

                             Epilogic, Epilogical

   Ep`i*log"ic  (?),  Ep`i*log"ic*al  (?), a. [Gr. Of or pertaining to an


   E*pil"o*gism (?), n. [Gr. Epilogue.] Enumeration; computation. [R.] J.


   Ep`i*lo*gis"tic  (?),  a.  [Cf.  Gr.  Epilogism.]  Of or pertaining to
   epilogue;  of  the  nature  of  an  epilogue. T. Warton. \'3c-- p. 502


   E*pil"o*gize (?), v. i. & t. [See Epilogism.] To speak an epilogue to;
   to utter as an epilogue.


   Ep"i*logue (?; 115), n. [F. \'82pilogue, L. epilogus, fr. Gr. Legend.]

   1.  (Drama)  A  speech  or  short poem addressed to the spectators and
   recited by one of the actors, after the conclusion of the play.

     A  good  play no epilogue, yet . . . good plays prove the better by
     the help of good epilogues. Shak.

   2.  (Rhet.)  The  closing  part of a discourse, in which the principal
   matters are recapitulated; a conclusion.


   Ep"i*lo*guize (?), v. i. & t. Same as Epilogize.


   E*pim"a*chus (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of highly ornate
   and  brilliantly  colored  birds  of Australia, allied to the birds of


   E*pim"e*ra (?), n. pl. See Epimeron.


   E*pim"e*al (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the epimera.


   Ep"i*mere  (?),  n. [Epi- + -mere.] (Biol.) One of the segments of the
   transverse  axis,  or the so called homonymous parts; as, for example,
   one  of the several segments of the extremities in vertebrates, or one
   of the similar segments in plants, such as the segments of a segmented
   leaf. Syd. Soc. Lex.


   E*pim"e*ron  (?), n.; pl. Epimera (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) (a) In
   crustaceans:  The  part  of the side of a somite external to the basal
   joint  of each appendage. See Illust. under Crustacea. (b) In insects:
   The lateral piece behind the episternum. [Written also epimerum.]


   Ep`i*nas"tic  (?),  a.  [Pref. epi- + Gr. (Physiol.) A term applied to
   that phase of vegetable growth in which an organ grows more rapidly on
   its upper than on its under surface. See Hyponastic.


   Ep`i*neu"ral  (?),  a. [Pref. epi- + neural.] (Anat.) Arising from the
   neurapophysis of a vertebra.


   Ep`i*neu"ri*um  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Anat.) The connective tissue
   framework and sheath of a nerve which bind together the nerve bundles,
   each of which has its own special sheath, or perineurium.


   Ep`in*glette"  (?),  n.  [F.]  (Mil.)  An iron needle for piercing the
   cartridge of a cannon before priming.


   Ep`i*ni"cial  (?),  a.  [See  Epinicion.]  Relating  to  victory.  "An
   epinicial song." T. Warton.


   Ep`i*ni"cion  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. epinicium.] A song of triumph.
   [Obs.] T. Warton.


   Ep`i*nik"i*an (?), a. Epinicial.


   Ep`i*or"nis  (?),  n.  [NL.:  cf.  F.  \'82piornis.  See \'92pyornis.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the  gigantic  ostrichlike  birds  of  the  genus
   \'92piornis,  only  recently  extinct.  Its remains have been found in
   Madagascar. [Written also \'92pyornis.]


   Ep`i*o"tic  (?),  n.  [Pref.  epi-  +  Gr. (Anat.) The upper and outer
   element  of  periotic  bone,  -- in man forming a part of the temporal


   Ep`i*pe*dom"e*try  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -metry.] (Geom.) The mensuration of
   figures standing on the same base. [Obs.]


   Ep`i*pe*riph"er*al  (?),  a.  [Pref.  epi-  +  peripheral.] (Physiol.)
   Connected with, or having its origin upon, the external surface of the
   body;  --  especially  applied  to the feelings which originate at the
   extremities  of  nerves  distributed  on  the  outer  surface,  as the
   sensation  produced  by touching an object with the finger; -- opposed
   to entoperipheral. H. Spenser.


   Ep`i*pet"al*ous  (?),  a.  [Pref.  epi-  + petal.] (Bot.) Borne on the
   petals or corolla.


   E*piph"a*ny (?), n. [F. \'82piphanie, L. epiphania, Gr. Fancy.]

   1. An appearance, or a becoming manifest.

     Whom  but  just  before  they beheld transfigured and in a glorious
     epiphany upon the mount. Jer. Taylor.

     An  epic  poet,  if  ever  such  a  difficult birth should make its
     epiphany in Paris. De Quincey.

   2.  (Eccl.)  A  church  festival celebrated on the 6th of January, the
   twelfth day after Christmas, in commemoration of the visit of the Magi
   of  the  East to Bethlehem, to see and worship the child Jesus; or, as
   others  maintain,  to  commemorate  the  appearance of the star to the
   Magi,   symbolizing  the  manifestation  of  Christ  to  the  Gentles;


   Ep`i*phar`yn*ge"al   (?),   a.  [Pref.  epi-  +  pharyngeal.]  (Anat.)
   Pertaining  to  the  segments  above the epibranchial in the branchial
   arches of fishes. -- n. An epipharyngeal bone or cartilage.


   Ep`i*phar"ynx  (?),  n. [Epi- + pharynx.] (Zo\'94l.) A structure which
   overlaps the mouth of certain insects.


   Ep`i*pho*ne"ma  (?),  n. [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) An exclamatory sentence,
   or striking reflection, which sums up or concludes a discourse.


   E*piph"o*neme (?), n. Epiphonema. [R.]


   E*piph"o*ra (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Med.)  The watery eye; a disease in which the tears accumulate in
   the eye, and trickle over the cheek.

   2.  (Rhet.) The emphatic repetition of a word or phrase, at the end of
   several sentences or stanzas.


   Ep"i*phragm  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A membranaceous or calcareous
   septum with which some mollusks close the aperture of the shell during
   the time of hibernation, or \'91stivation.


   Ep`i*phy`lo*sper"mous  (?),  a. [Gr. (Bot.) Bearing fruit on the black
   of the leaves, as ferns. Harris (1710).


   E*piph"yl*lous (?), a. [Gr. (Bot.) Growing upon, or inserted into, the


   Ep`i*phyl"lum (?), n. [NL.] (Bot.) A genus of cactaceous plants having
   flattened, jointed stems, and petals united in a tube. The flowers are
   very showy, and several species are in cultivation.

                            Epiphyseal, Epiphysial

   Ep`i*phys"e*al  (?),  Ep`i*phys"i*al  (?),  (Anat.)  Pertaining to, or
   having the nature of, an epiphysis.


   E*piph"y*sis (?), n.; pl. Epiphyses (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) (a) The
   end,  or  other superficial part, of a bone, which ossifies separately
   from the central portion, or diaphysis. (b) The cerebral epiphysis, or
   pineal gland. See Pineal gland, under Pineal.


   E*piph"y*tal (?), a. (Bot.) Pertaining to an epiphyte.


   Ep"i*phyte (?), n. [Gr. \'82piphyte.]

   1.  (Bot.)  An  air  plant  which  grows on other plants, but does not
   derive its nourishment from them. See Air plant.

   2. (Med.) A vegetable parasite growing on the surface of the body.

                            Epiphytic, Epiphytical

   Ep`i*phyt"ic  (?),  Ep`i*phyt"ic*al  (?),  a. (Bot.) Pertaining to, or
   having the nature of, an epiphyte. -- Ep`i*phyt"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Ep`i*plas"tron  (?),  n.; pl. Epiplastra (#). [Pref. epi- + plastron.]
   (Anat.)  One  of  the  first pair of lateral plates in the plastron of


   Ep`i*pleu"ral (?), a. [Pref. epi- + pleural.] (Anat.) Arising from the
   pleurapophysis of a vertebra. Owen.


   Ep`i*plex"is (?), n. [L., reproof, fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure by which a
   person seeks to convince and move by an elegant kind of upbraiding.


   E*pip"lo*ce  (?),  n.  [L.,  connection,  from Gr. (Rhet.) A figure by
   which  one  striking  circumstance  is  added,  in  due  gradation, to
   another; climax; e. g., "He not only spared his enemies, but continued
   them in employment; not only continued, but advanced them." Johnson.


   Ep`i*plo"ic (?), a. Relating to the epiplo\'94n.


   E*pip"lo*\'94n  (?),  n.;  pl.  Epiploa (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.) See


   Ep`i*po"di*al (?), a.

   1.  (Anat.) Pertaining to the epipodialia or the parts of the limbs to
   which they belong.

   2. (Zo\'94l.) Pertaining to the epipodium of Mollusca.


   Ep`i*po`di*a"le  (?),  n.;  pl. Epipodialia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Anat.)
   One of the bones of either the forearm or shank, the epipodialia being
   the radius, ulna, tibia, and fibula.


   E*pip"o*dite  (?),  n. [See Epipodium.] (Zo\'94l.) The outer branch of
   the legs in certain Crustacea. See Maxilliped.


   Ep`i*po"di*um  (?), n.; pl. Epipodia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One
   of the lateral lobes of the foot in certain gastropods.


   Ep`i*pol"ic  (?),  a.  (Opt.)  Producing, or relating to, epipolism or
   fluorescence. [R.]


   E*pip"o*lism  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Opt.)  See  Fluorescence.  [R.]  Sir J.


   E*pip"o*lized  (?),  a.  Changed to the epipolic condition, or that in
   which  the  phenomenon  of  fluorescence  is  presented;  produced  by
   fluorescence; as, epipolized light. [R.] Stokes.


   Ep`ip*ter"ic  (?),  a. [Pref. epi- + Gr. (Anat.) Pertaining to a small
   Wormian bone sometimes present in the human skull between the parietal
   and the great wing of the sphenoid. -- n. The epipteric bone.


   Ep`ip*ter"y*goid  (?),  a.  [Pref. epi- + pterygoid.] (Anat.) Situated
   upon  or  above  the  pterygoid  bone.  --  n. An epipterygoid bone or
   cartilage; the columella in the skulls of many lizards.


   Ep`i*pu"bic (?), a. Relating to the epipubis.


   Ep`i*pu"bis  (?), n.; pl. Epipubes (#). [NL., epi- + pubis.] (Anat.) A
   cartilage  or  bone in front of the pubis in some amphibians and other


   E*pis"co*pa*cy  (?),  n. [See Episcopate.] Government of the church by
   bishops;  church  government  by three distinct orders of ministers --
   bishops, priests, and deacons -- of whom the bishops have an authority
   superior and of a different kind.


   E*pis"co*pal   (?),   a.   [L.  episcopalis,  fr.  episcopus:  cf.  F.
   \'82piscopal. See Bishop.]

   1. Governed by bishops; as, an episcopal church.

   2.  Belonging to, or vested in, bishops; as, episcopal jurisdiction or
   authority; the episcopal system.


   E*pis`co*pa"li*an  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  bishops, or government by
   bishops;  episcopal;  specifically,  of  or relating to the Protestant
   Episcopal Church.


   E*pis`co*pa"li*an,  n.  One  who  belongs  to  an episcopal church, or
   adheres  to  the episcopal form of church government and discipline; a
   churchman;  specifically,  in  the  United  States,  a  member  of the
   Protestant Episcopal Church.


   E*pis`co*pa"li*an*ism   (?),   n.   The   doctrine   and   usages   of
   Episcopalians; episcopacy.


   E*pis"co*pal*ly  (?),  adv.  By  episcopal  authority; in an episcopal


   E*pis"co*pant (?), n. A bishop. [Obs.] Milton.


   E*pis`co*pa"ri*an (?), a. Episcopal. [R.] Wood.


   E*pis"co*pate   (?),   n.  [L.  episcopatus,  fr.  episcopus:  cf.  F.
   \'82piscopat. See Bishop.]

   1. A bishopric; the office and dignity of a bishop.

   2. The collective body of bishops.

   3. The time of a bishop's rule.


   E*pis"co*pate  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Episcopated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Episcopating.] To act as a bishop; to fill the office of a prelate.

     Feeding the flock episcopating. Milton.


   E*pis"co*pi*cide  (?), n. [L. episcopus bishop + caedere to kill.] The
   killing of a bishop.


   E*pis"co*pize (?), v. t. To make a bishop of by consecration. Southey.


   E*pis"co*pize, v. i. To perform the duties of a bishop.


   E*pis"co*py (?), n. [Gr. Bishop.]

   1. Survey; superintendence. [Obs.] Milton.

   2. Episcopacy. [Obs.] Jer. Taylor.


   Ep`i*sep"al*ous  (?),  a.  [Pref. epi- + sepal.] (Bot.) Growing on the
   sepals or adnate to them.


   Ep`i*skel"e*tal  (?),  a.  [Pref. epi- + skeleletal.] (Anat.) Above or
   outside of the endoskeleton; epaxial.


   Ep`i*so"dal (?), a. Same as Episodic.


   Ep"i*sode  (?),  n.  [Gr.  sad  to  go:  cf. F. \'82pisode.] (Rhet.) A
   separate  incident,  story,  or  action, introduced for the purpose of
   giving  a  greater  variety  to  the  events  related;  an  incidental
   narrative,  or  digression,  separable  from  the  main  subject,  but
   naturally arising from it.


   Ep`i*so"di*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to an episode; by way of episode;

                             Episodic, Episodical

   Ep`i*so"dic  (?),  Ep`i*so"dic*al  (?),  a. [Cf. F. \'82pisodique. See
   Episode.]   Of   or   pertaining   to  an  episode;  adventitious.  --
   Ep`i*so"dic*al*ly, adv.

     Such  a figure as Jacob Brattle, purely episodical though it be, is
     an excellent English portrait. H. James.


   Ep`i*spa"di*as  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A deformity in which the
   urethra opens upon the top of the penis, instead of at its extremity.


   Ep"i*spas"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  \'82pispastique.] (Med.) Attracting the
   humors to the skin; exciting action in the skin; blistering.


   Ep"i*spas"tic,  n.  (Med.)  An external application to the skin, which
   produces  a  puriform  or serous discharge by exciting inflammation; a


   Ep"i*sperm (?), n. [Pref. epi- + Gr. \'82pisperme.] (Bot.) The skin or
   coat of a seed, especially the outer coat. See Testa.


   Ep`i*sper"mic   (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Pertaining,  or  belonging,  to  the
   episperm, or covering of a seed.


   Ep"i*spore  (?),  n.  [Pref.  epi- + spore.] (Bot.) The thickish outer
   coat of certain spores.


   Ep`i*stax"is (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) Bleeding at the nose.


   E*pis`te*mol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Gr. -logy.] The theory or science of the
   method or grounds of knowledge.


   Ep`i*ster"nal  (?),  a.  (Anat.  &  Zo\'94l.)  Of or pertaining to the


   Ep`i*ster"num (?), n.; pl. Episterna (#). [NL. See Epi-, and Sternum.]

   1.  (Anat.)  (a)  A  median  bone  connected with the sternum, in many
   vertebrates; the interclavicle. (b) Same as Epiplastron.

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  One  of  the lateral pieces next to the sternum in the
   thorax of insects.


   Ep`i*stil"bite (?), n. [Pref. epi- + stilbite.] (Min.) A crystallized,
   transparent mineral of the Zeolite family. It is a hydrous silicate of
   alumina and lime.


   E*pis"tle  (?),  n.  [OE.  epistle,  epistel,  AS. epistol, pistol, L.
   epistola, fr. Gr. epistle, epistre, F. \'82p\'8ctre. See Stall.]

   1.  A  writing  directed  or  sent  to  a person or persons; a written
   communication;  a  letter;  -- applied usually to formal, didactic, or
   elegant letters.

     A madman's epistles are no gospels. Shak.

   2.  (Eccl.)  One  of  the  letters  in  the  New  Testament which were
   addressed to their Christian brethren by Apostles.
   Epistle side, the right side of an altar or church to a person looking
   from the nave toward the chancel.

     One sees the pulpit on the epistle side. R. Browning.


   E*pis"tle,  v.  t. To write; to communicate in a letter or by writing.
   [Obs.] Milton.


   E*pis"tler (?), n.

   1.  A  writer  of  epistles, or of an epistle of the New Testament. M.

   2.  (Eccl.)  The  ecclesiastic  who reads the epistle at the communion


   E*pis"to*lar (?), a. Epistolary. Dr. H. More.


   E*pis"to*la*ry   (?),   a.  [L.  epistolaris,  fr.  epistola:  cf.  F.

   1.  Pertaining  to  epistles  or  letters;  suitable  to  letters  and
   correspondence; as, an epistolary style.

   Page 503

   2.   Contained   in   letters;  carried  on  by  letters.  "Epistolary
   correspondence." Addison.


   Ep`is*to"le*an  (?), n. One who writes epistles; a correspondent. Mary
   Cowden Clarke.


   E*pis"to*ler  (?),  n. (Eccl.) One of the clergy who reads the epistle
   at the communion service; an epistler.


   E*pis"to*let (?), n. A little epistle. Lamb.

                            Epistolic, Epistolical

   Ep`is*tol"ic   (?),  Ep`is*tol"ic*al  (?),  a.  [L.  epistolicus,  Gr.
   Pertaining  to  letters  or epistles; in the form or style of letters;


   E*pis"to*lize (?), v. i. To write epistles.


   E*pis"to*li`zer (?), n. A writer of epistles.


   E*pis`to*lo*graph"ic (?), a. [Gr. \'82pistolographique.] Pertaining to
   the   writing   of  letters;  used  in  writing  letters;  epistolary.
   Epistolographic  character  OR  mode  of  writing, the same as Demotic
   character. See under Demotic.


   E*pis`to*log"ra*phy  (?), n. [Gr. -graphy: cf. F. \'82pistolographie.]
   The art or practice of writing epistles.

                              Epistoma, Epistome

   E*pis"to*ma  (?), Ep"i*stome (?), n. [NL. epistoma, fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.)
   (a) The region between the antenn\'91 and the mouth, in Crustacea. (b)
   A  liplike  organ that covers the mouth, in most Bryozoa. See Illust.,
   under Entoprocta.


   E*pis"tro*phe  (?),  n.  [L.,  from  Gr.  (Rhet.)  A  figure  in which
   successive  clauses end with the same word or affirmation; e. g., "Are
   they Hebrews? so am I. Are they Israelites? so am I." 2 Cor. xi. 22.


   Ep"i*style  (?),  n.  [L. epistylium, Gr. \'82pistyle.] (Anc. Arch.) A
   massive  piece  of stone or wood laid immediately on the abacus of the
   capital of a column or pillar; -- now called architrave.


   Ep`i*syl"lo*gism (?), n. [Pref. epi- + syllogism.] (Logic) A syllogism
   which  assumes  as  one  of  its  premises a proposition which was the
   conclusion  of a preceding syllogism, called, in relation to this, the


   Ep"i*taph  (?),  n.  [F. \'82pitaphe, L. epitaphium a funeral oration,
   fr. Gr. Cenotaph.]

   1.  An  inscription  on,  or  at,  a  tomb,  or  a grave, in memory or
   commendation of the one buried there; a sepulchral inscription.

     Hang her an epitaph upon her tomb. Shak.

   2. A brief writing formed as if to be inscribed on a monument, as that
   concerning  Alexander:  "Sufficit  huic  tumulus,  cui  non sufficeret


   Ep"i*taph, v. t. To commemorate by an epitaph. [R.]

     Let me be epitaphed the inventor of English hexameters. G. Harvey.


   Ep"i*taph,  v.  i.  To  write or speak after the manner of an epitaph.

     The  common in their speeches epitaph upon him . . . "He lived as a
     wolf and died as a dog." Bp. Hall.


   Ep"i*taph`er (?), n. A writer of epitaphs. Nash.

                            Epitaphial, Epitaphian

   Ep`i*taph"i*al  (?),  Ep`i*taph"i*an  (?),  a.  Relating to, or of the
   nature of, an epitaph.

     The noble Pericles in his epitaphian speech. Milton.

     Epitaphial Latin verses are not to be taken too literally. Lowell.


   Ep`i*taph"ic  (?),  a.  Pertaining to an epitaph; epitaphian. -- n. An
   epitaph. Udall.


   Ep"i*taph`ist (?), n. An epitapher.


   E*pit"a*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr.

   1.  That  part which embraces the main action of a play, poem, and the
   like, and leads on to the catastrophe; -- opposed to protasis.

   2.  (Med.)  The  period  of  violence in a fever or disease; paroxysm.


   Ep`i*tha*lam"ic   (?),   a.   Belonging   to,   or  designed  for,  an


   Ep`i*tha*la"mi*um  (?), n.; pl. Epithalamiums (#), L. Epithalamia (#).
   [L.,  fr.  Gr.  A  nuptial  song,  or  poem  in honor of the bride and

     The  kind of poem which was called epithalamium . . . sung when the
     bride was led into her chamber. B. Jonson.


   Ep`i*thal"a*my (?), n.; pl. Epithalamies (. Epithalamium. [R.] Donne.


   Ep`i*the"ca  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  A  continuous and,
   usually, structureless layer which covers more or less of the exterior
   of many corals.


   Ep`i*the"li*al  (?), a. Of or pertaining to epithelium; as, epithelial
   cells; epithelial cancer.


   Ep`i*the"li*oid  (?), a. [Epithelium + -oid.] (Anat.) Like epithelium;
   as, epithelioid cells.


   Ep`i*the`li*o"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Epithelium, and -oma.] (Med.) A
   malignant   growth   containing   epithelial  cells;  --  called  also
   epithelial cancer.


   Ep`i*the"li*um  (?),  n.;  pl.  E.  Epitheliums (#), L. Epithelia (#).
   [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Anat.)  The  superficial  layer  of cells lining the
   alimentary  canal  and all its appendages, all glands and their ducts,
   blood  vessels and lymphatics, serous cavities, etc. It often includes
   the  epidermis  (i. e., keratin-producing epithelial cells), and it is
   sometimes  restricted  to  the  alimentary canal, the glands and their
   appendages,  --  the  term  endothelium  being  applied  to the lining
   membrane of the blood vessels, lymphatics, and serous cavities.


   Ep`i*the"loid (?), a. (Anat.) Epithelioid.


   Ep"i*them  (?),  n.  [L.  epithema,  Gr. \'82pith\'8ame. See Epithet.]
   (Med.)  Any external topical application to the body, except ointments
   and plasters, as a poultice, lotion, etc.


   Ep`i*the"ma (?), n. [NL., from Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A horny excrescence upon
   the beak of birds.


   E*pith"e*sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. The addition of a letter at the end
   of  a  word,  without changing its sense; as, numb for num, whilst for


   Ep"i*thet (?), n. [L. epitheton, Gr. \'82pith\'8ate. See Do.]

   1.  An adjective expressing some quality, attribute, or relation, that
   is  properly or specially appropriate to a person or thing; as, a just
   man; a verdant lawn.

     A  prince  [Henry  III.] to whom the epithet "worthless" seems best
     applicable. Hallam.

   2.  Term;  expression;  phrase.  "Stiffed with epithets of war." Shak.
   Syn.  --  Epithet,  Title.  The  name epithet was formerly extended to
   nouns  which  give  a  title or describe character (as the "epithet of
   liar"),  but  is now confined wholly to adjectives. Some rhetoricians,
   as Whately, restrict it still further, considering the term epithet as
   belonging only to a limited class of adjectives, viz., those which add
   nothing to the sense of their noun, but simply hold forth some quality
   necessarily  implied  therein;  as, the bright sun, the lofty heavens,
   etc.  But  this  restriction  does  not prevail in general literature.
   Epithet  is  sometimes  confounded with application, which is always a
   noun or its equivalent.


   Ep"i*thet, v. t. To describe by an epithet. [R.]

     Never was a town better epitheted. Sir H. Wotton.

                            Epithetic, Epithetical

   Ep`i*thet"ic  (?),  Ep`i*thet"ic*al  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Pertaining to, or
   abounding with, epithets. "In epithetic measured prose." Lloyd.


   Ep"i*thite  (?),  n.  [Gr. A lazy, worthless fellow; a vagrant. [Obs.]


   Ep`i*thu*met"ic (?), a. Epithumetical. [Obs.]


   Ep`i*thu*met"ic*al  (?), a. [Gr. Pertaining to sexual desire; sensual.
   Sir T. Browne.


   Ep`i*tith"i*des  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. Epithet.] (Arch.) The uppermost
   member of the cornice of an entablature.


   E*pit"o*ma`tor (?), n. [LL.] An epitomist. Sir W. Hamilton.


   E*pit"o*me  (?),  n.;  pl.  Epitomes (#). [L., fr. Gr. \'82pitome. See

   1.  A work in which the contents of a former work are reduced within a
   smaller  space  by  curtailment  and condensation; a brief summary; an

     [An] epitome of the contents of a very large book. Sydney Smith.

   2. A compact or condensed representation of anything.

     An epitome of English fashionable life. Carlyle.

     A  man  so  various that he seemed to be Not one, but all mankind's
     epitome. Dryden.

   Syn.   --   Abridgement;   compendium;  compend;  abstract;  synopsis;
   abbreviature. See Abridgment.


   E*pit"o*mist  (?),  n.  One who makes an epitome; one who abridges; an
   epitomizer. Milton.


   E*pit"o*mize  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Epitomized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.

   1.  To  make  an  epitome  of;  to shorten or abridge, as a writing or
   discourse;  to  reduce  within  a  smaller space; as, to epitomize the
   works of Justin.

   2.  To  diminish,  as  by  cutting  off  something; to curtail; as, to
   epitomize words. [Obs.] Addison.


   E*pit"o*mi`zer (?), n. An epitomist. Burton.


   Ep"i*trite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  i.  e.,  ,  or  in  the  ratio of 4 to 3);
   epitritos,  F.  \'82pitrite.]  (Gr. & Lat. Pros.) A foot consisting of
   three long syllables and one short syllable.

     NOTE: &hand; It  is  so  ca lled from being compounded of a spondee
     (which  contains  4  times)  with  an  iambus  or  a trochee (which
     contains  3  times).  It  is  called  1st,  2d, 3d, or 4th epitrite
     according as the short syllable stands 1st, 2d, etc.


   Ep`i*troch"le*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  See  Epi-,  and  Trochlea.] (Anat.) A
   projection  on  the  outer  side of the distal end of the humerus; the
   external condyle.


   Ep`i*troch"le*ar (?), a. Relating to the epitrochlea.


   Ep`i*tro"choid  (?),  n.  [Pref.  epi-  + Gr. -oid.] (Geom.) A kind of
   curve. See Epicycloid, any Trochoid.


   E*pit"ro*pe  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure by which permission
   is  either  seriously or ironically granted to some one, to do what he
   proposes to do; e. g., "He that is unjust, let him be unjust still."


   Ep`i*zeux"is  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure by which a word is
   repeated with vehemence or emphasis, as in the following lines: -

     Alone, alone, all all alone, Alone on a wide wide sea. Coleridge.


   Ep`o*zo"an (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) An epizo\'94n.


   Ep`o*zo"ic  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Living  upon the exterior of another
   animal; ectozoic; -- said of external parasites.


   Ep`i*zo"\'94n (?), n.; pl. Epizoa (#). [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) One of
   the  artificial  group  of  invertebrates of various kinds, which live
   parasitically  upon  the  exterior  of  other animals; an ectozo\'94n.
   Among  them  are  the  lice,  ticks, many acari, the lerneans, or fish
   lice, and other crustaceans.


   Ep`i*zo*\'94t"ic (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82pizo\'94tique.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) Of or pertaining to an epizo\'94n.

   2.  (Geol.)  Containing  fossil remains; -- said of rocks, formations,
   mountains, and the like. [Obs.]

     Epizo\'94tic mountains are of secondary formation. Kirwan.

   3.  Of  the nature of a disease which attacks many animals at the same
   time; -- corresponding to epidemic diseases among men.

                           Epizo\'94ty, Epizo\'94tic

   Ep`i*zo"\'94*ty (?), Ep`i*zo*\'94t"ic (?), n. [F. \'82pizo\'94tie.] An
   epizo\'94tic disease; a murrain; an epidemic influenza among horses.


   Ep"och  (?;  277),  n.  [LL. epocha, Gr. sah to overpower, Goth. sigis
   victory, AS. sigor, sige, G. sieg: cf. F. \'82poque. See Scheme.]

   1.  A fixed point of time, established in history by the occurrence of
   some  grand or remarkable event; a point of time marked by an event of
   great  subsequent  influence; as, the epoch of the creation; the birth
   of Christ was the epoch which gave rise to the Christian era.

     In divers ages, . . . divers epochs of time were used. Usher.

     Great epochs and crises in the kingdom of God. Trench.

     The acquittal of the bishops was not the only event which makes the
     30th of June, 1688, a great epoch in history. Macaulay.

     NOTE: &hand; Ep ochs ma rk the beginning of new historical periods,
     and dates are often numbered from them.

   2. A period of time, longer or shorter, remarkable for events of great
   subsequent  influence;  a  memorable period; as, the epoch of maritime
   discovery,  or  of  the  Reformation.  "So  vast an epoch of time." F.

     The  influence  of Chaucer continued to live even during the dreary
     interval  which  separates from one another two important epochs of
     our literary history. A. W. Ward.

   3.  (Geol.)  A  division  of  time  characterized by the prevalence of
   similar  conditions of the earth; commonly a minor division or part of
   a period.

     The  long  geological epoch which stored up the vast coal measures.
     J. C. Shairp.

   4.  (Astron.)  (a) The date at which a planet or comet has a longitude
   or  position. (b) An arbitrary fixed date, for which the elements used
   in  computing  the  place  of a planet, or other heavenly body, at any
   other  date,  are given; as, the epoch of Mars; lunar elements for the
   epoch March 1st, 1860. Syn. -- Era; time; date; period; age. -- Epoch,
   Era.  We speak of the era of the Reformation, when we think of it as a
   period, during which a new order of things prevailed; so also, the era
   of  good  feeling,  etc. Had we been thinking of the time as marked by
   certain  great  events,  or  as  a  period in which great results were
   effected,  we  should have called the times when these events happened
   epochs, and the whole period an epoch.

     The  capture  of  Constantinople  is  an  epoch  in  the history of
     Mahometanism; but the flight of Mahomet is its era. C. J. Smith.


   Ep"o*cha (?), n. [L.] See Epoch. J. Adams.


   Ep"o*chal  (?),  a.  Belonging to an epoch; of the nature of an epoch.
   "Epochal points." Shedd.


   Ep"ode  (?),  n.  [L.  epodos, Gr. \'82pode. See Ode.] (Poet.) (a) The
   after  song;  the  part  of  a lyric ode which follows the strophe and
   antistrophe,   --   the   ancient  ode  being  divided  into  strophe,
   antistrophe,  and  epode.  (b)  A  species  of lyric poem, invented by
   Archilochus, in which a longer verse is followed by a shorter one; as,
   the Epodes of Horace. It does not include the elegiac distich.


   E*pod"ic (?), a. [Gr. Pertaining to, or resembling, an epode.

                                Eponym, Eponyme

   Ep"o*nym, Ep"o*nyme (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82ponyme. See Eponymous.]

   1.  The hypothetical individual who is assumed as the person from whom
   any  race,  city,  etc., took its name; as, Hellen is an eponym of the

   2. A name, as of a people, country, and the like, derived from that of
   an individual.


   Ep`o*nym"ic (?), a. Same as Eponymous.

     Tablets . . . which bear eponymic dates. I. Taylor (The Alphabet).


   E*pon"y*mist  (?),  n. One from whom a race, tribe, city, or the like,
   took its name; an eponym.


   E*pon"y*mous  (?), a. [Gr. Relating to an eponym; giving one's name to
   a tribe, people, country, and the like.

     What becomes . . . of the Herakleid genealogy of the Spartan kings,
     when  it  is  admitted that eponymous persons are to be canceled as
     fictions? Grote.


   E*pon"y*my  (?),  n. [Gr. The derivation of the name of a race, tribe,
   etc., from that of a fabulous hero, progenitor, etc.


   Ep`o*\'94ph"o*ron (?), n. [NL., from Gr. (Anat.) See Parovarium.

Epopee, Epop Ep"o*pee` (?), Ep`o*p (?), n. [F. \'82pop\'82e, Gr. Epos.] An epic
                              poem; epic poetry.


   Ep"opt  (?),  n.  [Gr.  One  instructed  in  the mysteries of a secret
   system. Carlyle.


   Ep"os (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. An epic.


   Ep`o*ta"tion  (?),  n. [L. epotare, epotatum, to drink; e out + potare
   to drink.] A drinking up; a quaffing. [Obs.] Feltham.

    (?), n. [F.] (Gun.) An apparatus for testing or proving the strength of


   Ep"som*ite (?), n. Native sulphate of magnesia or Epsom salt.

                              Epsom salts OR salt

   Ep"som  salts`  OR  salt`  (?).  (Med.)  Sulphate  of  magnesia having
   cathartic  qualities;  --  originally  prepared  by  boiling  down the
   mineral  waters  at  Epsom,  England,  --  whence the name; afterwards
   prepared  from  sea  water;  but  now  from  certain minerals, as from
   siliceous hydrate of magnesia.

   Page 504


   Ep"u*la*ry   (?),  a.  [L.  epularis,  fr.  epulum  a  feast:  cf.  F.
   \'82pulaire.] Of or pertaining to a feast or banquet. [Obs.] Smart.


   Ep`u*la"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  epulatio.]  A feasting or feast; banquet.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   E*pu"lis  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.) A hard tumor developed from the


   Ep"u*lose` (?), a. [L. epulum a feast.] Feasting to excess. [Obs.]


   Ep`u*los"i*ty (?), n. A feasting to excess. [Obs.]


   Ep`u*lot"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  Promoting the skinning over or healing of
   sores; as, an epulotic ointment. -- n. An epulotic agent.


   Ep`u*ra"tion (?), n. [L. e out, quite + purare to purify, purus pure.]

 (?), n. [F.] (Fine Arts) A draught or model from which to build; especially,
       one of the full size of the work to be done; a detailed drawing.


   E`qua*bil"i*ty (?), n. [L. aequabilitas, fr. aequabilis. See Equable.]
   The quality or condition of being equable; evenness or uniformity; as,
   equability of temperature; the equability of the mind.

     For  the  celestial  bodies,  the equability and constancy of their
     motions argue them ordained by wisdom. Ray.


   E"qua*ble  (?;  277),  a. [L. aequabilis, fr. aequare to make level or
   equal, fr. aequus even, equal. See Equal.]

   1.  Equal and uniform; continuing the same at different times; -- said
   of  motion,  and  the like; uniform in surface; smooth; as, an equable
   plain or globe.

   2.  Uniform  in action or intensity; not variable or changing; -- said
   of the feelings or temper.


   E"qua*ble*ness, n. Quality or state of being equable.


   E"qua*bly, adv. In an equable manner.


   E"qual  (?),  a.  [L. aequalis, fr. aequus even, equal; akin to Skr. ,
   and perh. to L. unus for older oinos one, E. one.]

   1.  Agreeing  in  quantity, size, quality, degree, value, etc.; having
   the  same magnitude, the same value, the same degree, etc.; -- applied
   to  number,  degree, quantity, and intensity, and to any subject which
   admits  of  them;  neither  inferior  nor  superior, greater nor less,
   better  nor worse; corresponding; alike; as, equal quantities of land,
   water,  etc.  ;  houses  of  equal  size;  persons of equal stature or
   talents; commodities of equal value.

   2.  Bearing  a suitable relation; of just proportion; having competent
   power, abilities, or means; adequate; as, he is not equal to the task.

     The  Scots trusted not their own numbers as equal to fight with the
     English. Clarendon.

     It  is  not  permitted to me to make my commendations equal to your
     merit. Dryden.

     Whose voice an equal messenger Conveyed thy meaning mild. Emerson.

   3.  Not  variable;  equable; uniform; even; as, an equal movement. "An
   equal temper." Dryden.

   4. Evenly balanced; not unduly inclining to either side; characterized
   by fairness; unbiased; impartial; equitable; just.

     Are not my ways equal? Ezek. xviii. 29.

     Thee, O Jove, no equal judge I deem. Spenser.

     Nor think it equal to answer deliberate reason with sudden heat and
     noise. Milton.

   5. Of the same interest or concern; indifferent.

     They  who  are  not  disposed to receive them may let them alone or
     reject them; it is equal to me. Cheyne.

   6. (Mus.) Intended for voices of one kind only, either all male or all
   female; -- opposed to mixed. [R.]

   7. (Math.) Exactly agreeing with respect to quantity.
   Equal  temperament.  (Mus.)  See  Temperament.  Syn. -- Even; equable;
   uniform; adequate; proportionate; commensurate; fair; just; equitable.


   E"qual, n.

   1.  One  not inferior or superior to another; one having the same or a
   similar  age,  rank,  station,  office,  talents,  strength,  or other
   quality  or  condition; an equal quantity or number; as, "If equals be
   taken from equals the remainders are equal."

     Those who were once his equals envy and defame him. Addison.

   2. State of being equal; equality. [Obs.] Spenser.


   E"qual,  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Equaled (?) or Equalled; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Equaling or Equalling.]

   1.  To  be  or  become  equal  to; to have the same quantity, the same
   value, the same degree or rank, or the like, with; to be commen

     On me whose all not equals Edward's moiety. Shak.

   2. To make equal return to; to recompense fully.

     Who answered all her cares, and equaled all her love. Dryden.

   3. To make equal or equal to; to equalize; hence, to compare or regard
   as equals; to put on equality.

     He  would  not  equal  the  mind  that  he  found in himself to the
     infinite and incomprehensible. Berkeley.


   E*qual`i*ta"ri*an (?), n. One who believes in equalizing the condition
   of men; a leveler.


   E*qual"i*ty  (?), n.; pl. Equalities (#). [L. aequalitas, fr. aequalis
   equal. See Equal.]

   1.  The  condition or quality of being equal; agreement in quantity or
   degree  as  compared; likeness in bulk, value, rank, properties, etc.;
   as,  the equality of two bodies in length or thickness; an equality of

     A footing of equality with nobles. Macaulay.

   2. Sameness in state or continued course; evenness; uniformity; as, an
   equality of temper or constitution.

   3. Evenness; uniformity; as, an equality of surface.

   4.  (Math.) Exact agreement between two expressions or magnitudes with
   respect to quantity; -- denoted by the symbol =; thus, a = x signifies
   that  a  contains  the same number and kind of units of measure that x
   Confessional equality. See under Confessional.


   E`qual*i*za"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of equalizing, or state of being

     Their equalization with the rest of their fellow subjects. Burke.


   E"qual*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Equalized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Equalizing (?).] [Cf. F. \'82galiser.]

   1.  To  make  equal;  to cause to correspond, or be like, in amount or
   degree as compared; as, to equalize accounts, burdens, or taxes.

     One  poor  moment  can  suffice  To equalize the lofty and the low.

     No  system  of instruction will completely equalize natural powers.

   2. To pronounce equal; to compare as equal.

     Which we equalize, and perhaps would willingly prefer to the Iliad.

   3. To be equal to; equal; to match. [Obs.]

     It  could  not  equalize  the  hundredth part Of what her eyes have
     kindled in my heart. Waller.

   Equalizing bar (Railroad Mach.), a lever connecting two axle boxes, or
   two  springs in a car truck or locomotive, to equalize the pressure on
   the axles.


   E"qual*i`zer (?), n. One who, or that which, equalizes anything.


   E"qual*ly,  adv.  In  an  equal  manner  or  degree in equal shares or
   proportion;  with  equal  and  impartial  justice; without difference;
   alike; evenly; justly; as, equally taxed, furnished, etc.


   E"qual*ness, n. Equality; evenness. Shak.


   E*quan"gu*lar   (?),   a.  [See  Equiangular.]  Having  equal  angles;
   equiangular. [R.] Johnson.


   E`qua*nim"i*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  aequanimitas,  fr.  aequanimus:  cf. F.
   \'82quanimit\'82.  See Equanimous.] Evenness of mind; that calm temper
   or firmness of mind which is not easily elated or depressed; patience;
   calmness; composure; as, to bear misfortunes with equanimity.


   E*quan"i*mous (?), a. [L. aequanimus, fr. aequus equal + animus mind.]
   Of  an  even,  composed  frame of mind; of a steady temper; not easily
   elated or depressed. Bp. Gauden.


   E"quant  (?),  n.  [L.  aequans,  -antis,  p.  pr.  of aequare: cf. F.
   \'82quant.  See  Equate.]  (Ptolemaic  Astron.)  A circle around whose
   circumference  a planet or the center of ann epicycle was conceived to
   move uniformly; -- called also eccentric equator.


   E*quate"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Equated; p. pr. & vb. n. Equating.]
   [L.  aequatus,  p.  p.  of  aequare to make level or equal, fr. aequus
   level,  equal.  See Equal.] To make equal; to reduce to an average; to
   make  such  an  allowance  or correction in as will reduce to a common
   standard  of  comparison;  to  reduce  to  mean time or motion; as, to
   equate  payments;  to  equate  lines of railroad for grades or curves;
   equated distances.

     Palgrave gives both scrolle and scrowe and equates both to F[rench]
     rolle. Skeat (Etymol. Dict. ).

   Equating for grades (Railroad Engin.), adding to the measured distance
   one  mile  for  each  twenty  feet  of ascent. -- Equating for curves,
   adding half a mile for each 360 degrees of curvature.


   E*qua"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  aequatio  an equalizing: cf. F. \'82quation
   equation. See Equate.]

   1. A making equal; equal division; equality; equilibrium.

     Again  the golden day resumed its right, And ruled in just equation
     with the night. Rowe.

   2.  (Math.)  An  expression  of  the condition of equality between two
   algebraic  quantities  or  sets of quantities, the sign = being placed
   between  them;  as,  a  binomial  equation;  a  quadratic equation; an
   algebraic   equation;   a   transcendental  equation;  an  exponential
   equation; a logarithmic equation; a differential equation, etc.

   3.  (Astron.)  A quantity to be applied in computing the mean place or
   other  element  of  a  celestial body; that is, any one of the several
   quantities  to  be added to, or taken from, its position as calculated
   on  the hypothesis of a mean uniform motion, in order to find its true
   position as resulting from its actual and unequal motion.
   Absolute  equation. See under Absolute. -- Equation box, OR Equational
   box,  a  system  of differential gearing used in spinning machines for
   regulating  the  twist  of  the  yarn.  It  resembles  gearing used in
   equation  clocks  for showing apparent time. -- Equation of the center
   (Astron.), the difference between the place of a planet as supposed to
   move  uniformly in a circle, and its place as moving in an ellipse. --
   Equations of condition (Math.), equations formed for deducing the true
   values  of  certain  quantities from others on which they depend, when
   different  sets  of  the  latter, as given by observation, would yield
   different values of the quantities sought, and the number of equations
   that may be found is greater than the number of unknown quantities. --
   Equation  of a curve (Math.), an equation which expresses the relation
   between the co\'94rdinates of every point in the curve. -- Equation of
   equinoxes  (Astron.),  the  difference  between  the mean and apparent
   places  of  the equinox. -- Equation of payments (Arith.), the process
   of  finding  the mean time of payment of several sums due at different
   times.  -- Equation of time (Astron.), the difference between mean and
   apparent  time,  or  between the time of day indicated by the sun, and
   that  by  a  perfect  clock  going  uniformly  all  the year round. --
   Equation  clock  OR watch, a timepiece made to exhibit the differences
   between  mean  solar  and  apparent  solar  time.  Knight.  --  Normal
   equation.  See  under  Normal.  --  Personal  equation  (Astron.), the
   difference  between  an  observed  result  and  the  true qualities or
   peculiarities  in  the  observer;  particularly  the difference, in an
   average  of a large number of observation, between the instant when an
   observer notes a phenomenon, as the transit of a star, and the assumed
   instant  of  its  actual  occurrence;  or,  relatively, the difference
   between these instants as noted by two observers. It is usually only a
   fraction  of  a second; -- sometimes applied loosely to differences of
   judgment   or   method   occasioned   by  temperamental  qualities  of
   individuals.  --  Theory  of  equations (Math.), the branch of algebra
   that  treats  of  the properties of a single algebraic equation of any
   degree containing one unknown quantity.


   E*qua"tor  (?),  n. [L. aequator one who equalizes: cf. F. \'82quateur
   equator. See Equate.]

   1.  (Geog.)  The  imaginary  great  circle  on  the  earth's  surface,
   everywhere  equally  distant  from  the  two  poles,  and dividing the
   earth's surface into two hemispheres.

   2. (Astron.) The great circle of the celestial sphere, coincident with
   the plane of the earth's equator; -- so called because when the sun is
   in  it, the days and nights are of equal length; hence called also the
   equinoctial, and on maps, globes, etc., the equinoctial line.
   Equator  of  the  sun OR of a planet (Astron.), the great circle whose
   plane   passes  through  through  the  center  of  the  body,  and  is
   perpendicular  to  its  axis  of  revolution. -- Magnetic equator. See


   E`qua*to"ri*al (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82quatorial.] Of or pertaining to the
   equator;  as,  equatorial  climates; also, pertaining to an equatorial


   E`qua*to"ri*al,  n.  (Astron.) An instrument consisting of a telescope
   so  mounted  as  to  have  two  axes of motion at right angles to each
   other,  one  of  them  parallel  to  the  axis  of the earth, and each
   carrying  a  graduated  circle, the one for measuring declination, and
   the  other  right  ascension, or the hour angle, so that the telescope
   may  be  directed,  even  in  the daytime, to any star or other object
   whose  right  ascension and declination are known. The motion in right
   ascension  is  sometimes  communicated by clockwork, so as to keep the
   object  constantly  in  the  field  of  the  telescope. Called also an
   equatorial telescope.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e te rm eq uatorial, or  eq uatorial instrument, is
     sometimes  applied  to  any  astronomical  instrument which has its
     principal axis of rotation parallel to the axis of the earth.

   <-- contrasted with altazimuthal movement of a telescope. -->


   E`qua*to"ri*al*ly,  adv. So as to have motion or direction parallel to
   the equator.


   Eq"uer*ry  (?;  277), n.; pl. Equerries (#). [F. \'82curie stable, for
   older  escurie,  escuirie  (confused  somewhat  with F. \'82cuyer, OF.
   escuyer, squire), LL. scuria, OHG. skiura, sc, barn, shed, G. scheuer,
   from  a  root meaning to cover, protect, and akin to L. scutum shield.
   See Esquire, and cf. Ecurie, Querry.]

   1. A large stable or lodge for horses. Johnson.

   2.  An  officer  of  princes or nobles, charged with the care of their

     NOTE: &hand; In  En gland eq uerries ar e of ficers of  th e ro yal
     household in the department of the Master of the Horse.


   Eq"ue*ry (?), n. Same as Equerry.


   E*ques"tri*an  (?),  a.  [L.  equester, from eques horseman, fr. equus
   horse: cf. F. \'82questre. See Equine.]

   1.  Of  or  pertaining  to horses or horsemen, or to horsemanship; as,
   equestrian feats, or games.

   2. Being or riding on horseback; mounted; as, an equestrian statue.

     An equestrian lady appeared upon the plains. Spectator.

   3.  Belonging  to,  or  composed  of,  the  ancient  Roman equities or
   knights; as, the equestrian order. Burke.


   E*ques"tri*an, n. One who rides on horseback; a horseman; a rider.


   E*ques"tri*an*ism  (?), n. The art of riding on horseback; performance
   on horseback; horsemanship; as, feats equestrianism.


   E*ques"tri*enne`   (?),   n.  [Formed  after  analogy  of  the  French
   language.] A woman skilled in equestrianism; a horsewoman.


   E"qui-  (?).  [L. aequus equal. See Equal.] A prefix, meaning equally;
   as, equidistant; equiangular.


   E"qui*an`gled (?), a. [Equi- + angle.] Equiangular. [Obs.] Boyle.


   E`qui*an"gu*lar  (?),  a.  [Equi-  +  angular. Cf. Equangular.] Having
   equal  angles;  as,  an  equiangular  figure; a square is equiangular.
   Equiangular   spiral.   (Math.)  See  under  Spiral,  n.  --  Mutually
   equiangular,  applied  to two figures, when every angle of the one has
   its equal among the angles of the other.


   E`qui*bal"ance    (?),   n.   [Equi-   +   balance.]   Equal   weight;


   E`qui*bal"ance,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Equibalanced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Equibalancing  (?).]  To  make of equal weight; to balance equally; to
   counterbalance; to equiponderate.


   E`qui*cres"cent  (?),  a.  [Equi-  +  crescent.] (Math.) Increasing by
   equal increments; as, an equicrescent variable.


   E`qui*cru"ral  (?),  a. [L. aequicrurius; aequus equal + crus, cruris,
   leg.]   Having  equal  legs  or  sides;  isosceles.  [R.]  "Equicrural
   triangles." Sir T. Browne.


   E"qui*crure (?), a. Equicrural. [Obs.]


   E`qui*dif"fer*ent    (?),    a.    [Equi-    +   different:   cf.   F.
   \'82quidiff\'82rent.]  Having  equal  differences;  as,  the  terms of
   arithmetical progression are equidifferent.


   E`qui*dis"tance (?), n. Equal distance.


   E`qui*dis"tant  (?),  a.  [L.  aequidistans,  -antis;  aequus  equal +
   distans  distant:  cf.  F. \'82quidistant.] Being at an equal distance
   from  the  same  point  or  thing.  --  E`qui*dis"tant*ly, adv. Sir T.


   E`qui*di*ur"nal  (?),  a. [Equi- + diurnal.] Pertaining to the time of
   equal day and night; -- applied to the equinoctial line. Whewell.


   E"qui*form (?), a. [L. aequiformis; aequus equal + forma form.] Having
   the same form; uniform. -- E`qui*for"mi*ty (#), n. Sir T. Browne.


   E`qui*lat"er*al  (?),  a.  [L.  aequilateralis;  aequus equal + latus,
   lateris,  side: cf. F. \'82quilat\'82ral.] Having all the sides equal;
   as,  an  equilateral  triangle;  an  equilateral  polygon. Equilateral
   hyperbola  (Geom.),  one  whose  axes  are equal. -- Equilateral shell
   (Zo\'94l.),  one  in which a transverse line drawn through the apex of
   the  umbo  bisects  the  valve,  or  divides  it  into  two  equal and
   symmetrical  parts.  --  Mutually equilateral, applied to two figures,
   when every side of the one has its equal among the sides of the other.


   E`qui*lat"er*al, n. A side exactly corresponding, or equal, to others;
   also, a figure of equal sides.


   E`qui*li"brate (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Equilibrated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Equilibrating (?).] [L. aequilibratus in equilibrium; aequus equal
   +  libra  balance.  See Equilibrium.] To balance two scales, sides, or
   ends;  to  keep  even  with  equal  weight  on  each  side; to keep in
   equipoise. H. Spenser. \'3c-- p. 505 --\'3e


   E`qui*li*bra"tion (?), n.

   1. Act of keeping a balance, or state of being balanced; equipoise.

     In   .  .  .  running,  leaping,  and  dancing,  nature's  laws  of
     equilibration are observed. J. Denham.

   2.  (Biol.)  The  process  by  which  animal  and  vegetable organisms
   preserve a physiological balance. H. Spenser.


   E`qui*lib"ri*ous  (?),  a.  Evenly  poised;  balanced. Dr. H. More. --
   E`qui*lib"ri*ous*ly, adv.


   E*quil"i*brist (?), n. One who balances himself in unnatural positions
   and hazardous movements; a balancer.

     When the equilibrist balances a rod upon his finger. Stewart.


   E`qui*lib"ri*ty  (?),  n.  [L.  aequilibritas  equal distribution. See
   Equilibrium.] The state of being balanced; equality of weight. [R.] J.


   E`qui*lib"ri*um  (?),  n.; pl. E. Equilibriums (#), L. Equilibria (#).
   [L.  aequilibrium, fr. aequilibris in equilibrium, level; aequus equal
   + libra balance. See Equal, and Librate.]

   1.  Equality  of  weight  or  force;  an  equipoise or a state of rest
   produced by the mutual counteraction of two or more forces.

   2.  A level position; a just poise or balance in respect to an object,
   so that it remains firm; equipoise; as, to preserve the equilibrium of
   the body.

     Health  consists  in  the  equilibrium  between  those  two powers.

   3. A balancing of the mind between motives or reasons, with consequent
   indecision and doubt.
   Equilibrium valve (Steam Engine), a balanced valve. See under Valve.


   E`qui*mo*men"tal  (?),  a.  [Equi-  +  momental.] (Mech.) Having equal
   moments of inertia.

     NOTE: &hand; Tw o bo dies or  sy stems of  bo dies ar e sa id to be
     equimomental when their moments of inertia about all straight lines
     are equal each to each.

   Equimomental  cone  of  a given rigid body, a conical surface that has
   any  given  vertex, and is described by a straight line which moves in
   such  manner  that the moment of inertia of the given rigid body about
   the line is in all its positions the same.


   E`qui*mul"ti*ple  (?),  a. [Equi- + multiple: cf. F. \'82quimultiple.]
   Multiplied by the same number or quantity.


   E`qui*mul"ti*ple,  n.  (Math.)  One  of  the products arising from the
   multiplication  of  two  or  more  quantities  by  the  same number or
   quantity.  Thus,  seven  times 2, or 14, and seven times 4, or 28, are
   equimultiples of 2 and 4.


   E*qui"nal (?), a. See Equine. "An equinal shape." Heywood.


   E"quine  (?), a. [L. equinus, fr. equus horse; akin to Gr. a, OS. ehu,
   AS.  eh,  eoh, Icel. j, OIr. ech, cf. Skr. a to reach, overtake, perh.
   akin  to  E.  acute, edge, eager, a. Cf. Hippopotamus.] Of, pertaining
   to, or resembling, a horse.

     The  shoulders,  body,  things,  and  mane  are  equine;  the  head
     completely bovine. Sir J. Barrow.


   E*quin"i*a (?), n. [NL. See Equine.] (Med.) Glanders.


   E`qui*noc"tial  (?),  a.  [L. aequinoctials, fr. aequinoctium equinox:
   cf. F. \'82quinoxial. See Equinox.]

   1. Pertaining to an equinox, or the equinoxes, or to the time of equal
   day and night; as, the equinoctial line.

   2.  Pertaining  to  the  regions or climate of the equinoctial line or
   equator;  in  or  near that line; as, equinoctial heat; an equinoctial

   3.  Pertaining to the time when the sun enters the equinoctial points;
   as,  an  equinoctial  gale or storm, that is, one happening at or near
   the time of the equinox, in any part of the world.
   Equinoctial   colure  (Astron.),  the  meridian  passing  through  the
   equinoctial  points.  --  Equinoctial  line  (Astron.),  the celestial
   equator;  --  so  called because when the sun is on it, the nights and
   days are of equal length in all parts of the world. See Equator.

     Thrice the equinoctial line He circled. Milton.

   - Equinoctial points (Astron.), the two points where the celestial and
   ecliptic  intersect  each  other;  the one being in the first point of
   Aries,  the  other  in  the  first point of Libra. -- Equinoctial time
   (Astron.)  reckoned  in any year from the instant when the mean sun is
   at the mean vernal equinoctial point.


   E`qui*noc"tial, n. The equinoctial line.


   E`qui*noc"tial*ly, adv. Towards the equinox.


   E"qui*nox (?), n. [OE. equinoxium, equenoxium, L. aequinoctium; aequus
   equal + nox, noctis, night: cf. F. \'82quinoxe. See Equal, and Night.]

   1.  The  time  when the sun enters one of the equinoctial points, that
   is,  about  March  21  and  September 22. See Autumnal equinox, Vernal
   equinox, under Autumnal and Vernal.

     When  descends  on  the  Atlantic  The  gigantic  Stormwind  of the
     equinox. Longfellow.

   2. Equinoctial wind or storm. [R.] Dryden.


   E`qui*nu"mer*ant  (?),  a. [Equi- + L. numerans, p. pr. of numerare to
   number.] Equal as to number. [Obs.] Arbuthnot.


   E*quip"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Equipped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Equipping.]  [F.  \'82quiper to supply, fit out, orig. said of a ship,
   OF.  esquiper  to  embark; of German origin; cf. OHG. scif, G. schiff,
   Icel. skip, AS. scip. See Ship.]

   1.  To furnish for service, or against a need or exigency; to fit out;
   to  supply  with whatever is necessary to efficient action in any way;
   to provide with arms or an armament, stores, munitions, rigging, etc.;
   -- said esp. of ships and of troops. Dryden.

     Gave orders for equipping a considerable fleet. Ludlow.

   2. To dress up; to array; accouter.

     The country are led astray in following the town, and equipped in a
     ridiculous  habit,  when they fancy themselves in the height of the
     mode. Addison.


   Eq"ui*page (?; 48), n. [F. \'82quipage, fr. \'82quiper. See Equip.]

   1.  Furniture or outfit, whether useful or ornamental; especially, the
   furniture  and  supplies  of a vessel, fitting her for a voyage or for
   warlike  purposes, or the furniture and necessaries of an army, a body
   of  troops,  or  a single soldier, including whatever is necessary for
   efficient service; equipments; accouterments; habiliments; attire.

     Did their exercises on horseback with noble equipage. Evelyn.

     First strip off all her equipage of Pride. Pope.

   2. Retinue; train; suite. Swift.

   3. A carriage of state or of pleasure with all that accompanies it, as
   horses, liveried servants, etc., a showy turn-out.

     The  rumbling  equipages  of  fashion  .  .  .  were unknown in the
     settlement of New Amsterdam. W. Irving.


   Eq"ui*paged (?), a. Furnished with equipage.

     Well  dressed,  well  bred.  Well equipaged, is ticket good enough.


   E*quip"a*ra*ble (?) a. [L. aequiparabilis.] Comparable. [Obs. or R.]


   E*quip"a*rate  (?)  v.  t. [L. aequiparatus, p. p. of aequiparare.] To
   compare. [R.]


   E*quip"e*dal  (?),  a.  [Equi-  +  L.  pes,  pedis,  foot.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Equal-footed; having the pairs of feet equal.


   E`qui*pend"en*cy  (?),  n. [Equi- + pendency.] The act or condition of
   hanging in equipoise; not inclined or determined either way. South.


   E`qui*pen"sate  (?),  v.  t.  [Equi-  +  pensatus, p. p. of pensare to
   weigh. Cf. Equipoise.] To weigh equally; to esteem alike. [Obs.]


   E*quip"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82quipement. See Equip.]

   1.  The  act  of  equipping,  or the state of being equipped, as for a
   voyage or expedition. Burke.

     The equipment of the fleet was hastened by De Witt. Hume.

   2.  Whatever  is  used  in equipping; necessaries for an expedition or
   voyage;  the  collective  designation  for  the articles comprising an
   outfit;  equipage; as, a railroad equipment (locomotives, cars, etc. ;
   for  carrying  on  business);  horse  equipments; infantry equipments;
   naval equipments; laboratory equipments.

     Armed and dight, In the equipments of a knight. Longfellow.


   E"qui*poise (?), n. [Equi- + poise.]

   1.  Equality  of weight or force; hence, equilibrium; a state in which
   the  two ends or sides of a thing are balanced, and hence equal; state
   of  being  equally  balanced;  --  said of moral, political, or social
   interests or forces.

     The  means  of preserving the equipoise and the tranquillity of the
     commonwealth. Burke.

     Our  little lives are kept in equipoise By opposite attractions and
     desires. Longfellow.

   2. Counterpoise.

     The equipoise to the clergy being removed. Buckle.

                          Equipollence, Equipollency

   E`qui*pol"lence (?), E`qui*pol"len*cy (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82quipollence.
   See Equipollent.]

   1. Equality of power, force, signification, or application. Boyle.

   2. (Logic) Sameness of signification of two or more propositions which
   differ in language.


   E`qui*pol"lent  (?),  a.  [L.  aequipollens;  aequus  equal + pollens,
   -entis, p. pr. of pollere to be strong, able: cf. F. \'82quipollent.]

   1. Having equal power or force; equivalent. Bacon.

   2.  (Logic)  Having equivalent signification and reach; expressing the
   same thing, but differently.


   E`qui*pol"lent*ly, adv. With equal power. Barrow.

                        Equiponderance, Equiponderancy

   E`qui*pon"der*ance   (?),   E`qui*pon"der*an*cy   (?),   n.  [Equi-  +
   ponderance:   cf.   F.   \'82quipond\'82rance.]  Equality  of  weight;


   E`qui*pon"der*ant  (?),  a. [Cf. F. \'82quipond\'82rant.] Being of the
   same weight.

     A  column  of  air  . . . equiponderant to a column of quicksilver.


   E`qui*pon"der*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [Equi-  +  L. ponderare to weigh. See
   Ponderate.]  To be equal in weight; to weigh as much as another thing.
   Bp. Wilkins.


   E`qui*pon"der*ate,  v.  t. To make equal in weight; to counterbalance.
   "More  than  equiponderated  the  declension  in  that  direction." De


   E`qui*pon"der*ous  (?),  a.  [Equi-  +  L.  pondus, ponderis, weight.]
   Having equal weight. Bailey.


   E`qui*pon"di*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  aequipondium  an equal weight; aequus
   equal  +  pondus  weight.]  Of  equal  weight on both sides; balanced.
   [Obs.] Glanvill.


   E`qui*po*ten"tial  (?),  a.  [Equi-  +  potential.]  (Mech. & Physics)
   Having  the same potential. Equipotential surface, a surface for which
   the  potential  is  for  all  points  of  the  surface constant. Level
   surfaces on the earth are equipotential.
   E`qui*rad"i*cal  (?)  a.  [Equi-  +  radical.]  Equally  radical. [R.]


   E`qui*ro"tal  (?),  a.  [Equi-  + L. rota wheel.] Having wheels of the
   same size or diameter; having equal rotation. [R.]


   E`qui*se*ta"ceous  (?),  a. (Bot.) Belonging to the Equisetace\'91, or
   Horsetail family.


   E`qui*set"i*form  (?), a. [Equisetum- + -form.] (Bot.) Having the form
   of the equisetum.


   Eq`ui*se"tum  (?), n.; pl. Equiseta (#). [L., the horsetail, fr. equus
   horse  +  seta  a  thick,,  stiff  hair,  bristle.]  (Bot.) A genus of
   vascular, cryptogamic, herbaceous plants; -- also called horsetails.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e Eq uiseta ha ve ho llow jointed stems and no true
     leaves.  The cuticle often contains siliceous granules, so that one
     species  (E. hyemale) is used for scouring and polishing, under the
     name of Dutch rush or scouring rush.


   E*quis"o*nance  (?), n. [Equi- + L. sonans, p. pr. of sonare to sound:
   cf.  F.  \'82quisonnance.  See  Sonant.] (Mus.) An equal sounding; the
   consonance of the unison and its octaves.


   E*quis"o*nant (?) a. Of the same or like sound.


   Eq"ui*ta*ble (?), a. [F. \'82quitable, from \'82quit\'82. See Equity.]

   1.  Possessing  or  exhibiting  equity;  according to natural right or
   natural  justice;  marked  by  a  due  consideration for what is fair,
   unbiased,  or  impartial; just; as an equitable decision; an equitable
   distribution of an estate; equitable men.

     No  two  .  .  . had exactly the same notion of what was equitable.

   2.  (Law)  That  can  be sustained or made available or effective in a
   court  of  equity,  or upon principles of equity jurisprudence; as, an
   equitable estate; equitable assets, assignment, mortgage, etc. Abbott.
   Syn.  --  Just;  fair;  reasonable;  right; honest; impartial; candid;


   Eq"ui*ta*ble*ness,  n.  The  quality  of  being  equitable,  just,  or
   impartial;   as,   the  equitableness  of  a  judge,  a  decision,  or
   distribution of property.


   Eq"ui*ta*bly, adv. In an equitable manner; justly; as, the laws should
   be equitably administered.


   Eq"ui*tan*cy (?), n. [Cf. LL. equitantia. See Equitant.] Horsemanship.


   Eq"ui*tant  (?),  a. [L. equitans, -antis, p. pr. of equitare to ride,
   fr. eques horseman, fr. equus horse.]

   1. Mounted on, or sitting upon, a horse; riding on horseback.

   2.  (Bot.)  Overlapping  each other; -- said of leaves whose bases are
   folded  so as to overlap and bestride the leaves within or above them,
   as in the iris.


   Eq`ui*ta"tion   (?),   n.   [L.   equitatio,   fr.  equitare:  cf.  F.
   \'82quitation.]  A  riding,  or  the  act  of  riding,  on  horseback;

     The pretender to equitation mounted. W. Irving.


   E`qui*tem`po*ra"ne*ous  (?),  a.  [L. aequus equal + tempus, temporis,
   time.] Contemporaneous. [Obs.] Boyle.


   Eq"ui*tes  (?)  n.  pl [L., pl. of eques a horseman.] (Rom. Antiq.) An
   order  of  knights  holding  a middle place between the senate and the
   commonalty; members of the Roman equestrian order.


   Eq"ui*ty (?), n.; pl. Equities (#). [F. \'82quit\'82, L. aequitas, fr.
   aequus even, equal. See Equal.]

   1.  Equality  of  rights;  natural  justice  or  right; the giving, or
   desiring  to  give,  to each man his due, according to reason, and the
   law  of  God  to man; fairness in determination of conflicting claims;

     Christianity  secures  both  the  private  interests of men and the
     public peace, enforcing all justice and equity. Tillotson.

   2. (Law) An equitable claim; an equity of redemption; as, an equity to
   a settlement, or wife's equity, etc.

     I  consider  the wife's equity to be too well settled to be shaken.

   3.  (Law)  A system of jurisprudence, supplemental to law, properly so
   called, and complemental of it.

     Equity  had  been  gradually  shaping itself into a refined science
     which  no  human  faculties  could  master without long and intense
     application. Macaulay.

     NOTE: &hand; Eq uitable ju risprudence in England and in the United
     States  grew  up  from the inadequacy of common-law forms to secure
     justice  in  all  cases;  and  this led to distinct courts by which
     equity  was  applied in the way of injunctions, bills of discovery,
     bills  for  specified performance, and other processes by which the
     merits   of  a  case  could  be  reached  more  summarily  or  more
     effectively  than  by  common-law  suits.  By  the  recent  English
     Judicature  Act  (1873),  however,  the English judges are bound to
     give  effect,  in  common-law  suits,  to  all equitable rights and
     remedies;  and  when  the rules of equity and of common law, in any
     particular  case,  conflict, the rules of equity are to prevail. In
     many  jurisdictions in the United States, equity and common law are
     thus  blended;  in  others  distinct  equity  tribunals  are  still
     maintained. See Chancery.

   Equity of redemption (Law), the advantage, allowed to a mortgageor, of
   a  certain  or  reasonable  time to redeem lands mortgaged, after they
   have  been  forfeited at law by the nonpayment of the sum of money due
   on  the  mortgage  at  the  appointed time. Blackstone. Syn. -- Right;
   justice;  impartiality; rectitude; fairness; honesty; uprightness. See


   E*quiv"a*lence (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82quivalence, LL. aequivalentia.]

   1.  The  condition  of  being  equivalent or equal; equality of worth,
   value, signification, or force; as, an equivalence of definitions.

   2. Equal power or force; equivalent amount.

   3.  (Chem.)  (a)  The  quantity  of  the  combining  power of an atom,
   expressed  in hydrogen units; the number of hydrogen atoms can combine
   with,  or  be  exchanged  for; valency. See Valence. (b) The degree of
   combining  power as determined by relative weight. See Equivalent, n.,
   2. [R.]


   E*quiv"a*lence, v. t. To be equivalent or equal to; to counterbalance.
   [R.] Sir T. Browne.


   E*quiv"a*len*cy (?), n. Same as Equivalence.


   E*quiv"a*lent  (?),  a. [L. aequivalens, -entis, p. pr. of aequivalere
   to have equal power; aequus equal + valere to be strong, be worth: cf.
   F. \'82quivalent. See Equal, and Valiant.]

   1.  Equal  in  wortir  or value, force, power, effect, import, and the
   like; alike in significance and value; of the same import or meaning.

     For  now  to  serve  and  to minister, servile and ministerial, are
     terms equivalent. South.

   2.  (Geom.)  Equal  in  measure but not admitting of superposition; --
   applied to magnitudes; as, a square may be equivalent to a triangle.

   Page 506

   3.  (Geol.)  Contemporaneous  in  origin; as, the equivalent strata of
   different countries.


   E*quiv"a*lent (?), n.

   1.  Something equivalent; that which is equal in value, worth, weight,
   or force; as, to offer an equivalent for damage done.

     He  owned that, if the Test Act were repealed, the Protestants were
     entitled  to  some  equivalent.  .  .  . During some weeks the word
     equivalent,  then lately imported from France, was in the mouths of
     all the coffeehouse. Macaulay.

   2.  (Chem.)  That  comparative  quantity by weight of an element which
   possesses  the same chemical value as other elements, as determined by
   actual  experiment  and  reference to the same standard. Specifically:
   (a)  The comparative proportions by which one element replaces another
   in  any  particular  compound;  thus,  as  zinc  replaces  hydrogen in
   hydrochloric acid, their equivalents are 32.5 and 1. (b) The combining
   proportion  by  weight  of  a substance, or the number expressing this
   proportion,  in  any  particular  compound;  as,  the  equivalents  of
   hydrogen  and  oxygen in water are respectively 1 and 8, and in hydric
   dioxide 1 and 16.<-- = equivalent weight. -->

     NOTE: &hand; Th is term was adopted by Wollaston to avoid using the
     conjectural  expression  atomic  weight, with which, however, for a
     time  it  was practically synonymous. The attempt to limit the term
     to  the  meaning  of  a  universally  comparative  combining weight
     failed,  because  of  the  possibility  of several compounds of the
     substances by reason of the variation in combining power which most
     elements  exhibit.  The  equivalent was really identical with, or a
     multiple of submultiple of, the atomic weight.

   3.  (Chem.)  A  combining  unit,  whether  an  atom,  a  radical, or a
   molecule;  as, in acid salt two or more equivalents of acid unite with
   one or more equivalents of base.
   Mechanical  equivalent  of heat (Physics), the number of units of work
   which  the  unit of heat can perform; the mechanical energy which must
   be expended to raise the temperature of a unit weight of water from 0
   C.  to  1 C., or from 32 F. to 33 F. The term was introduced by Dr.
   Mayer  of  Heilbronn.  Its  value  was  found by Joule to be 1390 foot
   pounds  upon  the  Centigrade, or 772 foot pounds upon the Fahrenheit,
   thermometric  scale, whence it is often called Joule's equivalent, and
   represented  by  the  symbol  J.  This is equal to 424 kilogram meters
   (Centigrade  scale).  A more recent determination by Professor Rowland
   gives the value 426.9 kilogram meters, for the latitude of Baltimore.
   E*quiv"a*lent, v. t. To make the equivalent to; to equal; equivalence.


   E*quiv"a*lent*ly, adv. In an equal manner.


   E`qui*val"ue (?), v. t. To put an equal value upon; to put (something)
   on a par with another thing. W. Taylor.

                             Equivalve, Equivalved

   E"qui*valve  (?),  E"qui*valved  (?),  a.  [Equi- + valve.] (Zo\'94l.)
   Having the valves equal in size and from, as in most bivalve shells.


   E`qui*val"vu*lar (?), a. (Zo\'94l.) Same as Equivalve or Equivalved.


   E*quiv"o*ca*cy (?), n. Equivocalness.


   E*quiv"o*cal  (?), a. [L. aequivocus: aequus equal + vox, vocis, word.
   See Equal, and Voice, and cf. Equivoque.]

   1.  (Literally,  called equally one thing or the other; hence:) Having
   two    significations    equally   applicable;   capable   of   double
   interpretation;   of   doubtful  meaning;  ambiguous;  uncertain;  as,
   equivocal words; an equivocal sentence.

     For  the  beauties  of Shakespeare are not of so dim or equivocal a
     nature as to be visible only to learned eyes. Jeffrey.

   2.  Capable  of  being ascribed to different motives, or of signifying
   opposite feelings, purposes, or characters; deserving to be suspected;
   as, his actions are equivocal. "Equivocal repentances." Milton.

   3.  Uncertain,  as  an  indication or sign; doubtful. "How equivocal a
   test." Burke.
   Equivocal  chord  (Mus.),  a  chord which can be resolved into several
   distinct  keys;  one  whose  intervals, being all minor thirds, do not
   clearly  indicate  its  fundamental  tone  or  root;  the chord of the
   diminished  triad,  and  the  diminished  seventh.  Syn. -- Ambiguous;
   doubtful;  uncertain;  indeterminate. -- Equivocal, Ambiguous. We call
   an  expression  ambiguous  when  it  has  one general meaning, and yet
   contains  certain words which may be taken in two different senses; or
   certain  clauses  which  can  be so connected with other clauses as to
   divide  the  mind  between  different  views  of  part  of the meaning
   intended.  We  call an expression equivocal when, taken as a whole, it
   conveys a given thought with perfect clearness and propriety, and also
   another  thought  with  equal  propriety  and clearness. Such were the
   responses often given by the Delphic oracle; as that to Crambiguous is
   a  mere  blunder of language; what is equivocal is usually intended to
   deceive,  though  it  may  occur  at  times  from  mere  inadvertence.
   Equivocation  is  applied  only  to  cases  where there is a design to


   E*quiv"o*cal,  n.  A word or expression capable of different meanings;
   an ambiguous term; an equivoque.

     In languages of great ductility, equivocals like that just referred
     to are rarely found. Fitzed. Hall.


   E*quiv"o*cal*ly, adv. In an equivocal manner.


   E*quiv"o*cal*ness, n. The state of being equivocal.


   E*quiv"o*cate  (?),  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Equivocated (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Equivocating.] [L. aequivocatus, p. p. of aequivocari to be called
   by  the  same  name,  fr.  L.  aequivocus:  cf.  F. \'82quivoquer. See
   Equivocal, a.] To use words of equivocal or doubtful signification; to
   express  one's opinions in terms which admit of different senses, with
   intent  to  deceive;  to  use  ambiguous  expressions  with  a view to
   mislead; as, to equivocate is the work of duplicity.

     All that Garnet had to say for him was that he supposed he meant to
     equivocate. Bp. Stillingfleet.

   Syn. -- To prevaricate; evade; shuffle; quibble. See Prevaricate.


   E*quiv"o*cate (?), v. t. To render equivocal or ambiguous.

     He equivocated his vow by a mental reservation. Sir G. Buck.


   E*quiv`o*ca"tion  (?),  n.  The  use  of  expressions susceptible of a
   double signification, with a purpose to mislead.

     There  being  no  room  for  equivocations,  there  is  no  need of
     distinctions. Locke.

   Syn.  --  Prevarication; ambiguity; shuffling; evasion; guibbling. See
   Equivocal, a., and Prevaricate, v. i.


   E*quiv"o*ca`tor (?), n. One who equivocates.

     Here's  an  equivocator that could swear in both the scales against
     either scale, yet could not equivocate to heaven. Shak.


   E*quiv"o*ca*to*ry   (?),   a.   Indicating,   or   characterized   by,

                              Equivoque, Equivoke

   Eq"ui*voque, Eq"ui*voke (?), n. [F. \'82quivoque. See Equivocal.]

   1.  An ambiguous term; a word susceptible of different significations.

   2. An equivocation; a guibble. B. Jonson.


   E*quiv"o*rous  (?),  a.  [L.  equus  horse  + vorare to eat greedily.]
   Feeding on horseflesh; as, equivorous Tartars.


   E"quus  (?),  n. [L., horse.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of mammals, including
   the horse, ass, etc.


   -er (?).

   1.  [AS.  -ere;  akin  to  L. -arius.] The termination of many English
   words,  denoting  the agent; -- applied either to men or things; as in
   hater,  farmer,  heater,  grater.  At  the end of names of places, -er
   signifies a man of the place; as, Londoner, i. e., London man.

   2.  [AS. -ra; akin to G. -er, Icel. -are, -re, Goth. -iza, -, L. -ior,
   Gr.  -\'c6yas.]  A  suffix  used  to  form  the  comparative degree of
   adjectives and adverbs; as, warmer, sooner, lat(e)er, earl(y)ier.


   E"ra  (?),  n.;  pl. Eras (#). [LL. aera an era, in earlier usage, the
   items  of  an  account, counters, pl. of aes, aeris, brass, money. See

   1.  A  fixed  point  of time, usually an epoch, from which a series of
   years is reckoned.

     The foundation of Solomon's temple is conjectured by Ideler to have
     been an era. R. S. Poole.

   2.  A  period  of  time reckoned from some particular date or epoch; a
   succession  of  years dating from some important event; as, the era of
   Alexander;  the  era  of  Christ,  or  the  Christian  era  (see under

     The first century of our era. M. Arnold.

   3.  A period of time in which a new order of things prevails; a signal
   stage of history; an epoch.

     Painting  may  truly be said to have opened the new era of culture.
     J. A. Symonds.

   Syn. -- Epoch; time; date; period; age; dispensation. See Epoch.


   E*ra"di*ate  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Eradiated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Eradiating  (?).]  [Pref.  e-  +  radiate.] To shoot forth, as rays of
   light; to beam; to radiate. Dr. H. More.


   E*ra`di*a"tion (?), n. Emission of radiance.


   E*rad"i*ca*ble (?), a. Capable of being eradicated.


   E*rad"i*cate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Eradicated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Eradicating  (?).]  [L. eradicatus, p. p. of eradicare to eradicate; e
   out + radix, radicis, root. See Radical.]

   1. To pluck up by the roots; to root up; as, an oak tree eradicated.

   2.  To  root  out;  to destroy utterly; to extirpate; as, to eradicate
   diseases, or errors.

     This,  although  now an old an inveterate evil, might be eradicated
     by vigorous treatment. Southey.

   Syn. -- To extirpate; root out; exterminate; destroy; annihilate.


   E*rad`i*ca"tion (?), n. [L. eradicatio: cf. F. \'82radication.]

   1.  The  act  of plucking up by the roots; a rooting out; extirpation;
   utter destruction.

   2. The state of being plucked up by the roots.


   E*rad"i*ca*tive  (?),  a.  [Cf.  \'82radicatif.] Tending or serving to
   eradicate; curing or destroying thoroughly, as a disease or any evil.


   E*rad"i*ca*tive,  n.  (Med.)  A  medicine that effects a radical cure.


   E*ras"a*ble (?), a. Capable of being erased.


   E*rase"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Erased  (#); p. pr. & vb. n..
   Erasing.]  [L.  erasus,  p.  p. of eradere to erase; e out + radere to
   scrape, scratch, shave. See Rase.]

   1.  To  rub or scrape out, as letters or characters written, engraved,
   or  painted;  to efface; to expunge; to cross out; as, to erase a word
   or a name.

   2.  Fig.:  To obliterate; to expunge; to blot out; -- used of ideas in
   the mind or memory. Burke.


   E*rased" (?), p. pr. & a.

   1. Rubbed or scraped out; effaced; obliterated.

   2. (Her.) Represented with jagged and uneven edges, as is torn off; --
   used esp. of the head or limb of a beast. Cf. Couped.


   E*rase"ment  (?),  n.  The  act of erasing; a rubbing out; expunction;
   obliteration. Johnson.


   E*ras"er  (?),  n.  One  who,  or  that  which,  erases; esp., a sharp
   instrument or a piece of rubber used to erase writings, drawings, etc.


   E*ra"sion (?), n. The act of erasing; a rubbing out; obliteration.


   E*ras"tian  (?;  106), n. (Eccl. Hist.) One of the followers of Thomas
   Erastus,  a  German  physician  and theologian of the 16th century. He
   held  that  the  punishment  of all offenses should be referred to the
   civil  power,  and that holy communion was open to all. In the present
   day, an Erastian is one who would see the church placed entirely under
   the control of the State. Shipley.


   E*ras"tian*ism (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) The principles of the Erastains.


   E*ra"sure  (?; 135), n. [From Erase.] The act of erasing; a scratching
   out; obliteration.


   Er"a*tive  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to  the  Muse Erato who presided over
   amatory poetry. Stormonth.


   Er"a*to (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Class. Myth.) The Muse who presided over
   lyric and amatory poetry.


   Er"bi*um  (?),  n.  [NL.  from Ytterby, in Sweden, where gadolinite is
   found.  Cf.  Terbium,  Yttrium,  Ytterbium.]  (Chem.)  A rare metallic
   element  associated  with  several  other rare elements in the mineral
   gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden. Symbol Er. Atomic weight 165.9. Its
   salts   are   rose-colored   and   give  characteristic  spectra.  Its
   sesquioxide is called erbia.


   Er`ce*de"ken (?), n. [OE., fr. pref. erce- = archi- + deken a deacon.]
   An archdeacon. [Obs.]


   Erd  (?),  n.  [OE. erd, eard, earth, land, country, AS. eard; akin to
   OS.  ard  dwelling  place, OHG. art plowing, tillage, Icel. \'94r&edh;
   crop,  and  to  L.  arare  to plow, E. ear to plow.] The earth. [Prov.
   Eng.]  Wright.  Erd shrew (Zo\'94l.), the common European shrew (Sorex
   vulgaris); the shrewmouse.


   Ere  (?;  277), prep. & adv. [AS. , prep., adv., & conj.; akin to OS.,
   OFries.,  & OHG. , G. eher, D. eer, Icel. \'ber, Goth. air. &root;204.
   Cf. Early, Erst, Or, adv.]

   1. Before; sooner than. [Archaic or Poetic]

     Myself was stirring ere the break of day. Shak.

     Ere sails were spread new oceans to explore. Dryden.

     Sir, come down ere my child die. John iv. 49.

   2. Rather than.

     I will be thrown into Etna, . . . ere I will leave her. Shak.

   Ere  long,  before,  shortly.  Shak. -- Ere now, formerly, heretofore.
   Shak. -- Ere that, AND Or are. Same as Ere. Shak.


   Ere (?), v. t. To plow. [Obs.] See Ear, v. t. Chaucer.


   Er"e*bus (?), n. [L., fr. Gr.

   1.  (Greek  Myth.)  A place of nether darkness, being the gloomy space
   through which the souls passed to Hades. See Milton's "Paradise Lost,"
   Book II., line 883.

   2.  (Greek  Myth.)  The  son of Chaos and brother of Nox, who dwelt in

     To the infernal deep, with Erebus and tortures vile. Shak.


   E*rect" (?), a. [L. erectus, p. p. of erigere to erect; e out + regere
   to lead straight. See Right, and cf. Alert.]

   1.  Upright,  or having a vertical position; not inverted; not leaning
   or bent; not prone; as, to stand erect.

     Two of far nobler shape, erect and tall. Milton.

     Among  the  Greek  colonies  and  churches of Asia, Philadelphia is
     still erect -- a column of ruins. Gibbon.

   2. Directed upward; raised; uplifted.

     His  piercing eyes, erect, appear to view Superior worlds, and look
     all nature through. Pope.

   3. Bold; confident; free from depression; undismayed.

     But who is he, by years Bowed, but erect in heart? Keble.

   4. Watchful; alert.

     Vigilant and erect attention of mind. Hooker.

   5.  (Bot.) Standing upright, with reference to the earth's surface, or
   to the surface to which it is attached.

   6. (Her.) Elevated, as the tips of wings, heads of serpents, etc.


   E*rect", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Erected; p. pr. & vb. n. Erecting.]

   1.  To raise and place in an upright or perpendicular position; to set
   upright; to raise; as, to erect a pole, a flagstaff, a monument, etc.

   2.  To  raise,  as  a building; to build; to construct; as, to erect a
   house or a fort; to set up; to put together the component parts of, as
   of a machine.

   3. To lift up; to elevate; to exalt; to magnify.

     That didst his state above his hopes erect. Daniel.

     I, who am a party, am not to erect myself into a judge. Dryden.

   4. To animate; to encourage; to cheer.

     It   raiseth   the   dropping  spirit,  erecting  it  to  a  loving
     complaisance. Barrow.

   5.  To  set  up  as  an assertion or consequence from premises, or the
   like.  "To erect conclusions." Sir T. Browne. "Malebranche erects this
   proposition." Locke.

   6.  To set up or establish; to found; to form; to institute. "To erect
   a new commonwealth." Hooker.
   Erecting  shop  (Mach.), a place where large machines, as engines, are
   put  together  and  adjusted.  Syn.  --  To  set  up;  raise; elevate;
   construct; build; institute; establish; found.


   E*rect", v. i. To rise upright. [Obs.]

     By wet, stalks do erect. Bacon.


   E*rect"a*ble  (?)  a.  Capable  of  being  erected;  as,  an erectable
   feather. Col. G. Montagu.


   E*rect"er (?), n. An erector; one who raises or builds.


   E*rect"ile  (?),  a.  [Cf.  F. \'82rectile.] Capable of being erected;
   susceptible  of  being  erected of dilated. Erectile tissue (Anat.), a
   tissue which is capable of being greatly dilated and made rigid by the
   distension of the numerous blood vessels which it contains.


   E`rec*til"i*ty (?), n. The quality or state of being erectile.


   E*rec"tion (?), n. [L. erectio: cf. F. \'82rection.]

   1.  The  act of erecting, or raising upright; the act of constructing,
   as  a  building  or  a wall, or of fitting together the parts of, as a
   machine;  the act of founding or establishing, as a commonwealth or an
   office; also, the act of rousing to excitement or courage.

   2.  The  state  of  being  erected,  lifted up, built, established, or
   founded; exaltation of feelings or purposes.

     Her peerless height my mind to high erection draws up. Sidney

   3. State of being stretched to stiffness; tension.

   4. Anything erected; a building of any kind.

   5.  (Physiol.)  The  state of a part which, from having been soft, has
   become  hard  and swollen by the accumulation of blood in the erectile
   tissue. <-- p. 50- -->


   >  E*rect"ive  (?),  a.  Making  erect or upright; raising; tending to


   > E*rect"ly, adv. In an erect manner or posture.


   > E*rect"ness, n. Uprightness of posture or form.


   > E*rec"to-pat"ent (?), a.

   1.  (Bot.) Having a position intermediate between erect and patent, or

   2.  (Zo\'94l.)  Standing  partially  spread  and erect; -- said of the
   wings of certain insects.


   > E*rec"tor (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which, erects.

   2. (Anat.) A muscle which raises any part.

   3.  (Physics)  An  attachment  to  a  microscope,  telescope, or other
   optical instrument, for making the image erect instead of inverted.


   > Ere`long" (?; 115), adv. Before the ere long.

     A man, . . . following the stag, erelong slew him. Spenser.

     The world, erelong, a world of tears must weep. Milton.


   >  Er`e*ma*cau"sis  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr. A gradual oxidation from
   exposure  to air and moisture, as in the decay of old trees or of dead


   > Er"e*mit*age (?), n. See Hermitage.


   > Er"e*mite (?), n. [See Hermit.] A hermit.

     Thou art my heaven, and I thy eremite. Keats.

                             Eremitic, Eremitical

   >  Er`e*mit"ic  (?),  Er`e*mit"ic*al  (?),  a.  Of or pertaining to an
   eremite;  hermitical;  living  in solitude. "An eremitical life in the
   woods." Fuller. "The eremitic instinct." Lowell.


   > Er"e*mi`tish (?), a. Eremitic. Bp. Hall.


   >  Er"e*mit*ism  (?),  n. The state of a hermit; a living in seclusion
   from social life.


   >  E`re*ta"tion  (?),  n.  [L. erepere to creep out; e out + repere to
   creep.] A creeping forth. [Obs.]


   >  E*rep"tion (?), n. [L. ereptio, fr. eripere to snatch away; e out +
   rapere to snatch.] A snatching away. [Obs.] Cockeram.


   >  Er"e*thism (?), n. [Gr. \'82r\'82thisme.] (Med.) A morbid degree of
   excitement or irritation in an organ. Hoblyn.


   > Er`e*this"tic (?), a. [Gr. Relating to erethism.

                              Erewhile, Erewhiles

   >  Ere`while" (?), Ere`whiles" (?), adv. Some time ago; a little while
   before; heretofore. [Archaic]

     I am as fair now as I was erewhile. Shak.


   >  Erf  (?), n.; pl. Erven (#). [D.] A garden plot, usually about half
   an acre. [Cape Colony]


   >  Erg  (?), n. [Gr. (Physics) The unit of work or energy in the C. G.
   S.  system,  being the amount of work done by a dyne working through a
   distance  of one centimeter; the amount of energy expended in moving a
   body  one  centimeter  against  a force of one dyne. One foot pound is
   equal to 13,560,000 ergs.


   >  Er"gat  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  ergo therefore.] To deduce logically, as
   conclusions. [Obs.] Hewyt.


   > Er"go (?), conj. OR adv. [L.] Therefore; consequently; -- often used
   in a jocular way. Shak.


   > Er"got (?), n. [F. ergot, argot, lit., a spur.]

   1.  A diseased condition of rye and other cereals, in which the grains
   become  black,  and  often  spur-shaped.  It  is caused by a parasitic
   fungus, Claviceps purpurea.

   2.  The  mycelium  or spawn of this fungus infecting grains of rye and
   wheat.  It  is a powerful remedial agent, and also a dangerous poison,
   and  is  used  as  a  means  of  hastening  childbirth,  and to arrest

   3.  (Far.)  A  stub,  like  soft  horn,  about the size of a chestnut,
   situated behind and below the pastern joint.

   4. (Anat.) See 2d Calcar, 3 (b).


   > Er*got"ic (?), a. Pertaining to, or derived from, ergot; as, ergotic


   > Er"go*tin (?), n. (Med.) An extract made from ergot.


   >  Er"go*tine  (?).  (Chem.)  A powerful astringent alkaloid extracted
   from  ergot  as  a  brown,  amorphous, bitter substance. It is used to
   produce contraction of the uterus.


   > Er"go*tism (?), n. [F. ergotisme, fr. L. ergo.] A logical deduction.
   [Obs.] Sir T. Browne.


   >  Er"got*ism  (?),  n.  [From  Ergot, n.; cf. F. ergotisme.] (Med.) A
   diseased  condition  produced  by  eating  rye affected with the ergot


   >  Er"got*ized  (?),  a. Affected with the ergot fungus; as, ergotized

                                 Eriach, Eric

   >  Er"i*ach  (?),  Er"ic  (?),  n.  [Ir.  eiric.]  (Old  Irish  Law) A
   recompense  formerly  given  by  a  murderer  to  the relatives of the
   murdered person.


   >  E*ri"ca  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. L. erice heath, Gr. (Bot.) A genus of
   shrubby plants, including the heaths, many of them producing beautiful


   >  Er`i*ca"ceous  (?),  a.  (Bot.)  Belonging  to the Heath family, or
   resembling plants of that family; consisting of heats.


   > E*ric"i*nol (?), n. [NL. ericaceae the Heath family + L. oleum oil.]
   (Chem.)  A  colorless  oil  (quickly  becoming brown), with a pleasant
   odor, obtained by the decomposition of ericolin.


   >  E*ri"ci*us  (?),  n. [L., a hedgehog.] The Vulgate rendering of the
   Hebrew   word   qip&omac;d,  which  in  the  "Authorized  Version"  is
   translated bittern, and in the Revised Version, porcupine.

     I  will make it [Babylon] a possession for the ericius and pools of
     waters. Is. xiv. 23 (Douay version).


   >  E*ric"o*lin (?), n. (Chem.) A glucoside found in the bearberry (and
   others  of  the  Ericace\'91),  and  extracted  as  a  bitter, yellow,
   amorphous mass.


   >   E*rid"a*nus   (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr.  (Anat.)  A  long,  winding
   constellation  extending  southward  from  Taurus  and  containing the
   bright star Achernar.


   > Er"i*gi*ble (?), a. [See Erect.] Capable of being erected. [Obs.]


   >  E"rin  (?), n. [Ir. Cf. Aryan.] An early, and now a poetic, name of


   >  Er`i*na"ceous  (?),  a.  [L. erinaceus hedgehog.] (Zo\'94l.) Of the
   Hedgehog family; like, or characteristic of, a hedgehog.


   > E*rin"go (?), n. The sea holly. See Eryngo.


   >  Er"i*nite  (?),  n.  (Min.)  A  hydrous  arseniate of copper, of an
   emerald-green  color;  --  so  called  from Erin, or Ireland, where it


   >  E*rin"ys  (?),  n.; pl. Erinyes (#). [L., fr. Gr. (Class. Myth.) An
   avenging  deity; one of the Furies; sometimes, conscience personified.
   [Written also Erinnys.]


   >  E`ri*om"e*ter  (?),  n.  [Gr.  -meter.]  (Opt.)  An  instrument for
   measuring  the  diameters of minute particles or fibers, from the size
   of the colored rings produced by the diffraction of the light in which
   the objects are viewed.


   >  E*ris"ta*lis  (?), n. [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of dipterous insects
   whose young (called rat-tailed larv\'91) are remarkable for their long
   tapering  tail,  which  spiracles at the tip, and for their ability to
   live in very impure and salt waters; -- also called drone fly.

                              Eristic, Eristical

   > E*ris"tic (?), E*ris"tic*al (?), a. [Gr. Controversial. [Archaic]

     A  specimen  of  admirable special pleading in the court of eristic
     logic. Coleridge.


   > Erke (?), a. [Cf. Irk.] ASlothful. [Obs.] Rom. of R.


   >  Erl"king`  (?),  n. [G. erlk\'94nig, fr. Dan. ellekonge elfking.] A
   personification,  in  German  and  Scandinavian mythology, of a spirit
   natural power supposed to work mischief and ruin, esp. to children.


   >  Erme  (?),  v.  i. [OE. ermen, AS. yrman. Cf. Yearn.] To grieve; to
   feel sad. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                               Ermelin, Ermilin

   > Er"me*lin (?), Er"mi*lin (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) See Ermine. Shenstone.


   >  Er"min  (?),  n.  [OF.  Ermin,  L.  Armenius.]  An Armenian. [Obs.]


   > Er"mine (?), n. [OF. ermine, F. hermine, prob. of German origin; cf.
   OHG.  harmo,  G. hermelin, akin to Lith. szarm, szarmonys, weasel, cf.
   AS.  hearma;  but  cf.  also LL. armelinus, armellina, hermellina, and
   pellis  Armenia, the fur of the Armenian rat, mus Armenius, the animal
   being found also in Armenia.]

   1.  (Zo\'94l.)  A valuable fur-bearing animal of the genus Mustela (M.
   erminea), allied to the weasel; the stoat. It is found in the northern
   parts  of  Asia,  Europe,  and  America. In summer it is brown, but in
   winter  it  becomes white, except the tip of the tail, which is always

   2.  The  fur  of  the  ermine, as prepared for ornamenting garments of
   royalty,  etc.,  by  having  the  tips  of the tails, which are black,
   arranged at regular intervals throughout the white.

   3.  By metonymy, the office or functions of a judge, whose state robe,
   lined  with ermine, is emblematical of purity and honor without stain.

   4. (Her.) One of the furs. See Fur (Her.)

     NOTE: &hand; Er mine is represented by an argent field, tufted with
     black.  Ermines  is  the reverse of ermine, being black, spotted or
     timbered  with  argent. Erminois is the same as ermine, except that
     or is substituted for argent.

   Ermine moth (Zo\'94l.), a white moth with black spots (esp. Yponomeuta
   padella  of Europe); -- so called on account of the resemblance of its
   covering  to  the  fur  of  the  ermine; also applied to certain white
   bombycid moths of America.


   > Er"mine, v. t. To clothe with, or as with, ermine.

     The snows that have ermined it in the winter. Lowell.


   >  Er"mined  (?),  a.  Clothed  or adorned with the fur of the ermine.

                             Ermines, n., Erminois

   > Er"mines (?), n., Er"min*ois (, n. (Her.) See Note under Ermine, n.,


   > Er"mit (?), n. [See Hermit.] A hermit. [Obs.]

                                   Ern, Erne

   >  Ern,  Erne  (?), n. [AS. earn eagle; akin to D. arend, OHG. aro, G.
   aar,  Icel.,  Sw.,  & Dan. \'94rn, Goth. ara, and to Gr. Ornithology.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  sea  eagle,  esp.  the  European white-tailed sea eagle
   (Hali\'91etus albicilla).


   >  Ern  (?), v. i. [Cf. Erme.] To stir with strong emotion; to grieve;
   to mourn.

     NOTE: [Corrupted into yearn in modern editions of Shakespeare.]



   > Er"nest (?), n. See Earnest. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   > Er"nest*ful (?), a. [See Earnest, a.] Serious. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   >  E*rode"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Eroded; p. pr. & vb. n. Eroding.]
   [L.  erodere, erosum; e out + rodere to gnaw. See Rodent.] To eat into
   or  away;  to  corrode;  as, canker erodes the flesh. "The blood . . .
   erodes the vessels." Wiseman.

     The smaller charge is more apt to . . . erode the gun. Am. Cyc.


   > E*rod"ed, p. p. & a.

   1. Eaten away; gnawed; irregular, as if eaten or worn away.

   2.  (Bot.) Having the edge worn away so as to be jagged or irregularly


   >  E*rod"ent  (?),  n.  [L.  erodens,  -entis,  p. pr. of erodere. See
   Erode.]  (Med.)  A  medicine  which  eats  away  extraneous growths; a


   >  Er"o*gate  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Erogated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Erogating  (?).]  [L.  erogatus,  p.  p. of erogare; e out + rogare to
   ask.] To lay out, as money; to deal out; to expend. [Obs.]


   >  Er`o*ga"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  erogatio.]  The  act  of giving out or
   bestowing. [Obs.] Sir T. Elyot.


   >  E"ros  (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. (Greek Myth.) Love; the god of love; --
   by  earlier writers represented as one of the first and creative gods,
   by  later writers as the son of Aphrodite, equivalent to the Latin god


   > E*rose" (?), a. [L. erosus, p. p. See Erode.]

   1. Irregular or uneven as if eaten or worn away.

   2.  (Bot.) Jagged or irregularly toothed, as if nibbled out or gnawed.
   -- E*rose"ly, adv.


   > E*ro"sion (?), n. [L. erosio. See Erode.]

   1. The act or operation of eroding or eating away.

   2. The state of being eaten away; corrosion; canker.


   >  E*ro"sive  (?),  a.  That erodes or gradually eats away; tending to
   erode; corrosive. Humble.


   >  E*ros"trate  (?),  a.  [Pref.  e- out + rostrate.] (Bot.) Without a


   >  Er"o*teme  (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  mark indicating a question; a note of


   > Er`o*te"sis (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Rhet.) A figure o

     Must  I  give way and room to your rash choler? Shall I be frighted
     when a madman stares? Shak.

                               Erotic, Erotical

   > E*rot"ic (?), E*rot"ic*al (?), a. [Gr. \'82rotique. See Eros.] Of or
   pertaining to the passion of love; treating of love; amatory.


   > E*rot"ic, n. An amorous composition or poem.


   > E*rot"i*cism (?), n. Erotic quality.


   > Er`pe*tol"o*gist (?), n. Herpetologist.


   >   Er`pe*tol"o*gy   (?),   n.  [Cf.  F.  erp\'82tologie.]  (Zo\'94l.)


   >  Err  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Erred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Erring (?;
   277,  85).] [F. errer, L. errare; akin to G. irren, OHG. irran, v. t.,
   irr,  v. i., OS. irrien, Sw. irra, Dan. irre, Goth, a\'a1rzjan to lead
   astray, airzise astray.]

   1.  To  wander;  to  roam; to stray. [Archaic] "Why wilt thou err from
   me?" Keble.

     What  seemeth  to  you, if there were to a man an hundred sheep and
     one of them hath erred. Wyclif (Matt. xviii. 12).

   2.  To  deviate  from the true course; to miss the thing aimed at. "My
   jealous aim might err." Shak.

   3.  To  miss  intellectual  truth;  to  fall into error; to mistake in
   judgment or opinion; to be mistaken.

     The man may err in his judgment of circumstances. Tillotson.

   4.  To  deviate  morally  from  the  right  way;  to  go  astray, in a
   figurative sense; to do wrong; to sin.

     Do they not err that devise evil? Prov. xiv. 22.

   5. To offend, as by erring.


   > Er"ra*ble (?), a. Liable to error; fallible.


   > Er"ra*ble*ness, n. Liability to error. Dr. H. More.


   >  Er"ra*bund  (?),  a.  [L. errabundus.] Erratic. "Errabund guesses."


   >  Er"ran*cy  (?),  n.  [L.  errantia.] A wandering; state of being in


   >  Er"rand  (?),  n.  [OE.  erende,  erande,  message,  business,  AS.
   \'91rende,  \'91rend;  akin to OS. arundi, OHG. arunti, Icel. eyrendi,
   \'94rendi,  erendi,  Sw.  \'84rende, Dan. \'91rende; perh. akin to AS.
   earu  swift,  Icel.  \'94rr,  and  to  L. oriri to rise, E. orient.] A
   special  business  intrusted  to  a messenger; something to be told or
   done by one sent somewhere for the purpose; often, a verbal message; a
   commission;  as,  the  servant was sent on an errand; to do an errand.
   Also, one's purpose in going anywhere.

     I have a secret errand to thee, O king. Judg. iii. 19.

     I will not eat till I have told mine errand. Gen. xxiv. 33.

   <--  2. Any specific task, usually of a routine nature, requiring some
   form  of  travel,  usually  locally.  An  errand is often on behalf of
   someone  else, but sometimes for one's own purposes. To run an errand.
   To perform an errand[2]. 3. A mission. -->


   >  Er"rant  (?),  a.  [F.  errant, p. pr. fr. OF. errer to travel, LL.
   iterare, fr. L. iter journey; confused somewhat with L. errare to err.
   See Eyre, and cf. Arrant, Itinerant.]

   1.  Wandering;  deviating  from  an appointed course, or from a direct
   path; roving.

     Seven  planets  or errant stars in the lower orbs of heaven. Sir T.

   2. Notorious; notoriously bad; downright; arrant.

     Would make me an errant fool. B. Jonson.

   3. (Eng. Law) Journeying; itinerant; -- formerly applied to judges who
   went on circuit and to bailiffs at large. Mozley & W.


   > Er"rant, n. One who wanders about. [Obs.] Fuller.


   >  Er*ran"ti*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr. L. errare to wander. See Err.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  A  group of ch\'91topod annelids, including those that are
   not confined to tubes. See Ch\'91topoda. [Written also Errantes.]


   > Er"rant*ry (?), n.

   1.  A  wandering;  a  roving;  esp.,  a roving in quest of adventures.

   2. The employment of a knight-errant. Johnson.


   > Er*ra"ta (?), n. pl. [L.] See Erratum.


   >  Er*rat"ic  (?),  a.  [L.  erraticus,  fr.  errare to wander: cf. F.
   erratique. See Err.]

   1. Having no certain course; roving about without a fixed destination;
   wandering;  moving;  -- hence, applied to the planets as distinguished
   from the fixed stars.

     The earth and each erratic world. Blackmore.

   2.  Deviating  from a wise of the common course in opinion or conduct;
   eccentric; strange; queer; as, erratic conduct.

   3. Irregular; changeable. "Erratic fever." Harvey.
   Erratic  blocks, gravel, etc. (Geol.), masses of stone which have been
   transported from their original resting places by the agency of water,
   ice, or other causes. -- Erratic phenomena, the phenomena which relate
   to transported materials on the earth's surface.


   > Er*rat"ic, n.

   1.  One  who  deviates  from  common and accepted opinions; one who is
   eccentric or preserve in his intellectual character.

   Page 508

   2. A rogue. [Obs.] Cockeram.

   3.  (Geol.)  Any  stone  or material that has been borne away from its
   original  site by natural agencies; esp., a large block or fragment of
   rock; a bowlder.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th e pl ural the term is applied especially to the
     loose  gravel  and stones on the earth's surface, including what is
     called drift.


   Er*rat"ic*al   (?),   a.   Erratic.   --   Er*rat"ic*al*ly,   adv.  --
   Er*rat"ic*al*ness, n.


   Er*ra"tion (?), n. [L. erratio. See Err.] A wandering; a roving about.
   [Obs.] Cockeram.


   Er*ra"tum  (?),  n.;  pl.  Errata  (#).  [L.,  fr. errare, erratum, to
   wander, err. See Err.] An error or mistake in writing or printing.

     A  single  erratum  may  knock  out  the brains of a whole passage.


   Er"thine  (?),  n.  [Gr.  errhin.]  (Med.)  A  medicine designed to be
   snuffed  up  the nose, to promote discharges of mucus; a sternutatory.
   Coxe. -- a. Causing or increasing secretion of nasal mucus.


   Er*ro"ne*ous (?), a. [L. erroneus, fr. errare to err. See Err.]

   1.  Wandering;  straying;  deviating  from the right course; -- hence,
   irregular; unnatural. [Obs.] "Erroneous circulation." Arbuthnot.

     Stopped  much  of  the  erroneous light, which otherwise would have
     disturbed the vision. Sir I. Newman.

   2. Misleading; misled; mistaking. [Obs.]

     An  erroneous  conscience  commands us to do what we ought to omit.
     Jer. Taylor.

   3.  Containing  error;  not  conformed to truth or justice; incorrect;
   false;   mistaken;  as,  an  erroneous  doctrine;  erroneous  opinion,
   observation,   deduction,  view,  etc.  --  Er*ro"ne*ous*ly,  adv.  --
   Er*ro"ne*ous*ness, n.


   Er"ror  (?),  n. [OF. error, errur, F. erreur, L. error, fr. errare to
   err. See Err.]

   1. A wandering; a roving or irregular course. [Obs.]

     The rest of his journey, his error by sea. B. Jonson.

   2.  A  wandering  or  deviation  from  the  right  course or standard;
   irregularity; mistake; inaccuracy; something made wrong or left wrong;
   as, an error in writing or in printing; a clerical error.

   3.  A  departing  or  deviation from the truth; falsity; false notion;
   wrong opinion; mistake; misapprehension.

     Herror, though his candor remained unimpaired. Bancroft.

   4.  A  moral  offense;  violation  of  duty;  a  sin or transgression;
   iniquity; fault. Ps. xix. 12.

   5.  (Math.) The difference between the approximate result and the true
   result; -- used particularly in the rule of double position.

   6.  (Mensuration) (a) The difference between an observed value and the
   true  value  of  a  quantity.  (b) The difference between the observed
   value of a quantity and that which is taken or computed to be the true
   value; -- sometimes called residual error.

   7. (Law.) A mistake in the proceedings of a court of record in matters
   of law or of fact.

   8.  (Baseball)  A  fault  of  a  player of the side in the field which
   results in failure to put out a player on the other side, or gives him
   an unearned base.
   Law  of  error,  OR  Law  of frequency of error (Mensuration), the law
   which expresses the relation between the magnitude of an error and the
   frequency  with  which  that error will be committed in making a large
   number  of  careful  measurements  of  a  quantity. -- Probable error.
   (Mensuration)  See under Probable. -- Writ of error (Law), an original
   writ,  which  lies  after  judgment in an action at law, in a court of
   record,  to  correct  some alleged error in the proceedings, or in the
   judgment  of  the  court.  Bouvier.  Burrill.  Syn. -- Mistake; fault;
   blunder; failure; fallacy; delusion; hallucination; sin. See Blunder.


   Er"ror*ful (?), a. Full of error; wrong. Foxe.


   Er"ror*ist,  n. One who encourages and propagates error; one who holds
   to error.


   Ers  (?),  n. [F., fr. L. ervum a kind of pulse, bitter vetch.] (Bot.)
   The bitter vetch (Ervum Ervilia).


   Erse  (?),  n. [A modification of Irish, OE. Irishe.] A name sometimes
   given  to  that dialect of the Celtic which is spoken in the Highlands
   of Scotland; -- called, by the Highlanders, Gaelic.


   Erse,  a.  Of  or  pertaining  to  the Celtic race in the Highlands of
   Scotland, or to their language.


   Ersh (?), n. See Arrish.


   Erst (?), adv. [Orig. superlative of ere; AS. . See Ere.] [Archaic]

   1. First. Chaucer.

   2. Previously; before; formerly; heretofore. Chaucer.

     Tityrus,  with  whose  style he had erst disclaimed all ambition to
     match his pastoral pipe. A. W. Ward.

   At  erst,  at first; at the beginning. -- Now at erst, at this present
   time. Chaucer.


   Erst`while"   (?),  adv.  Till  then  or  now;  heretofore;  formerly.

                         Erubescence; 135, Erubescency

   Er`u*bes"cence (?; 135), Er`u*bes"cen*cy (?), n. [L. erubescentia: cf.
   F.  \'82rubescence.]  The  act of becoming red; redness of the skin or
   surface of anything; a blushing.


   Er`u*bes"cent (?), a. [L. erubescens, p. pr. erubescere to grow red; e
   out + rubescere. See Rubescent.] Red, or reddish; blushing. Johnson.


   Er`u*bes"cite (?), n. (Min.) See Bornite.


   E*ru"ca (?), n.; pl. Eruc\'91 (#). [L., a caterpillar, also, a sort of
   colewort.]  (Zo\'94l.) An insect in the larval state; a caterpillar; a


   E*ru"cic  (?),  a.  (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, a genus of
   cruciferous  Mediterranean herbs (Eruca or Brassica); as, erucic acid,
   a  fatty  acid  resembling oleic acid, and found in colza oil, mustard
   oil, etc.


   E*ru"ci*from  (?), a. [Eruca + -form.] (Zo\'94l.) Having the form of a
   caterpillar; -- said of insect larv\'91.

                                Eruct, Eructate

   E*ruct"  (?),  E*ruc"tate  (?), v. t. [L. eructare; e out + ructare to
   belch:  cf.  F.  \'82ructer.]  To eject, as wind, from the stomach; to
   belch. [R.] Howell.


   Er`uc*ta"tion (?), n. [L. eructatio: cf. F. \'82ructation.]

   1. The act of belching wind from the stomach; a belch.

   2.  A  violent belching out or emitting, as of gaseous or other matter
   from the crater of a volcano, geyser, etc.


   E*ru"di*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  erudire.]  To instruct; to educate; to
   teach. [Obs.]

     The  skillful  goddess  there  erudiates  these  In  all  she  did.


   Er"u*dite  (?;  135),  a.  [L. eruditus, p. p. of erudire to free from
   rudeness,  to  polish, instruct; e out + rudis rude: cf. F. \'82rudit.
   See  Rude.]  Characterized  by  extensive  reading  or knowledge; well
   instructed;  learned. "A most erudite prince." Sir T. More. "Erudite .
   . . theology." I. Taylor. -- Er"u*dite`ly, adv. -- Er"u*dite`ness, n.


   Er`u*di"tion  (?),  n.  [L. eruditio: cf. F. \'82rudition.] The act of
   instructing;  the  result  of thorough instruction; the state of being
   erudite  or  learned;  the acquisitions gained by extensive reading or
   study;  particularly, learning in literature or criticism, as distinct
   from the sciences; scholarship.

     The  management  of a young lady's person is not be overlooked, but
     the erudition of her mind is much more to be regarded. Steele.

     The  gay  young  gentleman  whose erudition sat so easily upon him.

   Syn. -- Literature; learning. See Literature.


   Er"u*gate  (?),  a.  [L. erugatus, p. p. of erugare to smooth; e out +
   ruga wrinkle.] Freed from wrinkles; smooth.


   E*ru"gi*nous   (?),   a.  [Cf.  F.  \'82rugineux.  See  \'92ruginous.]
   Partaking of the substance or nature of copper, or of the rust copper;
   resembling the trust of copper or verdigris; \'91ruginous.


   E*rum"pent  (?),  a. [L. erumpens, -entis, p. pr. of erumpere.] (Bot.)
   Breaking out; -- said of certain fungi which burst through the texture
   of leaves.


   E*rupt"  (?), v. t. [See Eruption.] To cause to burst forth; to eject;
   as, to erupt lava. Huxley.


   E*rup"tion (?), n. [L. eruptio, fr. erumpere, eruptum, to break out; e
   out + rumpere, to break: cf. F. \'82ruption. See Rupture.]

   1.  The  act  of  breaking  out  or  bursting forth; as: (a) A violent
   throwing  out of flames, lava, etc., as from a volcano of a fissure in
   the  earth's  crust. (b) A sudden and overwhelming hostile movement of
   armed  men  from  one  country  to  another.  Milton.  (c)  A  violent

     All  Paris  was  quiet  . . . to gather fresh strength for the next
     day's eruption. W. Irving.

   2. That which bursts forth.

   3. A violent exclamation; ejaculation.

     He would . . . break out into bitter and passionate eruditions. Sir
     H. Wotton.

   4.  (Med.)  The  breaking  out  of pimples, or an efflorescence, as in
   measles, scarlatina, etc.


   E*rup"tion*al (?), a. Eruptive. [R.] R. A. Proctor.


   E*rup"tive (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82ruptif.]

   1. Breaking out or bursting forth.

     The  sudden  glance  Appears  far south eruptive through the cloud.

   2.  (Med.)  Attended  with eruption or efflorescence, or producing it;
   as, an eruptive fever.

   3.  (Geol.)  Produced  by  eruption;  as,  eruptive rocks, such as the
   igneous or volcanic.


   E*rup"tive, n. (Geol.) An eruptive rock.


   E*ryng"gi*um  (?),  n. [NL., fr. Gr. eryngion, erynge.] (Bot.) A genus
   of umbelliferous plants somewhat like thistles in appearance. Eryngium
   maritimum,  or  sea holly, has been highly esteemed as an aphrodisiac,
   the roots being formerly candied.


   E*ryn"go (?), n. (Bot.) A plant of the genus Eryngium.


   Er`y*sip"e*las  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr. Red, and Pell, n.] (Med.) St.
   Anthony's   fire;  a  febrile  disease  accompanied  with  a  diffused
   inflammation of the skin, which, starting usually from a single point,
   spreads  gradually  over  its  surface.  It  is  usually  regarded  as
   contagious, and often occurs epidemically.


   Er`y*si*pel"a*toid (?), a. [Gr. -oid.] Resembling erysipelas.


   Er`y*si*pel"a*tous  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. \'82rysip\'82lateux.] Resembling
   erysipelas, or partaking of its nature.


   Er`y*sip"e*lous (?), a. Erysipelatous.


   Er`y*the"ma  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Med.) A disease of the skin, in
   which  a  diffused inflammation forms rose-colored patches of variable


   Er`y*the*mat"ic   (?),   a.   [Cf.   F.  \'82ryth\'82matique.]  (Med.)
   Characterized  by,  or causing, a morbid redness of the skin; relating
   to erythema.


   Er`y*them"a*tous (?), a. (Med.) Relating to, or causing, erythema.

                            Erythrean, Erythr\'91an

   Er`y*thre"an,  Er`y*thr\'91"an  (?),  a.  [L.  erythraeus;  Gr. Red in
   color. "The erythrean main." Milton.


   E*ryth"ric (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from, or resembling,

                              Erythrin, Erythrine

   E*ryth"rin, E*ryth"rine (?), n. [Gr.

   1.  (Chem.)  A  colorless  crystalline substance, C20H22O10, extracted
   from  certain  lichens,  as  the  various  species of Rocella. It is a
   derivative  of  orsellinic  acid.  So  called  because  of certain red
   compounds derived from it. Called also erythric acid.

   2. (Min.) See Erythrite, 2.


   Er`y*thri"na (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of leguminous plants
   growing in the tropics; coral tree; -- so called from its red flowers.


   E*ryth"rism  (?),  n.  [Gr.  \'82rythrisme.] (Zo\'94l.) A condition of
   excessive redness. See Erythrochroism.


   E*ryth"rite (?), n. [Gr.

   1.  (Chem.) A colorless crystalline substance, C4H6.(OH)4, of a sweet,
   cooling  taste,  extracted  from  certain lichens, and obtained by the
   decomposition  of  erythrin;  --  called also erythrol, erythroglucin,
   erythromannite,  pseudorcin,  cobalt bloom, and under the name phycite
   obtained  from  the  alga  Protococcus  vulgaris.  It  is a tetrabasic
   alcohol,  corresponding  to  glycol  and glycerin. <-- now usu. called
   erythritol, HO.CH2.CHOH.CHOH.CH2.OH Has coronary vasodilator activity.

   2.  (Min.)  A  rose-red  mineral,  crystallized  and earthy, a hydrous
   arseniate  of  cobalt,  known  also  as  cobalt  bloom; -- called also
   erythrin or erythrine.


   E*ryth`ro*chro"ic   (?),   a.   (Zo\'94l.)   Having,  or  subject  to,


   E*ryth"ro*chro*ism (?), n. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) An unusual redness, esp. in
   the  plumage  of birds, or hair of mammals, independently of age, sex,
   or season.


   E*ryth`ro*dex"trin  (?),  n. [Gr. dextrin.] (Physiol. Chem.) A dextrin
   which gives a red color with iodine. See Dextrin.


   E*ryth"ro*gen (?), n. [Gr. -gen.] (Chem.) (a) Carbon disulphide; -- so
   called  from  certain  red  compounds which it produces in combination
   with  other  substances.  (b)  A substance reddened by acids, which is
   supposed  to  be  contained  in  flowers.  (c) A crystalline substance
   obtained  from diseased bile, which becomes blood-red when acted on by
   nitric acid or ammonia.


   E*ryth`ro*gran"u*lose (?), n. [Gr. granulose.] (Physiol. Chem.) A term
   applied  by Br\'81cke to a substance present in small amount in starch
   granules, colored red by iodine.


   Er"y*throid  (?),  a.  [Gr. -oid: cf. Gr. Of a red color; reddish; as,
   the erythroid tunic (the cremaster muscle).


   Er`y*thro"le*ic  (?),  a.  [Gr. oleum oil.] (Chem.) Having a red color
   and  oily  appearance; -- applied to a purple semifluid substance said
   to be obtained from archil.


   Er`y*thro"le*in  (?),  n.  [See  Erythroleic.] (Chem.) A red substance
   obtained from litmus.


   E*ryth`ro*lit"min (?), n. [Gr. litmus.] (Chem.) Erythrolein.


   Er`y*thro"ni*um (?), n. [NL., from Gr. (Chem.) A name originally given
   (from its red acid) to the metal vanadium. [R.]


   E*ryth`ro*phle"ine  (?; 104), n. (Chem.) A white crystalline alkaloid,
   extracted from sassy bark (Erythrophleum Guineense).

                         Erythrophyll, Erythrophyllin

   E*ryth"ro*phyll  (?),  Er`y*throph"yl*lin (?), n. [Gr. (Physiol. Bot.)
   The   red  coloring  matter  of  leaves,  fruits,  flowers,  etc.,  in
   distinction from chlorophyll.


   E*ryth"ro*sin  (?),  n. [Gr. (Chem.) (a) A red substance formed by the
   oxidation  of tyrosin. (b) A red dyestuff obtained from fluoresce\'8bn
   by the action of iodine.


   Er`y*throx"y*lon  (?),  n.  [NL., from Gr. (Bot.) A genus of shrubs or
   small trees of the Flax family, growing in tropical countries. E. Coca
   is the source of cocaine. See Coca.


   E*ryth"ro*zyme  (?), n. [Gr. (Physiol. Chem.) A ferment extracted from
   madder  root,  possessing the power of inducing alcoholic fermentation
   in solutions of sugar.


   Es`ca*lade"  (?),  n.  [F.,  Sp.  escalada  (cf. It. scalata), fr. Sp.
   escalar  to scale, LL. scalare, fr. L. scala ladder. See Scale, v. t.]
   (Mil.)  A furious attack made by troops on a fortified place, in which
   ladders are used to pass a ditch or mount a rampart.

     Sin   enters,  not  by  escalade,  but  by  cunning  or  treachery.


   Es`ca*lade",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Escaladed;  p.  pr.  &  vb. n.
   Escalading.] (Mil.) To mount and pass or enter by means of ladders; to
   scale; as, to escalate a wall.


   Es*cal"lop (?), n. See Escalop.


   Es*cal"loped (?), a. See Escaloped.


   Es*cal"op  (?; 277), n. [OF. escalope shell, F. escalope a sort of cut
   of meat. See Scallop.]

   1. (Zo\'94l.) A bivalve shell of the genus Pecten. See Scallop.

   2.  A  regular,  curving  indenture  in  the  margin  of anything. See
   Scallop. "So many jags or escalops." Ray.

   3.  (a)  The  figure or shell of an escalop, considered as a sign that
   the  bearer  had  been  on  a  pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Hence: (b)
   (Her.) A bearing or a charge consisting of an escalop shell.


   Es*cal"oped (?), a.

   1. Cut or marked in the form of an escalop; scalloped.

   2.  (Her.)  Covered  with  a  pattern  resembling  a series of escalop
   shells,  each  of which issues from between two others. Its appearance
   is that of a surface covered with scales.
   Escaloped oysters (Cookery). See under Scalloped.


   Es*cam"bi*o (?), n. [LL. escambium, excambium. See Excamb.] (Eng. Law)
   A  license formerly required for the making over a bill of exchange to
   another over sea. Cowell.


   Es*cap"a*ble (?), a. Avoidable.


   Es`ca*pade"  (?),  n.  [F.,  fr.  Sp.  escapada escape, fr. escapar to
   escape;  or  F.,  fr.  It.  scappata escape, escapade, fr. scappare to
   escape. see Escape.]

   1.  The  fling  of  a  horse, or ordinary kicking back of his heels; a

   Page 509

   2.  Act  by which one breaks loose from the rules of propriety or good
   sense; a freak; a prank. Carlyle.


   Es*cape"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Escaped (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Escaping.] [OE. escapen, eschapen, OF. escaper, eschaper, F. echapper,
   fr.  LL.  ex  cappa  out of one's cape or cloak; hence, to slip out of
   one's cape and escape. See 3d Cape, and cf. Scape, v.]

   1.  To  flee  from  and avoid; to be saved or exempt from; to shun; to
   obtain  security from; as, to escape danger. "Sailors that escaped the
   wreck." Shak.

   2.  To  avoid  the notice of; to pass unobserved by; to evade; as, the
   fact escaped our attention.

     They escaped the search of the enemy. Ludlow.


   Es*cape", v. i.

   1.  To  flee, and become secure from danger; -- often followed by from
   or out of.

     Haste, for thy life escape, nor look behindKeble.

   2.  To get clear from danger or evil of any form; to be passed without

     Such  heretics  .  .  .  would have been thought fortunate, if they
     escaped with life. Macaulay.

   3.  To  get free from that which confines or holds; -- used of persons
   or  things;  as,  to escape from prison, from arrest, or from slavery;
   gas escapes from the pipes; electricity escapes from its conductors.

     To escape out of these meshes. Thackeray.


   Es*cape", n.

   1.  The  act  of  fleeing from danger, of evading harm, or of avoiding
   notice;  deliverance from injury or any evil; flight; as, an escape in
   battle; a narrow escape; also, the means of escape; as, a fire escape.

     I would hasten my escape from the windy storm. Ps. lv. 8.

   2. That which escapes attention or restraint; a mistake; an oversight;
   also, transgression. [Obs.]

     I  should  have  been more accurate, and corrected all those former
     escapes. Burton.

   3. A sally. "Thousand escapes of wit." Shak.

   4. (Law) The unlawful permission, by a jailer or other custodian, of a
   prisoner's departure from custody.

     NOTE: &hand; Es cape is  te chnically di stinguishable fr om prison
     breach,  which  is  the  unlawful  departure  of  the prisoner from
     custody,  escape  being  the  permission  of  the  departure by the
     custodian,  either  by  connivance  or negligence. The term escape,
     however,  is  applied by some of the old authorities to a departure
     from custody by stratagem, or without force.


   5. (Arch.) An apophyge.

   6. Leakage or outflow, as of steam or a liquid.

   7.  (Elec.)  Leakage  or  loss  of currents from the conducting wires,
   caused by defective insulation.
   Escape  pipe  (Steam  Boilers),  a  pipe  for carrying away steam that
   escapes  through  a  safety  valve.  -- Escape valve (Steam Engine), a
   relief  valve; a safety valve. See under Relief, and Safety. -- Escape
   wheel (Horol.), the wheel of an escapement.


   Es*cape"ment (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82chappement. See Escape.]

   1. The act of escaping; escape. [R.]

   2. Way of escape; vent. [R.]

     An escapement for youthful high spirits. G. Eliot.

   3.  The  contrivance  in a timepiece which connects the train of wheel
   work with the pendulum or balance, giving to the latter the impulse by
   which  it is kept in vibration; -- so called because it allows a tooth
   to escape from a pallet at each vibration.

     NOTE: &hand; Es capements are of several kinds, as the vertical, or
     verge, or crown, escapement, formerly used in watches, in which two
     pallets  on the balance arbor engage with a crown wheel; the anchor
     escapement, in which an anchor-shaped piece carries the pallets; --
     used in common clocks (both are called recoil escapements, from the
     recoil  of  the  escape  wheel  at  each  vibration);  the cylinder
     escapement,  having  an  open-sided  hollow cylinder on the balance
     arbor  to  control  the escape wheel; the duplex escapement, having
     two  sets  of  teeth on the wheel; the lever escapement, which is a
     kind  of detached escapement, because the pallets are on a lever so
     arranged  that the balance which vibrates it is detached during the
     greater  part  of  its  vibration  and thus swings more freely; the
     detent  escapement, used in chronometers; the remontoir escapement,
     in  which  the  escape  wheel is driven by an independent spring or
     weight  wound up at intervals by the clock train, -- sometimes used
     in  astronomical clocks. When the shape of an escape-wheel tooth is
     such  that  it  falls dead on the pallet without recoil, it forms a
     deadbeat escapement.


   Es*cap"er (?), n. One who escapes.


   Es*car"bun*cle  (?),  n.  [OF. escarbuncle, F. escaboucle.] (Her.) See
   Carbuncle, 3.


   Es*car`ga*toire"  (?),  n. [F. escargoti\'8are, fr. escargot snail.] A
   nursery of snails. [Obs.] Addison.


   Es*carp"  (?),  n.  [F.  escarpe  (cf.  Sp.  escarpa, It. scarpa), fr.
   escarper  to cut steep, cut to a slope, prob. of German origin: cf. G.
   scharf  sharp,,  E.  sharp,  or perh. scrape.] (Fort.) The side of the
   ditch next the parapet; -- same as scarp, and opposed to counterscarp.


   Es*carp",  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Escarped  (?);  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Escarping.]  (Mil.) To make into, or furnish with, a steep slope, like
   that of a scrap. Carleton.


   Es*carp"ment  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F.  escarpement.]  A  steep  descent  or
   declivity;  steep  face  or  edge of a ridge; ground about a fortified
   place,  cut  away  nearly  vertically to prevent hostile approach. See


   -es"cent  (?).  [From  the  ending  -escens,  -entis, of the p. pr. of
   inchoative  verbs  in Latin.] A suffix signifying beginning, beginning
   to be; as, adolescent, effervescent, etc.


   Esch`a*lot" (?), n. (Bot.) See Shallot.


   Es"char  (?),  n.  [L.  eschara,  Gr. eschare. See Scar.] (Med.) A dry
   slough,  crust,  or scab, which separates from the healthy part of the
   body, as that produced by a burn, or the application of caustics.


   Es"char (?), n. [Ir.] (Geol.) In Ireland, one of the continuous mounds
   or ridges of gravelly and sandy drift which extend for many miles over
   the  surface  of  the  country.  Similar ridges in Scotland are called
   kames or kams. [Written also eskar and esker.]


   Es"cha*ra  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of Bryozoa which
   produce  delicate corals, often incrusting like lichens, but sometimes


   Es"cha*rine  (?),  a.  (Zo\'94l.)  Like,  or  pertaining to, the genus
   Eschara, or family Escharid\'91.


   Es`cha*rot"ic (?), a. [Gr. escharotique.] (Med.) Serving or tending to
   form an eschar;; producing a scar; caustic.


   Es`cha*rot"ic,  n.  (Med.)  A  substance  which  produces an eschar; a
   caustic, esp., a mild caustic.


   Es`cha*to*log"ic*al (?), a. Pertaining to the last or final things.


   Es`cha*tol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr. -logy.] The doctrine of the last or final
   things, as death, judgment, and the events therewith connected.


   Es*chaunge" (?), n. Exchange. [Obs.]


   Es*cheat" (?), n. [OE. eschete, escheyte, an escheat, fr. OF. escheit,
   escheoit, escheeite, esheoite, fr. escheoir (F. \'82choir) to fall to,
   fall to the lot of; pref. es- (L. ex) + cheoir, F. choir, to fall, fr.
   L. cadere. See Chance, and cf. Cheat.]

   1.  (Law)  (a)  (Feud.  &  Eng.  Law) The falling back or reversion of
   lands,  by  some  casualty  or  accident,  to  the lord of the fee, in
   consequence  of  the  extinction of the blood of the tenant, which may
   happen  by  his  dying  without  heirs,  and  formerly might happen by
   corruption  of  blood,  that  is,  by reason of a felony or attainder.
   Tomlins. Blackstone. (b) (U. S. Law) The reverting of real property to
   the State, as original and ultimate proprietor, by reason of a failure
   of persons legally entitled to hold the same.

     NOTE: &hand; A  di stinction is carefully made, by English writers,
     between escheat to the lord of the fee and forfeiture to the crown.
     But  in this country, where the State holds the place of chief lord
     of  the  fee,  and  is  entitled  to  take  alike  escheat  and  by
     forfeiture, this distinction is not essential.

   Tomlins. Kent. (c) A writ, now abolished, to recover escheats from the
   person in possession. Blackstone.

   2. Lands which fall to the lord or the State by escheat.

   3. That which falls to one; a reversion or return

     To make me great by others' loss is bad escheat. Spenser.


   Es*cheat",  v. i. [imp. & p. p. Esheated; p. pr. & vb. n. Escheating.]
   (Law)  To  revert, or become forfeited, to the lord, the crown, or the
   State,  as  lands by the failure of persons entitled to hold the same,
   or by forfeiture.

     NOTE: &hand; In  th is country it is the general rule that when the
     title  to land fails by defect of heirs or devisees, it necessarily
     escheats  to  the  State;  but  forfeiture  of estate from crime is
     hardly   known   in  this  country,  and  corruption  of  blood  is
     universally abolished.

   Kent. Bouvier.


   Es*cheat", v. t. (Law) To forfeit. Bp. Hall.


   Es*cheat"a*ble (?), a. Liable to escheat.


   Es*cheat"age  (?;  48),  n.  The  right  of  succeeding to an escheat.


   Es*cheat"or  (?), n. (Law) An officer whose duty it is to observe what
   escheats have taken place, and to take charge of them. Burrill.


   Es"che*vin  (?),  n. [OF. eschevin, a sort of magistrate, alderman, F.
   \'82chevin.] The alderman or chief officer of an ancient guild. [Obs.]


   Es*chew"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Eshewed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Eshewing.]  [OF.  eschever,  eschiver,  eskiver, F. esquiver, fr. OHG.
   sciuhen, G. scheuen; akin to E. sky. See Shy, a.]

   1.  To  shun;  to  avoid,  as  something  wrong,  or from a feeling of
   distaste; to keep one's self clear of.

     They must not only eschew evil, but do good. Bp. Beveridge.

   2. To escape from; to avoid. [Obs.]

     He who obeys, destruction shall eschew. Sandys.


   Es*chew"er (?), n. One who eschews.


   Es*chew"ment (?), n. The act of eschewing. [R.]


   Esch*scholtz"i*a  (?),  n.  [NL. Named after Dr. Eschscholtz, a German
   botanist.] (Bot.) A genus of papaveraceous plants, found in California
   and  upon  the  west  coast  of  North  America, some species of which
   produce  beautiful yellow, orange, rose-colored, or white flowers; the
   California poppy.


   Es"chy*nite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Min.) A rare mineral, containing chiefly
   niobium,  titanium, thorium, and cerium. It was so called by Berzelius
   on  account  of  the inability of chemical science, at the time of its
   discovery, to separate some of its constituents.


   Es*coch"eon (?), n. Escutcheon. [Obs.]

                              Escopet, Escopette

   Es`co*pet",  Es`co*pette" (?), n. [Sp. escopeta, F. escopette.] A kind
   of firearm; a carbine.


   Es*co"ri*al (?), n. [Sp.] See Escurial.


   Es"cort (?), n. [F. escorte, It. scorta a guard or guide, fr. scorgere
   to  perceive,  discern,  lead,  fr.  L.  ex  out, quite + corrigere to
   correct, set right. See Correct.]

   1.  A body of armed men to attend a person of distinction for the sake
   of affording safety when on a journey; one who conducts some one as an
   attendant;  a  guard,  as  of  prisoners  on  a march; also, a body of
   persons,  attending  as  a  mark  of  respect  or honor; -- applied to
   movements on land, as convoy is to movements at sea.

     The troops of my escort marched at the ordinary rate. Burke.

   2.  Protection,  care,  or safeguard on a journey or excursion; as, to
   travel under the escort of a friend.


   Es*cort"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Escorted;  p.  pr.  & vb. n.
   Escorting.]  [Cf. F. escorter, It. scortare. See Escort, n.] To attend
   with  a  view to guard and protect; to accompany as safeguard; to give
   honorable or ceremonious attendance to; -- used esp. with reference to
   journeys or excursions on land; as, to escort a public functionary, or
   a  lady;  to escort a baggage wagon. Syn. -- To accompany; attend. See


   Es*cot" (?), n. [OF.] See Scot, a tax. [Obs.]


   Es*cot",  v.  t.  To  pay  the reckoning for; to support; to maintain.
   [Obs.] Shak.


   Es`couade" (?), n. See Squad,


   Es*cout" (?), n. See Scout. [Obs.] Hayward.


   Es*cribed"  (?),  a.  [L.  e  out,  out of + scribere to write.] Drawn
   outside  of;  --  used  to  designate a circle that touches one of the
   sides of a given triangle, and also the other two sides produced.


   Es"cript (?), n. [OF.] A writing. [Obs.]


   Es`cri*toire"   (?),   n.   [OF.   escritoire,  F.  \'82critoire,  LL.
   scriptorium,  fr.  L. scriptorius belonging to writing, fr. sribere to
   write.  See Script, and cf. Scrutoire.] A piece of furniture used as a
   writing  table,  commonly  with  drawers, pigeonholes, and the like; a
   secretary or writing desk.


   Es`cri*to"ri*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to an escritoire.


   Es*crod" (?), n. See Scrod, a young cod.

                                Escrol, Escroll

   Es*crol", Es*croll" (?), n. [See Escrow, Scroll.]

   1. A scroll. [Obs.]

   2.  (Her.) (a) A long strip or scroll resembling a ribbon or a band of
   parchment,  or  the  like,  anciently  placed  above  the  shield, and
   supporting  the  crest.  (b)  In  modern heraldry, a similar ribbon on
   which the motto is inscribed.


   Es"crow  (?),  n.  [OF. escroe, escroue, a roll of writings, bond. See
   Scroll.] (Law) A deed, bond, or other written engagement, delivered to
   a  third  person,  to  be  held  by  him till some act is done or some
   condition  is  performed,  and  then  to  be  by  him delivered to the
   grantee. Blackstone.


   Es"cu*age  (?;  48),  n.  [OF.  escuage,  F.  \'82cuage, from OF. escu
   shield,  F. \'82cu. See Esquire.] (Feud. Law) Service of the shield, a
   species  of  knight  service by which a tenant was bound to follow his
   lord  to  war,  at  his  own  charge. It was afterward exchanged for a
   pecuniary satisfaction. Called also scutage. Blackstone.


   Es`cu*la"pi*an (?), n. \'92sculapian.


   Es`cu*la"pi*us (?), n. Same as \'92sculapius.


   Es"cu*lent  (?),  a. [L. esculentus, fr. escare to eat, fr. esca food,
   fr.  edere  to  eat: cf. F. esculent. See Eat.] Suitable to be used by
   man for food; eatable; edible; as, esculent plants; esculent fish.

     Esculent grain for food. Sir W. Jones.

   Esculent  swallow  (Zo\'94l.),  the  swallow  which  makes  the edible
   bird's-nest. See Edible bird's-nest, under Edible.


   Es"cu*lent,  n.  Anything  that  is  fit for eating; that which may be
   safely eaten by man.


   Es*cu"lic  (?),  a.  [From  NL.  Aesculus,  the  generic  name  of the
   horse-chestnut, fr. L. aesculus a kind of oak.] (Chem.) Pertaining to,
   or obtained from, the horse-chestnut; as, esculic acid.


   Es*cu"lin (?), n. [See Esculic.] (Chem.) A glucoside obtained from the
   \'92sculus  hippocastanum, or horse-chestnut, and characterized by its
   fine blue fluorescent solutions. [Written also \'91sculin.]


   Es*cu"ri*al  (?),  n.  [Prop.  Sp.  escorial, i. e., a hill or heap of
   rubbish, earth, and stones brought out of a mine, fr. escoria dross of
   metal, L. scoria, fr. Gr. Scoria.] A palace and mausoleum of the kinds
   of Spain, being a vast and wonderful structure about twenty-five miles
   northwest of Madrid.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e gr ound pl an is  sa id to  be  in  the form of a
     gridiron,  the  structure  being designed in honor of St. Lawrence,
     who  suffered  martyrdom  by  being  broiled  on  gridiron; but the
     resemblance  is very slight. It is nearly square, inclosing several
     courts, and has a projecting mass which stands for the handle.


   Es*cutch"eon  (?),  n.  [OF.  escusson,  F.  \'82cusson, from OF. escu
   shield, F. \'82cu. See Esquire, Scutcheon.]

   1.  (Her.)  The  surface,  usually  a  shield, upon which bearings are
   marshaled  and  displayed. The surface of the escutcheon is called the
   field, the upper part is called the chief, and the lower part the base
   (see  Chiff,  and Field.). That side of the escutcheon which is on the
   right  hand  of  the  knight who bears the shield on his arm is called
   dexter, and the other side sinister.

     NOTE: &hand; Th e tw o si des of  an  es cutcheon ar e respectively
     designated as dexter and sinister, as in the cut, and the different
     parts  or  points by the following names: A, Dexter chief point; B,
     Middle  chief  point;  C,  Sinister  chief point; D, Honor or color
     point;  E,  Fesse  or  heart  point; F, Nombrill or navel point; G,
     Dexter base point; H, Middle base point; I, base point.

   2.  A  marking  upon  the back of a cow's udder and the space above it
   (the  perineum),  formed by the hair growing upward or outward instead
   of  downward.  It  is  esteemed  an  index of milking qualities. C. L.

   3. (Naut.) That part of a vessel's stern on which her name is written.
   R. H. Dane, Jr.

   4.  (Carp.)  A  thin  metal  plate  or  shield to protect wood, or for
   ornament, as the shield around a keyhole.

   5.  (Zo\'94l.) The depression behind the beak of certain bivalves; the
   ligamental area.
   Escutcheon  of  pretense,  an  escutcheon  used in English heraldry to
   display the arms of the bearer's wife; -- not commonly used unless she
   an heiress. Cf. Impalement.


   Es*cutch"eoned  (?), a. Having an escutcheon; furnished with a coat of
   arms or ensign. Young.


   Ese (?), n. Ease; pleasure. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Es`em*plas"tic  (?), a. [Gr. Plastic.] Shaped into one; tending to, or
   formative into, unity. [R.] Coleridge. <-- p. 510 -->


   Es"er*ine  (?;  104), n. [From native name of the Calabar bean: cf. F.
   \'82s\'82rine.] (Chem.) An alkaloid found in the Calabar bean, and the
   seed of Physostigma venenosum; physostigmine. It is used in ophthalmic
   surgery for its effect in contracting the pupil.


   E*sex"u*al (?), a. [Pref. e- + sexual.] (Biol.) Sexless; asexual.


   Es*guard"  (?),  n.  [Cf.  OF. esgart regard, F. \'82gard. See Guard.]
   Guard. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

                                Eskar, OR Esker

   Es"kar (?), OR Es"ker, n. (Geol.) See Eschar.


   Es"ki*mo  (?),  n.;  pl.  Eskimos  (#).  [Originally  applied  by  the
   Algonquins  to the Northern Indians, and meaning eaters of raw flesh.]
   (Ethnol.)  One  of  a  peculiar  race  inhabiting  Arctic  America and
   Greenland.  In  many respects the Eskimos resemble the Mongolian race.
   [Written  also Esquimau.] Eskimo dog (Zo\'94l.), one of breed of large
   and  powerful  dogs  used  by  the Eskimos to draw sledges. It closely
   resembles the gray wolf, with which it is often crossed.<-- husky? -->


   Es*loin"  (?),  v. t. [See Eloign.] To remove; to banish; to withdraw;
   to avoid; to eloign. [Obs.]

     From worldly cares he did himself esloin. Spenser.


   Es"ne*cy  (?),  n.  [See Eigne.] (Eng. Law) A prerogative given to the
   eldest  coparcener  to  choose  first  after an inheritance is divide.
   Mozley & W.


   E*sod"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Physiol.)  Conveying  impressions  from the
   surface  of  the  body  to the spinal cord; -- said of certain nerves.
   Opposed to exodic.


   E*soph"a*gal (?), a. (Anat.) Esophageal.


   E`so*phag"e*al  (?),  a. (Anat.) Pertaining to the esophagus. [Written
   also .]


   E`so*phag"e*an (?), a. (Anat.) Esophageal.


   E*soph`a*got"o*my  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Surg.)  The operation of making an
   incision  into  the esophagus, for the purpose of removing any foreign
   substance that obstructs the passage. [Written also \'d2sophagotomy.]


   E*soph"a*gus  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. v\'c6 to go, drive) + (Anat.) That
   part  of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and the stomach; the
   gullet.  See Illust. of Digestive apparatus, under Digestive. [Written
   also .]

                                Esopian, Esopic

   E*so"pi*an (?), E*so"pic (?), a. Same as \'92sopian, \'92sopic.


   Es`o*ter"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  In.] Designed for, and understood by, the
   specially  initiated  alone; not communicated, or not intelligible, to
   the  general body of followers; private; interior; acroamatic; -- said
   of  the  private  and  more  recondite  instructions  and doctrines of
   philosophers. Opposed to exoteric.

     Enough  if  every age produce two or three critics of this esoteric
     class, with here and there a reader to understand them. De Quincey.


   Es`o*ter"ic*al (?), a. Esoteric.


   Es`o*ter"ic*al*ly, adv. In an esoteric manner.


   Es`o*ter"i*cism (?), n. Esoteric doctrine or principles.


   Es`o*ter"ics (?), n. Mysterious or hidden doctrines; secret science.


   Es"o*ter*y  (?),  n.  Mystery;  esoterics;  --  opposed to exotery. A.


   E"sox  (?), n. [L., a kind of pike.] (Zo\'94l.) A genus of fresh-water
   fishes, including pike and pickerel.


   Es*pace" (?), n. Space. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Es"pa*don  (?),  n. [F. espadon, fr. Sp. espadon, fr. espada sword; or
   fr.  It.  spadone  an espadon, spada sword.] A long, heavy, two-handed
   and  two-edged  sword,  formerly  used by Spanish foot soldiers and by
   executioners. Wilhelm.


   Es*pal"ier  (?),  n.  [F.  espalier,  fr.  It.  spalliera,  fr. spalla
   shoulder,  the  same  word  as  F.  \'82paule. See Epaulet.] (Hort.) A
   railing  or  trellis  upon which fruit trees or shrubs are trained, as
   upon a wall; a tree or row of trees so trained.

     And figs from standard and espalier join. Pope.


   Es*pal"ier,  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Espaliered (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Espaliering.] To form an espalier of, or to protect by an espalier.


   Es*par"cet  (?),  n.  [F.  esparcet,  esparcette,  \'82parcet, fr. Sp.
   esparceta,   esparcilla.]   (Bot.)  The  common  sainfoin  (Onobrychis
   sativa), an Old World leguminous forage plant.


   Es*par"to  (?),  n.  [Sp.;  cf. L. spartum Spanish broom, Gr. (Bot.) A
   species  of  Spanish grass (Macrochloa tenacissima), of which cordage,
   shoes, baskets, etc., are made. It is also used for making paper.


   Es`pau`liere"  (?),  n.  [OF.  &  F. \'82pauli\'8are. See Espalier.] A
   defense  for  the shoulder, composed of flexible overlapping plates of
   metal,  used  in  the  15th  century;  --  the  origin  of  the modern
   epaulette. Fairholt.


   Es*pe"cial  (?),  a.  [OF.  especial, F. sp\'82cial, L. specialis, fr.
   species  a  particular  sort,  kind,  or quality. See Species, and cf.
   Special.]  Distinguished  among  others  of  the  same  class or kind;
   special;   concerning   a  species  or  a  single  object;  principal;
   particular;  as,  in  an  especial manner or degree. Syn. -- Peculiar;
   special; particular; uncommon; chief. See Peculiar.


   Es*pe"cial*ly,  adv.  In  an  especial  manner; chiefly; particularly;
   peculiarly; in an uncommon degree.


   Es*pe"cial*ness (?), n. The state of being especial.


   Es"pe*rance  (?),  n.  [F.  esp\'82rance,  fr.  L.  sperans, p. pr. of
   sperare to hope.] Hope. [Obs.] Shak.


   Es`pi*aille" (?), n. Espial. [Obs.]


   Es*pi"al (?), n. [OE. & Norm. F. espiaille. See Espy.]

   1. The act of espying; notice; discovery.

     Screened from espial by the jutting cape. Byron.

   2. One who espies; a spy; a scout. [Obs.] "Their espials . . . brought
   word." Holland.


   Es*pi"er (?), n. One who espies. Harmar.


   Es"pi*nel (?), n. A kind of ruby. See Spinel.


   Es"pi*o*nage  (?;  277),  n. [F. espionnage, fr. espionner to spy, fr.
   espion spy, OF. espie. See Espy.] The practice or employment of spies;
   the  practice  of  watching  the  words and conduct of others, to make
   discoveries, as spies or secret emissaries; secret watching.


   Es`pla*nade"  (?), n. [F. esplanade, Sp. esplanada, explanada, cf. It.
   spianata; fr. Sp. explanar to level, L. explanare to flatten or spread
   out. See Explain.]

   1.  (Fort.) (a) A clear space between a citadel and the nearest houses
   of   the  town.  Campbell  (Mil.  Dict.  ).  (b)  The  glacis  of  the
   counterscarp,  or  the  slope of the parapet of the covered way toward
   the country.

   2. (Hort.) A grass plat; a lawn. Simmonds.

   3.  Any  clear,  level  space used for public walks or drives; esp., a
   terrace by the seaside.


   Es*plees"  (?),  n. pl. [LL. expletia, OF. espleit. Cf. Exploit.] (Old
   Eng. Law) The full profits or products which ground or land yields, as
   the  hay  of the meadows, the feed of the pasture, the grain of arable
   fields, the rents, services, and the like. Cowell.


   Es*pous"age (?), n. Espousal. [Obs.] Latimer.


   Es*pous"al  (?),  n.  [OF.  espousailles,  pl.,  F. \'82pousailles, L.
   sponsalia,  fr.  sponsalis  belonging  to  betrothal  or espousal. See
   Espouse, and cf. Sponsal, Spousal.]

   1.  The  act  of  espousing  or betrothing; especially, in the plural,
   betrothal; plighting of the troths; a contract of marriage; sometimes,
   the marriage ceremony.

   2.  The  uniting  or  allying  one's  self with anything; maintenance;
   adoption; as, the espousal of a quarrel.

     The open espousal of his cause. Lord Orford.


   Es*pouse"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Espoused (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Espousing.]  [OF.  espouser,  esposer,  F.  \'82pouser, L. sponsare to
   betroth,  espouse, fr. sponsus betrothed, p. p. of spondere to promise
   solemnly or sacredly. Cf. Spouse.]

   1. To betroth; to promise in marriage; to give as spouse.

     A virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph. Luke i. 27.

   2. To take as spouse; to take to wife; to marry.

     Lavinia  will  I  make my empress, . . . And in the sacred Pantheon
     her espouse. Shak.

   3.  To  take to one's self with a view to maintain; to make one's own;
   to  take  up  the  cause  of;  to adopt; to embrace. "He espoused that
   quarrel." Bacon.

     Promised  faithfully  to espouse his cause as soon as he got out of
     the war. Bp. Burnet.


   Es*pouse"ment  (?), n. [Cf. OF. espousement.] The act of espousing, or
   the state of being espoused.


   Es*pous"er  (?),  n.  One  who espouses; one who embraces the cause of
   another or makes it his own.


   Es`pres*si"vo (?), a. [It.] (Mus.) With expression.


   Es*prin"gal  (?),  n.  [See  Springal.] (Mil. Antiq.) An engine of war
   used  for  throwing  viretons,  large  stones,  and  other missiles; a


   Es`prit"  (?), n. [F. See Spirit.] Spirit. Esprit de corps (, a French
   phrase  much  used  by  English  writers  to  denote the common spirit
   pervading  the members of a body or association of persons. It implies
   sympathy,  enthusiasm,  devotion,  and jealous regard for the honor of
   the body as a whole.


   Es*py"  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Espied (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Espying.]
   [OF.  espier, F. \'82pier, from OHG. speh to watch, spy, G. sp\'84hen;
   akin  to  L.  specere to look, species sight, shape, appearance, kind.
   See Spice, Spy, and cf. Espionage.]

   1.  To  catch  sight  of; to perceive with the eyes; to discover, as a
   distant object partly concealed, or not obvious to notice; to see at a
   glance;  to  discern unexpectedly; to spy; as, to espy land; to espy a
   man in a crowd.

     As  one  of  them  opened his sack to give his ass provender in the
     inn, . . . he espied his money. Gen. xlii. 27.

     A  goodly  vessel  did  I  then espy Come like a giant from a haven
     broad. Wordsworth.

   2.  To  inspect narrowly; to examine and keep watch upon; to watch; to

     He sends angels to espy us in all our ways. Jer. Taylor.

   Syn. -- To discern; discover; detect; descry; spy.


   Es*py",  v. i. To look or search narrowly; to look about; to watch; to
   take notice; to spy.

     Stand by the way, and espy. Jer. xlviii. 19.


   Es*py",  n.;  pl. Espies (#). [OF. espie. See Espy, v., Spy.] A spy; a
   scout. [Obs.] Huloet.


   -esque  (?).  [F., fr. It. -isco. Cf. -ish.] A suffix of certain words
   from  the  French,  Italian,  and Spanish. It denotes manner or style;
   like; as, arabesque, after the manner of the Arabs.


   Es"qui*mau (?), n.; pl. Esquimaux (#). [F.] Same as Eskimo.

     It  is . . . an error to suppose that where an Esquimau can live, a
     civilized man can live also. McClintock.


   Es*quire" (?), n. [OF. escuyer, escuier, properly, a shield-bearer, F.
   \'82cuyer  shield-bearer,  armor-bearer,  squire of a knight, esquire,
   equerry,  rider,  horseman, LL. scutarius shield-bearer, fr. L. scutum
   shield, akin to Gr. to cover; prob. akin to E. hide to cover. See Hide
   to cover, and cf. Equerry, Escutcheon.] Originally, a shield-bearer or
   armor-bearer,  an  attendant  on a knight; in modern times, a title of
   dignity next in degree below knight and above gentleman; also, a title
   of office and courtesy; -- often shortened to squire.

     NOTE: &hand; In  En gland, the title of esquire belongs by right of
     birth  to  the  eldest  sons  of  knights  and their eldest sons in
     perpetual  succession;  to the eldest sons of younger sons of peers
     and  their eldest sons in perpetual succession. It is also given to
     sheriffs,  to  justices  of the peace while in commission, to those
     who  bear  special  office in the royal household, to counselors at
     law,  bachelors  of divinity, law, or physic, and to others. In the
     United  States  the  title is commonly given in courtesy to lawyers
     and  justices of the peace, and is often used in the superscription
     of letters instead of Mr.


   Es*quire"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p. p. Esquired (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Esquiring.]  To  wait  on  as  an  esquire  or attendant in public; to
   attend. [Colloq.]


   Es`quisse"  (?), n. [F. See Sketch.] (Fine Arts) The first sketch of a
   picture or model of a statue.


   -ess  (?).  [OF.  -esse, LL. -issa, Gr. A suffix used to form feminine
   nouns; as, actress, deaconess, songstress.


   Es"say  (?), n.; pl. Essays (#). [F. essai, fr. L. exagium a weighing,
   weight,  balance;  ex out + agere to drive, do; cf. examen, exagmen, a
   means  of  weighing,  a  weighing, the tongue of a balance, exigere to
   drive  out,  examine,  weigh,  Gr. 'exa`gion a weight, 'exagia`zein to
   examine,  'exa`gein  to  drive  out, export. See Agent, and cf. Exact,
   Examine, Assay.]

   1. An effort made, or exertion of body or mind, for the performance of
   anything;  a trial; attempt; as, to make an essay to benefit a friend.
   "The essay at organization." M. Arnold.

   2. (Lit.) A composition treating of any particular subject; -- usually
   shorter  and  less methodical than a formal, finished treatise; as, an
   essay  on  the  life and writings of Homer; an essay on fossils, or on

   3.  An  assay.  See Assay, n. [Obs.] Syn. -- Attempt; trial; endeavor;
   effort; tract; treatise; dissertation; disquisition.


   Es*say"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Essayed  (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Essaying.] [F. essayer. See Essay, n.]

   1.  To  exert  one's  power  or  faculties  upon; to make an effort to
   perform;  to  attempt; to endeavor; to make experiment or trial of; to

     What marvel if I thus essay to sing? Byron.

     Essaying nothing she can not perform. Emerson.

     A  danger  lest  the  young  enthusiast  .  .  .  should  essay the
     impossible. J. C. Shairp.

   2.  To  test  the  value  and purity of (metals); to assay. See Assay.
   [Obs.] Locke.


   Es*say"er (?), n. One who essays. Addison.


   Es"say*ist (?; 277), n. A writer of an essay, or of essays. B. Jonson.


   Es"sence  (?),  n. [F. essence, L. essentia, formed as if fr. a p. pr.
   of esse to be. See Is, and cf. Entity.]

   1.  The  constituent  elementary  notions  which  constitute a complex
   notion,  and  must  be  enumerated  to define it; sometimes called the
   nominal essence.

   2. The constituent quality or qualities which belong to any object, or
   class  of  objects,  or  on  which they depend for being what they are
   (distinguished  as  real  essence);  the  real  being, divested of all
   logical  accidents;  that  quality which constitutes or marks the true
   nature of anything; distinctive character; hence, virtue or quality of
   a thing, separated from its grosser parts.

     The  laws  are  at  present, both in form and essence, the greatest
     curse that society labors under. Landor.

     Gifts  and alms are the expressions, not the essence of this virtue
     [charity]. Addison.

     The essence of Addison's humor is irony. Courthope.

   3. Constituent substance.

     And uncompounded is their essence pure. Milton.

   4. A being; esp., a purely spiritual being.

     As far as gods and heavenly essences Can perish. Milton.

     He  had  been  indulging  in  fanciful  speculations  on  spiritual
     essences, until . . . he had and ideal world of his own around him.
     W. Irving.

   5.  The predominant qualities or virtues of a plant or drug, extracted
   and  refined  from  grosser matter; or, more strictly, the solution in
   spirits  of  wine  of  a volatile or essential oil; as, the essence of
   mint, and the like.

     The  .  .  .  word essence . . . scarcely underwent a more complete
     transformation when from being the abstract of the verb "to be," it
     came  to denote something sufficiently concrete to be inclosed in a
     glass bottle. J. S. Mill.

   6. Perfume; odor; scent; or the volatile matter constituting perfume.

     Nor let the essences exhale. Pope.


   Es"sence,  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Essenced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Essencing
   (?).] To perfume; to scent. "Essenced fops." Addison.


   Es*sene"  (?), n.; pl. Essenes (#). [Gr. \'besay\'be to heal, cf. Heb.
   as\'be.]  One  of  a  sect  among  the Jews in the time of our Savior,
   remarkable for their strictness and abstinence.


   Es"se*nism  (?),  n.  The doctrine or the practices of the Essenes. De


   Es*sen"tial (?), a. [Cf. F. essentiel. See Essence.]

   1.  Belonging  to the essence, or that which makes an object, or class
   of objects, what it is.

     Majestic  as the voice sometimes became, there was forever in it an
     essential character of plaintiveness. Hawthorne.

   2. Hence, really existing; existent.

     Is  it  true,  that  thou art but a a name, And no essential thing?
     Webster (1623).

   3. Important in the highest degree; indispensable to the attainment of
   an object; indispensably necessary.

     Judgment's more essential to a general Than courage. Denham.

     How to live? -- that is the essential question for us. H. Spencer.

   4. Containing the essence or characteristic portion of a substance, as
   of  a  plant; highly rectified; pure; hence, unmixed; as, an essential
   oil. "Mine own essential horror." Ford.

   Page 511

   5.  (Mus.)  Necessary;  indispensable;  --  said  of those tones which
   constitute a chord, in distinction from ornamental or passing tones.

   6. (Med.) Idiopathic; independent of other diseases.
   Essential character (Biol.), the prominent characteristics which serve
   to  distinguish  one  genus, species, etc., from another. -- Essential
   disease, Essential fever (Med.), one that is not dependent on another.
   --  Essential  oils  (Chem.), a class of volatile oils, extracted from
   plants,  fruits,  or flowers, having each its characteristic odor, and
   hot  burning  taste.  They  are used in essences, perfumery, etc., and
   include many varieties of compounds; as lemon oil is a terpene, oil of
   bitter almonds an aldehyde, oil of wintergreen an ethereal salt, etc.;
   --  called  also  volatile  oils  in  distinction  from  the  fixed or
   E*sen"tial (?), n.
   1. Existence; being. [Obs.] Milton.
   2.  That  which  is essential; first or constituent principle; as, the
   essentials or religion.

   Es*sen`ti*al"i*ty   (?),  n.  The  quality  of  being  essential;  the
   essential part. Jer. Taylor.


   E*sen"tial*ly  (?),  adv.  In  an  essential  manner  or degree; in an
   indispensable degree; really; as, essentially different.


   E*sen"tial*ness, n. Essentiality. Ld. Digby.


   Es*sen"ti*ate  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Essentiated; p. pr. & vb. n.
   Essentiating.]  To  form or constitute the essence or being of. [Obs.]


   Es*sen"ti*ate,  v.  i.  To  become assimilated; to be changed into the
   essence. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

                               Essoin OR Essoign

   Es*soin"  (?)  OR  Es*soign,  n. [OF. essoine, essoigne, F. exoine, L.
   essonia,  exonia;  pref.  ex-  (L.  ex  from) + sunnis, sunnia, sonia,
   hindrance, excuse. Cf. Icel. syn refusal, synja to deny, refuse, Goth.
   sunja  truth,  sunj&omac;n  to  justify,  OS.  sunnea impediment, OHG.

   1.  (Eng.  Law)  An excuse for not appearing in court at the return of
   process; the allegation of an excuse to the court.

   2. Excuse; exemption. [Obs.]

     From every work he challenged essoin. Spenser.

   Essoin  day  (Eng.  Law), the first general return day of the term, on
   which the court sits to receive essoins. Blackstone.


   Es*soin",  v.  t. [OF. essoinier, essoignier, essonier, LL. essoniare,
   exoniare.  See  Essoin,  n.] (Eng. Law) To excuse for nonappearance in
   court. "I 'll not essoin thee." Quarles.


   Es*soin"er (?), n. (Eng. Law) An attorney who sufficiently excuses the
   absence of another.


   Es"so*nite  (?),  n. [Named from Gr. e. g., hyacinth.] (Min.) Cinnamon
   stone, a variety of garnet. See Garnet.


   Es"so*rant (?), a. [F.] (Her.) Standing, but with the wings spread, as
   if about to fly; -- said of a bird borne as a charge on an escutcheon.


   Est (?), n. & adv. East. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   -est  (?).  [AS. -ost, -est; akin to G. -est, -ist, Icel. -astr, -str,
   Goth.  -ists,  -, Skr. -ish.] A suffix used to form the superlative of
   adjectives and adverbs; as, smoothest; earl(y)iest.


   Es*tab"lish  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Established (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Establishing.]  [OE.  establissen, OF. establir, F. \'82tablir, fr. L.
   stabilire,  fr.  stabilis  firm, steady, stable. See Stable, a., -ish,
   and cf. Stablish.]

   1.  To  make  stable  or  firm;  to fix immovably or firmly; to set (a
   thing) in a place and make it stable there; to settle; to confirm.

     So were the churches established in the faith. Acts xvi. 5.

     The best established tempers can scarcely forbear being borne down.

     Confidence  which  must  precede union could be established only by
     consummate prudence and self-control. Bancroft.

   2.  To  appoint  or  constitute  for  permanence,  as  officers, laws,
   regulations, etc.; to enact; to ordain.

     By   the   consent   of  all,  we  were  established  The  people's
     magistrates. Shak.

     Now, O king, establish the decree, and sign the writing, that it be
     not changed. Dan. vi. 8.

   3.  To  originate  and secure the permanent existence of; to found; to
   institute;  to  create  and regulate; -- said of a colony, a state, or
   other institutions.

     He  hath  established it [the earth], he created it not in vain, he
     formed it to be inhabited. Is. xlv. 18.

     Woe to him that buildeth a town with blood, and establisheth a city
     by iniquity! Hab. ii. 12.

   4.  To secure public recognition in favor of; to prove and cause to be
   accepted  as true; as, to establish a fact, usage, principle, opinion,
   doctrine, etc.

     At  the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses,
     shall the matter be established. Deut. xix. 15.

   5.  To  set  up  in  business;  to  place  advantageously  in  a fixed
   condition; -- used reflexively; as, he established himself in a place;
   the enemy established themselves in the citadel.


   Es*tab"lish*er (?), n. One who establishes.


   Es*tab"lish*ment    (?),    n.    [Cf.    OF.    establissement,    F.

   1.  The  act  of  establishing;  a ratifying or ordaining; settlement;

   2. The state of being established, founded, and the like; fixed state.

   3.  That  which is established; as: (a) A form of government, civil or
   ecclesiastical;  especially,  a  system  of religion maintained by the
   civil  power;  as,  the  Episcopal  establishment  of  England.  (b) A
   permanent  civil,  military, or commercial, force or organization. (c)
   The place in which one is permanently fixed for residence or business;
   residence,  including  grounds,  furniture, equipage, etc.; with which
   one  is  fitted  out;  also, any office or place of business, with its
   fixtures;  that which serves for the carrying on of a business; as, to
   keep up a large establishment; a manufacturing establishment.

     Exposing the shabby parts of the establishment. W. Irving.

   Establishment  of  the  port (Hydrography), a datum on which the tides
   are  computed  at  the  given port, obtained by observation, viz., the
   interval  between the moon's passage over the meridian and the time of
   high water at the port, on the days of new and full moon.


   Es*tab`lish*men*ta"ri*an  (?), n. One who regards the Church primarily
   as  an  establishment formed by the State, and overlooks its intrinsic
   spiritual character. Shipley.


   Es`ta*cade"  (?),  n. [F.; cf. It. steccata, Sp. estacada. Cf. Stake.]
   (Mil.)  A  dike  of  piles  in  the  sea,  a river, etc., to check the
   approach of an enemy.

                              Estafet, Estafette

   Es`ta*fet",  Es`ta*fette" (?), n. [F. estafette, cf. Sp. estafeta; fr.
   It. stafetta, fr. staffa stirrup, fr. OHG. stapho footstep, footprint,
   G. stapfe; akin to E. step.] A courier who conveys messages to another
   courier; a military courier sent from one part of an army to another.


   Es*tan"ci*a  (?),  n.  [Sp.  See  Stanza.] A grazing; a country house.
   [Spanish America]


   Es*tate"  (?),  n.  [OF.  estat,  F.  \'82tat, L. status, fr. stare to
   stand. See Stand, and cf. State.]

   1.  Settled  condition  or  form  of  existence;  state;  condition or
   circumstances  of  life  or  of any person; situation. "When I came to
   man's estate." Shak.

     Mind  not  high things, but condescend to men of low estate. Romans
     xii. 16.

   2. Social standing or rank; quality; dignity.

     God  hath  imprinted  his  authority in several parts, upon several
     estates of men. Jer. Taylor.

   3. A person of high rank. [Obs.]

     She's a duchess, a great estate. Latimer.

     Herod  on  his  birthday made a supper to his lords, high captains,
     and chief estates of Galilee. Mark vi. 21.

   4.  A  property which a person possesses; a fortune; possessions, esp.
   property in land; also, property of all kinds which a person leaves to
   be divided at his death.

     See what a vast estate he left his son. Dryden.

   5. The state; the general body politic; the common-wealth; the general
   interest; state affairs. [Obs.]

     I  call  matters  of  estate not only the parts of sovereignty, but
     whatsoever . . . concerneth manifestly any great portion of people.

   6.  pl.  The  great  classes or orders of a community or state (as the
   clergy,  the  nobility,  and  the  commonalty  of  England)  or  their
   representatives  who administer the government; as, the estates of the
   realm  (England),  which  are  (1)  the lords spiritual, (2) the lords
   temporal, (3) the commons.

   7. (Law) The degree, quality, nature, and extent of one's interest in,
   or  ownership  of, lands, tenements, etc.; as, an estate for life, for
   years, at will, etc. Abbott.
   The fourth estate, a name often given to the public press.


   Es*tate", v. t.

   1. To establish. [Obs.] Beau. & Fl.

   2. Tom settle as a fortune. [Archaic] Shak.

   3. To endow with an estate. [Archaic]

     Then  would  I  .  .  .  Estate them with large land and territory.

                              Estatlich, Estatly

   Es*tat"lich  (?),  Es"tat*ly  (?), a. [OE.] Stately; dignified. [Obs.]


   Es*teem"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p. Esteemed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Esteeming.]  [F. estimer, L. aestimare, aestumare, to value, estimate;
   perh.  akin  to  Skr.  ish  to  seek,  strive,  and  E.  ask. Cf. Aim,

   1.  To  set  a  value  on; to appreciate the worth of; to estimate; to
   value; to reckon.

     Then  he forsook God, which made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock
     of his salvation. Deut. xxxii. 15.

     Thou  shouldst  (gentle reader) esteem his censure and authority to
     be of the more weighty credence. Bp. Gardiner.

     Famous  men,  --  whose scientific attainments were esteemed hardly
     less than supernatural. Hawthorne.

   2.  To  set  a  high  value  on;  to  prize; to regard with reverence,
   respect, or friendship.

     Will he esteem thy riches? Job xxxvi. 19.

     You talk kindlier: we esteem you for it. Tennyson.

   Syn.  --  To  estimate;  appreciate;  regard;  prize;  value; respect;
   revere. See Appreciate, Estimate.


   Es*teem",  v.  i. To form an estimate; to have regard to the value; to
   consider. [Obs.]

     We  ourselves esteem not of that obedience, or love, or gift, which
     is of force. Milton.


   Es*teem", n. [Cf. F. estime. See Esteem, v. t.]

   1. Estimation; opinion of merit or value; hence, valuation; reckoning;

     Most dear in the esteem And poor in worth! Shak.

     I  will  deliver you, in ready coin, The full and dear'st esteem of
     what you crave. J. Webster.

   2.  High estimation or value; great regard; favorable opinion, founded
   on supposed worth.

     Nor should thy prowess want praise and esteem. Shak.

   Syn. -- See Estimate, n.


   Es*teem"a*ble  (?),  a.  Worthy of esteem; estimable. [R.] "Esteemable
   qualities." Pope.


   Es*teem"er  (?),  n. One who esteems; one who sets a high value on any

     The proudest esteemer of his own parts. Locke.


   Es"ter  (?),  n.  [A  word  invented  by L. Gmelin, a German chemist.]
   (Chem.)  An ethereal salt, or compound ether, consisting of an organic
   radical  united  with  the  residue  of  any  oxygen  acid, organic or
   inorganic;  thus the natural fats are esters of glycerin and the fatty
   acids, oleic, etc.


   Es*the`si*om"e*ter (?), n. Same as \'92sthesiometer.

                             Esthete, n.; Esthetic

   Es"thete  (?),  n.; Es*thet"ic (, a., Es*thet"ic*al (, a., Es*thet"ics
   (,   n.   etc.   Same   as   \'92sthete,  \'92sthetic,  \'92sthetical,
   \'92sthetics, etc.


   Es*tif"er*ous  (?),  a.  [L.  aestifer;  aestus fire + ferre to bear.]
   Producing heat. [R.] Smart.


   Es"ti*ma*ble (?), a. [F. estimable, or L. aestimabilis. See Esteem.]

   1.  Capable of being estimated or valued; as, estimable damage. Paley.

   2. Valuable; worth a great price. [R.]

     A  pound  of  man's  flesh,  taken from a man, Is not so estimable,
     profitable neither, As flesh of muttons, beefs, or goats. Shak.

   3. Worth of esteem or respect; deserving our good opinion or regard.

     A  lady  said of her two companions, that one was more amiable, the
     other more estimable. Sir W. Temple.


   Es"ti*ma*ble (?), n. A thing worthy of regard. [R.]

     One of the peculiar estimables of her country. Sir T. Browne.


   Es"ti*ma*ble*ness, n. The quality of deserving esteem or regard.


   Es"ti*ma*bly, adv. In an estimable manner.


   Es"ti*mate  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Estimated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Estimating  (?).]  [L.  aestimatus, p. p. of aestimare. See Esteem, v.

   1.  To judge and form an opinion of the value of, from imperfect data,
   --  either  the extrinsic (money), or intrinsic (moral), value; to fix
   the worth of roughly or in a general way; as, to estimate the value of
   goods or land; to estimate the worth or talents of a person.

     It  is by the weight of silver, and not the name of the piece, that
     men estimate commodities and exchange them. Locke.

     It  is  always  very difficult to estimate the age in which you are
     living. J. C. Shairp.

   2.  To from an opinion of, as to amount,, number, etc., from imperfect
   data,  comparison, or experience; to make an estimate of; to calculate
   roughly;  to  rate;  as, to estimate the cost of a trip, the number of
   feet  in  a  piece  of  land.  Syn. -- To appreciate; value; appraise;
   prize; rate; esteem; count; calculate; number. -- To Estimate, Esteem.
   Both  these  words  imply  an  exercise  of the judgment. Estimate has
   reference  especially  to  the  external  relations of things, such as
   amount, magnitude, importance, etc. It usually involves computation or
   calculation; as, to estimate the loss or gain of an enterprise. Esteem
   has  reference  to  the intrinsic or moral worth of a person or thing.
   Thus,  we  esteem a man for his kindness, or his uniform integrity. In
   this  sense  it implies a mingled sentiment of respect and attachment.
   We esteem it an honor to live in a free country. See Appreciate.


   Es"ti*mate  (?),  n. A valuing or rating by the mind, without actually
   measuring,  weighing,  or  the like; rough or approximate calculation;
   as, an estimate of the cost of a building, or of the quantity of water
   in a pond.

     Weigh  success  in  a  moral  balance,  and  our  whole estimate is
     changed. J. C. Shairp.

   Syn.  --  Estimate,  Estimation,  Esteem.  The noun estimate, like its
   verb,  supposes  chiefly  an  exercise  of judgment in determining the
   amount,  importance, or magnitude of things, with their other exterior
   relations;  as,  an  estimate of expenses incurred; a true estimate of
   life,  etc.  Esteem  is  a  moral  sentiment  made  up  of respect and
   attachment,  --  the  valuation  of  a  person  as  possessing  useful
   qualities  or  real worth. Thus we speak of the esteem of the wise and
   good  as  a  thing  greatly  to  be desired. Estimation seems to waver
   between  the  two.  In our version of the Scriptures it is used simply
   for  estimate;  as, "If he be poorer than thy estimation." Lev. xxvii.
   8.  In  other cases, it verges toward esteem; as, "I know him to be of
   worth  and  worthy  estimation." Shak. It will probably settle down at
   last  on  this  latter  sense. "Esteem is the value we place upon some
   degree  of  worth.  It  is  higher than simple approbation, which is a
   decision of judgment. It is the commencement of affection." Gogan.

     No;  dear  as  freedom is, and in my heart's Just estimation prized
     above all price. Cowper.


   Es`ti*ma"tion   (?),   n.   [L.  aestimatio,  fr.  aestimare:  cf.  F.
   estimation. See Esteem, v. t.]

   1. The act of estimating. Shak.

   2.  An  opinion  or  judgment  of  the  worth,  extent, or quantity of
   anything,   formed   without   using   precise  data;  valuation;  as,
   estimations of distance, magnitude, amount, or moral qualities.

     If  he be poorer that thy estimation, then he shall present himself
     before  the priest, and the priest, and the priest shall value him.
     Lev. xxvii. 8.

   3. Favorable opinion; esteem; regard; honor.

     I shall have estimation among multitude, and honor with the elders.
     Wisdom viii. 10.

   4. Supposition; conjecture.

     I  speak not this in estimation, As what I think might be, but what
     I know. Shak.

   Syn.  --  Estimate;  calculation;  computation;  appraisement; esteem;
   honor; regard. See Estimate, n.


   Es"ti*ma*tive (?), a. [Cf. F. estimatif.]

   1.  Inclined,  or  able, to estimate; serving for, or capable of being
   used in, estimating.

     We find in animals an estimative or judicial faculty. Sir M. Hale.

   2. Pertaining to an estimate. [R.]


   Es"ti*ma`tor  (?),  n. [L. aestimator.] One who estimates or values; a
   valuer. Jer. Taylor.

                             Estival, a., Estivate

   Es"ti*val  (?),  a.,  Es"ti*vate (, v. i., Es`ti*va"tion (, n. Same as
   \'92stival, \'92stivate, etc.


   Es`toile" (?), n. [OF.] (Her.) A six-pointed star whose rays are wavy,
   instead  of straight like those of a mullet. [Written also \'82toile.]
   Estoile  of eight points, a star which has four straight and four wavy
   rays.  --  Estoile  of  four  points.  Same as Cross estoil\'82, under
   Es*top"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Estophed (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Estopping.]  [OF.  estoper  to  stop,  plug, close, F. \'82touper, LL.
   stuppare  to  close  with tow, obstruct, fr. L. stuppa tow, oakum, cf.
   Gr. Stop.] (Law) To impede or bar by estoppel. 

     A  party will be estopped by his admissions, where his intent is to
     influence another, or derive an advantage to himself. Abbott.


   Es*top"pel  (?),  n. [From Estop.] (Law) (a) A stop; an obstruction or
   bar  to  one's alleging or denying a fact contrary to his own previous
   action,  allegation,  or  denial;  an  admission, by words or conduct,
   which  induces  another  to  purchase  rights, against which the party
   making  such  admission  can not take a position inconsistent with the
   admission.  (b)  The  agency  by  which  the  law excludes evidence to
   dispute  certain  admissions,  which  the  policy of the law treats as
   indisputable. Wharton. Stephen. Burrill.

   Page 512


   Es*to"vers  (?), n. pl. [OF. estoveir, estovoir, necessary, necessity,
   need,  prop.  an  infin.  meaning  to  suit, be fit, be necessary. See
   Stover.] (Law) Necessaries or supples; an allowance to a person out of
   an estate or other thing for support; as of wood to a tenant for life,
   etc.,  of  sustenance  to  a man confined for felony of his estate, or
   alimony  to  a woman divorced out of her husband's estate. Blackstone.
   Common of estovers. See under Common, n.


   Es`trade"  (?),  n. [F., fr. Sp. estrado, orig., a carpet on the floor
   of a room, also, a carpeted platform, fr. L. stratum bed covering. See
   Stratum.]  (Arch.)  A  portion of the floor of a room raised above the
   general level, as a place for a bed or a throne; a platform; a dais.

     He  [the teacher] himself should have his desk on a mounted estrade
     or platform. J. G. Fitch.


   Es`tra`ma`con" (?), n. [F.]

   1.  A  straight, heavy sword with two edges, used in the 16th and 17th

   2. A blow with edge of a sword. Farrow.


   Es*trange"  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Estranged (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Estranging.]  [OF. estrangier to remove, F. \'82tranger, L. extraneare
   to treat as a stranger, from extraneus strange. See Strange.]

   1.  To  withdraw;  to  withhold;  hence,  reflexively,  to  keep  at a
   distance; to cease to be familiar and friendly with.

     We  must  estrange  our belief from everything which is not clearly
     and distinctly evidenced. Glanvill.

     Had  we  . . . estranged ourselves from them in things indifferent.

   2.  To  divert  from  its  original use or purpose, or from its former
   possessor; to alienate.

     They . . . have estranged this place, and have burned incense in it
     unto other gods. Jer. xix. 4.

   3.  To  alienate  the  affections  or  confidence  of;  to  turn  from
   attachment to enmity or indifference.

     I do not know, to this hour, what it is that has estranged him from
     me. Pope.

     He  .  .  .  had  pretended to be estranged from the Whigs, and had
     promised to act as a spy upon them. Macaulay.


   Es*tran"ged*ness  (?),  n.  State  of  being  estranged; estrangement.


   Es*trange"ment  (?), n. [Cf. OF. estrangement.] The act of estranging,
   or the state of being estranged; alienation.

     An estrangement from God. J. C. Shairp.

     A long estrangement from better things. South.


   Es*tran"ger (?), n. One who estranges.


   Es*tran"gle (?), v. t. To strangle. [Obs.]


   Es`tra*pade"  (?),  n. [F.] (Man.) The action of a horse, when, to get
   rid of his rider, he rears, plunges, and kicks furiously.


   Es*tray" (?), v. i. To stray. [Obs.] Daniel.


   Es*tray"  n. (Law) Any valuable animal, not wild, found wandering from
   its owner; a stray. Burrill.


   Es"tre (?), n. [OF. estre state, plan.] The inward part of a building;
   the interior. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Es*treat"  (?),  n.  [OF.  estraite,  prop.,  an extract, fr. p. p. of
   estraire to extract, F. extraire, fr. L.extrahere. See Extract.] (Law)
   A  true  copy, duplicate, or extract of an original writing or record,
   esp.  of amercements or penalties set down in the rolls of court to be
   levied  by  the  bailiff,  or  other  officer.  Cowell.  Estreat  of a
   recognizance,  the  extracting  or taking out a forfeited recognizance
   from  among  the  other  records  of  the  court, for the purpose of a
   prosecution in another court, or it may be in the same court. Burrill.


   Es*treat", v. t. [imp. & p. p. Estreated; p. pr. & vb. n. Estreating.]
   (Law) (a) To extract or take out from the records of a court, and send
   up  to  the  court of exchequer to be enforced; -- said of a forfeited
   recognizance. (b) To bring in to the exchequer, as a fine.


   Es*trepe"  (?),  v.  t. [OF. estreper.] (Law) To strip or lay bare, as
   land of wood, houses, etc.; to commit waste.


   Es*trepe"ment  (?),  n. [OF., damage, waste.] (Law) A destructive kind
   of  waste, committed by a tenant for life, in lands, woods, or houses.


   Es"trich (?), n.

   1. Ostrich. [Obs.] Massinger.

   2. (Com.) The down of the ostrich. Brande & C.


   Es"tu*ance  (?),  n.  [From  L.  aestuans,  p.  pr.  of  aestuare. See
   Estuate.] Heat. [Obs.]


   Es"tu*a*rine (?), a. Pertaining to an estuary; estuary.


   Es"tu*a*ry  (?),  n.; pl. Estuaries (#). [L. aestuarium, from aestuare
   to surge. See Estuate.] [Written also \'91stuary.]

   1.  A  place  where  water boils up; a spring that wells forth. [Obs.]

   2.  A  passage,  as the mouth of a river or lake, where the tide meets
   the current; an arm of the sea; a frith.

     it to the sea was often by long and wide estuaries. Dana.


   Es"tu*a*ry,  a.  Belonging  to,  or formed in, an estuary; as, estuary
   strata. Lyell.


   Es"tu*ate  (?),  v.  i.  [imp.  &  p. p. Estuated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Estuating.]  [L.  aestuare  to be in violent motion, to boil up, burn,
   fr.  aestus  boiling  or  undulating motion, fire, glow, heat; akin to
   Gr.Ether.] To boil up; to swell and rage; to be agitated. Bacon.


   Es`tu*a"tion  (?), n. [L. aestuatio.] The act of estuating; commotion,
   as of a fluid; agitation.

     The estuations of joys and fears. W. Montagu.


   Es*tu"fa  (?),  n.;  pl.  Estufas (#). [Sp., a stove, a warm room. Cf.
   Stove.]  An  assembly  room  in  dwelling of the Pueblo Indians. L. H.


   Es"ture (?; 135), n. [See Estuate.] Commotion. [Obs.] Chapman.


   E*su"ri*ent  (?),  a.  [L.  esuriens, p. pr. of ensurire, fr. edere to
   eat.]  Inclined  to  eat;  hungry;  voracious. [R.] Bailey. "Poor, but
   esurient." Carlyle.


   E*su"ri*ent, n. One who is hungry or greedy. [R.]

     An insatiable esurient after riches. Wood.


   Es"u*rine  (?),  a. [See Esurient.] Causing hunger; eating; corroding.
   [Obs.] Wiseman.


   Es"u*rine,  n.  (Med.)  A medicine which provokes appetites, or causes
   hunger. [Obs.]


   -et  (?).  [F. -et, masc., -ette, fem. Cf. -let.] A noun suffix with a
   diminutive force; as in baronet, pocket, facet, floweret, latchet.


   E*taac" (?), n. (Zo\'94l.) The blue buck.


   E"ta*cism  (?),  n.  [Gr. Itacism.] (Greek Gram.) The pronunciation of
   the  Greek  y  (eta)  like  the  Italian e long, that is like a in the
   English word ate. See Itacism.


   E"ta*cist (?), n. One who favors etacism.


   \'90`ta`g\'8are" (?), n. [F., fr. \'82tager to arrange on shelves, fr.
   \'82tage  story,  floor.  See  Stage.]  A  piece of furniture having a
   number  of  uninclosed  shelves  or  stages,  one  above  another, for
   receiving articles of elegance or use. Fairholt.

                                 \'90tat Major

   \'90`tat"  Ma`jor"  (?).  [F.,  fr. \'82tat state + L. major greater.]
   (Mil.)  The staff of an army, including all officers above the rank of
   colonel,    also,    all    adjutants,   inspectors,   quartermasters,
   commissaries,  engineers,  ordnance  officers, paymasters, physicians,
   signal officers, judge advocates; also, the noncommissioned assistants
   of the above officers.

                            Et cetera, Et c\'91tera

   Et` cet"e*ra, Et` c\'91t"e*ra (?). [L. et and + caetera other things.]
   Others of the like kind; and the rest; and so on; -- used to point out
   that  other  things  which  could  be  mentioned are to be understood.
   Usually abbreviated into etc. or &c. (&c). Shak.


   Etch (?), n. A variant of Eddish. [Obs.] Mortimer.


   Etch,  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Etched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Etching.] [D.
   etsen,  G.  \'84tzen  to feed, corrode, etch. MHG. etzen, causative of
   ezzen to eat, G. essen Eat.]

   1.  To  produce, as figures or designs, on mental, glass, or the like,
   by  means  of  lines  or strokes eaten in or corroded by means of some
   strong acid.

     NOTE: &hand; The plate is first covered with varnish, or some other
     ground  capable  of  resisting the acid, and this is then scored or
     scratched  with  a needle, or similar instrument, so as to form the
     drawing;  the  plate  is then covered with acid, which corrodes the
     metal in the lines thus laid bare.

   2.  To subject to etching; to draw upon and bite with acid, as a plate
   of metal.

     I was etching a plate at the beginning of 1875. Hamerton.

   3. To sketch; to delineate. [R.]

     There  are  many empty terms to be found in some learned writes, to
     which they had recourse to etch out their system. Locke.


   Etch, v. i. To practice etching; to make etchings.


   Etch"er (?), n. One who etches.


   Etch"ing, n.

   1.  The act, art, or practice of engraving by means of acid which eats
   away  lines or surfaces left unprotected in metal, glass, or the like.
   See Etch, v. t.

   2.  A  design  carried out by means of the above process; a pattern on
   metal, glass, etc., produced by etching.

   3.  An impression on paper, parchment, or other material, taken in ink
   from an etched plate.
   Etching  figures (Min.), markings produced on the face of a crystal by
   the  action  of  an  appropriate solvent. They have usually a definite
   form,  and  are  important  as  revealing  the molecular structure. --
   Etching  needle, a sharp-pointed steel instrument with which lines are
   drawn  in  the  ground  or  varnish  in  etching.  --  Etching  stitch
   (Needlework), a stitch used outline embroidery.


   E`te*os"tic (?), n. [Gr. A kind of chronogram. [R.] B. Jonson.


   E*ter"mi*na*ble  (?), a. [Pref. e- + terminable.] Interminable. [Obs.]

                                Etern OR Eterne

   E*tern"  OR E*terne" (?), a. [OF. eterne, L. aeternus, for aeviturnus,
   fr. aevum age. See Age, and cf. Eternal.] Eternal. [Poetic] Shak.

     Built up to eterne significance. Mrs. Browning.


   E*ter"nal  (?),  a.  [F.  \'82ternel, L. aeternalis, fr. aeternus. See

   1. Without beginning or end of existence; always existing.

     The eternal God is thy refuge. Deut. xxxiii. 27.

     To  know  wether there were any real being, whose duration has been
     eternal. Locke.

   2.  Without  end  of  existence  or  duration;  everlasting;  endless;

     That  they  may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus,
     with eternal glory. 2 Tim. ii. 10.

   3. Continued without intermission; perpetual; ceaseless; constant.

     And fires eternal in thy temple shine. Dryden.

   4. Existing at all times without change; immutable.

     Hobbes believed the eternal truths which he opposed. Dryden.

     What  are  the  eternal objects of poetry among all nations, and at
     all times? M. Arnold.

   5.  Exceedingly  great  or  bad;  -- used as a strong intensive. "Some
   eternal villain."
   The  Eternal  City,  an  appellation  of  Rome.  Syn.  -- Everlasting;
   endless;    infinite;    ceaseless;   perpetual;   interminable.   See


   E*ter"nal, n.

   1. One of the appellations of God.

     Law whereby the Eternal himself doth work. Hooker.

   2. That which is endless and immortal. Young.


   E*ter"nal*ist,  n.  One  who  holds the existence of matter to be from
   eternity. T. Burnet.


   E*ter"nal*ize (?), v. t. To make eternal. Shelton.


   E*ter"nal*ly, adv. In an eternal manner.

     That which is morally good or evil at any time or in any case, must
     be also eternally and unchangeably so. South.

     Where western gales eternally reside. Addison.


   E*terne" (?), a. See Etern.


   E*ter"ni*fy (?), v. t. To make eternal. [Obs.]

     Fame . . . eternifies the name. Mir. for Mag.


   E*ter"ni*ty  (?),  n.;  pl.  Eternities  (#).  [F.  \'82ternit\'82, L.
   aeternitas, fr. aeternus. See Etern.]

   1.  Infinite  duration,  without  beginning  in the past or end in the
   future; also, duration without end in the future; endless time.

     The high and lofty One, that inhabiteth eternity. Is. lvii. 15.

   2. Condition which begins at death; immortality.

     Thou know'st 't is common; all that lives must die, Passing through
     nature to eternity. Shak.


   E*ter`ni*za"tion  (?),  n. The act of eternizing; the act of rendering
   immortal or famous.


   E*ter"nize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Eternized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Eterniziing.] [Cf. F. \'82terniser.]

   1. To make eternal or endless.

     This other [gift] served but to eternize woe. Milton.

   2. To make forever famous; to immortalize; as, to eternize one's self,
   a name, exploits.

     St.  Alban's  battle  won by famous York, Shall be eternized in all
     age to come. Shak.


   E*te"sian   (?),   a.   [L.   etesiae,   pl.,   periodic   winds,  Gr.
   \'82t\'82sien.] Periodical; annual; -- applied to winds which annually
   blow from the north over the Mediterranean, esp. the eastern part, for
   an irregular period during July and August.


   Eth"al  (?),  n.  [Ether  + alcohol: cf. F. \'82thal.] (Chem.) A white
   waxy  solid,  C16H33.OH;  --  called also cetylic alcohol. See Cetylic
   alcohol, under Cetylic. <-- usu. called cetyl alcohol. -->


   Eth"ane  (?),  n.  [From  Ether.] (Chem.) A gaseous hydrocarbon, C2H6,
   forming  a  constituent of ordinary illuminating gas. It is the second
   member  of the paraffin series, and its most important derivatives are
   common   alcohol,  aldehyde,  ether,  and  acetic  acid.  Called  also


   Ethe (?), a. [See Eath.] Easy. [Obs.] Spenser.


   Eth"el (?), a. [AS. e, \'91. See Atheling.] Noble. [Obs.]


   Eth"ene (?), n. (Chem.) Ethylene; olefiant gas.


   E*then"ic  (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived from. or resembling,
   ethene or ethylene; as, ethenic ether.


   Eth"e*nyl  (?), n. [Ethene + -yl.] (Chem.) (a) A trivalent hydrocarbon
   radical,  CH3.C.  (b)  A univalent hydrocarbon radical of the ethylene
   series, CH2:CH; -- called also vinyl. See Vinyl.


   E`the*os"to*moid  (?),  a.  [NL.  etheostoma  name of a genus + -oid.]
   (Zo\'94l.)  Pertaining  to,  or  like, the genus Etheostoma. -- n. Any
   fish  of  the  genus  Etheostoma  and  related  genera,  allied to the
   perches;  -- also called darter. The etheostomoids are small and often
   bright-colored  fishes  inhabiting  the fresh waters of North America.
   About  seventy  species  are  known.  See  Darter.  <-- e.g. the snail
   darter. -->


   E"ther (?), n. [L. aether, Gr. idh, indh, and prob. to E. idle: cf. F.
   \'82ther.] >[Written also \'91ther.]

   1.  (Physics)  A  medium  of  great  elasticity  and  extreme tenuity,
   supposed  to  pervade  all  space,  the  interior  of solid bodies not
   excepted,  and  to  be  the  medium of transmission of light and heat;
   hence often called luminiferous ether.

   2. Supposed matter above the air; the air itself.

   3.   (Chem.)  (a)  A  light,  volatile,  mobile,  inflammable  liquid,
   (C2H5)2O,   of   a  characteristic  aromatic  odor,  obtained  by  the
   distillation  of  alcohol  with  sulphuric acid, and hence called also
   sulphuric   ether.  It  is  powerful  solvent  of  fats,  resins,  and
   pyroxylin,  but  finds  its chief use as an an\'91sthetic. Called also
   ethyl  oxide.<-- also commonly, ethyl ether. --> (b) Any similar oxide
   of hydrocarbon radicals; as, amyl ether; valeric ether.
   Complex ether, Mixed ether (Chem.), an oxide of two different radicals
   in  the same molecule; as, ethyl methyl ether, C2H5.O.CH3. -- Compound
   ether  (Chem.),  an ethereal salt or a salt of some hydrocarbon as the
   base;  an  ester.  -- Ether engine (Mach.), a condensing engine like a
   steam engine, but operated by the vapor of ether instead of by steam.


   E*the"re*al (?), a.

   1.  Pertaining  to the hypothetical upper, purer air, or to the higher
   regions  beyond  the  earth  or  beyond the atmosphere; celestial; as,
   ethereal space; ethereal regions.

     Go, heavenly guest, ethereal messenger. Milton.

   2.  Consisting  of  ether;  hence, exceedingly light or airy; tenuous;
   spiritlike;  characterized  by  extreme  delicacy,  as  form,  manner,
   thought, etc.

     Vast chain of being, which from God began, Natures ethereal, human,
     angel, man. Pope.

   3.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  derived  from, or resembling, ether; as,
   ethereal salts.
   Ethereal  oil. (Chem.) See Essential oil, under Essential. -- Ethereal
   oil   of  wine  (Chem.),  a  heavy,  yellow,  oily  liquid  consisting
   essentially  of  etherin,  etherol, and ethyl sulphate. It is the oily
   residuum  left  after  etherification.  Called  also heavy oil of wine
   (distinguished  from  oil  of wine, or \'d2nanthic ether). -- Ethereal
   salt (Chem.), a salt of some organic radical as a base; an ester.


   E*the"re*al*ism (?), n. Ethereality.


   E*the`re*al"i*ty (?), n. The state of being ethereal; etherealness.

     Something  of that ethereality of thought and manner which belonged
     to Wordsworth's earlier lyrics. J. C. Shairp.


   E*the`re*al*i*za"tion  (?),  n. An ethereal or spiritlike state. J. H.


   E*the"re*al*ize (?), v. t.

   1.  To  convert  into  ether,  or into subtile fluid; to saturate with

   2. To render ethereal or spiritlike.

     Etherealized,  moreover, by spiritual communications with the other
     world. Hawthorne.


   E*the"re*al*ly, adv. In an ethereal manner.

   Page 513


   E*the"re*al*ness (?), n. Ethereality.


   E*the"re*ous (?), a. [L.aethereus, Gr. Ether.]

   1. Formed of ether; ethereal. [Obs.]

     This ethereous mold whereon we stand. Milton.

   2. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or resembling, either.
   Ethereous oil. See Ethereal oil, under Ethereal.


   E*ther`i*fi*ca"tion  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  The  act  or process of making
   ether;  specifically, the process by which a large quantity of alcohol
   is  transformed  into  ether  by  the  agency  of  a  small  amount of
   sulphuric, or ethyl sulphuric, acid.


   E*ther"i*form (?), a. [Ether + form.] Having the form of ether.


   E"ther*in,  n. (Chem.) A white, crystalline hydrocarbon, regarded as a
   polymeric  variety  of  ethylene,  obtained  in heavy oil of wine, the
   residue  left after making ether; -- formerly called also concrete oil
   of wine.


   E`ther*i*za"tion  (?)  n.  (Med.)  (a)  The administration of ether to
   produce insensibility. (b) The state of the system under the influence
   of ether.


   E"ther*ize  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Etherized (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Etherizing (?).] [Cf. F. \'82th\'82riser.]

   1. To convert into ether.

   2.  To  render  insensible by means of ether, as by inhalation; as, to
   etherize a patient.


   E"ther*ol  (?), n. [Ether + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) An oily hydrocarbon
   regarded as a polymeric variety of ethylene, produced with etherin.

                                Ethic, Ethical

   Eth"ic  (?),  Eth"ic*al (?), a. [L. ethicus, Gr. sidus, G. sitte, Skr.
   svadh,  prob.  orig.,  one's  own  doing; sva self + dh to set: cf. F.
   \'82thique.  See So, Do.] Of, or belonging to, morals; treating of the
   moral  feelings or duties; containing percepts of morality; moral; as,
   ethic discourses or epistles; an ethical system; ethical philosophy.

     The ethical meaning of the miracles. Trench.

   Ethical  dative  (Gram.),  a use of the dative of a pronoun to signify
   that  the  person or thing spoken of is regarded with interest by some
   one; as, Quid mihi Celsus agit? How does my friend Celsus do?
   Eth"ic*al*ly,  adv. According to, in harmony with, moral principles or
   Eth"i*cist  (?),  n.  One  who  is versed in ethics, or has written on
   Eth"ics  (?),  n. [Cf. F. \'82thique. See Ethic.] The science of human
   duty;  the body of rules of duty drawn from this science; a particular
   system of principles and rules concerting duty, whether true or false;
   rules  of  practice in respect to a single class of human actions; as,
   political or social ethics; medical ethics. 

     The  completeness  and  consistency of its morality is the peculiar
     praise of the ethics which the Bible has taught. I. Taylor.


   Eth"ide  (?),  n.  (Chem.) Any compound of ethyl of a binary type; as,
   potassium ethide.


   Eth"i*dene (?), n. [From Ether.] (Chem.) Ethylidene. [Obs.]


   Eth"ine (?), n. (Chem.) Acetylene.


   Eth`i*on"ic  (?), a. [Ethyl + thionic.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, derived
   from,  or  designating,  an  acid  so called. Ethionic acid (Chem.), a
   liquid  derivative  of  ethylsulphuric  and sulphuric (thionic) acids,
   obtained by the action of sulphur trioxide on absolute alcohol.

                               Ethiop, Ethiopian

   E"thi*op  (?),  E`thi*o"pi*an  (?),  n.  [L. Aethiops, Gr. A native or
   inhabitant  of  Ethiopia;  also,  in a general sense, a negro or black

                              Ethiopian, Ethiopic

   E`thi*o"pi*an,  E`thi*op"ic  (?), a. Of or relating to Ethiopia or the


   E`thi*op"ic,  n. The language of ancient Ethiopia; the language of the
   ancient  Abyssinian  empire  (in  Ethiopia),  now  used  only  in  the
   Abyssinian church. It is of Semitic origin, and is also called Geez.


   E"thi*ops  (?)  n. [NL. See Ethiop.] (Old Chem.) A black substance; --
   formerly  applied  to  various  preparations  of  a black or very dark
   color.  [Written also \'92thiops.] [Obs.] Ethiops martial (Old Chem.),
   black oxide of iron. -- Ethiops mineral (Old Chem.), black sulphide of
   mercury,  obtained by triturating mercury with sulphur. -- Ethiops per
   se (Old Chem.), mercury in finely divided state, having the appearance
   of a dark powder, obtained by shaking it up or by exposure to the air.

                              Ethmoid, Ethmoidal

   Eth"moid  (?),  Eth*moid"al  (?),  a. [Gr. ethmo\'8bde, ethmo\'8bdal.]
   (Anat.)  (a)  Like  a  sieve; cribriform. (b) Pertaining to, or in the
   region  of,  the  ethmoid  bone.  Ethmoid  bone  (Anat.),  a  bone  of
   complicated  structure  through which the olfactory nerves pass out of
   the cranium and over which they are largely distributed.


   Eth"moid (?) n. (Anat.) The ethmoid bone.


   Eth`mo*tru"bi*nal (?), a. [Ethmoid + turbinal.] See Turbinal. -- n. An
   ethmoturbinal bone.


   Eth`mo*vo"mer*ine  (?), n. [Ethmoid + vomerine.] (Anat.) Pertaining to
   the  region  of  the  vomer  and the base of the ethmoid in the skull.
   Ethmovomerine  plate  (Anat.), a cartilaginous plate beneath the front
   of the fetal brain which the ethmoid region of the skull is developed.


   Eth"narch (?), n. [Gr. -arch.] (Gr. Antiq.) The governor of a province
   or people. Lew Wallace.


   Eth"narch*y  (?) n. [Gr. The dominion of an ethnarch; principality and
   rule. Wright.

                               Ethnic, Ethnical

   Eth"nic (?), Eth"nic*al (?), a. [L. ethnicus, Gr. ethnique.]

   1.  Belonging  to  races  or  nations;  based on distinctions of race;

   2.   Pertaining   to   the  gentiles,  or  nations  not  converted  to
   Christianity; heathen; pagan; -- opposed to Jewish and Christian.


   Eth"nic (?) n. A heathen; a pagan. [Obs.]

     No better reported than impure ethnic and lay dogs. Milton.


   Eth"nic*al*ly (?), adv. In an ethnical manner.


   Eth"ni*cism  (?)  n.  Heathenism; paganism; idolatry. [Obs.] "Taint of
   ethnicism." B. Jonson.


   Eth*nog"ra*pher (?) n. One who investigates ethnography.

                         Ethnographic, Ethnographical

   Eth`no*graph"ic    (?),    Eth`no*graph"ic*al   (?),.   a.   [Cf.   F.
   ethnographique.] pertaining to ethnography.


   Eth`no*graph"ic*al*ly, adv. In an ethnographical manner.


   Eth*nog"ra*phy (?), n. [Gr. -graphy: cf. F. ethnographie.] That branch
   of  knowledge  which  has  for  its subject the characteristics of the
   human  family,  developing  the  details  with  which  ethnology  as a
   comparative science deals; descriptive ethnology. See Ethnology.

                           Ethnologic, Ethnological

   Eth`no*log"ic  (?),  Eth`no*log"ic*al  (?),  a  Of  or  pertaining  to


   Eth`no*log"ic*al*ly,  adv.  In an ethnological manner; by ethnological
   classification; as, one belonging ethnologically to an African race.


   Eth*nol"o*gist   (?),  n.  One  versed  in  ethnology;  a  student  of


   Eth*nol"o*gy  (?)  n.  [Gr.  -logy.]  The  science which treats of the
   division  of  mankind  into  races,  their  origin,  distribution, and
   relations, and the peculiarities which characterize them.

                            Ethologic, Ethological

   Eth`o*log"ic  (?), Eth`o*log"ic*al (?), a [See Ethology.] treating of,
   or  pertaining to, ethnic or morality, or the science of character. J.
   S. Mill.


   E*thol"o*gist (?) n. One who studies or writes upon ethology.


   E*thol"o*gy (?), n. [Gr.

   1. A treatise on morality; ethics.

   2.  The science of the formation of character, national and collective
   as well as individual. J. S. Mill.


   Eth"o*po*et"ic (?). [Gr. Expressing character. [Obs.] Urquhart.


   Eth"ule (?) [Ether + Gr. Ethyl, and see -yl.] (Chem.) Ethyl. [Obs.]


   Eth"yl  (?),  n.  [Ether  +  -yl.]  (Chem.)  A  monatomic, hydrocarbon
   radical, C2H5 of the paraffin series, forming the essential radical of
   ethane,  and  of common alcohol and ether. Ethyl aldehyde. (Chem.) See


   Eth`yl*am"ine  (?),  n.  [Ethyl + amine.] (Chem.) A colorless, mobile,
   inflammable  liquid,  C2H5.NH2,  very  volatile and with an ammoniacal
   odor. It is a strong base, and is a derivative of ammonia. Called also
   ethyl carbamine, and amido ethane.


   Eth"yl*ate  (?).  [From  Ethyl.] (Chem.) A compound derived from ethyl
   alcohol  by the replacement of the hydroxyl hydrogen, after the manner
   of a hydrate; an ethyl alcoholate; as, potassium ethylate, C2H5.O.K.


   Eth"yl*ene   (?),  n.  [From  Ethyl.]  (Chem.)  A  colorless,  gaseous
   hydrocarbon,  C2H4,  forming  an  important ingredient of illuminating
   gas, and also obtained by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid in
   alcohol.  It  is  an  unsaturated  compound and combines directly with
   chlorine  and  bromine  to  form oily liquids (Dutch liquid), -- hence
   called   olefiant  gas.  Called  also  ethene,  elayl,  and  formerly,
   bicarbureted  hydrogen.  <-- is effective in hastening the ripening of
   certain fruits. --> Ethylene series (Chem.), the series if unsaturated
   hydrocarbons  of  which  ethylene  is the type, and represented by the
   general formula CnH2n.


   E*thyl"ic  (?).  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to, derived from, or containing,
   ethyl; as, ethylic alcohol.


   E*thyl"i*dene  (?).  (Chem.)  An  unsymmetrical, divalent, hydrocarbon
   radical,  C2H4  metameric  with  ethylene  but written thus, CH3.CH to
   distinguish  it  from the symmetrical ethylene, CH2.CH2. Its compounds
   are derived from aldehyde. Formerly called also ethidene.


   Eth"yl*in  (?). (Chem.) Any one of the several complex ethers of ethyl
   and glycerin.


   Eth`yl*sul*phu"ric  (?) a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or containing, ethyl
   and  sulphuric  acid. Ethylsulphuric acid (Chem.), an acid sulphate of
   ethyl,  H.C2H5.SO4,  produced  as  a  thick  liquid  by  the action of
   sulphiric acid on alcohol. It appears to be the active catalytic agent
   in the process of etherification.


   E"ti*o*late  (?).  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Etiolated (#); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Etiolating.] [F. \'82tioler to blanch.]

   1.  To become white or whiter; to be whitened or blanched by excluding
   the light of the sun, as, plants.

   2. (Med.) To become pale through disease or absence of light.


   E"ti*o*late, v. t.

   1. To blanch; to bleach; to whiten by depriving of the sun's rays.

   2. (Med.) To cause to grow pale by disease or absence of light.

                              Etiolate, Etiolated

   E"ti*o*late   (?),  E"ti*o*la`ted,  a.  Having  a  blanched  or  faded
   appearance, as birds inhabiting desert regions.


   E`ti*o*la"tion (?), n.

   1.  The  operation  of blanching plants, by excluding the light of the
   sun; the condition of a blanched plant.

   2.  (Med.)  Paleness  produced  by  absence  of  light, or by disease.


   E"to*o*lin  (?), n. [See Etiolate.] (Bot.) A yellowish coloring matter
   found  in  plants  grown  in  darkness,  which  is  supposed  to be an
   antecedent condition of chlorophyll. Encyc. Brit.


   E`ti*o*log"ic*al  (?),  a.  Pertaining  to, or inquiring into, causes;


   E`ti*ol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. \'82tiologie.] The science of causes.
   Same as tiology.


   Et"i*quette`  (?), n. [F. prop., a little piece of paper, or a mark or
   title,  affixed  to a bag or bundle, expressing its contents, a label,
   ticket, OF.estiquete, of German origin; cf. LG. stikke peg, pin, tack,
   stikken  to  stick,  G. stecken. See Stick, and cf. Ticket.] The forms
   required  by good breeding, or prescribed by authority, to be observed
   in  social or official life; observance of the proprieties of rank and
   occasion; conventional decorum; ceremonial code of polite society.

     The  pompous  etiquette  to  the  court  of  Louis  the Fourteenth.


   Et"na  (?),  n. A kind of small, portable, cooking apparatus for which
   heat is furnished by a spirit lamp.

     There  should  certainly be an etna for getting a hot cup of coffee
     in a hurry. V. Baker.


   Et*ne"an  (?), a. [L. Aetnaeus, Gr. , fr.Aetna, Aetne).] Pertaining to
   Etna, a volcanic mountain in Sicily.


   E`toile" (?), n. [F.] (Her.) See Estoile.


   E*tru"ri*an  (?),  a.  Of  or  relating  to ancient Etruria, in Italy.
   "Etrurian  Shades."  Milton,  --  n. A native or inhabitant of ancient


   E*trus"can  (?),  n. [L. Etruscus.] Of or relating to Etruria. -- n. A
   native or inhabitant of Etruria.

                                  Etter pike

   Et"ter  pike` (?), n. [Cf. Atter.] (Zo\'94l.) The stingfish, or lesser
   weever (Tranchinus vipera).


   Et"tin  (?), n. [SA. eten, eoten, orig., gluttonous, fr. etan to eat.]
   A giant. [Obs.] Beau & Fl.


   Et"tle  (?),  v. t. [Perh. the same word as addle to earn; bur cf. OE.
   atlien,  etlien,  to intend, prepare, Icel. \'91tla to think, suppose,
   mean.] To earn. [Obs.] See Addle, to earn. Boucher.


   E`tude" (?), n. [F. See Study.]

   1. A composition in the fine arts which is intended, or may serve, for
   a study.

   2.  (Mus.)  A study; an exercise; a piece for practice of some special
   point of technical execution.


   E`tul" (?), n. [F.] A case for one several small articles; esp., a box
   in  which scissors, tweezers, and other articles of toilet or of daily
   use are carried.


   Et*wee" (?), n. See . Shenstone.


   Et"ym (?), n. See Etymon. H. F. Talbot.


   E*tym"ic (?), a. Relating to the etymon; as, an etymic word.


   Et`y*mol"o*ger (?), n. An etymologist.


   Et`y*mo*log"ic*al  (?),  a. [L. etymologicus, Gr. \'82timilogique. See
   Etymology.]  Pertaining  to  etymology, or the derivation of words. --
   Et`y*mo*log"ic*al*ly, adv.


   Et`y*mo*log"i*con  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. an etymological dictionary or


   Et`y*mol"o*gist (?), n. [Cf. F. \'82tymologiste.] One who investigates
   the derivation of words.


   Et`y*mol"o*gize  (?),  v.  t.  [Cf.  F.  \'82tymologiser.] To give the
   etymology of; to trace to the root or primitive, as a word. Camden


   Et`y*mol"o*gize,  v.  t. To search into the origin of words; to deduce
   words from their simple roots.

     How perilous it is to etymologize at random. Trench.


   Et`y*mol"o*gy   (?),  n.;  pl.  Etymologies  (#).  [L.etymologia,  Gr.
   \'82tymologie. See Etymon, and -logy.]

   1.  That branch of philological science which treats of the history of
   words,  tracing  out their origin, primitive significance, and changes
   of from and meaning.

   2.  That  pert  of grammar which relates to the changes in the form of
   the words in a language; inflection.


   Et"y*mon  (?),  n.;  pl.  E.  Etymons (#), Gr. Etyma (#). [L., fr. Gr.
   sotya,  E.  sooth.  See  Sooth.]  1. An original form; primitive word;

   2. Original or fundamental signification. [R.]

     Given as the etymon or genuine sense of the word. Coleridge.


   E*typ"ic*al  (?),  a. [Pref. e- + typical.] (Biol.) Diverging from, or
   lacking conformity to, a type.


   Eu  (?). [Gr. su, from the same root as E. is; or with Skr. vasu good,
   prob.  fr.  the  same  root  as  E.  was.] A prefix used frequently in
   composition,  signifying  well, good, advantageous; -- the opposite of


   Eu*cai"rite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Min.)  A metallic mineral, a selenide of
   copper  and  silver; -- so called by Berzelius on account of its being
   found soon after the discovery of the metal selenium.


   Eu"ca*lyn  (?),  n.  (Chem.)  An  unfermentable  sugar, obtained as an
   uncrystallizable sirup by the decomposition of melitose; also obtained
   from a Tasmanian eucalyptus, -- whence its name.


   Eu`ca*lyp*tol (?), n. [Eucalyptus + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.) A volatile,
   terpenelike  oil extracted from the eucalyptus, and consisting largely
   of cymene.


   Eu`ca*lyp"tus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  from  GR. (Bot.) A myrtaceous genus of
   trees,  mostly Australian. Many of them grow to an immense height, one
   or two species exceeding the height even of the California Sequoia.

     NOTE: &hand; Th ey ha ve ri gid, entire leaves with one edge turned
     toward  the zenith. Most of them secrete resinous gums, whence they
     called  gum  trees,  and their timber is of great value. Eucalyptus
     Globulus  is  the  blue  gum;  E.  aigantea,  the  stringy bark: E.
     amygdalina,  the  peppermint  tree.  E. Gunnii, the Tasmanian cider
     tree, yields a refreshing drink from wounds made in the bark in the
     spring.  Center  species yield oils, tars, acids, dyes and tans. It
     is  said that miasmatic valleys in Algeria and Portugal, and a part
     of  the unhealthy Roman Campagna, have been made more salubrious by
     planting groves of these trees.


   Eu"cha*ris  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. L. eucharis agreeable, Gr. Eucharist.]
   (Bot.) A genus of South American amaryllidaceous plants with large and
   beautiful white blossoms.


   Eu"cha*rist (?), n. [L. euchaistia, Gr. yearn: cf. F. euchaistie.]

   1. The act of giving thanks; thanksgiving. [Obs.]

     Led  through  the  vale  of  tears  to  the region of eucharist and
     hallelujahs. South.

   2.  (Eccl.)  The  sacrament  of  the  Lord's Supper; the solemn act of
   ceremony of commemorating the death of Christ, in the use of bread and
   wine, as the appointed emblems; the communion. -- See Sacrament.

                          Eucharistic, Eucharistical

   Eu`cha*ris"tic (?), Eu`cha*ris"tic*al (?), a. [Cf. F. eucharistie.]

   1. Giving thanks; expressing thankfulness; rejoicing. [Obs.]

     The eucharistical part of our daily devotions. Ray.

   2.  Pertaining to the Lord's Supper. "The eucharistic sacrament." Sir.
   G. C. Lewis.


   Eu"chite  (?),  n.  [From  Gr.  One who resolves religion into prayer.
   [Obs.] Gauden.


   Eu*chlo"ric  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Chem.)  Relating  to,  or consisting of,
   euchlorine; as, euchloric . Davy.


   Eu*chlo"rine  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. euchlorine. See Euchloric.] (Chem.) A
   yellow  or  greenish  yellow gas, first prepared by Davy, evolved from
   potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid. It is supposed to consist of
   chlorine tetroxide with some free chlorine.

                            Euchologion, Euchology

   Eu`cho*lo"gi*on  (?),  Eu*chol"o*gy  (?),  n.  [NL.  euchologion,  Gr.
   (Eccl.)  A  formulary  of  prayers;  the  book of offices in the Greek
   Church, containing the liturgy, sacraments, and forms of prayers.


   Eu"cho*logue, n. [F. euchologe.] Euchology. [R.]


   Eu"chre  (?),  n.  [Perh. from F. \'82cart\'82.] A game at cards, that
   may be played by two, three, or four persons, the highest card (except
   when  an  extra  card called the Joker is used) being the knave of the
   same  suit  as the trump, and called right bower, the lowest card used
   being  the  seven, or frequently, in two-handed euchre, the nine spot.
   See Bower.


   Eu"chre, v. t.

   1. To defeat, in a game of euchre, the side that named the trump.

   2. To defeat or foil thoroughly in any scheme. [Slang.]


   Eu*chro"ic  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Chem.) Having a fine color. Euchroic acid
   (Chem.),  an  organic, imide acid, obtained as a colorless crystalline
   substance,  C12H4N2O8 by heating an ammonium salt of mellitic acid. By
   reduction  it is changed to a dark blue substance (euchrone), -- hence
   its name.
   Eu"chro*ite  (?),  n.  [See  Euchroic.]  (Min.) A mineral occurring in
   transparent emerald green crystals. It is hydrous arseniate of copper.

   Eu"chrone  (?) n. (Chem.) A substance obtained from euchroic acid. See


   Eu"chy*my  (?),  n.  [Gr.  Chyme.] (Med.) A good state of he blood and
   other fluids of the body.


   Eu"clase   (?)  n.  [Gr.  euclase,  G.  euklas.  See  named  from  its
   brittleness.]   (Min.)   A  brittle  gem  occurring  in  light  green,
   transparent crystals, affording a brilliant clinodiagonal cleavage. It
   is a silicate of alumina and glucina.


   Eu"clid (?), n. A Greek geometer of the 3d century


   Eu*clid"i*an  (?), n. Related to Euclid, or to the geometry of Euclid.
   Euclidian  space  (Geom.),  the  kind of space to which the axioms and
   definitions  of Euclid, relative to straight lines and parallel lines,
   apply; -- called also flat space, and homaloidal space.


   Eu`co*pep"o*da  (?),  n.  pl. [NL. See Eu- and Copepoda.] (Zo\'94l.) A
   group which includes the typical copepods and the lerneans.


   Eu"cra*sy  (?). [Gr. eucrasie.] (Med.) Such a due mixture of qualities
   in bodies as constitutes health or soundness. Quincy.


   Euc"tic*al (?) [Gr. Expecting a wish; supplicatory. [R.]

     Sacrifices  .  .  .  distinguished  into  expiatory,  euctical, and
     eucharistical. Bp. Law.

                              Eudemon, Eud\'91mon

   Eu*de"mon, Eu*d\'91"mon (?), n. [Gr. A good angel. Southey.

                           Eudemonics, Eud\'91monics

   Eu`de*mon"ics, Eu`d\'91*mon"ics (?), n. [Gr. Eudemonism.] That part of
   moral  philosophy which treats of happiness; the science of happiness;
   -- contrasted with aretaics. J. Grote.

                           Eudemonism, Eud\'91monism

   Eu*de"mon*ism,  Eu*d\'91"mon*ism  (?),  n. [Gr. Demon.] That system of
   ethics  which defines and enforces moral obligation by its relation to
   happiness or personal well-being.

                           Eudemonist, Eud\'91monist

   Eu*de"mon*ist, Eu*d\'91"mon*ist, n. One who believes in eudemonism.

     I  am  too much of a eud\'91monist; I hanker too much after a state
     of happiness both for myself and others. De Quincey.

                         Eudemonistic, Eud\'91monistic

   Eu*de`mon*is"tic  ,  Eu*d\'91`mon*is"tic  (?),  a. Of or pertaining to

                       Eudemonistical, Eud\'91monistical

   Eu*de`mon*is"tic*al, Eu*d\'91`mon*is"tic*al (?), a. Eudemonistic.


   Eu*di"a*lyte (?), n. [Gr. (Min.) A mineral of a brownish red color and
   vitreous   luster,  consisting  chiefly  of  the  silicates  of  iron,
   zirconia, and lime.


   Eu`di*om"e*ter  (?),  n. [Gr. -meter: cf. F. ediom\'8atre.] (Chem.) An
   instrument  for  the  volumetric  measurement  of  gases;  -- so named
   because frequently used to determine the purity of the air.

     NOTE: &hand; It   us ually co nsists of  a  fi nely gr aduated an d
     calibrated glass tube, open at one end, the bottom; and having near
     the  top a pair of platinum wires fused in, to allow the passage of
     an  electric  spark,  as  the  process  involves  the explosion and
     combustion  of  one  of  the  ingredients  to  be  determined.  The
     operation  is  conducted in a through of mercury, or sometimes over
     water.  Cf.  Burette. Use's ediometer has the tube bent in the form
     of the letter. U.

                          Eudiometric, Eudiometrical

   Eu`di*o*met"ric  (?), Eu`di*o*met"ric*al (?), a. Of or pertaining to a
   eudiometer; as, eudiometrical experiments or results.


   Eu`di*om"e*try  (?),  n.  [Cf.  F. eudiom\'82trie.] (Chem.) The art or
   process  of  determining he constituents of a gaseous mixture by means
   of  the  eudiometer,  or for ascertaining the purity of the air or the
   amount of oxygen in it.


   Eu`di*pleu"ra  (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Biol.) The fundamental forms
   of  organic  life,  that  are  composed  of  two equal and symmetrical
   halves. Syd. Soc. Lex.


   Eu*dox"i*an (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Eudoxius, patriarch of
   Antioch  and  Constantinople  in  the  4th  century,  and a celebrated
   defender of the doctrines of Arius.


   Eu`ga*noi"de*i  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr.  GR.  ganoidei. See Ganoid.]
   (Zo\'94l) A group which includes the bony ganoids, as the gar pikes.


   Eu"ge (?), n. [L., well done! bravo! Gr. Applause. [Obs.] Hammond.


   Eu*ge"ui*a  (?),  n.  [NL.  Named in honor of Prince Eugene of Savoy.]
   (Bot.) A genus of mytraceous plants, mostly of tropical countries, and
   including several aromatic trees and shrubs, among which are the trees
   which produce allspice and cloves of commerce.


   Eu*gen"ic  (?),  a.  [See  Eugenia.] (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived
   from, cloves; as, eugenic acid.


   Eu*den"ic (?), a. [Gr. Well-born; of high birth. Atlantic Monthly.


   Eu*gen"ics  (?),  n.  The science of improving stock, whether human or
   animal. F. Galton.


   Eu"ge*nin (?), n. (Chem.) A colorless, crystalline substance extracted
   from oil of cloves; -- called also clove camphor.


   Eu"ge*nol  (?),  n.  [Eugenia  +  -ol.] (Chem.) A colorless, aromatic,
   liquid  hydrocarbon,  C10H12O2  resembling the phenols, and hence also
   called  eugenic  acid.  It is found in the oils of pimento and cloves.
   <-- used as an analgesic in dentistry. -->


   Eu"ge*ny (?). [Gr. Nobleness of birth. [Obs.]

                              Eugetic, Eugetinic

   Eu*get"ic  (?),  Eu`ge*tin"ic (?), a. (Chem) Pertaining to, or derived
   from, eugenol; as, eugetic acid.


   Eugh (?), n. [See Yew.] The yew. [Obs.] Dryden.

                              Eugubian, Eugubine

   Eu*gu"bi*an  (?),  Eu"gu*bine  (?), a. Of or pertaining to the ancient
   town of Eugubium (now Gubbio); as, the Eugubine tablets, or tables, or


   Eu`har*mon"ic  (?),  a.  [Pref.  -eu  +  harmonic.]  (Mus.)  Producing
   mathematically  perfect  harmony  or  concord;  sweetly  or  perfectly


   Eu*hem"er*ism (?) n. [L. Euhemerus, Gr. The theory, held by Euhemerus,
   that  the  gods of mythology were but deified mortals, and their deeds
   only the amplification in imagination of human acts.


   Eu*hem"er*ist, n. One who advocates euhemerism.


   Eu*hem`er*is"tic (?), a. Of or pertaining to euhemerism.


   Eu*hem"er*ize  (?)  v.  t.  To  interpret (mythology) on the theory of


   Eu`i*sop"o*da  (?).  pl. [NL. See Eu- and Isopoda.] (Zo\'94l.) A group
   which includes the typical Isopoda.


   Eu"la*chon  (?),  n.  [Native Indian name.] (Zo\'94l.) The candlefish.
   [Written also oulachan, oolacan, and ulikon.] See Candlefish.


   Eu*le"ri*an  (?)  a.  Pertaining  Euler, a German mathematician of the
   18th  century.  Eulerian  integrals,  certain definite integrals whose
   properties were first investigated by Euler.

                              Eulogic, Eulogical

   Eu*log"ic  (?), Eu*log"ic*al (?), a. [See Eulogy.] Bestowing praise of
   eulogy; commendatory; eulogistic. [R.] -- Eu*log"ic*al*ly, adv. [R.]


   Eu"lo*gist (?) n. One who eulogizes or praises; panegyrist; encomiast.

                           Eulogistic, Eulogistical

   Eu`lo*gis"tic  (?),  Eu`lo*gis"tic*al  (?),  a.  Of  or  pertaining to
   eulogy;   characterized  by  eulogy;  bestowing  praise;  panegyrical;
   commendatory;  laudatory;  as,  eulogistic  speech  or  discourse.  --
   Eu"lo*gis"tic*al*ly, adv.


   Eu*lo"gi*um  (?) n.; pl. Eulogiums (#). [LL., fr. Gr. A formal eulogy.


   Eu"lo*gize  (?)  v.  t.  [imp.  &  p.  p.  Eulogized. (p. pr. & vb. n.
   Eulogizing  (?).]  To  speak or write in commendation of (another); to
   extol in speech or writing; to praise.


   Eu"lo*gy  (?), n.; pl. Eulogies (#). [Gr. Eulogium, and see Legend.] A
   speech  or  writing  in commendation of the character or services of a
   person; as, a fitting eulogy to worth.

     Eulogies turn into elegies. Spenser.

   Syn.  --  Encomium;  praise; panegyric; applause. -- Eulogy, Eulogium,
   Encomium,  Panegyric. The idea of praise is common to all these words.
   The  word  encomium  is  used of both persons and things which are the
   result  of  human action, and denotes warm praise. Eulogium and eulogy
   apply  only  to  persons and are more studied and of greater length. A
   panegyric  was  originally  a  set  speech  in  a full assembly of the
   people,  and  hence  denotes a more formal eulogy, couched in terms of
   warm  and  continuous  praise, especially as to personal character. We
   may  bestow  encomiums  on  any  work of art, on production of genius,
   without reference to the performer; we bestow eulogies, or pronounce a
   eulogium,  upon  some  individual  distinguished  for his merit public
   services; we pronounce a panegyric before an assembly gathered for the


   Eu"ly*tite  (?),  n.  [Gr. (Min.) a mineral, consisting chiefly of the
   silicate of bismuth, found at Freiberg; -- called also culytine.


   Eu*men"i*des  (?),  n.  pl. [L., from Gr. (Class. Myth.) A euphemistic
   name for the Furies of Erinyes.


   Eu*mol"pus  (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A genus of small beetles,
   one  species  of which (E. viti) is very injurious to the vines in the
   wine countries of Europe.


   Eu*no"mi*an  (?),  n.  (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Eunomius, bishop of
   Cyzicus  (4th  century  A. D.), who held that Christ was not God but a
   created  being,  having a nature different from that of the Father. --
   a. Of or pertaining to Eunomius or his doctrine.


   Eu"no*my  (?),  n.  [Gr. Equal law, or a well-adjusted constitution of
   government. [R.] Mitford.


   Eu"nuch  (?),  n.  [L.  eunuchus,  Gr.  A  male  of  the human species
   castrated;  commonly,  one  of  a  class  of such persons, in Oriental
   countries,  having  charge of the women's apartments. Some of them, in
   former times, gained high official rank.

                               Eunuch, Eunuchate

   Eu"nuch  (?),  Eu"nuch*ate, v. t. [L. eunuchare.] To make a eunuch of;
   to castrate. as a man. Creech. Sir. T. Browne.


   Eu"nuch*ism  (?),  n.  [L.  eunuchismus  an  unmanning, Gr. eunuchisme
   eunuchism.] The state of being eunuch. Bp. Hall.


   Eu*on"y*min  (?),  n.  (Med.)  A  principle  or  mixture of principles
   derived from Euonymus atropurpureus, or spindle tree.


   Eu*on"y*mus  (?), n. [NL. (cf. L. euonymos). fr. Gr. (Bot.) A genus of
   small  European and American trees; the spindle tree. The bark is used
   as a cathartic.


   Eu`or*ni"thes  (?),  n.  pl. [NL., fr., Gr. (Zo\'94l.) The division of
   Aves  which includes all the typical birds, or all living birds except
   the penguins and birds of ostrichlike form.


   Eu*os"mitte  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Min.) A fossil resin, so called from its
   strong, peculiar, pleasant odor.


   Eu"pa*thy (?), n. [Gr. Eu-, and Pathetic.] Right feeling. [R.] Harris.

                             Eupatorin Eupatorine

   Eu*pat"o*rin  Eu*pat"o*rine  (?),  n. (Med.) A principle or mixture of
   principles extracted from various species of Eupatorium.


   Eu`pa*to"ri*um (?), n. [NL., fr. Eupator, king of Pontus, said to have
   used  it  as a medicine.] (Bot.) A genus of perennial, composite herbs
   including hemp agrimony, boneset, throughwort, etc.


   Eu"pa*trid (?), n. [Gr. One well born, or of noble birth.

                               Eupepsia, Eupepsy

   Eu*pep"si*a  (?),  Eu*pep"sy  (?),  n.  [NL.  eupepsia, Fr. Gr. (Med.)
   Soundness  of  the  nutritive  or digestive organs; good concoction or
   digestion; -- opposed to dyspepsia.


   Eu*pep"tic  (?),  a.  [Gr. Of or pertaining to good digestion; easy of
   digestion;  having  a  good  digestion; as, eupeptic food; an eupeptic

     Wrapt in lazy eupeptic fat. Carlyle.


   Eu"phe*mism (?), n. [Gr. euph\'82misme. See Fame.] (Rhet.) A figure in
   which  a  harts or indelicate word or expression is softened; a way of
   describing  an  offensive  thing  by an inoffensive expression; a mild
   name for something disagreeable.

                          Euphemistic, Euphemistical

   Eu`phe*mis"tic (?), Eu`phe*mis"tic*al (?), a. Pertaining to euphemism;
   containing     a     euphemism;    softened    in    expression.    --
   Eu`phe*mis"tic*al*ly, adv.


   Eu"phe*mize (?), v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Euphemized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n.  Euphemizing.]  [Gr.  To  express  by  a  euphemism, or in delicate
   language; to make use of euphemistic expressions.


   Eu*pho"ni*ad  (?), n. [See Euphony.] (Mus.) An instrument in which are
   combined  the  characteristic  tones  of  the  organ and various other
   instruments. [R.]

                             Euphonic, Euphonical

   Eu*phon"ic  (?),  Eu*phon"ic*al  (?), a. Pertaining to, or exhibiting,
   euphony;  agreeable  in  sound; pleasing to the ear; euphonious; as, a
   euphonic expression; euphonical orthography.

   Page 515


   Eu*phon"i*con (?), n. [See Euphony.] (Mus.) A kind of uptight piano.


   Eu*pho"ni*ous   (?),   a.   Pleasing  or  sweet  in  sound;  euphonic;
   smooth-sounding. Hallam. -- Eu*pho"ni*ous*ly, adv.


   Eu"pho*nism (?), n. An agreeable combination of sounds; euphony.


   Eu*pho"ni*um  (?),  n.  [NL. See Euphony.] (Mus.) A bass instrument of
   the saxhorn family.


   Eu"pho*nize (?), v. t. To make euphonic. [R.]


   Eu"pho*non  (?), n. [See Euphony.] (Mus.) An instrument resembling the
   organ  in  tine  and the upright piano in form. It is characterized by
   great strength and sweetness of tone.


   Eu"pho*nous (?), n. Euphonious. [R.]


   Eu"pho*ny  (?),  n.; pl. Euphonies (#). [L. euphonia, Gr. euphonie.] A
   pleasing  or  sweet  sound;  an  easy, smooth enunciation of sounds; a
   pronunciation of letters and syllables which is pleasing to the ear.


   Eu*phor"bi*a  (?),  n. [NL., fr. L. euphorbea. See Euphorrium.] (Bot.)
   Spurge,  or  bastard spurge, a genus of plants of many species, mostly
   shrubby,  herbaceous succulents, affording an acrid, milky juice. Some
   of  them are armed with thorns. Most of them yield powerful emetic and
   cathartic products.

                          Euphorbiaceous, Euphorbial

   Eu*phor`bi*a"ceous  (?), Eu*phor"bi*al (?), a. (Bot.) Of, relating to,
   or resembling, the Euphorbia family.

                             Euphorbin Euphorbine

   Eu*phor"bin  Eu*phor"bine  (?),  n.  (Med.) A principle, or mixture of
   principles, derived from various species of Euphorbia.


   Eu*phor"bi*um  (?),  n. [NL., fr. L. euphorbeum, from Gr. Euphorbus, a
   Greek  physician.]  (Med.) An inodorous exudation, usually in the form
   of yellow tears, produced chiefly by the African Euphorbia resinifrea.
   It  was formerly employed medicinally, but was found so violent in its
   effects that its use is nearly abandoned.


   Eu"pho*tide  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Min.)  A  rock  occurring  in  the Alps,
   consisting of saussurite and smaragdite; -- sometimes called gabbro.


   Eu"phra*sy  (?),  n.  [NL.  euphrasia, fr. Gr. eufrasia, F. eufrasie.]
   (Bot.)  The plant eyesight (euphrasia officionalis), formerly regarded
   as beneficial in disorders of the eyes.

     Then purged with euphrasy and rue The visual nerve, for he had much
     to see. Milton.


   Eu"phroe  (?),  n.  [Etymol. uncertain.] A block or long slat of wood,
   perforated  for  the  passage  of  the  crowfoot, or cords by which an
   awning is held up. [Written also uphroe and uvrou.] Knight.


   Eu"phu*ism  (?), n. [Gr. Euphues, or the Anatomy of Wit," and "Euphues
   and  his  England."]  (Rhet.) An affectation of excessive elegance and
   refinement of language; high-flown diction.


   Eu"phu*ist,  n.  One  who affects excessive refinement and elegance of
   language;  --  applied  esp.  to  a  class  of  writers, in the age of
   Elizabeth,  whose  productions  are  marked  by  affected conceits and
   high-flown diction.


   Eu`phu*is"tic  (?),  a.  Belonging  to  the  euphuists,  or  euphuism;
   affectedly refined.


   Eu"phu*ize  (?),  v. t. To affect excessive refinement in language; to
   be overnice in expression.


   Eu"pi*one  (?),  n. [Gr. (Chem.) A limpid, oily liquid obtained by the
   destructive  distillation  of various vegetable and animal substances;
   --  specifically, an oil consisting largely of the higher hydrocarbons
   of the paraffin series. [Written also eupion.]


   Eu*pit"tone  (?),  n. [Pref. eu- + pittacal + -one.] (Chem.) A yellow,
   crystalline substance, resembling aurin, and obtained by the oxidation
   of pittacal; -- called also eupittonic acid. [Written also eupitton.]


   Eu`pit*ton"ic   (?),  a.  (Chem.)  Pertaining  to,  or  derived  from,


   Eu*plas"tic (?), a. [Pref. eu- + -plastic.] (Med.) Having the capacity
   of  becoming  organizable  in a high degree, as the matter forming the
   false  membranes  which  sometimes result from acute inflammation in a
   healthy person. Dunglison.


   Eu*plas"tic,  n.  (Med.) Organizable substance by which the tissues of
   an animal body are renewed.


   Eu`plec*tel"la  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l) A genus of elegant,
   glassy sponges, consisting of interwoven siliceous fibers, and growing
   in the form of a cornucopia; -- called also Venus's flower-basket.


   Eu`plex*op"te*ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of insects,
   including  the  earwig.  The  anterior wings are short, in the form of
   elytra, while the posterior wings fold up beneath them. See Earwig.


   Eup*n\'91"a  (?),  n.  [NL., fr. gr. (Physiol.) Normal breathing where
   arterialization   of   the   blood  is  normal,  in  distinction  from
   dyspn\'91a, in which the blood is insufficiently arterialized. Foster.


   Eu*pry"i*on   (?),  n.  [Gr.  A  contrivance  for  obtaining  a  light
   instantaneous, as a lucifer match. Brande & C.


   Eu*ra"sian (?), n. [European + Asian.]

   1.  A child of a European parent on the one side and an Asiatic on the

   2. One born of European parents in Asia.


   Eu*ra"sian  (?),  a. Of European and Asiatic descent; of or pertaining
   to both Europe and Asia; as, the great Eurasian plain.


   Eu*ra`si*at"io  (?),  a. (Geog.) Of or pertaining to the continents of
   Europe and Asia combined.


   Eu*re"ka  (?).  [Gr.  The exclamation attributed to Archimedes, who is
   said  to  have  cried  out  "Eureka! eureka!" (I have found it! I have
   found it!), upon suddenly discovering a method of finding out how much
   the  gold of King Hiero's crown had been alloyed. Hence, an expression
   of triumph concerning a discovery.


   Eu*rhip`i*du"rous  (?),  a.  [Gr.  (Zo\'94l.)  Having  a fanlike tail;
   belonging to the Eurhipidur\'91, a division of Aves which includes all
   living birds.


   Eu"ri*pize  (?),  v.  t.  [See  Euripus.] To whirl hither and thither.


   Eu*ri"pus  (?),  n.  [L.,  fr.  Gr. A strait; a narrow tract of water,
   where  the tide, or a current, flows and reflows with violence, as the
   ancient  fright  of this name between Eub\'91a and B\'91otia. Hence, a
   flux and reflux. Burke.


   Eu"ritte  (?),  n. [Cf. F. eurite.] (Min.) A compact feldspathic rock;
   felsite. See Felsite.


   Eu*rit"ic (?), a. Of or pelating to eurite.


   Eu*roc"ly*don (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. i. e. a north-east wind, as in the
   Latin  Yulgate  Euro-aquilo.] A tempestuous northeast wind which blows
   in the Mediterranean. See Levanter.

     A tempestuous wind called Euroclydon. Acts xxvii. 14.


   Eu`ro*pe"an  (?),  a. [L. europeaus, Gr. europa.)] Of or pertaining to
   Europe,  or to its inhabitants. On the European plain, having rooms to
   let,  and leaving it optional with guests whether they will take meals
   in the house; -- said of hotels. [U. S.]


   Eu`ro*pe"an, n. A native or an inhabitant of Europe.


   Eu`ro*pe"an*ize  (?),  v.  t. To cause to become like the Europeans in
   manners or character; to habituate or accustom to European usages.

     A state of society . . . changed and Europenized. Lubbock.


   Eu"rus (?), n. [L., gr. The east wind.


   Eu*ry"a*le (?), n. [NL., fr. Euryale, one of the Gorgons.]

   1.  (Bot.)  A  genus  of water lilies, growing in India and China. The
   only  species  (E.  ferox) is very prickly on the peduncles and calyx.
   The rootstocks and seeds are used as food.

   2. (Zo\'94l) A genus of ophiurans with much-branched arms.


   Eu`ry*al"i*da  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.] (Zo\'94l.) A tribe of Ophiuroidea,
   including  the  genera  Euryale, Astrophyton, etc. They generally have
   the arms branched. See Astrophyton.


   Eu*ryc"er*ous (?), a. [Gr. (Zo\'94l.) Having broad horns.


   Eu*ryp"ter*oid  (?),  a.  [Eurypterus  +  -oid.]  (Paleon.)  Like,  or
   pertaining to, the genus Euryperus.


   Eu*ryp`te*roi"de*a  (?),  n.  pl. [NL. See Eurypteroid.] (Paleont.) An
   extinct  order  of  Merostomata,  of which the genus Eurypterus is the
   type.   They   are  found  only  in  Paleozoic  rocks.  [Written  also


   Eu*ryp"te*rus  (?),  n.  [NL.,  fr.  Gr.  (Paleon.) A genus of extinct
   Merostomata,  found  in  Silurian  rocks. Some of the species are more
   than three feet long.


   Eu"ryth*my (?), n. [L. eurythmia, Gr. eurythmie.]

   1.  (Fine  Arts)  Just or harmonious proportion or movement, as in the
   composition of a poem, an edifice, a painting, or a statue.

   2. (Med.) Regularly of the pulse.


   Eu*se"bi*an  (?),  n.  (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Eusebius, bishop of
   C\'91sarea, who was a friend and protector of Arius.


   Eu*sta"chi*an  (?), a. [From Eustachi, a learned Italian physician who
   died  in  Rome,  1574.]  (Anat.)  (a)  Discovered  by  Eustachius. (b)
   Pertaining to the Eustachian tube; as, Eustachian catheter. Eustachian
   catheter,  a  tubular  instrument to be introduced into the Eustachian
   tube so as to allow of inflation of the middle ear through the nose or
   mouth. -- Eustrachian tube (Anat.), a passage from the tympanum of the
   ear   to  the  pharynx.  See  Ear.  --  Eustachian  valve  (Anat.),  a
   crescent-shaped  fold  of  the  lining  membrane  of  the heart at the
   entrance  of  the vena cava inferior. It directs the blood towards the
   left  auricle in the fetus, but is rudimentary and functionless in the


   Eu"style` (?), n. [Gr. eustyle.] (Arch.) See Intercolumnlation.


   Eu"tax*y   (?),  n.  [Gr.  eutaxie.]  Good  or  established  order  or
   arrangement. [R.] E. Waterhouse.


   Eu*ter"pe (?). [L., fr. Gr.

   1. (Class. Myth.) The Muse who presided over music.

   2. (Bot.) A genus of palms, some species of which are elegant trees.


   Eu*ter"pe*an (?) a. Of or pertaining to Euterpe or to music.


   Eu`tha*na"si*a (?) n. [NL., fr. Gr. euthanasie.] An easy death; a mode
   of dying to be desired. "An euthanasia of all thought." Hazlitt.

     The kindest wish of my friends is euthanasia. Arbuthnot.

   <--  2.  A  putting to death for humane purposes. Used to refer to the
   killing of animals to relieve or avoid pain. -->


   Eu*than"a*sy (?), n. Same as Euthanasia.


   Eu`thi*o*chro"ic  (?),  a. [Gr. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or denoting, an
   acid  so  called.  Euthiochroic  acid (Chem.), a complex derivative of
   hydroquinone  and  sulphonic  (thionic)  acid. -- so called because it
   contains sulphur, and forms brilliantly colored (yellow) salts.


   Eu`thy*neu"ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (Zo\'94l.) A large division of
   gastropod molluske, including the Pulmonifera and Opisthobranchiata.


   Eu"tro*phy (?), n. [Gr. (Med.) Healthy nutrition; soundless as regards
   the nutritive functions.


   Eu*tych"i*an  (?),  n.  (Eccl.  Hist.)  A  follower  of  Eutyches [5th
   century],  who  held  that  the  divine and the human in the person of
   Christ  were  blended  together  as  to  constitute  but one nature; a
   monophysite; -- opposed to Nestorian.


   Eu*tych"i*an*ism  (?),  n.  (Eccl. Hist.) The doctrine of Eutyches and
   his followers.


   Eux*an"thic  (?)  a.  (Chem.)  Having  a  yellow color; pertaining to,
   derived  from,  or  resembling,  euxanthin.  Euxanthic acid (Chem.), a
   yellow, crystalline, organic acid, extracted from euxanthin.


   Eux*an"thin  (?), n. [Gr. (Chem.) A yellow pigment imported from India
   and  China.  It has a strong odor, and is said to be obtained from the
   urine  of  herbivorous animals when fed on the mango. It consists if a
   magnesium salt of euxanthic acid. Called also puri, purree, and Indian


   Eux"e*nite  (?),  n.  [Gr.  (Min.)  A  brownish  black  mineral with a
   metallic  luster,  found  in  Norway.  It  contains niobium, titanium,
   yttrium, and uranium, with some other metals.


   E*va"cate (?), v. t. [Pref. e- + vacate.] To empty. [Obs.] Harvey.


   E*vac"u*ant  (?),  a.  [L.evacuans, -antis, p. pr. of evacuare: cf. F.
   \'82vacuant.] Emptying; evacuative; purgative; cathartic. -- n. (Med.)
   A purgative or cathartic.


   E*vac"u*ate  (?),  v.  t. [imp. & p. p. Evacuated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Evacuating.] [l. evacuatus, p. p. of evacuare to empty, nullify; e out
   + vacuus empty, vacare to be empty. See Vacate.]

   1.  To  make  empty;  to  empty out; to remove the contents of; as, to
   evacuate a vessel or dish.

   2. Fig.: To make empty; to deprive. [R.]

     Evacuate the Scriptures of their most important meaning. Coleriage.

   3.  To  remove;  to  eject; to void; o discharge, as the contents of a
   vessel, or of the bowels.

   4.  To  withdraw  from;  to  quit; to retire from; as, soldiers from a
   country, city, or fortress.

     The Norwegians were forced to evacuate the country. Burke.

   5.  To make void; to nullify; to vacate; as, to evacuate a contract or
   marriage. [Obs.] Bacon.


   E*vac"u*ate, v. i. To let blood [Obs.] Burton.


   E*vac`u*a"tion (?), n. [L. evacuatio: cf. F. \'82vacuation.]

   1.  The  act  of  emptying,  clearing of the contents, or discharging.
   Specifically:  (a)  (Mil.) Withdrawal of troops from a town, fortress,
   etc.  (b) (Med.) Voidance of any matter by the natural passages of the
   body  or  by  an artificial opening; defecation; also, a diminution of
   the  fluids  of  an  animal  body by cathartics, venesection, or other

   2.  That  which is evacuated or discharged; especially, a discharge by
   stool or other natural means. Quincy.

   3. Abolition; nullification. [Obs.] Hooker.
   Evacuation  day,  the anniversary of the day on which the British army
   evacuated the city of New York, November 25, 1783.


   E*vac"u*a*tive  (?),  a.  [Cf. F. \'82vacuatif.] Serving of tending to
   evacuate; cathartic; purgative.


   E*vac"u*a`tor  (?),  n. One who evacuates; a nullifier. "Evacuators of
   the law." Hammond.


   E*vac"u*a*to*ry (?), n. A purgative.


   E*vade"  (v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Evaded; p. pr. & vb. n.. Evading.] [L.
   evadere,  evasum,  e out + vadere to go, walk: cf. F. s'\'82vader. See
   Wade.]   To  get  away  from  by  artifice;  to  avoid  by  dexterity,
   subterfuge,  address, or ingenuity; to elude; to escape from cleverly;
   as, to evade a blow, a pursuer, a punishment; to evade the force of an

     The  heathen  had  a  method,  more truly their own, of evading the
     Christian miracles. Trench.


   E*vade", v. t.

   1.  To  escape;  to  slip  away; -- sometimes with from. "Evading from
   perils." Bacon.

     Unarmed  they  might  Have easily, as spirits evaded swift By quick
     contraction or remove. Milton.

   2.  To  attempt  to escape; to practice artifice or sophistry, for the
   purpose of eluding.

     The  ministers of God are not to evade and take refuge any of these
     . . . ways. South.

   Syn>- To equivocate; shuffle. See Prevaricate.


   E*vad"i*ble (?), a. Capable of being evaded. [R.]


   Ev`a*ga"tion (?), n. [L. evagatio, fr. evagari to wander forth: cf. F.
   \'82vagation.  See  Vagary.]  A  wandering about; excursion; a roving.
   [R.] Ray.


   E*vag`i*na"tion  (?),  n.  [L.  evaginatio  an extending, evaginare to
   unsheathe; e out + vagina sheath.] The act of unsheathing.


   E"val  (?), a. [L. aevum lifetime, age, eternity.] Relating to time or
   duration. [Obs.]


   E*val"u*ate (?), v. t. [See Evaluation.] To fix the value of; to rate;
   to appraise.


   E*val`u*a"tion   (?),   n.  [Cf.  F.  \'82valuation,  LL.  evaluatio.]
   Valuation; appraisement. J. S. Mill.


   Ev`a*nesce"  (?),  v.  i. [imp. & p. p. Evanesced (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Evanescing. (.] [L. evanescere; e out + vanescere to vanish, fr. vanus
   empty,  vain.  See  Vain, and cf. Evanish.] To vanish away; to because
   dissipated and disappear, like vapor.

     I believe him to have evanesced or evaporated. De Quincey.


   Ev`a*nes"cence   (?),   n.   The  act  or  state  of  vanishing  away;
   disappearance;  as,  the  evanescence of vapor, of a dream, of earthly
   plants or hopes. Rambler.


   Ev`a*nes"cent (?), a. [L. evanescens, -entis, p. pr. of evanescere.]

   1.  Liable to vanish or pass away like vapor; vanishing; fleeting; as,
   evanescent joys.

     So  evanescent  are the fashions of the world in these particulars.

   2. Vanishing from notice; imperceptible.

     The  difference  between  right  and wrong, is some petty cases, is
     almost evanescent. Wollaston.


   Ev`a*nes"cent*ly, adv. In a vanishing manner; imperceptibly. Chalmers.


   E*van"gel  (?),  n.  [F.  \'82vangile, L. evangelium, Gr. Eu-, and cf.
   Evangely.]  Good  news;  announcement of glad tidings; especially, the
   gospel, or a gospel. Milton.

     Her funeral anthem is a glad evangel. Whittier.


   E`van*ge"li*an (?), a. Rendering thanks for favors.


   E`van*gel"ic  (?),  a.  [L.  evangelicus,  Gr.  \'82vang\'82lique. See
   Evangel.]  Belonging  to,  or  contained  in, the gospel; evangelical.
   "Evangelic truth." J. Foster.


   E`van*gel"ic*al (?), a.

   1. Contained in, or relating to, the four Gospels; as, the evangelical

   2.  Belonging  to,  agreeable  or  consonant  to, or contained in, the
   gospel,  or  the  truth  taught  in the New Testament; as, evangelical

   3.  Earnest for the truth taught in the gospel; strict in interpreting
   Christian doctrine; pre\'89minetly orthodox; -- technically applied to
   that  party  in the Church of England, and in the Protestant Episcopal
   Church,  which  holds  the doctrine of "Justification by Faith alone";
   the  Low  Church  party.  The  term  is also applied to other religion
   bodies not regarded as orthodox.
   Evangelical  Alliance, an alliance for mutual strengthening and common
   work,  comprising Christians of different denominations and countries,
   organized  in  Liverpool, England, in 1845. -- Evangelical Church. (a)
   The  Protestant Church in Germany. (b) A church founded by a fusion of
   Lutherans  and  Calvinists in Germany in 1817. -- Evangelical Union, a
   religion  sect  founded in Scotland in 1843 by the Rev. James Morison;
   -- called also Morisonians.


   E`van*gel"ic*al, n. One of evangelical principles.


   E`van*gel"ic*al*ism   (?),  n.  Adherence  to  evangelical  doctrines;
   evangelism. G. Eliot.


   E`van*gel"ic*al*ly, adv. In an evangelical manner.


   E`van*gel"ic*al*ness, n. State of being evangelical.


   E`van*gel"i*cism (?) n. Evangelical principles; evangelism.


   E*van`ge*lic"i*ty (?), n. Evangelicism.


   E*van"gel*ism  (?)  n.  The  preaching  or promulgation of the gospel.


   E*van"gel*ist,  n.  [F.  \'82vang\'82liste,  L. evangelista, fr. Gr. A
   bringer  of  the  glad tidings of Church and his doctrines. Specially:
   (a) A missionary preacher sent forth to prepare the way for a resident
   pastor;  an  itinerant missionary preacher. (b) A writer of one of the
   four  Gospels  (With  the definite article); as, the four evangelists,
   Matthew,  Mark, Luke, and John. (c) A traveling preacher whose efforts
   are chiefly directed to arouse to immediate repentance.

     The  Apostles,  so  far as they evangelized, might claim the tittle
     though there were many evangelists who were not Apistles. Plumptre.


   E*van`gel*is"ta*ry  (?),  n.  [LL.  evangelistarium.]  A  selection of
   passages from the Gospels, as a lesson in divine service. Porson.


   E*van`gel*is"tic  (?), a. Pertaining to the four evangelists; designed
   or fitted to evangelize; evangelical; as, evangelistic efforts.


   E*van`gel*i*za"tion (?) n. The act of evangelizing; the state of being

     The work of Christ's ministers is evangelization. Hobbes.


   E*van"gel*ize  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Evangelized (?); p. pr. & vb.
   n. Evangelizing (?)]. [F. \'82vang\'82lisre, LL. evangelizare, fr. Gr.
   To  instruct  in  the  gospel;  to preach the gospel to; to convert to
   Christianity; as, to evangelize the world.

     His apostles whom he sends To evangelize the nations. Milton.


   E*van"gel*ize, v. i. To preach the gospel.


   E*van"ge*ly (?), n. Evangel. [Obs.]

     The sacred pledge of Christ's evangely. Spenser.


   E*van"gile  (?),  n.  [F.  \'82vangile.  See  Evangel.]  Good tidings;
   evangel. [R.]

     Above all, the Servians . . . read, with much avidity, the evangile
     of their freedom. Londor.


   E*van"id  (?),  a. [L. evanidus, fr. evanescere. See Evanesce.] Liable
   to  vanish  or  disappear;  faint; weak; evanescent; as, evanid color.

     They are very transistory and evanid. Barrow.


   E*van"ish  (?),  v.  i.  [Pref.  e-  +  vanish: cf. L. evanescere. See
   Evanesce, vanish.] To vanish.

     Or  like  the  rainbow's  lovely  form,  Evanishing amid the storm.


   E*van"ish*ment (?), n. A vanishing; disappearance. [R.] T. Jefferson.


   E*vap"o*ra*ble  (?),  a.  Capable  of  being  converted into vapor, or
   dissipated by evaporation.


   E*vap"o*rate  (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Evaporated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Evaporating  (?).]  [L.  evaporatus, p. p. of evaporare; e out + vapor
   steam or vapor. See Vapor.]

   1.  To  pass  off  in  vapor, as a fluid; to escape and be dissipated,
   either in visible vapor, or in practice too minute to be visible.

   2.  To  escape  or  pass  off  without effect; to be dissipated; to be
   wasted,  as,  the  spirit of writer often evaporates in the process of

     To  give moderate liberty for griefs and discontents to evaporate .
     . . is a safe way. Bacon.


   E*vap"o*rate, v. t.

   1. To convert from a liquid or solid state into vapor (usually) by the
   agency of heat; to dissipate in vapor or fumes.

   2.  To  expel  moisture  from  (usually  by means of artificial heat),
   leaving the solid portion; to subject to evaporation; as, to evaporate

   3. To give vent to; to dissipate. [R.]

     My  lord  of  Essex  evaporated  his  thoughts in a sonnet. Sir. H.

   Evaporating  surface (Steam Boilers), that part of the heating surface
   with which water is in contact.


   E*vap"o*rate  (?),  a.  [L.  evaporatus,  p.  p.] Dispersed in vapors.


   E*vap`o*ra"tion (?), n. [L. evaporatio: cf. F. \'82vaporation.]

   1. The process by which any substance is converted from a liquid state
   into,  and  carried  off  in,  vapor; as, the evaporation of water, of
   ether, of camphor.

   2.  The transformation of a portion of a fluid into vapor, in order to
   obtain  the  fixed  matter  contained  in  it  in  a  state of greater

   3. That which is evaporated; vapor.

   4. (Steam Engine) See Vaporization.


   E*vap"o*ra*ive   (?),  a.  [L.  evaporatius:  cf.  F.  \'82vaporatif.]
   Pertaining to, or producing, evaporation; as, the evaporative process.


   E*vap"o*ra`tor  (?),  n. An apparatus for condensing vegetable juices,
   or for drying fruit by heat.


   E*vap`o*rom"e*ter  (?), n. [L. evaporare to evaporate + -meter: cf. F.
   \'82vaporm\'8atre.]  (Physics)  An  instrument  for  ascertaining  the
   quantity of a fluid evaporated in a given time; an atmometer.


   E*va"si*ble (?), a. That may be evaded. [R.]


   E*va"sion  (?),  n. [L. evasio: cf. F. \'82vasion. See Evade.] The act
   of  eluding  or  avoiding,  particularly  the pressure of an argument,
   accusation, charge, or interrogation; artful means of eluding.

     Thou . . . by evasions thy crime uncoverest more. Milton.

   Syn. -- Shift; subterfuge; shuffling; prevarication; equivocation.


   E*va"sive  (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82vasif. See Evade.] Tending to evade, or
   marked by evasion; elusive; shuffling; avoiding by artifice.

     Thus  he,  though conscious of the ethereal guest, Answered evasive
     of the sly request. Pope.

     Stammered out a few evasive phrases. Macaulay.

   -- E*va"sive*ly , adv. -- E*va"sive*ness, n.


   Eve (?), n. [See Even, n.]

   1. Evening. [Poetic]

     Winter oft, at eve resumes the breeze. Thomson.

   2.  The evening before a holiday, -- from the Jewish mode of reckoning
   the day as beginning at sunset. not at midnight; as, Christians eve is
   the  evening  before Christmas; also, the period immediately preceding
   some important event. "On the eve of death." Keble.
   Eve  churr  (Zo\'94l),  the European goatsucker or nightjar; -- called
   also night churr, and churr owl.


   E*vec"tics  (?),  n.  [Gr. The branch of medical science which teaches
   the method of acquiring a good habit of body. [Obs.]


   E*vec"tion  (?).  [L.  evectio a going up, fr. evehere to carry out; e
   out + vehere to carry: cf. F \'82vection.]

   1. The act of carrying up or away; exaltation. [Obs.] Bp. Pearson.

   2.  (Astron.)  (a)  An inequality of the moon's motion is its orbit to
   the  attraction  of  the  sun,  by which the equation of the center is
   diminished  at the syzygies, and increased at the quadratures by about
   1 20\'b7. (b) The libration of the moon. Whewell.


   E"ven  (?)  n. [OE. eve, even, efen, \'91fen. AS. \'d6fen; akin to OS.
   \'beband,  OFries, \'bevend, D. avond, OHG. \'beband, Icel. aptan, Sw.
   afton,  Dan. aften; of unknown origin. Cf. Eve, Evening.] Evening. See
   Eve, n. 1. [Poetic.] Shak.


   E"ven,  a.  [AS.  efen.  efn; akin to OS. eban, D. even, OHG. eban, G.
   efen, Icel. jafn, Dan. jevn, Sw. j\'84mn, Goth. ibns. Cf. Anent, Ebb.]

   1.   Level,  smooth,  or  equal  in  surface;  not  rough;  free  from
   irregularities;  hence  uniform  in rate of motion of action; as, even
   ground; an even speed; an even course of conduct.

   2.   Equable;   not   easily  ruffed  or  disturbed;  calm;  uniformly
   self-possessed; as, an even temper.

   3. Parallel; on a level; reaching the same limit.

     And shall lay thee even with the ground. Luke xix. 44.

   4.  Balanced; adjusted; fair; equitable; impartial; just to both side;
   owing  nothing  on  either  side;  --  said  of accounts, bargains, or
   persons indebted; as, our accounts are even; an even bargain.

     To make the even truth in pleasure flow. Shak.

   5. Without an irregularity, flaw, or blemish; pure. "I know my life so
   even." Shak.

   6.  Associate;  fellow;  of  the  same  condition.  [Obs.]  "His  even
   servant." Wyclif (Matt. 

   7. Not odd; capable of division by two without a remainder; -- said of
   numbers; as, 4 and 10 are even numbers.

     Whether the number of the stars is even or odd. Jer. Taylor.

   On  even  ground,  with equal advantage. -- On even keel (Naut.), in a
   level or horizontal position.


   E"ven  (?),  v.  t.  [imp. & p. p. Evened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Evening

   1. To make even or level; to level; to lay smooth.

     His temple Xerxes evened with the soil. Sir. W. Raleigh.

     It will even all inequalities Evelyn.

   2. To equal [Obs.] "To even him in valor." Fuller.

   3.  To  place  in  an  equal state, as to obligation, or in a state in
   which  nothing is due on either side; to balance, as accounts; to make
   quits. Shak.

   4. To set right; to complete.

   5. To act up to; to keep pace with. Shak.


   E"ven (?), v. i. To be equal. [Obs.] R. Carew.


   E"ven, adv. [AS. efne. See Even, a., and cf. E'en.]

   1.  In an equal or precisely similar manner; equally; precisely; just;
   likewise; as well. "Is it even so?" Shak.

     Even so did these Gauls possess the coast. Spenser.

   2.  Up to, or down to, an unusual measure or level; so much as; fully;

     Thou wast a soldier Even to Cato's wish. Shak.

     Without . . . making us even sensible of the change. Swift.

   3.  As  might  not  be  expected;  --  serving  to  introduce  what is
   unexpected or less expected.

     I  have  made  several discoveries, which appear new, even to those
     who are versed in critical learning. Addison.

   4. At the very time; in the very case.

     I  knew  they  were  had  enough to please, even when I wrote them.

     NOTE: &hand; Ev en is sometimes used to emphasize a word or phrase.
     "I have debated even in my soul."


     By these presence, even the presence of Lord Mortimer. Shak.


   E*vene" (?), v. i. [L. evenire. See Event.] To happen. [Obs.] Hewyt.


   E"ven*er (?), n.

   1. One who, or that which makes even.

   2.  In  vehicles,  a  swinging  crossbar,  to  the ends of which other
   crossbars, or whiffletrees, are hung, to equalize the draught when two
   or three horses are used abreast.


   E"ven*fall`  (?),  n.  Beginning  of evening. "At the quiet evenfall."


   E"ven*hand` (?), n. Equality. [Obs.] Bacon.


   E"ven*hand`ed,  a.  Fair or impartial; unbiased. "Evenhanded justice."
   Shak. -- E"ven*hand`ed*ly, adv. -- E"ven*hand`ed*ness, n.


   E"ven*ing (?), n. [AS. \'d6fnung. See even, n., and cf. Eve.]

   1. The latter part and close of the day, and the beginning of darkness
   or night; properly, the decline of the day, or of the sum.

     In  the  ascending  scale  Of  heaven, the stars that usher evening
     rose. Milton.

     NOTE: &hand; So metimes, es pecially in  th e Southern parts of the
     United States, the afternoon is called evening.


   2.  The  latter  portion,  as  of  life;  the  declining period, as of
   strength or glory.

     NOTE: &hand; So metimes used adjectively; as, evening gun. "Evening

   Shak.   Evening   flower   (Bot.),   a   genus  of  iridaceous  plants
   (Hesperantha)  from  the  Cape of Good Hope, with sword-shaped leaves,
   and  sweet-scented  flowers  which  expand  in the evening. -- Evening
   grosbeak   (Zo\'94l.),   an   American  singing  bird  (Coccothraustes
   vespertina)  having  a  very large bill. Its color is olivaceous, with
   the  crown,  wings, and tail black, and the under tail coverts yellow.
   So  called  because  it sings in the evening. -- Evening primrose. See
   under  Primrose. -- The evening star, the bright star of early evening
   in  the western sky, soon passing below the horizon; specifically, the
   planet  Venus;  -- called also Vesper and Hesperus. During portions of
   the  year,  Mars,  Jupiter,  and  Saturn  are  also evening stars. See
   Morning Star.


   E"ven*ly  (?),  adv.  With  an even, level, or smooth surface; without
   roughness, elevations, or depression; uniformly; equally; comfortably;
   impartially; serenely.


   E"ven*mind`ed (?), a. Having equanimity.


   E"ven*ness,   n.   The  state  of  being  ven,  level,  or  disturbed;
   smoothness;  horizontal  position; uniformity; impartiality; calmness;
   equanimity;  appropriate place or level; as, evenness of surface, of a
   fluid at rest, of motion, of dealings, of temper, of condition.

     It  had  need  be  something  extraordinary,  that  must warrant an
     ordinary person to rise higher than his own evenness. Jer. Taylor.


   E"ven*song`  (?),  n.  [AS.  \'d6fensang.] A song for the evening; the
   evening service or form of worship (in the Church of England including
   vespers and compline); also, the time of evensong. Wyclif. Milton.


   E*vent"  (?), n. [L. eventus, fr. evenire to happen, come out; e out +
   venire to come. See Come.]

   1.  That  which  comes, arrives, or happens; that which falls out; any
   incident, good or bad. "The events of his early years." Macaulay.

     To watch quietly the course of events. Jowett (Thucyd. )

     There  is  one event to the righteous, and to the wicked. Eccl. ix.

   2.  An  affair  in hand; business; enterprise. [Obs.] "Leave we him to
   his events." Shak.

   3. The consequence of anything; the issue; conclusion; result; that in
   which an action, operation, or series of operations, terminates.

     Dark doubts between the promise and event. Young.

   Syn.  --  Incident; occurrence; adventure; issue; result; termination;
   consequence; conclusion. -- Event, Occurrence, Incident, Circumstance.
   An  event  denotes that which arises from a preceding state of things.
   Hence  we  speak  or  watching  the  event; of tracing the progress of
   events.  An occurrence has no reference to any antecedents, but simply
   marks  that  which  meets  us  in  our progress through life, as if by
   chance,  or  in the course of divine providence. The things which thus
   meet  us,  if  important,  are usually connected with antecedents; and
   hence  event is the leading term. In the "Declaration of Independence"
   it  is  said,  "When,  in  the  cource  of  human  events,  it becomes
   necessary."  etc. Here, occurrences would be out of place. An incident
   is  that  which  falls  into  a  state  of things to which is does not
   primarily  belong; as, the incidents of a journey. The term is usually
   applied  to  things  of secondary importance. A circumstance is one of
   the  things  surrounding  us  in  our  path  of life. These may differ
   greatly  in  importance;  but they are always outsiders, which operate
   upon  us from without, exerting greater or less influence according to
   their  intrinsic  importance. A person giving an account of a campaign
   might  dwell  on  the  leading events which it produced; might mention
   some  of  its  striking  occurrences;  might allude to some remarkable
   incidents  which  attended  it;  and  might  give  the  details of the
   favorable  or  adverse  circumstances  which  marked  its progress.<--
   events which produced it? --> <-- p. 517 -->


   E*vent"  (?),  v.  t.  [F. \'82venter to fan, divulge, LL. eventare to
   fan, fr., L. e out + ventus wind.] To break forth. [Obs.] B. Jonson.


   E*ven"ter*ate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  e  out  +  venter  the belly: cf. F.
   \'82venter.] To rip open; todisembowel. [Obs.] Sir. T. Brown.


   E*vent"ful  (?)  a.  Full  of, or rich in, events or incidents; as, an
   eventful journey; an eventful period of history; an eventful period of


   E"ven*tide` (?) n. [AS. \'d6fent\'c6d. See Tide.] The time of evening;
   evening. [Poetic.] Spenser.


   E*ven"ti*late  (?), v. t. [L. eventilatus, p. p. of eventilare to fan.
   See Ventilate.]

   1. To winnow out; to fan. [Obs.] Cockeram.

   2. To discuss; to ventilate. [Obs.] Johnson.


   E*ven`ti*la"tion  (?),  n. The act of eventilating; discussion. [Obs.]
   Bp. Berkely.


   E*vent"less  (?),  a.  Without  events;  tame;  monotomous;  marked by
   nothing unusual; uneventful.


   Ev`en*tog"na*thi  (?),  n.  pl.  [NL.,  fr. Dr. (Zo\'94l.) An order of
   fishes including a vast number of freshwater species such as the carp,
   loach, chub, etc.


   E`ven*tra*tion  (?),  n. [L. e out + venter belly.] (Med.) (a) A tumor
   containing  a  large  portion  of the abdominal viscera, occasioned by
   relaxation  of the walls of the abdomen. (b) A wound, of large extent,
   in  the  abdomen,  through  which  the  greater part of the intestines
   protrude. (c) The act af disemboweling.


   E*vent"tu*al (?), a. [Cf. F. \'82ventiel. See Event.]

   1.  Coming  or  happening  as  a consequence or result; consequential.

   2. Final; ultimate. "Eventual success." Cooper.

   3. (Law) Dependent on events; contingent. Marshall.


   E*ven`tu*al"i*ty   (?),   n.;   pl.   Eventualities   (#).   [Cf.   F.

   1.  The  coming  as  a  consequence; contingency; also, an event which
   comes as a consequence.

   2. (Phren.) Disposition to take cognizance of events.


   E*ven"tu*al*ly (?), adv. In an eventual manner; finally; ultimately.


   E*ven"tu*ate  (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Eventuated (?); p. pr. & vb. n.
   Eventuating.] To come out finally or in conclusion; to result; to come
   to pass.


   E*ven`tu*a"tion  (?),  n.  The  act  of  eventuating or happening as a
   result; the outcome. R. W. Hamilton.


   Ev"er (?) adv. [OE. ever, \'91fre, AS. \'91fre; perh. akin to AS. \'be
   always. Cf. Aye, Age,Evry, Never.] [Sometimes contracted into e'er.]

   1. At any time; at any period or point of time.

     No man ever yet hated his own flesh. Eph. v. 29.

   2. At all times; through all time; always; forever.

     He  shall  ever  love,  and  always  be The subject of by scorn and
     cruelty. Dryder.

   3. Without cessation; continually.

     NOTE: &hand; Ev er is  so metimes used as an intensive or a word of
     enforcement. "His the old man e'er a son?"


     To produce as much as ever they can. M. Arnold.

   Ever  and  anon,  now and then; often. See under Anon. -- Ever is one,
   continually;  constantly.  [Obs.]  Chaucer.  --  Ever  so, in whatever
   degree;  to  whatever  extent;  --  used to intensify indefinitely the
   meaning  of  the  associated  adjective or adverb. See Never so, under
   Never. "Let him be ever so rich." Emerson.
     And  all  the question (wrangle e'er so long), Is only this, if God
     has placed him wrong. Pope.
     You  spend  ever  so  much  money  in  entertaining your equals and
     betters. Thackeray.

   --  For  ever,  eternally.  See  Forever.  --  For  ever  and  a  day,
   emphatically forever. Shak.

     She  [Fortune]  soon  wheeled  away, with scornful laughter, out of
     sight for ever and day. Prof. Wilson.

   -- Or ever (for or ere), before. See Or, ere. [Archaic]
     Would  I  had  met my dearest foe in heaven Or ever I had seen that
     day, Horatio! Shak.
     NOTE: &hand; Ever is sometimes joined to its adjective by a hyphen,
     but  in most cases the hyphen is needless; as, ever memorable, ever
     watchful, ever burning.


   Ev`er*dur"ing (?) a. Everlasting. Shak.


   Ev`er*glade  (?), n. A swamp or low tract of land inundated with water
   and  interspersed with hummocks, or small islands, and patches of high
   grass; as, the everglades of Florida. [U. S.]


   Ev"er*green  (?) a. (Bot.) Remaining unwithered through the winter, or
   retaining  unwithered  leaves  until  the  leaves of the next year are
   expanded, as pines cedars, hemlocks, and the like.


   Ev"er*green, n.

   1. (Bot.) An evergreen plant.

   2.  pl.  Twigs  and  branches of evergreen plants used for decoration.
   "The funeral evengreens entwine." Keble.

                               Everich, Everych

   Ev"er*ich  (?),  Ev"er*ych,  a.  [OE. see Every.] each one; every one;
   each of two. See Every. [Obs.] Chaucer.

                             Everichon, Everychon

   Ev`er*ich*on",  Ev`er*ych*on"  (?), pron. [OE. everich + oon, on, one.
   See Every, and One.] Every one. [Obs.] Chaucer.


   Ever*last"ing (?) a.

   1.  Lasting  or enduring forever; exsisting or continuing without end;
   immoral; eternal. "The Everlasting God." Gen. xx1. 33.

   2.  Continuing  indefinitely,  or  during  a  long  period; perpetual;
   sometimes   used,  colloquially,  as  a  strong  intensive;  as,  this
   everlasting nonsence.

     I  will  give to thee, and to thy seed after thee . . . the land of
     Canaan, for an everlasting possession. Gen xvii. 8.

     And  heard  thy everlasting yawn confess The pains and penalties of
     idleness. Pope.

   Syn.   --  Eternal;  immortal,  interminable;  endless;  never-ending;
   infinite;    unceasing;   uninterrupted;   continual;   unintermitted;
   incessant.   -  Everlasting,  Eternal.  Eternal  denotes  (when  taken
   strictly)  without  beginning  or  end  of  duration;  everlasting  is
   sometimes  used  in  our  version  of  the  Scriptures in the sense of
   eternal, but in modern usage is confined to the future, and implies no
   intermission as well as no end.

     Whether  we  shall meet again I know not; Therefore our everlasting
     farewell take; Forever, and forever farewell, Cassius. Shak.

   Everlasting flower. Sane as Everlasting, n., 3. -- Everlasting pea, an
   ornamental  plant  (Lathyrus  latifolius)  related  to  the pea; -- so
   called because it is perennial.


   En`er*last"ing, n.

   1. Eternal duration, past of future; eternity.

     From everlasting to everlasting, thou art God. Ps. xc. 2.

   2. (With the definite article) The Eternal Being; God.

   3. (Bot.) A plant whose flowers may be dried without losing their form
   or  color,  as  the  pearly  everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea), the
   immortelle of the French, the cudweeds, etc.

   4. A cloth fabic for shoes, etc. See Lasting.


   Ev`er*last"ing*ly, adv. In an everlasting manner.


   Ev`er*last"ing*ness,  n.  The  state  of  being  everlasting;  endless
   duration; indefinite duration.


   Ev`er*liv"ing (?), a.

   1. Living always; immoral; eternal; as, the everliving God.

   2. Continual; incessant; unintermitted.


   Ev`er*more"  (?),  adv.  During  eternity;  always;  forever;  for  an
   indefinite period; at all times; -- often used substantively with for.

     Seek the Lord . . . Seek his face evermore. Ps. cv. 4.

     And, behold, I am alive for evermore. Rev. i. 18.

     Which flow from the presence of God for evermore. Tillotson.

     I evermore did love you, Hermia. Shak.


   E*ver"nic  (?),  a. (Chem.) Pertaining to Evernia, a genus of lichens;
   as, evernic acid.


   E*verse"  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  eversus,  p.  p. of evertere to turn out,
   overthrow;  e  out  +  vertere  to  turn.  Cf. Evert.] To overthrow or
   subvert. [Obs.] Glanvill.


   E*ver"sion (?), n. [L. eversio: cf. F. \'82version.]

   1. The act of eversing; destruction. Jer. Taylor.

   2. The state of being turned back or outward; as, eversion of eyelids;


   E*ver"sive (?), a. Tending to evert or overthrow; subversive; with of.

     A maxim eversive . . . of all justice and morality. Geddes.


   E*vert"  (?),  v. t. [imp. & p. p. Everted; p. pr. & vb. n. Everting.]
   [L. evertere. See Everse.]

   1. To overthrow; to subvert. [R.] Ayliffe.

   2. To turn outwards, or inside out, as an intestine.


   Ev"er*y  (?),  a.  & a. pron. [OE. everich, everilk; AS. ever + \'91lc
   each. See Ever, each.]

   1. All the parts which compose a whole collection or aggregate number,
   considered  in  their  individuality, all taken separately one by one,
   out of an indefinite bumber.

     Every man at his best state is altogether vanity. Ps. xxxix. 5.

     Every  door  and  window  was  adorned  with  wreaths  of  flowers.

   2. Every one. Cf. Each. [Obs.] "Every of your wishes." Shak.

     Daily occasions given to every of us. Hooker.

   Every  each,  every  one. [Obs.] "Every each of them hath some vices."
   Burton..  --  Every  now  and  then, at short intervals; occasionally;
   repeatedly; frequently. [Colloq.]

     NOTE: &hand; Every may, by way of emphasis, precede the article the
     with a superlative adjective; as, every, the least variation.

   Locke.  Syn.  --  Every,  Each,  Any.  Any denotes one, or some, taken
   indifferently  from  the  individuals  which  compose  a  class. Every
   differs  from  each  in giving less promonence to the selection of the
   individual.  Each  relates  to  two or more individuals of a class. It
   refers  definitely  to  every  one  of  them,  denoting  that they are
   considered  separately,  one  by  one,  all  being  included; as, each
   soldier was receiving a dollar per day. Every relates to more than two
   and  brings  into  greater  prominence  the notion that not one of all
   considered  is  excepted; as, every soldier was on service, except the
   cavalry, that is, all the soldiers, etc.

     In  each division there were four pentecosties, in every pentecosty
     four  enomoties, and of each enomoty there fought in the front rank
     four [soldiers]. Jowett (Thucyd. ).

     If  society  is  to be kept together and the children of Adam to be
     saved from setting up each for himself with every one else his foe.
     J. H. Newman.


   Ev"er*y*bod`y (?), n. Every person.


   Ev"er*y*day`  (?), a. Used or fit for every day; common; usual; as, an
   everyday suit or clothes.

     The  mechanical  drudgery  of  his  everyday  employment.  Sir.  J.


   Ev"er*y*one`   (?),   n.   [OE.  everychon.]  Everybody;  --  commonly
   separated, every one.


   Ev"er*y*thing`   (?),  n.  Whatever  pertains  to  the  subject  under
   consideration; all things.

     More wise, more learned, more just, more everything. Pope.


   Ev"er*y*when`  (?),  adv.  At  any  or  all times; every instant. [R.]
   "Eternal law is silently present everywhere and everywhen." Carlyle.


   Ev"er*y*where`  (?),  adv.  In  every  place; in all places; hence, in
   every part; throughly; altogether.


   Ev"er*y*where`ness (?), n. Ubiquity; omnipresence. [R.] Grew.


   Eves"drop` (?), v. i. See Eavesdrop.


   Eves"drop`per (?), n. See Eavesdropper.


   E*ves"ti*gate  (?),  v.  t.  [L.  evestigatus  traced  out;  e  out  +
   vestigatus, p. p. of vestigare. See Vestigate.] To investigate. [Obs.]


   Ev"et  (?),  n.  [See  Eft,  n.] (Zo\'94l.) The common newt or eft. In
   America  often  applied  to  several  species  of aquatic salamanders.
   [Written also evat.]